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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 





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VOL. Xlil, NO. 328 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



/?! this issue 



THE COUNCIL OF FOREIGN MINISTERS 

Address by the Secretary of State 
Statement by the Secretary of State 

CONTROL OF GERMANY 

Agreement Between the Allied Representatives 

AN AMERICAN'S VIEW OF FRANCE 
By Camden H. McVey 

DISPLACED POPULATIONS IN JAPAN AT THE END OF THE WAR 
By Jane Perry Clark Carey 

OUR OCCUPATION POLICY FOR JAPAN 
A Radio Broadcast 



* 



^ENT o^ 




•^XES O 



* 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLETIN 



Vol. XIII-No.328« 




POBI.ICATIOH 2327 



October 7, 1945 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the ff'hite House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as ivell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and thefunctions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published tiith the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Doctiments, United States 
Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington 25, D. C., to ichom all pur- 
chase orders, with accompanying 
remittance, should be sent. The sub- 
scription price is $3.50 a year; a single 
copy is 10 cents. 



OCT 30 1945 



(Contents 



American Republics Page 

Consideration of Emergency Controls on Coffee 527 

Suggestion for Postponement of Inter-American Conference 

for Maintenance of Peace and Security 552 

Argentine Situation. Statement by Acting Secretary 

Acheson 552 

Compensation for Petroleum Properties Expropriated in 

Mexico 553 

Europe 

Report on First Session of the Council of Foreign Ministers. 

Address by the Secretary of State 507 

Statement by the Secretary of State on the Meetings of the 

Council of Foreign Ministers 513 

An American's View of France. By Camden H. McVey. . 523 

Arrangements for Housing Americans in Paris 552 

Far East 

Displaced Populations in Japan at the End of the War. By 

Jane Perry Clark Carey 530 

Regarding Philippine Independence. Statement by the 

President 537 

Our Occupation Policy for Japan 538 

Statement on the Establishment of a Far Eastern Commis- 
sion To Formulate Policies for the Carrying Out of the 
Japanese Surrender Terms . . . ' 545 

CuLTtlRAL COOPER.'LTION 

Visit of Bolivian Educator 521 

Economic Affairs 

Financial and Trade Discussions With United Kingdom. 
Joint Statement by the United States and the United 

Kingdom 512 

Economic Affairs 

Report on UNRRA Shipments to Liberated Areas. ..... 546 

General 

International Control of Atomic Energy: Excerpts From the 

President's Message to the Congress 514 

The United Nations 

United States Delegation to Conference on Food and Agri- 
culture 522 

Discussions on Draft Constitution for Educational and Cul- 
tural Organization: 

Group Meeting at the Department of State 548 

Remarks by Assistant Secretary Benton 548 

Treaty Information 

Chartcrof the United Nations: China, Turkey 513 

Arrangements for Control of Germany by Allied Representa- 
tives 515 

Termination of Treaties: Siam-Japan 521 

St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Project: 

Message From the President to the Congress 528 

Statement by Acting Secretary Acheson 529 

■ Discussions With Mexico on Air-Transport Agreement . . . 537 
Agreement Between United States and Norway Relating to 

Air-Transport Services 550 

The Department 

Division of International Conferences 553 

Appointment of Officers 554 

The Foreign Service 

Emliassy at Warsaw 549 

Publications 

Department of State 554 

Foreign Commerce Weekly 522 

The Congress 554 



Report on First Session 
Of the Council of Foreign Ministers 



Address by THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press October 5] 

The first session of the Council of Foreign Min- 
isters closed in a stalemate. But that need not, 
and should not, deprive us of a second and better 
chance to get on with the peace. 

In the past I have been both criticized and com- 
mended for being a compromiser. I confess that 
I do believe that peace and political progress in 
international aifairs as in domestic affairs depend 
upon intelligent compromise. The United States 
Delegation acted in tliat spirit at Berlin. We 
acted in that spirit at London. And we shall con- 
tinue to act in that spirit at future conferences. 

That spirit is essential in international confer- 
ences where action can be taken only by unanimous 
agreement. When any one member can prevent 
agreement, compromise is a necessity. Men and 
women who have served on a jury can ajjpreciate 
that. 

Compromise, however, docs not mean surrender, 
and compromise unlike surrender requires the as- 
sent of more than one party. 

The difficulties encountered at the London con- 
ference will, I hope, impress upon the peoples of all 
countries, including our own people, the hard 
reality that none of us can expect to write the peace 
in our own way. If this hard reality is accepted by 
statesmen and peoples at an early stage of the 
peacemaking process, it may at later stages save 
us and save the peace of the woi'kl from the dis- 
astrous effects of disillusionment and intransi- 
gences. 

Regardless of how Americans may differ as to 
domestic policies, they desire unity in our foreign 
policies. This unity will be essential in the days 
ahead of us when we may expect differences in 
views by various governments as to peace settle- 
ments. However, the political party in power can- 
not expect this unity unless it freely consults repre- 
sentatives of the opposing political party. 



Believing this, I requested Mr. John Foster 
Dulles, one of the best-informed Americans in 
the field of foreign relations and a loyal Repub- 
lican, to accompany me to London in an advisory 
capacity. He has been more than an adviser; 
he has been a partner. Between us there have been 
no secrets. At the Council table and in private 
conference he has participated in the making of 
all decisions. Our accord serves to show that in 
foreign affairs Republicans and Democrats can 
work together and that in vital matters of foreign 
policy we Americans are united. 

When it was agreed at Berlin to establish the 
Council of Foreign Ministers ^ I think we all had 
in mind tlie precedent of the Dumbarton Oaks 
Conference. There, representatives of Great 
Britain, the Soviet Union, China, and the United 
States worked together to prepare draft proposals 
for the United Nations Charter as a basis for dis- 
cussion with other nations. France was not pres- 
ent at Dumbarton Oaks only because France had 
not yet been liberated. Her right to permanent 
membership on the United Nations Security 
Council was not questioned. 

Experience reveals that a certain degree of 
understanding among the major powers is essen- 
tial to secure general agreement among many 
nations. When understanding among the great 
powers is not achieved in advance of a conference 
participated in by many nations, it usually has 
to be secured informally during the conference. 

At the Versailles Conference, for example, it 
took the Big Three and the Big Five so long to 
agree among themselves that the complaint was 



' Broadcast over the Columbia Broadcasting System 
from Wasliington on Oct. 5, 1945 at 9 :30 p.m. E.S.T. 
^ BuiXETi.\ of Aug. 5, 1945, p. 153. 

507 



508 



DEFARTMEiyT OF STATE BULLETIN 



made that the smaller powers had little more time 
to consider the treaty than was given to the 
Germans. 

The Berlin agreement envisaged the naming of 
highranking deputies who could carry on the work 
of the Council in tlie absence of their chiefs, the 
Foreign Secretaries. The Council, as President 
Truman and I understood it, was to be a sort of 
combined staff to explore the problems and pre- 
pare proposals for the final peace settlements. 

At Berlin it certainly was never intended that 
tlie three powers present or the five powers consti- 
tuting the Council should take unto themselves the 
making of the final peace. The Berlin declaration 
setting up the Council begins with the statement 
"The Conference reached the following agreement 
for the establishment of a Council of Foreign 
Ministers to do the necessary preparatory work 
for the peace settlements." 

The Council was not to make the peace settle- 
ments but to do the necessary preparatory work 
for the peace settlements. It certainly was not 
my intention to agi'ee to any final treaty without 
first getting the views of the Foreign Relations 
Committee of the Senate which must pass upon 
all treaties before ratification. 

The first session of the Council, so far as the per- 
sonal participation of the Foreign Ministers was 
concerned, was intended to provide directives for 
the deputies in the preparation of treaties for 
Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Finland. 

This woi'k was exploratory — to find out on what 
points we were in agreement, on what points we 
differed, and on what points further study and 
data were required. It is a little naive to sup- 
pose that when really vital differences emerge, 
one nation or another is likely to abandon its posi- 
tion on the first interchange of views. 

At this stage it is as important to know and 
understand wherein we and our Allies differ as 
wherein we agree. We must understand our 
points of difference before we can intelligently 
consider means of reconciling them. 

So far as the Italian treaty was concerned I 
tliink we made very good progress toward agree- 
ment on directives to govern the work of our 
deputies. 

There was ready acceptance of our proposal that 
Italy should undertake to maintain a bill of rights 
which will secure the freedoms of speech, religious 



worship, political belief, and public meeting en- 
visaged for Italy in the Moscow declaration of 
November 1943 and which will confirm the human 
rights and fundamental freedoms set forth in the 
Charter of the United Nations. 

There was some difference among the confei'ees 
at the start as to providing for the limitation of 
armaments. But it was our feeling that Italy 
should rely on the United Nations for protection 
against aggression and should not engage in com- 
petition in armaments when all her resources are 
badly needed to restore her civilian economy. And 
this view gained general acceptance. 

While the very controversial boundary dispute 
between Yugoslavia and Italy was not settled, it 
was encouraging to find that it was possible to 
agree that the line should in the main be governed 
by ethnic considerations and that regardless of 
its sovereignty there should be a free port at 
Trieste under international control. 

The Council was in general agreement that the 
Dodecanese Islands should go to Greece although 
the assent of one member was qualified pending 
the study of certain questions by his government. 

There was general agreement that the Italian 
colonies should come under the trusteeship pro- 
visions of the United Nations Charter. Various 
views were expressed as to the preferred form of 
trusteeship for the colonies. 

The American Delegation was particularly 
gratified that the directive to the deputies, while 
not restricting their studies, called for special 
consideration of the American proposal for a truly 
international administration directly responsible 
to the United Nations with a view to the attain- 
ment of the greatest degree of independence of 
the inhabitants of two of. the colonies at the end 
of ten years and independence for the people of 
a third colonj^ at as early a date as possible. 

This proposal was presented by the American 
Delegation when the Italian treaty first was taken 
up and was consistently adhered to. 

It is our view that the object of a trusteeship 
should be to promote the self-government of the 
people of a colonj' and not to enrich a trustee or 
increase its economic or military power. 

It was also agreed that Italian sovereignty 
should be restored on the conclusion of the treaty 
so that foreign troops may be withdrawn and, ex- 
cept as STjecially provided in the treaty, foreign 
controls within Italy terminated. 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



509 



There was no definite understanding on rep- 
arations. The United States took the position 
that Italy could not pay anything like $600,000,- 
000. Aj^art from certain foreign assets, she should 
be required to pay as reparations only such factory 
and tool equipment designed for the manufacture 
of war implements which are not required for the 
limited military establishment permitted to her 
and which cannot be readily converted to peaceful 
purposes. If she is stripped of more, then her 
economy cannot be restored. 

We have contributed several hundred million 
dollars for the relief of the Italian people. Their 
condition is deplorable. We must continue to help 
them. But we cannot contribute more millions, 
if those millions are to be used to enable Italy to 
pay reparations to other governments. We did 
that for Germany after the last war. We shall 
not do it again. 

Substantial jjrogress was also made on the di- 
rectives for the preparatory work on the Finnish 
treaty and the treaties with Rumania and Bul- 
garia. The principles suggested by the American 
Delegation and accepted for the Italian treaty 
for the safeguarding of human rights and funda- 
mental freedoms are also to be incorporated in 
these treaties. 

The directives concerning the limitation of 
armament for Rumania and Bulgaria are expected 
to follow the same general Ime as those accepted 
for Italy. 

Before work could be commenced upon the di- 
rectives for the Hungarian treaty the Soviet Dele- 
gation announced they felt obliged to withdraw 
their assent to the procedure previously accepted 
by the Council for dealing with peace treaties. 

Before taking up these procedui'al difficulties I 
should say a few words about the Soviet Delega- 
tion's disappointment with the failure of Great 
Britain and the United States to recognize the Bul- 
garian and Rumanian Governments. 

The thought apparently exists in their mind that 
our government objects to these governments be- 
cause they are friendly to the Soviet Union and 
that our unwillingness to recognize these govern- 
ments is a manifestation of unfriendliness to the 
Soviet Union. 

There could be no greater misconception of our 
attitude. I was at Yalta. The Yalta declaration 
on the liberated and ex-satellite countries was 
based on a proposal submitted by President Roose- 



velt. Under it the Allied Powers, including the 
Soviet Union, assumed the responsibility of con- 
certing their policies to assist in the establishment 
of interim governments broadly representative of 
all important democratic elements in the popula- 
tion and pledged to the earliest possible establish- 
ment through free elections of governments re- 
sponsive to the will of the people. That pledge 
cannot be fulfilled in countries where freedom of 
speech and of assembly are denied. 

That policy sponsored by President Roosevelt 
was America's policy and remains America's 
policy. 

We are well aware that no government is per- 
fect and that the representative character of any 
provisional government will always be subject to 
debate. We do not demand perfection where per- 
fection is unobtainable. 

In an effort to concert our policies with our Al- 
lies we have tried to show a spirit of conciliation. 
Certainly we did not make unduly exacting the re- 
quirements we set before we recognized the Pro- 
visional Polish Government or the conditions 
which we have proposed as a basis for the recogni- 
tion of the Provisional Hungarian Government.^ 

And I hope that as the result of efforts now being 
made by the Provisional Austrian Government to 
broaden its representation, we may soon be able to 
recognize that Government. 

At Berlin we stated we would examine in the 
near future, in the light of prevailing conditions, 
the question of recognition of Rumania and Bul- 
garia. We have investigated and we shall continue 
to investigate. But we cannot know whether con- 
ditions justify recognition unless our political rep- 
resentatives are fully informed and unless our news 
correspondents are permitted freely to enter coun- 
tries and freely to send their stories uncensored. 

We do not seek to dictate the internal affairs of 
any people. We only reserve for ourselves the 
light to refuse to recognize governments if after 
investigation we conclude they have not given to 
the people the rights pledged to them in the Yalta 
agreement and in the Atlantic Charter. 

Tlie peace of Europe depends upon the existence 
of friendly relations between the Soviet Union and 
its European neighbors, and two wars in one gen- 
eration have convinced the American people that 
they have a very vital interest in the maintenance 
of peace in Europe. 



' BuiXETiN of July 8, 1945, p. 47. 



510 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The American Government shares the desire of 
the Soviet Union to have governments friendly to 
the Soviet Union in eastern and central Europe. 

But lasting peace depends not only upon friend- 
ship between governments but upon friendship 
between peoples. 

Had it not been for the difficulties experienced 
by the Allied governments in agreeing upon a com- 
mon policy in regard to the recognition of the 
governments of Rumania and Bulgaria a more con- 
ciliatory spirit might possibly liave prevailed and 
might greatly have helped to overcome the pro- 
cedural difficulties of the Council. 

No one present at the Council on September 11 
questioned the decision taken by the Council that 
day inviting all five members to be present at all 
meetings. 

Directives for the Italian treaty were under dis- 
cussion for several days with China, not a party 
to the surrender terms, present, participating in 
the discussion, but not voting. No one objected. 

Directives for the Finnish treaty were then con- 
sidered, with the United States, France, and China 
present but not voting. No one objected. 

Directives for the Eumanian treaty and then for 
the Bulgarian treaty were considered, with France 
and China present but not voting. No one ob- 
jected. 

It was only on September 22 that the Soviet 
Delegation took the position that the decision of 
the Council on September 11 violated the Berlin 
agreement. 

It will be recalled that the Berlin agreement 
set up a Council of the Soviet Uni<m, Great Brit- 
ain, France, China, and the United States to un- 
dertake the necessary preparatory work for the 
peace settlements. It provided that the Council 
should draw up with a view to their submission to 
the United Nations peace treaties with Italy, Ru- 
mania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Finland. 

It provided that in the discharge of these tasks 
the Council will be composed of members i-epre- 
senting those states which were signatory to the 
terms of surrender imposed upon the enemy state 
concerned, and for the purpose of the Italian set- 
tlement France should be regarded as signatoiy 
to the surrender terms. 

The Berlin agreement further provided that 
other members of the Council will be invited to 
participate when matters directly concerning them 
are under discussion. 



This distinction between members of the Coun- 
cil who were parties to the surrender terms and 
those who were not, was not part of the original 
American proposal and was reluctantly accepted 
by us. We were fully aware that a member would 
not have the right to vote if not a party to the 
surrender terms, but we understood from the ex- 
change of views at the table that all members 
would be allowed to participate in all discussions 
in the Council. 

It certainly never occurred to President Tru- 
man or myself that any of the five members of 
the Council who are also the five permanent mem- 
bers of the United Nations Security Council, which 
is chai'ged with the responsibility for maintain- 
ing the peace which the Council of Foreign Min- 
isters is preparing, would not be invited to be 
present during the discussions of the treaties. 

Such exclusion of two permanent members of 
the Security Council would not promote the har- 
monious relations essential to the success of the 
United Nations Organization. 

The Soviet Delegation's position was not simply 
that they wished to withdraw the invitation to 
China and France to participate without right to 
vote. Their position was that it was bej'ond the 
authority of the States signatory to the surrender 
terms to extend the invitation. 

Although this construction of the Berlin agree- 
ment did not accord with the understanding of 
the American Delegation or the British Dele- 
gation or the President of the United States or 
the Prime Minister of Great Britain, the Soviet 
Delegation insisted that they could no longer 
discuss treaty matters in the presence of members 
who were not parties to the surrender terms. 

Thereafter the meetings of the Council for a 
number of days were confined to the discussion of 
other items on the agenda such as international 
inland waterways, the Ruhr, acceleration of 
German rejiaratioiis, restitution, repatriation of 
Allied nationals, and the Austrian food supply. 

"\^nien the general items on the agenda were 
exhausted, agreement had not been reached for 
solving the procedural obstacles which, in the 
view of the Soviet Delegation, made further dis- 
cussion of treaty matters impossible until the 
decision of September 11 should be rescinded. 

Since it had always been my view that the Ber- 
lin agreement contemplated a broadening out of 
the partici^Dants before the final conclusion of a 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 

peace treaty, I sought to find a compromise aloftg 
that line. 

The Berlin agreement expressly provided in 
section 4 of the article establishing the Council 
that the Council may adapt its procedures to the 
particular problems under discussion; that in 
some cases it may hold its own discussions prior 
to the participation of other interested states; and 
m other cases it may convoke a formal conference 
of states interested in particular problems. 

I therefore proposed, with considerable reluc- 
tance, that we ask our French and Chinese col- 
leagues to accept the position of the Soviet Dele- 
gation that the preparatory and exploratory work 
of the Council for the peace settlements be confined 
to the signatories of the surrender terms in ques- 
tion, provided that at the same time it should be 
agreed that a truly representative peace conference 
should be convoked before the end of the year. To 
ensure the calling of such a conference we thought 
that France and China, in the interest of peace, 
might make even this sacrifice. 

This conference would be convoked for the 
purpose of considering the peace treaties with 
Italy, Kuraania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Finland. 
To the conference would be invited : 

(1) The five members of the Council of For- 
eign Ministers which are also the five permanent 
members of the United Nations Security Council ; 

(2) All European members of the United 

Nations; 

(.3) All non-European members of the United 
Nations which supplied substantial military con- 
tingents in the war against the European mem- 
bers of the Axis. 

The American Delegation took the position that, 
in an interdependent, democratic world, peace 
cannot be the exclusive concern of a few presently 
powerful states; that unless we were to revert to 
a world of isolationism none of the states which 
we wanted invited to the peace conference could 
be said to be not directly concerned in the peace. 

We urged that those states, both large and small, 
which had fought and suffered in the war must 
make the peace. This has been a peoples' war and 
it must be a peoples' peace. 

The Soviet Delegation stated, however, that 
they could not agree to the American proposal for 
a peace conference until they had returned to Mos- 
cow and had personal consultations with their 
Government. 



511 

It therefore became obvious that there could 
be no agreement unless the other delegations were 
prepared to yield their views and convictions to 
those of the Soviet Delegation. This none of the 
other delegations was prepared to do. 

The United States is willing to dictate terms of 
peace to an enemy bvit is not willing to dictate 
terms of peace to its Allies. 

Our task then became one of arranging an ad- 
journment until the Soviet Delegation could re- 
turn to Moscow. It is customary before adjourn- 
ment to adopt and have all conferees to sign a 
protocol containing a record of the agreed deci- 
sions of a conference. The Soviet Delegation 
would not agree to the inclusion in the protocol of 
the decision of September 11 that the five members 
should participate in all meetings, even though 
it included a statement of the action taken by the 
Soviet Delegation on September 22 to withdraw 
their assent to that decision. 

On the last day of the session the Soviet Dele- 
gation announced it would offer a compromise 
proposal. The proposal was that there should be 
four separate protocols without recording in any 
of them the decision of September 11 which had 
been agreed to by them but which they later wished 
to rescind. This was the same position that they 
had urged for days. The only thing new about it 
was the suggestion that on the following day they 
would discuss unsettled questions including the 
American proposal for a peace conference and the 
disputed September 11 decision. 

In answer to a question the Soviet Foreign 
Minister stated that while he could discuss the 
proposal for a peace conference, he still was with- 
out authority to act upon it. The proposal had 
been discussed for a week. Further discussion 
without action was futile. 

It was also obvious that once the four protocols 
were signed, it would be useless on the following 
day to discuss the question of inserting in the 
protocols the decision of September 11. An ob- 
jection by the Soviet Delegation would prevent 
its insertion. 

The Soviet Delegation also reiterated their posi- 
tion that they would not discuss the treaties in the 
presence of members they now believed to be in- 
eligible. This would have excluded China from 
the" consideration of all treaties and France from 
the consideration of all but one, without any as- 
surance of participation in a peace conference. 



572 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



It became apparent that agreement was im- 
possible and further meetings were useless. The 
Chinese Foreign INIinister, who was presiding 
when the Council adjourned and at whose instance 
the Council had remained in session from Sunday 
until Tuesday, stated that under the circumstances 
he could not ask the Council to continue in session 
longer. 

As the record stands the Foreign Minister of 
the Soviet Union has not rejected our proposal 
for a peace conference. During the discussions he 
admitted it was correct in principle. My hope is 
that, after he has conferred with his government, 
his government will agree that tlue nations that 
fought the war — the World War — shall have a 
chance to make the world peace. 

The matter that caused the suspension of our 
work is no trivial or technical question. It pre- 
sented an issue that had to be met. It is whether 
tlie peace shall be made by three or even five na- 
tions to the exclusion of other nations vitally con- 
cerned in the maintenance and enforcement of the 
peace which is being prepared. 

The issue goes even deeper. The Council of 
Foreign Ministers acts under the unanimity rule 
just as the Security Council of the United Nations 
must act in many important matters, but in the 
Securit}' Council no nation has the veto power in 
procedural matters while in the Council of For- 
eign Ministers one nation can veto all action. 

The veto power is a great power and should not 
be lightly exercised. We are willing to make many 
concessions but the United States does not believe 
in agreement at any price. 

The power of veto in procedural matters should 
not be used by the United States or any other 
nation to coerce the judgment and conscience of 
fellow nations. 

Peace must be based ujion mutual understand- 
ing and nuitual respect. It can not be secured by 
procedural maneuverings which obscure from the 
people the real and vital issues upon which their 
peace depends. 

Undeterred by temporary set-backs and ever 
willing to accord to others that tolerant under- 
standing that we wish others to accord to us, we 
must not relax in our efforts to achieve a just and 
lasting peace for ourselves and all nations. "With 
firmness in the right as God gives us to see the 
right, let us strive on to finish the work we are 
in." 



Financial and Trade 
Discussions With 
United Kingdom 

JOINT STATEMENT BY THE UNITED STATES 
AND THE UNITED KINGDOM 

[Rcloaspd to the press October 1] 

The initial meeting of the Commercial Policy 
Committee of the United States - United Kingdom 
economic negotiations was held at 11 a.m. today in 
the Department of State. The Honorable William 
L. Clayton, Assistant Secretary of State for eco- 
nomic affairs, jsresided. The other members of the 
United States Delegation at the meeting were the 
Honorable Henry A. Wallace, Secretary of Com- 
merce; Dr. Harry White, Assistant Secretary of 
the Treasury; the Honorable Oscar B. Ryder, 
Chairman of the Tariff Commission ; and ilr. Les- 
lie Wheeler, Director of the Oflice of Foreign Ag- 
ricvdturul Relations of the Department of Agri- 
culture. 

The members of the United Kingdom Delega- 
tion at the meeting were the Right Honorable the 
Earl of Halifax, K.G., Ambassador to the Unite<l 
States; Lord Keynes, Adviser to the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer; Sir Percivale Liesching of the 
Board of Trade ; Mr. R. H. Brand, Head of the 
United Kingdom Treasury Delegation in Wash- 
ington; Professor Lionel Robbins of the Cabinet 
Offices; and Mr. R. J. Shackle of the Board of 
Trade. 

The purpose of the meetings of the Commercial 
Policy Committee will be to discuss, within the 
framework of article VII of the United States - 
United Kingdom mutual-aid agreement, the broad 
aspects of futui-e trade relations between the two 
countries. The Committee will discuss tariffs and 
discriminatory arrangements, quantitative re- 
strictions, and other barriers to trade; inter- 
national policy with respect to commodity agree- 
ments and the control of international cartels; the 
establishment of an intei'national trade organiza- 
tion; and international cooperation in the mainte- 
nance of employment. 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



513 



Statement by the Secretary of State on the 
Meetings of the Council of Foreign Ministers' 



[Released to the press October 3] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers at its initial 
series of meetings dealt with many matters in ac- 
cordance with the directive from the Berlin Con- 
ference to continue the preparatoiy work for the 
peace settlements with a view to submitting their 
conclusions to the United Nations. The present 
meeting is the first meeting of the principal Allies 
to be held since the fighting has stopped, and there 
emerged differences of views which had not ap- 
peared so long as the fii'st imperative was to pre- 
serve fighting unity. There was a considerable 
area of agreement. The differences which devel- 
oped were explored in a spirit of conciliation, and 
there is good reason to believe that with con- 
tinued patience and understanding on all sides 
agreement on essentials can be attained. We are 
determined upon that outcome. Toward the con- 
clusion of the present series of meetings proced- 
ural difliculties arose. The Soviet Delegation came 
to feel that treaty discussions should be confined 
in each case to the signatories of the surrender 
terms as contemiDlated by the first and narrow 
provision of article II 3. (ii) of the Berlin agree- 
ment rather than under other and broader provi- 
sions of the Berlin agreement.^ 

The Soviet Delegation on September 22 took the 
position that the Council should rescind or with- 
draw its September eleventh decision whereby 
France and China were invited to participate in 
all discussions.^ This would have meant the elimi- 
nation of China from the pending discussion of 
the European peace treaties and the similar elimi- 
nation of France except in the case of the treaty 
with Italy. The Secretary of State of the United 
States took the position that he would be reluctant 
to see such narrowing of participation in the pend- 
ing work on the European peace treaties and the 
elimination therefrom of two permanent members 
of the United Nations Security Council. He 
would, however, accept any preliminary treaty- 



making procedure which was consistent with the 
Berlin agreement provided the Council agreed as 
authorized by article II 4. (ii) of the Berlin 
agreement to call a peace conference of the prin- 
cipally interested states. Such a conference should 
include the permanent members of the Security 
Council, the European members of the United 
Nations, and non-Eui'opean members which sup- 
plied substantial military contingents against the 
European members of the Axis. The conference 
would review the preliminary treaty work of the 
Council. The Soviet Delegation took the position 
that without personal consultation with their Gov- 
ernment they could not make any commitment 
with reference to such a future peace conference. 
In the circumstances, work of the Council will be 
held in abeyance. If, as we confidently hope, 
agreement regarding future procedure is obtained, 
the drafting work of the deputies can then go for- 
ward on the basis of dii'ectives already given the 
deputies by the Council. 



' Made in London on Oct. 2, 1945. 
' BuixBH-iN of Aug. 5, 1945, p. 153. 
' BULLBON of Sept. 16, 1945, p. 392. 

668925—45 2 



Charter of the United Nations 

[Released to the press October 1] 

China 

Wei Tao-ming, Ambassador of China, de- 
posited with the Department of State on Septem- 
ber 28 the Chinese instrument of ratification of 
the Charter of the United Nations and the an- 
nexed Statute of the International Court of 
Justice. 

Turkey 

Hiiseyin Ragip Baydur, Ambassador of Tur- 
key, deposited with the Department of State on 
September 28 the Turkish instrument of ratifi- 
cation of the Charter and Statute. 

Ten nations have now deposited their instru- 
ments of ratification of the Charter in the order 
listed: United States, France, Dominican Re- 
public, Nicaragua, New Zealand, Brazil, Argen- 
tina, El Salvador, China, and Turkey. 



514 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



International Control of Atomic Energy 

EXCERPTS FROM THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE TO THE CONGRESS 



[Released to the press by the White House October 3] 

To the CongrcHS of the United States: 

Almost two months have passed since the atomic 
bomb was used against Japan. That bomb did not 
win the war, but it certainly shortened the war. 
We know that it saved the lives of untold thou- 
sands of American and Allied soldiers who would 
otherwise have been killed in battle. 

The discovery of the means of releasing atomic 
energy began a new era in the history of civiliza- 
tion. The scientific and industrial knowledge on 
which this discovery rests does not relate merely 
to another weapon. It may some day prove to be 
more revolutionary in the development of human 
society than the invention of the wheel, the use 
of metals, or the steam or internal-combustion 
engine. 

Never in history has society been confronted 
with a power so full of potential danger and at 
the same time so full of promise for the future 
of man and for the peace of the world. I think 
I express the faith of the American people when 
I say that we can use the knowledge we have won, 
not for the devastation of war, but for the future 
welfare of humanity. 

To accomplish that objective we must proceed 
along two fronts — the domestic and the interna- 
tional. 

• • • ■ • 

The other phase of the problem is the question 
of the international control and development of 
this newly discovered energy. 

In international relations as in domestic affairs, 
the release of atomic energy constitutes a new force 
too revolutionary to consider in the framework of 
old ideas. We can no longer rely on the slow 
progress of time to develop a program of control 
among nations. Civilization demands that we 
shall reach at the earliest possible date a satisfac- 
tory arrangement for the control of this discov- 
ery in order that it may become a powerful and 
forceful influence towards the maintenance of 
world peace instead of an instrument of 
destruction. 

Scientific opinion appears to be practically 



unanimous that the essential theoretical knowledge 
upon which the discovery is based is already 
widely known. There is also substantial agi'ee- 
ment that foreign research can come abreast of 
our pi-esent theoretical knowledge in time. 

The hope of civilization lies in international 
arrangements looking, if possible, to the renuncia- 
tion of the use and development of the atomic 
bomb, and directing and encouraging the use of 
atomic energy and all future scientific information 
toward peaceful and humanitarian ends. The dif- 
ficulties in working out such arrangements are 
great. The alternative to overcoming these diffi- 
culties, however, may be a desperate armament 
race which might well end in disaster. Discussion 
of the international problem cannot be safely de- 
layed until the United Nations Organization is 
functioning and in a position adequately to deal 
with it. 

I therefore propose to initiate discussions, first 
with our associates in this discovery. Great Britain 
and Canada, and then with other nations, in an ef- 
fort to effect agreement on the conditions under 
which cooperation might replace rivalry in the 
field of atomic power. 

I desire to emphasize that these discussions will 
not be concerned with disclosures relating to the 
manufacturing processes leading to the production 
of the atomic bomb itself. They will constitute 
an effort to work out arrangements covering the 
terms under which international collaboration and 
exchange of scientific information might safely 
proceed. 

The outcome of the discussions will be reported 
to the Congress as soon as possible, and any result- 
ing agreements requiring congressional action will 
be submitted to the Congress. 

But regardless of the course of discussions in the 
international field, I believe it is essential that leg- 
islation along the lines I have indicated be adopted 
as promptly as possible to insure the necessary re- 
search in, and development and control of, the pro- 
duction and use of atomic energy. 

Harry S. Truman 
The White House 
October J, 1H5 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



515 



Arrangements for Control of Germany by 
Allied Representatives 



AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OP 
THE UNITED KINGDOM, THE UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA, AND THE UNION OF SOVIET 
SOCIALIST REPUBLICS, AND THE PROVI- 
SIONAL GOVERNMENT OF THE FRENCH RE- 
PUBLIC ON CERTAIN ADDITIONAL REQUIRE- 
MENTS TO BE IMPOSED ON GERMANY" 

The Governments of the U.K., U.S.A., and 
U.S.S.E. and Provisional Government of French 
Republic have reached the following agreement 
regarding instructions to he issued hy the Allied 
representatives in Germany : 

We, the Allied Eepresentatives, Commanders- 
in-Chief of the forces of occupation of the United 
Kingdom, the United States of America, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the 
French Republic, pursuant to the Declaration 
regarding the defeat of Germany, signed at Berlin 
on 5th June, 1945," hereby announce certain addi- 
tional requirements arising from the complete 
defeat and unconditional surrender of Germany 
with which Germany must complj', as follows: — 

Section I 

1. All German land, naval and air forces, the 
S.S., S.A., S.D. and Gestapo, with all their organi- 
zations, staffs and institutions, including the Gen- 
eral Staff, the Officers' Corps, Reserve Corps, mili- 
tary schools, war veterans' organizations and all 
other military and quasi-military organizations, 
together with all clubs and associations which 
serve to keep alive the military tradition in Ger- 
many, shall be completely and finally abolished in 
accordance with methods and procedures to be 
laid down by the Allied Representatives. 

2. All forms of military training, military prop- 
aganda and military activities of whatever nature, 
on the part of the German people, are prohibited, 
as well as the formation of any organization ini- 
tiated to further any aspect of military train- 
ing and the formation of war veterans' organiza- 
tions or other groups which might develop mili- 
tary characteristics or which are designed to carry 

' Slacie in Berlin Sept. 20, 1945. 

^ Bulletin of June 10, 1945, p. 1051. 



on the German military tradition, whether such 
organizations or groups purport to be political, 
educational, religious, social, athletic or recrea- 
tional or of any other nature. 

Section II 

3. (a) German authorities and officials in all 
territories outside the frontiers of Germany as 
they existed on 31st December, 1937, and in any 
areas within those frontiers indicated at any time 
by the Allied Representatives, will comply with 
such instructions as to withdrawing therefrom 
as they may receive from the Allied Representa- 
tives. 

(b) The German authorities will issue the nec- 
essary instructions and will make the necessary 
arrangements for the reception and maintenance 
in Germany of all German civilian inhabitants of 
the territories or areas concerned, whose evacua- 
tion may be ordered by the Allied Representatives. 

(c) Withdrawals and evacuations under sub- 
paragraphs (a) and (b) above will take place at 
such times and under such conditions as the Allied 
Representatives may direct. 

4. In the territories and areas referred to in 
paragraph 3 above, there shall immediately be, 
on the part of all forces under German command 
and of German authorities and civilians, a com- 
plete cessation of all measures of coercion or forced 
labor and of all measures involving injury to life 
or limb. There shall similarly cease all measures 
of requisitioning, seizure, removal, concealment or 
destruction of property. In particular, the with- 
drawals and evacuations mentioned in paragraph 
3 above will be carried out without damage to or 
removal of persons or property not affected by the 
orders of the Allied Representatives. The Allied 
Representatives will determine what personal 
property and effects may be taken by persons 
evacuated under paragraph 3 above. 

Section III 

5. The Allied Representatives will regulate all 
matters affecting Germany's relations with other 



516 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



countries. No foreign obligations, undertakings 
or commitments of any kind will be assumed or en- 
tered into by or on behalf of German authorities 
or nationals without the sanction of the Allied 
Representatives. 

6. The Allied Representatives will give direc- 
tions concerning the abrogation, bringing into 
force, revival or application of any treaty, con- 
vention or other international agreement, or any 
part or provision thereof, to which Germany is or 
has been a party. 

7. (a) In virtue of the unconditional surrender 
of Germany, and as of the date of such surrender, 
the diplomatic, consular, commercial and other 
relations of the German State with other States 
have ceased to exist. 

(b) Diplomatic, consular, commercial and other 
officials and members of service missions in Ger- 
many of countries at war with any of the four 
Powers will be dealt with as the Allied Represent- 
atives may prescribe. The Allied Representatives 
may I'equire the withdrawal from Germany of 
neutral diplomatic, consular, commercial and other 
officials and members of neuti'al service missions. 

(c) All German diplomatic, consular, commer- 
cial and other officials and members of German 
service missions abroad are hereby recalled. The 
control and disposal of the buildings, property 
and archives of all German diplomatic and other 
agencies abroad will be prescribed by the Allied 
Representatives. 

8. (a) German nationals will, pending further 
instructions, be prevented from leaving German 
territorj' except as authorized or directed by the 
Allied Representatives. 

(b) German authorities and nationals will 
comply with any directions issued by the Allied 
Representatives for the recall of German nationals 
resident abroad, and for the reception in Germany 
of any persons whom the Allied Representatives 
may designate. 

9. The German authorities and people will take 
all appropriate steps to ensure the safety, main- 
tenance and welfare of persons not of German na- 
tionality and of their property and the property 
of foreign States. 

Section IV 

10. The German authorities will place at the 
disposal of the Allied Representatives the whole 
of the German inter-communication system (in- 



cluding all military and civilian postal and tele- 
communication systems and facilities and con- 
nected matters) , and will comply with any instruc- 
tions given by the Allied Representatives for 
placing such inter-communication systems under 
the complete control of the Allied Representatives. 
The German authorities will comply with any in- 
structions given by the Allied Representatives with 
a view to the establishment by the Allied Repre- 
sentatives of such censorship and control of postal 
and telecommunication and of documents and 
other articles carried by persons or otherwise con- 
veyed and of all other forms of inter-communica- 
tion as the Allied Representatives may think fit. 

11. The German authorities will comply with 
all directions which the Allied Representatives 
may give regarding the use, control and censor- 
ship of all media for influencing expression and 
opinions, including broadcasting, press and publi- 
cations, advertising, films and public perform- 
ances, entertainments, and exhibitions of all kinds. 

Section V 

12. The Allied Representatives will exercise 
such control as they deem necessary over all or 
any part or aspect of German finance, agriculture 
(including forestry) production and mining, pub- 
lic utilities, industry, trade, distribution and econ- 
omy generally, internal and external, and over all 
related or ancillary matters, including the direc- 
tion or prohibition of the manufacture, produc- 
tion, construction, treatment, use and disposal of 
any buildings, establishments, installations, pub- 
lic or private works, plant, equipment, products, 
materials, stocks, or resources. Detailed state- 
ments of the subjects to which the present provi- 
sion applies, together with the requirements of 
the Allied Representatives in regard thereto, will 
from time to time be communicated to the German 
authorities, 

13. (a) The manufacture, production and con- 
struction, and the acquisition from outside Ger- 
many, of war material and of such other products, 
used in connection with such manufacture, pro- 
duction or construction, as the Allied Representa- 
tives may specify, and the import, export and 
transit thereof, are iirohibited, except as directed 
by the Allied Representatives. 

(b) The German authorities will immediately 
place at the disposal of the Allied Representatives 
all research, experiment, development and design 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



517 



directly or indirectly relating to war or the pro- 
duction of war material, whether in government 
or private establishments, factories, technological 
institutions or elsewhere. 

14. (a) The property, assets, rights, titles and 
interests (whether situated inside or outside Ger- 
many) of the German State, its political subdi- 
visions, the German Central Bank, State or semi- 
State, provincial, municipal or local authorities 
or Nazi organizations, and those situated outside 
Germany of any person resident or carrying on 
business in Germany, will not be disposed of in 
any way whatever without the sanction of the 
Allied Representatives. The property, assets, 
rights, titles and interests (whether situated in- 
side or outside Germany), of such private compa- 
nies, corporations, trusts, cartels, firms, partner- 
ships and associations as may be designated by 
the Allied Eepresentatives will not be disposed of 
in any way whatever without the sanction of the 
Allied Representatives. 

(b) The German authorities will furnish full 
information about the property, assets, rights, 
titles and interests referred to in sub-paragraph 
(a) above, and will comply with such directions 
as the Allied Representatives may give as to their 
transfer and disposal. Without prejudice to any 
further demands which may be made in this con- 
nection, the German authorities will hold at the 
disposal of the Allied Representatives for de- 
livery to them at such times and places as they 
may direct all securities, certificates, deeds or 
other documents of title held by any of the insti- 
tutions or bodies mentioned in sub-paragraph (a) 
above or by any person subject to German law, 
and relating to property, assets, rights, titles and 
interests situated in the territories of the United 
Nations, including any shares, stocks, debentures 
or other obligations of any company incorporated 
in accordance with the laws of any of the United 
Nations. 

(c) Property, assets, rights, titles and interests 
situated inside Germany will not be removed out- 
side Germany or be transferred or disposed of to 
any person resident or carrying on business out- 
side Germany without the sanction of the Allied 
Represent atives. 

(d) Nothing in sub-paragraphs (a) and (b) 
above shall, as regards property, assets, rights, 
titles and interests situated inside Germany, be 
deemed to prevent sales or transfers to persons 



resident in Germany for the purpose of maintain- 
ing or carrying on the day-to-day national life, 
economy and administration, subject to the pro- 
visions of sub-paragraph 19 (b) and (c) below 
and to the provisions of the Declaration or of any 
proclamations, orders, ordinances or instructions 
issued thereunder. 

15. (a) The German authorities and all per- 
sons in Germany will hand over to the Allied 
Representatives all gold and silver, in coin or 
bullion forms, and all platinum in bullion form, 
situated in Germany, and all such coin and bullion 
situated outside Germany as is possessed by or 
held on behalf of any of the institutions or bodies 
mentioned in sub-paragraph 14 (a) above or any 
j^erson resident or carrying on business in 
Germany. 

(b) The German authorities and all persons in 
Germany will hand over in full to the Allied 
Representatives all foreign notes and coins in the 
possession of any German authority, or of any 
corjioration, association or individual resident or 
carrying on business in Germany, and all mone- 
tary tokens issued or prepared for issue by Ger- 
many in the territories formerly occupied by her 
or elsewhere. 

16. (a) All property, assets, rights, titles and 
interests in Germany held for or belonging to any 
country against which any of the United Nations 
is carrying on hostilities, or held for or belonging 
to the nationals of any such country, or of any 
persons resident or carrying on business therein, 
will be taken under control and will be preserved 
jDending further instructions. 

(b) All property, assets, rights, titles and in- 
terests in Germany held for or belonging to pri- 
vate individuals, private enterprises and com- 
panies of those countries, other than Germany and 
the countries referred to in sub-paragraph (a) 
above, which have at any time since the 1st 
September, 1939, been at war with any of the 
United Nations, will be taken under control and 
will be preserved pending further instructions. 

(c) The German authorities will take all neces- 
sary steps to ensure the execution of the provisions 
of sub-paragraphs (a) and (b) above, will comply 
with any instructions given by the Allied Repre- 
sentatives for that pui-pose, and will afford all 
necessary information and facilities in connection 
therewith. 

17. (a) There shall, on the part of the German 



518 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BVLLETIN 



authorities and people, be no concealment, destruc- 
tion, scuttling, or dismantling of, removal or trans- 
fer of, nor damage to, sliips, transport, ports or 
harbours, nor to any form of building, establish- 
ment, installation, device, means of production, 
supply, distribution or communication, plant, 
equipment, currency, stocks or resoui-ces, or, in gen- 
eral, public or private works, utilities or facilities 
of any kind, wherever situated. 

(b) There sliall be no destruction, removal, con- 
cealment, suppression or alteration of any docu- 
ments, records, patents, drawings, specifications, 
plans or information, of any nature, atlectcd by the 
provisions of this document. They shall be kept 
intact in their present locations until further di- 
rections are given. The German authorities will 
afford all information and facilites as required by 
the Allied Kepresentatives in connection there- 
with. 

(c) Any measures already ordered, undertaken 
or begun contrary to the provisions of sub-para- 
graphs (a) and (b) above will be immediately 
countermanded or discontinued. All stocks, equip- 
ment, plant, records, patents, documents, draw- 
ings, specifications, plans or other material already 
concealed within or outside Germany will forth- 
with be declared and will be dealt with as the Al- 
lied Representatives may direct. 

(d) Subject to the provisions of the Declara- 
tion or any proclamations, orders, ordinances, or 
instructions issued thereunder, the Gennan au- 
thorities and people will be responsible for the 
preservation, safeguarding and upkeep of all forms 
of i^roperty and materials affected by any of the 
said provisions. 

(e) All transport material, stores, equipment, 
plant, establishments, installations, devices and 
property generally, which are liable to be sur- 
rendered or delivered under the Declaration or any 
proclamations, orders, ordinances or instructions 
issued thereunder, will be handed over intact and 
in good condition, or subject only to ordinary wear 
and tear and to any damage caused during the 
continuance of hostilities which it has proved 
impossible to make good. 

18. There shall be no financial, commercial or 
other intercourse with, or dealings with or for 
the benefit of, countries at war with any of the 
United Nations, or territories occupied by such 
countries, or with any other country or person 
specified by the Allied Representatives. 



Section VI 

19. (a) The German authorities will carry out, 
for the benefit of the United Nations, such meas- 
ures of restitution, reinstatement, restoration, rep- 
aration, reconstruction, relief and rehaljilitation 
as the Allied Representatives may prescribe. For 
these purposes the German authorities will effect 
or i^rocure the suri-ender or transfer of such prop- 
erty, assets, rights, titles and interests, effect such 
deliveries and carry out such repair, building and 
construction work, whether in Germany or else- 
where, and will provide such transport, plant 
equipment and materials of all kinds, labour, per- 
sonnel and specialist and other services, for use 
in Germany or elsewhere, as the Allied Repre- 
sentatives may direct. 

(b) The German authorities will also comply 
with all such directions as the Allied Represent- 
atives may give relating to property, assets, rights, 
titles and interests located in Germany belonging 
to any one of the United Nations or its nationals 
or having so belonged at, or at any time since, the 
outbreak of war between Germanj' and that Na- 
tion, or since the occupation of any part of its 
territories by Germany. The German authorities 
will be responsible for safeguarding, maintain- 
ing, and preventing the dissipation of, all such 
proi:)erty, assets, rights, titles and interests, and for 
handing them over intact at the demand of the 
Allied Representatives. For these purposes the 
German authorities will afford all information and 
facilities required for tracing any projDerty, assets, 
rights, titles or interests. 

(c) All persons in Germany in whose posses- 
sion such property, assets, rights, titles and in- 
terests may be, shall be personally responsible for 
reporting them and for safeguarding them until 
they are handed over in such manner as may be 
25rescribed. 

20. The German authorities will supply free of 
cost such German currency as the Allied Repre- 
sentatives may require, and will withdraw and re- 
deem in German currency, within such time limits 
and on such terms as the Allied Representatives 
may specify, all holdings in German territory of 
currencies issued by the Allied Representatives 
during military ojjerations or occupation, and will 
hand over the currencies so witlidrawn free of cost 
to the Allied Representatives. 

21. The German authorities will comply with 
all such directions as may be issued by the Allied 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



519 



Representatives for defraying the costs of the pro- 
visioning, maintenance, paj', accommodation and 
transport of the forces and agencies stationed in 
Germany by authority of the Allied Representa- 
tives, the costs of executing the i-equirements of un- 
conditional surrender, and payment for any relief 
in whatever form it may be provided by the United 
Nations. 

22. The Allied Representatives will take and 
make unrestricted use (whether inside or outside 
Germany) of any articles referred to in paragraph 
12 above, which the Allied Representatives may 
require in connection with the conduct of hostili- 
ties against any country with which any of their 
respective Governments is at war. 

Section VII 

23. (a) No merchant ship, including fishing or 
other craft, shall put to sea from any German port 
except as may be sanctioned or directed by the Al- 
lied Representatives. German ships in ports out- 
side Germany shall remain in port and those at sea 
shall proceed to the nearest German or United 
Nations port and there remain, pending instruc- 
tions from the Allied Representatives. 

(b) All German merchant shipping, including 
tonnage under construction or repair, will be made 
available to the Allied Representatives for such 
use and on such terms as they may prescribe. 

(c) Foreign merchant shipping in German 
service or under German control will likewise be 
made available to the Allied Representatives for 
such use and on such terms as they may prescribe. 
In the case of such foreign merchant vessels which 
are of neutral registration, the German authori- 
ties will take all such steps as may be required by 
the Allied Representatives to transfer or cause to 
be transferred to the Allied Representatives all 
rights relative thereto. 

(d) All transfer to any other flag, service or 
control, of the vessels covered by sub-paragraphs 
(b) and (c) above, is prohibited, except as may 
be directed by the Allied Repi-esentatives. 

24. Any existing options to repurchase or reac- 
quire or to resume control of vessels sold or other- 
wise transferred or chartered by Germany during 
the war will be exercised as directed by the Allied 
Representatives. Such vessels will be made avail- 
able for use by the Allied Representatives in the 
same manner as the vessels covered by sub-para- 
graphs 23 (b) and (c) above. 



25. (a) The crews of all German merchant ves- 
sels or merchant vessels in German service or 
under German control will remain on board and 
will be maintained by the German authorities 
pending further instructions from the Allied Rep- 
resentatives regarding their future employment. 

(b) Cargoes on board any such vessels will be 
disposed of in accordance with instructions given 
to the German authorities by the Allied Represent- 
atives. 

26. (a) Merchant ships, including fishing and 
other craft of the United Nations (or of any 
country which has broken off diplomatic relations 
with Germany) which are in German hands, 
wherever such ships may be, will be surrendered 
to the Allied Representatives regardless of 
whether title has been transferred as the result of 
prize court proceedings or otherwise. All such 
ships will be surrendered in good repair and in 
seaworthy condition in ports and at times to be 
specified by the Allied Representatives, for dis- 
posal as directed by them. 

(b) The German authorities will take all such 
steps as may be directed by the Allied Repre- 
sentatives to eifect or complete transfers of title to 
such ships regardless of whether the title has been 
transferred as the result of prize court proceed- 
ings or otherwise. They will secure the discon- 
tinuance of any arrests of, or proceedings against, 
such ships in neutral ports. 

27. The German authorities will comply with 
any instructions given by the Allied Representa- 
tives for the destruction, dispersal, salvaging, rec- 
lamation or raising of wrecked, stranded, derelict 
or sunken vessels, wherever they may be situated. 
Such vessels salvaged, reclaimed or raised shall 
be dealt with as the Allied Representatives direct. 

28. The German authorities will place at the 
unrestricted disposal of the Allied Representa- 
tives the entire German shipping, shipbuilding 
and ship repair industries, and all matters and 
facilities directly or indirectly relative or ancil- 
lary thereto, and will provide the requisite labour 
and specialist services. The requirements of the 
Allied Representatives will be specified in instruc- 
tions which will from time to time be communi- 
cated to the German authorities. 

Section VIII 

29. The German authorities will place at the 
unrestricted disposal of the Allied Representa- 



520 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tives the wliole of the German inland transport 
system (road, rail, air and waterways) and all 
connected material, plant and equipment, and all 
repair, construction, labour, servicing and run- 
ning facilities, in accordance with the instructions 
issued by the Allied Representatives. 

30. The production in Germany and the pos- 
session, maintenance or operation by Germans of 
any aircraft of any kind or any parts thereof, 
are prohibited. 

31. All German rights in international trans- 
port bodies or organizations, and in relation to 
the use of transport and the movement of traffic 
in other countries and the use in Germany of the 
transport of other countries, will be exercised in 
accordance with the directions of the Allied 
Representatives. 

32. All facilities for the generation, transmis- 
sion and distribution of power, including estab- 
lishments for the manufacture and repair of such 
facilities, will be placed under the complete con- 
trol of the Allied Representatives, to be used for 
such purposes as they may designate. 

Section IX 

33. The German authorities will comply with 
all such directions as the Allied Representatives 
may give for the regulation of movements of 
population and for controlling travel or removal 
on the part of persons in Germany. 

34. No person may leave or enter Germany 
without a permit issued by the Allied Represent- 
atives or on their authority. 

35. The German authorities will comply with 
all such directions as the Allied Representatives 
may give for the repatriation of persons not of 
German nationality in or passing through Ger- 
many, their property and effects, and for facilitat- 
ing the movements of refugees and displaced per- 
sons. 

Section X 

36. The German authorities will furnish any 
information and documents, and will secure the 
attendance of any witnesses, required by the Allied 
Representatives for the trial of 

(a) the principal Nazi leaders as specified by 
the Allied Representatives and all persons from 
time to time named or designated by rank, office 
or employment by the Allied Representatives as 



being suspected of having committed, ordered or 
abetted war crimes or analogous offences : 

(b) any national of any of the United Nations 
who is alleged to have committed an offence 
against his national law and who may at any time 
be named or designated by rank, office or employ- 
ment by the Allied Representatives; 

and will give all other aid and assistance for these 
purjDoses. 

37. The German authorities will comply with 
any directions given by the Allied Representatives 
in regard to the property of any person referred 
to in sub-paragraphs 36 (a) and (b) above, such 
as its seizure, custody or suiTender. 

Section XI 

38. The National Socialist German "Workers' 
Party (NSDAP) is completely and finally abol- 
ished and declared to be illegal. 

39. The German authorities will comply 
promptly with such directions as the Allied Rep- 
resentatives may issue for the abolition of the 
National Socialist Party and of its subordinate 
organizations, affiliated associations and super- 
vised organizations, and of all Nazi public insti- 
tutions created as instruments of Nazi domina- 
tion, and of such other organizations as may be 
regarded as a threat to the security of the Allied 
forces or to international peace, and for prohibit- 
ing their revival in any form; for the dismissal 
and internment of Nazi personnel ; for the control 
or seizure of Nazi property and funds; and for 
the suppression of Nazi ideology and teaching. 

40. The German authorities and German na- 
tionals will not allow the existence of any secret 
organizations. 

41. The German authorities will comply with 
such directions as the Allied Representatives may 
issue for the repeal of Nazi legislation and for 
the reform of German law and of the German 
legal, judicial, administrative, police and educa- 
tional systems, including the replacement of their 
personnel. 

42. (a) The German authorities will comply 
with such directions as the Allied Rej^resentatives 
may issue for the rescinding of German legislation 
involving discrimination on grounds of race, 
colour, creed, language or political opinions and 
for the cancellation of all legal or other disabil- 
ities resultina therefrom. 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



521 



(b) The German authorities will comply with 
such directions as the Allied Representatives may 
issue regarding the property, assets, rights, titles 
and interests of persons affected by legislation in- 
volving discrimination on grounds of race, colour, 
creed, language or political opinions. 

43. No person shall be prosecuted or molested by 
the German authorities or by German nationals on 
grounds of race, colour, creed, language or political 
opinions, or on account of any dealings or sympa- 
thies with the United Nations, including the per- 
formance of any action calculated to facilitate the 
execution of the Declaration or of any proclama- 
tions, orders, ordinances or instructions issued 
thereunder. 

44. In any proceedings before any German 
Court or authority judicial notice shall be taken of 
the provisions of the Declaration and of all procla- 
mations, orders, ordinances and instructions issued 
thereunder, which shall override any provisions of 
German law inconsistent therewith. 

Section XII 

45. Without prejudice to any specific obligations 
contained in the provisions of the Declaration or 
any proclamations, orders, ordinances or instruc- 
tions issued thereunder, the German authorities 
and any other person in a position to do so will fur- 
nish or cause to be furnished all such information 
and documents of every kind, public and private, 
as the Allied Representatives may require. 

46. The German authorities will likewise pro- 
duce for interrogation and employment by the 
Allied Representatives upon demand any and all 
pei'sons whose knowledge and experience would 
be useful to the Allied Representatives. 

47. The Allied Representatives will have access 
at all times to any building, installation, establish- 
ment, property or area, and any of the contents 
thereof, for the purposes of the Declaration or any 
proclamations, orders, ordinances or instructions 
issued thereunder, and in particular for the pur- 
poses of safeguarding, inspecting, copying or ob- 
taining any of the desired documents and informa- 
tion. The German authorities will give all neces- 
sary facilities and assistance for this purpose, in- 
cluding the service of all specialist staff, including 
archivists. 



" See Bulletin of Sept. 30, 1945, p. 498. 

668925—45 3 



Section XIII 

48. In the event of any doubt as to the meaning 
or interpretation of any term or expression in the 
Declaration and in any proclamations, orders, 
ordinances and instructions issued thereunder, the 
decision of the Allied Representatives shall be 
final. ,,., i 



Termination of Treaties 

Siani-Japan 

The Siamese Legation informed the Department 
in a note dated October 1, 1945 that on September 
26, 1945 the Siamese Minister of Foreign Affairs 
announced by cable to the Japanese Minister of 
Foreign Affairs the termination of certain agree- 
ments concluded between Siam and Japan. The 
first was the treaty concerning the continuance of 
friendly relations with, and mutual respect of, 
each other's territorial integrity, signed at Tokyo 
on June 12, 1940. Also terminated was the proto- 
col concerning guaranties and political under- 
standing of May 9, 1941 as well as all existing 
agreements of a political nature. 

The Legation stated that in announcing the 
above-mentioned action the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs of Siam declared that the formal denun- 
ciation of all treaties, agreements, and arrange- 
ments of a i^olitical nature concluded with Japan 
during the period of Luang Pibul's premiership 
had now been completed.^ 



Visit of Bolivian Educator 

[Released to the press October 3] 

Dr. Martin Cardenas, Rector of the Univer- 
sity of Cochabamba, in Bolivia, is guest of the 
Department of State while conferring with agri- 
cultural experts on plant breeding techniques, 
with especial reference to the potato and Indian 
corn. His present visit will include several 
weeks' study of the work in plant exploration 
and introduction carried on by the Department 
of Agriculture at Beltsville, Mai-yland. He will 
also visit the Virginia University Experimental 
Farm at Boyce, the Botanical Museum and Gray 
Herbarium at Harvard, the College of Agricul- 
ture of Cornell, similar centers of agricultural re- 
search, and western potato-producing regions. 



522 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



United States Delegation to Conference on 
Food and Agriculture 



[Released to the press by the White House October 3] 

The President has designated the following per- 
sons as members of the United States Delegation 
to the first session of the Conference of the Food 
and Agriculture Organization of the United Na- 
tions, to be held at Quebec, Canada, October 10, 
1945. 

United States Member: 
Clinton P. Anderson, Secretary of Agricultin-e 

Deputy United States Memier: 

Wn-UAM L. Clayton, Assistant Secretary of State 

Alternate United States Memher: 

Howard K. Tolley, Uuited States Representative on the 
United Nations Interim Commission on Food and 
Agriculture 

Congressional Advisers: 

Elmee Thomas, United States Senate, Chairman, 
Committee on Agriculture and Forestry 

Raymond E. Wiii-is, United States Senate, Member, 
Committee on Agriculture and Forestry 

John W. F^annagan, Jr., United States House of 
Representatives, Chairman, Committee on Agri- 
culture 

CLifTOBD R. Hope, United States House of Representa- 
tives, Member, Committee on Agriculture 

Advisers: 

Andkew W. Anderson, Fish and Wildlife Service, 

Department of the Interior 
Paul Appleby, Assistant Director, Bureau of the Budget 
H. G. Bennett, President, Oklahoma Agricultural and 

Mechanical College 
Hugh Bennett, Soil Conservation Service, Department 

of Agriculture 
HoMEE L. Brinkley, President, National Council of 

Farmer Cooperatives 
R. E. Buchanan, Director, Agricultural Experiment 

Station, Ames, Iowa 
Edward G. Gate, Acting Associate Chief, Commodities 

Division, Department of State 
P. V. Cardon, Agricultural Research Administration, 

Department of Agriculture 
A. L. Deehing, Dean, College of Agriculture, University 

of Maine 
MoRDECAi EzEKiEL, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, 

Department of Agriculture 
Albert S. Goss, Master, the National Grange 
Henry' S. Graves, College of Forestry, Yale University 
L. Wendell Hayes, Divisional Assistant, Division of 

International Organization Affairs, Department of 

State 



Edward I. Kotok, Forest Service, Department of Agri- 
culture 

Edward A. O'Neal, President, American Farm Bureau 
Federation 

Thomas Parkan. Surgeon General, United States Pub- 
lic Health Service 

James G. Patton, President, National Farmers Union 

Hazel K. Stiebeung, Bureau of Human Nutrition and 
Home Economics, Department of Agriculture 

Leroy D. Stinebower, Deputy Director, Office of In- 
ternational Trade Policy, Department of State 

Anna Lord Strauss, President, National League of 
Women Voters 

Clifiord C. Taylor, Agricultural Attache, American 
Embassy, Ottawa, Canada 

Lyle F. Watts, Forest Service, Department of Agri- 
culture 

L. A. Wheeler, OflBce of Foreign Agricultural Relations, 
Department of Agriculture 

M. L. Wilson, Extension Service, Department of Agri- 
culture 

Press-Relations Officer: 

Henby Jarrett, Special Assistant, Bureau of Agricul- 
tural Economics, Department of Agriculture 

Secretaries of Delegation: 

James G. Maddox, Department of Agriculture 
One officer from the Department of State 



Foreign Commerce Weekly 

The following articles of interest to readers of 
the Bulletin appeared in the September 29 issue 
(if Foreign Commerce Weekly, a publication of the 
Department of Commerce, copies of which may be 
obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, for 10 cents each : 

"Italian Economy Today", from the American 
Embassy at Rome. 

"An Egyptian Industry", from the American 
Legation at Cairo. 

The following article appeared in the issue for 
Oct. 6: 

"Insecticide Output Grows in U.K. and Eire", 
by Mulford A. Colebrook, second secretary, con- 
sul, and Irven M. Eitreim, third secretary, vice 
consul, American Embassy, London, and by 
Charles M. Gerrity, vice consul, American Lega- 
tion, Dublin. 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



523 



An American's View of France 



BY CAMDEN H. McVEY ^ 



THERE IS NO SECRET aboiit the fact that 
our rehitions with France in recent 
months have been far from smooth. 
The question that has troubled us all, 
French and American alike, is how, in view of 
our historic friendship, this could have come 
about. The explanation must be sought in the 
developments of the past few years. 

To understand the France of today we must, 
in my opinion, accept the premise that she is re- 
covering not only from great physical damage but 
also from deep emotional wounds. The French 
Government's decision in 1940 to capitulate rather 
than suffer a possible massacre of its Army and 
civilian population, unpopular as it was with the 
rest of the Allied world, left an even deeper mark 
on the sensibilities of the French. I do not believe 
that the American people, individually or collec- 
tively, could even approach the depths of shame 
and humiliation which the French have suffered, 
and from which, in ways scarcely understandable 
to us, they are trying to recover. I am inclined to 
believe that the typical American reaction to a 
total collapse in the face of an ovei'whelming 
enemy would be first disbelief, then hot anger at 
our leaders and our friends as well as our foes, and 
ultimately a dogged concentration on a revenge 
that would be as sure in our own minds as it would 
be sweet. I doubt that anj' deep sense of shame 
would form even a subconscious part of our emo- 
tions. Not so with France. Almost every action 
she has taken in the past four years indicates that 
France is trying to erase the memory of the first 
tune in lier history that she has laid down her arms 
before it was obviously inevitable. Because France 
was a great power, this action was, more to her than 
to anyone else, Use majeste. It did not occur to 
France, or to the rest of the world, to blame smaller 
countries for exactly similar actions; but, because 



' Mr. McVey is an adviser in tlie War Areas Economic 
Division, Office of International Trade Policy, Department 
of State. 



great things were expected of France, France took 
the disappointment of the world deep into her 
soul as her personal shame and humiliation. Her 
behavior, both national and individual, has 
been plainly conditioned by this psychological 
depression ever since. Her emphasis on rearma- 
ment, for instance, and on taking an active and 
important role in Allied military operations was 
a work of supererogation — not demanded of her 
or any other prostrate nation. But to France it 
was redemption and salvation, the only road to 
recovery of an honor viewed as lost. 

Heartsick as France may be, this is not her only 
wound. The French estimate of loss of national 
wealth, 45 percent, may be pessimistic ; but there 
can be no doubt that she has been so ravaged by 
war that her economic convalescence will be slow 
and faltering. Unable and unwilling to build up 
her productive capacity under German rule, she 
finds herself far behind those nations whose very 
contribution to the war carried with it a super- 
human effort to increase production. Wliile other 
nations were growing stronger, France was of 
necessity growing weaker. Add to this the direct 
devastation of the years of bombing and the months 
of fighting on her soil and one can understand that 
no other nation of her pre-war stature has suffered 
so great a loss in competitive position. This war- 
borne economic retrogression is, in my opinion, one 
reason, in addition to the psychological effects of 
her capitulation, why France has sought solace in 
the more spectacular field of military exploits, 
where she felt her endeavors could be measured in 
terms of courage and skill rather than of compara- 
tive contribution. 

France asked for and received well over a billion 
dollars in lend-lease armaments. Taking this 
materiel into battle, she has suffered nearly 330,000 
casualties in killed, missing, and wounded, not 
counting the million-odd prisoners still not all 
accounted for. With 140,000 killed and missing 
and 187,000 wounded, her sacrifices will bear com- 
parison, proportionately, with those of any of her 



524 

Allies except the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics. 

She has sacrificed her civilian economy time and 
again in an effort to recoup her military prestige, 
frequently against the strong protests of her Al- 
lies — as in the case of her mass mobilizations — 
rather than play a lesser role in military opera- 
tions. Her willingness to subordinate her civilian 
interests to military demands is illustrated further 
by the fact that France has supplied, from a mini- 
mum civilian economy maintained in part by im- 
ports for which she will pay largely in cash, around 
$500,000,000 worth of reverse lend-lease for our 
own Army. Her military lend-lease and civilian 
import accounts with the United States from 1942 
to V-J Day would be in round figures about as 
follows : 

Militai-y lend-lease received $1,000,000,000 

Reverse lend-lease to United States Ai-niy . 500, 000, 000 

Civilian lend-lease received . 150,000,000 
Civilian imports — cash reim- 
bursement 400,000.000 

Total civilian imports $550, 000, 000 

North Africa 

Wlien we landed in North Africa we cut off 
continental Europe, the main source of supply for 
all manufactured products. We had no ready 
substitute to replace these vital imports. Straight 
lend-lease of civilian goods to North Africa was 
rejected on the theory, as later noted in the modus- 
vivendi agreement, that the dollar expenditures 
of our forces in that theater would obviate the 
need for civilian lend-lease. It was months before 
we moved in goods in any substantial quantities, 
and our shipments (outside of coal from the United 
Kingdom) never exceeded an average of 40,000 
tons a month. There were dire shortages of food, 
clothing, shoes, and other consumer goods and of 
industrial materials, automotive equipment, and 
agricultural machinery. The shelves were bare 
when we went into North Africa and remained 
so throughout our stay. Military needs for ship- 
ping and the general world shortage of supiDlies 
tell part of the story ; but there is the additional 
fact that here, as later in France, we did not count 
upon any substantial industrial contribution from 
local sources and consequently had not planned 
on civilian imports beyond those necessary to main- 
tain a minimum civilian economy essential to mili- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

tary operations. Naturallj-, so negative an ap- 
proach to the civilian economy, inevitable as it 
was, could scarcely be expected to evoke any great 
gratitude on the part of individual civilians; and 
it is understandable that our economic relations 
were conducted in an atmosphere of less than com- 
plete harmony. The situation was probably ag- 
gravated by our insistence, on supply grounds, 
that the few goods we delivered to North Africa 
(which the French were paying for in cash) should 
be distributed under our supervision. I think it 
is only fair to say, however, that the French Gov- 
ernment in North Africa was not geared to deal 
adequately with the distribution of these sup- 
plies itself. Not only was it understaffed, but also, 
even within the limited staff, there was a great 
divergence of views, ranging from whole-hearted 
cooperation with the Allies to downright obstruc- 
tionism on the part of a few collaborationists. 

The net result was a considerable amount of con- 
fusion, some friction, and a rather uneven record 
in the full utilization of North Africa's limited 
resources in the war effort. Nevertheless, the 
major services essential to the Tunisian campaign 
and the preparations for the landings in Sicily, 
Italy, and metropolitan France were successfully 
mobilized and made available to the Allied mili- 
tary authorities. Operation of all the major ports 
was turned over entirely to American and British 
authorities, who operated them at such a high level 
of efficiency that they often exceeded by an almost 
incredible margin the pre-war rated unloading ca- 
pacity. The railroads, telephone facilities, and 
power plants, operated by the French themselves, 
were likewise placed under Allied military priori- 
ties, which absorbed from 50 to 70 percent of all 
traffic. Other major industries were also substan- 
tially converted to military use, including (at esti- 
mated percentages) the cement plants (90 per- 
cent), cable plants (80 percent), and oxygen and 
welding plants (75 percent). In addition, in- 
numerable small machine shops and almost all 
caragcs and warehouses were turned over for Al- 
lied military use. Furthermore, in all the major 
cities most of the hotels and larger stores and 
many of the big schools were requisitioned for bil- 
lets and headquarters. In short, almost all the 
public facilities in the major urban areas were 
taken over by our military forces and the local 
population was left to shift for itself in a restricted 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



525 



economy that scarcely surpassed the bare subsist- 
ence level. 

Nevertheless, the North African oiDeration must 
be called a success. As a vital link in our lines of 
communications, particularly for the Air Trans- 
port Command, and as a Mediterranean terminus 
for our sea lanes, North Africa more than lived 
up to expectations. Partly as a result of the 
sacrifices by the civilian population, our military 
forces were able to achieve a really outstanding 
record of efficiency in utilizing to the utmost North 
Africa's limited facilities. 

Metropolitan France After D Day 

There was one tremendous economic and psycho- 
logical difference between our landings in North 
Africa and our landings in France. France, un- 
like North Africa, had been occupied by enemy 
troops for many weary years. The people of 
France had thus been almost universally subjected 
to the hardships imposed by an army of occupa- 
tion, with transport and other utilities substan- 
tially restricted to military use, and food and shel- 
ter subject to enemy requisition. Thus the impact 
of the Allied landings was less of a shock to France 
than it had been to North Africa. Furthermore, 
unlike the situation in North Africa, the landings 
in France opened the last phase of the war, and 
early deliverance from a hated and omnipresent 
enemy was a reasonable hope. Had it not been, 
therefore, for the terrible destruction caused by the 
fighting, and the displacement of expected civilian 
imports by the necessities of war, there would prob- 
ably have been few major disappointments in our 
economic relations with France after D Day. 
The French understandingly and willingly went 
cold and hungi-y in the winter of 1944—45 in order 
that the war might be pressed quickly to a success- 
ful conclusion. They arranged without hesitation 
to provide the necessary port facilities, coal, 
transportation, public utilities, warehousing, quar- 
ters, and other immediate services which were 
available. They also undertook substantial pro- 
grams for the production of supplies for our 
troops — including tires, cotton duck, uniforms, 
gasoline "jerri-cans," and assault boats for the 
Ehine crossing. Generally speaking, the services 
the French placed at our disposal for military pur- 
poses were limited only by physical ability. 

Conversely, our engineers achieved outstanding 
performances in restoring damaged port, rail, and 



communication facilities. The fact that these 
services were largely for military purposes, even 
though it be borne in mind that they were neces- 
sarily only a partial restoration in the face of 
tremendous and wide-spread devastation, does not 
detract from the fact that they were of substantial 
economic benefit to the French. 

In general it can be said that on the one hand 
the French did what they could to devote their 
civilian economy to the war, and our military 
forces for their part did their utmost to restore 
damaged facilities for the combined use of the 
military and the civilian population. The chief 
difficulty from the beginning lay in shipping, 
which was totally inadequate to carry on both 
the European and the Pacific wars and still 
leave enough to provide for the liberated popula- 
tions of western Europe. Port facilities and in- 
land transport, badly damaged in the course of 
the invasions, were another major handicap. De- 
spite our hopes for the prompt provisioning of 
liberated areas, the military found it possible to 
deliver to France during the entire year from 
D Day to May 31, 1945 only about 400,000 tons of 
food, clothing, medical supiDlies, and other civilian 
consumers' goods. Coal and petroleum accounted 
for another million tons of military imports for 
civilian use, but conversely the military consumed 
over a million tons of coal above what they could 
import. Any imports, of course, were of some 
help to the French economy; but the military au- 
thorities were unable to bring in more than a mere 
trickle of civilian goods through 1944, and they 
averaged only about 35,000 tons a month over the 
entire period of military supply — less than even 
North Africa had received and a minute fraction of 
what France normally imported before the war. 

These military imports of civilian goods were, 
however, supplemented in 1945 by an increasing 
amount of purely civilian shipments. Ranging 
from 5 ships in January to 40 in June, an average 
of 20 ships a month was achieved for the 6 
months — equivalent to approximately 150,000 tons 
a month, or nearly 1,000,000 tons for the first half 
year. Most of this tonnage, worth about $150,- 
000,000, went out under lend-lease. 

Civilian imports into France were fast improv- 
ing when the end of the Japanese war and the ter- 
mination of lend-lease raised the difficult problem 
of financing additional shipments. The lend-lease 
program, based on the war's lasting well into 1946, 



526 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



called for imports worth approximately $2,500,- 
000,000. At the termination of lend-lease about 
$150,000,000 worth of civilian goods had been 
shipped (and was thus straight lend-lease goods), 
and more than $250,000,000 had been contracted 
for and could thus go under the long-term credit 
of the 3 (c) clause of the lend-lease agi-eements. 
Of the balance, about $450,000,000, although in req- 
uisition form, was not eligible for existing credit 
under the lend-lease agreement, and about $1,700,- 
000,000 (which was already being scaled down to 
a 1945 delivery program), had not even been req- 
uisitioned. The French were thus faced with the 
problem of arranging emergency financing to 
maintain the flow of vitally needed goods. 

Our Future Relations With France 

The present financial position of France is not 
an uncommon one in business experience. Even 
the soundest of companies may lose most of its 
physical plant in a fire or other catastrophe and 
suddenly find itself in the position of having to 
meet its payroll, rebuild its plant, and set aside 
some working capital all at the same time. Even 
though the company has been foresighted enough 
to acciunulate a small surplus, the available funds 
may not be sufficient for all these emergency needs. 
The company therefore seeks a loan to tide it over 
the crisis. If someone with capital has confidence 
in the company's ability to recover its earning 
power, it will get the loan. 

There can be no doubt that the gold and foreign- 
exchange position of France has suffered less as 
a result of the war than has that of Great Britain, 
for instance. On the other hand, France entered 
the war with a comparatively weak economic posi- 
tion and has ended it with an even weaker one. 
It is difficult to estimate the loss of wealth suffered 
by France in the war, and it would be even more 
difficult to find an equitable basis on which to com- 
pare her loss with that of other nations. It is cer- 
tain, however, that her present economic position 
is extremely weak, that she is badly in need of sub- 
stantial dollar imports, and that, although she can 
spend some of her gold and foreign exchange, she 
cannot hope to make a start at national recovery 
without some help. 

The tremendous economic importance of France 
to us and to the stability of the world's economy 
cannot be measured by the mere value of her pre- 
war imports and exports. Metropolitan France 



imported from us only about $150,000,000 worth 
of goods a year before the war and exported about 
$50,000,000. The trade of other French territories 
was on an even smaller scale. North Africa, for 
example, importing in pre-war years about 
$8,000,000 worth and exporting around $6,000,000. 

Due to the enormous demands of France for re- 
habilitation of her industry, however, our exports 
over the next few years will undoubtedly exceed by 
many times the pre-war level. Since any loans 
granted by our Government will be used to pay 
American firms for these exports, these loans will 
obviously be helpful in providing an outlet for 
the hugh productive capacity built up in the 
United States during the war. This Govern- 
ment financing of our exports cannot, however, 
go on indefinitely. It is essentially an emergency 
measure based on the assumption that the ultimate 
earning power of France will be restored to a 
point where she can not only repay the loan but 
also pay for the lesser but still substantial scale of 
imports which she will need after her emergency 
rehabilitation needs have been met. France is just 
as interested as we that any loan negotiated should 
be well within her ultimate ability to repay. 

How long it will take France to reach and sur- 
pass her pre-war productive capacity' depends on 
so many complex factors that it is idle to guess. 
Given prosperity here, however, there would seem 
to be no limit to our capacity to absorb luxury 
goods, which are France's export specialty. It is 
certainly safe to predict that, if the proposed inter- 
national economic programs are successfully 
launched, France, along with other nations, will be 
able to inci'ease her exports very substantially over 
pre-war quantities. Moreover, the return of her 
normal tourist trade, possibly greatly increased 
through post-war travel, would provide an impor- 
tant dollar income. If France can adjust her econ- 
omy to the demands of modern competition, her 
financial future need not be dark. 

In her efforts to regain economic health, one of 
the important questions which France must de- 
cide is whether she should endeavor to maintain a 
large army. It takes no exhaustive study to un- 
derstand why France, invaded time and again 
across her eastern border and supported by her 
Allies invariably too late to protect her from in- 
vasion, has good historical reasons for feeling that 
she needs an unusually big army. Tliis feeling is 
no doubt enhanced by the obvious desire of the 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



527 



United States to maintain minimum occupation 
forces in Germany no longer than necessary. On 
the other hand, the Frencli press has recently 
brought to light a substantial difference of opinion 
on whether, in view of her present position vis-a- 
vis tlie vast military strength of some of her sister 
nations, France would be well advised to sacrifice 
further her civilian economy in order to build up 
a great army. 

Essentially, the leadership that France can still 
best provide is political, scientific, and cultural. 
Our own close ties with France have always been 
based on these intellectual attributes rather than 
on her military or economic strength. Ideolog- 
ically, the democracy of France has been especially 
close to ours in both form and substance. Scien- 
tifically, she has given the world new concepts 
which, frequently carried to practical success in 
our own laboratories, have revolutionized our way 
of living. Culturally, she enjoys in the aggregate 
of her music, art, philosophy, and literature per- 
haps a more loved and respected position than 
that of any other nation. 

These are the things for which France stands, 
today as always, and these are the things on which 
she may again concentrate her efforts, for her bene- 
fit and the benefit of the world. A sound economy 
for France, in which these qualities can flourish, 
deserves our hopes and our thoughtful support. 



Consideration of Emergency 
Controls on Coffee 

[Released to the press October 1] 

On October 1, in a letter from Acting Secretary 
of State Dean Acheson to Eurico Penteado, 
Chairman of the Pan-American Coffee Bureau, 
the State Department indicated the channels 
through which questions of international concern 
relating to coffee would be considered by this 
Government. 

A number of communications urging elimina- 
tion, suspension, or modification of the coffee 
price ceilings now in effect have recently been ad- 
dressed to the President, the Secretary of State, 
the Price Administrator, the Secretaries of Agri- 
culture and Commerce, and the Director of War 
Mobilization and Reconversion from the Fourth 



Pan-American Coffee Conference recently held in 
Mexico City. 

Replying, in behalf of the other government au- 
thorities as well, Mr. Acheson made it quite clear 
that the State Department felt it proper that the 
question of ceiling prices, like other international 
matters concerning coffee, should be considered 
by the United States Government through the 
Inter- American Coffee Board or directly with the 
countries signatory to the Inter-American Cof- 
fee Agreement. The text of Mr. Acheson's letter 
follows : 

My Dear Mr. Penteado : 

This is in reply to the telegrams dated Septem- 
ber 11 received from the Chairman of the Fourth 
Pan American Coffee Conference and submitting 
for consideration to the Office of Price Administra- 
tion, this Department and various other agencies 
of the United States Government a resolution re- 
garding emergency controls on coffee adopted by 
the delegates to the Fourth Pan American Coffee 
Conference recently held in Mexico City under 
the auspices of the Pan American Coffee Bureau. 
Tlie telegram of September 13 on the same subject 
addressed to the President by the Chairman of 
the Conference has been referred to the Depart- 
ment of State for reply and is also hereby ac- 
knowledged. 

As you know, the Inter- American Coffee Board 
was duly constituted by inter-governmental action 
to centralize consideration of coffee matters of 
interest to the countries signatory to the Inter- 
American Coffee Agreement. On this Board, the 
Governments of the producing countries and the 
United States have representation. This Depart- 
ment feels it is proper for the United States Gov- 
ernment to consider matters relating to emergency 
controls on coffee through the good offices of the 
Inter-American Coffee Board and, if necessary, 
directly with the governments signatory to the 
Agreement. You are assured that through these 
channels the coffee situation will continue to be 
explored with the greatest possible sympathy and 
attention. 

I understand that the Board has asked its 
United States member to discuss the coffee situa- 
tion with this Department. 
Sincerely yours, 

Dean Achesokt 
Acting Secretary 



\ 



528 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Project 

MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS^ 



[Released to the press by the White House October 3] 

To the Congress of the United States: 

As a part of our program of international coop- 
eration, expanding foreign trade, and domestic 
progress in commerce and industry, I recommend 
the speedy approval by the Congress of the agree- 
ment of March 19, 1941 between the United States 
and Canada for the development of the Great 
Lakes - St. Lawrence Basin. When approved, the 
two countries will be able to harness for the public 
benefit one of the greatest natural resources of 
North America, opening the Great Lakes to ocean 
navigation and creating 2,200,000 horsepower of 
hydroelectric capacity to be divided equally be- 
tween the people of the United States and Canada. 

The development, utilization, and conservation 
of our natural resources are among those fields of 
endeavor where the Government's responsibility 
has been well recognized for many generations. 

During the war we were forced to suspend many 
of the projects designed to harness the waters of 
our great rivers for the promotion of commerce 
and industry and for the production of cheap elec- 
tric power. We must now resume these projects 
and embark upon others. 

The Congress and the people of our country can 
take just pride and satisfaction in the foresight 
they showed by developing the Tennessee and 
Columbia Rivers and the rivei's in the Central 
"Valley of California. Without the power from 
these rivers the goal of 50,000 airplanes a year — 
considered fantastic only five short years ago, but 
actually surpassed twice over — would have been 
impossible. Nor could we have developed the 
atomic bomb as early as we did without the large 
blocks of power we used from the Tennessee and 
Columbia Rivers. 

The timely development of these rivers short- 
ened the war by many years and saved countless 
American lives. We must ever be grateful for 
the vision of the late President Franklin D. Roose- 
velt and the wisdom of the Congress in urging and 
approving the harnessing of these priceless natural 
resoui'ces. 



One of the great constructive projects of the 
North American continent, in fact, one of the great 
projects of the world, which was delayed by the 
exigencies of war, is the St. Lawrence Seaway and 
Power Project. 

For 50 years the United States and Canada un- 
der botli Republican and Democratic administra- 
tions, under Liberal and Conservative govern- 
ments, have envisioned the development of the 
project together, as a joint enterprise. 

Upon the expectation that we would join with 
them in completing tliis great engineering project, 
Canada has already built more than half its share 
of the undertaking. 

We. however, still have our major contribution 
to make. 

Every engineering investigation during the past 
50 years, every economic study in the past 25 
years has found the project feasible and economi- 
cally desirable. The case has been proved; the 
plans are ready. 

The St. Lawrence Seaway will make it possible 
to utilize our war-expanded factories and shipping 
facilities in the development of international eco- 
nomic cooperation and enlarging world commerce. 
New and increasing opportunities for production 
and employment by private enterprise can be ex- 
pected from this cheap water transportation. 

It is the kind of useful construction which will 
furnish lucrative employment to many thousands 
of our people. 

The completion of the Seaway will bring many 
benefits to our great neighbor and Ally on the 
north. The experience of two wars and of many 
years of peace has shown beyond question that the 
prosperity and defense of Canada and of the 
United States are closely linked together. 

By development of our natural water-power re- 
sources, we can look forward with certainty to 
greater use of electricity in the home, in the fac- 



' Read before the Senate and the House of Representa- 
tives on Oct. 3, 1945. 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



529 



tory, and on the farm. The national average an- 
nual consumption of electricity by domestic con- 
sumers has almost doubled in the past 10 years. 
Even with that increase, the national average is 
only 65 percent as high as in the Tennessee Valley, 
where electric rates are lower. Increase in the 
consumption of electricity will mean more com- 
forts on the farms and in city homes. It will mean 
more jobs, more income, and a higher standard of 
living. We are only on the threshold of an era 
of electrified homes and mechanical aids to better 
living. We can encourage this trend by using the 
bounty of nature in the water power of our rivers. 

If we develop the water power of the St. Law- 
rence River, the United States share of that jDower 
will be available for distribution within a radius 
of 300 miles. This will include most of New York 
State and its neighbor States to the east. Public 
and private agencies will be able to pass on to the 
consumers in that area all the advantages of this 
cheap power. 

Under the leadership of Governor and later 
President Roosevelt, the State of New York 
created the framework of a state power program. 
I have always been, and still am, in favor of that 
program. 

Under it, the power facilities are to be con- 
structed by the Federal Government and turned 



over by it to the State of New York. The terms 
of allocation of costs to the State of New York 
have been agreed upon in a memorandum of agree- 
ment dated February 7, 1033, recommended for 
execution by the United States Army Corps of 
Engineers and the Power Authority of the State 
of New York. This basis of allocation is fair and 
acceptable. 

It has always been ilnderstood by the responsible 
proponents of this development that the water- 
power project should become the property of the 
State of New York, and that the electric power 
should be developed and handled by the State. 
That should continue to be the policy, and I recom- 
mend that it be so declared by the Congress. 

Any agreement with the State of New York to 
this end must protect the interests of the United 
States as well as the intei-ests of neighboring 
states, and will, of course, have to be submitted 
for approval by the Congress before it can become 
effective. 

I urge upon the Congress speedy enactment of 
legislation to accomplish these objectives so that 
work may start on this great undertaking at the 
earliest possible time. 

Harry S. Truman 
The White House 
October S, 1945 



STATEMENT BY ACTING SECRETARY ACHESON 



[Released to the press October 4] 

The Department of State welcomes the intro- 
duction of legislation to approve the agreement 
with Canada covering the St. Lawrence Seaway 
and Power Project. The Department is now, and 
always has been, strongly in favor of the approval 
of this agreement. While the project will be of 
great immediate benefit to the Great Lakes - St. 
Lawrence area, we are convinced that it will bring 
long-range benefits to the country as a whole. 

The St. Lawrence Seaway will give the great 
and productive midlands of this continent direct 
access to the sealanes of the world. The rapids of 
the St. Lawrence have always constituted a na- 
tural barrier to our foreign trade. At a time when 
we are making every effort to clear the channels 
of world commerce as a step toward world peace, 
we should remove this natural barrier. So also 



we should take advantage of this great natural 
resource by harnessing the International Rapids 
of the St. Lawrence River for power purposes. 

For well over a century the United States and 
Canada have worked together in peace and part- 
nership. One of the few pending matters between 
the two countries is the approval of the 1941 
agreement with Canada providing for the con- 
struction of the St. Lawrence Seaway and Power 
Project. Canada has already expended substan- 
tial sums in constructing works related to this 
project. The approval of the agreement and the 
completion of the project will strengthen our tra- 
ditionally friendly ties with Canada. It will con- 
siderably broaden the basis for mutually profit- 
able trade between ourselves and our good 
neighbor. 



668925—45- 



530 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Displaced Populations in Japan 
at the End of the War 



BY JANE PERRY CLARK CAREY 



EVEN BEFORE THE FINAL ENTRY of the Ameri- 
can forces into Japan, word was sent to 
General MacArthiir by the Japanese Gov- 
ernment that Koreans anxious to get back 
to Korea from Japan were pouring in great num- 
bers into Shimonoseki, located on the island of 
Honshu, and its vicinity, only 120 miles across 
from Korea, while Fusan in Korea was crowded 
with home-bound Japanese, including women and 
children. Both places were "faced by scarcity of 
food and difficulty in the maintenance of law and 
order." In these circumstances, the Japanese Gov- 
ernment requested permission to operate two un- 
armed vessels as ferries between Fusan and Ha- 
kata. General MacAi'thur granted the request 
immediately. 

This was the first time any word of displaced 
persons had come through officially during the 
years of war with Japan. During the war tlirough 
various means — chiefly through broadcasts' — 
knowledge had seeped through about the displaced 
in both Japan and the Japanese Empire.^ 

The total number of uprooted and displaced 
people in Japan today, including all nationalities, 
probably runs over 12 million. Included in this 
number are probably some 2 million Korean labor- 
ers and their families, an unknown number of 
Chinese workers, some 38 thousand Formosan- 
Chinese laborers, and perhaps many displaced 
Japanese nationals returning from Formosa, 
China, Manchuria, and the Japanese Mandated 
Islands before the end of the war. 

In Germany one of the most important cate- 
gories of displaced population was that of forced 
labor. By contrast, Japan, for all its manpower 
shortage, never imported quite such large armies 
of men, largely because of bottlenecks in transpor- 
tation and food production. Japan repeatedly an- 
nounced the decentralization of its industry and 



the removal of factories to Manchuria, although 
some were sent to China where manpower and ma- 
terials were used at their sources. Repoi-ts came 
through in the spring of 1945 that a number of 
Japanese were being sent outside the country from 
their homes in bombed Japanese areas, going par- 
ticularly to Manchuria, to be used in food and 
industrial production. The number of these was 
not great, due largely to lack of transportation 
facilities. 

The Koreans form the largest group among the 
foreign displaced in Japan. Higher living stand- 
ards in. Japan than Korea have always brought 
about some regular immigration of Koreans into 
Japan, but Japanese manpower needs in the war 
caused greatly increased immigration of Korean 
labor and simultaneously curtailed the return of 
Korean laborers from Japan to Korea. Oppor- 
tunities for employment overcame the traditional 
dislike of the Koreans for the Japanese and made 
many cross the straits by small boat to enter Japan 
surreptitiously. As the war progressed the ever- 
growing need for labor in Japan prompted the 
importation of Koreans by force, and they have 
been imported at the rate of about 10,000 a month. 
By September 1944 a Japanese broadcast stated 
there were one million several hundred thousand 
Koreans in Japan, but only three months later 
another broadcast gave the number as three million. 

A statement of the Welfare Ministry to the 
Diet on September 5, 1945, indicated that the 



' Mrs. Carey is Assistant Adviser on Displaced Popula- 
tions in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Economic 
Affairs, Department of State. 

' The Daily Reports of the Foreign Broadcast Intelli- 
gence Service, Federal Communications Commission, have 
been source material for quotations from and references 
to radio broadcasts. 

'The present article discusses only the displaced in 
Japan proper, not the Empire. 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



531 



number of workers imported en masse from Korea 
■was 323,890. This nimaber presumably refers to 
forced laborers taken in large groups to factories 
and mines during the course of the war and does 
not include the large numbers of Koreans who 
entered Japan before the war or those coming in- 
dividually or in small groups. A Domei broad- 
cast the same day gave the total number of Koreans 
in Japan as 2,400,000, and the next day gave the 
number as 2,100,000 and stated that over 300,000 
of these had been drafted into war industries. The 
same broadcast told of the fact that Korean la- 
borers desiring repatriation to Korea would be 
given priority on the ferries for the return trip to 
Korea but that, owing to the scarcity of transpor- 
tation, only 30,000 persons would be transported 
each month. Actually, 4,000 persons were report- 
edly sent daily during the first week of operation. 
By September 13 four more ships were added to 
the run, primarily because of the rush of Japanese 
women and children back to Japan from Korea 
and Manchuria. 

The Koreans in Japan have been primarily la- 
borers, chiefly in the mines; thus the war has in- 
creased the number of miners greatly. In July 
1942 German sources said that 18.4 percent of all 
laborers in the mines were Koreans, but two years 
later a Japanese bi'oadcast indicated that 200,000 
or 30 percent of all coal miners were Koreans. By 
1945, according to Chinese sources, Korean men 
under 20 and over 30 were being sent as forced la- 
borers to mines and factories in Japan. The mines 
were reported to have been surrounded by barb- 
wire entanglements and machine guns mounted on 
all entrances to prevent an uprising or flight from 
work. In 1944 more than 10,000 Koreans were re- 
ported to have been sent as forced agricultural la- 
borers to Japanese rural villages. Gradually 
some of the Koreans in Japan have been trained in 
semi-skilled work in factories, particularly in the 
machine, chemical, and fiber industries. 

Many of the Korean laborers went to Japan on 
one- or two-year contracts but manpower short- 
ages caused the Japanese Government to try to 
keep the Koreans in Japan by extension of con- 
tracts. Despite the fact that the Koreans were 
not well treated in the past and occupied virtually 
the lowest economic status of the whole popula- 
tion, recently efforts have been made to mollify 
this group. The Peoples' Labor Conscription Or- 
dinance of February 8, 1944 conscripted Koreans 



and allowed them to take their families with them 
to Japan. By the latter part of 1944 Japan prom- 
ised complete non-discrimination for the Koreans 
in education and work, just as the Germans in 
the latter part of the war attempted to pacify the 
forced laborers from Poland and the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics by promising removal 
of discrimination. Just as the Germans gave 
medals and other tokens of recognition to their 
forced laborers, so the Japanese began to offer 
gold medals and allowances to Korean workers. 

The Koreans are scattered throughout Japan, 
but they have been concentrated in the cities, 
particularly Osaka, Kyoto, Fukuoka, and Tokyo. 
The more recently transplanted workers were sent 
to the same cities, and to Hiroshima, Hokuriku, 
and Tohoku areas, and in general were distributed 
throughout the Shikoku and Kyushu Islands and 
Hokkaido. 

There have been separate Korean districts in 
Japanese cities — usually the poorest sections of 
the cities. There has been almost no intermar- 
riage or assimilation with the Japanese, and few 
Koreans speak Japanese. 

Despite the propaganda attempts of the Japa- 
nese, the Formosan-Chinese, like the Koreans, 
were anti-Japanese in feeling and sentiment. 
There were only some 10,000 Formosan-Chinese in 
Japan in 1940, and four years later perhaps as 
many as 40,000 were taken north from Formosa to 
work in Japanese war industries and mines. 
Many of these may be regarded as forced laborers. 

Even before the Meiji restoration and the official 
opening of Japan to foreign commerce, Chinese 
had been allowed to enter Japan from China. By 
1930 there were possibly some 27,000 Chinese in 
Japan, including merchants and students but pri- 
marily laborers. Hostilities between China and 
Japan meant the return to China of many Chinese 
who had formerly lived in Japan, so that by 1942, 
according to Chinese sources, there were only some 
15,000 left in Japan. 

On April 4, 1942 the Deutsche Bergwerhs 
Zeitung reported that Chinese workers were being 
sent for employment in Japanese war industry 
and that these workers were also being transferred 
from Shanghai to industrial areas of North China. 
Another report in 1943 indicated that more than 
100,000 Chinese had been impressed by the Japa- 
nese for use on farms to work in groups of two 
or three and that some of these had gone to Japan 



\ 



532 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



although Japanese sources the following year in- 
dicated that there were 225,000 Chinese laborers in 
Japan. In March of that year it was reported 
that 10,000 able-bodied young Chinese were being 
gathered in Lienyun Harbor in Kiangsu Province 
ready to be sent to Japan as laborers. 

A Japanese broadcast announced in February 
1944 that the "experiment" conducted in 1943 with 
Chinese laborers had had "satisfactory results" so 
plans were announced at that time to import "a 
large number" in the future. 

The number of Chinese in Japan at the time 
of surrender was a riddle, but it is probable that 
100,000 is an exaggeration since manpower needs 
of the Japanese in China and Manchuria were so 
great and transportation so difficult that perhaps 
only a part of this number, including both labor- 
ers in war industries and students, were actually 
in Japan. 

The Domei broadcast of September 5 said that 
34,000 Chinese had been imported en masse from 
China. Presumably these were forced laborers 
like the Koreans and were the numbers imported 
for war industries. 

Aside from the large numbers of Koreans and 
Formosan-Chinese and the Chinese, few foreign 
groups were left in Japan at the time the great 
bombings began. Tliere were 2,459 persons from 
Manchuria, either workers or students, who were 
part of the large number of students sent to Japan 
from "Greater East Asia" for indoctrination in 
Japanese ways and thinking. 

By September 1944 a question had arisen in 
the Diet regarding what to do with foreign stu- 
dents in Japan because the schools were closed 
due to the year-round mobilization of students. 
A report in March 1945 stated that, within the 
next month, measures would be taken to accom- 
modate all "overseas students who have been idle 
during the past year owing to the temporary clos- 
ing down of some of the higher institutions of 
learning to allow Japanese students to serve in 
factories and farms." It was also reported that 
several colleges and universities would remain 
open for the G. E. A. students, numbering sev- 
eral hundred, of which the largest number were 
Chinese from Manchuria. Students from the 
southern countries, almost all of whom attended 
Kokusai Gakuyu Kai, were to enter universities 
in the southern part of Japan, ostensibly because 
of the warmer climate, while those from Manchu- 



ria and China "being accustomed to cold winters" 
were to study in the central or northern districts. 

There have been some 975 Indians in Japan, in- 
cluding both students and revolutionaries. Japan 
had long been a seat of anti-British Indian activ- 
ity. There have been some 1,300 of the great group 
of White Russians found in every country after 
the Russian Revolution. A few neutrals, largely 
diplomatic or businessmen, included about 250 
Swiss and Portuguese each and somewhat more 
than 100 Spaniards. The small German colony had 
been increased in 1941 by the evacuation to Japan 
of German women and children from the Nether- 
lands East Indies and was probably still further 
increased by later evacuation of Germans from the 
Pliilippines which may bring the number of Ger- 
mans to 2,000. 

As of the spring of 1945, some 30,000 to 40,000 
prisoners of war and 500 to 600 civilian internees 
were located in Japan itself, including 7,000 Amer- 
ican prisoners of war, 5,000 Netherlands, 5,000 
to 8,000 Australians, 1,000 Canadians from Hong 
Kong, and 14,000 British. The American and 
British civilians were generally held in camps or 
prisons, though some were allowed to go free or 
were interned at home. The civilians included ap- 
proximately 200 American technicians from Guam. 

Increased bombing of Japan, with its small area 
and heavy industrial concentration, led to vast 
internal displacement of the Japanese population. 
Internal displacement occurs when persons flee 
as war fugitives or when people have been moved 
within their own countries because of evacuation 
from bombed areas or zones of military opera- 
tions or because of movement of war industries 
with a consequent need of manpower in the new 
location. 

In Japan the shortage of food also led to re- 
location of bombed-out persons in accordance 
with their possible usefulness in food production. 
In Germany more than 20 million people were re- 
ported to have been made homeless or forced into 
temporary shelters away from home by the steady 
pressure of bombing, and in Japan probably half 
that number were displaced within a smaller 
area. According to a Tokyo broadcast of Au- 
gust 23, 1945 some 9,200,000 persons in Japan 
were left homeless or were made war fugitives by 
Allied air blows on the Japanese home islands. 
Two hundred sixty thousand had been killed 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



JAPAN 



533 



DISTRICTS OF 
HONSHU AND SHIKOKU 




(T6ky6 - V0K0M6MA) 



AOapied from Tre»arfha 

The bounaones of tf<e d'Sffc's 
are ve'y mdefinile 



1 Hokkaido 

2 Aomon-ken 

3 Iwate-ken 

4 Miyagr-ken 

5 Akita-ken 

6 Yamagata-ken 

7 Fukushima-ken 
6 Ibaraki-ken 
9 Tochigi-ken 

10 Gumma-ken 
I I Saitama-ken 

12 Chiba-ken 

13 Tokyo- fu 
1 A Kanaqawa-ken 
15 Niigata-ken 
1 6 Toyama-ken 
1 7 Ishikawa-ken 

18 Fukui-ken 

19 Yamanashi-ken 

20 Nagano-ken 

21 Gifu-ken 

22 Shizuoka-ken 

23 Aichi-ken 

24 Mie-ken 

prefectures occoramg to 1940 Census 



25 Shiga-ken 

26 Kyoto-fu 

27 Osaka- (u 

28 Hyogo-ken 

29 Nara-ken 

30 Wakayama-ken 

31 TotiO"-ken 

32 Shimane-ken 

33 Okayama-ken 

34 Hifoshima-ken 

35 Yamaguchi-ken 

36 Tokushima-ken 

37 Kagawa-ken 

38 Ehinne-ken 

39 K6chi-ken 

40 Fukuoka-ken 
4 1 Saga-ken 

42 Nagasaki-ken 

43 Kumamoio-ken 

44 Oiia-ken 

45 Miyazaki-ken 

46 Kaqoshima-ken 

47 Okinawa-ken 





and 412,000 injured. These figures include 90,000 
killed and 180,000 wounded by the two atomic 
bombs. 

The chief island to be affected was Honshu, 
with the Prefectures of Akita and Yamagata in the 
far north, Ishikawa, Tottori, and Shimane on the 
coast of the Sea of Japan, and Kyoto, Nara, Shiga, 
and Nagano in middle Honshu. The northern 



island of Hokkaido received little bombing except 
for the ports of Hakodate and Muroran. 

An industrial decentralization program had 
been under way in Japan since 1938. Under an 
order of October 16, 1939 the Ministry of War was 
given autliority to determine the number and loca- 
tion of new factories and could refuse to permit 
further construction in what were then deemed 



534 

potential target areas. Even by May 1945 Domei 
declared that factory decentralization comprised 
tlie largest part of the depopulation of cities. 

During all of the period of heavy bombing before 
the end of the war, plans for evacuation and dis- 
persal of the population poured over the Japanese 
radio m such a steady stream that it became im- 
possible to tell what was plan and what was ac- 
complishment. The evacuation movement actually 
got under way slowly, because the family system of 
Japan necessarily caused resistance to tlie breaking 
up of family units and the uprooting of long-estab*^ 
hshed homes. On the other hand, the fact that 
many Japanese city-dwellers had relatives in the 
country meant that ready means of absorption of 
the displaced was at hand. In all plans for evacua- 
tion persons displaced from the cities were to go to 
their relatives in the country if possible and only if 
there were no relatives in rural areas were groups 
to be evacuated and kept together. On March 15 
1945 a Domei report stated that the Government at 
one time considered the possibilitv of a compulsory 
allocation of refugee areas and housing for evac- 
uees from air raids but, because some of the vic- 
tims "went to stay with relatives and some with 
friends'", the result was that "the majority of them 
have been relocated as if they had been sWallowed 
up m the great current of friendly spirit and the 
traditional family system." Therefore, the broad- 
cast continued, there was practically no necessity 
tor a compulsory allocation of dwellings. 

A further aspect of Japanese life Effected the 
plans for dispersal. The light construction of 
many houses meant that frequently houses if not 
factories were moved along with the people 
Nevertheless housing shortages were serious 
throughout the country. The Tokyo broadcast of 
August 23, 1945, in telling of the 9,200,000 persons 
left homeless as a result of bombing, also indicated 
that 2,210,000 homes in Japan were demolished or 
burned and 90,000 others damaged. 

From the summer of 1944 on, strenuous at- 
tempts were made to persuade parents to allow 
children from the third to tenth grades to be re- 
moved from cities where particular bombing dan- 
ger existed and be sent to relatives in the country 
if possible. If no such relatives could be found, 
school groups were to be sent together. These 
latter were to be housed in large private homes 
hotels, and old temples. The teachers were to go' 
too, to live with the children and carry on their 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

teaching. The Japanese family system, togethei 
with ransportation problems, caused partlcula 
difficulties with children slated for group evacua 
tion. Nevertheless, the bombing situation finally 
became so serious and so many children were sent 
away from Tokyo that, when the Americans en- 
tered the city in August, they noticed the almost 
complete dearth of children. 

All schools in the comitry were finally closed 
entirely in the fall of 1944, and all available chil- 
dren old enough to be of any possible use were 
put to work in agricultural and industrial pro- 
duction. After the end of the war, the Japanese 
I^ducation Ministry ordered the reopening of all 
schools and colleges by September 15, 1945 This 
order, according to Domei, "will return to school 
nearly 10,000,000 Japanese boys and girls mo- 
bilized for war service", though later Japanese 
hgures indicated that there were 1,927 370 mo- 
bilized students including those engaged in agri- 
culture and forestry. The discrepancy is possfbly 
due to the inclusion in the first large fi<Ture of 
part-time students and very young childreli 

In Germany children under 12, nursing mothers 
women over 60, some men over 65 vears of age, and 
those unfit for military service were moved from 
the danger zone east of the Oder River in the face 
of the Soviet advance; in Japan not only chil- 
dren but also expectant motliers and old people 
were part of the plan for those first to be sent 
away from Japanese cities in danger of bombin<^ 
During the fall and winter of 1944-45 attempt 
were made to get the movement started, but up 
to mid-March of 1945 evacuation of pregnant 
women, of women with small children, and of the 
elderly proceeded very slowly. The incendiary 
bombings of that period tightened the resolve of 
the Cabinet to go full steam ahead with its plan^^ 
and to insist that only persons essential to the wa-- 
were to remain in such cities as were apt to be 
heavily bombed. Persons essential to the war in- 
cluded persons connected with the production of 
munitions and food, doctors, employees of public 
utilities and banks. Even the wives and children 
of these men were to be evacuated. Tokyo mothers 
with small children were to be sent to Niigata 
Prefecture if they had no country relatives to 
care for them. Each group of 50 expectant 
mothers was to have midwives. baby specialists, 
dietitians, and washerwomen assigned to it. The 
homes of what were called "evacuation widowers" 



7,JMS 



^^lunilies hn'l l"'''" -''''' "" •'"" """>"> ■^^''''i' 
■-"W^ u^ gftcr liy till' Nri;:!il)<'rlii)<Ml A-mkiii- 



W-'- 



ly as Febniiny I'M 1 jilaiw wfiv un.lor 
iride-spreatl .>v:uu:iti..ii of tlu> population 
.Swrtain areas espiTi-.illy apt to Ik- boml.wl— 
S;,Tokohama. O^nka. KoIk^. Xa;;oya, nn.l 
JSxitthe faU of tliut y.-ar arrived befon- nrnrh 
jLerocuation actually- took plare. un.l it uas 
*j^;fore May 5. lOt-"' ll>:'t cvaniatiou ariually 
■JLtobeeffectivp. It "a^ d.rul.'d tliat hv Juno 
J^lefrom the Tokyo. Yokohium (K.'ihin) 
^wwetobesent to Hokkaido. To1io!;h. Kauto. 
I^ainetsu; persons from the O-aka-Kohi- an-a 
«» to be sent to the KinkiChujoku and Tokai- 
finriku areas e;-pfrially for farm woi k. TIiom- 
table to do heavy farm labor, .-pirially wonn'n, 
•ntobe put iii cluirtrf of co-ikinL'. 'hdd i-un-. 
afserving. 

-Jskrohad spe<:ial plan-- for eva. uati..ii. 1- rom 
fcdi'l944 plan? were undor way to rvacuate at 
laiS million Tokyo n-idrnt-;. !ir-t to outlyin? 
iticts and especially to farmint: villaL'e-; where 
#1^ could work at the niou:itiii;r probK-m of f<K>d 
lOHng. By fall a Dit-t ii.terptdlation indi<-ated 
tttorer a million persons hail left the riiy out of 
ipopuiation of Ci.oOO.Ooi'. and by Manli of l'.>}5 
fatier Diet statements i;av<' the jiopulati' n of the 
«ty as less than 4 million thoiii:h it i- doiilnfid 
tiether it was possible to hav.' arraii;:'-! for the 
•■OTal of so many by th it time. Ni'v.itheless 
tnsreported that so many people had hft Tokyo 
if tie early part of January i:t!"i tliat rooms and 
ktBts were reportedly bcincr cflerrd rent free, 
iot house owners had offered a monthly -tipcnd 
*«isy person who would live on their property. 
• ifter the end of the war. Domei reported that 
.*May 31, after the largest -scale air raid on 
'iyo, there were 2.100.00O people left in the city. 
^ these about 10 percent, or 204.000, were re- 
>*'Wto live in provisional shack- in ilevastated 
**• Although approximately ''ii percent of the 
^'•■^r Tokyo population had left tlie-'ity. hou-es 
^^» Said to have decreased by mote tiiun 70 per- 
'^ * rom January on, th" Ciovi-rnment had dc- 
"■W tiiat vacant house> were to be oceui)ied by 
"I* ^hose houses had been (h nsoli.-hed by air 
I f^ Houses tliat m:L'ht pidve ditlieult to care 
\ lHu^^^ disniantl.d and m.*ved. Yamagata 
I :^^^e, in the mountains north of Tokyo, was 
i .-*'*"' l^ an influx of refugees from Tokyo. The 



535 



situation beeame so seriou-^ that prefeetural jjov- 
irnment authoiities had to make the arranjzemeiits 
fo)- rent in;: houses. 

