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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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Given By 



U. S. SUPT. OF DOCUMENTS 



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The U.N. and Specialized Agencies Page 

Challenges and Opportunities in World 
Health: The First World Health Assem- 
bly. Article by H. van Zile Hyde, 

M.D 391 

Assassination of Count Folke Bernadotte, 
U.N. Mediator in Palestine: 
Statement by Secretary Marshall .... 399 
Message From Representative of Secretary- 
General to Israeli Foreign Minister . . 399 
Preliminary Report From American Con- 
sul General at Jerusalem 399 

United Nations Charter: A Standard for 
Conduct Among Nations. Address by 

Secretary Marshall 400 

U.N. Documents: A Selected Bibliography . 401 

General Policy 

American Diplomatic Personnel Detained in 

Rumania 403 

Freedom of Movement Allowed Mrs. Kasen- 
kina and Mr. Samarin: U.S. Note to the 
Soviet Embassy on September 9. . . . 408 

Science Falls Victim to Communism's Strait 

Jacket. Address by George V. Allen. . 409 

Communist Strategy in Southeast Asia. . . 410 

Incident Involving Seating of Ethiopian 
Minister at Meeting of Scientists: Ex- 
change of Correspondence Between the 
Ethiopian Legation and the Department 
of State 413 

Evacuation of U.S. Nationals From Hydera- 
bad 414 



Treaty Information Paga 

Disposition of the Former Italian Colonies: 
U.S. Position in the Council of Foreign 
Ministers 402 

Rumanian Nationalization Legislation Con- 
sidered Violation of Peace Treaty: 
U.S. Note to Rumania Delivered Sep- 
tember 7 408 

Yugoslavia Pays for Nationalized American 

Property 413 

Correction in Protocol of Schedule XX of 
General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade 414 

Occupation Matters 

Displaced-Persons Resettlement Program: 

Steps for Admission of Aliens Into U.S. . . 411 
DP Commission Staff Departs for Ger- 
many 412 

Registration of Immigrants to the U.S. 

From German and Austrian Zones . . 412 

Economic AKairs 

Czechoslovakia Settles Lend-Lease Account . 413 
The Congress 

A Review of the Work of the Eightieth Con- 
gress 415 

Publications 

Foreign Relations of the United States, 1932, 

Volumes III and IV 418 

Department of State 419 



U. S. SOVERNMENT PRtNTlN* OFFlCEi IG4a 



420 



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,j/te/ ^eha^imen{/ ,{w t/taie^ 



THE BERLIN CRISIS: 

Communique by U.S., U.K., and France 423 

U.S. Note to the Soviet Government 423 

Soviet Note to U.S. Government 426 

Tri-Partite Aide-Memoire lo Soviet Government . . 427 

NO COMPROIMISE ON ESSENTIAL FREEDOMS • 

Address by Secretary Marshall to General Assembly ... 432 



CONCLUSIONS FROM REPORT BY PALESTINE 

MEDIATOR 436 



For complete contents see back cover 



1 




October 3, 1918 



.^lENT oj^ 




OCT 25 1948 



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e>%e Zl^c/ia/ytnie^ £^ t/lale 



bulletin 



Vol. XIX, No. 483 • Publication 3295 
Oaoher 3, 1948 



For sale by tbe Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.C. 

Price: 

62 Issues, domestic $6, foreign $7.25 

Single copy, 16 cents 

Published with the approval of tbe 
Director of the Bureau of tbe Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Defabtment 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 






The Berlin Crisis 



COMMUNIQUE BY U.S., U-K., AND FRANCE 



[Released to the press September L'6] 

Text of the joint communique isxued by the three 
Foreign Ministers in Paris on September 26 

Mr. Schuman, Mr. Bevin and Mr. Marshall met 
shortly after noon at the Quai d'Orsay to consider 
the Soviet note of September 25, 1948, I'elating to 
the situation in Berlin, caused by the imposition 
and continuance of the Soviet blockade of rail, 
road and water communications between Berlin 
and the Western Zones of occupation in Germany. 

In view of the fact that the Soviet Government 
in violation of the understanding between the Four 
Powers has chosen to make public unilaterally its 
version of these negotiations, the three Ministers, 
authorized the following statement : 

"The Governments of France, the United States 
and the United Kingdom are in agreement that 
the Soviet note of September 25 is unsatisfactory. 
The Soviet Government fails to provide the assur- 



ance requested in the notes from the three govern- 
ments of September 22, 19-18, that the illegal block- 
ade measures be removed. In addition it demands 
that commercial and passenger traffic between the 
Western Zones and Berlin, by air as well as by 
rail, water and road be controlled by the Soviet 
Command in Germany. This demand of the 
Soviet Government is restated with emphasis in 
the official communique issued in Moscow. More- 
over, in I'egavd to currency, the Soviet note is 
evasiA'e and does not answer the clear position 
stated by the three governments. 

"Accordingly, the three governments are trans- 
mitting a note to the Soviet Government fully 
setting out their position and informing it that in 
view of the insistence of the Soviet Government 
upon maintaining the blockade and upon the insti- 
tution of restrictions on air communications they 
are compelled in compliance with their obligations 
under the Charter of the United Nations, to refer 
the matter to the Security Council." 



U.S. NOTE DELIVERED TO THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT 



[Released to the press September 27] 

The Acting Secretary of State presents his com- 
pliments to His Excellency, the Ambassador of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,^ and has 
the honor to transmit the following communica- 
tion : 

1. The Governments of the United States, 
France and the United Kingdom, conscious of 
their obligations under the Charter of the United 
Nations to settle disputes by peaceful means, took 
the initiative on July 30, 1948 in approaching the 
Soviet Government for informal discussions in 
Moscow in order to explore every possibility of 
adjusting a dangerous situation wliich had arisen 
by reason of measures taken by the Soviet Gov- 
ernment directly challenging the rights of the 
other occupying powers in Berlin. These meas- 
ures, persistently pursued, amounted to a blockade 
of land and water transport and communication 
between the Western zones of Germany and Berlin 
which not onh' endangered the maintenance of the 
, forces of occupation of the United States, France 
and tlie United Kingdom in that city but also 

Ocfober 3, 7948 



jeopardized the discharge by those Governments 
of their duties as occupying powers through the 
threat of starvation, disease and economic ruin 
for the population of Berlin. 

2. The Governments of the United States, France 
and the United Kingdom have explicitly main- 
tained the position that they could accept no ar- 
rangement wliich would deny or impair the rights 
in Berlin acquired by them through the defeat and 
unconditional surrender of Germany and by Four- 
Power agreements. They were, however, willing 
to work out in good faith any practical arrange- 
ments, consistent with their rights and duties, for 
restoring to normal the situation in Berlin, in- 
cluding the problems presented by the existence of 
two currencies in that city. 

?>. After long and patient discussion, agree- 
ment was arrived at in Moscow on a directive to 
the four Military Governors under which the re- 
strictive measures placed by the Soviet Military 
Government upon transport and communications 



' Alexander S. Panyushkin. 



423 



between the Western zones and Berlin would be 
lifted simultaneously with the introduction of 
the German mark of the Soviet zone as the sole 
currency for Berlin under Four-Power control of 
its issue and continued use in Berlin. 

4. In connection with the lifting of restrictions 
and the maintenance of freedom of communica- 
tion and the transport of persons and goods be- 
tween Berlin and the Western zones, the agreed 
directive provided that restrictions recently im- 
posed should be lifted. Generalissimo Stalin dur- 
ing the discussions personally confirmed that this 
meant the removal also of any restrictions imposed 
prior to June 18, 1948. 

In connection with the currency situation in 
Berlin, the Soviet authorities insisted that the 
German mark of the Soviet zone be accepted as the 
sole currency for Berlin. The three Western 
occupying powers declared that they were ready 
to withdraw from circulation in Berlin the West- 
ern mark "B"' issued in that city and to accept the 
German mark of the Soviet zone subject to Four- 
Power control over its issuance, circulation and 
continued use in Berlin (i.e. in Berlin only and 
not in the Soviet zone). After long discussions 
Generalissimo Stalin, on August 23, 1948, person- 
ally agreed to this Four-Power control and him- 
self iDroposed the establishment of a Four-Power 
Financial Commission which would control the 
practical implementation of the financial arrange- 
ments involved in the introduction and continued 
circulation of a single currency in Berlin and 
which. Generalissimo Stalin specifically stated, 
would have the power to control the German 
Bank of Emission of the Soviet zone insofar as its 
operations with respect to Berlin were concerned. 

5. It was with these understandings, personally 
confirmed by Generalissimo Stalin, that the agreed 
directive was sent to the four Military Governors 
in Berlin to work out the technical arrangements 
necessary to put it into eflPect. 

6. Despite these clear understandings, the So- 
viet Military Governor soon made it plain in the 
discussions held by the four Military Governors 
that he was not prepared to abide by the agreed 
dii'ective. 

Although the directive called for the unqualified 
lifting of the restrictions on transport and com- 
munications between the Western zones and Berlin, 
the Soviet Military Governor failed to comply. 
What is more he demanded that restrictions should 
be imposed on air traffic. He endeavored to sup- 
port his demand by a false interpretation of a de- 
cision of the Control Council of November 30, 
1945. Actually during the discussions leading up 
to the decision of the Control Council of November, 
1945, to establi-sh air corridors the Soviet military 
authoi-ities in Berlin had suggested that the traffic 
in the corridors should be limited to the needs of 
the military forces. Neither the Control Council, 

424 



however, nor any other Four-Power body accepted 
this proposal and the traffic in the corridors has 
since been subject only to those safety regulations 
which were agreed on a P^our-Power basis. Other 
than these agreed safety regulations, no restric- 
tions whatsoever have been or are in existence 
on the use by aircraft of the occupying powers 
of air communications in the corridors between 
Berlin and the Western zones of Germany. 

In regard to Four-Power control of the German 
mark of the Soviet zone in Berlin, the Soviet 
Military Governor refused to admit, despite the 
agreement in Moscow, that the Financial Commis- 
sion should exercise control over the operations 
with respect to Berlin of the German Bank of 
Emission of the Soviet zone. 

Furthermore, with res])ect to the question of the 
control of the trade of Berlin, the position of the 
Soviet Military Governor amounted to a claim for 
exclusive Soviet authority over the trade of Berlin 
with the Western zones of occupation and with 
foreign countries. This claim was a contradiction 
of the clear meaning of the agreed directive to 
the Four Military Governors. 

7. Even while discussions were in progress, the 
Soviet authorities in Berlin tolerated attempts on 
the part of minority groups sympathetic to their 
political aims forcibly to overthrow the legal gov- 
ernment of the city of Berlin, constituted by demo- 
cratic elections held under Four-Power super- 
vision. On August 30 the representatives of the 
three Western occupying powers in Moscow had 
drawn Mr. Molotov's attention to the disturbed 
situation in Berlin. They suggested that instruc- 
tions be sent to the Four Military Governors that 
they should do all in their power to preserve a 
favorable atmosphere in Berlin, but Mr. Molotov 
claimed that such instructions to the Soviet Mili- 
tary Governor were unnecessary. Nevertheless, 
after that date these attempts to overthrow the city 
government increased in violence. 

8. On September 14, 1948 the representatives of 
the Governments of the United States, France and 
the United Kingdom, acting on specific instruc- 
tions, called the attention of the Soviet Govern- 
ment to the Soviet Military Governor's disregard 
of the agreements reached during the Moscow dis- 
cussions and requested that he be instructed to 
give effect to them. 

9. The Soviet Government's reply of September 
18, however, upheld the Soviet Military Governor's 
position. The Soviet Government further con- 
firmed its intention to disregard its commitment 
to lift the restrictions imposed on transport and 
communications by seeking to impose restrictions 
which had not before been in effect. 

With respect to trade, the Soviet requirement 
that the licensing of trade with Berlin be placed 
in the hands of the Soviet military authorities 
made plain the Soviet Government's intention to 
obtain exclusive control over the trade of Berlin. 

Department of State Bulletin 



As regards the powers of the Four-Power Fiiiiiii- 
eial Commission, the Soviet reply asserted that 
the AVestern occupying powers desired to estab- 
lish control over all operations of the German 
Bank of P'mission. In fact the United States, the 
United Kingdom and French Military Governors 
sought only to secure the Soviet Military Gov- 
ernor's acceptance of the agreed principle tnat the 
Four- Power Financial Connnission should control 
the operations of the Bank with respect to the 
financial arrangements relating to the currency 
changeover and to the continued provision and use 
of the German mark of the Soviet zone in the city 
of Berlin, (i.e. in Berlin only and not in the 
Soviet zone). In the light of Mr. Molotov's state- 
ments during the discussion of the Soviet reply, 
it became clear that no assurance was given that 
the Soviet Military Governor would be prepared 
to proceed on the previously agreed basis. Thus 
in this matter, as in others, the intention of the 
Soviet Government was manifestly to impose con- 
ditions nullifying the authority of the Western 
occupying powers and to acquire complete control 
over the city of Berlin. 

10. For the Governments of the United States, 
France, and the United Kingdom to continue dis- 
cussions when fundamental agreements previously 
reached had been disregarded by the Soviet Gov- 
ernment would have been futile. It would have 
been equally fruitless to continue such discussions 
in the face of the unmistakable intention of the 
Soviet Government to undermine, and indeed to 
destroy, the rights of the three Governments as 
occupying powers in Berlin as a price for lifting 
the blockade, illegally imposed in the first instance 
and still unlawfully maintained. The Three Gov- 
ernments therefore despatched identical notes on 
September 22nd to the Soviet Government. In 
those notes after restating their position on the 
specific points at issue they asked the Soviet Gov- 
ernment whether it was prepared to remove the 
blockade measures which it had imposed and 
thereby to establish conditions which would permit 
a continuation of discussions. 

11. The reply of the Soviet Government in its 
notes to the three Governments of September 25, 
1948 is unsatisfactory. 

As regards the introduction and continued cir- 
culation and use in Berlin of the German mark of 
the Soviet zone, the Soviet Government misrepre- 
sents the position of the three Western occupying 
powers. The latter have made it clear from the 
outset that they do not desire to exei-cise any con- 
trol over the financial arrangements in the Soviet 
zone of occupation, but are insisting on those con- 
ditions only which would provide adequate Four- 
Power control over the financial arrangements for 
the introduction and continued circulation and use 
of the German mark of the Soviet zone as the sole 
currency in Berlin. 

As regards control of the trade of Bei-lin the 

Ocfober 3, 1948 



Soviet Government contrary to its previous atti- 
tude now states its willingness to agree to the es- 
tablishment of Four-Power control over the issu- 
ance of licenses for the import and export of goods 
provided that agreement is reached on all other 
questions. It is clear, after more than six weeks 
of discussions, from the Soviet Government's per- 
sistent refusal to remove the blockade measures 
and its continued insistence on other conditions 
which would enable it to destroy the authority 
and rights of the United States, France and the 
United Kingdom as occupying powers in Berlin. 
that this conditional concession is illusory. 

As regards air traffic between Berlin and the 
Western zones of occupation, the Soviet Govern- 
ment, while neither affirming nor withdrawing the 
demand for the particular restrictions put for- 
ward by the Soviet Military Governor during the 
discussions in Berlin and confirmed in its reply of 
September 18th, introduces another requirement 
to the effect that transport by air of commercial 
freight and passengers must be placed under the 
control of the Soviet command. 

The Soviet Govermnent's note of September 25 
therefore not only ignores the request of the three 
Governments that the blockade measures should 
be removed in order that conditions may be estab- 
lished which would permit the continuation of 
discussions; it also seeks to impose restrictions on 
transport and communications between Berlin and 
the Western zones which would place the mainte- 
nance of the forces of occupation of the three West- 
ern occupying powers and the whole life of the 
Berlin population within the arbitrary power of 
the Soviet command, thus enabling the Soviet 
military authorities to reimpose the blockade at 
any moment in the future if they so desired. 

12. Accordingly, it is apparent that the Soviet 
Government had no intention of carrying out 
the undertakings to which it had subscribed dur- 
ing the Moscow discussions in August. In the 
face of the expressed readiness of the Governments 
of the United States, France and the United King- 
dom to negotiate with the Soviet Government all 
outstanding questions regarding Berlin and Ger- 
many as a whole in an atmosphere free from duress, 
the Soviet Government has, in fact, persisted in 
using duress. It has resorted to acts of force 
rather than to the processes of peaceful settlement. 
It has imposed and maintained illegal restrictions 
amounting to a blockade of Berlin. It has failed 
to work out in good faith Four-Power arrange- 
ments for the control of the currency of that city. 
Even while the Western occupying powers were 
seeking agreement on measures to implement the 
understandings reached in Moscow the Soviet mili- 
tary authorities condoned and encouraged attempts 
to overthrow the legally constituted municipal 
government of Berlin. These actions are plainly 
attempts to nullify unilaterally the rights of the 
Western occupying powers in Berlin, which are 

425 



co-equal with those of the Soviet Union and like 
them are derived from the defeat and unconditional 
surrender of Germany and from Four-Power 
agreements to which the Soviet Government is a 
party. Moreover, the use of coercive pressure 
against the Western occupying powers is a clear 
violation of the principles of the Charter of the 
United Nations. 

13. Tlie issue between the Soviet Government 
and tlie Western occupying powers is therefore not 
that of technical difficulties in communications 
nor that of reaching agreement upon the condi- 
tions for the regulation of the currency for Berlin. 
The issue is that the Soviet Government has clearly 
shown by its actions that it is attempting by illegal 
and coercive measures in disregard of its obliga- 
tions to secure political objectives to which it is 
not entitled and which it could not achieve by 
peaceful means. It has resorted to blockade 
measures; it has threatened the Berlin population 
with starvation, disease and economic ruin; it has 
tolerated disorders and attempted to overthrow 
the duly elected municipal govei'nment of Berlin. 
The attitude and conduct of the Soviet Govern- 
ment reveal sharply its purpose to continue its 
illegal and coercive blockade and its unlawful ac- 



tions designed to reduce the status of the United 
States, France and the United Kingdom as oc- 
cupying powers in Berlin to one of complete sub- 
ordination to Soviet rule, and thus to obtain abso- 
lute authority over the economic, political and 
social life of the people of Berlin, and to incorpo- . 
rate the city in the Soviet zone. 

14. The Soviet Government has thereby taken 
upon itself sole responsibility for creating a situa- 
tion, in which further i-ecourse to the means of 
settlement prescribed in Article 33 of the Charter 
of the United Nations is not, in existing circum- 
stances, possible, and which constitutes a threat 
to international peace and security. In order 
that international peace and security may not be 
further endajigered the Governments of the United 
States, France and the United Kingdom, there- 
fore, while reserving to themselves full rights to 
take such measures as may be necessary to main- 
tain in these circumstances their position in Berlin, 
find themselves obliged to refer the action of the 
Soviet Government to the Security Council of the 
United Nations. 

Department of State, Washington 
September 26, 191^8. 



SOVIET NOTE DELIVERED TO THE U.S. GOVERNMENT 



[Released to the press September 27] 

On September 26 the Soviet Ambassador in Wash- 
ington delivered to the Acting Secretary of State 
the following reply of the Soviet Government to 
the third-person note of September 22, 19Ii.8 

Translation] 

1. The Government of the Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Republics has acquainted itself with the 
note of the Government of the USA of September 
22, 1948 concerning the negotiations of the four 
powers which have taken place in Moscow and 
Berlin on the question of the introduction of the 
German mark of the Soviet zone as the sole cur- 
rency in Berlin and concerning the removal of the 
restrictions on communications, transport and 
trade between Berlin and the western zones of 
Germany. 

In connection with this the Soviet Government 
considers it necessary to declare that the position 
taken by the Government of the USA not only 
does not facilitate but on the contrary complicates 
the reaching of agreement concerning the settle- 
ment of the situation which has arisen in Berlin 
as a result of carrying out of a separate currency 
reform and the introduction of a sejmrate currency 
in the westei'n zones of Germany and in the west- 
ern sectors of Berlin, which constituted an extreme 
and most far reaching measure in execution of the 

426 



policy of partitioning Germany being carried out 
by the Governments of the USA, Great Britain 
and France. 

2. In its note the Government of the USA refers 
to three disputed questions which were mentioned 
by the Governments of the USA, Great Britain 
and France in the aide memoire of September 14 
and by the Government of the USSR in the aide . , 
memoire of September 18, 1948. li 

The Government of the United States of Amer- "^ 
ica states that the continuation of the negotiations 
on the above-mentioned questions on the present 
basis would be useless and considers that in order 
to create the conditions which would permit a 
continuation of the negotiations, there would have 
to be a removal of the temporary transport restric- 
tions between Berlin and the western zones which . 
were introduced by the Soviet Command for the I' 
purpose of protecting the interests of the German 
population as well as the economy of the Soviet 
zone of occupation and of Berlin itself. 

Such a statement of the Government of the USA 
is in direct conflict with the agi'eement reached on 
August 30 in Moscow between the four govern- 
ments (the directive to the Military Governors), 
in which it was stated : 

"The Governments of France, the United King- 
dom, the United States, and the USSR have de- 
cided that, subject to agreement being reached 

Department of State Bulletin 



among the four inilitiiry <rovernors in Berlin for 
their practical impleinenlatioii, the following steps 
shall be taken simultaneously : 

" (a ) Restrictions on communications, transport 
and connnerce between Berlin and the western 
zones, and also on the movement of cargoes to and 
from the Soviet zone of Germany, which have re- 
cent h' been imposed, shall be lifted; 

"(b) The German mark of the Soviet zone 
shall be introduced as the sole currency for Berlin, 
and the Western mark B shall be withdrawn from 
circulation in Berlin." 

From the text of the agreement cited above it 
is evident that the four governments agreed during 
the negotiations in Moscow on the simultaneous 
lifting of restrictions on trade and communica- 
tions between Berlin and the western zones and 
introduction of the German mark of the Soviet 
zone as the sole currency in Berlin. The Soviet 
Government insists on this, since the situation 
created by the separate measures of the western 
powers means that the three governments are not 
limiting themselves to their sovereign adminis- 
tration of the western zones of Germany but wish 
at the same time to administer in currency and 
financial matters the Soviet zone of occupation as 
well, by means of introducing into Berlin, which 
is in the center of the Soviet zone, their separate 
currency and thus disrupting the economy of the 
eastern zone of Germany and in the last analysis 
forcing the USSR to withdraw therefrom. 

The Soviet Government considers it necessary 
that the agreement reached in Moscow be carried 
out and considers that further negotiations can be 
successful only in the event that the other three 
governments likewise observe that agreement. If 
the Government of the USA repudiates the agree- 
ment reached on August 30, only one conclusion 
can be drawn therefrom : namely, that the Gov- 
ernment of the USA does not wish any agreement 
between the USSR, the USA, Great Britain and 
France for the settlement of the situation in Berlin. 

3. Inasmuch as the position of the Governments 
of the USA, Great Britain and France on the three 



disputed points was set forth in the note of Sep- 
tember 22, the Soviet Government considers it 
necessary to do likewise : 

A) As regards air communication between Ber- 
lin and the western zones, the establishment by the 
Soviet Command of a control over the transport 
of commercial cargoes and passengers is just as 
necessary in this case as in the case of railway, 
water and highway transport. The air routes can- 
not remain uncontrolled, since an understanding 
has been reached between the four governments to 
the eft'ect that the agreement must envisage the 
establishment of a corresjionding control over cur- 
rency circulation in Berlin and the trade of Berlin 
with the western zones. 

B) In the directive to the Military Governors 
adopted by the four governments on August 30th 
the functions of control by the four power finan- 
cial commission of the execution of financial meas- 
ures connected with the introduction and circula- 
tion of a single currency in Berlin were explicitly 
provided for. 

The Soviet Government considers it necessary 
that this agreement be carried out, including the 
maximum reduction of occupation costs in Berlin 
and the establishment of a balanced budget in Ber- 
lin (not considered up to this time in the Berlin 
conversations), which were provided for in that 
agreement. 

C) The Soviet Government has already ex- 
pressed its agreement that trade between Beilin, 
third countries and the western zones of Germany 
should be placed under the control of the four 
power financial commission. The Soviet Govern- 
ment now declares its readiness to agree to the 
establishment of four power control likewise over 
the issuance of import and export licenses, pro- 
vided agreement is reached on all other questions. 

4. Thus the reaching of agreement about the 
situation in Berlin now depends above all on 
whether the Governments of Great Britain, the 
United States of America and France are seeking 
such agreement. 



TRI-PARTITE AIDE-MEMOIRE TO SOVIET GOVERNMENT 



"1. The Governments of France, the United 
Kingdom and the United States having received 
and studied reports from their Military Governors 
of the discussions in Berlin find it necessary to 
draw the attention of the Soviet Government to 
the fact that the position adopted by the Soviet 
Miltary Governor during the meetings in Berlin 
on a number of points deviate from the principles 
agreed at Moscow between the four Governments 
and contained in the agreed directive to the four 
Military Governors. As the Soviet Government 
is aware, the terms of this directive were finally 

Ocfober 3, J 948 



agreed after long and careful consideration, and 
after clarifications as to interpretation had been 
received from the Soviet Government. 

"2. The specific issues on which in the opmion of 
the Governments of France, the United Kingdom 
and the United States, the Soviet Military Gov- 
ernor has departed from the understandings 
reached at Moscow relate to: (1) restrictions on 
communications, transport and commerce between 
Berlin and the western zones; (2) the authority 
and functions of the financial commission, and in 
particular its relation to the German bank of 

427 



emission; and (3) the control of the ti'ade of 
Berlin. 

"3. As to the first, the Soviet Military Governor 
has presented a proposal which falls outside the 
agreed principle that the restrictions which have 
recently been imposed on communications, trans- 
port and commerce be lifted. He has proposed 
that restrictions upon air traffic, not heretofore 
existing, should now be imposed, and in particu- 
lar that air traffic to Berlin should be strictly 
limited to that necessary to meet the needs of the 
military forces of occupation. 

"4. As the Soviet Government is aware, the 
directive makes no mention of air transport and 
this question was not discussed at Moscow. The 
directive reads: 'Restrictions on communications, 
transport and commerce between Berlin and the 
western zones and to and from the Soviet zone of 
Germany which have recently been imposed shall 
be lifted.' There have been and are no such re- 
strictions on air traffic. The purpose of tlie di- 
rective is to lift restrictions and not to impose new 
ones. The proposal of the Soviet Commander-in- 
Chief, therefore, falls outside the scope of the 
present discussions and is unacceptable. 

"5. Secondly, on the question of the authority 
and functions of the financial commission there 
should be not the slightest grounds for any mis- 
understanding. At the meeting on August 23 at- 
tended by Premier Stalin and Mr. Molotov and the 
representatives of the Governments of France, the 
United Kingdom and the United States, the in- 
tention of the directve in regard to the powers of 
the financial commission including its power to 
control the operations in Berlin of the German 
bank of emission was clearly and specifically con- 
firmed by Premier Stalin. The Soviet Military 
Governor has refused to accept both the meaning 
of the dii-ective and the clear understanding: of the 
Four Powers reached at Moscow. 

"6. Thirdly, there is the question of the control 
of the trade of Berlin. The position of the Soviet 
Military Governor during the discussions in Ber- 
lin in regard to matters relating to the control of 
trade between Berlin and the western zones of 
Germany amounts to a claim for exclusive Soviet 
authority over such matters. Such a claim is a 
contradiction of the spirit and meaning of the 
directive to the four Military Governors to which 
the four Governments gave their approval and is 
therefore unacceptable. 

"7. In bringing these major points of difference 
to the notice of the Soviet Government, the Gov- 
ernments of United States, the United Kingdom 
and France do not wish to imply that these are the 
only points of difference which have arisen during 
the conversations in Berlin. 

"8. The Governments of France, the United 
Kingdom and the United States have understood 
clearly the principles agieed to in Moscow and the 

428 



assurances given by Premier Stalin. Their Mili- 
tary Governors in Berlin have acted in accordance 
with these principles and assurances. The po- 
sition taken by the Soviet Military Governor, on 
the contrary, has constituted a departure from 
what was agreed in Moscow and strikes at the 
very foundation upon which these discussions were 
undertaken. Tlie divergencies which have accord- 
ingly arisen on these questions are so serious that 
the Governments of France, the United Kingdom | 
and the United States feel compelled to inquire ! 
whether the Soviet Government is prepared to j 
affirm the understandings outlined herein and to 
issue the necessary instructions to the Soviet Mili- 
tary Governor, confirming the agreed intention of 
the directive in regard to 

"(1) the lifting of all restrictions on communi- 
cations, transport and commerce imposed after 
March 30, 1948, without imposition of any new 
air or other restrictions; and 

"(2) the control by the financial commission of 
the financial arrangements contemplated in the 
agreed directive, including control of the opera- 
tions of the Bank of emission with respect to Ber- 
lin as specifically confirmed by Premier Stalin; 
and 

"(3) a satisfactory basis for trade between Ber- 
lin and third countries and the western zones of 
Germany in accordance with an agreement to be 
reached between the four Military Governors 
which does not involve the unilateral control of 
such trade by the Soviet Trade Administration and 
which recognizes the rights of the occupying pow- 
ers to import in fulfillment of their responsibilities, 
and to control the proceeds from, food and fuel for 
the use of the Berlin population and industry. 

"9. They believe that only if the steps proposed 
in the aide memoire are taken would it be possible 
for the Military Governors to continue their | 
discussions." | 

Stalin being out of town and unavailable, this 
aide-mernoire was delivered to Mr. Molotov by the 
three Western envoys on September 14. 

Molotov expressed the view that progress could 
be facilitated if, instead of an immediate exchange 
of communications at the government level, the 
Military Governors were first to prepare an agreed 
report of their discussions; and he proposed that 
tliey be given two days to do this. The Western 
envoys pointed out that the Military Governor had 
already found it impossible to agree on such a 
joint report. Molotov then reluctantly agreed to 
submit the aide-memoire to his Government for 
study and reply. 

On September 18, Mr. Molotov invited the West- 
ern envoys to the Kremlin and handed them the 
Soviet Government's reply, which was likewise in 
the form of an aide-memoire. The text was as 
follows : 

Department of State Bulletin 



"1. Tlie Government of the USSR has ac- 
quainted itself witli the aide memoire dated Sep- 
tember 14 hist of the Governments of France, the 
United KinL;-doin and the US, wliich gives a unilat- 
eral account of the course of discussions between 
the four Jlilitary (jovernors in Berlin and which 
presents incorrectly the position adopted by 
the Soviet Military Govei-nment during those 
discussions. 

"The Soviet Government believes that considera- 
tion of the difference referred to in the said aide 
memoire, which arose durin<; the Berlin discus- 
sions in regard to the interpretation of the directive 
to the Military Governors would have been facili- 
tated and expedited had the four Military Gover- 
nors submitted to their governments a joint re])ort 
with an account of the course of discussions. In 
that event the discussions in Moscow would not 
have been based on any unilateral communications 
but on an accurate statement of the positions 
adopted by all four Military Governors both on 
]5oints already agreed between them and on points 
left outstanding. Since, however, the representa- 
tives of the three Governments have refused to 
follow that method of discussion, the Soviet Gov- 
ernment finds it necessary to reply to the question 
raised in the aide memoire. 

"The aide memoire of September 14 refers to the 
following 3 questions: (1) Restrictions on com- 
munications, transport and commerce between 
Berlin and the Western zones; (2) the authority 
and functions of the financial commission, and in 
particular its relation to the German Bank of 
Emission; (3) the control of the trade of Berlin. 
At the same time it is asserted that the Soviet 
Military Governor allegedly deviated from the 
understanding reached on these questions in 
Moscow. 

"The Soviet Government believes this assertion 
to be without foundation because during the Ber- 
lin discussions the Soviet Military Governor 
strictly followed the agreed directive and the clari- 
fications which had been given by Soviet Govern- 
ment when it was being drawn up iti Moscow. 
Study by the Soviet Government of all materials 
relating to the Berlin discussions has shown that 
the reason for the differences which arose during 
the Berlin discussions lies in the desire of the US, 
the UK and the French Military Governors to in- 
terpret the directive agreed upon in Moscow in a 
unilateral manner and to give it an interpretation 
which had not been implied when it was being 
drawn up and which constitutes a violation of the 
directive, and with this the Soviet Government is 
unable to agree. 

"2. The directive to the four Military Governors 
states the following in regard to the first question 
referred to in the aide memoii-e of September 14: 
'restrictions on communications, transport and 
commerce between Berlin and the Western zones 

Ocfober 3, 1948 



and on the traffic of goods to and from the Soviet 
zone of Germany which have recently been imposed 
shall be lifted.' 

"The concrete proposals submitted by the Soviet 
Military Governor on this point are in full con- 
formity with the directive and have for their pur- 
pose the lifting of all restrictions on communica- 
tions, transport and commerce, which have been 
imposed after March 30, 1948, as was stipulated 
when the directive was drawn up. During consid- 
eration of this question the Soviet Military 
Governor pointed to the necessity of the other 
three Military Governors complying strictly with 
the regulations imposed by the Control Coun- 
cil's decision of November 30, 1945 on air traffic for 
the needs of the occupation forces and this had 
never been disputed by any of the Military Govern- 
ors since the adoption of these regulations three 
years ago. There is no foundation whatsoever for 
regarding this justified demand of the Soviet Mili- 
tary Governor as an imposition of new restrictions 
on air traffic, because these regulations had been 
imposed as far back as 1945 and not after March 
30, 1948. Nevertheless, the USA has attempted to 
deny the necessity of observing the regulations 
which had been imposed by the Control Council on 
air traffic of the occupation forces and which re- 
main in force to this very day. 

"In view of the above, the Soviet Government 
believes that the position of the Soviet Military 
Governor on this question is absolutely correct, 
while the position of the USA Military Governor, 
far from being based on the agreed directive, is in 
contradiction with it. An interpretation to the 
contrary might lead to an arbitrary denial of any 
decision previously agreed upon by the Control 
Council, and to this the Soviet Government cannot 
give its assent.^ 

"3. The directive to the INIilitary Governors also 
contains a clear statement regarding the authority 
and functions of the Financial Commission and 
regarding the German Bank of Emission. 

"This directive was drawn up in full conformity 
with the preliminary clarifications on this matter 



■ The facts with respect to the Control Council's Nov. 30, 
194.5, decision are as follows : 

During the discussions prior to the establishment of air 
corridors in 1945 the Soviet Military Authorities in Berlin 
had in fact suggested that the traffic in the corridors should 
be limited to the needs of the military forces. The Allied 
Control Authority (Allied Control Council) did not accept 
this Soviet proposal and the trafiBc in the corridors has 
since then been subject only to agreed safety regulations. 
No restrictions whatever were in existence on the use by 
aircraft of the occupying powers of air communications in 
the corridors between Berlin and the Western zones of 
Germany on or before Mur. 3il, 1948. 

This fact was specifically pointed out to Mr. Molotov by 
the British env(jy, Mr. Roberts, inmiediately upon the 
receipt and reading of the aide-memoire handed to the 
Western representatives by Mr. Molotov on Sept. 18, 1948. 

429 



made by Premier J. V. Stalin on August 23, and 
referred to in the above-mentioned aide memoire. 

"It will be seen from the above text that the 
authority and functions of the financial commis- 
sion and of the German Bank of Emmission are 
precisely laid down in the directive, and it was 
by this that the Soviet Military Governor was 
guided. According to that directive and to the 
understanding reached in Moscow by the four 
powers, the financial commission should not exer- 
cise control over all operations of the Bank of 
Emission in regard to Berlin, but only over those 
operations of the Bank of Emission in Berlin 
which are specifically provided for in paragraphs 
(A), (B), (C), and (D) of the directive. The 
proposal to establish control of the financial com- 
mission over the whole activity of the German 
Bank of Emission in Berlin was not accepted dur- 
ing the discussion of this question in Moscow be- 
cause this would have led to such interference on 
the part of the financial commission in matters of 
the regulation of currency circulation as is in- 
compatible with the Soviet Administration's re- 
sponsibility for the regulation of currency 
circulation in the Soviet zone of occupation. 

"Accordingly, the Soviet Government cannot 
agree to the incorrect interpretation of the agreed 
directive given in the aide memoire of the Govern- 
ment of France, the UK and the USA, and believes 
it necessary that the directive should be strictly 
followed. 

"4. As to trade, the previously agreed directive 
is confined to an instruction to the Militai'y Gov- 
ernors to work out a satisfactory basis for trade 
between Berlin and third countries and the West- 
ern zones of Germany. It will be recalled that on 
August 23 during the discussions in Moscow, the 
Soviet Government submitted a definite proposal 
on this subject, but the question was not considered 
in detail and was referred to the Militai-y Gov- 
ernors for discussion. 

"The proposals on this subject made by the 
Soviet Military Governor give no reason to assert 
that they are a contradiction of the spirit and 
meaning of the agreed directive. On the contrary, 
the intention of those proposals is to have the 
diiective fulfilled in accordance with the agree- 
ments reached in Moscow. 