The Tokyo municipality arranjzed to aid air- 
raid victims who had mo place to fxo by providing 
living accommodations and employment in the 
Pri'feeliin's of .Vkita, YamuL'ata. and Kukushima. 
For a period after air raids transportation was 
provided free. 

Hv the >pi mir of 104") fear of bombing and of 
po--ib!e invasion had become so gnat (hat people 
began to (li-e from iheir homes in a haphazard and 
iinplanneil w:iy. and. according to a Domei liroad- 
ei-t of Mav 7. 1!'J.">. even people in -mall town- liad 
lar.ght the evaluation >eare. It wns >tated in the 
Diet that Yokohama hacj had ■•g;atif\ iiig ro-ults" 
in rherking the flight of jii'ople who were in es- 
M'liti;'.! oecupatious and >o required to ri'iiiain at 
h(.me. I'y June it wa:? announced o\er il>e radio 
that per-on- would not be evacuated from the 
coai^^ or from medium- and -mall-^ized communi- 
ties e.xeept under certain circum-tance^ an i must 
-tay where they wt-re. doubtle^b be-au-e there was 
nowhere to go. 

IJefoie the end of the war. W'jid jiercolatod 
throiii:h that people evacuated from Okinawa in 
the f.ire of itie .Vmerican invasion were in various 
jihice.-- on the I-laiid of Kyu-hu rai-ing food erops 
\vh:le. by July IDfj. L'UO ()kii;aw;i li.,y- were re- 
ported to be v.urking in Tokyo anplaiif fai tories. 
An i'meig?ncy hou>ing nu^a-ure provided tor the 
eoii. truction of living ([uarter- in medium- and 
-nuill-si/e<l cities throughout the country to be 
renti'd to air-raid victims. The first work was to 
I'rovide housing for those who had to remain in 
the -ix cities of Tokyo. Kawasaki, Yokolian.a. Na- 
goya, 0-aka. and Kobe, but who had lost their 
homes by bombing. In Tokyo the first batch of 
honking areas to be built was to be put up along 
goveiimient-operated railway lines. Tlie construc- 
tion of wartime housing areas for iho-e ova -uated 
from war-ravaged localities, together witii allot- 
ment of land for home gardens and jointly man- 
a'jed gardens, v.as to be carried out in Keihin, 
Ilan-hin, Nagoya. and northern Kyu-hu. 

Government policy in the war wa^^ to use a- much 
evacuee nianpower as po>-ible in in.crea-ed f<.'f)d 
jirudiietion. Even liefoie the war. tln' Ja[ ane.-e 
Govcinment had attempted to promote a back-to- 
the-farm movement becau-e of the in. i^a-ng con 
centration of population in the citie-. but the war 



536 

with it!^ nftciiilaiit shortnpi^s of fiirin iiiiinpower 
ami of foodstiilfs caused stroiipT pio-Miiv to bo 
I'xrrtcd on city dwolloi-s to iH'i->^iiadc tlioni to fxo to 
work oti farms in tlic couiitiy. By tlx- spring of 
r.>t:> all possible pressure was l)ein{i used. At the 
end of March tlie ciihiiu't passed ii strouji return- 
to-thefarm measure, and by smnmer Japanese 
broadcasts stated that ^ome IdO.DOO families out of 
a proposed 4nO,()(X) had been sent to the country for 
farm work under this s<-lienie. thuu-^h the number 
may have been exa-:;:<'rated. Separate preliminary 
arraii>,'ements were made in each prefecture for the 
reception of the people. Evacuees sent to the 
country were to be provided with farm plots by 
each of the aiiricultural communities to which they 
were sent if they did not already own property 
there. 

A. .<>r<lin<i to a plan drawn up by the Agricul- 
ture. Conunerce, and Home Ministries and an- 
nounced June 7. 194.">. city evacuees and air-raid 
victims were to be sent to the northern island of 
Hokkaido en masse for agricultural woik. As an 
initial mea-ure approximately .jn.dUU families, or 
•JCH'.OhO evncuei'-. were to be sent tliere in the sum- 
mer of rjij. Lodf:in<r in the Hokkaido colonial 
traininjz c( nters. schools, temples, and homes of 
others was to !»• provided, all exi)enses paid, and 
when simple livin<i quarters were built rent was to 
\)C free. Temporarily crops rai-ed on the one 
rfiobu (•2A'> aires) of land were to be kept and 
used by the family. FocmI was provided at the be- 
ginninV'. if neccs-ary, plus an allowance if need 
wa< <:reat. 

Applications were opened on June 1.'>-Jidy 
1.5 for the 50.(iOn familie- jUanned for Hokkaido. 
The flr^t <ontingent of 1.100 meniliers. called the 
Northern Area Development Farmer-Soldier 
Corps, left Tokyo by special train on July 6, and a 
second contingent of 274 families, consisting of 
1.031 members, left soon afterwards and arrived in 
Hakodate three days later. 

Immediately after the end of the war. Domei 
announced that the Japanese Home Ministry 
would rontinue its policy of evacuating the resi- 
dents of ti\e big cities an<l.at the same time, of pre- 
venting tiie return iiouie of city inhabitants who 
had been evacunted to the (duiit ry. T!ie continua- 
tion of this plan was doubtle-s due to continued 
^-iiortage of foodstulTs and the need for continued 
emphasis on their production together with the 
shortage of housing in the cities. 



The principal duty of the members was 



to b* 



ready to participate in combat in case of invtisi 
On tiie other hand, there had iieen no trainuig 
e([ui[)nient for civilians to be used as fighters,- 
a|.i)ears that the corps was really planned to 
u-ed as a means of developing labor mobilize 
and production rather than as a Japanese bia 



DEPARTMEy-T OF STATE BVLLETn 

Heginning September 10 anyoi\e wantinc t^ 
leave the city to return to his native place in th. 
country was lobe allowed to go without restriction 
but anyone wanting to return to the city was to U 
prohibited "for sometime to come"', according to 
the Chief of the Natiimal Public Works Buretn 
of the Ministry of Home Affairs. Ho also stated 
that eventually lU nnllion people will probably 
return to the six big cities, but they will be allowed 
to return oidy gradually ami under a planned ar- 
rangement for population di-trihution. 

A Deliberative Council was set up in everr 
prefecture to receive evacuees. Headed by the 
governor and composed of men connected with 
transportation, fo<Kl supply, housing, and electri- 
cal ili.-tril)Ution. the council was to decide on jn<t 
what was to be done with roettling and rehabil: 
tating evacuees. 

In the death-tliroes of German dissolution, i 
Vofkssfunn was established to mobilize old ami 
young in a last desperate attempt to stand against 
the flood-tide of Allied invasion. So in its last- 
ditch stand and fear of imminent Allied invasior. 
Japan establ!.-^hetl a volunteer combat organizatior. 
within the gep.ei al fi-amewoik of t!ie previously es 
isting Civilian Volunteer Corps. All males from 
15-GO and women of 17-40 except those considereo 
■'the nucleus of tiie home" were to be recruitou 
under penalty of fine and imprisonment for combat 
service if military necessity dictated. The new 
c'.rps was to have military status and to be under 
the direct command of the Emperor, and the com- 
mand of each unit was to be an honored position 
based on Imperial authority. The basic principle 
on which the ccjips was to operate was that 'thf 
Imperial land, the resting place of gods, the native 
home, and working place of the people" must be 
defended at all costs. The principal duty of the 
members was to participate in combat and support 
military activities in production, transportatien. 
et cetera. Each factory, government office, and 
group of students was to have its own group ol 
from 10-30 members and to work together in on* 
localitv. 



fCt08ER r. 19*5 

Q^nnan \'o/k:-'st,inii. Its <hitios ns first out- 
"jj consisted <»f tlioM- lu'iuiiij; mi iiiilitury 
Derations but imt dirt'tily (.•(Hiiurti-il with tlioin, 
1^ as tnuisportatioii mul commissarv work. 
|t]^ membei-s of tlie corps wimo to be iissij^tied 
, ftctory anil farm work uiuler military dis- 

pline. 

The first such corp^ to U- foruii'd was a Railway 

Svilian Combat ('uii>-. >luubtU'ss bi'iau>(' of tht^ 

ottleneck in Irnn-poMat imi ami tin- nt-ol for luili- 

uy discipliiK' anion^ tin- railway wuikfr>. 

On the even iuj; of S ■ptimlu-r :'.. I'.M.'i soiin' •J,7n<) 

ipanese wlx) had Im-cm liviii;: in Koii-a, Maii- 

luria, and Ciiina n-aih«-.l tlic port of Ilakata in 

lorthem Kyu-iui. llii- i.'roiii> was hut a tiny frac- 

ionof the -t million .Fapaii.M' r;vinj:out>idt' Jai)an, 

lUiyof whom wdl want to. or bv forced to return 

to Japan. The pmbh ni~ of resettlement of this 

Igroup, Tariously estiniate.l at l,.-)(K».iMH)-;;.nO().()(K), 

Ima Japan devastated by bombs and short of food, 

pill prove one of the mo-t imi)ortant of the <lifli- 

(ulties f acinar the o<<upyii!ir autliorities in Japan, 

IS well as in the lonix-ran;.'!- fi-onomic and .-<»'ial re- 

Ittbilitation of the country. 

Discussions With Mexico on 
Air-Transport Agreement 

fBeIea8«d to th» proas o. !.,l»r j I 

Discussions refrardinj; a bilateial air tran-port 
tgreement betwi'<'u tJM- I'nited Stai«s and .Mexico 
will take place in \Va-liii!;:ton durini: the next few 
nays, the De])artni<'nt of St;ite announceil on Octo- 
ber 2. The proposed aL'reemeni will fiovcrn the 
operation of conuiiercial air services between the 
two countries. 

The negotiation- on belialf of Mexico will Ix" car- 
ried on by Rafael de la Colina, Char^'e d'.Vffaires 
of the Mexican Embas-y in Washinj.'ton ; Gen. Al- 
berto Salinas Carianza. of the Mexican .\ir Force; 
fiebolledo Clement and llernan<lez Ller;:o. of the 
Mexican Mini.-tiv of {'omnnmications and Public 

^ Works. 

The United Stale- will bi' repro-eiited by L. 
Welch Pojrue. Cliairm m of the Civil .Veronautics 
Board; 0-wald Rvaii. member of tiie Civil Aero- 
i^Utics Board: >f.k.li y W. .Nb.r;.'an, Chief of the 
Aviation Divi-mn. Departintnt of .state; and John 

■ W.Carri-ian.CliK-f of tiie I)ivi-ion <if Mexican .\.f- 

I fcirs, Depart mmt of Si at.'. 



I 



537 

Regarding Philippine 
Independence 

Statement hy THK I'RKSIDKNT 

(Keleascd lo the press !•> the WliUo IliMiai- OotolK-r 111 

As you know. President Osmena of the Philip- 
pines is in Wa-iiin^'toti. On Monday, I conferreil 
with him and with the Hii^h Commissioner to the 
Philippines. Mr. .McNutt, and ihe A<lin;: Secre- 
tary of the Interior. Mr. Korta-. I proi)ose lo c on- 
fer a;iain with President ()-mena and to formulate 
a broad program for this (Joveiiimeiit with re-pect 
to the Philippine. This proLXiam will, of course. 
reflect the traditi<inal friind>hip of tiic people of 
the United ."^tates and of the Philippine-, and it 
will take aiccjunt of ihe heroic and loyal conduct of 
the Filipinos durinjr t!ie war. In preparation for 
my further conferences with President Osmena, I 
have asked Mr. McXutt and Mr. Fortas to consult 
with the President of the Piiilip[)ine3 with respect 
tu all matters of mutual interest. 

At the moment. I wani to clarify the (pie^tion of 
the date upon which Philippine independeiue may 
\)e expected. Under the statutes now in force, in- 
depeiideni-e is scheduled for July 4. 11140. or sooner 
if the Pre-iilent of the United States shall so pro- 
claim. Tliere ha> been wide speculation as to 
whether a date prior lo July 4, l'J4G, will be fixetl. 
This sjieculation ha^ introduced a hi;rh dc;j;ree of 
uncertainty at a very critical time in Philip[)ine 
affairs, and ha^ re-ulted in -oine confii.-ion in the 
proLjrams of both the Conmionwealth Government 
and United Stales agencies. 

It would be neither just nor fair to the loyal 
people of the Philippines, who have been our broth- 
ers in war as well as in peace, to proclaim their in- 
dependence until the nece.-.-ary program for reha- 
bilitation has been worked out and until there has 
been a determination of the fundaiueiital proiilems 
involved in our mutual relatioii>hip alter inde- 
pendence. .\(lditional time is al-o re(|uired lo en- 
able the Phirn)pine Government to -et its own 
house ill order and to hold a free democratic 
election. 

To a.-.-i.-t in the orderly working out of these 
problem-. I am taking this opportunity to state 
that I <lo not intend to con>ider advaii' ing the 
proclamation of Philippine independeiue to a date 
earlier than July 4, 1940 until the nece.-sary 
measure; which I have outlined have been taken. 



>J8 



DEPARTMEM OF STATE BlLlef, 



Our Occupation Policy for Japan 



PARTICIPANTS 

John C.VRTFR \ INCE.NT 

Dir.rlor. OITioe of Fnr EaMorn Affairs, 
Dip.irlincnt of StaJo, an<J (!liairnian, 
I'.ir {■..i!it<'rii Suhconimiltpo, Stalo, War, 
Navy ('.i>(>r(Iii)atiii<; (lonimittec 
Maj. ('„n. John H. Mii.i.dri.nc 

Dinciiir of f.i\i| AfTuirs, War Depart- 

lID'Ilt 

C.ipl. 1{. I.. Dknmson 

L.S. .Navy, Heprewntative of llie Navy 
l)t|..irtni<iit oil tlio Far Kastorn Siib- 
(oniinittcc. Stale, War, Na\y (ioordi- 
ri.iliii;: < iommittee 

.SlFRr IN<. Fl-MKR 

Dirfcior, .NBC L'niversity of tlic Air 

I 1:.'I.'ii^im| ir, tti,. ,.r.-n i>.r.,l„r >:\ 

Anxoimhk: Here are /i"iiJl/ii' ■< from Wn.sh- 
ti ijtun : 

Gctu'i-al Hilldiiii^' S:iys tlip Zaihat-ti. or J-.ipanc.se 
IV"^ IJi.Miu--. Will liv Broken Up; States We 
Will N.it I'.Tiiiit Japan To Rebuild Her Bif,' 
Coinliines: Promises Protection of Japanest> 
DeiniH rutie (Jroiips Af^ainst Attacks by Mili- 
tary Fanatics. 

Jnlin Carter Vincent of State Department Foie- 
ca t> F.nd of National Sliinto: Say- That tlie 
Iii.-titiilion of tile Kinperor Will Have To Be 
Radir.:i!y Mi^lified. and That Dem<x-raiic 
Parties in .Japan Will Be Assiire<l Rights of 
tree A^-ciiibly an(l Free Discussion. 

('ai)t:iin I>ciini>on of Navy Department Says 
Japan Will N(,t Be Allowed Civil Aviation; 
Predirt> That Jai)ancs<; Will Eventually Accept 
Di-nuM ;aiy. and Emp!ia-izes Naval Resjwnsi- 
bility for Future Control of Japan. 

.\\.\Mi N( r.it: This is the thirty-fourtli in a se- 
ries of pio^rranis entitled "Our Forri;.'n Policy," 
featuring' luthoritative . -tat. -meiits on inteiiiational 
affairs by (Jovernment oliicial> aii-l nieinbei-s of 
C-in-n--. Til,. M-iics i-: broadcast to the people 
of America by NBC's rniver>ity of the Air. and 
to our sei-vice men and women overseas, wherever 
they are staiioned. through the facilities of the 



' Hri.i f-n.v i.f Se|.t 2rj. l!Mi. p. 423. 



Armed Forces Radio Service. Printed copies rf 
these important discussions arc also availabL 
Listen to the closing announcement for instrJ 
tions on how to obtain them. 

This time we present a joint State, War and 
Navy D.-partment broadca-t on "Our Occunnfl. 
1 olicy for Japan . Participating: are Mr. Joh 
Carter Vincent, Director of the Office of F "^ 
Eastern Alfairs in the State Depaunient; Mai' 
Gen. John H. Hilhirin-:. Director of Civil AflFairs 
in the War Department; and Capt. R. L. Demu 
•son. U.S.N.. Navy Department representative on 
the Far Ea.-tern Subcommittee of the State, War 
Navy Coordinatinfi Committee. Thev will 'be in 
terviewed by Sterlin.^ Fi.-her, Director of the NBt 
University of the Air. Mr. Fi-lier— 

FiSHKic No subject has been debated nion- 
widely by the press, radio, and fxeneral public in 
re<-ent weeks tiian our occupation policy in Japan. 
That debate has served a very useful purpose. Ii 
has made millions of Americans conscious of tin- 
daiifxeis and complications of our ta>k in dealin;; 
with 70 million Japanese. 

Publication by the White Hou-=e of our basic 
policy for Japan removed much of the confusion 
surrounding this debate.' But it also raised many 
questions — questions of how our policy will Ix- 
applied. To answer some of the>e. we have asked 
representatives of the Departments directly con- 
cerned—the State, AVar, and Navy Departments- 
to interpret further our Japan policv. 

(ieneral llilldrinfr, a great many people seemed 
to think, until recently at least, that General Mac- 
Arthur was more or less a free agent in layin;: 
down our policy for the Japanese. Perhaps you 
would .start by telling us ju>t Iidw that policy i- 
determined. 

nit,i.i)m.v(;: Well, althouuh I lielp execute 
policy instead of making it. 1 will try to e.\pl:>ii' 
how it is made. Tlie State, War, Navy Coordina! 
ing Committet>— '-SWINC", we call it— fonim 
lates [)olicy for the President's appnnal, on ques- 
tions of basic importance. On the military as- 
pects, the views of the Joint Chiefs of Staff iU"'' 
obtained and carefully c.nsidere.I. Directives 
which carry the approved fM)licies are tlien dm^^" 



'■ 



jtmnsniitttvi by the Joint Chiefs of Staff 
MacArtiiur. As Suprviiio ("oiiimuuder 
ipation forces in Japiiii, lie is clmiged 
^ responsibility for currying them out. 
'iJ:iretiunk he is doing it very well. 
Ibbeb: Mr. Vincent, the Far Eastern subcom- 
?jj*B of which you are chairniun does niost^of 
of drafting the policy directives, as I 
id it. 
VdjCENT: That's ri;;lit. Mr. Fi>!ier. We devote 
entire energies to Far Eastern jHilicy and 
twice a week to make decisions on important 
fgtitXB. We then submit our recoinniendations 
|9<iietop Coordinating Committee, with which 
Geoenl Hilldring is associated and with which 
Oiptain Denni.son and I sit in an advisory ca- 
ptcity. 

HnxDRiNo: The key members of the Coordi- 
jiting Committee, repres<»nting the Secretaries of 
(h* three departments, are .\.-.-;istant Secretary of 
SUte James Dunn, the Assistant Secret.iry of 
Vu, John J. McCloy. and tiie Under Secretary 
^of the Navy, Artemus dates. 

: Mr. Vincent. Fd like to know wliether 
is a — shall we say — strained relationshii) 
Between General MacArthur and the State De- 
partment 

Vincent: No, there is absolutely no basis for 
such reports, Jlr. Fisher. There is, as « matter of 
ftict, no direct relationshii) iK-twceii (leiieral Mac- 
-Aitiinr and tlie State Department. I <an assure 
jonthat General MacAnhur is n-ceiving our sup- 
port and assistance in carrying out a very dillicult 
' wsignment. 

Fisher: There liave been some reports that he 
MS not welcomed civilian advisers. 
I Vihcent: That also is untrue. A number of 
I anlian Far Eastern spe<ialists have already been 
i *■* out to General MacAithur's li(ad(iuarters. 
[ »nd he has welcomed them most cordially. We're 
\ ^TJug right now to recruit people wiili specialized 
j "'owledge of Japan's economy, finances, and .-o on. 
"eexpect to send more and more smh people nut. 
'ISHER: As a Navy reproeiitative on the Far 
^•stern subcommittee. Captain Deinii>on, I .sup- 
pose you've had a good opportunity to evaluate the 
Otjtttion. Some people don't realize that the 
: *jy Department has a direct interest in, and 

'^in,thepolicy for Japan. 
' ^KNisox: We have a vital interest in it. The 
2 million men and tlie .",0(M) ves-els of the United 



S39 

States Xavy in the Pacific and the vital role they 
played in the defeat of ifapan are a nieasure of that 
interest. .lapan is an island country separated 
from us by 4,500 miles of ocean. Its continued 
control will always present a naval problem. 

Fisiilr: What part is the Navy playing now in 
that control? 

Den.nison: Our ships are patrolling the coasts 
of Japan today, and in this duty they support 
the occupation force. Navy officers and men will 
aid General MacArthur ashore, in censorship 
(radio, telephone, and cable) and in civil-affairs 
administration. The Navy is in charge of mili- 
tary governiiient in the former Japanese man- 
dates in the Pacific and also in the Ryukyu 
Islands. 

P'isiikr: Does that include Okinawa? 

Dexxisox: Yes. 

Fisher: That's not generally known, is it? 

Dexxisox: Xo, I believe not. I'd like to add — 
iK'sides these immediate duties the United States 
Navy will have to exercise potential control over 
Japan long after our troops are withdrawn. 

Fisher: Now, I'd like to ask you, Mr. Vincent, 
as chairman of the subcommittee which drafts 
our (xcupation policy, can you give us a statement 
of our over-all objectives? 

Vixcext: Our inmiediate objective is to de- 
mobilize the Japanese armed forces and demili- 
tarize Japa!i. Our long-range objective is to 
dt'm'H-ratizc Japan — to encourage democratic self- 
government. We must make sure that Japan will 
not again become a menace to tlie peace and se- 
curity of the world. 

Fisher: And how long do you think that will 
take? 

Vixc-ext: The length of occupation will de- 
pend upon the degree to which the Japana>;e co- 
operate with us. I can tell you this: The occu- 
pation will continue until demobilization and de- 
militarization are completed. And it will con- 
tinue until there is assurance that Japan is well 
along the path of liberal reform. Its form of gov- 
ernment will not necessarih' be patterned e.xactly 
after American democracy, but it must be respon- 
sible self-government, stripped of all militaristic 
tendencies. 

Fisher: General Hilldring, how long do you 
think we'll have to occupy Japan? 

IIiLLDRixo: To answer that question, Mr. 
Fi>lier. would require a degree of clairvoyance I 



540 

don't IKW.SOS.S. I ju-st don't know how long it will 
tiike to a(t()iiij)lisli our aims. We inunf. stay in 
Japan, with whatcvt-r forces may be required, 
until we have accoinplislied the objectives Mr. 
Vint-ent has mentioned. 

Fisher: To what extent will our Allies, suih 
as Ciiina and Great Britain and the Soviet Union, 
take part in fonnulutin;? occupation policy? 

HiuJ)RiNo: Tliat is not a question which sol- 
diei-s should decide. It involves matters of high 
jM.licy on wlu( h tlie .Vriiiy must look to the State 
Department. I believe Mr. Vincent should an- 
swer that question. 

FtsHER: Weil. Mr. Vincent, how about it? 
Vince.nt: Inuiiediately followinjrtheJapane.se 
.surrender, the United States propo.scd the forma- 
tion of a Far Ea.-tern Advisory Commission as 
a means of rejrul;uiziii<i and making orderly the 
methods of consulting with other countries inter- 
ested in the occupation of Japan. And Secretary 
of State Hyrncs announced recently that a Com- 
mission would i)e established for the fonnulation 
of jiolicies for the control of Japan.' In addi- 
tion to the four principal powers in the Far East, 
a number of other powers are to be invited to 
liave membershi[) on the Conuuission. 

FisjiEii: Coming back to our first objective — 
(ieneral Hillhing. what about the demobilization 
of the Jajjancse Army? How fur has it gone? 

HiiXDRiNo: Di>armament of the Jajjanese 
forces in th.' four main islands is virtually com- 
plete. Mr. Fisher. Demobilization in the sense 
of returning disarmed soldiers to their homes is 
well under way. but bombcHl-(jut transport sys- 
tems and food and housing problems are serious 
delaying factors. 

Fisher: .Vnd what's being done about the Jap- 
anese troops in other parts of Asia? 

Hh.ij)rino: It may take a long time for them 
all to get home. Demands on shipping are ur- 
gent, and the retinii of our own troojjs is the 
highest priority. Relief must also be carried to 
the countries we have liberated; the return of 
Japanese soldiers to their homes must take its 
I)roper place. 

Fisher: Captain D.imison. how long do you 
think it will take to clean up the Japanese forces 
stuttered through A>ia^ 

1)e.v.m.-o.\: It may take several years. Mr. 
Fisher. After ail. there are close to three million 



' .See p. 345. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BVlLgf^ 

Japanese scattered around eastern Asia and tu 

Pacific, and for the most part it will be 

the Japanese themselves to ship them home"^ ** 

Fisher: And what is being done with the j 
anese Navy f "•*■ 

Dknniso.v: The Japanese Navy has been ri. 
most completely era.sed. There's nothing left .i 
It e.xcept a few battered hulks and these miiZ 
well be destroyed. ^*^ 

Fisher: Now, there are some other, less ob. 
vious pai-ts of the military system— the polic, 
system, for exami)le. The Japanese secret poli« 
have been persecuting liberal, anti-militarist p«v 
pie for many years. Mr. Vincent, what wiU U 
done about that? 

Vincent: That vicious sy.stem will be abol- 
ished. Mr. Fi>her. Not only the top chiefs but 
the whole oigunization must go. That's the only 
way to break its hold on the Japanese peopir 
A civilian p.)lice force such as we have in Amtr- 
ica will have to be substituted for it. 

Dennlson : We've got to make sure that what 
they have is a police force, and not an army intbt 
gui.se of police. 

Hiij.imi.Ni;: As a matter of fact, Mr. Fisher, 
General MacArlliur has already abolished thf 
Kempui and political police. 

FisHEit: It .^ems to me that a key question 
in this whole matter, Mr. Vincent, is the relation 
ship of our (K-cupation forces to the present Jap» 
nese (iovernment, from the Emperor on dowiL 

Vince.nt: Well, one of General MacArthur's 
tasks is to bring about changes in the Constitution 
of Japan. Those provisions in the Constitution 
which would hamper the establishment in Japan 
of a g(n-erninent which is responsible to the peopU- 
of Japan must be removed. 

Fisher: Isn't the position of the Emperor • 
barrier to responsible government i 

Vincent: The institution of the Emperor— if 
the Japanese do not choose to get rid of it— will 
have to be radically modified. Mr. Fisher. 

Dennis.jn: The Emperor's authority is sub- 
ject to General Mac-Vrthur and will not be IXT- 
mitted to stand as a barrier to responsible g"»'- 
eriiineiit. Directives sent to General MacArth"'' 
establish that point. 

Fisiiek: Can you give us the substance of that 
directive that covers that point. Captain 
nison? 

Dennison: I can quote part of it to you. 
message to General MacArthur said : 



Den- 
The 



i|j^ite authority of the Emperor ixiul tho Jnpa- 
^QqTenunent to ruh' tl\t' stsitc is stilxirdiimte 
M^ t9 Supreme ("omnmndcr for tlio Ailiwl 
JmtKt ^ou will exorcise your iiiilliority as you 
jMiipcaper to carry out your mission. Our rela- 
Ij^ witii Japan do not rest on a contract ual 
ujk bat on an unconditional surrender. Since 
•HT snthohty is supreme, you will not entertain 
grtqafiBtion on the part of the Japanese as to its 

Wile- 
■^ Control of Japan shall ho exercised through 

lltJapanese Government to tiie extent that such 

■ arrangement produces satisfactory results. 

tbisdoes not prejudice your rij.'ht to act directly 

jfttqnired. You may enforce the onlers issued 

JHppa by the employmetit of such measures as 

JOB deem necessary, including the use of force.'' ' 

Att^ th* directive under which General Mac- 

lithttr is operating. 

f Fisker: That's clear entiU'rh. . . . Now, 

ftoeral Hilldring, you have to do with our oc- 

apation policy in both Cicrnuiny and Ja[)an. 

What is the main difference Let w een them ? 

BmjsiNo: Our purposes in Germany and Ja- 

r pan are not very different. Reduced to their 
amplest terms, they are to prevejit either nation 
from again breaking the [wace of the world. The 
difference is largely in the mechanism of control 
to achieve that purpose. In Japan there still 
•lists a national Government, which we are utiliz- 
■g. In Germany there is no central government, 
•nd OBT controls must, in geiieial, be imposed 

• : vFBhkh: Are there advantages from your point 
«»iBW in the existence of the national Govern- 
■*ttt in Japan ? 

HniDKiKo: The advantages which are gained 

wWugh the utilization of the national Govern- 

■•''t of Japan are enormous. If there were no 

••panese Government available for our use, we 

"Wud have to operate directly the whole compli- 

''ted machine required for the adminiKtration 

.'country of "0 million people. These people 

^'■eriroin us in language, customs, and attitudes. 

J cleaning up and using the Japanese Govern- 

""Dt machinery as a tool, wo are saving our time 

onr manpower and our resources. In other 

™s, we are requiring the Japanese to do their 

^^'"*"» of Sept. 30. 1!M5. p. 480. 



541 

own houseclcaning, but we are providing the speci- 
fications. 

Fishkr: But some [X'ople argue, General, that 
by utilizing the Japanese CJovernment we are com- 
mitting ourselves to support it. If that's the cose, 
wouldn't this interfere with our policy of remov- 
ing from j)ublic oflico and from industry persons 
who wore responsible for Japan's aggression? 

IIii.i.nRiNo: Not at all. We're not committing 
ourselves to support any Japanese groups or indi- 
viduals, either in goveruTnent or in industry. If 
our policy requires removal of any person from 
government or indus-fry, he will be removed. The 
desires of the Ja[)aneso Government in this respect 
are immaterial. Removals are being made daily 
by (Jenoral MacArthur. 

DKN'Ni.'iov : Our policy is to itue the existing form 
of government in Japan, not to support it. It's 
largely a matter of timing. General MacArthur 
has had to feel out the situation. 

FisiiKK : Would you .say. Captain Dennison, that 
when our forces tiist went to Japan they were 
sitting on a keg of dynamite? 

Dknmsox: In a sense, yes. But our general 
policies were set before General MacArthur landed 
a single man. As he has brought in troops, he has 
correspondingly tightened his controls in order to 
carry out those policies. 

Fishkr: He certainly has. Captain. But what 
about the Japanese politicians, Mr. Vincent? 
Some of them look pretty guilty to me. 

Vixcent: Well, the Higa.shi-Kuni cabinet re- 
signed this week. The report today that Shide- 
hara has become Premier is encouraging. It's too 
early to predict exactly what the next one will be 
like, but we have every reason to believe it will 
be an improvement over the last one. If any Jap- 
anese ofKcial is found by General MacArthur to 
be imfit to hold oflice, he will go out. 

Fisher: Will any of the members of the Higa- 
shi-Kuni cabinet be tried as war criminals? 

ViNCT.>sfr: We can't talk about individuals here, 
for obvious reasons. But we can say this: All 
people who are charged by appropriate agencies 
with iK'ing war criminals will be arrested and 
tried. Cabinet status will be no protection. 

Hilldring : Wo are con.stantly adding to the list 
f)f war criminals, and they are being arrested every 
day. The same standards which Justice Jackson 
is applying in Germany are being used in Japan. 

Dennison : Our policy is to catch the war crim- 
inals and make sure that they are punished — not to 



542 

talk about who is a war criminal and who is not. 

Fisher: All right, Cnjitain Doiinison, loaviiij^ 
names out of the disi'ussion, let nio ask you this: 
Will we consider menibers of the Znibatsu — the big 
industrialists — who have loopcrati'd with the mil- 
itarists ami profited by tiie war, among the guilty < 

Dennison: We'll follow the same basic policy as 
in (Jermany. You will recall that sojne industrial- 
ists there have lieen listed as war criminals. 

Fisher: General Hillilring, what are we going 
to do about the big in<luslrialists who liave con- 
tributed so much to Japan's war-making power? 

HiUJ)RiNo: Fnder our policy, all Fascists and 
jingos — militarises — will be removed, not oidy 
from public nllice but from positions of trii>t in 
iiidustry and education as well. As a matter of 
national policy, we are going to destroy Japan's 
war-making power. That means the big com- 
bines must l)e broken up. There's no other way 
to accomplish it. 

Fisher: What do you say about the big indus- 
trialists. Mr. Vincent? 

Vincent: Two things. We have every intention 
of proceeding against those members of the Zai- 
batsu who are considered .is war criminals. And, 
as General Hilldring has just said, we intend to 
break the hold those large family combines have 
over the economy of Japan — combines such as 
Mitsui, Mitsubishi, and Sumitomo, to name the 
most prominent. 

Fisher: And the financial combines as well? 

Vincent: Yes. General MacArthur. as you'vs 
probably heani. lias already taken .steps to break 
the power of the big financial combines and strip 
them of their lo^)t. 

Fisiikr: Well, there's no feeling here of "Don't 
let's be beastly Ut the Zaibatsu". Cai)tain Denni- 
son. do you want to make it unanimous? 

Dexnison: There's no disagreement on this 
point in our committee, Mr. Fisher. There has 
been a lot of premature criticism. But the dis- 
covery and arrest of all war criminals caniiot !)<» 
accon\plished in the first few days of iK'cupation. 
Our policy is fixed and definite. Anyone in Japan 
who brought about this war, whether he is of the 
Zailjatsu, or anyone else, is going to be arrested 
and tried as a war criminal. I 

Fisher: General Hilldring, one critic has 
charged that our policy in Germany has been to 
send .Vmericans over to help rebuild the big trusts, 
like I. G. Farbenindustrie. He expressed the fear 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE B[;UETH» 

that a similar policy would be followed in Jap»n 
What about that? 

Hii.ioiiiNo: 1 can say flatly, Mr. Fisher tW 
we are not rebuilding the big trusts in GernunT 
we /iiirr not rebuilt them, and we iire not going to 
rebuild them in tl>e future. The same policy will 
pi-evail in Japan. Moreover, not only will we not 
nrirr these big trusts but wo do not propose to 
permit tlie (Jeriuans or the Japanese to do so. 

Fisiikr: And that applies to all industries thit 
(iiidd bo used for war purposes? 

Hii.i.iiKiNd : Tlie Japanese will be prohibittti 
from prudni'iiig, developing, or maintaining all 
fdiins of arms, amnumitions, or implements of 
war, as well as naval vessels anil aircraft. A majnr 
portion of this problem will involve the reduction 
or elimiiuition of certain Japanese industries which 
are keys to a modern war economy. These indus- 
tries include production of iron and steel, as well 
as ciiemicals, machine tools, electrical equipment 
and automotive equipment. 

Vin'ci'.nt: This, of course, implies a major re- 
orientation of the Japanese economy, which for 
years has been geared to the requirements of total 
war. Under our close super\ision, the Japanese 
will have to redirect their Inmian and natural re- 
sources to the ends of peaceful living. 

Fisher: Mr. Vincent, won't this create a lot of 
unemployment? Is anything being done to com- 
bat unemployment — among the millions of de- 
mobilized .soldiers, for example? 

Vincent: Our policy is to place responsibility 
on the Japanese for solving their economic prob- 
lems. They should put emphasis on farming and 
fishing and the prodncti<m of consumer good.«. 
They also have plenty of reconstruction work to 
<lo in every city. We have no intention of inter- 
fering with any attempts by the Japanese to help 
themselves along these lines. In fact, we'll gi" 
them all the encouragement we can. 

Fisher: What do you think they'll do with th« 
woikers who are thrown out of heavy war inuiw- 

t'-.V? 

Vincknt: They'll have to find jobs in the h?'" 
industries Japan is allowed to retain. The genert 
objective of this revamping of Japan's industri 
economy will be to turn that economy in on its*" 
so that the Japanese will produce more and nu> 
for their domestic market. t^ 

FisiHR : Theyll have to have some foreign tr« 
of course to keep going. 



jOBSR r, 1945 

v^foart: Of course, but not the unlioalthful 
^tbOT had bcforo tlu> wur. A larj;e portioii of 
njn'a pre-war foroipii tra<le assets were used 
tinilitary preparations, and not to support her 
jrnal economv; after all, scrap-iron iind oil 
pments didn't help tlie .Japanese people. You 
Ji reduce Japan's foreign trade far below th^ 
t^ww level and still have a standard of living 
ipsrable to what they liad b«*fore the war. 
tjSBOL: There have been sonie dire predictions 
Hit the food situation over thei-e. and even some 
(irtsof rice rioLs. (leneral Ililldring, what will 
policy be on food ? 

tiXDKrNa: General MacArthur has notified 
War Department that he does not expect to 
(vide any supplies for the enemy population in 
I this winter. This statement is in harmony 
hthe policy we have followed in other (x-cupied 
my areas. That is to say. we will import sup- 
is for enemy populations only where essential 
uroid disease epidemics and serious unrest that 
^t jeopardize our ability to carry out the pur- 
es of the occupation. The Japanese will have 
»row their own food or provide it from impoits. 
i!l8HER: They'll need some ships to do that. 
Dtain Dennison. are we j:nm^ to allow Japan 
■ebuild her merchant marine? 
)EK2a80N: We've ^ot to allow her to rebuild 
eacetime economy — that's tin- price of disarm- 
her. That means trade. But the question of 
ose ships shall carry this trade hasn't bien de- 
ed yet. We know we nuist control Japan's 
ports, in order to keep her from rearming — and 
I best way to do that niay l>e to carry a good 
rtof her trade on Allij-d sbi|)s. 
Pisheh: Then, Captain Dennison, what aliout 
pstn's civil aviation? A lot of people were quite 
cprised recently when General MacArthur al- 
»ed some Japanese transport planes to resume 
wations. 

Deitnison: That will not lie continued. Mr. 
Bher. Under the terms of General MacArthur's 
fective in this field, no civil aviation will be 
nnitted in Japan. 

Vincent: Such aviation as Gcin-ral MacArthur 
d allow was to meet a specific emergency. It 
>U not be continued beyond that cinergency. 
Fisher: In this revamping of .lapan's economy, 
*• Vincent, will the hold of the big landholders 
'broken, as you have said the power of the big 
!d>i8trialistawillbe? 



543 



Vincknt: F'.ncouragement will In? given to any 
movement to reorganize agriculture on a more 
democratic economic basis. Our jxdicy favors a 
wider distribution of land, income, and ownership 
of the means of production and trade. Hut those 
are things a democratic Japanese government 
shoidd do for itself — and will, we exjiect. 

Fisiikr: And the labor unions { What about 
them i 

Vincent: We'll encourage the development of 
trade-unionism. Mi'. Fisher, because that's an es- 
seiUial part of democracy. 

KisiiKii: I understand a lot of the former union 
leaders and poiitiiid libciuls are still in jail. 
Wliat has l)een done to get them out? 

Vincent: General Mac.Vrthur has already or- 
dered the release of sill persons impriscmed for 
"ilangerous thoughts'' or for their political or re- 
ligious beliefs. 

Fisher : Tliut ought to provide some new lead- 
ership for the flemocratic forces in Japan. Cap- 
tain Dennison, to what extent are we going to help 
those forces? 

Den.sisox: Our policy is one of definitely en- 
couraging liberal tendencies among the Japanese. 
We'll give them every uppoHunity to draw up and 
to adopt a constructive reform [irogram. 

Vincent: All democratic parties will be encour- 
age<l. They will be assured the rights of free as- 
sembly and free public discussion. The occupa- 
tion authoiities are to place no obstruction in the 
way of the organization of jjolitical parties. The 
Japanese Government has already been ordered to 
remove all barriers to freedom of religion, of 
thought, and of the press. 

FisHioi?: I take all this to mean that the demo- 
cratic and anti-militarist groups will be allowed 
fi-ee rein. But, Mr. Vincent, suppose some nation- 
alistic group tried to interfere with them, using 
gangster methods? 

Vincent : It would be suppressed. One of Gen- 
eral Mac.Vrthur's policy guides calls for "the en- 
couragement and support of liberal tendencies in 
Japan''. It also says that "changes in the direction 
of modifying authoritarian tendencies of the gov- 
ernment are to be permitted and favored". 

Fisher: And if the democratic parties should 
find it necessary to use force to attain their ob- 
jectives? 

Vincent: In that event, the Supreme Com- 
mander is to intervene only where necessary to pro- 
tect our own occupation forces. This implies that 



544 

to achieve liberal or ilcmocTiitic political ends the 
Jiipaneso niny ''ven use force. 

Denniso.v: Wo are not interested in upholding 
the utatus </«/> in Jnpiin, as such. I think we should 
make that doubly clear. 

Fisheb: One of the most interestinp develop- 
ments in i-e<'ent \Te<>ks hnslwu tlio apparent revival 
of lil)ernl and radical sentimei\t in Japan. I un- 
derstand that tl>e loailcrs of several former labor 
and socialist political groups arc (.'ettinK tojr.'tlicr 
in one party — a Socialist jiarty. Wliat stand will 
we take on tliat. General Ililldrin^? 

Hit.i.DRiN«) : If the development pmves to he <:en- 
uine, we will t;ive it every encounijjement. in line 
with our policy of favoring all democratic tend- 
encies in Japan. And we'll protect all ilemocratic 
groups against attack by military fanatics. 

Fisher: You intend to do anything that's nec- 
essary, then, to open the way for the democratic 
forces. 

HiixnRiNo: We're prepared to support the de- 
velopment of democratic government even though 
some temporuiy disorder may result — so long as 
our troops anil our over-all objectives are not en- 
ilangered. 

Fisher: I have one more question of key im- 
portance, Mr. Vincent. What will be done aVxiut 
Shintoism. especially that brancli of it that makes 
a religion of nationalism and which is called 
"^National Shinto"? 

Vincknt: Shintoism, in so far as it is a religion 
of individual Japanese, is not to be interfered 
with. Shintoism, however, as a state-directed re- 
ligion is to Ije done away with. People will not b«' 
ta.xed to sui)port National Shinto, and there will 
be no place for Shintoism in the .schools. 

Fisher: That's tlie clearest statement I have 
heard on S'.iinto. 

Vincent: Our policy on this goes beyond 
Shinto, Mr. Fisher. The dissemination of Japa- 
nese militaristic and ultra-nationalistic ideology 
in any form will be completely suppressed. 

Fisiik.k: And what about the clean-up of the 
Japanese .mIiooI system? That will be quite a 
chore, Mr. Vincent. 

Vincent : Yes, but the Jajianes*- are cooix-rating 
with us in cleaning up their schools. We will see 
to it that all teachers with extreme nationalistic 
leanings are removed. The primary schools are 
being reopened as fast as possible. 

I)enni8<)N: That's where the real change nuist 



DEn4RT.ME\T OF STATE BVLLtTm 

stem from — the school system. The younger gm. 
eration must be taught to unilerstaiid democract 
That goes for the older generation as well. 

Fisher: And that may take a very long tin* 
Captain Dennison. 

Dennison: How long depends on how f ast »% 
are able to put our directives ii\to etTect. It nuj 
take less time than you think, if we reach thepeop^ 
through all channels — .school texts, press, radio, 
and so on. 

FisHEn: What's the basis for your optimism. 
Chaplain i 

Dfnnisox: Well, Mr. Fisher, I've had oppor- 
tunity to observe a gcxnl many Japanese outsid* 
of .Japan. Take foi- example the Japanese-Amer- 
icans in Hawaii. They used to send their children 
to Japan at the age of about 7, 1 think, to spend « 
year with their grandi)arents. The contrast be- 
twi-en the life they founil in Japan and the life ther 
had in Hawaii was so clear that the great majoritT 
ivturned to H:iwaii completely loyal to the UniteJ 
."■^tates. They proved their loyally there during th« 
war. 

Fisiren: What accounts for that loyalty? 

Dennison : Sinqjly that they like the American 
way of life better. At seven, it's the ice cream, th« 
movies, the funny papers they like, but as they prt 
ohler they learn to understand and appreciate thf 
more important things as well. I believe the peo- 
ple in Japan will like our ways too. I think one* 
they have a taste of them— of real civil liberties- 
they'll never want to go hack to their old ways. 

Hii,iJ)i!iNo: Tin inclined to agree, Captain. -^ 
a matter of fact, it's (luite pos.-,il)le we may find 
Japan less of a problem than Germany, as f»r 
as retraining the people for democracy is con- 
cerned. The Nazis are hard nuts to crack— they »• 
been propagandized so well, trained so well. Tl» 
Japanese are indoctrinated with one basic ide«: 
obedience. That makes it easier to deal with them. 
Vincent : Or it may make it more dilEcult, Gen- 
eral. It depends on how you look at it. 1 hat trai 
of obedience has got to be replaced by some ini- 
tiative, if there's to be a real, working democracj 
in Ja[)an. 

Hii.Li.Kixo: I don't mean to say it will be easT- 
It won't be done overnight. And we'll have 
stav on the job until we're sure the job is done. 

FisHKit: Mr. Vincent, what can you te^l "^ 
about the attitudes of the Japanese under the 
ciipation? w^, 

Vincent: The press has told you a lot, n^' 




Ic&n say here that recent indications are 

4* Japanese pt'opie are resi^inoil to defeat, 

]p^oU8 about tlie treatment to be j^iven them. 

evidence of a willingness to cooperate 

occupying forces. But, because of the 

f««iod of military iloniination they've under- 

oaly time and encouragement will bring 

the emergence of sound democratic lead^r- 

We shouldn't try to "iuistle the East", or 

General MacArtliur. Ucforin in the social, 

ic, and political struct iire nmst bo a gradual 

wisely initiated and carefully fostered. 

!b: Well, thank you, Mr. Vincent, and 

to you. General Hilldring and Captain 

>n, for a clear and i iiterest ing int erpretation 

four occupation policy for Japan. You've made 

wiy plain that ours is a tough, realistic policy — 

tluU;'s aimed at giving no encouragement to 

j^io^Krialists and every possible encouragement 

I) to pro-democratic forces which are now begin- 

[iflgto reappear in Japan. 

i- Assottncer: That was Sterling Fisher, Direc- 
i%f of the NBC University of the Air. He has 
■ten interviewing Mr. Jolin Carter Vincent, Di- 
ijfttorof the Office of Far Eastern Affairs of the 
fttate Departmeni ; Maj. (ien. John H. Hilldring, 



S4S 

Director of Civil Affairs, War Department; and 
Capt. R. L. Deimison, Navy representative on the 
Far Eastern Subcommittee of the State, War, 
Navy Coordinating Conunittee. The discussion 
was adapted for radio by Selden Menefee. This 
was the thirty-fourth of a series of broadcasts on 
"Our Foreign Policy," presented as a public serv- 
ice by the NBC University of the Air. You can 
obtain printed copies of these broadcasts at Ifl 
cents each in coin. If you would like to receive 
copies of the broadcasts, send $1 to cover the costs 
of printing and mailing. Special rates are avail- 
able for large orders. Address your orders to the 
NBC University of the Air, Radio City, New York 
liO, New York. NBC also invites your ([ucstions 
and comments. Next week we e.\i)ect to present a 
special State Department program on our Latin 
-Vmerican policy, with reference to Argentina and 
the postponement of the inter-American confer- 
ence at Rio de Janeiro. Our guests are to be Assis- 
tant Secretary of State Spruille Braden, who has 
just returned fmm Buenos Aires, and Mr. Ellis O. 
Biiggs, Director of the Ollice of American Repub- 
lic Affairs. Listen in next week at the same time 
for this important program. . . . Kennedy Liul- 
lum speaking from Washington, D.C. 



[Statement on the Establishment of a Far Eastern Commission 

To Formulate Policies for the Carrying Out of the 

Japanese Surrender Terms' 



[tBdtaied to the pr»sii Octol-'r 1 ] 

\ Mr. James F. Byrne-s, the Secretary of State of 
^t^uited States, announced that he has received 
;fromMr. Ernest Bevin, the .Secretary of State for 
I'oteign Affairs of Great Britain, the consent of 
«e British Government to the proposal made by 
M United States Government on August 22 for 
[Hie establishment of a Far Eastern Commission to 
^'nnalate policies for the carrying out of the 
f»»panese surrender terms. 

, The Commission will al.so be asked to consider 
f*^«ther a Control Council should be established 
l^uif so the powers which should be vested in it. 
j The Soviet Union and China had already given 
[*f>te consent to the establishment of the Commis- 
i«on. France, the Philippines, Australia, New 
Ifwand, Canada, and the Netherlands will be 
.«vited to become members of the Commission. 



The fii-st meeting of the Commission will be con- 
vened in Washington in the near future. 

In agreeing to the establishment of the Com- 
mission Mr. Bevin stated it was his understanding 
that the Commission could determine whether it 
sh(juld meet in Washington or Tokyo. Secretary 
Byrnes confirmed Mr. Bevin's undei"standing and 
said that the United States representative would 
be instructed to vote that the Commission hold 
meetings in Tokyo. 

Mr. Bevin also requested that India be invited 
to become a member of the Commission. Mr. 
Byrnes said the United States would agree to the 
request and that he would submit the request to 
the Governments of the Soviet Union and China 
for their approval. 



' Issued by the Secretary of State 1q London on Sept. 29, 
1945. 



S46 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BVUg^l 



Report on UNRRA Shipments to Liberated Areas 



he 
r 



I 



(RrlraM-d to th» prm by UNRRA October 71 

In a Import submit tod to tlio C'oiiunittee on Sup- 
plies of the Uniti'il Nations Udii-f and Rciiubilita- 
tion Adniinistintion, HciIkmI II. L«'lunun, Director 
General, stated that I'NKRA shipments to the lib- 
erated areas had passed the 2,0(iO,(X)0-ton mark. 

"The fiL'iues as of the end of September are 
2.079,<MHI long tons of relief supplies shipped", 
said Mr. U-hman. "TJicir value was $5;iO,000,000." 
While expressing gratification that shipments 
are proce-.ling at an accelerated rate, the Director 
General sitated that lack of funds was now the chief 
threat to the success of UNKRA's program. 

"The end of hostilities", he reported, "has re- 
sulted in a great inii)rovement in the supply situa- 
tion. Shipping, wiiich in the i)ast was one of the 
most serious bottlenecks in bringing relief to the 
liberated areas, has eased up to such an extent that 
we do not .mticipate any serious problems in ob- 
taining adequate cargo space. Our main problem 
is aile<iuate financial resources to take advantage 
of the improved supply an.l shipping conditions. 
'■The greatly increased activities during the 
last few montLs have brought us to a point where 
imnu'diate appropriation of the funds already au- 
thorized \>\ the Congress of the United States 
has become a matter of great urgency. The 
United States has to date appropriated $800,000,- 
000 for the woik of UNRRA. Of this amount 
$80,000,000 has L>een used and $13,000,000 is in the 
process of being used for the procurement of 
.s<-arce supi>lies not available in the United States. 
An additional $47,000,000 has been used for trans- 
port services, for other relief and rehabilitation 
services, and for administrative expenses. The 
remaining $c,C0.O0().0OO has been or is being used 
for the procurement of relief and rehabilitation 
supplies from the Uiiited .States. Of this last 
amount, $270,000,000 worth of sui)plies had been 
shipped by the end of September. Shipments 
programmed for October and November from the 
United States represent an(jther $270,000,000. 
All of this last amount is already under procure- 



ment. The remaining $120,000,000 is largejj 
under procurement to maintain a sufficient pip*. 
line of supplies, many of which have productiue 
cycles ranging from 4 to 10 months. 

"Every day of delay in making addition*) 
funds available to us increases the danger ui 
creating a break in our flow of supplies to th' 
liberated areas during the most critical perioi 
of the winter months. We are already humi; 
capi^ed in our forward procurements. However, 
this committee will be glad to know that thr 
United States congressional hearings on the af 
pro[)riation of the remainder of the funds alremi> 
authorized will, I am advised, commence shoitU ' 
Discussing UNRRA's policy of making full ii>« 
of Army surpluses which can be fitted into its n- 
lief program, the Director General said: 

"With the end of hostilities UNRRA took im 
mediate steps to obtain as much as possible of tli' 
needed supplies from the armies, whose stock> 
suddenly became surplus to a considerable extent. 
The total volume of supplies procured from sur 
pluses owned by the United States Govermnoiii 
amounted to more than $:);i,U(M).un(i by the end "' 
August. This figure includes i:21,G00,000 worth 
of clothing v\ Inch had been procured from Uniti"! 
States Army cutbacks after the end of hostilitiw 
in Europe and immetliately programmed for 
shipment so as to permit distribution in the n 
erated countries before winter. Most of this sur- 
plus property came from the continental Unit'^ 
States. 

"A joint U.S. Government - UNRRA mission 
went to Europe at the l)eginning of September 
procure $1.-*0.000,000 worth of supplies from 
United States Army surpluses ovei-scas. UNBB 
had prepared a list of requirements with ^^^ " 
timated value of nearly $200,000,000. These lis«-^ 
were distributed by the military authorities ^ 
Army depots in p:urope. They were sci*^"^^ 
against actual availabilities, and 75 perce ^^ 
these requirements have been indicated as a 
able and $150,0<JO,000 have been set aside and 



OCTOBER 7, 194S 

tatively allocated by major commodity groups 
as follows: 

Industrial Rehabilitation 

(including trucks) . . $ 83,000,000 

Agricultural Rehabilita- 
tion . 27,000,000 

Clothing, Textiles and 

Footwear 10, 000, 000 

Medical Supplies and 

Equipment 8, 000, 000 

Food 2-2,000,000 



$150, 000, 000 

"The Administration hopes to obtain from the 
United States Army upward of 40,000 trucks. It 
has received reports that the delivery of the Army 
surplus trucks has already started frona Italy to 
Greece and Yugoslavia and is to begin from 
northwestern Europe to Poland and Czechoslo- 
vakia in the first part of October. Individual 
commodities included on the list of UMRRA re- 
quirements from Army surpluses includes also 
canned meats, evaporated milk, lard, oleomarga- 
rine. Army rations, and soaps, as well as blankets, 
comforters, and footwear, and large stores of 
medical supplies. 

"Under arrangements with the Canadian Gov- 
ernment the Canadian military authorities are 
delivering, out of Canadian Army surpluses, 
trucks to Poland and Czechoslovakia at the rate 
of 200 trucks per day; the total number of Cana- 
dian surplus trucks which will be made available 
to UNRRA is expected to exceed 5,000. Other 
Canadian surplus property, including clothing, is 
also under procurement. Supplies from British 
military surpluses have also begun to flow to 
UNRRA, consisting thus far mainly of trucks, 
mules, and medical supplies. Much of our pro- 
curement of clothing, food, and medical supplies 
in Australia and New Zealand also has war sur- 
pluses as its source. 

"In order to accelerate the delivery of pro- 
grammed supplies to China when additional funds 
become available, UNRRA is also undertaking 
surveys of available U.S. military surpluses in the 
Far East and is conducting negotiations with mili- 
tary authorities looking forward to their pur- 
chase." 

Mr. Lehman reported that some of the coun- 
tries which until recently had been occupied by 
the enemy and which are being helped by UNRRA 



547 

are now contributing supplies to other liberated 
areas. 

"At the Third Session of the Council in London 
a representative of the Czechoslovak Government 
informed the Council that his Government was 
preparing a list of supplies which Czechoslovakia 
will have in surplus and will be able to hand over 
to UNRRA. One of the items will be sugar. The 
Italian Government has agreed to make immedi- 
ately available 10,000 tons of salt as a contribution 
to UNRRA and destined for Yugoslavia. UNRRA 
is carrying on negotiations with the Government 
of Norway which may result in a contribution of 
some surpluses which Norway may be able to spare 
for the work of UNRRA. We hope that these 
contributions represent only the beginning of what 
the liberated countries may be able to do to assist 
UNRRA." 

Commenting on the distribution of the ship- 
ment of the 2,079,000 tons of supplies through 
September (see tables I, II, III, and IV), ^ Mr. 
Lehman said : 

"You will note that, although we have succeeded 
in improving the situation very considerably in 
some receiving countries, other countries continue 
to constitute a problem. Thus, while shipments 
from Yugoslavia in September reached 134,000 
tons compared with 64,000 tons in July, shipments 
to Czechoslovakia and Poland amounted to little 
over 40,000 tons each, due primarily to lack of 
sufficient port reception capacity." 

The following table shows UNRRA shipments 
to the liberated areas through September. 



ESTIMATED SHIPMENT OF UNRRA SUPPLIES TO 
LIBERATED AREAS BY COUNTRY OF DESTINA- 
TION THROUGH SEPTEMBER, 1945 

( Basis of Vessels Cleared ) 



Country of Destination 



Albania 

Czechoslovakia 

Greece 

Italy 

Poland 

Yugoslavia 

Other UNRRA Operations 
China 

Total 



Gross Long Tons Dollar Value 



25, 400 

158, 400 

1, 168, 900 

102, 200 

163, 300 

455, 400 

5,200 

200 



2, 079, 000 



$9, 000, 000 

73, 900, 000 

189, 800, 000 

21, 000, 000 

89, 900, 000 

143, 600, 000 

2, 700, 000 

600, 000 



$530, 500, 000 



' Not printed. 



548 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Discussions on Draft Constitution for 
Educational and Cultural Organization 

GROUP MEETING AT THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



[Released to the press October 1] 

The draft constitution of the proposed Educa- 
tional and Cultural Organization of the United 
Nations was discussed at a conference held at the 
Department of State on September 24.^ The meet- 
ing was one of a series being held throughout the 
country for the purpose of informing representa- 
tives of interested organizations about the pro- 
posals and for obtaining suggestions for changes in 
the draft constitution. Similar meetings have been 
held in New York, San Francisco, Chicago, and 
Denver. 

Suggestions and recommendations emanating 
from these meetings will be transmitted to the 
United States Delegation to the United Nations 
conference which is to be held in London beginning 
November 1 for final drafting of the constitution. 



Representatives of some 50 national organizations 
accepted the invitation to attend the meeting in 
Washington, where discussion centered around 
such questions as: 

Should membership in the organization be 
limited to members of the United Nations? 

Is the statement of functions and purposes ade- 
quate as contained in the draft constitution? 

Are its provisions adequate to establish mutually 
satisfactory relations between the organization and 
private international organizations? 

How should the relations between this organiza- 
tion and the United Nations be defined in the 
agreement to be concluded after the organization 
is established ? 



REMARKS BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY BENTON 



[Released to the press October 1] 

I have been trying to get rid of that term educa- 
tional and cultural affairs, but you can see how it 
haunts me. It is impossible to get terminology that 
properly describes some of these areas in which I 
am interested. The announcement of Acting 
Secretary Acheson dubbed me with a Jiew phrase 
as Asistant Secretary in charge of public affairs. 
That seems to take in ahnost anything. 

It gives me a lot of satisfaction to welcome you to 
this working conference of citizens and the State 
Department. Today's meeting is significant and 
it seems to me a practical attempt to further the 
democratic processes in foreign affairs and in the 
making of foreign policy through meetings of the 
State Department with those most competent to 
advise it. 



' For text of draft constitution see Btjixetin of Aug. 5, 
194.J, p. 168. 

' Made at the opening of tlie Washington meeting, at 
which Mr. Benton presided. 



I inquired last week about the history of this 
idea of consultants for the State Department, and 
I find that it began in a very small way as far 
back as 193-i with the creation of a committee 
called the Committee for Reciprocity Information. 
Through this committee the public attempted to 
advise the State Department on questions on the 
Trade Agreements Act. We — all of us — know 
more about the continuation of this idea last 
winter in the form of the national program of 
discussion and consultation centering around the 
Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, and of course that 
program culminated very logically in the consult- 
ant operation at the San Francisco conference. 

It is my hope in my area of public affairs greatly 
to expand on these rather humble beginnings in 
the coming months. Good ideas are seldom if 
ever, however, new ideas; someone's always had 
them before. 

The test of any good idea is the way in which it 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



549 



is ajDplied. I remember at the University of Chi- 
cago an area that interested me greatly, and that 
was the University broadcasting. Wlien I joined 
the staff of the University nine years ago I found 
going along on the air every week the University 
of Chicago Round Table. That program had 
been created by some of the professors who were 
interested in broadcasting and a dozen or fifteen 
of them who were most interested took turns giv- 
ing up their time on Sundays to put the program 
on the air; in fact, there was one stretch of six- 
teen weeks where the same three men went on every 
week because no one else would go on. I discov- 
ered that a large percentage of the board of trus- 
tees of the University of Chicago had never even 
heard of the program. A considerable percent- 
age of the people on the faculty refused to par- 
ticipate in it. I didn't create the program; as a 
matter of fact, in spite of all my effox'ts during 
the nine years, I didn't affect it very greatly, but I 
did at least get the money and the production tal- 
ent and the people to work on it so that, during 
my responsibility for it, it became known not only 
to the board of trustees of the University of Chi- 
cago but became established as the leading, most 
important program of its kind in broadcasting 
and, for a long period of years, enjoyed the largest 
audience of any program of its kind in broadcast- 
ing. I give this only as an illustration that the 
idea was not new but the problem was a problem 
of the development of a good idea. 

The subject you are going to discuss today is 
to me of course not only important but very excit- 
ing; in fact, it is the most exciting subject to me 
personally in which I have been projected these 
past few weeks. 

I joined the staff of the University of Chicago 
because of my deep interest in education. My 
father for 33 years was a university professor ; my 
mother spent 25 years of her life as a teacher and 
university professor; my imcle was head of the 
Latin and Greek department of the University 
of Minnesota for almost 40 years ; my aunt was in 
the Latin department at Smith for over 20 years 
and later dean of women at Carlton College in 
Minnesota. My interest in education thus springs 
out of my childhood — out of my family back- 
ground — and it has been enhanced by these past 9 
years in Chicago. I know we can all agree it is 
not possible to overestimate the part education 



can play in making or breaking the new United 
Nations Organization. 

For the past six years we have been putting all 
our strength and all our intelligence into the fight 
against Fascism, and now we must try to turn the 
same strength and that same intelligence into a 
fight for peace and for a better life for the common 
man. We are now setting up the Organization of 
the United Nations through which we hope to 
determine the outcome of that fight. The strategy 
of terror won the battles for Japan and Germany ; 
the strategy of truth could help us win these com- 
ing battles of the peace. Our chances of winning 
are very slim indeed unless the people of the 
United Nations can arm themselves with the 
truth. 

Looking back it seems very odd that the word 
education was not mentioned even once in the 
League of Nations Covenant. Even in San Fran- 
cisco I understand that there was a pretty hot 
argument over whether that dangerous word 
should be in the Charter. We can thank the forces 
of progress at San Francisco for the fact that 
it is not only mentioned but that it is mentioned 
nine times. 

The fact that education has been perverted into 
propaganda by enemies of democracy isn't any 
reason for us to be timid. Educators will always 
be accused of being propagandists. Of course 
I am already so accused, in this new job of mine, 
but it isn't any excuse for failure to try to do the 
job. 

The new Educational and Cultural Organiza- 
tion of the United Nations cannot be allowed to 
fail. There isn't any such thing in the mind of 
man as a vacuum. Where truth does not penetrate, 
ignorance and prejudice are sure to prevail. I 
hope that you will go away from this discussion 
feeling that the chances for^truth are being ad- 
vanced. Good luck to all of you today and God- 
speed. 



^ THE FOREIGN SERVICE ^ 



Embassy at Warsaw 

The American Embassy at Warsaw, Poland, was 
reestablished July 31, 1945. 



550 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Agreement Between United States and Norway 
Relating to Air-Transport Services 



[Released to the press October 6] 

The Department of State announced the conclu- 
sion of a reciin-ocal civil air-transport agreement 
with Norway, which was concluded by exchange 
of notes dated October fi, 1045 signed by Assistant 
Secretary of State William L. Clayton and the 
Norwegian Charge d'Affaires ad interim, Mr. Lars 
J. Jorstad. 

The agreement, which becomes effective October 
15, includes the so-called "fifth freedom" privileges 
with respect to the carriage of international traffic. 

Text of the agreement follows : 

AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA AND NORWAY RELATING TO AIR 
TRANSPORT SERVICES 

The Governments of the United States of Amer- 
ica and Norway signed on October 16, 1933 an 
air navigation arrangement governing the opera- 
tion of civil aircraft of the one country in the ter- 
ritory of the other country, in which each party 
agreed that consent for the operations over its 
territory by air transport companies of the other 
party might not be refused on unreasonable or 
arbitrary grounds. Pursuant to the aforemen- 
tioned arrangement of 1933, the two governments 
hereby conclude the following arrangement cover- 
ing the operation of scheduled airline services be- 
tween their respective territories, based on the 
standard form of agreement for air routes and 
services included in the Final Act of the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Conference signed at 
Chicago on December 7, 1944. 

Article 1 

The contracting parties grant the rights speci- 
fied in the Annex hereto necessary for establishing 
the international civil air routes and sei'vices 
therein described, whether such services be inau- 
gurated immediately or at a later date at the 
option of the contracting party to whom the rights 
are granted. 



Article 2 

(a) Each of the air services so described shall 
be placed in operation as soon as the contracting 
party to whom the rights have been granted by 
Article 1 to designate an airline or airlines for the 
route concerned has authorized an airline for such 
route, and the contracting party granting the 
rights shall, subject to Article 6 hereof, be bound 
to give the appropriate operating permission to the 
airline or airlines concerned; provided that the 
airlines so designated may be required to qualify 
before the competent aeronautical authorities of 
the contracting party granting the rights under 
tlie laws and regulations noi-mally applied by these 
authorities before being permitted to engage in 
the operations contemplated by this agreement; 
and provided that in areas of hostilities or of 
militar^^ occupation, or in areas affected thereby, 
such inauguration shall be subject to the approval 
of the competent military authorities. 

(b) It is understood that either contracting 
party grunted commercial rights under this agree- 
ment should exercise them at the earliest practi- 
cable date except in the case of temporary inability 
to do so. 

Article 3 

In order to prevent discriminatory practices and 
to assure equality of ti>eatment, both contracting 
parties agree that: 

(a) Each of the contracting parties may impose 
or permit to be imposed just and reasonable 
charges for the use of public airports and other fa- 
cilities under its control. Each of the contracting 
parties agrees, however, that these charges shall 
not be higher than would be paid for the use of 
such airports and facilities by its national aircraft 
engaged in similar international services. 

(b) Fuel, lubricating oils and spare parts in- 
troduced into the territory of one contracting party 
by the other contracting party or its nationals, and 



OCTOBER 7, 1945 



551 



intended sole!}' for use bj^ aircraft of such other 
contracting party shall be accorded national and 
niost-favored-nation treatment with respect to the 
imposition of customs duties, inspection fees or 
other national duties or charges by the contracting 
party whose territory is entered. 

(c) The fuel, lubricating oils, spare parts, reg- 
ular equipment and aircraft stores retained on 
board civil aircraft of the airlines of one contract- 
ing party authorized to operate the routes and 
services described in the Annex shall, upon arriv- 
ing in or leaving the territory of the other con- 
tracting party, be exempt from customs, inspection 
fees or similar duties or charges, even though such 
supplies be used or consumed by such aircraft on 
flights in that territory. 

Article 4- 
Certificates of airworthiness, certificates of 
competency and licenses issued or rendered valid 
by one contracting party shall be recognized as 
valid by the other contracting party for the pur- 
pose of operating the routes and services de- 
scribed in the Annex. Each contracting party 
reserves the right, however, to refuse to recog- 
nize, for the purpose of flight above its own ter- 
ritory, certificates of competency and licenses 
granted to its own nationals by another state. 

Article 5 

(a) The laws and regulations of one contract- 
ing party relating to the admission to or depar- 
ture from its territory of aircraft engaged in in- 
ternational air navigation, or to the operation 
and navigation of such aircraft while within its 
territory, shall be applied to the aircraft of the 
other contracting party, and shall be complied 
with by such aircraft upon entering or departing 
from or while within the territory of the first 
party. 

(b) The laws and regulations of one contract- 
ing party as to the admission to or departure 
from its territory of passengers, crew, or cargo 
of aircraft, such as regulations relating to entry, 
clearance, immigration, passports, customs, and 
quarantine shall be complied with by or on be- 
half of such passengers, crew or cargo of the 
other contracting party upon entrance into or de- 
parture from, or while within the territory of 
the first party. 



Article 6 

Each contracting party reserves the right to 
withhold or revoke a certificate or permit to an 
airline of the other party in any case where it 
is not satisfied that substantial ownership and ef- 
fective control are vested m nationals of either 
party to this agreement, or in case of failure of 
an airline to comply with the laws of the state 
over which it operates as described in Article 5 
hereof, or to perform its obligations under this 
agreement. 

Article 7 

This agreement and all contracts connected 
therewith shall be registered with the Provisional 
Intel-national Civil Aviation Organization. 

Article 8 

Except as may be modified by the present 
agreement, the general principles of the afore- 
mentioned air navigation arrangement of 1933 
as applicable to scheduled air transport services 
shall continue in force until otherwise agreed 
upon by the two contracting parties. 

Article 9 

In the event either of the contracting parties con- 
siders it desirable to modify the routes or condi- 
tions set forth in the attached Annex, it may re- 
quest consultation between the competent author- 
ities of both contracting parties, such consultation 
to begin within a period of sixty days from the 
date of the request. When these authorities mu- 
tually agree on new or revised conditions affect- 
ing the vVnnex, their recommendations on the mat- 
ter will come into effect after they have been con- 
firmed by an exchange of diplomatic notes. 

Article 10 

Either contracting party may terminate this 
agreement, or the rights for any of the services 
granted thereunder, by giving one year's notice to 
the other contracting party. 

Annex to Air Transport Agreement Bet\\'een 
THE United States of America and Noravay 

A. Airlines of the United States of America au- 
thorized under the present agreement are accorded 
rights of transit and non-traffic stop in the terri- 
tory of Norway, as well as the right to pick up and 
discharge international traffic in passengers, cargo 



552 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and mail at Oslo (Gardernioen) or Stavanger 
(Sola), on the following route: 

The United States via intermediate points to 
Oslo or Stavanger and points beyond ; in both 
directions. 
Airlines of the United States of America having 
the right to pick up and discharge international 
traffic on the above route will make sufficient traf- 
fic stops in Oslo or Stavanger to offer reasonable 
commercial service for traffic to and from Norway; 
provided that this undertaking shall not involve 
any discrimination between airlines of the United 
States and other countries operating on that same 
route, shall take into account the capacity of the 
aircraft, and shall be fulfilled in such a manner as 
not to prejudice the normal operations of the in- 
ternational air services concerned. 

B. Airlines of Norway authorized under the 
present agreement are accorded rights of transit 
and non-traffic stop in the territory of the United 
States of America, as well as the right to pick up 
and discharge international traffic in passengers, 
cargo and mail at New York or Chicago, on the 
following route : 

Norway via intermediate points to New York 
or Chicago ; in both directions. 



Suggestion for Postponement 
of Inter-American Conference 
for Maintenance of Peace 
and Security 

Statement by ACTING SECRETARY ACHESON 

[Released to the press Oi'tober 3] 

In view of recent developments in Argentina, 
the United States Government does not feel that it 
can properly negotiate or sign with the present 
Argentine regime a treaty of military assistance. 
Since the conference to be convened in Rio de 
Janeiro on October 20 is exclusively for the pur- 
pose of negotiating such a treaty, this Government 
has commvinicated with the host Government of 



' The Governing Board of the Pan American Union met 
on Oct. 5 and adopted a resolution presented by Ambas- 
sador Galo Plaza, of Ecuador, to postpone the Rio con- 
ference scheduled for Oct. 20 and to call a special meeting 
of the Governing Board for Nov. 20 to consider a new 
date for the inter-American conference. 



Brazil suggesting that that conference be post- 
poned but emphasizing that, in view of the great 
importance which this Government attaches to the 
negotiation of such a treaty, it has urged that ne- 
gotiations proceed as rapidly as possible to the 
end of concluding and signing such a treaty in Rio 
de Janeiro at the earliest possible moment.^ 

Argentine Situation 

Statement by ACTING SECRETARY ACHESON 

[Released to the press October 3] 

It is the purpose of this Government to consult 
with the other American republics in respect to 
the Argentine situation. 

Arrangements for Housing 
Americans in Paris 

[Released to the press October 6] 

Special arrangements for housing Americans 
who are temporarily in Paris on business have been 
made by the American Embassy there. 

Due to the difficulty experienced by visiting 
American businessmen in locating rooms and in 
obtaining meals, the Embassy has arranged, in 
cooperation with the Army, to operate the Hotel 
California in the Rue de Berri for the accommo- 
dation of a limited number of Americans whose 
reason for being in Paris is one of importance to 
the reestablishment of international trade. 

The prices have been fixed at $2.75 per day for 
meals and from $4 to $11 per day for rooms. No 
reservations can be made in advance, but accommo- 
dations will be assigned by the Embassy's visitors 
bureau to businessmen on arrival in Paris, if they 
are on important missions connected with interna- 
tional trade and are unable to find accommoda- 
tions elsewhere. 

The Department emphasizes that only transients 
can be accommodated, and that persons intending 
to remain in Paris for three weeks or longer must 
seek other arrangements. The Embassy's visitors 
bureau will assist them in this, but cannot give 
advance assurances that suitable accommodations 
can be found. 

The Army has agreed to permit businessmen 
traveling outside of Paris, in areas where U. S. 
forces are stationed, to use Army billeting and mess 
facilities wherever they ai'e available. 



OCTOBER 7. 1945 



553 



The Department repeats its warning to prospec- 
tive American travelers that the conditions they 
will face in Paris and elsewhere in Europe are ex- 
tremely bad, and will be worse during the winter 
months, and urges that no one attempt to travel 
there except on matters of urgent importance. 



Compensation for Petroleum 
Properties Expropriated 
in Mexico 

I Kelpased to the press October 2] 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Mexico has 
presented to the Acting Secretary of State his Gov- 
ernment's check for $4,085,327.45 in payment of the 
instalment due at this time under the agreement 
effected through an exchange of notes on Septem- 
ber 29, 1943 establishing the manner and conditions 
of payment of compensation to this Government 
for the benefit of certain American nationals who 
sustained losses as a consequence of the expi-opria- 
tion of petroleum properties in Mexico in March 
1938.^ The Acting Secretary of State requested the 
Charge d'Affaires to convey to his Government an 
expression of this Government's appreciation. 

With the present payment of $4,085,327.45 the 
balance remaining amounts to $8,170,654.90 to be 
liquidated over a period of two years by the pay- 
ment of $4,085,327.45 on September 30 of each year. 
Upon payment of the remaining instalments the 
total payments will amount to $29,137,700.84. 

^ THE DEPARTMENT ^ 



Division of International Conferences' 

Purpose. The present order is issued to rede- 
fine, pending the issuance of a more comprehensive 
ox'der, the responsibilities within the Department 
of State for the conduct of or participation in 
international conferences, congresses, expositions, 
meetings, et cetera. 

1 Responsibilities for over-all supervision. The 
Assistant Secretary or other officer designated by 
the Secretary, charged with jurisdiction over the 
subject-matter with which an international con- 



ference is to deal, shall be responsible for the exe- 
cution of policy and for the over-all supervision 
of the preparations for and conduct of the con- 
ferences. The Division of International Con- 
ferences and the political or technical divisions 
primarily concerned shall collaborate with, advise, 
and assist the Assistant Secretary as required. 

2 Primary responsibility for organizational and 
administrative aspects. The Division of Interna- 
tional Conferences shall, under the direction of 
the appropriate Assistant Secretary and in col- 
laboration with the pertinent political or technical 
divisions, have primary responsibility for the 
planning, coordination, and execution of organi- 
zr«tional and administrative aspects of interna- 
tional conferences in which the Government of 
the United States and, particularly, the Depart- 
ment of State participate, other than conferences 
of the United Nations Organization. With respect 
to the latter category the Division of International 
Conferences and the Office of Si^ecial Political 
Affairs shall collaborate as circumstances may re- 
quire. The services of the Division of Interna- 
tional Conferences shall also be available, upon 
his request, to the Assistant Secretary in charge, 
for coordination and planning with respect to 
policy asjjects of any conferences in which the 
Government of the United States participates. 

3 C olldboration of other offices and divisions. 
The offices and divisions of the Department which 
are responsible for budget, personnel, and admin- 
istrative servicing matters shall collaborate with 
and work under the general direction of the Divi- 
sion of International Conferences in regard to the 
planning and execution of the administrative 
aspects of international conferences at home and 
United States participation in conferences held 
abroad. 

4 Information for the Division of International 
Conferences. The Division of International Con- 
ferences shall be informed jjromptly and fully of 
any circumstances that may lead to the convening 
of an international conference and shall be kept 
informed of current developments regarding such 
conference. In this connection the Records 
Branch of the Division of Central Services shall 



' Bulletin of Oct. 8, 1944, p. 385. 

- Departmental Order 1340, issued and efifective Sept. 22, 
1945. 



554 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



see that the Division of International Conferences 
is included in the routing or distribution of papers 
relating to all international conferences. 

5 ApplicabUity of the foregoing prolusions to 
international congresses, expositions, et cetera. 
The foregoing provisions shall also apply with 
respect to international congresses, expositions, 
meetings, et cetera. 

6 Departmental orders amended. Depart- 
mental Order 1301, and any other order in con- 
flict herewith, are amended accordingly. 

Dean Acheson 
Acting Secretary 



Supplemental Estimates of Appropriations for the De- 
partment of State. H.Doc. 299, 79th Cong. 2 pp. 

Facilitating Further the Disposition of Prizes Captured 
by the United States. S.Rept. 603, 79th Cong., to accom- 
pany S. 1420. 4 pp. [Favorable report.] 



Publications 



of the DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



Appointment of Officers 

Francis H. Russell as Acting Director of the 
Office of Public Affairs, such designation to run 
concurrently with his duties as Chief of the Divi- 
sion of Public Liaison, effective September 29, 
1945. 




Study of Naturalization Laws and Procedures: Hear- 
ings before Subcommittee II of the Committee ou Im- 
migation and Naturalization, House of Representatives, 
Seventy-ninth Congress, first session, pursuant to H.R. 52, 
a bill authorizing a complete study of immigration and 
naturalization laws and problems. May 9, June 4 and 6, 
194.5. iii, 95 jjp. 

To Provide for Reorganizing Agencies of the Govern- 
ment, and for Otlier Purposes: Hearings before the Com- 
mittee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments, 
House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth Congress, first 
session, on H.R. 3325, a bill to provide for reorganizing 
-agencies of the Government, aud for other purposes, Sep- 
tember 4 and 5, 1945. ii, 137 pp. 

Elimination of German Resources for War: Hearings 
before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Military 
Affairs, United States Senate, Seventy-ninth Congress, 
first session, pursuant to S.Res. 107 (78th Congress) and 
S.Res. 146 (79th Congress), authorizing a study of war 
mobilization problems; part 5, Testimony of Treasury 
Department, July 2, 1945. iv, 283 pp. 

Amending Section 401(a) of the Nationality Act of 1940 
so as To Preserve the Nationality of Certain United States 
Citizens Who Have Been Unable To Return to the United 
States. H.Rept. 1035, 79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 4191. 
3 pp. [Favorable report] 

Creating a Joint Committee To Study and Investigate 
the Control of the Atomic Bomb. H.Rept. 1036, 79th Cong., 
to accompany H.Cou.Res. 83. 1 p. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C, 
who is the authorized distributor of Government 
publications. To avoid delay, address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may 
be obtained from the Department of State. 

*Status of Countries in Relation to the War, 
August 12, 1945. Compiled by Katharine 
Elizabeth Crane. Publication 23S9. 13 pp. 

10^. 

Supplementing a previous study by Dr. Crane, en- 
titled Status of Countries in Relation to the War, 
April 22, 1944. 

*Air Transport Services : Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Ireland — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at 
Washington February 3, 1945. Executive 
Agreement Series 460. Publication 2375. 
9 pp. 5(i. 

An agreement between the two Governments to allow 
for air privileges in the territories under their juris- 
diction, according to the standard form provided in 
the final act of the International Civil Aviation Con- 
ference signed at Chicago December 7, 1944. 

^Diplomatic List, September 1945. Publication 
2385. ii, 128 pp. Subscription, $2 a year; 
single copy 200. 

Monthly list of foreign diplomatic representatives in 
Washington, with their addresses, prepared by the 
Division of Protocol of the Department of State. 

A cumxiUitive list of the puUications of the Department 
of State, from October 1, 1929 to July 1, 19J,5 (publica- 
tion 2373) may he had from the Department of State. 

U. S. GOVERHHENT PBINTiNG OFFICE. 1945 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BT 
u 



J 



J 



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1 r 



1 




VOL. XIII, NO. 329 



OCTOBER 14, 1945 



In this issue 



WORLD COOPERATION FOR PEACE 
Address by the President 

MOBILIZATION FOR PEACE AND RECONSTRUCTION THROUGH THE 
UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION 
Address by Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. 

INTERNATIONAL BODIES FOR NARCOTICS CONTROL 
Bv Philip M. Burnett 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 



rA©NX o^ 




-^xes o^ 



0. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENT 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLETIN 



^•"•' o. 



Vol. XIII. No. 329* 




•PuBLicATion 2399 



October 14, 1945 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on i-arious phases of 
international affairs and thefunctions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of in ter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published icith the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
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Government Printing Office, ffash- 
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scription price is $3.50 a year; a single 
copy is 10 cents. 



tiOy 6 1945 



C 



ontents 



American Republics 

Visit of President Rios of Chile: page 

Program of Visit in the United States 568 

Address of Welcome by the Secretary of State 569 

Europe 

Communiqu6s Issued by Council of Foreign Ministers . . 564 
Arrival of the Polish Minister for Foreign Affairs .... 674 

UNRRA Program in Italy 578 

Appointment of Mark Etheridge To Investigate Conditions 

in the Balkans 683 

Far East 

Far Eastern Advisory Commission: 

Terms of Reference 561 

Appointment of Representatives 580 

Thirty-Fourth Anniversary of the Republic of China . . . 581 

Traveling Accommodations in the Far East 582 

Repatriation of Americans from Shanghai 585 

Patrick J. Hurley To Return to China 585 

Cultural Cooperation 

Pan-American Book Exposition 583 

Economic Affairs 

Estimate for UNRRA Appropriation 575 

Operations of UNRRA 577 

Financial and Trade Discussions With the United Kingdom . 580 
General 

World Cooperation for Peace. Address by the President . 557 

Return of Americans on the Gripsholm 585 

The United Nations 

Mobilization for Peace and Reconstruction Through the 
United Nations Organization. Address by Edward R. 

Stettinius, Jr 559 

United Nations Headquarters: 

Discussion on Selection of Seat 562 

Vote for Location in the United States 563 

Treaty Information 

Monetary Agreement: United Kingdom-Denmark .... 563 
International Bodies for Narcotics Control. By Philip M. 

Burnett 570 

Ratification of Charter of the United Nations: Denmark, 

Chile, Philippine Commonwealth, Paraguay 581 

Iraqi Barter Agreements: Lebanon, Syria and Palestine . . 584 

Aviation Agreements 584 

Denunciation of Patent-Interchange Agreement 585 

The Department 

Appointment of Donald S. Russell as Assistant Secretary of 

State 558 

Resignation of Frank McCarthy as Assistant Secretary of 
State, Exchange of Letters Between the President and 

Mr. McCarthy 582 

Appointment of Officers 585 

Change in Name of the Special War Problems Division 

to Special Projects Division 686 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 586 

The Congress 586 

Publications 586 



World Cooperation for Peace 



Address by THE PRESIDENT ' 



Jim Ahe.\kn, Mt Friends of Southeast Mis- 
souri, Northeast Arkansas, Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky, AND Illinois : It is a pleasure to be here 
today. Once again I am your guest at the Ameri- 
can Legion Fair. It is a customary procedure for 
me. This is no. 12. I came down here the first 
time, if I remember correctly, in 1934:. At that 
time, I was the presiding judge of the County 
Court of Jackson County, and a candidate for 
United States Senator. The next time I came, I 
was the United States Senator from Missouri, and 
for nine times I came down here as the Senator 
from Missouri — because I like to come. I have 
almost as many friends in this part of the great 
State of Missouri as I have in Jackson County, 
and that is really saying something. 

Last year I came as the candidate for Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States. Mr. Roosevelt and 
myself were the candidates on the Democratic 
ticket. We won that election, as you know, and I 
settled down as President of the Senate and its 
presiding officer to happily enjoy a four-year 
tei-m. 

Then suddenly, like a bolt out of the blue, Mr. 
Roosevelt passed away — a gi-eat leader, a great 
humanitarian, the greatest of our war Presidents. 
And the greatest responsibility that ever has fallen 
to a human being in the history of the world fell 
to me. 

In my first address to the Congress, after- that 
happened, I explained to them that I had not 
sought that responsibility, nor had I sought the 
honor which goes with that responsibility. But I 
have been a public servant in one phase or another 
for the past 30 years, and I have never shirked 
a job. I shall not shirk this one. 

I told the members of Congress and the Nation 
that if we were to be successful — and we will be, 



'Made at the Pemiscot County American Legion Fair 
in Caruthersville, Mo., on Oct. 7, 194a. 



undoubtedly — it would require the cooperation not 
only of the Congress but of the country as a whole 
for us to accomplish the things which Almighty 
, God intended this great Nation to accomplish. 

Just to rehearse for your benefit a few of the 
things that have happened since April 12, 1945 — 
just about six months ago : The San Francisco con- 
ference was convened on the twenty-fifth day of 
April — just 13 days after I was sworn in as Presi- 
dent of the United States. That conference was 
successful, and just about four months after it 
was convened the United States Senate approved 
the Charter of the United Nations by an over- 
whelming majority. There were only two Sena- 
tors against it, and I never did understand why 
they were against it. At any rate, the United 
States entered on an entirely new development of 
its foreign policy. 

Some three months after that, I went to Berlin 
to a meeting of the heads of the Governments of 
Russia, Great Britain, and the United States, 
in order to discuss the world outlook for the com- 
ing peace. The deliberations of that conference 
will be felt for genei-ations in the final peace. 

Just a little less than a month after I became 
President, that is, 26 days after I was inaugurated, 
the Axis powers in Europe folded up. On the 
twelfth day of August, Japan folded up. In the 
meantime, one of the most earth-shaking discov- 
eries in the history of the world was made — the 
development of atomic energy was discovered. 
That discovery was used in the last war effort 
against Japan, and the effect of that atomic bomb 
is too terrible for contemplation. But we have 
only begun on the atomic-energy program. That 
great force, if properly used by this country of 
ours, and by the world at large, can become the 
greatest boon that humanity has ever had. It can 
create a world which, in my opinion, will be the 
happiest world that the sun has ever shone upon. 

Now I am reminding you of all these things 

557 



( 



558 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



which have taken place in the last short six months 
to impress ui^on you the terrible responsibilities of 
the President of the United States. The President 
of the United States is your President. I am tell- 
ing you just what his responsibilities are, because 
j^ou are my friends and I think you understand — 
I think you understand the difficulties which I face. 

Now it is just as necessary to have the coopera- 
tion of every branch and every member of every 
part of the Government of the United States, from 
the constable in this township to the President of 
the Senate. We must have that cooperation. We 
must go forward — we are going forward. 

We understand that the road to peace is just as, 
difficult and maybe more difficult than was the road 
to victory during the war. And the reason for 
that difficulty is that we all distinctly understand 
that after every war there is bound to be a let-down, 
there is bound to be a change of attitude, there are 
bound to be a great many of us who say, "Oh, well, 
I don't have to work any more. I don't have to 
take any interest in the welfare of my Government 
any more." We can't have that attitude. We must 
cooperate now as we never have before in the 
history of this country. We have the greatest 
production machine that the world has ever seen. 
We conclusively proved that free government is the 
most efficient government in every emergency. We 
conclusively proved that by our victories over Ger- 
many and Italy and Japan and their allies. In 
order to prove to the world that our reconversion 
program can be handled just as efficiently, and that 
our tremendous production machine can be oper- 
ated for peace as well as for war, we must all get 
in and push. 

That doesn't require anything in the world but 
plain understanding among ourselves. That re- 
quires the cooperation of management and labor 
and the farmers, and every storekeeper, and every 
man who has an interest in the Government of the 
United States. And by showing that we ourselves 
know where we are going and why, we can show 
the rest of the world the road to liberty and to 
peace. We are not anywhere near stalled on that 
road. We are only beginning to travel it. 

We are going to have difficulties. You can't do 
anything worth while without difficulties. No 
man who ever accomplishes anything can expect 
to do it without making mistakes. The man who 
never does anything never makes any mistakes. 



We may make mistakes. We may have difficul- 
ties, but I am asking you to exercise that admoni- 
tion which you will find in the Gospels, and which 
Christ told us was the way to get along in the 
world : Do by your neighbor as you would be 
done by. ■ 

And that applies to you, and you, just as it ap- 
plies to Great Britain and France and China and 
Russia and Czechoslovakia, and Poland and 
Brazil. When the nations decide that the wel- 
fare of the world is much more important than 
any individual gain which they themselves can 
make at the expense of another nation, then we 
can take this discovery which we have made and 
make this world the greatest place the sun has 
ever shone upon. 

Now, in 1938, I stood on this platform right 
here and explained to you that our then isola- 
tionism would eventually lead to war. I made 
that speech after President Roosevelt made his 
speech at Chicago in 1937, in which he warned 
the world that we were approaching another 
world war. 

We can't stand another global war. We can't 
ever have another war, unless it is total war, and 
that means the end of our civilization as we know 
it. We are not going to do that. We are going 
to accept that "golden rule", and we are going 
forward to meet our destiny which I think 
Almighty God intended us to have. 

And we are going to be the leaders. 

Thank you very much. 



Appointment of 

Donald S. Russell as Assistant 

Secretary of State 

[Released to the press October 12] 

The Secretary of State announced on October 
12 that Donald S. Russell, Assistant Secretary of 
State, has been assigned the duties of administra- 
tion heretofore exercised by Frank McCarthy, 
whose resignation was accepted on October 11 by 
the President. Mr. Russell assumed his duties as 
Assistant Secretary of State on September 24, 
1945. 



OCTOBER 14, 1945 



559 



Mobilization for Peace and Reconstruction 
Through the United Nations Organization 



Address by EDWARD R. STETTINIUS, JR. 



I AM HONORED to take part in this great meeting 
of men and women dedicated to the cause of 
the United Nations. I am particularly proud and 
happy to stand on this platform with my old 
friends and coworkers at the San Francisco con- 
ference, wlio contributed so much to its success — 
your distinguished Prime Minister, Mr. Clement 
Attlee, and the Right Honorable Anthony Eden — 
and with my new friend and colleague in the 
organizing work in which we are engaged here 
in London — your Minister of State, Mr. Noel- 
Baker. 

I want also to pay special tribute to another 
of the distinguished speakers on this platform, 
Lord Robert Cecil, and to bring him a message 
from America. We in Ajnerica who believed that 
Woodrow Wilson was right 26 years ago have 
always held high the name of Lord Robert Cecil, 
whose vision, like Wilson's, was clear when that 
of others was clouded. 

Last time the United States failed to join the 
League, and other nations who did join failed to 
use the League as it should have been used. Now, 
after a war far more devastating and wide-spread 
than the last, we have made a new beginning in the 
Charter of the United Nations. 

This time — and this is the message that I bring — 
this time the United States is in it, all the way in it, 
and in it to stay. 

This time, also, the Soviet Union has joined 
actively in writing the Charter and in creating the 
Organization. 

This time evei"y member nation knows with 
certainty that if we do not build enough strength 
into the Organization to prevent another great 
war the end of civilization is at hand. 

I do not suggest that the work which lies ahead 
of us will be easy. It will not be easy. The peace- 
time collaboration of the five great nations which 
are permanent members of the Security Council, 
and of the other United Nations, will necessarily 
be more difficult than was our wartime collabora- 



tion. We seem to have a habit of forgetting one 
of the first lessons that every one of us learned as a 
child : how much easier and quicker it is to kick 
down a house of blocks than to build one. The 
construction of peace is far more difficult and takes 
far more time than the destruction of war. 

Our discouragements and difficulties have al- 
ready begim. We should not minimize them. But 
I do suggest that we try to keep matters in 
perspective. 

As Lend-Lease Administrator from 1941 to 
1943 I saw the United States, Great Britain, and 
the Soviet Union create the greatest system of 
combined war supply the world has ever seen. 
Later at Dumbarton Oaks, Yalta, and San Fran- 
cisco, I have seen them building together firm 
foundations for the United Nations Organiza- 
tion. I believe that our three countries have 
proved beyond the shadow of any doubt that we 
can work successfully together, and with China, 
France, and the other United Nations, and that 
we can constantly extend the scope of our col- 
laboration. As we extend its scope, our differ- 
ences will inevitably grow in number but so will 
our experience in finding the means to resolve 
them and our confidence in each other. 

There were many disagreements at San Fran- 
cisco. They were resolved. The disagreements 
which arose at the Council of Foreign Ministers 
will also be resolved, and for the same reason, 
because it is in the vital national interest of each 
of the nations concerned that they be resolved. 

The Council of Foreign Ministers is concerned 
with peace treaties. The United Nations Organi- 
zation will be concerned with making peace per- 
manent and with the tremendous task of recon- 
struction. 

These tasks are urgent and progress may seem 



' Delivered in London on Oct. 10, 1945. Mr. Stettinius is 
United States Representative on the Preparatory Com- 
mission of the United Nations now meeting in London. 



560 

slow, but I venture to suggest that we have done 
much better so far at organizing the peace than 
we did last time. First of all, the San Fran- 
cisco conference was called before the end of the 
war in Europe. The Charter itself was com- 
pleted before the end of the war with Japan. 
Today, only two months after the end of hos- 
tilities, 32 nations have acted to ratify the Charter 
and 11 of them have deposited their ratifications 
in Washington. As soon as 29 ratifications have 
been deposited the Charter will come into force. 
We may confidently expect that this will occur in 
the immediate future. 

We shall then call together the full Prepara- 
tory Commission of 51 nations, and it will be 
followed, early in December, according to pres- 
sent plans, by the first meeting of the United Na- 
tions Assembly, which will take whatever action 
may be needed to insure that the United Nations 
will be ready to go to work in January, the first 
month of the first year of peace. 

I can assure you that the United States Gov- 
ernment regards it as of high importance that 
this plan be realized. The problems of collective 
security and of economic and social reconstruc- 
tion that confront us will not wait. Attempts to 
meet these problems by expedients and half-way 
measures will inevitably be made so long as they 
cannot be dealt with through the Organization 
itself. A trend in that direction, once developed, 
will be difficult to stop and might have the most 
serious consequences. 

In the field of security we need to begin upon 
the task of providing the Security Council with 
the force it needs to maintain peace. The first step 
is to establish the Military Slaff Committee, which 
will be a peacetime Combined Chiefs of Stail of 
the five permanent members of the Security Coiui- 
cil. In the field of economic recovery, interna- 
tional action is required to pump the lifeblood of 
peacetime trade back into the arteries of a world 
bled white by war. 

In Europe and in Asia there is untold suffering, 
and there will be more this winter. Everywhere 
there are millions who look with despair upon the 
homes and factories tumbled in ruin about them. 
Their hearts will not be lifted up by words, nor 
their hopes by boundaries drawn upon a map. 
They need more than emergency relief, vital as 
that is. They need international action that will 
open the way to a future of productive work, of 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

decent living conditions, and of security. They 
need proof that the nations of the world can work 
together to build as well as to destroy, to prevent 
war as well as to make it. That action the United 
Nations must provide. 

Last week the Executive Committee recom- 
mended placing the permanent headquarters of 
the United Nations in the United States. The 
United States has not sought this great honor and 
responsibility. The final decision is one which 
must be made by all the United Nations in the best 
interests of the Organization. But I do want to 
say this : If the recommendation of the Executive 
Committee is confirmed by the other United Na- 
tions and the Organization comes to the United 
States, that will not mean turning our back on 
Eui'ope. Quite the contrary. 

It is true that there are still isolationists in the 
United States. I find that there are isolationists 
of a sort in Britain, too, although they go by a 
different name. There are isolationists in Europe, 
and I am sure that the Soviet Union also has them. 
But I am also certain of another thing — isolation- 
ists of any breed today, though they may still ap- 
jsear to live and move and have their being, are in 
fact no more than vestigial remains of the pre- 
atomic age. 

The United Nations must meet the needs of the 
whole world, and the needs of Europe are cer- 
tainly among the most pressing. I have said be- 
fore that the United States is in "for keeps" this 
time. Our interests are deeply involved in the 
peace and well-being of Europe, as they are in the 
peace and well-being of Asia, and we shall support 
our interests upon both continents, not in any sense 
for domination or advantage but in the spirit of 
the United Nations Charter and as active partners 
with our Allies in the cause of peace and security. 
Before I close, may I add this personal word 
from the bottom of my heart. I have known and 
worked with the men of all parties who led you 
through the war, and I have seen England and 
its people at first-hand three times since that heroic 
summer of 1940 when you stood fast and saved 
the hope of ultimate victory. A nation capable of 
greatness such as yours can face the future with 
the highest pride and confidence. 

Now that victory has come, there has been the 
inevitable let-down, the days of discouragement, 
for both our countries. There are strikes in Amer- 
ica and tighter rations than ever over here. We 



OCTOBER 14, 1945 



561 



who owe so much to each other and have been 
joined in such great and lieroic enterprises must 
now listen to discordant voices on both sides of 
the Atlantic sniping at each other in the sharp and 
shallow words of little men. 

But I know that the real people in America be- 
lieve in you, just as I hope and believe that the 
real people in England believe in us. 



These are the hours of mobilization for peace 
and for reconstruction. As partners together and 
with the other United Nations — helping each 
other — let us act in the faith and brotherhood of 
those brave men whose blood was spent and 
mingled on battlefields round the world to give us 
this chance to build a peace worthy of their 
sacrifice. 



Far Eastern Advisory Commission 



TERMS OF reference' 

[Released to the press October 10] 

I. Establishment 

The Governments of the hereby 

establish a Far Eastern Advisory Commission 
composed of representatives of the Participating 
Powers. 

II. Functions 

A. The Far Eastern Advisory Commission shall 
be responsible for making recommendations to the 
participating Governments : 

1. On the formulation of policies, principles and 
standards by which the fulfillment by Japan 
of its obligations under the instrument of sur- 
render may be determined ; 

2. On the steps necessary and on the machinery 
required to ensure the strict compliance by 
Japan with the provisions of the instrument 
of surrender ; 

3. On such other matters as may be assigned to 
it by agreement of the participating Govern- 
ments. 

B. The Commission shall not make recommen- 
dations with regard to the conduct of military 
operations nor with regard to territorial adjust- 
ments. 

III. Other Methods of Consultation 

The establishment of the Commission shall not 
preclude the use of other methods of consultation 
on Far Eastern issues by the participating 
Governments. 

IV. Composition 

The Far Eastern Advisory Commission shall 
consist of one representative of each of the states 
party to this agreement. The membership of the 
Commission may be increased, as conditions war- 



rant, by the addition of representatives of other 
United Nations in the Far East or having terri- 
tories therein. Such United Nations as are not 
members of the Commission shall be invited to 
sit with the Commission when matters deemed 
by the Commission primarily to affect the inter- 
ests of such nations are under consideration. In 
addition, the Commission shall provide for full 
and adequate consultations, as occasion may re- 
quire, with representatives of the United Nations 
not members of the Commission, in regard to 
matters before the Commission which are of par- 
ticular concern to such nations. 

V. Location and Organization 

The Far Eastern Advisory Commission shall 
have its headquarters in Washington. It may 
meet at other places as the occasion requires. 

Each representative of the Commission may be 
accomjianied by an appropriate staff comprising 
both civilian and military representation. 

The Commission shall organize its secretariat, 
appoint such conmiittees as may be deemed ad- 
visable, and otherwise perfect its organization and 
procedure. 

VI. Termination 

The Far Eastern Advisory Commission shall 
cease to function upon notification by one of the 
Four Allied Powers, the United States, the United 
Kingdom, China and the Soviet Union, of its 
desire to terminate the agreement creating the 
(Continued on page 580) 



' Transmitted by the Governmeut of the United States 
on Aug. 21 to the Governments of China, Great Britain, 
and tlie Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. See ButtEriN 
of Oct. 7, 194.5, p. 545. 



562 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



United Nations Headquarters 

DISCUSSION ON SELECTION OF SEAT 



[Released to the press by the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations September 29] 

The selection of a seat for the permanent head- 
quarters of the United Nations was discussed for 
the first time on September 29 by the Executive 
Committee of the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations at a meeting held at Church House, 
Westminster, under the chairmanship of Mr. 
Gromyko, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

Submitting a report by Committee 10, which has 
prepared recommendations on the principles which 
should govern the choice of the location of the 
United Nations headquarters, M. N. Entezam 
(Iran), chairman of that committee, made the 
following points: The Committee recommends, 
with certain exceptions, the adoption of the princi- 
ple of centralization according to which the per- 
manent seat of the United Nations' principal and 
subsidiary organs, and of the specialized agencies 
related to the United Nations, should be concen- 
trated in one place. 

The second point, whether the seat of the United 
Nations should be in national territory or in inter- 
nationalized territory, was considered by the com- 
mittee in its various aspects, but no decision was 
taken, as it was not known whether any nation 
would be prepared to agi'ee to the internationaliza- 
tion of part of its territory. Thirdly, since the 
committee's terms of reference did not call for the 
recommendation of a specific site for the United 
Nations, the committee confined its activities to 
certain criteria which should govern the choice of 
the site. Some of these criteria are : Political con- 
ditions in the host state, and the general character 
of the press and public opinion therein, should be 
in harmony with the spirit of the Preamble and of 
article 1 of the Charter. The United Nations 
should be so situated as to be free from any at- 
tempt at improper political control or the exercise 
of undesirable local influence. The site should 
be easily accessible and possess adequate and satis- 
factory means of travel and communication. It 
is desirable that the site should enjoy favorable 
climatic conditions, that the local population 
should speak one or the other of the working 



languages of the United Nations (English or 
French), that there should be sufficient facilities 
for the establishment of the necessary offices of the 
United Nations. 

Mr. Noel-Baker (Great Britain) drew attention 
to the great importance of that part of the report 
dealing with the necessary freedom in the exercise 
of United Nations functions, diplomatic immuni- 
ties and privileges, et cetera. Certain instances of 
friction had occurred in the past, Mr. Noel-Baker 
said, and it was absolutely essential that complete 
freedom of action for the officials of the United 
Nations should be guaranteed. Safeguards for 
the freedom of expression of opinion and move- 
ment must also be set out with the greatest em- 
phasis. Mr. Noel-Baker hoped that it might be 
possible to make arrangements for an interna- 
tional passport for officials of the United Nations. 

Mr. Massigli (France) expressed himself in full 
agreement with Mr. Noel-Baker and urged that 
the report should expressly state that such immu- 
nities and facilities must be granted in all circum- 
stances to the United Nations staff and press. 

Mr. Entezam (Iran) observed that Committee 
10 had provided in the draft under discussion for 
the work of the press to be facilitated by special 
arrangements for visas and absence of censorship. 

Mr. Pelt (Netherlands) pointed out that the 
term "representatives of the press" should include 
radio and films. Mr. Pelt also mentioned the pos- 
sibility of indirect censorship which may result 
from insufficient means of communication. Ar- 
rangements should be made to secure for the 
United Nations and the foreign delegations to it 
the right to use couriers, diplomatic pouches, and 
codes in their communications. 

Considering the possibility of an autonomous 
international zone, ]\Ir. Noel-Baker expressed him- 
self in favor of an internationalized territory and 
suggested that such a possibility should be kept 
in view. 

Mr. Massigli was of the opinion that the 
United Nations need not necessarily have its seat 
in an English- or French-speaking country, but 
this view was opposed on practical grounds by 



OCTOBER 14, 1945 



563 



Ml-. Noel-Baker and Mr. Pelt, who pointed out 
that the work of the Organization would be 
greatly facilitated and the efficiency of the staff 
increased if the working language were under- 
stood by the local population. 

Mr. Pelt also urged that a radio station and an 
airport should be at the disposal of the United 
Nations Organization. 

It was generally agreed that the principal 
organs of the United Nations (except the In- 
ternational Court of Justice, which would be at 
The Hague) should be established in one place, 
with the exception that any subsidiary organ or 
specialized agency might have its seat elsewhere 
whenever strong reasons made this advisable. 

The report submitted to the Executive Com- 
mittee by Committee 10 was approved with cer- 
tain corrections to be drafted by the Executive 
Secretary. 



VOTE FOR LOCATION IN THE 
UNITED STATES 

[Released to the press by the Preparatory Commission of tlie 
United Nations October 3] 

Statement issued hy M. Gromyko, Ghamnan of 

the Executive Committee of the Preparatory 

Commission of the United Nations: 

The Executive Committee met this afternoon 

for four and a half hours in executive session in 

order to discuss the question of the permanent 

headquarters of the United Nations. 

Various views were expressed and finally two 
votes were taken. 

The first was on the questiton whether the per- 
manent headquarters of the United Nations 
should be situated in the United States of Amer- 
ica. This was approved by nine votes to three 
with two abstentions. Those who voted in favor 
were: Australia, Brazil, Chile, China, Czecho- 
slovakia, Iran, Mexico, the U.S.S.R., and Yugo- 
slavia. 

Those who voted against were : France, the 
Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. 

Canada and United States of America abstained. 
The chairman then put a second question, 
namely: Should the permanent headquarters of 
the United Nations be situated in Europe? 

This proposal was rejected by seven votes to 
three with four abstentions. 



France, the Netherlands, and the United King- 
dom voted in favor. 

Australia, Brazil, Chile, China, Czechoslovakia, 
the U.S.S.R., and Yugoslavia voted against; and 
Canada, Iran, Mexico, and the United States of 
America abstained. 

A full record of the discussion will be issued to 
the press in due time. 



Monetary Agreement 

United Kingdom— Denmark 

The American Ambassador at London has 
transmitted to the Secretary of State British Com- 
mand Paper 6671 containing the text of a mone- 
tary agreement between the United Kingdom and 
Denmark signed at London August 16, 1945. The 
agreement, which entered into force August 20 and 
is for five years' duration but can be terminated on 
three months' notice, provides a mechanism for 
payments between Denmark and the sterling area. 

Under the agreement the rate of exchange be- 
tween the Danish krone and the pound sterling is 
set at 19.34=£l, and provision is made for the 
stabilization of this new ofncial rate. 

An important feature of the agreement concerns 
sales of kroner against pounds and pounds against 
kroner by the Danmarks Nationalbank and the 
Bank of England respectively. Through these in- 
stitutions, the two countries propose to furnish 
each other with supplies of their respective curren- 
cies as needed for permitted payments between 
residents of the sterling area and Denmark. The 
Bank of England at its option may reduce the ster- 
ling account of the Danmarks Nationalbank 
through payment of an equivalent amount of gold 
or Danish currency. Likewise, the Danmarks 
Nationalbank may reduce the kroner account of 
the Bank of England for an equivalent payment 
in gold or sterling. 

Denmark and Great Britain undertake to co- 
operate in assisting each other in keeping capital 
transactions within the bounds of their national 
policies, particularly with a view to preventing 
capital transfers which do not serve desirable eco- 
nomic or commercial purposes. 

The monetary agreement provides that it will be 
reconsidei'ed with a view to consistency with any 
general international monetary agreement to 
which either government may adhere. 



564 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Communiques Issued by Council of Foreign Ministers 



Second Meeting 

[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
MinisterB, London, September 12] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers lield its sec- 
ond meeting ' at 4 p. m. and adjourned at G : 30. 
Owing to the number of documents which have 
to be translated and studied it was decided to meet 
next at 11 o'clock on Friday instead of tomorrow 
as planned. 

Regarding Italy and Joint Secretariat 

[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, September 14] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers held two 
sessions today, September 14, 1945. The morning 
session was presided over by the Chinese Minister 
for Foreign Affairs, Dr. Wang Shih-Chieh, and 
afternoon session by the United States Secretary 
of State, Mr. James F. Byrnes. The next meet- 
ing of the Council will take place tomorrow at 
o p. m. The Council began its discussion of terms 
for a peace settlement with Italy. It was agreed 
that all United Nations at war with Italy would be 
invited to submit, if they wished, their views in 
writing on this subject. It was also decided that 
the President of the session. Dr. "Wang Shih-Chieh, 
should extend on behalf of the Council invitations 
to Yugoslavia, Italy, Australia, Canada, India, 
New Zealand and South Africa, each to nominate 
a representative, if they so desired, to attend the 
meeting of Foreign Ministers to be held on Mon- 
day. 17th, to express the views of their govern- 
ments on the question of the Yugoslav-Italian 
frontier. 

The Council today approved the recommenda- 
tions of the deputies in regard to a Joint Secre- 
tariat as follows : 

( 1 ) A Joint Secretariat shall be established con- 
sisting of the secretaries of the five delegations. 
The Joint Secretariat shall include the necessary 
number of oflicials drawn from the five delegations, 
the numbers required being established by agree- 
ment between tlie secretaries of delegations. 

(2) The Secretary General of the Joint Secre- 
tariat is appointed by agreement between the 



' For communique of the opening session see Bulletin 
of Sept. IG, in45, p. 392. 



secretaries of the delegations. Mr. Norman Brook 
has been appointed Secretai"y General for the 
period of the present visit of Foreign Ministers. 

(3) The Joint Secretariat will organize the 
technical handling of all the documents of the 
Council. It will be responsible for reproducing in 
a numbered series all documents submitted by 
delegations for consideration by the Council and 
circulating copies to all delegations. These docu- 
ments will be reproduced in English, Russian, 
French and, where necessary, Chinese, and the 
Joint Secretariat will be responsible for arrang- 
ing for translations to be made. 

(4) The Joint Secretariat will make arrange- 
ments for meetings. It will make any changes 
desired in the times of the regular meetings of 
Foreign Ministers and of deputies and it will 
also assist in arranging such other meetings as 
may be required. The Joint Secretariat will also 
issue agenda papers for meetings whenever it is 
possible to give notice in advance of the questions 
to be discussed. 

(.5) As regards the recording of meetings, the 
Secretary General will jDrepare a full summary 
of the proceedings at meetings of both Foreign 
Ministers and deputies. He will submit these sum- 
maries in draft to a meeting which he will hold 
each evening with the other members of tlie Joint 
Secretariat, who will thus have an opportunity to 
offer comments and corrections. The summaries 
will then be circulated to delegations by 8 a. m. 
on the morning following the meetings to which 
they relate, not as agreed records carrying the 
full approval of all delegations, but as informal 
summaries issued primarily on the responsibility 
of the Secretary General, but after consultation 
with a member of each delegation. A definitive 
version of this summary will be issued later after 
the receipt of any corrections from delegations. 
The summaries will be discussed with all mem- 
bers of the Joint Secretariat on the basis of an 
English text. Translations into Russian and 
Frencli will then be put in hand at once and these 
should be available during the course of the fol- 



I 



OCTOBER 14, I9i5 



565 



lowing morning. It is recommended that this 
system be tried on an experimental basis subject to 
review in the light of experience. 

(G) The Joint Secretariat will also make itself 
responsible for securing in consultation with the 
delegations a fully agreed statement of conclusions 
reached by the Council as the work of the Council 
proceeds. By this means the Joint Secretariat will 
build up from day to day a body of agreed con- 
clusions which will greatly facilitate the prepara- 
tion of an agreed protocol and communique at the 
conclusion of the Foreign Ministers' visit. 



Views on Italian Peace Settlement 

[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, September 15] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers this afternoon 
held its fifth meeting with the French Minister of 
Foreign Affairs Mr. Bidault presiding. The next 
meeting of the Council will be held at 11 o'clock 
on Monday morning. The Council agreed to add 
the names of Poland, Ukraine and Bielo Russia to 
the list of countries invited to submit their views 
in writing if they wished to do so on the Italian 
peace settlement. The greater part of the last two 
meetings of the Council has been devoted to con- 
sideration of the question of the Italian Colonies. 
It was decided today to refer this question to the 
deputies for detailed study making the fullest 
possible use of the plan proposed by the United 
States Delegation and taking into account the 
views expressed by the other delegations. The 
deputies were asked to submit their recommenda- 
tions two weeks before the date to be agreed later 
of the second session of the Council. 



Views on Yugoslav-Italian Frontier 

[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, September 17] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers held two 
meetings today (Monday). Mr. Ernest Bevin 
presided in the morning and Mr. Molotov in the 
afteinoon. 

The Council had arranged to hear the views of 
the Yugoslav, British Dominion and Italian Gov- 
ernments on the subject of the Yugoslav-Italian 
frontier. Dr. H. V. Evatt, Minister of External 
Aifairs for Australia, Dr. R. M. Campbell, Acting 
High Commissioner for New Zealand, and Mr. G. 
Heaton NichoUs, High Commissioner for the 



Union of South Africa, attended to represent their 
respective government for this purpose. The 
chaiiman, however, announced the receipt of a 
letter from the Yugoslav Delegation informing the 
Council that they had only just reached London 
and that their leader Dr. Kardelj, the Yugoslav 
Vice Premier, was indisposed. 

The Council thereupon decided to postpone un- 
til tomorrow morning the hearing of views from 
the invited governments upon the Italo-Yugoslav 
frontier question and continue its consideration 
of the directive which will guide deputies in their 
preparation of a draft peace treaty with Italy. 
This draft is to be submitted to the Council at its 
second session. 



[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 

Ministers, London, September 18] 

At the morning meeting of the Council of For- 
eign Ministers over which the Chinese Minister 
for Foreign Affairs Dr. Wang Shih-Chieh pre- 
sided, the views of the Yugoslav Government upon 
the question of the Italo-Yugoslav frontier were 
presented by Dr. Kardelj, the Yugoslav Vice 
Premier. The United States Secretary of State 
Mr. James F. Byrnes presided over the afternoon 
meeting when Dr. Kardelj concluded his state- 
ment and Count de Gasperi, the Italian Foreign 
Minister, presented the views of his government. 
It was decided to hold a further meeting later 
in the evening to hear the view of the British 
Dominion representatives. 



[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, September 19] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers met twice to- 
day. Mr. Ernest Bevin presided in the morning 
and Mr. Molotov in the afternoon. Both meetings 
were devoted to further examination of the terms 
of the peace treaty for Italy. The Council agreed 
that the deputies should consider and report on 
the problem of the Yugoslav-Italian frontier and 
Trieste with the following terms of reference : 

(A) To report on the line which will in the 
main be the ethnic line leaving a minimum under 
alien rule on the understanding that appropriate 
investigations will be carried out on the spot be- 
fore the final delineation of the frontier; 

(B) To report on an international regime which 
will assure that the port and transit facilities of 



566 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Trieste will be available for use on equal tei-ms 
by all international trade and by Yugoslavia, 
Italy and the states of central Europe as is cus- 
tomary in other free ports of the world. 

The Council will meet next at 11 o'clock to- 



Consideration of Peace Treaties With Finland 
and Rumania 

[Communiqufi released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, September 20] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers met twice 
today, Thursday September 20. The Chinese Min- 
ister for Foreign Affairs Wang Shih-Chieh pre- 
sided at the morning meeting and the United 
States Secretary of State Mr. James F. Byrnes at 
the afternoon meeting. The Council devoted both 
meetings to consideration of the general principles 
of peace treaties with Finland and Rumania taking 
the Soviet proposals as a basis for discussion. The 
British Delegation also submitted proposals in 
regard to both treaties and the United States in 
regard to the treaty with Rumania. The next 
meeting of the Council will be at 11 o'clock 
tomorrow. 



[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, September 21] 

The Council of Foreigii Ministers met twice 
today with Mr. Bidault the Foreign Minister of 
France presiding in the morning and Mr. Bevin 
the Foreign Minister of Great Britain presiduig in 
the afternoon. In the morning the Council con- 
tinued its discussion of the draft peace treaty 
with Rumania. In the afternoon it turned to the 
consideration of a draft peace treaty with Bul- 
garia taking for its discussion the Soviet memo- 
randum as a basis and examining at the same time 
the British and United States proposals. The 
Council will meet next tomorrow morning at 
11 o'clock. 



Discussion of Items on the Agenda 

[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, September 22] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers met this after- 
noon Mr. Molotov presiding and continued its 
discussion of items on the agenda. The next meet- 
ing will take place at 11 o'clock on Monday 
morning. 



Discussion on Austria, Inland Watericays, and 
Repatriation of Soviet Nationals 

[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, September 24] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers today held 
two meetings, Dr. Wang presiding in the morning 
and Mr. Byrnes in the afternoon. The questions 
discussed by the Council were long-term supply 
arrangements for Austria, a proposal for an emer- 
gency regime for European inland waterways and 
the acceleration of the repatriation of Soviet 
nationals. The next meeting of the Council will 
be held tomorrow at 11 o'clock. 



[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, September 25] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers met twice 
today Mr. Bidault presiding in the morning and 
Mr. Bevin in the afternoon. 

The Council continued its consideration of the 
memorandum by the Soviet Delegation on the 
acceleration of the repatriation of Soviet nationals 
and the repatriation of French nationals from the 
areas under the control of the Soviet Government. 
The Council also examined proposals put forward 
by the Soviet Delegation for expediting the work 
of the Reparations Commission. A French mem- 
orandum on restitution was also discussed. 

The next meeting of the Council will be held 
at 11 o'clock tomorrow morning. 



Discussion on Restitution and Control and Ad- 
ministration of Germany 

[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, September 26] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers held two 
meetings today, Mr. Molotov presiding in the 
morning and Dr. Wang in the afternoon. The 
Council in the morning discussed the French 
memorandum on restitution. In the afternoon the 
Council began examination of a memorandum by 
the French Delegation on the control and admin- 
istration of Germany. It was agreed to resume 
this discussion at a future meeting of the present 
session. 

The Council will meet next tomorrow afternoon. 



OCTOBER 14, 1945 



567 



[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, September 27] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers met tliis after- 
noon, Mr. Byrnes presiding. 

The Council continued its discussion of the 
French memorandum on the restitution of Allied 
property stolen by the Germans. 

The next meeting will take place tomorrow 
morning at 11 :30. 



Examination of Protocols 

[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, September 29] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers met twice 
today, Mr. Molotov presiding in the morning and 
Dr. Wang in the afternoon. Both meetings were 
devoted to examination of the protocols of the 
present session of the Council. The next meet- 
ing will take place tomorrow afternoon at 3 o'clock. 



[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, September 28] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers held two 
meetings today, Mr. Bidault presiding in the 
morning and Mr. Bevin in the afternoon. 

The Council again discussed the French memo- 
randum on control and administration of Ger- 
many and reviewed a report by the deputies on 
items on the agenda which at previous meetings 
the Council had agreed to defer for further ex- 
amination. 

The next meeting of the Council will be held 
tomorrow morning at 11 : 30. 



[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, October 2] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers met Monday 
night, Mr. Bevin presiding. The Council ad- 
journed until 11 o'clock Tuesday morning. 

Termination of Session 

[Communique released to the press by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers, London, October 2] 

The Council of Foreign Ministers met twice to- 
day, Mr. Molotov presiding in the morning and Dr. 
Wang in the afternoon. At the second meeting the 
Council decided to terminate its present session. 



568 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Visit of President Rios of Chile 



PROGRAM OF VISIT IN THE UNITED STATES 



tRcleased to the press October 6] 

Members of the Party 

His Excellency Juan Antonio Rfos, President of Chile. 

The Hon. Eleodoro Dominguez, Senator. 

The Hon. RAul Braiies, Deputy. 

The Hon. Benjamin Claro-Velasco, former Minister of 

Education. 
Col. Ernesto Wurth-Rojas, Military Aide to the President. 
Seuor Abraham Valenzuela, Personal Secretary of the 

President. 
Lieutenant Carlos RIos, son of the President. 



His Excellency Marcial Mora, Ambassador of Chile to the 

United States. 
Embassy Secretary. 



The Hon. Claude G. Bowers, American Ambassador to 

Chile. 
Brig. Gen. Milton A. Hill, American Military Aide. 
Capt. G. F. M. Mentz, American Naval Aide. 
Mr. Edward Na.sh, Department of State. 
Mr. George Newkirk, Department of State. 

Tuesday, October 9 

p. m. Arrive Miami by Pan American Airways. 
Honey Plaza Hotel, Miami Beach. 

Wednesday, October 10 
8 : 15 a. m. Depart Miami for Washington by train. 

Thursday, October 11 

4 : 40 a. m. Arrive Richmond, Va. 
Luncheon. 

Pjoceed by automobile from Richmond to 
Wa.shington. 

4:30p.m. Arrive White House, Washington. Mili- 
tary Honors. 
8 p. m. Dinner at tlie White House. 



Friday, October 12 



9 a. m. 

11 a. m. 

Ip. m. 



Leave White House for Blair House. 
Pre.ss conference at the Chilean Embassy. 
Special meeting of the Board of Directors, 
I'an American Union, followed by a lunch- 
eon in honor of President RIos. 
S p. m. Dinner in honor of President Rios given 
liy (he Secretary of Stale at the Mayflower 
Hotel. 



9: 


30 a. 


m. 




Ip. 


m. 


7; 


:30p. 


m. 




9 p. 


m, 



11 : 15 a. m. 

1 p. m. 

3 : 30 p. m. 



7 : 30 p. m. 

9 : 55 a. m. 
1 : 45 p. m. 

7 : 30 p. m. 



Saturday, October 13 

Visit to Mount Vernon and Arlington Na- 
tional Cemetery. 
Visit to the Capitol. 
Dinner at the Blair House (private). 
Reception given by President RIos at the 
Chilean Embassy. 

Sunday, October 14 

National Archives. 

Luncheon (private). 

Visit to Beltsville Research Center with 

the Secretary of Commerce, Henry A. 

Wallace, and the Secretary of Agriculture, 

Clinton P. Anderson. 

Dinner (private). 

Monday, October 15 

Depart from Washington for New York 
City by train. 

Arrive New York City. Reception com- 
mittee headed by Mayor LaGuardia. The 
President will stay at the Waldorf-Astoria 
Hotel. 

Reception and dinner given by the Pan 
American Society and the Chile-American 
Association at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. 



Tuesday, October 16 

11 a. m. Press conference at the Waldorf-Astoria 
Hotel. 
1 p. m. Luncheon offered by T. J. Watson at the 
Union Club, Sixty-ninth Street and Park 
Avenue. 
6-8 p.m. Reception offered by the Chilean Colony 
at the Park Lane Hotel. 
8:30p.m. Dinner (private). 

Wednesday, October 17 

8 a. m. Visit to Hyde Park and West Point. 

1p.m. Luncheon at the Military Academy, West 
Point. 

6 p. m. Return to the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. 

7p.m. Dinner at the Biltmorc Hotel (to be ar- 
ranged ) . 

Thursday, October 18 

a. m. OiMMi. 

1pm. Luncheon given by Col. Sosthenes Behn at 

67 Broad. 

3:30 p.m. Visit to Columbia University. 

7; 30 p.m. Dinner given by Gordon S. Rentschler, 

chairman of the Board of the National 

City Bank of New York, at the River Club. 



OCTOBER 14, 1945 



569 



Friday, October 19 

10 a. m. Depart from New York to Philadelphia by 

train. 
11:32 a.m. Arrive Philadelphia (Thirtieth Street 
Station). 
12 noon Visit Independence Hall. 
1 p. m. Luncheon given by the Commandant of 
the Navy Yard. 
4 : 30p. m. Tea and reception at the home of Dr. and 

Mrs. George Woodward, Chestnut Hill. 
7:04p.m. Leave Philadelphia (Thirtieth Street 

Station) for New York. 
8:40 p.m. Arrive New York. 
9p.m. Dinner (private). 

Saturday, October 20 

11 a.m. Reception at City Hall by Mayor La- 

Guardia. 
1 p. m. Luncheon given by Mayor LaGuardia at 
the Rainbow Room. 
3 : 30p. m. Leave for Tarrytown, N. Y., country home 
of Nelson A. Rockefeller. 

Sunday, October 21 

11 : 30 a. m. Leave Tarrytown for Long Island to the 
country home of W. R. Grace, president of 
Grace Line. 
1 p. m. Luncheon at the home of Mr. Grace. 
6 p. m. Return to the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, 
p.m. Dinner (private). 

Monday, October 22 

Noon Luncheon (private). 
3 p. m. Depart for Ottawa by plane. 
6 p. m. Arrive Ottawa. 

Tuesday, October 23 

Ottawa. 

Wednesday, October 24 

Montreal. 

Thursday, October 25 

Depart from Montreal for Chicago. 
3 p. m. Arrive Chicago. President RIos will stay 
at the B!ack.stone Hotel. 

Friday, October 26 

6 p.m. Depart from Chicago for San Francises 
by train. 

Sunday, October 28 

9:50 a.m. Arrive San Francisco. President Rios 
will stay at the Mark Hopkins Hotel. 

Tuesday, October 30 

11 a. m. Press conference. 
5 : 30-7 : 30 p. m. Reception given by President Rios. 

9 p.m. Depart from San Francisco for Los An- 
geles by train. 



Wednesday, October 31 

9 a. m. Arrive Los Angeles. President Rfos will 

stay at the Town Hou.se. 
1p.m. Luncheon (private). 

8 p. m. Dinner in honor of President Rios given 

by the Mayor of Los Angeles. 

Thursday, November 1 

9 a. m. Depart from Los Angeles by plane for 

Mexico. 



ADDRESS OF WELCOME 

BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press by the Pan American Union October 12] 

Mr. President : It is with great pleasure that I 
extend to you on behalf of the Governing Board 
of the Pan American Union the warmest possible 
welcome. We are fully acquainted with the im- 
portant service which you have rendered and are 
today rendering to the people of Chile. Your ca- 
reer has been marked by a constant and unswerv- 
ing devotion to the welfare of the masses of the 
people of your country. The advanced position 
which you have taken in the field of social security 
and social legislation has set a standard which has 
had far-reaching influence beyond the borders of 
your country. The people of Chile may well con- 
gratulate themselves on having as Chief Executive 
a man in whose administration the interests of the 
masses of the people receive primary consideration 
and whose sincere concern for their welfare has in- 
creased the opportunities available to the average 
citizen. 

In the domain of inter-American relations, the 
record of Chile is one of which you have every 
reason to feel proud. The Government and the 
people have from the earliest period of their na- 
tional existence shown a deep sense of continental 
solidarity, which has found expression in coopera- 
tion with their sister republics of the Americas and 
contributed much to strengthening the pan-Ameri- 
can movement. Your representatives on this 
Board have been unremitting in their efforts to 
further the purposes for which the Pan American 
Union was founded. 

We welcome you today, Mr. President, as the 
worthy representative of a great people and as a 
staunch supporter of the principles on which this 
Union of the American republics rests. 



' Made at a special session of the Governing Board of the 
Pan American T'nion held in honor of the President of 
Chile, Juan Antonio Rfos, on Oct. 12, 194.5. The Secretary 
of State is Chairman of the Governing Board. 



570 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



International Bodies For Narcotics Control 



BY PHILIP M. BURNETT ' 



T 



|HE HAGUE CONVENTION of 

1912 represented the first 
formal step into the field 
of international narcotic- 
drug control.^ The convention provided that 
the participating states should institute cer- 
tain measures for controlling drugs within their 
own territories and it laid down a nmnber of gen- 
eral principles which remain as the foundation 
of all subsequent work in this field. The conven- 
tion was brought into force in 1915 by a few 
countries which, having deposited their instru- 
ments of ratification, signed a protocol to bring 
the convention into effect. With respect to a 
large number of countries, the convention came 
into force only by virtue of the fact that ratifica- 
tion of the Treaty of Versailles (art. 295) or of 
certain other treaties of peace concluded at the 
end of World War I was "deemed in all respects 
equivalent" to ratification of the convention. 

Under article 23 (c) of the Covenant of the 
League of Nations, the members of the League 
agreed to "entrust the League with the general 
supervision over the execution of agreements with 
regard to . . . the traffic in opium and other 
dangei'ous drugs". 

The First Assembly of the League created the 
Advisory Committee on the Traffic in Opium and 
Other Dangerous Drugs to secure the fullest pos- 
sible cooperation between the various countries 
in regard to narcotics control and to assist and 
advise the Council in dealing with any questions 
relating thereto. 

The Geneva convention of 1925 strengthened the 
Hague convention and instituted further control 
over the international trade in narcotics by estab- 
lishing a system of import certificates and export 
authorizations and by entrasting supervision over 
such trade to the Permanent Central Opium 



Board, the composition and functions of which 
were set forth in the convention. 

The convention for Limiting the Manufacture 
and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic 
Drugs (Geneva, 1931)^ advanced the area of con- 
trol by limiting the world manufacture of narcotic 
drugs to the world's medical and scientific needs 
and by limiting in each country the accumulation 
of stocks of such drugs. In both cases, the limita- 
tion was to be accomplished by means of a system 
of government estimates of annual drug require- 
ments which should be examined by an interna- 
tional Supervisory Body provided for in the con- 
vention and which should thereafter be binding 
upon the estimating governments. 

The Convention for the Suppression of the Illicit 
Traffic in Dangerous Drugs (Geneva, 1936) aimed 
at the standardization of penalties for illicit 
trafficking and at the international extradition of 
those guilty of drug offenses. This instrument 
came into force only in October 1939, as between 
10 states. Since that time it has become effective 
with respect to 3 additional states. 

Taken together, these conventions form an inter- 
dependent system that has steadily increased the 
effectiveness of international control over narcotic 
drugs. 

The Hague convention of 1912 was in force 
(July 1945) with respect to some 60 states, not 
including the following: Argentina, Ethiopia, 



' Mr. Burnett Is an officer in the Division of Inter- 
national Organization Affairs, OfBce of Special Political 
Affairs, Department of State. The sections on budget 
and finance and on United States membership were pre- 
pared in collaboration with Lyle L. Schmitter of the 
Division of International Conferences, Office of Depart- 
mental Administration, Department of State. 

' Treaty Series 612. 

' Treaty Series 863. 



OCTOBER 14, 1945 



571 



Iran, Lithuania, and the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics. 

The Geneva convention of 1925 had been ratified 
or adhered to (July 1945) by some 54 states, which 
did not include the following: Afghanistan, Al- 
bania, Argentina, China, Ethiopia, Guatemala, 
Iceland, Iran, Liberia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Pan- 
ama, Peru, Saudi Arabia, and the United States 
of America. 

The limitation convention of 1931 had been rati- 
fied or adhered to (July 1945) by 64 states, which 
did not include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, 
Ethiopia, Iceland, Liberia, and Yugoslavia. 

The 1936 convention had been ratified or adhered 
to (July 1945) by Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, 
Colombia (ratification approved but not de- 
posited) , Egypt, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, 
India, Rumania, and Turkey. 

The SujDervisory Body has as its primary re- 
sponsibility the examination of the estimates that 
are submitted each year to the Permanent Central 
Opium Board by each government that is a party 
to the limitation convention of 1931. These are 
estimates of the annual requirements for medical 
and scientific needs within the territory of the 
government concerned, together with the quantity 
required for the establishment and maintenance 
of government stocks. If countries or territories 
to which the 1931 convention does not apply do 
not furnish estimates, the Supervisory Body, so 
far as possible, makes the estimates. The purpose 
of the examination by the Supervisory Body is to 
insure, so far as possible, against any overestima- 
tion that would swell the totals beyond the world's 
legitimate requirements and thereby permit an 
excess of production that would tend to find its 
way into the illicit traffic. The Supervisory Body 
may request from the governments further infor- 
mation; it may amend estimates, however, only 
with the consent of the governments concerned. 
Its suggestions to governments have generally been 
accepted, and it has a final power, when it circu- 
lates the estimates, of adding its own observations 
and comments upon the figures submitted. The 
quantities thus established become the basis for 
the upper limit of the quantities that may be manu- 
factured annually in the several countries. The 
Supervisory Body publishes an annual statement 
entitled "Estimated World Requirements of Dan- 
gerous Drugs".* 

The Permanent Central Opium Board receives 



from the governments that are parties to the Ge- 
neva convention of 1925 statistical returns relat- 
ing to the production, manufacture, consumption, 
stocks, import, and export of the raw materials or 
narcotic drugs covered by the convention. Under 
article 24 of the convention, the Board "shall con- 
tinuously watch the course of the international 
trade," with a view to discovering whether "exces- 
sive quantities of any substance covered by the 
present Convention are accumulating in any 
country," or whether "there is a danger of that 
country becoming a centre of the illicit traffic." If 
the Board finds that either of these situations is 
developing, it may set in motion a procedure laid 
down in article 24, which includes asking for ex- 
planations, reporting these explanations to the 
parties to the convention and to the Council of the 
League, and recommending to the parties a tem- 
porary cessation of exports of narcotic substances 
to the country in question. Under article 14 of the 
limitation convention of 1931, the Board watches 
the exports to and imports from the several coun- 
tries, including those not parties to the convention, 
and, if it finds that any country has obtained or 
will obtain through international trade quantities 
of drugs sufiicient to exceed its estimates, the 
Board then immediately notifies the parties to the 
convention, which are thereupon bound not to 
authorize any new exports to the country in ques- 
tion. The Permanent Central Opium Board pub- 
lishes annual reports to the Council.^ 

The Advisory Committee on the Traffic in 
Opimn and Other Dangerous Drugs, established 
by the Assembly in 1920, has from the outset 
materially influenced the shaping of policy, either 
through the undertaking or initiation of studies 
or through the guidance of preparations for new 
conventions. It has also supervised the general 
application of the drug conventions, especially 
through the standardization of governmental 
reporting. 

Both the Assembly and Council of the League 
of Nations have important functions in the sys- 
tem of international narcotic control, wMch are 
derived from the terms of article 23 (c) of the 
Covenant. The functions of the Assembly in- 
clude the making of decisions or recommenda- 



' Copies are available at the Columbia University Press, 
International Document Service, 2960 Broadway, New 
York, N. Y. 

' Not printed for years of 1941 and 1942. 



572 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tions relating to the work of the Advisory 
Committee on tlie Traffic in Opium and Other 
Dangerous Drugs and, through its budgetary pow- 
ers, the providing for the financial support of the 
various drug bodies. Tlie Council, like the As- 
sembly, exercises a general and political .super- 
vision over the opium work of the League, but 
it also has certain executive functions. The 
Council requests the Advisory Committee to 
undertake studies, prepare international conven- 
tions, and make recommendations. The reports 
of the Committee and those of the Permanent 
Central Opium Board are submitted to the Coun- 
cil. Since the Advisory Committee is an organ 
advisory to the Council, all decisions taken by 
the Committee require the approval of the Coun- 
cil. The Council also has certain specific powers 
under the IQ'25 convention : Appointment of the 
members of the Permanent Central Opium Board ; 
the taking of remedial measures under article 24; 
and the making of certain formal notifications. 

The Drug Control Service of the Secretariat of 
the League of Nations assists the Secretary-Gen- 
eral of the League in the performance of the fol- 
lowing functions that have been entrusted to him 
under the several conventions : The making of cer- 
tain required notifications; the control of the staff 
of the Permanent Central Opium Board in ad- 
ministrative matters and the appointment of the 
secretary and staff of the Board on the nomination 
of the I3oard and subject to the approval of the 
Council; the providing of the secretariat for the 
Supervisory Body ; and the insuring of close col- 
laboration between the Body and the Permanent 
Central Opium Board. 

The Supervisory Body, under the terms of arti- 
cle 5 of the limitation convention of 1931, is com- 
posed of four members who are appointed, one 
each, by the following bodies : The Opium Advi- 
sory Committee; the Permanent Central Opium 
Board; the Health Committee of the League of 
Nations; and the International Office of Public 
Health. The secretariat of the Supervisory Body 
is provided by the Secretary-General of the 
League, who insures close collaboration with the 
Permanent Central Opium Board. The two opium 
bodies have chosen as members of the Supervisory 
Body persons with general and administrative ex- 
perience ; the other two bodies have chosen medical 
and health experts. The members are appointed 
in their personal capacities and do not represent 
the appointing bodies. The appointments have 



been made, by the conmron consent of the appoint- 
ing bodies, for terms of three years. 

The Permanent Central Opium Board, under 
article 19 of the Geneva convention of 1925, is ap- 
pointed by the Council of the League of Nations 
and consists of "eight persons who, by their tech- 
nical competence, impartiality and disinterested- 
ness, will command general confidence." The 
United States and Germany were to be "invited 
each to nominate one person to participate in these 
appointments." Consideration is to be given "to 
the importance of including on the Central Board, 
in equitable proportion, persons possessing a 
knowledge of the drug situation, both in the pro- 
ducing and manufacturing countries on the one 
hand and in the consuming countries on the other 
hand, and connected with such countries." The 
members of the Board are appointed for a term 
of five years and are eligible for reappointment. 
They do not represent governments. 

Decisions of the Board upon cjuestions of whether 
a country has accumulated excessive quantities of 
drugs and of whether the contracting parties shall 
be notified and recommended to impose an embargo 
are taken by an absolute majority of the whole 
number of the Board. 

The Secretary-General of the League appoints 
members of the staff on the nomination of the 
Board and subject to the approval of the Council 
and has administrative control over the staff. 

The Council is to assure, under article 20, "the 
full technical independence of the Board in carry- 
ing out its duties"; and this has been taken to 
mean that the Board is entirely independent of the 
League or, in other words, that it is not a League 
body. 

The constituent resolution provided that the Ad- 
visory Committee should be appointed by the 
Council and that it should include i-epresentatives 
of the countries "chiefly concerned" with the drug 
traffic, "in particular Holland, Great Britain, 
France, India, Japan, China, Siam, Portugal." At 
its last session in 1910, the Committee was made 
up of representatives of the following states in 
addition to those mentioned above with the excep- 
tion of Japan, who had withdrawn : Belgium, 
Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Greece, 
Hungary, Iran, Mexico, Peru, Poland, Spain, 
Switzerland, Turkey, United States of America, 
Uruguay, and Yugoslavia. All the opium-produc- 
ing countries were members except Afghanistan, 



OCTOBER 14, 1945 



573 



Japan, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Kepub- 
lics. Likewise represented were all the countries 
producing coca leaves, all the principal manufac- 
turing exporting countries, and all the countries 
that have the opium-smoking problem — except, 
in each of these categories, Japan. 

In 1934, its first full year of operation, the 
cost of implementing the limitation convention 
of 1931 was 383,205.25 Swiss francs. 

The total expenses of the Permanent Central 
Opium Board for 1939, the last normal year, 
amounted to 99,477 Swiss francs; those of the 
Drug Control Service and the Supervisory Body 
amounted to 302,448 Swiss francs, or a total of 
401,925 Swiss francs. During 1942, it cost 90,- 
475.65 Swiss francs to maintain the Permanent 
Central Opium Board and 140,937 Swiss francs 
to maintain the Drug Control Service and the 
Supervisory Body, or a total of 231,412.65 Swiss 
francs. 

The amount of the total annual budget, as de- 
termined by the League of Nations, is prorated 
among the various member countries. League 
members are assessed in the same proportion that 
they contribute to the League budget; the United 
States agi'eed to pay an amount equal to the 
British quota. The British and United States 
share was originally 10.6 percent, but this amount 
has increased because of decreased membership 
and reduced contributions on the part of those 
states whose territories are wholly or partially 
occupied. The United States quota was 11.775 
percent of the total for 1939 and 22.8359 percent 
for 1942, although total expenditures have been 
reduced. 

The United States has been a party to the 
Hague convention of 1912 since the convention 
came into force in February 1915. 

Although the United States did not become a 
member of the League of Nations, it has par- 
ticipated in the work of the Opium Advisory 
Committee since January 1923, where it has been 
represented in an expert and advisory capacity. 
United States representatives have taken an ac- 
tive part in the meetings of the Committee and 
its subcommittees. 

The United States did not become a party to 
the Geneva convention of 1925, which provided 
for the creation of the Permanent Central Opium 
Board. It has, however, cooperated with the 
Board by making the reports for which the 
Board has called. Since 1933 it has participated 



in the nomination of candidates for the Board 
and in the nomination of a representative to join 
with the Council in the selection of the Board. 
An American citizen, Herbert L. May, has been 
a member of the Board since 1928. 

In 1931, the United States took an active part 
in the Geneva Conference on the Limitation of the 
Manufacture of Narcotic Drugs, from which ema- 
nated the limitation convention of 1931. To this 
convention the United States ratification in 1931 
was the first to be deposited. There is no specific 
reference in the convention to financing. 

The United States participated in the Geneva 
conference of June 1936, from which emanated the 
1936 Convention for the Suppression of the Illicit 
Traffic in Dangerous Drugs. The convention as 
drafted, however, was regarded as unacceptable to 
the United States and was not signed by the Amer- 
ican delegates. 

The first appropriation of $12,086 was voted by 
Congress in 1935 as payment of the United States 
quota for the calendar year 1934 and approxi- 
mately six months of 1933. An attempt was made 
to pay the quota in September, but the League 
maintained that the organizations were not in a 
position to receive direct contributions and that 
the money must be transmitted as a voluntary con- 
tribution to the League of Nations, which in turn 
would provide sufficient funds for their needs. 
This suggestion was refused by the United States 
and the money was returned and eventually rede- 
posited into the Treasury. Subsequent appropri- 
ations through the year 1939 lapsed into the Treas- 
ury because the League of Nations would not per- 
mit the international bodies to accept the pay- 
ments. In 1940 certain changes were made in the 
administrative functions within the League struc- 
ture, and the payment for that year, $11,186.46, 
was made. The assessment for 1942 was 88,075.20 
Swiss francs, or $20,352.14, but payment in the 
same amount as that for 1941 was made with the 
explanation that the State Department did not 
consider that the quota should be increased while 
expenses were actually reduced. 

The Bureau of Narcotics of the Ti-easury De- 
partment and the Dejsartment of State are respon- 
sible for different aspects of United States policy 
concerning drug control. 

The staffs of the drug-control bodies have been 
reduced during the war and their activities neces- 
sarilv limited. 



574 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Summary of Assessments and Payments 



Year 


Assessments in 
Swiss francs 


U. S. Payments 


Percentage 
ot Total 
Budget 


1933 (July 9 to Dec. 
31). ... 


32, 139. 15 
67, 985. 20 
58, 579. 35 
73, 470. 00 
76, 145. 35 
78, 348. 35 
78, 877. 90 
47, 934. 00 
63, 727. 75 
88, 075. 20 


none 

$11, 186. 46 
14, 726. 02 
14, 726. 02 


10.37 


1934 


10. 365 


1935 -- 


10.38 


1936 


11.278 


1937 


11. 70 


1938 


11. 538 


1939 .. 


11.775 


1940 ... 


13.21 


1941 


20. 667 


1942 


22. 8359 







The Permanent Central Opium Board continues 
to collect statistics and estimates on drug traffic 
in the Western Hemisphere, but reports from other 
regions have fallen off markedl)'. The work of the 
Supervisory Body has continued in practically the 
same manner as in the years before the war. The 
work of the Drug Control Service of the League 
has declined considerably, mostly because of the 
withdrawal of Germany, Italy, and Japan, and of 
the difficulty of postal communications between 
the Western Hemisphere and Geneva. 

The Central Board, meeting at London in Sep- 
tember 1942, decided not only to carry on the cur- 
rent work of the narcotic drug services but also 
to undertake preparatory work for the post-war 
period which would "(1) insure the supply of 
drugs that will be urgently required for medical 
relief, particularly in countries that had been over- 
run and devastated and (2) . . . develop the 
control necessary to prevent illicit traffic and the 
spread of addiction". In this connection it is pro- 
posed to study possible post-war reorganization of 
the system of national and international controls 
established by existing conventions. 

In February 1941, branch offices of the Super- 
visory Body and the Permanent Central Opium 
Board were opened in Washington, but the head- 
quarters of these bodies remained in Geneva. 

The position of the drug-control bodies in the 
future and their relation to the projected structure 
and function of the United Nations is at present 



' Report to the President on the Results of the San 
Francisco Conference (Department of State publication 
2S40),p. 122. 



a matter under consideration. In this connection, 
the United States Delegate at the United Nations 
Conference on International Organization, Mr. 
Stettinius, made the following statement : 

". . . Experience has shown that drug con- 
trol raises issues which can best be met not by an 
international health, economic or social agency, 
but by the type of specialized agencies now func- 
tioning so successfully in this field. Everything 
possible should be done to safeguard the continued 
operation of these agencies and services. 

"The United States Delegation wishes to go on 
record as hoping that the Organization will be en- 
trusted with supervision over the execution of 
existing or future international agreements with 
regard to the control of the legitimate traffic in 
opium and other dangerous drugs, and the suppres- 
sion of illicit traffic in and abuse of such drugs; 
that there shall be established an advisory body to 
advise directly the Economic and Social Council 
on these matters ; and that the existing agencies be 
regarded as autonomous agencies to be related di- 
rectly to the Economic and Social Council".* 



Arrival of the Polish Minister 
For Foreign Affairs 

[Released to the press October 13] 

The Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Polish 
Provisional Government of National Unity, Mr. 
Wincenty Ezymowski, arrived in Washington on 
October 14. 

At the San Francisco conference provisions were 
made for Poland to sign the Charter as an original 
member of the United Nations. Mr. Ezymowski 
is coming to Washington, where the original of 
the Charter is deposited, for the purpose of sign- 
ing the document on behalf of Poland. 

Mr. Rzymowski is accompanied by Madame 
Rzymowski; Jozef Olszewski, Director of the 
Political Department of the Polish Foreign Office ; 
Mr. Wladyslaw Nizinski, of the Anglo-American 
Section of the Foreign Office ; and an interpreter. 

Mr. Rzymowski and his party will be enter- 
tained by the Secretary of State at luncheon at the 
Blair House on Tuesday, October 16. After the 
luncheon, he will sign the United Nations Charter 
on behalf of Poland. 



OCTOBER 14, 1945 



575 



Estimate for UNRRA Appropriation 



Letter From THE PRESIDENT ^ 

The White House, 
Washington, October 4, 194S. 
The Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to transmit herewith for the 
consideration of Congress an estimate for the ap- 
propriation of $550,000,000 for the United Nations 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. 

The United States pledged to UNRRA by act 
of March 28, 1944, $1,350,000,000 to provide 
urgently needed assistance to the victims of Axis 
aggression. The $800,000,000 thus far made avail- 
able by the Congress in accordance with this 
pledge is now almost exhausted. I, therefore, urge 
that we at this time appropriate to UNRRA the 
remaining $550,000,000 of the amount previously 
authorized. The details of this estimate are set 
forth in the letter of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, transmitted herewith,^ in whose 
comments and observations thereon I concur. As 
previously indicated to the Congress, I shall 
shortly submit a recoimnendation for the author- 
ization of an additional contribution to enable 
UNRRA to meet its new responsibilities and to 
complete its programs. 

The people of the liberated countries who so gal- 
lantly resisted Axis oppression throughout the 
war now face a winter of acute need and privation. 
They look to UNRRA for assistance. Unless 
UNRRA is enabled to speed ample shipments of 
supplies to these war-stricken areas, widespread 
starvation and disease will result. Our whole- 
hearted support will be a real contribution toward 
a stable and enduring peace. 
Respectfully yours, 

Harry S. Truman 



' H.Doc. 305, 79th Cong. 

' Not printed. 

'Made before the Deficiency Subcommittee of the Ap- 
propriations Committee of the House of Representatives, 
Oct. 11, 1945. 



Statement by 
ASSISTANT SECRETARY CLAYTON' 

[Released to the press October 11] 

I welcome this opportunity to appear before 
this committee in support of the President's 
recommendation that Congress appropriate $550,- 
000,000 for participation by the United States in 
the work of the United Nations Relief and Rehabil- 
itation Administration. The $550,000,000 re- 
quested is the balance of the $1,350,000,000 
authorized by Congress and is urgently needed in 
as much as the $800,000,000 which has been ap- 
propriated is now virtually exhausted. 

A year and a half ago Congress approved par- 
ticipation by the United States in UNRRA and 
authorized the ajjpropriation of $1,350,000,000 as 
the United States contribution to the work of the 
organization. At that time none of the areas 
which had been occupied by the enemy in Europe 
or the Far East had been liberated. The United 
Nations had created the UNRRA organization so 
that joint planning could be achieved in prepara- 
tion for the time of liberation when the urgent 
requirements for relief and rehabilitation would 
arise. 

The UNRRA agreement provided that all of the 
members should bear a share of the administrative 
expenses of the organization, but only those coun- 
tries whose territories had not been occupied by the 
enemy should be asked to contribute the supplies, 
services, and funds I'equired for relief and rehabil- 
itation. The amount of the contribution of each 
was arrived at by the application of a formula 
which was adopted as the fairest measure of each 
country's ability to contribute. That formula was 
one percent of a country's national income for the 
year ending June 'JO, 1943; in our case this 
amounted to the $1,350,000,000 which Congress 
authorized. 

When, in 1944, appropriations were requested 
pursuant to this authorization, it was still impossi- 
ble to tell when liberation would occur in the areas 
to be aided by UNRRA, so that no precise predic- 
tions could be made as to the time funds would be 



576 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



required. In view of this uncertainty, Congress 
was requested to appropriate only $450,000,000 
directly and to provide an authorization for the 
transfer to UNRRA of an additional $350,000,000 
of the supplies, services, and funds already avail- 
able for disposition or expenditure by the Presi- 
dent under the Lend-Lease Act. In this manner 
UNRRA was enabled, when the European war 
ended late last spring and the demands upon 
UNRRA for assistance greatly increased beyond 
the direct approi^riation of $450,000,000, to utilize 
fimds and supplies which could be made available 
by transfer from lend-lease appropriations pend- 
ing a return to Congress for further appropria- 
tions. 

Since military conditions permitted UNRRA to 
begin operations in the liberated areas late this 
spring, the pace of UNRRA operations has ac- 
celerated tremendously, and it has managed to 
deliver to these war-torn areas very large quan- 
tities of supplies, which have meant the difference 
between acute distress and a semblance of decent 
living. By the end of September UNRRA had 
shipped an estimated 2,000,000 long tons of sup- 
plies. Of these supplies, shipments from the 
United States amounted to 895,513 tons, and an 
additional 375,000 tons were made available from 
U.S. military supplies overseas. The Director 
General will present a fuller picture of UNRRA's 
operations and accomplishments in the relief and 
rehabilitation of victims of war. 

The total amount of $800,000,000 heretofore 
made available to UNRRA by Congress is almost 
exhausted. The operations of UNRRA are now 
approaching their peak, and the goods and serv- 
ices which are to be supplied to liberated areas 
out of the $800,000,000 previously made available, 
and out of the available contributions of the other 
contributing nations, will not be sufficient to en- 
able UNRRA to continue its flow of food and 
other supplies to destitute and devastated areas 
throughout the winter. In order to avoid dis- 
astrous interruption of the supply lines to the 
millions of war victims who look to UNRRA for 
a.ssistance during the forthcoming winter months, 
prompt action on the President's request for an 
additional appropriation is required. 

It is expected that the $550,000,000 which you 
are now requested to appropriate will all be spent 
by December 31 of this year. The volume and 
rate of procurement have increased because of 



the readier availability of supplies and transpor- 
tation and because UNRRA is now in full 
operation. 

It is the intention of this Government, through 
the State Department, to supervise the expendi- 
ture of this $550,000,000 if it is appropriated, in 
the same way in which the FEA, under Mr. 
Crowley, supervised the expenditui-e of the first 
$800,000,000. To carry out this function we will 
have the assistance of the staff which formerly 
served under Mr. Crowley and which has a record 
of real achievement to its credit. 

It is our intention to use as much as possible of 
the requested $550,000,000 to obtain surplus 
United States property, as has been done in the 
past. Every effort is being made to utilize United 
States surpluses overseas as well as at home for 
UNRRA purposes. One hundred fifty million 
dollars has already been made available for the 
transfer to UNRRA of United States Army sur- 
pluses overseas. A mission, on which the Army, 
FEA, and UNRRA were represented, left early 
in September to survey the field and expedite 
these transfers, and this work will continue, if the 
additional $550,000,000 is granted. General Os- 
borne will tell you about these activities. 

I must point out, however, that there are limita- 
tions upon the usefulness of Army surpluses to 
meet UNRRA's needs. One of UNRRA's biggest 
needs is foods, particularly bulk quantities of grain 
and other staples which do not exist in Army 
surpluses. 

The end of the war in the Pacific has brought 
the full pressure of demand to bear upon UNRRA. 
All areas which will receive aid through UNRRA, 
that is, all areas which are unable to pay in full for 
their own relief and rehabilitation needs, have now 
been liberated and are urgently in need of the 
supplies and services which UNRRA was estab- 
lished to provide. The period of waiting and plan- 
ning is over everywhere, and the period of per- 
formance, already begun in Europe, now embraces 
the Far East. 

It was imi:)ossible, when the original request for 
contributions was presented to the Congress in the 
winter of 1944, to estimate the number of countries 
UNRRA would be called upon to assist or the ex- 
tent of the needs in those countries. It was equally 
imijossible to predict the length of time UNRRA 
would have to remain in operation. Now, however, 
we are in a position to answer these questions. 



OCTOBER 14, 1945 



577 



We liave just concluded the third session of the 
UNRRA Council in London, and it was there 
agreed that we should contemplate the end of 
UNRRA's operations in Europe by the end of 
194:6 and in the Far East three months thereafter. 
With these periods in mind, it became apparent 
that an additional operating contribution would 
be required from each of UNRRA's contributing 
members. We proposed that provision be made 
for the inclusion of Italy, Austria, Korea, and For- 
mosa, and we agreed that provision of a limited 
assistance would be made for the Ukrainian and 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republics. On this 
basis, we concluded that a further amount equal to 
our original contribution would be required to 
carry out the purposes of UNRRA. We were un- 
willing to agree to relief assistance which would 
require us to recommend a larger contribution to 
Congress, but we do not believe that a lesser amount 
will provide the required assistance during the 
remaining period of UNRRA's operations. As 
the United States member of the UNRRA Council, 
I proposed a resolution which was adopted by the 
Council, recommending that each contributing 
member of UNRRA should make an additional 
operating contribution equal to one percent of the 
national income of sudi country for the year 
ending June 30. 1943. 

Within a short time mc will ask Congress to 
authorize this additional contribution. At that 
time we will have available for i^resentation to 
Congi-ess complete information as to the plans and 
operating programs which UNRRA would under- 
take under the new authorization. 

We cannot wait until that time, however, to 
request the appropriation of the remaining 
$550,000,000 of the funds which Congress has al- 
ready authorized for our participation in 
UNRRA. A delay of even a few weeks will be 
extremely serious, since UNRRA must move at 
once to bring assistance to all of the newly lib- 
erated lands who are unable to provide relief and 
rehabilitation for themselves. The task is far too 
urgent to permit any stoppage in relief supplies, 
and that is what will happen if there is a period 
during which UNRRA is unable to engage in any 
procurement because of the absence of funds. 

As you know, in any suppl}' ojieration there is 
a necessary interval between the time funds are 
committed against specific purchases and the time 
actual deliveries are made and expenditures re- 



corded. The length of this interval varies from 
commodity to commodity. UNRRA is now in 
a position, in so far as its United States con- 
tribution is concerned, where it cannot today plan 
on any additional future procurement of any sub- 
stantial amount. The supplies for which its funds 
are committed will be in the process of procure- 
ment, shipment, and delivery for the next two or 
three months. If it receives no additional funds 
at this time deliveries from the United States 
will cease entirely in most of the major items in 
December and January. Since the United States 
is the major contributing nation, particularly in 
the field of food and clothing, this means that 
without the additional appropriation of $550,- 
000,000 UNRRA programs of relief will prac- 
tically come to an end in the crucial period of the 
winter. 

The success of our arms and those of our Allies 
has brought us a stunning victory. Today the 
world is at peace for the first time in 15 years. 
But peace must mean something more than the 
absence of hostilities. It must mean the revival 
of production and the renewed exchange of 
goods. It must mean employment and increased 
prosperity. The sooner those nations whose lands 
have been stripped and ravaged can again help 
themselves, the sooner all of us will enjoy the 
fruits of our victory. UNRRA is the first step 
in this direction. 



Operations of UNRRA 

FOURTH QUARTERLY REPORT 

[Released to the press by the White House October 11] 

To the Congress of the United States of Amenca: 
I am transmitting herewith the 4th report to 
Congress on UNRRA operations for the quarter 
ending June 30, 1945, in which there has been in- 
cluded a summary statement on the status of the 
United States contribution to UNRRA as of 
August 31, 1945. 

Unconditional surrender of both Germany and 
Japan has brought full victory to the United Na- 
tions on the battlefields, but victory can have real 
meaning only if it is speedily translated into a 
secure peace. That gi-eat task is just beginning. 
Victory over the enemy has been costly in mate- 
rial things and in blood and suffering. Victory 
in securing a lasting peace will continue to call for 
the combined efforts of all peoples to bind up the 



578 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



wounds left by the war so that solid foundations 
will be laid for the future. 

In the period under review in this report 
UNRRA, increasingly freed from the restraints 
imposed by military needs, moved into the large- 
scale operations for which it had been maturing 
plans, scheduling purchases, and building an or- 
ganization. In Greece, Yugoslavia, and Albania 
it took over supply responsibility at the request of 
the allied military authorities. Operations were 
under way in Poland and Czechoslovakia and con- 
siderable shipments of supplies had arrived in 
these countries. On the basis of the prior agi'ee- 
ment with SHAEF and at the urgent request of 
the military authorities, UNRRA teams were as- 
sisting armed forces in the care and repatriation 
of millions of allied displaced persons in Germany 
and Austria. In the Far East the military situa- 
tion was less favorable to UNRRA activities but 
significant operations were carried on in China, 
and the program for the Far East was further 
elaborated in preparation for the day of liberation. 

In order to carry through these operations and 
to ensure that the supply pipe line would remain 
full, UNRRA had to draw heavily upon the $450,- 
000,000 appropriated by the Congress, and ar- 
rangements were made to exercise the authority 
contained in the appropriation act to utilize for 
UNRRA purposes up to $350,000,000 of supplies, 
services and funds available under the Lend-Lease 
Act. In the succeeding months UNRRA's need 
for United States supplies has continued to in- 
crease with the result that it has been necessary 
to utilize virtually all the funds and authority 
available under the appropriation act. 

Through UNRRA the United States is making 
and will make its contribution for relief to the 
liberated peoples. In order that these people may 
move ahead toward the tremendous task of recon- 
struction, they must have the basic materials to 
regain their strength. Wliere we at home have 
shortages and inconveniences, millions in other 
lands lack even the bare necessities of life. Life 
abroad in the coming winter will depend upon the 
outside assistance which this country and other 
countries can render to the liberated peoples. 

UNRRA, struggling as it has in the face of 
world deficits of critical supplies and of shipping, 
has made a substantial beginning in the immense 
task of relief and rehabilitation. The more this 
task can be speeded up through the early delivery 
of vitally needed supplies, the sooner it will be pos- 



sible for UNRRA to withdraw, leaving the liber- 
ated peoples on a firm footing to carry on their 
own life. The Government of the United States 
and the other members of UNRRA are meeting 
this common problem as the United Nations are 
attempting to meet other world problems — to- 
gether and to the best of their respective abilities. 

Harry S. Truman 
The White House 
October 11, 19^6 

UNRRA Program in Italy^ 

[Released to the press by DNRRA October 0] 

UNRRA at present is carrying on in Italy a lim- 
ited program. This was authorized by the Council 
at its second session in Montreal, September 1944. 
This program is not to cost more than $50,000,000. 
It is serving children and mothers with supple- 
mentary rations and giving some medical aid to 
the population generally, also assistance in care of 
displaced persons. 

The UNRRA Council has authorized an ex- 
panded — a full scale — program in Italy at as early 
a time as it can be started. We are working 
toward the goal of starting it early in January. 
Carrying on this program, of course, will be possi- 
ble only if the uninvaded member nations of 
UNRRA contribute the supplies and funds asked 
by the Council at its meeting in London, August 
1945, when a second contribution of one percent 
of the national income of each of the 31 uninvaded 
member nations in the year ended June 30, 1943 
was requested. 

Continued aid to Italy after January 1 is a mat- 
ter of life and death for that country. Italy can- 
not grow enough food to feed itself. Southern 
Italy is especially poor, and the Allied armies have 
done a good job in caring for civilians in the face 
of great difficulties. The military program of 
assistance ended September 1. Then began the 
three-month FEA interim program of $100,000,- 
000. This is a good beginning to assist Italy to its 
feet. That program, besides providing food, 
medicine, clothing, and other necessities of daily 
life, will send some cotton, wool, and rubber to 
help start industry going and give aid to men pre- 
viously employed by the military or returned from 
forced labor in Germany. But this FEA supply 



'Statement by Spurgeon M. Keeny, Chief, UNRRA 
Italian Mission. 



OCTOBER 14, 1945 



579 



line will end in December. Unless UNRRA funds 
become available, the pipeline will become dry. 

Italian industry is almost entirely dependent on 
imported coal. If Italy has coal, cotton, and wool, 
she can make some of her own clothing. This 
method instead of cutting deeply into our own sup- 
ply of textiles provides a market for some of our 
surplus cotton and wool. The cloth made will in 
turn bring to market more of the wheat that the 
Italian farmer now tends to hold back because he is 
afraid to sell for lire that have little buying power. 

Italy's wheat crop this year is the worst in 20 
years. She must have at least 150,000 tons of wheat 
a month until the next harvest. Even this amount 
of wheat will not increase the present meager ra- 
tioned food supply of less than 1,000 calories daily 
per person. Of course, Italians get more than this. 
But everything beyond the 1,000 calories of ra- 
tioned food must be bought in the open market at 
prices so high that the average family's earnings 
must nearly all go for food. 

But the expanded UNRRA program contem- 
plated for Italy if the uninvaded United Nations 
provide the financing must do more than help to 
feed the country. If nothing more is done, Italy 
will be as helpless at the end of 1946 as it is now. 
Phosphate rock and spare parts for agricultural 
machinery must be brought in to help Italy grow 
more food. Anyone who has traveled throughout 
Italy must be impressed with the fact that every 
bit of land is being cultivated except those spots 
that have been mined or flooded. Anyone who says 
Italy is not trying to help itself has not seen men 
and women dig entire fields by hand for the lack 
of animals to pull the plows. 

The 1945 UNRRA program for Italy is limited 
to the feeding of undernourished children, to 
medical care, and to assistance to displaced persons 
and refugees to return to their homes. About 1 
million children are now being fed. This number 
will increase to 2 million before Christmas. Emer- 
gency medical and hospital supplies are being dis- 
tributed. By next year Italy will be able to make 
many of its own medicines but to do so will need 
most of the raw chemicals and drugs. The return 
of displaced persons and refugees is well under 
way. Almost 1 million Italians have been returned 
from Germany by the military, which has done an 
excellent job in moving a great niunber of people 
home before winter. In addition, almost 1 million 
Italians in Italy must be returned to the homes 



from which they were removed at the time of 
military operations. Finding shelter is the most 
diiEcult problem because nearly 6 million rooms 
have been destroyed in Italy in military operations. 

The second-hand clothing contributed by the 
American people is proving a godsend to Italians 
who are able to buy nothing new because supplies 
are so short and prices so high. In Italy, a shirt 
now costs at least $15 and a pair of men's shoes $50 
worth of lire. At this moment, some 5 million 
pounds of clothing from the recent drive are on 
their way to Italy, where they will be distributed 
by UNRRA and American Relief for Italy in 
cooperation. 

Of all parts of Italy, Sardinia is perhaj)s the 
hardest hit. Its production was small in normal 
times, and its crops have failed this year both 
because of the drought and because of the plague 
of grasshoppers. In addition, it has one of the 
worst malaria rates in Italy. In order to deal with 
the situation a project is being worked out with the 
Rockefeller Foundation whereby it is hoped to 
stamp out malaria in Sardinia within two years. 
UNRRA will supply the materials, using largely 
army-surplus transport and medical supplies ; local 
expenditures will be supplied by the Italian Gov- 
ernment, and the technical supervision will be done 
by the Rockefeller Foundation. 

In all of the relief program Italy is a full 
partner, and for every dollar of supplies landed in 
the country it contributes 100 lire to a special fund. 
This means that all of UNRRA's money can be 
used to buy supplies. The Italian contribution 
pays all expenses of the program in the country. 
All lire not so spent will be used to extend the pro- 
gram and to serve as a cushion when UNRRA 
withdraws, as it hopes to do, by the end of 1946. 

It is not always understood that the proposed 
so-called "expanded" UNRRA progi-am for 1946 
is not an expansion at all but a merging of the 
present limited UNRRA program and that which 
has been carried by the military and FEA. This 
relief is essential to the life of Italy, because Italy's 
economy is a highly dependent one. Parallel with 
this relief, however, there must be developed a pro- 
gram of commercial credits which will make it 
possible for Italy to make additional purchases of 
raw materials, especially of industrial supplies. 
Only if this program of credits and raw materials 
is pushed at full speed can international trade be 
resumed and relief be promptly brought to an end. 



580 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Financial and Trade Discussions 

With the United Kingdom: United States Objectives 



A correspondent asked Assistant Secretary Clay- 
ton at a press conference on October 9 what policy 
"would underlie the United States Government in 
its current financial and trade talks with the Brit- 
ish. Mr. Clayton replied that from his point of 
view, if the government could not justify an agree- 
ment with the British which might result from 
these talks, there would be no use in undertaking 
it. He said that he was not inclined to justify the 
agreement on the basis of partnership in the war, 
adding that, altliough a great deal could be said 
on that score, he thought that if a satisfactory 
arrangement could be worked out with the British 
it could be completely justified on the basis of the 
benefits that would accrue to this country in the 
future. Mr. Clayton said that if Britain did not 
get assistance from the United States her alterna- 
tive would be to fall back upon defensive trade 
measures; to further solidify and cement the eco- 
nomic bloc that exists now around the British 
Empire; to cut down her importations of goods 
to the very bone from every country outside of the 
Emi)ire; to channel her trade to the sterling coun- 
tries and just build up an economic bloc there that 
would inevitably mean that corresponding blocs 
would be built up in the rest of the world ; so that 
there would be a situation vez-y bad from both the 
economic and political point of view. 

Mr. Clayton declai-ed that it was the object of 
the Department of State to try to get the world 
back on a multilateral basis of trading and of 
economic intercourse and relations, and to break 
up, as far as possible, these economic blocs that 
have developed. He said that he believed this was 
the right course not only because it fits with Amer- 
ican plans for a great expansion in world economy 
and production and consumption and interchange 
of goods, but also because the United States be- 
lieves that kind of atmosphere is necessary to pre- 
vent development in the world of political blocs 
and spheres of influence out of which in time grow 
all kinds of differences between nations and be- 



tween groups of nations which sow the seeds of 
conflict. 

Mr. Clayton explained that if the United States 
does not assist her to get back on to a multilateral 
basis of trade, Great Britain, who has been one of 
our best customers for years, will inevitably resort 
to bilateral arrangements with the resultant loss of 
markets for American tobacco, cotton, and other 
products. 



FAR EASTERN ADVISORY COMMISSION— Continued 
from page 561 

Commission. Prior to such termination, the Com- 
mission shall transfer to any interim or perma- 
nent security organization of which the partici- 
pating Governments are members, those functions 
which may appropriately be transferred. 



APPOINTMENT OF REPRESENTATIVES 

[Released to the press October 12] 

The Department has been informed by the 
American Legation at Canberra, Australia, that 
the Australian Government has accepted with 
pleasure the invitation to participate in the Far 
Eastern Advisory Commission and has designated 
H. V. Evatt, Minister for External Affairs, as its 
representative on the Commission. 

The American Embassy in Paris has informed 
the Department that the French Government has 
accepted the invitation to participate in the Far 
Eastern Advisory Commission, and that the 
French representative will be named in due course. 

The American Embassy in Ottawa on October 11 
telegrai^hed the Department that the Canadian 
Government will gladly participate in the Far 
Eastern Advisory Commission and will be repre- 
sented at the initial meeting on October 23 by 
Lester B. Pearson, the Canadian Ambassador in 
Washington. 



OCTOBER 14, 1945 



581 



Thirty-fourth Anniversary 
of the Republic of China 

MESSAGE FROM PRESIDENT TRUMAN 
TO GENERALISSIMO CHIANG KAI-SHEK 

[Released to the press October 8] 

October 8, 1945. 
His Excellency 

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, 

President of the National Government of the 
Repuhlic of China 
Chungking (China). 
Upon the thirty-fourth anniversary of the 
founding of the Republic of China the American 
people join me in sending to Your Excellency and 
to the people of China sincere congratulations and 
good wishes. 

Harey S. Truman 



Ratification of Charter 
of the United Nations 

[Released to the press October 10] 

Denmark 

Henrik de Kauffmann, Minister of Denmark, de- 
posited with the Department of State on Oi:tober 
9 the Danish instrument of ratification of the 
Charter of the United Nations and the annexed 
Statute of the International Court of Justice. 
Denmark is the twelfth nation to complete the 
necessary action on the Charter. 

[Released to the press October 12] 

Chile 

Juan Antonio Eios, President of Chile, delivered 
to President Truman at the White House on Oc- 
tober 11 his instrument of ratification of the 
Charter. 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by the White House October 10] 

The American people today join the people of 
all free nations in saluting the people of China 
upon this thirty-fourth anniversary of China's 
national revolution. For the first time in 14 years 
China is able to celebrate the Double Tenth with- 
out fear of aggression. The tremendous sacrifices 
which the Chinese people made for so long in their 
stirring and effective resistance to the Japanese 
invader have finally been rewarded in complete 
victory over the enemy, and the American people 
take pride in the decisive role played by our gal- 
lant Ally in this titanic struggle for world freedom. 

With final victory in the war achieved, China 
now faces the urgent problems of reconstruction 
of her devastated nation — a task which will re- 
quire all of the inspired leadership and full co- 
operation of the Chinese people which have been 
so evident during these years of desperate struggle 
for survival and without which Japan's savage 
aims of aggression might have succeeded. 

On behalf of the American people I take pleasure 
in reafiirming our abiding faith in the ability of 
the Chinese nation to accomplish the democratic 
objectives established for it by Dr. Sun Yat-sen 
and in pledging our assistance and support to the 
attainment of this end. 



Philippine Commonwealth 

Earlier on October 11 the Resident Commis- 
sioner of the Philippines to the United States, 
Brig. Gen. Carlos P. Romulo, deposited with the 
Department of State the Philippine instrument 
of ratification of the Charter. 



Paraguay 

Celso R. Velazquez, Ambassador of Paraguay, 
deposited with the Department of State on October 
12 the Paraguayan instrument of ratification of 
the Charter. 

The following 15 governments have now depos- 
ited instruments of ratification in the order listed : 

United States of America on August 8 

Fiance on August 31 

Dominican Republic on September 4 

Nicaragua on September 6 

New Zealand on September 19 

Brazil on September 21 

Argentina on September 24 

El Salvador on September 26 

Haiti on September 27 

China on September 28 

Turkey on September 28 

Denmark on October 9 

Philippine Commonwealth on October 11 

Chile on October 11 

Paraguay on October 12 



582 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Resignation of Frank McCarthy as Assistant Secretary of State 

EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT AND MR. MCCARTHY 



[Released to the press by the White House October 11] 

Frank McCarthy has sent the following letter 
to the President, submitting his resignation as 
Assistant Secretary of State: 

October 11, 1945. 
My Dear Mr. President: 

Since I left the Army in August and came to the 
Department of State, my health has steadily de- 
clined. Eecently I have been told by my physician 
that I am suffering from an accumulated fatigue 
which can be relieved only if I am willing to lay 
aside all responsibility for a period of at least two 
or three months, perhaps a longer time. I am 
further advised that a failure on my part to correct 
this condition quickly will result in some perma- 
nent impairment of my health. 

I have discussed witli the Secretary of State, 
the Under Secretary, and a number of other officers 
of the Department, and of the Bureau of the 
Budget, certain administrative measures which 
will, I believe, strengthen the Department for the 
task which it faces. These can be effectively insti- 
tuted only by aggressive, forceful leadership. The 
need for such leadership is immediate. I do not 
believe it can be provided through the designation 
of an Acting Assistant Secretary for Administra- 
tion. The weaknesses of such an arrangement are 
inherent and obvious ; I do not think the Depart- 
ment should accept them at this time. 

In addition, I feel that my best chance of future 
usefulness lies in my determination not to resume 
any form of responsibility until I have recovered 
completely and beyond question. I do not know 
how long this may take. 

Under these circumstances, I wish to offer my 
resignation as Assistant Seci'etary of State. 

It is with regret that I am forced to relinquish 
the opportunity you have given me for high serv- 
ice. In doing so, I wish to express my appreciation 
of your confidence and trust. 
Faithfully yours, 

Frank McCartht 



The text of the President's reply follows : 

October 11, 1945. 
Dear Colonel McCarthy : 

I have just read your letter of this date. Re- 
cently I was told that you were disturbed about 
your health, but I hoped that after a rest you would 
find it possible to continue your work as Assistant 
Secretary of State. 

I understand your position, and I cannot ask 
you to do anything that would in the opinion of 
your iJhysician and in your opinion delay your 
recovery. 

Therefore with deep regret, and with apprecia- 
tion of the valuable service you have rendered, I 
accept your resignation. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Harry S. Trtjsian 



Traveling Accommodations 
in the Far East 

[Released to the press October 8] 

The Department of State has arranged with 
the War Department to have food, quarters, and 
local transportation furnished to American busi- 
nessmen traveling in the Far East, when such 
accommodations are not obtainable in the usual 
way. This assistance will be furnished by Army 
supi^ly facilities, as is now being done in the 
areas of Europe occupied by United States forces, 
as long as the Army has such facilities in 
oi^eration. 

In order to obtain this aid, businessmen whose 
American passports are correctly endorsed for 
travel to the Far East should apply, after arrival, 
to the American mission or consulate serving the 
area they are in. No arrangements can be made 
in this country prior to departure, and no guar- 
anty is made that aid will not be unavailable due 
to conditions beyond control. 



OCTOBER 14, 1945 

Pan-American Book Exposition 

[Released to the press by the Pan American Union October 12] 

More than 4,000 volumes — representing the 
work of 190 publishing houses throughout the 
Western Hemisphere — have been received by the 
Columbus Memorial Library of the Pan Amer- 
ican Union to be displayed during the first Pan 
American Book Exposition, opening October 12. 

The exhibit, unique among inter- American cul- 
tural events, will give thousands of Washingto- 
nians and visitors to the national capital a compre- 
hensive look at Latin American literary output. 
Forty-two United States publishers will also be 
represented, showing 141 volumes of translations 
and books on Latin American themes. 

The diversity of material to be exhibited is 
notable, with every field of writing from higher 
mathematics and comparative religion to chil- 
dren's verse and cookbooks included in the expo- 
sition. Many volumes are translations of timeless 
classics and contemporary best sellers of all lands, 
rendered into Spanish or Portuguese from Greek, 
Latin, English, French, German, Russian, Chinese, 
and the Scandinavian. 

A survey of titles reveals a lively interest among 
Latin Americans in the history, literature, poli- 
tics, and art of neighbor republics. "Brazilian 
Policy in Paraguay" is a treatise published in 
Argentina, which country also sent to the exhibit 
a "General History of Peru", as well as Spanish 
translations of novels by Nathaniel Hawthorne, 
Theodore Dreiser, John Erskine, and many an- 
other author familiar to this country. 

Items from Chile include Emil Ludwig's "Na- 
poleon", "Now and Forever", by Pearl Buck, and 
Carl Sandburg's "Mary Todd Lincoln". The 
names of Pierre Loti and Max Lerner catch the 
eye in the Mexican collection. Publishers in Peru, 
Colombia, Uruguay, and Brazil also contributed 
translated works by English-language writers and 
books dealing with varied aspects of life in the 
rest of the hemisphere. 

These, however, represent only a fraction of the 
material to be displayed. Most of it is original 
prose and poetry by living Latin Americans, treat- 
ing of the history and politics, the folklore, drama, 
topography, and outstanding figures, past and 



583 

present, of their native lands. It is, in short, a 
vital, articulate cross-section of those other 
Americas with whom we live in ever-increasing 
intimacy. 

Not only the variety of content but also the dis- 
tinctive editorial techniques, formats, and physi- 
cal composition represented in the exhibit will at- 
tract the book lover. Although paper-back vol- 
umes — designed for mass consumption and priced 
from 30 cents to a dollar. United States currency — 
form the bulk of the exhibit, several hundred books 
handsomely bound in leather and cloth will be 
shown. 

Argentine publishers, who produced a total of 
19,342,719 volumes in 1944, easily topping the out- 
put of all other Latin American countries com- 
bined, have sent 3,186 examples of their work to the 
Pan American Exposition. One firm, the Emece 
Editores of Buenos Aires, printed a special catalog 
for the occasion, containing descriptions and price 
lists of the 204 titles they will show. 

Guillermo Kraft, president of La Camara del 
Libro Argentino (Argentine Book Society), was 
chiefly instrumental in securing the participation 
of all leading editorial houses in that southern re- 
public. Dr. Kraft organized both the highly suc- 
cessful 1943 Argentine Book Fair and the exposi- 
tion of Argentine literature held in Santiago, 
Chile, early this year. 

In all, editorial firms of 17 Latin American re- 
publics have sent their best and latest works to the 
exliibit, which will be open to the public daily from 
Columbus Day until November 12 in the Hall of 
the Americas of the Pan American Union. 



Appointment of Mark Etheridge 
To Investigate Conditions 
In the Balkans 

At his press and radio conference on October 
10, the Secretary of State announced the appoint- 
ment of Mark Etheridge of the Louisville Courier- 
Journal as a representative of tliis Government 
to investigate conditions in the Balkan states. 



584 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Iraqi Barter Agreements 

Palestine 

The Legation at Baghdad transmitted to the 
Department with a despatch dated September 4, 
1945 a text of a barter agreement signed by Iraq 
and Palestine, probably early in the spring of 
1945. According to the terms of the agreement 
each Government will issue import licenses for 
merchandise specified in the agreement, and upon 
the receipt of an import license from the other 
country the Government of the territory of 
despatch will issue an export license and accord 
such facilities for export as are possible. The 
agreement is valid for one year from the date of 
signature, but with the understanding that the 
total quantities of the commodities will be sliipped 
in as short a period of time as is possible. Cows 
and woolen yarn will be sent from Iraq to Pales- 
tine, while Nablus soap, washing soap, earthen- 
wares, glasswares, and cotton goods will be sent 
from Palestine. In each case the trade will be 
valued at about 190,000 Iraqi dinars ($767,000). 

The agreement with Palestine is similar to barter 
agreements concluded this year by Iraq with 
Lebanon and with Syria. 

Lebanon 

The Lebanese-Iraqi agreement was signed at 
Beirut on February 27, 1945 and provides for the 
exchange of certain commodities considered essen- 
tial for both countries. The text and an accom- 
panying schedule of commodities considered essen- 
tial for both countries comprising a program for 
six months' barter were set forth in Iraqi Notifica- 
tion no. 36 of 1945, dated at Baghdad May 16, 1945. 

In both countries, export licenses will be issued 
to resident merchants recognized by both parties 
as being properly qualified and residing in the 
country where the license is issued. The merchants 
must pledge execution of the export operation, as 
well as importation of a specific quantity of any of 
the commodities named, as an offset of the products 
exported. The agreement is valid for six months 
but may be renewed at the end of this or any other 
six months' period on the same terms after con- 
sultation by both sides one month before the 
expiration of the agreement. 

The commodities to move from Iraq to Lebanon 
under this agreement include rice, woolen yam. 



sheep, cows, oxen, ox and buffalo hides, and linseed. 
Trade from Lebanon to Iraq will consist of cement, 
matches, glassware, cardboard, tanned leather, and 
tanned sole leather. In each case the total value 
of the commodities involved is 257,000 dinars 
($1,037,000). 

Syria 

Early in March an Iraqi-Syrian barter agree- 
ment was signed in Damascus. The full text of 
this agreement has not yet been published, but it is 
stated in official circles that its terms are identical 
with those of the Lebanese-Iraqi agreement. It is 
reported that the commodities to be furnished by 
Iraq to Syria are rice, woolen yarns, cow and 
buffalo hides, oxen, cows, sheep, goats, broken 
glass, and paper waste, while Syria is to send to 
Iraq Aleppo soap, silk, cotton textiles, hemp ropes, 
matches, tanned sole leather, cement, socks and 
stockings, and neckties. In each case the trade will 
be valued at 1,000,000 Iraqi dinars ($4,035,000) . 

Aviation Agreements 

The Department of State has recently received 
notes of accejatance of the Interim Agreement on 
International Civil Aviation from Spain and 
from Greece and of the International Air Services 
Transit Agreement from Spain, from Australia, 
and from Greece, and a note from the Nether- 
lands relinquishing the reservation which it had 
made regarding the Fifth Freedom with respect 
to the International Air Transport Agreement as 
provided in article IV, section 1, of that agree- 
ment. 

The interim agreement became binding with 
regard to Spain on August 2 and with regard to 
Greece on September 21 in accordance with article 
XVII of that agreement, which provides that it 
shall become binding upon the receipt of a note 
of acceptance by the Government of the United 
States. 

The Spanish note on the transit agi'eement was 
dated July 27 and received August 2, the Aus- 
tralian note dated August 25 and received August 
28, and the Greek note dated July 9 and received 
September 21. 

The note from the Netherlands Embassy re- 
linquishing the reservation in the transport agree- 
ment was dated September 21. 



OCTOBER 14, 1945 



585 



Return of Americans 
on the "Gripsliolm" 

[Rpleased to the press October 8] 

The Department of State announced that the 
relief ship, the M.V. Gripsholm, arrived at Pier 
F, Jersey City, N. J., on October 9, 1945. The 
Gripsholm carried to the United States approxi- 
mately 1,325 American citizens with their close 
alien relatives from Palestine, Egypt, Greece, and 
Italy. There were also on board approximately 
175 Red Cross personnel returning fi-om service 
with the armed forces in Europe. 

The Chipsholm is expected to sail from Newark 
on October 16, carrying American oiBcials and 
businessmen and alien deportees to Italy, Greece, 
and Egypt. 



Repatriation of Americans 
From Shanghai 

[Released to the press on October 13] 

The Department of State has received from the 
American Consulate General at Shanghai the list 
of civilians who left Shanghai on the hospital ship 
Refugee on September 27. From other sources, 
the Department has learned that the passengers 
reached Guam safely and are due at a west-coast 
port about October 20. The names of the pas- 
sengers are printed in press release 247. 

Denunciation of Patent- 
Interchange Agreement 

The Secretary of State informed the British 
Ambassador by a note dated October 8, 1945 of 
the termination on April 8, 1946 of the agreement 
between the United States and Great Britain on 
the Interchange of Patent Eights, Information, 
Inventions, Designs, or Processes which was signed 
at Washington August 24, 1942.^ The notice was 
given pursuant to article XV of the agreement, 
which pro%ndes that it may be terminated at the 
option of either Government and that the date of 
termination shall be not less than six months from 
the giving of notice. 



Patrick J. Hurley To 
Return to China 

[Relcnsed to the press October 13] 

The Department of State announced on October 
13 that Ambassador Patrick J. Hurley will return 
to China after he has had a short rest. 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Appointment of .Officers 

Bryn J. Hovde as Consultant in the Office of In- 
ternational Information and Cultural Affairs^ 
effective September 26, 1945. 

John A. Loftus as Chief of the Petroleum Di-. 
vision, effective October 2, 1945. 

William E. DeCourcy as Chief of the Division 
of Foreign Service Personnel, effective October 5, 
1945. 

Col. Alfred McCormack as Special Assistant to 
the Secretary, in charge of research and intelli- 
gence, effective September 28, 1945. The routing 
symbol for Colonel McCormack's office is SA-Mc. 

Board of Foreign Service Personnel 

William L. Clayton, Assistant Secretary in 
charge of economic affairs, as a member of the 
Board of Foreign Service Personnel to replace 
Dean Acheson, effective August 20, 1945. 

Change in Name of the Special War 
Problems Division to Special Pro- 
jects Division^ 

Pucffose. This order is issued to reflect more 
accurately the functions of the Special War Prob- 
lems Division in view of the termination of hos- 
tilities. 

1 Change in naine of the division. The name of 
the Special War Problems Division of the Office 
of Controls is hereby changed to Special Projects 
Division (routing symbol SPD). 

2 Fimctions of the division. The functions of 
the division shall remain unchanged. 



' Executive Agreement Series 2f)8. 

' Department Order 1341, dated and effective Oct. 3, 
19J5. 



586 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



3 Orders UTnended. Departmental Order 1301 
of December 20, 1944 and any other orders the 
provisions of which are in conflict herewith, are 
accordingly amended. 

Frank McCarthy 
Assistant Secretary 



Publications 

of the DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

For sale by the Superintendent of Docmnents, 
Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C, 
who is the authorized distributor of Government 
publications. To avoid delay, address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Dociunents, except 
in the case of free iJublications, which may be ob- 
tained from the Department of State. 

"^European Inland Transport: Agreement Be- 
tween the United States of America and Other 
Powers — Signed at London May 8, 1945. Ex- 
ecutive Agreement Series 458. Publication 
2387. 35 pp. lOii. 
This multilateral agreement provides among the 
signatory powers for coordination both in move- 
ment of traffic within Europe by road, rail, or in- 
land waterway, and also in allocation of transport 
equipment and material, in order to restore normal 
conditions of economic life. 

'^'Military Mission: Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Guatemala — 
Signed at Washington May 21, 1945; effec- 
tive May 21, 1945. Executive Agreement 
Series 459. Publication 2388. 11 pp. 50. 
The United States in conformity to request of 
^ Guatemala authorizes the detail of officers of the 
^' U. S. Army as a military mission to Guatemala. 
The purpose of this mission is to cooperate with 
the Minister of National Defense of Guatemala and 
with personnel of the Guatemalan Army with a 
view to enhancing the efficiency of that Army, to 
serve as adviser to the Army General Staff and 
the various military academies, and to aid In 
organizing Army Service Forces. 



^ THE CONGRESS ^ 



Policy Covering the Use and Development of the Atomic 
Bomb. Message from the President of the United States 
transmitting request for the enactment of legislation to 
fix: a policy covering the use and development of the 
atomic bomb. H. Doc. 301, 79th Cong. 4 pp. 

Development of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin. 
Message from the President of the United States trans- 
mitting the recommendation for approval by the Congress 
of the agreement of March 19, 1941, between United 
States and Canada for the development of the Great 
Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin. H. Doc. 302, 79th Cong. 3 pp. 

Estimate of Appropriation for the United Nations Re- 
lief and Rehabilitation Administration. Communication 
from the President of the United States transmitting 
estimate for the appropriation of $550,000,000 for the 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. 
3 pp. 

Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States Relative to Voting Qualifications. S.Rept. 
614, 79th Cong., to accompany S.J.Res. 92. 3 pp. [Favor- 
able report.] 

Amending the Nationality Act of 1940 To Preserve the 
Nationality of Citizens Residing Abroad. S. Rept. 615, 
79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 3466. 2 pp. 

Foreign Contracts Act: Joint Hearings Before a Sub- 
committee of the Committee on the Judiciary, United 
States Senate, and the Special Committee Investigating 
Petroleum Resources (S. Res. 36), Seventy-ninth Con- 
gress, first session, on S. 11, a bill to protect the foreign 
relations and to promote trade and commerce of the 
United States, to require the disclosure to the United 
States of information affecting such trade and commerce, 
and to safeguard the security of the United States. May 
17, 18, 21, and 22, 1945. iii, 267 pp. [Indexed.] 



■^ THE FOREIGN SERVICE ^ 



Consular Offices 

The American Consulate General at Tientsin, 
China, was reestablished October 7, 1945. 



U. S. GOVERNHEHT PRINTING OFFICE; t94S 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BU 



J 



H 



1 r 



1 




VOL. XIII, NO. 330 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



In this issue 



THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SERVICE IN CONDUCT 
OF FOREIGN RELATIONS 

Statements by Assistant Secretary Benton 

MILITARY GOVERNMENT OF GERMANY 

Directive to the Commander in Chief of United States Forces of Occupation 

IS UNRRA DOING ITS JOB? 
A Radio Broadcast 

REESTABLISHMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL REGIME IN TANGIER 



Vl«^NT o^ 




-*^tes o^ 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 






/ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



Vol. Xiri'No. 330» 




• PUBMCATIOtf 2405 



October 21, 1945 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in thefield of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Docu ments. United States 
Government Printing Office, Wash- 
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chase orders, with accompanying 
remittance, should be sent. The sub- 
scription price is $3.50 a year; a single 
copy is 10 cents. 







ontents 



American Republics ^"^^ p^gg 

Visit of President Rfos of Chile. Statement by President 

Truman g4g 

Europe 

Military Government of Germany: Directive to the Com- 
mander in Chief of the United States Forces of Occupa- 
tion 596 

Displaced Persons in Germany. Letter from General Eisen- 
hower to the President 607 

Anniversary of Czechoslovak Independence. Statement by 

the President 609 

Recognition of Provisional Austrian Government 612 

Decision by Allied Council in Austria 612 

Postponement of Marshal Zhukov's Visit to the United 

States 612 

Far East 

UNRRA Mission to Gather Information on Displaced Per- 
sons in the Far East 628 

Travel to Korea 643 

Far Eastern Advisory Commission: 

Date for First Meeting 643 

Appointment of Representatives 643 

The Post- War Period in the Far East. Address by John 

Carter Vincent 644 

Postal Regulations for Mail to China 622 

Near East 

Henry F. Grady To Observe Greek Elections. Statement 

by the Secretary of State 611 

Attitude of American Government Toward Palestine . . . 623 
Economic Affaies 

Study on Developments in Scandinavian Pulp and Paper 

Industries 627 

Is UNRRA Doing Its Job? A Radio Broadcast .... 629 
Financial Arrangements Favorable to International Trade. 

Remarks by Charles Bunn 637 

Advisory Health-Group Meeting 640 

Acceptance of Invitation to Telecommunications Confer- 
ence 649 

The United Nations 

Meeting of United Nations Food and Agriculture Organ- 
ization: 

Message of President Truman 619 

Organization of Commissions and Committees 620 

Educational and Cultural Conference: 

Invitation to the Conference 624 

Date for Convening of Conference 624 

United States Delegation 624 

Preparatory Commission of the United Nations: 

Arrangements for Trusteeship Council 626 

Discussion on Organization of Information Services . . . 626 
Proposed International Health Organization: Requests 

From China and Brazil on Calling of Conference . . . 638 
Treaty Information 

International Military Tribunal 695 

Arrangements With Belgium on Financial and Supply 

Problems 610 

Reestablishment of the International Regime in Tangier . 613 

Signing of the FAO Constitution 619 

{Continued on page 660) 



i 



The Role of 

International Information Service 

in Conduct of Foreign Relations 

Statements by ASSISTANT SECRETARY BEINTON 



[Released to the press October 16] 

There follows the text of a statement read by 
Assistant Secretary of State Benton before the 
House Foreign Affairs Committee on October 
16: 

The theme of my testimony here today is that 
the United States Government — and specifically 
the State Department — cannot be indifferent to 
the ways in which our Nation is portrayed in other 
countries. It has an obligation — perhaps I 
should call it an opportunity and a challenge — to 
help give to the people of other lands what Presi- 
dent Truman describes as "a full and fair picture 
of American life and of the aims and policies of 
the United States Government". 

Peoples Speaking to Peoples 

H.R. 4368 ^ reflects some profound changes in 
tlie conduct of foreign relations in the twentieth 
century — and jjarticularly in the last 20 years. 
These changes are obvious to you who have been 
following the development of foreign relations. 
I refer to them now merely as background for the 
discussion of this bill. 

There was a time when foreign affairs were 
ruler-to-ruler relations, when the rulers dealt pri- 
vately and secretlj' with one another through 
their ambassadors. Even when absolute rulers 
gave way to representative governments, the rela- 
tions often continued to be secret and private 
through ambassadors. These government-to-gov- 
ernment relationships prevailed until the first 
World War. 

Since 1918 the relations between nations have 
constantly been broadened to include not merely 



governments but also peoples. The peoples of the 
world are exercising an ever larger influence upon 
decisions of foreign policy. That is as it should 
be. 

The impact of America is one of the forces be- 
hind this trend. Amei'ica is the leader in the 
development of the field of communications. We 
have been a leader in the whole field of science and 
technology. 

Short-wave broadcasting has grown up within 
the last 20 years, and notably in tlie last 10. Rates 
for the international transmission of news have 
been reduced by 50 percent, 75 percent, and in some 
instances by 90 percent, resulting in a vastly 
greater flow of information from one country to 
another. Magazines now have international cir- 
culation. Books are being translated and sold 
internationally in far greater quantities. The 
motion picture appeals to everybody everywhere 
and reaches all corners of the world. 

The peoples themselves, as well as their ideas, 
are moving about the world farther and faster. 
Now they can fly around the world on a commer- 
cial schedule of 6 days. It is a fairly safe predic- 
tion that the volume of tourist and commercial 
travel will increase steadily, and perhaps spec- 
tacularly, unless we are thrown once more into 
depression or international conflict. 

These trends are not new to you. But they have 
an important bearing upon the proposals covered 



' H. R. 4368, a bill to extend and broaden the existing 
programs for the interchange of persons, knowledge, and 
skills between the people of the United States and the 
peoples of other countries. 

589 



590 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN, 



by H.lt. 4368. They mean that we in the United 
States have a new challenge — and a new and 
unprecedented opportunity — to exchange informa- 
tion, learning, and skill with the people of other 
countries and thus not only to build a firmer 
foundation for our commerce but to provide that 
broad base of mutual understanding which makes 
for world peace. 

Limits of the Proposed Program 

Now some of the things I have just said may 
seem to be sweeping generalizations put forth to 
justify a seemingly unlimited operation. I 
should like to state two basic limitations whicli I 
feel should apply to all programs. 

First, I am against any indiscriminate, miscel- 
laneous campaigns aimed to develop so-called 
"good-will". All programs abroad in the field of 
so-called "cultural relations" should be designed 
to support U.S. foreign policy in its long-range 
sense, and to serve as an arm of that ijolicy. Many 
of the programs will, I trust, be educational and 
humanitarian in the highest sense. But this is not 
a bill to create and legitimize "Uncle Santa Claus". 
The benefits from it must be two-way benefits, to 
us as well as to others. 

Second, the dissemination of information about 
the United States and the process of cultural ex- 
change must continue, in overwhelming degree, 
to be non-governmental in character and in func- 
tion. The State Department should not attempt 
to undertake what private press, radio, and 
motion-jjicture organizations do better, or what 
our tourists, the salesmen of our commercial com- 
panies, our advertisers, our technicians, our book 
publisliers and play producers, and our universities 
do regularly and well. 

The Government's role here is facilitative and 
supplementary. Its first job is to be helpful to 
the private agencies engaged in international ex- 
change of information, skill, and art, and to the 
tens of thousands of private individuals going 
abroad who act as cultural ambassadors. The sec- 
ond job of Government — the supplementary job — 
is te help present a truer picture of American life 
and American policy in those areas important to 
our policy where private interchange is inadequate, 
or where misunderstandings and misapprehensions 
exist about the United States and its policies. 

Mr. Chairman, may I remind the committee that 



* Bulletin of Sept. 2, 1945, p. 300. 



I entered upon Government service within the past 
30 days after 25 years in private business and in 
the administration of a university which Is pri- 
vately endowed. I believe that the citizens of this 
country and its private institutions should be 
encouraged to do everything that they can pos- 
sibly do. This is my basic approach. It affects 
everything else that I have to say this morning. 
However, I know there are some areas which only 
Goverimient can or will handle, and we must study 
these areas and win the understanding of business, 
of the people, and of Congress for Government 
activities in them. 

The Positive Side of the Policy 

President Truman, in his statement of August 
31, said that "The nature of present-day foreign 
relations makes it essential for the United States 
to maintain informational activities abroad as an 
integral part of the conduct of our foreign 
affairs." ^ Our aim is to promote the cause of 
peaces through peaceful intercourse, through trade, 
travel, investment abroad, scientific exchange, and 
through clearer understanding of other countries 
within the United States and of the United States 
abroad. 

From the point of view of security, it seems self- 
evident that popular understanding of the United 
States in other countries, if it is accurate, will 
strengthen the possibility of friendship and politi- 
cal cooperation. I know all of you trust that the 
world Organization whicli was chartered in San 
Francisco shall develop constructively. That Or- 
ganization is no permanent guarantor of peace. 
It is simply a mechanism. The success of that 
mechanism depends upon the spirit in which it is 
used. 

The peoples of the world are going to have a 
gi'eat deal to say about the policies which their 
governments will advocate in the Security Council 
and in the Assembly of the world Organization. 
If programs for the dissemination of information 
abroad, and for technical and educational coopera- 
tion, can contribute even in a small way to the 
better understanding between peoples, and thus 
enhance the likelihood of world peace, these activi- 
ties will warrant their relatively modest cost. 

The interchange of skill, culture, and informa- 
tion costs very little in contrast to a single battle- 
ship in a fleet of battleships. Today I can hardly 
imagine a cultural-relations progi'am on a world 
scale which, on an annual basis, would equal the 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



591 



cost of a battleship. A battleship is a traditional 
and ortliodox expenditure of the taxpayer's dollar. 
The exchange of skills, knowledge, students, scien- 
tists, and other specialists is a relatively new idea 
and lience, to some, unorthodox. We should not 
close our minds because of that. We should, on 
the contrary, with the development of the atomic 
bomb and other terrifying weapons of destruction, 
place our small and inconsf)icuous bets on these 
long-range measures which hold some reasonable 
hope and promise that the world can learn to live 
together in peace and understanding. 

Our military and economic power is now so great 
that it is bound to lead many people and groups 
througliout the world to distrust us, or fear us, or 
even hate us, and not all the information work in 
the world, or all the technical and educational co- 
operation activities in the world, can wholly pre- 
vent it. At least we can try to minimize the un- 
truthful impressions of this country and to see that 
accurate knowledge counteracts the gi'owth of 
suspicion and prejudice. 

A cooperative foreign policy, as ours is, must 
be open, proclaimed, popularly arrived at at home, 
and clearly understood abroad. Any foreign 
policy must be viewed in the light of national 
history and character of the country that formu- 
lates it. If the policies of the United States are to 
be clearly understood and acted upon in other 
countries, their peoples must be aware, in some 
measure, of our national characteristics indis- 
pensable to the interpretation of our policies. 

There is a commercial as well as a security a.spect 
here. Although these informational and cultural 
programs cannot be measured in dollar-and-cents 
return, and should not be, it is obvious that trade 
with the United States will be stimulated abroad 
by an acquaintance with American technology and 
methods. The commercial position of Germany 
before this war indicated that a national reputa- 
tion for scientific and technical know-how is one 
of the great factors in begetting trade and com- 
merce. People bought German books and German 
precision instruments because the Germans had 
demonstrated that they were at that time leaders 
in these fields, and German industrial exports 
followed. Foreign students who come here will 
come to know American methods and American 
products. American scientists and technicians 
who go abroad will arouse interest in American 
ways and American products. 



There is still another and less obvious relation- 
ship between the purposes of this bill and our 
foreign economic relations. The United States, 
as the world's leading creditor, and with the 
world's largest industrial capacity, has the greatest 
stake in world prosperity. Anything we can do, in 
cooperation with other governments, to make 
knowledge available on public health, on educa- 
tional methods, and on the development of agri- 
cultural products which are complementary to 
those of the United States will in the long run 
react to the advantage of the United States. Such 
cooperation tends to raise the standard of living 
in other countries. American trade flourishes best 
with those nations with high standards of living. 

Operations 

The people of the United States, through their 
government, make direct contact with other 
peoples in two major ways. The first is through 
an international information program. The 
second is a program of technical and educational 
cooperation. In 1939 the Congress authorized the 
Department of State to initiate such a program 
with the other American republics. This program 
was extended, during the war, to China and 
countries of the Near East. 

The Information Program 

First, I should like to comment on the informa- 
tion program. The President's Executive order 
of August 31, 1945 transferred to the Department 
of State the foreign information activities of the 
Office of War Information and the Office of Inter- 
American Affairs. The committee is no doubt 
familiar with the provisions of this Executive 
order, but it may be convenient if, with your per- 
mission, I submit the full text at this point for in^ 
sertion in the Record.^ 

By the terms of this order the Depai'tment in- 
herited two big and energetic overseas informa- 
tion agencies — ^both of them organized and deT 
velojjed to meet wartime needs, both of them much 
too costly for peacetime purposes, but both of 
them engaged in a vitally important job. 

The soundest procedure for peacetime, in my 
opinion, is for the State Depai'tment to determine, 
and to keep determining as conditions change, 
American needs in the various fields of overseas 
information — news, motion pictures, publications, 
and the rest — and then to support and help private 



' Bulletin of Sept. 2, 1945, p. ,307. 



592 



DEPARTMEI^T OF STATE BULLETIN 



industry to do everything it will and can to meet 
those needs. I am consulting with representa- 
tives of private industry in these fields, in the 
expectation that much of the job will be taken off 
the Government's shoulders. The remainder of 
the job, with the approval of the Congress, will 
devolve upon the future overseas information 
service within the Department of State. 

This is work that can and should be done on a 
modest scale. I have already ordered the reduc- 
tion of our radio output from 40 to 18 languages. 
I have approved the discontinuance of Victory, 
USA, and Photo Review, the magazines formerly 
jjublished by the OWI, and an early termination of 
En Guardia, the magazine published by the Office 
of Inter-American Affairs. Extensive produc- 
tion of pamphlets by both of these agencies has 
been eliminated almost completely. The radio- 
photo network of the OWI will, I hope, be taken 
over by private companies. The cable-wireless 
news operation of the OWI has already been dras- 
tically reduced. 

I cite these reductions only to show that the 
Department has no intention to continue an infor- 
mation program on anything approaching the 
scale of the wartime activities. 

Furthermore, it is not our intention to compete 
in expenditure with the information organizations 
of other governments. We cannot rely, however, 
on the private or governmental facilities of other 
countries — even our best friends abroad — to make 
the world better acquainted with America as it 
really is. 

In other words, in the field of information over- 
seas we are today carrying on, cutting down, and 
planning, all at the same time. The process is not 
simple and decisions are not easy, as the committee 
can see from the single baffling example of short- 
wave radio. Here is an instrument of informa- 
tion and education of enormous potential value. 
It can cross oceans, leap frontiers, speak directly 
to foreign peoples in their own languages. Other 
governments are using it on an increasing scale, 
and its technical efficiency is growing almost from 
day to day. 

What is to be done with it ? It is expensive ; one 
third of the entire cost of today's overseas infor- 
mation work is represented by the programming 
and operation of short-wave radio and its relaying 
by medium wave. It is generally unprofitable for 
private industry, since there is no way of assuring 



adequate revenue from listeners abroad or spon- 
sors at home; and in any case only 13 of the 36 
transmitters now in use in the United States were 
in operation at the time of Pearl Harbor. All 
the rest were built for or by the Government. To 
scrap these new transmitters, 18 of which are 
owned by the Government, and to stop program- 
ming them at once, would not seem intelligent 
from the point of view of the future national 
interest. 

Since there is a great national interest involved, 
and since this is one of the most complicated prob- 
lems in the whole field of government, the De- 
partment of State cannot possibly decide this par- 
ticular issue now. The problem needs to be 
studied in its entirety and recommendations most 
carefully made for submission to the Congress. 
We have no choice, it seems to me, but to continue 
the operation of short-wave radio on a reduced 
scale, with fewer languages, fewer hours on the 
air, and fewer employees, until such a study can 
be completed and recommendations made. 

Perhaps this one illustration will help show the 
kind of problem faced in our overseas information 
program. It goes without saying that the former 
activities of the two war agencies are now being 
combined into an operation which I hope will be- 
come increasingly efficient, and certainly far less 
costly. 

Learning, the Arts, and Technical Exchanges 

In the field of cooperation involving learning, 
the arts, and technical skills, my staff has prepared 
for this committee a prospectus of the kinds of 
cooperative activities in which this Government 
has engaged in the past. Copies of this prospectus 
are being distributed to the committee members. 
This is in no sense a blueprint of a program, even 
a tentative program, for the years ahead. No 
one can foresee in any detail how a program of 
this sort may develop. With your permission, Mr. 
Chairman, I ask that this document be i-egarded 
as something like a shoemaker's pattern, some- 
thing which he uses in cutting a broad outline of 
the shoe from the piece of leather. Later the 
shoemaker trims and modifies the leather to fit 
the shoe. 

I should like, however, to summarize here briefly 
some of the proposals in this prospectus. 

Technicians of the United States Government 
have been loaned to a dozen Latin American coun- 
tries in the past 5 years, and about 25 U.S. Gov- 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



593 



ernment officials have been helping the Chinese 
Government during the war. The expenses of 
these men have been shared between governments. 
These American officials have been specialists in 
soil conservation, jjublic health, weather forecast- 
ing, tidal surveys, aircraft safety measures, and 
many other fields. 

These United States officials were not sent only 
to carry on relief or rehabilitation or economic de- 
velojDment, or to engage in administrative work 
or operations. True, they did all these things. 
They conducted demonstration projects, they 
trained others to carry on, and they supervised 
and consulted. They helped other countries to 
help themselves. But in the process they made 
other countries familiar with American ideas and 
skills. 

In liberated countries, this is now a most timely 
form of cooperation. A small number of Ameri- 
can technical personnel can now contribute Ameri- 
can ideas or American methods, which may well 
influence the basic planning of those countries for 
the next 50 years. 

Another illustration is the exchange of students 
between other countries and the United States. 
The Chinese Boxer Indemnity scholarships, based 
upon funds which this Congress returned to China 
in 1908, have produced many of the outstanding 
leaders of China today. In the past 5 years our 
State Department scholarships to Latin American 
students have won expressions of appreciation 
from the other American republics. Those schol- 
arships have been extended not only for study in 
our universities but also for training in our indus- 
tries and in United States Government agencies. 

Toda_y there are thousands of American boys 
and girls, including those entitled to training and 
education under the GI bill, who want to study 
abroad. This bill gives the Department authority 
to extend this program of scholarship to countries 
throughout the world, when and as indicated. 

A third activity proposed under this program 
is the promotion abroad of American books, Amer- 
ican authors, and the American concept of public 
libraries. We should continue to maintain in the 
principal capitals of the woi'ld small reading 
rooms of American books and periodicals. These 
reading rooms serve both our embassies and the 
public. 

Other potential projects listed in the prospectus 
are before you. Several officers of the Depart- 



ment who are here today are familiar with the 
o{Deration of the programs of the past 6 years and 
will be glad to give you their judgment on future 
possibilities that may prove promising and pro- 
ductive. 

Before closing, I should like to make one obser- 
vation on the language of this bill. I have asked 
the qualified law officers of the Department to 
comment on the text of this bill. I am told that 
section 2 on page 2 contains the basic authorizing 
authority. All the remainder of the bill provides 
the necessary flexibility for dealing with a great 
variety of nationalities, of accounting systems, of 
laws, and of courtesies which it is necessary to 
observe outside the United States in carrying on 
this program. My staif has prepared a mimeo- 
graphed explanation of each clause in this bill, as 
they interpret it, and how each clause would be 
applied by the Department of State. I believe 
you have copies of this analysis before you now. 
If this committee and the Congress approves, it is 
my intention to ask Secretary Byrnes to issue 
strict regulations governing the use of waivers of 
law which are contained in this bill. I can assure 
you that such waivers will be used only when they 
are necessary to accomplish the purposes of the 
act. 



[Released to the press October 17] 

Assistant Secretaiij Benton testified 'before the 
Appi'opriations Committee of the House of 
Repi^esentatives in executive session on October 
4, lOJfS. Excerpts from Mr. Benton^ s statement^! 
the first by Mr. Benton or the Department of 
State indicatinff the tentative lines of the De- 
partmenfs policy in the field of overseas infor- 
mation, appear below. 

On Se^jtember 12 the Acting Secretary of State, 
Mr. Acheson, wrote you that the Department 
would determine "as promptly as possible" which 
of the transferred functions should be continued 
after the end of this year and which should be 
abolished.' He explained that we would not be 
able to recommend a program for the future until 
we had finished our survey. He did say, how- 
ever, that I would appear before you, especially 
"to advise you as to the vital need of an interna- 
tional information service and the important role 



' Not printed. 



594 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



such a service will have to play in tlif i)()i^t-wai' 
conduct of our foreign relations." 

The Need for Information About America Abroad 



I have with me excerpts from telegrams and 
letters to the Department from the heads of our 
diplomatic missions abroad, urging in one way or 
another the continuance of American information 
services in their areas. 

America's sti-ength, and America's good ex- 
ample, need to be undei'stood beyond our borders. 
Our military and economic power is so great, in 
fact, that it is bound to lead many people and 
groups throughout the world to distrust us or fear 
us or even hate us, and not all the information 
work in the world can wholly prevent it. At least 
we can try to minimize the unfair or untruthful 
impressions of this country, and to see that ac- 
curate knowledge counteracts the growth of 
suspicion and prejudice. 

The Department of State believes that a con- 
structive program in this area is essential in the 
conduct of American foreign relations. It believes 
that we must try to give other countries what the 
President has called "a full and fair picture of 
American life and of the aims and policies of the 
United States Government." ^ 

Private facilities can do a very big part of the 
job, and, as far as I am concerned, the more the 
better. The soundest procedure, in my opinion, is 
for the State Department to determine, and to 
keep determining as conditions change, American 
needs in the various fields of overseas informa- 
tion — news, motion pictures, publications, and the 
rest — and then to support and help private in- 
dustry to do everything it will and can to meet 
those needs. Already I am consulting with 
representatives of private industry in these fields, 
in the hope that much of the job can be taken off 
the Government's shoulders. The remainder of 
the job, with the approval of this connnittee and 
the Congress, will devolve upon the future over- 
seas information service within the State Depart- 
ment. 

The Transitional or Emergency Task Abroad 
Some of this work will be transitional and tem- 
porary, in the backwash of the war. Information 



' Bulletin of Sept. 2, 104J. p. 300. 



has to be supplied and controlled in Germany and 
Japan in accordance with policy directives from 
Washington and the orders of our military author- 
ities on the spot. The same is true, to a different 
degree, in Austria and in the city of Trieste, where 
American troops are part of an Allied occupation. 
Another example is the Army's urgent request for 
the help of information teams in France, to keep 
the good-will and understanding of the civilians 
in areas where great numbers of our troops are 
waiting for transportation home. 

Vast areas in the Balkans and eastern Europe 
are still cut off from normal contact with America, 
and special efforts will be needed for some time 
to see that American policy and its backgroimd are 
presented truthfully. Still greater areas in south- 
eastern Asia and China have just been liberated 
from the Japanese. For almost four years in some 
places, almost eight years in others, a black curtain 
has cut these people off from the United States and 
the rest of the world. The lies spread by Japan 
will have to be counteracted, and the truth about 
our country will have to be told, if we are to win 
and hold the respect of the people of Asia. 

The Long-Term Information Job Abroad 

These are areas where emergency work has to 
be done riglit now and for some months to come. 
But there is also a long-term information job to 
be done everj'where in the world — in Latin Amer- 
ica, in Europe, in the ]\liddle East, the British 
Commonwealth, and Russia. In these areas, too, 
truth and not special pleading is our instrument 
in clarifying American policy and in presenting a 
frank, accurate picture of American life. 

This is work that can and should be done on a 
modest scale. Perhaps 3 or -i American informa- 
tion officers in the smaller counti'ies, 10 to 20 in the 
larger, will be enough, with the help of a compact 
and efficient service organization at home. I 
would not come hei'e today to justify this work on 
a basis of dollar-and-cents return, but it is only fair 
to say that anything which promotes good-will 
and understanding of our country also promotes 
American business abroad. 

We have no intention of competing in expendi- 
ture with the information organizations of other 
governments, but we cannot rely on the private or 
governmental facilities of other countries — even 
of our best friends abroad — to make the world bet- 
ter acquainted with America as it really is. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



595 



Through the cooperative efforts of American 
private industry and Government, this work is 
going on now under the interim service tliat has 
been set up in the State Department.' There can 
be no break in the continuity, although the scale 
and the scope of our information work has already 
been cut sharply from its wartime level, and will 
be cut much further before the end of the year. 
We can do the necessary peacetime work with far 
fewer people and at far less cost. 



No Program Can Be Submitted Until Later 

I cite this to show the committee why I cannot 
appear before you with estimates which reflect 
a program. The figures before you are merely 
rough estimates made at your request shortly after 
the collapse of Japan, before the Department knew 
what it wanted to continue or abolish in the over- 
seas information field. You will see that these 
figures provide for sharp reductions, and we are 
trying to reduce even further, where possible. 

Secretary Byrnes has asked me to submit to him, 
before January 1, recommendations for the long- 
term infoi'mation program. From the first quick 
look I have been able to make, the long-term pro- 
gram we shall submit to you later will be so much 
smaller that it will bear little resemblance to the 
programs of the wartime agencies involved. 

In the meantime, I respectfully request, on be- 
half of the department charged with the grave 
responsibility of conducting our foreign relations, 
that you allow it to carry on this vital work. 

International 
Military Tribunal 

The War Department released on October 18 
the text of the indictment against German war 
criminals as filed with the International Military 
Tribunal in Berlin on that date. The following 
two paragraphs of the indictment specify the de- 
fendants and the nature of the crimes of which 
they are accused : 

I. The United States of America, the French 
Republic, the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland, and the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics by the undersigned, Robert 

670358—45 2 



H. Jackson, Francois de Menthon, Hartley Shaw- 
cross and R. A. Rudenko, duly appointed to rep- 
resent their resjjective Governments in the investi- 
gation of the charges against and the prosecution 
of the major war criminals, pursuant to the Agree- 
ment of London dated August 8, 1945, and the 
Charter of this Tribunal annexed thereto, hereby 
accuse as guilty, in the respects hereinafter set 
forth, of Crimes against Peace, War Crimes, and 
Crimes against Humanity, and of a Common Plan 
or Conspiracy to commit those Crimes, all as de- 
fiiied in the Charter of the Tribunal, and accord- 
ingly name as defendants in this cause and as 
indicted on the counts hereinafter set out : Her- 
mann Wilhelm Goring, Rudolph Hess, Joachim 
von Ribbentrop, Robert Ley, Wilhelm Keitel, 
Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans 
Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Julius Streichei-, Walter 
Funk, Hjalmer Schacht, Gustav Krupp von Bohlen 
und Halbach, Karl Diinitz, Erich Raeder, Baldur 
von Schirach, Fritz Sauckel, Alfred Jodl, Martin 
Bormann, Franz von Papen, Artur Seyss-Inquart, 
Albert Speer, Constantin von Neurath and Hans 
Fritzsche, individually and as members of any of 
the groups or organizations next hereinafter 
named. 