"However, for the purpose of expediting the 
drawing up of practical ari-angements in Berlin 
the Soviet Government proposes that the Military 
Governors be given more detailed instructions on 
this matter than those contained in the agreed 
directive. The Soviet Government agrees to have 
trade between Berlin and third countries and the 
Western zones of Germany placed under the con- 



trol of the quadripartite financial commission, 
which control should provide at the same time 
for the maintenance of the existing procedure 
regarding the traffic of goods in and out of Berlin 
under license of the Soviet Military Administra- 
tion. The Soviet Government believes that such 
an instruction would be of help in the drawing up 
of a concrete agreement on matters of trade with 
Berlin. 

"5. The Soviet Government believes that discus- 
sions between the Military Governors in Berlin 
can yield positive results only in the event that all 
the Military Governors follow strictly the direc- 
tives and instructions agreed between the Govern- 
ments of France, the UK, the US and the USSR." 

The Western envoys, after reading this docu- 
ment, stated that they would submit it to their 
governmnets for consideration but warned that it 
would scarcely be acceptable. 

After studying the reply just quoted, the three 
governments delivered to the Soviet Embassies in 
Washington, London and Paris on September 22, 
1948, identical third person notes in the following 
text: 

"(1) The Government of the United States, to- 
gether with the Governments of France and the 
United Kingdom, has now reviewed the discussions 
which have taken place on the Berlin situation and 
which have culminated in the Soviet reply of Sep- 
tember 18 to the aide-memoire of the three Govern- 
ments of September 14, 1948. 

"(2) The three Governments find that the So- 
viet unwillingness to accept previous agreements, 
to which reference is made in their aide-memoire 
of September 14, is still preventing a settlement. 
The reply of the Soviet Government in its aide- 
memoire of September 18 is unsatisfactory. 

"(3) The final position of the three Govern- 
ments on the specific points at issue is as follows : 

"(A) They cannot accept the imposition of any 
restrictions on air traffic between Berlin and the 
Western zones. 

"(B) They insist that the Finance Commission 
must control the activities of the German Bank of 
Emission of the Soviet Zone in so far as they relate 
to the financial arrangements for the introduction 
and continued use of the Soviet zone mark as the 
sole currency in the city of Berlin. 

"(C) They insist that trade between Berlin and 
the Western zones and other countries must be 
under quadripartite control, including the issuance 
of licenses. 

"(4) After more than six weeks of discussion, 
the Governments of the United States, France and 



430 



Deparfment of Stale Bulletin 



the United Kinjrdoin feel tliat the Soviet Govern- 
ment is now fully iunmainted with the position of 
the three Governments, and that further discus- 
sions on the present basis woidd be useless. 

"(5) It is clear that the difficulties that have 
arisen in the attempts to arrive at practical ar- 
raufiements which would restore normal conditions 
in Berlin derive not from technical matters but 
from a fundamental difference of views between 
the (xovei-nments of tiie United States, France and 
tlie Unitetl Kiniidom, and the Soviet Government 
as to the rijxlits and obligations of the occupyinj2 
powers in Berlin, their right to have access by air, 
rail, water and road to Berlin and to participate in 
tiie administration of the affairs of the city of 
Berlin. The blockade imposed by the Soviet au- 
thorities together with other of their acts in Berlin 
are in violation of the rights of the three AVestern 
occupying powers. 

"(6) Accordingly the Government of the 
United States, in agreement with the Governments 
of France and the United Kingdom, asks the Soviet 
Government whether, in order to create conditions 
which would permit a continuance of discussions, 
it is now prepared to remove the blockade meas- 
ures, thus restoring the right of the three Western 
occupying powers to free communications by rail, 
water, and road, and to specify the date on which 
this will be done. 

"(7) The Foreign Ministers of the three Gov- 
ernments will be meeting shortly in Paris, and 
they will be glad to have the reply of the Soviet 
Government as soon as possible." 

.Septemier 22, 194S 



Publication of the Report on the 
Moscow Discussions 

In view of the breakdown of the discussions at 
Moscow between the representatives of the West- 
ern Powers and the Soviet Union, centering u{>on 
the Berlin crisis, the Department of State on Sep- 
tember 27 released a report on the Moscow dis- 
cussions that reviews the events leading to the 
breakdown and records the documents in the case. 

Section I of the report recalls that the Soviet 
Government lias maintained first that its measures 
restricting communications, transport, and com- 
merce between Berlin and Western Germany were 
necessitated by "technical difficulties" and then 
that they were "defensive" against conditions 
created by the curi-ency reform in Western Ger- 
many and Western Berlin. Tlie chronological 
record of events, however, from March 30 to Sep- 
tember 26, 1948, reveals that many of the Soviet 
restrictive measures were imposed months before 



the currency reform and that they have been 
systematic products of a deliberate coercive pur- 
pose rather than the results of "teclinical diffi- 
culties". 

Section II records the Moscow discussions that 
started on July 30, when the three Western Powers, 
unable to see either Molotov or Vishinsky, held a 
meeting with Deputy Foreign Minister Zorin. 
The first meeting with Foreign Minister Molotov 
and Generalissimo Stalin took place on August 2. 
In the course of events, from the original request 
by the Western Powers for discussions on the Ber- 
lin crisis to the ultimate breakdowns of negotia- 
tions, the following statements, notes, and pro- 
posals are reproduced either in part or in full in 
the report : The American note of July 6 and the 
Soviet reply of July 14 ; the Western request for 
discussion with Stalin and Molotov and the U.S. 
aide-immoire of July 30; accounts of the meetings 
with Zorin on July 30 and with Molotov on July 
31 ; the record of the first meeting with Stalin, in- 
cluding his proposals. In the drafting meetings 
with Foreign Minister Molotov, the initial West- 
ern draft of August 6 is printed together with Mr. 
Molotov's counter-draft; also printed are Am- 
liassador Smith's statement on behalf of the 
Western Powers of August 12, Mr. Molotov's re- 
action, the Western draft text of August 17, and 
Mr. Molotov's counter-draft of August 17. 

The following documents relating to the second 
meeting with Stalin on August 23 are reproduced : 
his statements on August 23; U.S. views tele- 
graphed to Ambassador Smith; draft communi- 
que and directive of August 27 worked out with 
Molotov and Vishinsky; and the directive of 
August 30 sent to Military Governors in Berlin. 
The technical discussions in Berlin from August 
31 to September 7 are commented on briefly. The 
text of the new aide-mwrnmre of the Western 
Powers delivered in Moscow on September 14 is 
printed together with Mr. Molotov's aide-memoire 
of September 18 in reply, and the notes delivered 
by the three Governments to tlie Soviet Embassies 
in Washington, London, and Paris on September 
22. The last documents included in the report 
include the Soviet note of September 2.5, the com- 
nnniique issued in Paris on September 26 by the 
Foreign Ministers of France, the United King- 
dom, and the United States, and the note delivered 
on September 26 by the Acting Secretary of State 
in Washington to the Soviet Ambassador. 

Copies of The Berlin Crisis: A Report on the 
Moscotv Discussions, 19If8, Department of State 
publication 3298, may be obtained from the Super- 
intendent of Documents, Government Printing 
Office, Washington 25, D.C., for 20 cents each. 



Ocfober 3, J 948 



431 



THE THIRD REGULAR SESSION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, PARIS 



No Compromise on Essential Freedoms 



ADDRESS BY SECRETARY MARSHALL ON SEPTEMBER 23, 1948 
Chairman, U.S. Delegation 



[Released to the press September 23] 

Mr. President, Fellow Delegates: We are 
particularly liappy to meet here in Paris. France 
has, through the centuries, nourished the arts and 
sciences for the enrichment of all mankind and 
its citizens have striven persistently for expand- 
ing freedom for the individual. It is entirely 
fitting that this General Assembly, meeting in 
France which fired the hearts of men with the 
Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789, should 
consider in 1948 the approval of a new declaration 
of human rights for free men in a free world. 

U.N. Charter as Protection for Free Men 

Not only is it appropriate that we should have 
reaffirmed our respect for the human rights and 
fundamental freedoms but that we should renew 
our determination to develop and protect those 
rights and freedoms. Freedom of thought, con- 
science, and religion ; freedom of opinion and ex- 
pression; freedom from arbitrary arrest and de- 
tention ; the right of a people to choose their own 
government, to take part in its work, and, if they 
become dissatisfied with it, to change it; the obli- 
gation of government to act through law — these 
are some of the elements that combine to give 
dignity and worth to the individual. 

The Charter of the United Nations reflects these 
concepts and expressly provides for the promotion 
and protection of the rights of man, as well as for 
the riglits of nations. This is no accident. For 
in the modern world, the association of free men 
within a free state is based upon the obligation of 
citizens to respect the rights of their fellow citi- 
zens. And the association of free nations in a 
free world is based upon the obligation of all states 
to respect the rights of other nations. 

Systematic and deliberate denials of basic 
human rights lie at the root of most of our troubles 
and threaten the work of the United Nations. It 
is not only fundamentally wrong that millions of 
men and women live in daily terror of secret 
police, subject to seizure, imprisonment, or forced 
labor without just cause and without fair trial, but 
these wrongs have repercussions in the community 
of nations. Governments which systematically 
disregard the rights of their own people are not 

432 



likely to respect the rights of other nations and 
other people and are likely to seek their objectives 
by coercion and force in the international field. 

The maintenance of these rights and freedoms 
depends ujion adherence to the abiding principles 
of justice and morality embodied in the rule of law. 
It will, therefore, always be true that those Mem- 
bers of the United Nations which strive with sin- 
cerity of purpose to live by the Charter and to 
conform to the principles of justice and law pro- 
claimed by it, will be those states which are genu- 
inely dedicated to the preservation of the dignity 
and integrity of the individual. 

Let this third regular session of the General 
Assembly approve by an overwhelming majority 
the Declaration of Human Rights as a standard 
of conduct for all ; and let us, as Members of the 
United Nations, conscious of our own shortcomings 
and imperfections, join our effort in good faith to 
live up to this high standard. 

Recent Economic and Social Progress 

Our aspirations must take into account men's 
practical needs — improved living and working 
conditions, better health, economic and social ad- 
vancement for all, and the social responsibilities 
which these entail. The United Nations is pledged 
in the Charter to promote "higher standards of 
living, full employment, and conditions of eco- 
nomic and social progress and development". 

The Secretary-General has devoted a consider- 
able part of his annual report to the nature of the 
progress thus far made in this field. It is evi- 
dent from the record that we can be encouraged 
by what is being done. The United Nations is 
directly engaged in efforts to alleviate the social 
and economic disorder and destruction resulting 
from the war. The International Refugee Organ- 
ization is giving assistance to displaced persons. 
The International Children's Emergency Fund is 
providing emergency aid to children and mothers 
over wide areas. As part of the United Nations 
efforts to increase productivity by applying new 
and advanced techniques, the Food and Agricul- 
ture Organization is broadening the use of im- 
proved seeds and fertilizers. The tuberculosis 

Department of State Bulletin 



pmject jointly sponsored by the World Health 
Oriranization and the International Children's 
Emerjijency Fund represents another example of 
the consti'uctivc work of our organization. 

Thi'onirh tiic United Nations we are seeking to 
combine our etForts to promote international trade, 
to solve the difliculties of foreign excliange, to 
facilitate tl\e voluntary migration of peoples, and 
to increase the ilow of information and ideas across 
national boundaries. Tlie International Trade Or- 
ganization charter would establish procedures for 
expanding multilateral trade, with the goal of 
raising living standards and maintaining full em- 
ployment. Tile Conference on Freedom of Infor- 
mation was responsible for the conventions made 
before this Assembly whicli embody principles and 
procedures for expanding the exchange of infor- 
mation. It is our hope that the Assembly will 
give these conventions thouglitful and favorable 
consideration. While the Unitetl Nations and its 
related agencies are increasingly helpful in the 
economic and social field, primary responsibility 
for improving standards of living will continue to 
rest with the governments of the peoples them- 
selves. International oiganizations cannot take 
the place of national and personal etl'ort, or local 
initiative and individual imagination. Interna- 
tional action cannot replace self-help, nor can we 
move toward general cooperation without maxi- 
mum mutual help among close neighbors. 

Deep Rift Among Nations Must Be Checked 

The United Nations was not intended to preclude 
cooperative action among groups of states for 
common purposes consistent with the Charter of 
the United Nations. It has been disappointing 
that efforts at economic recovery consistent with 
this concept have been actively opposed by some 
wiio seem to fear the return of stability and con- 
fidence. We must not be misled by those who, in 
the name of revolutionary slogans, would prevent 
reconstruction and recovery to hold out illusions 
of future well-being at the price of starvation and 
disorder today. 

A year ago I expressed the view to the General 
Assembly that "a supreme effort is required from 
us all if we are to succeed in breaking through the 
vicious circles of deepening political and economic 
crisis". I believe that most of us in this organiza- 
tion have sought to make such an effort — and that 
this is beginning to bring results. 

Despite the cooperative action of most nations 
to rebuild peace and well-being, tension during the 
past year has increased. The leaders of the other 
nations are creating a deep rift between their coun- 
tries and the rest of the world community. We 
must not allow that rift to widen any further, and 
we must redouble our efforts to find a common 
ground. Let us go back to the Charter, to words 
that were solemnly written by the peoples of the 

Ocfober 3, 1948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

United Nations while the tragedy of war was 
vividly stamped on their minds. 

"We the peoples of the United Nations", says 
the Charter, are "determined to save succeeding 
generations from the scourge of war . . . and for 
these ends to practice tolerance and live together 
in peace with one another as good neighbors". 
Three 3'ears later, we are confronted with the need 
to save not only succeeding generations, but also 
our own. 

The first purpose of the United Nations is to 
maintain international peace and security and to 
that end all members are pledged to settle their 
international disputes by peaceful means and in 
conformity with the principles of justice and 
international law. 

We are pledged to seek an accommodation by 
which different cultures, different laws, different 
social and economic structures, and different polit- 
ical systems can exist side by side without vio- 
lence, subversion, or intimidation. An elemen- 
tary requirement is that international obligations 
be respected and that relations among states be 
based on mutual confidence, respect, and tolerance. 

How can we establish among governments and 
peoples the confidence which is necessary to a just 
and stable peace and is basic to the work of the 
United Nations? The need at this session of the 
General Assembly and in subsequent months is to 
achieve, or at least to move nearer, a settlement of 
the major issues which now confront us. For its 
part, the United States is prepared to seek in every 
possible way, in any appropriate forum, a construc- 
tive and peaceful settlement of the political con- 
troversies which contribute to the present tension 
and uncertainty. 

I do not wish to deal at this time with the details 
of any particular issue, but there are broad lines 
along which a just and equitable settlement of each 
of these questions might be reached. Some of 
these matters are on the agenda of the United Na- 
tions, others, such as those dealing with the peace 
settlements, are to be dealt with in other forums. 
Nevertheless, whatever the forum, as members of 
the United Nations, we are all subject to the prin- 
ciples of the Charter. 

If we want to have peace we must settle the is- 
sues arising out of the last war. The Charter was 
written with the expectation that the solution of 
the problems before the United Nations would not 
be made more difficult by long delay in completing 
the peace settlements. 

Goals Toward Peace 

Germany, Japan, and Austria. We should, 
therefore, make every effort to achieve an early 
and just peace settlement so that Japan and Ger- 
many may exist as democratic and peaceful na- 
tions, subject to safeguards against the revival of 

433 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

military or economic means of aggression, and so 
that they may in due course demonstate their qual- 
ification for admission to membership in the 
United Nations. In Austria our aim is the restora- 
tion of its political and economic freedom within 
its 1937 frontiers and its immediate admission as 
a Member of the United Nations. 

Other questions affecting world peace are now 
before the United Nations, some of them before 
this Assembly. We believe that the ends to be 
sought on these matters may be briefly summa- 
rized as follows : 

Palestine. A Palestine free from strife and the 
threat of strife, with both the Jews and Arabs 
assured the peaceful development envisaged by 
the actions of the General Assembly and the Se- 
curity Council ; an early demobilization of armed 
forces to permit the return to conditions of peace 
and normal living in Palestine; the repatriation of 
refugees who wish to return and live in peace with 
their neighbors ; economic aid to Jews and Arabs 
to restore and strengthen their economic well-be- 
ing; the admission of Transjordan and Israel to 
membership in the United Nations. 

Korea. A unified and independent Korea, ac- 
cepted as a member of the United Nations, acting 
under a constitution and a government selected 
by the Koreans themselves through free elections, 
and receiving the economic and political encour- 
agement which it will need as it embarks upon its 
new life as a Korean Nation. 

Greece. A Greece made secure from aggressive 
and unlawful interference from without, order- 
ing its political life by the democratic process 
and by respect for law, enabled to rebuild its 
economy and to provide its people the essentials 
of a decent life which they have been without for 
so long. 

Indonesia. A negotiated settlement without 
further bloodshed in Indonesia, along the broad 
lines of the Renville agreement, providing within 
a brief period both the sovereign independence 
sought by the peoples of Indonesia and continued 
cooperation between them and the people of the 
Netherlands. 

India and Pakistan. Continuation of the 
mediation and negotiation between the great na- 
tions of India and Pakistan with respect to 
Kashmir, in order that the processes of peaceful 
settlement may bring to a conclusion an issue which 
has been charged with great dangers. 

Atomic Energy. The early adoption of an in- 
ternational system for the control of atomic energy, 
providing for the elimination of atomic weapons 
from national armaments, for the development of 
atomic energy for peaceful purposes only, and 
for safeguards to insure compliance by all nations 
with the necessary international measures of con- 
trol. 

Armaments. Under adequate and dependable 

434 



guaranty against violation, a progressive reduc- 
tion in armaments as rapidlj as the restoration of 
political confidence permits. 

Other Problems 

Other situations or problems might be men- 
tioned, but if constructive steps are taken toward 
the settlement of those which have been indicated, 
new hope would arise among men and new con- 
fidence among the nations of the world. It will 
be readily seen that the above pattern is toward 
peace. No governments or peoples who work 
toward such ends can be held to be seeking war, 
or imperialist expansion, or disorder and strife. 

Trusteeship. We have noted with particular 
interest the report of the Secretary-General on 
the work of the nations relating to the millions of 
people who are not yet fully self-governing. We 
are mindful of the obligations undertaken in the 
Chai'ter for the political, economic, and social 
development of these peoples. We believe that all 
possible assistance and encouragement should be 
given to them, to the end that they may play their 
full 23art in the family of nations — either as in- 
dependent states or in freely chosen association 
with other states. 

Membership. In our efforts toward political 
settlement we must continue working to improve 
tlie functioning of the machinery of the United 
Nations. We hope that the Security Council will 
proceed to recommend during this session of the 
General Assembly the admission of additional new 
members. There are a number of fully qualified 
states, now awaiting admission, whose elevation 
has been supported by the United States but has 
been blocked for reasons not consistent with the 
Charter. The most recent application, Ceylon, 
one of the few states to emerge in southern Asia, 
has been denied the membership to which it prop- 
erly aspires. 

Interim Committee. The report of the Interim 
Committee on the problem of voting in the Security 
Council represents the first comprehensive study 
on this vital problem since San Francisco and con- 
tains the views of an overwhelming majority of 
the members. The woi'k of the Security Council 
would be greatly facilitated if the recommenda- 
tions of the Interim Committee could be accepted 
by the members of the Council. 

The Interim Committee itself has worked use- 
fully and effectively during the past year and can 
continue to render an important service to the 
General Assembly. We hope that the Assembly 
will agree to its continuation for another year in 
order to give us more experience before deciding 
whether it should become a permanent part of our 
Organization. 

Need for U.N. Guard. The United States joins 
in expressing great appreciation to those individ- 
uals who have served on United Nations missions 

Department of State Bulletin 



during tlie past year, either as members of national 
dele<rations or of the Secretariat. These repre- 
seiitati\es in the fickl have served with courage 
and devotion to duty. Their service has been given 
a purticuhiriy solenui reminder of these condi- 
tions by tiie tragic death of Count Folke Berna- 
dotte and Colonel Serot at the liands of assassins. 
The jjeople of the United States join in tribute to 
the man who worked brilliantly and courageously 
as the United NutioTis mediator in Palestine. We 
pay tribute also to those others who have lost their 
lives in the .service of peace. 

We believe that the Assembly should give sym- 
pathetic consideration to the suggestions of the 
Secretarj'-General for the establishment of a small 
United Nations guard force to assist United Na- 
tions missions engaged in the pacific settlement of 
disputes. The fate of the Mediator in Palestine 
and the exjjerience of the several commissions 
already working in the field have already demon- 
strated the need for such a group. This great 
world organization should not send its servants 
on missions of peace without reasonable protection. 
The guards would be entirely distinct from the 
armed forces envisaged under article 43 and would 
not carry out military operations. They could, 
iiowever, perform important services in connec- 
tion with United Nations missions abroad not 
only as guards but also as observers and as com- 
munications and transportation personnel. 

Minority Position Self-imposed 

Mr. President, one of the principal purposes of 
the United Nations, according to article 1, is "to 
be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations 
in the attainment of the common ends" set forth 
in the Charter. The problem of making and keep- 
ing the peace involves many governments and 
many peoples. On the issues which call for settle- 
ment, tlie large powers as well as the small must 
submit their policies to the judgment of the world 
community. For this purpose appropriate forums 
have been established for the adjustment of differ- 
ences through the impartial opinions of the inter- 
national society. This process has been seriously 
hampered by the refusal of a group of nations to 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPBCIALIZED AGENCIES 

participate in certain of the imjjortant commis- 
sions established by this Assembly, such as the 
Balkan Commission, the Korean Commission, and 
the Interim Committee. 

More important than this boycott, however, is 
the disturbing lack of cooperation which the 
United Nations has received in its efforts to resolve 
such questions as Korea and Greece and to bring 
about the international control of atomic energy. 
This persistent refusal of a small minority to con- 
tribute to the accomplishment of our agreed pur- 
poses is a matter of profound concern. 

There is no plot among Members of this Organi- 
zation to keep any nation or group of nations in 
a minority. The minority position is self-imposed. 
The record shows that there are no mechanical 
majorities at the disposal of any nation or group 
of nations. Majorities form quickly in support 
of the principles of the Charter. Nations consist- 
ently in the minority would be welcomed among 
the ranks of the majority — but not at the price of 
compromise of basic principle. 

Patience in Understanding 

The United Nations has sought to promote the 
free exchange of ideas on a basis of full reciproc- 
ity. The effort is of the greatest political im- 
portance. Any government which by deliberate 
action cuts itself and its people off from the rest 
of the world becomes incapable of understanding 
the problems and policies of other governments 
and other peoples. It would be a tragic error, if, 
because of such misunderstanding, the patience of 
others should be mistaken for weakness. 

The United States does not wish to increase the 
existing tension. It is its wholehearted desire to 
alleviate that tension. But we will not compromise 
essential principles. We will under no circum- 
stances barter away the rights and freedoms of 
other peoples. We earnestly hope that all Mem- 
bers will find ways of contributing to the lessening 
of tensions and the promotion of peace with jus- 
tice. The peoples of the earth are anxiously watch- 
ing our efforts here. We must not disappoint 
them. 



October 3, 1948 



435 



Conclusions From Progress Report of the U.N. Mediator on Palestine 



MEDIATION EFFORT 
VIII. Conclusions 

1. Since I presented my written Suggestions to 
the Arab and Jewish authorities on 27 June, I 
have made no formal submission to either party 
of further suggestions or proposals for a definitive 
settlement.^ Since that date, however, I have held 
many oral discussions in the Arab capitals and 
Tel Aviv, in the course of which various ideas on 
settlement have been freely exchanged. As re- 
gards my original Suggestions, I hold to the opin- 
ion that they offered a general framework within 
which a reasonable and workable settlement might 
have been reached, had the two parties concerned 
been willing to discuss them. They were flatly re- 
jected, however, by both parties. Since they were 
put forth on the explicit condition that they were 
purely tentative, were designed primarily to elicit 
views and counter-suggestions from each party, 
and, in any event, could be implemented only if 
agreed upon by both parties, I have never since 
pressed them. With respect to one basic concept 
in my Suggestions, it has become increasingly clear 
to me that however desirable a political and eco- 
nomic union might be in Palestine, the time is cer- 
tainly not now propitious for the effectuation of 
any such scheme. 

2. I do not consider it to be within my province 
to recommend to the Members of the United Na- 
tions a proposed course of action on the Palestine 
question. That is a responsibility of the Members 
acting through the appropriate organs. In my role 
as United Nations Mediator, however, it was in- 
evitable that I should accumulate information and 
draw conclusions from my experience which might 
well be of assistance to Members of the United 
Nations in charting the future course of United 
Nations action on Palestine. I consider it my duty, 
therefore, to acquaint the Members of the United 
Nations, through the medium of this report, with 
certain of the conclusions on means of peaceful 
adjustment which have evolved from my frequent 
consultations with Arab and Jewish authorities 
over the past three and one-half months and from 
my personal appraisal of the present Palestinian 
scene. I do not suggest that these conclusions 
would provide the basis for a proposal which 
would readily win the willing approval of both 
parties. I have not, in the course of my intensive 

'Excerpts from U.N. doe. A/648 (part one, p. 29; part 
two, p. 23; and part three, p. 11), Sept. 18, 1948. The re- 
port wa.s signed by Folke Bernadotte in Rhodes on Sept. IG, 
1948. 

" Bulletin of July 25, 1948, p. 105. 

436 



Statement by Secretary Marshall 

[Released to the press September 21] 

The United States considers that the conclusions 
contained in the final report of Count Bernadotte 
offer a generally fair basis for settlement of the 
I'ale.'^tine question. My Government is of the 
opinion that the conclusions are sound and strongly 
urges the parties and the General Assembly to ac- 
cept them in their entirety as the best possible basis 
for bringing peace to a distracted land. 

No plan could be proposed which would be en- 
tirely satisfactory in all respects to every interested 
party. The United Nations has endeavored to 
achieve a solution by peaceful adjustment and en- 
trusted the task to its mediator. Count Bernadotte. 
He enerfietically, courageously, and with a spirit 
of complete fairness, we feel, canvassed all the 
possibilities and proposed as his last contribution 
toward a world of peace a sound basis for settle- 
ment. He gave his life to this effort. 

The complexities of the problem and the violent 
emotions which have been engendered are such that 
the details of any plan could be debated endlessly. 
As a matter of fact, the debate on this question has 
been carried on for years in almost every kind of 
public forum. It is our sincere hope that the parties 
concerned vvill realize that their best interests and 
the interests of the world community will be served 
by accepting in a spirit of fair compromise the 
judgment of Count Bernadotte. 



efforts to achieve agreement between Arabs and 
Jews, been able to devise any such formula. I am 
convinced, however, that it is possible at this stage 
to formulate a proposal which, if firmly approved 
and strongly backed by the General Assembly, 
would not be forcibly resisted by either side, con- 
fident as I am, of course, that the Security Council 
stands firm in its resolution of 15 July that mili- 
tary action shall not be employed by either party 
in the Palestine dispute. It cannot be ignored that 
the vast difference between now and last November 
is that a war has been started and stopped and 
that in the intervening months decisive events 
have occurred. 

Seven basic premises 

3. The following seven basic premises form the 
basis for my conclusions : 

Return to peace 

(a) Peace must return to Palestine and every 
feasible measure should be taken to ensure that 
hostilities will not be resumed and that harmonious 
relations between Arab and Jew will ultimately 
be restored. 

Department of State Bulletin 



The Jewish State 

(b) A Jewish State called Israel exists in Pal- 
estine and there are no sound reasons for assuming 
that it will not continue to do so. 

Boundary determination 

(c) The boundaries of this new State must 
finally be fixed either by formal agreement between 
tlie parties concerned or failing that, by the United 
Nations. 

Continuous frontiers 

(d) Adherence to the principle of geographical 
homogeneity and integration, which should be the 
major objective of the boundary arrangements, 
should apply equally to Arab and Jewish terri- 
tories, whose frontiers should not therefore, be 
rigidly controlled by the territorial arrangements 
envisaged in the resolution of 29 November. 

Right of repatriation 

(e) The right of innocent people, uprooted from 
their homes by the present terror and ravages of 
war, to return to their homes, should be affirmed 
and made effective, with assurance of adequate 
compensation for the property of those who may 
choose not to return. 

Jerusalem 

(f) The City of Jerusalem, because of its re- 
ligious and international significance and the com- 
plexity of interest involved, should be accorded 
special and separate treatment. 

International responsibility 

(g) International responsibility should be ex- 
pressed where desirable and necessary in the form 
of international guarantees, as a means of allay- 
ing existing fears, and particularly with regard 
to boundaries and human rights. 

Specific conclusions 

4. The following conclusions, broadly outlined, 
would, in my view, considering all the circum- 
stances, provide a reasonable, equitable and work- 
able basis for settlement: 

(a) Since the Security Council, under pain of 
Chapter VIII sanctions, has forbidden further 
employment of military action in Palestine as a 
means of settling the dispute, hostilities should be 
pronounced formally ended either by mutual 
agreement of the parties or, failing that, by the 
United Nations. The existing indefinite truce 
should be superseded by a formal peace, or at the 
minimum, an armistice which would involve either 
complete withdrawal and demobilization of armed 
forces or their wide separation by creation of broad 
demilitarized zones under United Nations super- 
vision. 

(b) The frontiers between the Arab and Jewish 

Ocfofaer 3, 1948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

territories, in the absence of agreement between 
Arabs and Jews, should be established by the 
United Nations and delimited by a technical 
boundaries commission appointed by and respon- 
sible to the United Nations, with the following 
revisions in the boundaries broadly defined in the 
resolution of the General Assembly of 29 Novem- 
ber in order to make them more equitable, work- 
able and consistent with existing realities in Pales- 
tine. 

(i) The area known as the Negev, south of a 
line running from the sea near Majdal 
east southeast to Faluja (both of which 
places would be in Arab territory), should 
be defined as Arab territory ; 
(ii) The frontier should run from Faluja north 
northeast to Ramleh and Lydda (ooth of 
which places would be in Arab territory), 
the frontier at Lydda then following the 
line established in the General Assembly 
resolution of 29 November; 
(iii) Galilee should be defined as Jewish ter- 
ritory. 

(c) The disposition of the territory of Palestine 
not included within the boundaries of the Jewish 
State should be left to the Governments of the 
Arab States in full consultation with the Arab 
inhabitants of Palestine, with the recommenda- 
tion, however, that in view of the historical con- 
nection and common interests of Transjordan and 
Palestine, there would be compelling reasons for 
merging the Arab territory of Palestine with the 
territory of Transjordan, subject to such frontier 
rectifications regarding other Arab States as may 
be found practicable and desirable. 

( d ) The United Nations, by declaration or other 
appropriate means, should undertake to provide 
special assurance that the boundaries between the 
Arab and Jewish territories shall be respected and 
maintained, subject only to such modifications as 
may be mutually agreed upon by the parties con- 
cerned. 

(e) The port of Haifa, including the oil refin- 
eries and terminals, and without prejudice to their 
inclusion in the sovereign territory of the Jewish 
State or the administration of the city of Haifa, 
should be declared a free port, with assurances of 
free access for interested Arab countries and an 
undertaking on their part to place no obstacle in 
the way of oil deliveries by pipeline to the Haifa 
refineries, whose distribution would continue on 
the basis of the historical pattern. 

(f) The airport of Lydda should be declared a 
free airport with assurance of access to it and 
employment of its facilities for Jerusalem and in- 
terested Arab countries. 

(g) The City of Jerusalem, which should be 
understood as covering the area defined in the res- 
olution of the General Assembly of 29 November, 

437 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

should be treated separately and should be placed 
under effective United Nations control with maxi- 
mum feasible local autonomy for its Arab and 
Jewish communities, with full safeguards for the 
protection of the Holy Places and sites and free 
access to them, and for religious freedom. 

(h) The right of unimpeded access to Jerusa- 
lem, by road, i-ail or air, should be fully respected 
by all parties. 

(i) The right of the Arab refugees to return to 
their homes in Jewish-controlled territory at the 
earliest possible date should be affirmed by the 
United Nations, and their repatriation, resettle- 
ment and economic and social rehabilitation, and 
payment of adequate compensation for the prop- 
erty of those choosing not to return, should be 
supervised and assisted by the United Nations con- 
ciliation connnission described in paragraph (k) 
below. 

(j) The political, economic, social and religious 
rights of all Arabs in the Jewish territory of 
Palestine and of all Jews in the Arab territory of 
Palestine should be fully guaranteed and respected 
by the authorities. The conciliation commission 
provided for in the following paragraph should 
supervise the observance of this guarantee. It 
should also lend its good offices, on the invitation 
of the parties, to any efforts toward exchanges of 
populations with a view to eliminating trouble- 
some minority problems, and on the basis of ade- 
quate compensation for property owned. 

(k) In view of the special nature of the Pales- 
tine problem and the dangerous complexities of 
Arab-Jewish relationships, the United Nations 
should establish a Palestine conciliation commis- 
sion. This commission, which should be ap- 
pointed for a limited period, should be responsible 
to the United Nations and act mider its authority. 
The commission, assisted by such United Nations 
personnel as may prove necessary, should under- 
take 

(i) To employ its good offices to make such 
recommendations to the parties or to the 
United Nations, and to take such other 
steps as may be appropriate, with a view 
to ensuring the continuation of the peace- 
ful adjustment of the situation in Pales- 
tine; 
(ii) Such measures as it might consider ap- 
propriate in fostering the cultivation of 
friendly relations between Arabs and 
Jews; 
(iii) To supervise the observance of such 
boundary, road, railroad, free port, free 
airport, minority rights and other arrange- 
ments as may be decided upon by the 
United Nations; 



(iv) To report promptly to the United Nations 
any development in Palestine likely to 
alter the arrangements approved by the 
United Nations in the Palestine settle- 
ment or to threaten the peace of the area. 

SUPERVISION OF THE TWO TRUCES 

V. Some Conclusions Regarding the 
Truce Operation 

1. The supervision of the truce is a continuing 
responsibility and it is neitlier necessary nor de- 
sirable at this stage to formulate any definitive 
views concerning the operation. The experience 
thus far gained in the supervision of two truces 
extending over a total period of more than three 
months has been very valuable, however, and on 
the basis of this experience certain analyses and 
conclusions maj' even now be usefully set forth. 

2. In assessing in general terms the entire period 
of truce, my dual role of Mediator and of super- 
visor of truce obsei'vation is an important factor. 
Conditions of truce, even though subject to fre- 
quent minor and occasional major infractions by 
both parties, provide a peaceful basis indispensa- 
ble to the task of mediation. At the same time, 
organizing and supervising truce observance make 
imperative demands on time and staff. I am in- 
evitably drawn into the settlement of disputes 
arising solely out of the truce, and it may be I'eadily 
appreciated that my position and decisions as 
truce supervisor cannot, in the minds of the dis- 
putants, be easily dissociated from my role in the 
more fundamental task of mediation. 

3. The situation in Jerusalem has been consider- 
ably more tense and difficult during the second 
truce than during the first. This fact is due to 
a complex of reasons among which are the change 
in military dispositions between truces, and the 
increased concentration of manpower which ap- 
jiears to have taken place there in the interval be- 
tween the truces. The special importance which 
each side attaches to the status of Jerusalem in a 
general settlement of the Palestine problem is, in 
the circumstances, a constant influence tending to 
heighten the tension there. 

4. However, the situation in Jerusalem has 
shown recent improvement. The decision of the 
Security Council on 19 August fixing the responsi- 
bility of the parties under the cease-fire order, a 
considerable increase in the number of United Na- 
tions Observers stationed there, and intensive 
efforts to achieve localized demilitarization agree- 
ments, have produced beneficial results. Never- 
theless, the conditions in Jerusalem are such that 
not even the increased number of Observers now 
there could for long maintain the truce in the City 



438 



Department of State Bulletin 



if it slioiild appear likely that a settlement would 
be indefinitely deferred. 

5. United Nations supervision of the regular 
food convoys of Jerusalem has been an important 
feature of both truces. The movement of these 
convoys involved dithcult negotiation and constant 
supervision anil escort. A}iart from some sniping 
activity during the early days of each truce, the 
convoy .sysieni has worked remarkably well. On 
the other hand, persistent efforts to ensure the flow 
of water to Jerusalem through the main pipe-lines 
have met with failure during both truces, the de- 
struction of the Latrun pumping station having 
so far nullilied all efforts to solve the problem 
during the second truce. 