II. The following are named as groups or or- 
ganizations (since dissolved) whicli should be 
declared criminal by reason of their aims and 
the means used for the accomplisliment thereof and 
in connection with the conviction of such of the 
named defendants as were members thereof : Die 
Reichsregierung (Reich Cabinet) ; Das Korps der 
Politischen Leiter der Nationalsozialistischen 
Deutsclien Arbeiterpartei (Leadership Corps of 
the Nazi Party) ; Die Schutzstatfeln der National- 
sozialistischen Deutschen Arbeiterpartei (com- 
monly known as the "SS") and including Die 
Sicherheitsdienst (commonly known as the "SD") ; 
Die Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police, 
commonly known as the '"Gestapo") ; Die Stur- 
mabteilungen der N. S. D. A. P. (commonly known 
as the "SA") ; and the General Staff and High 
Command of the German Armed Forces. The 
identity and membership of tlie groups or organ- 
izations referred to in the foregoing titles are 
hereinafter in appendix B - more particularly 
defined. 



' Bulletin of Sept. 16, 1945, p. 418. 
■ Not here printed. 



596 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Military Government of Germany 

DIRECTIVE TO THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF 

OF THE UNITED STATES FORCES OF OCCUPATION 



[Released to the press Oetolier 17] 

It is considered appropriate, at the time of the 
release to the American public of the following 
directive setting forth United States policy with 
reference to the military government of Germany, 
to preface the directive with a short statement of 
the circumstances surrounding the issuance of the 
directive to General Eisenhower. 

The directive was issued originally in April 1945, 
and was intended to serve two purposes. It was 
to guide General Eisenhower in the military gov- 
ernment of that portion of Germany occupied by 
United States forces. At the same time he was 
diiected to urge the Control Council to adopt these 
policies for enforcement throughout Germany. 

Before this directive was discussed in the Control 
Council, President Truman, Prime Minister Attlee, 
and Generalissimo Stalin met at Potsdam and is- 
sued a communique setting forth agreed policies 
for the control of Germany. This communique 
was made public on August 2, 194.5.'^ The direc- 
tive, therefore, should be read in the light of the 
policies enumerated at Potsdam. In particular, 
its provisions regarding disarmament, economic 
and financial matters, and reparations should be 
read together with the similar provisions set out 
in the Potsdam agi'eement on the treatment of 
Germany in the initial control period and in the 
agreement on reparations contained in the Pots- 
dam communique. Many of the policy statements 
contained in the directive have been in substance 
adopted by the Potsdam agreement. Some policy 
statements in the Potsdam agreement differ from 
the policy statements on the same subjects in the 
directive. In such cases, the policies of the Pots- 
dam agreement are controlling. Where the Pots- 
dam agi-eement is silent on matters of policy dealt 
with in the directive, the latter continues to guide 
General Eisenhower in his administration of the 
United States Zone in Germany. 



DIRECTIVE TO COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF 
UNITED STATES FORCES OF OCCUFA- 
TION REGARDING THE MILITARY GOV- 
ERNMENT OF GERMANY 

1. The Purpose and Scope of this Directive: 

This directive is issued to you as Commanding 
General of the United States forces of occupation 
in Germany. As such you will serve as United 
States member of the Control Council and will also 
be responsible for the administration of military 
government in the zone or zones assigned to the 
United States for purposes of occupation and ad- 
ministration. It outlines the basic policies which 
will guide you in those two capacities after the 
termination of the combined command of the Su- 
IDreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force. 

This directive sets forth policies relating to Ger- 
many in the initial post-defeat period. As such 
it is not intended to be an ultimate statement of 
policies of this Government concerning the treat- 
ment of Germany in the post-war world. It is 
therefore essential that, during the period covered 
by this directive, you assure that surveys are con- 
stantly maintained of economic, industrial, finan- 
cial, social and political conditions within your 
zone and that the results of such survej's and such 
other surveys as may be made in other zones are 
made available to your Government, through the 
Joint Chiefs of Staff. These surveys should be de- 
veloped in such manner as to serve as a basis for 
determining changes in the measures of control 
set forth herein as well as for the progressive 
formulation and development of policies to pro- 
mote the basic objectives of the United States. 
Supijlemental directives will be issued to you by 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff as may be required. 



' Bulletin of Aug. 5, 1945, p. 153. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



597 



As a member of the Control Council you will 
urge the adoption by the other occupying powers 
of the principles and policies set forth in this direc- 
tive and, pending Control Council agreement, you 
will follow them in your zone. It is anticipated 
that substantially similar directives will be issued 
to the Commanders in Chief of the U.K., USSR 
and French forces of occupation. 

PART I 
General and Political 

2. The Basis of Military Government 

a. The rights, power and status of the military 
government in Germany are based ui^on the uncon- 
ditional surrender or total defeat of Germany. 

b. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3 be- 
low, you are, by virtue of your position, clothed 
with supreme legislative, executive, and judicial 
authority in the areas occupied by forces under 
your command. This authority will be broadly 
construed and includes authority to take all meas- 
ui'es deemed by yoti necessary, appropriate or de- 
sirable in relation to military exigencies and the 
objectives of a firm military government. 

<?. You will issue a proclamation continuing in 
force such proclamations, orders and instructions 
as may have heretofore been issued by Allied Com- 
manders in your zone, subject to such changes as 
you may determine. Authorizations of action by 
the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary 
Force, may be considered as applicable to you 
unless inconsistent with this or later directives. 

3. The Control Council and Zones of Occupation: 

a. The four Commanders-in-Chief, acting 
jointly, will constitute the Control Council in Ger- 
many which will be the supreme organ of conti'ol 
over Germany in accordance with the agreement on 
Control Machinery in Germany. For purposes of 
administration of military government, Germany 
lias been divided into four zones of occupation. 

b. The authority of the Control Council to for- 
mulate policy and procedures and administrative 
relationships with respect to matters affecting 
Germany as a whole will be paramount through- 
out Germany. You will carry out and support in 
your zone the policies agreed upon in the Control 
Council. In the absence of such agreed policies 
you will act in accordance with this and other 
directives of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 

c. The administration of affairs in Germany 
shall be directed towards the decentralization of 



the political and administrative structure and the 
development of local responsibility. To this end 
you wnll encourage autonomy in regional, local 
and municipal agencies of German administration. 
The German economic structure shall also be de- 
centralized. The Control Council may, how- 
ever, to the minimum extent required for the ful- 
fillment of purposes set forth herein, permit cen- 
tralized administration or establish central con- 
trol of (a) essential national public services such 
as railroads, communications and power, (b) 
finance and foreign affairs, and (c) production 
and distribution of essential commodities. 

d. The Conti-ol Council should adopt procedures 
to effectuate, and you will facilitate in your zone, 
the equitable distribution of essential commodities 
between the zones. In the absence of a conflict- 
ing policy of the Control Council, you may deal 
directly with one or more zone commanders on 
matters of special concern to such zones. 

e. Pending the foi-mulation in the Control 
Council of uniform policies and procedures with 
respect to inter-zonal travel and movement of 
civilians, no civilians shall be permitted to leave 
or enter your zone without your authority, and no 
Germans within your zone shall be permitted to 
leave Germany except for specific purposes 
approved by you. 

/. The military government personnel in each 
zone, including those dealing with regional and 
local branches of the departments of any central 
German administrative machinery, shall be se- 
lected by authority of the Commander of that 
zone except that liaison officers may be furnished 
by the Commanders of the other three zones. The 
respective Commanders-in-Chief shall have exclu- 
sive jurisdiction throughout the whole of Germany 
over the members of the armed forces under their 
command and over the civilians who accompany 
them. 

g. The Control Council should be responsible 
for facilitating the severance of all governmental 
and administrative connections between Austria 
and Germany and the elimination of German eco- 
nomic influences in Austria. Every assistance 
should be given to the Allied Administration in 
Austria in its efforts to effectuate these purposes. 

4. Basic Objectives of Military Government in 
Germany: 

a. It should be brought home to the Germans 

that Germany's ruthless warfare and the fanatical 



598 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Nazi resistance have destroyed the German econ- 
omy and made chaos and suffering inevitable and 
that the Germans cannot escape responsibility for 
what they have brought upon themselves. 

b. Germany will not be occupied for the purpose 
of liberation but as a defeated enemy nation. Your 
aim is not oppression but to occupy Germany for 
the purpose of realizing certain important Allied 
objectives. In the conduct of your occupation and 
administration you should be just but firm and 
aloof. You will strongly discourage fraterniza- 
tion with the German officials and population. 

c. The princii)al Allied objective is to prevent 
Germany from ever again becoming a threat to 
the peace of the world. Essential steps in the 
accomplishment of this objective are the elimina- 
tion of Nazism and militarism in all their forms, 
the immediate apprehension of war criminals for 
punishment, the industrial disarmament and de- 
militarization of Germany, with continuing con- 
trol over Germany's capacity to make war, and the 
preparation for an eventual reconstruction of Ger- 
man political life on a democratic basis. 

d. Other Allied objectives are to enforce the 
program of reparations and restitution, to provide 
relief for the benefit of countries devastated by 
Nazi aggression, and to ensure that prisoners of 
war and displaced persons of the United Nations 
are cared for and repatriated. 

5. Economic Controls : 

a. As a member of the Control Council and as 
zone commander, you will be guided by the prin- 
ciple that controls upon the German economy may 
be imposed to the extent that such controls may 
be necessary to achieve the objectives enumerated 
in paragraph 4 above and also as they may be 
essential to protect the safety and meet the needs 
of the occupying forces and assure the production 
and maintenance of goods and services required to 
prevent starvation or such disease and unrest as 
would endanger these forces. No action will be 
taken in execution of the reparations program or 
otherwise which would tend to support basic liv- 
ing conditions in Germany or in 3'our zone on a 
higher level than that existing in any one of the 
neighboring United Nations. 

b. In the imposition and maintenance of such 
controls as may be prescribed by you or the Con- 
trol Council, German authorities will to the fullest 
extent practicable be ordered to proclaim and as- 
siune administration of such controls. Thus it 



should be brought home to the German people that 
the responsibility for the administration of such 
controls and for any break-downs in those controls 
will rest with themselves and German authorities. 

6. Denazification: 

a. A Proclamation dissolving the Nazi Party, 
its formations, affiliated associations and super- 
vised organizations, and all Nazi public institu- 
tions which were set up as instruments of Party 
domination, and pi-ohibiting their revival in any 
form, should be promulgated by the Control Coun- 
cil. You will assure the prompt effectuation of 
that policy in your zone and will make every effort 
to prevent the reconstitution of any such organi- 
zation in underground, disguised or secret form. 
Responsibility for continuing desirable non-politi- 
cal social services of dissolved Party organizations 
may be transferred by the Control Council to ap- 
propriate central agencies and bj- you to appro- 
priate local agencies. 

b. The laws purporting to establish the political 
structure of National Socialism and the basis of 
the Hitler regime and all laws, decrees and regu- 
lations which establish discriminations on grounds 
of race, nationality, creed or political opinions 
should be abrogated by the Control Council. You 
will render them inoperative in your zone. 

c. All members of the Nazi party who have been 
more than nominal participants in its activities, all 
active supporters of Nazism or militarism and all 
other persons hostile to Allied purposes will be 
removed and excluded from public office and from 
positions of importance in quasi-public and private 
enterprises such as (1) civic, economic and labor 
organizations, (2) corporations and other organi- 
zations in which the German government or sub- 
divisions have a major financial intei'est, (3) in- 
dustry, commerce, agriculture, and finance, (4) 
education, and (5) the press, publishing houses 
and other agencies disseminating news and propa- 
ganda. Persons are to be treated as more than 
nominal participants in Party activities and as 
active supporters of Nazism or militarism when 
they have (1) held office or otherwise been active 
at any level from local to national in the party and 
its subordinate organizations, or in organizations 
which further militaristic doctrines, (2) author- 
ized or participated affirmatively in any Nazi 
crimes, racial persecutions or discriminations, (3) 
been avowed believers in Nazism or racial and 
militaristic creeds, or (4) voluntarily given sub- 



OCTOBER 21, 194.3 



599 



stantial moral or material support or political as- 
sistance of any kind to the Nazi Party or Nazi 
officials and leaders. No such persons shall be re- 
tained in any of the categories of employment 
listed above because of administrative necessity, 
convenience or exjjediency. 

d. Property, real and personal, owned or con- 
trolled by the Nazi party, its formations, affiliated 
associations and supervised organizations, and by 
all persons subject to arrest under the provisions 
of paragraph 8, and found within your zone, will 
be taken under your control pending a decision by 
the Control Council or higher authority as to its 
eventual disposition. 

e. All archives, monuments and museums of 
Nazi inception, or which are devoted to the per- 
petuation of German militarism, will be taken 
under your control and tlieir properties held pend- 
ing decision as to their disposition by the Control 
Council. 

/. You will make special efforts to preserve from 
destruction and take under your control records, 
plans, books, documents, papers, files, and scien- 
tific, industrial and other information and data 
belonging to or controlled by the following : 

(1) The Central German Government and its 
subdivisions, German military organizations, or- 
ganizations engaged in military research, and 
such other governmental agencies as may be 
deemed advisable; 

(2) The Nazi Party, its formations, affiliated 
associations and supervised organizations; 

(3) All police organizations, including security 
and political jJolice; 

(4) Important economic organizations and in- 
dustrial establislunents including those controlled 
by the Nazi Party or its personnel ; 

(5) Institutes and special bureaus devoting 
themselves to racial, political, militaristic or simi- 
lar research or propaganda. 

7. Demilitarization: 

a. In your zone you will assure that all units of 
the German armed forces, including para-military 
organizations, are dissolved as such, and that their 
personnel are promptly disarmed and controlled. 
Prior to their final disposition, you will arrest and 
hold all military personnel who are included under 
the provisions of paragraph 8. 

h. The Control Council should proclaim, and 
in your zone you will eifectuate, the total dissolu- 



tion of all military and para-military organiza- 
tions, including the General Staff, the German 
Officers Corps, the Reserve Corps and military 
academies, together with all associations which 
might serve to keep alive the military tradition 
in Germany. 

c. You will seize or destroy all arms, ammuni- 
tion and implements of war and stop the produc- 
tion thereof. 

d. You will take proper steps to destroy the 
German war potential, as set forth elsewhere in 
this directive. 

8. Suspected War Criminals and Security Arrests: 

a. You will search out, arrest, and hold, pend- 
ing receipt by you of further instructions as to 
their disposition, Adolf Hitler, his chief Nazi as- 
sociates, other war criminals and all persons who 
have participated in planning or carrying out Nazi 
enterprises involving or resulting in atrocities or 
war crimes. 

b. All persons who, if permitted to I'emain at 
large would endanger the accomplisliment of your 
objectives will also be arrested and held in cus- 
tody until trial by an appropriate semi-judicial 
body to be established by you. The following is 
a partial list of the categories of persons to be 
ari-ested in order to carry out this policy : 

[Note: There follows at this point in the direc- 
tive a detailed list of categories of Nazi war crim- 
inals and others who are to be arrested. Some of 
these have not yet been found. It is considered 
that to publish the categories at this time would 
put the individuals concerned on notice and would 
interfere with their apprehension and punish- 
ment, where appropriate. The list of categories 
is, therefore, withheld from publication for the 
present.] 

If in the light of conditions which you encounter 
in Germany, you believe that it is not immediately 
feasible to subject certain persons within these 
categories to this treatment, you should report 
your reasons and recommendations to your govern- 
ment through the Joint Chiefs of Staff. If you 
believe it desirable, j'ou may postpone the arrest 
of those whose cases you have reported, pending 
a decision communicated to you by the J.C.S. In 
no event shall any differentiation be made between 
or special consideration be accorded to persons 
arrested, either as to manner of arrest or conditions 
of detention, upon the basis of wealth or political, 



600 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



industrial, or other rank or position. In your dis- 
cretion you may make such exceptions as you deem 
advisable for intelligence or other military reasons. 

9. Political Activities: 

a. No political activities of any kind shall be 
countenanced unless authorized by you. You will 
assure that your military government does not be- 
come committed to any political group. 

J. You will prohibit the propagation in any 
form of Nazi, militaristic or pan-German doc- 
trines. 

c. No German parades, military or political, 
civilian or sports, shall be permitted by you. 

d. To the extent that military interests are not 
prejudiced and subject to the provisions of the 
three preceding subparagrajihs and of paragraph 

10, freedom of speech, press and religious worship 
will be permitted. Consistent with military neces- 
sity, all religious institutions will be respected. 

10. Public Relations and Control of Public Infor- 

mation: 

As a member of the Control Council, you will 
endeavor to obtain agreement for uniform or co- 
ordinated policies with respect to (a) control of 
public information media in Germany, (b) ac- 
crediting of foreign correspondents, (c) press cen- 
sorship, and (d) issuance of official news communi- 
ques dealing with Control Council matters. United 
States policies in these matters will be sent to you 
separately and you will be guided by these in your 
negotiations on the Control Council. 

11. German Courts: 

a. All extraordinary courts, including the 
Volhsgerlchtshof (People's Court) and the Son- 
dergerichte (Special Courts), and all courts and 
tribunals of the Nazi Party and of its formations, 
affiliated associations and supervised organizations 
will be abolished immediately. 

&. All ordinary criminal, civil and administra- 
tive courts, except those previously re-established 
by order of the military government, will be closed. 
After the elimination of all Nazi features and per- 
sonnel you will permit those which are to exercise 
jurisdiction within the boundaries of your zone 
to resume operations under such regulations, super- 
vision and control as you may consider appro- 
priate. Courts which are to exercise jurisdiction 
over territory extending beyond the boundaries of 
your zone will be reopened only with the express 



authorization of the Control Council and under its 
regulation, sujservision and control. The power 
to review and veto decisions of German courts shall 
be included within the power of supervision and 
control. 

12. Police: 

With the exception of the Reichskrimiruilpolizei 
(Criminal Police) all elements of the Sicher- 
heitspolizei (Security Police), e.g., Geheimestaats- 
folizei (Gestapo), and the Sicherheitsdienst der 
S.S. will be abolished. Criminal and ordinai-y 
police will be purged of Nazi personnel and utilized 
under the control and supervision of the military 
government. 

13. Political Prisoners: 

Subject to military security and the interests of 
the individuals concerned, you will release all per- 
sons found within your zone who have been de- 
tained or placed in custody on grounds of race, 
nationality, creed or political opinions and treat 
them as displaced persons. You should make pro- 
vision for the review of convictions of alleged 
criminal offenses about which there may be sub- 
stantial suspicion of racial, religious or political 
persecution, and in which sentences of imprison- 
ment have not been fully served by persons im- 
prisoned within your zone. 

14. Education: 

a. All educational institutions within your zone 
excejDt those previously re-established by Allied 
authority will be closed. The closure of Nazi edu- 
cational institutions such as Adolf Hitler Schulen, 
Napolas and Ordensburgen, and of Nazi organi- 
zations within other educational institutions will 
be permanent. 

h. A coordinated system of control over German 
education and an affirmative program of reorienta- 
tion will be established designed completely to 
eliminate Nazi and militaristic doctrines and to 
encourage the development of democratic ideas. 

c. You will permit the reopening of elementary 
(Volksschulen), middle (Mitfehchiden) and voca- 
tional (Ber'ufsschiden) schools at the earliest pos- 
sible date after Nazi personnel has been eliminated. 
Textbooks and curricula which are not free of Nazi 
and militaristic doctrine shall not be used. The 
Control Council should devise programs looking 
toward the reopening of secondary schools, uni- 
versities and other institutions of higher learning. 
After Nazi features and personnel have been 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



601 



eliminated and pending the formulation of such 
programs by the Control Council, you may formu- 
late and put into effect an interim program within 
your zone and in any case may permit the reopen- 
ing of such institutions and departments which 
offer training which you consider immediately 
essential or useful in the administration of mili- 
tary government and the purposes of the occupa- 
tion. 

d. It is not intended that the military govern- 
ment will intervene in questions concerning de- 
nominational control of German schools, or in re- 
ligious instruction in German schools, except in- 
sofar as may be necessary to insure that religious 
instruction and administration of such schools 
conform to such Allied regulations as are or may 
be established pertaining to purging of personnel 
and curricula. 

15. Arts and Archives: 

Subject to the provisions of paragraph 6 above, 
you will make all reasonable efforts to preserve 
historical archives, museums, libraries and works 
of art. 

PART II 

Economic 

General Objectives and Methods of Control 

IG. You M'ill assure that the German economy is 
administered and controlled in such a way as to 
accomplish the basic objectives set forth in para- 
graphs 4 and 5 of this Directive. Economic con- 
trols will be imposed only to the extent necessary 
to accomplish these objectives, provided that you 
will impose controls to the full extent necessary 
to achieve the industrial disarmament of Ger- 
many. Except as may be necessary to carry out 
these objectives, you will take no steps (a) looking 
toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany, 
or (b) designed to maintain or strengthen the 
German economy. 

17. To the maximum extent possible without 
jeopardizing the successful execution of measures 
required to implement the objectives outlined in 
paragraphs 4 and 5 of this directive you will use 
German authorities and agencies and subject them 
to such supervision and punishment for non-com- 
pliance as is necessary to ensure that they carry 
out their tasks. 

For this pui-pose you will give appropriate 



authority to any German agencies and administra- 
tive services you consider essential; provided, how- 
ever, that you will at all times adhere strictly to 
the provisions of this directive regarding denazi- 
fication and dissolution or elimination of Nazi 
organizations, institutions, principles, features, 
and practices. 

To the extent necessary you will establish ad- 
ministrative machinery, not dependent upon Ger- 
man authorities and agencies, to execute or assure 
the execution of the provisions of paragraphs 19, 
20, 30, 31, 32, 39 and 40 and any other measures 
necessary to an accomplishment of your industrial 
disarmament objectives. 

18. In order to decentralize the structure and 
administration of the German economy to the 
maximum jDossible extent, you will 

a. ensure that the action required to maintain 
or restore essential public utilities and industrial 
and agricultural activities is taken as far as pos- 
sible on a local and regional basis; 

h. on no account propose or approve in the Con- 
trol Council the establishment of centralized ad- 
ministration of controls over the German economy 
except where such centralization of administration 
is clearly essential to the fulfilment of the objec- 
tives listed in paragraphs 4 and 5 of this directive. 
Decentralization in administration should not be 
jDermitted to interfere with attainment of the 
largest practicable measure of agreement on eco- 
nomic policies in the Control Council. 

19. You will institute or assure the maintenance 
of such statistical records and reports as may be 
necessary in carrying out the objectives listed in 
paragraphs 4 and 5 of this directive. 

20. You will initiate appropriate surveys which 
may assist you in achieving the objectives of the 
occupation. In particular you will promptly 
undertake surveys of supplies, equipment and re- 
sources in your zone. You will endeavor to ob- 
tain prompt agreement in the Control Council to 
the making of similar surveys in the other zones 
of occupation, and you will urge appropriate steps 
to coordinate the methods and results of these and 
other future surveys conducted in the various zones. 
You will keep the Control Council, United States 
Representative on the Reparation Commission and 
other appropriate authorities, currently apprised 
of the information obtained by means of inter- 
mediate reports or otherwise. 



602 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



German Standard of Living 

21. You w ill estimate requirements of supplies 
necessary to prevent starvation or widespread dis- 
ease or such civil unrest as would endanger the 
occupying forces. Such estimates will be based 
upon a progi-am whereby the Germans are made 
responsible for providing for themselves, out of 
their own work and resources. You will take all 
practicable economic and police measures to assure 
that Grerman resources are fully utilized and con- 
sumption held to the minimum in order that im- 
ports may be strictly limited and that surpluses 
may be made available for the occupying forces and 
displaced persons and United Nations prisoners of 
war, and for reparation. You will take no action 
that would tend to support basic living standards 
in Germany on a higher level than that existing in 
any one of the neighboring United Nations and 
you will take approjjriate measures to ensure that 
basic living standards of the German people are 
not higher than those existing in any one of the 
neighboring United Nations when such measures 
will contribute to raising the standards of any such 
nation. 

22. You will urge upon the Control Council that 
uniform ration scales be applied throughout Ger- 
many, that essential items be distributed equitably 
among the zones, that net surpluses be made avail- 
able for export to Allied countries, nnd that im- 
ports be limited to the net deficits of Germany us 
a whole. 

Labor, Health, and Social Insurance 

23. You will permit the self-organization of em- 
ployees along democratic lines, subject to such safe- 
guards as may be necessary to prevent the per- 
petuation of Nazi or militarist influence under any 
guise or the continuation of any group hostile to 
the objectives and operations of the occupying 
forces. 

24. You will permit free collective bargaining 
between employees and employers regarding wage, 
hour and working conditions and the establish- 
ment of machinery for the settlement of industrial 
disputes. Collective bargaining shall be subject to 
such wage, hour and other controls, if any, as may 
be instituted or revived by your direction. 

25. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 48 
of this directive you are authorized to direct Ger- 
man authorities to maintain or reestablish non- 
discriminatory systems of social insurance and 
poor relief. 



•20. You are authorized to direct the German 
authorities to maintain or re-establish such health 
services and facilities as may be available to them. 

Agriculture, Industry and Internal Commerce 

27. You will require the Germans to use all 
means at their disposal to maximize agricultural 
output and to establish as rapidly as possible effec- 
tive machinery for the collection and distribution 
of agricultural output. 

28. You will direct the German authorities to 
utilize large-landed estates and public lands in a 
manner which will facilitate the accommodation 
and settlement of Germans and others or increase 
agricultural output. 

29. You will protect from destruction by the 
Gel-mans, and maintain for such disposition as is 
determined by this and other directives or by the 
Control Council, all plants, equipment, patents and 
other property, and all books and records of large 
German industrial companies and trade and re- 
search associations that have been essential to the 
German war effort or the German economy. You 
will })ay particular attention to research and ex- 
perimental establishments of such concerns. 

30. In order to disarm Germany, the Control 
Council should 

a. prevent the production, acquisition by impor- 
tation or otherwise, and development of all arms, 
ammunition and implements of war, as well as all 
types of aircraft, and all parts, components and 
ingredients specially designed or produced for 
incorporation therein; 

i. prevent the production of merchant ships, 
s_vnthetic rubber and oil, aluminum and magne- 
sium and any other products and equipment on 
which you will subsequently receive instructions; 

c. seize and safeguard all facilities used in the 
production of any of the items mentioned in this 
paragraph and dispose of them as follows : 

(1) remove all those required for reparation; 

(2) destroy all those not transferred for repa- 
ration if they are especially adapted to the pro- 
duction of the items specified in this paragraph 
and are not of a type generally used in industries 
permitted to the Germans (cases of doubt to be 
resolved in favor of destruction) ; 

(3) hold the balance for disposal in accord- 
ance with instructions which will be sent to you. 

Pending agreement in the Control Council you 
will take these measures in your own zone. You 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



603 



will not postpone enforcement of the prohibitions 
contained in subparagraphs a and i and the in- 
structions in subparagraph c without specific ap- 
proval of your government through the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff except that, in your discretion, you 
may permit the production of synthetic rubber and 
oil, aluminum and magnesium, to the minimum 
extent necessary to meet the purposes stated in 
paragraphs 4 and 5 of the directive pending action 
by the Joint Chiefs of Staff upon such recommen- 
dation for postponement as you may make. 

31. As an additional measure of disarmament, 
the Control Council should 

a. prohibit initially all research activities and 
close all laboratories, research institutions and 
similar technical organizations except those con- 
sidered necessary to the protection of public 
health ; 

b. abolish all those laboratories and related in- 
stitutions whose work has been connected with the 
building of the German war machine, safeguard 
initially such laboratories and detain such per- 
sonnel as are of interest to your technological in- 
vestigations, and thereafter remove or destroy 
their equipment ; 

c. pei'mit the resumption of scientific research 
in specific cases, only after cai'eful investigation 
has established that the contemplated research 
will in no way contribute to Germany's future war 
potential and only under ajDpropriate regulations 
which (1) define the specific types of research 
jDermitted, (2) exclude from further research 
activity any persons who previously held key po- 
sitions in German war research, (3) provide for 
frequent inspection, (4) require free disclosure of 
the results of the research and (5) impose sevei-e 
penalties, including permanent closing of the of- 
fending institution, whenever the regulations are 
violated. 

Pending agreement in the Control Council you 
will adopt such measures in your own zone. 

32. Pending final Allied agreements on repara- 
tion and on control or elimination of German in- 
dustries that can be utilized for war production, 
the Control Council should 

a. prohibit and prevent production of iron and 
steel, chemicals, non-ferrous metals (excluding 
aluminum and magnesium), machine tools, radio 
and electrical equipment, automotive vehicles, 

67035&— 48 S 



heaivy machinery and important parts thereof, 
except for the purposes stated in paragraphs 4 
and 5 of this directive ; 

b. prohibit and prevent i-ehabilitation of plant 
and equipment in such industries except for the 
purposes stated in paragraphs 4 and 5 of this di- 
rective; and 

c. safegTiard plant and equipment in such in- 
dustries for transfer on reparation account. 

Pending agreement in the Control Council, you 
will put such measures into effect in your own 
zone as soon as you have had an opportunity to 
review and determine production necessary for 
the purposes stated in paragraphs 4 and 5 of this 
directive. 

33. The Control Council should adopt a policy 
permitting the conversion of facilities other than 
those mentioned in paragraphs 30 and 32 to the 
production of light consumer goods, provided 
that such conversion does not prejudice the subse- 
quent removal of plant and equipment on repara- 
tion account and does not require any imports 
beyond those necessary for the purposes specified 
in paragraphs 4 and 5 of this directive. Pending 
agreement in the Control Council, you may permit 
such conversion in your zone. 

34. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 30 
and 32, the Control Council should assure that all 
feasible measures are taken to facilitate, to the 
minimum extent necessary for the purposes out- 
lined in paragraphs 4 and 5 of this directive. 

a. repairs to and restoration of essential trans- 
portation services and public utilities; 

b. emergency repair and construction of the 
minimum shelter required for the civilian popu- 
lation ; 

c. production of coal and any other goods and 
services (excluding goods specified in paragraphs 
30 and 32 unless measures to facilitate production 
are specifically approved by this Government 
through the Joint Chiefs of Staff) required for 
the purposes outlined in paragraphs 4 and 5 of 
this directive. 

You will assure that such measures are taken in 
your own zone pending agreement in the Control 
Council. 

35. In your capacity as zone commander and 
as member of the Control Council you will take 
steps to provide for the equitable interzonal dis- 
tribution and the movement of goods and services 



604 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



essential to the purposes set forth in pai'agraphs 
4 and 5 of this directive. 

36. You will prohibit all cartels or other private 
business arrangements and cartel-like organiza- 
tions, including those of a public or quasi-public 
character such as the Wirtschaftsgnippen pro- 
viding for the regulation of marketing conditions, 
including production, prices, exclusive exchange 
of tecluiical information and processes, and allo- 
cation of sales territories. Such necessary public 
functions as have been discharged by these organ- 
izations shall be absorbed as rapidly as possible by 
approved public agencies. 

37. It is the policy of your government to effect 
a dispersion of the ownership and control of Ger- 
man industry. To assist in carrying out this 
policy you will make a survey of combines and 
pools, mergers, holding companies and interlock- 
ing directorates and communicate the results, to- 
gether with recommendations, to your government 
through the Joint Chiefs of Staff. You will en- 
deavor to obtain agi-eement in the Control Council 
to the making of this survey in the other zones of 
occupation and you will urge the coordination of 
the methods and results of this survey in the 
various zones. 

38. With due regard to paragraph 4 a, the Con- 
trol Council should adopt such policies as are 
cleai"ly necessary to prevent or restrain inflation 
of a character or dimension which would definitely 
endanger accomplishment of the objectives of the 
occupation. The Control Council, in particular, 
should direct and empower German authorities to 
maintain or establish controls over prices and 
wages and to take the fiscal and financial measures 
necessary to this end. Pending agreement in the 
Control Council you will assure that such measures 
as you consider necessary are taken in your own 
zone. Pi-evention or restraint of inflation shall 
not constitute an additional ground for the impor- 
tation of supplies, nor shall it constitute an addi- 
tional ground for limiting removal, destruction or 
curtailment of productive facilities in fulfillment 
of the progi-am for reparation, demilitarization 
and industrial disarmament. 

Power, Transportation, and Communications 

39. Both as member of the Control Council and 
zone commander you will take ajipropriate steps 
to ensure that 

a. power, transportation and communications 
facilities are directed in such a way as to carry out 



the objectives outlined in paragraphs 4 and 5 of 
this directive ; 

b. Germans are prohibited and prevented from 
producing, maintaining or operating all types of 
aircraft. 

You will determine the degree to which central- 
ized control and administration of power, trans- 
portation and communications is clearly necessary 
for the objectives stated in paragraphs 4 and 5 
and urge the establishment of this degree of cen- 
tralized control and administration by the Control 
Council. 

Foreign Trade and Reparation 

40. The Control Council should establish cen- 
tralized control over all trade in goods and services 
with foreign countries. Pending agreement in the 
Control Council you will impose appropriate con- 
trols in your own zone. 

41. Both as member of the Control Council and 
as zone commander you will take appropriate 
steps to ensure that 

a. the foreign trade controls are designed to 
carry out the objectives stated in paragraphs 4 and 
5 of this directive; 

b. imjjorts which are permitted and furnished to 
Germany are confined to those unavoidably neces- 
sary to the objectives stated in paragi-aphs 4 and 

5; 

0. exports to countries other than the United 
Nations are prohibited unless specifically author- 
ized by the Allied governments. 

42. Both as member of the Control Council and 
as zone commander you will adopt a policy which 
would forbid German firms to participate in inter- 
national cartels or other restrictive contracts and 
arrangements and order the prompt termination 
of all existing German participations in such car- 
tels, contracts and arrangements. 

43. You will carry out in your zone such pro- 
grams of reparation and restitution as are em- 
bodied in Allied agreements and you will seek 
agreement in the Control Council on any policies 
and measures which it may be necessary to apply 
throughout Germany in order to ensure the execu- 
tion of such programs. 

PART III 

Financial 

44. You will make full application in the finan- 
cial field of the principles stated elsewhere in this 



OCTOBER 21, 194S 



605 



directive and you will endeavor to have the Con- 
trol Council adopt uniform financial policies neces- 
sary to carry out the purposes stated in paragraphs 
4 and 5 of this directive. You will take no steps 
designed to maintain, strengthen or operate the 
German financial structure except in so far as may 
be necessary for the purposes specified in this 
directive. 

45. The Control Council should regulate and 
control to the extent required for the purposes set 
forth in paragraphs 4 and 5 the issue and volume 
of currency and the extension of credit in Germany 
and in accordance with the following principles: 

a. United States forces and other Allied forces 
will use Allied Military marks and Reichsmark 
currency or coins in their possession. Allied Mili- 
tary marks and Reichsmark currency and coin now 
in circulation in Germany will be legal tender 
without distinction and will be interchangeable at 
the rate of 1 Allied Military mark for 1 Reichs- 
mark. Reichskreditkassenscheine and other Ger- 
man military currency will not be legal tender in 
Germany. 

b. The Reichsbank, the Rentenbank or any other 
bank or agency may be permitted or required to 
issue bank notes and currency which will be legal 
tender; without such authorization, no German 
governmental or private bank or agency will be 
permitted to issue bank notes or currency. 

c. The German authorities may be required to 
make available Reichsmark currency or credits 
free of cost and in amounts sufficient to meet all the 
expenses of the forces of occupation, including the 
cost of Allied Military Government and including 
to the extent that compensation is made therefor, 
the cost of such private property as may be requi- 
sitioned, seized, or otherwise acquired, by Allied 
authorities for reparations or restitution purposes. 

Pending agreement in the Control Council you 
will follow these policies in your own zone. 

You will receive separate instructions relative to 
the currency which you will use in the event that 
for any reason adequate supplies of Allied Militax-y 
marks and Reichsmarks are not available, or if the 
use of such currency is found undesirable. 

You will not announce or establish in your zone, 
until receipt of further instructions, any general 
rate of exchange between the Reichsmark on the 
one hand and the U.S. dollar and other currencies 
on the other. However, a rate of exchange to be 



used exclusively for pay of troops and military 
accounting purposes in your zone will be communi- 
cated separately to you. 

46. Subject to any agreed policies of the Control 
Council, you are authorized to take the following 
steps and to put into effect such further financial 
measures as you may deem necessary to accomplish 
the purposes of your occupation : 

a. To prohibit, or to prescribe regulations re- 
garding transfer or other dealings in private or 
public securities or real estate or other property. 

h. To close banks, but only for a period long 
enough for you to introduce satisfactory control, 
to remove Nazi and other undesirable personnel, 
and to issue instructions for the determination of 
accounts to be blocked under subparagraph 48 e 
below. 

c. To close stock exchanges, insurance com- 
panies, and similar financial institutions for such 
periods as you deem appropriate. 

d. To establish a general or limited moratorium 
or moratoria only to the extent clearly necessary 
to carry out the objectives stated in paragraphs 4 
and 5 of this directive. 

47. Resumption of partial or complete service 
on the internal public debt at the earliest feasible 
date is deemed desirable. The Control Council 
should decide the time and manner of such re- 
sinnption. 

48. Subject to any agreed policies of the Con- 
trol Council, 

a. You will prohibit : 

(1) the payment of all military pensions, or 
emoluments or benefits, except compensation for 
physical disability limiting the recipient's abil- 
ity to work, at rates which are no higher than 
the lowest of those for comparable physical dis- 
ability arising from non-military causes. 

(2) the payment of all public or private pen- 
sions or other emoluments or benefits granted 
or conferred : 

(a) by reason of membership in or services 
to the former Nazi party, its formations, affi- 
liated associations or supervised organiza- 
tions, 

(b) to any person who has been removed 
from an office or position in accordance with 
paragraph 6, and 

(c) to any person arrested and detained in 
accordance with paragraph 8 during the term 



606 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



of his arrest, or permanently, in case of his 
subsequent conviction. 

b. You will take such action as may be neces- 
sary to insure that all laws and practices relating 
to taxation or other fields of finance, which dis- 
criminate for or against any persons because of 
race, nationality, creed or political opinion, will 
be amended, suspended, or abrogated to the extent 
necessary to eliminate such discrimination. 

c. You will hold the German authorities re- 
sponsible for taking such measures in the field of 
taxation and other fields of public finance, includ- 
ing restoration of the tax system and maintenance 
of tax revenues, as will further the accomplish- 
ment of the objectives stated in paragraphs 4 
and 5. 

d. You will exercise general supervision over 
German public expenditures in order to ensure 
that they are consistent with the objectives stated 
in paragraphs 4 and 5. 

e. You will impound or block all gold, silver, 
currencies, securities, accounts in financial insti- 
tutions, credits, valuable papers, and all other 
assets falling within the following categories: 

( 1 ) Property owned or controlled directly or 
indirectly, in whole or in jjart, by any of the 
following : 

(a) The German Reich, or any of the 
Lander, Gaue or provinces, any Kreis, Munici- 
pality or other similar local subdivision; or 
any agency or instrumentality of any of them 
including all utilities, undertakings, public 
corporations or monopolies under the control 
of any of the above ; 

(b) Governments, nationals or residents of 
other nations, including those of territories 
occupied by them, at war with any of the 
United Nations at any time since 1 Septem- 
ber 1939 ; 

(c) The Nazi Party, its formations, affili- 
ated associations and supervised organizations, 
its officials, leading members and supporters; 

(d) All organizations, clubs or other asso- 
ciations prohibited or dissolved by military 
government; 

(e) Absentee owners, of non-German na- 
tionality including United Nations and neu- 
tral governments and Germans outside of 
Germany ; 

(f) Any institution dedicated to public 
worship, charity, education or the arts and 



sciences wliich lias been used by the Nazi Party 
to further its interests or to cloak its activities • 
(g) Persons subject to arrest under provi- 
sions of paragraph 8, and all other persons 
specified by military government by inclusion 
in lists or otherwise. 

(2) Property which has been the subject of 
transfer under duress or wrongful acts of con- 
fiscation, disposition or spoliation, whether pur- 
suant to legislation or by procedure purporting 
to follow forms of law or otherwise. 

(3) Works of art or cultural material of value 
or importance, regardless of the ownership 
thereof. 

You will take such action as will insure that any 
impounded or blocked assets will be dealt with 
only as permitted under licenses or other instruc- 
tions which you may issue. In the case particu- 
larly of property blocked under (1) (a) above, 
you will proceed to adoj^t licensing measures which 
while maintaining such property under surveil- 
lance would permit its use in consonance with this 
directive. In the case of property blocked under 
(2) above, you will institute measures for prompt 
restitution, in conformity with the objectives 
stated in paragraphs 4 and 5 and subject to appro- 
priate safeguards to prevent the cloaking of Nazi 
and militaristic influence. 

49. All foreign exchange transactions, includ- 
ing those arising out of exports and imports, shall 
be controlled with the aim of preventing Germany 
from developing a war potential and of achieving 
the other objectives set forth in this directive. To 
effectuate these purposes the Control Council 
should 

a. Seek out and reduce to the possession and 
control of a special agency all German (public 
and private) foreign exchange and external assets 
of every kind and description located within or 
outside Germany. 

6. Prohibit, except as authorized bj^ regulation 
or license, all dealings in gold, silver, foreign ex- 
change, and all foreign exchange transactions of 
any kind. Make available any foreign exchange 
proceeds of exports for payment of imports di- 
rectly necessary to the accomplishment of the ob- 
jectives stated in paragraphs 4 and 5 of this direc- 
tive, and authorize no other outlay of foreign ex- 
change assets except for purposes approved by the 
Control Council or other appropriate authority. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



607 



c. Establish effective controls with respect to all 
foreign exchange transactions, including : 

(1) Transactions as to property between per- 
sons inside Germany and persons outside Ger- 
many; 

(2) Transactions involving obligations owed 
by or to become due from any person in Ger- 
many to any person outside Germany ; and 

(3) Transactions involving the importation 
into or exportation from Germany of any for- 
eign exchange asset or other form of property. 

Pending agreement in the Control Council, you 
will take in your zone the action indicated in sub- 
paragraphs a, h and c above. Accordingly, you 
will in your zone reduce to the possession and con- 
trol of a special agency established by you, within 
your Command, all German foreign exchange and 
external assets as provided in subparagraph a. 
You will endeavor to have similar agencies for the 
same purpose established in the other zones of 
occupation and to have them merged as soon as 
practicable in one agency for the entire occupied 
territory. In addition you will provide full re- 



ports to your government witli i-espect to all Ger- 
man foreign exchange and external assets. 

50. No extension of credit to Germany or Ger- 
mans by any foreign person or Government shall 
be permitted except that the Control Council may 
in special emergencies grant permission for such 
extensions of credit. 

61. It is not anticipated that you will make 
credits available to the Reichsbank or any other 
bank or to any public or private institution. If, 
in your opinion, such action becomes essential, you 
may take such emergency actions as you may deem 
proper, but in any event, you will report the facts 
to the Control Council. 

52. You will maintain such accounts and records 
as may be necessary to reflect the financial opera- 
tions of the military government in your zone and 
you will provide the Control Council with such in- 
formation as it may require, including information 
in connection with the use of currency by your 
forces, any governmental settlements, occupation 
costs, and other expenditures arising out of opera- 
tions or activities involving participation of your 
forces. 



Displaced Persons in Germany 

Letter From GENERAL EISENHOWER TO THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House October 16] 

The President has received the following letter 
from General of the Army Eisenhower in reply 
to the President's letter of August 31, transmitting 
to General Eisenhower the report of Earl G. Har- 
rison, U.S. Representative on the Intergovern- 
mental Committee on Refugees : ^ 

HEADQUARTERS 
U.S. FORCES, EUROPEAN THEATER 
Office of the Commanding General 

8 October 1945. 
Dear Mr. President : 

This is my full report on matters pertaining to 
the care and welfare of the Jewish victims of Nazi 
persecution within the United States Zone of Ger- 
many. It deals with conditions reported by Mr. 
Earl G. Harrison, U.S. Representative on Inter- 
Governmental Committee on Refugees, which was 



forwarded to me under cover of your letter of 
31 August 1945. 

Since Mr. Harrison's visit in July many changes 
have taken place with respect to the condition of 
Jewish and other displaced persons. Except for 
temporarily crowded conditions, the result of 
shifts between established centers and an influx of 
persons into centers as winter approaches, housing 
is on a reasonable basis. Nevertheless, efforts to 
improve their condition continue unabated. Sub- 
ordinate commanders are under orders to requisi- 
tion German houses, grounds, and other facilities 
without hesitation for this purpose. 

The housing problem must be seen in full per- 
spective. This winter the villages and towns in the 
U.S. Zone of Germany will be required to house 
more than twice their normal population. One 



^ For report of Earl G. Harrison to the President, see 
BuiiOTiN of Sept. 30, 1945, p. 456. 



608 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



million and a half German air raid refugees who 
were evacuated into Southwestei'n Germany, to- 
gether with some 600,000 Germans, Volksdeutsche 
and Sudetens who fled from Poland, New Poland. 
Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia before the advanc- 
ing Red Armies have created a condition of con- 
gestion in the U.S. Zone which forces the most 
careful conservation of housing space. At this 
moment the U.S. Zone is under orders to absorb 
152,000 more Germans from Austria. Added to 
this influx of population, there is the loss of hous- 
ing in bombed-out cities, averaging well over 50 
percent ; the necessity for billeting large numbers 
of our troops ; and the accommodation required for 
prisoners of war. The resulting housing shortage 
is not merely acute, but desperate. Notwithstand- 
ing this situation, in my recent inspections and 
those made by my staff of Jewish centers, although 
crowded conditions were found, in nearly every 
instance more than the 30 square feet per person of 
floor space required for our soldiers was available. 

Displaced persons have absolute preference over 
Germans for housing, but the requirements of the 
distribution of supplies, the provision of medical 
care, and the need for welfare activities make it 
desirable that displaced persons be sufficiently con- 
centrated so that these services may be performed 
efficiently by the limited supervisory personnel 
and transport at our disposal. Thus, considerable 
use has been made of large installations such as 
brick barracks, apartment blocks and other public 
•buildings in preference to scattered individual 
billets. 

Special centers have been established for Jewish 
displaced persons. In the latter part of June, the 
Armies were directed to collect into special assem- 
bly centers displaced persons who did not wish to 
or who could not be repatriated. On 25 July 1945, 
Dr.RabbiIsraelGoldstein,President of the United 
Jewish Appeal, recommended that non-repatriable 
Jews be separated from other stateless people, and 
placed in exclusively Jewish centers. As a result, 
the American Joint Distribution Committee was 
called upon to supervise the establishment of these 
centers. This policy was reiterated and expanded 
on 22 August. Special Jewish centers were estab- 
lished for "those Jews who are without nation- 
ality or those not Soviet citizens who do not desire 
to return to their country of origin''. 

At the time of Mr. Harrison's report there were 
lierhaps 1,000 Jews still in their former concen- 



tration camps. These were too sick to be moved 
at that time. No Jewish or other displaced per- 
sons have been housed in these places longer than 
was absolutely necessary for medical quarantine 
and recovery from acute illness. It has always 
been our practice, not just our policy, to remove 
these victims with the utmost speed from concen- 
tration camps. 

The assertion that our military guards are now 
substituting for SS troops is definitely mislead- 
ing. One reason for limiting the numbers per- 
mitted to leave our assembly centers was depre- 
dation and banditry by displaced persons them- 
selves. Despite all precautions, more than 2,000 
of them died from drinking methylated alcohol 
and other types of poisonous liquor. Many others 
died by violence or were injured while circulating 
outside our assembly centers. Perhaps then we 
were over-zealous in our surveillance. However, 
my present policy is expressed in a letter to sub- 
ordinate commanders wherein I said : 

Necessary guarding should be done by dis- 
placed persons themselves on the volunteer 
system and without arms. Military super- 
visors may be employed, but will not be used 
as sentries except in emergency. Everything 
should be done to encourage displaced persons 
to understand that they have been freed from 
tyranny, and that the supervision exercised 
over them is merely that necessary for their 
own protection and well-being, and to facili- 
tate essential maintenance. 

I feel that we have problems of shelter and sur- 
veillance in hand. Of equal importance is the 
provision of sufficient and appetizing food. In 
the past, a 2,000-calorie minimum diet was pre- 
scribed for all displaced persons in approved 
centers. Our field inspections have shown that in 
many places this scale was consistently exceeded, 
but there have also been sporadic instances where 
it was not met. Three or four thousand persons 
of the persecuted categories, including German 
Jews, in the American Zone have returned to their 
home communities. Many are there making a 
genuine effort to re-establish themselves. Until 
recently, there has been no clear-cut system of 
assuring adequate food for this group, although 
in most cases they have been given double rations. 

I have recently raised the daily caloric food 
value per person for ordinary displaced persons in 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



609 



approved centers to 2,300, and for racial, religious 
and political persecutees to a minimum of 2,500. 
Feeding standards have also been prescribed and 
sufficient Red Cross food parcels and imported 
Civil Affairs/Military Government foodstuffs are 
on hand to supplement indigenous supplies and 
meet requisitions to maintain these; standards.! 
We are now issuing a directive that those Jews and 
other persecuted persons who choose and are able 
to return to their communities will receive a mini- 
mum ration of 2,500 calories per day, as well as 
clothing and shoes, the same as those in centers. 

Clothing and shoes are available in adequate 
amounts and of suitable types. Uniformly ex- 
cellent medical attention is available to all Jewish 
people in our centers where they have generally 
adequate sanitary facilities. UNRRA and AJDC 
staffs, which are administering an increasing num- 
ber of our centers, are becoming efficient, and are 
making it possible for these people to enjoy spiritu- 
ally uplifting religious progi-ams as well as school- 
ing for children. 

It is freely admitted that there is need for im- 
provement. The schools need more books ; leism-e- 
time and welfare activities must be further de- 
veloped; paid employment outside the centers 
needs to be fostered ; additional quantities of furni- 
ture, bedding and fuel must be obtained. We have 
made progress in re-uniting families, but postal 
communications between displaced persons and 
their relatives and friends cannot yet be inaugu- 
rated ; roads and walks must be improved in antici- 
pation of continuing wet weather. We are con- 



scious of these problems, we are working on them, 
and we have expert advice of UNRRA, of Jewish 
Agencies, and of our chaplains. 

In certain instances we have fallen below stand- 
ard, but I should like to point out that a whole 
army has been faced with the intricate problems of 
readjusting from combat to mass repatriation, and 
then to the present static phase with its imique 
welfare problems. Anticipating this phase, I have 
fostered since before D-Day the development of 
UNRRA so that persons of professional compe- 
tence in that organization might take over greater 
responsibilities, and release our combat men and 
officers from this most difficult work. 

You can expect our continued activity to meet 
the needs of persecuted people. Perfection never 
will be attained, Mr. President, but real and honest 
efforts are being made to provide suitable living 
conditions for these pei-secuted people until they 
can be permanently resettled in other areas. 

Mr. Harrison's report gives little regard to the 
problems faced, the real success attained in saving 
the lives of thousands of Jewish and other con- 
centration camp victims and repatriating those 
who could and wished to be repatriated, and the 
progress made in two months to bring these un- 
fortunates who remained under our jurisdiction 
from the depths of pliysical degeneration to a con- 
dition of health and essential comfort. I have 
personally been witness to the expressed gi-atitude 
of many of these people for these things. 
Respectfully, 

D^vIGHT D. Eisenhower 



Anniversary of Czechoslovak Independence 



Statement by THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by the White House October 22] 

On the anniversary of Czechoslovak independ- 
ence, I wish to extend my own personal gi-eetings 
and the whole-hearted congratulations of the 
American people to President Benes and the people 
of Czechoslovakia. This commemoration of the 
founding of the Czechoslovak Republic is of par- 
ticular significance in marking the first time since 
the German occupation that the Czechoslovak peo- 
ple have been able to celebrate their independence 
in their own homeland as a free people. 

The realization that the principles of democracy 
and freedom, out of which the Republic was born 



twenty-seven years ago, have been victorious in 
two world wars, will inspire the Czechoslovak 
people to make once more their contribution to 
world peace. 

The American people watch with sympathetic 
interest the diligent efforts now being made by the 
Czechoslovak people to erase the effects of the Nazi 
rule and to restore their independent national life 
on the traditions which have always been identi- 
fied with the Czechoslovak Republic. I am con- 
fident that the American people will aid the 
Czechoslovak people in every way possible to 
achieve this goal. 



610 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Arrangements with Belgium on Financial and 

Supply Problems 



[Released to the press October 20] 

The following joint statement by the Govern- 
ments of the United States and Belgium is being 
released simultaneously in Washington and Brus- 



The Government of the United States and the 
Government of Belgium today announced the con- 
clusion of arrangements with respect to certain 
urgent financial and supply problems created by 
the economic support given by Belgium to the 
United States ai'med forces and the termination 
of lend-lease aid to Belgium. Up to V-J Day, 
Belgium provided at least 90 million dollars more 
in goods and services as revei'se lend-lease than it 
had received from the United States under lend- 
lease. This excess of reciprocal aid is largely the 
result of the very cooperative attitude of Belgium 
in unstintingly furnishing from its own limited 
resources whatever was requested by our armed 
forces after liberation. The goods and services 
which the Belgians provided went directly to 
United States troops. This aid was an important 
factor in the prosecution of the war against Ger- 
many, and continues to be important in the sup- 
port of the United States occupation forces in 
Germany, and in the redeployment and evacuation 
of United States troops and equipment from 
Europe. 

The excess of reciprocal aid which Belgium pro- 
vided has created serious economic problems for 
Belgium, at a time when there were insufficient 
consumer supplies and when the productivity of 
Belgian industry was still suffering from the 
ravages of war and the burdens imposed upon 
it by the occupation. 

To alleviate these economic consequences of the 
Belgian support of the Allied cause and to 
strengthen Belgium in the interest of the United 
States armed forces still in Europe and continuing 
to draw heavily on Belgian resources for trans- 
portation and other services, the United States 



Government has authorized that the following 
steps be taken : 

The United States will pay dollars to Belgium, 
on a monthly basis, for the francs advanced to 
the United States Army by the Belgian Govern- 
ment after September 2, 1945. Heretofore these 
dollar payments have been made on a deferred 
basis except for 23 million dollars paid during the 
current year. As a result of the present negotia- 
tions, a further payment of 61 million dollars has 
already been made on account of net troop pay ad- 
vances made in francs by the Belgian Government 
prior to September 2, 1945. 

The United States has also agreed to make dollar 
payment for all goods and services furnished to 
United States armed forces after September 2, 
1945. These goods and services prior to V-J Day 
were furnished by the Belgian Government as 
reciprocal aid, without charge to the United States 
Army. As noted above, by V-J Day these goods 
and services exceeded by at least 90 million dollars 
all the lend-lease aid authorized to be given to 
Belgium. 

In view of this excess of reciprocal aid, the 
United States Government has further agreed to 
offset against it the amounts which the Belgian 
Government is required to pay under the 3 (c) 
lend-lease agreement of April 17, 1945. The 3 (c) 
agreement between the United States and Bel- 
gium provides that whatever goods the United 
States may transfer under its terms to Belgium 
after V-J Day shall be paid for on a credit basis. 
On August 17 the President authorized the trans- 
fer of certain goods and services to Belgium under 
terms of this agreement following V-J Day. The 
amount of goods and services to be so transferred 
is approximately 42 million dollars. The recent 
action of the United States Government means 
that this debt will be considered to be satisfied 
by reason of the extent to which Belgian reverse 
lend-lease exceeds lend-lease heretofore provided 
by United States. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



611 



In addition the United States Government has 
authorized the transfer to Belgium of articles 
having civilian utility which the United States 
Army no longer requires for its own uses. The 
United States Army has substantial quantities of 
equipment, clothing and foodstuffs which are 
greatly needed by liberated areas of Europe and 
which would otherwise be declared surplus. There 
is a great deal of this kind of property in Belgium. 
Most important of such items are medical sup- 
plies, clothing and shoes, trucks and trailers, build- 
ing materials, and reconstruction equipment and 
certain raw materials. Under the arrangements 
announced today the Belgian Government will be 
permitted to select up to 45 million dollars of such 
articles, to be transferred under straight lend- 
lease. The articles transferred will be of the 
types which were to be supplied under the 3 (c) 
agreement between the United States and Bel- 
gium, and their transfer to Belgium at this time 
will serve to improve the Belgian economic situa- 
tion and to strengthen those activities of the Bel- 
gian economy which are still important to the 
servicing and supplying of our occupation forces 
and the evacuation of our troops from Europe. 

These arrangements, it is felt by both Govern- 
ments, will facilitate the conclusion of a final set- 
tlement of lend-lease under the master agreement. 
Conversations looking toward such a final settle- 
ment, which would include agreed action contem- 
plated in article VII of the agreement, including 
questions of commercial policy, will be held be- 
tween the two governments in the near future. 

During the negotiations consideration was also 
given to questions pertaining to commercial policy 
and the desire of the United States Government 
that discussions be held in the immediate future 
on mutually advantageous measures with a view 
to the elimination of all forms of discriminatory 
treatment in international commerce, payments 
and investments, with the objective of expanding 
production and increasing employment. It is 
understood that the Governments of Belgium and 
the United States mutually agree to confer to- 
gether in the near future on questions of commer- 
cial policy and, pending such a conference, to 
avoid the adoption of new measures affecting 
international trade, payments or investments 
which would prejudice the objective of such a 
conference. It was also suggested that the two 
governments should mutually agree to afford to 

670358 — 45 i 



each other adequate opportunity for consultation 
regarding such measures. 

Principal delegates in the negotiations which 
have been conducted over the period of several 
weeks were: 

Far the United States: 
Mr. Willard L. Thorp, Deputy to the Honorable 
William L. Clayton, Assistant Secretary of 
State, assisted by officers from State, Treas- 
ury, and FEA. 

For Belgium,: 

M. Paul Henri Spaak, Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs 
M. Paul Kronacker, Minister of Supply 
M. Camille Gutt, Minister of State, assisted by 
teclmical advisers from the Office of Mutual 
Aid, the Foreign Office and the Ministry of 
Supply. 

Henry F. Grady To Observe 
Greek Elections 

Statement by THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[Released to the press October 20] 

The President has authorized me to announce 
that he has today appointed Henry F. Grady as 
his personal representative to head the American 
group which will participate with representatives 
of the British and French Governments in observ- 
ing the forthcoming elections in Greece. 

Dr. Grady will have the personal rank of 
Ambassador. This appointment follows the ac- 
ceptance by this Government of the invitation 
extended to it by the Greek Government last 
August. This action is taken in accordance with 
responsibilities which the American Government 
accepted at the Crimea Conference to assist the 
peoples of European countries formerly occupied 
or dominated by Nazi Gennany in solving their 
political problems by democratic means and in 
creating democratic institutions of their own 
choice. 

Dr. Grady has served the Government of the 
United States in many important capacities since 
1918. He laid the basis for, and negotiated, many 
of the trade agreements concluded by the United 
States during the administration of President 
Koosevelt. He has served as Vice Chairman of 
the Tariff Commission and as Chairman of the 



612 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Committee for Reciprocity Information. During 
the years 1039 to 1941, he was Assistant Secretary 
of State. During the -war period he successfully 
carried out three important missions for the Amer- 
ican Government : one to the Far East and India 
in 19-tl in connection with the problem of raw 
materials; another as Head of the Technical Com- 
mission to India to study ways and means of in- 
creasing India's war production ; a third as Vice 
Chairman in Charge of Economic Matters for the 
Allied Control Commission of Italy. Among the 
positions held by him at present is the presidency 
of the American President Lines. 

Recognition of 
Provisional 
Austrian Government 

[Released to the press October 15] 

In accordance with the resolution of the Allied 
Council in Austria of October 1, 1945, the members 
of the Council recommended to their respective 
governments that the authority of the Provisional 
Austrian Government, subject to the guidance and 
control of the Allied Council as the supreme au- 
thority in Austria, be extended to the whole of 
Austria. The Provisional Austrian Government 
was reconstituted by the Austrian Provincial 
Conference of Sejitember 24-26, 1945 so as to 
broaden the basis of its political representation. 
The American Government has instructed its 
representative on the Allied Council that it is 
prepared to recognize the Provisional Austrian 
Government on this basis. 

In submitting their recommendations, the mem- 
bers of the Allied Council stated that one of the 
main duties of the Provisional Austrian Govern- 
ment will be the holding of national elections not 
later than December 1945. The Council further- 
more resolved that a democratic press be permitted 
to function in Austria. The American Govern- 
ment approves these recommendations and re- 
gards them as an important step in fulfilling the 
Declaration on Austria of November 1, 1943.' 
That Declaration, made by the powers now repre- 
sented on the Allied Council, provided that 
Austria should be liberated from German domina- 
tion and reestablished as a free and independent 
state. 



Decision by Allied Council 
in Austria^ 

The Council examined the question of 
the Provisional Austrian Government and 
are making recommendations to their 
respective governments. 

The Council decided on the reestablish- 
ment of a free press in the whole of Austria 
subject only to conditions of military 
security. They also decided that effective 
December 1 the wearing of military uni- 
forms unless dyed a color other than grey 
or khaki is forbidden to former personnel 
of the German Army and to Austrian 
civilians. 



Postponement of Marshal 
Zhukov's Visit to the 
United States 

[Released to the press by the White House October 20] 

General Eisenhower has forwarded to the War 
DepartmeMt the foil owing letter addressed to him 
hy Mat'fihal Zhukov: 

I would like you to convey to President Truman 
my deep gratitude for the invitation to visit your 
country. I valued highly the invitation, as I have 
always hoped to visit the United States. The trip 
would have given me the opportunity to get to 
know the President personally, as well as to get 
acquainted with the outstanding leaders of the 
American Army with whose amity and combat 
comradeship I spent the war. Unfortunately, 
however, I have been taken ill and still do not 
feel strong enough for a long journey. In addi- 
tion, with the coming of the winter there are 
many difficult organizational jDroblems confronting 
our forces and to undertake the trip a little later 
would be extremely difficult. 

I am forced, consequently, to postpone my trip 
to the United States until next year. 

I wish to ask you to transmit to the President 

my excuses, regards and best wishes. With sincere 

respects, „ 

' ' Zhukov 



1 Bulletin of Nov. 6, 1943, p. 310. 

'Communique issued Oct. 1 by the Allied Council. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



613 



Reestablisliment of the International Regime 

in Tangier 



LReleased to the press October 18] 

It will be recalled that the Conference of Ex- 
perts on Tangier which met in Paris during 
August adopted a number of resolutions looking 
toward the reestablishment of the international 
regime in Tangier. A final act containing the de- 
cisions of the conference, as well as an Anglo- 
French agreement on the same subject, was signed 
in Paris on August 31, 1915. Mr. Henry S. Vil- 
lard, Chief of the Division of African Affairs of 
the Department of State, signed the final act for 
the United States; Mr. C. B. P. Peake for the 
United Kingdom; Mr. Jacques Meyrier for 
France; and Mr. S. P. Kozyrev for the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics. 

Immediately following the conference, certified 
copies of these two documents were communicated 
by the French Government to the following gov- 
ernments participating in the Statute of Tangier : 
Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden. 
All of these have now signified their adherence. 
A separate communication was addressed to the 
Spanish Government by the Governments of 
France and Great Britain, as a result of which 
Spain withdrew from unilateral occupation of 
Tangier and turned over the administration of the 
International Zone on October 11 to the Com- 
mittee of Control. The Spanish Government, 
however, also made known its adherence and will 
participate in the provisional regime as estab- 
lished by the conference at Paris. 

The Mendoub, personal representative of the 
Sultan of Morocco, accompanied by a body of 
Sherifian police forces, returned to Tangier on 
October 11. 

The United States is represented on the Com- 
mittee of Control by Mr. Paul H. Ailing, Ameri- 
can Diplomatic Agent and Consul General at 
Tangier. The Committee of Control has elected a 
Portuguese national, Vice Admiral Luis Antonio 
de Magalhaes Coi-reia, aS Administrator of the 
Zone. Mr. Francois Cracco, a Belgian national, 
has been elected Assistant Administrator for 
Finance. 



The following are the texts of the agreements 
reached at the Conference: 

FINAL ACT 

OP THE CONFERENCE CONCERNING THE REESTAB- 
LISHMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL REGIME IN 
TANGIER HELD IN PARIS IN AUGUST, 1945, BE- 
TWEEN THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GOV- 
ERNMENTS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 
THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN ANT) 
NORTHERN IRELAND, FRANCE AND THE UNION 
OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 

The Conference met at the invitation of the 
French Government at the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs in Paris on the 10th of August, 1945, and 
completed its work on 31st of August, 1945. 

The following were present at the Conference 
as members of the Delegations : 

For the Government of the United States of 
Amei'ica : 

Mr. H. S. ViLLARD, Head of the African Divi- 
sion in the State Department 

Mr. J. RrvES Childs, Consul General of the 
United States at Tangier 

Mr. William Perrt George, Counsellor of 
Embassy 

Mr. E. J. Dempster of the American Legation 
at Tangier 

For the Government of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland : 

Mr. C. B. P. Peake, Consul-General at Tan- 
gier 

Mr. W. E. Beckett, Legal Adviser to the 
Foreign Office 

Mr. W. S. Edmonds, retired Consul-General 

Mr. I. P. Garran, First Secretary at the For- 
eign Office 

For the Provisional Government of the French 
Republic : 
Monsieur Meyrier, Minister Plenipotentiary, 
Director General at the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs 



614 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Monsieur re Bkauverger, Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary in charge of the French Consulate- 
General at Tangier 

Monsieur Chancel, Consul-General, Adviser 
to the Sherifian Government 

Monsieur Baraduc, Counsellor of Embassy at 
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 

Monsieur Guiramand, attached to the Minis- 
ter of Foreign Affairs 

For the Government of the Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Republics : 

Monsieur S. P. Kozyrev, Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary, head of the First European De- 
partment at the People's Commissariat of 
Foreign Affairs of the U. S. S. R. 

Monsieur V. N. Dourdenevski, Professor of 
international law 

Monsieur F. I. Vidiassov, First Secretary of 
the Embassy of the U. S. S. R. at Paris 

Commander Bondarenko, expert 

Monsieur Meyrier, Head of the French Delega- 
tion, accepted the chairmanship of the conference 
on the invitation of the other delegations. 

The Conference decided to recommend to the 
governments the adoption of the following reso- 
lutions : 
Resolution No. 1 

1. The Powers parties to the Act of Algeciras as 
set out in Article 2 of the annexed Agreement 
should be informed immediately by the French 
Government that a Conference of those Powers 
will be convened to meet at Paris not later than six 
months from the day on which the provisional 
regime, based on the Statute of 1923, shall have 
been established in the Tangier Zone, for the pur- 
pose of considering the amendments to the Conven- 
tions in force which may be proposed by any of 
these Powers. 

2. The above mentioned Powers should be in- 
formed at the same time that any of them who wish 
to propose amendments to these Conventions 
should communicate within the two following 
months to the President of the Committee of Con- 
trol at Tangier a memorandum explaining where 
necessary the reasons why any change in the exist- 
ing regime is considered desirable, the principles 
on which any proposed amendments are based and 
of what precisely the proposed amendments con- 
sist. These provisions shall not however be deemed 
to prevent the Powers from presenting other pro- 
posals at a later date or at the Conference. 



3. The Conamittee of Control should proceed to 
the study of the memoranda received and of all the 
provisions on which the present regime in the Zone 
is based. Before the end of the period of six 
months referred to in paragraph 1, the Committee 
should formulate an opinion on the questions 
which have been raised and, if there appeal's to be 
any need for it, draw up the text of a draft gen- 
eral convention for use at the Conference of the 
Algeciras Powers. All questions on which the 
Committee of Control has not been able to reach 
agreement should be reserved for the Conference. 

Resolution No. 2 

1. The Agreement, of which the text is annexed 
to the Final Act after having been discussed and 
approved at the Conference, should be signed im- 
mediatel}' on behalf of the Goverimients of the 
United Kingdom and France and submitted with- 
out delay to the Governments of Belgium, Spain, 
the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden with an 
invitation to these Governments to accede thereto. 

2. The Conference desires to place on record 
that : — 

(a) in connexion with the text of Article 7 (b) 
of the Agreement annexed to the present Final Act 
it was only possible to reach agreement on this 
text because the whole question of the competence, 
composition and the methods of the election of the 
Assembly will be examined at the Conference pro- 
vided for in Resolution 1 ; and 

(b) after discussing the question of the sur- 
veillance of the coast of the Tangier Zone which 
is dealt with in Article 4 of the Tangier Statute of 
1923 as modified in 1928, it considered the station- 
ing of war vessels in the Tangier zone imprac- 
ticable for the purpose in question during the 
period of the provisional regime, and decided to 
leave this question for the Conference referred to 
in Resolution No. 1. 

Resolution No. 3 

In view of the expression by the United King- 
dom and French Delegations of the desire of their 
Governments that the Governments of the United 
States of America and of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics should collaborate in the pro- 
visional regime, the invitation should be trans- 
mitted to these Governments by the French Gov- 
ernment and the subsequent procedure should be 
in accordance with the provisions of Article 3 of 
the Agreement annexed to the Final Act. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



615 



Resolution No. 4 

Under the final Statute of the Tangier Zone the 
Governments of the United States of America and 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics should 
each be entitled, if the present judicial organisa- 
tion is maintained, to be represented on the Mixed 
Tribunal by a titular judge in the same manner as 
the Governments of France and the United King- 
dom. 

Resolution No. 5 

The approach to the Spanish Government for 
the purpose of securing the withdrawal of the 
Spanish administration from the Tangier Zone 
and the putting into force of the Agreement an- 
nexed to the Final Act should be made immediately 
by the United Kingdom and French Governments. 

Resolution No. 6 

The Committee of Control should remove from 
the service of the Administration of Tangier all 
persons who are considered undesirable on ac- 
count of political activity, or participation in asso- 
ciations or parties whose aims are contrary to the 
principles set forth in the Charter of the United 
Nations referred to in the Declaration of tiie Con- 
ference at Potsdam. The Governments of the 
United States of America, the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, France and 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics should give 
appropriate instructions to this effect to their re- 
spective representatives in the Committee of 
Control. 

Resolution No. 7 

1. The Governments of the United States of 
America, France, the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland and the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics should examine, if neces- 
sary, at the request of the Committee of Control, 
the measures to be taken to ensure the repayment 
of advances made by the State Bank of Morocco to 
the provisional administration of the Tangier 
Zone, in accordance with Article 5 of the Agree- 
ment annexed to this Final Act. 

2. The Governments of the United States of 
America, France, the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland and the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics should, if necessary, lend 
the Committee of Control all assistance required 
to assure the provisioning of the Zone. 

Resolution No. 8 

The Governments of Belgium, the Netherlands, 
Portugal and Sweden should be requested at the 



time of the transmission to them of the Final Act, 
to transmit to the President of the Committee of 
Control at Tangier most immediately and in any 
case within two weeks of today's date the names 
of persons who are their nationals and are con- 
sidered suitable and are willing to occupy the 
following posts in the Tangier Zone during the 
provisional regime, namely 

(1) Administrator of the Zone, 

(2) Assistant Administrator for Finance, 

and 

(3) Commandant and 10 officers for the 

Tangier Zone Police Force. 

Resolution No. 9 

Monsieur le Fur should be engaged as technical 
adviser of the Committee of Control in order to 
re-establish the administration of the zone. He 
should act as Administrator until the titular ad- 
ministrator has been appointed and lias taken up 
his post. 

The Conference took note of the following 
declaration made by the Soviet delegation : 

''In signing this Final Act the Soviet delegation 
adheres to the view which it expressed previously 
to the effect that, although the Spanish people is 
incontestably interested in the administration of 
the international zone of Tangier and although 
Spain must finally be called to participate in the 
appropriate international organisms, this partici- 
pation of Spain in the administrative organisms 
of the Zone of Tangier cannot be allowed until 
General Franco's regime in Spain, which was 
established with the support of the Axis Powers 
and which in no measure represents the Spanish 
people, shall be replaced by a democratic regime." 

The Conference also took note of the following 
declaration made by the American, British and 
French delegations : 

1. The American, British and French delega- 
tions consider that the participation of Spain in 
the provisional administration of Tangier does not 
imply in any sense a departure from the Potsdam 
declaration of 2nd August, 1945 but represents in 
the present circumstances the sole practicable 
means of taking into account the interests of the 
Spanish nation and people in the settlement of the 
Tangier question. 

2. 'While considering that the Conference of the 
Powers signatory to the Act of Algeciras should 
not be held without Spain, the three delegations 
do not think it desirable that Spain should be 



616 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



invited to the Conference as long as the present 
■Government in Spain continues in power; they 
suggest that at the appropriate moment the French 
Government should consult on the question of the 
Conference with the United States, British and 
Soviet Governments. 

In witness whereof the undersigned have signed 
the present Final Act. 

Done at Paris in quadruplicate this 31st day 
of August, 1945 in English, French and Russian, 
all three texts being equally authentic. 

ANGLO-FRENCH AGREEMENT FOR THE RE-ESTAB- 
LISHAIENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL ADMINIS- 
TRATION OP TANGIER 

The Government of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Pro- 
visional Government of the Fiench Republic : 

Being desirous of re-establishing as soon as pos- 
sible in the Tangier Zone of Morocco an interna- 
tional regime in accordance with the conclusions 
of the Confei'ence held at Paris in August, 1945, 
between the Governments of the United States 
of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland, France and the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics : and 

Considering that it is desirable to establish in 
the said Zone a provisional regime based on the 
Convention signed at Paris on the 18th December, 
1923, to operate until a revised Tangier Statute 
has been agreed and can be put into force: 

Have therefore decided to conclude an Agi'ee- 
ment for this purpose and have appointed as their 
pleniiJotentiaries : 

The Government of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland : 
Mr. Charles Bkinsley Pemberton Peake, 
His Britannic Majesty's Consul-General at 
Tangier ; 

The Provisional Government of the French Re- 
public : 
Monsieur Jacques Meyrier, Minister Pleni- 
potentiary, Director-General at the Minis- 
try of Foreign Aii'airs : 

Who, being furnished with full powers found 
in good and due form, have agreed as follows. 

Article 1. 

From 11th October 1945 until a Convention 

drawn up at the Conference referred to in Article 

2 below has come into force, the Tangier Zone of 

Morocco shall be provisionally administered in 



accordance with the Convention of the 18th De- 
cember, 1923, (and the Agreement of the 25th 
July, 1928, amending the same) as modified by 
the provisions of the present Agreement. 

Article 2. 

(a) As soon as possible and not later than six 
months from the establishment of the provisional 
regime, the French Government will convoke a 
Conference at Paris of the following Powei's 
l)arties to the Act of Algeciras : The United States 
of America, Belgium, the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Spain, 
France, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and, subject 
to Article 11 below, Italy. 

(b) The preparatory work for the said Con- 
ference shall be undertaken by the Committee of 
Control at Tangier in accordance with Resolution 
No. 1 of the Conference at Paris referred to in 
the Preamble of this Agreement. 

Article 3. 

(a) The Governments of the United States of 
America and the Umon of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, although not parties to the Convention 
of the 18th December, 1923, are invited to collabo- 
rate in the provisional regime of the Tangier Zone 
in accordance with the provisions of this Agree- 
ment. 

(b) The French Government will inform the 
Governments of the Powers referred to in Article 
2 (a) above of the acceptance of this invitation. 

Article Jf. 

(a) Upon 11th October 1945 the Spanish Gov- 
ernment will hand over to the Committee of Con- 
trol the administration of the Zone and the 
archives of the administration, and to the Inter- 
national Cape Spartel Lighthouse Commission 
the administration of that lighthouse. 

(b) The proj^erties, offices and establishments 
belonging to the French and Sherifian Govern- 
ments shall be lianded over at the same time to the 
representatives of those Governments. Private 
property in the Zone which lias been seized by the 
Si)anish authorities shall be restored to the owners 
not later than the lltli October, 1945. The pro- 
visions of this paragraph do not prejudice the 
right of any Government concerned to claim com- 
pensation in respect of the seizure or detention of 
such property or of any other matter. 

(c) The withdrawal from the Zone of all Span- 
ish military, naval, air and police forces as well 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



617 



as all establishments and material of a military 
character shall be completed by 11th October, 
1945. All Spanish establishments and material 
of a military character which shall not have been 
withdrawn on this date shall become the property 
of the Achninistration of the Tangier Zone. 

(d) The Spanish Government will be responsi- 
ble for all financial liabilities of the Zone con- 
tracted between 13th June 1940, and 11th October, 
1945. 

(e) The Committee of Control may meet before 
lltli October, 1945, and make all necessary ar- 
rangements for the putting into foi'ce of the 
present Agreement. 

Article 6. 
Any advances of funds which may be necessary 
for the functioning of the public services of the 
Zone until adequate financial measures have been 
taken by the provisional administration shall be 
furnished by the State Bank of Morocco under 
conditions agi-eed by the Committee of Control. 

Article 6. 

(a) The Committee of Control, having ob- 
tained from the Administration the necessary 
report or reports, shall determine which of the 
decrees, laws and regulations enacted and con- 
cessions granted between 13th June, 1940, and the 
11th October 1945 shall be repealed, amended or 
maintained and draw up the necessary legislation 
to give effect to these decisions. All laws, decrees 
and regulations which are contrary to particular 
provisions of the Statute of 1923 shall be included 
in the measures to be repealed. 

(b) The Mendoub shall promulgate inunedi- 
ately the legislation referred to in paragraph (a) 
of this Article. 

Article 7. 

During the period of the provisional administra- 
tion of the Zone, the Convention of the 18th De- 
cember, 1923, (as amended in 1928) shall operate, 
subject to the following modifications: — 

(a) The Governments of the United States of 
America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Ke- 
publics shall have the right to appoint their repre- 
sentatives in Tangier as members of the Commit- 
tee of Control. The first member of the Commit- 
tee of Control to fulfil the functions of President 
as from 11th October, 1945, shall be the French 
representative and thereafter the presidency shall 
devolve bj' rotation in accordance with Article 30 
of the Convention of 1923. In the absence of any 



stipulation to the contrary a decision of the Com- 
mittee of Control will be taken by an affirmative 
vote of a majority of the members of the Com- 
mittee. In case of an equal division the President 
shall have a casting vote. 

(b) The International Legislative Assembly re- 
ferred to in Article 34 of the Convention of 18th 
December 1923 shall be composed of : 

4 members of French nationality, 

4 members of Spanish nationality, 

3 members of British nationality, 

3 members of United States nationality, 

3 members nationals of the Union of Soviet 

Socialist Eepublics, 
1 member of Italian nationality, 
1 member of Belgian nationality, 
1 member of Netherlands nationality, 
1 member of Portuguese nationality, 
nominated by their respective Consulates, and in 
addition : 

6 Mussulman subjects of His Majesty the Sul- 
tan nominated by the Mendoub and 
3 Jewish subjects of His Majesty the Sultan 
nominated by the Mendoub and chosen 
from a list of nine names submitted by the 
Jewish community of Tangier. 
Until the Legislative Assembly has been con- 
stituted the powers which are conferred upon it 
shall be exercised, in cases of urgency, by the Com- 
mittee of Control. 

Further, the Committee of Control shall have 
tlie power at any time to adopt, by regulation 
passed by a majority of two-thirds of its members 
and stating the reasons for this course, measures 
i-elating to any matter which under the Statute 
falls within the competence of the Legislative As- 
sembly. All regulations so made shall be promul- 
gated, published and put into force in the same 
manner as measures passed in corresponding cases 
by the Assembly. 

(c) The Administrator of the Zone shall be a 
person of Belgian, Netherlands, Portuguese or 
Swedish nationality selected by the Committee of 
Control. 

He shall be aided by an Assistant Administrator 
of French nationality selected by the French Gov- 
ernment, who shall be adviser for Moroccan 
Affairs, and by an Assistant Administrator for 
Finance of Belgian, Netherlands, Portuguese or 
Swedish nationality selected by the Committee of 
Control. 

The Administrator and Assistant Administra- 



618 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



toi-s shall be appointed by His Sherifian Majesty 
on the request of the Committee of Control. 

(d) The provisions of Article 10 (paragi-aphs 3 
et seq.) and of Article 47 of the Tangier Statute, 
relating to the gendarmerie, the police, the Mixed 
Intelligence Bureau and the Inspector-General of 
Security shall be abrogated and replaced by the 
following provisions : — 

The policing of the Zone shall be maintained 
by a single police force to be organised as soon 
as possible and recruited so far as possible 
from inhabitants of the Zone. The Com- 
mandant, Deputy-Commandant, officers and 
technical advisers of this police force shall be 
appointed by Sherifian dahir upon the pro- 
posal of the Committee of Control and, except 
the Deputy Commandant who shall be a 
French national, selected from persons of 
Belgian. Netherlands, Portuguese, or Swedish 
nationality. The cost of this police force shall 
be borne by the Administration of the Zone. 

The authorities of the French and Spanish 
Zones shall have the right to appoint to the 
police administration of Tangier liaison 
officers to deal with police questions affecting 
their respective Zones. Every facility for the 
fulfilment of their duties shall be accorded to 
these officers. Until the police force referred 
to above has been constituted, the policing of 
the Tangier Zone shall be undertaken by a 
police force supplied by the French or 
Sherifian Governments. 

(e) Without prejudice to the provisions of 
Article 29 of the Statute of the Zone, the Commit- 
tee of Control shall also have the power of deporta- 
tion in the case of persons justiciable by the Mixed 
Court whose presence in the Zone constitutes a 
threat to public order. In any case where this 
power is exercised an affirmative vote of two-thirds 
of the members of the Committee shall be required 
after the case of the person whose deportation is 
proposed has been investigated by the police au- 
thorities of the Zone and heard by a member of the 
Committee selected for this purpose. 

(f ) Nothing in the Statute shall be deemed to 
prevent the administration from taking, with the 
approval of the Committee of Control, in excep- 
tional circumstances such measures as may be re- 
quired in order to assure the arrival and distribu- 
tion of supplies necessary for the maintenance of 
the life of the inhabitants. 



Article 8. 
The Committee of Control may at any time 
while the present Agi-eement remains in force 
adopt by unanimous vote any amendments thereto 
which it considers desirable. Such modifications 
shall be recorded in protocols signed by the mem- 
bers of the Committee of Control, specifying the 
date as from which they shall operate. These 
modifications shall be immediately submitted to 
His Sherifian Majesty for his approval and for the 
enactment of the necessary dahir. 

Article 9. 

( a ) The present Agreement shall be ratified and 
the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged 
at Paris as soon as possible. It will however be 
put into force immediately without awaiting the 
exchange of ratifications. 

(b) The present agreement shall be at once sub- 
mitted to His Sherifian Majesty for his approval 
and for the enactment of the necessary dahir to 
give effect thereto. 

Article 10. 
Certified copies of the present Agreement shall 
be immediately comnumicated by the French Gov- 
ernment to the Governments of Belgium, Spain, 
the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden. The 
Governments of the United Kingdom and France 
undertake to collaborate in inviting the accession 
of the above mentioned Governments to the 
Agreement. In the case of those governments 
whose constitutional law requires the fulfilment 
of a process equivalent to ratification prior to ac- 
cession, accession may be notified in the first 
place subject to ratification. 

Article 11. 

(a) The provisions of the Agreement and da- 
hirs of 1928, in so far as they altered the conditions 
in which the Italian Government is entitled to 
participate in the administration of the Zone, shall 
cease to operate. 

(b) The Italian Government shall be invited to 
accede to the present Agreement at such time as 
the other Governments parties thereto shall agree 
and subject to any relevant provisions of the peace 
treaty with Italy. 

In witness whereof the above mentioned pleni- 
potentiaries have signed the present Agreement 
and affixed thereto their seals. 

Done at Paris in duplicate this 31st day of 
August, 1945, in English, and French, both texts 
being equally authentic. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



619 



Meeting of United Nations 

Food and Agriculture Organization 



MESSAGE OF PRESIDENT TRUMAN ^ 

To the Delegates to the United Nations Food and 
A grieulture rgan ization : 

My tlioiights and the thoughts of the people of 
the United States of America today turn toward 
Quebec. The first conference of the Food and 
Agricukure Organization of the United Nations 
is truly a momentous occasion. It is an occasion 
on which the people of the United Nations begin to 
cultivate, if not yet to gather, the fruits of victory. 

If we had not won our victory through common 
eifort and common sacrifice, a meeting such as this 
would have been impossible. There would have 
been no room in the world for candor and decency 
and mutual helpfulness. Certainly there would 
have been no room for an international organiza- 
tion dedicated to these two simple propositions: 
first, that people in all parts of the world can and 
should have plenty of food and of other products 
of the farm; and second, that the world's people 
who draw wealth from the earth and sea can and 
should enjoy their fair share of the good things 
of life. 

These are high goals. Neither the world nor any 
single nation has as yet even come close to achiev- 
ing either. It will take time to reach them. 
Creation of a Food and Agriculture Organization 
in itself will not be enough ; we must look to the 
patient cooperation of the family of nations 
through FAO and other means. But the work you 
are beginning at Quebec is an essential step for- 
ward, and a long one. 

The world is watching your efforts for still an- 
other reason. The Food and Agriculture Organi- 
zation is the first of the new permanent world 
organizations to grow out of the wartime coopera- 
tion of the United Nations. Its early stages, for 
good or ill, will do much to set the pattern for the 



' Read by Clinton P. Anderson, Secretary of Agriculture 
and leader of the United States Delegation, at the second 
plenary session of the meeting of the United Nations Food 
and Agriculture Organization at Quebec on Oct. 17, 1945. 



other world organizations that must follow if we 
are to succeed in building a foundation for world 
peace and prosperity. 

It is particularly fortunate that your meeting 
comes at this time, when some of the problems and 
difficulties that must inevitably follow military 
victory in so great a war have made themselves felt 
so keenly. The tasks of repairing the ravages of 
war and building for a saner future are tremen- 
dous. Each day it becomes clearer that in many 
ways we must work harder to win the peace than 
we did to win the war. But we know that the peace 
can be won. One of the major victories can be 
won at Quebec. 

The United States is eager and proud to take 
its full part in your efforts. The success of this 
all-important first step in the life of the food and 
agriculture organization is the primary aim of my 
country's delegation. Its members come to this 
conference prepared to work together with the 
delegations of other nations for the good of all, 
and to bear their full share of the responsibility 
for a successful outcome. 

Please convey my best wishes to the delegates of 
the host Government of the Dominion of Canada 
and to the delegates from the other United Nations. 
Much depends on your work during the days ahead. 
I am fully confident you will accomplish your pur- 
pose, no matter what obstacles may arise. Work- 
ing together you cannot fail. 

Harrt Truman 



SIGNING OF THE FAO CONSTITUTION 

The Food and Agriculture Organization offi- 
cially came into being on the afternoon of October 
16 when delegates of 30 nations signed the consti- 
tution in the opening session of the Organization's 
first conference at Quebec. 

The ceremony, starting at 4 p. m., was opened 
by L. B. Pearson, Chairman of the Interim Com- 
mission. The Hon. Ernest Bertrand, Postmaster 



620 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



General of Ciinada, made the welcoming address 
on behalf of the Canadian Government. Ke- 
sponscs were made by Mr. Tanguy-Prigent, head 
of the French Delegation, and Sir Girja Bajpai, 
Agent General for India. 

Affixing of the actual signatures was done on 
the stage of the Chateau Frontenac ballroom. 
With a few exceptions that resulted from the late 
arrival of delegates, the delegates signed in alpha- 
betical order: Australia, Belgium, China, Canada, 
Dominican Eepublic, Denmark, Egypt, France, 
Guatemala, Greece, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, 
India, Iraq, Liberia, Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia, 
Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, 
Norway, Panama, Peru, Philippine Common- 
wealth, Union of South Africa, United Kingdom, 
United States, Venezuela. 

Technically, FAO came into being with the sig- 
nature of the Netherlands, the twentieth nation to 
sign. The U.S.S.R. did not sign the constitu- 
tion. Vasili Sergeev, head of the Delegation, ar- 
rived in Quebec on October 16, but said that the 
commimications from his government necessary to 
authorize signature were on the way but had not 
yet been received. In the meantime the Russian 
Delegation will act in the cai^acity of observers. 

Chile's Delegation is expected to sign the consti- 
tution in about a week, when its representative 
arrives. Representatives of Yugoslavia also ai'e 
expected later, but have not yet arrived. Countries 
represented as observers are Lebanon and Sj'ria. 

Argentina, which was expected to be among the 
observers, has not as yet sent any representatives. 

There is an evident effort to speed the work of 
the Conference. The provisional schedule was 
telescojDed so that the first plenary session could be 
held at 9 o'clock on the evening of October 16. 

The order of business of the first plenary session 
included opening of the session by the chairman 
of the Interim Commission, formal recognition of 
the interim chairman as temporary Conference 
chairman, adoption of temporary rules of proce- 
dure, and appointments of the nominations com- 
mittee. Clinton P. Anderson will serve as chair- 
man of the Nomination Committee, and L. B. 
Pearson will serve as temporary chairman of the 
Conference. 



ORGANIZATION OF COMMISSIONS 
AND COMMITTEES 

Preliminary work in getting the Conference 
started continued on October 17. Progress made 
in speeding business, however, was somewhat 
counterbalanced by an increase over the expected 
volume of speeches by the delegations. The or- 
ganizations of commissions and committees may be 
effected by October 19 and committee meetings 
started by Octolier 20. L. B. Pearson of Canada 
was chosen on October 17 as chairman of the Con- 
ference. A-^ice-chairmanships were voted to China 
and Mexico. The nine-man General Committee of 
the Conference (Steering Committee) elected at 
the session consists of Mr. Pearson, chairman, the 
two vice chairmen of the Conference, representa- 
tives of France, United Kingdom, United States, 
Australia, India, and the Netherlands. The Cre- 
dentials Committee is made up of representatives 
of Belgium, United Kingdom, Norway, Peru, 
Liberia, Iraq, and the Commonwealth of the 
Philippines, a third vice chairman of the Con- 
ference, and two additional members of the General 
Committee. One of them to be a vice chairman of 
the Committee will be nominated subsequently. 
The vacancies were left in view of the fact that the 
Russian Delegation is expecting its credentials at 
any time and the delegations from Brazil, Chile, 
and Iran are expected shortly. At the afternoon 
session of October 17 Secretary Anderson read 
President Truman's message to the Conference 
and delegates from Belgium, France, China, and 
the LTnion of South Africa followed with formal 
addresses. 



At the plenary session on the morning of October 
IS the Conference acted quickly on four recom- 
mendations submitted by the General Committee. 
It adopted a report that the languages to be used 
at its proceedings shall be those that are adopted 
by the United Nations Organization. Pending 
that action by UNO the business of the Conference 
will be transacted in English. The matter of 
language had been raised j^esterday by the French 
Delegation and referred to the General Connnittee. 

The Conference formally established the two 
commissions suggested by the Interim Commis- 
sion : Commission A on policy and programs, and 
Commission B on organization and administration. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



621 



On nomination of the General Committee, tlie 
Conference elected Dr. P. R. Viljoen of South 
Africa as chairman of Commission A and Mr. 
Anders F. Jelstad of Norway and Mr. David 
Wilson of New Zealand as vice chairmen; for 
chairman of Commission B, Mr. Henrik de Kauff- 
man of Denmark ; for vice chairmen of Commission 
B, Mr. Alberto Sevilla Sacasa of Nicaragua and 
Mr. Anis Azer of Egypt. 

Tlie Conference approved the General Com- 
mittee's recommendation that the allocations of the 
agenda to the different commissions as set forth in 
the draft provisional program of work prepared 
by the Interim Commission be accepted. 

The Conference approved the recommendation 
tliat applications of Syria and Lebanon for full 
membership be considered. 

On October 18 Lourival Fontes, Brazilian Am- 
bassador to Mexico, arrived at Quebec as his 
country's representative, and the Polish Delega- 
tion, headed by Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, also 
arrived. 

L. B. Pearson, Conference chairman, reported 
that the Interim Commission had invited Turkey, 
Byelorussia, Ukrainian Republic, Syria, Lebanon, 
Saudi Arabia, and Argentina to send observers. 
The Conference confirmed the invitation. 

Also on October 18, at the morning session the 
five technical reports prepared under the auspices 
of the Interim Commission were formally pre- 
sented to the Conference with summary state- 
ments by Commission heads. The reports cover 
nutrition and food management, agricultural pro- 
duction, fisheries, forestry, and statistics. 

Part of the morning session and practically all 
of the afternoon session were devoted to a continu- 
ation of formal statements of heads of delegations. 
Secretary Anderson made his statement at the 
start of the 3 o'clock session. Other speakers were 
Maximo Kalaw of the Philippine Conmionwealth, 
Dr. Frantisek Pavlasek of Czechoslovakia, Dr. 
David Wilson of New Zealand, Dr. G. S. H. Bar- 
ton of Canada, Mr. Frederick A. Price of Liberia, 
and Mr. A. Hoegsbro-Holm of Denmark. 



statements of delegations that had not been heard 
thus far. On recommendation of Henrik de 
Kauffmann of Denmark, Commission chairman, 
the following committees and committee chairmen 
were approved : Rules and Procedure, Dr. Arthur 
Wauters of Belgium, chairman of the Belgian 
Food and Nutrition Commission; Finance Com- 
mittee, J. B. Brigden of Australia, Financial 
Counselor of the Australian Legation in Wash- 
ington; Administrative Arrangements Commit- 
tee, K. S. Sis of China, Director of The National 
Bureau of Agricultural Research; Committee on 
Constitutional and Diplomatic Questions, Sir 
Girja Shankar Bajpai, Agent General for India in 
the United States. 

Commission A met for the first time on October 
19 under the chairmanship of Dr. P. R. Viljoen 
of South Africa. Senator Ehner Thomas is serv- 
ing as United States member of the Commission. 
On the recommendation of the chairman the Com- 
mission agreed on the following names as commit- 
tee chairmen : Nutrition, Andre Mayer of France, 
Vice President of College of France ; Agriculture, 
Dr. E. S. Archibald of Canada, Director, Experi- 
mental Farms Service, Canadian Department of 
Agriculture. Two vice chairmen for the Agricul- 
tural Committees were selected : P. V. Cardon, 
United States Research Administrator, Agricul- 
tural Research Administration, Department of 
Agriculture, and S. L. Louwes, Netherlands Di- 
rector General of Food SujDply. Forestry Com- 
mittee, Henry S. Graves, United States Professor 
Emeritus, Yale College of Forestry; Fisheries, 
Mr. Thor Thors, Minister of Iceland to the United 
States ; Marketing, H. Broadley, United Kingdom 
Ministry of Food; Statistics, Dr. Josue Saenz of 
Mexico, Director General of Statistics. The Com- 
mission accepted the provisional report of FAO 
and the teclinical reports of the Interim Commis- 
sion as the starting point of its agenda. 



For w'orking purposes the Conference is di- 
vided into two commissions : Commission A on 
l^olicy and programs and Commission B on organ- 
ization and administration. Commission B met 
after the sixth plenary session had closed with the 



Individual delegations are naming their repre- 
sentatives on the various committees. Selections 
of the United States are : 

Commission A 

Committee on Nutrition and Food Management 
Dr. Thomas Paebax 
Dr. Hazel K. Stiebeling 



622 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Miss Anna Lord Stbausb 
Dr. M. L. Wilson 

Agric-ultv/re 

p. V. Cabdon 

Senator Elmer Thomas 

Congressman Clifford R. Hope 

H. G. Bennejtt 

Hugh H. Bennettt 

A. L. Deering 

MORDECAI EzEKIEL 

Albekt S. Goes 
Edward A. O'Neal 
James G. Patton 

Forestry and Forest Products 

Ltxb F. Watts 

Senator Raymond E. Willis 

Edward I. Kotok 

Fisheries 

Andrew W. Anderson 
Edward G. Oale 

Marketing 

L. A. Whefxer 

Congressman John W. Flannaoan, Jr. 

HOMHI L. Brinklet 

Harry Carlson 

Lerot D. Stinebower 

Statistics 

R. E. Buchanan 
L. Wendell Hates 
Clifford C. Taylor 

Commission B 

Committee on Rules and Procedure 

L. Wendell Hayes 
Senator Elmer Thomas 
Miss Anna Lord Strauss 
L. A. Wheeler 

Finance 

Edward G. Calb 

Congressman John W. Flannaoan, Jr. 

Lbeoy D. Stinebower 

Administrative A n^angetnents 

Miss Anna Lord Strauss 
Senator Raymond E. Willis 
L. Wb:ndell Hayes 

Constitutional and Diplomatic Questions 

Leroy D. Stinebower 
Congressman Clifford R. Hope 
Albert S. Gobs 
Miss Anna Lord Strauss 



Committees of both Commissions A and B 
started tlieir meetings on October 20 with nearly 
all of their efforts directed toward internal organi- 
zation. 

The Committee on Agriculture — by far the larg- 
est of such groups, numbering more than 60 per- 
sons — set up a Progi'am Committee to determine 
the main subjects for study and set up panels to 
get to work on them. This Program Committee 
is headed by Louwes of the Netherlands and 
Curdon, U.S.A., the two vice chairmen of the 
Agriculture Committee. Other countries repre- 
sented on the Program Committee are: China, 
U.S.S.R., Mexico, Czechoslovakia, France, United 
Kingdom, New Zealand, South Africa, and Brazil. 

Postal Regulations for Mail 
to China 

[Released to the press October 19] 

As of October 18, 1945, according to an an- 
nouncement of the Post Oliice Department, ordi- 
nary and registered regular mails will be accepted 
for despatch to all of China by ordinary surface 
means. Acceptable mail includes letters, post 
cards, printed matter in general, printed matter 
for the blind, and commercial papers and samples. 

Postage rates for letters despatched by surface 
means will be 5 cents for the initial ounce and 3 
cents for each additional ounce. Registry and 
special delivery fees are 20 cents. 

The Post Office Department announces that the 
present limited parcel-post service to China is not 
affected by the extended service. 

Effective immediately, articles weighing two 
ounces or less will be accepted for despatch by air 
direct to China. The articles must be prepaid at 
the rate of 70 cents per one-half ounce or fraction 
thereof. 

The ex23ort control regulations of the Foreign 
Economic Administration apply to mail for China, 
and business and financial communications are 
subject to the requirements of the Freezing Control 
Regulations of the Treasury Department. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



623 



Attitude of American Government 
Toward Palestine 



[Released to the press October 18] 

The Department of State has recently received 
a number of inquiries as to whether it is true that 
the United States Government has on various 
occasions expressed the view to Jewish and Arab 
leaders that they should be consulted before a 
decision was reached respecting the basic situa- 
tion in Palestine. In response to these inquiries 
Secretary of State James F. Byrnes made the fol- 
lowing reply : 

"On several occasions this matter has been the 
subject of oral and written discussions with 
various Jewish and Arab leaders. The substance 
of this Government's position has been that this 
Government would not support a final decision 
which in its opinion would affect the basic situa- 
tion in Palestine without full consultation with 
both Jews and Arabs. 

"At a press conference today President Truman 
referred to his exploration with Prime Minister 
Attlee of ways and means of alleviating the situa- 
tion of the displaced Jews in Europe, including 
consideration of Palestine as a possible haven for 
some of these homeless Jews. There is general 
agreement that it is our duty to take energetic 
measures to assist these unfortunate victims of 
^lazi persecution. 

"As the President pointed out today, this matter 
is still under consideration. We shall continue to 
explore every possible means of relieving the situa- 
tion of the displaced Jews of Europe. 

"Should any j^roposals emerge which in our 
opinion would change the basic situation in Pales- 
tine, it would be the policy of this Government 
not to reach final conclusions without full con- 
sultation with Jewish and Arab leaders. This 
policy was stated, for instance, in a letter which 
President Roosevelt addressed to King Ibn Saud 
on April 5, 1945 and the text of which I have been 
authorized to make available." 

The text of President Roosevelt's letter of April 
5 follows: 



April 5, 1945. 
Great and Good Friend : 

I have received the communication which Your 
Majesty sent me under date of March 10, 1945, in 
which you refer to the question of Palestine and to 
the continuing interest of the Arabs in current 
developments affecting that country. 

I am gratified that Your Majesty took this occa- 
sion to bring your views on this question to my 
attention and I have given the most careful atten- 
tion to the statements which you make in your 
letter. I am also mindful of the memorable con- 
versation which we had not so long ago and in the 
course of which I had an opportunity to obtain so 
vivid an impression of Your Majesty's sentiments 
on this question. 

Your Majesty will recall that on previous occa- 
sions I communicated to you the attitude of the 
American Government toward Palestine and made 
clear our desire tliat no decision be taken with re- 
spect to the basic situation in that country without 
full consultation with both Arabs and Jews. Your 
Majesty will also doubtless recall that during our 
recent conversation I assured you that I would take 
no action, in my capacity as Chief of the Executive 
Branch of this Government, which might prove 
hostile to the Arab people. 

It gives me pleasure to renew to Your Majesty 
the assurances which you have previously received 
regarding the attitude of my Government and my 
own. as Chief Executive, with regard to the ques- 
tion of Palestine and to inform you that the policy 
of this Government in this respect is unchanged. 

I desire also at this time to send you my best 
wishes for Your Majesty's continued good health 
and for the welfare of your people. 
Your Good Friend, 

Franklin D. Roose\'elt 
His Majesty 

Abdul Aziz Ibn Abdur Rahman al Faisal al 
Saud 
King of Saudi Arabia 
Riyadh 



624 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Educational and Cultural Conference 



INVITATION TO THE CONFERENCE 

Foreign Office, S. W. 1. 

3rd August, J94S. 
YouK Excellency, 

I have the honour to inform Your Excellency 
that, at a meeting of the Conference of Allied Min- 
isters of Education on the 12th July last, His Maj- 
esty's Government were requested to invite, on 
behalf of the Conference, the Governments of the 
United Nations to send delegates to a Conference 
to be held in London on the 1st November, 1945, to 
consider the creation of an Educational and a Cul- 
tural Organisation of the United Nations in ac- 
cordance with Article 57 of the Charter of the 
United Nations. 

2. In so acting on behalf of the Conference of 
Allied Ministers of Education, His Majesty's Gov- 
ernment are gratified to know that they are also 
contributing to the practical realisation of a proj- 
ect for a United Nations Organisation in the field 
of education and culture proposed at the initiative 
of the French Government at the Conference at 
San Francisco, where it received unanimous ap- 
proval. 

3. The French Government having been ap- 
prised of the intention of His Majesty's Govern- 
ment to despatch the present invitation have fully 
agreed to be specially associated with His Maj- 
esty's Government as the inviting power. 

4. Accordingly, I have the honour in agreement 
with the French Government to invite the Govern- 
ment of the United States to be represented at the 
above-mentioned Conference by a duly accredited 
delegate (who might be accompanied by alternates 
or advisers). 

5. Ten copies of a draft constitution, as sub- 
mitted to, and adopted as the basis of discussion 
by, the Conference of Allied Ministers, are at- 
tached, together with two copies of an explanatory 
document^ prepared by the Conference and two 
copies of the preliminary agenda of the Confer- 
ence.^ In the event of the acceptance of this invi- 
tation by the United States Government, further 



material relating to the Conference will be for- 
warded in due course. 

6. Versions of all these documents in the French 
language will be sent at a later date. 

7. I am further to suggest that, if possible, any 
observations upon or amendments to the draft con- 
stitution should be forwarded so as to reach His 
Majesty's Government on or before the 1st October. 

8. The Conference agi'eed tliat the date of publi- 
cation of the Draft Constitution should be the 1st 
August 1945. 

I have [etc.] 

(For the Secretary of State) 
Alexander Cadogan 



DATE FOR CONVENING OF CONFERENCE 

[Released to the press October 15] 

The British Government has informed the De- 
partment of State that the Educational and Cul- 
tural Conference of the United Nations Organiza- 
tion will convene as scheduled in London on No- 
vember 1, 1945. The Department of State has been 
advised by the host Government, Great Britain, 
that about 30 nations have accepted invitations to 
send delegates to London. The State Department 
expects to make public the names of the members 
and advisers of the United States Delegation 
within a few days. It is planned to have the 
United States Delegation meet in Washington for 
consultation on October 25. The Delegation will 
leave for London by boat and plane on October 27. 



UNITED STATES DELEGATION 

[Released to the press October 19] 

The Assistant Secretary of State, the Hon. Wil- 
liam Benton, announced on October 19 the com- 
position of the United States Delegation to the con- 
ference to consider the creation of an Educational 



' For text of the draft constitution and an interpretation 
gee Bulletin of Aug. 5, 1945, p. 165. 
' Not printed. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



625 



and Cultural Organization of the United Nations, 
which is scheduled to convene at London on No- 
vember 1, 1945. Mr. Benton stated that while he 
is listed as a member of the Delegation it will not 
be possible for him to be in London at the opening 
of the conference because of the necessity that he 
appear before various hearings of congi-essional 
committees. Mr. Benton will leave for London as 
soon as possible. 

The purpose of the meeting is to formulate the 
final constitution of the proposed Educational, 
Scientific, and Cultural Organization of the 
United Nations. Tliis Organization will work 
toward the United Nations' objective of develop- 
ing friendly relations among nations and achiev- 
ing international cooperation in solving interna- 
tional problems of a social, cultural, or scientific 
character. 

The conference will attempt to organize and 
continue the work begun by the Conference of 
Allied Ministers of Education. At meetings of 
this group held in London in April 1944, a tenta- 
tive draft constitution was drawn up for a perma- 
nent Organization. A later document prepared 
by the Department of State, as revised by the Lon- 
don Conference of Allied Ministers of Education, 
will serve as a basis for discussion in the formula- 
tion of the definitive constitution. Since the meet- 
ing of the Allied Ministers referred to above, the 
United States has maintained a representative in 
London, Dr. Grayson Kefauver, on the work of the 
Conference. 

The membership of the Delegation is as follows : 

Delegates: 

Akchibaxd MaoLeish, Chairman of the Delegation. 

William Benton, Assistant Secretary of State. 

Abthub H. Compton, Chancellor, Washington University, 
St. Louis, Mo. (serving until Nov. 13) ; and Haklow 
Shaplet, Director, Harvard College Observatory, 
Cambridge, Mass. (serving commencing Nov. 10), 
neither one of whom can serve throughout the 
conference and will therefore jointly serve as one 
delegate. 

Chestee E. Merkow, House of Representatives, Commit- 
tee on Foreign Affairs. 

James E. Mubray, United States Senate, Chairman, 
Committee on Education and Labor. 

Geobge Stoddaed, President, University of Illinois. 

Miss C. MiLDEEa) Thompson, Dean, Vassar College. 

Advisers: 

Miss HAEBiETr W. Elliott, Dean of Women, Women's 
College, University of North Carolina. 



Herbert Emmerich, Director, Public Administration 

Clearing House, Chicago. 
Lttther H. Evans, Librarian of Congress. 
Geayson N. Kei'auver, Consultant, Department of State ; 

and United States Delegate to the Conference of 

Allied Ministers of Education. 
Waldo Leland, Director, American Council of Learned 

Societies. 
Alexander Meiklejohn, former President, Amherst 

College. 
Frank Leslie Schlagle, President, National Education 

Association ; and Superintendent of Schools, Kansas 

City, Kans. 
Gb»rge Schuster, President, Hunter College, New York. 

As in the case of Mr. Benton, Commissioner of 
Education John W. Studebaker will not be able 
to get away from Washington to leave with the 
Delegation, but the Commissioner hopes to leave 
for London to join the conference for the last ten 
days or two weeks and at that time will join the 
Delegation as an adviser. 

Secretary General: 

Warren Kelchnbs, Chief, Division of International 
Conferences, Department of State. 

Technical Secretary: 
Bbtn J. Hovde, Consultant, OflSce of International In- 
formation and Cultural Affairs, Department of 
State. 

Technical Experts: 

Harold Benjamin, United States Office of Education, 

Esther C. BBUNAtrEE, Assistant on International Or- 
ganization, Division of International Organization 
Affairs, Department of State. 

George Kennetth Holland, President, Inter- American 
Education Foundation. 

Walter Kotschnig, Division of International Organiza- 
tion, Department of State. 

Richard Pattee, National Catholic Welfare Conference. 

Donald Stone and/or Eric Biddlb, who will be in Lon- 
don on Bureau of the Budget business, and will be 
available. 

Charles A. Thomson, Adviser, Office of International 
Information and Cultural Affairs, Department of 
State. 

Secretaries of Delegation: 

Eugene N. Anderson, Assistant Chief in charge of the 
European Branch, Division of Cultural Cooperation, 
Department of State. 

Donald B. Eddt, Divisional Assistant, Division of In- 
ternational Conferences, Department of State. 

Richard A. Johnson, Third Secretary, American Em- 
bassy, London. 

Assistant Secretaries: 

Herbert J. Abraham, Department of State. 
Mart French, Department of State. 



626 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Preparatory Commission 
Of the United Nations 



Preparatory Commission and the first part of the 
First Session of the General Assembly should be 
on a temporary basis. 



ARRANGEMENTS FOR TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL 

[Released to the press by the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations October 6] 

The Executive Committee, which met under the 
chairmanship of Professor Webster (United King- 
dom) at Churcli House, Westminster, today, 
October 6, considered the report of a subcommittee 
recommending certain interim arrangements that 
are required pending the establishment of the 
Trusteeship Council. After some discussion the 
proposal for the creation by the General Assembly 
of a temporary Trusteeship Committee was ap- 
proved. The temporary Trusteeship Committee 
would have to carry out certain of the functions 
assigned in the Charter to the Trusteeship Council. 



DISCUSSION ON ORGANIZATION 
OF INFORMATION SERVICES 

[Released to the press by the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations October 6] 

The Committee then discussed the organization 
of the information services of the Preparatory 
Commission and the first session of the General 
Assembly. It was agreed that the information 
services should be such as to enable the press and 
other media of information to provide the public 
with full, rapid, and accurate information. In 
order to carry out this principle it was proposed 
that all plenary meetings should be open to the 
press; meetings of the committees should gen- 
erally also be open to the press, with closed ses- 
sions of the committees being the exception, not 
the rule; meetings of the subcommittees should 
ordinarily be closed to the press, but information 
about their proceedings should be provided to the 
press promptly after each sitting. 

The stuff of the information service should be 
increased and adequate facilities insured so as to 
meet the special needs of duly accredited repre- 
sentatives of the press, radio, newsreels, and still 
pictures and to provide for direct liaison with in- 
terested private groups and organizations repre- 
sentative of the general public. It was recom- 
mended that the information services of the 



Ratification of the Charter of 
the United Nations 

Instruments of ratification of the Charter of the 
United Nations have been deposited with the De- 
partment of State within the last four days by the 
following nations : 

[Released to the press October 15] 

Lebanon 

Charles Malik, INIinister of Lebanon, deposited 
witii the Department of State on October 15 the 
Lebanese instrument of ratification of the Charter 
of the United Nations. 

Cuba 

Guillermo Belt, Ambassador of Cuba, deposited 
on October 15 the Cuban instrument of ratification 
of the Charter. 

[Released to the press October 20] 

Iran 

Dr. A. A. Daftary, Charge d'Affaires ad interim 
of Iran, deposited the instrument of ratification of 
the Charter by his Government on October 16. 

Luxembourg 

The Hon. Hugues Le Gallais, Minister of Lux- 
embourg, on October 17 deposited his Govern- 
ment's instrument of ratification of the Charter. 

Saudi Arabia 

The instrument of ratification of the Charter 
by the Government of Saudi Arabia was received 
by the Department of State from the American 
Legation in Jidda and was deposited on October 18. 

Czechoslovakia 

His Excellency Vladimir Hurban, Ambassador 
of Czechoslovakia, on October 19 deposited the 
Czechoslovak instrument of ratification of the 
Charter. 

Yugoslavia 

Dr. Sergije Makiedo, Charge d'Affaires ad 
interim of Yugoslavia, on October 19 deposited the 
instrument of ratification of the Charter by Yugo- 
slavia. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 

Syria 

The Hon. Dr. Nazem al-Koudsi, Minister of 
Syria, deposited the Syrian instrument of ratifica- 
tion of the Charter on October 19. 

Great Britain and Northern Ireland 

His Excellency the Eight Honorable the Earl 
of Halifax, Ambassador of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, deposited 
with the Department of State on October 20 his 
Government's instrument of ratification of the 
Charter of the United Nations. 



Article 110 of the Charter provides that it shall 
come into force upon deposit of ratifications by 
the Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Eepublics, the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United 
States of America and by a majority of the other 
signatory states. To date the following govern- 
ments have deposited instruments of ratification 
of the Charter with the Government of the United 
States : 

United States of America on August 8 
France on August 31 
Dominican Republic on September 4 
Nicaragua on September 6 
• New Zealand on September 19 
Brazil on September 21 
Argentina on September 24 
El Salvador on September 26 
Haiti on September 27 
China on September 28 
Turkey on September 28 
Denmark on October 9 
Philippines on October 11 
Chile on October 11 
Paraguay on October 12 
Lebanon on October 15 
Cuba on October 15 

As of October 20, the following additional gov- 
ernments had deposited their instruments of 
ratification : 

Iran on October 16 
Luxembourg on October 17 
Saudi Arabia on October 18 
Czechoslovakia on October 19 
Yugoslavia on October 19 
Syria on October 19 

Great Britain and Northern Ireland on 
October 20 



627 

Signing by Poland of the 
Charter of the United Nations 

[Released to the press October 15] 

Wlien the Charter of the United Nations was 
signed at San Francisco on June 26, 1945, a place 
was left open in that document for Poland to sign, 
pursuant to a unanimous agreement by the Steer- 
ing Committee of the United Nations Conference 
on International Organization reached on June 23, 
1945. Wincenty Rzymowski, the Foreign Minis- 
ter of the Polish Provisional Government, who 
came to Washington for this purpose, on October 
15 signed the Charter on behalf of Poland, thus 
completing the roster of original members of the 
Organization. Mr. Rzymowski also signed the 
Interim Ai'rangements agreement. 



Study on Developments in 
Scandinavian Pulp and 
Paper Industries 

[Released to the press by the Department of State "and the 
Department of Commerce October 19] 

Appointment of Edwin G. Jahn, a native of 
Oneonta, New York, to the Auxiliary Foreign 
Service of the United States to study develop- 
ments in the pulp and paper industries of Norway, 
Sweden, and Finland was announced jointly on 
October 19 by the Departments of State and 
Commerce. 

Mr. Jahn, who was appointed to the State De- 
partment post upon the recommendation of the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, De- 
partment of Commerce, will report currently upon 
wartime and immediate post-war commercial and 
economic developments in the pulp and paper in- 
dustries and export trade of the three countries, 
which he will survey for about one year. 

Under the existing program of cooperation 
between the Departments of State and Commerce 
in matters of international commercial relations, 
these reports will be made available to interested 
American businessmen and industry groups 
through the facilities of the Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce. 

Before the war these three countries ranked 



628 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



among the largest exporters of wood pulp and 
pajser and supplied the United States with about 
one third of the wood pulp consumed domestically. 
Pulj) and i^aper ranks as an important commodity 
in international trade, and it is necessary that the 
palmer industry of the United States be kept in- 
formed of developments abroad whicli affect both 
the imports of essential raw materials and export 
sales of pulp and paper manufactures. 

Mr. Jahn was selected for this post because of 
his long association with both the academic and 
commercial phases of the wood-pulp and paper 
industries and his familiarity with the area to 
which he is going, the State and Commerce De- 
partments reported. 



UNRRA Mission To Gather 
Information on Displaced 
Persons in the Far East 

[Released to the press by UNRRA October 17] 

A special UNRKA mission left Washington on 
October 16 to gather information concerning the 
number and location of displaced persons of 
United Nations nationality in Far Eastern coun- 
tries whose care and eventual repatriation may 
become an UNRRA responsibility. The four-man 
mission, headed by Pierce Williams of San Fran- 
cisco, will conduct investigations in China and 
other countries of the Far East. 

Experts know that the displaced-persons prob- 
lem which confronted the United Nations after 
the end of hostilities in Asia differs from the prob- 
lem in Euroi>e. Accurate information has not been 
available. Little is known of the number of state- 
less persons in the Far East or the difficulties in- 
volved in their care and final disposition. The 
UNRRA mission will ascertain the facts on the 
scope of the problems and recommend required 
action to headquarters in Washington. Civil and 
military authorities will be the principal sources 
of information. 

Serving with Mr. Williams on the special mis- 
sion are David R. Trevithick of Ogden, Utah, 
Denzil H. Clarke of London, England, and Casmir 
A. Soorma of Burma. Mr. Williams, who has 



recently returned from Europe, where he assisted 
in preparatory work for the UNRRA displaced- 
persons operation in Germany, has been Director 
of the National Bureau of Economic Research, a 
member of the staff of the National Resources 
Planning Board, and Regional Director for the 
Far East for the Federal Works Agency. Before 
joining UNRRA in 194:4, he Avas Chief of the 
Noi'th African Mission of the Board of Economic 
Warfai'e. 

Mr. Trevithick during 1944 was the UNRRA 
representative for displaced persons on the 
SHAEF mission to Belgium and in 1945 a mem- 
ber of a special displaced-persons mission sent by 
UNRRA to Greece. From 1935 to 1943 he was 
Director of Public Welfare for the State of Utah. 

Mr. Clarke has served for many years in the 
British consular service in China. Caught in 
Shanghai at the beginning of hostilities in 1941, 
he was interned by the Japanese, being exchanged 
in 1942. 

Smce 1944 Mr. Soorma has been a specialist 
on displaced-persons problems in the UNRRA 
office at Sydney. A distinguished Burmese law- 
yer, he brings to his present assignment an inti- 
mate knowledge of population problems of the 
Far East. 

While the mission will be concerned with dis- 
placed persons throughout the Far East, its work 
will begin in China. 



Conversations on Air 
Agreement With Mexico 

[Released to the press October 20] 

The initial conversations between the United 
States and Mexican officials on the proposed bi- 
lateral civil air-transport agreement have been 
completed. Further conversations will be held at 
a later date. 

Agreement was reached upon the fundamental 
basis of an air-transport agreement which follows 
substantially the standard form of agreement 
agreed upon at the Chicago conference of 1944. 
Final agreement has not yet been reached upon the 
routes to be operated between the United States 
and Mexico by United States and Mexican air car- 
riers. It is expected that complete agreement will 
soon be reached during further conversations. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



629 



Is UNRRA Doing Its Job? 



PARTICIPANTS 

William L. Clayton 

Assistant Secretary of State for Economic 
Affairs and United States Delegate to 
the UNRRA Council 

Herbert Lehman 

Director General, United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration 

Sterling Fisher 

Director, NBC University of the Air 



the headlines from 



[Released to the press October 20] 

Announcer : Here are 
Washington : 

Director General Lehman Says Additional Funds 
for UNRRA Are Essential if Starvation and 
Chaos Are To Be Avoided in Europe and Asia, 
and if New Obligations to Italy, Austria, and 
Far East Are To Be Met. 
Assistant Secretary of State Clayton States There 
Is No Alternative to UNRRA as an Agency To 
Relieve Suffering in Coming Winter : Says That 
UNRRA Should Get Top Priority on Funds and 
Facilities for Its Work. 

Announcer : This is the thirty-sixth in a series 
of programs entitled "Our Foreign Policy," fea- 
turing authoritative statements on international 
affairs by Govermnent officials and members of 
Congress. This series is produced by NBC's Uni- 
versity of the Air not only for listeners in this 
country but for our service men and women over- 
seas, wherever they ai-e stationed, through the 
facilities of the Armed Forces Radio Service. 
Printed copies of these important discussions are 
also available. Listen to the closing announce- 
ment for instructions on how to obtain them. 

This time we present the second of our limited 
series of broadcasts on international organizations. 
The subject: "Is UNRRA Doing Its Job?" We 
have invited Mr. Herbert Leliman, Director Gen- 
eral of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion Administration, and Assistant Secretary of 
State William L. Clayton, U.S. Delegate to the 
UNRRA Council, to discuss the international re- 



lief agency and the coming winter crisis in the 
war-ravaged countries of Europe and Asia. Mr. 
Lehman and Mr. Clayton will be interviewed by 
Sterling Fisher, Director of NBC's University of 
the Air. Mr. Fisher — 

Fisher : Almost two years ago, representatives 
of the then 44 United Nations met in Washington 
to sign the agi'eement which created the United 
Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion — or UNRRA, as everyone calls it. This was 
the first United Nations agency to start actual 
operations. Its success or failure will therefore 
have a great effect on public confidence in other 
United Nations organizations. Now, from the be- 
ginning UNRRA has been something of a storm 
center because of the difficulties it has encoimtered 
in doing its job. Mr. Lehman, can you tell us 
something about the magnitude of that job? 

Lehman : Well, Mr. Fisher, the world is facing 
the toughest winter in its history. In Europe 
alone, 180,000,000 people are on the borderline of 
starvation. Our job is to keep as many people 
alive as we can — it's not as simple as that. It's a 
race against time, to save hundreds of thousands of 
people from starvation and plague. 

Fisher : Mr. Clayton, you attended the London 
conference of the UNRRA Council as the United 
States Delegate not long ago. Wliat did that con- 
ference accomplish toward meeting the needs of 
the world's hungry people? 

Clayton: Actually, the situation is more des- 
perate now than it was before that conference, 
because the need for UNRRA assistance has in- 
creased faster than we could meet that need. We 
took on new responsibilities at the London UNRRA 
meeting. Not only has the end of the war in the 
Far East dumped a huge problem in our lap, but 
we have had to accept new responsibility for aiding 
Italy, Austria, Korea, and Formosa. 

Lehman : Just compare the devastation in this 
war with World War I, Mr. Fisher, and you'll see 
how much greater our job is. 

Fisher: In the number of countries, do you 
mean. Governor Lehman ? 



630 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Lehman : Yes. and in extent of devastation. 
Since 1939 the Axis has overrun oi't countries in 
Euroije and Asia. And the military campaigns 
•were fought over an area hundreds of times as 
large as that of Worhl War I. 

Clayton : And with nuicli more destructive 
weapons. 

Lehman : In World War I, for example. China. 
Holland, Italy. Norway, and Greece and numer- 
ous other nations were not invaded. Our task is 
many times as great as after the last war. 

Fisher : Well, this time we have an international 
agency to deal with these problems. 

Lehman : Yes, but so far UNRRA actually has 
been given far less funds than the amount spent 
by tlie United States alone after World War I, 
although the need is much greater today. The 
United States spent between two and three billion 
dollars then; but the total allocated for UNRRA 
by (dl nations to date is less than two billion, in 
cash and in supplies. 

Clayton : That will not be enough. Unless the 
countries of the United Nations give UNRRA the 
new contributions we asked for at London — an 
additional $1,800,000,000— UNRRA will have to 
liquidate with the minimum job only half com- 
pleted. 

Fisher : You mean, Mr. Clayton, it will actually 
have to go out of business? 

Clayton: Yes, that's just what I mean, Mr. 
Fisher. And soon, too. Probably by the end of 
this year UNRRA won't be able to purchase any 
more relief supplies. And that would be a major 
tragedy, coming at the beginning of a winter as 
grim as this one will be. 

Fisher : Does that mean. Governor Lehman, that 
you have already spent the original $1,800,000,000 ? 

Lehman: No, not all of that is available yet. 
Practically every penny of our funds, however, 
that is available— about $1,300,000,000 from all 
countries — has been either spent or committed on 
orders for relief goods and services, so that we 
can't obtain another thing unless we have more 
funds. 

Clayton : As you say, Governor, UNRRA still 
has funds coming under the original arrangement. 
The Congress last year authorfzed the first U.S. 
contribution— $1,350,000,000— but it has thus far 
appropriated only $800,000,000. We still have to 
appropriate $550,000,000 of our original pledge. 
That request is before the Congress at the moment. 



Fisher : I shouldn't think there would be much 
doubt of that being done. 

Clayton : No, I don't think there is. That's a 
definite obligation. Congress has already author- 
ized it. But it's also up to us to lead the way in 
granting that entirely new additional contribution 
to UNRRA, in an amount as large as the original 
authorization. All UNRRA can do from here 
on in, unless those funds are forthcoming, is to 
deliver the goods that have been ordered — and that 
won't be enough to see our present program, inade- 
quate as it is, even half way through the wintei-. 

Lehman : You see, Mr. Fisher, we can't operate 
like a housewife, who can go down to the corner 
grocery, buy what she needs, and take it home with 
her. We have to order in advance. If we need 
trucks or freight cars or even medical supplies, 
we have to place our order weeks or months in 
advance. That's why we need these funds immedi- 
ately — otherwise there will be a gap in our deliv- 
eries. 

Clayton : The need is all the more urgent be- 
cause the Army has already withdrawn from relief 
operations in Europe except in Germany and Aus- 
tria — to say nothing of the Far East, where it 
never even attempted a civilian-relief program. 
After all, UNRRA is responsible for relief to 
most of the battle-scarred world, except western 
Europe. 

Fisher: Mr. Clayton, suppose the funds 
UNRRA is asking for aren't forthcoming; what 
will happen ? 

Clayton : If they aren't forthcoming, you'll 
see starvation and suffering worse than anything 
that happened to civilians during the war. There 
is no other means of getting food to the people 
who have to go through this winter, and seeds, 
fertilizer, and agricultural equipment so they can 
start producing their own food again next year. 
And they must have medical supplies to ward off 
typhus, cholera, and other diseases. UNRRA is 
their only hope. 

Lehman: If we tried to set up and staff a 
new American relief agency, the winter would be 
over before we could get it under way. The real 
alternative to an expanded UNRRA program is 
agony, unrest, and chaos. Democracy would be 
hard put to survive in a great part of the world. 

Clayton : Yes, that's right. Governor, and we 
can't afford to let it come to that. After the lives 
and the money we have spent winning this war, 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



631 



we've got to see the thing through this final winter. 
Otherwise the people in the wake of the war will 
be so embittered that anything could happen. 

Fisher: Mr. Clayton, why aren't these people 
able to help themselves by this time? After all, 
in Europe the war has been over since last May. 

Clayton : Well, for one thing the actual fight- 
ing swept over such large areas that plantings 
this year were far below normal. Whole villages 
had to evacuate the war zones in many areas — or 
their men were taken off to do slave labor in Ger- 
many, and couldn't get back in time to plant their 
crops. Then, too, not many people had seed left 
to plant. And there is almost no fertilizer and 
very few farm tools. On top of that, there have 
been crop failures this year in much of eastern 
and southern Europe — the area where UNRRA 
has been most active. 

Lehman : Take Yugoslavia, for example. The 
grain crop is only 50 percent of normal this year. 
And don't forget that transportation has broken 
down almost completely in the war zones of both 
Europe and Asia. Many tens of thousands will be 
completely homeless this winter. Bridges are 
down, canals are blocked, the railroads are in a 
perfect mess. We've had to furnish our own 
trucks in Greece and elsewhere, to get food to the 
people. 

Fisher : You've made a good case for the need 
for UNRRA, Mr. Lehman. But the central ques- 
tion in this discussion is, What is UNRRA doing 
to meet that need? Is UNRRA doing its job? 
Or more specifically, just what has UNRRA 
accomplished ? 

Lehman: Well, I think we've been doing a 
pretty good job. By the end of this month we 
will have provided over 2,500,000 tons of relief 
supplies. 

Fisher: That's a lot of tonnage. It would 
take — let's see — more than 300 Liberty ships to 
carry that much. 

Lehman : We're shipping the equivalent of at 
least 50 shiploads a month now. With the end of 
the war in Europe, a lot more shipping space has 
become available, and that, of course, has helped. 

Fisher: That certainly contrasts sharply with 
what you were doing early this year. As I recall 
it, you had shipped very little until this spring. 
In fact, some people were saying at that time that 
UNRRA was a failure — that it had operated for 
one whole year without accomplishing much of 
anything. 



Lehman: We had to have supplies and ships 
before we could begin our work, Mr. Fisher. But 
the supplies and ships we needed then had to be 
used to win the war. Then, too, we had a tough 
job recruiting a staff, to begin with. And we had 
to lay out a plan of operations. 

Clayton: And don't forget, the war agencies 
had first call on personnel and materials and ships, 
of course. But now that the war is over, I believe 
UNRRA should have top priority, on men and 
goods and transportation. 

Lehman : We've been able to get a great many 
of the people we needed, and a fair amount of 
shipping, since V-E Day. I want to make one 
point here, though, Mr. Fisher. You mentioned 
the criticism of our early operations. We did 
encounter some serious delays — but I want to point 
out that UNRRA was on the job in every country 
eligible for its help within a few weeks after such 
counti-y had been liberated. 

Fisher : And where is it operating today, Mr. 
Lehman ? 

Lehman: In Greece, Yugoslavia, Poland, 
Czechoslovakia, Italy, Albania, and China. We 
are increasing our aid to China and expect to give 
help to other liberated countries of Asia very soon. 

Fisher : You didn't mention the western Euro- 
pean countries. Governor. Some of them are 
pretty badly off, too. 

Lehman: Yes, in my opinion it is just as im- 
portant to stop suffering there as in eastern 
Europe. But that will have to be done mainly 
through regular governmental supply channels. 
UNRRA's charter specifies that it can help only 
those countries that do not have enough foreign 
exchange — that is, dollars or other foreign 
funds — to pay for essential imports. France, 
Belgium, the Netherlands, and other western 
European countries have sufficient foreign ex- 
change or credit resources to finance these pur- 
chases, while the eastern and southern European 
countries do not have them. 

Fisher: Mr. Clayton, I'd like to have your 
evaluation of how UNRRA has been doing its job 
in these various countries. 

Clayton : Well, Mr. Fisher, I suppose Greece is 
the outstanding example thus far. Greece was 
faced with mass starvation. Fortunately, it was 
accessible by sea, and we were able to get in there 
pretty quickly, in time to save literally thousands 
of lives. UNRRA did a great job there. It has 



632 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



already sent close to $200,000,000 worth of sup- 
lilies to Greece. 

Fisher: There was some criticism, Mr. Secre- 
tary, of the way UNRRA was handled in Greece, 
at least in the beginning. There were charges 
that it was used by the British for political 
purposes. 

Clayton: During the first few weeks it was a 
pretty tangled political situation. But UNRRA 
is definitely non-political, and the distribution of 
relief supplies was handled impartially — under an 
American director, incidentally. 

Fisher: Mr. Lehman, what about the charge 
that UNRRA has been used by the governments 
of the countries where it operates to bolster their 
own political prestige? 

Lehmax : Well, the government of each coun- 
try naturally handles its own distribution of 
UNRRA goods. That provision was placed in 
the charter because it was felt that politics would 
be reduced to a minimum that way, and relief 
could not be used as a wedge by any outsiders. 
But we do send in observers, who check on the 
distribution of supplies in the countries receiving 
aid, to see that there is no discrimination on ac- 
count of race, creed, or political belief. 

Fisher : The physical problem of getting sup- 
plies into some of the central European countries 
must have been pretty great. Poland and Czecho- 
slovakia, for example. 

Lehman : Yes, we've only been able to get into 
Poland through Danzig for the past few weeks. 
And we've just begun to use the port of Bremen 
for shipments to Czechoslovakia. 

Clayton : Before that, they had to go in by a 
very round-about route, through the port of Con- 
stanza, in the Black Sea. But despite that fact, 
UNRRA has shipped close to $80,000,000 worth 
of goods into Czechoslovakia, and $90,000,000 
worth into Poland. 

Lehman : Of course, Yugoslavia was also hard 
to reach because of the lack of port facilities. 
But in spite of that, we have sent about $150,000,- 
000 in supplies to the Yugoslavs. 

Fisher : Wliat about the Italian program, Mr. 
Clayton ? I think many people wonder why Italy 
would be eligible for UNRRA assistance, as a 
former enemy country. 

Clayton: I'm glad you mentioned Italy. An 
exception was originally made for Italy, at the 
suggestion of President Roosevelt, who acted on 



rejjorts of wide-spread malnutrition and near 
starvation. By action of the UNRRA Council 
a year ago, help has thus far been limited to 
children, the indigent, and nursing or expectant 
mothers, and less than $25,000,000 in supplies 
have been sent to Italy. About 800,000 Italian 
mothers and children are being partially fed by 
UNRRA. At the London UNRRA Council 
meeting in August, the member nations agreed 
that UNRRA should assume the complete respon- 
sibility for relief in Italy. This program can- 
not begin, however, until the new contribution 
is made since the cost is estimated at between 
$400,000,000 and $500,000,000. 

Lehman: Mt. Fisher, I think we should also 
mention UNRRA's aid to the millions of displaced 
persons in Europe. 

Fisher : Can you give us the current status of 
that program. Governor Lehman ? 

Lehman : "Well, when Germany was first liber- 
ated more than 6,000,000 displaced persons were 
found. The Army started sending them home very 
rapidly, and now UNRRA has taken over the 
administration of the camps where the unre- 
patriated are gathered. There are about 450 such 
installations for the DP's— displaced persons — 
with more than 3,300 UNRRA workers supervising 
or operating them, under the over-all direction of 
the military. 

Fisher: How many of these displaced persons 
are left out of the original 6,500,000 ? 

Lehman: Only about 1,300,000, Mr. Fisher. 
And we expect most of them to be home before 
next spring. 

Clayton : Except, of course, about a quarter of 
a million non-repatriable "stateless persons" — that 
is, those who can't or don't wish to return to their 
home countries. A large number of these are 
Jews. 

Fisher: Will UNRRA continue to care for 
them, Mr. Clayton ? 

Clayton: Only for a few months, until their 
status is determined and some provision made for 
them. After all, UNRRA is only a temporary 
relief agency. 

Fisher : But now, Mr. Secretary, about the job 
that still remains to be done : Can you break that 
down for us? I have read that the Soviet Union 
asked for $700,000,000 worth of UNRRA aid. 

Clayton: Yes, that was the original request, 
Mr. Fisher. But it has since been revised to $250,- 
000,000. And it's to be limited to the White Rus- 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



633 



sian and the Ukrainian Republics, which were 
comisletely overrun by the Nazis. The destruction 
there was something terrible. 

Fisher: But, since a great part of the Soviet 
Union was not invaded, couldn't she take care of 
the victims in her invaded areas ? 

Claytox: We are convinced that the Russians 
have all they can do to rehabilitate the rest of the 
country. As you know, the Russian territory that 
was invaded by the Germans pi'oduced a great part 
of the country's food and other supplies. And 
those areas were twice laid waste : once by the ad- 
vance of the Germans, and again as the enemy was 
driven out by the Russian forces. 
[' Lehman : There's no question, Mr. Fisher, but 
that the Wliite Russian and Ukrainian Republics 
are in such economic chaos that they must have 
help this winter. We are now discussing agree- 
ments with them. 

Fisher: But doesn't the Soviet Union have 
enough foreign exchange — that is, foreign money 
— to pay for that help? 

Clayton: The Soviet Union has foreign pur- 
chasing power in the form of credit and gold, but 
she will need every bit of it to meet her other needs. 
UNRRA's purpose is to enable the countries which 
ai"e victims of the Nazis to meet their relief needs 
without making them economically prostrate. 

Fisher : And how about China, Governor Leh- 
man? I think you mentioned that some help was 
already being sent out there. 

Lehman : Before the war ended we had flown 
a few tons of supplies into China over the hump. 
But now that the ports are open we have already 
sent the first shiploads of relief goods. Our plans 
call for a program of between $600,000,000 and 
$700,000,000 in assistance to China. The Chinese 
are supplying more than twice that much them- 
selves. And that's all their resources will allow. 

Clayton: Over half of China — in terms of 
population — has been occupied by the Japanese, 
most of it since 1937. Those people in former oc- 
cupied areas badly need clothing. Millions of 
them have little or no clothing for the coming 
winter. We're sending them 8,000,000 to 10,000,- 
000 pounds of the used clothing from last spring's 
drive. 

Lehman : They are also in particular need of 
trucks, locomotives, and transportation facilities 
in general, so that food and clothing and medical 
supplies can be sent where they are needed. 

Fisher: To what extent, Mr. Lehman, is 



UNRRA drawing on Army surpluses for trucks 
and supplies? 

Lehman : We're drawing on them to the fullest 
extent possible. We're buying Army trucks and 
surplus stocks wherever we can. Some 40,000 
Army trucks are to be sold to UNRRA from Army 
surplus in Europe alone. We also hope to get 
canned meats, evaporated milk, lard, margarine, 
soap, blankets, clothing, and medical supplies from 
Army surpluses. In the Far East we are now 
negotiating for large stores of surplus goods. 
Purchases out there will save a lot of transporta- 
tion expense. 

Fisher : But I suppose, Mr. Lehman, that this 
whole part of the world — the Far East — will be 
largely left out of the relief picture if the addi- 
tional funds aren't granted. 

Lehman: That's right, Mr. Fisher, and that 
would be most unfair and most unfortunate. But 
I believe the funds we need will be granted. If 
the United States leads the way, there's not a 
doubt that other countries will follow suit. And, 
after all, this country was spending $2,000,000,000 
a week to win the war, not so long ago. I believe 
the people will gladly contribute less than one 
week of such expenditures to help win the peace 
this winter. 

Fisher : I don't think there's much doubt that 
the American people are willing to help, Governor 
Lehman. The public-opinion polls show that we 
are willing to continue rationing, if necessary, to 
keep the people of war-torn countries from starv- 
ing. But there are a niunber of criticisms of 
UNRRA which should be answered, if continued 
American support is to be assured. 

Lehman : Well, I think I've heard about all of 
them, Mr. Fisher. But fire away, and I'll be glad 
to give you the answers, as best I can. 

Fisher : Let's start with one that's beginning to 
be bruited about in former isolationist circles. Is 
the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration — UNRRA — taking food from Amer- 
ican homes ? 

Lehman: Not at all. The food asked by 
UNRRA of the United States, Mr. Fisher, amounts 
to about 1 percent — one one-hundredth — of our 
annual food consumption. We asked for one- 
sixtieth of America's meat production this year — 
but we got much less. 

Fisher: Nevertheless you might have trouble 
convincing Bill Johnson, of Albany, New York, 



634 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



say, that the butter shortage wasn't UNRRA's 
fault. 

Lehman : Well, I'd like to tell Bill Johnson this : 
We've been unable to buy butter, or fats, or meat, 
or even milk products in this country so far this 
year, in any quantity, because they have been so 
short. Our orders for American goods are placed 
through the Foreign Economic Administration, a 
Federal agency whose UNRRA functions among 
others are being transferred to the State Depart- 
ment. This agency actually allocates the export- 
able goods. We have practically begged it for 
some portion of America's supply of meat and 
fats, but thus far without success. No, the short- 
ages here in the United States — such as they are — 
can't be blamed on UNRRA. 

FisiiEK : Then there's the charge that the United 
States is supplying more than its proper share 
of UNRRA's funds. One rumor had it that we 
were supplying up to 90 percent of the costs of 
your program. 

Lehman : That's absurd, Mr. Fisher. You see, 
each member nation of UNRRA was asked to con- 
tribute 1 percent of its national income in 1943 — 
and for the United States that amounts to 
$1,350,000,000. That happens to amount to 71 per- 
cent of the total of UNRRA's resources. The fact 
that America's contribution was so large is a reflec- 
tion of our great wealth. 

Clayton : You have to remember, too, that 
those United Nations which bore the brunt of 
military invasion were exempted from making 
contributions to UNRRA. 

Fisher: How many does that leave, Mr. 
Clayton ? 

Clayton : Out of 47 members of UNRRA, only 
31 escaped invasion. Of these, 29 have made or 
authorized contributions, and the other two — both 
of them small countries — are in process of doing 
so right now. 

Lehman : I want to emphasize this : Many of 
these countries are very poor, and their small con- 
tributions represent a very real sacrifice — more of 
a sacrifice, relatively speaking, than ours. In dol- 
lars and cents, of course, we have done more — just 
as we paid more toward the winning of the war, 
because we had greater resources. But in relation 
to our income, we haven't done any more than 
Great Britain, Canada, Brazil, or many other 
countries. 

Fisher : Just how much have these other coun- 



tries contributed, Mr. Lehman — in terms of dollars, 
I mean? 

Lehman : Well, I'll tell you, the British contri- 
bution was equivalent to $320,000,000 — and in spite 
of devastation in England itself they have paid in 
full. So has Canada— her share was $80,000,000— 
and Australia and New Zealand. 

Clayton : Even India, which has its own 
famine problem, contributed $24,000,000. 

Lehman : And Brazil has actually gone over her 
pledge. She was to contribute $25,000.000 ; she has 
actually appropriated $30,000,000. 

Fisher: Do the various countries make their 
funds available in free funds? 

Lehman : No, oidy 10 percent of it is in cash, 
which UNRRA can use for procurement or admin- 
istrative expenses anywhere. The other 90 per- 
cent is really a domestic credit against which each 
country pays in the indigenous produce it can 
spare. 

Clayton: Canada supplies wheat and beef, 
Brazil, coffee, and so on. ^\Tieat, cotton, and sur- 
plus war supplies are our main contributions, be- 
cause we have such commodities in excess of our 
own needs. Since we convert our dollar appro- 
priations into sujiplies — trucks, grain, and so on — 
we are able to determine the exact form our 
contribution takes, in such a way as to help use 
up surpluses. 

Lehman : When Congress votes a credit for 
UNRRA. it is placed at the disposal of the Presi- 
dent, and he designates the agency that will allo- 
cate supplies up to the amount appropriated. 
Each country has a similar control. That's why 
we have difficulty buying goods that are short 
everywhere. 

Fisher: And how does UNRRA distribute its 
supplies, Mr. Lehman ? 

Lehman : Well, as I said, the government of 
each country receiving aid handles the physical 
job of distribution, in accordance with UNRRA's 
policies. But we send qualified observers into 
each country, to make sure that the goods are dis- 
tributed without discrimination, either for racial, 
religious, or political reasons. We have found 
a few cases of discrimination. But in every sin- 
gle instance, when the agreement was ratified the 
government of the country has stepped in and 
corrected the situation. 

Clayton : There's one other angle on this mat- 
ter of distribution that I think should be brought 
in, Governor — that's the sale of goods. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



635 



Lehman : Go ahead, Will — you tell how that's 
done. 

Clayton: Fart of the UNRRA supplies that 
go to each country are necessarily distributed as 
relief, but a substantial portion is sold through 
normal channels, to people who have local money, 
and the proceeds used by the Government to buy 
more relief supplies and services for free distri- 
bution. That increases the total amount of goods 
we can supply. 

Fisher: A sort of revolving fund, then. Can 
you give us an example of how it works? 

Clayton: Well, Mr. Fisher, suppose UNRRA 
sends a shiijment of wheat to Greece. The ship- 
ment may be sold to mills there. That enables 
them to start operating their flour mills and then 
supply the retailers. The money from the sale 
of the wheat is in turn used to buy other relief 
supplies produced within the country, and these 
are distributed free of charge to those Greek peo- 
ple who have no money with which to pay. 

Lehman : Some of the funds received from the 
sale of supplies are also used for the emi^loyment 
of people in the countries where we provide aid. 
We take only a small staff into each country and 
employ additional local people to help in the vari- 
ous activities which UNRRA carries on. 

Fisher : Sounds like a good arrangement. 
But I've heard charges that UNRRA goods have 
found their way into the black market when they 
were sold. What about that. Governor Lehman ? 

Lehman : In a few cases UNRRA goods may 
have gone astray, Mr. Fisher, but not excessively. 
Of course you have to recognize that price con- 
trols have broken down to a great extent in most 
of the countries where we are operating. With 
the supply of most goods running only about 10 
or 20 percent of the demand, a black market — or 
at least a "gi'ay" market — is almost inevitable. 
But the amount of our supplies that gets into these 
channels of distribution is a comparatively small 
percentage. 

Fisher : There's one other question that I hesi- 
tate to bring up, Mr. Lehman — and that's the 
charge of bad administration in UNRRA. I don't 
mean to put you on the spot, but it's a question that 
ought to be answered. 

Leh jiAN : That question doesn't bother me in the 
least, Mr. Fisher. I've had it thrown at me so often 
that I've come to expect it. Usually my first reac- 
tion is, if any other organization were in a posi- 



tion to handle this assignment I'd say "Go to it, 
and God help you!" 

Fisher: In other words, it's a pretty thankless 
job. 

Lehman: It's the toughest job I've ever had 
either in public or private life. Of course, we've 
made many mistakes, and we're the first to admit 
it. But so has every new, quickly organized agency 
as large as this one. The only way to avoid mak- 
ing mistakes is to do nothing and hang up a record 
of "No runs, no hits, no errors". But that's not 
the way we chose to operate. We have tried our 
best to get the goods to the people who need them — 
and we'll rest our case on what we have accom- 
plished in that direction. 

Clayton : We don't need to be on the defensive 
about UNRRA, Mr. Fisher, because it is really 
doing the job it was set up to do. 

Fisher: I don't mean to sound like a carping 
critic, Mr. Clayton, but the fact is, a lot has been 
said and written about UNRRA's alleged ineffi- 
ciency in the field. We have received quite a 
number of letters asking us to go into this matter. 

Clayton : We're glad to deal with it, Mr. Fisher. 
But the critics ought to realize one thing : UNRRA 
has been operating under a great number of 
handicaps. 

Fisher: You might name some of them, Mr. 
Secretary, to put this whole issue in perspective. 

Clayton : Well, first of all, as we mentioned a 
few minutes ago, UNRRA as a post-war relief 
agency had great difficulty in getting trained 
people while the war was on. 

Lehman: We were the "runt of the litter", so 
to speak. Not only on priorities for personnel, 
but for shipping and supplies as well. 

Clayton : Then there was the difficulty in plan- 
ning for relief, when most of the countries were 
in the war zone or behind enemy lines up to the 
very last minute before surrender. 

Lehman : Yes, for these strategic reasons, and 
because of political complications in eastern 
Europe, we were not always in a position to pro- 
vide aid right after liberation. For many months 
we didn't know, for example, whether a Polish 
government was going to be established. And 
since UNRRA has to operate through the various 
sovereign states, that held us up. 

Fisher : Once you got over these hurdles, 
though, Mr. Lehman, things went much faster. 

Lehman: As fast as we could make them go — 



636 

which usually meant as fast as we could find ships 
and trucks to deliver the goods. 

Clayton: UNREA has been damned for not 
doing enough, because it couldn't operate in west- 
ern Europe, or because it wasn't allowed to do 
I'econstruction work. Its charter provides only 
for relief and rehabilitation, but not for recon- 
struction. 

Lehman : And we've been damned by some for 
doing too much — even though we have never had 
the resources to do half the job that should be done. 
Fisher : Well, I can see why it's a tough assign- 
ment. 

Lehman : And it's not made any easier by the 
fact that we have 47 bosses — 47 nations. But that 
makes the job more interesting. 

Eisher: Another point that sometimes comes 
up is whether UNRRA is really run as an inter- 
national agency, or whether it's dominated by the 
Americans and the British. Aren't most of your 
employees here in Washington Americans ? 

Lehman: Yes, but that's inevitable. Most of 
our London employees are British. We have to 
take the best peoi^le we can get, wherever we are. 
But we do have 25 different nationalities repre- 
sented on our Washington staff; and there are 
over 30 on the London staff. 

Eisher : And how about your staffs in the field ? 
That's where a good deal of the criticism comes 
from — criticism by returning Congressmen and 
others. They claim the field organization isn't 
functioning very smoothly. 

Lehman: We pick nationals of the different 
countries for our field staffs so far as possible — 
people who know the language and the country. 
We give them the best training we can, but of 
course they're on their own for considerable pe- 
riods at times. Most of them have done their work 
pretty well; where they have failed, we have 
replaced them. 

Fisher: Well, it seems to come down to this: 
You have tackled a gigantic job, one which in- 
volves the very lives of hundreds of thousands of 
people. And you are getting the supplies out to 
them as fast as possible, considering the hand- 
icaps you've been working under. 

Clayton : And I think when the whole thing 
is over, Mr. Eisher, you'll find that UNRRA as 
the first international relief agency will have 
proven a success. The main thing now is that we 
must not desert UNRRA in the middle of that 



DEPARTMEIST OF STATE BULLETIN 

job. I believe America's conscience will prevent 
that from happening. 

Fisher: Well, thank you, Mr. Clayton, and 
thank you Mr. Lehman, for giving us this frank 
discussion of the work of the United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration. 

Announcer: That was Sterling Eisher, "Direc- 
tor of the NBC University of the Air. He has been 
interviewing Director General Herbert Lehman 
of UNRRA and Mr. William L. Clayton, Assist- 
ant Secretary of State for economic affairs, in the 
second of a limited series of programs on inter- 
national organizations. The discussion was 
adapted for radio by Selden Menefee. 

This was the thirty-sixth program in a series 
entitled "Our Foreign Policy," presented as a pub- 
lic service by the NBC University of the Air. You 
can obtain printed copies of these broadcasts at 
10 cents each in coin. If you would like to receive 
copies of 13 of the broadcasts, send $1 to cover the 
cost of printing and mailing. Special rates are 
available for large orders. Address your orders 
to the NBC University of the Air, Radio City, 
New York 20, New York. NBC also invites your 
questions and comments. 

Next week we shall present a special program 
entitled "Report from the Balkans", featuring 
members of a congressional committee which re- 
cently returned from Europe. Participants will 
include Representative Wickersham of Oklahoma, 
chairman of the committee, and Representative 
Horan of Washington. 

The following week we shall resume the limited 
series on international organizations with a short- 
wave broadcast from Paris, featuring members of 
the United States Delegation to the International 
Labor Conference. Following that program the 
series will move to London for broadcasts on the 
United Nations Educational and Cultural Confer- 
ence and other international organizations. 

Kennedy Ludlam speaking in Washington, D.C. 



^ THE FOREIGN SERVICE ^ 



Consular Offices 

The American Consulate General at Hong Kong, 
China, was reestablished on October 14, 1945. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



637 



Financial Arrangements Favorable 
to International Trade 



Remarks by CHARLES BUNN' 



[Released to the press October 17] 

I grew up in a railroad household and remember 
quite well that the most important single factor in 
the prosperity or otherwise of most American rail- 
roads is the volume of freight and passenger traf- 
fic. I assume the same thing is true of shipping. 
We are therefore talking today about cargoes. 

I propose, principally, to ask and illustrate two 
questions, the first of which is this : How are the 
foreign customers of American exporters and of 
American ship operators going to pay for the large 
volume of goods and services which we would like 
to sell them and which they would like to buy ? 

This was already a problem before the war, as 
you know. During the war two things have hap- 
pened which have made the problem much more 
serious. 

In the first place various foreign countries, and 
in particular Britain, have to a great extent liqui- 
dated the overseas investments the returns on 
which used to provide part of their foreign-ex- 
change requirements. In the second place, the 
United States has developed new lines of produc- 
tion during the war which seem almost certain to 
take the place to a substantial extent of things 
that we used to buy from abroad. It seems un- 
likely, for instance, that American factories and 
mills will ever buy as much natural rubber or raw 
sillv as they did before synthetic production on a 
large scale was developed in this country. 

The question therefore is : What new products 
and services and in what quantities will American 
businessmen purchase from the world in large 
enough volume to enable foreigners to make pay- 
ment in this country not only for the goods and 
services we hope to sell but also for the service on 
the loans which we shall certainly make within 
the next couple of years? 

Let me make one point which is perfectly clear 
to most of you, but it is frequently misunderstood. 
It is not necessary that the United States ever 
balance its accounts with each country separately; 
it is only necessary that we balance our accoimts 
with the rest of the world. 

The point is illustrated by a very familiar 



example — the old triangular trade between the 
United States, southeastern Asia, and Europe. In 
the old days the United States purchased very 
large quantities of rubber, tin, and some other 
materials from southeastern Asia. We sold some 
goods in that area, but they amounted to much less 
in dollars than what we purchased from it. Mer- 
chants in the rubber-producing countries pur- 
chased their foreign requirements largely in Brit- 
ain and Europe and made payment in part with 
the proceeds of their sales to this country. That 
gave merchants in Europe, and especially in Brit- 
ain, available credit in New York and made it 
possible for us to sell to European countries, and 
especially to Britain, much larger amounts than 
we bought from those particular sources. The 
result was a larger trade all around than would 
have been the case if each country had had to 
limit its exports to each other country to the 
amount it bought from that country. It is hard 
to see how international trade can be either large 
or prosperous unless what the bankers call a multi- 
lateral system of payments can be recreated. 

To create such a system again and on an im- 
proved basis is, of course, one of the main pur- 
poses of the International Monetary Fund. We 
have to remember that the Fund agreement has 
not yet been approved by many countries and that 
a good many current international trade and fi- 
nancial arrangements do not provide for converti- 
ble foreign exchange but provide instead for direct 
bilateral clearing and settlements between the 
countries concerned. The second question, there- 
fore, is whether and how soon it will be possible 
actually to put into operation the security against 
exchange controls and blocked currencies which 
the multilateral system of clearings and payments 
under the International Monetary Fund is in- 
tended to provide. Until that system is put into 



' Made before the American Merchant Marine Insti- 
tute and the Propeller Club of the United States at a panel 
discussion on world-trade opportunities in New York on 
Oct. 17, 1945. Mr. Bunn is Adviser to the Division of Com- 
mercial Policy, Office of International Trade Policy, De- 
partment of State. 



638 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



effect exporters trj'ing to sell American goods in 
foreign countries will be met in many places by 
regulations of exchange and imports which pre- 
vent people who would like to become their cus- 
tomers from doing so, and ship-owners who are 
paid in foreign currencies may have trouble 
bringing home their money. It is greatly to the 
interest of the United States, and of every other 
trading and seafaring country, to hasten the day 
when currencies are convertible at stable rates and 
when merchants in all countries can buy at their 
own banks the foreign currency they need to make 
purchases abroad. Until that is brought about 
trade will be hamstrung and cargoes will be small. 
The immediate and pressing problem of ex- 
change control against the dollar boils down to 
the fact that so many foreign countries need large 
amounts of reconstruction goods from us and are 
short of dollar credits to make jiayment. That 
same shortage, and the fear of shortage later, pre- 
vents them from adhering to the Monetary Fund 
agreement. Emergency financial help is needed 
to get off of dead center. 

Dollar loans to foreign countries are too nar- 
rowly conceived if they are thought of merely as 
devices to stimulate particular exports connected 
with each loan. If that is all we do we shall be 
back in the same boat as soon as the money is used 
up. A much more important purpose of any for- 
eign lending program in today's emergency should 
be to break the present log-jam — to help restore 
the earning power and credit of oiu' foreign cus- 
tomers and Allies, so that they may join with us in 
creating a world system under which businessmen 
in any country can buy any currency they need to 
make a foreign payment. When that has been 
accomplished, we shall have more foreign trade 
than we have ever had before, and ship-owners 
who receive freight charges in a foreign currency 
will be able to bring their money home. 

The trade that accompanies that sort of a system 
must move in all directions, for neither the Inter- 
national Monetary Fund nor any other monetary 
scheme can keep our foreign customers in dollars 
if the trade in goods and services is chronically and 
largely out of balance in our favor. So I come 
back to the original question : What goods and 
services are we going to buy abroad in larger 
quantities then we ever did before? Until we find 
some answer to that question no prediction about 
the volume of United States exports or of United 



States cargoes will be valid for any substantial 
period ahead. 

Put in another way, the question might read 
thus : What United States tariff rates can be re- 
duced under the Trade Agreements Act in such a 
way as to encourage largely increased imports of 
particular foreign products and do it without 
causing serious injui'y or danger to any dome.stic 
industry in the United States? Anyone who can 
answer that question wisely will deserve well of his 
country. 



Proposed International Health 
Organization 

REQUESTS FROM CHINA AND BRAZIL ON 
CALLING OF CONFERENCE 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs 

Chunffking, Septemher H, 19Ii5. 
Excellency : 

At the United Nations Conference on Inter- 
national Organization at San Francisco, the Dele- 
gations of Brazil and China submitted a joint 
declaration, proposing a general conference for 
establishing an international health organization, 
which reads as follows : 

"The Delegations of Brazil and China recom- 
mend that a General Conference be convened 
within the next few months for the purpose of 
establishing an international health organization. 

"They intend to consult fui'ther with the repre- 
sentatives of other delegations with a view to the 
early convening of such a General Conference, to 
which each of the governments here represented 
will be invited to send representatives. 

"They recommend that, in the preparation of a 
plan for the international health organization, full 
consideration should be given to the relation of 
such organization to, and methods of associating 
it with, other institutions, national as well as 
international which already exist or which may 
hereafter be established in the field of health. 

"They recommend that the proposed inter- 
national health organization be brought into re- 
lationship with the Economic and Social Council." 

The representatives of all the United Nations 
voted unanimously to associate themselves with 
this declaration. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



639 



In accordance with the terms of this declaration 
the Chinese Delegation consulted, informally and 
on the technical level, with representatives of 
other delegations including those of the United 
States, United Kingdom, U.S.S.R., France and 
Brazil with a view to the early convening of such 
a general conference for establishing an inter- 
national health organization. As a result of these 
consultations, the Chinese Government is anxious 
to ascertain if your Government is willing to join 
with it and the Governments of the powers above 
mentioned in sponsoring such a general con- 
ference for establishing an international health 
organization. 

It is suggested that this conference be convened 
as soon as possible. 
I It is our understanding that a similar communi- 
cation is being addressed to Your Government by 
the Government of Brazil. 
Accept [etc.] 

Kan Nai-ktjaxc 
Political Vice Minister in charge of 
Ministerial Affairs 

Ministr}^ of Foreign Affairs 
His Excellency 

Lt.-General Patrick Hurley, 
A mencan A mbassador, 
Ch ungkiiig. 

Washington, September 13, 19^5. 
Excellency, 

I ha^e the honor to inform Your Excellency, in 
accord with instructions which I have received, 
that the Brazilian Government is keenly interested 
in the meeting, in the near future, of the Con- 
ference for the creation of an International Health 
Organization, as set forth in a joint proposal by 
the Brazilian and Chinese Delegations, unani- 
mously approved at the United Nations Confer- 
ence on International Organization, held in San 
Francisco. 

2. The Brazilian Government requests the co- 
operation of the Government of the United States 
of America to sponsor the aforementioned Con- 
ference, simultaneously with the Governments of 
Brazil, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
Great Britain, France and China. 

3. The Brazilian Government proposes that the 
Conference be held in the United States at the 
eai-liest possible date after the end of October next, 
and would receive with great satisfaction the 



acceptance of this proposal, the Government of 
the United States assuming the initiative of call- 
ing the meeting approximately within that period, 
and of taking other necessary steps in connection 
therewith. 

4. I shall greatly appreciate it if Your Excel- 
lency will kindly enable me to transmit to my 
Government, as soon as possible, the decision of 
the Government of the United States in respect 
to the foregoing. 

I take this opportunity [etc.] 

A. BOXILITREAU FrAGOSO 

Charge (P Affaires, a.i. 

October 5, 1945. 
Sir: 

The receipt is acknowledged of your note of 
September 13, 1945, requesting the cooperation of 
the United States Government in the convening, 
at an early date, of a conference to create an 
international health organization. 

At San Francisco the United States Delegation 
to the United Nations Conference on International 
Organization apjjroved the joint declaration of 
Brazil and China to which you refer, and I wish 
to assure you that the United States Goveriunent 
warml}' supports the purpose of the declaration, 
namely, the establishment of an organization which 
can deal effectively with international health 
problems. 

The United States Government is therefore 
happy to accept the invitation of your Govern- 
ment to join with the Governments of Brazil, 
Cliina, France, the United Kingdom, and the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in sponsoring 
a conference to establish an international health 
organization. 

The proposal of the Brazilian Government that 
the conference should be held in the United States 
is also acce^Dtable to the United States Govern- 
ment. On receiving information from the Em- 
bassy that the other sponsoring Governments so 
desire, the United States Government will asswue 
the initiative and take the necessary preliminary 
steps without delay. 

Accept [etc.] 

Dean Acheson 
Acting Secretary of State 
Mr. A. BouLiTREAU Fragoso, 

Charge (T Affaires ad interim of Brazil. 



640 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Advisory Health-Group Meeting 



[Released to the press October 16] 

Prompt action in the development of an inter- 
national health organization was urged by 30 
leaders in public health and civic activities at a 
two-day meeting held in the Department of State 
on October 11 and 12 of an advisory health group 
called by the Department under the Chairman- 
ship of Dr. Thomas Parran, Surgeon General of 
the United States Public Health Service. 

In welcoming the gi'oup, Under Secretary of 
State Dean Acheson informed them that the dele- 
gates at the United Nations Conference on Inter- 
national Organization in San Francisco had recog- 
nized the importance of health problems and their 
solution and had unanimously approved a joint 
declaration proposed bj' Brazil and China calling 
for the early convening of a general conference for 
the purpose of establishing an international health 
organization. He further stated that the Depart- 
ment had received notes from Brazil and China 
requesting the United States to join with them and 
the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics, and France in sponsoring the organi- 
zation. 

Attention was directed by the advisory group to 
the destruction in Europe and Asia of facilities 
for the maintenance of health and to the dispersal 
of trained health personnel. Emphasis was placed 
on the urgency of the need for reconstruction and 
the early application of new discoveries in the field 
of medicine and insect control in order to prevent 
the spread of epidemics during the post-war 
period. 

The group recommended that the United States 
Government associate itself immediately with 
other nations in taking steps leading to the early 
formation of a new and broad international health 
organization, to be closely linked with the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council of the United Nations. 

Certain genei"al functions visualized for the 
organization are the collection and analysis of 
world-wide disease statistics as a basis for epidemic 
control; assistance to national health services to 
control diseases at their sources; centralization, 
consolidation, and subsequent distribution of 
health and medical knowledge; standardization 
and control of drugs and otliei- therapeutic agents. 

Citing an example of effective organized inter- 



national action in the control of an epideniic, Dr. 
Frank Boudreau, formerly Secretary of the Health 
Section of the League of Nations, described the 
action taken by the League at the request of the 
Greek Government in 1928 when dengue fever, a 
mosquito-transmitted disease, struck Greece, re- 
ducing its effective manpower to an extent that 
railroads, ports, and all essential activities were 
paralyzed. Tlie League immediately summoned 
from nations throughout the world a group of out- 
standing experts in mosquito control, sending them 
to Athens. There these experts consulted with the 
Greek Government and worked out a plan which 
was put into effect by the Government, bringing 
the ejiideraic under control, restoring essential 
services to Greece, and preventing the spread of 
dengue to neighboring countries. 

Emphasis was placed by the advisory group on 
the importance of stamping out disease at its 
source, in place of the older methods of attempting 
to limit the spread of disease through interna- 
tional quarantine. The control of typhus fever in 
World War II was cited as a striking example of 
the effectiveness of such attack. In the World 
War of 1914, serious epidemics of typhus spread 
throughout the armed forces and ravaged civilian 
populations in central Europe. Attempts to con- 
trol its spread through quarantine isolation were 
ineffective because of the necessity of moving 
troops regardless of disease and insect infestation. 
Typhus, whicli has been thus spread over wide 
areas during the war, continued to rage following 
the war, particularly in Poland, where it continued 
to be reintroduced by repatriates. Tlie typhus 
danger became acute in World War II after the 
landings of Allied forces in Italy, when typhus 
broke out in Naples. Although the troops were 
largely protected by new vaccines, there was great 
danger of sj^read throughout the civilian popula- 
tions of southern and central Europe from this 
single source. By attacking the disease vig- 
orously by delousing the civilian population with 
the new and dramatically effective insecticide, 
D.D.T., the disease was promptly stamped out in 
Naples before any significant spread could occur. 

It was pointed out by the advisory group that 
prompt attack on old diseases at their source by 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



641 



new agents offers an international health agency 
opportunities gi-eater than any previously existing. 

The United Nations Belief and Rehabilitation 
Administration was praised for the effective way 
in wliich it had assumed certain international 
health functions during the war. It was pointed 
out that a new agency must be ready to take over 
these functions when the temporary relief agency 
ceases to function. 

Members of the group made specific suggestions 
as to the scope and structure of the contemplated 
new organization, recognizing that final decision 
as to these matters rests not with the United States 
but with all nations concerned. The group urged 
that the United States use its influence to create 
an organization which would be technically compe- 
tent and at the same time representative of the 
interests of the peoples of the woi'ld, who, it 
pointed out, are the recijiients of health services 
and therefore deeply interested in all health 
matters. 

A complete list of those attending the two-day 
session follows: 

Department of State 

The Honorable Dean Acheson, Under Secretary of State 

Mr. William T. Ham, Acting Chief, Division of Inter- 
national Labor, Social, and Health Affairs 

Mr. Philip Burnett, Division of International Organiza- 
tion Affairs 

Miss Marcia Maylott, Division of International Organi- 
zation Affairs 

Miss Emma Joyce, Health Counselor, Division of Depart- 
mental Personnel 

Dr. L. L. Williams, Jr., Division of International Labor, 
Social, and Health Affairs 

Dr. H. van Zile Hyde, Division of International Labor, 
Social, and Health Affairs 

Mr. H. B. Calderwood, Division of International Labor, 
Social and Health Affairs 

U. S. Public Health Service 

Dr. Thomas Parran, Surgeon General, Chairman 

Dr. James A. Doull, Chief, OtBce of International Health 

Relations 
Dr. James A. Crabtree, Office of International Health 

Relations 
Dr. Michael B. Shimkin, Office of International Health 

Relations 
Miss Henderson 



Miss Margaret Arnstein, Consultant Public Health Nurse, 
State of New York Department of Health 

Dr. Walter L. Bierring, Commissioner, Iowa State Depart- 
ment of Health 



Dr. E. L. Bishop, Director of Health, Tennessee Valley 
Authority 

Mr. Arch Booth, Assistant General Manager, U.S. Chamber 
of Commerce 

Dr. Frank G. Boudreau, Director, Milbank Memorial 
Fund 

Mr. Nelson H. Cruikshank, Director, Social Insurance 
Activities, American Federation of Labor 

Dr. Hugh S. Cumming, Director, Pan American Sanitary 
Bureau 

Dr. Wilburt C. Davison, Dean, Duke University School of 
Medicine 

Mrs. LaFell Dickinson, President, General Federation of 
Women's Clubs 

Dr. Louis I. Dublin, Second Vice President and Statistician, 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company 

Dr. Martha Eliot. Associate Chief, Children's Bureau, De- 
partment of Labor 

Dr. Kendall Emerson, Managing Director, National Tu- 
berculosis Association 

Dr. Morris Fishbein, Editor, Journal of the American 
Medical Association 

Mr. Howard W. Green, Secretary, Cleveland Health 
Council 

Mr. George T. Guernsey, Assistant Director of Educa- 
tion, Congress of Industrial Organizations 

Rear Admiral John Harper, Chief of Professional Di- 
vision, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Navy De- 
partment 

Dr. Victor Heiser, National Association of Manufacturers 

Maj. Gen. Norman T. Kirk, Surgeon General, U.S. Army 

Dr. John W. Lawlah, Dean, Howard University School of 
Medicine 

Dr. Ross A. McFarlaud, Medical Coordinator, Pan Ameri- 
can Airways 

Dr. G. Ford McGinnes, National Medical Director, Ameri- 
can Red Cross 

Dr. A. A. Moll, Assistant Director, Pan American Sanitary 
Bureau 

Dr. Joseph E. Moore, Director of Syphilology, Johns Hop- 
kins University 

Dr. John Musser, School of Medicine, Tulane University 

Mr. Basil O'Connor, Chairman, American Red Cross 

Dr. Lowell J. Reed, Dean, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene 
and Public Health 

Brig. Gen. James S. Simmons, Chief, Preventive Medicine 
Service, U.S. Army 

Dr. Edward A. Strecker, Professor of Psychiatry, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania 

Dr. George Strode, Director, International Health Di- 
vision, Rockefeller Foundation 

Mr. Howard Strong, U.S. Chamber of Commerce 

Dr. William H. Taliaferro, Department of Bacteriology 
and Parasitology, University of Chicago 

Dr. Russell M. Wilder, Mayo Clinic 

Dr. C-E. A. Winslow, Editor, American Journal of Public 
Health 

Mr. Abel Wolman, Professor of Sanitary Engineering, 
Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health 



642 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



International Boundary Along the Pilcomayo River 



A rgentina— Paraguay 

The American Embassy at Asuncion has in- 
formed the Department of State of tlie exchange 
of ratifications at Asuncion on August 15, 1945, of 
the Complementary Treaty Establishing Defini- 
tive Boundary Between the Republics of Argen- 
tina and Paraguay Along the Pilcomayo River, 
and special protocol, signed at Buenos Aires June 
1, 1945. With the ratification of the new treaty 
and the special protocol annexed thereto a defini- 
tive boundary line is provided for between the two 
countries along that section of the Pilcomayo 
River which has been under dispute for over 68 
years or since the signing of the boundary treaty 
of February 3, 1876, which failed to take into 
account the fact that in the area between the points 
known as "Horqueta" and "Salto Palmar" there 
is no actual river but only swamp lands with a 
network of small streams which appear following 
heavy rains. 

Article 1 of the treaty establishes the new 
boundary in accordance with the final recom- 
mendations of the final report of the "Mixed 
Argentine-Paraguayan Boundary Commission", 
dated in Asuncion August 16, 1944. The final 
report, which is attached to the treaty as an an- 
nex, was approved by the Government of Argen- 
tina through Decree Xo. 27.177 M-240 of October 
9, 1944 and by the Government of Paraguay 
through Decree No. 5.950 of November 9, 1944. 
The commission di'ew up the boundary in accord- 
ance with article 2 of the Complementary Bound- 
ary Treaty and with article 2 of the special 
protocol attached to the Complementary Boundary 
Treaty between Argentina and Paraguay signed 
July 5, 1939. 

Article 2 of the 1945 treaty provides for the 
establishment of a '"Mixed Commission for the De- 
marcation of Boundai'ies", which will undertake 
the demarcation and definition of the boundary 
line fixed in article 1 above, and will also be in- 
trusted with the duty of marking the boundaries 
fixed by article 1 of the 1939 treaty. The commis- 
sion will initiate its duties within six months after 
the exchange of ratifications. 

Article 3 provides that in order to insure the 



' Where Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia meet. 



permanence of the dividing line and the utilization 
of the volume of water, the two Governments agree 
to the execution of the works indicated in the pre- 
liminary project prepared by the "Mixed Tech- 
nical Commission of Hydraulic Studies and Works 
of the Pilcomayo River". These works shall be 
commenced in not more than two and a half years 
from the date of the exchange of ratifications of 
the present treaty. 

Article 4 establishes a '"Mixed Technical Com- 
mission for Hydraulic Works of the Pilcomayo 
River" to execute and supervise the hydraulic 
works referred to above. This commission will be- 
gin its duties not more than three months from 
the date of the exchange of ratifications. Within 
the following twelve months this commission will 
submit the definitive plan of the works and the 
budget for them to both Governments, which in 
turn will make known their decision within two 
months from the date of presentation of the plan 
and budget. 

In Article 5 both Governments agree to estab- 
lish a system of administrative control over the 
waters for the whole course of the Pilcomayo 
River, from the tripartite point '"Esmeralda"^ 
until its outlet into the Paraguayan River, as well 
as of maintenance of the works and of utilization 
of the volume of water and the corresponding 
measures taken in each case as soon as possible to 
prevent deviations and alterations in the present 
course of the Pilcomayo River, in the first and 
third sector and, in the definitive course of the 
river, in the second sector. To this end a perma- 
nent "Mixed Argentine-Paraguayan Commission 
of Administration and Observation of the Pilco- 
mayo River" will be formed, composed of one 
expert from each country. Until such time as the 
hj'draulic works provided for in article 3 are 
completed, this task will be undertaken by the 
"Mixed Technical Commission for Hydraulic 
Works," provided for in article 4. 

Article 6 provides that for the purposes of 
financing and allocating the works provided for in 
article 3 and for the purposes of the proper func- 
tioning and regulation of the mixed commissions 
jDrovided for in articles 2, 4, and 5 of the treaty, a 
special protocol annexed to the treaty would be 
signed on the same day. 



OCTOBER 21, J 945 

Article 7 provides that the treaty will enter into 
force on the exchange of ratifications. 

The special protocol signed also June 1, 1945. 
sets forth procedure to be followed. Article -i of 
the protocol provides that within six months after 
the minutes of the ''Mixed Commission for the 
Demarcation of Boundaries" are received, the two 
Governments pledge themselves to evacuate the 
areas which will pass from the jurisdiction of one 
country to that of another. 

Article 14 of the protocol states that within two 
months following the approval of the final plan 
of works and budget referred to in article 4 of the 
complementary treaty, both Governments will 
decide which of them will undertake the execution 
of these works, which works will be assigned to 
government agencies or to private firms of the 
same nationality as the designated country. It is 
stipulated in article 15 that the country designated 
to carry out the works will defray all expenses in 
connection with their execution. 

The protocol also entered into force on the day 
of the exchange of the ratifications thereof. 



Travel to Korea 

[Released to the press October 16] 

Military government exercised in the American 
zone of control south of the 38° parallel in Korea 
under American armed forces has initiated a policy 
of seeking advice on local matters from represent- 
ative Koreans in their individual capacities. In 
line with this policy, the opportunity to return 
from abroad is now open to Koreans who are in- 
terested in rendering service to their comitrymen. 
Applications for exit permits are being received by 
the Visa Division of the Department of State. Ap- 
proval for travel to and entry into that portion of 
Korea now under occupation by American armed 
forces is a matter which is taken up by the Visa 
Division with the War Department in the course 
of applications for exit permits. The first appli- 
cant has received his permit and is now on his 
way to Korea. 

Return to the area of Korea under American 
occupation by Koreans who have been resident in 
China is also recognized as desirable, and trans- 
portation for such individuals is subject to aiTange- 
ments being made in accordance with facilities 
operated under United States Army direction in 
China. 



643 



Far Eastern Advisory 
Commission 

DATE FOR FIRST MEETING 

[Released to the press October 19] 

Because of travel difficulties, several of the gov- 
ernments which will participate in the Far East- 
ern Advisory Commission have requested post- 
ponement of the initial meeting originally set for 
October 23. Therefore it has been decided to hold 
the first meeting of the Commission on October 
30, 1945. 

APPOINTMENT OF REPRESENTATIVES 

[Released to the press October 16] 
China 

The American Embassy in Chungking has in- 
formed the Department of State that the Chinese 
Government has designated His Excellency, Wei 
Tao-ming, Chinese Ambassador in Washington, 
as the Chinese representative on the Far Eastern 
Advisory Commission. 

[Released to the press October 17] 

Great Britain 

The Department of State has been informed by 
the British Government that it has appointed Lord 
Halifax, British Ambassador to the United States, 
as its representative on the Far Eastern Advisory 
Commission. Sir George Sansom, Minister Coun- 
selor of the British Embassy in Washington, has 
been appointed alternate for Lord Halifax. 

[Released to the press October 18] 
Commontvealth of the Philippines 

The Commonwealth of the Philippines has ac- 
cepted the invitation of the United States Gov- 
ernment to attend the meeting of the Far Eastern 
Advisory Commission. Brig. Gen. Carlos Ro- 
mulo, Resident Commissioner of the Philippines, 
has been appointed the representative on the 
Commission. His alternate will be Tomas Con- 
fesor, member of the Filipino Rehabilitation 
Commission. 

[Released to the press October 20] 

New Zealand 

The Department of State has been informed by 
the New Zealand Government that it has ap- 
pointed the Honorable C. A. Berendsen, New 
Zealand Minister to the United States, as its rep- 
resentative on the Far Eastern Advisory Commis- 
sion. 



644 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Post- War Period in the Far East 



Address by JOHN CAUTER VINCENT' 



[Released to the press October 20] 

Travel, unless undertaken out of curiosity or for 
fun, generally presui^i^oses a destination. Foreign 
policy, unless undertaken out of curiosity or for 
fun, presupposes objectives. And in 1945 we 
can't afford foreign policy for fun or as a luxury. 
We — the American people — must decide upon 
our objectives and then search for policies and im- 
plementing procedures best calculated to achieve 
our objectives. Objectives should be so clearly 
expressive of the national will as to arouse little 
controversy. On the other hand, policies to 
achieve these objectives may be, as we well know, 
subject to considerable debate. A policy pursued 
may of necessity represent not the most direct 
route toward an objective but a compromise of 
various views as to the best route to follow, or it 
may represent deviations along the route to meet 
special and immediate problems. These condi- 
tions often account for divergencies between pol- 
icies followed by the Government and those advo- 
cated by independent writers and commentators. 

A statement of objectives, as I have said, does 
not generally meet with these difficulties. I am 
therefore going to state a few broad objectives of 
foreign policy on which I believe we can all agree 
and then examine some of our policies in the light 
of those objectives. I realize in what I am about 
to say that our objectives have universal applica- 
tion and that our policies are in many instances 
also not limited to any special area. But I am 
talking about the Far East— at least that is what 
I was asked to do. 

And I want to make one other, perhaps obvious, 
distinction clear: that is, the distinction between 
objectives and policies. Take, for example, two 
much-used words: security and cooperation. I 
have frequently heard international cooperation 
spoken of as an objective of our foreign policy. 

'Made at the Foreign Policy Association Forum, 
"Between War and Peace," in New York, N. Y., on Oct. 20, 
1945. Mr. Vincent is Director of the Office of Far Eastern 
Affairs, Department of State. 



It is not. It is a policy to achieve our objectives, 
one of the most vital being the security of the 
United States. But lest you misunderstand me, 
let me add and emphasize that I consider inter- 
national cooperation the most important of our 
foreign policies, if we are to achieve our security 
objective. 

What are the objectives of our foreign policies 
that I have in mind? They can be stated quite 
simply. They are: (1) to provide for the security 
of the United States and the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and (2) to create in the relations 
among states conditions conducive to mutually 
beneficial commercial and cultural exchanges 
which will promote international welfare and 
understanding. 

In a joint statement issued from Chungking on 
June 24, 1944, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and 
Vice President Wallace enunciated an objective 
directly related to those I have stated. They said : 
"The objective of victory in the Pacific is the estab- 
lishment of a democratic peace based on political 
and social stability deriving from government de- 
voted to the welfare of peoples." They then, as I 
shall do, went on to name some policies which they 
considered essential to the achievement of that ob- 
jective. They said: "Enduring peace in the 
Pacific will depend upon ( 1 ) effective, permanent 
demilitarization of Japan; (2) understanding, 
friendship, and collaboration between and among 
the four principal powers in the Pacific area — 
China, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 
the British Commonwealth of Nations — and 
among all United Nations willing to share in the 
responsibilities of post-war international order; 
and (3) recognition of the fundamental right of 
presently dependent Asiatic peoples to self- 
government, and the early adoption of measures in 
the political, economic, and social fields to prepare 
those dependent peoples for self-government 
within a specified practical time limit." I believe 
there will be found in America little or no disposi- 
tion to question those policies. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



645 



Our objectives in regard to the Far East can be 
generalized. Ourpoliciescannotbe. Tlieymustbe 
adapted to meet divergent geographical, political, 
and social situations. In the Far East we have 

(1) a defeated and so far unregeuerate Japan; 

(2) Korea, which is to start on the road to inde- 
pendence after two generations of subjection to 
Japan; (3) China, our Ally and long-time friend, 
whose principal problems, now that the menace of 
Japan has been removed, are political unity and 
economic reconstruction; (-t) Siam, an independ- 
ent nation which has for the past five years been 
under the domination of Japan; and (5) the 
colonial area of southeast Asia under the sover- 
eignty of our Allies. 

With regard to Japan, a White House release on 
September 22 gave in some 15 pages a clear sum- 
mary of our policy toward Japan. It was en- 
titled '"U.S. Initial Post-Surrender Policy for 
Japan".^ I commend it to you. I will mention 
also, but modesty forbids my commending it, a 
broadcast in which I participated two weeks ago 
on the same subject.' A brief quotation from the 
White House release may serve to refresh your 
interest. 

"Japan will be completely disarmed and de- 
militarized. The authority of the militarists and 
the influence of militarism will be totally elimi- 
nated from her political, economic, and social life. 
Institutions expressive of the spirit of militarism 
and aggi'ession will be vigorously suppressed. 

". . . The Japanese people shall be encouraged 
to develop a desire for individual liberties and 
respect for fundamental human rights, particu- 
larly the freedoms of religion, assembly, speech, 
and the press. They shall also be encouraged to 
form democratic and representative organiza- 
tions. 

". . . The Japanese people shall be afforded 
opportunity to develop for themselves an economy 
which will permit the peacetime requirements of 
the population to be met." 

We are all keenly interested in how these pol- 
icies will be implemented. I hope this interest 
will remain keen — but not impatient. General 
MacArthur is in my opinion doing a good job. 
We should not try to "hustle" the East, or General 
MacArthur. Reform in the social, economic, and 
political structure of Japan must be a gradual 
process, wisely initiated and carefully fostered. 



You are also no doubt interested in the pro- 
posed Far Eastern Advisory Commission. 1 am 
glad you are. So am I, although it will mean a 
lot of additional work. It is impossible to state 
here and now just how the Commission will oper- 
ate. That will depend in large measure on the 
Commission, but I am confident that with General 
McCoy as our representative we will do our full 
share in making it work. 

At present, and for the past 10 months, the 
State, War, Navy Coordinating Conmiittee, called 
SWNCC, has been formulating policy for the 
President's approval on questions of basic im- 
portance, including those connected with the sur- 
render and administration of Japan and of lib- 
erated areas in the Far East. I am chairman of 
the SWNCC Subcommittee for the Far East. 
This subcommittee devotes its energies to the 
preparation of policy papers and dii'ectives con- 
cerning Far Eastern matters. The subcommittee 
meets twice a week to consider papers presented 
by specialists on the various subjects under con- 
sideration. These papers, when approved, are 
submitted to the over-all State, War, Navy Com- 
mittee, which is composed of high-ranking officials 
of the three departments. On the military as- 
pects of papers, the views of the Joint Chiefs of 
Staff are obtained and carefully considered. 
Papers of basic importance, after being adopted 
by the top Committee, are submitted by the Sec- 
retary of State to the President for his approval. 

The policy paper from which I have quoted was 
prei^ared in SWNCC and approved by the Presi- 
dent. A reading of the subheadings in that docu- 
ment will give you an idea of some of the special 
subjects dealt with in our papers. Those head- 
ings include such subjects as war criminals; 
economic demilitarization; promotion of demo- 
cratic forces; fiscal, monetary, and banking poli- 
cies; equality of opportunity for foreign enter- 
prise in Japan; individual liberties and demo- 
cratic processes. One of them, entitled "Relation- 
ship to Japanese Government", calls for special 
mention. Shortly after the Japanese surrender 
to General MacArthur on September 9, the fol- 
lowing message was sent to General MacArthur : 

"1. The authority of the Emperor and the Jap- 
anese Government to rule the State is subordinate 
to you as Supreme Commander for the Allied 

423. 



' Bulletin of Sept. 23, 1945, p. 42,' 
' BuLLCTiN of Oct. 7, 1945, p. 538. 



646 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



powers. You will exercise your authority as you 
deem jjroper to carry out your mission. Our re- 
lations with Japan do not rest on a contractual 
basis, but on an unconditional surrender. Since 
your authorit}' is supreme, you will not entertain 
any question on the part of the Japanese as to its 
scope. 

"2. Control of Japan shall be exercised thruugli 
the Japanese Government to the extent that such 
an ai-rangement produces satisfactory results. 
This does not prejudice your right to act directly 
if required. You may enforce the orders issued 
by 3'ou by the employment of such measures as 
you deem necessary, including the use of force. 

"3. The statement of intentions contained in 
the Potsdam Declaration will be given full effect. 
It will not be given effect, however, because we 
consider ourselves bound in a contractual rela- 
tionship witli Japan as a result of that document. 
It will be respected and given effect because the 
Potsdam Declaration forms a part of our policy 
stated in good faith with relation to Japan and 
Avith relation to peace and security in the Far 
East." ■• 

This, I think, makas quite clear our interpreta- 
tion of the Potsdam Declaration and also quite 
clear for General MacArthur what his relation- 
ship is to the Japanese Government. 

In Korea our policy problems are both obvious 
and difficult.' Korea is to be separated from Japan 
and become an independent member of the family 
of nations. But Korea, after years of subjection 
to Japan, is not immediately prepared to exercise 
self-government. We therefore advocate a period 
of trusteeship during which Koreans will be pre- 
pared to take over the independent administration 
of their country. How long that will require 
neither you nor I can say; we will agree, however, 
that the briefer the period, the better. 

The present division of Korea north and south 
of latitude 38 into Kussian and American zones 
of occupation was made for military operational 
purposes and for purposes of surrender. It is 
manifestly unsatisfactory from the standpoint of 
administration of the country, and we hope to 
work out with our Soviet Allies, who are in the 
northern half of the country, a liaison and under- 
standing which will solve many administrative 

* BmjJTiN of Sept. 30, 1!)-!."), p. 480. 

• Bulletin of June 10, 1945, p. 105S. 
° Bulletin of Mar. 25, 1944, p. 275 



problems piior to the establishment of a trustee- 
ship in which we expect the Allies principally 
interested in Korea to participate. 

In the southern half of Korea, which our mili- 
tary authorities are administering, a consultative 
council composed of Koreans has been established. 
Koreans from abroad are being encouraged to 
return to Korea to participate in this council and 
in the administration. 

Our policy with regard to Korea is then to bring 
into being as quickly as possible an independent, 
democratic, and prosperous nation. As soon as it 
is feasible to do so, I should like to see American 
businessmen, missionaries, and cultural organiza- 
tions established in Korea and contributing their 
share toward implementing American policies 
there. 

In southeast Asia a situation has developed to 
the liking of none of us, least of all to the British, 
the French, the Dutch, and, I gather, to the An- 
namese and Indonesians. "With regard to the 
situation in French Indochina, this Government 
tloes not (juestion French sovereignty in that area. 
Our attitude toward the situation in the Dutch 
East Indies is similar to that in regard to French 
Indochina. In both these areas, however, we 
earnestly hope that an early agreement can be 
reached between representatives of the govern- 
ments concerned and the Annamese and Indo- 
nesians. It is not our intention to assist or par- 
ticipate in forceful measures for the imposition of 
control by the territorial sovereigns, but we would 
be prepared to lend our assistance, if requested 
to do so, in efforts to reach peaceful agreements in 
these disturbed areas. 

In a statement issued by Secretary Hull on 
:\Iarch -21. 1944. entitled "Bases of the Foreign 
Policy of the United States",^ there occurs the fol- 
lowing paragraph in regard to "dependent peo- 
ples" : "There rests upon the independent nations 
a resjionsibility in relation to dependent peoples 
who aspire to liberty. It should be the duty 
of nations having political ties with such peo- 
ples ... to help the aspiring peoples to de- 
velop materially and educationallj', to prepare 
themselves for the duties and responsibilities of 
self-government, and to attain liberty." This 
continues to be American policy. 

With regard to Siam, we have never consitlered 
ourselves at war with that nation, although the 
Government in control in 1942 declared war on the 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



647 



United States. We consider Siam an independ- 
ent and sovereign nation. It is our policy to foster 
friendly relations with Siam and encourage the 
development of healthy democratic institutions 
and a sound economy. We advocate the "Open 
Door"' there, as in other areas, and equality of 
treatment by Siam of all nations and their na- 
tionals. The British Government, which declared 
war on Siam in response to Siam's declaration of 
war on Great Britain, is now negotiating at Kandy 
with the Siamese an agreement to terminate the 
state of hostilities. We have followed these ne- 
gotiations and have reason to hope that they may 
be successfully concluded in the near future.' 

Our policy toward our Ally China is clear and 
consistent. Our policy has been, is, and will be 
to encourage and assist, when we can appropriately 
do so, the development of a unified, strong, and 
cooperative nation with a government based on 
democratic principles and popular sovereignty. 
Our Ambassador, General Hurley, has worked un- 
flaggingly for the realization of this policy. We 
fought side by side with China in a war against 
Japan which China entered four and a half years 
before we did. We shall continue to collaborate 
with China in the solution of its and our problems. 

Generalissimo Chiang and Mao Tse-tung have 
recently announced a 12-point agreement in re- 
gard to the Kuomintang-Comnumist problem. 
No one who knows anything about conditions in 
China would argue that the agreement is defini- 
tive, but it allays the fears which were so lively 
a month ago that there would be wide-spread civil 
war in China, and it furnishes the framework for 
an adjustment of the differences between the Gov- 
ernment, the Communists, and other non-govern- 
ment political groups in China. 

At the root of China's difficulties is the need 
for certain economic reforms, particularly in the 
agrarian field and in the field of taxation. China's 
leaders realize this, and we may hope that, with 
the return of peace, they will set about instituting 
the necessary reforms. Much is written about the 
industrialization of China. But without reforms, 
one of the primary objectives of which would be 
to increase the individual incomes of the Chinese 
farmers, and without an expanded transportation 
system and a sound currency, industrial develop- 
ment would be meaningless to the Chinese people. 
It would rest on the insecure basis of foreign mar- 
kets for its continued existence. American cap- 
ital and technical know-how will be available to 



China, I am sure, if China's reconstruction follows 
the lines I have mentioned. There is every reason 
to believe that Chinese and American businessmen 
can develop and expand their commercial trade 
on a non-discriminatory and mutually beneficial 
basis. It is our policy to encourage commercial 
relations of this kind with China. 

It is our policy to encourage and facilitate the 
reestablishment of American business in China. 
Probably not with all the speed desired, but with 
all the speed we can generate, we are endeavoring 
to get businessmen back into China for their sake 
and for China's sake. We want them back in 
Shanghai, Hong Kong, Tientsin, and other ports 
as quickly as possible. We are reopening con- 
sulates in these and other cities. 

What I have said regarding American business- 
men applies with equal force to missionaries and 
representatives of cultural and i^hilanthropic or- 
ganizations. We want them back in China as 
soon as transportation facilities and conditions in 
China will permit. 

Some question may have arisen in j-our mind 
with regard to the dispatch of American Marines 
to north China. They have been sent there pur- 
suant to military directives to serve a specific pur- 
pose, that is, to assist Chiang Kai-shek in demobi- 
lizing and repatriating Japanese troops in the area. 
Their stay is temporary. They will be withdrawn 
when they are no longer required for the purpose 
for which they were sent. Generalissimo Chiang 
has announced that the Marines would leave north 
China as soon as they can be relieved by Chinese 
Government forces. The process of relief is now 
in progress. 

China is in a position to form a buffer or a bridge 
in our relations with the Soviet Union in the Far 
East. We will all agree, I believe, that the bridge 
concept is preeminently preferable, and that it 
should be our policy to make it a fact. I would 
go further and say that only through the coopera- 
tion of China, the U.S.S.R., and ourselves can the 
objectives of our policy in the Far East be achieved. 
In August, the Chinese and Soviet Governments 
entered into certain agreements which we hope 
will stabilize the relations between those two coun- 
tries. It will be our policy to cooperate with China 
and the Soviet Union for stability in the Far East. 
We will cooperate with neither of them in any 
policy directed against the other. 



' Bulletin of Aug. 19, 1945, p. 261. 



648 

Secretary Byrnes has indicated thai tne United 
States desires cooperation with the Soviet Union 
on all matters of mutual concern. This attitude 
rests upon a recognition of the importance of 
amicable Soviet-American relations. "We know 
that Russia has imi^ortant interests in the Far 
East. We expect recognition by Russia that we 
also have important interests in that area. We 
shall, therefore, pursue policies consistent with our 
over-all objectives, best calculated to bring about 
Russian recognition of our position in the Far 
East and to accord fair recognition to the Russian 
position in that area — and further, to bring about 
a Russian understanding that our objectives in the 
Far East are in harmony with the objectives of 
any peacefully inclined nation. 

In conclusion, let me recapitulate and pose some 
questions. Our objectives are (1) to provide for 
the security of the United States and the main- 
tenance of international peace; (2) to create in the 
relations among states conditions conducive to 
mutually beneficial commercial and cultural ex- 
changes which will i^romote international welfare 
and understanding; and (3) the related objective, 
stated by Generalissimo Chiang and Mr. Wallace, 
to establish a democratic peace based on political 
and social stability deriving from government de- 
voted to the welfare of peoples. 

Do we believe that a demilitarized and democ- 
ratized Japan is in line with our objectives or do 
we believe that the revival of a pre-war Japan 
would better suit our purposes? The answer is 
clear and emphatic. We want a completely re- 
generate and reformed Japan. 

Do we feel that the early development of an in- 
dependent, democratic Korea is good policy, not 
simply because we have had a natural predilec- 
tion for independence and democracy for three cen- 
turies, but because we believe that the development 
of such a Korean state would further our objec- 
tives? I am sure we do. 

Do we desire the maintenance and strengthening 
of Siamese sovereignty and democracy because it 
would be "nice" for the Siamese or because it 
would contribute toward the realization of our ob- 
jectives in the Far East? The answer, I suppose, 
is both. We can be sentimental as well as prac- 
tical — as long as we are practical. 

Similarly, do we feel that dependent peoples 
of southeast Asia should be assisted "to prepare 
themselves for the duties and responsibilities of 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

self-government, and to attain liberty", to use j 
Mr. Hull's words? Do we feel that recognition j 
given to the self-governing aspirations of depend- • 
ent peoples will be conducive to peace and well- 
being in the Far East ? I believe we do. 
f And finally, are we sure that our desire for a 
unified and democratic China is not simply an ex- 
pression of our traditional good-will toward the 
Chinese without reference to realities and our 
objectives? I am confident that we are. Without 
such a China peace in the Far East would be in 
.serious jeopardy. 

But — and this is my last word, or last para- 
graph, I should say— we must not fall into the 
error of considering the implementation of these 
policies and the realization of these objectives as 
our private and exclusive job. I have described 
international cooperation as a policy. It is a 
policy — but it is, to my mind, an overriding policy. 
We are to be a participant in the United Nations 
Organization. The operation of that Organiza- 
tion will not, as some seem to think, furnish a 
substitute for national foreign policies. It should j 
be — we should make it — a convenient, an efficient, I 
and an effective clearing-house for national for- | 
eign policies and for their reconciliation in the 
interests of international security, peace, and wel- 
fai-e. Therefore, and in conclusion, I would 
strongly advocate that the policies we pursue be 
able to stand careful international examination. 
I believe those I have summarized for the Far East 
will do so. 



Visit of President Rios of Chile 

Statement by PRESIDENT TRUMAN 

[Released to the press by the White House October 16] 

President Rios of Chile left Washington yester- 
day after an official visit, during which it was my 
privilege to have him as a gtiest at the White 
House. It was a great pleasure to meet him, not 
only as a friend and statesman but also as the rep- 
resentative of a democratic people and a function- 
ing democracy. 

We discussed the mutual desire to strengthen 
the solidarity of the republics of the Western 
Hemisphere on the basis of the ideals for which the 
war was fought and won. 



OCTOBER 21, 1945 



649 



Acceptance of Invitation 
to Telecommunications 
Conference 

[Released to the press October 20] 

The Government of the United States has ac- 
cepted an invitation from the British Government 
to participate in a confei'ence in Bermuda to 
consider telecommimications questions outstand- 
ing between the United States and the members 
of the British Commonwealth. Representatives of 
the Governments of the British Dominions will 
also be represented. The conference will open in 
Bermuda November 19. 



Statement by Assistant Secre- 
tary Russell on the Foreign 
Service 

[Released to the press October 16) 

In assuming the position of Assistant Secretary 
of State for administration, I am anxious to con- 
vey to all of you in the Department and the For- 
eign Service this expression of my appreciation of 
the fine job you have been doing and of the loyalty 
and patience you have shown during the several 
reorganizations of the Department in the past year 
or two. 

All of you know that the Department and the 
Foreign Service must be improved and expanded 
to meet the great responsibilities ahead. Some 
progress has been achieved, and many of you are 
familiar with the plans now being made to better 
the organizational structure and strengthen the 
manpower of the two services. It is not my inten- 
tion here to discuss these plans in detail. Rather 
it is my immediate purpose to assure you — and I 
sijeak equally for the Secretary — that our plans 
are founded on the best in the existing structures 
and will fully recognize ability and loyalty in the 
men and women of both services. 

During the past few months there have been 
many rumors circulating in the Department and 
the Foreign Service which have had a disturbing 
effect on morale and efficienc_y. I am glad to be 
able to dispel at least one of these rumors here 
and now. I have read the report prepared by the 
Bureau of the Budget for the Secretary and I find 



nothing in it to warrant the fears and misgivings 
which have been circulating. We are not going to 
make any further changes in the structure of the 
Department or the Foreign Service without first 
giving the responsible officers full opportunity to 
submit their views and recommendations. We 
must have your confidence and you must have ours. 
Apart from this we must put our house in sound 
order before we can enlarge it. We cannot expect 
to do the day's work, let alone plan tomorrow's, 
amidst uncertainty. 



^ THE CONGRESS 



Facilitating Further the Disposition of Prizes Captured 
by the United States. H. Rept. 1122, 79th Cong., to 
accompany H. R. 42.31. 5 pp. [Favoralile report.] 

First Supplemental Surplus Appropriation Rescission 
Bill, 1946. H. Rept. 1125, 79th Cong., to accompany H. R. 
4407. 38 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Fourth Report to Congress on United States Participa- 
tion in Operations of UNRRA. Message from the Presi- 
dent of the United States Transmitting Fourth Report 
to Congress on United States Participation in Operations 
of UNRRA. H. Doc. 309, 79th Cong. 48 pp. 

Supplemental E.stiraates of Appropriation for the State 
Department. Communication from the President of the 
United States transmitting supplemental estimates of ap- 
propriation for the fiscal year 1946 in the amount of 
.1!l,641,O0O for the Department of State. H. Doe. 311, 
79th Cong. 4 pp. 

Proposed Provision Pertaining to an Existing Appro- 
priation for "Foreign-Service Pay Adjustment, Apprecia- 
tion of Foreign Currencies" : Communication from the 
President of the United States transmitting draft of a 
proposed provision pertaining to an existing appropriation 
for the fiscal year 1946, ''Foreign-Service Pay Adjust- 
ment, Appreciation of Foreign Currencies". H. Doc. 320, 
79th Cong. 2 pp. 

Study of Naturalization Laws and Procedures : Hear- 
ings before Subcommittee II of the Committee on Immi- 
gration and Naturalization, House of Representatives, 
Seventy-ninth Congress, first session, pursuant to H. R. 
52, a bill authorizing a complete study of immigration 
and naturalization laws and problems. May 9, June 4 
and 5, 1945. iii, 95 pp. 

Renewal of Certain Trade-marlc Registrations after 
Expiry: Hearings Before the Committee on Patents, 
House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth Congress, first 
session on H. R. 3424, a bill to permit renewal of certain 
trade-mark registrations after expiry thereof, and for 
other purposes. September 13, 1945. iii, 11 pp. 

Reorganization of the Executive Departments: Hear- 
ings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on the 
Judiciary, United States Senate, Seventy-ninth Congress, 
first session, on S. 1120, a bill to provide for the reorgani- 
zation of Government agencies and for other purposes. 
September 6, 7, 14, 17, and 18, 1945. iii, 131 pp. 



650 



^ THE DEPARTMENT ^ 

Appointment of Officers 

Samuel D. lioykin and Elwood N. Tlionipson as Special 
Assistants to the Director of the OtHee of Siiecial Political 
Affairs, effective September 25, 1945. 

Joseph Flack as Chief of the Division of North and West 
Coast Affairs, effective October 1, 1&45. 

James K. Penfiekl as I>eputy Director of the OflSce of 
Far Eastern Affairs, effective October 10, 1915. 

Everett F. Drunirifiht as Chief of the Division of 
Chinese Atfairs, effective October 10, 1945. 
[Released to the press October 15] 

Tlie Department of State announced that Ralph 
McGill, editor of the Atlanta Constitution, and 
Col. John Hay Whitney have been appointed spe- 



DEPARTMENT OF , ■ ' 

cial advisers and consultants, i 
Colonel Whitney will work with i 
tary of State William Benton and v 
Kuhii, Director of the Interim Interi 
mation Service. Mr. McGill will ad\ 
concerning the wire services and tlu 
ing out of the past and present act. 
Oflice of War Information and the Oi 
American Affairs. Mr. McGill is acti\ 
on these matters at this time. 

Colonel Whitney will advise on rel. 
the motion-picture industry, arising from the ac- 
tivities not only of the Office of War Information 
and the Office of Inter- American Affairs, but also 
from the past and present interests of the State 
Department. 



Contents — Continued 

Tbeatt Information — Continued. Page 

Ratification of the Charter of the United Nations: Lebanon, 
Cuba, Iran, Luxembourg, Saudi Arabia, Czechoslo- 
vakia, Yugoslavia, Syria, Great Britain and Northern 

Ireland 626 

Signing by Poland of the Charter of the United Nations . 627 

Conversations on Air Agreement With Mexico 628 

International Boundary Along the Pilcomayo River: Argen- 
tina-Paraguay 042 

The Department 

The Role of International Information Service in Conduct 
of Foreign Relations. Statements by Assistant Secre- 
tary Benton 589 

Appointment of OfBcers 650 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 636 

Statement by Assistant Secretary Russell on the Foreign 

Service 649 

The Congress 649 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; I94S 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



D L 



J 



J 



H 



1 r 





VOL. XIII, NO. 331 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



In this issue 



-9^' 



RESTATEMENT OF FOREIGN POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES 
Address by the President 

NEED FOR CONTINUED ALERTNESS 

THE INTER-AMERICAN SYSTEM 

Addresses by Assistant Secretary Braden 

MILITARY GOVERNMENT OF AUSTRIA: DIRECTIVE TO COMMANDER 
IN CHIEF OF U.S FORCES OF OCCUPATION 

CANADIANAMERICAN COOPERATION IN WAR AND PEACE, 1940-1945 
By Elizabeth H, Armstrong 

RELEASE OF FRENCH ASSETS IN THE UNITED STATES AND AMER- 
ICAN PROPERTY IN FRANCE 
By James Simsarian 

THE CULTURAL-RELATIONS SCENE IN SOUTH AMERICA 
By Herschel Brickell 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 



Vl®^"^ O^ 




•^tes o^ 



DEC 27 1945 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



Vol. Xin.No.331« 




* Publication 2409 



October 28, 1945 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government tvith 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Jf'ash- 
ington 25, D. C, to whom all pur- 
chase orders, tvith accompanying 
remittance, should be sent. The sub- 
scription price is $3.50 a year; a single 
copy is 10 cents. 







ontents 



American Republics page 
The Inter- American System. Address by Assistant Secre- 
tary Braden 693 

Letters of Credence. Ambassador of Haiti 700 

Canada 

Canadian-American Cooperation in War and Peace, 1940- 

1945. By Elizabeth H. Armstrong 674 

Europe I 

Military Government of Austrip. Directive to Commander 
in Chief of U. S. Forces of Occupation Regarding the 

Military Government of Austria 661 

Allied Commission on Reparations for Germany. Appoint- 
ment of James W. Angell as United States Represent- 
ative 688 

Economic Agreements Between the U. S. S. R. and Hungary . 698 

Letters of Credence. Minister of Sweden 700 

Far East 

Far Eastern Advisory Commission: 

Appointment of French Representative 689 

Appointment of Netherlands Representative 689 

U. S. Assistance to the Philippines: 

Statement by the President 690 

Recommendations by the President 690 

Control Council for Japan. Comment Upon Soviet Posi- 
tion 692 

Cultural Cooperation 

The Culturpl-Relations Scene in South America. By 

Herschel Brickell 696 

Removal of Wartime Objection to Study Abroad .... 701 

Visit of Ecuadoran Art Director 702 

Economic Affairs 

Release of French Assets in the United States and American 

Property in France. By James Simsarian 687 

Release of Short- Wave Broadcasting Frequencies 689 

Resumption of American Business Operations in Pacific 

Area 699 

The Proclaimed List 701 

General 

Restatement of Foreign Policy of the United States. Ad- 
dress by the President 653 

Commissioning of U. S. S. Franklin D. Roosevelt. Address 

by the President 656 

Need for Continued Alertness. Address by Assistant 

Secretary Braden 658 

Recommendations for Universal Military Training. Mes- 
sage of the President to the Congress 659 

Public Opinion and Foreign Policy 678 

The United Nations 

Preparatory Commission of the United Nations: 

Discussion on Relation Between Specialized Agencies and 

the United Nations 680 

Concerning the Selection of United Nations Head- 

cjuarters 681 

Actions Taken on Committee Reports 682 

Problems Relating to Economic and Social Council. . . 684 
Reception of Delegates for the General Assembly .... 684 
{Continued on page 706} 



Restatement of Foreign Policy 
of the United States 



Address by THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House October 27] 

Mayor LaGuardia, Ladies and Gentlemen : I 
am grateful for the magnificent reception which 
you have given me today in this great city of New 
York. I know that it is given to me only as the 
representative of the gallant men and women of 
our naval forces, and on their behalf, as well as 
my own, I thank you. 

New York joins the rest of the Nation in paying 
honor and tribute to the 4 million fighting Ameri- 
cans of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast 
Guard — and to the ships which carried them to 
victory. 

On opposite sides of the world, across two 
oceans, our Navy opened a highway for the armies 
and air forces of the United States. They landed 
our gallant men, millions of them, on the beach- 
heads of final triumph. Fighting from Mur- 
mansk, the Englisli Channel, and the Tyrrhenian 
Sea, to Midway, Guadalcanal, Leyte Gulf, and 
Okinawa — they won the greatest naval victories 
in history. Together with their brothers in arms 
in the Army and Air Force, and with the men of 
the Merchant Marine, they have helped to win for 
mankind all over the world a new opportunity to 
live in peace and dignity — and, we hope, in 
security. 

In the harbor and rivers of New York City and 
in other ports along the coasts and rivers of the 
country, ships of that mighty United States Navy 
are at anchor. I hope that you and the people 
everywhere will visit them and their crews, seeing 
for yourselves what your sons and daughters, your 
labor and your money, have fashioned mto an in- 
vincible weapon of liberty. 

The fleet, on V-J Day, consisted of 1,200 war- 
ships, more than 50,000 supjDorting and landing 

' Delivered in Central Park, New York, N.Y., in con- 
nection with the celebration of Navy Day on Oct. 27, 1945, 
at 1 : 30 p.m. 



craft, and over 40,000 navy planes. By that day, 
ours was a sea power never before equaled in the 
history of the world. There were great carrier 
task forces capable of tracking down and sinking 
the enemy's fleets, beating down his airpower, 
and pouring destruction on his war-making in- 
dustries. There were submarines which roamed 
the seas, invading the enemy's own ports, and de- 
stroying his shipping in all the oceans. There were 
amphibious forces capable of landing soldiers on 
beaches from Normandy to the Philippines. 
There were great battleships and cruisers which 
swept enemy ships from the seas and bombarded 
his shore defense almost at will. 

And history will never forget that great leader 
who, from his first day in office, fought to reestab- 
lish a strong American Navy — who watched that 
Navy and all the other might of this Nation grow 
into an invincible force for victory— who sought 
to make that force an instrument for a just and 
lasting peace — and who gave his life in the 
effort — Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

The roll call of the battles of this fleet reads like 
signposts circling the globe — on the road to final 
victory. North Africa, Sicily, Italy, Normandy, 
and southern France; Coral Sea, Midway, Gua- 
dalcanal, and the Solomons; Tarawa, Saipan, 
Guam, the Philippine Sea, Leyte Gulf; Iwo Jima, 
and Okinawa. Nothing which the enemy held on 
any coast was safe from its attack. 

Now we are in the process of demobilizing our 
naval force. We are laying up ships. We are 
breaking up aircraft squadrons. We are rolling 
up bases and i-eleasing officers and men. But when 
our demobilization is all finished as planned, the 
United States will still be the greatest naval 
power on earth. 

In addition to that naval power, we shall still 
have one of the most powerful air forces in the 
world. And just the other day, so that on short 



653 



654 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



notice we could mobilize a powerful and well- 
equipped land, sea, and air force, I asked the 
Conf^ress to adopt universal training. 

Why do we seek to preserve this powerful naval 
and air force, and establish this strong Army re- 
serve ? Why do we need them ? 

We have assured the world time and again — 
and I repeat it now — that we do not seek for our- 
selves one inch of territory in any place in the 
world. Outside of the right to establish necessary 
bases for our own protection, we look for noth- 
ing which belongs to any other power. 

We do need this kind of armed might however, 
and for four principal tasks : 

First, our Army, Navy, and Air Force, in col- 
laboration with our Allies, must enforce the terms 
of peace imposed upon our defeated enemies. 

Second, we must fulfil the military obligations 
which we are undertaking as a member of the 
United Nations Organization — to support a last- 
ing peace, by force if necessary. 

Third, we must cooperate with other American 
nations to preserve the territorial integrity and 
the political independence of the nations of the 
Western Hemisphere. 

Fourth, in this troubled and uncertain world, 
our military forces must be adequate to discharge 
the fundamental mission laid upon them by the 
Constitution of the United States — to "provide for 
the common defense" of the United States. 

These four military tasks are directed not 
toward war — not toward conquest — but toward 
peace. 

We seek to use our military strength solely to 
preserve the peace of the world. For we now 
know that that is the only sure way to make our 
own freedom secure. 

That is the basis of the foreign policy of the 
people of the United States. 

The foreign policy of the United States is based 
firmly on fundamental principles of righteousness 
and justice. In carrying out those principles we 
shall firmly adhere to what we believe to be right ; 
and we shall not give our approval to any com- 
promise with evil. 

But we know that we cannot attain perfection 
in this world overnight. We shall not let our 
search for perfection obstruct our steady progress 
toward international cooperation. We must be 
prepared to fulfil our responsibilities as best we 



can, within the framework of our fundamental 
principles, even though we recognize that we have 
to operate in an imperfect world. 

Let me restate tlie fundamentals of that foreign 
policy of the United States : 

1. We seek no territorial expansion or selfish 
advantage. We have no plans for aggression 
against any other stat«, large or small. AVe have 
no objective which need clash with the peaceful 
aims of any other nation. 

2. We believe in the eventual return of sovereign 
rights and self-government to all peoples who have 
been deprived of them by force. 

3. We shall approve no territorial changes in 
any friendly part of the world unless they accord 
with the freely expressed wishes of the people 
concerned. 

4. We believe that all peoples who are prepared 
for self-government should be permitted to choose 
their own form of government by their own freely 
expressed choice, without interference from any 
foreign source. That is true in Europe, in Asia, 
in Africa, as well as in the Western Hemisphere. 

5. By the combined and cooperative action of 
our war Allies, we shall help the defeated enemy 
states establish peaceful, democratic governments 
of their own free choice. And we shall try to 
attain a world in which Nazism, Fascism, and 
military aggression cannot exist. 

6. We shall refuse to recognize any goverimient 
imposed upon any nation by the force of any 
foreign power. In some cases it maj' be impossible 
to prevent forceful imposition of such a govern- 
ment. But the United States will not recognize 
any such government. 

7. We believe that all nations should have the 
freedom of tlie seas and equal rights to the naviga- 
tion of boundary rivers and waterways and of 
rivers and waterways which pass tlirough more 
than one country. 

8. We believe that all states which are accepted 
in the society of nations should have access on 
equal terms to the trade and the raw materials of 
the world. 

9. We believe that the sovereign states of the 
Western Hemisphere, without interference from 
outside the Western Hemisphere, must work to- 
gether as good neighbors in the solution of their 
common problems. J 

10. We believe that full economic collaboration 1 
between all nations, great and small, is essential to 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 

the improvement of living conditions all over the 
world, and to the establisliment of freedom from 
fear and freedom from want. 

11. We shall continue to strive to promote 
freedom of expression and fi-eedom of religion 
throughout the peace-loving areas of the world. 

12. We are convinced that the preservation of 
peace between nations requires a United Nations 
Organization composed of all the peace-loving na- 
tions of the world who are willing jointly to use 
force if necessary to insure peace. 

That is the foreign policy which guides the 
United States now. That is the foreign policy 
with which it confidently faces the future. 

It may not be put into eilect tomorrow or the 
next day. But none the less, it is our policy ; and 
we shall seek to achieve it. It may take a long time, 
but it is worth waiting for, and it is worth striving 
to attain. 

The Ten Commandments themselves have not 
yet been universally achieved over these thousands 
of years. Yet we struggle constantly to achieve 
them, and in many ways we come closer to them 
each year. Though we may meet set-backs from 
time to time, we shall not relent in our efforts to 
bring the Golden Rule into the international affairs 
of the world. 

We are now passing through a difficult phase of 
international relations. Unfortunately it has al- 
ways been true after past wars that the unity 
among Allies, forged by their conmion peril, has 
tended to wear out as the danger passed. 

The world can not afford any let-down in the 
united determination of the Allies in this war to 
accomplish a lasting peace. The world can not 
afford to let the cooperative spirit of the Allies in 
this war disintegrate. The world simply cannot 
allow this to happen. The people in the United 
States, in Russia and Britaui, in France and China, 
in collaboration with all other peace-loving people, 
must take the course of current history into their 
own hands and mould it in a new direction — the 
direction of continued cooperation. It was a com- 
mon danger which united us before victory. Let it 
be a common hope which continues to draw us 
together in the years to come. 

The atomic bombs that fell on Hiroshima and 
Nagasaki must be made a signal, not for the old 
process of falling apart but for a new era — an era 
of ever closer unity and ever closer friendship 
among peaceful nations. 



655 

Building a peace requires as much moral stam- 
ina as waging a war. Perhaps it requires even 
more, because it is so laborious and painstaking 
and undramatic. It requires undying patience 
and continuous application. But it can give us, 
if we stay with it, the greatest reward that there 
is in the whole field of human effort. 

Differences of the kind that exist today among 
the nations that fought together so long and so 
valiantly for victory are not hopeless or irre- 
concilable. There are no conflicts of interest 
among the victorious powers so deeply rooted 
that they can not be resolved. But their solution 
will require a combination of forbearance and 
firmness. It will require a steadfast adherence 
to the high principles we have enunciated. It 
will also require a willingness to find a common 
ground as to the methods of applying these prin- 
ciples. 

Our American policy is a policy of friendly 
partnership with all peaceful nations, and of full 
support for the United Nations Organization. It 
is a policy that has the strong backing of the 
American people. It is a policy around which we 
can rally without fear or misgiving. 

The more widely and clearly that policy is un- 
derstood abroad, the better and surer will be the 
peace. For our own part, we must seek to under- 
stand the special problems of other nations. We 
must seek to understand their own legitimate 
urge toward security as they see it. 

The immediate, the greatest threat to us is the 
threat of disillusionment, the danger of an in- 
sidious skepticism — a loss of faith in the effec- 
tiveness of international cooperation. Such a loss 
of faith would be dangerous at any time. In an 
atomic age it would be nothing short of disas- 
trous. 

There has been talk about the atomic bomb 
scrapping all navies, armies, and air forces. For 
the present, I think that such talk is 100 percent 
wrong. Today control of the seas rests in the fleets 
of the United States and her Allies. There is no 
substitute for them. We have learned the bitter 
lesson that the weakness of this great Republic in- 
vites men of ill-will to shake the very foundations 
of civilization all over the world. 

What the distant future of atomic research will 
bring to the fleet which we honor today, no one 
can foretell. But the fundamental mission of the 
Navy has not changed. Control of our sea ap- 



656 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



proaches and of the skies above them is still the 
key to our freedom and to our ability to help 
enforce the peace of the world. No enemy will 
ever strike us directly except across the sea. We 
cannot reach out to help stop and defeat an ag- 
gressor without crossing the sea. Therefore, the 
Navy, armed with whatever weapons science 
brings forth, is still dedicated to its historic task: 
control of the ocean approaches to our country 
and of the skies above them. 

The atomic bomb does not alter the basic for- 
eign policy of the United States. It makes the 
development and application of our policy more 
urgent than we could have dreamed si.x months 
ago. It means that we must be prepared to ap- 
proach international problems with greater speed, 
with greater determination, and with greater in- 
genuity, in order to meet a situation for which 
there is no precedent. 