G. The period of the first truce coincided with 
the ripening of cereal crops in Palestine. Since 
the front lines ran almost entirely through land 
belonging to Arab cultivators, a great number of 
fields bearing crops was in no-man's land or behind 
Jewish positions. Attempts by Arabs to harvest 
crops in no-man's land and in the vicinit\' of and 
sometimes behind Jewish positions often led the 
Jews to react by firing on the harvesters. This 
was a major complication during the first truce, 
both before and after my ruling of 16 June, and 
explains many of the breaches of truce and the 
difficulties of truce observation over a wide area. 
During the second truce, incidents of this nature 
have been relatively few, since the harvest season 
for cereal crops is over. The efforts of Observers 
in securing local agreements regarding harvesting 
of crops undoubtedly saved many crops that would 
otherwise have been lost. 

7. The fact that in the Negev there is no con- 
tinuous front line has been, during both truces, a 
special cause of difficulty as a result of the need for 
each side to by-pass the other's positions in order 
to supply some of its own positions. Convoys 
under United Nations supervision largely solved 
the problem, though not without friction, during 
the first truce. During the second truce a similar 
system was proposed, but agreement on conditions 
could not be reached with the parties. Conse- 
quently, on 14 September I laid down the terms 
governing future convoys in the Negev. 

8. In considering the effectiveness of the truce 
supervision, attention must be paid to two distinct, 
though related, aspects of the problem. On the 
one hand, there is the problem of observing the 
actual fighting fronts, of dealing with incidents 
■which may arise there and preventing, if jjossible, 
any further outbreak of hostilities. On tlie other 
hand, there is the observation which is necessary 
over a vast area to check whether or not materials 
and men are being moved in a manner to confer 
a military advantage contrary to the terms of the 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

truce. As regards the second aspect of this prob- 
lem, an important consideration is that the area 
under observation covers a very large part of the 
Middle East and that the necessity to concentrate 
a majority of the limited number of Observers at 
my disposal near the fighting fronts restricts the 
number available for duties elsewhere. The avail- 
ability of an increased number of Observers has 
enabled me to ensure a more extensive supervision, 
especially in territories outside Palestine. 

9. Experience has shown that the more quickly 
action can be taken to deal with a local violation, 
the more easily incidents are controlled or pre- 
vented. It must be admitted that, on occasion, 
slowness to act, often because of circumstances be- 
yond control, has hampered the operation of the 
truce supervision. Although the Secretary-Gen- 
eral of the United Nations has given me the fullest 
co-operation and every assistance available to him, 
it is apparent that the United Nations was not in 
position as regards Observer personnel, armed 
guards, communications and transportation equip- 
ment or budgetary provision to set up rapidly the 
elaborate machinery of truce observation required. 

10. The second truce differed from the first 
principally in the fact that it was ordered by the 
Security Council under threat of further action 
under Chapter VII of the Charter, and that no 
time limit was set. This introduced a new ele- 
ment into the situation as compared with the first 
truce, in that the second truce involved compliance 
with a Security Council order. There is a tend- 
ency on each side to regard alleged breaches by 
the other side of a truce which has been ordered 
by the Security Council as calling for prompt 
action by that Council. Both sides now evidence a 
sense of grievance and complain that the compul- 
sory prolongation of the truce is contrary to their 
interests. This feeling is inevitably reflected in 
their attitudes toward the Observers and truce 
obligations in general. The truce undoubtedly 
imjjoses a heavy burden on both sides, but even 
so, the burden of war would be heavier. 

11. The truce is not an end in itself. Its pur- 
pose is to prepare the way for a peaceful settle- 
ment. There is a period during which the poten- 
tiality for constructive action, which flows from 
the fact that a truce has been achieved by interna- 
tional intervention, is at a maximum. If, how- 
ever, there appears no prospect of relieving the 
existing tension by some arrangement which holds 
concrete promise of peace, the machinery of truce 
supervision will in time lose its effectiveness and 
become an object of cynicism. If this period of 
maximum tendency to forego military action as a 
means of achieving a desired settlement is not 
seized, the advantage gained by international in- 
tervention may well be lost. 



October 3, 1948 



439 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZED AGENCIES 



ASSISTANCE TO REFUGEES 
VI. Conclusions 

1. Conclusions which may be derived from the 
experience to date are summarized as follows : 

(a) As a result of the conflict in Palestine there 
are approximately 360,000 Arab refugees and 7,000 
Jewish refugees requiring aid in that country and 
adjacent States. 

(b) Large numbers of these are infants, chil- 
dren, pregnant women and nursing mothers. Their 
condition is one of destitution and they are "vul- 
nerable groups" in the medical and social sense. 

(c) The destruction of their property and the 
loss of tlieir assets will render most of them a 
charge uj^on the communities in which they have 
sought refuge for a minimum period of one year 
(through this winter and until the end of the 1949 
harvest). 

(d) The Arab inhabitants of Palestine are not 
citizens or subjects of Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria 
and Transjorclan, the States which are at present 
providing them with a refuge and the basic neces- 
sities of life. As residents of Palestine, a former 
mandated territory for which the international 
community has a continuing responsibility until 
a final settlement is achieved, these Arab refugees 
understandably look to the United Nations for 
effective assistance. 

(e) The temporary alleviation of their condi- 
tion, which is all that my disaster relief pro- 
gramme can promise them now, is quite inadequate 
to meet any continuing need, unless the resources 
in supplies and personnel available are greatly 
increased. Such increased resources might indi- 
rectly be of pei-manent value in establishing social 
services in the countries concerned, or improving 
greatly existing services. This applies partic- 
ularly to general social administrative organiza- 
tions, maternal and child care services, the train- 
ing of social workers, and the improvement of food 
economics. 

(f ) The refugees, on return to their homes, are 
entitled to adequate safeguards for their personal 
security, normal facilities for employment, and 
adequate opportunities to develop within the com- 
munity without racial, religious or social discrim- 
ination. 

(g) So long as large numbers of the refugees 
remain in distress, I believe that responsibility for 
their relief should be assumed by the United Na- 



tions in conjunction with the neighbouring Arab 
States, the Provisional Government of Israel, the 
specialized agencies, and also all the voluntary 
bodies or organizations of a humanitarian and 
non-political character. 

2. In concluding this part of my report, I must 
emphasize again the desperate urgency of this 
problem. The choice is between saving the lives 
of many thousands of people now or permitting 
them to die. The situation of the majority of these 
hapless refugees is already tragic, and to prevent 
them from being overwhelmed by further disaster 
and to make possible their ultimate rehabilitation, 
it is my earnest hope that the international com- 
munity will give all nece.ssary support to make the 
measures I have outlined fully etfective. I believe 
that for the international community to accept its 
share of responsibility for the refugees of Pales- 
tine is one of the minimum conditions for the suc- 
cess of its efforts to bring peace to that land. 



Position on Withdrawing Occupying 
Forces From Korea 

[Released to the press September 20J 

It has been the consistent view of this Govern- 
ment that the best interests of the Korean people 
would be served by the withdrawal of all occupying 
forces from Korea at the earliest practicable date. 
This same view was embodied in the United Na- 
tions General Assembly resolution of November 
14, 1947, in which provision was made for such 
withdrawal as soon as practicable after the estab- 
lishment of the Korean Government which it was 
the intention of that resolution to bring into beings 
Had the Soviet Union cooperated in carrying out 
the provisions of the resolution of November 14, 
1947, the question of troop withdrawal from 
Korea would doubtless have been already resolved. 

The United States Government regards the ques- 
tion of the withdrawal of occupying forces as but 
one facet of the entire question of the unity and 
independence of Korea. The General Assembly of 
the United Nations has taken cognizance of this 
larger question, as evidenced by the resolution 
referred to above, and may be expected to give fur- 
ther consideration to the matter at its forthcoming 
meeting. 



440 



Department of Slate BuUetini 



The United States in the United Nations 

THIRD REGULAR SESSION OF 

The Third Kegular Session of the General 
Assembly opened in Paris at the Palais de Chaillot 
on September 21. At its first plenary session the 
Assembly elected Dr. Herbert V. Evatt (Aus- 
tralia) as its President and Paul-Henri Spaak 
(Bel<iium) as Chairman of the Political and 
Seemity Committee (Committee I). 

Secretary Marshall's Address 

In his address before the General Assembly on 
Sejitenibei' 2o. Secretary of State George C. Mar- 
shall, Chairman of the U.S. Delegation, stated that 
the United States does not want to inci'ease exist- 
ing tension in the United Nations but "we will not 
compromise essential principles" and "we will 
luuler no circumstances barter away the rights and 
freedoms of other peoples. We earnestly hope 
that all Members will find ways of contributing 
to the lessening of tensions and the promotion of 
peace with justice." The Secretary warned that 
those nations who are creating a deep rift between 
our countries and the rest of the world community 
must not be permitted to widen that rift any 
further. 

Agenda 

General debate got under way at the second 
meeting of the Assembly on September 23, when 
70 agenda items were allocated among the appro- 
priate committees. New items approved for the 
agenda included the question of extending the 
U.N. Appeal for Children through next year; 
future of former Italian colonies; Mediator's re- 
port on Palestine; creation of U.N. Guard force; 
and reparation for those injured in U.N. service. 

Andrei Vyshinsky (U.S.S.R.) on September 25 
introduced a resolution calling upon the major 
powers to reduce all their armaments by one third 
within a year. The resolution would liave the 
Assembly recommend that an international con- 
trol body be established by the Security Council, 
where the veto prevails, "for the supervision and 
control over implementation of measures for re- 
duction of armaments and armed forces and for 
prohibition of atomic weapons." 

A member of the U.S. Delegation pointed out 
that the United States welcomes the emphasis that 
the Soviet Union places upon the importance of 
the regulation and reduction of armaments. The 
development of a necessary basis for a system for 
control of atomic energy is the crucial aspect of 
the problem of armaments regulation. The Soviet 
Union in former discussions in the Atomic Energy 
Commission had rejected such a plan. The U.S. 
spokesman continued that the position of the 
United States on this question has been repeatedly 
stated and has been recently confirmed by a vote 
of the United States Senate. 

On September 28 the General Assembly agreed 

Ocfofaer 3, 1948 



THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

to add to its agenda the Soviet proposal, and the 
item M-as referred to Committee I. 

The United States on September 29 charged the 
Soviet Union with action in the Bei'lin situation 
constituting a threat to the peace under the mean- 
ing of the U.N. Charter, and it requested the 
Security Council to consider the case as soon as 
possible. Ambassador Austin signed the U.S. 
request and sent it to the Secretary-General at the 
same time that identical notifications from Great 
Britain and France were delivered. In this re- 
quest the three Governments draw attention to "the 
serious situation which has arisen as the result of 
the unilateral imposition by the Government of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of restric- 
tions on transport and communications between 
the Western zones of occupation in Germany and 
Berlin." 

On September 30, Ambassador Austin told 
Committee I that only international control of 
atonuc energy could assure long-time security. 
Mr. Austin renewed the U.S. offer to share its 
atomic knowledge with the world under an inter- 
national control system which would provide safe- 
guards against "destructive rivalry in atomic 
weapons." The vast U.S. atomic-development 
plant, Mr. Austin said, would be placed under an 
international agency after that agency is deemed 
to be in effective operation. This procedure, ac- 
cording to the U.N. Atomic Energy Commission, 
is vital to assure against what would amount to 
unilateral disarmament by the United States under 
a proposal such as that of the Soviet Union 
whereby discussion of control plans must await 
prohibition and destruction of existing atomic 
weapons. Mr. Austin recalled that the Soviet 
proposal was studied at length by the Commission 
whose majority "reached conclusions which are 
briefly described by these words from the Commis- 
sion reports : 'completely unrealistic', 'feeble', and 
'fundamentally inadequate'." 

The Soviet proposal, Mr. Austin explained, 
"would allow any nation to carry on scientific 
research regardless of dangerous materials or 
facilities involved. The U.N. Commission in its 
third report declares that in the Soviet proposal 
'there appears to be no limit to the clandestine 
activities that may take place in laboratories 
ostensibly devoted to peaceful work.' 

"Should a violation of security be discovered the 
international agency must be empowered to pre- 
vent its fruition and correct the damage done to 
the cause of peace. The Commission provided for 
this by holding that judicial or other processes for 
the determination of violations and punishments 
must be certain and swift. And there must, the 
Commission said, be no legal right by veto or other- 
wise whereby awilful violator could thwart punish- 
ment and evade the consequences of violation." 

441 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ^ 



Adjourned during September 

Council of Foreign Ministers: Deputies for Italian Colonial Problems . 

18th International Geological Congress ' 


London . . , 

London 

Geneva 


Oct. 3, 1947-Sept. 
1, 1948 

1948 

Aug. 25-Sept. 1 
Aug. 25-Sept. 15 

Aug. 30- 

Sept. 1- 

Sept. 1-4 

Sept. 1-10 
Sept. 6-14 
Sept. 7-16 
Sept. 7-20 

Sept. 10- 

Sept. 13-15 

Sept. 20-24 

Sept. 20-25 

1946 

Feb. 26- 

Mar. 25- 


Ito (International Trade Organization) : Meeting of Interim Com- 
mission. 

United Nations: Economic and Social Council, Subcommission on 
Statistical Sampling. 

Ito (International Telecommunication Union) : Meeting of Admini- 
strative Council. 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization) : Expert Conference for High .Altitude Stations. 

Sixth International Congress and Exposition of Photogrammetry . . 

XXXVII General Assembly of the Interparliamentary Union .... 


Geneva 

Geneva 

Interlaken, Switzerland . . 

The Hague 

Rome 

Utrecht 

Denver 


Inter-American Conference on the Conservation of Renewable Natu- 


ral Resources. 

Iro (International Refugee Organization) : Seventh Part of First 
Session of Preparatory Commission. 

Council of Foreign Ministers: Discussions on the Disposition of Italian 
Pre-war Colonies. 

Fifth International Conference of Directors of Mine Safety Research 
Stations. 

Ilo (International Labor Organization): Joint Maritime Commis- 
sion. 

In Session as of October 1, 1948 

Far Eastern Commission 

United Nations: 

Security Council 


Geneva 

Paris 

Pittsburgh 

Geneva 

Washington 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Salonika and Geneva . . . 

Seoul 

Geneva and Kashmir . . . 
Paris 

Lisbon 


Military Staff Committee 


Mar. 25- 


Security Council's Committee of -Good Offices on the Indonesian 

Question. 
General Assembly Special Committee on the Balkans 

Teniporarv Commission on Korea 


1947 

Oct. 20- 

Nov. 21- 

1948 
Jan. 12- 


Security Council's Kashmir Commission 


June 15— 


General Assembly: Third Session 


Sept. 21- 

1946 
Sept. 3- 

1948 
Jan. 15- 


German External Property Negotiations with Portugal (Safehaven) . 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : 

Provisional Frequency Board 


Planning Committee for High Frequency Broadcasting Conference . 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Third 
Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors. 

International Monetary Fund: Third Annual Meeting of the Board 
of Governors. 

Ilo (International Labor Organization): Technical Tripartite Con- 
ference on Safety in Factories. 

Who (World Health Organization) : Expert Committee on Tubercu- 
losis. 

Conference for the Establishment of the International Union for the 
Protection of Nature. 

Scheduled October 1-31, 1948 

Pan American Sanitary Organization: 

Meeting of Executive Committee 

Second Meeting of Directing Council 

Second Meeting of Wool Study Group 


Mexico City 

Washington 

Washington 


Sept. 13- 
Sept. 27- 

Sept. 27- 

Sept. 27- 

Sept. 30- 


Paris 


Fontainebleau 

Mexico City 

Mexico City 

London i 


Sept. 30- 

Oct. 2-3 
Oct. 4-16 
Oct. 4-6 



' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. 



442 



Department of State Bulletin 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 



International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 

Second Inter-American Conference on Indian Life 

Universal Postal I'nion: Meeting of the Provisional Executive and 
Liaison Committee. 

Ninth (ieneral Conference on Weights and Measures 

Bolivian International Fair 

Fourth Pan American Consultation on Cartography 

Who (World Health Organization): 

Expert Committee on Venereal Disease 

Second Session of Executive Board 

Fifth Inter-American Congress of Surgery 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union): International Con- 
ference on High Frequency Broadcasting. 

Second Meeting of South Pacific Commission 

International Tin Study Group: Third Meeting 

Ilo (International Labor Organization): Industrial Committee on 
Textiles: Second Session. 



Copenhagen 
Cuzco, Peru 
Bern . . . . 



Paris and Sdvrcs . 

La Paz 

Buenos Aires . . 



Paris .... 
Geneva . . . 
La Paz . . . 

Mexico Citv 



Sydney . . 
The Hague 
Cairo . . 



Oct. 4-11 
Oct. 10-20 
Oct. 11- 

Oct. 12-21 
Oct. 20- 
Oct. 15- 

Oct. 15-19 
Oct. 25- 
Oct. 17-21 
Oct. 22- 

Oct. 25- 
Oct. 25- 
Oct. 26- 



U.S. Delegations to International Meetings 



Protection of Nature 

The Department of State announced September 
22 that Ira Noel Gabrielson, President, Wildlife 
Management Institute, Washington, has been des- 
ignated Chairman of the United States Delega- 
tion to the Conference for the Establishment of the 
International Union for the Protection of Nature, 
scheduled to be held at Fontainebleau, France, 
Sejatember oO-October 7, 1948. Harold Jefferson 
Coolidge. Executive Secretary, Pacific Science 
Board, National Research Council, has been ap- 
pointed to serve as delegate. 

This Conference has been called bj' the French 
Goverimient in conjunction with the United Na- 
tions Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organi- 
zation to adopt a final constitution for the Inter- 
national Union for the Protection of Nature which 
was created provisionally by an international con- 
ference convened by the Swiss League for the Pro- 
tection of Nature at Brunnen, Switzerland, in 
1947. 

Wool 

The Department of State announced on Sep- 
tember 24 tlie United States Delegation to the 
Second Meeting of the International Wool Study 
Group, scheduled to be held at London. England, 
October 4-6, 1948. The Delegation is as follows: 

Chairman 

Donald D. Kennedy, Chief, International Resources Divi- 
sion, L)epartment of State 

Adriserx 

Rene Lutz. Office of International Trade, Department of 

Commerce 
Floyd E. Davis, Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, 

Department of Agriculture 
Paul O. Nyhus, Agricultural Attach^, American Embassy, 

London 

Ocfober 3, 7948 



The purpose of the meeting is to exchange in- 
formation and views regarding the present general 
wool situation, to consider any specific problems 
that may have arisen since the last meeting held at 
London in March and April, 1947, and to discuss 
im])rovements in the organization and activities 
of the Study Group. 

The establishment of the Wool Study Group 
was proposed at the International Wool Talks at 
London in 1946 when representatives from 13 
countries substantially interested in the produc- 
tion, consumption, ancl trade of wool reviewed the 
world situation of apparel wool. The desirability 
of keejjing the world position of wool under inter- 
governmental review was unanimously agreed 
upon at that meeting. 

Cartography 

The Department of State announced on Septem- 
ber 22 the United States Delegation to the Fourth 
Pan American Consultation on Cartography, 
scheduled to be held at Buenos Aires, Argentina, 
October 15-November 14, 1948. The Delegation 
is as follows: 

Chairmnn 

Robert H. Randall, Bureau of the Budget, Executive OflBce 
of the President; U.S. Member and Chairman, Com- 
mission on Cartography, Pan American Institute of 
Geography and History 

Delegates 

Lt. Col. Albert G. Foote, Commanding Officer, Aeronautical 
Chart Service, Department of the Air Force 

Capt. Clement L. Garner ( Retired ) , Former Chief, Division 
of Geodesy, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Depart- 
ment of Commerce 

Charles B. Hitchcock, Assistant Director, American 
Geographical Societ.v 

Capt. Allen Hobbs, Hydrographer of the Navy, Department 
ut the Navy 

443 



;>cnv/7-;£s and developments 



Col. John G. Ladd, Office of Chief of Engineers, Depart- 
ment of the Army 

Col. Freemont S. Tandy, Chief, Inter-American Geodetic 
Survey, Caribbean Defense Command, C.Z. 

Marshall S. Wright, Technical Assistant to the Chief, OfiSce 
of Plans and Operations, Department of Agriculture 

Advisers 

Capt. K. T. Adams, Chief, Division of Photogrammetry, 

U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Department of 

Commerce 
Brig. Gen. Paul T. Cullen, Commanding General, 311th 

Air Division Reconnaissance, Topeka Air Force Base, 

Topeka, Kans. 
Harry T. Kelsh, Head, Methods and Standards Unit, 

Geological Survey, Department of the Interior 
Guillermo Medina, Chief Engineer, Hydrographic Office, 

Department of the Navy 
Col. William H. Mills, Commanding Officer, Army Map 

Service, Department of the Army 
Comdr. Elliott B. Roberts, Chief, Division of Geomagnetism 

and Seismology, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 

Department of Commerce 

Adviser and Secretary 

Andre C. Simonpietri, Special Adviser, Department ol 
State 

The Fourth Pan American Consultation on 
Cartography will be a meeting of the Commission 
on Cartography, one of several technical commis- 
sions of the Pan American Institute of Geography 
and History. The Cartography Commission, es- 
tablished by the Institute's Assembly held at Lima, 
Peru, in 1941 to further the surveying and mapping 
activities of the member governments of the Insti- 
tute, provides the medium for the interchange of 
knowledge and techniques among the officials of 



the American governments working in these fields. 

At the Fourth Consultation on Cartography new 
developments and techniques in the field will be 
considered and the establishment of uniform 
standards of accuracy will be furthered. The 
meeting will be divided into the following 
committees: geodesy, including gravity and geo- 
magnetism; topographic maps and aerial photo- 
grammetry; aeronautical charts; hydrography, 
including tides and special maps; and urban 
surveys. 

In addition to the committee sessions there will 
be an exhibit of instruments and equipment used in 
the production of all types of cartographic docu- 
ments. This will be the first time that an exhibit 
of this nature has been held in connection with the 
Consultation. United States manufacturers of 
cartographic instruments have been invited by the 
Argentine Government to participate in the dis- 
play. There will also be the regular exhibit of 
map products by member governments which is 
always a part of the Consultation. 

The Third Pan American Consultation on 
Cartography was held concurrently with the 
Fourth General Assembly of the Pan American 
Institute of Geogi-aphy and History at Caracas, 
Venezuela, August-September 1946. Invitations 
to participate in the forthcoming Consultation 
have been extended by the Argentine Government 
to all the American republics and Canada, to the 
members of the Commission on Cartography, and 
to interested international organizations. 



Executive Committee Achievements of ITO Interim Commission 



[Released to the press September 20] 

The Department of State announced on Sep- 
tember 20 that a number of organizational and 
procedural agreements were reached at the recent 
second session of the Executive Committee of the 
Interim Commission of the International Trade 
Organization, held at Geneva. 

The agenda of the second session consisted of a 
number of procedural and organizational matters. 
Several recommendations were considered and 
agreed upon by the Committee with respect to 
such items as the relationship of the Ito, when 
established, to other international organizations 
and bodies, such as the International Court of 
Justice, the International Monetary Fund, and the 
Food and Agriculture Organization; the expenses 
incurred during preparatory meetings which 
drafted the Havana Ito charter; and the prep- 
aration of an authentic Spanish text of the Havana 
charter for submission to those Spanish-speaking 
governments which are members of the Interim 
Commission. 

The Commission was decided upon last winter 
when the charter for an International Trade Or- 



ganization, known as the Havana charter, was 
drawn up at Havana by a conference at which 
some 57 countries participated and which lasted 
four and a half months. It was realized at Havana 
that it might take a considerable length of time 
for the charter to be ratified by the required num- 
ber of governments. Therefore the Havana con- 
ference, by resolution, established an Interim 
Commission to deal with certain administrative 
and procedural matters which should be provided 
for before the Trade Organization itself would be 
established. The 53 member countries of the In- 
terim Commission selected 18 of the members as 
an Executive Committee to perform tliese tasks. 
The use of the Interim Commission technique has 
also been adopted by the other specialized agen- 
cies set up by the United Nations, such as the health 
and refugee organizations. 

The 18 countries selected are Australia, the 
Benelux countries (acting as a unit), Brazil, 
Canada, China, Colomliia, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, 
El Salvador, France, Greece, India, Italy, Mexico, 
Norway, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, 
and the United States. This Executive Commit- 



444 



Department of State Bulletin 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMBNTS 



tee held its first, purely organizational meeting in 
Havana directly after the Havana conference and 
elected Dana Wilgress, Canadian Minister in 
Bern, as Chairman. The second meeting of the 
Committee began in Geneva on August 25 and 



ended on September 15. All the 18 member coun- 
tries were represented. The United States Dele- 
gation was headed by Leroy D. Stinebower, Spe- 
cial Assistant to the Assistant Secretary of State 
for economic affairs. 



Plans To Increase Value of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 



[Released to the press September 22] 

The second session of the contracting parties to 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 
which opened in Geneva on August 16, completed 
its work on September 14. It has laid plans de- 
signed to increase further the value of the agree- 
ment to the countries already parties, including 
the United States, and to enable more countries 
to become parties. 

Under the general agreement itself, negotiated 
in 1947 by the United States and 22 other coun- 
tries, each country agrees to certain general rules 
for the conduct of its international trade and 
grants to all the others a schedule of specific con- 
cessions in its tariff treatment of imports, includ- 
ing reductions in tariffs, bindings of moderate 
rates or of free treatment, reductions or elimina- 
tions of preferences, and the like. These con- 
cessions cover about one half of total world trade. 

Accession of New Countries 

The major accomplishment of the meeting just 
ended is adoption of procedures for bringing ad- 
ditional countries into the agreement as rapidly as 
possible through taritT negotiations with them. 
On inquiry by the contracting parties it was found 
that several countries not yet parties are definitely 
interested in early accession. A timetable was ac- 
cordingly adopted for negotiations with them. 
Requests for concessions are to be exchanged be- 
tween the present parties and the new countries 
and also among the new countries by January 15, 
1949. DeHnitive negotiations are scheduled to 
open at Geneva on April 11. 1949. The new coun- 
tries which will negotiate are Denmark, the Do- 
minican Republic, El Salvador, Finland, Greece, 
Haiti, Italy, Nicaragua, Peru, Sweden, and Uru- 
guiiy- 

So far as the United States is concerned, nego- 
tiations will be conducted under the usual trade- 
agreement procedure as recently amended by the 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1948. The 
customary notice of intention to negotiate, accom- 
panied by announcement of products to be con- 
sidered for possible concession by this country, 
will be made as soon as the necessary preparatory 
work is completed by the interdepartmental trade- 
agreements organization. 

Oc/ober 3, 1948 



Other TariK Negotiations 

Except in certain special cases there will be no 
reopening of negotiations among the countries 
which ai-e already parties to the agreement. 
Brazil, however, was granted temporary permis- 
sion to establish rates on three items which are 
higher than otherwise permitted under the general 
agreement, in consideration of the fact that the 
Brazilian Congress has applied rates on a number 
of other items which are lower than the maximum 
permitted by the agreement. Within 60 days the 
interested countries are to negotiate a definitive ad- 
justment of the concessions involved. Ceylon and 
Pakistan were also authorized to renegotiate cer- 
tain concessions which each had granted to other 
countries. Cuba was granted permission to 
renegotiate with the United States the rates of 
duty on six items which Cuba is finding it difficult 
to apply as originally negotiated, the understand- 
ing being that the United States is to receive full 
compensation for any modifications agreed to. 
These adjustments are to be worked out bilaterally 
subject to final action at the time of the negotia- 
tions next spring. Any other negotiations among 
countries already parties to the agreement are 
likelj' to be in the nature of completion of work 
which it was not possible to finish at the 1947 con- 
ference, none of it involving the United States. 

Most-Favored-Nation Treatment for 
Western Germany 

One of the most important achievements of the 
conference was agreement by a substantial number 
of countries to extend to Western Germany niost- 
f avored-nation treatment with respect to merchan- 
dise trade on a reciprocal basis. This undertaking 
is incorporated in a separate document, not a part 
of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 
and was opened for signature on September 14. 
So far nine countries have signed, and it is ex- 
pected that most of the remaining countries repre- 
sented at the meeting will sign in the near future. 

Modification of General Agreement 

Some changes were also made in the agreement 
which, it was felt by the contracting parties, were 
an improvement over the original text. These 
changes were based largely on work done at the 
Havana trade conference subsequent to the conclu- 
sion of the general agreement. 

445 



ACTIViriBS AND DEVELOPMENTS 

In addition, Chile was accorded an extension of 
time, to February 17, 1949, in which to become a 
contracting party to the agreement, even though 
after negotiating concessions at Geneva Cliile did 
not put the agreement provisionally into effect by 
June 30, 1948, the time originally set. 

Arrangements were made under which the 
United States will be free to accord preferences to 
imports from the Trust Territory of the Pacific 
Islands. Though technically tliis constitutes es- 
tablishment of a new preference, it will permit the 
working out of a trading arrangement which will 
jjromote the advancement of the peoples of the 
Trust Territory consistent with United States obli- 
gations under this country's trusteeship agree- 
ment with the Security Council of the United 
Nations. 

Cuban-American Trade 

IJuring the session just ended, the United States 
submitted to the contracting parties under article 
XXIII of the general agreement a problem arising 
out of an import licensing system applied by Cuba 
with respect to a wide range of products, including 
raw cotton and cotton, rayon and wool fabrics, and 
wearing apparel. Cuba's action liad the effect of 
preventing the importation of these products from 
the United States and other countries, thus nulli- 
fying in considerable part the benefits granted 
by Cuba in the general agreement. The contract- 
ing parties recommended that Cuba promptly 
take steps to relieve the immediate difficulties and 
to consult with representatives of the United 
States Government at Habana with a view to find- 
ing a mutually satisfactory solution of the prob- 
lems that have arisen in connection with the Cuban 
import controls under Cuban Eesolution 530. On 
September 14 the Cuban Government issued a reso- 
lution removing restrictions on the importation 
of all products except piece-goods remnants and 
waste other than industrial. The restrictions on 
the importation of these products will be discussed 
by the Cuban Government and the United States 
Embassy at Habana. 

Discussions on Convention for 
Foreign Motor Travel 

[Released to the press September 20] 

To prepare for a new international convention 
designed to j^ermit motorists to drive their cars in 
foreign countries, the Department of State is hold- 
ing informal discussions with interested groups. 

The American Association of Motor Vehicle Ad- 
ministrators, composed of State officials respon- 
sible for issuing drivers' licenses and registration 
plates, endorsed the Department's plans at their 
annual meeting in Detroit September 10. On 
September 21 a meeting of private agencies, in- 
cluding motoring associations, bus and truck asso- 
ciations, and other highway-user groups, was held 

446 



in Washington to discuss the matter. In October 
representatives of all Federal Government agencies 
interested in highway and touring problems will 
meet in Washington for the same purpose. Out 
of these informal discussions is expected to develop 
a list of the main points which the United States 
will desire to have included in the proposed world- 
wide convention in order to make possible the ad- 
herence of this Government, for the benefit of 
American motorists. 

Final action on the convention will be taken 
under the auspices of the United Nations, whose 
Economic and Social Council recently authorized 
the holding of an international conference for this 
purpose before the end of August 1949. 

South Pacific Commission Meeting 

The Department of State announced on Septem- 
ber 15 that the three United States Commissioners 
in the South Pacific Commission had arrived at 
Washington for a three-day i^eriod of consultation. 

Those attending the series of meetings are: 

Senior Commissioner: Felix M. Kessing, Profes- 
sor of Anthropology at Stanford University. 

Commissioner: JMilton Shalleck, lawyer of New 
York City. 

Alternate Cormnissioner: Karl C. Leebrick, Act- 
ing President of the University of Hawaii. 

This will be the first meeting at Washington of 
of the United States Commissioners, who were ap- 
pointed by the President on April 28, 1948. It has 
been arranged in order that the Commissioners 
may confer with officers of this Government on 
matters relating to the South Pacific Commission. 
Among problems which the Commissioners will 
discuss are items on the agenda of the Second Ses- 
sion of the Commission to be convened at Sydney, 
Australia, on Octolier 25. 

The South Pacific Commission was established 
May 1948 as a regional advisory and consultative 
body on social and economic matters to the Gov- 
ernments of Australia, France, the Netherlands, 
New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United 
States. The territorial scope of the Commission 
comprises all those non-self-governing territories 
in the Pacific Ocean which are administered by 
these participating Governments and which lie 
wholly or in part south of the Equator and east 
from and including Netherlands New Guinea. 

The Commission will be concerned primarily 
with subjects which are of every-day concern in 
the lives of the people, particularly agriculture 
(including animal husbandry), communications, 
transport, fisheries, forestry, industry, labor, mar- 
keting, production, trade and finance, public 
works, education, health, housing, and social 
welfare. 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Bulgaria's Disregard for Obligations Under Peace Treaty and U. N. Charter 



[Released to the press September 24] 
Text of an aide-memoire delivered September ^3, 
1948, to Bulgarian Foreign Minister Kolarov by 
the Ajnerican Minister in Sofia, Donald R. Heath 

The United States Government has noted that 
(lie Minister for Foreign Affairs, in a speeclr in 
tlie Sobranje on September 4, is reported to have 
staled that Bulgaria has been scrupulous in ful- 
filling its obligations under the Peace Treaty, and 
to have attributed to the United States the rejec- 
tion of Bulgaria's application for membership in 
the United Nations. 

The Minister for Foreign Affairs is quoted as 
saying that '"during the past year Bulgaria car- 
ried out and continues to carry out all she con- 
tracted under the Peace Treaty"'. On the conti'ary, 
from the very moment it signed the Treaty the 
Bulgarian Government has prosecuted a syste- 
matic and ruthless campaign to obliterate demo- 
cratic opposition, in direct disregard of the funchv- 
mental principles of freedom which it undertook 
by Article 2 to secure. Through abuse of the in- 
strumentalities of police power and subversion of 
judicial process, the Bulgarian Government has 
subjected substantial numbers of the Bulgarian 
people whose only crime was a belief in the rights 
of man, to involuntary servitude, banishment, con- 
centration camps, imprisonment, torture and 
e.xecution. It has obliterated the opposition press 
and by means of terror stifled free expression. On 
the day after it ratified the Peace Treaty the 
National Assembly adopted legislation declaring 
any attempt to reestablish under any form a po- 
litical party which in the last elections, despite 
fraud and intimidation, was admitted by the Bul- 
garian Government to have polled over one-fourth 
of the total vote, to be a crime punishable by life 
imprisonment or death. The United States Gov- 
ernment and the world was shocked when, one week 
after the Treaty came into effect, the Bulgarian 



Government performed the judicial murder of 
Nikola Petkov. 

As regards the reportetl claim of the Minister 
for Foreign Affairs that Bulgaria is abiding by 
the provisions of the military clauses of the Treaty, 
the United States Government refers to its re- 
quests to observe the execution of the military pro- 
visions of the Treaty, such as Article 12, and to 
obtain oiRcially information concerning the size of 
Bulgaria's military establishment, which have 
been rejected. 

The United States Government would be happy 
to welcome Bulgaria into the United Nations. 
However, the Bulgarian Government has not 
sliown itself qualified for membership in that 
organization under the provisions of the Charter. 
Aside from non-fulfillment of its international 
obligations under the Peace Treaty as noted above, 
a majority of the Security Council Balkan Com- 
mission of the United Nations in which Bulgaria 
seeks membership determined that the Bulgarian 
Government has supported on its territory guer- 
rilla activity directed against Greece, a member 
of the United Nations, of which further confirma- 
tion, tantamount to an admission of guilt, is appar- 
ent in the effort Bulgaria has matle to obstruct the 
work of that Commission and of the subsequent 
Special Balkan Committee of the General Assem- 
bly. In its Supplementary Report of September 
10, 1948 to its Annual Report to the General As- 
sembly, the Special Balkan Committee, in con- 
firming its finding that such Bulgarian support is 
continuing, has declared that the conduct of Bul- 
garia "has been inconsistent with the pur]:)oses and 
principles of the Charter of the United Nations". 
In the circumstances, Bulgaria's application has 
failed of support not only of the United States but 
also of the overwhelming majority of other mem- 
bers of the Security Council. 

The American Leg.vtion, 
Sofia, September 23, 191^8. 



Efforts To Assist Near Eastern Refugees 



STATEMENT BY ACTING SECRETARY LOVETT 



[Released to the press Spptcmber 22] 

It will be recalled that the late Count Berna- 
dotte. United Nations mediator for Palestine, re- 
cently directed an appeal to the United States for 
aid to Near Eastern refugees. In response to the 
critical nature of this emergency, the Department's 
Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid is 

Ocfofaer 3, 1948 



moliilizing American voluntary resources, and sub- 
stantial assistance has already been rendered by 
church and lay groups. In order to expedite de- 
livery in the Near East of urgently needed supplies, 
the Department has authorized the American Mis- 
sion for Aid to Greece to release certain foodstuffs 
and DDT, which will be replenished through 



447 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 



monetary contributions from American voluntary 
sources. 