We must find the answer to the problems created 
by the release of atomic energy — as we must find 
the answers to the many other problems of peace — 
in partnership with all the peoples of the United 
Nations. For their stake in world peace is as great 
as our own. 

As I said in my message to the Congress, dis- 
cussion of the atomic bomb with Great Britain 
and Canada and later with other nations cannot 



wait upon the formal organization of the United 
Nations. These discussions, looking toward a free 
exchange of fundamental scientific information, 
will be begim in the near future. But I emphasize 
again, as I have before, that these discussions will 
not be concerned with the jsrocesses of manufac- 
turing the atomic bomb or any other instruments 
of war. 

In our possession of this weapon, as in our pos- 
session of other new wea^jons, there is no threat 
to any nation. The world, which has seen the 
United States in two great recent wars, knows that 
full well. The possession in our hands of this new 
power of destruction we regard as a sacred trust. 
Because of our love of peace, the thoughtful people 
of the world know that that trust will not be vio- 
lated, that it will be faithfully executed. 

Indeed the highest hope of the American people 
is that world cooperation for peace will soon reach 
such a state of perfection that atomic methods of 
destruction can be definitely and effectively out- 
lawed forever. 

We have sought, and we will continue to seek, 
the attainment of that objective. We shall pur- 
sue that course with all the wisdom, patience, and 
determination that the God of Peace can bestow 
upon a people who are trying to follow in His 
path. 



Commissioning of U. S. S. "^Tranklin D. Roosevelt 

Address by THE PRESIDENT ' 



•>•> 



[Released to the press October 27] 

Admiral Daubin, Captain Soucek, Mrs. Roose- 
velt, Ladies and Gentlemen : One of the pleas- 
ant duties in the exacting daily life of a President 
is to award honors to our fighting men for courage 
and valor in war. In the commissioning of this 
ship, the American people are honoring a stalwart 
hero of this war who gave his life in the service 
of his country. His name is engraved on this great 
carrier, as it is in the hearts of men and women 
of good-will the world over — Franklin D. Eoose- 
velt. 

If anyone can be called the father of the new 
American Navy which is typified by this magnifi- 



' Delivered at the New York Navy Yard on Oct. 27, 
1945, at 11 a. ru., in connection with the commissioning of 
the U.S.S. Franklin D. Roosevelt. 



cent vessel, it is he. From his first day as Pres- 
ident he started to build it. 

Even as he started to build the Navy, he began 
to work for world peace. By his realistic good- 
neighbor policy, by reciprocal trade agreements, 
by constant afipeal to international arbitration in- 
stead of force, he worked valiantly in the cause of 
peace. By his constant battle for the forgotten 
man he sought to remove the social and economic 
inequalities which have so often been at the root 
of conflict at home and abroad. And when he saw 
the clouds of aggression forming across the seas 
to the east and to the west, he issued warning 
after warning which, had they been heeded in time, 
might have staved off this tragic conflict. 

But through it all, he never faltered in his work 
to build up the American Navy. For he under- 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 

stood, as few men did, the importance to the sur- 
vival of tliis country of the mission of its Navy— 
the control of the sea. The Axis powers under- 
stood. That is why Germany sought to drive us 
from the sea by her submarines. That is why 
Japan tried to destroy our Navy. They knew that 
if they succeeded they might conquer all the 
nations of the earth one by one, while the Allies 
were helpless to reach each other across the oceans 
of the world. 

We won the Battle of the Oceans. By that vic- 
tory the United Nations were knitted into a fight- 
ing whole; and the Axis powers were doomed to 
defeat everywliere. 

That victory we owe to the men and women in 
the shipyards of the Nation who in the last five 
and a half years built carriers like this one, and 
over a hundred thousand other ships. "We owe it 
to the workers in our factories who built 85,000 
naval planes such as those which will soon take 
their places on the flight deck of this ship. We 
owe it to the fighting men who took those ships 
across the seas, running them right up to the home 
shores of the enemy; to the men who flew those 
planes against the enemy and dropped destruc- 
tion on his fleet and aircraft and war industries. 
We owe it to that great leader whose name this 
mighty carrier bears, who understood the impor- 
tance of overwhelming naval power, and who 
rolled up his sleeves — and got it. 

Building this Navy was only a part of a still 
larger program of war production with which the 
workers and industries of this nation amazed the 
whole world, friend and foe alike. It showed the 
abundant richness of our Nation in natural re- 
sources. But it also showed the skill and energy 
and power and devotion of our free American 
people. 

Having done all this for war, can we do any 
less for peace? Certainly we should not. The 
same riches, the same skill and energy of America 
must now be used so that all our people are better 
fed, better clothed, better housed; so that they can 
get work at good wages, adequate care for their 
health, decent homes for their families, security 
for their old age, and more of the good things of 

life. 

When we set these goals before ourselves we 
know that we are carrying on the work and the 
vision and the aims of the man whose name is on 
this ship. And no man in our generation, or in 



657 

any generation, has done more to enable this Nation 
to move forward toward those objectives. 

Commissioning this ship symbolizes another 
objective toward which Franklin D. Eoosevelt 
started this Nation and the other nations of the 
^yorld — the objective of world cooperation and 
peace. He who helped to formulate the Atlantic 
Charter and to organize the United Nations, he 
who pointed the way in cooperation among nations 
at Casablanca, Cairo, Quebec, Tehran, Dumbarton 
Oaks, and Yalta, and who planned the conference 
at San Francisco— he knows as he looks down upon 
us today that the power of America as expressed 
in this "mighty mass of steel is a power dedicated 
to the cause of peace. 

For fourteen years, ever since 'Japan first in- 
vaded Manchuria, men and women have lived in a 
world ruled or threatened by force intended for 
aggression and conquest. Until El Alamein, 
Stalingrad, and Midway, the powers of evil were 
stronger than the powers of good— threatening to 
spread their rule across the world. We will not 
run that risk again. 

This ship is a symbol of our commitment to the 
United Nations Organization to reach out any- 
where in the world and to help the peace-loving 
nations of the world stop any international gang- 
ster. A hundred hours after leaving New York 
this ship could be off the coast of Africa. In five 
days she could cross the western Pacific from Pearl 
Harbor to the Philippines. This vessel alone 
could put more than a hundred fighting planes 
over a target. 

We all look forward to the day when law rather 
than force will be the arbiter of international rela- 
tions. We shall strive to make that day come soon. 
Until it does come, let us make sure that no pos- 
sible aggressor is going to be tempted by any weak- 
ness on the part of the United States. 

These, then, are the two huge tasks before us: 
realizing for our own people the full life which 
our resources make possible; and helping to 
achieve for people everywhere an era of peace. 
Franklin D. Roosevelt gave his life in search for 
the fulfillment of these tasks. And now, the Amer- 
ican people are determined to carry on after him. 
He did not find either of these tasks easy. Nei- 
ther will we. But we approach them in the spirit 
of Franklin D. Roosevelt, whose words are in- 
scribed in bronze on this vessel : "We can, we will, 
we must !" 



658 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Need for Continued Alertness 

Address by ASSISTANT SECRETARY BRADEN ^ 



[Release J to the press October 27] 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen : For 
the privilege of being with you and for the honor 
of addressing so distinguished a gathering, I find 
it hard adequately to express my pleasure and my 
gratitude. Equally diflicult is it for me to voice 
the admiration which I, like every other patriotic 
American, hold for the United States Navy. 

That Navy, because of the inspiration, skill, and 
valor of its leaders and because of the deteimina- 
tion, discipline, and heroism of its men, has cleared 
the enemy from the seas. That Navy in union witli 
our other armed forces and those of our Allies 
has won victory over the Axis aggressors, who 
would have enslaved the world. That Navy, with 
unhesitating and infinite sacrifice, has defended 
our fundamental freedoms and the sacred tenet 
that government shall be with the consent of tlie 
governed. 

With grateful recognition of our Navy's deeds, 
we solemnly pray that never again must it endure 
the horror of modern conflict. With God's help 
our prayers will be answered in the measure to 
which each and every American citizen remains 
alert, ready to defend the rights and dignity of tlie 
human individual and instantly to act against 
would-be aggressors. 

It is well thus on Navy Day to recall these things 
because the Nazis, while defeated on the battle 
fronts, have not yet been eradicated. They sur- 
vive in great numbers to spread their malevolent 
ideologies and underground to egg on their satel- 
lite and petty imitators. To this I can testify 
from personal observation. I have witnessed the 
suffering of a great nation, who ten years ago — 
just as we did — would have said with full con- 
viction "It can't happen here", and yet today it has 
happened there. I have sensed the heaviness of 
depression which seized a people cruelly abused 
by a self-styled savior supported by a clique aping 
its European Nazi prototype. 

We read in our morning papers that a "state of 
siege" has been decreed in this or that country, 
little realizing, if at all, the terror and deprivation 
involved in those words. A "state of siege" is the 
negation of the Bill of Eights, on which our na- 



tional existence is based — that very Bill of Eights 
for the preservation of which we have fought this 
and other wars. A "state of siege" suspends all 
representative govermnent, civil liberties, the right 
of assembly, and freedom of both speech and press. 
In more concrete terms, a "state of siege" permits 
swaggering officers to beat any peaceful citizen 
simply because he refuses to hail the "leader." It 
permits a hoodlum with brass knuckles to strike 
the face of a young girl because she cries "long 
live democracy'''. It permits arrests without 
charge. It permits torture. It permits sabre- 
wielding mounted police to ride down men, 
women, and cliildren. This and much more is 
what a "state of siege" means. 

As we sincerely feel for a people subjected to 
such oppression and as we condemn the perpe- 
trators thereof, so must we be as alert as in the 
blackest days of war to meet the menace latent in 
the continuation of such conditions. Let us not 
forget that the European Nazis began by subju- 
gating their own peoples before they attempted 
to subjugate their neighbors. History must not 
repeat itself. 

One of the tragic aftermaths of great wars has 
been the rapidity with which victorious nations 
lose sight of that for which they have struggled 
and died. So anxious are we to return to the 
security and felicity of our firesides, our farms, 
and all our callings, that wars won on the field 
of combat are too often lost in the early relaxa- 
tion which follows the last shot. We fell the tree 
and do not eradicate the underground roots which 
will grow again. We must resist both the lassitude 
and the temptation to indulge our selfish interests, 
which as natural reactions follow and replace the 
sti'ain and common effort of war. 

We must not — we cannot and be secure — com- 
promise our principles. To do so even as an 
expedient may be fatal, and in any event we would 
pay the inevitable price of appeasement. 

The performance of the American people in this 
war speaks for itself. May we in peace do as well. 



' Made at the Navy Day dinner in Washington on Oct. 
27, 1945. 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



659 



Recommendations for Universal 
Military Training 

MESSAGE OF THE>RESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS 



[Released to the press by the White House October 23] 

Mr. Speaker — Mr. President — ^and Members 
OF THE Congress of the United States : 

The United States now has a fighting strength 
greater than at any other time in our history. It 
is greater than that of any other nation in the 
world. 

We are strong because of many things: our 
natural resources which we have so diligently de- 
veloped, our great farms and mines, our factories, 
shipyards, and industries which we have so ener- 
getically created and operated. But above all 
else, we are strong because of the courage and 
vigor and skill of a liberty-loving people who are 
determined that this nation shall remain forever 
free. 

With that strength comes grave responsibility. 
With it must also come a continuing sense of 
leadership in the world for justice and peace. 

For years to come the success of our efforts for 
a just and lasting peace will depend upon the 
strength of those who are determined to maintain 
the peace. We intend to use all our moral in- 
fluence and all our physical strength to work for 
that kind of peace. We can ensure such a peace 
only so long as we remain strong. We must face 
the fact that peace must be built upon power, as 
well as upon good-will and good deeds. 

Our determination to remain powerful denotes 
no lack of faith in the United Xations Organi- 
zation. On the contrary, with all the might we 
have, we intend to back our obligations and com- 
mitments under the United Nations Charter. In- 
deed, the sincerity of our intention to support the 
Organization will be judged partly by our willing- 
ness to maintain the power with which to assist 
other peace-loving nations to enforce its author- 
ity. It is only by strength that we can impress 
the fact upon possible future aggressors that we 
will tolerate no threat to peace or liberty. 

671572 — 45 2 



To maintain that power we must act now. The 
latent strength of our untrained citizenry is no 
longer sufficient protection. If attack should come 
again, there would be no time under conditions of 
modern war to develop that latent strength into 
the necessary fighting force. 

Never again can we count on the luxury of time 
with which to arm ourselves. In any future war, 
the heart of the United States would be the enemy's 
first target. Our geographical security is now 
gone — gone with the advent of the robot bomb, 
the rocket, aircraft carriers, and modern airborne 
armies. 

The surest guaranty that no nation will dare 
again to attack us is to remain strong in the only 
kind of strength an aggressor can understand — 
military power. 

To preserve the strength of our nation, the alter- 
native before us is clear. We can maintain a large 
standing army, navy, and air force. Or we can 
rely upon a comparatively small regular army, 
navy, and air force, supported by well-trained citi- 
zens who in time of emergency could be quickly 
mobilized. 

I recommend the second course — that we depend 
for our security upon comparatively small pro- 
fessional armed forces, reinforced by a well-trained 
and effectively organized citizen reserve. The 
backbone of our military force should be the 
trained citizen who is first and foremost a civilian, 
and who becomes a soldier or a sailor only in time 
of danger — and only when the Congress considers 
it necessary. This plan is obviously the more prac- 
tical and economical. It conforms more closely to 
long-standing American tradition. 

In such a system, however, the citizen reserve 
must be a trained reserve. We can meet the need 
for a trained reserve in only one way — ^by universal 
training. 

Modern war is fought by experts — from the 
atomic scientist in his laboratory to the fighting 
man with his intricate modern weapons. The day 
of the minuteman who sprang to the flintlock 



660 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



hanging on his wall is over. Now it takes many 
months for men to become skilled in electronics, 
aeronautics, ballistics, meteorology, and all the 
other sciences of modern war. If another national 
emergency should come, there would be no time 
for this complicated training. Men must be 
trained in advance. 

The sooner we can bring the maximum number 
of trained men into service, the sooner will be the 
victory and the less tragic the cost. Universal 
training is the only means by which we can be 
prepared right at the start to throw our gi-eat 
energy and our tremendous force into the battle. 
After two terrible experiences in one generation, 
we have learned that this is the way — the only 
way — to save human lives and material resources. 

In the pi'esent hour of triumph, we must not 
forget our anguish during the days of Bataan. 
We must not forget the anxiety of the days of 
Guadalcanal. In our desire to leave the tragedy 
of war behind us, we must not make the same mis- 
take that we made after the first World War when 
we quickly sank back into helplessness. 

But the basic reason for universal training is a 
very simple one — to guarantee the safety and free- 
dom of the United States against any potential 
aggressor. The other benefits ai'e all by-prod- 
ucts — useful indeed, but still by-products. The 
fundamental need is, and always will be, the na- 
tional security of the United States and the safety 
of our homes and our loved ones. 

Such a system as I have outlined would provide 
a democratic and efficient military force. It would 
be a constant bulwark in support of our ideals of 
government. It would constitute the backbone of 
defense against any possible future act of aggres- 
sion. 

It has been suggested in some quarters that there 
should be no universal training until the shape of 
the peace is better known, and until the military 
needs of -tliis country can be estimated and our 
commitments under the United Nations Organiza- 
tion can be determined. But it is impossible today 
to foresee the future. It is difficult at any time to 
know exactly what our responsibilities will require 
in the way of force. We do know that if we are 
to have available a force when needed, the time 
to begin preparing is now. 

The ne«d exists today — and must be met today. 

If, at some later time, conditions change, then 
the progi'am can be reexamined and revalued. At 



the present time we have the necessary organiza- 
tion, the required camp installations, and the es- 
sential equipment and training grounds immedi- 
ately available for use in a training program. 
Once we disband and scatter this set-up, it will 
be much harder and more ex2:)ensive to reestablish 
the necessary facilities. 

The argimient has been made that compulsory 
training violates traditional American concepts of 
liberty and democracy, and even that it would en- 
danger our system of government by creating a 
powerful militar}' caste. The purpose of the pro- 
gram, however, is just the contrary. And it will 
have just the contrary result. The objective is not 
to train professional soldiers. It is to train citi- 
zens, so that if and when the Congress should 
declare it necessary for them to become soldiers, 
they could do so more quickly and more efficiently. 
A large trained reserve of peace-loving citizens 
would never go to war or encourage war, if it could 
be avoided. 

Until we are sure that our peace machinery is 
functioning adequate^, we must relentlessly pre- 
serve our superiority on land, and sea, and in the 
air. Until that time, we must also make sure that 
by planning — and by actual production — we have 
on hand at all times sufficient weapons of the latest 
nature and design with which to repel any sudden 
attack and with which to launch an efPective 
counter-attack. 

That is the only way we can be sure — until we 
are sure that there is another way. 

But research, new materials, and new weapons 
will never, by themselves, be sufficient to withstand 
a powerful enemy. We must have men trained 
to use these weapons. As our armed forces become 
more and more mechanized, and as they use more 
and more complicated weapons, we must have an 
ever inci-easing number of trained men. Techno- 
logical advances do not eliminate the need for men. 
They increase the need. 

Even the atomic bomb would have been useless 
to us unless we had developed a strong army, navy, 
and air force with which to beat off the attacks of 
oiu- foe and then fight our way to points within 
striking distance of the heart of the enemy. 

Assume that on December 7, 1941, the United 
States had had a supply of atomic bombs in New 
Mexico or Tennessee. What could we have done 
with them? 

(Continued on page 699) 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



661 



Military Government of Austria 

DIRECTIVE TO COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF U. S. FORCES OF OCCUPATION 
REGARDING THE MILITARY GOVERNMENT OF AUSTRIA' 



[Released to the press October 28] 

1. The Purpose and Scope of this Directive: 

a. This directive is issued to you as Command- 
ing General of the United States forces of occupa- 
tion in Austria. As such you will serve as United 
States member of the Allied Council of the Allied 
Commission for Austria and will also be respon- 
sible for the administration of military govern- 
ment in the zone or zones assigned to the United 
States for purposes of occupation and administra- 
tion. It outlines the basic policies which will 
guide you in those two capacities after the ter- 
mination of the combined command in Austria. 
Supplemental directives will be issued to you by 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff as may be required. 

h. As a member of the Allied Council you will 
urge the adoption by the other occupying powers 
of the princii^les and policies set forth in this di- 
rective and, pending Allied Council agreement, 
you will follow them in your zone. It is antici- 
pated that substantially similar directives will be 
issued to the Commanders in Chief of the United 
Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics, and French forces of occupation. 

c. In the event that recognition is given by the 
four governments to a provisional national gov- 
ei-nment of Austria, such government should be 
delegated authority in appropriate matters to 
conduct public affairs in accordance with the prin- 
ciples set forth in this directive or agreed upon 
by the occupying powers. Such delegation, how- 
ever, shall be subject to the authority of the oc- 
cupying powers and to their responsibility to see 
that their policies are in fact carried out. 

d. Any provisional national government of 
Austria which is not recognized by all of the four 
Governments of the occupying powers shall not 
be treated by you as possessing any authority. 
Only individuals who recognize your supreme 
authority in your zone will be utilized by you in 
administration. 



PART I 
General and Political 

2. The Basis of Military Government: 

a. The rights, power and status of the military 
government in Austria prior to the unconditional 
surrender and total defeat of Germany, were based 
upon the military occupation of Austria and the 
decision of the occupying powers to reestablish 
an independent Austrian state. Thereafter tlie 
rights, powers and status are based, in addition, 
upon such surrender or defeat. The Text of the 
Instrument of Unconditional Surrender of Ger- 
many published as a separate document has been 
made available to you.^ You will assure that the 
policies set forth in that Instrument are carried 
out in your zone of occupation insofar as they are 
applicable in Austria even though the defeat of 
Germany is not followed by a formal signing of 
the Instrument. 

b. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3 be- 
low, you are, by virtue of your position, clothed 
with supreme legislative, executive, and judicial 
authority in the areas occupied by forces under 
your command. This authority will be broadly 
construed and includes authority to take all meas- 
ures deemed by you necessary, appropriate or de- 
sirable in relation to military exigencies and the 
objectives set forth in this and other directives. 

c. You will issue a proclamation continuing in 
force such proclamations, orders and insti'uctions 
as may have heretofore been issued by Allied Com- 
manders in your zone, subject to such changes as 
you may determine. Authorizations of action by 
the Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean, 



' Prepared by the State-War-Navy Coordiuating Com- 
mittee and transmitted to General Mark Clark by the 
Joint Chiefs of Staff on June 27, 1945. For the directive 
regarding military government of Germany, see Bullktin 
of Oct. 21, 1945, p. 596. 

' Bulletin of July 22, 1945, p. 105. 



662 

or by the Supreme Commander, Allied Expedi- 
tionary Force, may be considered as a2:)plicable to 
you unless inconsistent ■with this or other direc- 
tives. 

3. The Allied Council and Zones of Occupation: 

a. Tlie four Commanders in Chief, acting 
jointly, will constitute the Allied Council which 
will exercise supreme authority in Austria. The 
United States proposal for an agreement on the 
organization of the Control Machinery in Austria 
published as a separate docimient has been made 
available to you. Wlien approved by the occupy- 
ing powers, the text of the agreement on Control 
Machinery in Austria will be furnished you. For 
purposes of administration of military govern- 
ment, Austria will be divided into four zones of 
occupation. When the occupying powers have 
agreed upon the zones of occupation in Austria, 
the text of the protocol in that regard will be fur- 
nislied you. 

i. The authority of the Allied Council to for- 
mulate policy and procedures and administrative 
relationships with respect to matters affecting Aus- 
tria as a whole will be paramount throughout 
Austria. This authority shall be broadly con- 
strued to the end that, through maximum uni- 
formity of policy and procedures throughout 
Austria, the establishment of an independent Aus- 
trian Government may be accelerated. In your 
capacity as a member of the Allied Council, you 
will seek maximum agreement witli respect to 
policy and maximum uniformity of action by the 
Commanders in Chief in their respective zones of 
occupation. You will carry out and support in 
your zone the policies agreed upon in the Allied 
Council. In the absence of such agreed policies 
you will act in accordance with this and other 
directives of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 

c. The Allied Council should cooperate with 
the Control Council in Germany in effecting the 
severance of all political and administrative con- 
nections between Austria and (iermany, and the 
elimination of German economic and financial in- 
fluences in Austria. You will in every way pos- 
sible assist the accomplishment of this purpose. 

d. The Allied Council should adopt procedures 
to effectuate, and you will facilitate in your zone, 
the equitable distribution of essential commodities 
between the zones. In the absence of a conflicting 
policy of the Allied Council, you may deal directly 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

with one or more zone commanders on matters of 
special concern to such zones. 

e. Pending the formulation in the Allied Coun- 
cil of uniform policies and procedures with respect 
to travel and movement of persons to and from 
Austria, no i:)ersons shall be permitted to cross the 
Austrian frontier in your zone except for specific 
l)urposes approved by you. 

/. The military goverimient personnel in your 
zone, including those dealing with regional and 
local branches of the departments of any central 
Austrian administrative machinery, shall be se- 
lected by your authority except that liaison officers 
may be furnished by the Commanders of the other 
three zones. The respective Commanders in Chief 
shall have exclusive jurisdiction throughout the 
whole of Austria over the members of the armed 
forces under their command and over the civilians 
who accompany them. 

4. Basic Objectives of Military Government in Aus- 
tria : 

a. You will be chiefly concerned in the initial 
stages of military goverimaent with the elimina- 
tion of German domination and Nazi influences. 
Consistently ^yith this purpose, you will be guided 
at every step by the necessity to ensure the recon- 
struction of Austria as a free, independent and 
democratic state. It will be essential therefore 
that every measure be undertaken from the early 
stages of occupation with this objective in mind. 

h. The Allied Council should, as soon as it is 
established, proclaim the complete political and 
administrative separation of Austria from Ger- 
many, and the intention of the occupying powers 
to pave the way for the reestablishment of Austria 
as an independent democratic state. You will 
make it clear to the Austrian people that militaiy 
occupation of Austria is intended principally (1) 
to aid Allied military operations and the strict en- 
forcement of the applicable provisions of the Ger- 
man unconditional surrender instrument in 
Austria; (2) to eliminate Nazism, Pan-German- 
ism, militarism, and other forces opposed to the 
democratic reconstitution of Austria; (3) to co- 
operate with the Control Council for Germany in 
the application and enforcement of measures de- 
signed to prevent the recurrence of German ag- 
gression; (4) to establish Allied Control over the 
use and disposition of German property in 
Austria; (5) to effect the complete political and 
administrative separation of Austria from Ger- 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 

many and fre« Austria from Nazi and German 
economic and financial influences; (6) to facilitate 
the development of a sound Austrian economy de- 
voted to peaceful pursuits and not vitally depend- 
ent upon German supplies, markets and technical 
and financial assistance; and (7) to foster the res- 
toration of local self-government and the estab- 
lishment of an Austrian central government freely 
elected by the Austrian people themselves. Other 
objectives of the occupation will be to apprehend 
war criminals, to care for and repatriate displaced 
persons and prisoners-of-war who are members of 
the armed forces of the United Nations, and to 
carry out approved programs of reparation and 
restitution insofar as these are applicable to 
Austria. 

c. You will assure that there is no fraterniza- 
tion by your troops with any German elements 
remaining in Austria. While in the initial period 
of occupation the relationship of the troops to 
the Austrian civil population will be distant and 
aloof but courteous, a progressively more friendly 
relationship may be permitted as experience justi- 
fies. 

5. Denazification: 

a. A Proclamation dissolving the Nazi Party, 
its formations, affiliated associations and super- 
vised organizations, and all Nazi public institu- 
tions which were set up as instruments of Party 
domination, and prohibiting their revival in any 
form, should be promulgated by the Allied Coun- 
cil. You will assure the prompt effectuation of 
that policy in your zone and will make every effort 
to prevent the reconstitution of any such organiza- 
tion in underground, disguised or secret form. 
Eesponsibility for continuing desirable non-politi- 
cal social services of dissolved Party Organizations 
may be transferred by the Governing Body to 
appropriate central agencies and by you to appro- 
priate local agencies. 

b. All laws which extended the political struc- 
ture of National Socialism to Austria or other- 
wise brought about the destruction of the Austrian 
state or which established discriminations on 
grounds of race, nationality, creed, or political 
opinion should be abrogated by the Allied Council. 
You will render them inoperative in your zone. 

c. All members of the Nazi Party who were 
German nationals prior to March 13, 1938, Ger- 
mans who entered Austria after that date, and 



663 

other Germans directly connected with the Nazi 
exploitation of Austria will immediately be re- 
moved from government positions and all other 
categories of employment listed below, and will be 
expelled from Austria in accordance with para- 
graph 21. All Austrian members of the Nazi 
Party who have been more than nominal partici- 
pants in its activities, all active supporters of 
Nazism and other persons hostile to Allied pur- 
poses will be removed and excluded from public 
oifice and from positions of importance in quasi- 
public and private enterprises such as (1) civic, 
economic, and labor organizations, (2) corpora- 
tions and other organizations in which the Ger- 
man Government or subdivisions have a major 
financial interest, (3) industry, commerce, agri- 
culture, and finance, (4) education, and (5) the 
press, publishing houses and other agencies dis- 
seminating news and propaganda. Persons are to 
be treated as more than nominal participants in 
Party activities and as active supporters of Nazism 
when they have (1) held office or otherwise been 
active at any level from local to national in the 
Party and its subordinate organizations, (2) au- 
thorized or participated affirmatively in any Nazi 
crimes, racial persecutions or discriminations, (3) 
been avowed believers in Nazi doctrines, or (4) 
voluntarily given substantial moral or material 
support or political assistance of any kind to the 
Nazi Party or Nazi officials and leaders. No such 
persons shall be retained in any of the categories 
of employment listed above because of adminis- 
trative necessity, convenience or expediency. 

d. Property, real and personal, owned or con- 
trolled by the Nazi Party, its formations, affili- 
ated associations and supervised organizations, 
and by all persons subject to arrest under the pro- 
visions of paragraph 7 below, and found within 
your zone will be taken under your control pend- 
ing a decision by the Allied Council or higher 
authority as to its eventual disposition. 

e. All archives, monuments and museums of 
Nazi inception, or which are devoted to the per- 
petuation of militarism, will be taken under your 
control and their properties held pending decision 
as to their disposition by the Allied Council. 

/. You will make special efforts to preserve 
from destruction and take under your control 
records, plans, books, documents, papers, files, and 
scientific, industrial and other information and 
data belonging to or controlled by the following: 



664 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



( 1 ) The central German Government and its 
subdivisions, the oftices of the Reichsstatthalter, 
the former Austrian state and its subdivisions, 
Gernum and Austrian military organizations, or- 
ganizations engaged in military research, and 
such other governmental agencies as may be 
deemed advisable; 

(2) The Nazi Party, its formations, affiliated 
associations and supervised organizations; 

(3) All police organizations, including security 
and political police; 

(4) Important economic organizations and in- 
dustrial establishments including those controlled 
by the Nazi Party or its personnel ; 

(5) Institutes and special bureaus devoting 
themselves to racial, political, militaristic or sim- 
ilar research or propaganda. 

6. Elimination of pre-Nazi ^Fascists Influences : 

a. You will remove and exclude from the posi- 
tions enumerated in sub-paragraph 5 c above all 
persons who took an active and prominent part 
in the undemocratic measures of the pre-Nazi 
Fascist regime or in any of its para-military or- 
ganizations such as the Heimwehr and the Ost- 
maerkische Sturmscharen. 

b. You will prevent the revival of any organi- 
zation seeking to restore the pre-Nazi Fascist 
regime. 

7. Suspected War Criminals and Security Arrests: 

a. You will search out, arrest, and hold, pend- 
ing receipt by you of further instructions as to 
their disposition, Adolf Hitler, his chief Nazi as- 
sociates, other war criminals, and all persons who 
have participated in planning or carrying out 
Nazi enterprises involving or resulting in atroci- 
ties or war crimes. 

b. All persons who if permitted to remain at 
large would endanger the accomplishment of your 
objectives will also be arrested and held in cus- 
tody until their disposition is otherwise deter- 
mined by an appropriate semi-judicial body to be 
established by you. 

[Note : There follows at this point in the direc- 
tive a detailed list of categories of Nazi war crim- 
inals and others who are to be arrested. Some of 
these have not yet been found. It is considered 
that to publish the categories at this time would 
put the individuals concerned on notice and ^you^d 
interfere with their apprehension and punish- 
ment, where appropriate. The list of categories 



is, therefore, withheld from publication for the 
25resent.] 

If in the light of conditions which you encounter 
in Austria you believe that it is not immediately 
feasible to subject certain persons within these 
categories to this treatment, you should report 
your reasons and recommendations to your Gov- 
ernment through the Joint Chiefs of Staff. If you 
believe it desirable, j'ou may postpone the arrest 
of those whose cases you have reported, pending a 
decision conmiunicated to you by the Joint Chiefs 
of Staff. In no event shall any differentiation be 
made between or special consideration be accorded 
to person arrested, either as to manner of ari-est, 
or conditions of detention, upon the basis of wealth 
or political, industrial, or other rank or position. 
In 3'our discretion you may make such exception 
as you deem advisable for intelligence or other 
military reasons. 

8. Demilitarization: 

a. In your zone you will assure that all units of 
the German armed forces including para-military 
organizations are dissolved as such and that their 
personnel are promptly disarmed and controlled 
in accordance with the policies and procedures set 
forth in the Instrument of Unconditional Sur- 
render of Germany or in other directives which 
maj' be issued to you. Prior to their final disposi- 
tion you will arrest and hold all military personnel 
who are included under the jj revisions of para- 
graph 7. Subject to military considerations and 
priority to be accorded repatriation of United 
Nations nationals, the Allied Council should co- 
operate with the Control Council for Germany in 
arranging the early repatriation or other disposi- 
tion of German members of the German armed 
forces, including para-military organizations, 
found within Austria. The two Allied agencies 
should likewise concert the prompt return to Aus- 
tria of Austrian members of the German armed 
forces found within Germany, except those held as 
active Nazis, suspected war criminals, or for other 
reasons. 

b. The Allied Council should proclaim, and in 
your zone you will effectuate, the total dissolution 
of all military and pai'a-military organizations to- 
gether with all associations which might serve to 
keep alive militarism in Austria. 

c. All persons who have actively supported or- 
ganizations jjromoting militarism or who have 
been active proponents of militaristic doctrines 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



665 



will be removed and excluded from any of the 
categories of employment listed in subparagraph 
5 c. 

d. You will seize or destroy all arms, ammuni- 
tion and implements of war, including all aircraft, 
military and civil, and stop the production thereof. 

9. Police: 

With the exception of the Kriminalpolizei 
(Criminal Police) , all elements of the Sicherheits- 
polizei (Security Police), e.g., Geheime Staats- 
polizei (Gestapo), and the Sicherheitsdienst der 
S.S. will be abolished. Criminal and ordinary 
police will be purged of Nazi personnel and uti- 
lized under the control and supervision of the 
military government. 

10. Administration oj Justice: 

a. All extraordinary courts, including the 
Volksgerichtshof (People's Court) and the Son- 
dergerichte (Special Courts), and all courts and 
tribunals of the Nazi Party and of its formations, 
affiliated associations and supervised organizations 
will be abolished immediately. 

h. All ordinary' criminal, civil and administra- 
tive courts, except those previously re-established 
by Allied authority, will be closed. After the 
elimination of all Nazi or other objectionable fea- 
tures and personnel you will permit those which 
are to exercise jurisdiction within the boundaries 
of your zone to resume operations under such reg- 
ulations, suiDervision and control as you may con- 
sider appropriate. Courts which are to exercise 
jurisdiction over territory extending beyond the 
boundaries of your zone will be reopened only 
with the express authorization of the Allied Coun- 
cil and under its regulation, supervision and con- 
trol. The power to review and veto decisions of 
German and Austrian courts shall be included 
within the power of supervision and control. 

11. Political Prisoners : 

Subject to military security and to the interests 
of the individuals concerned, you will release all 
persons found within your zone who have been 
detained or placed in custody on grounds of race, 
nationality, creed or political opinion and treat 
them as displaced persons. You should make pro- 
vision for the review of convictions of alleged 
criminal offenses about which there may be sub- 
stantial suspicion of racial, religious or political 
persecution, and in which sentences of imprison- 



ment have not been fully served by pei'sons im- 
prisoned within your zone. 

12. Reconstitution of an Administrative System: 

a. As soon as Nazi and Fascist influences have 
been eliminated from public offices in Austria, the 
reconstitution of Austrian administrative agen- 
cies shall be carried out in such a way as not to 
prejudice the political and constitutional future 
of Austria. The Allied Council should be respon- 
sible for the early establishment of such nation- 
wide administrative and judicial machinery as 
may be required to facilitate the uniform execution 
of its policy throughout Austria, to ensure free- 
dom of transit and communication to and between 
the separate zones of occupation, and to lay the 
foundation for the restoration of an Austrian na- 
tional administrative system. Administrative offi- 
cials with powers extending throughout Austria 
should be appointed only by or under the authority 
of the Allied Council. 

b. The formal abrogation of the Anschluss (Act 
of March 13, 1938) will not be considered as re- 
establishing the legal and constitutional system of 
Austria as it existed prior to that event. Such 
portions of earlier Austrian legislation or of Keich 
legislation relating to Austria may be retained or 
restored to force as is deemed appropriate for the 
purposes of military government and the reconsti- 
tution of Austria on a democratic basis. In so far 
as it may prove desirable to utilize constitutional 
laws for Austrian administration, suitable provi- 
sions of the Austrian Constitution of 1920, as 
amended in 1925 and 1929, should be applied. 

c. You will assure the severance of all connec- 
tions between regional (Gau) and local agencies 
on the one hand and Reich administrative agencies 
on the other, and will reconstitute Austrian Pro- 
vincial (Land) and local administration at the 
earliest possible moment. You may utilize such 
agencies of the present regional and local adminis- 
trations as may be deemed useful. 

13. Restoration of Regional and Local Self-Govern- 
ment : 

As a member of the Allied Council, you will 
urge the restoration of regional and local self- 
govei-nment throughout Austria at the earliest pos- 
sible moment. In the absence of agi-eement, you 
will facilitate the holding of elections to local and 
regional public office within your zone. If prior 
to or during occupation, local and regional popu- 
lar councils or similar organs appear, they may 



666 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



be granted temporary recognition pending ap- 
proval by the Allied Council and be utilized in 
administration in the event that they possess pojju- 
lar support and are free from Nazi or Fascist 
sympathizers and affiliations. 

14. Establishment of Independent Austrian Gov- 
ernment : 

The Allied Council should, and in your zone you 
will, make it clear to the Austrian people that the 
Allied Powers do not intend through military 
government to appoint or establish a national gov- 
ernment for Austria but will aid the Austrian 
people themselves to prepare for the election of a 
national assembly by democratic means. The Aus- 
trian people will be free to determine their own 
form of government provided the new regime be 
democratic in character and assume appropriate 
internal and international responsibilities and 
obligations. 

15. Political Activity and Civil Rights: 

a. At the earliest possible moment you will per- 
mit such political activity and organization by 
democratic groups as neither threatens military 
security nor presents substantial danger of public 
disorder nor engenders suspicion and disunity 
among the United Nations. 

h. You will prohibit the propagation in any 
form of Nazi, Fascists, militaristic, and pan-Ger- 
man doctrines. 

c. To the extent that military interests are not 
prejudiced and subject to the provisions of the 
two preceding subparagraphs and paragraph 16, 
you will permit freedom of speech, assembly, press, 
association, and religious worship. 

d. For purposes of military government you 
may consider as Austrian citizens all persons who 
held Austrian citizenship on or before March 13, 
1938, or who would have automatically acquired 
citizenship by operation of the law of Austria in 
force on March 13, 1938. The acts of July 30, 
1925 and August 16, 1933 should not be considered 
as depriving of citizenship Austrians who have 
entered the service of foreign states or who have 
taken up arms against the Reich since 1938. Ger- 
man laws purporting to affect Austrian citizenship 
should be ignored. 

16. Public relations and Control of Public Informa- 
tion : 

As a member of the Allied Council you will 
endeavor to obtain agreement for uniform or coor- 
dinated policies with respect to (a) control of pub- 



lic information media in Austria, (b) accredit- 
ing of foreign correspondents, (c) press censor- 
ship, and (d) issuance of official news commimi- 
ques dealing with matters within the jurisdiction 
of the Allied Council. United States policies in 
these matters will be sent to you separately and 
you will be guided by these in your negotiations in 
the Allied Council. 

17. Education: 

a. You will initially close all schools and uni- 
versities except those previously re-established by 
Allied autliority. The closure of Nazi educational 
institutions, such as Adolf Hitler Schulen, Napolas 
and Ordensburgen, and of Nazi organizations 
within other educational institutions, will be per- 
manent. 

b. A coordinated system of control over Aus- 
trian education and an affii'mative program of re- 
orientation will be established designed completely 
to eliminate Nazi, Fascists and militaristic doc- 
trines and to encourage the development of demo- 
cratic ideas. 

c. You will permit the reopening of elementary 
(Volksschulen), middle (Hauptschulen), and 
vocational (Berufsschulen) schools at the earliest 
possible date after Nazi and other objectionable 
personnel has been eliminated. Textbooks and 
curricula which are not free of Nazi, Fascists and 
militaristic doctrines shall not be used. The Allied 
Council should assure that programs are devised 
for the early reopening of secondary schools, uni- 
vei-sities and other institutions of higher learning. 
After Nazi and other objectionable personnel and 
features have been eliminated and jjending the 
formulation of such programs by the Allied Coun- 
cil, you may formulate and put into effect an in- 
terim progi'am within your zone and, in any case, 
you will encourage the reopening of such institu- 
tions and departments which offer training which 
you consider immediately essential or useful in the 
administration of military government and the 
purposes of the occupation. 

d. It is not intended that the military govern-' 
ment will intervene in questions concerning de- 
nominational control of Austrian schools, or in 
religious instruction in Austrian schools, except 
in so far as may be necessary to ensure that relig- 
ious instruction and administration of such schools 
conform to such Allied regulations as are or may 
be establislied pertaining to jjurging of personnel 
and curricula. 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



667 



18. Religious Affairs: 

a. The Allied Council should leave to the Aus- 
trian churchmen of the respective faiths the revi- 
sion of the constitutions, rituals or internal rela- 
tionships of purely ecclesiastical bodies. 

b. You will protect freedom of religious belief 
and worship. 

c. You will refrain from intervening in matters 
concerning religious instruction in schools, the 
establishment or continuation of denominational 
schools and the re-establishment of ecclesiastical 
control of any publicly supported schools. 

d. You will take necessary measures to protect 
churches, shrines, church schools, and other ec- 
clesiastical property from damage and from any 
treatment which lacks respect for their religious 
character. 

e. You may permit religious bodies to conduct 
appropriate youth, sport, and welfare activities 
and to receive contributions for such purposes. 

/. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 15, 
you will permit the establishment or revival of 
religious periodicals and the publication of other 
religious literature. 

19. Treatment of Displaced Persons and Refugees 
in Austria: 

a. Subject to any international agreements and 
to the agreed policies of the Allied Council, you 
will undertake the repatriation, return to former 
residence or resettlement of displaced persons who 
are (1) nationals of the United Nations and of 
neutral states, (2) stateless persons, (3) nationals 
of enemy or former enemy countries who have been 
persecuted by the enemy for reasons of race, na- 
tionality, creed or political opinion, (4) nationals 
of Italy, as rapidly as military considerations and 
arrangements with their respective governments 
permit. Due consideration will be given to the 
wishes of the individuals involved, and preference 
will be accorded to nationals of the United Nations 
and persons freed from concentration camps or 
other j^laces of detention. 

b. You will establish or maintain centers for the 
assembly and repatriation, resettlement or return 
of the foregoing displaced persons. Subject to the 
general control and responsibility of military gov- 
ernment, existing Austrian agencies will be re- 
quired to maintain essential supply and other 
services for them, including adequate food, shel- 
ter, clotliing and medical care. 

671572 — 45 3 



c. Subject to your general control, you will hold 
existing Austrian agencies responsible for the care 
and disposition of refugees and those displaced 
persons who are nationals of Germany or former 
enemy countries not otherwise provided herein. 
You will facilitate their repatriation or return, 
subject to whatever control you may deem neces- 
sary, as rapidly as military considerations and 
ajjpropriate arrangements with authorities in 
their respective home countries permit. 

d. Subject to agreed policies of the Allied Coun- 
cil, you will determine the extent to which 
UNRRA, the Inter-Governmental Conmiittee on 
Refugees, or other civilian agencies will partici- 
pate in handling displaced pei-sons and refugees. 

e. You will accord liaison on matters connected 
with displaced persons to representatives of each 
of the other Occupying Powers accredited there- 
for by their respective Commander in Chief and 
to representatives of any of the United Nations 
and neutral states and of Italy accredited therefor 
by the Allied Council or other competent author- 
ity. You will arrange for such representatives to 
have access to displaced persons who are nationals 
of their countries and are authorized to permit 
them to use the facilities of their governments 
for pur^joses of repatriation. 

/. The term "displaced persons" includes (1) 
non-Austrian civilian nationals who have been 
obliged to leave their own countries or to remain 
in Austria by reason of the war, (2) stateless per- 
sons, and (3) persons who have been persecuted 
by the enemy for reasons of race, nationality, creed 
or political ojiinion. The term "refugees" includes 
Austrian civilian nationals within Austria who 
are temporarily homeless because of military oper- 
ations, or are residing at some distance from their 
homes for reasons related to the war. 

20. Return of Austrian Civilians to Austria: 

In accordance with military considerations and 
appropriate arrangements with authorities in 
sending countries, you will cooperate in rapid 
repatriation of Austrian civilian nationals out- 
side Austria, exclusive of active Nazis and persons 
suspected of having committed war crimes or held 
for other reasons. 

21. The Removal of German Officials and Civilians 
from Austria: 

a. All German officials, members of the Nazi 
Party who were German nationals prior to March 



668 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



13, 1938, Germans who entered Austria after that 
date and other Germans directly connected with 
the Nazi exploitation of Austria, except those 
whom it may be desirable to hold for security or 
other reasons, should be expelled from Austria. 
The Allied Council should consult with the Con- 
trol Council in Germany regarding the removal 
to Germany of such persons. Removal will be ef- 
fected at the earliest time consistent with the 
availability of transport facilities and with the 
prospect of orderly absorption into Germany. 

b. Subject to instructions issued by the Allied 
Council in accordance with the provisions of the 
subparagraph a above, you will in your zone take 
all practicable measures to facilitate and expedite 
the removal to Germany of all German officials 
and of German citizens to be repatriated. 

22. Diplomatic and Consular Officials and 
Properties: 

All diplomatic and consular officials of coun- 
tries with which any one of the United Nations 
has been at war since December 31, 1937 will be 
taken into protective custody and held for further 
disposition. The diplomatic and consular prop- 
erty and records belonging to such countries or 
governments and to their official personnel will be 
seized and secured if not found in the custody of 
a protecting power. 

23. Arts and Archives: 

Subject to the provisions of paragraph 5 above, 
you will make all reasonable efforts to preserve 
historical archives, museums, libraries and works 
of art. 

PART II 

Econoniic 

General Econoniic Provisions 

24. The Allied Council should ensure the direc- 
tion of the Austrian economy in such a way as to 
carry out the objectives set forth in paragraph 4 b 
of this directive and should establish centralized 
control and administration of the Austrian econ- 
omy to the extent necessary to achieve the maxi- 
mum utilization of Austrian resources and equi- 
table distribution of essential goods and services 
and to obtain uniformity of policies and opera- 
tions throughout Austria. 

You will urge the establishment of such cen- 
tralized control and administration and, pending 
agreement in the Allied Council, you will take 



such measures in your own zone as are necessary to 
carry out the provisions of this directive. 

25. To the maximum extent possible without 
jeopardizing the successful execution of measures 
required to implement the objectives outlined in 
paragraph 4 Z> of this directive, Austrian author- 
ities and agencies should be used, subject to such 
supervision as is necessary to ensure that they 
carry out their task. For this purpose appropri- 
ate authority should be given to Austrian agencies 
and administrative services, subject to strict ob- 
servance of the provisions of this directive regard- 
ing denazification and dissolution or prohibition 
of Nazi and Fascist organizations, institutions, 
principles, features and practices. 

2G. You will preserve all significant records 
pertaining to important economic, financial and 
research organizations and activities. You will 
institute or assure the maintenance of such statis- 
tical records and reports as may be necessary to 
carry out the objectives of this directive. 

27. You will initiate appropriate surveys which 
may assist you in achieving the objectives of the 
occupation. In particular, you will promptly un- 
dertake surveys of supplies, equipment and re- 
sources in your zone. You will endeavor to obtain 
prompt agreement in the Allied Council to similar 
surveys in the other zones of occupation and urge 
appropriate steps to coordinate the "methods and 
results of these and other future surveys under- 
taken in the various zones. You will keep the 
Allied Council and your government currently 
apprised of the information obtained by means of 
intermediate reports or otherwise. 

Responsibility for Supplies from U.S. Military 
Sources 

28. Imports of supplies from U.S. Military 
supply sources, for which you will assume respon- 
sibility, will be limited to the basic essentials nec- 
essary in your zone (a) to avoid disease and un- 
rest which might endanger the occupying forces 
and (b) for the care of displaced persons. Im- 
ports will be undertaken only after maximum utili- 
zation of indigenous supplies. 

Agriculture, Industry and Internal Commerce 

29. You will make maximum use of supplies 
and resources available within Austria and you 
will require the Austrians to use all means at their 
disposal to maximize the production of foodstuffs 
and other essential goods and to establish as rap- 
idly as possible effective rationing and other ma- 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



669 



chinery for the distribution thereof. You will 
urge upon the Allied Council that uniform ration 
scales be applied throughout Austria. 

30. The Allied Council should assure to the 
maximum possible extent the free movement and 
equitable distribution of goods and services 
throughout Austria. 

31. The Allied Council should facilitate emer- 
gency repair and construction for the minimum 
housing needs of the civil population and restora- 
tion of transportation and communications serv- 
ices and public utilities essential to the objectives 
outlined in paragraph 4 i. 

32. In order to supplement the measures taken 
by the Control Council in Germany for the indus- 
trial disarmament of Germany and pending final 
decision as to the steps necessary in Austria to 
eliminate Germany's war potential, you should, in 
cooperation with the other zone commanders, take 
steps to 

a. prevent the production, acquisition and de- 
velopment of all arms, ammunition and imple- 
ments of war, including all types of aircraft, and 
all parts, components and ingredients specially 
designed or produced for incorporation therein ; 

b. seize and safeguard, pending instructions as 
to disposal, all facilities which are specially de- 
signed or adapted to the production of the items 
mentioned in a and cannot be converted to non- 
military production, using in such conversion only 
materials and equipment readily available and not 
emanating from Germany ; 

c. take an inventory of all German-owned plant 
and equipment in Austria, and all plant and equip- 
ment regardless of ownership erected or expanded 
in Austria subsequent to Anschluss, in the follow- 
ing industries: iron mining; steel and ferro- 
alloys; armaments (including aircraft) ; machin- 
ery (including automotive vehicles, agricultural 
machinery, locomotives and rolling stock, bearings 
and other special components, electrical machinery, 
and general industrial equipment) ; electronic 
equipment; electric power; non-ferrous metals, 
including light metals; rubber and oil, including 
synthetic rubber and oil; wood pulp; synthetic 
fibers; instruments; optical glass; chemicals (in- 
cluding pharmaceuticals and plastics) and photo- 
graphic equipment ; in order that the Allied Coun- 
cil may determine what portion of it is redundant 
to the development of a sound peacetime Austrian 
economy and make recommendations to the gov- 



ernments of the occupying powers regarding the 
treatment of these industries ; 

d. prevent large-scale exportation of light 
metals pending subsequent instructions on tlie 
policy to be followed regarding the Austrian light 
metals industry ; 

e. prevent the construction of plant capacity for 
the production of synthetic oil and rubber; and 
establish procedures, in consultation with the 
Control Council for Germany, for reviewing any 
projected construction of new or expanded capacity 
for materials the production of which is prohibited 
or limited in Germany as a measure of industrial 
disarmament, in order to ensure that such expan- 
sion is not for the purpose of evading controls in 
Geimany ; 

/. close initially all laboratories, research insti- 
tutions and similar teclmical organizations except 
those considered necessary for the protection of 
public liealth and safety, and provide for the main- 
tenance and security of physical facilities where 
deemed necessary and for the detention of such 
personnel as are of interest to technological and 
counter-intelligence investigations. After the pro- 
visions of paragraphs 5, G, 7 and 8 (e) have been 
applied, the reopening of laboratories, research in- 
stitutions and similar organizations should be per- 
mitted under license and periodic supervision, in 
accordance with policies which will be communi- 
cated to you. 

33. Without prejudice to the possible eventual 
transfer of equipment or production on reparation 
account in accordance with any Allied agreements 
which may be reached, the Allied Council should 
facilitate the conversion of industrial facilities to 
non-military production. In such conversion it 
will be your policy to give priority to the produc- 
tion of essential goods and equipment in short 
supply. 

34. The Allied Council should assure that all 
semi-official or quasi-public business and trade or- 
ganizations of an authoritarian character are abol- 
ished and that any organizations of commerce, in- 
dustry, agriculture and handicrafts which the 
Austrians may wish to establish are based on demo- 
cratic principles. 

35. The Allied Council should adopt a policy 
prohibiting cartels or other private business ar- 
rangements and cartel-like organizations includ- 
ing those of public or quasi-public character, such 
as the Wirtschaftsgruppen, which provide for the 



670 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



regulation of marketing conditions, including pro- 
duction, prices, exclusive exchange of technical in- 
formation and processes, and allocation of sales 
territories. Such necessary public functions as 
have been discharged by these organizations 
should be absorbed as rapidly as possible by ap- 
proved public agencies. Pending agreement in 
the Allied Council, you should take no action in 
your own zone with regard to this paragraph. 

36. The Allied Council should adopt policies de- 
signed to prevent or restrain inflation of a char- 
acter or dimension which would endanger accom- 
plishment of the objectives of the occupation. The 
Allied Council in particular, should direct and 
empower Austrian authorities to maintain or es- 
tablish controls over prices and wages and to take 
the fiscal and financial measures necessary to this 
end. 

Labor, Health and Social Insurance 

37. The Allied Council should permit the self- 
organization of employees along democratic lines, 
subject to such safeguards as may be necessary to 
prevent the perpetuation or revival of Nazi, Fascist 
or militarist influence under any guise or the con- 
tinuation of any group hostile to the objectives 
and operations of the occupying forces. The 
Allied Council should permit free collective bar- 
gaining between employees and employers regard- 
ing wages, hours, and working conditions and the 
establishment of machinery for the settlement of 
industrial disputes. Collective bargaining shall be 
within the framework of such wage, hour and other 
controls as may be instituted or revived. 

38. The Allied Council should permit the reten- 
tion or reestablishment of health services and facil- 
ities and non-discriminatory systems of social in- 
surance and poor relief. 

Reparation and Restitution 

39. As a member of tlie Allied Council and as 
zone commander you will ensure that the programs 
of reparation and restitution embodied in Allied 
agreements are carried out in so far as they are 
applicable in Austria. The Allied Council should 
cooperate with the Control Council in Germany 
for this purpose. You should urge the Allied 
Council to an agreement that, until appropriate 
Allied authorities formulate reparation and resti- 
tution program for application in Austria, 



a. no removals should be permitted on repara- 
tion account ; and 

b. restitution to other countries should be con- 
fined to identifiable looted works of art, books, 
archives and other cultural property. 

Foreign Trade 

40. The Allied Council should take prompt 
steps to re-establish Austrian customs autonomy 
subject to the provisions of jiaragraph 51 and es- 
tablish centralized control over all trade in goods 
and services with foreign countries. 

41. In the control of foreign trade the objectives 
of the Allied Council should be (a) to obtain as 
much as possible of Austria's essential irhports 
through regular trade; (b) encourage the devel- 
opment by Austrians as rapidly as possible of for- 
eign markets and sources of supply; and (c) to 
promote the orientation of Austrian trade away 
from Germany. 

The Allied Council should seek to obtain from 
sources other than military supply sources any 
imports essential to the achievement of the objec- 
tives set forth in this directive. Arrangements 
may be made with appropriate authorities in Ger- 
many for the importation of essential supplies 
from Germany, whenever in your judgment such 
supplies cannot be readily obtained from other 
sources. 

The Allied Council should favor the conclusion 
of such arrangements for the exchange of Austrian 
goods and services with those of foreign countries 
including the development of entrepot trade, as 
will aid in the revival of the Austrian economy on 
a sound basis and will not prejudice the eventual 
development of trade on a multilateral basis. 

The Allied Council in cooperation with the Aus- 
trian authorities, should make a survey of Austrian 
foreign exchange resources and of the possibilities 
for foreign markets and sources of supply for 
Austrian industry and trade to serve as the basis 
of a program for the development of a sound econ- 
omy. You will communicate to your government 
through the Joint Chiefs of Staff the results of 
such a survey, together with such recommenda- 
tions as you may deem appropriate. 

42. The Allied Council should adopt a policy 
which would forbid participation of Austrian 
firms in international cartels or other restrictive 
contracts and arrangements, and should order the 
prompt termination of all existing Austrian par- 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



671 



ticipation in such cartels, contracts and arrange- 
ments. Pending agreement in the Allied Council, 
you should take no action in your own zone with 
regard to this paragraph. 

PART III 

Financial 

General Provisions 

43. The Allied Council should adopt, for appli- 
cation throughout Austria, uniform financial 
measures which are necessary to the accomplish- 
ment of the objectives stated in paragraph 4 (6) 
of this directive and which are in conformity with 
the principles and policies set forth below. You 
will urge the establishment of centralized adminis- 
tration of such measures to the extent necessary to 
achieve these objectives and, pending agreement in 
the Allied Council, you will adopt such necessary 
measures in your own zone as are in conformity 
with the provisions of this directive. 

44. In the administration of financial matters 
you will follow the principles set forth in para- 
graph 25 of this directive. 

45. You will maintain such accounts and rec- 
ords as may be necessary to reflect the financial 
operations of the military government in your 
zone, and you will provide the Allied Council with 
such information as it may require, including in- 
formation in connection with the use of currency 
by your forces, any governmental settlements, 
occupation costs, and other expenditures arising 
out of operations or activities involving partici- 
pation of your forces. 

46. You will take measures to safeguard books 
and records of all public and private banks and 
other financial institutions. 

47. Subject to any agreed policies of the Allied 
Council, you are authorized to take the following 
steps : 

a. to prohibit, or to prescribe I'egulations re- 
garding transfers or other dealings in private or 
public securities or real estate or other property ; 

i. to close banks, insurance companies and 
other financial institutions for a period long 
enough for you to introduce satisfactory control, 
to ascertain their cash position, to apply the pro- 
visions of paragraphs 5, 6, 7 and 8 (c) of this di- 
rective, and to issue instructions for the determi- 
nation of accounts and assets to be blocked under 
paragraph 55 below ; 



c. to close stock and commodity exchanges and 
similar institutions for such periods as you deem 
appropriate and apply the provisions of para- 
graphs 5, 6, 7 and 8 (c) of this directive; 

d. to establish a general or limited moratorium, 
or moratoria, to the extent necessary to carry out 
the objectives stated in this directive. In particu- 
lar, it may prove desirable to prevent foreclosures 
of mortgages and the exercise of similar remedies 
by creditors against individuals and small busi- 
ness enterprises ; 

e. to issue regulations prescribing the purposes 
for which credit may be extended and the terms 
and conditions governing the extension of credit ; 

/. to put into effect such further financial meas- 
ures as you deem necessary to accomplish the pur- 
poses stated in this directive. 

48. The Allied Council should designate a suit- 
able bank, preferably the former Vienna Branch 
of the Reichsbank, to perform under its direction 
central banking functions. Simultaneously, all 
connections between such designated bank and in- 
stitutions or persons in Germany should be sev- 
ered in accordance with paragraph 57 of this di- 
rective. When satisfied that this bank is under 
adequate control, the Allied Council may, by en- 
suring that credits are made available only in 
schillings through the zone commanders or au- 
thorized issuing banks or agencies, place such 
bank in a position to finance other banks or other 
financial institutions for the conduct of approved 
business. 

Pending the designation of such a bank by the 
Allied Council, you may designate a bank in your 
zone to perform similar functions under your 
direct control and supervision and subject to the 
conditions specified above. 

In an emergency you are also authorized to make 
direct advances, in schillings only, to other finan- 
cial institutions. 

Currency 

49. The Allied Council should regulate and 
control the issue and volume of currency in Austria 
in accordance with the following provisions : 

a. United States forces and other Allied forces 
within Austria will use only Allied military schil- 
lings for pay of troops and other military require- 
ments. Allied military schillings will be declared 
legal tender in Austria. As long as Reichsmarks 
are legal tender in Austria, Allied military schil- 



612 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



lings will circulate in Austria interchangeably 
with Reichsniarks at a rate of one Allied military 
schilling for one Reichsmark. Reichskreditkassen- 
scheine and other military currency issued by the 
Germans will not be legal tender in Austria ; 

6. without authorization by the Allied Council, 
no Austrian governmental or private banks or 
agencies will be permitted to issue banknotes or 
currency ; 

c. appropriate Austrian authorities should, to 
the maximum extent possible, be required by the 
Allied Council to make funds available free of 
cost in amounts sufficient to meet all expenses of 
the forces of occupation, including the cost of 
Allied military government, the pay of Allied 
military personnel, and to the extent that compen- 
sation is made therefor the cost of such private 
property as may be requisitioned, seized, or other- 
wise acquired by Allied authorities for reparation 
or restitution purposes; 

d. as soon as administratively practicable, a 
general conversion into Allied Military schillings 
of the Reichsmark and Rentenmark currency cir- 
culated in Austria should be undertaken by the 
Allied Council or by you in coordination with the 
other zone commanders. 

You will receive separate instructions relative 
to the currency which you will use in the event that 
for any reason adequate supplies of Allied Military 
schillings are not available. 

You will not announce or establish, until re- 
ceipt of further instructions, any general rate of 
exchange between the Allied Militarj' schilling on 
the one hand and the U.S. dollar and other cur- 
rencies on the other. However, the rate of 
exchange to be used exclusively for pay of troops 
and military accounting purjjoses will be ten 
Allied Military schillings for one U.S. dollar. 

Public Finance 

50. Subject to any agreed policies of the Allied 
Council, you will take such action as may be nec- 
essary to insure tliat all laws and practices relat- 
ing to taxation or other fields of finance, which 
discriminate for or against any persons because of 
race, nationality, creed or political opinion, will 
be amended, suspended or abrogated to the extent 
necessary to eliminate such discrimination. Con- 
sistent with the foregoing purpose, the Austrian 
authorities should be required to take such action 



in the field of taxation as is necessary to assure an 
adequate inflow of revenues. Any public revenue 
in Austria previously collected by the German 
government may be used for approved public 
expenditures. 

61. Pending the determination of the long- 
range Austrian customs and trade policy, the Aus- 
trian authorities may impose duties on imports for 
revenue purposes. Duties for other purposes 
should only be imposed with the approval of the 
Allied Council. No duties will be imposed on im- 
ports for military account or for the account of 
such relief agencies as may be designated. 

52. Subject to any agreed policies of the Allied 
Council, you will prohibit : 

a. the payment to ex-soldiers of all military 
pensions, or other emoluments or benefits, except 
compensation for physical disability limiting the 
recipient's ability to work at rates which are no 
higher than the lowest of those for comparable 
physical disability arising from non-military 
causes ; 

b. the payment of all public or private pensions 
or other emoluments or benefits granted or con- 
ferred 

(1) by reason of membership in or services 
to the former Nazi party, its formations, affili- 
ated associations or supervised organizations or 
any pre-Nazi Fascist organizations, such as the 
Heimwehr and the Ostmarkische Sturnscharen ; 

(2) to any person who has been removed 
from an office or position in accordance with 
paragraphs 5, 6 and 8 (c) ; and 

(3) to any person arrested and detained in 
accordance with paragraph 7 during the term of 
his arrest, or permanently, in case of his subse- 
quent conviction. 

53. The Allied Council should exercise general 
control and supervision over the expenditures of 
public funds to the extent necessary to achieve the 
purposes of the occupation. 

54. The Allied Council should promptly initiate 
a survey for the purpose of ascertaining (a) the 
amount of the German government debt held in 
Austria, (b) the amount of all outstanding internal 
public debts in Austria, and (c) the fiscal position 
of Austria. You will promptly submit recommen- 
dations concerning the treatment of these debts, 
taking into consideration the effect on Austrian 
public credit of policies on this matter. 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



673 



Property Control 

55. Subject to any agreed policies of the Allied 
Council, you will impound or block all gold, silver, 
currencies, securities accounts in financial institu- 
tions, credits, valuable papers, and all other assets 
falling within the following categories: 

a. Property owned or controlled, directly or in- 
directly, in whole or in part, by any of the follow- 
ing: 

(1) the governments, nationals or residents 
of the German Reich, Italy, Bulgaria, Rumania, 
Hungary, Finland and Japan, including those 
of territories occupied by them ; 

(2) the Austrian State, the municipal and 
provincial government and all governmental au- 
thorities within Austria, including their agen- 
cies and instrumentalities; 

(3) the Nazi party, its formations, affiliated 
associations and supervised organizations, its 
officials, leading members and supporters; 

(4) all organizations, clubs or other associa- 
tions prohibited or dissolved by military gov- 
ernment ; 

(5) absentee owners, including United Na- 
tions and neutral governments; 

(6) any institution dedicated to public wor- 
ship, charity education or the arts and sciences, 
which has been used by the Nazi party to further 
its interests or to cloak its activities; 

(7) persons subject to arrest under the pro- 
visions of paragraph 7, and all other persons 
specified by military government by inclusion 
in lists or otherwise ; 

b. Property which has been the subject of trans- 
fer under duress, or wrongful acts of confiscation, 
disposition or spoliation, whether pursuant to 
legislation or by procedures purporting to follow 
forms of law or otherwise ; 

c. Works of art or cultural material of value or 
importance, regardless of the ownership thereof. 

You will take such action as will ensure that any 
impounded or blocked assets will be dealt with 
only as permitted under licenses or other instruc- 
tions which you may issue. In the case partic- 
ularly of projaerty blocked under a (2) above, you 
will proceed to adopt licensing measures which, 
while maintaining such property imder surveil- 
lance, would permit its use in consonance with this 
directive. Property taken from Austrians under 



the conditions stated in b above should be restored 
as promptly as possible, subject to appropriate 
safeguards to prevent the cloaking of Nazi, Ger- 
man or militaristic influence. 

The Allied Coimcil should seek out and reduce 
to the possession and control of a special agency 
all property interests of any type and description 
owned either directly or indirectly by Germany or 
a national or a resident thereof. 

External Financial and Property Relations 

56. All foreign exchange transactions, including 
those arising out of exports and imports, shall be 
controlled for the purpose of achieving the objec- 
tives set forth in this directive. To effectuate such 
objectives the Allied Council should 

a. seek out and reduce to the possession and 
control of a special agency all Austrian (public 
and private) foreign exchange and external assets 
of every kind and description located within or 
outside Austria; 

i. prohibit, except as authorized by regulation 
or license, all dealings in gold, silver, foreign ex- 
change, and all foreign exchange transactions of 
any kind ; 

c. make available any foreign exchange proceeds 
of exports for payment of imports necessary to the 
accomplislmient of the objectives set forth in this 
directive and authorize no other outlay of foreign 
exchange assets except for purposes approved by 
the Allied Council or other appropriate authority ; 

d. establish effective controls with respect to all 
foreign exchange transactions, including : 

(1) transactions as to property between 
persons inside Austria and persons outside 
Austria ; 

(2) transactions involving obligations 
owed by or to become due from any person in 
Austria to any person outside Austria; and 

(3) transactions involving the importation 
or exportation from Austria of any currency, 
foreign exchange asset or other form of 
property. 

57. The Allied Council should, in cooperation 
with the Control Council in Germany, take steps 
necessary to sever aU managerial and other organi- 
zational connections of banks, including postal 
banking offices, and all other business enterprises 
located in Austria with banks and business enter- 
prises or persons located in Germany. 



674 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Canadian-American Cooperation 
in War and Peace, 1940-1945 



BY ELIZABETH H. ARMSTRONG' 



T 



I HE COOPERATION between 
the United States and 
Canada which took so 
close a form in the course 
of the recent war is based on a long history of in- 
creasingly friendly relations between the two 
countries, as well as on a common language and a 
common way of life. Relations between Canada 
and the United States before World War II were 
based less on common institutions than on the con- 
stant interchange of population, tourists, books, 
movies, across an unguarded and ever peaceful 
frontier. Perhaps the best pre-war example of 
joint institutions was the International Joint Com- 
mission, established in 1909, primarily to prevent 
disputes regarding the use of boundary waters but 
also to settle all questions pending between the 
United States and Canada involving the "rights, 
obligations or interests of either along their com- 
mon frontier and to make provisions for the ad- 
justment and settlement of all questions." In the 
course of its existence the International Joint 
Commission has disposed of a number of prob- 
lems, largely concerned with boundary waters, 
which might have caused untold delays and con- 
siderable friction. 

In the course of the last few decades, Canada, 
while remaining loyal to its heritage of British 
tradition, has become more and more North Amer- 
ican in its general outlook and in the orientation of 
its foi'eign policy, which, nevertheless, emphasizes 
world rather than regional approaches. How in- 
terdependent the basic defense interests of Canada 
and the United States had become in the years 
immediately preceding World War II was clearly 
revealed by President Roosevelt's speech at Kings- 
ton in 1938 when he said that "the people of the 
United States will not stand idly by if domination 
of Canadian soil is threatened by any other em- 



pire". This famous statement found an echo in 
the minds and hearts of both Canadians and 
Americans that foretold the even closer coopera- 
tion that the war years were to bring about. 

Wartime cooperation between Canada and the 
United States arose from the desperate situation 
facing the world in 1940 when German power had 
swept through western Europe to the very shores 
of the Atlantic. It was based on the urgent neces- 
sity shared by Canada and the United States for 
curbing the aggression of the Axis powers and 
concerting plans for the defense of the northern 
part of this hemisphere. 

Military Cooperation 

Canadian-Ajnei'ican military cooperation was 
based upon the Ogdensburg agreement of August 
18, 1940, between President Roosevelt and Prime 
Minister King, which provided that a Permanent 
Joint Board of Defense should be set up at once. 
The Board was to consider in a broad sense the 
defense of the northern half of the Western Hemi- 
sphere and to commence immediate studies relat- 
ing to sea, land, and air problems including 
personnel and material. The most significant 
thing about the creation of this Joint Defense 
Board lay in the fact that it was clearly intended 
that its functions should extend beyond immediate 
wartime needs and should constitute the perma- 
nent advisory instrument for planning the de- 
fense of both the United States and Canada in the 
post-war period. 

Owing to security restrictions little has been 
published of the work of the Joint Defense Board 
in the five years that it has existed. Nevertheless, 
it is well known that the Board has been at the 



' Miss Armstrong is Assistant in tlie Division of Inter- 
national Organization Affairs, Office of Special Political 
Afifairs, Department of State. 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



675 



very core of the joint measures taken for the de- 
fense of this continent against German and Japa- 
nese aggression. The close and friendly relation- 
ship of its members, one with the other, constitutes 
a happy demonstration of the ease with which 
Canadians and Americans work together and is 
an excellent augury for the future cooperation of 
the two peoples. 

Even before the United States entered the war, 
joint Canadian-American measures were taken for 
the defense of the northeastern approaches to the 
North American Continent. After Pearl Harbor 
a policy of the closest cooperation between all the 
armed services of Canada and the United States 
was initiated. Soon after our entry into the war 
the United States and Royal Canadian navies be- 
gan to cooperate in the patrol of the North At- 
lantic sea lanes and in the escorts provided for 
the convoy service to British ports. These meas- 
ures were especially helpful during the summer of 
1942 when the submarine menace to North Ameri- 
can shores was at its height. 

In the course of 1942 a Canadian Joint Staff 
mission was set up in Washington for the purpose 
of coordinating Canada's war effort with that of 
the United States and of the other Allies. A train- 
ing scheme for a joint special service force was 
established in which Canadian soldiers were 
teamed with American troops. Canadian and 
American forces served jointly in Newfoundland, 
Iceland, and Alaska, while units of the Royal 
Canadian Air Force flew together with American 
air units in both Alaska and the Aleutians. Ca- 
nadian troops also took an active part in the oper- 
ations leading to the occupation of Kiska in the 
Aleutians in 1943. In the final phase of the war 
against Japan, a Canadian army force of 30,000 
men, equipped with United States weapons so as 
to minimize supply problems, was being prepared 
to fight as an integral part of the United States 
armies. Canadian Navy and Air Force con- 
tingents, while operating with their British com- 
rades, would have been for the most part under an 
American supreme commander. 

The construction of the Alaska Highway, which 
had been envisioned by President Roosevelt and 
others as early as 1937, was one of the outstanding 
examples of Canadian- American wartime coopera- 

' ExECTjTivE Agreement Series 246. 
'BmxETiN of Apr. 26, 1941, p. 494. 



tion. The extension of communication facilities in 
the Pacific northwest, the expansion of the North- 
west Air Staging Route, and the extension of 
meteorological service in that area were the natu- 
ral accompaniment of the building of this great 
strategic road. 

The agreements signed by Canada and the 
United States on March 17 and 18, 1942 provided 
for the construction of a highway along a route 
following the general line of airports, Fort St. 
John - Fort Nelson - "Watson Lake - Wliitehorse - 
Boundary - Big Delta.= The United States under- 
took to build the highway, to make the necessary 
surveys, and to provide for road maintenance until 
the termination of the war and six months there- 
after, unless Canada should prefer to resume re- 
sponsibility at an earlier date. It was further 
agreed that at the end of the war the Canadian 
part of the highway should revert to Canadian 
ownership and should become an integral part of 
the Canadian highway .system, subject to the 
understanding that at no time should any discrim- 
inatory conditions in relation to the use of the road 
as between Canadian and United States civilian 
traffic be imposed. 

The construction of the Alaska or Alcan High- 
way, beset as it was with engineering and other 
difficulties, nevertheless served a great purpose in 
providing a practical demonstration to the peoples 
of both Canada and the United States that they 
had a joint responsibility for the defense of the 
great Pacific northwest and that in happier days 
they might share a prosperous future in this area. 

Economic Cooperation 

The chief measures taken for economic coopera- 
tion between Canada and the United States grew 
out of the Hyde Park declaration made by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt and Prime Minister King on April 
20, 1941.^ Its underlying cause was the necessity 
for obtaining sufficient American exchange for 
Canada, together with the desire to avoid a dupli- 
cation of productive effort and provide a coordina- 
tion of the economic facilities of Canada and the 
United States. The principle was laid down that 
each country was to provide the other with those 
defense articles which it was best able to produce 
so that the most prompt and effective utilization 
of North American productive facilities could be 
procured not only for local and hemisphere de- 



671572—45 



676 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



fense but also for aid to the United Kingdom and 
the other democracies. The United States under- 
took to buy enough Canadian war products to allow 
Canada in turn to pay for essential war materials 
from the United States. The Hyde Park declara- 
tion has been rightly called an extension of Ogdens- 
burg * into the economic field. 

In May 1941, sliortly after the Hyde Park dec- 
laration, a Material Coordinating Committee, con- 
sisting of members of the Office of Production 
Management and their counterparts in the Ca- 
nadian AVartime Industries Board, was set up to 
collect and exchange information on raw mate- 
rial supplies in both countries and to consider their 
maximum utilization for hemisphere defense. 
The Material Coordinating Committee also served 
as the Canadian link M'ith the Combined Raw 
Materials Board on which Canada was not directly 
represented, although it was a member of the Com- 
bined Production and Resources Board as well as 
of the Combined Food Board.* A month later, 
in June 1941, the joint economic committees were 
established to consider the possibilities of effecting 
an efficient, economical, and coordinated use of 
combined resources and a reduction of probable 
post-war economic dislocation. 

A Joint War Production Committee was set 
up in November 1941 to provide arrangements for 
uniform specifications, quick exchange of supplies, 
and the break-up of transportation bottlenecks. 
In March 1943 a Joint Agricultural Committee 
was established to review continuously Canadian- 
American food production and distribution and 
to further developments which might be of help 
in wartime agricultural and food problems. 
Later, at the 1943 Quebec conference, a Joint 
Canadian-American War Aid Committee was 
formed by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister 
King. It was to study problems arising out of the 
operations of Lend-Lease and Mutual Aid pro- 
grams and to make recommendations concerning 
them. 

In addition to the excellent work of coordina- 
tion accomplished by the joint Canadian-Ameri- 
can committees, a good deal of practical coopera- 
tion was achieved through the simplification of 
border barriers (some of which however still 
exist) and the close contact between control officers 
of both countries. The War Production Board, 
for instance, worked out a program by which 
priorities for critical materials were allotted to 



Canadian war industry on the same basis as to 
American. The result was a very substantial de- 
gree of integration of industry in the two countries 
for war production purposes. 

Political Cooperation 

The political cooperation which existed between 
Canada and the United States during the years of 
World War II, to a hitherto unprecedented degree, 
in no way implied that any formal alliance had 
been established between the two countries. The 
wartime cooperation of the two North American 
countries, however, did involve the pooling of 
resources, of materials, and even of high policy in 
the interests (1) of hemisphere defense and (2) 
after December 7, 1941, of winning the war. But 
it remained clearly understood by the two govern- 
ments and indeed by the Canadian and American 
peoples that, although they were in this desperate 
fight together and were willing to give each other 
everything that was needed to bring it to a suc- 
cessful conclusion, there was no question at all of 
any hard and fast arrangements. In the larger 
sense, there was no necessity for any clearer defi- 
nition of the relations between Canada and the 
United States in wartime. The governments and 
the peoples understood each other and were con- 
tent in their mutual wartime cooperation, which 
they felt in no way conflicted with their own par- 
ticular and basic loyalties. 

Canadian-American Relations at International Con- 
ferences 
During the latter years of the recent war Canada 
took a prominent part in a number of conferences 
held in this country. In all of them the policies of 
the Canadian delegations were not far apart from 
those of the representatives of the United States, 
and an atmosjDhere of cordial cooperation existed 
between representatives of the two countries. 
Canada took a prominent part in the Food Con- 
ference held at Hot Springs, Virginia, in 1943, 
and Mr. L. B. Pearson, Minister Counselor of the 
Canadian Embassy in Washington (now Canadian 
Ambassador), was chosen to be Chairman of the 
Interim Food Commission. Canada played an 
equally vital role at the UNRRA Conference held 
at Atlantic City in 1943 and at the International 
Labor Office Conference at Philadelphia in the fol- 



* For article on the Combined Boards, by Courtney 
Brown, see Bulletin of July 1, 1945, p. 17. 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



677 



lowing year, in each case sending delegates of 
cabinet rank. The Canadian Government pro- 
duced a carefully thought out plan for financial 
and monetary reform which its delegation pre- 
sented to the Bretton Woods conference held in the 
summer of 1944. Canada also presented a plan of 
its own for the international control of civil avia- 
tion to the Chicago conference in the same year. 

Canadian- American Relations and the Proposed 
International Organization 

Canada, always interested in the principle of 
collective security during its membership in the 
League of Nations, throughout World War II 
expressed hope for the post-war creation of a bet- 
ter international organization than the League had 
proved to be. Even before the Dumbarton Oaks 
Conversations, Canadian public opinion had be- 
gun to favor a strong post-war international 
organization, and considerable interest was 
aroused in favor of a world police force. 

At the conclusion of the Dumbarton Oaks Con- 
versations, when the governments of the United 
Nations were asked to express their comments in 
view of the proposed San Francisco conference, 
the Canadian Government expressed certain ob- 
jections based on the consciousness of Canada's 
position as an important secondary or middle 
power and the feeling that this position should be 
recognized in view of Canada's high military and 
industrial potential as compared with other small 
nations. 

In explanation of Canada's "middle power" pol- 
icy it should be said that one of the most striking 
phenomena of the present war has been the growth 
of Canadian national feeling. It is largely based 
on pride in the splendid achievements of Canada 
in the industrial and agricultural, as well as in the 
military field. Canada, a country of less than 
12,000,000 people, raised an army of well over 
three quarters of a million men, an air force of 
almost 200,000, and a navy that from tiny begin- 
nings finally totaled over 90,000 men and 500 ships. 
Canada's industrial potential increased so rapidly 
in the course of the war that she became the fourth 
largest industrial country among the United Na- 
tions. All this military and economic war effort 
was expended m the closest cooperation with the 
United States. In addition, Canadian scientists 
were engaged in atomic research in close collabora- 
tion with their American and British colleagues. 



The Canadians regarded two revisions of the 
Dumbarton Oaks Proposals as of fimdamental 
importance to them : (1) that secondary powers be 
represented as such on the Security Council and 
(2) that decisions of the Security Council be bind- 
ing only on the members thereof and that some 
machinery be devised for other powers to be heard 
before being committed. 

In a speech made on March 19, 1945, Prime 
Minister Bang made it clear that the Canadian 
delegation at San Francisco would be instructed 
to work toward the following objectives: (1) 
recognition of the relative standing of secondary 
states; (2) the clarification of the position on the 
enforcement of diplomatic, military, and economic 
sanctions; and (3) the definition of the relations 
between the Security Council and any interna- 
tional authority set up to supervise long-term 
measures of control for enemy territory. 

The Canadian delegation at San Francisco did 
an excellent job in interpreting Canada's desire for 
the recognition of the importance of middle 
powers and for some representation of such powers 
when matters affecting their essential interests 
were discussed by the Security Council. With 
quiet and tactful determination the Canadian 
delegation pursued its policy and was rewarded by 
a somewhat modified, but none the less important, 
recognition of the princii^le involved. 

To those who observed the Canadian delega- 
tion at San Francisco it was notable that although 
the delegates never deviated from representation 
of their own country's interests, in so doing they 
inevitably played an important role in helping to 
place North American viewpoints before the other 
delegations. 

Canada's Commonwealth Relations vis-a-vis Its 
Relations to the United States 
There can be little doubt that Canada, the 
senior dominion of the British Commonwealth, 
in spite of its deejj and traditional loyalty to the 
mother comitry, today is well aware that its rela- 
tions with the United States constitute the most 
important factor in its foreign jDolicy. More than 
ever before and largely as a result of the recent 
war, Canadians, both English- and French-speak- 
ing, have realized that theirs is a North American 
country whose future peace and prosperity is in- 



61B 

dissolubly linked with that of the United States. 
This, however, in no way implies that Canada will 
not always remain deeply attached to Great 
Britain. But today as never before Canadians 
are masters of their own destiny, for the recent 
war made them an industrial and military power 
in their own right. 

Throughout the war, with its intimate linking 
of Canada and the United States for a myriad 
of war purposes, there has been no thought what- 
ever on the jDart of any responsible American of- 
ficial of any desire to interfere in Canada's rela- 
tion to the United Kingdom. Canadians, for their 
part, are more aware than any others of the pro- 
found changes that have occurred in American 
political thought on organization for peace since 
the refusal of the United States to take its place 
in the League of Nations little more than a quarter 
of a centur}' ago. It may be assumed that this is 
deepl}' welcome to Canada as is any develojiment 
which tends to bring about a closer identity of 
viewpoint between the United States and the na- 
tions of the British Commonwealth, including, 
most especially, the United Kingdom. 

It is a heartening fact that the close cooperation 
of the Canadian and American peoples and gov- 
ernments is based not only on mere geograjihical 
contiguity but also on a common approach to 
similar problems and on common necessities. The 
close association of World War II has proved once 
and for all that the two countries can be a military 
and industrial unit without in any way impairing 
the separate political entity of its component parts 
based on separate long-standing traditions. 
Canadians and Americans often speak, think, 
and act alike. But each nationality prefers its 
own land, its own tradition, and its own particular 
way of doing things. Canadian-American rela- 
tions today are an example of mutual tolerance 
and understanding between nations. Canadians 
no longer are concerned, as they were throughout 
the nineteenth century, lest their country be swal- 
lowed up by the United States; nor do Americans 
speak any more of the inevitability of annexation. 
A common experience in M-ar and peace has at last 
brouglit both countries to an appreciation one of 
the other and of the particular gifts that each has 
to contribute to the common "peace, order and 
good government" of this hemisphere and of the 
world as a whole. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Public Opinion and 
Foreign Policy 

October 13, 1945 
Dear General McCoy: 

I am very sorry indeed that I cannot attend the 
forum of the Foreign Policy Association to speak 
to your members in person. The fine work your 
organization has been domg has my complete sup- 
port. There is, in my opinion, no more urgent 
task before us at this time than the building of an 
informed public oj^inion on the problems of for- 
eign policy. Without a firm foundation of public 
understanding the United States cannot fulfill its 
responsibilities or exercise the leadership which 
our position as a great democracy demands of us. 

The American people are embarking on a new 
course of full participation in international affairs, 
full cooperation in the solution of the problems of 
peace. Not only our humanitarian impulses, but 
considerations of self-interest dictate this foreign 
policy. We are aware, and we shall become in- 
creasingly aware that the road we have taken is 
hard. The way of cooperation is laborious and 
often discouraging. It will demand of all of us 
great j^atience, and more than that, a much clearer 
understanding than we have ever had of the prob- 
lems of other jjeoples. 

Unless we exercise this patience and attain this 
understanding, there will be widespread disillu- 
sionment and loss of faith in the possibility of an 
expanding international collaboration. Such a de- 
velopment would jeopardize the future security 
and well-being of the American people. There- 
fore I urge the Foreign Policy Association and 
other public spirited citizen groups to redouble 
their efforts at public education in the field of in- 
ternational relations. 

Your government welcomes this cooperation, 
and will do its utmost to make available the facts 
and interpretation of policy on wliich an intelli- 
gent public opinion must be based. 
Very sincerely j'ours, 

Harry S. Truman 

Major General Frank Eoss McCoy, 
President, Foreign Policy Association, 
New York, N. Y. 



OCTOBER 28. 1945 



679 



The Charter of the United Nations: 
Entry Into Force 



[Released to the press on October 24] 

The Charter of the United Nations, together 
with the Statute of the International Court of 
Justice, came into force today, October 24, 1945. 
The international Organization to be known as 
the United Nations thereby came into being. 

A Protocol of Deposit of Ratifications was signed 
on October 24 by the Secretary of State. The 
Protocol sets forth the fact that the requirements 
of the Charter for its coming into force have been 
met and lists the ratification instruments or docu- 
ments which have been i^laced in the possession of 
the Department of State for deposit with the 
original of the Charter. Facsimile copies of the 
Protocol will be furnished by the Government of 
the United States to each of the other governments 
signatory to the Charter. 

The procedure for bringing the Charter into 
force is stated in the Charter itself. Under the 
terms of article 110 the deposit of instruments of 
ratification by the United States, China, France, 
the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and a ma- 
jority of the other signatory countries is necessary 
in order to bring the Charter into force. Inasmuch 
as there are fifty-one signatory countries, the mini- 
mum niunber of instruments which had to be de- 
posited in order to bring the Charter into force was 
twenty-nine, provided this number included the 
five countries specifically named. 

The text of the Protocol of Deposit of Ratifica- 
tions signed by the Secretary of State is as fol- 
lows: 

PROTOCOL OF DEPOSIT OF RATIFICATIONS OF 
THE CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS 

Whereas, paragraph 3 of Article 110 of the 
Charter of the United Nations, signed at San 
Francisco on June 26, 1945, provides as follows : 

"3. The present Charter shall come into force 
upon the deposit of ratifications by the Republic 
of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland, and the United States of 



America, and by a majority of the other signatory 
states. A protocol of the ratifications deposited 
shall thereupon be drawn up by the Government 
of the United States of America which shall com- 
municate copies thereof to all the signatory 
states."; 

Whereas, the Charter of the United Nations 
has been signed by the Plenipotentiaries of fifty- 
one states ; 

Whereas, instruments of ratification of the 
Charter of the United Nations have been deposited 

by 

the Republic of China on September 28, 1945, 

France on August 31, 1945, 

the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on 

October 24, 1945, 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 

Northern Ireland on October 20, 1945, and 
the United States of America on August 8, 1945 ; 

and by 
Argentina on September 24, 1945, 
Brazil on September 21, 1945, 
the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic on 

October 24, 1945, 
Chile on October 11, 1945, 
Cuba on October 15, 1945, 
Czechoslovakia on October 19, 1945, 
Denmark on October 9, 1945, 
the Dominican Republic on September 4, 1945, 
Egypt on October 22, 1945, 
El Salvador on September 26, 1945, 
Haiti on September 27, 1945, 
Iran on October 16, 1945, 
Lebanon on October 15, 1945, 
Luxembourg on October 17, 1945, 
New Zealand on September 19, 1945, 
Nicaragua on September 6, 1945, 
Paraguay on October 12, 1945, 
the Philippine Commonwealth on October 11, 

1945, 
Poland on October 24, 1945, 
Saudi Arabia on October 18, 1945, 
Syria on October 19, 1945, 



680 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Turkey on September 28, 1945, 

the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic on 

October 24, 1945, 
Yugoslavia on October 19, 1945 ; 

And whereas, the requirements of paragraph 3 
of Article 110 -with respect to the coming into 
force of the Charter have been fulfilled by the de- 
posit of the aforementioned instruments of ratifi- 
cation ; 

Now, THEREFORE, I, James F. Byrnes, Secretary 
of State of the United States of America, sign this 
Protocol in the English language, the original of 
which shall be deposited in the archives of the 
Government of the United States of America and 
copies thereof communicated to all the states sig- 
natory of the Charter of the United Nations. 

Done at Washington this twenty-fourth day of 
October, one thousand nine hundred foi'ty-five. 

James F. Byrnes 

Seo'etary of State 

of the United States of America 

STATEMENT BY EDWARD R. STETTINIUS, JR.' 

October 24, 1945. 
I have just received word that the United 
Nations Charter has come into force today. I am, 
of course, delighted at the news. I am sure the 
American people share with me a strong sense of 
the significance of this occasion, and are prepared 
to give their full support to the United Nations to 
the end that our common aim of building a new 
and better world shall be attained. 



OCCASION OF SIGNING OF THE PROTOCOL 
OF DEPOSIT OF RATIFICATIONS 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press October 24] 

Ladies and Gentlemen : Shortly after 3 o'clock 
this afternoon a representative of the Soviet Em- 
bassy deposited with the Department the Soviet 
(iovernment's instrument of ratification of the 
United Nations Charter. 

Twenty-nine nations, including the United 
States, China, France, the Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics, and the United Kingdom, have now 
deposited their instruments of ratification. 

The United Nations Charter is now a part of the 
law of nations. 

This is a memorable day for the peace-loving 
peoi^les of all nations. 

As I have fi'equently said, the maintenance of 
peace depends not upon any document but upon 
what is in the minds and hearts of men. But the 
peoples of this earth who yearn for peace must be 
organized to maintain that peace. This Charter 
provides the organization. 

In the days ahead of us we will do our utmost, 
in cooperation with the other United Nations, to 
keep the peace and promote the well-being of all 
peoples. 

It is now my happy privilege to sign the Protocol 
which, in accordance with article 110 of the United 
Nations Charter, will attest to the fact that the 
Charter has come into force. 



Preparatory Commission of the United Nations 



DISCUSSION ON RELATION BETWEEN SPECIALIZED AGENCIES AND THE UNITED NATIONS 



[Released to the press by the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations October 11] 

The Executive Committee of the Preparatory 
Commission of the United Nations which met this 
afternoon at Chur.ch House, Westminster, Mr. 
Noel-Baker (United Kingdom) presiding, consid- 
ered the first of the series of complete reports 
which are now being submitted to the Executive 
Committee by its ten working committees. The 



' Mr. Stettinius is United States Representati%-o on the 
Prepai-atory Commission of tlie United Nations, wliicli is 
now meeting in London. 



reports of these ten committees will be embodied 
in the final report, which will be presented by the 
Executive Committee to the Preparatory Commis- 
sion, to meet in London on November 8. 

The report submitted to the Executive Commit- 
tee today was that of Committee 8, which had dis- 
cussed the relationship between specialized agen- 
cies and the United Nations. The Committee has 
made in its report a number of suggestions for 
bringing into relationship with the United Na- 
tions the various intergovernmental agencies 
which have been or may be established to deal 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



681 



with economic, social, educational, health, and 
similar matters. These suggestions implement 
the provisions of the Charter which entrust the 
United Nations with the responsibility for co- 
ordinating the policies and activities of these 
agencies, and fm-nish a possible basis for the 
agreements to be concluded with them. Among 
other things the report suggests methods for finan- 
cial and administrative coordination. 

As a result of the discussion in the Executive 
Committee, several changes were made in the draft 
of the report. Among these it was decided that the 
phrase used in the report "all important existing 
specialized agencies" be replaced by the language 
of article 57 of the Charter, which refers to "the 
various specialized agencies". 

After some discussion the Executive Committee 
agi'eed to transmit to the Preparatory Commission 
the observations laid before it by Committee 8 
regarding the relationship between specialized 
agencies and the United Nations. It was further 
agreed that it be recorded in the minutes that the 
decision was taken on the understanding that the 
transmission itself does not mean either approval 
or disapproval of these observations, and that tlie 
minutes of the Executive Committee meeting 
which considered them will also be transmitted to 
tlie Preparatory Commission in order to make 
clear the views of the various delegations. 

This decision was taken by a vote of 10 in favor, 
with 2 abstentions and 2 qualified votes. 

Certain proposals, submitted by Gladwyn Jebb, 
Executive Secretary, concerning the printing and 
distribution of the Executive Conunittee's final 
report to the Preparatory Commission, were 
approved. Copies of both the final report and the 
appendixes will be mimeographed in the two work- 
ing languages of the Executive Coimnittee (Eng- 
lish and French) and dispatched by airmail on 
October 20. Subsequently the reports will be 
printed in the five official languages (English, 
French, Chinese, Kussian, and Spanish). These 
printed reports will be available in London on or 
about November 1. The Executive Secretary was 
authorized to have sufficient copies of the final re- 
port for circulation to all delegations to the Pre- 
paratory Commission, to the League of Nations 
and the specialized agencies, to the press, and so far 
as possible to such private national organizations 
as may apply. 



It was amiomiced that the Union of South 
Africa has taken executive action for the rati- 
fication of the Charter, which has now been ratified 
by a total of 33 states, of which 12 have deposited 
the instruments of ratification in Washington. 

The next meeting of the Executive Committee 
will be held on Friday, October 12, at 10 : 30 a.m. 

CONCERNING THE SELECTION OF UNITED 

NATIONS HEADQUARTERS 

[Released to the press by the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations October 15] 

Wlien the Executive Committee met this morn- 
ing, Mr. Noel-Baker (U.K.) presiding, it was 
found necessary to reconsider the program of 
work. It was originally intended that the Execu- 
tive Committee should conclude its work by Thurs- 
day, October 18. Certain suggestions to this end 
were submitted at the beginning to today's meet- 
ing by the Executive Secretary (Gladwyn Jebb). 

It was then intimated by M. Roschin, deputizing 
for M. Gromyko (U.S.S.R.), that the Soviet Dele- 
gation needed further consultation with its gov- 
ernment. M. Roschin therefore suggested that the 
Executive Committee should suspend its meeting 
for two or three days. 

Escott Reid (Canada) suggested that time 
should be allowed for the drafting and coordina- 
tion of the committee reports. 

Eventually it was agreed that the next meeting- 
be held on Thursday next, when all delegations will 
be ready to take final decisions. 

The problem of selecting the site for the head- 
quarters of the United Nations was brought up by 
Mr. Stettinius (U.S.A.). Should the Executive 
Committee's decision in favor of the United States 
be confirmed by the Preparatory Commission and 
the General Assembly, it would be necessary, Mr. 
Stettinius said, to take practical stej^s for the selec- 
tion of a suitable site. For this purpose a proper 
organ of the United Nations should analyze and 
assemble the various proposals and then transmit 
them in useful form to the Preparatory Com- 
mission. 

On the suggestion of Wellington Koo (China) 
it was agreed that this should be done by Com- 
mittee 10. 

Mr. Hasluck (Australia), M. Entezam (Iran), 
and other delegates pressed for the publication of 
the report on the private meeting at which the 
question of the location of the headquarters had 



682 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



been discussed. It was agreed that the delegations 
would be given another two days to insert any cor- 
rections they might like to make and that the ver- 
batim record would then be made available to the 
press. 

Mr. Noel-Baker announced that he would be 
leaving this country on Thursday and suggested 
the election of a new chairman to take his place. 
On the proposal of M. Roschin (U.S.S.R.), Mr. 
Stettinius was elected chairman. 

ACTIONS TAKEN ON COMMITTEE REPORTS 

[Released to the press by the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations October 12] 

The Executive Committee of the Preparatory 
Commission of the United Nations met this morn- 
ing at Church House, Westminster, under the 
chairmanship of Mr. P. J. Noel-Baker, Minister of 
State. The Committee considered a report sub- 
mitted by Committee 9 on the transfer to the 
United Nations of the League of Nations' functions 
and assets. This report had been adopted in Com- 
mittee 9 after 8 delegates had voted in favor, one 
against, and one abstention. 

The report recommended that the functions and 
assets of the League of Nations of a teclinical and 
non-political character should be taken over by the 
United Nations, subject to certain exceptions and 
without prejudice to such action as the United 
Nations may subsequently take. It was further 
recommended that continuity be maintained in the 
work done by the League of Nations on such mat- 
ters as economic and health questions and the con- 
trol of the drug traffic. The library and archives 
of the League of Nations should be taken over. 

M. Gromyko (U.S.S.R.) objected to any recom- 
mendation which might suggest that all non-politi- 
cal functions of the League should be taken over. 
There was no strict line of demarcation between 
political and economic functions, nor was there 
any legal or political connection between the 
United Nations and the League. Organs of the 
United Nations should decide for themselves which 
functions of the League were to be continued. 

Mr. Hasluck (Australia) supported the view 
that the organs of the United Nations should 
themselves decide this question. 

Mr. Stettinius (U.S.) felt that the draft, which 
had been very carefully prepared, amply met the 
Soviet and Australian objections. 

Dr. Wellington Koo (China), urging the need 
to carry on the technical work of the League, 



stated that Japan had reintroduced in the Far 
East the traffic in harmful drugs and that urgent 
action was necessary. He wished to see the adop- 
tion of the report. 

A vote was taken, 10 delegations voting in favor 
of the adoption of the report, with U.S.S.R. and 
Australia voting against and Czechoslovakia and 
Yugoslavia abstaining. The Australian Delegate 
emphasized that his objection to the report con- 
cerned the text only. 

The Executive Committee then considered the 
report submitted by Committee 5 on the privileges 
and immunities to be accorded to officials of the 
United Nations and the specialized agencies. The 
report recommended that certain diplomatic privi- 
leges would be essential to the i^roper discharge of 
the officials' duties, but that such privileges should 
be strictly limited to officials whose work demanded 
them. The projDOsed creation of an international 
passport for United Nations' officials should not in 
any way infringe upon the sovereign right of 
states to demand visas, where necessary, but it 
should be imderstood that such visas would be 
granted quickly. 

The report was adopted with minor modifica- 
tions. 

The Executive Committee also adopted the cur- 
lent progress report on the work of the technical 
committees. 

The next meeting will be on Monday, October 
15, at 10 a.m. 



[Released to tlie press by the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations October 18] 

At today's meeting of the Executive Committee, 
before the debate on the agenda of the day, Well- 
ington Koo (China) raised the problem of select- 
ing a specific place within the United States for 
setting up the permanent headquarters of the 
United Nations. He suggested that Committee 10 
should prepare a comparative study based on the 
Ijrojwsals which have been received. 

M. Gromyko (U.S.S.R.) said that he had under- 
stood that the problem was to be discussed not 
only by a subcommittee but eventually also by the 
Executive Committee and that the Executive Com- 
mittee would then make specific recommendations 
to the Preparatory Commission. 

This view was supported by Mr. Hasluck' 
(Australia). On the otlier hand Professor Web- 
ster (U.K.) contended that no special resolution 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



683 



was needed. Mr. Stevenson (U.S.) said that it 
would be difficult for the Executive Committee to 
make any specific recommendation. Eventually it 
was agi-eed to postpone further discussion. 

The Executive Committee is now entering its 
final stage. Six of its subcommittees have already 
completed their reports, and three of them have 
been passed by the Executive Committee. The re- 
ports passed are those of Committees 5 (Court and 
Legal), 8 (Specialized Agencies), and 9 (League 
of Nations) ; those ready for consideration are the 
reports of Committees 4 (Trusteeship), 3 (Eco- 
nomic and Social) and 7 (Finance). It is hoped 
that the remaining reports will be finished by Fri- 
day night, but there were some doubts expressed 
at today's meeting whether it will be possible for 
the Executive Conomittee to conclude its work with- 
in the time schedule, that is by October 24 at the 
latest. All delegates, however, were in favor of 
adhering to the dates agreed on for the meeting of 
the Preparatory Commission (Novembers) and of 
the General Assembly (December 4) . 

When today the Executive Committee continued 
the discussion of the report of Committee 4 (Trus- 
teeship), M. Gromyko (U.S.S.R.) objected to the 
creation of a temporary Trusteeship Committee 
as suggested by Committee 4. He said that the 
Charter did not provide for such a substitute for 
the Trusteeship Council, and that confusion would 
thereby be created. 

Mr. Stevenson (U.S.) said that complete agree- 
ment had been reached about the creation of the 
Trusteeship Coimcil at the earliest possible 
moment. The setting up of a temporary Trustee- 
ship Committee was a means to that end. 

M. Massigli (France) said that as a result of the 
attitude taken up by the Soviet Delegation an 
entirely new situation had arisen. It might be 
found necessary to examine alternative sugges- 
tions. 

Professor Webster reminded the Committee 
that the report had been unanimously adopted in 
the subcommittee and suggested that it be passed ; 
objections could be raised in the subsequent debate 
before the Preparatory Commission. 

The report of Committee 4 was eventually 
adopted by 7 votes against 3 (U.S.S.R., Czecho- 
slovakia, Yugoslavia) , with 4 abstentions (Mexico, 
Chile, Iran, France) . 

At the beginning the the meeting Adlai Steven- 
son (U.S.) was elected chairman in the place of 



Mr. Stettinius, who had to return to the United 
States for health reasons. 

The next meeting of the Executive Committee 
will be held on Friday, October 19, at 10 : 30 a.m. 



[Releaeed to the press by the Preparatory CommlBSlon of the 
United Nations October 22] 

At the meeting of the Executive Committee of 
the Preparatory Commission of the United Na- 
tions on October 22 M. Gromyko (U.S.S.R.) raised 
a number of objections to various committee re- 
ports which are now coming up for consideration 
before the Executive Committee concludes its 
work. After prolonged discussion of the pro- 
posed Russian amendments, some of which were 
carried, the Executive Committee adopted the re- 
port dealing with the Economic and Social Council 
but deferred discussion of the committee report 
dealing with financial matters. The Executive 
Committee then began to consider the report on 
the Security Council. 

The Executive Committee has so far passed the 
final recommendations of five of its ten working 
committees, namely those of Committee 3 (Eco- 
nomic and Social Council), 4 (Trusteeship), 5 
(International Court and Legal Problems), 8 
(Specialized Agencies), and 9 (League of Na- 
tions). Awaiting approval for eventual submis- 
sion to the Preparatory Commission are the re- 
IJorts of Committees 1 (General Assembly), 2 
(Security Council), 6 (Secretariat), 7 (Financial 
Arrangements), and 10 (General). 

Presenting the report on the Security Council, 
Mr. Blaisdell (U.S.) said that part of the report 
had had the unanimous support of all the mem- 
bers of Committee 2. Against another part of the 
report certain delegations, particularly those of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Checho- 
slovakia, Yugoslavia, and Chile, had reserved their 
right to raise questions before the Executive Com- 
mittee. The Australian Delegate (Mr. Hasluck) 
made reservations concerning the selection of the 
President of the Security Council. In his view 
the presidency should be held in a personal capac- 
ity and should be for an annual term. 

Mr. Hasluck also said that he most emphat- 
ically disagreed with the interpretation sometimes 
given to the position of the Security Council, ac- 
cording to which the Executive Committee had 
better leave the Security Council alone. In Mr. 
Hasluck's opinion this was a most unhealthy tend- 



684 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ency. At the beginning of their work the United 
Nations should not be perpetually faced with the 
idea that the Security Council was so remote and 
exclusive that no suggestion could be made regard- 
ing its activities. The Security Council did not 
act for itself. It acted for and on behalf of the 
whole of the United Nations. No particular 
power, Mr. Hasluck continued, had any right to 
lift the Security Council out of the Charter or to 
set it apart from the other organs of the United 
Nations. Mr. Hasluck said that he recognized the 
need for a strong Security Council, but he refused 
to recognize it as an isolated and supersensitive 
body. 

The debate was then adjourned until Tuesday, 
October 23, 10 a. m. 

PROBLEMS RELATING TO 
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL 

[Released to the press by the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations October 19] 

The Executive Committee of the Preparatory 
Commission of the United Nations discussed on 
October 19 problems relating to the creation and 
the work of the Economic and Social Council. Mr. 
Stevenson (U.S.), in the chair, pointed out that 
his Government, considering the need for eco- 
nomic and social reconstruction in all parts of the 
world, attached the greatest importance to the 
preparations for the setting up of the Economic 
and Social Council. The relevant report which 
was now being considered by the Executive Com- 
mittee showed how they could create the ma- 
chinery which would enable the Economic and So- 
cial Council to take prompt action. 

In the discussion which followed, Dr. Welling- 
ton Koo (China) drew attention to the urgent 
problem of the traffic in opium and other dan- 
gerous drugs. The Japanese, he said, did every- 
thing to promote the abuse of opium and other 
drugs. The Chinese Government had now found 
it necessary to embark on yet another campaign 
against the opium danger. Dr. Wellington Koo, 
on behalf of his Government, expressed the earnest 
hope that the Economic and Social Council, upon 
its establishment, would without delay set up a 
separate Standing Commission to take the place of 
the League of Nations Opium Advisory Commis- 
sion. 

A number of delegates, associating themselves 
with the statement of the chairman, stressed the 



importance of the Economic and Social Council 
for the reconstruction of the world and expressed 
their satisfaction with the report that had been 
submitted to the Executive Committee. 

Today the Executive Committee concluded its 
general discussion on the reports of Committees 
3 (Economic and Social) and 7 (Finance) but de- 
cided to postpone decisions on these reports until 
a later meeting. 

The date of the next meeting will be fixed by the 
chainnan, either tonight or early tomorrow 
morning. 

RECEPTION OF DELEGATES 
FOR THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

[Released to the press by the Preparatory CommiBsion of the 
United Nations October 23] 

This conference has been arranged because vari- 
ous members of the press have expressed interest 
in the plans for the forthcoming General Assem- 
bly of the United Nations. These plans are still 
rudimentary, but journalists may be glad to know 
something about tlie proposed arrangements. 

It is hoped that the Preparatory Commission of 
the United Nations will meet at Church House on 
November 8. Its plenary meetings will be held 
in the wartime House of Commons. On December 
4, if present plans can be carried out, the first 
General Assembly of the United Nations will be 
held in Central Hall, Westminster. Mainly be- 
cause of the difficulty of heating, the original proj- 
ect to use Westminster Hall will almost certainly 
have to be abandoned. Plans are already in hand 
for adapting Central Hall to make it a fitting cen- 
ter for the world Assembly. Technical arrange- 
ments to this end are the responsibility of the 
Ministry of Works. 

It is anticipated that several hundred delegates 
and experts will be coming to London for the 
Preparatory Commission and anything up to 2,000 
for the General Assembly. A great task of organ- 
ization lies before those who are responsible for 
receiving and accommodating these visitors. It 
is expected that many of the 50-odd United Nations 
will send their Foreign Minister as chief delegate, 
and it is hoped that Mr. Bevin will lead the United 
Kingdom Delegation. Other leading statesmen, 
diplomats, and economic and legal experts will 
accompany their chiefs. 

Technical arrangements for botli conferences, 
together with all committee meetings, servicing by 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



685 



secretariat, reproduction and distribution of docu- 
ments running into millions of words, interpreting 
and translating, press facilities and public rela- 
tions, and so forth, will be the responsibility of the 
United Nations. Reception, accommodation, and 
entertainment of delegates will be provided by the 
new Conference Department of the Foreign Office 
under Col. G. R. Codrington, C.B., D.S.O. 

Delegates wishing to use British travel facil- 
ities to reach London from abroad will apply 
through the local British Embassy or Legation to 
the Ministry of War Transport. Others will come 
by any alternative service they may prefer. On 
their arrival, acconamodation will be provided for 
them, if so desired, by the Foreign Office Confer- 
ence Department. Finding rooms in over- 
crowded London is a problem which admits of 
no easy solution. To begin with, the Foreign 
Office does not yet know how many visitors to 
expect. Cables were sent some time ago to all the 
United Nations asking for information on this 
point, but half of them have not yet replied. 
This greatly complicates the whole problem of 
negotiation with hotel proprietors, and so forth, 
and speedy information is essential. One well- 
known London hotel is refusing 600 applications 
daily, and all are booked up far in advance. 

An appeal for private hospitality has already 
been launched by the Travel Association of Great 
Britain and some arrangement on these lines may 
prove to be the best solution when it is known pre- 
cisely what we shall need. 

Most de-requisitioned buildings are unsuitable 
for conversion to hotels in the time available and 
His Majesty's Government, while able to requi- 
sition hotels and equipment, has no powers to 
requisition staflp, and is moreover anxious not to 
alienate a hard-working industry whose coopera- 
tion is essential. 

Transport to and from the conferences will be 
provided by cars and drivers supplied by the Army, 
Navy, and Air Force. It is also proposed to 
appoint a special liaison officer from one of the 
services to each delegation, choosing whenever 
possible an officer with some experience of the 
country with whose nationals he will be working. 

At war-time conferences in various parts of the 
world, British marines acted as guards, doorkeep- 
ers, messengers, and so forth. About 150 marines 
will be detailed for the same services during the 
General Assembly. 



Our visitors will be interested to see something 
of the effects of war on London, the rebuilding 
plans, and the switch-over to peace-time conditions 
in Britain's great industries. It is hoped to or- 
ganize tours for this purpose and to show them, 
possibly by air trips, such industrial enterprises 
as shipbuilding yards, aircraft factories, and loco- 
motive works. Special demonstrations of scien- 
tific inventions like radar and television may be 
arranged. 

A suggestion has been made that a West End 
cinema should be set aside for the period of the 
Assembly in order to show outstanding British 
films free of charge to all holders of an Assembly 
pass. 

It is hoped to enlist the cooperation of the 
W.V.S. to help our visitors on excursions to the 
London shops and on visits to places of special in- 
terest to them. Certain English families are pro- 
posing to open their homes in the evening to for- 
eign visitors who wish to see something of English 
domestic life. 

Cable and wireless have offered to transmit per- 
sonal messages from delegates to their own homes 
free, provided that the country of destination also 
foregoes its charges. 

The G.P.O. have agreed to mark the choice of 
London for the meeting place of the United Na- 
tions by stamping all letters posted in London dur- 
ing December with a specially designed United 
Nations cancelation mark. 

The health of our visitors will be looked after 
by the provision of first-aid rooms at Church 
House and Central Hall, and by the preparation 
of a list of doctors recommended to any delegates 
who may require medical advice. 

There will be no attempt at ostentatious enter- 
taining. Our visitors will receive emergency 
ration cards with a leaflet explaining to what these 
entitle them and how the British rationing system 
works. It will be our endeavor to extend a warm 
welcome to every visitor, and at the same time not 
to send him or her away with a distorted impres- 
sion of life in post-war England. 

It is hoped that visiting journalists who so desire 
may be accommodated in the homes of London 
pressmen, thereby obtaining closer contacts and a 
better cross-section of London life than they would 
be likely to enjoy if left to themselves. 



686 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Educational and Cultural 
Conference 

APPOINTMENT OF WILLIAM G. CARR 
ON SECRETARIAT 

[Released to the press October 23] 

William Benton, Assistant Secretary of State, 
announced on October 23 the appointment of Wil- 
liam G. Carr to represent the Government of the 
United States on the conference secretariat at the 
conference to consider the creation of an Educa- 
tional and Cultural Organization of the United 
Nations, which is scheduled to convene at London 
on November 1, 1945. This appointment was made 
in answer to the invitation of the British Govern- 
ment, serving as host to the conference, which has 
requested other governments to name oflScials to the 
international secretariat. 

Dr. Carr is associate secretary of the National 
Education Association and secretary of its Educa- 
tional Policies Commission. He is a graduate of 
Stanford University, where he also received the 
Ph.D. degree. 

Dr. Carr is the author of a number of books on 
the subject of education for international under- 
standing. His publications include: Education 
for World Citizenship (1928), and Only by Un- 
derstanding (1945). He edited New Frontiers in 
International EdiK'ation (1944). 



FRANCIS M. CROWLEY AND MARK STARR 
TO JOIN U.S. DELEGATION 

[Released to the press October 271 

At the invitation of the Department of State, 
Dr. Francis M. Crowley, dean of the Graduate 
School of Education, Fordham University, has ac- 
cepted a place as technical expert on the American 
Delegation to the London conference on a United 
Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Or- 
ganization. Dean Crowley is one of the country's 
most eminent educatoi-s and further strengthens 
the Delegation. 

Mr. Mark Starr, educational director for the 
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, 
A. F. of L., will join the American group in Lon- 
don as an adviser about November 10. He declined 
at first to accept the invitation tendered him by 
the Department of State because he could not leave 



promptly with the rest of the Delegation, but now 
informs the Department he can leave early in 
November, thus missing only the first few days of 
the conference. 



United Nations Food and 
Agriculture Organization 

AGRICULTURAL COMMITTEE PANELS 

The Agricultural Committee set up on October 
22 the following panels to frame recommenda- 
tions : 

1. Rural Social Welfare 

Headed by the representative of France. 

2. Education, Extension, and Exchange of Scien- 

tific Information 
United States 

3. Production Research and Techniques 

United Kingdom 

4. Soil Resources Development and Conservation, 

which will include irrigation, drain- 
age, erosion control, salinity control, 
and range management 

New Zealand 

5. Integration and Coordination of Agricultural 

Programs and Policies, Including Na- 
tional and International 

United States 

6. Credit Cooperatives and Related Matters 

United Kingdom, 

7. Industrial Needs for Agriculture, Including 

Machinery, Fertilizer, and Pesticides 
Belgium 

8. Special Needs for War-Devastated Countries 

Poland 

9. Special Needs for Countries in Tropical and 

Sub-tropical Regions 
India 



SIGNING OF THE FAO CONSTITUTION 

At the plenary session on the night of October 
22, the Food and Agriculture Organization con- 
stitution was signed by Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, 
and Poland. 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



687 



Release of French Assets in the United States 
And American Property in France 

BY JAMES SIMSARIAN ^ 






IrEEZING REGtJLATIONS of the 

Treasury Department f)Ter 
French assets in the United 
States were substantially re- 
laxed by the issuance of General License no. 92 
by the Secretary of the Treasury on October 5, 
1945. France is the first of the liberated countries 
of Europe and the Far East to have the assets of 
its nationals unblocked in this country. At prac- 
tically the same time, the French Minister of 
Finance announced that controls over American 
assets in France are also being relaxed substan- 
tially. 

Negotiations are now proceeding with the gov- 
ernments of the other liberated countries concern- 
ing the release of Treasury controls over the assets 
in the United States of their nationals. 

There are no Treasury freezing restrictions 
remaining on current ti'ansactions with France as 
a result of the issuance of General License no. 92 
and the modification of General Ruling no. 5A. 
The Treasury Department modified General Rul- 
ing no. 5A on October 5 to lift import and export 
controls over checks, drafts, bills of exchange, and 
other payment instructions being sent to or from 
France. 

Beginning on April 10, 1940 with Norway and 
Denmark, Treasury freezing controls were insti- 
tuted with the issuance of Executive Order 8389 
by the President to protect the assets in the United 
States of countries being overrun by the enemy. 
French assets were subjected to Treasury controls 
on June 17, 1940.^ Treasury restrictions have 
been applicable to the assets in tlie United States 
of the enemy countries and the four neutral coun- 
tries in Europe — Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and 
Switzerland — as well as the countries occupied by 
the enemy. In addition to extending protection to 



the assets of the occupied coimtries, the freezing 
restrictions of the Treasury Department have been 
designed to prevent the enemy from securing any 
benefit from any blocked assets in this coimtry and 
to protect American institutions from conflicting 
claims to these assets. 

The French Minister of Finance, in a letter dated 
September 26, 1945 to the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, recognized that, in the exercise of its con- 
trols over French assets in the United States, the 
Treasury "Department has been inspired by the 
principles and aims which were solemnly set forth 
in the United Nations Declaration of January 5, 
1943, and Resolution No. VI of the United Nations 
Monetary and Financial Conference". The French 
Minister at the same time recognized that the 
application of these principles "has effectively 
prevented the enemy from looting French assets 
in the United States during the war to the great 
detriment of the common enemy and to the advan- 
tage of the French people." 

Treasury controls over French assets in the 
United States are not actually released with respect 
to assets in which persons in France had an inter- 
est on October 5, the date of the issuance of Gen- 
eral License no. 92, until the Government of France 
certifies that such assets are in fact French-owned. 
This certification is required in order to preclude 
the release of assets which are held in French 
names but are in fact enemy -owned. The Govern- 
ment of France proposes to check the beneficial 
ownership of these assets prior to their certification. 
Assets belonging to French nationals who are not 
within France or within any other blocked country 

' Mr. Simsarian is Assistant Chief of the Division of 
Economic Security Controls, Office of Financial and De- 
velopment Policy, Department of State. 

' Bulletin of June 22, 1940, p. 682. 



688 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



are effectively unblocked without certification ex- 
cept that property in the United States belonging 
to corjJorations and other organizations, wherever 
located, which are owned by persons in France 
will continue to be blocked until certified by the 
French Government. 

The French Minister of Finance on September 
26, 1945 announced the following modifications 
of restrictions over American property in France : 

1. Sequestration measures imposed during the 
German occupation of France on property, rights, 
and interests belonging to nationals of the United 
States have been removed in all important partic- 
ulars, and any that still remain will inunediately 
be terminated. 

2. Except for particular cases in which French 
authorities have reason to believe that the mainte- 
nance of control is necessary to prevent transfers 
of assets in which an enemy might have an inter- 
est or to avoid the completion of transactions which 
might be directly or indirectly to the benefit of an 
enemy, French authorities, with regard to assets 
in the franc zone of nationals of the United States, 
will abolish all restrictions imposed for the pur- 
pose of controlling property in which an enemy 
interest might have existed. 

3. Nationals of the United States holding assets 
in France shall be authorized to administer such 
assets and their income, within the framework of 
the controls and regulations of the French Gov- 
ernment, without the application of measures to 
them which would be discriminatory in relation to 
nationals of any other country. 

4. The Ministry of Finance intends to pursue a 
policy of liberalizing exchange-control restric- 
tions, to the fullest extent that French dollar re- 
sources will permit, with respect to transfers of 
funds from the franc zone to the United States. 

5. The Ministry of Finance will authorize per- 
sons residing in the franc zone who, without hav- 
ing violated French law, owe dollar obligations 
to any governmental agency, individual, or firm 
in the United States to discharge such obligations 
when they are due; and, if necessary, it will au- 
thorize such persons to purchase dollars for this 
purpose. 

6. The Ministry of Finance is now prepared to 
authorize current payments from the franc zone 
to the United States of profits, dividends, interest, 
royalties, and payments for purposes of duly au- 
thorized commercial transactions, and other pay- 



ments relating to current business, including bal- 
ances accrued from the same sources during the 
war. 

7. The Ministry of Finance will examine care- 
fully requests for transfers of capital from France 
to the United States when transfers of that type 
might serve a useful economic or commercial pur- 
pose and when transfers of small amounts are of 
substantial importance to the interested parties. 



Allied Commission on 
Reparations for Germany 

APPOINTMENT OF JAMES W. ANGELL AS 
UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE 

[Released to the press October 23] 

James W. Angell has been appointed by the 
President as American representative on the Al- 
lied Commission on Reparations — Germany. His 
predecessor on the Commission was Edwin 
Pauley, who is now devoting his full time to the 
problem of Japanese reparations. 

As Assistant Administrator of the Foreign Eco- 
nomic Administration, Mr. Angell has actively 
participated in the formulation of United States 
policy on German reparations. He was educated 
at Harvard University, where he received his A.B. 
and Ph.D. degrees. From 1924 until World War 
II lie was a professor of economics at Columbia 
University. He is internationally known for his 
economic writings. Since the war he has served 
full time in Washington, first as Chief Economist 
of the Office of Civilian Requirements, War Pro- 
duction Board, and more recently in the FEA. 
During the 1920's he made a first-hand study of 
conditions in Germany and in 1929 wrote The Re- 
covery of Gennany, a book dealing with repara- 
tions and industrial recovery of Germany after 
World War I. His father, James Rowland An- 
gell, was the late president of Yale University. 

A delegation headed by Mr. Angell will leave 
shortly for Paris and Berlin to join with other 
Allied members of the Commission on Repara- 
tions in implementing the Potsdam protocol. 

Dudley M. Phelps, Acting Director of the Office 
of Financial and Development Policy and Chief 
of the Division of Foreign Economic Develop- 
ment of the Department of State, has been ap- 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



689 



pointed as deputy to Mr. Angell. Mr. Phelps re- 
ceived his Ph.D. degree in economics from the 
University of Michigan in 1931 and is now profes- 
sor of business administration in that institution, 
on leave of absence. He became associated with 
the Department of State early in 1942 and has 
since served in various capacities both in Wash- 
ington and abroad. Early in the present year he 
was a member of the Rosenman Mission ^ which 
surveyed the urgent needs of the liberated coun- 
tries of western Europe for goods and services 
from abroad and also needs of a financial character 
for the reconstruction and restoration of their 
economies. 



Release of Short-Wave 
Broadcasting Frequencies 

[Released to the press on October 22] 

The Department of State released on October 
22 three of the Government's short-wave broad- 
casting frequencies so that the American press 
associations can meet the present emergency and 
secure access to the additional radio channels re- 
quired for sending American news to Japan and 
the Far East generally. 

This action is in line with the Department's 
policy to help American commercial enterprises 
which are distributing American information 
abroad. 

Tlie Department recently called in Ralph 
McGill, editor of the Atlanta Constitution, to 
consult with Ferdinand Kuhn, Director of the 
Interim International Information Service, and 
Assistant Secretary of State Benton in a study of 
the relations of the Government with the Amer- 
ican press associations, including advice on bar- 
riers impeding their operation abroad. 

The question of press communications is one of 
the topics scheduled for discussion between Amer- 
ican and British authorities at a telecommunica- 
tions conference to be held in Bermuda next month. 

The radio frequencies released by the Depart- 
ment of State today are part of a pool of fre- 
quencies used by the Government during the war 
for short-wave broadcasting. Jurisdiction over 
the frequencies was transferred from the Office 



■ Buu-ETiN of May 6, 1945, p. 860, and July 8, 1945, p. 55. 



of War Information to the Department of State 
by order of President Truman on August 31, 1945. 
The text of the letter from the Department of 
State to the Federal Communications Commission, 
releasing the frequencies, follows : 

October 22, 1945. 
Dear Patjl : 

This will confirm our telephone conversation of 
October 19. 

Growing out of the present emergency, and in 
line with the great and urgent importance of 
providing to the American press associations 
communication facilities for enlarging the trans- 
mission of news to the Far East, the State De- 
partment is very happy to rearrange its schedule 
of shortwave broadcasting in order to release 
three frequencies. 

This move on the part of the State Department 
may illustrate my feeling that the Government 
should do what it can to support the press asso- 
ciations and other privately operated organiza- 
tions in their efforts to disseminate the news 
about America throughout the world. 
Very sincerely yours, 

William Benton 

The Honorable Paul A. Porter, 

Chairman, Federal Convrmmicationa 
Commission, 
Washington, D. C. 

Far Eastern Advisory 
Commission 

APPOINTMENT OF FRENCH REPRESENTATIVE 

[Released to the press October 23] 

The Department of State has been informed by 
tlie French Government that it has appointed 
P. E. Naggiar, former French Ambassador to 
China and Russia, as its representative on the Far 
Eastern Advisory Commission. 

APPOINTMENT OF NETHERLANDS 
REPRESENTATIVE 

[Released to the press October 23] 

The Department of State has been informed by 
the Netherlands Government that it has appointed 
Dr. A. Loudon, Netherlands Ambassador to the 
United States, as its representative on the Far 
Eastern Advisory Commission. 



690 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



U.S. Assistance to the Philippines 



Statement by THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by the White House OctobPr 25] 

Since President Osmena's arrival in Washing- 
ton early this month, I have had several confer- 
ences with him, Secretary Ickes, and High Com- 
missioner McNutt. 

All Americans feel a very warm friendship for 
the Filipino people, who stood by us so heroically 
throughout the war and who now are in dire need 
of help. I consider a program of assistance to 
the Philippines essential to our relationship with 
the people there. 

We have made some progress, and further con- 
ferences will be held before President Osmena and 
High Commissioner McNutt return to Manila. 



Recommendations by THE PRESIDENT 

[Keleased to the press by the White House October 26] 

The President has sent the following letters and 
memorandum to the High Commissioner to the 
Philippines and the heads of various Government 
departments and agencies, recommending specific 
steps to carry out the United States program of 
assistance to the Philippines : 

To the High Commissioner to the Philippines! 

In the provinces near Manila thousands of 
sharecroppers organized some years ago to de- 
mand a more equitable division of the product of 
their labor. For several years there was no ef- 
fective solution of the problem. During the war 
the tenants organized a guerrilla army which re- 
portedly did good work against the enemy. After 
the enemy was defeated in their localities, they 
did not disband and today they constitute a spe- 
cial problem which threatens the stability of gov- 
ernment. On the other hand, their legitimate 
claim to fair treatment and the assistance they ren- 
dered in resistance to the enemy require that they 
be not dealt with in a ruthless manner. 

I therefore request you to order a prompt inves- 
tigation of agrarian unrest in the Philippines with 
the cooperation of the Commonwealth Govern- 
ment, and to recommend the remedies or reforms 
which ought to be taken by the Commonwealth 



government and by the United States Govern- 
ment. 

To the Alien Property Custodian: 

The United States Army has found and taken 
custody of considerable valuable property belong- 
ing to enemy nationals in the Philippines. 
Enemy property includes agricultural leaseholds 
held through "dummies". It is desirable that 
all property in which the enemy has or had interest 
should pass under the civil control of the United 
States government which is responsible for its 
custody under the usually accepted terms of inter- 
national law. 

I therefore direct that the Alien Property Cus- 
todian vest title in all enemy property in the 
Philippines and make lawful disposition of it. 
Should these operations extend beyond the date 
of independence, I shall endeavor to arrange by 
treaty, or otherwise, for the completion of the 
processes of vesting and liquidation. 

To the Attorney General: 

While the mass of the Filipino people and many 
of their leaders remained staunchly loyal during 
invasion and rendered invaluable assistance to 
our arms, it is necessary to admit that many per- 
sons served under the puppet governments spon- 
sored by the enemy. Some of these, especially 
those engaged in health and educational work, 
remained at their posts of duty with an evident 
intention to sustain the physical and cultural wel- 
fare of their people. Others of the clerical and 
custodial services continued in office in order to 
earn their accustomed livelihood and participated 
in no \\&y in enemy policy. But, regrettably, a 
number of persons prominent in the political life 
of the country assisted tlie enemy in the formula- 
tion and enforcement of his political policies and 
the spread of his propaganda. Others in the field 
of trade and finance seized upon the occasion to 
enrich themselves in property and money at the 
expense of their countrymen. 

Reports have appeared in the press which indi- 
cate that a number of persons who gave aid and 
comfort to the enemy ai'e now holding important 
offices in the Commonwealth government. Re- 
ports further indicate that the Commonwealth 
government is only beginning to investigate, 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



691 



charge, and try the ofPenders. It is essential that 
this task be completed before the holding of the 
next Commonwealth general election. 

Considering that disloyalty to the Common- 
wealth is equally disloyalty to the United States, 
I request that you send experienced personnel to 
the Philippines to discover the status and to rec- 
ommend such action as may be appropriately taken 
by the United States. Such recommendations 
should be made through the United States High 
Commissioner to the Philippine Islands. I am 
further requesting that the Secretaries of War 
and Navy direct the staffs of their intelligence 
sections to cooperate with you and make available 
to you all records and evidence bearing on this 
important problem. 

Kepresentatives of the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation assigned to the Philippines should be 
directed to report through the United States High 
Commissioner in connection with this and other 
operations in the Philippine Islands. 

To the Secretary of War: 

As a result of prolonged enemy occupation of 
the Philippines the law enforcement agencies of 
the Commonwealth Government were seriously 
disorganized. Bearing in mind the fact that the 
War Department was responsible originally for 
the organization of the Philippine Constabulary, 
which had such an excellent record prior to the 
war, I believe that the War Department should 
assist in every possible way by the assignment of 
officers and men and the transfer of necessary 
equipment in reorganizing the Constabulary on a 
non-military basis. 

President Osmeiia has advised me that the War 
Department has already been of assistance in this 
task and that considerable progress has been made 
by the Commonwealth Government. Both he and 
I feel, however, that continued assistance until 
the reorganization is completed would be helpful. 

I ask that this continued assistance be extended 
to the Commonwealth Government so that law and 
order may be fully restored in the shortest possible 
time, and that you submit a report to me as soon 
as a program has been formulated. 

Memorandum, to the Secretary of the Treasury and 
the Secretary of War: 
It is my understanding that due to a shortage of 
legal currency in certain areas in the Philippine 
Islands early in the war and continually thereafter 
until the reoccupation of the islands by our forces. 



a considerable quantity of emergency currency was 
issued, some by properly authorized officers of the 
United States Government and some by repre- 
sentatives of the Philippine Government. It 
would api^ear that to the extent that this currency 
was used either directly or indirectly for the pros- 
ecution of the war, its redemption is a responsibil- 
\{y of the United States Government. 

I request that the War and Treasury Depart- 
ments make a careful analysis of this situation and 
submit recommendations as to the necessary steps 
which should be taken to discharge the obligations 
that are properly responsibilities of the United 
States Government. Any arrangement proposed 
for the redemption of this curiency should include 
provisions designed so far as possible to avoid any 
windfall to speculators. 

To the Secretary of the Treasury: 

During the period of their military invasion of 
the I'hilippine Islands, the Japanese issued an un- 
backed fiat peso and tried unsuccessfully to force 
its parity with the legitimate Philippine peso. 
The issue was so unlimited that it came to be worth- 
less, and upon our landing in Leyte it was offi- 
cially and quite properly declared not to be legal 
tender. However, during the invasion period it 
had a rapidly declining value as a medium for local 
trade, and numerous contracts which involved the 
enemy currency were settled or entered into. 
While it would be against the public interest to 
validate completely these contracts and settle- 
ments, a measure is needed to serve as a standard 
for judgments between debtors and creditors. 

Since you have representation in the Philippines 
through a mission of the Foreign Funds Division, 
I request that you cooperate with the High Com- 
missioner and the Commonwealth Government in 
drawing up a schedule showing the relative trend 
of the purchasing power and exchange rates of the 
Japanese Philippine peso during the period of in- 
vasion. 

To the Surplus Property Administrator: 

Prolonged enemy occupation and active warfare 
in the Philippine Islands have left in their wake a 
tremendous problem of relief and rehabilitation. 
It seems apparent that there must be large supplies 
of surplus government property now available 
which could be used to great advantage in the 
Philippines in the program which must be under- 
taken there by the Philippine Government. Such 



692 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



items as construction equipment, medical supplies 
and hospital equipment are badly needed. 

Where such supplies can be used directly by the 
government of the Philippine Commonwealth, I 
believe this Government should make the supplies 
available without cost to the Commonwealth. It 
might perhaps be desirable to arrange the transfer 
on such terms as would prevent the property from 
being later offered for sale to the general public. 

Since there is at present no legal authority to 
effect such transfers, I believe we should seek such 
authority. 

To the Administrator of Veterans'' Affairs: 

In connection with a general program of re- 
establishment of oiderly government in the 
Philippine Islands and the discharge of just obli- 
gations of the United States Government therein, 
I request that the Veterans' Administration make 
a careful analysis of all phases of past and current 
benefits payable in the Philippine Islands to 
American and Filipino veterans, and submit to 
me at the earliest possible date a report which 
should be accompanied by recommendations for 
any new legislation which may be required. 

To the President of the Exj)ort-Import Bank: 

In connection with the rehabilitation of the Phil- 
ippine Islands and the restoration of the normal 
economic life of the Islands, I believe that the 
Export-Import Bank should participate in this 
program. It should, it seems to me, be possible 
to work out a program to operate in the Islands 
on a purely business basis which would be of great 
assistance in restoring normal economic condi- 
tions. 

May I have your comment on this suggestion, 
and in the event that you feel that the bank is 
at present without legal authority to function in 
the Philippines, your suggestions as to steps that 
might be necessary to permit it to do so ? 

To the Ad?m?ustrafor of the War Shipping Ad- 
ministration: 

In connection with the rehabilitation of the Phil- 
ippines and the restoration of normal economic life 
of the Islands, I am very anxious that all possible 
steps, consistent with our obligations elsewhere, 
be taken to supply adequate shipping to the Philip- 
pine Islands. 

I would be glad to have a statement from you 
as to the plans of the War Shipping Adminis- 



tration and the amount of tonnage which is ex- 
pected to be available for Philippine trade, par- 
ticularly in the near future. 

To the Chairman of the Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation: 

The almost complete lack of consumers goods 
in the Philippines — goods ordinarily imported 
from the United States — has brought about serious 
price inflation and black markets which cause great 
distress among the people. An excellent start has 
been made by the Foreign Economic Administra- 
tion in cooperation with the War Shipping Ad- 
ministration to eliminate inflation by facilitating 
normal import trade. 

You are, therefore, requested to direct the United 
States Commercial Company to use resources and 
personnel witliin its jurisdiction to continue and to 
advance the Philippine program which it has un- 
dertaken, and, where necessary, to sell goods on 
credit terms not exceeding two years in duration. 



Control Council for Japan 

COMMENT UPON SOVIET POSITION 

[Released to the press October 25] 

In commenting upon the Soviet position re- 
garding a Control Council for Japan at his press 
conference yesterday, the Secretary of State was 
referring only to the original Soviet position 
about which he had been questioned. 

The original Soviet proposal of September 24 
concerning control machinery for Japan, pre- 
sented to the Council of Foreign ^linisters and re- 
ferred to and reaffirmed in Mr. Molotov's letter 
of October 1 to the Secretary of State, appeared 
to propose a Control Council for Japan which in 
important aspects would closely resemble the Con- 
trol Council for Germany. 

The proposal provided that in the event of dis- 
agreement among the members of the Council the 
question at issue shoidd not be decided by the 
chairman but should be referred back to the gov- 
ernments for decision. 

Recent diplomatic exchanges indicate that the 
Soviet Government is not now insisting on this 
position. Because discussion of the question is 
continuing, further comment at this time would 
not be helpful. 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



693 



The Inter-American System 

Address by ASSISTANT SECRETARY BRADEN ' 



[Released to the press October 26] 

Mr. Ciiairmax, Excellency, Governor Edge, 
Distinguished Guests, Ladies, and Gentlemen : 
To be in this distinguished company and to ad- 
dress so imposing an audience are honors for 
which I am deeply grateful. Also I am proud to 
assist at this opening seminar, "New Jersey Meets 
Her World Neighbors", which is so appropriately 
held, under the auspices of the New Jersey Educa- 
tion Association, at one of the oldest and most 
respected institutions in this country — Rutgers 
University. 

It is my purpose this evening, in summary fash- 
ion, to review for you a few of the more salient de- 
velopments in our inter- American relations. By 
doing so I trust that I may induce this splendid 
gathering to agree with me that despite all the ob- 
stacles and set-backs naturally to be expected in 
every undertaking, the 21 American republics 
have evolved a reasonably just and practical 
method for living together. At least foundations 
have been laid on which a solid edifice of interna- 
tional friendship and cooperation can successfully 
be erected, providing all hands in good faith ap- 
ply their best efforts to the task. 

There are, of cmirse, important differences in 
language and origin, in economic and social con- 
ditions, in climate, and in many other ways among 
these New World countries. Some of these di- 
vergencies form difficult barriers to mutual under- 
standing; whereas others, such as those in the 
field of culture and in natural wealth, can be em- 
ployed to benefit all concerned. 

Conversely, the American i-epublics in many 
cases enjoy geographical proximity and comple- 
mentary resources ; they share a pioneer tradition 
and similar histories in their struggles for inde- 
pendence ; and above all, they have in common an 
underlying aspiration to be governed by those of 
their own choosing — and for liberty. 

That these aspirations have not been and are 
not yet always realized is not the point. We may 
be imperfect democracies in a world of imperfect 
governments. That also is not the point. The 
vital thing is that the urge toward human liberty 

' Made at Kutgers University, New BrunswiclJ, N. J., on 
Oct. 26, 1945. 



is there, and that this urge has produced through- 
out the years an improvement in man's relation- 
ship to man, which holds promise for the future. 

This longing for freedom and equality has 
passed from the national to the foreign field. 
Thus, at the University of Buenos Aires in 1936, 
I was able truthfully to say that the ideal of the 
inter-American system is "the application of 
democracy to international relations"'. Tliis 
tenet was most cogently expressed and converted 
into United States policy in 1933 by our late, 
revered President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, when 
he dedicated this country to the principle of the 
good neighbor: "The neighbor who resolutely 
I'espects himself and, because he does so, respects 
the rights of others — the neighbor who respects 
his obligations and respects the sanctity of his 
agreements in and with a world of neighbors." 

This is a policy of respect ; first, self-respect, and 
then mutual respect, since we cannot hope for the 
latter unless we have the former. To work it 
must be reciprocal — a two-way street. 

While the good-neighbor policy governs all our 
international relations, it is especially associated 
with our relations with the other American re- 
publics where it is a cornerstone, comparable in 
importance only to that foundation of our policy — 
the Monroe Doctrine. 

The Doctrine has on occasion been widely crit- 
icized, largely because of the many misconcep- 
tions and malinterpretations which have distorted 
its true intent. The Monroe Doctrine was for- 
mulated because the independence of the United 
States was threatened when, upon the Congress of 
Vienna, the absolute monarchs of continental Eu- 
rope formed the so-called "Holy Alliance". One 
of those kings sought to reconquer his American 
empire. This constituted a threat to the security 
of the United States and on December 2, 1823 
Monroe declared : 

". . . we could not view any interposition for 
the purpose of oppressing (the newly independent 
countries), or controlling in any other manner 
their destiny, by any European power in any other 
light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly 
disposition toward the United States." 



694 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Monroe Doctrine was not the creation of 
any individual or group; it voiced the thoughts 
which had been maturing in the minds of many 
of our statesmen for more than 30 years. 

In essence, President Monroe proposed : 

(1) To prevent in this hemisphere any form 
of colonization, acquisition of territory, political 
control, or interference on the part of European 
powers. 

(2) Non-intervention of the United States in 
the then existing Spanish colonies, or in those of 
other European nations. 

(li) That this declaration, unilaterally enun- 
ciated by the United States, was made to guaran- 
tee it.s own protection and security. 

We have employed the Monroe Doctrine fre- 
quently to insure the security of the Americas. 
But, as in all human endeavor, its application has 
been by trial and error. While we attempted to 
protect the peace and security of America, we were 
frequently helpless to prevent certain European 
countries from flagrantly infringing the rights of 
our sister republics. This fact, combined with the 
alleged spirit of condescending superiority at- 
tributed to the Doctrine, unhappily caused the 
other American republics at times to lose sight 
of the occasions when they had benefited there- 
from. For these reasons, they sometimes felt a 
latent irritation against the United States for 
having promulgated a doctrine which, in their 
opinion, detracted from their sovereignty and 
dignity. 

But, I repeat, the essential purpose of the Mon- 
roe Doctrine was the defense of the national polit- 
ical liberty of the United States — and of the other 
American countries. 

Towards the middle of the nineteenth century 
there emerged in the political sphere a new factor 
of primary importance. This factor was the in- 
crease of surplus wealth and such wide distribu- 
tion thereof as to enable its holders frequently to 
influence and, at times, dictate the policies of their 
respective governments in benefit of their private 
interests. 

The industrial revolution of the nineteenth 
century, the inventions it brought, the new techni- 
cal methods which rapidly followed, and above 
all, the expansion and improvement of communi- 
cations progressively increased the world's wealth. 
This greatly augmented availability of wealth 
created for the modern world two of its most 
complex and enduring problems: (a) The over- 



flowing of surplus wealth beyond national fron- 
tiers and (b) its distribution within each country. 
The first brought an intensified nationalism which, 
in turn, fomented a somewhat paradoxical corol- 
lary — imperialism. The internal distribution of 
wealth created the political and economic problems 
around which the world of our day still revolves 
and upon the proper and timely accommodation 
of which the future tranquillity of mankind 
depends. 

The impact of this new wealth on the inter- 
national relations of the United States was chris- 
tened "dollar diplomacy". Financiers short- 
sightedly demanded that their foreign invest- 
ments and dividends be guaranteed by guns and 
lives. The American public, alert to the implica- 
tion of this, called it the "big stick" policy. This 
so-called policy inaugurated in the name of se- 
curity and "business" was anything but "good 
business". It did not contribute to the security 
of the United States. There followed interven- 
tion for economic ends in several of the other 
American republics. These are well known to all. 
It is fair to say, however, that in some cases these 
interventions were not for our own selfish benefit 
but, rather, to prevent non- American nations from 
taking unilateral action in the Western Hemi- 
sphere. This procedure became known as th* 
Theodore Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe 
Doctrine. 

The war with Spain in 1898 marked a decisive 
point in so-called American imperialism. The 
United States, which had helped Cuba to attain 
her independence, acquired the right of interven- 
tion in that new nation — a right incorporated in 
its constitution as the Piatt Amendment, which 
later was abrogated voluntarily under President 
Franklin D. Eoosevelt. At the same time, we as- 
sumed responsibility for the Philippine Islands, 
whose brave people we are proud to have helped all 
along the road towards complete independence. 

The first World War really ended tlie nine- 
teenth century — a century which started with 
glorious ideals of freedom and closed in cynical 
materialism. Yet in the midst of that materialism 
high moral standards of universal application en- 
dured and were given expression by Woodrow 
Wilson in these words : 

"The day of conquest and aggrandizement is 
gone by; so also the day of secret covenants en- 
tered into in the interest of private governments 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 

and likely at some unlooked-for moment to upset 
the peace of the world." 

Unfortunately, if World War I spelled a lower- 
ing of public conscience, the post-war period was 
no better and Wilson's concepts were largely dis- 
regarded. 

This lack of moral integrity contributed to the 
establishment of Fascism and the ideology of ag- 
gression. The non-Fascist world was stricken with 
that disease called "appeasement" — which, again, 
is nothing more than the lack of moral integrity. 
The 20 years between the two wars were only a 
truce, during which the world carried on a secret 
struggle. The inability of world leaders to satisfy 
humanity's common aspirations of peace, liberty, 
decency, and justice again i-esulted in catastrophe. 

We contributed to this catastrophe by an aloof- 
ness prompted by fatigue from a war fought for 
reasons which, being more acute in Europe, at 
times produced the illusion that they did not exist 
in the Americas. 

Even under these unfavorable circumstances 
constructive forces persisted here. The United 
States, through Secretary of State Stimson, as- 
sured the American republics that the Monroe 
Doctrine would not be invoked to uphold inter- 
vention in the domestic affairs of our southern 
neighbors, and we have consistently upheld this 
principle ever since. 

Shortly thereafter the good-neighbor policy 
was born. We set to work to institute a series of 
radical changes in world, and particularly in in- 
ter-American, relations. The United States ma- 
rines were withdrawn from Haiti. Financial 
control of the Dominican Republic by American 
officials was curtailed and finally ended. The 
Piatt Amendment was abrogated in 1934 and was 
replaced by a new treaty recognizing the full sov- 
ereignty of Cuba. 

In the Montevideo conference in 1933, at which 
I had the honor of participating as a delegate 
under Secretary Hull, our government agreed with 
the other nations that "No state has the right to 
intervene in the internal or external affairs of 
another." 

With the banishment of force and intervention, 
morality and law became the supreme rules gov- 
erning relations between the American countries. 
The juridical equality of American states was 
established. 

These principles were confirmed at the Buenos 
Aires conference in 1936 and were formalized in 



695 

the Declaration of American Principles' at the 
Lima conference on the eve of the second World 
War. This Declaration ranks as one of the great 
achievements of this continent. The preamble 
expresses high aspirations of humanity. It reads : 

"The need for keeping alive the fundamental 
jjrinciples of relations among nations was never 
greater than today; and 

"Each state is interested in the preservation of 
world order under law, in peace with justice, and 
in the social and economic welfare of mankind." 

Three of the eight articles of this Declaration 
merit quotation : 

"1. AH differences of an international character 
should be settled by peaceful means. 

"2. The use of force as an instrument of na- 
tional or international policy is proscribed. 

"3. Relations between States should be governed 
by the precepts of international law." 

Thanks to these solid foundations the American 
republics were able at the Panama, Habana, and 
Rio de Janeiro meetings successfully to adapt our 
collective system to wartime needs. Then with 
the approach of victory the inter-American con- 
ference at Mexico City last March produced the 
important resolution known as the Act of Chapul- 
tepec. This accord will shortly be implemented 
by a formal treaty. At Mexico City there were 
also economic and social declarations of great im- 
port, which insisted that man's social well-being 
must be the first objective of nations' efforts. 

The peoples of the 21 American republics share 
a common aspiration for liberty and justice, for 
order and self-government. In a word, they de- 
sire democracy. While these objectives have not 
been attained in full measure anywhere, they have 
been accepted by all as the basic principles which 
they will individually and collectively strive to 
make effective. They have realized that they can- 
not hope to succeed in those particulars unless this 
hemisphere can be made secure against aggression 
from both within and without. As a result, the 
inter-American system has come into being and 
has functioned with much success. We have made 
a good beginning. If we can and will improve 
upon that beginning, the future will be bright, 
and the inter-American system will form one of 
the strongest pillars of world organization for 
peace and progress. 

' Bulletin of Dec. 31, 1938, p. 494. 



696 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Cultural-Relations Scene in South America 



BY HERSCHEL BRICKELL 



F 



|iVE YEARS AGO if someone in 
the Department of State 
had decided to make a 
round tour of South Amer- 
ica in search of evidence of the operation of the 
good-neighbor policy, his trip would have been 
altogether different, from one 1 made recently. 

The first difference vfould naturally have been 
in flying time. Almost by the minute Good 
Neighbors are becoming nearer neighbors, and 
within a week after V-J day, which found me in 
Montevideo, air schedules began to improve, be- 
fore one of the new planes had gone into service. 

Now it is possible to fly from Miami to Buenos 
Aires in three days — two days less than it used to 
take for a boat trip between New York and the 
nearest South American ports. Night flying will 
halve this time, new planes will reduce it still 
further, and when jet propulsion arrives the me- 
tropolises of North and South America will be as 
near in point of time as Chicago and San Francisco 
are today, or nearer. 

Now it is possible to fly to Balboa from Miami 
at night and to be in Lima late the next afternoon. 
The regular schedule from Bogota, once one of the 
world's most inaccessible capitals, to Miami is a 
day, and this will shortly be cut by several hours. 
To fly to Rio de Janeiro for a two weeks' vacation 
will be commonplace tomorrow, and so the fan- 
tastic story of the drawing together of peoples 
runs on. 

As important as these facts are in connection 
with our efforts to be friends with our neighbors, 

' Mr. BrkkfU is Assistant Chief, Division of Cultural 
Cooperation, Office of International Information and Cul- 
tural Affairs, Department of State. 



they do not point up the really important differ- 
ences between what an observer would have seen 
five years ago and what I saw the other day. Five 
years ago, this putative observer woiild not have 
found a cultural attache working in South Amer- 
ica. He would have discovered a few scattered 
cultural institutes, locally supported and spon- 
sored, but not one representative collection of our 
books. 

He would, if he had searched diligently enough, 
have encountered one of our college professors or 
research workers teaching or digging, but he 
would not have met, as a familiar feature of many 
college landscapes, a large number of our most 
distinguished teachers at work as members of the 
faculties of leading universities there. 

He would have found a few hundred staidents 
of Englisli in the institutes then in existence in- 
stead of the thousands who now cram all the avail- 
able lecture halls, listen eagerly to courses by radio, 
and never overlook a chance to practice what Eng- 
lish they know on anyone who looks like a North 
American tourist. 

He would have found, five years ago, a certain 
number of graduates of our universities in each 
community, but they were far oaitnumbered by 
young people who had been educated in France 
or England. Today, after four years of operation 
of a student-exchange progi-am that has brought 
hundreds of boys and girls to do graduate work 
here, I saw so many of these new friends in every 
community I visited I did not try to count them. 

I made the long swing around, Miami to Buenos 
Aires, Buenos Aires across to Santiago, and home 
by the Pacific side, in the excellent company of 
Watson Davis, Director of Science Service. We 



OCTOBER 28, 194S 



697 



had two things very much in mind : one of them 
Mr. Davis' special interest, since Science Service 
has the contract for the translation program of 
the American republics branch of the Division of 
Cultural Cooperation ; the other mine. 

In the translation program we are doing what 
we can to bring about a freer interchange of the 
scientific and literary products of the two con- 
tinents by the use of whatever methods lie at hand 
or can be invented. Mr. Davis wished to study 
the Buenos Aires publishing situation at first hand, 
since Buenos Aires is now second only to New 
York as a New World publishing center; and I 
to find out especially about the status of our cul- 
tural-relations efforts with that rich and impor- 
tant country. 

I should like to summarize my impressions of 
my three weeks' stay in the Argentine Republic 
by saying that I had the delightful experience 
of being fairly and courteously ti-eated by every 
Argentme of every class with whom I came in 
contact. I put this down as very good evidence 
that there is in general the most friendly feeling 
possible toward citizens of the United States in 
a country that has often puzzled us, and still does. 
(The Argentines insist they are too much like us 
to be understood easily.) 

One of the oldest of all cultural institutes in the 
other American republics is the Instituto Cultural 
Argentino - Norte Americano, or Icana. It was 
founded as the result of the combined efforts of 
Argentine friends of the United States and of 
members of the local North American colony some 
time before our own institute program got under 
way. Icana owns its building and has 4,000 stu- 
dents of English. A part of its faculty separated 
itself from the parent institution not long ago and 
started another institute, which has 1,200 students ! 
I saw nothing in the Icana beehive of activity that 
impressed me so much as the children's classes, 
dozens of small Argentines learning to speak 
English, while many of their parents were busy 
with the same task in other classrooms. 

South America has many fine cities, including 
the incredible, bewitching, and fantastic Rio de 
Janeiro, which can only be described as too beauti- 
ful. It is one of the places that has to be seen to 
be believed, and even after it has been seen it has 
the effect of a singularly charming backdrop 
which may vanish at any moment. Sao Paulo has 



a skyline like any large city in the United States, 
and such places as Porto Alegi-e and Belo Hori- 
zonte are larger and handsomer than one had some- 
how expected. But Buenos Aires, as the Argen- 
tines I used to know in Europe and especially in 
Spain used to say, claims its right to be listed 
among the great cities of the world. 

Right now, to be sure, it is the largest world 
capital so little touched by World War II, and 
this makes it seem very rich and well kept by com- 
parison with our own war-weary municiiaalities. 
But even forgetting the full shop windows and the 
shining automobiles, shining only because they 
have been given good care, and tlie baitcher shops 
and the restaurants, where the cooking is Franco- 
Italian of excellent quality, Buenos Aires is a 
singularly handsome and substantial city. If a 
fair measure of a people's culture is the kind of cit- 
ies it produces, then the Argentines do not need to 
doff their bonnets to anyone. Even the subway is 
a model of beauty and comfort. 

This bird's-eye view of a continent is no place 
to go into details about the publishing industry 
in Argentina. But anyone who knows about the 
business of manufacturing and selling books, 
which is an interest of both Watson Davis's and 
mine, would be bound to be impressed by the size, 
the scope, and the efficiency of the Buenos Aires 
arrangements. Old and famous Spanish houses 
such as Espasa of Madrid and Salvat of Barcelona 
have made their contribution to this situation, it 
is true, but much of the enterprise and ingenuity 
is purely Argentine. 

As an example for indicating the extent of the 
translation of our books on a purely commercial 
basis, we were talking one day to a group of scien- 
tists and educators about some volumes on peda- 
gogy and related subjects which they thought we 
ought to help to have put into Spanish. Within 
a day or so we had found very nearly the whole 
list already well translated and printed ! 

In Brazil, to back-track for a moment, we have 
cultural attaches stationed at Rio, Sao Paulo, and 
Porto Alegre. We have successful cultural insti- 
tutes in these three cities and also in Curitiba, 
Fortaleza, Bahia, and Florianopolis. The one in 
Sao Paulo, with 2,500 students of English, will 
shortly move into a mansion with almost a city 
block of grounds around it, and it expects to have 
at least 3,000 students as soon as this space becomes 



€98 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



available. Like all our cultural institutes, it will 
have an excellent library of our best books and 
also a full selection of our magazines. 

In Argentina, Rosario and Cordoba have flour- 
ishing "Icanas", housed in bright, cheerful build- 
ings that symbolize in their atmosphere as much 
as in their decorations the friendship of the peo- 
ple of the Argentine with the people of the United 
States. Several other Argentine cities, such as 
Santa Fe, Mendoza, and Tucuman, would like to 
have similar "Icanas" and no doubt will have in 
time. 

In Santiago there are both a cultural attache 
and a successful cultural institute. In a few other 
places such as Concepcion and Valdivia there are 
English classes which we sponsor, and I heard 
exactly the same kind of enthusiastic reports from 
the teachers in these places as those that came to 
my ears from the workers in the institutes in the 
capital. The general tenor of these reports is un- 
varying, namely that the demand for English les- 
sons and for information about everything in the 
United States far outruns any available supply of 
teachers or materials. 

There would have been considerably more time 
to study the situation in Lima if it had not been 
that a late start from Santiago found us spending 
the night in Arica, where we saw a large Chinese 
colony celebrating the victory over Japan. In 
Arica, a picturesque port from which an extraor- 
dinary railroad climbs its winding way to La Paz, 
Bolivia, mounting from sea level to an elevation 
of some 14,000 feet in less than 24 hours, there 
were no signs of our cultural-relations activities, 
although if we opened an institute there tomorrow 
its English classes would probably all be filled the 
first week. Lima, like Santiago, has a cultural 
attache and a large and flourishing institute with 
all the necessary equipment and every type of cul- 
tural activity : a library, classes in English and 
Spanish, educational motion-picture equipment, 
and lectures. 

At Call, the capital of the fertile Departamento 
del Valle in Colombia, my companion, Watson 
Davis, and I went separate ways : he to Mexico in 
the interests of Science Service and moi-e transla- 
tions, and I to catch my breath and to see some of 
the friends I left behind when I gave up being a 
field worker to became a cultural attache. It 
seemed somehow symbolical of a happy and satis- 
fying journey that one of our returned students 



was waiting to greet me at the airport and that 
the time I spent waiting for the plane to Panama 
two days later was passed in discussing with one 
of our former travel grantees the exciting plans 
for a modern agricultural college, modeled after 
similar institutions in the United States. 

If we could increase every phase of our cultural- 
relations program fivefold, I believe we should be 
considerably short of what the other American 
republics want as badly as they need. Everywhere 
I heard the anxious question : Are you going ahead 
with what you have so well begun, or are you 
going to forget us now that the war is over? 

It is no exaggeration to say that upon the an- 
swer to this question hinges much of the final 
success or failure of the good-neighbor policy. 



Economic Agreements Between 
The U.S.S.R. and Hungary 

The Department of State told correspondents 
that it had been informed some time ago that the 
Soviet and Hungarian Governments were nego- 
tiating a one-year commodities-exchange agree- 
ment and a five-year economic-collaboration agree- 
ment. Correspondents were told that it was both 
natural and right that those two countries should 
seek to make mutually beneficial trade agreements 
and prepare the way for normal economic inter- 
course. The Department has felt that, in the case 
of Hungary, as well as of other ex-satellite states, 
the conclusion of any long-term economic agree- 
ment of substantial scope during the armistice pe- 
riod was a matter of concern and responsibility 
for all three signatories of the respective armistice 
agreements and of the Crimea declaration on liber- 
ated Europe. That declaration stated that the 
three principal Allies would concert their policies 
with the view to assisting liberated countries to 
solve their pressing political and economic prob- 
lems. The Department has accordingly expressed 
this view to the Soviet and British Governments 
and has stated that this country would be glad to 
discuss with them the formulation of a program of 
economic collaboration to assist the economic recov- 
ery of Hungary. 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



699 



Resumption of American 
Business Operations in 
Pacific Area 

[Released to the press October 26] 

Prompt resumption of American business opera- 
tions in the Pacific area is expected, the Depart- 
ment of State announced on October 26 in sum- 
marizing the steps taken to facilitate it. 

Regular steamship service between the United 
States and the Far East will be resumed after No- 
vember 1, with the lines accepting private ship- 
ments. Air transportation, now confined to service 
by way of India, will soon be available across the 
Pacific. At the request of the Department of 
State, the War Department has agreed whenever 
possible to have food, quarters, and local transpor- 
tation furnished to American businessmen travel- 
ing in the Far East, when such accommodations 
are not obtainable in the usual way. 

Communications have been reestablished with 
principal cities on a commercial basis, and efforts 
are being made to bi'ing about the reestablishment 
of banking services. American consular officers 
are on duty in the principal cities of China and at 
Hong Kong, Manila, and Singapore. 

Since the presence of representatives of Ameri- 
can firms is recognized as necessary to the restora- 
tion of trade, the Department has been granting 
passports to these representatives since shortly 
after V-J Day. The Chinese Government has 
authorized its consulates in this country to grant 
visas to American businessmen without reference 
to Chungking, and this cooperative act has greatly 
speeded the trader on his way. 

Living and business conditions in the Far East 
are not yet normal, according to reports received 
from the Department's representatives, and the re- 
turning American businessman is faced at times 
with shortages and inconveniences, but these are, 
at the same time, looked upon as indications of the 
need for his return. It is the Department's policy 
as John Carter Vincent, Director of the Office of 
Far Eastern Affairs recently pointed out, to en- 
courage and facilitate the reestablishment of 
American business in China. "Probably not with 
all the speed desired," Mr. Vincent said, "but with 
all the speed we can generate, we are endeavoring 
to get businessmen back into China for their sake 
and for China's sake". 



James C. Dunn To Return 
From London 

Statement by THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[Released to the press October 25] 

I have asked Assistant Secretary of State James 
C. Dunn, who is serving as my Deputy on the 
Council of Foreign Ministers, to return tempo- 
rarily to the Department of State. Mr. Dunn will 
leave London about November 4 and during his 
absence Ambassador Winant will carry on as my 
Deputy. 



PRESIDENT TRUMAN— Con iinwerf from page 660. 

Assume that the United States and Japan both 
had had a supply of the bombs on December 7, 
194L Wliich would have survived? 

Suppose that both England and Germany had 
had the atomic bomb in September of 1940 during 
the "Blitz" over England. Which country would 
have been destroyed? 

The answer is clear that the atomic bomb is of 
little value without an adequate army, air, and 
naval force. For that kind of force is necessary 
to protect our shores, to overcome any attack, and 
to enable us to move forward and direct the bomb 
against the enemy's own territory. Every new 
weapon will eventually bring some counterde- 
fense against it. Our ability to use either a new 
weapon or a counterweapon will ultimately de- 
pend uiDon a strong army, navy, and air force, 
with all the ^millions of men needed to supply 
them — all quickly mobilized and adequately 
equipped. 

I urge that the Congress pass this legislation 
promptl}^ — while the danger is still fresh in our 
minds — while we still remember how close we 
came to destruction four years ago — while we can 
vividly recall the horrors of invasion which our 
Allies suffered — and while we can still see all the 
ravages and ruin of war. 

Let us not by a short-sighted neglect of our 
national security betray those who come after us. 

It is our solemn duty in this hour of victory to 
make sure that in the years to come no possible 
aggressor or group of aggressors can endanger 
the national security of the United States of 
America. 



700 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Foreign Trade Agreements: 
Regulations for Public Notice 
And Presentation of Views 

[Released to the press October 26] 

Executive Order No. 6750 of June 27, 1934, is 
hereby amended to read as follows : 

Whereas section 4 of the act approved June 
12, 1934, 48 Stat. 945, as amended by Public Law 
130, 79th Congress, approved July 5, 1945, pro- 
vides as follows : 

' "Sec. 4. Before any foreign trade agreement is 
conchided with any foreign government or instru- 
mentality thereof under the provisions of this 
Act, reasonable public notice of the intention to 
negotiate an agreement with such government or 
instrumentality shall be given in order that any 
interested person may have an opportunity to pre- 
sent his views to the President, or to such agency 
as the President may designate, under such rules 
and regulations as the President may prescribe; 
and before concluding such agreement the Presi- 
dent shall seek information and advice with re- 
spect thereto from the United States Tariff Com- 
mission, the Departments of State, War, Navy, 
Agricultiire, and Commerce and from such other 
sources as he may deem ai^propriate." 

Now, Therefore, by virtue of the authority 
vested in me by the foregoing statutory pi'ovisions, 
I hereby prescribe the following regulations gov- 
erning the procedure with respect to the giving of 
public notice of the intention to negotiate foreign 
trade agreements and with respect to the granting 
of opportunity to interested persons to present 
their views : 

1. At least thirty days before any trade agree- 
ment is concluded under the provisions of the said 
act of June 12, 1934, as amended, commonly known 
as the Trade Agreements Act, the Secretary of 
State shall cause notice of the intention to nego- 
tiate such agreement to be published in the Fed- 
eral Register. Such notice shall also be issued to 
the press and published in the Department of 
State Bulletin, the Treasury Decisions, and the 
Foreign Commerce Weekly. 

2. Persons desiring to present their views with 
respect to any such proposed agreement shall pre- 



sent them to the Committee for Reciprocity In- 
formation. The said Committee shall consist of 
members designated from the personnel of their 
i-espective agencies by the Chairman of the United 
States Tariff Commission, the Secretary of State, 
the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of 
War, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of 
Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, and the 
heads of such other agencies as the Secretary of 
State may designate on the recommendation of 
the Committee. The chairman of the Committee 
shall be designated from among the members of 
the Committee by the Secretary of State. The 
Committee may designate such subcommittees as 
it may deem necessary. 

3. The Committee shall accord reasonable op- 
portunity to interested persons to present their 
views on any proposed or existing trade agree- 
ment or any asj^ect thereof. The form and man- 
ner in which such views may be presented, the 
place at which they shall be presented, and the 
time limitations for such presentation shall from 
time to time be prescribed by the Committee. 

The provisions of Executive Order No. 8190 of 
July 5, 1939, relating to the Committee for Reci- 
procity Information are hereby revoked. 

Harry S. Truman 
The WnrrE House, 

October 25, 19J^ 



Letters of Credence 

Ambassador of Haiti 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Haiti, Mr. 
Jacques C. Antoine, presented his letters of cre- 
dence to the President on October 17. For text of 
these credentials and the reply by the President 
see Department of State press release 772. 

Minister of Sweden 

The newly appointed Minister of Sweden, Her- 
man Eriksson, presented his letters of credence to 
the President on October 23. For the texts of his 
remarks and the President's reply see Department 
of State press release 795. 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



701 



Removal of Wartime Objection 
To Study Abroad 

[Released to the press on October 22] 

On December 28, 1942 the Department of State 
announced that, because of the increasingly ex- 
igent demands of the war upon the manpower 
supply of the United Nations, it had been found 
necessary to suspend, for the duration of the war, 
the award of official fellowships and travel and 
maintenance grants to students from the United 
States for study in the other American republics.' 

Since, with the end of the war, the conditions 
which led to the issuance of the announcement are 
rapidly disapj^earing, particularly with the re- 
turn to civilian life of large numbers of war vet- 
erans, the Department is withdrawing its pre- 
vious objection to study abroad by United States 
citizens. In doing so, however, it draws atten- 
tion to the fact that the educational institutions 
in a number of countries outside the Western Hem- 
isphere are not in condition to receive students 
from this country, in addition to which transpor- 
tation facilities are at present difficult to obtain. 
The Department hopes however that, as soon as 
travel conditions improve, repi'esentative Amer- 
ican citizens will undertake either graduate study 
or research, or supervised short-term imdergrad- 
uate study, in foreign countries and thus recip- 
rocate the confidence shown by the many foreign 
students who have come to United States educa- 
tional institutions during the war despite hard- 
ships of travel and living accommodations. 

An announcement regarding the resumption of 
the Government's travel- and maintenance-grant 
program for study in the other American repub- 
lics and the fellowships under the Convention 
for the Promotion of Inter-American Cultural 
Relations will be made at a later date. Inquiries 
regarding application forms for these programs 
should be addressed to the United States Office of 
Education, Washington 25, D. C. 



The Proclaimed List 

[Released to the press October 28] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Attorney General, the Secretary of Commerce, 



and the Acting Director of the Office of Inter- 
American Affairs, on October 28 issued Cumula- 
tive Supi^lement 7 to Revision IX of the Pro- 
claimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. 

Cumulative Supplement 7 to Revision IX super- 
sedes Cumulative Supplement 5 dated July 27, 
1945, and Noncumulative Supplement 6 dated 
September 14, 1945. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 7 contains 6 
additional listings in the other American re- 
publics. In the case of Alfredo E. INIoll, a sub- 
stantial amount of the evidence occasioning the 
listing was discovered by the occupation authori- 
ties in Germany. Part I also contains 353 dele- 
tions; Part II contains 25 additional listings 
outside the American republics and 27 deletions. 

The names of a considerable number of persons 
and enterprises in Brazil have been deleted in the 
current supplement. These deletions are possible 
because of the effective action taken by the Bra- 
zilian Government to eliminate Axis enterprises 
and because the laws of Brazil are deemed ade- 
quate to control deleted persons whose activities 
still require supervision. With some exceptions, 
the deletions for Brazil do not indicate that con- 
tinued control by the Brazilian Government is 
umiecessary; on the contrary, it means that the 
laws of Brazil are deemed to be adequate to control 
the activities and assets of undesirable persons 
whose names have been deleted. 



^ THE FOREIGN SERVICE ^ 

Consular Offices 

The American Consulate General at Singapoi'e 
was reopened October 10, 1945. 

Confirmations 

On October 26, 1945 the Senate confirmed the 
nomination of Avra M. Warren to be Envoy 
Extraordinary and Alinister Plenipotentiary to 
New Zealand. 



' Bulletin of Jan. 2, 1943, p. S. 



702 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Visit of Ecuadoran Art 
Director 

[Released to the press October 25] 

Nicolas Delgudo, Director General of Fine Arts 
in tlie Ministry of Education, Quito, Ecuador, is 
in the United States for the purpose of establish- 
ing relations between leading art centers of this 
country and of Ecuador, and of making a special 
study of the organization and administration of 
nuiseums in the United States. He has held such 
posts as professor of painting in the National 
School of Fine Arts of Ecuador, and later pro- 
fessor of painting and of the history of colonial art 
in the National Museum. He is now officially 
charged by the Government of Ecuador with the 
organization of museums and is Director of La 
Casa Colonial, a museum in Quito. He is also 
directing the cataloguing of private and public 
art collections and of buildings of archeological, 
historical, and artistic value. 

Mr. Delgado visited the United States in 
1939—4:0, when he was commissioned by his Gov- 
ernment to take charge of the Ecuadoran exhibit 
at the Golden Gate International Exposition. 
He has also studied and traveled widely in Europe. 

As a guest of the Department of State, he 
intends to spend three months in the United 
States. 



THE CONGRESS 



Foreign Commerce Weekly 

The following articles of interest to readers of 
the BuLLEmN appeared in the October 13 issue 
of Foreign Commerce Weekly, a publication of the 
Department of Commerce, copies of which may be 
obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, for 10 cents each : 

"Danish Industry Now : Position and Pros- 
pects", by John Manfred Hager, senior economic 
analyst, American Legation and Consulate Gen- 
eral, Copenhagen. 

"Reconstructing Manila: Extensive Plans Now 
Set", by John M. Beard, senior economic analyst, 
American Consulate General, Manila. 

"Drugs and Pharmaceuticals in Contemporary 
Turkey", by Paul S. Gninn, consul, American 
Consulate General, Istanbul. 



Foreign War Belief Operations. Jlessage from the 
President of the United States transmitting the cumula- 
tive rep<irt on refugees and foreign war relief operations 
from July 1, ISMO, through April 30, 1945. H. Doc. 262, 
79th Cong, viii, 99 pp. 

Supplemental Estimate of Appropriation for the Export- 
Import Bank of Washington. Communication from the 
President of the United States transmitting supplemental 
estimate of appropriation for thi> fiscal year 1946 in the 
amount of |104,000 for the Export-Import Bank of Wash- 
ington. H. Doc. 336, 79th Cong. 2 pp. 

Universal Military Training. Address of the President 
of the United States before a joint session of the Senate 
and House of Representatives presenting his recommenda- 
tions with respect to universal military training. H. Doc. 
359, 79th Cong. 7 pp. 

Surplus Disposal in Canada. Report of the Committee 
on Military Affairs, pursuant to S. Res. 46. S. Rept. 199, 
Part 4, 79th Cong, ii, 5 pp. 

Reorganization of Government Agencies. Rejjort from 
the Committee on the Judiciary to accompany S. 1120, 
a bill to provide for the reorganization of Government 
agencies, and for other purposes. S. Rept. 638, 79th Cong, 
ill, 36 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Arctic Weather Reporting Stations. S. Rept. 656, 79th 
Cong., to accompany S. 765. 5 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Convention on International Civil Aviation : Hearings 
before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States 
Senate, Seventy-ninth Congress, first session, on Execu- 
tive A, a Convention on International Civil Aviation, Chi- 
cago, 111.. December 7, 1944. February 20, 23, March 6, 
9, 19, 20, 23, and 26, 1945. 

Entrance of South American Cadets to Merchant Marine 
Academy: Executive Hearings before the Committee on 
the Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representa- 
tives, Seventy-ninth Congress, first session, on H.R. 1751, 
a bill to authorize the course of instruction at the United 
States Blerchant Marine Academy to be given to not 
exceeding twenty persons at a time from the American 
Republics, other than the United States. September 27, 
1945. iii, 16 pp. 

First Supplemental Surplus Appropriation Rescission 
Bill, 1946 : Hearings before tlie subcommittee of the Com- 
mittee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, 
Seventy-ninth Congress, first session, on the first supple- 
mental surplus appropriation rescission bill, 1046. Part I, 
Departments and Civil Agencies, ii, 964 pp. 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



703 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Establishment of the Interim Foreign 
Economic and Liquidation Service' 

1 In accordance with the authority contained in Part 
III, paragraph 11 of Executive Order 9630, there is hereby 
established within the Department the Interim Foreign 
Economic and Liquidation Service. 

2 The Service will carry out the functions transferred 
to the Department from the Foreign Economic Adminis- 
tration and the office of the Army-Navy Liquidation Com- 
missioner by Executive Order 9630. 

3 The Service shall be administered by the Special 
Assistant to the Secretary and Foreign Liquidation Com- 
missioner under the general direction of the Secretary, 
reporting to him through the Assistant Secretary for Eco- 
nomic Affairs. 

4 The Service shall continue to operate as an organ- 
izational entity within the Department pending a deter- 
mination as to which of its functions shall be continued in 
the permanent organization of the Department after which 
the Service shall be liquidated. 

5 The records, property, and appropriation balances 
transferred to the Department by Executive Order 9630 
shall be utilized in the operation of the Service until the 
Service finally is liquidated and for the operation of the 
functions continued in the jiermanent organization of the 
Department. 

6 The personnel transferred to the Department by Exec- 
utive Order 9630 shall be utilized in the Interim Service 
for such time as their services may be required. At the 
discretion of the Assistant Secretary for Administration, 
any of the personnel transferred to the Department by 
Executive Order 9630 may be temporarily detailed or trans- 
ferred to the permanent organization of the Department 
in accordance with approved personnel policies for the per- 
formance of functions which may be continued after the 
final liquidation of the Interim Service. 

James F. Btbnes 



Establishment of a Deputy on Financial 

Affairs in the Office of the Assistant 

Secretary for Economic Affairs ^ 

1 There is hereby established in the Office of the As- 
sistant Secretary for Economic Affairs a Deputy on Finan- 
cial Affairs who shall coordinate the work of the Oflice 
of Financial and Development Policy and of the Office 
of Economic Security Policy. He shall also coordinate 
the policy of the Office of Foreign Liquidation with the 
policy of the other offices named ; and shall carry out 
such other functions as the Assistant Secretary may 
from time to time direct. 



2 Departmental Orders 1301 of December 20, 1944 and 
1311 of March 9, 1945 are amended accordingly. 

James P. Btenes 



Establishment of an OflB.ce of Foreign 
Liquidation^ 

1 This Order is issued to establish an Office of Foreign 
Liquidation which will take action, in accordance with 
the prevailing foreign policy of the United States, in- 
volving problems incident to Lend Lease, Surplus War 
Property disposal and supplying requirements in liberated 
areas. 

2 There is hereby established an Office of Foreign 
Liquidation which shall be administered by the Special 
Assistant to the Secretary and Foreign Liquidation Com- 
missioner under the general direction of the Secretary, 
reporting to him through the Assistant Secretary for eco- 
nomic affairs. 

3 The Office shall be responsible for taking necessary 
action (based on prevailing foreign policy) on the con- 
tinuing phases of problems in connection with the func- 
tions of Lend Lease, Surplus War Property and liberated 
area requirements transferred to the Department of State 
under the terms of Executive Order 9630. 

4 The Foreign Liquidation Commissioner shall carry 
out his functions in accordance with the delegation of 
authority dated October 20, 1945. 

James P. Byenes 



Establishment of the Ofl&ce of Economic 
Security Policy* 

I There is hereby established under the Assistant Sec- 
retary in charge of economic affairs the Office of Economic 
Security Policy which shall be under the direction of the 
Deputy to the Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs. 
The Office of Economic Security Policy shall be responsible 
for initiation, formulation and coordination of policy and 
action by the Department of State for economic security 
policy, including economic aspects of the occupation of 
Germany, Austria, Japan and Korea. 

II There shall be established within the Office of Eco- 
nomic Security Policy (a) Division of Economic Security 



" Departmental Order 1343, dated Oct. 19, 1945 and effec- 
tive Oct. 20, 1945. 

' Departmental Order 1344, dated Oct. 19, 1945 and effec- 
tive Oct. 20, 1945. 

' Departmental Order 1345, dated Oct. 19, 1945 and effec- 
tive Oct. 20, 1945. 

* Departmental Order 1346, dated Oct. 19, 1945 and effec- 
tive Oct. 20, 1945. 



704 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Controls, (b) Division of German and Austrian Economic 
Affairs, and (c) Division of Japanese and Korean Eco- 
nomic Affairs. Each division shall have responsibility for 
the initiation, formulation and coordination of policy and 
action of programs as follows : 

A Division of Economic Security Controls. (1) Foreign 
funds or properties; (2) export control — applicability to 
specified designees; (3) control and disposition of enemy 
property in the United States and in other countries; (4) 
prevention of concealment or flight of enemy assets and 
capital; (5) protection or restoration of patent, copyright 
or similar rights affected by the war; (6) administration 
of financial and economic controls in accordance with the 
several inter-American Conferences including replacement 
of Axis concerns; and (7) collection, evaluation and or- 
ganization of biographic data. 

B Division- of Oerman and Austrian Economic Affairs. 
(1) Economic and financial matters related to the oc- 
cupation and control of Germany in accordance with the 
principles established by the Potsdam Conference; (2) 
Economic and financial aspects of the occupation and con- 
trol of Austria and its reestablishment as an independent 
state; (3) Reparations, restitution and economic and 
financial aspects of peace treaties insofar as these relate to 
Germany and Austria. 

Division of Japanese and Korean Economic Affairs. 
(1) Economic and financial matters related to the occupa- 
tion and control of Japan ; (2) Economic and financial 
aspects of the occupation and control of Korea and its re- 
establishment as an independent state; (3) Reparations, 
restitution and economic and financial aspects of peace 
treaties insofar as these relate to Japan and Korea. 

III The following functions and administrative units 
shall be transferred to the Office of Economic Security 
Policy together with personnel and records : 

A The Division of Economic Security Controls 

B The Office of the Adviser on German Economic 
Affairs 

C The Office of the Adviser on Far Eastern Economic 
Affairs 

D The function of reparations and financial aspects 
of peace treaties involving Germany, Austria, Japan and 
Korea, now being handled by the Division of Financial 
Affairs 

B The function of formulating policy with respect to 
the industrial aspects of occupation and peace treaties 
involving Germany, Austria, Japan and Korea, now being 
handled by the Division of Foreign Economic Development. 

IV Code symbols shall be as follows : 

A Office of Economic Security Policy (ESP) 

B Division of Economic Security Controls (ES) 

C Division of German and Austrian Economic Affairs 

(GA) 
D Division of Japanese and Korean Economic Affairs 

(JK) 

V Departmental Orders amended. Departmental Order 
1311 dated March 9, 1945 and any other orders, the pro- 
visions of which are in conflict herewith, are accordingly 
amended. 

James F. Byrnes 



Delegation of Authority to the Foreign 
Liquidation Commissioner' 

Pursuant to the provisions of the Surplus Property Act 
of 1944 (58 Stat. 765), Surplus Property Board Revised 
Regulation 8 dated September 25, 1945 (10 F.R. 12452), 
designating the Department of State as the disposal agency 
for all surplus property located in foreign areas, except- 
ing certain ves.sels, and Executive Order 9630, dated Sep- 
tember 27, 1945 (10 F. R. 121:45), transferring to the 
Department of State all functions of the Army-Navy Liqui- 
dation Commissioner, and all functions of the War Depart- 
ment and the Navy Department relating to the disposi- 
tion abroad of property capturetl from the enemy, and 
transferring to the Secretary of State so much of the func- 
tions of the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the 
Navy as related thereto, it is hereby ordered that : 

1 Tliere is hereby delegated, as herein provided, to the 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner the authority now or 
hereafter vested in the Secretary of State or the De- 
partment of State to dispose of, subject to the authority 
of the Surplus Property Administrator under the Surplus 
Property Act of 1944, all surplus property, including scrap, 
salvage, waste materials, property captured from the 
enemy, and surplus property of Lend-Lease origin, in the 
control of or for the disposal of which the Department 
of State may be responsible, located in foreign areas. 

2 The Foreign Liquidation Commissioner will exercise 
the authority hereby delegated imder the general super- 
vision of, and in conformity with such directions, orders, 
or instructions as may from time to time be issued by, 
the Secretary of State in the execution of the foreign 
policies of the United States, and he will report to the 
Secretary of State through the Assistant Secretary of State 
for Economic Affairs. 

3 Provisions of law and regulations requiring owning 
agencies to file with the Department of State, as the dis- 
posal agency, declarations of surplus real and personal 
properties located in foreign areas, shall be complied with 
by filing in such manner as the Foreign Liquidation Com- 
missioner may direct. 

4 The Foreign Liquidation Commissioner is authorized, 
with the approval of the Assistant Secretary for Economic 
Affairs, to designate : 

(a) One or more Deputy Commissioners who may in 
the order prescribed in the instrument of appointment 
exercise all of the authority and perform all of the func- 
tions hereunder of the Commissioner in his absence, and 
one or more assistant Commissioners who may in the order 
prescribed in the instrument of appointment exercise all 
of the authority and perform all of the functions of Com- 
missioner hereunder in the absence of the Commissioner 
and the Deputy Commissioners ; 

(b) Field Commissioners, Deputy Representatives, Offi- 
cers, and Assistants ; 

(c) In such representative capacities as may be deemed 
necessary, such officers and enlisted personnel of military 
or naval establishments as may be detailed to the Depart- 



' Departmental Order 1347, dated and effective Oct. 20, 
1945. 



OCTOBER 28, 1945 



705 



uient of State pursuant to Executive Order 9630 of Septem- 
ber 27, 1945 ( 10 F.R. 12245) . 

5 The Foreign Liquidation Commissioner or his local 
representatives are authorized to call upon the War and 
Navy Departments, and the military commander of any 
Theater of Operations, command, department or base in 
foreign areas and the Naval Commander of any area, 
several areas or fleet, or the Commandant of a Naval Dis- 
trict, in foreign areas for the assignment within his 
Command to the local representative of the Commissioner, 
of such military and Naval personnel, transportation, and 
administrative services, or facilities as may be required to 
be furnished by them pursuant to paragraphs 8 and 9 of 
Executive Order 0630, dated September 27, 1945 (10 F.R. 
12245). 

6 The Commissioner is authorized, with the approval 
of the Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs, to re- 
delegate and authorize successive redelegations of all or 
any part of his authority and functions hereunder to such 
Deputy Commissioners, Assistant Commissioners. Field 
Conmiissioners, Deputy Representatives, Officers, Assist- 
ants, and to any United States Government agency, with 
the consent of such agency, or subject to such conditions, 
directions and restrictions as may be prescribed by the 
Commissioner or his authorized representatives, either in 
the instrument of delegation, or otherwise from time to 
time, to a person under the complete control of such Gov- 
ernment agency. 

7 Such personnel as may be necessary to enable the 
Commissioner to carry out his functions shall be sui^plied 
by the Division of Departmental Personnel and the Divi- 
sion of Foreign Service Personnel. 

8 The Foreign Liquidation Commissioner will maintain 
records of all his transactions and require that such rec- 
ords be kept by each foreign representative in the form 
and manner prescribed by him. 

9 This Order is effective as of the close of business Oc- 
tober 20, 1945. 

James F. Bybnes 

Appointment of Officers 

Emilio G. Collado as Deputy on Financial Affairs to the 
Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs, effective Octo- 
ber 20, 1945. 

Dudley Maynard Phelps as Acting Director of the Office 
of Financial and Development Policy, concurrently with 
his duties as Chief of the Division of Foreign Economic 
Development, effective October 20, 1945. 

John Stam Hooker as Deputy Director of the Office of 
Financial and Development Policy, effective October 20, 
1945. 

Thomas B. McCabe as Special Assistant to the Secretary 
and Foreign Liquidation Commissioner, effective October 
20, 1945. 

Seymour J. Rubin as Acting Director and Deputy Di- 
rector of the Office of Economic Security Policy, effective 
October 20, 1945. 

Edwin M. Martin as Chief of the Division of Japanese and 
Korean Economic Affairs, effective October 20, 1945. 

William T. Turner as Chief of the Division of Japanese 
Affairs, effective October 22, 1945. 



Ellis O. Briggs as Director of the Office of American 
Republic Affairs, effective October 22, 1945. 

Abram Bergson as Consultant in the Division of Foreign 
Economic Develniiment, effective October 22, 1945. 

Benjamin Gerig as Adviser to the Division of Interna- 
tional Organization Affairs, concurrently with his duties 
as Chief of the Division of Dependent Area Affairs, 
effective October 6, 1945. 

John P. Young as Associate Chief and Adviser on Foreign 
Investment in the Division of Foreign Economic Develop- 
ment, effective October 1, 1945. 

J. Anthony Panuch as Deputy to the Assistant Secre- 
tary for Administration, effective October 24, 1945. 

Alfred McCormack, Special Assistant to the Secretary 
in charge of research and intelligence, to be in charge of 
the Interim Research and Intelligence Service, effective 
October 24, 1945. 

Donald S. Russell as Chairman and William Benton as 
Member on the Board of Foreign Service Personnel and 
the Board of Examiners for the Foreign Service, effective 
October 17, 1945. 

Confirmations 

On October 22, 1945 the Senate confirmed the nomi- 
nation of Spruille Braden as Assistant Secretary of 
State. 



Publications 

of the DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C, 
who is the authorized distributor of Government 
publications. To avoid delay, address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Docmnents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may 
be obtained from the Department of State. 

*Report on First /Session of the Council of For- 
eign Ministers, by James F. Byrnes, Secretary 
of State, October 5, 1945. Publication 2398. 
10 pp. 5^. 

Broadcast from Washington, D. C, over the network 
of the Columbia Broadcasting System. The first ses- 
sion of the Council of Foreign Ministers was held in 
London from September 11, 1945 to October 2, 1945. 

^Department of State Bulletin Index, Volume 
XII, Numbers 289-313, January 7-June 24, 
1945. Publication 2395. 

A cumulative list of the publications of the Department 
of State, from October 1, 1929 to July 1, 19i5 {publication 
2373) may be secured from the Department of State. 



706 DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 







OntentS — continued 



The United Nations — Continued 

Educational and Cultural Conference: Page 
Appointment of William G. Carr on Secretariat . . . '. 686 
Francis M. Crowley and Mark Starr To Join U. S. Dele- 
gation 686 

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization: 

Agricultural Committee Panels 686 

Signing of the FAO Constitution 686 

Treaty Information 

The Charter of the United Nations: Entry Into Force . . 679 

Statement by Edward R. Stettinius, Jr 680 

Occasion of Signing of the Protocol of Deposit of Ratifica- 
tions. Statement by the Secretary of State .... 680 

Signing of the FAO Constitution 686 

Foreign Trade Agreements. Regulations for Public Notice 

and Presentation of Views 700 

The Department 

James C. Dunn To Return From London. Statement by 

the Secretary of State 699 

Establishment of the Interim Foreign Economic and Liqui- 
dation Service 703 

Establishment of a Deputy on Financial Affairs in the Office 

of the Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs. . . . 703 
EstabUshment of an Office of Foreign Liquidation .... 703 
Establishment of the Office of Economic Security Policy . , 703 
Delegation of Authority to the Foreign Liquidation Com- 
missioner 704 

Appointment of Officers 705 

Confirmations 706 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 701 

Confirmations 701 

Publications 

Foreign Commerce Weekly 702 

Department of State 705 

The Congress. . 702 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRtNTINfi OFFICEi IS49 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BU 



J 



-A 



1 r 
J . 



1 




VOL. XIII, NO. 332 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 



In this issue 



NEIGHBORING NATIONS IN ONE WORLD 

Address by the Secretary of State 

THE VOICE OF AMERICA 

Address by Assistant Secretacy Benton 

THE ST. LAWRENCE WATERWAY AND WORLD TRADE 
By Edward G. Miller, Jr. 

POSTSCRIPTS ON THE THIRD INTER-AMERICAN RADIOCOMMUNICATIONS 
CONFERENCE 

By Robert R. Burton and Donald R. MacQuivey 



^©NT o^ 




For complete contents 
see inside cover 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 



DEC 271945 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



^^."T o» 



Vol. XIII'No. 332» 




• Publication 2419 



November 4, 1945 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
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Government Printing Office, Wash- 
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chase orders, with accompanying 
remittance, should be sent. The sub- 
scription price is $3.50 a year; a single 
copy is 10 cents. 







ontents 



American Republics p 

Recognition of Government of Venezuela 734 

Normal Relations With New Brazilian Administration , . 734 
Postscripts on the Third Inter-American Radiocommuni- 
cations Conference. By Robert R. Burton and Donald 

R. MacQuivey 735 

The Caribbean 

Meeting of Anglo-American Caribbean Forestry Commit- 
tee 737 

Europe 

Participation by Civil Authorities in Government of Ger- 
many 72 J 

Visit of Prime Minister Attlee 714 

Mail Service to Italy 734 

Hungarian Minister to the United States 734 

Far East 

Far Eastern Advisory Commission: 

Advisers to United States Representative 728 

Appointment of Temporary Secretary 72s 

Appointment of Indian Representative 728 

List of Representatives 728 

Opening Session: 

Statement by the Secretary of State 728 

Motion Presented by Chinese Representative .... 729 
Japanese Reparations Mission: 

Announcement by the President 729 

Members of the Mission 729 

Directive From General MacArthur to the Imperial Japa- 
nese Government 730 

Departure From Shanghai of the S. S. Lavaca 733 

Near East 

U. S. Supply Arrangements for the Middle East 727 

Cultural Cooperation 

Dickson Reck Returns From China 733 

General 

The Voice of America. Address by Assistant Secretary 

Benton 712 

Pearl Harbor Investigation 732 

Areas Opened for Civilian Travel 733 

The United Nations 

Neighboring Nations in One World. Addre.ss by the Secre- 
tary of State 709 

Meeting of the Preparatory Commission of the United 
Nations: 

Agreement on the Security Council 720 

Discussion on the Secretariat 721 

Discussions on the Report on the General Assembly . . 721 
Discussions on Location of United Nations Permanent 

Headquarters 722 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: 
Food and Agriculture Subcommittee of the Emergency 

Economic Committee for Europe 724 

Position of Soviet Delegation Regarding FAO. Report 

by the Chairman 726 

Final Plenary Session 726 

{Continued on Page 742) 



Neighboring Nations in 

ONE WORLD 



Ihe subject about which I wish to speak briefly 
this evening is "Neigliboring Nations in One 
World." 

It was no accident that President Roosevelt, who 
did so much to develop our inter-American sys- 
tem, did even more to develop the world commu- 
nity of the United Nations. For today all nations 
are neighbors, and although we may have special 
relations with our nearer neighbors in the Amer- 
icas, we must remember that we and they are parts 
of a single, interdependent world. 

When we consider the principles which govern 
our inter-American system as it has been worked 
out in recent years, it is well to remember that 
these principles were not always recognized by us 
in our relations with our neighbors. There were 
times, not so far distant, when we tried "dollar 
diplomacy" and intervention and were accused of 
"Yankee imperialism." 

But we have learned by experience that to have 
good neighbors we must be a good neighbor. 

We have discovered that understanding and 
good-will cannot be bought and cannot be forced. 
They must spring spontaneously from the people. 
We have learned also that there can be no lasting 
friendship between governments unless there is 
understanding and good-will between their 
l^eoples. 

In the inter-American system the members do 
not interfere in the internal affairs of their neigh- 
bors nor do they brook interference in those inter- 
nal affairs by others. Freedom means more than 
freedom to act as we would like them to act. 

But we do want other people to know what our 
people are thinking and doing. And we want to 
know what other people are thinking and doing. 
Only with such knowledge can each people deter- 
mine for itself its way of life. 

We believe other nations have a right to know 
of our own deep attachment to the principles of 



Address by 
THE SECRETARY OF STATE ^ 



democracy and human rights ; our profound belief 
that governments must rest upon the free consent 
of the governed ; and our firm conviction that peace 
and understanding among nations can best be fur- 
thered by the free exchange of ideas. 

While we adhere to the policy of non-interven- 
tion, we assert that knowledge of what other people 
are thinking and doing brings understanding; and 
understanding brings tolerance and a willingness 
to cooperate in the adjustment of differences. 

Censorship and blackouts, on the other hand, 
breed suspicion and distrust. And all too often 
this suspicion and distrust are justified. For cen- 
sorship and blackouts are the handmaidens of 
oppression. 

The policy of non-intervention in internal affairs 
does not mean the ajsproval of local tyranny. Our 
policy is intended to protect the right of our neigh- 
bors to develop their own freedom in their own 
way. It is not intended to give them free I'ein to 
plot against the freedom of others. 

We have learned by bitter experience in the 
past ten years that Nazi and Fascist plans for ex- 
ternal aggression started with tyrannies at home 
which were falsely defended as matters of purely 
local concern. We have learned that tyranny any- 
where must be watched, for it may come to threaten 
the security of neighboring nations and soon be- 
come the concern of all nations. 

If, therefore, there are developments in any 
country within the inter- American system which, 
realistically viewed, threaten our security, we con- 

' Delivered before the Herald Trihune Forum in New 
Tork, N. Y., on Oct. 31, 1945 and released to the press 

Nov. 1. 

709 



710 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



suit with other members in an effort to agree upon 
common policies for our mutual protection. 

We Americans can take genuine pride in the 
evolution of the good-neighbor policy from what, 
in a way, were its beginnings in the Monroe Doc- 
trine. We surely cannot and will not deny to other 
nations the right to develop such a policy. 

Far from opposing, we have sympathized with, 
for example, the effort of the Soviet Union to draw 
into closer and more friendly association with her 
central and eastern European neighbors. We are 
fully aware of her special security interests in 
those countries, and we have recognized those in- 
terests in the arrangements made for the occupa- 
tion and control of the former enemy states. 

We can appreciate the determination of the peo- 
ple of the Soviet Union that never again will they 
tolerate the pursuit of policies in those countries 
deliberately directed against the Soviet Union's 
security and way of life. And America will never 
join any groups in those countries in hostile in- 
trigue against the Soviet Union. We are also con- 
fident that the Soviet Union would not join in 
hostile intrigue against us in this hemisphere. 

We are concerned to promote friendship, not 
strife, among neighbors everywhere. For twice 
in our generation strife among neighbors has led 
to world conflict. Lasting peace among neighbors 
has its roots in spontaneous and genuine friend- 
ship. And that kind of friendship among nations 
depends upon mutual respect for one another. 

It is our belief that all peoples should be free 
to choose their own form of government, a govern- 
ment based upon the consent of the governed and 
adapted to their way of life. 

We have put that belief into practice in our 
relations with our neighbors. The Soviet Union 
has also declared that it does not wish to force the 
Soviet system on its neighbors. The whole-hearted 
acceptance of this principle by all the United Na- 
tions will greatly strengthen the bonds of friend- 
ship among nations everywhere. 

But the point I wish to emphasize is that the pol- 
icy of the good neighbor, unlike the institution of 
marriage, is not an exclusive arrangement. The 
best neighbors do not deny their neighbors the 
right to be friends with others. 

We have learned that our security interests in 
this hemisphere do not require its isolation from 
economic and cultural relations with the rest of the 
world. 

We have freely accepted the Charter of the 



United Nations, and we recognize the paramount 
authority of the world community. The Charter, 
while reserving to us and other nations the inher- 
ent right of individual and collective self-defense 
in case of armed attack, requires that enforcement 
action taken under regional arrangements be sanc- 
tioned by the Security Council of the United Na- 
tions Organization. 

Moreover, we adhere strictly to the policy that 
cooperation among the American republics does 
not justify discrimination against non-American 
states. The American republics have practiced the 
policy of equal treatment for all states which 
respect the sovereignty and integrity of their 
fellow states. 

Inter-American cooperation is not inconsistent 
with world-wide cooperation among the nations. 
Regional arrangements, like the inter-American 
system, which respect the rights and interests of 
other states and fit into the world system can 
become strong pillars in the structure of world 
peace. 

But we cannot recognize regional arrangements 
as a substitute for a world system. To do so would 
not promote the common and paramount interests 
of all nations, large and small, in world peace. 

We live in one world; and in this atomic age 
regional isolationism is even more dangerous than 
is national isolationism. 

We cannot have the kind of cooperation neces- 
sary for peace in a world divided into spheres of 
exclusive influence and special privilege. 

This was the great significance of the Moscow 
Declaration of 1943.^ That joint statement of 
policy pledged the world's most powerful nations 
to mutual cooperation in winning the war and 
maintaining the peace. It was a landmark in our 
efforts to create a world community of nations and 
to abandon the discredited system of international 
relations based uj^on exclusive spheres of influence. 

Out of the Moscow Declaration have come the 
Dumbarton Oaks, Tehran, Crimea, San Francisco, 
and Potsdam conferences. And the United Na- 
tions Organization and the London Council of 
Foreign Ministers were created in the spirit of that 
Declaration. 

International cooperation must — as I empha- 
sized in my recent report on the London Council — 
depend upon intelligent compromise. It does not 
require us or any other nation to neglect its spe- 
cial relations with its nearer neighbors. But it 



■ BxjLLETiN of Nov. 6, 1943, p. 308. 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 

does require that all neighborly relations be fitted 
into an organized system of international relations 
■world-wide in scope. 

The world system which we seek to create must 
be based on the principle of the sovereign equality 
of nations. 

That does not mean that all nations are equal in 
power and in influence any more than all men are 
equal in power and influence. But it does mean 
equal respect for the individuality and sovereignty 
of nations, large and small. Nations, like individ- 
uals, should be equal before the law. 

That principle is the cornerstone of our inter- 
American system as it is the cornerstone of the 
United Nations. 

Adherence to that principle in the making of 
the peace is necessary if we are to achieve endur- 



711 

ing peace. For enduring peace is indivisible. It 
is not the exclusive concern of a few large states or 
a few large groups of states. It is the concern of 
all peoples. 

Believing this, the position of the United States 
will continue to be that the nations, large and 
small, which have borne the burdens of the war 
must participate in making the peace. 

In centuries past powerful nations have for va- 
rious purposes tried to divide the world among 
themselves. They failed, and in failing left a 
trail of blood through the centuries. Such efforts 
have even less chance of success in the modern 
world where all nations have become neighbors. 

Today the world must make its choice. There 
must be one world for all of us or there will be no 
world for any of us. 



Participation by Civil Authorities 

in Government of Germany 



[Released to the press by the White House October 31] 

26 October 1945. 
Dear Mr. President: 

You will recall that, when you were in Frank- 
furt, you and I agreed upon the desirability of so 
organizing the Army's current f imctions in Europe 
as to facilitate turning U.S. participation in the 
government of Germany over to civil authority at 
the earliest possible moment. It is my understand- 
ing that the War Department completely supports 
this view. Every organizational step we have 
taken has been accomplished in such a way as to 
facilitate eventual transfer. Nevertheless I am 
quite sure that thei-e is a very widespread lack of 
realization as to the governing intent along this 
line, basing this statement upon the frequency with 
which visitors express astonishment that this pur- 
pose exists as a guiding policy. 

Naturally I am not in position to recommend 
an exact date on which such transfer should take 
place, since I have assiimed that the four inter- 
ested governments would firet have to agi'ee in 
principle and thereafter to make arrangements for 
simultaneous change from military to civil repre- 
sentatives. Moreover, there may be considerations, 
important to our government, of which I am mi- 
aware. However, from our local viewpoint, other 
govei-nments could well be asked to agree to the 
proposal at the earliest date that can be mutually 
agreed upon, in no event later than June 1, 1946. 



As quickly as the matter could be agreed in prin- 
ciple, but not before, then actual completion of 
the American civil organization should be mider- 
taken by whatever civilian you might, at that time, 
designate as its eventual head. Such things as 
these require time but I am confident that we 
should not allow this detail to obscure, in the mind 
of any interested pei'son, the clarity of the objec- 
tive toward which we are striving. 

The matter of civil government of Germany is 
entirely separate from the occupational duty of 
the Army, wliich responsibility will persist as 
long as our own Government deems necessary. 
The true function of the Army in this region is 
to provide for the United States that reserve of 
force and power than can insure within our zone 
the prompt enforcement of all laws and regula- 
tions prescribed by the Group Council, or in the 
absence of such law- and regulation, the policies 
laid down by our own Government for the United 
States zone. 

As you pointed out when here, separation of oc- 
cupational and governmental responsibility is 
sound just as soon as there is no longer any military 
or security reason for holding them together, if 
for no other reason than because of its conformity 
to the American principle of keeping the Army as 
such out of the civil government field. 
Eespectfully, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



712 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Voice of America 



Address by 
ASSISTAIMT SECRETARY BENTON' 



[Released to the press October 30] 

The voice of America is a voice with ten thou- 
sitnd tongues. It is all that the people of other 
lands hear about us and all that they read about 
us. It is the American movies they see and the 
American G.I.'s and tourists they meet. 

I am glad we Americans speak with ten thou- 
sand voices. Some critics would call it a con- 
fusion of voices. But it is the democratic way of 
peoples speaking to peoples. The alternative 
way — the single voice — is the way of censorship 
and of ministries of propaganda. 

My theme tonight is that the people of the 
United States, through their Government and 
their State Department, have a vital national in- 
terest in the voice of America. Their national 
security may be at stake if this voice is inadequate 
or distorted — if it fails to represent us with reason- 
able fullness and fairness as we really are, our 
history and our culture, our faults and our fears, 
our hopes and our ambitions for our democratic 
processes and our free society. 

Today 38 short-wave radio transmitters, oper- 
ating all over the world under the direction of 
our Government, are known to millions in Asia, 
Africa, and Europe by the name, the Voice of 
Amenca. Here is an example of the new role of 
government. The Voice of America radio pro- 
grams supplement and help to clarify the message 
of America's ten thousand tongues. Further, they 
reach vast areas of the world which otherwise 
would be completely shut off from America. 

There are people in Iceland, in China, Iran, the 
Argentine, and the Balkans — millions of ordinary 
people all over the world who listen eagerly for 
America's voice. During the war these Voice of 
America broadcasts went out over the air every 
day in the year in 40 languages. Today, in the 
backwash of the war, they go out in 18 languages. 
They give people in foreign lands straight, im- 
jiartial news from America, news in their own lan- 
guages, news untainted by special pleading or by 
propaganda. 

' Delivered before the Herald Tribuve Forum in New 
York, N. Y., on Oct. 30, 1945. 



The radio Voice of America was developed in 
war by the Government. Now before the Ameri- 
can people and the Congress is the broad and in- 
clusi%'e question: "What role shall the Govern- 
ment play in America's voice abroad in peace- 
time?" 

Is it enough, in the rapidly contracting world 
of today, for our people and our Government to 
be presented to the peoples of the world as a 
giant, completely equipped with battleships, super- 
fortresses, and atomic bombs, but voiceless except 
for diplomatic exchanges and the erratic inter- 
2)lay of private communication? 

There is one basis for judging the future in- 
formation policy of the Government abroad upon 
which we can all agree. 

Does an expanded peacetime role for govern- 
ment help us to achieve national security? Is it 
worthwhile deliberately to explain ourselves to 
the rest of the world ? Does this help give us will- 
ing and friendly allies, in times of crisis as well 
as in peace? Is understanding also a force? Isn't 
it the kind of force that we prefer? Suppose we 
had to choose between two investments in se- 
curity — between a year's cost of tlie radio Voice 
of America and its rough equivalent, a year's cost 
of operating one battleship in a fleet of battle- 
ships? 

These are new questions for America. They 
will be debated in the next few weeks and over 
the years to come. BattleshiiDs are the traditional 
symbols of our security. But to speak to the other 
peoples of the world about America — to speak 
through such new and miraculous channels as 
short-wave radio — to seek security through under- 
standing rather than through force — that is a 
new role for our Government. 

In the field of short-wave radio beamed abroad, 
we have not yet decided how best to operate or 
manage or control; we only know that the Gov- 
ernment must put up most of the money to under- 
write the cost if a job is to be done. 

The American people have deliberately chosen 
a policy of active participation in world affairs. 
As a people we are becoming aware of the danger 



NOVEMBER 4. 1945 



713 



inherent in that policy. We do not propose to 
forsake the policy, but we must realize that the 
danger is greater if America is misundei-stood 
abroad. The next few years — perhaps the next 
few months — are crucial. The new United Na- 
tions Organization will be meeting its first tests. 
America will be trying to revive world trade on a 
sound basis. The time to build the kind of peace 
we want is now, and in the years just ahead. 

Yet the plain fact is that as we enter this crucial 
period America is neither fairly nor fully under- 
stood by the peoples of other nations. 

America is a legendary country to most of the 
world. It has been a land of legend through most 
of its history. The legend has changed from time 
to time. In the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies, America was a land of freedom ; in the nine- 
teenth century, during the great waves of immigra- 
tion, it was also the land of opportunity. 

The American legend today is a curious and con- 
tradictory mixture. A legend can hardly be other- 
wise. 

We are known to be immensely strong. Yet 
Axis propagandists found ready belief for the 
story that good living had made us so weak and 
spineless we would not and could not fight. 

We are acclaimed as generous and open-handed 
with billions to spend on lend-lease and rehabilita- 
tion — a veritable Uncle Santa Claus. At the same 
time we are called Uncle Shylock. 

We believe in freedom of speech for all, yet 
sinister capitalists are said to control the means of 
communication. 

We stand for free enterprise, but our critics 
abroad stress our great combines and monopolies. 

Tlie Metropolitan Opera House is the goal of all 
foreign opera stars, but we are said to have no 
music except swing. 

We believe in due j^rocess of law, yet the world 
pictures the gangsters shooting it out on the streets 
of Chicago. 

Now I am not going to suggest that any role 
that the Government can plaj' abroad will clarify 
this picture readily or quickly. Like education, 
of which it is a part, information is a slow, labori- 
ous business that works no miracles and produces 
no millenimn of understanding. It can, however, 
help to correct mistaken ideas. It can make avail- 
able the facts about our actions and our policies, 
as they develop out of our customs, our laws, our 
institutions, and our politics. 



A government information service abroad to 
strengthen America's voice should, in major cities, 
include a room or three or four rooms or a building 
where the ordinary people of Amsterdam or Cairo 
or Chungking — for example — can go to find out 
about the United States. During the war we de- 
veloped small United States libraries in many for- 
eign cities. They were used by newspaper writers, 
school teachers, doctors, fai-mers, engineers, stu- 
dents, and people of the street. There is intense 
curiosity abroad about the United States. I am 
thinking of the long lines of anxious people who 
came to our American library of information in 
Melbourne on the day of President Roosevelt's 
death. They wanted to know what would happen 
to our Government. Would we have an immediate 
election? Who would succeed the President and 
how and why? Their concern was real and im- 
mediate. I am thinking of the foreign youngster 
who stopped in at an American picture exhibit 
to ask why the boundaries of our states are so 
straight. I have in mind a doctor who stops in at 
the American library in -Montevideo to search 
American medical journals for news of the latest 
treatment of infantile paralysis. It is a remarka- 
ble fact that the British Government's Stationery 
Office has printed and sold more copies of many 
American war documents than has our own Gov- 
ernment Printing Office. An example is "Target — 
Germany," the official report of the operations of 
our Eighth Air Force. British bookshops sold 
several hundred thousand copies of this report. 

A few weeks ago the veteran scholar and world 
traveler, Henry Seidel Canby, returned from Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand. He reported that our 
libraries there — I quote — "Have enabled tlie right 
people at the right time to learn for themselves, 
from books and not from propaganda, what Amer- 
ica was, is, had, could offer, what we were think- 
ing and how we felt. They and all such institu- 
tions should be part of our permanent foreign 
policy," he said. 

Far more important than the rooms, of course, 
are the books, j^eriodicals, and documents they 
house. Few of you can have any conception of 
what these mean, for example, to the liberated peo- 
ple whose only link with us for the past five years 
has been the radio Voice of America. Let me read 
a few lines from a letter that came to me from 
Athens just the other day. My correspondent is a 
stranger to me, Mr. Nicholas Chantiles. This is 
what he said : "I knew there was a whole treasure 



714 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



behind those library doors. Books and magazines 
full of that unrivaled American democratic spirit, 
books where the authors are free to express their 
ideas and beliefs whatever they may be." I confess 
I was moved by that letter. 

In wartime we have discovered, too, tlie im- 
mense value of official American political docu- 
ments to the newspapers, the scholars, and opin- 
ion-makers of other countries — documents which 
the commercial news sei'vices do not cable in full 
and which, therefore, will be sent abroad only by 
the Govei-nmeat. Foreign editors ask for the com- 
plete texts of presidential siaeeches, acts of Con- 
gress, reports such as General Marshall's on M^hich 
to base their editorial comments and special 
articles. 

Our Government documentary films have won 
appreciative audiences abroad. Just the other 
night I saw a small documentary that has gone 
overseas, about the jeep. It showed how Ameri- 
can ingenuity produced for war a vehicle that has 
captured the fancy of the whole world. It was a 
simple but entertaining film. Millions of people 
in other lands have been instructed by it. It was 
a piece of information about Americans. 

Finally, I should like to tell you briefly what a 
United States information jwogram should be in 
terms of people. The bone and marrow of any 
good program are, of course, the people who run it. 
There is no substitute for face-to-face relation- 
ships. We need only a few hundreds of Govern- 
ment information people abroad, directed on pol- 
icy by our Ambassadors and available to foreign 
editors and broadcasters and others. They should 
be real Americans in the sense that they know 
America. Having homesteaded in Montana as a 
boy, I submit to this New Yoi-k audience that I am 
personally partial to those wlio have deep roots 
and varied experience in rural and western and 
southern America. With such knowledge of 
America, they can represent America more faith- 
fully in foreign lands. 

Perhaps even more important people, over the 
long pull, are those we systematically exchange 
with other countries— the students, professoi-s, 
technicians, scientists, and others. Here in the 
United States, such visitors see us as we ai-e and 
take that story home. They become our friends 
and remain our friends. Those American students 
and experts we send abroad to foi-eign universities 
and governments go as representatives of our tra- 
ditions and culture. 



These are some of the materials available to the 
State Department in its efforts to represent the 
American people in the development of America's 
voice overseas. Such efforts need not compete with 
our private businesses ojDerating abroad. They ^ 
should only supplement and facilitate normal com- 
mercial and private communications. They should 
operate chiefly in those areas where private agen- 
cies will not or cannot function profitably. Nor 
should we conduct vague, well-meaning good-will 
campaigns. Our information program should be 
modest, realistic, and candid. America's voice 
should be neither the big stick nor the super-sales- 
man. The Government's role will represent only 
a fraction of the gi-eat volume of communication 
between ourselves and our friends abroad — a frac- 
tion, but a highly important and indispensable 
fraction. 

Ultimately, there are only two roads to national 
security. One is sheer physical power. The other 
is mutual understanding with the othei' countries 
of the world. We now need to follow both roads. 
But we must hope that we shall need to invest less 
of our resources in military power as we invest 
more of our thought and attention in the task of 
mutual understanding. 

In an atomic age, understanding, not bombs, is 
the last, best hope of earth. 



Visit of Prime Minister Attlee 

The Wliite House announced on October 30 that 
Prime Minister Attlee will visit the President at 
Washington early in November to discuss with him 
and Prime Minister Mackenzie King of Canada 
2)rbblems to which the discovery of atomic energy 
has given rise. The Prime Minister is expected 
to arrive in Washington so that discussions can 
begin about November" 11. 



Oath of Office Taken by 
Spruille Braden 

Spruille Braden took the oatli of office as As- 
sistant Secretary of State at ceremonies in the 
Department of State on October 29, 1945. 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 



715 



The St. Lawrence Waterway 
And World Trade 



BY EDWARD G. MILLER, JR. 



T 



I HE PROPOSAL NOW BEFORE 

Congress that the United 
States join with Canada 
in developing the naviga- 
tion and power phases of the Great Lakes-St. Law- 
rence waterway is the most important and far- 
reaching project of this kind ever imdertaken by 
two nations. It involves the opening of a deep- 
water ship channel into the heart of North Amer- 
ica, connecting the great and productive midlands 
of this continent directly with the sealanes of the 
world, and the construction of electric power 
facilities with a capacity of 2,200,000 horsepower 
and an average annual output of 13,200,000,000 
kilowatt-hours of electricity. 

This will be the second largest single-dam source 
of power in the world, being exceeded only by 
Grand Coulee. The output of the proposed power 
plant will surpass the output of both hydroelectric 
and thermoelectric plants in all but eight countries 
of the world. It will generate as much power as all 
of the hydroelectric development of the Tennessee 
Valley area at a lower cost than any plant in the 
United States, with the possible exception of 
Niagara. 

The completion of this xerogram will be an out- 
standing example of international cooperation. 
It will strengthen the traditionally friendly rela- 
tions between this country and Canada.^ In the 
commercial field Canada is this countr3''s second 
best customer, ranking next to the United King- 
dom. We are Canada's best customer. 

The over-all cost of developing the water re- 
sources of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin will 
be shared equally by the United States and 
Canada. The shipping and hydroelectric power 
also will be shared equally by the two countries. 

The project's economic value to this Nation will 
rival the TVA and the Panama Canal combined. 

672574—45 2 



From the international viewpoint this project — 
like the trade-agreements program, the Bretton 
Woods agi'eement, the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil of the United Nations Organization, and the 
other instruments of economic cooperation — has an 
imi^ortant place in the program to expand world 
trade and to foster friendly international com- 
mercial relations. Domestically, the project will 
not only be of great benefit to the 50 million people 
in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence area, but will 
also bring long-range benefits to the country 'as a 
whole. In addition to the long-range contribu- 
tion to our national welfare, the undertaking will 
provide immediate benefits in the form of gainful 
employment for an estimated average of 20,000 
workers a year for four years. 

In speaking before the Detroit Board of Com- 
merce on October 24, 1945, Senator George D. 
Aiken said : 

"In any workable plan of post-war full employ- 
ment and expanding foreign trade, the St. Law- 
rence Project should be given first i^riority. 

"During the reconversion period, it will provide 
constructive^ jobs for tens of thousands of war 
workers and returning servicemen. 

"When completed, it will stimulate agricultural 
and industrial exports at cheaper rates of trans- 
portation. 

"It will permit the importation of needed raw 
materials which we must obtain from abroad be- 
cause we do not have them here, or because we want 
to conserve our own. 

"Cheap electricity in a region long starved of 
low-cost power will create new industries, new 
freight tonnage, new employment and increase 
purchasing power." 

' Mr. Miller is Assi.stant to the Under Secretary of State. 

- For an article entitled "Canadian-American Coopera- 
tion in VPar and Peace. 1940-45," by Elizabeth Armstrong, 
see Bulletin of Oct. 28, 1945, p. 674. 



716 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



CtJBRENT Legislation 

The legislation, currently before Congress, was 
introduced in both houses on October 2 as a joint 
resolution, providing for approval of the major 
portions of a 1941 agreement between the United 
States and Canada to develop the seaway and 
power project. In the Senate, S.J. Res. 104 was 
introduced by Senator Barkley for himself and 
for Senators Wagner, Aiken, La Follette, Fer- 
guson, Langer, Vandenberg. Shipstead, Hill, and 
Taylor. Seldom has any bill had such strong bi- 
partisan sponsorship. The bill was referred to 
the Committee on Foreign Relations. 

In the House, identical resolutions have been 
introduced by Representatives Sabath, Dingell, 
Robertson, Dondero, all of which have been re- 
ferred to the Committee on Rivers and Harbors. 
It is expected that the measure will first be taken 
up in the Senate but no date has yet been set for the 
hearings. 

President Urges "Speedy Enactment" 

In a message to Congress on October 3, urging 
the "speedy enactment" of this legislation, Presi- 
dent Truman said : 

"The St. Lawrence Seaway will make it possible 
to utilize our war-expanded factories and ship- 
ping facilities in the development of international 
economic cooperation and enlarging world com- 
merce. New and increasing opportunities for pro- 
duction and employment by private enterprise can 
be expected from this cheap water transportation. 

"The completion of the Seaway will bring many 
benefits to our great neighbor and Ally on the 
north. The experience of two wars and of many 
years of peace has shown beyond question that tlie 
prosperity and defense of Canada and of the 
United States are closely linked together. 

"By development of our natural water-power re- 
sources, we can look forward with certainty to 
greater use of electricity in the home, in the fac- 
tory, and on the farm. . . . Increase in the con- 
sumption of electricity will mean more comforts 
on the farms and in city homes. It will mean more 
jobs, more income, and a higher standard of liv- 
ing. . . ."1 

Before Public Many Years 

The question of developing the water resources 
of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin has been 



before the public for many years and has been 
before Congress several times. Interest in the de- 
velopment of the Seaway dates from the early set- 
tlement of the North American Continent. Ex- 
plorers, pioneers, traders, and ultimately the Gov- 
ernments of the United States and Canada have 
been attracted by the idea of providing the land- 
locked Midwest with a deep-water route from the 
Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. To the navi- 
gational aspirations of the early settlers has been 
added the twentieth-century incentive to harness 
and utilize the enormous volume of potential elec- 
tric power latent in the rapids of the St. Lawrence 
River. 

During the last 60 years Canada and the United 
States have spent large sums of money in deep- 
ening channels between the Great Lakes. Canada 
has spent additional sums in building a series of 
14-foot canals with 22 locks to by-pass the rapids 
of the St. Lawrence River between the lower end 
of Lake Ontario and Montreal. Canada also has 
spent large amounts of money in the construction 
of the Welland Canal, skirting Niagara Falls. 

The first serious interest in the Seaway on the 
part of the U.S. Congress was shown in 1916, when 
the Congress ordered an investigation of its pos- 
sibilities. Since that time, every President from 
Wilson to Truman has favored the project. 

Many Studies 

Various branches of the Government have made 
surveys of the project. The Department of Com- 
merce survey in 1941 was the most exhaustive of 
the eight such studies that have been made. Each 
of these surveys or studies has favored the project, 
and each has shown that the navigation and power 
features of the project will pay for themselves 
many times over in the savings they will bring. 

There have been two serious private studies 
which reported unfavorably on the project: one 
issued by the Brookings Institution in 1928, and 
one issued by tlie Niagara Frontier Planning 
Board in the spring of 1940. 

On the basis of the studies that have been made 
and in response to public interest in the develop- 
ment of these water resources, the Govermnents of 
the United States and Canada signed, at Wash- 
ington on July 18, 1932, the Great Lakes-St. Law- 
rence Waterway Treaty, providing for the con- 
struction of a 27-foot waterway. The treaty then 
went to the Congress, where extensive hearings 

' Buu^mN of Oct. 7, 1945, p. 528. 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 



717 



were held by the Senate Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee during 1933. This conmiittee overwhelm- 
ingly reconmiended the ratification of the treaty, 
but consideration on the floor of the Senate was 
delayed until March 1934. After extensive de- 
bate, the treaty was favored by a majority of 46 
to 42 but, lacking the necessary two-thirds vote, 
failed to be approved. 