In Count Bernadotte's last report to the United 
Nations he laid particular emphasis on the fact 



that aid provided to date is inadequate to meet any 
continuing need. It is hoped that the American 
people will respond with generosity and sympathy 
to this urgent need. 



PLANNING COMMITTEE APPOINTED 



William L. Batt, Acting Chairman of the Ad- 
visory Committee, has appointed a planning com- 
mittee composed of representatives of church, edu- 
cational, industrial, and lay interests under the 
chairmanship of A. L. Warnshuis, in collaboration 
with the American Red Cross. The planning 
committee, which reports to all interested organi- 
zations and groups, is serving as a focal point for 
American relief activities. It is now engaged in 
the procurement of food supplies and is collabo- 
rating with the Christian Rural Overseas Program 
in obtaining wheat. It is also stimulating collec- 
tions of clothing and blankets through the church 
organizations. The Near East Foundation is pro- 
viding the planning committee with facilities for 
its operations and is serving as a repository for 
contributions. To insure its most effective use, 
American aid will be coordinated with the efforts 
of Sir Rafael Cilento, the mediator's Director of 
Relief Operations. 

In response to the appeal for voluntary support 
a number of gifts in the form of monetary con- 



tributions, supplies, and services are being made 
available from church and industrial sources. Ad- 
ditional assistance is being rendered. The Ameri- 
can Red Cross is providing the services of expert 
personnel to assist in refugee activities and has do- 
nated two ambulances to the Syrian Red Crescent. 
It has also made available medical supplies valued 
at $50,000 in addition to its earlier contributions 
estimated at $450,000. 

These efforts to alleviate the critical situation 
of the Near Eastern refugees are being pursued 
with the unqualified support of the Department of 
State. The major portion of these refugees, of 
whom 75 percent are women and children, are 
now destitute. Thousands are without funds, shel- 
ter, or adequate supplies of food, water, and cloth- 
ing. Medical and sanitary facilities are too lim- 
ited to meet the needs of the present situation. 
The Department is hopeful that this great hu- 
manitarian problem will meet with the sympa- 
thetic response of the American people. 



Incident Involving Seating of Ethiopian Minister at Science Meeting 

EXCHANGE OF MEMORANDA BETWEEN DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE AND THE IMPERIAL ETHIOPIAN LEGATION 



[Released to the press September 23] 

Imperial Ethiopian Legation 

Washinffton, D.C. 

September 20^ 19^8 

The Imperial Ethiopian Legation acknowledges 
the receipt of the memorandum from the Depart- 
ment of State dated September 17th, expressing 
regret for the incident involving His Excellency 
Ras Imru, Minister of Ethioi^ia, on September 13, 
1948. 

The Legation, while very much appreciative for 
the endeavor of the Department to investigate into 
the circumstances of the case with a view toward 
taking appropriate action, regrets to state that 
the information given to the Department of State 
by the Organizations and individuals mentioned 
in the memorandum, alleging that the Minister 
was seated first in the box by mistake and was 
subsequently requested to move to the orchestra, 
which was assigned to him is incorrect. The ex- 
planation in the memorandum of the Department, 
therefore, which was based on such information 
and tending to justify the indignity and injury 
suffered by the Minister, is unacceptable to the 
Legation. 



The Minister had in his hands tickets bearing 
Box Nos. E-2, 4, 6, and 8, issued to him and the 
other members of the Legation by the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, of 
which corresponding numbers were clearly shown 
on the Boxes. His Excellency went direct to the 
Boxes marked with the same numbers of the tickets 
in his hand and presented his tickets to an usher 
who was standing by and who checked the corre- 
sponding numbers of the tickets and the boxes and 
invited the Minister to choose one of the four seats 
mentioned hereinabove. His Excellency took Box 
No. 8, and it was from that same Box that he was 
told to leave. 

For the verification of the fact stated above, and 
to enable the Department in its investigation of 
the case toward taking appropriate action as de- 
manded in the previous note of this Legation, 
herewith is enclosed one of the tickets which the 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science issued to His Excellency and members of 
his Legation for attending the ceremony on 13th 
September and which the Minister had in his hand 
on that date when the incident occurred. 



448 



Department of State Bulletin 



The Department of State ac-knowleclges the re- 
ceipt of the note from the Imperial Etliiopian 
Legation, ihited September 20, 19-18, making fiir- 
tiier reference to tlie incitlcnt involving the Honor- 
able Ras Imrii, Minister of Ethiopia, at Constitu- 
tion Hall on September 13, 1948.' 

The Depai-tnient, while reiterating its regret for 
the embarrassment caused the Minister, wishes to 
inform the Imperial Ethiopian Legation that its 
further investigations into the case, based on the 
information contained in the Legation's note under 
reference, confirm that the incident was solely the 
result of a series of misunderstandings. 

The Department has examined the ticket en- 
closed with the Legation's note and finds that it 
bears the following inscription, the first two lines 
of which are j^rinted and the third line type- 
written : 

Guest Admission 

Box No. 



Reserved Seats E-2, 4, 6, 8. 

It is apparent that the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science used a form guest 
ticket for the meeting on SeiDtember 13. In the 
case of those Chiefs of ^Mission who were assigned 
box seats, the box number was inserted in the 
proper place by the Association. In the case, how- 
ever, of those Chiefs of Mission who were assigned 
orchestra seats, the location of the reserved seats 
was typed in below the box reference. Owing to 
the Association's failure to delete the reference to 
the box, it is quite understandable that the Min- 
ister concluded that the seats reserved to him were 
in a box rather than on the floor of the auditorium. 
Furthermore, this impression was apparently con- 
firmed when the usher, after examining the ticket, 
unfortunately made the mistake of directing the 
Minister to a box seat instead of to the orchestra 
seat assigned to him. 

The Department's examination of the seating 
arrangement employed by the Association confirms 
this explanation. The boxes at Constitution Hall 
are numbered and bear no letter designation. 
E-2, 4, G, S, identify seat locations in the orchestra, 
rather tlian box locations. 

The Department hopes that the foregoing satis- 
factorily explains the cause of the embarrassment 
to which the Minister was so regrettably subjected. 

Department of State, 

Washington, September 22, 191)8 



' Bulletin of Sept. 26, 1948, p. 41.3. 
' Bulletin of Aug. 15, 1948, p. 211. 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Radiotelegraph Service With Saudi Arabia 

Telegram from Secretdry MarshaU to the Ameri- 
can Minister at Jidda, J. Rives Childs 

[Released to the press September 17] 

September 16, 191,8 
Please convey to the Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs my felicitations on the opening of direct 
radiotelegraph service between the United States 
and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and express to 
him the satisfaction this Government takes in the 
establishment of this channel of communications 
between our two countries. 

In this, the first message to be sent over this cir- 
cuit, I wish also to express appreciation for the 
assistance rendered by the Legation for the past 
several years in bringing this circuit into existence. 

Letter of Credence 

Egypt 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Egypt, 
Mohamed Kamel Abdul Eahim Bey, presented his 
letters of ci-edence to the President on September 
14, 1948. For texts of the Ambassador's remarks 
and the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 731 of September 14. 

Attaciters of Stephen Haas Apprehended 

[Released to the press September 10] 

The American Embassy in Cairo has received a 
note dated August 22 from the Egyptian Foreign 
Office in reply to the Embassy's notes of July 19 
and July 24 regarding the death of Stephen Haas.^ 
After renewing the Egyptian Government's ex- 
pression of deep regret for this unfortunate occur- 
rence, the note states that three persons believed 
responsible for the attack have been apprehended 
and charged with the crime before the appropriate 
court and that they will receive the punishment 
they merit. 

Ceylon Appoints First Ambassador to U.S. 

In pursuance of an agreement between the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America and the 
Government of Ceylon to exchange diplomatic rep- 
resentatives at the Embassy level, Felix Cole was 
accredited recently as Ambassador of the United 
States of America to Ceylon. 

The Ceylon (lovernment has now decided, in 
consultation with the Government of the United 
States, to appoint G. C. S. Corea, presently the 
Ceylon Government representative in London as 
Ceylon's first Ambassador to the United States. 
Mr. Corea is expected to assume the duties of his 
new post early in October 1948. 



Ocfofaer 3, 7948 



449 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

Italy Expresses Gratitude for 
Economic Assistance 



[Released to the press by the White House September 17] 

Letter from Alcide de Gasperi, President of the 
Council of Ministers of Italy, to President Trni- 
inan, after the signing of the economic-cooperation 
agreement iy Italy and the United States 

Rome, July 6, 1948 
My dear Mr. President : 

In signing the Economic Cooperation Agree- 
ment with the Government of the United States, 
the Italian Government and people are fully aware 
of the gravity and importance of their undertak- 
ing. The number and range of recent debates in 
political circles and in the press ai-e an indication 
of how thoroughly the commitment is appreciated 
in this country. We are likewise aware that the 
decision taken by Congress is the result of much 
consideration and debate by the public opinion of 
the United States, and that genuine concern is felt 
for the wise administration and best employment 
of American aid so generously tendered for the re- 
covery of Europe. 

My Government is fully appreciative of these 
considerations, and it is our resolve that our ob- 
ligations under the Economic Cooperation Agree- 
ment be discharged in their spirit and in full. 

I wish to reassure you that I will devote my per- 
sonal attention to the execution of the Agreement, 
and will be in close and constant touch with those 
of my colleagues and advisers, in and outside the 
Cabinet, who are in charge of the Administration 
of the Plan. I shall therefore be most grateful, 
in the event of general or particular problems 
arising which, in your opinion or in that of your 
advisers, require special consideration or re-exam- 
ination, if you will cause me to be personally in- 
formed. 

Four years have now elapsed since from this 
newly released Capital we set about the mighty 
task of rebuilding the country. With the unstinted 
help of the people of America, we then repaired 
the wrecked fabric of our administration. More 
recently we have succeeded in establishing the 
democratic method. Now we go forward — again 
with your aid — to achieve full recovery both as a 
Nation and as a component and complementary 
part of world economy. 

I feel confident that the concerted effort of so 
many wills to work effectively, and the firm de- 
sire to collaborate in the joint interests of peace 
and the economic welfare of so many millions of 



' Bulletin of May 2, 1948, p. 584. 



men cannot fail, Mr. President, to carry us through 
successfully to our end. 

I am, my dear Mr. President, 

respectfully yours, 

De Gasperi 

Letter from President Truman to Premier De 
Gasperi 

Septemher 16, 19J^8 
Dear Mr. President : 

Thank you for the letter you wrote to me after 
signing the Economic Cooperation Agreement. 

Men everywhere participate in and contribute 
more effectively to an undertaking when the terms 
and purposes are clearly understood and the com- 
mitments are freely undertaken. The great 
amount of discussion in our respective countries 
and the large consensus in favor of the Agreement 
augurs well for its success. 

The American people support this program 
wholeheartedly both for humanitarian and for 
practical reasons. In a world growing smaller 
day by day, no nation can profit by isolating itself. 
Mutual dependence means that your welfare affects 
our welfare and vice versa. Therefore, for our 
sake, for your sake, and for the sake of all other 
like-minded countries, it is our hope that the pro- 
gram in Italy and elsewhere will be crowned with 
success. 

I express my admiration for the will to work 
shown by the Italian people in their most difScult 
moments. I admire also the sense of moderation 
and political maturity shown by your people who 
have regained so recently the privileges and re- 
sponsibilities inherent in a liberal democracy. 

I am certain that with the broad pai'ticipation 
in the Recovery Progi'am of all elements in the 
Italian nation, with your demonstrated will to 
work, and with your political maturity, Italy will 
play a significant constructive part in the Euro- 
pean Recovery Program. 

With cordial greetings, I am 

Very sincerely yours, 

Harrt S. Truman 



No Time Limit on Filing Claims for 
Property Loss in Italy 

[Released to the press September 9] 

The attention of the Department of State has 
been called to statements in the press which have 
been interpreted by residents of the United States 
as indicating that claims of American citizens for 
compensation on account of damage to, or removal 
or destruction of, property in Italy during the war, 
must be filed by September 15,"l9-48.i The De- 
partment points out that no time limit has as yet 
been fixed for the filing of claims of that character. 



450 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Facts Relating to Withdrawal of Donald F. 
Evving From Legation at Sofia 

[Released to the press September 5] 

With reference to the report of the Bulgarian 
radio coiicerninir the withdrawal from the Ameri- 
can Legation in Sofia of Vice Consul Donald F. 
Ewing. the following are the facts in the matter. 

On July 16, 1948, in response to their request, 
Vice Consul Ewing agreed to meet, outside the 
Legation, two Bulgarian acquaintances whom he 
had previously known in connection with the visa 
work of the Legation to which he was assigned but 
had not seen in several months. The Bulgarian 
secret police arrested the two Bulgarians in Mr. 
Ewing"s company, and on the basis of a document 
of which the contents are unknown allegedly 
"found" in the pocket of one of them and of al- 
leged subsequent "confessions" on their part to 
the effect that they had been engaging in 
'"espionage" for the United States through Ewing, 
the Bulgarian Government declared Ewing 
yersonn noii grata and requested his recall. 

The American Minister protested to the Bul- 
garian Government the arbitrary nature of that 
(lovernment's action on the basis of a transpar- 
ently fabricated maneuver on the part of I3ul- 
garian authorities. 

Mr. Ewing has left Bulgaria. 



Consular Offices at Matamoros and 
Agua Prieta To Remain Open 

[Released to the press September 21] 

The American Consulates at Matamoros and 
Agua Prieta, Mexico, will not be closed September 
30, as previously announced. These two impor- 
tant Foreign Service posts on the United States- 
Mexican border will be kept open for at least four 
more months, when the question will be re- 
examined. 

The decision to continue to maintain the posts at 
Matamoros and Agua Prieta was reached at a 
conference of Department of State and Foreign 
Service officials in Washington, whei-e communi- 
cations protesting the closing of the posts were 
considered. Among those asking that the posts be 
maintained were Senators Tom Connally and W. 
Lee O'Daniel of Texas; Senators Ernest W. Mc- 
Farland and Carl Hayclen of Arizona; Congress- 
men Milton H. West and Lyndon B. Johnson of 
Texas; Congressman-elect Lloyd Benson of Texas; 
the chambers of commerce of Brownsville, San 
Benito, Corpus Christi, and Welasco, Tex., and 
Bisbee and Douglas, Ariz. ; the Brownsville Rotary 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 

Club; and a considerable number of prominent 
citizens, including Curtis Vinson of the Browns- 
ville /Jerald, Salvador Lova of the Brownsville 
Palm-Hat Factory, S. A. Albert Mendelsohn of the 
Cananea Consolidated Copper Company, and 
Frank Greene of the Greene Cananea Cattle 
Company. 

Following the conference John E. Peurifoy, As- 
sistant Secretary of State for administration, an- 
nounced that the Mexican border posts would be 
kept open at least temporarily. He said : 

'Tt is never pleasant to consider the closing of 
one of our posts abroad, particularly ones so long 
in existence and in areas so thriving as Matamoros 
and Agua Prieta, but it is our clear duty on the 
other hand constantly to review all our posts and 
maintain only as many as, under available appro- 
priiitions, can be properly supported in the per- 
formance of their functions as required Ijy law. 

"The decision against continuing to maintain 
Matamoros and Agua Prieta seemed unavoidable. 
It was taken only after long and serious considera- 
tion, and with the greatest reluctance. 

"As a result of the earnest solicitations offered by 
the representatives of Congress and others inter- 
ested, however, we have reconsidered the matter 
in the hope that these posts may be maintained 
without break. At considerable sacrifice else- 
where we have succeeded in finding ways and 
means of keeping these offices open for at least the 
next four months. By that time we should know 
more about the future and it will then be appro- 
priate to reexamine the situation." 

Located across the Rio Grande River from 
Brownsville, Tex., Matamoros is an important 
center of inter-American commerce. It is joined 
to the United States by the connection of the Xa- 
tional Railroad Lines of Mexico to two American 
railroads, by a recently completed link of the Inter- 
American Highway, and by airlines operating out 
of a nearby international airjiort. Through Mata- 
moros is funneled bus, truck, and automobile traf- 
fic serving the commercial and tourist trade be- 
tween two nations. 

Agua Prieta, located opposite Douglas, Ariz., is 
in the midst of a rapidly developing minerals area 
and is thus the center of increasing trade between 
the United States and Mexico. 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Appointment of Officer 



Arthur B. Berthnld, as Chief of the Bibliography Branch, 
Division of Libraries and Reference Services,, effective 
September 17, 1948. 



Ocfofaer 3, 1948 



451 




Occupation Matters Page 

The Berlin Crisis: 

Communique by U.S., U.K., and France . 423 

U.S. Note Delivered to the Soviet Govern- 
ment 423 

Soviet Note Delivered to the U.S. Gov- 
ernment 426 

Tripartite Aide-M6moire to Soviet Gov- 
ernment 427 

The U.N. and Specialized Agencies 

The Third Regular Session of the General 
Assembly, Paris: No Compromise on 
Essential Freedoms. Address by Secre- 
tary Marshall 432 

Conclusions From Progress Report of the 
U.N. Mediator on Palestine: 

Mediation Effort 436 

Statement by Secretary Marshall .... 436 

Supervision of the Two Truces 438 

Assistance to Refugees 440 

Position on Withdrawing Occupying Forces 

From Korea 440 

The United States in the United Nations . . 441 
U.S. Delegation to Protection of Nature 

Conference 443 

Bulgaria's Disregard for Obligations Under 
Peace Treaties and U.N. Charter. U.S. 
Aide-M^moire to Bulgarian Foreign Min- 
ister 447 

Treaty Information 

Executive Committee Achievements of Ito 

Interim Commission 444 

Plans To Increase Value of General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade 445 

Discussions on Convention for Foreign Motor 

Travel 446 

Italy Expresses Gratitude for Economic 
Assistance. Exchange of Communica- 
tions Between U.S. and Italy 450 



Treaty Information — Continued Page 

Bulgaria's Disregard for Obligations Under 
Peace Treaty and U.N. Charter. U.S. 
Aide-M6moire to Bulgarian Foreign 
Minister 447 

General Policy 

Efforts To Assist Near Eastern Refugees: 

Statement by Acting Secretary Lovett . . 447 
Planning Committee Appointed 448 

Incident Involving Seating of Ethiopian 
Minister at Science Meeting. Exchange 
of Memoranda Between Department of 
State and the Imperial Ethiopian Lega- 
tion 448 

Letter of Credence 449 

Attackers of Stephen Haas Apprehended . . 449 

Economic Affairs 

U.S. Delegations to International Meetings: 

Wool 443 

South Pacific Commission Meeting .... 446 
Radiotelegraph Service With Saudi Arabia . 449 
No Time Limit on Filing Claims for Prop- 
erty Loss in Italy 450 

International Information and Cultural 
Affairs 

U.S. Delegation to Cartography Meeting . . 443 

Calendar of International Meetings. . . 442 

The Foreign Service 

Ceylon Appoints First Ambassador to U.S . . 449 
Facts Relating to Withdrawal of Donald 

F. Ewing From Legation at Sofia .... 451 
Consular Offices at Matamoros and Agua 

Prieta To Remain Open 451 

The Department 

Appointment of Officer 451 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1948 



V 



f 3X3. / ft^o 



tJne/ zl}eha^t7}ten(/ xw tnaie^ 




For complete contents see back cover 



•ptRtmeNOENT OF UOUilw*i* 

OCT 25 194a 




UAe 



z/^efi€ivtm,€^ /o£ C/ui^ V^ LI. X JL \D L X X X 



Vol. XIX, No. 484 • Publication 3303 
Oaoher 10, 1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Qovemment Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

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Single copy, 15 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



The Berlin Crisis 



U.S. NOTIFIES U.N. OF SERIOUS SITUATION' 



29 Septcmhcr J94S 
I have the honor, on behalf of the Government 
of the United States of America, in a<ireement 
with the Governments of the French Republic 
and the United Kingdom, to draw your atten- 
tion to the serious situation which has arisen 
as the result of the unilateral imposition by the 
Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics of restrictions on transport and com- 
munications between the "Western Zones of Occu- 
pation in Germany and Berlin. Quite apart from 
the fact that it is in conflict with the rights of the 
Government of the United States of America and 
the Governments of France and the United King- 
dom with regard to the occupation and adminis- 
tration of Berlin, this action by the Soviet Govern- 
ment is contrary to its obligations under Article 2 
of the Cliarter of the United Nations and creates 
a threat to the peace within the meaning of Chap- 
ter VII of the Charter. 

2. It is clear from the protracted exchange of 
notes and the conversations which have taken place 
on the initiative of the three governments between 
them and the Soviet Government that the three 
governments, conscious of their obligation under 
the Charter to settle their disputes by peaceful 
means, have made every effort to resolve their 
differences directly with the Soviet Government. 
Copies of the relevant documents are submitted 
separately. In particular, attention is drawn to 
the summary of the situation which is contained 
in the notes of the United States Government and 
the Governments of France and the United King- 
dom, dated September 2(5/27, 1948, as follows : 

"The issue between the Soviet Government and 
the Western Occupying Powers is. therefore, not 
that of technical difficulties in communications nor 
that of reaching agreement upon the conditions 
for the regulation of the currency for Berlin. 
The issue is tliat the Soviet Government has clearly 
shown by its actions that it is attempting by illegal 
and coercive measures in disregard of its obliga- 
tions to secure political objectives to which it is 

Ocfober JO, 1948 



not entitled and which it could not achieve by 
peaceful means. It has resorted to blockade meas- 
ures ; it has threatened the Berlin population with 
starvation, disease and economic ruin; it has 
tolerated disorders and attempted to overthrow 
the duly elected municipal government of Berlin. 
The attitude and conduct of the Soviet Govern- 
ment reveal sharply its purpose to continue its 
illegal and coercive blockade and its unlawful 
actions designed to reduce the status of the United 
States, the United Kingdom and France as occupy- 
ing powers in Berlin to one of complete subordi- 
nation to Soviet rule, and thus to obtain absolute 
authority over the economic, political and social 
life of the people of Berlin, and to incorporate the 
city in the Soviet zone. 

"The Soviet Government has thereby taken upon 
itself sole responsibility for creating a situation, 
in which further recourse to the means of set- 
tlemen prescribed in Article 33 of the Charter 
of the United Nations is not, in existing circum- 
stances, possible, and which constitutes a threat to 
international peace and security. In order that in- 
ternational peace and security may not be further 
endangered the Governments of the United States, 
the United Kingdom and France, therefore, while 
reserving to themselves full rights to take such 
measures as may be necessary to maintain in these 
circumstimces their position in Berlin, find them- 
selves obliged to refer the action of the Soviet 
Government to the Security Council of the United 
Nations." 

3. Accordingly, the Government of the United 
States requests that the Security Council consider 
this question at the earliest opportunity. 

Warren R. Austin 



' Note addre.ssed to Trygve Lie, Secretary-General of the 
United Nations. Tlie notifications of tiie Governments of 
the French Republic, the United Kingdom, and the United 
State.s are contained in U.N. doe. S/1020, Sept. 29, 1948; 
the annexed documents were distributed separately. The 
U.S'. notification was also released to the press in Wash- 
ington on Sept. 29, 1948. 

455 



LIST OF RELATED DOCUMENTS 



The documents being submitted to the Secre- 
tary-General of the United Nations by the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, the Government of 
the French Republic and the Government of the 
United Kingdom are as follows : 

I A. Identic notes from the Governments of the United 
States and the United Kingdom addressed to the 
Government of the U.S.S.R., dated July G, 194S. 
I B. Note from the Government of tlie French Republic 
addressed to the Government of the U.S.S.R., dated 
July 6, 1948. 

II A. Identic notes of the Government of the U.S.S.R., 
dated July 14, 1948, addressed to the Governments 
of the United States and the United Kingdom. 

II B. Note of the Government of the U.S.S.R., dated July 
14, 1948, addressed to the Government of the French 
Republic. 
III. Aide-memoire delivered to Mr. Zorin on July 30, 
1948, by the representatives of the Governments of 
the United States, the United Kingdom and the 
French Repul)lic. 
rV. Oral statement to Premier Stalin made on August 3, 
1948, by the United States Ambassador on behalf of 
the representatives of the Governments of the 
United States, United Kingdom and the French Re- 
public. 



V. Tlie directive to the four Military Governors in 
Berlin agreed to on August 30, 1948, by the Govern- 
ments of the U.S.S.R., the United States, United 
Kingdom and the French Republic. 

VI. Joint report of the conversations of the four Mili- 
tary Governors in Berlin by the United States, 
United Kingdom and French Military Governors in 
Germany, dated September 7, 1948. 
VII. Aide-memoire delivered to Mr. Molotov on Septem- 
l)er 14, 1948, by the representatives of the Govern- 
ments of the United States, United Kingdom and the 
French Republic. 
VIII. Aide-memoire of the Government of the U.S.S.R., de- 
livered to the representatives of the United States, 
United Kingdom and the French Republic on Sep- 
tember 18, 1948. 

IX. Identic notes from the Governments of the United 
States, United Kingdom and the French Republic 
addressed to the Government of the U.S.S.R., dated 
September 22, 1948. 
X. Identic notes of the Government of the U.S.S.R., 
dated September 20, 1948, addressed to the Gov- 
ernments of the United States, United Kingdom 
and France. 

XI. Identic notes to the Government of the U.S.S.R., 
from the Governments of France, the United King- 
dom and the United States, dated September 20-27, 
1948. 



Position on Withdrawal of Troops From Korea 

EXCHANGE OF NOTES BETWEEN U.S. AND SOVIET GOVERNMENTS 



No. 155 [Translation] [Released to the press September 30] 

September 18, 194.8 

The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics presents his compli- 
ments to the Embassy of the United States of 
America and requests the following be communi- 
cated to the Government of the United States of 
America. 

The Supreme National Assembly of Korea on 
September 10, 1948 addre.ssed itself to the Govern- 
ment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
and to the Government of the United States of 
America with a request for the simultaneous and 
immediate withdrawal of Soviet and American 
troops from Korea. 

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, having con- 
sidered this appeal of the Supreme National 
Assembly of Korea, have recognized as possible 
meeting the wish expressed in this appeal and have 
given appropriate instructions to the Council of 
Ministers of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics concerning the evacuation of Soviet troops 
from northern Korea so that the evacuation would 
be concluded at the end of December, 194S. 

At the same time the Presidium of the Supreme 
Soviet expressed the hope that the Government of 
the United States of America will also agree to 
evacuate American troops from southern Korea 
within this period. 

456 



The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on September 
18 informed the President of the Presidium of the 
Supreme National Assembly of Korea, Mr. Kim 
Doo Bong, of the above decision. 

September 28, 1948 
The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
and has the honor to acknowledge receipt of the 
Ministry's note no. 155 of September 18, 1948, in 
connection with the withdrawal of occupation 
forces from Korea. The text of the Ministry's 
note was immediately communicated to the United 
States Government which has now instructed the 
Embassy to state that the United States Govern- 
ment has taken note of the decision of the Soviet 
Government to evacuate its occupation forces from 
Korea by the end of December, 1948. 

The Embassy has been further instructed to 
state that the United States Government regards 
the question of troop withdrawal as part of the 
larger question of Korean unity and independence, 
concerning which its views will be presented at 
the appropriate time by the United States Delega- 
tion to the General Assembly of the United 
Nations. 

Department of State Bulletin 



The Struggle for Human Rights 



BY MRS. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT > 
U.S. Representative to the Commission on Human Rights 



I have come this evening to talk with you on one 
of the greatest issues of our time — that is the pres- 
ervation of human freedom. I have chosen to 
discuss it iiere in France, at the Sorbonne, because 
here in this soil the roots of hiunan freedom have 
long ago struck deep and here they have been 
richh^ nourished. It was here the Declaration of 
the Sights of Man was proclaimed, and the great 
slogans of the French Revolution — libert}', equal- 
ity, fraternit}' — fired the imagination of men. I 
have chosen to discuss this issue in Europe because 
this has been the scene of the greatest historic 
battles between freedom and t^yranny. I have 
chosen to discuss it in the early days of the General 
Assembly because the issue of human liberty is 
decisive for the settlement of outstanding political 
differences and for the future of the United 
Nations. 

The decisive importance of this issue was fully 
recognized by the founders of the United Nations 
at San Francisco. Concern for the preservation 
and promotion of human rights and fundamental 
freedoms stands at the heart of the United Na- 
tions. Its Charter is distinguished by its preoccu- 
pation with the rights and welfare of individual 
men and women. The United Nations has made 
it clear that it intends to uphold human rights and 
to protect the dignity of the human personality. 
In the preamble to the Charter the keynote is set 
when it declares: "We the people of the United 
Nations determined ... to reaffirm faith in 
fundamental human rights, in the dignity and 
worth of the human person, in the equal rights of 
men and women and of nations large and small, 
and ... to promote social progress and bet- 
ter standards of life in larger freedom." This re- 
flects the basic premise of the Charter that the 
peace and security of mankind are dependent on 
mutual respect for the rights and freedoms of all. 

One of the purposes of the United Nations is 
declared in article 1 to be: "to achieve interna- 
tional cooperation in solving international prob- 
lems of an economic, social, cultural, or humani- 
tarian character, and in promoting and encourag- 
ing respect for human rights and for fundamental 
freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, 
language, or religion." 

Ocfofaer 70, 7948 



This thought is repeated at several points and 
notably in articles 55 and 56 the Members pledge 
themselves to take joint and separate action in 
cooperation with the United Nations for the pro- 
motion of "universal respect for, and observance 
of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for 
all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or 
religion." 

The Human Rights Commission was given as its 
first and most important task the preparation of 
an International Bill of Rights. The General 
Assembly which opened its third session here in 
Paris a few days ago will have before it the first 
fruit of the Commission's labors in this task, that 
is the International Declaration of Human Rights. 

This Declaration was finally completed after 
much work during the last session of the Human 
Rights Commission in New York in the spring of 
1948. The Economic and Social Council has sent 
it without recommendation to the General Assem- 
bly, together with other documents transmitted by 
the Human Rights Commission. 

It was decided in our Commission that a Bill of 
Rights should contain two parts : 

1. A Declaration which could be approved through 
action of the Member States of the United Nations in the 
General Assembly. This Declaration would have great 
moral force, and would say to the peoples of the world 
"this is what we hope human rights may mean to all peo- 
ple in the years to come." We have put down here the 
rights that we consider basic for individual human beings 
the world over to have. Without them, we feel that the 
full development of individual personality is impossible. 

2. The second part of the bill, which the Human Rights 
Commission has not yet completed because of the lack of 
time, is a covenant which would be in the form of a treaty 
to be presented to the nations of the world. Each nation, 
as it is prepared to do so, would ratify this covenant and 
the covenant would then become binding on the nations 
which adhere to it. Each nation ratifying would then be 
obligated to change its laws wherever they did not conform 
to the points contained in the covenant. 

This covenant, of course, would have to be a 
simpler document. It coulrl not state aspirations, 
which we feel to be permissible in the Declaration. 
It could only state rights which cotdd be assured 
by law and it must contain methods of imple- 

" Address delivered at the Sorbonne, Paris, Sept. 28, 
1948, and released to the press on the same date. 

457 



THB UNITED NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZBD AGENCIES 

mentation, and no state ratifying the covenant 
could be allowed to disregard it. The methods of 
implementation have not yet been agreed upon, 
nor have they been given adequate consideration 
by the Commission at any of its meetings. There 
certainly should be discussion on the entire ques- 
tion of this world Bill of Human Rights and there 
may be acceptance by this Assembly of the Decla- 
ration if they come to agreement on it. The 
acceptance of the Declaration, I think, should 
encourage every nation in the coming months to 
discuss its meaning with its people so that they 
will be better prepared to accept the covenant with 
a deeper understanding of the problems involved 
when that is presented, we hope, a year from now 
and, we hope, accepted. 

The Declaration has come from the Human 
Rights Commission with unanimous acceptance 
except for four abstentions — the U.S.S.R., Yugo- 
slavia, Ukraine, and Byelorussia. The reason for 
this is a fundamental difference in the conception 
of human rights as they exist in these states and in 
certain other Member States in the United Nations. 

In the discussion before the Assembly, I think 
it should be made crystal clear what these differ- 
ences are and tonight I want to spend a little time 
making them clear to you. It seems to me there is 
a valid reason for taking the time today to tliink 
carefully and clearly on the subject of human 
rights, because in the acceptance and observance 
of these rights lies the root, I believe, of our chance 
for peace in the future, and for the strengthening 
of the United Nations organization to the point 
where it can maintain peace in the future. 

We must not be confused about what freedom is. 
Basic human rights are simple and easily under- 
stood: freedom of speech and a free press; free- 
dom of I'eligion and worship ; freedom of assembly 
and the right of petition ; the right of men to be 
secure in their homes and free from unreasonable 
search and seizure and from arbitrary arrest and 
punishment. 

We must not be deluded by the efforts of the 
forces of reaction to prostitute the great words of 
our free tradition and thereby to confuse the 
struggle. Democracy, freedom, human rights 
have come to have a definite meaning to the people 
of the world which we must not allow any nation 
to so change that they are made synonymous with 
suppression and dictatorship. 

There are basic differences that show up even in 
the use of words between a democratic ancl a totali- 
tarian country. For instance "democracy" means 
one thing to the U.S.S.R. and another to the 
U.S.A. and, I know, in France. I have served 
since the first meeting of the nuclear commission 
on the Human Rights Commission, and I think 
this point stands out clearly. 

The U.S.S.R. Representatives assert that they 
already have achieved many things which we, in 

458 



what they call the "bourgeois democracies" cannot 
achieve because their government controls the ac- 
complishment of these things. Our government 
seems jiowerless to them because, in the last an- 
alysis, it is controlled by the people. They would 
not put it that way — they would say that the 
people in the U.S.S.R. control their government 
by allowing their government to have certain abso- 
lute rights. We, on the other hand, feel that cer- 
tain rights can nevei' be granted to the government, 
but must be kept in the hands of the people. 

For instance, the U.S.S.R. will assert that their 
press is free because the state makes it free by pro- 
viding the machinery, the paper, and even the 
money for salaries for the people who work on the 
paper. They state that theie is no control over 
what is printed in the various papers that they 
subsidize in this manner, such, for instance, as a 
trade-union paper. But what would happen if a 
paper were to print ideas which were critical of 
the basic policies and beliefs of the Communist 
government? I am sure some good reason would 
be found for abolishing the paper. 

It is true that there have been many cases where 
newspapers in the U.S.S.R. have criticized officials 
and their actions and have been responsible for the 
removal of those officials, but in doing so they did 
not criticize anything which was fundamental to 
Communist beliefs. They simply criticized meth- 
ods of doing things, so one must differentiate 
between things which are permissible, such as 
criticism of any individual or of the manner of 
doing things, and the criticism of a belief which 
would be considered vital to the acceptance of 
Communism. 

Wliat are the differences, for instance, between 
trade-unions in the totalitarian states and in the 
democracies? In the totalitarian state a trade- 
union is an instrument used by the govermnent 
to enforce chities, not to assert rights. Propa- 
ganda material which the government desires the 
workers to have is furnished to the trade-unions 
to be circulated to their members. 

Our trade-unions, on the other hand, are solely 
the instrument of the workers themselves. They 
represent the workers in their relations with the 
government and with management and they are 
free to develop their own opinions without govern- 
ment help or interference. The concepts of our 
trade-unions and those in totalitarian countries 
are drastically different. There is little mutual 
understanding. 

I think the best example one can give of this 
basic difference of the use of terms is "the right to 
work". The Soviet Union insists that this is a 
basic right which it alone can guarantee because it 
alone provides full employment by the govern- 
ment. But the right to work in the Soviet Union 
means the assignment of workers to do whatever 
task is given to them by the government without 

Department of State Bulletin 



an opportunity for the people to participate in the 
decision that tlie f^overnnicnt slioiiUl do tliis. A 
society in whicli everyone works is not necessarily a 
free society and nia}- indeed be a slave society ; on 
the other hand, a society in which there is wide- 
spread economic insecurit}' can turn freedom into 
a barren and vapid ripht for millions of people. 
We in the United States have come to realize it 
means freedom to choose one's job, to work or not 
to work as one desires. We, in the United States, 
have come to realize, however, that people have a 
ri<ilit to demand that their government will not 
allow them to starve because as individuals they 
cannot find work of the kind they are accustomed 
to doing and this is a decision brought about by 
l)ub]ic ojiinion which came as a result of the great 
dejiression in which many people were out of work, 
but we would not consider in the United States 
that we had gained any freedom if we were com- 
pelled to follow a dictatorial assignment to work 
where and when we were told. The right of choice 
would seem to us an important, fundamental 
freedom. 

I have great sympathj' with the Russian people. 
They love their country and have always defended 
it valiantly against invaders. They have been 
through a period of revolution, as a result of which 
they were for a time cut off from outside contact. 
They have not lost their resulting suspicion of 
other countries and the great difficulty is today 
that their government encourages this suspicion 
and seems to believe that force alone will bring 
them respect. 

We, in the democracies, believe in a kind of 
international respect and action which is recipro- 
cal. We do not think others should treat us 
differently from the way they wish to be treated. 
It is interference in other countries that especially 
stirs up antagonism against the Soviet Govern- 
ment. If it wishes to feel secure in developing 
its economic and political theories within its terri- 
tory, then it should grant to others that same 
security. We believe in the freedom of people to 
make their own mistakes. We do not interfere 
with them and they should not interfere with 
others. 

The basic problem confronting the world today, 
as I said in the beginning, is the jji-eservation of 
human freedom for the individual and conse- 
quently for the society of which he is a part. We 
are fighting this battle again today as it was fought 
at the time of the French Revolution and at the 
time of the American Revolution. The issue of 
himian liberty is as decisive now as it was then. 
I want to give you my conception of what is meant 
in my country by freedom of the individual. 

Long ago in London during a discussion with 
Mr. Vyshinsky, he told me there was no such thing 
as freedom for the individual in the world. All 
freedom of the individual was conditioned by the 

Ocfober 10, 7948 



THE UN/TED NATIONS AND SPeCIALIZED AGBNCIBS 

rights of other individuals. That, of course, I 
granted. I said : "We approach the question from 
a different point of view; we here in the United 
Nations are trying to develop ideals which will be 
broader in outlook, whicli will consider first the 
rights of man, which will consider what makes 
man more free : not governments, but man." 

The totalitarian state typically ])laces the will 
of the people second to decrees promulgated by a 
few men at the top. 

Naturally there must always be consideration of 
the rights of others; but in a democracy this is 
not a restriction. Indeed, in our democracies we 
make our freedoms secure because each of us is 
expected to respect the rights of others and we are 
free to make our own laws. 

Freedom for our peoples is not only a right, but 
also a tool. Freedom of speech, freedom of the 
press, freedom of information, freedom of assem- 
bly' — these are not just abstract ideals to us; they 
are tools with which we create a way of life, a w^ay 
of life in which we can enjoy freedom. 

Sometimes the processes of democracy are slow, 
and I have known some of our leaders to say that 
a benevolent dictatorship would accomplish the 
ends desired in a much sliorter time than it takes 
to go through the democratic processes of discus- 
sion and the slow formation of public opinion. 
But there is no way of insuring that a dictatorship 
will remain benevolent or that power once in the 
hands of a few will be returned to the people with- 
out struggle or revolution. This we have learned 
by exj^erience and we accept the slow processes of 
democracy because we know that short-cuts com- 
promise principles on which no compromise is 
possible. 

The final expression of the opinion of the people 
with us is through free and honest elections, with 
valid choices on basic issues and candidates. The 
secret ballot is an essential to free elections but 
you must have a choice before you. I have heard 
my husband say many times that a people need 
never lose their freedom if they kept their right to 
a secret ballot and if they used that secret ballot 
to the full. 

Basic decisions of our society are made through 
the expressed will of the people. That is why 
when we see these liberties threatened, instead of 
falling apart, our nation becomes unified and our 
democracies come together as a unified group in 
spite of our varied backgrounds and many racial 
strains. 

In the United States we have a capitalistic econ- 
omy. That is because public opinion favors that 
type of economy under the conditions in which we 
live. But we have imposed certain restraints; for 
instance, we have anti-trust laws. These are the 
legal evidence of the determination of the Ameri- 
can people to maintain an economy of free com- 

459 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

petition and not to allow monopolies to take away 
the people's freedom. 

Our trade-unions grow stronger because the 
people come to believe that this is the proper way 
to guarantee the rights of the workers and that the 
right to organize and to bargain collectively keeps 
the balance between the actual producer and the 
investor of money and the manager in industry 
who watches over the man who works with his 
hands and who produces the materials which are 
our tangible wealth. 

In the United States we are old enough not to 
claim perfection. We recognize that we have some 
problems of discrimination but we find steady 
progress being made in the solution of these 
problems. Through normal democratic processes 
we are coming to understand our needs and how 
we can attain full equality for all our people. Free 
discussion on the subject is permitted. Our 
Supreme Court has recently rendered decisions to 
clarify a number of our laws to guarantee the 
rights of all. 

The U.S.S.K. claims it has reached a point 
where all races within her borders are officially 
considered equal and have equal rights and they 
insist they have no discrimination where minori- 
ties are concerned. 

This is a laudable objective but there are other 
aspects of the development of freedom for the indi- 
vidual which are essential before the mere absence 
of discrimination is worth much, and these are 
lacking in the Soviet Union. Unless they are be- 
ing denied freedoms which they want and which 
they see other people have, people do not usually 
complain of discrimination. It is these other free- 
doms—the basic freedoms of speech, of the press, 
of religion and conscience, of assembly, of fair 
trial and freedom from arbitrary arrest and 
punishment, which a totalitarian government can- 
not safely give its people and which give meaning 
to freedom from discrimination. 

It is my belief, and I am sure it is also yours, that 
the struggle for democracy and freedom is a criti- 
cal struggle, for their preservation is essential to 
the great objective of the United Nations to main- 
tain international peace and security. 

Among free men the end cannot justify the 
means. "We know the patterns of totalitarianism— 
the single political party, the control of schools, 
press, radio, the arts, the sciences, and the church 
to support autocratic authority ; these are the age- 
old patterns against which men have struggled for 
three thousand years. These are the signs of re- 
action, retreat, and retrogression. 

The United Nations must hold fast to the heri- 
tage of freedom won by the struggle of its peoples; 
it must help us to pass it on to generations to come. 

The development of the ideal of freedom and its 
translation into the everyday life of the people in 
great areas of the earth is the product of the ef- 

460 



forts of many peoples. It is the fruit of a long 
tradition of vigorous thinking and courageous 
action. No one race and no one people can claim 
to have done all the work to achieve greater 
dignity for human beings and greater freedom to 
develop human personality. In each generation 
and in each country there must be a continuation 
of the struggle and new steps forward must be 
taken since this is preeminently a field in which to 
stand still is to retreat. 

The field of human rights is not one in which 
compromise on fundamental principles are pos- 
sible. The work of the Commission on Human 
Eights is illustrative. The Declaration of Human 
Eights provides : "Everyone has the right to leave 
any country, including his own.'' The Soviet 
Eepresentative said he would agree to this right 
if a single phrase was added to it — "in accordance 
with the procedure laid down in the laws of that 
country." It is obvious that to accept this would 
be not only to compromise but to nullify the right 
stated. This case forcefully illustrates the im- 
portance of the proposition that we must ever be 
alert not to compromise fundamental human 
rights merely for the sake of reaching unanimity 
and thus lose them. 

As I see it, it is not going to be easy to attain 
unanimity with respect to our different concepts 
of government and human rights. Tlie struggle 
is bound to be difficult and one in which we must 
be firm but patient. If we adhere faithfully to 
our principles I think it is possible for us to main- 
tain freedom and to do so peacefully and without 
recourse to force. 

The future must see the broadening of human 
rights throughout the world. People who have 
glimpsed freedom will never be content until they 
have secured it for themselves. In a true sense, 
human rights are a fundamental object of law and 
government in a just society. Human rights exist 
to the degree that they are respected by people in 
relations with each other and by governments in 
relations with their citizens. 

The world at large is aware of the tragic con- 
sequences for human beings ruled by totalitarian 
systems. If we examine Hitler's rise to power, we 
see how the chains are forged which keep the indi- 
vidual a slave and we can see many similarities in 
the way things are accomplished in other coun- 
tries. Politically men must be free to discuss and 
to arrive at as many facts as possible and there 
must be at least a two-party system in a country 
because when there is only one political party, too 
many things can be subordinated to the interests 
of that one party and it becomes a tyrant and not 
an instrument of democratic government. 

The propaganda we have witnessed in the re- 
cent past, like that we perceive in these days, seeks 
(Continued on page 466) 

Department of State Bulletin 



Albania and Bulgaria Continue To Reject UNSCOB 

U.S.-BULGARIAN CORRESPONDENCE 



[Released to the press September 27] 

During the period August-September, there was 
an exchange of notes between the Bulgarian 
Foreign Office and the U.S. Legation, Sofia, on the 
subject of Bulgarian charges that Greek forces 
were violating the Bulgarian frontier or taking up 
threatening positions in its vicinity. The Bul- 
garian note contained statements and allegations 
which the Sofia government also forwarded to the 
Secretary-General of the United Nations. The 
correspondence between the Bulgarian Govern- 
ment and the Secretary-General of the United 
Nations on this matter has already been published.^ 

The following is the text of the latest exchange 
of notes between this Government and the Bul- 
garian Government. This exchange has been com- 
municated by the United States to the body im- 
mediately concerned with relations between 
Greece and the Balkan States, the United Nations 
Special Committee on the Balkans. 

Note of August 28, 1948, delivered hy the U.S. 
Legation at Sofia to the Bulgarian Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs, replying to its note of August 18 

The Legation of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs and has the honor to acknowledge 
receipt of the latter's note no. 36014-20-1 of 
August IS, bringing to the attention of the Lega- 
tion certain allegations as to violations of the 
Greco-Bulgarian border by Greek groups, which 
information has been submitted to the Security 
Council of the United Nations by the Bulgarian 
Government together with an energetic protest 
and request that the Security Council of the 
United Nations take steps to effect the retirement 
of Greek troops from the frontier to the interior 
of Greece in order to avoid any incidents. 

AMiile the Legation is appreciative of the action 
of the Ministry in bringing this information to its 
attention, it ventures to point out that the appro- 



priate agency for the investigation of charges 
made against Greece by the Bulgarian Government 
would appear to be the United Nations Special 
Commission on the Balkans, members of which 
are presently in Greece, and who would be availa- 
ble for an investigation in connection therewith. 

Should this suggestion be not agreeable to the 
Bulgarian Government the Legation would be 
pleased to make available one or more of its Service 
Attaches, perhaps in conjunction with similar 
officers of other diplomatic missions here, to carry 
out an impartial investigation of the areas named 
in the Ministry's note, such investigation naturally 
to be in cooperation with the competent Bulgai'ian 
authorities. 

The Legation would appreciate being advised 
as to whether either or both of the suggestions made 
above prove of interest to the Ministry. 

The Legation of the United States of America 
avails itself [etc.] 

Note of September 11, 19^8, from the Bulgariam, 
Foreign Office to the U.S. Legation at Sofia 

In reply to note verhale 498 of August 28, the 
Foreign Office has the honor to advise as follows : 

Communication made to Legation by circular 
note of August 18 was purely informative in nature 
in view of fact that concentration of important 
Greek troops along Greco-Bulgarian frontier could 
have provoked serious incidents and difficulties. 
It is for this reason reply of American Legation 
somewhat surprised Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
and more so because Honorable Mission knows per- 
fectly point of view of Bulgarian Government in 
regard to Unscob and knows equally well that 
Bulgarian Government has declined all demands 
for investigation along Greco-Bulgarian frontier 
by military attaches of U.S. and Great Britain in 
connection with peace treaty considering such in- 
vestigations as reflection of sovereignty of state. 



ALBANIA'S REPLY TO TRIPARTITE APPEAL 



[Released to the press October 1] 

The Department has received from the French 
Government the text of the remarks made on Sep- 
tember 20 by Mr. Hysni Kapo, Deputy Minister 
of Foreign Affairs of Albania, in reply to the 
demarche made at Tirana on September 13 by the 
French Minister on behalf of the United States, 

Ocfober JO, J948 



the United Kingdom and French Governments 
concerning Albanian aid to the Greek guerrillas.^ 
The reply rejects the French Minister's appeal 
that the competent agency of the United Nations, 
the U.N. Special Committee on the Balkans, be 



1 U.N. press release BAL/376, Sept. 2, 1948. 
'Documents and State Papers, September 1948. 



461 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

permitted to opeiiite in Albanian territory, while 
at the same time, in defiance of logic, it accuses the 
United States, Great Britain, and France of usurp- 
ing the peacemaking functions of the United Na- 
tions. Equally inisatisfactory is the fact that the 
reply rejects as well any other type of neutral ob- 
servation of Albanian conduct towards the Greek 
guerrillas. The language is evasive but the mean- 
ing is clear, being underlined by the statement that 
Albania "has designated forbidden zones in its 
territory." 

In effect, Albania asks acceptance, without 
demur or inquiry, of its own allegations of good 
behavior despite the evidence in the hands of the 
U.N. Special Committee of extensive and illegal 
Albanian support of guerrilla operations against 
the people and Government of Greece, evidence 
based in considerable part on eyewitness observa- 
tion by U.N. officials. 

Following is an unofficial translation of the 
Albanian reply : 

"1. The Albanian Government is not aware that 
France, the United States, and Great Britain have 
the right to represent themselves as powers guar- 
anteeing peace as stated by the Minister of France. 
The Albanian Government considers not only that 
such a claim has no foundation in itself but also 
that such a claim on the part of France, the United 
States and Great Britain is in direct contradiction 
with the existence of the United Nations organiza- 
tion and with its goals and principles. In its 
opinion, such intervention by the three states in 
Albano-Greek relations, because of its unilateral 
character, can only serve to create or aggi-avate 
friction and misunderstandings between the Al- 



banians and Greece, or at least to encourage the 
move of the aggressors. 

"2. The creation of a new International Control 
Commission or of any other Commission would 
not facilitate the settling of these relations as ex- 
perience has already shown that the Balkan Com- 
mission not only does not contribute to peace but 
on the contrary, as we know, it has served to 
woi"sen the relations between Greece and Albania 
and Greece's other northern neighbors. 

"3. It is necessary to eniphasize again that in 
the abnormal conditions existing between Greece 
and Albania, it is the Greek Government which is 
guilty, although it always tries to shake off the 
responsibility for this state of affairs, and that the 
Albanian Government has more than once shown 
itself ready for the settlement of relations with its 
Greek neighbors. With good will on the part of 
the Greek Government, the border conflicts could 
have been avoided and the situation at the border 
would be normal. 

"4. The Albanian Government's conduct in re- 
gard to the interning and disarming of Partisans 
crossing the Albano-Greek border is entirely in 
conformity with the rules of international law ; in 
addition, the Albanian Government categorically 
rejects as absolutely at variance with the facts the 
Greek statement that interned Partisans were 
armed in Albanian territory and returned to 
Greece. The action of the Albanian Government 
in giving protection and assistance to Greek 
women, children and old people also conforms 
exactly to international law. As to movement in 
the frontier zone, it is necessary to point out that 
Albania, as do also other states, has designated 
forbidden zones in its territory, which is an undis- 
putable right of a sovereign state." 



Documents and State Papers 



September 1948 



The September issue of Documents and State Papers^ which will be released shortly, will 
contain the following items : 

U.N. Special Committee on the Balkans : 

Comment on Report to the 3rd Session of the General Assembly 

The First and Second Interim Reports 

The Annual Report to the U.N. and a Supplementary Report 
Restitution of Looted Property by Japan 

Designation of Successor Organization to Claim Jewish Property 
Calendar of International Meetings with Amiotations 

Copies of this publication are for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. at 30 cents a copy; subscription price for 12 issues 
is $3.00 a year. 



462 



Department of State Bulletin 



The United States in the United Nations 



The Berlin Crisis 

At the Palais de Chaillot in Paris on October 
4, the Security Council debated whether it was 
competent to take up the Berlin question. Mr. 
Vysninsky (U.S.S.R.) opened the discussion by 
denyinjr the Council's competence in the matter 
as an overt violation of article 107 of the Charter 
as well as of the Potsdam and Yalta agreements. 
He denied that the situation in Berlin was a threat 
to the i)eace. He further maintained that Berlin 
was ])art of the entire question of Germany, for 
which the Council of Foreign Ministers was re- 
sponsible. He further declared that in reality 
there was no blockade of Berlin and that the Soviet 
authorities had repeatedly stated that they were 
ready to assume responsibility for feeding the 
population of Berlin. 

Philip C. Jessup, Deputy U.S. Representative 
in the Security Council, emphasized that the 
actions of the Soviet Union demonstrated that the 
Soviet Union was attempting by illegal and co- 
ercive measures to achieve political objectives to 
which it was not entitled and which it could not 
achieve by peaceful means. The real issue, Mr. 
Jessup maintained, was whether the only existing 
international machinerj^ for the preservation of 
the peace can be used to remove a threat to the 
peace. In accordance with article 33 of the Charter 
the United States, in agreement with the United 
Kingdom and France, had made every effort 
through direct discussion with the U.S.S.R. to 
settle the matter. The Soviet Union's repudiation 
of its promises made further discussion futile, and 
the three Governments brought the matter to the 
attention of the Security Council. 

Sir Alexander Cadogan (United Kingdom) fol- 
lowed ^Ir. Jessup and supported the United States 
Representative. 

Warren Austin called the October 4 session to 
order but relinquished the presidency for the dura- 
tion of the discussion of the Berlin question. Juan 
A. Bramuglia (Argentina) presided over the 
meeting. 

Tlie Security Council voted 9 to 2 to hear the 
complaint of the United States, the United King- 
dom, and France against the actions of the Soviet 
Union in the Berlin blockade as constituting a 
threat to world peace and security. 

The position of the United States Government 
was outlined by Mr. Jessup on October 6, when he 
reviewed the development of the Berlin situation. 

"The salient feature of the case before the Secu- 
rity Council", he said, "is that the Soviet blockade 
is still maintained and thus continues in existence 
a threat to the peace which it created." He con- 
cluded by stating that ''we do not bring this case to 
the Securitv Council with anv cut-and-dried 



formula for its solution. It is our hope the Se- 
curity Council can assist in removing the threat to 
peace. Nothing which has happened has changed 
our position on that point. The moment that the 
blockade is lifted, the United States is ready to 
have an immediate meeting of the Council of 
Foreign Ministers to discuss with the Soviet Union 
any questions relating to Germany." 

Atomic Energy 

Mr. Tsiang (China) opened the October 1 meet- 
ing of Committee I by calling attention to tlie 
Atomic Energy Commission's majority proposals, 
which were a process of evolution, while the Soviet 
Union had not responded to the repeated requests 
of the Atomic Energy Commission to furnish con- 
crete evidence in support of its proposals. Mr. 
Tsiang stated that China stood "solidly behind the 
majority plan" and supported the Canadian reso- 
lution. Mr. El Khouri (Syria) introduced an 
amendment to the Canadian resohition which was 
similar to the U.S. June 22 resolution previously 
vetoed in the Security Council. Colombia and 
Belgium supported the Syi'ian version. 

On October 4 Warren Austin again called for 
action for effective international control of atomic 
energy and questioned whether the Soviet Union 
in its new proposal on the question would accept 
the international control plan already approved by 
a majority of the Atomic Energy Commission. 
Mr. Austin pointed out that without effective and 
enforceable international control of atomic energy 
in the beginning and all the time the world would 
have no security from atomic destruction. 

In an analysis of the new Soviet proposal . . . 
made by Mr. Vyshinsky on October 2 for two con- 
ventions — one on prohibition of atomic weapons 
and the other on "effective" international control — 
which would be signed and put into force simul- 
taneously, Mr. Austin said that if this meant the 
Soviets approved really effective control, then a 
long step had been taken, but he noted that Mr. 
Vyshinsky and JNIr. Manuilsky (Ukrainian S.S.R.) 
had indicated they still adhere to the narrow na- 
tionalist stand they have maintained and would 
seek to retain veto right over any control agency 
which might be established. If that is the true 
interpretation of the language, Mr. Austin said, 
"there is a chasm that has yet to be bridged." 

Mr. Austin reiterated the U.S. support for the 
majority control plan of the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission and for the Canadian resolution now 
before Committee I. That draft resolution would 
have the General Assembly approve the Commis- 
sion reports, recommending the international con- 
trol system and telling of Soviet opposition to the 
inspection and regulation powers the Commission 
would accord to a world control agency. 



October 10, 1948 



463 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 

Toward Revision of the Geneva Convention 



BY WILLIAM H. McCAHON 



The United States has actively supported the 
initiative taken in tlie fall of 1945 by the Interna- 
tional Committee of the Red Cross to revise exist- 
ing international treaties applicable to prisoners 
of war ^ and to bring into being a new convention 
establishing liuniane standards of treatment for 
civilians in time of war. In the light of experi- 
ences of World War II those in the Government 
charged with the responsibility of the practical 
application of the existing conventions were con- 
vinced of the necessity for rather extensive re- 
visions of those conventions for the purpose of (1) 
bringing them up to date, (2) making them easier 
to apply uniformly and less susceptible to different 
interpretations, and (3) providing more effective 
protection for the categories of persons covered. 
It was considered equally important to obtain 
through international treaty similar legal pro- 
tection for civilians in belligerent and occupied 
territories. The generally unsatisfactory stop- 
gap measure of attempting to apply the prisoners- 
of-war convention to certain categories of civilians 
during World War II had pointed up the need 
for a separate convention formally defining the 
treatment to be accorded such pereons in wartime. 

The United States participated in preliminary 
informal discussions of this subject at a meeting 
of government experts convened at Geneva under 
the auspices of the International Committee of 
the Red Cross, April 14-26, 1947.^ At that meet- 
ing 14 Allied governments were represented, and 
considerable progress was made in the formula- 
tion of revised and new draft conventions. The 
Seventeenth International Red Cross Conference 
which took place at Stockholm August 20-30, 1948, 
and in which 49 governments and 51 national Red 
Cross societies participated, offered an opportunity 
for continuance of these discussions on a some- 
what broader scale, and represented another step- 
ping-stone toward the ultimate objective — the 
formal signing by governments of new conven- 
tions. 

The United States sent a Delegation to the 
Stockholm conference which included Government 
representatives from the Department of State, the 
three military services, the Department of Justice, 

' The two Geneva conventions of 1929 relative to tlie 
treatment of prisoners of war and tlie wounded and sick, 
and the Hague convention of 1907 relative to maritime 
warfare (commonly referred to as the hospital ships 
convention). 

^For an account of this meeting by Albert E. Clatten- 
burg, Jr., see Bulletin of June 22, 1947, p. 1205. 

464 



and the Post Office Department. In addition, 
members of the American Red Cross delegation to 
the conference participated in the convention re- 
vision discussions. Basil O'Connor, president of 
the American Red Cross, served as chairman of 
both delegations. While there were many other 
matters of interest to the Red Cross world before 
the conference, the United States Government 
Delegation confined its activities almost entirely 
to the work of the Legal Commission, which was 
charged with the responsibility for reviewing and 
making recommendations witli respect to the sev- 
eral draft conventions under considei\ation. The 
working drafts submitted to the conference had i 
been prepared by the International Committee J 
of the Red Cross on the basis of the recommenda- 
tions coming out of the earlier meeting at Geneva. 

Thirty governments and 32 Red Cross societies 
took part in the work of the Legal Commission, 
the first meeting of which took place the morning 
of Saturday August 21. On the motion of the 
United States, it was agreed to set up immediately 
three technical subcommissions to make possible a 
detailed study of each of the draft conventions. 
The election of subcommission chairmen and other M 
organizational details were completed at this 
morning session so that the subcommissions were 
able to start their deliberations the afternoon of 
the same day to consider respectively (I) the 
treatment of the sick and wounded and the estab- 
lishments devoted to their care including hospital 
ships; (II) the treatment of prisoners of war; and 
(III) the treatment of civilians. 

With the exception of Sunday, these subcommis- 
sions met daily through Friday, August 27, and 
then returned the following day to a plenary ses- 
sion of the Legal Commission for reporting and 
obtaining ajjproval of their findings and recom- 
mendations. Finally, the accomplishments of the 
Legal Commission were formally api:)roved at a 
plenary session of the conference on August 30, 
the last day of the conference. 

In view of the volume of the work entailed in 
reviewing article by article each of the draft con- 
ventions, it became obvious early in the discussions 
tliat if the task before the Legal Commission were 
to be accomplished within tlie time allotted, eni- 
IJhasis must be placed on obtaining in the subcom- 
missions agreement on the substantive text of each 
article. This procedure was generally followed. 
Considering the large number of governments and 
Red Cross societies represented and their varying 

Department of State Bulletin 



intpiTsts. the degree of agreement reached was 
remarkable. 

Substantial portions of the United States draft 
position on all four of the conventions were ac- 
cepted as presented. This position had been 
formulated by the Interdepartmental Prisoners 
of War Committee in whose work the representa- 
tives of the Departments of State, Army, Navy, 
Air Force, Justice, Treasury, Post Office, and the 
American Ketl Cross had participated in prejiara- 
tion for this meeting. The only major point on 
which the United States recommendation did not 
prevail was in connection with the discussion in 
Subcommission I concerning the status to be ac- 
corded doctors, chaplains, and medical corps men 
attached to the armed forces, if they fall into the 
hands of the enemy. Opposition was encountered 
to the United States position that such personnel 
be treated as i:)risoners of war. The opposition 
based its stand primarily on traditional grounds, 
holding that the language of the present conven- 
tion which states that if captured such personnel 
"shall not be treated as prisoners of war"', should 
be retained; that to do otherwise would be a step 
backward and would have the effect of placing a 
stigma on medical personnel. Additionally the 
fear was expressed that the proposed change might 
adversely affect recruitment of doctors for the 
armed forces. In supporting its position the 
United States Delegation stressed the following 
considerations: (1) that practical experience has 
shown it to be administratively impossible to ex- 
empt such personnel from prisoners-of-war status, 
and consequently, to endeavor to do so would only 
invite violations; (2) that by giving such personnel 
the status of prisoners of war they are thereby 
accorded fuller protection under the conventions 
than they might otherwise receive; and (3) that 
medical and spiritual services rendered by such 
personnel are more than ever necessary in circum- 
stances of capitivity in ministering to the need of 
their comrades, and if they were to share the same 
lot it would serve as a morale builder for their own 
men. In addition, the United States Delegation 
made it clear that it was not recommending the 
detention of such personnel as prisoners of war 
indefinitely or in numbers greater than the situa- 
tion warranted, but on the other hand it strongly 
believed that a detaining power should have the 
right for practical as well as humanitarian reasons 
to detain a sufficient number of captured doctors, 
chaplains, and medical corps men to insure ade- 
quate care for wounded and sick prisoners of war. 
The United States Delegation maintained that all 
such pei-sonnel not being used for this purpose 
should be repatriated promptly, that the profes- 
sional status of those detained should be recog- 
nized and respected, and that the detaining power 
under the convention should provide adequate 

Ocfober 10, 7948 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

facilities, supplies, and equipment for their use 
in caring for the wounded and sick. 

Although it is unfortunate that agreement on 
this point could not be reached at this conference, 
it is apparent that the objective of the proponents 
of both views is basically the same, that is, to obtain 
the maximum amount of protection for this cate- 
gory of personnel while at the same time providing 
for the adequate care of the wounded and sick. 
Consequently, it is confidently hoped that a sat- 
isfactory formula acceptable to both sides can be 
found without too much difficulty in subsequent 
discussions of representatives of the interested 
governments. 

Foremost among the revisions supported by the 
United States which were concurred in by the con- 
ference were the following: (1) a complete i-e- 
wording of the article concerning food which, in 
essence, provides that the food ration of prisoners 
of war shall be sufficient in quantity, quality, and 
variety to keep prisoners in good health, and pre- 
vent loss of weight or the development of nutri- 
tional deficiencies; (2) a new and simplified for- 
mula regarding the employment of prisoners of 
war which among other things prohibits their use 
for mine clearance and disposal work ; (3) prompt 
repatriation of prisoners of war after the cessation 
of hostilities ; (4) a provision permitting transfers 
of prisoners of war among allies provided the re- 
ceiving government is a party to the convention, 
and placing on both governments involved in the 
transfer equal responsibility in seeing that the 
treatment received by prisoners of war following 
their transfer is in accordance with the terms of 
the convention; (5) the extension of the applica- 
tion of the prisoners of war and civilian conven- 
tions to civil wars provided the dissident party 
agrees for its part reciprocally to apply the terms 
of those conventions; (G) definition of the con- 
ditions which must be met by partisan forces if 
they ai'e to be accorded treatment as prisoners of 
war and entitled to protection of that convention ; 
and (7) improved identification markings for hos- 
pital ships including night lighting. 

While none of the decisions reached at this con- 
ference are formally binding upon the participat- 
ing governments, the degree of agreement reached 
through open discussion on certain of the more 
contentious articles augers well for the future. It 
is recognized that much additional work lies ahead, 
but it is now believed by those in the Government 
who have been closest to the problem that, as a 
result of the progress made to date, further pre- 
paratory meetings on the subject are unnecessary 
and would serve only to delay matters. It is hoped 
therefore that the next step will be the convocation 
early next year of a formal diplomatic conference 
of governments for the purpose of final drafting 
and the signing of new conventions. 

465 



ACTIVITIES AND DBVBLOPMENTS 

Representatives to Weights and 
Measures Conference 

[Released to the press September 30] 

The Department of State announced on Septem- 
ber 30 that the United States will be represented 
at the Ninth General Conference of the Interna- 
tional Bureau of Weights and Measures scheduled 
to be held at Paris and Sevres, France, October 
12-21, 1918, by Dr. Edward U. Condon, Director 
of the National Bureau of Standards, U.S. De- 
partment of Commerce, and Dr. Eugene C. Crit- 
tenden, Associate Director of the National Bureau 
of Standards. 

This Conference is being held under the pro- 
visions of the treaty known as "the convention of 
the meter" which was signed at Pai'is on May 
20, 1875, and to which the United States Govern- 
ment is a party. This treaty provided for an or- 
ganization of three parts : the International Com- 
mittee, the General Conference, and the Inter- 
national Bureau of Weights and Measures. This 
organization is responsible for all joint work of 
adhering countries on the problems of metrology. 

The meetings of the General Conference are 
held at six-year intervals, for the purpose of deal- 
ing with mattei-s of international agreement af- 
fecting measures of length and weight, electrical 
measurements, temperature measurements, and 
units of photometric measurement. The meeting 
scheduled for October 1939 was postponed owing 
to the outbreak of war; consequently, since the 
last meeting was held in 1933, the conference has 
an unusually important agenda of topics to con- 
sider. 

The National Bureau of Standards has been in 
charge of important technical jireparatory work 
of the Conference in earlier meetings of specialized 
committees meeting in advance of the General 
Conference. 

Reports to be considered at the Conference in- 
clude the results of recent international compari- 
sons of the national prototype meter bars and the 
national prototype kilograms, standardization of 
the use of wave lengths of light as a means of 
precision length measurement, jiroblems con- 
cerned with the adoption of the absolute system 
of electrical units for general use, adoption of a 
new definition of the unit of light intensity, re- 
vision of the international temperature scale, and 
other matters related to the fundamental basis 
of precise measurements as used in science and 
industry. 



Struggle for Human Rights — Conlinxied from page 460 

to impugn, to undermine, and to destroy the lib- 
erty and independence of peoples. Such propa- 
ganda poses to all peoples the issue whether to 
doubt their heritage of rights and therefore to 
compromise the principles by which they live, or 
try to accept the challenge, redouble their vigi- 
lance, and stand steadfast in the struggle to main- 
tain and enlarge human freedoms. 

People who continue to be denied the respect to 
which they are entitled as human beings will not 
acquiesce forever in such denial. 

The Charter of the United Nations is a guiding 
beacon along the way to the achievement of human 
rights and fundamental freedoms throughout the 
world. The inunediate test is not only the extent 
to which human rights and freedoms have already 
been achieved, but the direction in which the world 
is moving. Is there a faithful compliance with 
the objectives of the Charter if some countries con- 
tinue to curtail human rights and freedoms in- 
stead of to promote the universal respect for an 
observance of human rights and freedoms for all 
as called for by the Charter? 

The place to discuss the issue of human rights 
is in the forum of the United Nations. The 
United Nations has been set up as the common 
meeting ground for nations, where we can con- 
sider together our mutual problems and take ad- 
vantage of our differences in experience. It is 
inlierent in our firm attachment to democracj' and 
freedom that we stand always ready to use the 
fundamental democratic procedures of honest dis- 
cussion and negotiation. It is now as always our 
hope that despite the wide differences in approach 
we face in the world today, we can with mutual 
good faith in the principles of the United Nations 
Charter, arrive at a common basis of under- 
standing. 

AVe are here to join the meetings of this great 
international Assembly which meets in your 
beautiful capital city of Paris. Freedom for the 
individual is an inseparable pai't of the cherished 
traditions of France. As one of the Delegates 
from the United States I pray Almighty God that 
we may win another victory here for the rights 
and freedoms of all men. 



466 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Agreement Between the United States and the United Kingdom 
Proposing International Committee on Scrap 



[Released to the press October 1] 

Annoiuicenient was made on October 1 by the 
Department of State of the signing in Washing- 
ton of an agreement with the United Kingdom 
I^roposing the establishment of an international 
committee to recommend allocations of iron and 
steel scrap available for export from Erp coun- 
tries including the Bizonal Area of Germany. 
The agreement also provides for the immediate 
allocation from the Bizonal Area of 500,000 tons 
of scrap each to the United States and to the 
United Kingdom and 225,000 tons for distribu- 
tion to other deficit countries at uniform prices to 
be established by the U.S.-U.K. military gover- 
nors. It is hoped that the total quantity to be 
shipped from the Bizonal Area in the next 12 



months will be about 2,000,000 tons or more. All 
scrap shipped from Germany will be in excess of 
the legitimate requirements of the Bizone steel in- 
dustry. Much of the scrap available in the Bizonal 
Area consists of rubble material from wrecked 
industrial plants, railway installations, abandoned 
ships, etc. 

Since the end of the war little commercial scrap 
has been imjiorted to the United States from Ger- 
many. As a result of the recent currency reform 
and the signing of this agreement, it is expected 
that Germany will now make a substantial con- 
tribution toward relieving the serious scrap short- 
age existing in this country as well as in Europe. 

The text of the agreement which follows was 
embodied in an exchange of notes on September 
30, 1948, between the two Governments. 



AGREEMENT ON FERROUS SCRAP 



I. Proposal to OEEC Countries on Allocation 
Machinery 

A proposal will be put before the members of the 
Organization of European Economic Cooperation ttiat an 
ad hoc Committee be established in Paris consisting of 
representatives of Oeec members and the United States 
as a full member. It is proposed that this Committee, al- 
though outside the jurisdiction of the Oeec Council, 
.should work in clcjse cooperation with it and its com- 
mittees. The functions of the Committee shall be to 
make recommendations to the Governments of the 
countries participating in the Oeec, including the Bi- 
zonal Area of Germany and the French Zone, on the dis- 
tribution of scrap exports from those countries. Final 
decisions with respect to exports will be made, however, 
by the Governments of the exporting countries. In the 
Bizonal .\rea decisions will be made by the US and UK 
Military Governors suljject to the provisions of Article 
III of this Agreement. 

II. Instructions to Military Governors 

Identical instructions shall be .sent to the US and UK 
Military Governors in Germany as follows: 

1. It is the desire of the Governments of the United 
States and United Kingdom that the total collection and 
exi)ort of scrap from the Bizonal Area, after providing 
for the legitimate requirements of the German steel in- 
dustry, be maximized. 

Initial Autliori:ntio>is Outside of Future Allocations 

2. The existing authorization (approved May 1.'?, 1948) 
of 000,000 tons (namely 200,000 tons to the United States, 
.300.0(X) tons to the United Kingdom and 100,000 tons to 
other countries) is confirmed. 

H. In addition there will be the following supple- 
nieiitarv authorizations : 



(a) 100,000 tons to the United States, to bring the United 
States share to parity with the above-mentioned United 
Kingdom share of 300.000 tons ; 

(b) 75,000 tons to the United Kingdom as a final ship- 
ment of booty scrap without payment ; 

(c) 7.5,000 tons to the United States, to correspond to (b) 
above, but not free of payment. 

4. The above total authorizations of 375,000 tons to 
the United States, 375,000 tons to the United Kingdom 
and 100,000 tons to other countries shall not be charged to 
future allocations, and the two Military Governors shall 
implement these authorizations immediately. 

Export Availahilities from Bizonal Area 

5. The US and UK Military Governors shall inform 
the ad hoc Committee, promptly after its establishment 
and from time to time thereafter, of the anticipated volume 
of scrap exports from the Bizonal Area. It is hoixnl that 
this figure for the year ending October 1, 1949, will be 
1,000,000 tons or more, over and above the 850,000 tons 
authorized above outside of future allocation.?. 

Interim Authorizations Chargeahle Against Future 
Allocations 

6. As an advance against contemplated early allocations 
within the framework of the regular allocating procedure, 
there shall also be authorized a further 12.5,000 tons to the 
United States, 125,000 tons to the United Kingdom and 
125,000 tons to other countries, such quantities to be 
charged against future allocations. The two Military 
Governors shall also implement these authorizations 
immediately. 