During the ensuing years there continued to be 
agitation on the part of the supporters of the 
project for further steps to realize plans for the 
development of the St. Lawrence Basin. Accord- 
ingly, negotiations were again undertaken with 
Canada which resulted in the signature of an 
agreement dated March 19, 1941 ' between the two 
governments providing for the conclusion of the 
seaway and power project. The agreement dif- 
fered in some respects from the earlier treaty, 
and it was made subject to approval by the Con- 
gress of the United States and the Parliament of 
Canada. It was submitted to the approval of the 
Congress, and hearings were held before the House 
Rivers and Harbors Committee in the summer and 
fall of 1941. The main issue during these hear- 
ings concerned the economic features of the proj- 
ect. The coimnittee approved the bill by a vote 
of 17 to 8, but within two weeks after it was re- 
ported to the House the attack on Pearl Harbor 
occurred. This bill, along with other long-range 
projects, was postponed since priority was given 
to other war measures. 

No further steps were taken toward the ap- 
proval of the agreement before late in 1944. At 
that time the Commerce Committee of the Senate 
held hearings on a bill introduced by Senator 
Aiken to approve the agreement, but the hearings 
were confined to the constitutional issue of whether 
the agreement should be submitted to the Senate 
for its advice and consent to ratification as in the 
case of a treaty. No report was made by the com- 
mittee. An effort was then made to bring about 
the approval of the 1941 agreement through an 
amendment from the floor of the Senate of the 
pending Rivers and Harbors Bill. This amend- 
ment was defeated on December 12, 1944, but many 
of the Senators who voted against the approval of 
the agreement made it clear that they were not 
casting their votes on the merits of the proposal 
but felt that the agreement should be considered 
separately and after full hearings. 



S. J. Res. 104 and its companion measures in the 
House again propose the approval of the 1941 
agreement but differ somewhat from the earlier 
measures which have been introduced for this pur- 
pose. Particularly, the pending bills would ex- 
cept from the approval of the Congress articles 
VII and IX of the 1941 agreement, and the bills 
would express the sense of the Congress that it 
would be desirable for the President to negotiate 
separate treaties with reference to the matters cov- 
ered in these articles. The articles in question re- 
late to the [perpetual navigation rights of the ships 
of the United States and Canada in the waters 
of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence system, to the 
maintenance of the scenic beauty of Niagara Falls, 
and to the diversion of water from Niagara River. 
The exception from approval of these articles is 
proposed in order to meet objections which have 
been raised in connection with the constitutional 
issue on the ground that the subject matter of these 
articles could be handled only through treaties, 
since there would be involved the modification of 
rights established by earlier treaties between the 
United States and Canada. Also, the joint reso- 
lution would authorize the President to investigate 
the feasibility of making the Seaway self-liqui- 
dating. 

The joint resolution should, therefore, afford an 
opportunity for considering the St. Lawrence pro- 
posal on its merits. 

Those For and Against the Project 

In the course of the extensive consideration that 
has been given to the project, many arguments for 
and against it have been presented by many in- 
dividuals and groups. Those for the undertaking 
include government officials, many governors, and 
mayors; numerous chambers of commerce scat- 
tered widely over the north central part of the 
United States; several national farm organiza- 
tions, notably the National Grange and the Na- 
tional Farmers Union; and many State farm- 
bureau organizations. Senator Aiken pointed out 
to the Senate in 1944 that approximately 700 labor 
unions — some international, some State, and some 
local— have endorsed the seaway and power proj- 
ect, including 62 labor unions in the city of Buffalo 
alone. 

The National St. Lawrence Association, organ- 
ized in 1944, with headquarters in Detroit, has been 

' BuixEnN of Mar. 22, 1941, p. 307. 



718 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



particularly active in support of the project. The 
predecessor of this organization was the Great 
Lakes-St. Lawrence Tidewater Association. 

The opposition to the project has come mainly 
from railroads, lake carriers, power interests, coal 
and ore interests, and other related groups. Cer- 
tain chambers of commerce, the National St. Law- 
rence Project Conference, certain labor unions in 
transportation and coal mining, and some cities 
and ports, such as Boston, New York, Buffalo, and 
New Orleans, have worked against it. 

Railkoads and Carriers 

Railroads and other carriers have held simul- 
taneously that the Seaway is not needed and will 
not be used and that it will take away a large por- 
tion of their existing business. There is a mass of 
evidence to show that the Seaway is feasible from 
the standpoints of both economics and navigation 
and that it will be used. As for the contention 
that the Seaway will carve out a big slice of the 
carriers' existing business, the St. Lawrence sur- 
vey, conducted by the Department of Commerce 
in 1941, points to the prospective increase in all 
freight traffic in the decade beginning in 1950. 
This increase is estimated at between 242 million 
and 374 million tons a year greater than the aver- 
age of 1930-39. The 10 million tons of additional 
American traffic would be a fraction of the ex- 
pected increase in shipping. Assuming that the 
average increase will be 300 million tons for the 
decade of 1950, the St. Lawrence Seaway would 
carry only 3 percent of the increase; railroads, 
highways, airways, and other waterways, 97 per- 
cent. Thus it is maintained that the St. Lawrence 
Seaway is an alternative method of meeting a part 
of our future transportation requirements. 

With reference to the effect of the seaway and 
power project on the ports of Buffalo, Boston, and 
New York, the Commerce Department survey re- 
ported the following conclusions: 

"The study indicates that New York will lose 
some foreign traffic and that Buffalo will lose some 
of its grain-transfer business. On the other hand. 
New York Harbor will acquire new water-borne 
traffic to and from the Great Lakes area. Simi- 
larly, Buffalo also will gain new traflic, both do- 
mestic and foreign. In each case, the additional 
traffic will more than offset the losses. The net 
gain for Boston will be largest of all." 

It was pointed out that this conclusion is based 
upon the premise that the small amount of trans- 



shipment business in foreign commerce which 
these ports would lose would be compensated by 
the increased coastwise movement of traflic and 
the growth of the economic activity of the coun- 
try as a whole. 

As for the fears ex^iressed by other cities, par- 
ticularly those of the South and Southwest, the 
survey's analysis concluded that those misgivings 
are based on the "improbable premise that this 
country's economy will remain static without any 
prospect of growth and expansion in the future, 
and upon an inaccurate analysis of the origin 
and destination of traffic to and from the Middle 
West." 

Labor is assured by the survey that the increased 
activity in the Great Lakes ports, stemming fi-om 
the increase in exports and imports as a result of 
the deep-water Seaway, would more than offset 
any displacement of workers due to diversion of 
traffic from American to foreign bottoms. 

The supply of economically usable iron oi'e in 
the Great Lakes area is estimated to be sufficient 
to last only 15 to 20 years. The Commerce De- 
partment survey points out that "When the ulti- 
mate exhaustion of the Lake Superior resources 
is in sight, the self -protection of the iron and steel 
industry in the Great Lakes area requires, as an 
insurance, the availability of a source of ore other 
than Lake Superior mines. Low-cost, water-borne 
transportation via the Seaway would then become 
an absolute necessity if the steel industry in the 
Great Lakes area is not to disintegrate. . . ." 

Division of Costs 

According to 1941 estimates the proposed sea- 
way and power project will involve the expendi- 
ture of an additional $277,000,000 by the United 
States and $144,000,000 by Canada. Canada will 
be given credit for the $133,000,000 already spent 
on the Seaway, principally in the construction of 
the Welland Canal, which was completed in 1932. 
The United States has spent only about $17,000,- 
000, exclusive of certain imi^rovements made after 
the war started. Of the $277,000,000 which was 
the United States share of the project's cost. New 
York State has offered to repay $93,373,000 for the 
power, thus reimbursing the Federal Government 
for all United States expenditures in connection 
with the power-development phases of the project. 
The net cost to be borne by the Federal Govern- 
ment, which applies largely to the Seaway, was 
estimated in 1941 at approximately $185,000,000 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 



719 



plus interest during the construction period. The 
1941 estimate may have to be increased by about 15 
percent to correspond to present-day costs. 

Actually, the 2,350-mile Seaway, from Duluth, 
Minnesota, to the Atlantic Ocean, already exists 
except for a relatively small section. With the ex- 
ception of some dredging here and there in the 
channels connecting the Lakes — principally in the 
St. Clair and Detroit Kivers — the major portion of 
the work will entail the construction of a power 
station, dams, locks, and canals in the St. Lawrence 
River between Ogdensburg, New York, and Mont- 
real, Canada, a distance of 113 miles. 

From the power plant at Massena, New York, 
the United States share will be 1,100,000 horse- 
power of electricity, the same as Canada's. Most 
of New York State and much of New England, 
both notably lacking in other sources of energy, 
lie within the area in which this vast supply of 
energy will be available. Interconnections would 
make it possible to ship power, in emergencies, as 
far as Chicago and Washington, D. C. 

The energy to be generated at Massena is im- 
portant, not just because this is the biggest, most 
productive example of international cooperation 
ever undertaken in this field, but also because 
human welfare is tied directly to the availability 
of energy. 

In the early stages of man's development, he 
relied mainly upon his own exertion or upon draft 
animals for the energy needed in his daily tasks. 
His progress toward higher levels of living has 
been based for the most part upon energy from 
inanimate sources — coal, oil, fuelwood, gas, and 
falling water. 

Nine tenths of the world's energy is now ob- 
tained from these sources; of these, falling water 
is of especial importance, for, unlike fuels, it satis- 
fies man's energy requirements without impover- 
ishing his resources for the future. 

The special value of water power has been rec- 
ognized in most of the world. Italy, Norway, Swe- 
den, Switzerland, New Zealand, and Japan, with 
little energy available from other sources, have 
gone far in developing water power as an effective 
substitute. Countries with abundant resources of 
coal and other fuels also have developed their wa- 
ter-power resources, particularly in sectors like 
our Northeast that are remote from other sources 
of energy. The wisdom of this course is reflected 
not only in benefits accruing directly to the people 
from the availability of ample supplies of energy, 



but also in the position of our country in the world 
family of nations. There is abundant evidence 
that the strength of nations, for peace or for war, 
is measured largely in terms of their capacity to 
j)roduce energy and turn it to productive purposes. 

The countries that consume large quantities of 
energy produce most of the world's raw materials, 
manufacture most of the world's processed goods, 
and transport most of the world's freight and pas- 
sengers from one point to another. Before World 
War II the United States, the United Kingdom, the 
Soviet Union, and Germany, producing two thirds 
of the world's energy, provided roughly two thirds 
of the raw materials, manufactures, and transpor- 
tation required in the world. This relation was 
no less true in wartime; for by 1944, when the 
United States was producing half the woi'ld's en- 
ergy, it was producing half the world's airplanes, 
tanks, munitions, and other instruments of war. 

The deep-water navigation made possible by the 
St. Lawrence jDroject will help to promote the in- 
ternational trade so desirable to ourselves and so 
essential to the rest of the world. The power made 
available by this project will serve the same end — 
because the welfare of the world will depend to a 
considerable extent on the international exchange 
of manufactures and raw materials. Every bit of 
power that we add to our capacity increases our 
ability to absorb the world's raw materials and 
to provide the manufactures needed in areas less 
fortunately endowed with energy resources. 

In the effort to produce more energy in the years 
ahead, the various nations will be striving toward 
the more efficient utilization of present sources and 
will be expanding facilities for utilizing resources 
hitherto untapped. ., 

The United States has only begun to harness its 
water resources for the production of hydroelec- 
tric power. The proposed St. Lawrence power de- 
velopment would be one of the greatest of its kind 
in the world. The constant and even flow of 
power available there has been described as a 
"power engineer's dream." 

International Relations 

In commenting on the St. Lawrence Seaway and 
Power Project, in a statement to the press on Oc- 
tober 4, Under Secretary of State Dean Acheson 
said : 

". . . The rapids of the St. Lawrence have al- 
(Continued on page 727) 



720 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Meeting of the Preparatory Commission 
Of the United Nations 

AGREEMENT ON THE SECURITY COUNCIL 



[Released to the press by the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations October 23] 

After some further discussion unanimous agree- 
ment on the report concerning the Security Council 
was reached at today's meeting of the Executive 
Committee of the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations. 

With a view to clarifying the situation which 
had arisen as a insult of yesterday's discussion, 
Adlai Stevenson (who acted as chairman) made a 
statement on behalf of the United States Delega- 
tion in which he expressed his conviction that all 
delegations of the Executive Committee were 
equally anxious to bring the Security Council as 
soon as possible into being. Any suggestion, Mr. 
Stevenson said, that yesterday's discussion has 
brought out anything which would not conform 
with this common desire was wholly unwarranted. 
Unanimous agreement had been reached on the 
points which were important and the first measures 
taken which will put at the disposal of the Secur- 
ity Council the force it needs to maintain peace 
and security. It will be a most historic and sig- 
nificant step forward when the Military Staff Com- 
mittee meets. For the first time in war or peace 
the chiefs of staff, or their representatives, of 
China, France, the Soviet Union, the United King- 
dom, and the United States will all meet together, 
this time to work for the enforcement of lasting 
peace under the Charter of the United Nations. 
The peoples of the world are waiting for the Secur- 
ity Council to be established and to begin func- 
tioning with an intensity and hope and 
expectation that is certainly as great as for any of 
the other oi-gans of the United Nations. 

Mr. Stevenson then proposed a new preamble to 
the report on the Security Council in which article 
24 of the Charter is quoted, according to which 
the members of the United Nations — 

"In order to ensure prompt and effective action 
by the United Nations . . . confer on the Security 



Council primary responsibility for the mainte- 
nance of international peace and security, and 
agree that in carrying out its duties under this 
responsibility the Security Council acts on their 
behalf." 

It is furthermore said in the preamble that the 
recommendations of the report are made for the 
purpose of — 

". . . assisting the Security Council to organ- 
ise itself initially as soon as possible and thus to 
be in a position to begin promptly the exercise of its 
resijonsibilities under the Charter." 

The delegates of Australia, United Kingdom, 
Netherlands, Canada, China, France, Czechoslo- 
vakia, and Iran expressed their approval of the 
United States statement. 

Mr. Hasluck (Australia) exi^ressed pleasure 
that a clear statement of the United States position 
had been made. He accepted tlie new text of the 
preamble as a compromise, though he would still 
prefer it if the business of the Security Council 
had been listed rather more fully. He liad not 
been suspicious of the Security Council but had 
objected to the "hands off" policy which had be- 
come apparent in the discussion of the Security 
Council. 

Professor Webster (U.K.) mentioned the im- 
portance of the Military Staff Committee and said 
that his delegation would like to see the Military 
Staff Committee organized and set up as promptly 
as possible. 

Adrian Pelt (Netherlands) pointed out that, 
wliile the United States proposal did not quite 
meet the point of view of the Netherlands Delega- 
tion, he would accept it. 

The Executive Committee then adopted the re- 
port on the Security Council, and after some fur- 
ther discussion also the report on financial ar- 
rangements (Committee 7). 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 

DISCUSSION ON THE SECRETARIAT 

[Released to the presa by the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations October 23] 

The Committee then took up the report on the 
arrangements for the Secretariat (Committee 6). 
Dr. Pelt, presenting the report, said that miani- 
mous agreement had been reached in Committee 6 
on parts of the repoi-t, whereas other pai'ts were 
being submitted to the Executive Committee with 
a two-thirds majority and in one instance only 
with a single majority. 

M. Gromyko (U.S.S.K.) said that his delegation 
objected to the proposed structure of the Secre- 
tariat, being of the opinion that separate secre- 
tariats should be established. 

Mr. Stevenson (U.S.) offered as a suggestion 
for possible consideration that the Secretariat 
should be organized on a basis corresponding to 
the f mictions of the principal organs of the United 
Nations and that each of the organs of the United 
Nations should alwaj's have at its disposal such 
staff as may be required for the performance of 
work falling within its competence. 

M. Gromyko did not find this proposal accept- 
able. He said that it did not touch the substance 
of the matter, and left the fimdamental scheme for 
the organization of the Secretariat unchanged. 

Professor Webster said that this fundamental 
difference could not be resolved by any formula. 



721 

The British Delegation had at first been attracted 
by the Soviet proposal, but on giving it closer at- 
tention it found the original scheme to allow for 
greater efficiency. 

M. Massigli (France) said that the Soviet Dele- 
gate might like to know why he and other dele- 
gates had adopted the original proposal of the re- 
port. The reason was that the Soviet proposal 
would result in an enormous increase in staff and 
corresponding expenditure. 

Referring to one particular point of the report 
Pi'ofessor Webster suggested that the proposed de- 
partment for trusteeship should not be authorized 
to undertake the work in connection with the sup- 
pression of slavery in non-self-governing terri- 
tories only. Slavery, Pi'ofessor Webster said, did 
not exist only in non-self-governing territories, 
and in drafting the report attention should be 
given to the fact. 

Throughout the discussion the Soviet and Yugo- 
slav Delegates maintained their objections to the 
proposed scheme for the organization of the Sec- 
retariat. The Czechoslovak Delegation abstained 
on one point, while supporting the Soviet proposal 
in all other points. The Czechoslovak Delegate 
(Dr. Kerno) explained that the provision of the 
one point on which he abstained could be embodied 
into the Russian jDi-oposal. 

With these objections noted the report was 
approved. 



DISCUSSIONS ON THE REPORT ON THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 



[Released to the press by the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations October 24] 

The Executive Committee met today in almost 
continuous session with a last meeting convened 
for 8 :30 p.m. to clear up some of the outstanding 
points on the agenda. Today's discussion was 
devoted entirely to the report on the General 
Assembly, which is one of the last two sub- 
committee reports still awaiting the Executive 
Committee's approval. 

In the report discussed today it was suggested 
that the General Assembly and the other principal 
organs of the United Nations should be con- 
vened at the earliest possible moment so that 
prompt attention could be given to the considera- 
tion of pressing world problems. For this pur- 
pose it was proposed to divide the first session 
of the General Assembly into two parts: (1) or- 
ganizational; (2) substantive. It was, however, 



pointed out that urgent matters could also be 
raised at the first part of the General Assembly, 
which will be held in London early in December. 

At the beginning of the meeting the Soviet Dele- 
gate, M. Gromyko, announced that he had several 
observations to make. He first objected to the 
creation of a special coimnittee to deal with mat- 
ters concerning tlie agenda of the General As- 
sembly. This committee, he maintained, was not 
necessary since its functions could be carried out 
by the main committee of the General Assembly. 

This suggestion met with the approval of most 
delegates, and it was eventually agreed to transfer 
agenda questions to the General Committee of the 
Assembly . 

M. Gromyko then expressed doubts as to 
whether the creation of a special nomination com- 
mittee was necessary. This led to a prolonged 



722 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



discussion, in which the Soviet point of view w^s 
supported by the delegates of Australia, Mexico, 
Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, but opposed 
mainly by the delegates of the Netherlands and 
China. Professor Webster (U. K.) said that he 
held no strong views on the subject. He men- 
tioned a document advocating the nomination 
committee which, in the committee stage, had had 
strong Soviet support. 

[Released to the press by the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations October 25] 

After prolonged but unsuccessful attempts at 
reconciling divergent views on the constitution of 
the General Assembly the Executive Committee 
proceeded today to take vote on one of the thorn- 
iest problems, that of the composition of the 
General Committee. 

Agreement had been reached on the functions 
of the General Committee, which would have to 
assist the General Assembly in directing its work. 

M. Gromyko (U.S.S.R.) insisted throughout the 
discussion, which went on well past midnight yes- 
terday and was continued this morning, that the 
principle of broad representation by states should 
be applied in the election of the members of the 
Committee. He also maintained that the decision 
about the composition of the General Committee 
should not be taken now but later on by the 
Preparatory Commission, so that the problem 
could be meanwhile studied more thoroughly. 

On the other hand, a number of delegates felt 
that not only the question of equitable geograph- 
ical distribution but also considerations of per- 
sonal competence should be a guiding principle 
for the nomination. 

Three votes were taken on the part of the report 
dealing with the General Committee. 

The Soviet point of view was supported by 
Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia; a compromise 
proposal was carried, according to which the 
Soviet amendment as suggested by the minority 
would be recorded in the report to the Preparatory 
Commission. France and Iran abstained from 
the vote. 

As a result the original recommendations will 
go forward to the Preparatory Commission, ac- 
cording to which the General Committee will be 
composed of a President, seven Vice-Presidents, 
and the chairmen of the main committees and of 
the Credentials and Agenda Committees. 



After 16 hours of intensive discussion, during 
which very great but unsuccessful attempts were 
made to reach unanimity, the Executive Commit- 
tee adopted tonight the report on the General As- 
sembly. The great bulk of the report was ap- 
proved, though certain proposals concerning the 
structure and composition of the committees of 
the General Assembly did not secure the necessary 
majority for inclusion among the recommenda- aj 
tions going forward to the Preparatory Commis- '' 
sion. In such cases the views of both the majority 
and the minority were exj^lained in footnotes of 
the report so that the members of the Preparatory 
Commission would be in a position to understand 
the issues at stake. 

A series of votes was taken in the course of the 
discussion, with the Soviet, Yugoslav, and Czecho- 
slovak Delegates maintaining their objections to 
the majority proposals. The delegates of China 
and France abstained from voting in a number of 
cases. 

At the end of today's meeting it was agreed to 
suggest to the Preparatory Commission that a 
planning commission should be established at the 
earliest possible moment, which should advise the 
Secretary-General on all arrangements necessary 
for providing the physical facilities required by 
the United Nations. The members of the Plan- 
ning Commission will be nominated by the Secre- 
tary-General on an international basis. The chair- 
man of the Commission should be a high oflBcial 
of the United Nations Secretariat, and the mem- 
bers should be recognized experts. 



DISCUSSIONS ON LOCATION OF 
UNITED NATIONS PERMANENT 
HEADQUARTERS 

[Released to the press by the Preparatory Commission of the 
United Nations October 26] 

The Executive Committee today resumed dis- 
cussion on the location of the permanent head- 
quarters of the United Nations. Questions still 
to be settled were those of practical procedure and 
of choosing a specific site in the United States. 

In a memorandum the Executive Secretaiy had 
raised the question of whether the Secretary-Gen- 
eral, with the bulk of the Secretariat, should pro- 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 

ceed immediately on election to the permanent 
headquarters or whether, on the contrary, it would 
be better to make arrangements for some interim 
regime. The Australian Delegation submitted to 
the Executive Committee a revised version of the 
Executive Secretary's paper, and a discussion en- 
sued on which of the recommendations comprised 
in the two documents should go forward to the 
Preparatory Commission. Wellington Koo 
(China), criticizing the Executive Secretary's 
paper, expressed some concern at the allusion to 
an internationalized enclave which might be re- 
quired to accommodate the headquarters of the 
United Nations. He said that, in view of the fact 
that the majority of the Executive Committee had 
voted in favor of the United States, it was c[uestion- 
able whether an internationalized territory should 
be regarded as a necessary condition. 

M. Massigli (France) emphasized that before 
deciding on the precise site the necessary condi- 
tions for it should be laid down. 

Professor Webster ( U.K. ) , supporting M. Mas- 
sigli's point, said that it was necessary to establish 
these conditions very clearly so that no controversy 
should arise between the host government and the 
United Nations. 

Mr. Turgeon (Canada) suggested that the Pre- 
paratory Commission should take effective steps 
toward starting negotiations with the United 
States Government. 

Mr. Stevenson (U.S.), replying to a question of 
the Canadian Delegate, restated the United States 
Government's attitude toward the setting up of 
the United Nations headcjuarters in the United 
States. He said that the United States had not 
sought nor would they in future seek for the head- 
quarters of the United Nations to be set up in the 
United States. This decision must be arrived at 
by all of the United Nations, free from any influ- 
ence or pressure on the part of the United States 
Government. The best evidence of the United 
States position was indicated by Mr. Stettinius' 
abstention from voting when the issue was before 
the Executive Committee. The United States had 
made it equally clear that it was eager to welcome 
the United Nations should they choose to select the 
United States as the permanent seat. 



The Executive Committee met later in the after- 
noon to continue the discussion on the further pro- 

672574 — 45 3 



723 

cedure for the selection of a place for the United 
Nations headquarters. A revised recommendation 
which had meanwhile been prepared by a subcom- 
mittee failed to find approval. 

The Australian Delegate (Mr. Hasluck) pressed 
liis view that, after having selected the United 
States, the Executive Committee should tui-n its 
attention to the choice of a specific site and the 
requisite requirements. 

M. Massigli (France) objected on the ground 
that there should be no decision on the site until the 
draft treaty had been drawn up embodying the re- 
quirements necessary for the establisliment of the 
headquarters. 



Ratification of the Charter of 
The United Nations 

t Released to the press October 31] 

Since the Charter of the United Nations came 
into force on October 24, instruments of ratifica- 
tion of that document have been deposited with 
the Department of State for Greece, India, and 
Peru. 

Greece 

Cimon P. Diamantopoulos, Ambassador of 
Greece, deposited his Government's instrument of 
ratification of the Charter on October 25. 

India 

Sir Girja Shankar Bajpai, K.C.S.I., K.B.E., 
CLE., Eesident General of India, on October 30 
deposited the Indian instrument of ratification of 
the Charter. 

Peru 

Pedro Beltran, Ambassador of Peru, deposited 
on October 31 the instrument of ratification of the 
Charter by Peru. 

The fourth paragraph of article 110 of the 
Charter provides that "The states signatory to the 
present Charter which ratify it after it has come 
into force will become original Members of the 
United Nations on the date of the deposit of their 
resj^ective ratifications." The Charter is now in 
force with respect to 32 nations. 



724 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Food and Agriculture Organization o: 



FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 
SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE EMERGENCY 
ECONOMIC COMMITTEE FOR EUROPE 

THE Emergency Economic Committee for 
Europe consists of representatives of the Gov- 
ernments of Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, 
Luxembourg, the Xetherhinds, Norway, Turkey, 
the United Kingdom, and the United States of 
America. The Governments of Czechoslovakia 
and Yugoslavia are represented by observers. It 
is hoped that all the European Allies will accept 
full membership shortly. 

The Emergency Economic Committee is an ad- 
visory body which has no executive powers and 
can only act by means of recommendations to its 
member governments. It jjrovides a place where 
European governments can consult together and 
where thej- can raise questions of production, sup- 
ply, and distribution which need to be discussed 
and considered on a common basis. Its objective 
is to assist countries of Europe to help themselves 
and to help each other before appealing for out- 
side assistance to the rest of the world. 

The Emergency Economic Committee for Eu- 
rope has set up subcommittees dealing with food 
and agriculture, industry and materials, public 
utilities, enemy exportable surpluses. Of these 
subcommittees, the Food and Agriculture Subcom- 
mittee has been the most active. 

At the outset of its deliberations, the Food and 
Agriculture Subcommittee concentrated upon the 
assistance which could be given to European coun- 
tries to insure the full harvesting of the 1945 crops 
and the preparations for sowing for the 1946 har- 
vest. To this end special surveys of immediate re- 
quirements for agricultural machinery, tractors, 
and fertilizers were initiated. 

In collecting and correlating the information 
obtained from European governments, the Food 
and Agriculture Subcommittee was able to make 
use of the Combined Working Party. 

The Combined Working Party had been set up 
in 1944 to prepare estimates of the food and agri- 
culture positions in European countries. This 



Working Party consisted at tlie outset of repre- 
sentatives of UNRRA, the United States, and the 
United Kingdom. At the suggestion of the Food 
and Agriculture Subcommittee of the Emergency 
Economic Committee for Europe three represent- 
atives of European governments have been added 
to the Central Committee of the Combined Work- 
ing Party. Although the Combined Working 
Party maintains a separate entity, it works in close 
association with the secretariat of the Emergency 
Economic Committee for Europe. 

The Food and Agriculture Subcommittee has 
given special consideration to the necessity of 
adapting to immediate post-war conditions the ex- 
isting methods of allocation and coordinated pur- 
chasing of foodstuffs in world short supply. It 
has also prepared a series of recommendations re- 
garding the disposal of such European food sur- 
pluses as are available. These documents have 
been submitted to the Combined Food Board with 
the suggestion that the new proposals should be 
adopted as part of the international allocation 
machinery. 

The Emergency Economic Committee recom- 
mended that representatives of European coun- 
tries should be added to the Combined Food Board 
Commodity Conunittees where such countries had 
a substantial interest as producers or consumers of 
the commodities concerned. The Combined Food 
Board was itself considering a similar suggestion, 
and invitations have now been issued to a number 
of European as well as other countries to become 
membei-s of the Combined Food Board Commodity 
Committees. 

Special attention has been given by the Food and 
Agriculture Subcommittee to steps which are 
necessary to see that Combined Food Board alloca- 
tions are implemented in European countries. Al- 
locations are made, usually, on a quarterly basis. 
In some cases deliveries do not take place within 
the expected period. On the other hand, there 
have been cases where countries have been able 
to purchase larger quantities of the commodities 
in question than the formal allocation justifies. 
The Food and Agriculture Subcommittee has, 
therefore, established a system whereby the Euro- 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 



725 



B United Nations 



pean governments will make periodic returns of 
the allocated foodstuffs received, so that if there 
is material delay in the receipt of such foodstuffs 
the Emergency Economic Committee for Europe 
can take the matter up with the Combined Food 
Board or with the supplying countries concerned. 

As a part of this work a special Fertilizer Work- 
ing Committee has been set up on the recommenda- 
tion of the Food and Agriculture Subcommittee to 
take over from the Operations Group of the Lon- 
don Fertilizers Committee responsibility for the 
coordination of all arrangements in Europe neces- 
sary to give effect to the efficient production, pro- 
curement, and shipment of fertilizers in accord- 
dance with the allocations of the Combined Food 
Board. The Fertilizer Working Committee is not 
only steering the supplies of fertilizers to where 
they are needed in Europe ; it is also encouraging 
production of fertilizers in the European countries. 

In September the Food and Agriculture Sub- 
committee organized a conference of food and 
agriculture stati.sticians. A separate report is sub- 
mitted on this conference. 

At the beginning of October a European Seeds 
Conference was held to make recommendations 
regarding the redistribution of seeds in Europe. 
It was attended by representatives of European 
countries needing seeds for their 1946 s-eason and 
also by countries having supplies of seeds avail- 
able for export. This conference was attended by 
the chairman of the Seeds Committee of tlie Com- 
bined Food Board and by representatives of the 
Control Commissions of occupied territories. 

Arrangements have been made for a sjoecial 
European conference to be held in London in 
October to discuss the question of the infestation 
of foodstuffs. This conference will be attended 
by experts from the European countries who will 
review the measures adopted during the war for 
destroying rats, mice, and insects whose depreda- 
tions lead to the loss of enormous quantities of 
valuable food supplies. The European conference 
will consider not only what measures the different 
European countries can take to reduce infestation 
and loss but also, in that rats, mice, and insects 
know no national boundaries, what international 



measures can be adopted in Europe to safeguard 
supplies in transit and in warehouses. 

A further European conference has been ar- 
ranged to discuss the new insecticides invented 
during the period of the war and the benefits these 
can confer on agriculture and on the preservation 
and storage of foodstuffs. 

Much of the statistical and other information 
which the Food and Agriculture Subcommittee is 
collecting in conjunction with the Combined 
Working Party will be of direct interest to the 
Food and Agriculture Organization. Arrange- 
ments have been made to keep the Interim Commis- 
sion informed of the activities of the Food and 
Agriculture Subcommittee, so that, when at a later 
date the Food and Agriculture Organization itselt 
assumes the responsibilities which are being en- 
trusted to it, it will be able to take up and carry 
forward much of the work which the Food and 
Agriculture Subcommittee of the Emergency Ec- 
onomic Committee for Europe has begun. 



On the recommendation of the Food and Agri- 
culture Subcommittee of the Emergency Economic 
Committee for Europe a conference was held in 
London during the week beginning the I7th 
September of European food and agriculture 
statisticians to consider the collection and com- 
pilation on comparable bases and the utilization of 
food and agriculture statistics of the different 
European countries. 

This conference was arranged in association 
with UNRRA and the Interim Commission, and 
preliminary plans for the conference were worked 
out in cooperation with the Combined Working 
Party. 

The conference was attended by representatives 
of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Luxem- 
bourg, the Netherlands, Norway, United King- 
dom, and United States of America. Czechoslo- 
vakia, Yugoslavia, and the U. S. S. R. sent ob- 
servers. Representatives also attended on behalf 
of UNRRA. the Combined Food Board, the Allied 
Commissions of Austria, Rome, C. M. F., and the 
Control Commission in Germany. 

The conference concentrated its attention more 
on the methods and techniques of assembling and 
analyzing data rather than on the actual statistics 
themselves. Sources and coverage of the main 
statistics were reviewed with the object of 



726 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



elucidating differences of treatment. The occasion 
was also taken to exchange information on de- 
velopments resulting from experience gained by 
individual countries and by individual groups 
during the war years. 

Much had been done before the war to improve 
and standardize agricultural-jjroduction statistics, 
but little comparable progi-ess had been made in 
statistical work on the utilization of supplies or 
on food-consumption levels. Special features of 
the program were the food-consumption-level in- 
quiry undertaken jointly for their own three 
countries in 1943 by the United Kingdom, the 
United States, and Canada, and the studies of the 
food and agriculture situations in European 
countries begun early in 1944 by the Combined 
Working Party on European Food Supplies. 

The conference held five plenary sessions at 
which papers were read and discussed on matters 
relating to food and agriculture statistics. Five 
working groups were set up for the discussion, 
respectively, of the special problems connected 
with: 

1. Cereals, potatoes, sugar, and feedingstuffs 

2. Milk, dairy produce, fats, and oils 

3. Meat 

4. Fish 

5. Nutrient factors in foodstuffs generally 

The conference was highly successful, partly in 
regard to the definite recommendations it made 
and partly in consequence of the personal con- 
tacts which were established between members of 
the Combined Working Party and the statisticians 
from the European countries. 

The conference agreed as to the bases to be 
adopted for the collection of future statistics and 
authorized the Combined Working Party to issue 
as soon as possible suggested definitions of terms 
currently used in its work. It was further 
agreed that a digest of European statistics on food 
and agriculture should be prepared by the Com- 
bined Working Party for circulation to the 
Emergency Economic Committee for Europe, the 
Combined Food Board, UNRRA, the Food and 
Agriculture Organization, and the liaison com- 
mittees in countries represented at the conference. 

It may be said that, as a result of the confer- 
ence, the Combined Working Party has now been 



' Made at the plenary session on Oct. 27, 1945. L. B. 
Pearson, Canadian Ambassador to tlie U.S., is chairman 
of the Conference. 



definitely established as the recognized authority 
for collecting and coordinating statistical infor- 
mation regarding food and agriculture in Euro- 
pean countries and that the material which it 
provides should be more rapidly available and 
enable such organizations as the Emergency Eco- 
nomic Committee for Europe, the Combined Food 
Board, et cetera, to plan their activities on a more 
factual foundation than has been possible in the 
past. 

POSITION OF SOVIET DELEGATION 
REGARDING FAO 

Report by the Chairman ^ 

This morning I had a conversation with the head 
of the Soviet Delegation. He assured me that his 
Government has the same objectives and sets for 
itself tlie same tasks as FAO, that it endorses the 
idea of international cooperation for the improve- 
ment of agricultural production and the bettering 
of the food situation of the United Nations. 

The Government of the U.S.S.R. feels, however, 
that the organizational forms of FAO still require 
study. It has also become necessary for the Soviet 
Union to consult on these questions with those 
Soviet Union republics which are large producers 
of agricultural products and agricultural raw ma- 
terials. 

For these reasons the U.S.S.R. is abstaining 
from becoming a member of the FAO at this time 
and its representatives will continue to attend the 
first session of the FAO only as observers. 

I know that I am speaking for every member of 
the Conference when I say that it is our earnest 
hope that the Government of the U.S.S.R. will 
soon be able to accept the constitution of the FAO, 
which is the first of the specialized organizations 
to be set up under the United Nations. The 
U.S.S.R., as a member of the United Nations and 
as one of the nations which has already ratified 
the Charter, will be greatly interested and con- 
cerned in the work of FAO. We hope, therefore, 
that it will not be long before it expresses that 
interest by accepting all the rights and obligations 
of full membership in our organization. 

FINAL PLENARY SESSION 

The final plenary session of the Conference on 
Food and Agriculture of the United Nations, 
which met in Quebec, was held on November 1. 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 



727 



U.S. Supply Arrangements for the Middle East 



[Released to the press October 30] 

The recent joint statement by the United States 
and the United Kingdom Govermnents announc- 
ing the dissolution of the Middle East Supply 
Center on November 1, 1945 ^ expressed the desire 
of the two Governments that normal private trad- 
ing channels be resumed as rapidly as practicable 
and their desire to assist the governments of the 
Middle East during the period of transition from 
wartime restrictions to normal peacetime com- 
mercial practices not only in maintaining essential 
supi^lies but also in adjusting their economies in an 
orderly manner to the new conditions. 

To achieve these objectives, the United States 
Government will for the time being continue the 
office of the regional Economic Counselor in Cairo, 
with such staff as is required, to assist the Middle 
East countries in meeting their essential needs 
for commodities from the United States remain- 
ing in short supply. This office will at all times 
work in close conjunction with American officers 
at the various diplomatic posts in the Middle East. 
Questions relating to the supply of scarce com- 
modities from British-controlled sources should, 
of course, be addressed to the British Supply Mis- 
sion (Middle East), with which the office of the 
regional Economic Counselor will maintain close 
relations. 

The only limits imposed by United States regu- 
lations on the export of commodities from the 
United States, now that the shipping situation has 
been relieved, will be those necessitated by supply 
shortages. On September 10, 1945 the United 
States supply authorities placed most commodities 
under "general license", which means that they 
can be exported without restriction.^ There re- 
mains a limited group of commodities of which 
the supply is still such as to require some export 
restriction and forward programming in order to 
insure a fair world-wide distribution taking into 
account the needs of liberated areas. 

This group of commodities which the United 
States still subjects to export-licensing control is 
made up primarily of foodstuffs but also includes 



iBuujiTiN of Sept. 30, 1945, p. 493. 
2 Btjixetin of Sept. 16, 1945, p. 397. 
' BcxLETiN of Oct. 7, 194.5, p. 529. 



leather and some leather manufactures, rubber and 
a few rubber products (including tires), a very 
limited list of drugs and chemicals, cotton textiles 
and yarn, lumber and sawmill products, newsprint, 
a few petroleum products, a selected list of iron 
and steel manufactures, lead and tin, trucks and 
passenger cars, and fertilizers. Certain of these, 
principally in the field of foodstuffs, the United 
States is for the present unable to supply. A list 
of commodities unavailable from the United States, 
will be communicated to the Middle East govern- 
ments within the next few days. With respect to 
the remainder, it is anticipated the steady improve- 
ment in the supply situation in the United States 
will make it possible to meet Middle East demands 
within reasonable limits. 

Where allocations are necessary they will be es- 
tablished and administered by export-licensing 
authorities in the United States. The appropri- 
ate officials of the Middle East governments will be 
kept fully informed of such restrictions. No grad- 
ing or reviewing of individual import licenses will 
be undertaken by United States authorities either 
in Washington or in the Middle East. 

Communications with the local governments on 
allocations and other matters relating to imports 
from the United States will be through the United 
States diplomatic missions in the area, which will 
work in close conjunction with the office of the re- 
gional Economic Counselor in carrying out the 
desire of the American Government to assist the 
Middle East countries in meeting the problems of 
transition to peacetime conditions of trade. 

MILLER — Continued from page 719. 

ways constituted a natural barrier to our foreign 
trade. At a time when we are making every effort 
to clear the channels of world commerce as a step 
toward world peace, we should remove this nat- 
ural barrier. . . . 

"For well over a century the United States and 
Canada have worked together in peace and part- 
nership. One of the few pending matters between 
the two countries is the approval of the 1941 agree- 
ment with Canada providing for the construction 
of the St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Proj- 
ect."^ 



728 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Far Eastern Advisory Commission 



ADVISERS TO UNITED STATES 
REPRESENTATIVE 

[Released to the press October 29] 

The Department of State announced on October 
29 that Mr. Erie R. Dickover and Col. C. Stanton 
Babcock will be advisers to Maj. Gen. Frank R. 
McCoy, United States Representative on the Far 
Eastern Advisory Commission. Mr. Dickover was 
formerly Chief of the Division of Japanese Af- 
fairs in the Department. 

APPOINTMENT OF TEMPORARY SECRETARY 

[Released to the press October 29] 

The Honorable Nelson T. Johnson, formerly 
United States Ambassador to China and Minister 
to Australia, has been appointed temporary Secre- 
tary of the Far Eastern Advisory Commission. 

APPOINTMENT OF INDIAN REPRESENTATIVE 

[Released to the press October 29] 

The Government of India has accepted the in- 
vitation of the United States Government to at- 
tend the meeting of the Far Eastern Advisory 
Commission. The Indian Resident General in 
Washington, Sir Girja Shankar Bajpai, has been 
appointed as his country's representative on the 
Commission. 

LIST OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Australia 

Dr. H. V. Evatt, Minister for External A fairs 

Canada 
Mr. Lester B. Pearson, Canadian Ambassador in 
Washington 

China 
Dr. Wei Tao-ming, Chinese Ambassador in 
Washington 

France 
Mr. P. E. Naggiar, Former French Am,bassador 
to China and Russia 

Great Britain 

Lord Halifax, British Ambassador in Washing- 
ton 

Alternate: Sir George Sansom, Minister Coun- 
selor of British Emhasi^y^ Washington 



' Held In Washington on Oct. 30, 1945. 
' The President received representatives of the partici- 
pating nations at the White House on Oct. 30, 1945 at 
11 : 15 a.m. 



India 

Sir Girja Shankar Bajpai, hidian Resident Gen- 
eral in Washington 

Netherlands 

Dr. A. Loudon, Netherlands Ambassador in 
Wa-fhington 

New Zealand 
Mr. C. A. Berendsen, New Zealand Minister in 
Washington 

Philippines 
Brig. Gen. Carlos Romulo, Resident Commis- 
sioner of the Philippines 

Alternate: Mr. Tomas Confesor, Member of 
Filipino Rehabilitation Commission 

LTnited States 

Maj. Gen. Frank R. McCoy 

OPENING session' 

Statement by THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[Released to the press October 30] 

It is a pleasure to follow the Pi'esident in ex- 
tending a cordial welcome to you who have been 
designated by your governments to meet together 
to consider the non-military problems involved in 
implementing Japan's instrument of surrender.^ 

From the beginning of the war it has been the 
purpose of the United States Government that this 
great struggle should be won and the resulting 
peace should be maintained by the cooperation 
and the joint action of the United Nations con- 
cerned. 

Immediately after the surrender of Japan this 
Government projDosed the establishment of this 
Commission. 

I am happy that today you have met to organize 
and make plans for the future. 

It is the hope of our Government that there 
should be adopted measures adequate to effect the 
military security of peaceful nations and at the 
same time to bring about such a change in the 
spirit and the ambitions of the Japanese Govern- 
ment and people that in the future Japan may live 
in peaceful association with other nations. 

To create conditions which will facilitate this 
transformation in Japan will require the utmost 
wisdom, and not only wisdom, but understand- 
ing, tolerance, and faith. 

The establishment of an advisory commission 
with as many membei-s and of the character of 
this Commission is an interesting experiment. 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 



729 



Representing different governments, it is certain 
that you have varying interests and varying views 
about the problems involved in the occupation of 
Japan. In order to function effectively it will be 
necessary that each representative should be will- 
ing to sympathetically consider the viewpoint of 
his colleagues and in a spirit of cooperation make 
concessions to each other. 

Wliile I know the task may be a difficult one, 
I am sure that the Commission will function with 
efficiency. My confidence is based upon the 
thought that if we could cooperate to win the war 
we certainly should be able to cooperate in imple- 
menting the terms of surrender. 

I shall now ask General Frank McCoy, the rep- 
resentative of the United States on this Commis- 
sion, to act as temporary chairman. 

Motion Presented by CHINESE REPRESENTATIVE 

The following motion was presented by Dr. 
Wei Tao-ming, Representative of China on the 



Far Eastern Advisory Commission, at its opening 
session on October 30, 1945 : 

"In view of the fact that new suggestions have 
been made with regard to the terms of reference 
of this Commission and that they ai'e being ex- 
amined by the United States, China, the United 
Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, the four powers 
M'hich initiated the invitations for this Commis- 
sion to meet, the Chinese Delegation believes that 
it will be advantageous to the progress and out- 
come of this Conference if the said powers are 
allowed sufficient time to continue their discus- 
sions with a view to reaching an agreement be- 
fore the Conference proceeds further. Besides, 
there are so many documents which have just been 
distributed that all the delegations would cer- 
tainly need time to study. 

I move, therefore, that for these purposes the 
Conference be adjourned for one week to be re- 
assembled on November 6, 1945." 



Japanese Reparations Mission 



ANNOUNCEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by the White House November 1] 

The President announced on November 1 that 
Ambassador Edwin W. Pauley, the jiersonal rep- 
resentative of the President on reparations mat- 
ters, would leave for the Far East early this 
month for the purjDose of developing a program 
for exacting reparations from Japan. The Presi- 
dent announced at the same time the members of 
Ambassador Pauley's staff who will accompany 
him. 

In making the announcement the President 
said: 

"The problem of what to do with Germany and 
Japan is one of the greatest challenges in the 
whole effort to achieve lasting peace. 

"The program for reparations from Germany 
which was developed by Ambassador Pauley and 
adopted at the Berlin Conference will go a long 
way toward helping us achieve complete victory 
over Germany, by depriving her of the means ever 
again to wage another war. The reparations 
program which Ambassador Pauley will develop 
for Japan will be directed toward the same 
fundamental goal — to put an end for all time to 
Japanese aggression. 



"In carrying out this mission for me Ambassa- 
dor Pauley and his staff will work in close co- 
operation with General MacArthur and his staff 
and will make full use of the surveys which have 
already been made by the industrial experts now 
on General MacArthur's staff." 

MEMBERS OF THE MISSION 

ED^\^N W. Pauley, Personal Representative of 

President and Chief of Mission 
Martin T. Bennett, mdustrial engineer 
Lt. Col. G. S. Carter, chief of secretariat 
Dr. Arthue G. Coons, special adviser to Chief of 

Mission 
JosiAH E. DuBois, counsel and financial adviser 
Luther H. Gulick, adviser on government and 

administration 
Comdr. J. P. HuRNDALL, resources consultant 
David R. Jenkins, agricultural economist 
William Green Johnston, industrial consultant 
Stanley E. Joiner, secretary 
Charles Karl, secretary 
0^\^N Lattimore, chief economist 
Sgt. John Mattles, secretary 
H. D. Max\\'ell, special assistant to Chief of Mis- 
sion 
Benjamin Olsen, secretary 



730 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Directive from General MacArthur to the 
Imperial Japanese Government 



1. In order to remove restrictions on political, 
civil and religious liberties and discrimination 
on grounds of race, nationality, creed or polit- 
ical opinion, the Imperial Japanese Government 
will: 

a. Abrogate and immediately suspend the oper- 
ation of all provisions of all laws, decrees, orders, 
ordinances and regulations which: 

(1) Establish or maintain restrictions on free- 
dom of thought, of religion, of assembly and of 
speech, including the unrestricted discussion of the 
Emperor, the Imperial Institution and the Im- 
perial Japanese Government. 

(2) Establish or maintain restrictions on the 
collection and dissemination of information. 

(3) By their terms or their applications, oper- 
ate unequally in favor of or against any person 
bj' reason of race, nationality, creed or political 
opinion. 

b. The enactments covered in Paragi-aph a, 
above, shall include, but shall not be limited to, 
the following: 

(1) The peace preservation law (Chian Iji Ho, 
law niunber 54 of 1941, promulgated on or about 
10 March 1941). 

(2) The ijrotection and surveillance law for 
thought offense (Shiso Han Hogo Kansatsu Ho, 
law number 29 of 1936, promulgated on or about 
29 May 1936). 

(3) Regulations relative to ajjplication for pro- 
tection and surveillance law for thought offense 
(Shiso Han Hogo Kansoku Ho Shiko Rei, Impe- 
rial ordinance number 401 of 1936, issued on or 
about 14 November 1936). 

(4) Ordinance establishing protection and sur- 
veillance stations (Hogo Kansoku-Jo Kaneica Im- 
perial ordinance number 403 of 1936, issued on or 
about 14 November 1936). 

(5) The precautionary detention procedure 
(Ministry of Justice order, Shihosho Rei, number 
50, issued on or about 14 May 1941). 

(7) The national defense and peace preservation 



law (Kikubo Hoan Ho, law number 49 of 1941, 
promulgated on or about 7 March 1941). 

(8) National defense and jjeace preservation 
law enforcement order (Kokubo Hoan Ho Shiko 
Rei, Imperial ordinance number 542 of 1941, is- 
sued on or about 7 May 1941) . 

(9) Regulations for appointment of lawj'ers 
under peace preservation laws (Bengoshi Shitei 
Kitei, Ministry of Justice order, Shihosho Rei, 
number 47 of 1941, issued on or about 9 May 1941). 

(10) Law for safeguarding secrets of military 
material resources (Gunyo Shigen Himitsu Hogo 
Ho, law number 25 of 1939, promulgated on or 
about 25 March 1939). 

(11) Ordinance for the enforcement of the law 
for safeguarding secrets of military material re- 
sources (Gunyo Shigen Himitsu Hogo Ho Shiko 
Tei, Imperial Ordinance number 413 of 1939, is- 
sued on or about 24 June 1939). 

(12) Regulations for the enforcement of the 
law of safeguarding secrets of militai-y material re- 
sources (Gunyo Shigen Himitsu Hogo Ho Shiko, 
Kisaku Ministries of War and Navy ordinance nr 
3 of 1939, promulgated on or about 26 June 1939). 

(13) Law for the protection of military secrets 
(Gunki Hogo Ho, law number 72 of 1937, promul- 
gated on or about 17 August 1937, revised by law 
number 58 of 1941). 

(14) Regulations for the enforcement of the 
law for the protection of military secrets (Gunki 
Hogo Ho Shiko Kisku, Ministry of War ordinance 
nbr 59, issued on or about 12 December 1939 and 
revised by Ministry of War ordinance numbers 6, 
12 and 58 of 1941). 

(The religious body law (Shukyo Dentai Ho, 
law number 77 of 1939, promulgated on or about 
8 April 1939). 

(16) All laws, decrees, orders, ordinances and 
regulations amending, supplementing or imple- 
menting the foregoing enactments). 

c. Release immediately all pei-sons now de- 
tained, imprisoned, under "protection or surveil- 
lance", or whose freedom is restricted in any other 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 



731 



manner who have been placed in that state of 
detention, imprisonment, "protection and surveil- 
lance", or restriction of freedom : 

(1) Under the enactments referred to in Para 1 
a and b above. 

(2) Without charge. 

(3) By charging them teclinically -with a minor 
offense, when, in reality, the reason for detention, 
imprisonment, ''Protection and Surveillance", or 
restriction of freedom, was because of their 
thought, speech, religion, political beliefs, or as- 
sembly. The release of all such persons will be 
accomplished by 10 October 1945. 

d. Abolish all organizations or agencies created 
to carry out the provisions of the enactments re- 
ferred to in Para 1 a and b above and that part of, 
or functions of, other offices or sub divisions of 
other civil departments or organs which supple- 
ment or assist them in the execution of such pro- 
visions. These include, but are not limited to : 

(1) All secret police organs. 

(2) Those departments in the Ministry of Home 
Affairs, such as the Bureau of Police, charged with 
supervision of publications, supervision of public 
meetings and organizations, censorship of motion 
pictures, and such other departments concerned 
with the control of thought, speech, religion or 
assembly. 

(3) Those departments, such as the special 
higher police (Tokubetsu, Koto, Keisatsu Bu), in 
the Tokyo Metropolitan Police, the Osaka Metro- 
politan Police, and other Metropolitan Police, the 
Police of the Territorial Administration of Hok- 
kaido and the various prefectural police charged 
with supervision of publications, supervision of 
public meetings and organizations, censorship of 
motion pictures, and such other departments con- 
cerned with the control of thought, speech, religion 
or assembly. 

(4) Those departments, such as the Protection 
and Surveillance Commission, and all Protection 
and Surveillance Stations responsible thereto un- 
der the Ministry of Justice charged with protec- 
tion and surveillance and control of thought, 
speech, religion, or assembly. 

e. Remove from office and employment the Min- 
ister of Home Affairs, the Chief of the Bureau of 
Police of the Ministry of Home Affairs, the Chief 
of the Tokj'o Metropolitan Police Board, the Chief 
of Osaka Metropolitan Police Board, the Chief of 



any other Metropolitan Police, the Chief of Police 
of the Territorial Administration of Hokkaido, 
the Chiefs of each prefectural police department, 
the entire persomiel of the special higher police of 
all metropolitan, territorial and prefectural police 
departments, the guiding and protecting officials 
and all other personnel of the Protection and Sur- 
veillance Commission and of the Protection and 
Surveillance Stations. None of the above persons 
will be reappointed to any position under the 
Ministry of Home Affairs, the Ministry of Jus- 
tice or any police organ in Japan. Any of the 
above persons whose assistance is required to 
accomplish the provisions of this directive will be 
retained until the directive is accomplished and 
then dismissed. 

f. Prohibit any further activity of police of- 
ficials, members of i:)olice forces, and other govern- 
ment, national or local, officials or employees which 
is related to the enactments referred to in Para 1 
a and b above and to the organs and fiuictions 
abolished by Para 1 d above. 

g. Prohibit the physical punishment and mis- 
treatment of all persons detained, imprisoned, or 
under protection and surveillance under any and 
all Japanese enactments, laws, decrees, orders, or- 
dinances and regulations. All such persons will 
receive at all times ample sustenance. 

h. Ensure the security and preservation of all 
records and any and all other materials of the 
organs abolished in Para 1 d. These records may 
be used to accomplish the provisions of this direc- 
tive, but will not be destroyed, removed, or tam- 
pered with in any way. 

i. Submit a comi^rehensive report to this Head- 
quarters not later than 15 October 1945 describing 
in detail all action taken to comply with all pro- 
visions of this directive. This report will contain 
the following specific information prepared in the 
form of separate supplementary reports : 

( 1 ) Information concerning persons released in 
accordance with Para 1 c above. (To be groujied 
by prison or institution in which held or from 
which released or by office controlling their protec- 
tion and surveillance). 

(a) Name of person released from detention or 
imprisonment or person released from protection 
and surveillance, his age, nationality, race and 
occupation. 

(b) Specification of criminal charges against 



732 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



each person released from detention or imprison- 
ment or reason for which each person was placed 
under protection and surveillance. 

(c) Date of release and contemplated address 
of each person released from detention or im- 
prisonment or from protection and surveillance. 

(2) Information concerning organizations abol- 
ished under the provisions of this directive: 

(a) Name of organization. 

(b) Name, address, the title of position of per- 
sons dismissed in accordance with Para 1 e. 

(c) Description by type and location of all files, 
records, reports, and any and all other materials. 

(3) Information concerning the prison system 
and prison personnel. 



(a) Organization chart of the prison system. 

(b) Names and location of all prisons, deten- 
tion centers and jails. 

(c) Names, rank and title of all prison officials 
(governors and assistant governors, chief and as- 
sistant chief wardens, wardens and prison doc- 
tors). 

(■i) Copies of all orders issued by the Japanese 
Government including those issued by the gov- 
ernors of prisons and prefectural officials in ef- 
fectuating the provisions of this directive. 

2. All officials and subordinates of the Japanese 
Government affected bv the terms of this direc- 
tive will be held personally resjwnsible and strictly 
accountable for compliance with and adherence to 
the spirit and letter of this directive. 



Pearl Harbor Investigation 



[Released to the press October 31] 

At his press and radio news conference on Oc- 
tober 31, the Secretary of State called attention 
"to the portion of the report of the Army Pearl 
Harbor Board which referred to Secretary Hull 
and which was released to the press on August 29, 
1945. 

The Secretary cited that section of the report 
(page 223) which states "Evidently the action 'to 
kick the whole thing over' was accomplished by 
presenting to the Japanese the counterproposal of 
the 'Ten Points' ^ which they took as an ulti- 
matum. It was the document that touched the 
button that started the war, as Ambassador Grew 
so aptly expressed it." The Secretary also cited 
a later reference in the report (page 224) that "It 
seems well established that the sending of this 
'Ten Point' memorandum by the Secretary of 
State was used by the Japanese as a signal of 
starting the war by the attack on Pearl Harbor." 

Mr. Byrnes called attention to the Navy League 
speech of Secretary Forrestal of October 27 in 
New York, which Mr. Byrnes said was based upon 
documents found on the Japanese heavy cruiser 
Nachi, which was sunk in the harbor of Manila 
Bay. Those documents included the original plans 
for the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Secretary 
added, and disclosed the following: The operation 

' See Peace and War, V. S. Foreign- Policy 1931-1941, 
Department of State publication 1983, p. 811. 



plan providing for the outbreak of the war and 
the attack on Pearl Harbor was published on the 
6th of November, 1941 as Combined Fleet Top 
Secret Operation Number One and Y-Day was 
set in Combined Fleet Top Secret Number Two 
published on November 7, 1941, which fixed the 
8th of December, 1941, Japanese time, and the 
7tli of December, 1941, United States time, as 
Y-Day. 

At the request of correspondents, Secretary 
Byrnes authorized the following comment for 
direct quotation : 

"The so-called ultimatum of Secretary Hull was 
dated the 26th of November and I call attention 
to these original documents of the Japanese in 
the hope that it may forever dispose of the claim 
of the statement of the Army Board that the so- 
called ultimatum of Secretary Hull started the 
Japanese war. It was three weeks before Mr. 
Hull gave his 'Ten Point' memorandum to the 
representatives of Japan that official orders were 
given that the Japanese Fleet should attack on the 
7th of December. I may say that you will all be 
glad to know that the Secretary of State did not 
start the war with the ultimatum, but three weeks 
before that, the Japanese had given orders to 
attack on December 7th and I wanted to dispose 
of that in justice to my good friend Secretary 
Hull." 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 

Departure from Shanghai of 
the S.S. "Lavaca" 

[Released to the press October 31] 

The Department of State lias received from the 
American Consulate General at Shanghai a list of 
civilian personnel which left Shanghai on board 
the S.S. Lavaca on October 13, 1945. The ship is 
expected to arrive at San Francisco on November 2. 
The names of the passengers are listed in press 
release 821. The following table is a summary of 
the passenger list by countries: 

Nationality Number 

American 173 

British 87 

Canadian 29 

French 23 

Swiss 17 

Chinese 8 

Swedish 8 

Portuguese 6 

Netherlands 5 

Egyptian 3 

Belgian 1 

Total 360 



Dickson Reck Returns 
From China 

[Released to the press November 2] 

Dickson Reck, specialist in industrial standards, 
organization, and management, who has been for 
the past year in China under the cultural-cooiJera- 
tion program of the Department of State, has re- 
cently returned to the United States. Mr. Reck 
accompanied S. T. Shang, Secretary-General of 
the Chinese Standards Committee, to the meeting 
of the United Nations Standards Coordinating 
Committee held in New York on October 8. Dur- 
ing the next three months Mr. Reck and Mr. 
Shang will visit American standardizing agencies, 
engineering societies, and manufacturing plants to 
arrange for the transmission of technical data and 
American specifications to the Chinese Standards 
Committee. Mr. Shang is also instructed by the 
Chinese Government to become familiar with 
American methods of developing and extending 
standards into industrial and agricultural pro- 
duction and distribution practice and to get a 



733 

first-hand impression of American production 
methods in order to facilitate the development of 
standards in China. 

Mr. Reck assisted the Chinese Government in 
organizing their national standards organization, 
in developing the methods and procedures for 
establishing standards, and in building a program 
of standards development work. 



Areas Opened for 
Civilian Travel 

[Released to the press October 30] 

The Joint Chiefs of Staff with the concurrence 
of the Secretary of State have removed all areas 
except Germany, Austria, the main islands of 
Japan, Formosa, Nansei Shoto and Nanpo Shoto, 
and Korea from the list of areas of active opera- 
tions into or through which civilians may not go 
without a military permit. 

The approval of the Supreme Allied Com- 
mander, Southeast Asia, must be obtained, how- 
ever, for civilian travel in the Southeast Asia 
Command, which comprises Burma, Siam (Thai- 
land), Malaya, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, 
New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. This ap- 
proval is obtained by the State Department from 
the Supreme Allied Commander, Southeast Asia. 

Although military control of travel has been 
greatly diminished, the critical situation with re- 
gard to living conditions and transportation con- 
tinues to prevail in areas formerly under military 
control as well as in other European and Asiatic 
areas. Consequently, Americans are advised to 
undertake only the most essential travel this win- 
ter, bearing in mind that all liberated countries 
are suffering from lack of heat, housing, and 
transportation and have acute shortages of food. 
Furthermore, transportation to the United States 
is difficult to obtain in most instances owing to the 
movement homewai'd of American military forces, 
and civilian travelers may therefore expect a delay 
of from six months to a year in returning to the 
United States. 

Passport applications will be accepted for the 
areas listed as under military control only in cases 
of strong national interests. Passport applica- 
tions for travel to other areas are discouraged, as 



734 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



indicated above, and should be restricted to those 
persons having urgent and compelling business or 
personal reasons for proceeding abroad. 

The clerks of Federal courts throughout the 
country are being furnished with detailed infor- 
mation regarding civilian travel in critical areas, 
and those desiring to avail themselves of such in- 
formation should make inquiry to the clerk of the 
nearest Federal court. American diplomatic and 
consular officers abroad will continue to render all 
possible help under existing conditions to Amer- 
ican businessmen traveling in the national interest. 



Hungarian Minister to the 
United States 

[Released to the press November 2] 

The United States Government has informed 
the Hungarian Provisional Government that it is 
agreeable to the ajDpointment of Aladar de 
Szegedy-Maszak as Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary from Hungary to the 
United States. 



Mail Service to Italy 

[Released to the press November 1] 

The Department of State announced on Novem- 
ber 1 that expanded parcel-post and regular mail 
service will become available to Italy and the 
Vatican City as of November 2, 1945. The ex- 
tended service will be available to all of Italy ex- 
cept the provinces of Trieste, Gorizia, Fiume, 
Pola, and Zara. However, gift parcels may be 
sent to the cities of Trieste, Gorizia, and Pola. 

Gift parcels up to 11 pounds in weight are now 
acceptable for dispatch to the above-designated 
localities. Only one parcel may be sent by the 
same sender to the same addressee in Italy during 
any 7-day period. Packages may not exceed $25 
in value and must be conspicuously marked "gift 
parcel". The customs declaration must clearly 
indicate the contents and value of each parcel. 
Only one declaration is required for each parcel. 
Packages may contain only such items as are not 
prohibited in the international mails to Italy and 
must conform to the regulations established by 
the Foreign Economic Administration. 

Regular mail service has been extended to all 
of Italy with the exception of the five provinces of 
Trieste, Gorizia, Fiume, Pola, and Zara and now 
comprises letters, postcards, printed matter in 
general, printed matter for the blind, commercial 
papers, and samples of merchandise. Airmail ar- 
ticles for these areas may not exceed one pound. 
First-class matter may be registered, but special- 
delivery service is not available at this time. 

Regular mail service to the five provinces above 
mentioned is still restricted to postcards and let- 
ters weighing not more than two ounces for dis- 
patch by air and surface means. 



Recognition of Government 
Of Venezuela 

[Released to the press October 30] 

Secretary of State Byrnes announced on the 
afternoon of October 30 that the Government of 
the United States has extended full recognition to 
the Government of Venezuela, which is now or- 
ganized under Seiior Romulo Betancourt. 

The American Ambassador in Caracas informed 
the new Minister for Foreign Affairs of Vene- 
zuela of this action. 

Before making its decision to recognize the new 
Government of Venezuela the Government of the 
United States of America exchanged views and 
consulted with the governments of the other 
American republics. 



Normal Relations With New 
Brazilian Administration 

[Released to the press November 3] 

The Secretary of State announced on November 
2 that the American Ambassador at Rio de Janeiro, 
Adolf A. Berle, Jr., was instructed to carry on 
normal relations with the new administration in 
Brazil. He stated further that the question of 
recognition did not arise since established pro- 
cedures were followed in the assumi:)tion of the 
executive power by the President of the Federal 
Supreme Court of Brazil. The Secretary added 
that consultation with other American republics 
reflects general agreement with this position. 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 



735 



Postscripts on the Third Inter-American 
Radiocommunications Conference 



By ROBERT R. BURTON and DONALD R. MACQUIVEY' 




S RADIO COMMUNICATIONS ARE 

developed in the next few 
years, the reLited prob- 
lems will be met with 
greater ease, partially because of the success of the 
Third Inter- American Eadiocommunications Con- 
ference. 

In 1937 the First Inter-American Radio Con- 
ference was convened in Habana, Cuba, to draw 
up a basic radio agreement (called the Inter- 
American Radiocommunications Convention) , 
regulations in tlie form of an Inter-American 
Arrangement Concerning Radiocommunications, 
and a North American Regional Broadcasting 
Agreement. The Second Inter-American Radio 
Conference was held in Santiago, Chile, in 1940 
and the Habana arrangement, which further im- 
plemented the basic agreements of the Habana 
convention, was revised. The Third Inter- 
American Radio Conference,- which was scheduled 
to be held in Rio de Janeiro in 1943 but which 
was delayed by the war, opened on September 3, 
1945 and concluded its discussions on September 
25. The signing of the Inter-American Radio- 
communications Convention took place on Sep- 
tember 27, 1945. 

At the opening sessions of the Conference, it 
was decided to create four major committees: 

1. Initiatives 

2. Juridical-Administrative 

3. Technical 

4. Drafting 

The Initiatives Committee considex-ed all pro- 
posals from the various delegations and appor- 
tioned them either to the Juridical-Administrative 
Committee or to the Technical Committee. The 
Juridical-Administrative Committee handled the 
bulk of the work of redrafting the Habana con- 
vention to bring it down to date. The Technical 
Committee concerned itself with frequency allo- 



cations and other technical problems. The Draft- 
ing Committee prepared the final documents in 
English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese. 

Within the Juridical-Administrative Commit- 
tee four subcommittees were created to deal with 
problems on organization, rates, miscellaneous ad- 
ministrative questions, and freedom of informa- 
tion. Adolf A. Berle, Jr., American Ambassador 
to Brazil, was especially active in the work of the 
Subcommittee on Freedom of Information, which 
handled such items as interchange of cultural 
broadcast programs, interchange of news and in- 
formation, rights in broadcasts, and radio com- 
munications to multiple destinations. Tliese sub- 
jects were subsequently incorporated into the Rio 
de Janeiro convention as articles 25 to 28, inclu- 
sive. 

The United States Delegation to the Conference 
consisted of representatives of the Departments of 
State, War, Navy, and Commerce, the Federal 
Comunications Commission, and the Office of Inter- 
American Affairs. Ambassador Berle was chair- 
man. 

For many months prior to the Conference, the 
American Delegates and other interested partici- 
pants had made a thorough study of the Habana 
convention for the purpose of revising it to suit 
jDresent needs. As a residt of this preparation, 
the American Delegation was able, shortly after 
the opening of the Conference, to lay before the 
other delegations a revised text of the Habana 
convention, in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. 



'Mr. Burton is Chief of tlie Radio Overseas Utiliza- 
tion Section, International Information Division, OflBce 
of International Information and Cultural Affairs, De- 
partment of State. Mr. Burton was a member of the U. S. 
Delegation. 

Mr. MacQuivey is Divisional Assistant, Telecommuni- 
cations Division, Office of Transport and Communica- 
tions Policy, Department of State. 

' See "Third Inter-American Radio Conference", by 
Harvey B. Otterman, Buixetin of Aug. 26, 1945, p. 292. 



756 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The immediate effect was to focus the thinking of 
all the delegations on the changes proposed. The 
outcome was the unanimous adoption of most of 
these proposals. Compromises were made on 
those portions of the revised convention which 
did not receive unanimous approval so that the 
final draft was acceptable to all parties. 

The principal accomplishments of the Confer- 
ence were: 

(1) the signing, on September 27, 1945, of a 
telecommunications convention ; 

(2) adoption of regulations for future confer- 
ences; 

(3) adoption of a series of resolutions and rec- 
ommendations ; and 

(4) laying of the groundwork for a world tele- 
communications conference, so far as the 
American republics are concerned. 

Of these, the only legally enforceable instrument 
is the convention, which must be ratified befoi'e it 
takes effect. 

The convention includes a definition of the 
"American Region", wherein it will apply. Pro- 
vision is made for the organization and operation 
of an Office of Inter-American Telecommunica- 
tions (O.I.T.). This office would be a central re- 
pository and disseminating agency for informa- 
tion concerning inter-American telecommunica- 
tions and would perform many of the functions 
for the Americas comparable with the responsi- 
bility on a world-wide basis of the Bureau of the 
International Telecommunication Union, located 
at Bern, Switzerland. 

A new conference proceduie involving three 
types was set up, which makes provision for rela- 
tively infrequent 2ilenipotentiary conferences for 
the consideration of basic jjolicies and the revision 
of inter-American telecommunications conven- 
tions, for administrative conferences at more fre- 
quent intervals to consider matters implementing 
the convention adopted at the plenipotentiary con- 
ferences, especially in the technical field, and for 
emergency conferences, which may be called on 
reasonably short notice, to consider sjiecific urgent 
problems in restricted fields. Such meetings will 
be known as administrative conferences with lim- 
ited agenda. 

Finally, the Conference included in the conven- 
tion, among other things, principles for the use 
of radio frequencies, principles regarding the es- 
tablislmient of rates, and arbitration procedure to 



be followed in the event of disagreement. No pri- 
orities were set up regarding the type of service 
which would have first call on the use of radio 
frequencies, but it was recognized that the emer- 
gency services and those for which no other means 
of communication can be provided should be given 
primary consideration. 

Considerable attention was given to the inter- 
change of cultural, news, and information broad- 
cast programs. The O.I.T. is to have a separate 
department to consider such problems. 

The regulations attached to the convention pro- 
vide specific details such as the set-up of future 
conferences, organization and membership of com- 
mittees, their duties, and voting procedures. 

Only two resolutions were adopted. One of 
these indicated that it was desirable to separate 
those problems of interest only to aviation from 
consideration in detail by the general telecommu- 
nications body, and to leave these details to the 
approjjriate aviation organization. The other 
resolution regarded freedom of information in 
radio communications and recommended that 
regulations be adopted permitting free inter- 
change of information in accordance with the 
American democratic views on the subject. 

Several recommendations were adopted. These 
called for: 

( 1 ) a broadcast conference to be held sometime 
soon after the world telecommunications 
conference ; 

(2) a study of very-high-frequency (vhf) 
broadcasting to be conducted; 

(3) transmission of telecommunications infor- 
mation to the International Civil Aeronau- 
tics Organization; 

(4) a joint meeting of American region com- 
missions of the International Meteorolog- 
ical Organization to consider its telecom- 
munication needs ; 

(5) definition of "meteorological telecommu- 
nications"; 

( 6 ) organization of an inter- American network 
of monitoring stations ; 

(7) all broadcast I'eceivers to cover the fre- 
quency range 535 kc to 1605 kc ; 

(8) all American countries to adopt standard 
zone time, using only the time for meridi- 
ans which are multiples of 15 degrees from 
the Greenwich meridian ; 

(9) reduction in telecommunications rates; 



I 



NOVEMBER 4. 1945 



737 



(10) elimination of special taxes; 

(11) expedition of press messages; 

(12) over-all study of rates; and 

(13) standardization in the American region of 
instruction of radio operators and tech- 
nicians. 

Subjects brought up for study preparatory to 
the next world conference included means whereby 
the speed of airline communication might be in- 
creased, training of amateurs who wish to operate 
radiotelephone equipment in the 14-megacycle 
band, a new frequency allocation list proposed by 
the United States, and the proposed Central Fre- 
quency Registration Board. 

The United States Delegation felt that the Con- 
ference was very successful. It not only enabled 
representatives of the American republics to agree 
on the subjects discussed above but also provided 
a means for them to become better acquainted 
personally and to discuss mutual problems infor- 
mally. No effort was made to develop a "hemi- 
sphere bloc" to act as a unit at the world confer- 
ence. In fact, the expression of individual national 
views is encouraged. The objective — a better un- 
derstanding of inter-American problems — was 
accomplished. As a result, much time and effort 
should be saved when the world telecommunica- 
tions conference convenes. 



Meeting of Anglo-American 
Caribbean Forestry Committee 

According to the Anglo-American Caribbean 
Commission, a meeting of the Forestry Subcom- 
mittee of the Research Committee on Agriculture, 
Nutrition, Fisheries, and Forestry of the Carib- 
bean Research Council will be held in Port-of- 
Spain, Trinidad, January 14-24, 1946. 

In addition to attendance by members of the 
subcommittee, invitations have been extended to 
the governments concerned for the attendance of 
at least one forester from each of the following 
Caribbean territories: Trinidad and Tobago (rep- 
resenting also Barbados and the Windward and 
Leeward Islands), British Guiana, British Hon- 
duras, Jamaica, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Nether- 
lands Guiana, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. 
The three island republics of Cuba, Haiti, and 
the Dominican Republic have also been invited to 
send forestry experts as observers to the meeting. 



The meeting will deal on a technical level with 
forest problems in the Caribbean region and will 

( 1 ) examine the present status of forest research, 

(2) detei-mine future needs in such research, and 
(8) formulate for the consideration of the Carib- 
bean Research Council and the Anglo-American 
Caribbean Commission a program of future re- 
search and development. 

Transmittal of U.S. -U.K. 
Petroleum Agreement to 
the Senate' 

Message of THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by the White House November 1] 

To the Senate of the United States: 

With a view to receiving the advice and con- 
sent of the Senate to ratification, if it appi'ove 
thereof, I transmit herewith an agi-eement on 
petroleum between the Government of the United 
States of America and the Government of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland, signed in London September 24, 1945. 

With the agreement I transmit for the informa- 
tion of the Senate the report made to me by the 
Secretary of State relating thereto, together with 
a copy of a letter addressed to me by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior and Petroleum Administrator 
for War relating to the agreement, and also a list 
of territories to which the agreement is intended 
to apply. 

Haekt S. Truman 



^ THE DEPARTMENT ^ 



Alien Enemy Control Section 

[Released to the press November 2] 

By Departmental order effective October 24, the 
Secretary of State has established under Assist- 
ant Secretary Braden an Alien Enemy Control 
Section to handle the cases of enemy aliens who 
were brought to this country from other American 
republics during the course of the war and remain 
in the custody of this Government. The direc- 
tive provides for the establishment of an orderly 



' For text of the agreement, see Bulletin of Sept. 30, 
1945, p. 481. Enclosures not printed. 



738 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



procedure for disposing of these cases on an in- 
dividual basis in accoi'dance with standards to 
be approved by the Secretary. 

Immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor 
and on a number of occasions thereafter, groups 
of enemy aliens considered to be dangerous to 
hemispheric security were deported to the United 
States from various of the other American re- 
publics for internment here with a view to later 
repatriation. A large number of these persons 
have already been repatriated to Germany, Italy, 
and Japan at their own request or with their con- 
sent, most of them during the war in exchange 
for Americans interned in enemy countries. A 
considerable number of others, including many 
who were leaders in anti-American activities, now 
decline to return to their native countries, wishing 
to move back to Latin America or to remain here. 
It is the disposition of the latter cases with which 
the new Alien Enemy Control Section is con- 
cerned. 

The desirability of ridding this hemisphere of 
dangerous Axis nationals was recognized by all 
the American republics at the Mexico City con- 
ference last winter ; the Final Act of that confer- 
ence included a recommendation that measures 
be taken "to prevent any person whose deportation 
was deemed necessary for reasons of security of 
the Continent from further residing in this 
hemisphere, if such residence would be prejudicial 
to the future security or welfare of the Americas." 
Pursuant to that recommendation, on September 
8 the President of the United States by proclama- 
tion authorized the Secretary of State to order the 
repatriation of dangerous alien enemies deported 
to this country during the war.^ 

In proceeding with this program the Depart- 
ment intends to follow an orderly procedure 
wholly consistent with American concepts of fair- 
ness and equity. A preliminary review of the 
cases is now going on, with a view to releasing as 
quickly as possible those persons who may safely 

'BmXETiN of Sept. 9, 194.'5, p. 361. 

'For article, "Eliinination of Axis Influence in This 
Hemisphere: Measures Adopted at the Mexico City Con- 
ference", b.v Thomas C. aiann, see BijLLjniN of May 20, 
1&45, p. 924 ; see also Bulletin of July 1, 1945, p. 21, for 
statement by Assistant Secretary Clayton on security 
against renewed German aggression. 

"Departmental Order 13r)2, dated Oct. 26, 1945, and 
effective Oct. 24, 1945. 



be allowed to remain in this hemisphere. Any 
person who appears to be so clearly dangerous as 
to make his repatriation desirable will be given 
ample opportunity for a hearing, and before a 
repatriation order is issued his case will be re- 
viewed by a high officer of the Department. 
Finally, the Department does not propose to order 
repatriation in any case until after consultation 
with the other American reiJublic concerned. 

The over-all objective of this program is to ac- 
complish the purposes of resolution VII of the 
Mexico City conference, especially "to prevent 
Axis-inspired elements from securing or regaining 
vantage points from which to disturb or threaten 
the security or welfare of any [American] Repub- 
lic". It is the ijolicy of the Department to pursue 
that objective in close cooperation with the other 
American republics.^ 



Establishment and Functions of the 
Alien Enemy Control Section^ 

Purpose. The purpose of this order is to establish an 
Alien Enemy Control Section and to ti'ansfer certain re- 
sponsibilities from the Special Projects Division to that 
Section. 

1 EstatUshmenf of the Alien Enemy Control Section. 
There is hereby established an Alien Enemy Control Sec- 
tion (routing symbol A-Br/A), which will function under 
tlie direction and supervision of the Assistant Secretary 
for American Republic Affairs. 

2 Functions, (a) The Alien Enemy Control Section 
will have responsibility for the initiation of policy and 
action with respect to all matters concerning the disposi- 
tion of alien enemies, presently in the United States, who 
were removed from otiier American republics during the 
course of the war. In the discharge of its responsibility, 
this Section will have the following functions : 

(1) The examination of all aspects of the problem in 
eon.sultation with other interested agencies of the Gov- 
ernment and officers of the Department. 

(2) The preparation for approval of the Secretary of 
a statement of the standards to be employed in deciding 
and disposing of the cases in question. 

(3) The making of recommendations to the Assistant 
Secretary for American Republic Affairs with respect to 
the establishment of an orderly and fair procedure for 
arriving at a decision in each case in the light of the 
standards approved by the Secretary, and for properly 
disposing of each case in accordance with such decision, 
the procedure to include: (i) a preliminary administra- 
tive review of each case; (li) the providing of an oppor- 
tunity for a hearing, before a board to be later 
constituted, in any case wliere the finding from such pre- 
liminary i-eview is in favor of removal; and (iii) a final 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 



739 



review by an officer of the Department of a rank not less 
than Assistant Secretary in any case where the finding 
of the hearing board is in favor of removal. 

(4) The assembling of all available evidence and in- 
formation with respect to the enemy aliens in question. 

(5) The conducting of a preliminary administrative 
review of each case and the carrying out or making of 
arrangements for such further steps as may be necessary 
for arriving at a decision on, and the di.sposing of each 
case in accordance with the procedure approved by the 
Assistant Secretary for American Republic Affairs. 

(6) The handUng of all pertinent correspondence and 
the answering of all pertinent inquiries on the subject 
of the enemy aliens in question. (The Division of Co- 
ordination and Review will take steps to insure that all 
outgoing correspondence referring to these persons, of 
whom a list will be provided, is routed through the Alien 
Enemy Control Section.) 

(7) The consulting with the Department of Justice with 
respect to any litigation pending or which may arise in 
connection with the problem. 

(8) In addition to the foregoing functions, the perform- 
ing of all other functions which shall prove necessary to 
the fulfillment of its responsibility and which shall be ap- 
proved by- the Assistant Secretary for American Republic 
Affairs. 

(b) It shall also be the responsibility of the Alien Enemy 
Control Section to collaborate with other offices and divi- 
sions of the Department in the formulation and execution 
of a program to implement Resolution No. VII of the Inter- 
American Conference on Problems of War and Peace with 
respect to enemy aliens in the other American republics. 
In all cases affecting such enemy aliens, the Special Proj- 
ects Division shall consult with the Alien Enemy Control 
Section. 

3 Transfer of functions. The responsibility of the Spe- 
cial Projects Division in connection with the initiation of 
policy and action with respect to all matters concerning 
the disposition of alien enemies, presently in the United 
States, who were removed from other American republics 
during the course of the war is hereby transferred to the 
Alien Enemy Control Section. 

4 Dcpurtmeiital orders amended. Departmental Order 
1301 of December 20, 1944, and any other orders, the pro- 
visions of which are in conflict herewith, are accordingly 
amended. 

James F. Btbnes 



Establishment of the Interim Research 
and Intelligence Service ' 

Purpose. This order is issued to e.stablish the Interim 
Research and Intelligence Service (routing syml)ol IRIS) 
as an organizational entity in the Department of State 
for the period Octolier 1 througli December 31, 1945, pur- 
suant to the provisions of Executive Order 9621 of Sep- 
tember 20, 1945 (10 F.R. 17645). 

1 Establishment and functions of the Service. There 
is hereby established the Interim Research and Intelli- 



gence Service which shall be responsible for those func- 
ti<ms of the Office of Strategic Services transferred to 
the Department of State by Executive Order 9621, until 
other disposition is made of these functions. 

2 Head of the Service. The head of the Interim Re- 
search and Intelligence Service shall be the Special As- 
sistant to the Secretary in charge of research and 
intelligence. 

3 Personnel, records, property and funds. All pev- 
sonnel, records, property and appropriation balances 
transferred from the Office of Strategic Services to the 
Department of State by determination of the Bureau of 
the Budget, pursuant to Executive Order 9621, shall be 
placed initially under the Interim Research and Intelli- 
gence Service. 

4 Amendment of previous orders. Any departmental 
orders, the provisions of which are in conflict herewith, 
are accordingly amended. 

James F. Btenes 



Establishment and Responsibilities of 

the Special Assistant to the Secretary in 

Charge of Research and Intelligence 

Purpose. This Order establishes the position of Special 
Assistant to the Secretary in charge of research and in- 
telligence and outlines his responsibilities. 

1 Position. There is hereby established the position of 
Special Assistant to the Secretary in charge of research 
and intelligence, to rank with Assistant Secretaries. 

2 Responsibilities. The Special Assistant to the Secre- 
tary in charge of research and intelligence shall be re- 
sponsible : 

(a) For advice and assistance to the Secretary with 
respect to the development of a coordinated program for 
the procuring and production of foreign intelligence needed 
by the Department of State. 

(b) For advice and assistance to the Secretary with 
respect to the development of a compreliensive and co- 
ordinated foreign intelligence program for all Federal 
agencies concerned with that type of activity. 

(c) For the direction of such organization units as are 
hereafter established in the Department for the procuring 
and production of foreign intelligence. 

(d) For the direction, until December 31, 1945, of the 
Interim Research and Intelligence Service. 

(e) For the performance of those functions of the Di- 
rector of Strategic Services and of the United States Joint 
Chiefs of Staff, relating to the functions of the Interim 
Research and Intelligence Service, as are transferred to 
tlie Secretary of State pursuant to Executive Order 9621 
of September 20, 1945 (10 F.R. 17645). 



' Departmental Order 1350, dated Oct. 26, 1945 and effec- 
tive Oct. 24, 1945. 

"Departmental Order 1351, dated Oct. 26, 1045 and 
effective Oct. 24, 1945. 



740 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



3 Organization. The office of the Special Assistant to 
the Secretary in charge of research and intelligence shall 
include such deputies, advisers, assistants and appurtenant 
staff as may be deemed necessary. 

4 Departmental Orders Amended. Departmental Order 
1301 of December 2<), 1944 and any other orders, the pro- 
visions of which are in conflict herewith, are accordingly 
amended. 

James F. Bybnes 



Divisions of Communications and 
Records and Central Services ^ 



Purpose. This order is issued to improve the organiza- 
tion of the Department by segregating the functions re- 
lating to communications and records. 

1 Reestablishment of a Division of Communications and 
Records. There is hereby reestablished in the Office of 
Departmental Administration a Division of Communi- 
cations and Records. 

2 Functions of the Division. The Division of Communi- 
cations and Records shall be responsible for the formula- 
tion of policies and the development and establishment of 
procedures and regulations governing the dispatch, re- 
ceipt, and distribution of all correspondence and tele- 
graphic communications that are transmitted via the diplo- 
matic channels (telegraphic and diplomatic poueb) be- 
tween the United States and other countries. Specifically 
it shall: 

(a) Formulate the policies, procedures, and regulations 
governing the general use of such diplomatic channels for 
the above communications ; 

(b) Negotiate with other agencies of the United States 
Government concerning their use of such diplomatic 
channels ; 

(c) Establish methods of coordination for the outgoing 
communications originating in other Government agencies 
for transmission via these channels, in order to eliminate 
any conflict in policy as expre.ssed in them and determine 
the clearances required for such comanunications ; 

(d) Determine the routing of all incoming communica- 
tions within the Department, for action and information, 
the distribution of copies of outgoing telegrams and air- 
grams for information within the Department of State 
and the paraphrase and distribution of telegrams and 
airgrams to other Government agencies ; 

(e) Operate the telegraph office of the Department of 
State, including the coding and decoding of security 
messages for all Government departments ; 

(f) Formulate regulations for the use of the diplo- 
matic channels of communication by private individuals 
and organizations, including negotiation with United 
States cen.sor.ship and customs officials : 

(g) Administer and operate the system for transmit- 



' Departmental order 1354, dated Oct. 20, 1945 and effec- 
tive Nov. 1, 1945. 



ting written communications within the Department of 
State and between the Department and the foreign mis- 
sions and Government agencies in Washington, including 
the messenger system of the Department, and operate 
the domestic mail handling system for the Department ; 

(h) Have general jurisdiction over the tiling system 
and record-retirement program for Departmental cor- 
respondence and the operation of the central Depart- 
mental files and records; 

(i) Have responsibility for developing research into 
flies and records in connection with requests from the 
Department and other agencies for technical data and 
information ; 

(j) Collaborate with the Division of Foreign Report- 
ing Services as regards those functions transferred to 
its jurisdiction from DC/L to maintain the accurate 
distribution and dispatching of that type of reporting 
services for which FR is held responsible. 

3 To maintain supervision of DC/L functions. The 
liaison functions of the Commercial Liaison Section 
(DC/L) shall be the responsibility of the Division of 
Communications and Records except for those specific 
operations which are assigned to FR. 

4 Functions of the Division of Central Services. Func- 
tions of the Division of Central Services, other than those 
described in paragraphs 2 and 3 of this order, will con- 
tinue to be the responsibility of the Division of Central 
Services. 

5 Effective date. The transfer of the existing com- 
munications and records functions shall be made as of 
November 1, 1945. The transfer of tlie functions of the 
Diplomatic Mail and Potich Section and any related mail 
activities and of messenger functions shall be effective 
at dates to be specified by the Director of the Office of 
Departmental Administration. 

6 Transfer of personnel and records. The personnel 
at present performing any of the functions hereby as- 
signed to the Division of Comunications and Records, to- 
gether with the records and equipment pertaining thereto, 
are hereby transferred to that division. 

7 Ro7iting symbols. The routing symbol for the Division 
of Conmiunications and Records shall be DC; the rout- 
ing symbol for the Division of Central Services shall be 
changed to CS. The corresponding symbols for the several 
subordinate units of the two divisions sliall be changed 
accordingly. 

8 Departmental order amended. Departmental Order 
1301 of December 20, 1944 (section XVII, paragraph 4) 
is hereby amended. 

James F. Bybnes 



Appointment of Officers 

Lt. Richard F. Cook as Executive Officer in the Office of 
Transport and Commiuiications Policy, effective Octo- 
ber 25, 1945. 

Walter K. Scott as Chief of the Division of Communica- 
tions and Records, effective October 30, 1945. 



I 



NOVEMBER 4, 1945 



741 



^ THE CONGRESS ^ ^ 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE ^ 



Additional Appropriation, Fiscal Year 1946, for United 
Nations Kelief and Rehabilitation Administration. 
II.Rept. 1166, 70tli Cong., to accompany H.J.Res. 266. 
7 pp. [Favorable report.] 

United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion, 1046 : Hearing.s before the Subcommittee of the Com- 
mittee on Appropriations, Hou.se of Representatives, Sev- 
enty-ninth Congress, first session, on a House joint reso- 
lution making appropriations for the United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Admini-stration for the fiscal year 1946. 
ii, 273 pp. 

Supplemental Estimates of Appropriation and Drafts of 
Proposed Provisions for the Department of State. Com- 
munication from the President of the United States trans- 
mitting supplemental estimates of appropriation for the 
fiscal year 1946 in the amount of $9,060,059.36, together 
with drafts of proposed provisions pertaining to existing 
appropriations, for the Department of State. H.Doc. 367, 
79th Cong. 3 pp. 

Study of Immigration and Naturalization Laws and 
Problems: Hearings before the Committee on Immigra- 
tion and Naturalization, Hou.se of Representatives, Sev- 
enty-ninth Congres.s, first session, pursuant to H.Res. 52, 
authorizing a study of immigration and naturalization 
laws and problems. Part 1, April 24 and May 2, 1945, 
iii, 42 pp. ; Part 2, July 3, 1945, iii, 24 pp. 

To Grant a Quota to Eastern Hemisphere Indians and 
To Make Them Racially Eligible for Naturalization : Hear- 
ings before the Committee on Immigration and Natural- 
ization, House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth Congress, 
first session, on H.R. 173, H.R. 1584, H.R. 1624, H.R. 1746, 
H.R. 2256, H.R. 2609, bills to grant a quota to Eastern 
Hemisijhere Indians and to make them racially eligible 
for naturalization. Part 2, July 3, 1945. ii, 2 pp. 

Return of Vested Property to Persons Not Hostile to 
the United States : Hearing before Subcommittee No. 1 
of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Represen- 
tatives, Seventy-ninth Congress, first session, on H.R. 3750, 
a bill to amend the First War Powers Act, 1941, September 
12, 1945, Serial No. 7. iii, 60 pp. 



Consular Ofl&ces 

Tlie American Consulate General at Batavia, 
Java, was established on October 24, 1945. 



Publications 

of the DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C, 
v,iio is the authorized distributor of Government 
publications. To avoid delay, address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may 
be obtained from the Department of State. 

*Tke Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Na- 
tionals, Cumulative Supplement No. 7, Octo- 
ber 25, 1945, containing additions, amend- 
ments, and deletions made since Revision IX 
of February 28, 1945. Publication 2401. 118 
pp. Free. 

Promulgated under presidential proclamation of 
July 17, 1941, as authorized under tlie Trading with 
the Enemy Act, being a list of persons deemed to be 
or to have been acting in collaboration with the 
enemy, and also of persons to whom the export of 
materials from the United States is deemed to be 
detrimental to the interest of national defense. 

A ctuniildtivc Ust of the publications of the Department 
of State, from October 1, 1929 to July 1, 19.'i5 {ptiblleation 
2373) may be seeured from the Department of State. 



Y42 DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 







OntentS Continued 



Treaty Information Page 

The St. Lawrence Waterway and World Trade. By Edward 

G. MUler, Jr 715 

Ratification of the Charter of the United Nations: Greece, 

India, Peru 723 

Transmittal of U. S.-U. K. Petroleum Agreement to the 

Senate. Message of the President 737 

The Department 

Oath of OfBce Taken by Spruille Braden 714 

Alien Enemy Control Section 737 

Establishment and Functions of the Alien Enemy Control 

Section 738 

Establishment of the Interim Research and Intelligence 

Service 739 

Establishment and Responsibilities of the Special Assistant 

to the Secretary in Charge of Research and Intelligence . 739 
Divisions of Communications and Records and Central Serv- 
ices 740 

Appointment of Officers 740 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 741 

Publications 

Department of State 741 

The Congress 741 



U S, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1945 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



]R Tl 



J 



H 



1 1^ I I S) 

J 




VOL. XIII, NO. 333 



NOVEMBER 11, 1945 



In this issue 



THE STATE-WAR-NAVY COORDINATING COMMITTEE 

By Harold W, Moseley, Colonel Charles W. McCarthy, and Commander Alvin F. 
Richardson 



DOCUMENTS RELATING TO ITALIAN ARMISTICE 



CORRESPONDENCE CONCERNING ITALIAN PEACE TREATY 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 



.^©NT o*. 




THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



Vol. Xm. No. 333* 




• roBLicATion 2424 
3 



November 11. 1945 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
interruitional affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed curren tly. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington 25, D. C, to whom all pur- 
chase orders, with accompanying 
remittance, should be sent. The sub- 
scription price is $3.50 a year; a single 
copy is 10 cents. 



c 



ontents 



American Republics page 

Letters of Credence: Ambassador of Mexico 768 

Europe 

Withdrawal of United States Forces From Czechoslovakia . 766 
Establishment of Diplomatic Relations With Albania. . . 767 
Mark Ethridge To Visit Moscow. Statement by the Secre- 
tary of State 767 

National Anniversary of the U.S.S.R. 768 

Far East 

Reconvening of Far Eastern Advisory Commission .... 769 

Economic Affairs 

Deletion of Finnish Names From Proclaimed List 766 

Maritime Preparatory Technical Conference 768 

Second Meeting of the Rubber Study Group 769 

General 

The State- War-Navy Coordinating Committee. By Harold 
W. Moseley, Colonel Charles W. McCarthy, and Com- 
mander Alvin F. Richardson 745 

Arrival of Prime Minister Attlee 766 

Pearl Harbor Investigation: White House Directive . . . 773 
Delay of Gripsholm for Repairs 773 

The United Nations 

Preparatory Commission of the United Nations: Resolution 

on Location of Headquarters 769 

Treaty Information 

Documents Relating to Italian Armistice: 

Itah'an Military Armistice 748 

Additional Conditions ofArmistice With Italy 749 

Letter From General Eisenhower to Marshal Badoglio on 

Occasion of Signing Armistice Document 754 

Memorandum of Agreement on Employment and Dis- 
position of Italian Fleet and Mercantile Marine. . . 755 
Amendment to Agreement Respecting Employment of 

Italian Navy 756 

Statement of Admiral De Courten ; 757 

Aide-M6moire of February 24, 1945 to the Italian Govern- 
ment From President, Allied Commission 757 

Commentary on the Additional Conditions of the Armi.s- 

tice With Italy 759 

Exchange of Correspondence Concerning Italian Peace 

Treaty 761 

Concerning Revision of Montreux Convention 706 

Water Treaty and Protocol With Mexico: 

Entry Into Force 770 

Exchange of Ratifications 771 

The Foreign Service 

Advisory Committee on Commercial Activities of the For- 
eign Service 773 

Consular Offices ■ 774 

Publications 

Department of State 774 

The Congress 774 



The State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee 



By HAROLD W. MOSELEY, Department of State 

Colonel CHARLES W. MCCARTHY, War Department 
Commander ALVIN F. RICHARDSON, Navy Department 



IACK OF COORDINATION between the State, War, 
and Navy Departments has been a rather 
1 common theme of critics of governmental 
-^ administration. Only recently has there 
been any reference to the existence of a State-War- 
Navy Coordinating Committee in public state- 
ments by top Government officials. Nevertheless, 
it is a fact that there was created in December 1944 
a very active Committee which has provided a 
much-needed working link between the military 
and those responsible for foi-eign policy. Until 
the end of the war the existence of this Committee, 
for security and other reasons, has been a classified 
"confidential" subject, instructions having been 
issued that there should be no discussion of it out- 
side the three Departments. 

Purpose and Authority of the Committee 

The State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee 
(SWNCC) was established as the result of an 
exchange of letters between the Secretaries of 
tlie State, War, and Navy Departments, for the 
purpose of "improving existing methods of ob- 
taining for the State Department advice on polit- 
ico-military matters and of coordinating the 
views of the three departments on matters in 
which all have a common interest, particularly 
those involving foreign policy and relations with 
foreign nations." In actual practice, the Com- 
mittee has gone further than its original pur- 
pose of furnishing guidance only for the benefit 
of the State Department. SWNCC is also used 
by the War and Navy Departments, as well as 



the Joint Chiefs of Staff, as the medium through 
whicli the military are advised by the State De- 
partment of the political aspects of a particular 
problem. 

The authority of the Committee has been re- 
cently defined and formalized in a memorandum 
signed by Mr. Byrnes, Mr. Patterson, and Mr. 
Forrestal, which designates SWNCC "as the 
agency to reconcile and coordinate the action to 
be taken by the State, War, and Navy Depart- 
ments on matters of common interest and, under 
the guidance of the Secretaries of State, War, and 
Navy, establish policies on politico-military ques- 
tions referred to it." Action taken by SWNCC 
is construed as action taken in the names of the 
Secretaries of State, War, and the Navy, and 
decisions of the Coimnittee establish the approved 
policy of the three Departments. Decisions of 
the Committee are referred to the President for 
approval when af)propriate. 

Composition of SWNCC 

The departmental representatives on this Com- 
mittee are Assistant Secretary of State James C. 
Dunn, chairman ; Assistant Secretary of War John 
J. McCloy; and Under Secretary of the Navy 



Mr. Moseley is Special Assistant to the Director of 
the Office of European Affairs and a member of the Sec- 
retariat of SWNCC. Colonel McCarthy was formerly 
an Army member on the secretariat of SWNCC and is 
now an Executive Officer for the Assistant Secretary of 
War. Commander Richardson is a Navy member on the 
secretariat of SWNCC. 

745 



746 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Artemus L. Gates. Mr. H. Freeman Matthews, 
Director of the Office of European Affairs of the 
Department of State, is acting chairman in Mr. 
Dunn's absence, and Mr. Lovett, Assistant Secre- 
tary of War for Air, has been substituting for Mr. 
McCloy during the latter's tour abroad. The sec- 
retariat consists of three officers from each of the 
three Departments, with a supporting force of 
WAVES, WAC, and civilian personnel. 

Subcommittees have been created to consider 
matters relating to a particular geographic area 
or special subjects. These subcommittees act as 
working parties and report to the parent Commit- 
tee. At i^resent there are standing subcommittees 
for European Affairs, for the Far East, for Latin 
America, for the Near and Middle East, for Tech- 
nical Information Security Control, and for Ee- 
armament. Ad hoc committees have also been cre- 
ated for such purposes as effecting collaboration 
between the State, War, and Navy Departments on 
the security functions of the United Nations Or- 
ganization, considering articles for peace treaties, 
and authorizing the release of security data. 

Subjects Considered by SWNCC 

The subjects considered by SWNCC, as indi- 
cated by the names of its subcommittees, are 
limited neither by their nature nor by their geo- 
graphic location. Most of the documents prepared 
by SWNCC are generally of a classified nature, 
although they are occasionally made public. In 
speaking of the work of SWNCC at the time of 
the Japanese surrender. Secretary Byrnes told the 
press on August 22 that the State Department, 
Army, and Navy have a joint committee which 
has been working on the details of the surrender 
and its program of occupation ever since the day 
of surrender; that the three departments have 
been in daily contact as a result of that Committee ; 
and that he was deeply impressed by what was 
being done by our representatives under the direc- 
tion of General MacArthur. The Secretary said 
that he had gone over the drafts at great length 
and that it was a tremendous task but that it was 
being handled in a methodical, businesslike way 
that really made him feel very good about the 
progi'ess being made. One of these documents to 
which the Secretary referred was the "U. S. Initial 
Post-Surrender Policy for Japan," ^ which was 



released by the White House on September 22 and 
was widely approved by the press. 

In addition to the jjreparation of policy for the 
control of Japan, SWNCC has been active in the 
drafting of directives for the control of Germany 
and Austria. The Committee has also been of con- 
siderable value as a medium in coordinating the 
views of the three Departments for the purpose 
of determining policy for presentation of United 
States jDroposals at international conferences. 
During the existence of the European Advisory 
Commission in London, SWNCC was often used 
as a means for obtaining the United States view- 
point on subjects introduced into that Commission 
which were of a politico-military nature. Simi- 
larly, it is planned that the United States repre- 
sentative on the Far Eastern Advisory Commis- 
sion will make use of the Committee's services. 

Functioning of SWNCC 

All three Departments have cooperated full- 
heart edly in placing at the disposal of the Com- 
mittee and its secretariat the advice and assistance 
of specialists and advisers. Through the Office of 
the Chief of Staff and the Office of the Chief of 
Naval Operations, staff studies can be undertaken 
as the Committee may desire. Other Government 
dejjartments and agencies are also consulted when 
their advice seems desirable. 

Close liaison with the Joint Chiefs of Staff is 
effected through the secretariat of SWNCC and 
the working groups of subcommittees. Most pa- 
pers originating in SWNCC are referred to the 
JCS for their consideration from the military point 
of view before final approval is given. Quite often, 
at the working level, members of a SWNCC sub- 
committee will collaborate in a report with one 
of the committees of the JCS. The Joint Chiefs of 
Staff in their turn refer papers to SWNCC to 
obtain the benefit of the Committee's views. 

SWNCC papers are prepared in "military" form 
similar to that used by the British War Cabinet 
and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Reports are broken 
down into five headings : the Problem, Facts Bear- 
ing on the Problem, Discussion, Conclusions, and 
Recommendations. 

Papers which do not require discussion and in 
which all departments and agencies concerned are 



' Bulletin of Sept. 23, 1W5, p. 423. 



NOVEMBER 11, 1945 



747 



in substantial agreement are approved informally 
by the members of the Committee. In other in- 
stances where it is felt that discussion is desirable, 
papers are placed on the agenda for formal meet- 
ings of the Committee 
which take place about 
once a week. The usual 
procedure is to refer a 
problem to a subcom- 
mittee or an ad hoc 
committee, and have 
that subcommittee sub- 
mit its report for the 
consideration of the 
parent committee. 

Supervision of Liaison 
Activities 

When the Committee 
was organized it was 
agreed that it should 
exercise general guid- 
ance and supervision 
over liaison activities 
between the three De- 
partments. However, it 
was decided that the 
Committee should not 
attempt to interfere 
with existing liaison 
contacts which were 
working efficiently, nor 

should the Committee \ 

attempt to have fun- 

neled through it the ordinary day-to-day conduct 

of business between the Departments. Studies 

to improve liaison chamiels have, however, been 

undertaken. 

Future of SWNCC 

Although SWNCC was established during a 
war it does not follow that peace will bring an 
early end to its existence. On the contrary, it 
appears that peace has brought with it an increas- 
ing number of problems of a politico-military 
nature. Close and effective coordination between 
the military and those responsible for our foreign 



THE STATE-WAR-NAVY COORDINATING COMMITTEE 
WASHINGTON, O. C 

16 Oetobsr 1945 

The State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee la 
designated as the agency to reconcile and coordinate 
the action to be taken by the State^ Var and Havy 
Departmenta on matters of common interest and, under 
the guidance of the Secretaries of State, Var and 
the Navy, establish policies on politico-military 
questions referred to It. 

Action taken by the Coordinating Committee vlll 
be construed as action taken In the naaee of the 
Secretaries of State, War and the Navy. Subject to 
approval of the President vhere appropriate, decl* 
slona of the Committee vlll establish the approved 
policy of tlie State, War and Navy Departmenta. 
dissemination of the decisions of the Committee vlll 
be accomplished by the three departmenta for the 
Information and guidance of all concerned and, vhere 
appropriate, vith neceeeary instructions for action. 



J2 



policy is a prerequisite to the successful solution 
of these problems. The State-War-Navy Co- 
ordinating Committee appears to offer a logical 
medium for such coordination. 

If it accomplishes 
nothing else, SWNCC 
does bring the uni- 
formed men and the 
civilians together at the 
same table and elimi- 
nates much of the old 
formalistic exchange of 
views by letters and 
memoranda. We have 
learned in this war that 
coordination is neces- 
sary not only at the top 
but also at the staff 
working level. Through 
the facilities of 
SWNCC and its sub- 
committees this coordi- 
nation is obtained at 
both levels. 

If it is true that our 
foreign policy is our 
first line of national de- 
fense, then it follows 
that there must be close 
and continuous coordi- 
nation between the 
State Department and 
the military agencies of 
the Government. It is 
significant that several of the plans which have 
been proposed in connection with the question of 
unification of the armed services provide for repre- 
sentation by the Secretary of State. The "Eber- 
stadt Report",^ for example, proposes a post-war 
security organization which would include a Na- 
tional Security Council which would take over the 
functions at present performed by the State-War- 
Navy Coordinating Committee. It would appear 
quite possible that SWNCC may evolve into such 
an agency. 

'Report to the Honorable James Forrestal on Unifica- 
tion of the War and Navy Departments and Post-War 
Organization for National Security (Senate Committee 
on Naval Affairs, 79tli Cong., 1st sess., Oct. 22, 1945), p. 7. 



■^fc=- 



Secretary of War 



( I aecrbtOTT of tho NavT ^ 



(J iiecr&tary of tho Navy 



74S 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Documents Relating to Italian Armistice 



Italian Military Armistice 



[Released to the press November 6] 

SiCILT, 

September 3rd, 1943. 
The following conditions of an Armistice are 
presented by 

General Dwight D. Eisenhower, 

Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Forces, act- 
ing by authority of the Governments of the United 
States and Great Britain and in the interest of 
the United Nations, and are accepted by 

Marshal Pietro Badoglio 

Head of the Italian Government. 

1. Immediate cessation of all hostile activity by 
the Italian armed forces. 

2. Italy will use its best endeavors to deny, to 
the Germans, facilities that might be used against 
the United Nations. 

3. All jjrisoners or internees of the United Na- 
tions to be immediately turned over to the Allied 
Commander-in-Chief, and none of these may now 
or at any time be evacuated to Germany. 

4. Immediate transfer of the Italian Fleet and 
Italian aircraft to such points as may be desig- 
nated by the Allied Commander-in-Chief, with 
details of disarmament to be prescribed by him. 

5. Italian merchant shipping may be requisi- 
tioned by the Allied Commander-in-Chief to meet 
the needs of his military-naval program. 

6. Immediate surrender of Corsica and of all 
Italian territory, both islands and mainland, to 
the Allies, for such use as operational bases and 
other purposes as the Allies may see fit. 

7. Immediate guarantee of the free use by the 
Allies of all airfields and naval ports in Italian 
territory, regardless of the rate of evacuation of 
the Italian territory by the German forces. These 
ports and fields to be protected by Italian armed 



forces until this function is taken over by the 
Allies. 

8. Immediate withdrawal to Italy of Italian 
armed forces from all participation in the curi'ent 
war from whatever areas in which they may now 
be engaged. 

9. Guarantee by the Italian Government that 
if necessary it will employ all its available armed 
forces to insure prompt and exact compliance with 
all the provisions of this armistice. 

10. The Commander-in-Chief of the Allied 
Forces reserves to himself the right to take any 
measure which in his opinion may be necessary 
for the protection of the interests of the Allied 
Forces for the prosecution of the war, and the 
Italian Government binds itself to take such ad- 
ministrative or other action as the Commander- 
in-Chief may require, and in particular the Com- 
mander-in-Chief will establish Allied Military 
Government over such parts of Italian territory 
as he may deem necessary in the military interests 
of the Allied Nations. 

11. The Commander-in-Chief of the Allied 
Forces will have a full right to impose measures 
of disarmament, demobilization and demilitariza- 
tion. 

12. Other conditions of a political, economic and 
financial nature with which Italy will be bound 
to comply will be transmitted at later date. 

The condi