7. In the event that no recommendation is made by the 
ad hoc Committee before October 31, 1948, further interim 
authorizations shall be made on that date and on the last 



Ocfober 10, 7948 



467 



THE RECORD OF THE WBBK 



day of each month thereafter in the ratio of 2-2-1 for the 
United States, the United Kingdom and other countries, 
respectively, until such time as the regular allocation 
procedure is in operation. 

Impletuetitation of Allocations 

8. In implementing this Agreement, the US and UK 
Military Governors shall determine among other matters : 

(a) whether to implement allocations by control over 
contracts or control over exports or both ; 

(b) vfhether, if control over exports is adopted, the 
Joint Export-Import Agency may approve contracts w'ithin 
agreed limitations in excess of the total outstanding alloca- 
tions of any country ; 

(c) whether, in appropriate cases, contracts shall pro- 
vide for delivery of scrap within specified short periods in 
order to prevent undue tying up of allocations in individual 
long-term contracts ; 

(d) whether and in what manner to instruct Jeia to 
take precautions to satisfy itself as to the competence of 
contracting parties to implement the terms of the contract. 

Effective Date of Foregoing Authorizations 

9. All scrap exported subsequent to the date of this 
Agreement shall be charged against the foregoing authori- 
zations. 

Booty Scrap 

10. There shall be no further exports of booty scrap 
after the date of this Agreement except for the 75,000 tons 
authorized under paragraph II 3 (b) above. 

Price 

11. The price of scrap with appropriate differentials for 
loading points, quality of scrap, etc., shall be uniform for 
all foreign buyers, and shall be set from time to time by 
the US and UK Military Governors under such procedures 
as they may establish. 

Special Measures 

12. If the US and UK Military Governors consider that 



adequate quantities of exportable scrap cannot be obtained 
without special measures, they are authorized to approve 
the recovery of scrap by such measures. Scrap recovery 
under such arrangements, if approved, may be outside 
regular allocations but subject to such special allocations 
as the US and UK Military Governors may determine 
after consultation with the ad hoc Committee. 

Direct Recovery of Scrap 

13. Nothing in this Agreement shall preclude operations 
by non-German organizations for the recovery of scrap 
from disarmament and other sources not readily accessible 
to German scrap merchants provided such operations are 
carried on in a manner acceptable to the US and UK Mili- 
tary Governors and that all recoveries of scrap (other 
than the 75,000 tons of booty scrap mentioned above) are 
paid for at prices established by the US and UK Military 
Governors and are within either the regular or the special 
allocations determined by the US and UK Military 
Governors. 

VS-UK Scrap Control Authority 

14. The US and UK Military Governors shall set up 
a US-UK scrap control authority in which each shall 
appoint a coordinator to supervise and control the collec- 
tion and export of ferrous scrap. This control authority 
shall be subject, through whatever organization the Mili- 
tary Governors may determine, to the jurisdiction of the 
Bipartite Board. . 

III. Reservation of Fusion Agreement 

Nothing in this Agreement shall be deemed to modify 
the arrangements set forth in the Fusion Agreement of 
December 2, 1946 as amended liy the Agreement of Decem- 
ber 17, 1947. Questions which may arise with respect to 
scrap exports under the present Agreement wUl be re- 
solved as contemplated in paragraph 5 of the Agreement 
of December 17, 1947, having regard also to the provisions 
of paragraph 3 (a) of the latter Agreement. 



Policy on Commercial Fishing in Pacific Island Trust Territory 



JOINT AGENCY APPROVAL 



[Released to the press September 29] 

The Department of State announced on Sep- 
tember 29 the policy of this Government relating 
to commercial fishing operations in the United 
States Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The 
policy was approved by the Departments of State, 
Army, Navy, Air Force, and Interior as a guide 
to the administration of the Trust Territory and 
will have the effect of opening the area to com- 
mercial fishing. Rich fishery resources, particu- 
larly tuna, are available in the waters around this 
Territory in an area as large as the continental 
United States. The Territory, itself, contains 
scarcely as much land area as the State of Dela- 
ware. Several commercial fishing companies have 
shown interest in beginning fishing operations im- 

468 



mediately. It is possible that an industry can be 
built on the fishery resources that will eventually 
pay a considerable part of the administrative cost 
of the Territory. 

Fishing operations will be under the strict con- 
trol of the High Commissioner of the Trust Terri- 
tory in order that the welfare of the native inhabi- 
tants can be safeguarded and the harvesting of the 
resources can be undertaken along adequate con- 
servation lines. 

Fishing opportunities will be equally available 
to the fishiiig enterprises of all nations except that 
the High Commissioner will have discretion in 
excluding enterprises for reasons of security or for 
the purpose of carrying out the obligation to pro- 
mote the advancement of the inhabitants. 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



TEXT OF POLICY DIRECTIVE 



[Released to the press September 29] 

A. With a view to cooperating in the effort to 
increase world food production and in order to 
improve the local economy and to obtain informa- 
tion needed for conservation of fishing resoui'ces 
of the area, the territorial waters surrounding the 
Trust Territory, except those parts closed for 
security reasons, should be open to the commercial 
fishing enterprises of all nations on a non-discrimi- 
natory basis, except that whenever a country denies 
rights with respect to fishing and ancillary opera- 
tions needed and desired by the local inhabitants 
of the Trust Territory, the Government of the 
Trust Territory may, if necessary to obtain those 
rights, deny that country rights in the Trust 
Territory. 

B. The administering agency, in collaboration 
■with the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior, shoidd conduct research as 
soon as possible with a view to establishing con- 
servation regulations. Fishing grounds within 
the territorial waters found to be necessary for the 
local economy should be reserved exclusively for 
the use and benefit of the local inhabitants. 

C. Immediate steps should be taken to foster the" 
development of aquatic resources, including locally 
owned and operated commercial fishing, bait cul- 
ture, and ancillary commercial industries. 

D. With respect to canning and other fish-proc- 
essing industries, the administering agency should 
give priority to the development of locally owned 
and operated enterprises. 

E. The administering agency may. under such 
conditions, as may be agreed upon by the interested 
departments, grant permission for the establish- 
ment and maintenance of shore facilities to out- 
side canneries and other fish-processing industries 
provided that, in determining whether such per- 
mission shall be gi-anted and in establishing the 
conditions under which such permission is to be 
granted, the interests of the local inhabitants shall 
be paramount. 

F. Annual licenses should be required of all 
commercial fishing vessels operating within terri- 
torial limits or operating out of local ports. 
Licenses to nonlocal fishing vessels should be 
granted on the understanding that they are sub- 
ject to revocation or modification wherever se- 
curity interests or the interests of the inhabitants 
so require. Licensees should be required to fur- 
nish such statistical information regarding fishing 
operations as the administering agency, in col- 
laboration with the Fish and Wildlife Service, 
shall deem appropriate. 

G. Local inhabitants should be employed in the 

October 10, 1948 



complement of a fishing vessel or canning or other 
ancillary industry licensed for operation in a 
Trust Territory to the maximum extent consonant 
with efficient operations. Regulations should be 
issued prescribing minimum and nondiscrimina- 
tory wages and standards of working conditions 
and otherwise protecting locally hired personnel. 
The employment of noidocal personnel in shore 
establishments should be subject to regulations by 
the government of the Trust Territory. 

H. Except as provided in paragraph A above, 
and subject to the right of the High Commissioner 
of the Trust Territory of the Pacific, within estab- 
lished governmental policy to exclude any indi- 
vidual or group of individuals for reason of se- 
curity, and the obligation to promote the advance- 
ment of the inhabitants, the principle of nondis- 
crimination on the basis of nationality shall be ob- 
served in the implementation of the foregoing 
principles and shall apply to all aspects of com- 
mercial fishing and ancillary operations and the 
regulation thereof in the Trust Territory. 



Two U.S. Citizens Held Incommunicado in 
Hungary Released 

[Released to the press September 27] 

American citizens Paul Ruedemann and George 
Bannantine, president and technical adviser re- 
spectively of Maort. an American-owned affiliate 
in Hungary of the Standard Oil Company (New 
Jersey ) , have been released from detention by the 
Hungarian authorities following vigorous United 
States representations both at Washington and at 
Budapest to the Hungarian Government and, ac- 
companied by an officer of the American Legation 
at Budapest, arrived in Vienna at 11 : 30 a.m. on 
September 26. 

Mr. Ruedemann and Mr. Bannantine were taken 
into custody by the Hungarian police on the night 
of September 18 and held incommunicado until 
their release on September 25. The United States 
Government considers the allegations made against 
these two men by the Hungarian authorities and 
by the officially controlled Hungarian press and 
radio involving "economic sabotage" were wholly 
unfounded. These arrests followed a long series 
of encroachments by the Hungarian authorities on 
the rights of Maort, wliich have now cidminated 
in the seizure of the company under a decree issued 
by order of tlie Cabinet Council on September 24 
and published in the Official Gazette on Septem- 
ber 25. 

469 



THE RECORD OF THE WBEK 

Economic Cooperation Agreement 
With Portugal Signed 

Statement hy Acting Secretary Lovett 

[Released to the press September 29] 

A bilateral agreement in connection with the 
European Recovery Program was signed with the 
Portuguese Government on September 28 at Lisbon 
by Ambcassador MacVeagh and the Portuguese 
Foreign Minister.' Although the Portuguese Gov- 
ernment is receiving no financial aid under the 
European Recovery Program, they have given 
their firm support to the program from the very 
beginning. The signing of the Erp agreement 
and the cordial remarks of the Portuguese Foreign 
Minister on that occasion have shown again the 
spirit of good will and cooperation of the Portu- 
guese Government in participating in the huge 
task of European reconstruction. 

Department of State To Have Full Direction 
of Voice of America Programs 

[Released to the press September 30] 

Preparation and broadcasting of those Voice of 
America programs which had previously been 
handled by the National Broadcasting Company 
and Columbia Broadcasting System under con- 
tract with the Department of State, were under- 
taken by the Department beginning October 1. 

In making the announcement, George V. Allen, 
Assistant Secretary of State for public affairs, said 

' For text of the agreement, see Department of State 
press release 788 of Sept. 29, 1948. For text of a similar 
agreement witii Italy, see BtTtxETiN of July 11, 1948, p. 38. 

Identical notes between the two Governments were 
exchanged relating to niost-favored-nation treatment for 
areas under military occupation. With the exception of 
the following paragraph this exchange Is similar to the 
understanding with the U.K. which was printed in the 
BiiLLETiN of July 11, 1948, p. 43 : 

"1. For such time as the Government of the United 
States of America participates In the occupation or con- 
trol of any areas in western Germany, the Free Terri- 
tory of Trieste, the Government of Portugal will apply 
to the merchandise trade of such area the provisions 
relating to the most-favored nation treatment of the 
merchandise trade of the United States of America set 
forth in the Commercial Agreement signed June 28, 1910, 
or for such time as the Governments of the United States 
of America and Portugal may both be contracting parties 
to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, dated 
October 30, 1947, the provisions of that Agreement, as now 
or hereafter amended, relating to the most-favored-nation 
treatment of such trade. It is understood that the under- 
taking in this paragraph relating to the application of the 
most-favored-nation provisions of the Commercial Agree- 
ment shall be subject to the exceptions recognized in the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade permitting de- 
partures from the application of most-favored-nation 
treatment; provided that nothing in this sentence shall be 
construed to require compliance with the procedures sjieci- 
fied in the General Agreement with regard to the applica- 
tion of such exceptions." 

470 



the transfer of functions was effected under agree- 
ment between the Department and the radio net- 
works following their decision to withdraw from 
programming activities in the field of interna- 
tional broadcasting. 

The two networks were preparing and broad- 
casting Voice of America programs in English, 
Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, German, 
Annamese, Malayan, and Siamese. 

The Department's International Broadcasting 
Division, which has charge of Voice of America 
operations, will continue to lease short-wave trans- 
mitting facilities of private companies, including 
those of NBC and CBS. 

The broadcast output to Latin America was 
reduced October 1 to 2 hours and 45 minutes daily 
from the previous 4 hours and 45 minutes' sched- 
ule. Daily Far Eastern programs of 15 minutes 
each in Annamese, Malayan, and Siamese, which 
had been prepared by CBS up to October 1, were 
discontinued. European schedules will remain 
virtually intact with broadcasts continuing in Bul- 
garian, Czech, English, French. German, Greek, 
Hungarian. Italian, Polish, Rumanian. Russian, 
Serbo-Croat, Slovak, Slovene, and Spanish. 

Broadcasts will continue to the Far East in 
Chinese, Korean, Russian, and English, and to 
Latin America in English, Portuguese, and 
Spanish. 

The Voice of America will increase certain exist- 
ing broadcasts and will inaugurate programs in 
additional languages as soon as an adequate staff 
can be recruited. The output to Europe was given 
added impetus October 3 when the relay of Voice 
of America programs through the British Broad- 
casting Corporation facilities was increased from 
9 to 101/2 hours daily. 

Ambassador Butler To Represent President at 
Cuban Inauguration 

[Released to the press October 1] 

Robert Butler, United States Ambassador to 
Cuba, has been named Special Ambassador to 
represent the President at the inauguration of Dr. 
Carlos Prio Socarras, President-elect of Cuba, on 
October 10, 1948. Members of his special mission 
will be Admiral Louis E. Denfeld. United States 
Navy, Lt. General Matthew B. Ridgway, United 
States Army, Major General Willis F. Hale, 
United States Air Force, and officers of the United 
States Embassy at Habana. 

Air Transport Agreement With Bolivia 

[Released to the press September 30] 

The Department of State on September 30 an- 
nounced that an air-transport agreement between 
the Governments of Bolivia and the United States 
was signed in La Paz on September 29, 1948. 

Department of Sfofe BuWet'in 



Tlie ajjreement is of tlie so-callod Benmula type, 
upon wliicli is based the great niajority of the 3G 
bihiteral air ajjreements of the United States. The 
a<rreenient jirants trallie rights to United States 
air lines at La Paz. C'ochabamba, Santa Cruz. 
Robore. Oruro, and Puerto Suarez. A route for 
Bolivian air lines is to be agreed upon when 
Bolivia is ready to operate a service to the United 
States. 

Complete text of the agreement will be an- 
nounced later. 

U.S. Vessels Sailingto Arctic in Support of 
Canad!an-U. S. Joint Weather Station Program 

[Released to the press September 28] 

It was announced in Ottawa and Washington on 
June 4 that three U.S. Navy and Coast Guard ves- 
sels, with Canadian representatives aboard, would 
shortly be sailing to Canadian Arctic waters in 
support of the joint weather-station program 
which is being carried out by the Governments of 
Canada and the United States. 

These three sliips — The U.S.S. Edhto, icebreaker, 
the U.S.C.G. Eastwind., icebreaker, and the U.S.S. 
Wyandot, cargo vessel, have now returiied to 
Boston. 

During the summer they resnpplied the joint 
weather stations established in 1947 at Eureka 
Sound, EUesmere Island, and at Resolute Bay, 
Cornwallis Island. They also made a preliminary 
investigation of the possibility of establishing a 
further joint station in the vicinity of Winter 
Harbour. Melville Island. In the course of recon- 
noitering a site for an additional joint station on 
Ellesmere Island, the Edhto and the Eastwind 
managed to reach, via Robeson Channel, the Cape 
Sheridan area at the north of that island. This 
area in the extreme north of Canada was the scene 
of the activities of the British explorer, Sir George 
Xares. in 1875-1876 and of the subsequent activi- 
ties of the United States explorer. Admiral Peary, 
in 1905-1906. The supply mission came across 
Xares' and Peary's cairn and, as is usual on north- 
ern expeditions, Peary's notes found in the cairn 
were replaced by appropriate documents. The 
Edhto and the Emtmind returned to the Atlantic 
coast through Fury and Hecla Strait, between the 
Melville Peninsula and Baffin Lsland. 

The ships which participated in the supply mis- 
sion were under the command of Capt. George J. 
Dufek, U.S.X., embarked in the Edisto. The 
Edisto was commanded by Commander E. C. Fol- 
ger. U.S.N. ; the Wyandot by Capt. J. D. Dickey, 
U.S.X. : and the Eastwind by Capt. J. A. Flynn, 
U.S.C.G. Among the principal Canadian repre- 
sentatives who participated in the supply mission 
were J. Ivor Griffiths of the Meteorological Divi- 
sion, Department of Transport, and Capt. Albani 

Ocfober JO, 7948 



THE RECORD OF THE V/EIK 

Chouinard, master of the Department of Transport 
icebreaker Sau/rel. 

Records of Nares and Peary Canadian 
Arctic Expeditions Found 

[Keleased to the press September 30] 

Announcement was made on September 28 of the 
recent return to Boston of the ships which partici- 
pated in the resupply of the Canada-United States 
weather stations in the Canadian Arctic. 

While near Cape Sheridan, on the north coast of 
Ellesmere Island, a landing party from the supply 
mission located a cairn which contained records of 
two famous Arctic expeditions. The first was that 
of Sir George Xares, of the Royal Xavy, whose 
ship, the Afert, sailed north, in 1875, between 
Canada and Greenland, to Cape Sheridan. In 
July, 1876, after exploring the Ellesmere coast 
westward to Cape Alfred Ernest, Nares' expedi- 
tion left a record of its activities in a cairn near 
,Cape Sheridan. While on a polar expedition, 
Admiral Robert E. Peary, the U.S. explorer, subse- 
quently visited the same region in 1905-1906 and, 
as usual among Arctic explorers, he opened Nares' 
cairn, took the original note, left a copy of it in the 
cairn, and added a record of his own activities. 

When at Cape Sheridan, the recent supply mis- 
sion again opened the cairn, removed the notes in 
it and left copies of them together with a note on 
the 1948 visit. 

The texts of the notes brought back this summer 
are given below : 

Copy of Original Document Left by Admiral 
Rohert E. Peary at Cape Sheridan 

Cape Sheridan, tSeptcmher 5th, 1905. 

The Peary Arctic Club's Ship "Roosevelt" 
arrived here from New York at 7. a.m. and made 
fast to the ice foot under the point of the cape 
awaiting the turn of the tide to proceed to Cape 
Hecla. 

Tlie Roosevelt left New York July 16th., Sidney, 
Cape Breton, July 2('>tli, arrived Cape York Au- 
gust 7th, and left Etah August I7th. Her last 
stopping place was the icefoot south of Cape Union 
which she left at 3 : 30 this morning. 

Personally visited the Alert's Cairn at Floberg 
Beach and took there from Alert's Record, copy of 
which accompanies this. Roster of the Roosevelt's 
Company is also enclosed. 

R. E. Peart, U.S.N. 
Com.manding the Expedition 

Copy of E.M.S. Alert's Record Left in 1876 
Arctic Expedition. 25th Jidy-1876 

H.M.S. "Alert", at Floe-berg Beach (Lat. 82° 27' 
North. Long. 61° 22' West) 

H.M.S. "Alert" wintered off this coast: inside 
the grounded ice 1875-1876. H.M.S. "Discovery," 

471 



THE RECORD OF THE WBEK 

her consort, passed the same winter in a well shel- 
tered harbour in Lat. 81° 44' North, Long. 65° 5' 
West. 

The sledge crews after a very severe journey 
over the ice succeeding in attaining Lat. 83° 20' 
30" N. No land has been sighted to the North. 
Another division explored the coast line to the 
Northward and Westward to Lat: 82° 23' N. 
Long : 84° 56' W. Cape Columbia the northermost 
Cape being in Lat 83° 7' N. Long. 70° 30' W. 

Sledge parties from the "Discovery" have ex- 
plored the Greenland Shore for some distance to 
the Northward and Eastward, but the result of the 
examination is not yet known to me. 

Scurvy attacked nearly all the men employed in 
sledge traveling. Two deaths have occurred : 
Niels. C. Peterson from the effects of a severe 
frostbite (which necessitated a part of each foot 
being amputated) followed by exhaustion and 
scorbutic taint: — and George Porter, Gunner 
K.M.A. who died from scurvy and general debility 
when absent on a sledge journey ; and was buried 
on the floe in Lat, 82° 41' N. 

The ice in the Polar Sea broke up on the 20th 
July, — when it permits us to move, the "Alert" will 
proceed south and join company with the "Dis- 
covery"; both ships will then sail for Port Foulke, 
and most probably thence to England. 

G. S. Nares, 
Captain R.N. 
Commanding Arctic Expedition 

Control of Foreign Assets in U.S. Ended 

[Released to the press by the Treasury Department September 30] 

Secretary Snyder announced on September 30 
the close of more than eight years of activity by the 
Treasury in the field of controlling foreign assets 
in the United States. The program started by the 
Treasury Department almost a decade ago is to be 
carried through to its ultimate liquidation by the 
Department of Justice pursuant to a Presidential 
transfer of jurisdiction. 

Plans for this transfer, which is effective as of 
midnight, September 30, were made by the inter- 
ested departments in February and were at that 
time approved by the National Advisory Council 
and communicated to the Congress. Accordingly, 
the Treasury Dej^artment regulations setting 
forth the organization and procedures of Foreign 
Funds Control, and other related regulations 
promulgated in 1942, are being revoked. These 
regulations are being superseded by new regula- 
tions similar in scope issued by the Department of 
Justice. 

Treasury participation in this field began with 
the freezing order of April 1940, issued at the time 
of the German invasion of Norway and Denmark. 
The scope of the order was gradually expanded 
until by 1941 it covered China and Japan as well 

472 



as all the countries of continental Europe, except 
Turkey. A 1941 census revealed that the Treasury 
Department was then controlling foreign assets in 
the United States worth more than eight billion 
dollars. 

A primary aim of the freezing control was to 
prevent nationals of the invaded countries of Eu- 
rope from being despoiled and forced under duress 
to transfer to the Axis powers their claims to 
American assets. The freezing controls also served 
in many ways as a weapon of economic warfare to 
hamper the financial and commercial activities of 
our World War II enemies. 1 

The elimination of restrictions on ti'ansactions I 
and the gradual unblocking of foreign assets be- 
gan shortly after the end of actual hostilities. The 
elimination of these controls has been handled so 
as to maintain the major objectives for which they 
were instituted. Unblocking of property has pro- 
ceeded on a basis which has preserved the ability 
of the United States to vest assets actually belong- , 
ing to enemies. The procedures now in effexit for % 
unblocking foreign assets in the United States ' 
have also been developed with a view toward assist- 
ing in the imi^lementation of the European Recov- 
ery Program. 

I 

Proclamation on Revision of a 

ILO Convention | 

The President on August 30, 1048, issued his 
proclamation of the Final Articles Revision Con- 
vention, 1946, which was adopted at the Twenty- 
ninth Session of the International Labor Confer- 
ence at Montreal on October 9, 1940. That con- 
vention is designed to revise partially the conven- 
tions adopted by the General Conference of the 
International Labor Organization at its first 28 
sessions for the purpose of making provision for 
the future discharge of certain chancery functions 
entrusted by those conventions to the Secretary- 
General of the League of Nations and introducing 
therein certain further amendments consequential 
upon the dissolution of the League of Nations 
and the amendment of the Constitution of the 
International Labor Organization. The Final » 
Articles Revision Convention, 1946, entered into 1 
force with respect to the United States on June 
24, 1948, the date of deposit with the International 
Labor Organization of the instrvnnent of ratifica- 
tion thereof on the part of the United States. 

The Opportunity of the National Commission < 

The Assistant Secretary for public affairs, 
George V. Allen, made an address before the i 
UNESCO National Commission meeting which was 
held in Boston on September 27. For the text of 
Mr. Allen's address on the opportunity of the 
National Commission, see Department of State 
press release 777 of September 27, 1948. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Freedom of Information 



STATEMENT BY SECRETARY MARSHALLi 



Tlie theme of National Newspaper Week, "Your 
Riglit To Know Is The Key To All Your Liber- 
ties'", emjihasizes a fundamental freedom which 
our Government is activelj' seeking to encourage 
throughout the world — freedom of the people to 
know the truth. 

Half of the World's population lives under some 
form of censorship today. Denied access to the 
facts, people in countries where censorship and 
government control of the press exist can base 
their judgments only on half-truths or false in- 
formation fed to them by those in control. Cen- 
sorship and press control are the first and most 
important steps in the subjugation of people by a 
dictator. 

Americans should keep constantly in mind that 
no people have lost their liberties so long as their 
press remains free. 

It is also a vital concern of ours to see that the 



barriers to the flow of information are reduced 
and, as far as possible, eliminated. This is an es- 
sential to the world peace which we are seeking. 

Our Government is making every effort, 
through the United Nations, to reduce these bar- 
riers between countries. In the Commission on 
Human Rights, in the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil, in the General Assembly, at the recent Confer- 
ence at Geneva on Freedom of Information, and in 
Unesco, we have pressed for active considera- 
tion of freedom of information during the past 18 
months. Progress has been difficult, yet it is 
encouraging. 

A heavy responsibility rests with the press and 
other organs of information to aid in this impor- 
tant work. In their best traditions, it is for them, 
in the language of the United Nations, "to seek 
the truth without prejudice and report the facts 
without malicious intent". 



Surplus Property Agreements on Educational Exchange With 
United Kingdom and New Zealand Signed 



United Kingdom 

The United Kingdom signed on September 22 
an agreement under the Fulbright act with the 
United States, putting into oj^eration the i^rogram 
of educational exchanges authorized by Public 
Law 584, Seventy-ninth Congress. The signing 
took place in London, with Foreign Minister 
Ernest Bevin representing the United Kingdom 
and U.S. Ambassador Lewis Douglas representing 
the United States. The agreement was signed in 
the presence of Senator J. W. Fulbright of Arkan- 
sas, sponsor of the act. 

The agi-eement provides for a United States 
Educational Commission in the United Kingdom 
to assist in the administration of the educational 
program financed from certain funds resulting 
from the sale of surplus property to that country. 
The present agreement provides for an annual 
progi-am of the equivalent of $1,000,000 in British 
pounds for certain educational purposes. These 
l^urposes include the financing of "studies, re- 
search, instruction, and other educational activi- 
ties of or for citizens of the United States of 
America in schools and institutions of higher 

October 10, 7948 



learning located in the LTnited Kingdom or the 
colonial dependencies, or of the citizens of the 
United Kingdom and colonies in United States 
schools and institutions of higher learning located 
outside the continental United States . . . in- 
cluding payment for transportation, tuition, main- 
tenance and other expenses incident to scholastic 
activities; or ftirnishing transportation for citi- 
zens of the United Kino:dom and colonies who de- 
sire to attend United States schools and institu- 
tions of higher learning in the continental United 
States . . . whose attendance will not deprive 
citizens of the United States of America of an op- 
portunity to attend such schools and institutions." 
The Commission in the United Kingdom will 
consist of 12 members, the honorary cliairman of 
which will be the U.S. Ambassador to the United 
Kingdom. The members of the Commission will 
include 7 citizens of the United States and 5 mein- 
bers from the United Kingdom and the colonial 
dependencies. 



' Made on Oct. 1, 1948, in connection with observance of 
National Newspaper Week (Oct. 1-8, 1948), and released 
to the ijress on the same date. 



473 



THE RECORD OF THE WBCK 

New Zealand 

On September 13 New Zealand also signed an 
agreement with the United States, under the Ful- 
bright act. 

The signing took place in Wellington, with 
Prime Minister Peter Fraser representing tlie 
Government of New Zealand and American Minis- 
ter Robert Scotten representing the United States. 
It was the fifth agreement signed under the act, 
previous arrangements having been made witli tlie 
Governments of China, Burma, the Philippines, 
and Greece. 

The agreement with the New Zealand Govern- 
ment establishes the United States Educational 
Foundation in New Zealand to administer certain 
funds resulting from the sale of surplus property 
to that country, and provides for an annual 
program of at" least $115,000 in New Zealand 
pounds for certain educational purposes. 

The Foundation in New Zealand will have an 
eight-man Board of Directors, the honorary chair- 
man of which will be the principal officer in charge 
of the United States diplomatic mission in New 
Zealand. The members of the Board will be three 
officers of the U.S. Legation in New Zealand, two 
citizens of the United States resident in New Zea- 
land, and three nationals of New Zealand, one of 
whom shall be prominent in the field of education. 

Information about specific opportunities for 
American citizens to pursue study, teaching, or 
reseai-ch in the two countries will be made public 
in the near future. Further inquiries about those 
opportunities and requests for application forms 
should be addressed to the following three 
agencies: Institute of International Education, 
2 West 45th Street, New York 19, N. Y. (for 
graduate study) ; United States Office of Edu- 
cation, Washington 25, D.C. (for teaching in na- 
tional elementary and secondary schools) ; and 
Conference Board of Associated Research Coun- 
cils, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington 25, 
D.C. (for teaching at the college level, for post- 
doctoral research, and for teaching in American 
elementary and secondary schools in New Zealand 
and the United Kingdom and colonies). 

Previous agreements have been signed witli the 
Governments of China, Burma, the Philippines, 
and Greece.^ 

Brazilian Cultural Leader Visits U.S. 

Joao da Silva Monteiro, President of the Board 
of Directors of the Uniao Cultural Brasil-Esta- 
dos Unidos, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has arrived in the 
United States for a three months' visit under the 
travel-grant program of the Department of State. 
Mr. Monteiro will observe various aspects of the 



' Bulletin of Mar. 21, 1948, p. 388 ; Apr. 11, 1948, p. 488 ; 
and May 16, 1948, p. 654. 

474 



economic and cultural life of this country and 
study problems of educational exchange between 
Brazil and the United States. Particularly in- 
terested in rural life on small farms, he plans to 
spend a week on such a farm in New England as 
part of his visit here, gathering material for a 
report to be published in Brazil on "The Educa- 
tion and Pi'ogress of a Country Through Rural 
Free Delivery Service". 

Mr. Monteiro has been a member of the Board 
of Directors of the Uniao Cultural for six years 
and has served as president for the past two years. 
This cultural center was founded in ID-'JS to foster 
better understanding between Brazilians and 
North Americans. It currently enrolls over 
4,000 students of English, has the largest circulat- 
ing library of books in English in Brazil, and 
sponsors various cultural programs interpreting 
North American and Brazilian cidture. 



Brazilian Philosopher Visits U.S. ^ 

Joao Cruz Costa, professor of philosophy, Uni- I 
versity of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has ar- 1 
rived in Washington to act as Consultant for the ' 
Library of Congress and observe the work of sev- 
eral eastern universities. He is here under the a 
grant-in-aid program of the Department of State l| 
at the request of the Library of Congress. 

He is at present preparing for publication a 
study on positivism, a subject on which he is plan- 
ning to do research while at the Library of Con- 



Visit of Chilean Historian 

Dr. Eugenio Pereira Salas, professor of Ameri- 
can history at the University of Chile, recently ar- 
rived in Washington, where he is to serve as visit- 
ing professor of Latin American history at the 
American University during the 1948 fall semester 
under the travel-grant pi'ogram of the Depai'tment 
of State. 

Dr. Pereira is the President of the Instituto 
Chileno-Norteamericano de Cultura in Santiago. 
This organization, a bi-national cultural society 
which is assisted by the Department of State, is 
devoted to promoting a better luiderstanding be- 
tween Chile and this country. 



Language Professor To Teach in Haiti 

William Leonard Schwartz, associate professor 
of Romanic languages at Stanford University, has 
left Washington to begin a six months' assignment 
as visiting professor of English at the University 
of Haiti under the travel-grant program of the 
Department of State. 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Rules of Precedence Relating to Foreign 
Service and Government Officers ' 

r.y viitiu' of the iiutlioiity vfsted in mo by section 1752 
of tlip Hrvised Statutes (22 U. S. C. 182), anil as l'n>si(lent 
of tlip United States, and in the interest of the orderly 
conduct abroad of the foreign-afl'aii-s functions of the 
United States, I hereby prescribe the foUowins rules gov- 
erniiig precedence anions officers of the Foreign Service 
and oUict>rs or accredited representatives of other Govern- 
ment agencies : 

1. In the country to which he is accredited, the chief of 
the diplomatic mission sliall take precedence over all of- 
ficers or accredited representatives of other Executive 
departments or establishments. 

2. In the al)sence of the titular head of the mission, the 
charge d'affaiies ad interim shall take precedence over 
all officers or accredited representatives of other Executive 
departments or establishments. 

.". At a diplomatic mission the ofiHcer who takes charge 
in the absence of the chief of mission sliall always take 
precedence next in succession to the chief of mission : Pro- 
ridrd. That unless the chief of mission is absent, sucli 
officer shall, consonant with the hist sentence of section 
100 (a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1048 (Public 
Law 472, SOth Congress), and during the continuance in 
force of such Act, take precedence after the chief of 
special mission. 

4. Military, naval, and air attaches .shall take preced- 
ence next in succession after the counselors of embassy or 
legation or, at a post where the Department of State has 
deemed it unnecessary to assign a counselor, after the 
senior secretary. Military, naval, and air attaclK^s shall 
take precedence among themselves according to their re- 
spective grades and seniority therein. 

n. Attach<^s who are not officers of the Foreign Service 
and who are not covered by section 4 shall take precedence 
with but after military, naval, and air attaches. 

G. Officers of the Foreign Service below the rank of 
counselor shall take precedence among themselves as the 
Secretary of State may direct ; but they shall take preced- 
ence after military, naval, and air attaches and attaches 
who are not officers of the Foreign Service, except when 
the provisions of section 11 hereof are applicable and such 
officers of the Foreign Service are also assigned as diplo- 
matic officers. 

7. Assistant military, naval, and air attaches shall 
take precedence next after the lowest ranking second 
secretary. At a post to which there is no second secre- 
tary assigned, assistant military, naval, and air attache's 
shall take precedence as a group among the officers of the 
Foreign Service of rank equivalent to second secretaries 
as the chief of mission may direct. Assistant military, 
naval, and air attach<5s shall take precedence among them- 
selves according to their respective grades and seniority 
therein. 

8. Assistant attaches who are not officers of the Foreign 
Service and who are not covered by section 7 shall take 
precedence with but after assistant military, naval, and 
air attaches. 

9. Except as provided herein no extra precedence shall 
be conferred upon an Army, Naval, Marine, or Air Force 
officer because of his duties as attach^ to a diplomatic 
mission, 

10. At ceremonies and receptions where the members of 
the mission take individual position, and in the lists fur- 
nished foreign governments for inclusion In their (lii)lo- 
matlc lists, precedence shall follow the ranking indicated 
in the preceding sections. 

October 70, J 948 



11. At ceremonies and receptions where the personnel 
of diplomatic missions are present as a body, the chief 
of mission, or charg6 d'alTaires ad Interim, accomixinied 
by all officers of the Foreign Service Included in the 
diplomatic list, shall be followed next by the military, 
naval, and air attaches and assistant attaches, and other 
attaches and assistant attaches who are not officers of the 
Foreign Service, formed as distinct groups In the order 
determined by their respective grades and seniority. 

12. In international conferences at which the American 
delegates possess plenipotentiary powers, the senior coun- 
selor of embassy or legation attached to the delegation 
shall take precedence immediately after the delegates, 
unless otherwise instructed by the Secretary of State. 

13. In the districts to which they are assigned, consuls 
general shall take precedence with but after brigadier 
generals in the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps and 
commodores in the Navy ; consuls shall take precedence 
with but after colonels In the Army, Air Force, and Marine 
Corps and captains in the Navy ; officers of the Foreign 
Service commissioned as vice consuls shall take preced- 
ence with but after captains in the Army, Air Force, and 
Marine Corps and lieutenants in the Navy. 

14. Officers of the Foreign Service with the title of 
consul general, consul, or vice consul shall take precedence 
with respect to medical officers of the Public Health Serv- 
ice a.ssigned to duty in American consular offices as fol- 
lows : consul general before medical director; consul with 
but after medical director : vice consul with but after 
senior assistant surgeon: Provided; That this regulation 
shall not oijerate to give precedence to any medical officer 
above that of the consular officer in charge. 

15. This order supersedes Executive Orders No. 8356 
of March 2, 1940, and No. 8377 of March 18, 1940 (3 CFB 
Cum. Supp. 024, 032). 

Harry S. TRUiiAN 
The White Hou.se 
September l), 19^8 



Fifteen Hundred Persons Complete Foreign 
Service Examinations 

[Released to the press September 30] 

Approximately 1,500 young men and women in 
18 cities in the United States and 70 cities abroad 
completed on September 30 the rigid three-day 
written examination which is the first step to- 
ward entrance into the Foreign Service of the 
United States as a Foreign Service officer. 

A total of 1,960 persons were designated to take 
the examination, which is the second regular test 
to be given since the end of World War II. How- 
ever, only about 1.500 of the number designated 
have actually presented themselves at the 88 ex- 
amining, offices scattered throughout the world. 

The facts concerning the current examination 
differ in many respects from those relating to pre- 
war examinations. For example, the number of 
persons examined this year is almost four times 
the number in 1941, the year of the last prewar 



' Ex. Or. 9998, 14 Fed. Reg. 5359. 



475 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 

examination, wlien 440 persons took the tests. 
Formerly, also, the examinees tended to be clus- 
tered on the two coasts of the United States. This 
year, large numbers have been designated in cities 
in all regions of the country, 58 persons having 
been designated to be examined in Atlanta, 165 in 
Chicago, 62 in Dallas, 37 in Denver, 87 in St. Louis. 
In addition, 145 persons residing abroad, most of 
them already in the Foreign Service in other cate- 
gories than Foreign Service officers, applied to take 
the examinations. These include 1 person at 
Moscow, 9 in Seoul, 13 in Berlin, 1 in Mombasa, 
1 in Reykjavik, 2 in Montevideo, and 3 in Montreal. 
To pass the written examination — which covers 
many different subjects, including international 
law, economics, history, government, and maritime 
law — the examinee must make an average grade of 
at least 70 percent. In prewar tests, the percent- 
age of those taking the examination who made this 
grade varied from 18.6 percent to 19.7 percent. 
Those who pass the written tests must undergo an 
oral examination before being classed as eligible 
for appointment as a Foreign Service officer. An 
average grade of 80 percent on both the written 
and oral examinations is passing. Those making 
this average before the war constituted from 6.8 
percent to 9.3 percent of the total designated candi- 
dates. Thus, in 1941, 440 persons took the exami- 
nations. Of that number, 77 jJassed the written 
test, and 37 passed both the written and oral 
examinations. 

Test Program Conducted for International 
Health information 

The Foreign Service of the United States, in 
cooperation with the United States Public Health 
Service, is conducting a te.st program in the field 
of international health information. The test is 
being conducted through a Public Health attache, 
Dr. Morris B. Sanders, who has been assigned to 
the American Embassies at Paris, Brussels, and 
The Hague, with residence at Paris. 

Intended as an aid both to Europe and the 
United States, the future of the program depends 
upon the availability of funds and the successful 
development of the initial effort in harmony with 
the work of the World Health Organization of the 
United Nations, of which the United States is a 
member. 

Dr. Sanders, a member of the United States 
Public Health Service Reserve and a recognized 
expert in problems of anesthesia and oxygen and 
in the field of aviation medicine, received instruc- 
tions outlining the following as his duties in 
Europe : 

1. Dissemination of United States Public Health 
and medical developments within assigned coun- 
tries and reporting upon current developments 
and thinking in those countries; 

476 



2. Collection of and reporting on available in- 
formation from those countries on : health condi- 
tions; current medical research and opj^ortunities 
for United States research abroad; public-health 
administrative practices and tecluiiques and their 
results; prevalence of diseases of particular inter- 
est to the United States; extent of health-insur- 
ance programs; and developments in sciences 
related to health and medicine; 

3. Familiarizing himself with administration 
and technique of national health services abroad; 

4. Ascertaining the research progi'ams and 
activities of scientific institutions and organiza- 
tions in the field of health ; 

5. Attending and, when appropriate, partici- 
pating in conferences and congresses in health and 
related fields ; 

6. Identifying himself with the public health 
and medical-research life of the comitries of 
assignment. 

Closing of Consular Offices and 
Opening of New Offices 

[Released to the press September 23] 

Five more American consulates and one vice 
consulate are being closed in a continuing stream- 
lining of Foreign Service posts throughout the 
world. The posts to be closed are Tahiti, Society 
Islands ; La Guaira. Venezuela ; Cartagena, Colom- 
bia; Martinique, French West Indies; Cocha- 
bamba, Bolivia; and the combined Fort William- 
Port Arthur post in Canada. 

The closing of these six Foreign Service of- 
fices brings to 17 the number of American con- 
sular offices closed in various parts of the world 
since January 1, 1948. Some were closed because 
of a lessening of work caused by shifting world 
conditions, some because the volume of work did 
not justify their cost, some because they had been 
wartime emergency posts. 

One, at Changchun, China, was closed for poli- 
tical considerations because it was in an area with 
few American interests and surrounded by Chinese 
Communist-controlled forces. Another, at Vladi- 
vostok, was closed by the United States following 
the shutting down of Soviet consulates in this 
country by the U.S.S.R. 

An additional reason for the closing of these 
consular offices has been the necessity of utilizing 
budgeted funds for opening and staffing with ex- 
perienced personnel new posts in areas now con- 
sidered vital to American interests. 

Some of those closed have been or will be sup- 
planted by consular agents ; the work of the others 
will be transferred to nearby offices. Thus, the 
volume of business to be done on behalf of United 
States interests by the Foreign Service should not 
be seriously affected. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Fourteen new Foreign Service offices were 
establislied in the fiscal year 1948 and two more — 
important enough to be missions, Tel Aviv, Israel, 
and Seoul, Korea — have been established in recent 
months. In addition, reports to the State De- 
l)artment indicate a growing need for the opening 
of still more American consular offices in the fu- 
ture, particularly in the Mediterranean ai'ea and 
in the Xear East. 

The posts recently opened are sending repre- 
sentatives of the United States back into areas 
which have regained their prewar importance for 
this country and into regions newly important be- 
cause of a wealth of strategic materials, an in- 
crease in shipping, or the establishment of new 
means of corannniications. Three — at Lahore, Tel 
Aviv, and Seoul — were brought into being because 
of the birth of new nations, Pakistan, Israel, and 
Korea. 

The posts recently established follow : 

Bergen, Norway; Bratislava, Czechoslovakia; 
Cebu, Philippines; Curitiba, Brazil; Dar es 
Salaam, Tanganyika; Elisabethville, Belgian 
Congo; Haifa, Palestine; Kobe, Japan; Kuala 
Lumpur, Malayan Union; Lahore, Pakistan; Ni- 
cosia, Cyprus; Puerto Cortes, Honduras; Tripoli, 
Libya ; Venice, Italy ; Tel Aviv, Israel ; and Seoul, 
Korea. 

The full list of posts eliminated since January 
1, in addition to the six now in process of closing, 
is as follows : 

Fredericton, N.B., Canada ; Changchun, China ; 
St. Stephen, X.B., Canada; Hull, England; Gre- 
nada, British West Indies; Port Limon, Costa 
Rica; Antigua, British West Indies; Plymouth, 
England; Sarnia, Ontario, Canada; La Ceiba, 
Honduras ; and Vladivostok, U.S.S.R. 



Sale of Surplus Combat Materiel 

A list uf surplus combat materiel sold to foreign 
governments by the Department of State in its 
capacity as foreign-surplus disposal agency during 
April, May, June, and July 1948 and not previously 
reported was contained in Department of State 
press release 664 of August 17, 1948. 

THE DEPARTMENT 

Schedule of Fees by Interim Office for 
German Affairs ^ 

Septemher 3, 104B. 

Public Notice No. DA-121, effective August 10, 
1948, established an Interim Office for German 



Affairs in the Division of Protective Services, 
Office of Controls, Department of State. 

The Interim Office for German Affairs is au- 
thorized to prescribe from time to time such fees 
as nuiy be deemed appropriate for any services 
rendered. The following schedule of fees is here- 
by established : 

Natube of SsatvicE 

Travel Document Service 

Execution of application for travel document and 

military-entry permit $2.00 

Issuance of travel document 10. 00 

Amendment or verification of a travel document 2. 00 

Renewal of travel document 5.00 

Execution of affidavit in regard to German birth iu 

connection with application for travel document 1. 00 

Notarial and Other Miscellaneous Services 

Administering an oath and certificate thereof 2.00 

Aelinowledgment of a deed or power of attorney, or 
similar service, including one or more signatures, 
with certificate thereof, for each copy 2. 00 

Certifying to official character of a notary or other 

official 2. 00 

For taking depositions, executing commissions or 
letters rogatory, where the record of testimony 
including caption and certificate does not exceed 
.500 words (excluding punctuation) 2.00 

For each additional 100 words or fraction thereof . 50 

Certifying to the correctness of a copy of, or extract 

from, a document, official or private 2. 00 

Recording unofficial documents in Interim Office 
upon request (for every 100 words or fraction 
thereof) 1. 00 

Obtaining copy of German public document (exclu- 
sive of local charges of foreign officials and cer- 
tification by United States Consul) 2.00 

The fees received by the Interim Office for Ger- 
man Affairs shall be covered into the Treasury as 
miscellaneous receipts. 

This notice shall become effective immediately 
upon publication in the Federal Register. 

Approved: September 2, 1948. 

For the Secretary of State. 

[seal] John F. Peurifoy, 

Assistant Secretary. 



PUBLICATIONS 

Foreign Relations of the United States, 1932, 
Volume I, Released 

[Released to the press October 2] 

The Department of State on October 2 re- 
leased Foreign Relations of the United States, 
1932, volume I, General. This volume deals en- 
tirely with multilateral subjects which do not 
properly fall under separate country headings. 



' 13 Fed. Reg. 5382. 



Ocfober 10, J 948 



477 



PUBLICATIONS 

The Foreign Relations record of American diplo- 
macy for 1932 is contained in five volumes. 
Volume II, The British Commonwealth, Europe, 
the Near East and Africa, and volumes III fnd IV, 
The Far East, have already been published. 
Volume V, The A^nerican RepuMcs, will be ready 
for publication in the near future. 

The year 1932 is the first for which the mass of 
documentation in the Department files is so great 
that an expansion of the number of regular annual 
volumes to five has been necessary. The reason 
for this increase in diplomatic documentation is 
primarily the development of those interna- 
tional tensions which within a few years led to the 
outbreak of World War II. 

The central problem presented m the vohime 
now released is that of negotiations for disarma- 
ment, the subject treated in the first 574 pages of 
documents. Efforts of the United States, with 
considerable support from the British, to bring 
about international agreement for reduction m 
military forces failed of success in the face of the 
German demand for military equality and the 
French fear of disarming without other effective 
guarantees of security. There were warnings even 
then, before seizure of power by the Nazis, that 
the spirit which dominated Germany in 1914 was 
reviving, but the American Government was not 
in a position at that time to pledge its aid to main- 
tain peace or security in Europe. 

Efforts for an adjustment of war-debt payments 
are also extensively treated in this volume. Other 
sections contain papers on preliminaries to the 
London Economic Conference, the proposed eco- 
nomic confederation of the Danubian states, ten- 
sion over the Polish Corridor and Danzig, and a 
number of technical and economic subjects. 

A preface by the editor explains the principles 
which guide in the compiling and editing of 
Foreign Relations, and names the Department 
officers responsible for the preparation of the 1932 
volumes. 

Copies of Foreign Relations of the United 
States, 1932, volume I (cxv, 979 pages), may be 
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C, 
for $3 each. 

Other Publications 

For Kale by the Siiprrintendent of Dornmentu, Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Docinuents. except in the 
case of free puhlicutions, u-hich miiij he obtained from the 
Depariment of State, 

American Dead in World War II. Treaties and Other 
Interaational Acts Series 1720. I'ub. 3113. 10 pp. 50. 

Agreement Between the United States and France — 
Signed at Paris Oct. 1, 1047; entered into force Oct. 
1, 1917. 

478 



Liquidation of German Property in Sweden: Allocation 
of Proceeds. Treaties and Otlier International Acts Series 
1731. I'ub. 3153. 4 pp. 50. 

Understanding Between the United States and 
Fi-jiuce— Effected by exchange of notes dated at Wash- 
ington July 18, 1040 ; entered into force July 18, 1946. 

Education: Cooperative Program in Ecuador. Treaties 
and Other International Acts Series 1749. Pub. 3191. 
24 pp. 10(f. 

Agreement Between the United States and Ecuador 
Extending and Modifying Asreenient of Jan. 22, 
1945— Effected by exchange of notes signed at Quito 
Oct. 2 and Nov. 14, 1947 ; entered into force Nov. 14, 
1947, effective from Jan. 22, 1948. 

Mutual Aid Settlement. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1750. I'ul). 3102. 30 pp. 150. 

Agreement and Exchanges of Notes Between the 
United States and the Netherlands— Signed at Wash- 
ington May 28, 1947 ; entered into force May 28, 1047 ; 
Agreement Between tlie United States and the 
Netherlands Indies- Signed at Washington May 28, 
1047 ; entered into force May 28, 1947 ; and Memoran- 
dum of Arrangement Between the United States, the 
United Kingdom, and the Netherlands— Signed at 
Washington" May 28, 1947; entered into force May 
28, 1947. 

Proceedings and Documents of the United Nations Mone- 
tary and Financial Conference. Bretton Woods, New 
Hampshire, July 1-22, 1944. Vol. I. International Organ- 
ization and Conference Series I, 3. Pub. 2860. 1126 pp. 
$3.50. 

Includes principal substantive documents showing the 
work of the three commissions of the Conference. 
The material in this volume outlines the proce<lures 
which led to the Articles of Agreement of both the 
International Monetary Fund and the International 
Baidv for Reconstruction and Development. Volume 
II will contain additional substantive documents, lists 
of docimients and symbols, and a comprehensive index 
to both volumes. 

Italy: Establishment of Four Power Naval Commission, 
Disposal of Excess Units of Italian Fleet, and Return by 
Soviet Union of United .States and British Warships on 
Loan. Treiities and Other International Acts Series 1733. 
Pub. 3155. 6 pp. 5^. 

Protocol Between the United States, the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and France — 
Signed at Paris February 10, 1947; entered into force 
February 10, 1947. 

American Dead in World War II; Sites in Italy for Estab- 
lishment of aiilitary Cemeteries. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 1743. Pub. 3183. 3 pp. 50. 

Agreement Between the United States and Italy Modi- 
fying the Agreement of September 13 and 26, 1946 — 
Effected by exchange of notes dated at Washington 
December IS, 1947, and January 21, 1948 ; entered into 
force January 21, 1048 ; And Un<lerstanding Between 
the United States and Italy Amending the agree- 
ment <if December 18, 1947, and January 21, 1948 — 
Effected hv exchange of notes dated at Washington 
March 24 and April 19, 1948; entered into f<irce April 
19, ]94,S. 

United States Educational Foundation in Greece. Trea- 
ties and Other International Acts Series 1751. Pub. 3193. 
39 pp. 150. 

Department of Slate Bulletin 



Agreement Between the United States and Oreece — 
Signed at Athens April 23, 104S; entered intn force 
April 23, 194S. 

Air Transport Services. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1753. I'ub. 3198. 13 pp. 5<t. 

Agreement Between the United States and Paraguay — 
Signed at Asuncii'in February 2S, 19-17 ; entered into 
force Febrnary IC, 1948. 

Regulation of Production and ."Marketing of Sugar. Trea- 
ties and Other International Acts Series 1755. I'ub. 
3213. 5 pp. 5^. 

Protocol Between the United States and Other Gov- 
ernments Prolon^ring the International Ai;reement of 
May 6, 1937— Signed at Ixmdon August 29, 1947; 
ratification advised by the Senate of the Unitetl States 
April 28, 1948; ratified by the President of the United 
States May 14, 1948 ; ratification of the United States 
deposited in the Archives of the Government of the 
I'nited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ire- 
land May 25, 1948; proclaimed by the President of the 
United States .Time 1, 1948 ; eliCective September 1, 1947. 

Military Obligations of Certain Persons Having Dual 

Nationality. Treaties and Other International Acts Series 
17.5t!. Pull! 3214. 4 pp. 5c. 

Agreement Between the United States and France — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Paris Febru- 
ary 25, 1948 ; entered into force February 25, 1948. 

Publications of the Department of State. July 1, 1948. 
Pub. 3219. 12 pp. Free. 

A semiannual list cumulative from January 1, 1948. 

Air Service: Transfer and Maintenance of Radio Range 
and SCS 51 Equipment. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 17r.»;. Pub. 3234. 6 pp. 5^. 

Agreement Between the United States and the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at London May 
8 and July 31. 1946 ; entered into force July 31, 1946. 



Documents and State Papers. 
60 pp. 30^. 



August 1948. Pub. 3236. 



Contains articles on freedom of the air; America's in- 
terests in Hungarian struggle for Independence ; and 
the problem of voting in the Security Council. 

Economic Cooperation with France Under Public Law 
472 — SOth Congress. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 17s;^. Pub. 3251. 59 pp. 1.5.;'. 

Agi-eement Between the United States and France — 
Signed at Paris June 28, 1948 ; entered into force July 
10, 1948. 

Presidential Elections. Provisions of the Constitution and 
of the United States Code. Pub. 3261. 12 pp. 5<l. 

Progress Report on Human Rights. International Organi- 
zation and Conference S'eries III, 13. Pub. 3262. 16 
pp. lOi*. 

An analysis of the accomplishments of the United 
Nations Commission on Human Rights through the 
two years of its existence showing the status of the 
declaration and covenant of htuaan rights as drafted 
in the Commission. 

The Berlin Crisis: A Report on the Moscow Discussions. 
1948. Kuroi)ean and Britisli Commonwealth Series 1. 
Pul). ;'.29S. (;l pp. 20C. 

October 10, 1948 



A review of the events lending to the Berlin crisis 
including documents showing stages of diplomatic 
discussion. 

No Compromise on Essential Freedoms. International 
Organization and Conference Series III, 16. Pub. 3299. 
13 pp. Free. 

Address by Secretary of State, George C. Marshall, 
before the General Assembly of the United Nations, 
Paris, September 23, 1948. 

THE CONGRESS 

Trade Agreements Program : Testimony before the Sub- 
committee on TarilTs and Foreign Trade of the Committee 
on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, SOth Cong., 
2d sess.. on the Operation of the Trade Agreements Pro- 
gram. May 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, 1948. vi, 542 pp. 

Structure of the United Nations and tlie Relations of 
the United States to the United Nations: Hearings be- 
fore the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Repre- 
sentatives, SOth Cong., 2d sess. May 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 
14, 1948. vi, 591 pp. [indexed.] 

The International Wheat Agreement : Hearings before 
a Subcommittee of the Committee on Foreign Relations, 
United States Senate, SOth Cong., 2d sess., on the ratifi- 
cation by the United States Government of the Interna- 
tional Wheat Agreement. May 14, 15, and 17, 1948. iii, 
226 pp. [Department of State, pp. 29-37.] 

War Claims Commission : Hearings before a Subcom- 
mittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States 
Senate, SOth Cong., 2d sess., on H. R. 4044, an act to amend 
the Trading with the Enemy Act, as amended ; to create 
a commission to make an inquiry and reiwrt witli respect 
to war claims; and to provide for relief for internees 
in certain cases. Feb. 17, 19. Mar. 9, and May 11, 1948. 
iii, 250 pp. [Department of State, pp. 21-27, 223-29.] 

Investigation of Questionable Trade Practices : No. 32, 
Hearings before the Subcommittee To Investigate Ques- 
tionable Trade Practices of the Committee on Public 
Works, House of Representatives, SOth Cong., 2d sess., 
pursuant to H. Res. 403, a resolution to authorize and 
direct the Public Works Committee, or any subcommittee 
thereof, to make a study of conspiratorial or otlier ques- 
tionable practices. Part 1, Jan. 5, 26, Feb. 26, Mar. 30, 31, 
Apr. 19, June 3, 4, Aug. 10, 194S. iv, 528 pp. [Department 
of State pp. 323-341.] 

Investigation, Disposition of Surplus Property : Hear- 
ings before the Surplus Property Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Department, 
SOth Cong., 2d sess., pursuant to H. Res. 90 and H. Res. 
100. Part 7 : Hearings on exportation of surplus ma- 
terials to foreign governments, leasing of aircraft by the 
Department of the Air Force, di.sposal of Lend-Lease ma- 
terials originally purchased for U.S.S.R. Mar. 24 and 25, 
Apr. 15. 1948. iv, 124 pp. [Department of State, pp. 2095- 
2104, 2135-48.] 

Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1948 : Hearings before 
tlie Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Depart- 
ments, House of Representatives, SOth Cong., 2d sess., on 
H. Con. Res. 131, Feb. 5, 6, and 7, 1948. iv, 332 pp. 

.\mending Section 32 (A) (2) of the Trading with the 
Enemy Act. H. Rept. 1842, SOth Cong., 2d sess., to ac- 
company H. R. .5960. 4 pp. 

Amending Section 33 of the Trading with the Enemy 
Act. H. Rept. 1843, SOth Cong., 2d sess., to accompany 
H. R. 6110. 3 pp. 

Protecting the United States Against Un-American and 
Subversive Activities. H. Rept. 1844, SOth Cong., 2d sess., 
to accompany H. R. .5852. 14 pp. 

Final Report on Foreign Aid of the House Select Com- 
mittee on Foreign Aid, pursuant to H. Res 296, a resolu- 
tion creating a Select Committee on Foreign Aid. H. Rept. 
1845, SOth Cong., 2d .sess. xvi, 8S3 pp. 

479 



'£enM' 



The U.N. and Specialized Agencies Pag« 

The Struggle for Human Rights. Address by 

Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt 457 

Albania and Bulgaria Continue To Reject 
Unscob: 
Summary of U.S.-Bulgarian Correspond- 
ence 461 

Albania's Reply to Tripartite Appeal . . . 461 

The U.S. in the U.N 463 

The Opportunity of the National Commis- 
sion 472 

Occupation Matters 

The Berlin Crisis: 

U.S. Notifies U.N. of Serious Situation . . 455 

List of Related Documents 456 

Position on Withdrawal of Troops From 
Korea. Exchange of Notes Between 
U.S. and Soviet Governments 456 

Economic Affairs 

Representatives to Weights and Measures 

Conference 466 

Policy on Commercial Fishing in Pacific 
Island Trust Territory: 

Joint Agency Approval 468 

Te.xt of Policy Directives 469 

U.S. Vessels Sailing to Arctic in Support of 
Canadian-U.S. Joint Weather Station 

Program 471 

Records of Nares and Peary Canadian Arctic 

Expeditions Found 471 

Control of Foreign Assets in U.S. Ended . . 472 

General Policy 

Two U.S. Citizens Held Incommunicado in 

Hungary Released 469 

Sale of Surplus Combat Materiel 477 

Ambassador Butler To Represent President 

at Cuban Inauguration 470 

Treaty Information 

Toward Revision of the Geneva Convention. 

Article by Wilham H. McCahon .... 464 



Treaty Information — Continued Page 

Agreement Between U.S.-U.K. Proposing 

International Committee on Scrap . . . 467 
Economic Cooperation Agreement With Por- 
tugal Signed 470 

Air Transport Agreement With Bolivia . . . 470 
Proclamation on Revision of Ilo Conven- 
tion 472 

Surplus Property Agreements on Educational 
Exchange With United Kingdom and 
New Zealand Signed 473 

International information and 
Cultural Affairs 

Department of State To Have Full Direction 

of Voice of America Programs 470 

Freedom of Information. Statement by 

Secretary Marshall 473 

Surplus Property Agreements on Educational 
Exchange With United Kingdom and 

New Zealand Signed 473 

Brazilian Cultural Leader Visits U.S. . . . 474 

Brazilian Philosopher Visits U.S 474 

Visit of Chilean Historian 474 

Language Professor To Teach in Haiti . . . 474 

The Department 

Schedule of Fees by Interim Office for German 

Affairs 477 

Publications 

Foreign Relations of the United States, 1932, 

Volume I, Released 477 

Other Publications 478 

The Foreign Service 

Rules of Precedence Relating to Foreign 

Service and Government Officers . . . 475 
Fifteen Hundred Persons Complete Foreign 

Service Examinations 475 

Test Program Conducted for International 

Health Information 476 

Closing of Consular Offices and Opening of 

New Offices 476 

The Congress 479 



%<yrvt^mwt(y}^ 



WllUam H. McCahon, author of tlie article on the Inter- 
national Committee of the Red Cross, is Special Assistant to the 
Chief of the Division of Protective Services, Office of Controls, 
Department of State. Mr. McCahon served as Technical Adviser 
on the U.S. Delegation to the Seventeenth International Red 
Cross Conference. 



¥! 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1949 



tJne/ ^eha^t^nteni/ y(w t/taie^ 





PROGRESS OF U.N. IN PARIS • Statements by the 

President and Secretary Marshall ........ 483 

DISCUSSION IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL OF THE 

BERLIN CRISIS • Statement by Philip C. Jessnp . . 484 

FIRST CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL 

THEATRE INSTITUTE • Article by Rosamond Gilder . 488 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XIX, No. 485 
October 17, 1948 



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Oaober 17,1948 



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THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Third Regular Session of the General Assembly 



Discussions on Progress of U.N. in Paris 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House October 9] 

General Marshall has returned to Washington 
at my request to report to me on the progress of 
the work of the various United Nations bodies in 
Paris. I had a long talk with him this morning, 
and again this afternoon. He gave me a detailed 
picture of what has been taking place in Paris, and 
we discussed questions relating to the future 
course of this Government in the various matters 
at issue. 

With regard to the report published in this 
morning's press concerning a possible journey of 
Chief Justice Vinson to Moscow, the facts are as 
follows : On last Tuesday, when I communicated 
with Secretary Marshall, I told him of my continu- 
ing great desire to see peace firmly established in 
the world, and of my particular concern at this time 
over the attitude taken by the Soviet representa- 
tives regarding the atomic problem. I said that 
I was wondering whether their attitude did not 
reflect a misunderstanding in the minds of the 
Soviet leaders so serious, from the standpoint of 
world peace in general, that we would be remiss if 
we left undone anything that might conceivably 



serve to dispel it. I asked the Secretary whether 
he felt that a useful purpose would be served by 
sending to Moscow Chief Justice Vinson, in an 
effort to make the Soviet leaders understand the 
seriousness and sincerity of the feelings of the 
people of the United States about these matters. 
Secretary Marshall described to me the situation 
which we faced in Paris, and, in the light of his 
report and the possibilities of misunderstanding 
to which any unilateral action, however desirable 
otherwise, could lead at present, I decided not to 
take this step. 

My talk with Secretary Marshall has been grati- 
fying to me. I was glad to hear his report of the 
unity which has prevailed between ourselves and 
the French and British representatives in Paris in 
all phases of the handling of the Berlin crisis, and 
of the earnest efforts being made by the Security 
Council and the General Assembly of the United 
Nations to find solutions to many of the other prob- 
lems which have been troubling people everywhere. 
I was glad to be able to assure him of the determi- 
nation with which people in this country are sup- 
porting our efforts to find the road to peace. 



STATEMENT BY SECRETARY MARSHALL 



[Released to the press October 9] 

At his press conference on October 9 Secretary 
of State George C. Marshall said : 

"The President called me home to go over with 
him the intimate details of what had happened in 
Paris. The daily events had been reported by 
radio. We settled on this week end as being the 
time most convenient to both of us to get together. 
I did not know until I got off the plane this morn- 
ing of the statements in the press regarding the 
matter of Chief Justice Vinson making a direct 
approach to Generalissimo Stalin. 

Due to his very special position in this matter, 
the President had been deeply concerned by the 
intransigent attitude of the Soviet Government 
during the debate of the atomic problem of the 
past ten days. He called me late Tuesday after- 

Oc/ofaer U, 1948 



noon to a teletype conference and discussed with 
me the proposal of sending Justice Vinson direct 
to Moscow. After discussing the matter with him 
by teletype, the President decided it would not be 
advisable to take this action. Tlie matter was then 
dropped. I had called to my attention in Paris 
and since my arrival here several statements in the 
press or by radio to the effect that there was a 
split between the President and the Secretary of 
State regarding important matters of foreign rela- 
tions. There is no foundation for this. As a 
matter of fact, the policy to be followed by our 
Delegation in the current meeting of the United 
Nations General Assembly and of the Security 
Council was decided upon by the President before 
I left for Paris and has been the basis for the 
implementation by our delegates of the American 

483 



THE UNITBD NATIONS AND SPECIAUZED AGENCIES 

position in the conferences in Paris. Such state- 
ments can do no good and they certainly can do 
a great deal of harm and I deplore them. 

My plans at present are a little indefinite but 
I will probably return tomorrow night to Paris. 
The issues being discussed there are highly im- 
portant and it is important that I be present." 

Asked whether this Government had reached a 
position of reopening discussions of the German 
question with the Soviet Union, Secretary Marshall 
said: 



"We are perfectly ready to enter into negotia- 
tions with the Council of Foreign Ministers on the 
Berlin question, on the German question, if and 
provided first, the blockade is raised." 

In this connection the Secretary was asked 
whether this willingness on the part of the United 
States to reopen negotiations permitted or ex- 
cluded talks with the Foreign Ministers simultane- 
ously with the lifting of the blockade. Secretary 
Marshall replied: "Yes, it precludes that. The 
blockade must be lifted before we meet." 



Discussion In tiie Security Council of the Berlin Crisis^ 



STATEMENT BY PHILIP C. JESSUP 
Deputy U.S. Representative in the Security Council 



[Released to the press October 8] 

The United States Government has sought by 
peaceful means to remove the threat to peace 
created by the Soviet Union, which, while it re- 
mains, is the insuperable obstacle to free nego- 
tiation. Our very resort to the Security Council 
is a further use of the same peaceful means and is 
directed to the same end. The United States will 
be no party to encouraging or submitting to prac- 
tices which would make a mockery of the Charter. 

Secretary Marshall also declared in his address : 
"For its part, the United States is prepared to seek 
in every possible way, in any appropriate forum, 
a constructive and peaceful settlement of the po- 
litical controversies which contribute to the pres- 
ent tension and uncertainty." I say expressly that 
this statement includes continued readiness of the 
United States to negotiate with the Soviet Gov- 
ernment in any appropriate forum regarding any 
issue outstanding between it and the United States 
Government. The term "any appropriate forum" 
includes the Council of Foreign Ministers. But 
what we are now discussing is tliis barrier to nego- 
tiations — this threat to the peace created by the 
Soviet blockade of Berlin. The appropriate 
forum for discussion of the threat to peace is this 
Security Council. We are here to discuss it. 

What constitutes a "threat to peace" as that term 
is used in article 39 ? A threat to peace is created 
when a state uses force or threat of force to secure 



' Excerpts from Mr. Jessup's statement made before the 
Security Council on Oct. 6, 1948. In this statement Mr. 
Jessup reviewed the development of the Berlin blockade 
and the breakdown of the discussions at Moscow between 
representatives of the Western Powers and the Soviet 
Union. For this material see The Berlin Crisis, A Report 
of the Moscoic Discussions, 1948, Department of State 
publication 3298. 

484 



compliance with its demands. Acts of the Soviet 
Government in illegally obstructing by threat of 
force the access of three Western Powers to Ber- 
lin creates a threat to peace. 



The Soviet Union may pretend it cannot under- 
stand why it can be charged with threat or use 
of force against the United States, France, i^nd 
the United Kingdom when a primary consequence 
of its action falls directly and intentionally upon 
the civilian population of Berlin for whose well- 
being the three Western occupying powers are re- 
sponsible. That an effort should be made to de- 
prive two and one-half million men, women, and 
children of medicines, food, clothing, and fuel, to 
subject them to cold and starvation and disease, 
may seem to some a small matter. But to us, the 
welfare of people committed to our charge is a 
matter of serious concern. We cannot be callous 
to the sufi'ering of millions of people in any coun- 
try, much less when we have responsibility for 
them as an occupying power. 

Today the daily living requirements of these 
2,500,000 people, two thirds of the population of 
Berlin, are being met by the combined efforts of 
the British and American air forces; 250 planes 
are supplying the western sectors of Berlin with 
food, coal, and other essentials. Efforts of thou- 
sands of American and British and French men 
and women have been devoted to the organization 
and establishment of an air bridge, which, in one 
day, has delivered almost 7,000 tons of supplies 
to the land-blocked city. The Security Council, 
as well as the population of Berlin, may well re- 
gard the air-lift as a symbol of peace and of meth- 
ods of a pacific settlement. 

But the fact that the courage and ingenuity of 
men and women who are participating in this stu- 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



ponduous achievement saved the people in Berlin 
from much of the suffering which the Soviet Gov- 
ernment sought to enforce upon them does not 
mean the threat to peace is removed. The Mem- 
bers of the Council will recall that Marshal So- 
kolovsky, in an obvious attempt to counteract the 
air-lift, in complete disregard of the directive 
as interpreted by Premier Stalin himself, in- 
sisted upon new restrictions upon air transporta- 
tion between Berlin and the Western zones of Ger- 
many. The Soviet Government, in a note of Sep- 
tember 25, instead of repudiating Marshal 
Sokolovsky's action, added new demands that 
air communications should be subjected to the con- 
trol of the Soviet command. 



Origin of Rights 

The United States is in Berlin as of right. The 
rights of the United States as a joint occupying 
power in Berlin derive from the total defeat and 
unconditional surrender of Germany. Article I of 
jirotocol on zones of occupation in Germany agreed 
to by the Soviet Union in the European Advisory 
Commission on November 14, 1944, provides : 

"I. Germany, within frontiers as were on De- 
cember 31, 1937, will, for purposes of occupation, 
be divided into three zones, one of which will be 
allotted to each of three powers, and a special Ber- 
lin area, which will be under joint occupation by 
the three powers." 

This agreement (later amended to include 
France) established the area of Berlin as an in- 
ternational enclave to be jointly occupied and 
administered by four powers. 

The representatives of commanders-in-chief 
adopted, on July 7, 1945, a resolution establishing 
tlie Allied Kommandatura for administration of 
Berlin. The Kommandatura was to be under the 
direction of the chief military commandant, which 
post was to be held in rotation by each of four 
military commanders. The chief military com- 
mandant in consultation with the other command- 
ers was to exercise administration of all Berlin 
sectors when a question of principle and problems 
common to all sectors arose. In order to exercise 
supervision of Berlin local government, one or two 
representatives from each Allied command were 
to be attached to each section of the local German 
government. 

Implicit in these agreements is the right of each 
of the four powers to free access to and egress from 
the greater Berlin area. Xot only has this right 
been clearly recognized and confirmed by the So- 
viet Union by practice and usage for almost three 
years, but it has been the subject of written agree- 
ments between the respective governments as well 
as by their representatives in the Allied Control 
Council for Germany. Rights of free access were 

Ocfofaer 17, 1948 



THB UN/rfD NATIONS AND SPECIALIZeO AGCNCIBS 

directly specified in the message from President 
Truman to Premier Stalin on June 14, 1945, which 
agreed to withdraw back to the prescribed zonal 
boundaries those forces which in the course of the 
war had overrun part of the territory which later 
became the Soviet zone of occupation, provided 
satisfactory arrangements for free access by rail, 
road, and air to the forces in Berlin could be en- 
tered into between the military commanders. I 
quote one sentence from the Truman message : 

". . . As to Germany, I am ready to have in- 
structions issued to all American troops to begin 
withdrawal into their own zone on June 21 in 
accordance with arrangements between the respec- 
tive commanders, including in these arrangements 
simultaneous movement of the national garrisons 
into greater Berlin and provision of free access by 
air, road and rail from Frankfurt and Bremen to 
Berlin for United States forces." 

Premier Stalin replied on June 16, 1945, accept- 
ing this plan excepting for a change in date. Pre- 
mier Stalin gave assurances that all necessary 
measures would be taken in accordance with the 
plan. Correspondence in a similar sense took 
place between Premier Stalin and Prime Minister 
Churchill. Premier Stalin thus agreed that the 
Western occupying powers should have "free access 
by air, road and rail" to Berlin. Even in the 
Russian language, "free access" does not mean 
"blockade". 

The four zone commanders met in Berlin on 
June 29, 1945, to put the agreement of the Chiefs 
of State into force. At this meeting it was agreed 
that the Western Powers would withdraw their 
forces from the Soviet zone and would have the 
use of the Helmstedt-Berlin Autobahn and rail 
routes without restriction and subject only to the 
normal traffic regulations of the Soviet zone. In 
replv to a question from General Clay, Marshal 
Zhukov, the Soviet commander, stated : "It will be 
necessary for vehicles to be governed by Russian 
road signs, military police, document checking, but 
no inspection of cargo — the Soviets are not inter- 
ested in what is being hauled, how much or how 
many trucks are moving." In accordance with 
this understanding, the United States, whose 
armed forces had penetrated deep into lands of 
Saxony and Thuringia, in the Soviet zone, with- 
drew its forces to its zone. Simultaneously, 
United States garrisoning forces took up their 
position in Berlin. 

The right of the United States to be in Berlin 
thus stems from the same source as the right of the 
Soviet Union. Rights of occupying powers are 
co-equal as to fi'eedom of access, occupation, and 
administration of the area. 

Confirmation by Agreements and Usage 

It clearly results from these undertakings that 
Berlin is not a part of the Soviet zone of occupa- 

485 



THf UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

tion, but is, by express agreement, an international 
enclave. Commitments entered into in good faith 
by the commanders of the four zones of occupation, 
agreements reached by the Allied Control Author- 
ity in Germany, as well as uncontested usage, have 
recognized basic rights of the United States in the 
joint administration of Berlin and rights of free- 
dom of access thereto for the purpose of fulfilling 
United States obligations and responsibilities as an 
occupying power. 

Since July 7, 1945, it agreed that supplies neces- 
sary for the welfare of the people of Berlin were a 
joint responsibility of the four powers. There 
have been a series of quadripartite agreements en- 
tered into between July 1945 and April 1948 for 
the joint provision of food, solid fuels and electric 
IDOwer, and medical supplies. 

All agreements, of course, carried with them the 
right of access to permit the Western occupying 
powers to bring their share of supplies to Berlin. 

Pursuant to agreement in the Control Council 
establishing train paths, military trains regularly 
traversed the Helmstedt-Berlin train route. 
There was no inspection by Soviet authorities and 
no Soviet permit was required for outgoing ship- 
ments from the Berlin area. Proof of identity 
through proper documentation was sufficient to 
coniply with traffic regulations, whicli during this 
period were reasonable and were fully accepted by 
the Western Powers. Similarly, personnel of the 
United States Military Forces and other United 
States officials traveled freely by train or motorcar 
over the rail and Autobahn'routes from Berlin to 
Helmstedt without Soviet visa. 

Air corridors were established between the 
Western zones and Berlin with unrestricted flight, 
subject, of course, to safety regulations. Three 
such corridors were established in November 1945 
by Four Power agreement in the Allied Control 
Council to augment the single provisional corridor 
agreed to in the meeting of the Allied Command- 
ers-in-Chief on July 7, 1945. In December 1945 
uniform safety regulations were adopted in these 
corridors, under which aircraft have operated con- 
tinuously since that date. These regulations were 
reaffirmed by publication on October 22, 1946, of 
the agreed second revision of these flight rules. 
In practice, military and civilian airline aircraft 
of the three Western Powers used the corridors 
for unlimited flight without notification to Soviet 
authorities. 

Bilateral agreements were made by British and 
Soviet authorities concerning barge traffic between 
their two zones. Quadripartite arrangements con- 
cerning postal traffic, telecommunications and 
movement of Germans between the Western zones 
and Berlin were concurred in, and carried out 
satisfactorily, prior to institution by the Soviet 
Union of blockade measures. 

There can thus be no question of the legal basis 

4a6 



for United States rights to free access to Berlin or 
of recognition of these rights by the Soviet Union. 

Regulation of Traffic 

The United States maintains its basic juridical 
rights of fi'ee access to Berlin. These are clearly 
established and recognized by the Soviet Govern- 
ment. As every reasonable and practical person 
knows, rail, road, barge, and air traffic must be 
subject to some degree of regulation. Let me re- 
peat the statement of Marshal Zhukov on June 29, 
1945: 

"It will be necessary for vehicles to be governed 
by Russian roadsigns, military police, and docu- 
ments checking, but no inspection of cargo — 
Soviets not interested in what is being hauled, how 
much or how many trucks are moving." 

The United States agi-eed to this position and 
we still agree. We do not assert freedom of access 
means absence of reasonable regulations, but pre- 
caution cannot be distorted to mean imposition of 
restrictions to the i^oint where the principle of 
free access is completely strangled. The United 
States will not permit the Soviet Govermnent to 
use the agreed principle of reasonable regulation 
as a measure to cloak the threat of force designed 
to force the United States to abandon Berlin to 
single domination and rule by the Soviet Union. 

Development of tlie Berlin Blocl<ade 

When the three Western Powers on July 3 
formally protested in Moscow against the block- 
ade, the Soviet Government's reply of July 14 con- 
tained no reference to the previous Soviet explana- 
tion that the blockade measures were due to "tech- 
nical difficulties". Rather it openly admitted the 
blockade was in effect retaliation against actions 
of the Western Powers in their own occupation 
zones of Germany, empliasizing in this connection 
the currency reform of the- Western zones. Now, 
for the first time, and in direct conflict with all 
agreements to the contrary, the Soviet Government 
put forward the claim that Berlin "is a part of" 
the Soviet zone of Germany. The Soviet note 
ended with the contention that Berlin problems 
were inseparably linked with questions involving 
the whole of Germany and negotiations would be 
effective only if they encompassed the entire Ger- 
man situation. Moreover, the Soviet Government 
refused to permit the restoration of lines of com- 
munication between the Western zones and Berlin, 
which restoration was declared by the United 
States Government to be a prerequisite for any 
negotiations. 

Finally, the hollowness of various Soviet pre- 
texts for imposition of the Berlin blockade was 
completely exposed at the recent meetings of the 
four military governors when, in total disregard 
of the dii'ective agreed upon in Moscow, the Soviets 
demanded measures of permanent control of traf- 

Department of Sfafe Bullef'm 



fie between Berlin and the West, measures to be 
continued even after Western zone currency would 
have been removed from Berlin. The Soviet note 
of September 22 reinforced this demand and thus 
gave final proof, if any were needed, that Soviet 
blockade measures are designed to force the three 
Western Powers to abandon imder duress their 
rightful position in Berlin. 

Soviet Attacks on Berlin Municipal Institutions 

In addition to the blockade, the Soviet Govern- 
ment, to the same end, resorted to other measures 
of duress against the Western Powers by attempt- 
ing to undermine and sabotage the lawfully con- 
stituted city government of Berlin. This govern- 
ment had been formed in accordance with the 
temporary constitution of Berlin — an instrument 
approved by the Allied Control Authority. 



United States licensed German publications 
were repeatedly confiscated by German Soviet 
sector police in direct violation of Control Council 
directive number 55. The Soviet licensed press in 
Berlin, which of course prints onl}' items approved 
by the Soviet authorities, became more strident in 
attacks on the Western Powers and the elected 
city government of Berlin. 

Perhaps most serious, Soviet authorities con- 
doned and encouraged public disorders in the 
Soviet sector of Berlin. 

Discussions With Soviet Government 

Indeed, since the very beginning of the Soviet 
imposition of the illegal blockade, the United 
States Government has made direct, repeated, and 
persistent efforts to adjust with the Soviet Govern- 
ment the dangerous situation in Berlin. 

These efforts were made to obtain the lifting of 
the blockade which has created a threat to peace 
which the Security Council is now considering. 

To achieve this objective, the United States Gov- 
ernment was prepared, and is still prepared, to 
work out in good faith practical arrangements 
which would permit the introduction of the Ger- 
man mark of the Soviet zone, under appropriate 
Four Power control, as the single currency for 
Berlin. However, it was not and is not willing to 
yield its rights and obligations regarding Berlin 
or Germany under coercive pressure of the Soviet 
blockade. It was made clear that the removal of 
this coercive pressure would open the door to ne- 
gotiations on other outstanding issues regarding 
Berlin. This was repeatedly expressed, was and 
still is the policy of the United States Government. 



The course of the negotiations in Berlin was 
characterized by the failure of the Soviet military 
governor to abide by the understandings reached 
in Moscow. ^ 

Ocfober 17, 1948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

He proposed new restrictions on transport by 
demanding that air trailic be limited to supplying 
the needs of the occupation forces in Berlin. No 
such restriction heretofore existed or was ever 
agreed to. The Directive to the four military gov- 
ernors called for the removal of all restrictions, 
not the imposition of new ones. 



On September 22, the three Western Govern- 
ments sent identical notes to the Soviet Govern- 
ment in which they set forth their final position 
on three issues of principle. In view of the mani- 
fest unwillingness of the Soviet authorities to 
carry out the agreement reached in Moscow, the 
three Western Governments also called upon the 
Soviet Government to lift the blockade and to 
specify the date on which that would be done. The 
illegal blockade had been then imposed for over 
three months. Further talk was obviously point- 
less. Action by the Soviet Union to cease its at- 
tempt to induce compliance by duress was essential. 

The Soviet Government made its unsatisfactory 
reply on September 25. It went even further 
than Marshal Sokolovsky in demanding control 
by the Soviet military command over air traffic 
between Berlin and the West. 



Role of the Security Council 

The salient feature of the case before the Se- 
curity Council is that the Soviet blockade is still 
maintained and thus continues in existence a threat 
to the peace which it created. 

That is the reason why this case has been brought 
before the Council as a threat to peace within the 
meaning of chapter VII of the Charter. Con- 
sidering the circumstances which confront us it 
would have been disingenuous to call the blockade 
and its actual, as well as its potential, consequences 
by any other name. 

However, the fact that this matter comes before 
the Council under chapter VII of the Charter does 
not mean the Council is precluded from using any 
of the machinery of pacific settlement suggested 
in any part of the Charter. In this case, as in all 
cases that come before it, the Security Council has 
the greatest flexibility of action in order to carry 
out the primary responsibility conferred upon it 
for maintenance of peace. 

Mr. President, we do not bring this case to the 
Security Council with any cut-and-dried formula 
for its solution. It is our hope the Security Coun- 
cil can assist in removing the threat to peace. Noth- 
ing which has happened has changed our position 
on that point. The moment that the blockade is 
lifted, the United States is ready to have an im- 
mediate meeting of the Council of Foreign Min- 
isters to discuss with the Soviet Union any ques- 
tions relating to Germany. 

487 



First Congress of the International Theatre Institute 

BY ROSAMOND GILDER 



The International Theatre Institute came into 
official existence on July 1, 1948. This important 
event in world theater was the outcome of more 
than two years' work on the part of a large number 
of theater workers in more than twenty countries. 
Encouraged and assisted by the United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and tultural Organization 
(UxESCo), theater experts from Europe, Asia, the 
United Kingdom, and North and South America 
had met at Paris. France, in the summer of 1947 
and had laid the foundation of a structure which is 
planned as a permanent woi-ld-wide autonomous 
organization serving, sustaining, and developing 
the theater in every country of the globe. 

The concept has its basis in the conviction that 
the artists of the world speak a common language 
and can serve as valuable agents in obtaining mu- 
tual understanding and good will among nations. 
As early as November 1946. the creation of a per- 
manent International Institute was envisaged by 
UxEsco's committees. The project had been car- 
ried to completion by Uxesco. not only by the call- 
ing of the experts' meeting in 1947 and' the Con- 
gress in 1948, but by the untiring efforts of the 
theater section of Uxesco"s Paris secretariat where 
there has been a permanent focus of continuing 
activity through the past two years. Today, as a 
result of UxESco's efforts, the theaters of the' world 
have a well-organized international body which 
every country capable of setting up a national 
center within its own borders is invited to join. It 
has a progi-am of activities, immediate and long- 
range, an active executive committee and, by Janu- 
ary 1, 1949. it will have a home of its own. 
UNESCO, having fostered this new international 
body, will, it is confidently expected, continue to 
assist it for the next few years. In the meanwhile, 
the Institute will build up its own resources, in- 
crease its membership, and become a force in "pro- 
moting international exchange in the knowledge 
and practice of the arts", as its constitution 
succinctly states. 

Twenty countries were represented at the First 
International Theatre Congress of the Interna- 
tional Theatre Institute which was held at Praha, 
Czechoslovakia, from June 28 to July 3, 1948. 
These were Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, 
China, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egvpt, Finland, 
France, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Po- 
land, Sweden, Switzerland, the Union of South 
Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States, 
and Yugoslavia. After a formal opening session 

488 



at which the host country was represented by the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of 
Education, and speeches were made by Julian 
Huxley, Director General of Unesco, Jindrich 
Honzl, director of the National Theatre and head 
of the Czechoslovak Delegation, and J. B. Priest- 
ley, the British playwright who had been chairman 
of the interim committee, the delegates went into 
plenary session and elected Mr. Priestley president 
of the Congress. 

Five days were none too long for the three major 
subcommittees into which the Congress resolved 
itself to accomplish their tasks. The Committee 
on Organization, headed by Emil Oprecht of 
Switzerland, guided the draft charter through its 
last phases and untangled the various organiza- 
tional snarls. The Committee on the Exchange of 
Companies, under the chairmanship of Dr. Arnold 
Szyfman of Poland, worked out ways and means 
to smooth the path of theater groups planning in- 
ternational tours. The Committee on Informa- 
tion, presided over Dr. Yui Shan^Yuen of China 
and Mile. Jeanne Laurent of the French Ministry 
of Education, made a host of decisions leading to 
the immediate establishment of an information 
bulletin and other publications. 

When the Congress met in final plenary session 
July 1, the following countries, represented by dele- 
gates of fully established national centers, voted 
the International Theatre Institute into being: 
Austria, Belgimn, China, Czechoslovakia, France, 
Poland, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. 
An Executive Committee was elected of which 
Arman Salacrou, the French playwright, is presi- 
dent, and the other members are Erich Nikowitz, 
Austrian actor and director; Maurice Huisman, 
director of the Belgium National Theatre; S. I. 
Hsuing, Chinese author and playwright ; Jindrich 
Honzl, director of the National Theatre, Praha; 
Kichard Ordynski, Polish director-designer; 
Llewellj'n Rees, drama director of the Arts Coun- 
cil of Great Britain ; and Emil Oprecht, president 
of the Association of Swiss Theatre Directors. 
The Executive Committee at its first meeting de- 
cided on Paris as the temporary headquarters of 
the International Theatre Institute and named 
Maurice Kurtz as secretary general, the appoint- 
ment to take effect when the Institute moves to 
its o.wn quarters in January 1949. It also ap- 
pointed an Editorial Committee of four — Rosa- 
mond Gilder, Rene Hainaux, Emil Oprecht, and 
Kenneth Rae — to work out details of the inf orma- 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



tion bulletin which will appear this year and to 
phiii for future publications. 

The United States was represented at the Praha 
Congress by an observer delegation of three. Two 
of the delegates, Rosamond Gilder and Warren 
Caro, were nominated by the Department of State 
while Clarence Derwent, president of Actors' 
Equity, represented the American National Thea- 
tre and Academy. The American delegates were 
active on all the committees. Two of them, Miss 
Gilder and Mr. Derwent, had attended the meet- 
ing of experts at Paris in 1947 and had taken part 
in the formulation of the progi'am and in the 
drafting of the charter. The United Kingdom 
sent a large delegation representing its newly 
founded National Centre. Like the national cen- 
ters of France. Belgium, and other countries, the 
British Centre was officially organized by the Min- 
istry of Education and is supported and financed 
by the British Council and the Arts Council, both 
of which operate under government subsidies. It 
has enlisted the cooperation of such nongovern- 
mental agencies as the British Equity and the 
League of British Dramatists and has set up head- 
quarters in the office of the Joint Council of the 
National Theatre and the Old Vic. The French 
CeJitre also has the official and financial backing 
of the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs and has likewise secured the co- 
operation of independent artists' groups and 
unions. The Czechoslovak Centre shows a slightly 
different organizational pattern in that it is en- 
tirely under the direction of the government Min- 
istries of Education and Information. 

The United States Center, which has already 
been established under the joint chairmanship of 
Clarence Derwent, president of Actors' Equity, 
and Moss Hart, president of the Dramatists' Guild, 
will necessarily have a different form. It must be 
supported by private funds as no government 
agency exists to give it backing. However, the 
Center does have the backing of the American 
National Theatre and Academy which holds a 
charter from the Congress of the United States. 
The L^nited States Center of the International 
Theatre Institute is. as it were, the foreign-affairs 
branch of the American National Theatre and 
Academy. It has a separate committee of its own 
representing all the theater unions and important 
national irroups. professional and nonprofessional. 
At its offices at 63 West 44th Street in New York 



THE UN/TED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

City, it has already undertaken the duties indi- 
cated in the International Theatre Institute char- 
ter: it has published a mimeographed Interna- 
tional News Bulletin, acted as friend and adviser to 
traveling theater students and workers, established 
contact with the International Office at Paris and 
with other national centers in Europe and else- 
where. In addition, it serves as the advisory panel 
on dramatic arts for the United States National 
Commission of Uxesco. As soon as the delegates 
to the First Congress can report to the Conunittee 
of the United States Center and to the American 
National Theatre and Academj' and can secure the 
funds necessary for the L'nitecl States share of the 
International Office of the Institute, the American 
theater should take its place as an active and force- 
ful member of this world movement. 

Of what value is the International Theatre In- 
stitute to the theater as a whole ? This is a prac- 
tical question that J. B. Priestley, the most prac- 
tical of idealists, can best answer. In his preface 
to the International Theatre Institute report, he 
says that the International Theatre Institute — 
"will collect and then distribute a great deal of 
valuable information : about new plays and pro- 
ductions in all countries concerned; about the 
stage dimensions, technical resources, seating ca- 
pacities of the chief playhouses in all these coun- 
tries; about copyright laws, censorship regula- 
tions, methods of payment and emplo5-ment in its 
member countries. Again it will try to remove the 
various obstacles that prevent the successful ex- 
change of theatrical companies, to improve trans- 
port arrangements for companies touring abroad, 
to break through the walls of currency regulations 
and customs dues. 

"Then, when the Institute is firmly established 
and has linked the theatre folk of all nations, it 
can proceed to organize festivals and exhibitions, 
produce a journal in several languages, create the- 
atrical scholarships and fellowships, advise the 
newer coimtries on the organization of good the- 
atres, and do everything possible (without acting 
as financial manager) to assist distinguished the- 
atrical comiDanies to cross frontiers, and, if neces- 
sary, tour the wide world itself. Finally, the 
annual Congi'ess of the Institute will enable the- 
atrical workers in all countries to meet and ex- 
change ideas and plan joint action." 

In all of this it is quite evident that the Ameri- 
can theater has much both to give and to receive. 



Ocfofaer ?7, 1948 

808865 — 18 2 



489 



The United States in tlie United Nations 



Atomic Energy 

The atomic issue Tvas referred last week to an 
11-nation subcommittee of Committee 1 with in- 
structions to study and report on all resolutions 
on the question.^ On October 12 the subcommit- 
tee, the Soviet Union and the Ukraine dissent- 
ing, adopted and sent to the full Committee an 
amended Canadian resolution accepting as the 
basis for future work the control plan of the U. N. 
Atomic Commission but leaving further detailed 
work in suspension until the Soviet opposition is 
modified. 

On October 15 Mr. Osborn during a meeting of 
the disarmament subcommittee of Committee 1 
called upon the Soviet Delegation to show by an- 
swering four specific questions whether or not its 
proposal for major power disarmament is sincere. 
He asked Jacob Malik, the Soviet Delegate, the 
following questions: 

Fii-st, whether Soviet leaders would disavow ex- 
jiansionism by disbanding their Communist fifth 
columns in countries all over the world. 

Second, whether the U.S.S.R. would disavow 
the use of the veto in implementing inspection and 
control of armaments by an international agency. 

Third, whether the iron curtain would be with- 
drawn so that the world could know what is going 
on in the Soviet Union and thus be relieved of 
fears glowing out of Soviet secretiveness. 

Finally, "Is there not a certain effrontery in the 
Soviet Union presenting to this body such a resolu- 
tion in the name of a dictatorship which Premier 
Stalin himself has described as one based on vio- 
lence and not on law?" 

The Berlin Situation 

On October 15 the Security Council resumed its 
consideration of the Berlin question, which the 
Western powers charge is threatening world peace 
and security. 

Acting Council President Juan A. Bramuglia of 
Argentina, on behalf of the six neutral nations of 
the Council that are attempting to compose the 
differences between the Western powers and the 
Soviet Union, asked the four powers concerned for 
additional information regarding the Bei'lin 
blockade. 

"Firstly", he said, "we request the representa- 
tives of the United States, the United Kingdom, 
France, and the U.S.S.R. to explain the initial 
imposition of restrictions upon communications, 
transport, or commerce between Western Germany 
and the Soviet zones, the details of and the present 

' Including those of Canada, the Soviet Union, Syria, and 
Australia. See V. N. doc. A/C.1/317, Oct. 7, 1948. 

490 



status of the restrictions. Secondly, we request 
them to kindly explain the agreement involved in 
tlie instructions given to the military governors of 
the four powers in Berlin, and to give the detailed 
reasons that prevented their implementation." 

The three Western powers promised to submit 
careful and comprehensive answers. Mr. Vyshin- 
sky refused to coojierate. 

Support of ERP 

The Norwegian and Netherlands Delegates to 
the United Nations on October 13 defended the 
European Recovery Program against Soviet at- 
tacks. Speaking before the Economic and Finan- 
cial Committee, Finn Moe, of Norway, credited the 
program with having staved off a European de- 
pression and started Europe on its way to recovery. 

C. L. Patijn, of the Netherlands, said that the 
])rogram "has given us firm ground under our feet 
for the first time in Europe's history." He also 
noted that the Polish Delegate had spoken of 
economic degradation instead of the promised 
prosperity. "The truth", he said, "is that the pro- 
duction of the 16 countries is showing a marked 
increase both in agriculture and industry." Dr. 
Patijn stated that the Soviet Union should "hear 
liow the vast masses of our workers speak with 
deep understanding of the Marshall Plan objec- 
tives and awareness of leaders that without it the 
standard of living of the workers would decline 25 
percent." 

Mr. Moe said that it was interesting that the 
critics of the Recovei-y Program had no other solu- 
tion for Europe's economic ills. 

On October 15 the French and British Delegates, 
Paul Ramadier and W. Glenville Hall, defended 
the European Recovery Program against Soviet 
charges. Mr. Ramadier said that Erp is not "a 
form of economic slavery but an invitation to knit 
the ties that bind together all of Europe." 

Genocide 

The United States on October 14 called for the 
inclusion of political groups among those to be 
protected under the proposed United Nations con- 
vention on genocide. It asked the Soviet Delegate 
for a "complete and frank explanation" for the 
Soviet reversal in the matter. 

Ernest Gross, of the U. S. Delegation, told the 
Legal Committee that the United States sees no 
valid reasons for disregarding the Assembly's 
resolution of November 11, 1946, and that "pro- 
vision for protecting political groups from exter- 
mination should be retained in the convention." 

The Legal Committee on October 15 voted 20 to 
13 to include protection for political groups in the 
draft convention. 

DeparlmeM of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 
Second Meeting of Wool Study Group 



From October 4 to October 6, representatives 
from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Canada, 
Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, 
Egypt, Eire, Finland, France, Iceland, India, 
Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, Po- 
land, Switzerland, Turkey, Union of South Af- 
rica, United States, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia, 
together with observers from the United Nations, 
the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the 
United Kingdom Dominion Wool Disposals, Lim- 
ited, have participated in the second meeting of the 
Wool Study Group. 

The study group have reviewed changes which 
have taken place in the world apparel wool situa- 
tion, since the first meeting in April 1947 which 
continued a survey begun by the International 
Wool Conference in November 1946. They have 
heard statements from different delegations about 
the position in their respective countries, with spe- 
cial reference to any problems arising therein and 
to anj- matters of international interest. 

The group have noted with satisfaction that esti- 
mated world stocks of apparel wool at Jmie 30, 
1949 (about 2,750 million pounds greasy weight), 
will be no more than two thirds of June 1947; 
and that about 75 percent of tliese stocks will be 
held commercially, as compared with 55 percent 
in June 1947. Stocks of wool in governmental 
ownership at June 30, 1949, are expected to be no 
more than 660 million pounds or about 22 percent 
of the current annual rate of production. The 
gi-oup estimated the world stocks of apparel wool 
June 30, 1948, at 3,551 million pounds greasy 
weight, of which 1,172 million pounds are held 
by governments and 2,379 held commercially. 
Stocks held by joint oi'ganization have dropped 
from about 1,350 million pounds at June 30, 1947, 
to 1,029 million pounds at June 30, 1948. Stocks 



held by the Commodity Credit Corporation have 
dropped from 541 million pounds at October 1, 
1946, to less than 100 million pounds by the end of 
August 1948. 

While the group noted that there will be an esti- 
mated excess consumption (3,755 million pounds) 
over production (2,965 million pounds) in 1948- 
49 of 27 percent (790 million pounds), it was re- 
marked that current excess visible consumption 
over production was jiartly due to filling up pipe- 
lines, esj^ecially in Eurojje, which might be re- 
garded as practically completed now. Several pro- 
ducing countries indicated that their production 
had declined, but the group were reassured by in- 
dications from others (and from Australia in par- 
ticular) of probable upward trend of production 
in future. It was estimated that the total world 
wool production in 1948-49 was likely to be be- 
tween 2 and 3 percent better than in the preced- 
ing year, while numbers of sheep in Australia, 
which were 102 million in 1947, were estimated at 
104-105 million in 1948. 

The group considered there was no immediate 
problem in the solution of which international 
governmental action was at present necessary or 
desirable. 

The group also commented on the rise of prices 
in wool since April 1947 and on the difference be- 
tween considerable rise in price of fine wools as 
opposed to the less significant rise in price of lower 
grades. It was noticed, however, that there was 
already a tendency to reduce the call on supjDlies 
of high grade merino wools by an increase in con- 
sumption of lower grades. This is already having 
effects on prices. 

Finally the group agi-eed to continue to meet 
from time to time in the present form in order to 
review the world wool position. 



THE CONGRESS 



Providing for Membership and Participation by the 
United States in the World Health Organization. H. Kept. 
1999, to accompany H. J. Res. 409, 80th Ctong., 2d sess. 
10 pp. 

World Health Organization. H. Kept 2197, to accom- 
pany S. J. Res. 98, 80th Cong., 2d sess. 5 pp. 

Foreign Aid Appropriation Bill, 1949. H. Kept. 2173, to 
accompany H. R. 6801, 80th Cong., 2d sess. 11 pp. 

Making Appropriations for Foreign Aid. H. Kept. 2440, 
to accompany H. R. 6-801, 80th Cong.. 2d sess. 10 pp. 

Fuel Investigation. Current Petroleum Outlook. Prog- 
ress Report of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign 
Commerce. H. Rept. 24G0, 80th Cong., 2d sess. ii, 60 pp. 

Report on Audit of Export-Import Bank of Washington. 
Letter from Comptroller General of the United States 
transmitting a report on the audit of Export-Import Bank 

October 17, 1948 



of Washington for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1947. 
H. Doc. 641, 80th Cong., 2d sess. v, 19 pp., with 5 schedules. 

Twelftli Report to Congress on Operations of Unkba. 
Message from the President of the United States trans- 
mitting the Twelfth Quarterly Report of Expenditures 
and Operations Under the United Nations Relief and Re- 
habilitation Administration covering the period from Apr. 
1, 1947, to June 30, 1947. H. Doc. 686, 80th Cong., 2d sess. 
iii, 56 pp. 

Urgent Needs of the American People. Address of the 
President of the United States delivered before a joint 
session of the Senate and the House of Representatives, 
recommending legislation to check inflation and the rising 
cost of living and to meet the acute housing shortage. H. 
Doc. 734, 80th Cong., 2d sess. 6 pp. [July 27, 1948.] 

491 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Asia Today' 



BY W. WALTON BUTTERWORTH 
Director, Office of Far Eastern Affairs 



Asia today presents a radically different picture 
from that vrluch we knew only a few years ago. 
In addition to the economic dislocations and dam- 
age brought about by the war in the Pacihc. that 
war unleashed strong forces, the eventual work- 
ings of which it is exti-emely difficult to foresee. 
The most readily discernible force at work today 
in Asia is nationalism. Its expression has :icen 
marked h\ such milestones as the ending of extra- 
territoriality in China, the establishment of inde- 
pendence for the Philippines and Burma and. 
within the British Commonwealth, for India and 
Pakistan and Ceylon, and the Linggadjati and 
Eenville agreements for the establishment of a 
United Statts of Indonesia. The peoples of Asia 
are moving, sometimes rapidly, sometimes slowly, 
towards a position of full and mature responsibU- 
itv for tlieir own affairs. The political emergence 
of the countries of Asia has and will continue to 
make them increasingly important to the rest of 
the world. The picture is complicated, however, 
by other forces which have arisen in the wake of 
nationalism, taking advantage of the political 
cross currents and vacuums which often accom- 
pany its initial expression. These forces, out- 
standing among which is the Conununist move- 
ment, often identify themselves with nationalism 
or cloak themselves by exploiting, sometimes with 
great effectiveness, the deep-seated economic and 
political maladjustments of Asia. 

The working of these forces make for a highly 
fluid and largely unpredictable situation in Asia 
today. However, there are several important fac- 
tors in the present situation that should be borne 
in mind in any consideration of present and future 
economic relations between Asia and the rest of 
the world, ily references to these basic factors 
will necessarily be greatly oversimplified. 

The fijst factor, to which I have already drawn 
attention, is that political imrest is a natural conse- 
quence of rapid transition from colonial depend- 
ency, or partial domination, to independence. 
This political unrest r^ults either from the sharp 



' Address delivered at the Far East and India Trade 
Conference of the Far East-America Council of Com- 
merce and Industry, Inc.. in Xew York. N. T., on Oct 6, 
1948. and released to the press on October 8, 194S. 

' BmiETur of Sept. 28, 1948, p. 410. 

492 



conflicts of interest between colonial powers and 
nationalist forces, or from the exploitation of cul- 
tural differences or economic ills for purposes of 
aggrandizement. Such exploitation has within it 
the seeds of political and economic calamity if the 
new nationalist govermnent does not possess suffi- 
cient vitality, popular support, and admhiistrative 
efficiency to ride out the storm. Organized exploi- 
tation of political imrest by Communism is the 
greatest single menace in the Asiatic situation. 
Just prior to the recent Commtmist-iastigated up- 
risings in Java, the Department issued a statement 
relating to southeast Asia ^ which read, in part, as 
follows : 

"To win support and allies in their drive for I 
power. Communist leaders have consistently pre- I 
tended to champion the cause of local nationalists T 
and have attempted to identify communism with 
nationalism in the minds of the people of the area. 
This scheme worked well, at least untU the Comin- 
form's denunciation of the Yugoslav Commimist 
leaders as being, among other things, guilty of 
nationalism. There is some evidence that sincere 
nationalist leaders in southeast Asia, originally 
deceived by this device, have now awakened to the 
fact that, in Commimist -controlled states outside 
the Soviet Union, the nationalism to which they 
aspire is regarded as a high crime and grounds for 
ruthless interference in the internal affairs of such 
states by international Communist organizations." 

A second "factor" is a logical corollary of the i 
first. It is simply that economic recovery and I 
development in most Asiatic countries has been and 
may for some time be impeded by continuing poHt- 
ical unrest and conflict. The serious balance-of- 
payments deficits which confront many Asiatic 
countries could be improved somewhat by economic 
remedies, but prewar levels of economic activity 
cannot be approached until the more immediate 
political conflicts which are stifling production 
and trade are resolved. In Indonesia, for ex- 
ample, there is little incentive for the investment 
of capital in productive enterprise or for the re- 
lease of inventories for consumption or export until 
it is evident that the principal factors of produc- 
tion may be estimated with a reasonable degree 
of accuracy. This cannot be expected imtil a 

Department of State BuUefin 



viable arrangement between tlie natiomilist forces 
of Indonesia and the Netherlands has been 
achieved. 

My tliird observation relates more to the long- 
range future. The countries of Asia desire sub- 
stantial exjjansion of tlieir industrial, transporta- 
tion, power, and agricultural facilities. There 
are obvious advantages to both Asia and the rest 
of the world in a sound development of Asia's 
human and natural resources, and in a significantly 
increased standard of living for Asiatic peoples. 
However, in viewing the possibilities for such 
progress, we should not ignore a basic economic 
and social characteristic of important areas of 
Asia. This characteristic is Asia's serious over- 
population in relation to its existing resources and 
productivity and the natural tendency of the popu- 
lation, with a high birth rate, to increase whenever 
economic gains permit it to do so. If this tend- 
enc}- continues, there will be great difficulty for 
many Asiatic countries in producing more than is 
needed for current consumption and the accumu- 
lation of domestic capital will be, at best, a slow 
process. Since foreign capital usually can be i:>ut 
to use only if supplemented by a substantial quan- 
tity of domestic capital, it is thus apparent that 
there are certain limitations on the extentto which 
foreign capital can be expected to assist effectively 
in the economic development of Asiatic countries. 
One may conclude that, in so far as political in- 
stability in Asia results from low standards of 
living, such instability will not be easily and 
quickly overcome by the progress of industrializa- 
tion. Perhaps it can be kept within bounds over 
the long run if the governments of Asiatic coun- 
tries place at least as much emphasis on social and 
political reform in the interest of the agricultural 
population as they do on technical progress. 

The importance of Asia today is not minimized 
by a frank recognition of the difficulties inherent in 
the situation. Indeed, the first step in meeting 
these difficulties is in understanding them. While 
it is true that we cannot expect business as usual 
in Asia over the next few, predictable years, 
there is hope, I feel, that in the long run the basic 
economic needs of the various Asiatic countries 
will increasingly assert themselves, and that this 
factor may result in the restoration and expansion 
of trading relations among the countries of Asia 
and between Asia and the rest of the world. 

Because of the general absence of large-scale 
industrial development in Asia, wartime damage 
to capital equipment was minor relative to that in 
Europe. Consequently, economic recovery to 
prewar levels of activity could be attained rapidly 
by most Asiatic countries largely through their 
own efforts and with relatively little capital ex- 
penditure if present political obstacles were over- 
come and if the rest of the world continues to 
provide an effective demand for Asia's products. 

Ocfober 17, 1948 



THB RECORD OF THB WBBK 

Importance must be attached, of course, to the 
revival of such natural trade relations as exist 
among' Asiatic countries and to the possibilities for 
a graaual expansion of this trade. The major 
long-run economic task of Asia, however, is the 
new development of its agricultural and industrial 
resources at a rate consistent with the availability 
of domestic and foreign capital and with the level 
of technical and administrative skills in the area. 
^ In this connection, the position of the United 
States as the leading exporting and creditor na- 
tion of the world should lead to increasingly sig- 
iiificant economic relations between the United 
States and Asiatic countries. iVnierican commerce 
and industry will, of course, continue to have an 
active interest in Asia as a source of supply and as 
a market. But the growing importance of eco- 
nomic recovery and of the development of agri- 
cultural and industrial resources of Asiatic 
countries ^yill confront the United States with the 
problem of how its resources can be made available 
to those countries in the required volume. 

As Ambassador Grady explained so lucidly be- 
fore the Economic Commission for Asia and the 
Far East in India last June, even if conditions were 
favorable to large government loans, such loans 
would fall far short of the magnitude of Asia's 
capital requirements. Consequently, he pointed 
out, it is necessary that Asiatic count:ries maximize 
the use of private foreign capital. I recommend 
Ambassador Gi-ady's statement as a persuasive ex- 
position of the importance of direct foreign invest- 
ment, with particular reference to the important 
historical role of foreign capital, chiefly British 
and American, in the industrial development of the 
United States and Canada without infringement of 
national sovereignty. I am sure that private 
American capital is available for investment in 
Asia, but only if the countries of that area desire 
it. Such a desire, if it is to be realized, must of 
course be expressed by the creation of conditions 
which give prospect of reasonable treatment and 
return for foreign capital. 

The stringent economic conditions under which 
Asiatic countries must continue their efforts 
towards recovery and development also make it a 
vital necessity that trade and investment be con- 
ducted with the greatest possible economy. Im- 
porters should be free to purchase in the readiest 
and cheapest market; exports should be pushed in 
whatever market can offer the best price in terms 
of real value; investment should be directed into 
industries which over the long run can compete 
successfully in the world market without costly 
subsidy. This is merely a restatement in plain 
language of certain basic economic principles, es- 
sentially those embodied in the draft charter for 
an International Trade Organization. 

The EcA is attempting to give expression to 
those principles in the administration of its China 

493 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

program. It has arranged that the "project en- 
gineer" for each enterprise scheduled to receive 
United States aid for replacement or reconstruc- 
tion goods represent its client in seeking out the 
best prices and deliveries obtainable in today's 
world markets. Mr. Stillman of the Eca Mission 
in China, and his Chinese associates, should be 
commended for the formulation of this procedure, 
for it not only should insure the greatest return 
for Eca funds in China, but also should encourage 
the reestablishment of multilateral trade. 

It would seem self-evident from the foregoing 
that the economic reconstruction of the countries 
of Asia can proceed at a significant pace only with 
the progressive resolution of the political problems 
besetting the area. Unless these problems be re- 
solved, the requisite stability cannot evolve. The 
Department of State, without undertaking the role 
of a political Atlas for all the world, has tried and 
is trying to make its full contribution to the reso- 
lution of the essential political conflicts through- 
out Asia. The extent to which those efforts have 
met with success and failure are, I believe, known 
to you all. Necessarily related to the political 
efforts of the United States is the substantial eco- 
nomic assistance which this Government has ex- 
tended to certain Asiatic countries. Such assist- 
ance is being supplemented by allocations for 
Asia from the funds appropriated by Congress for 
European economic recovery. The contribution 
which the United States Government economic 
aid can make will depend in part on the role of 
American business in carrying out expeditiously 
the procurement and distribution aspects of our 
aid programs. Over the long run, economic re- 
covery and development in Asia will depend in 
substantial measure upon the contribution which 
American industry and finance can make as po- 
litical conditions permit. Basically, however, 
United States assistance, both public and private, 
can, at best, be small in relation to the effort which 
must be made by the governments and peoples of 
the countries of Asia to help themselves if they 
are to attain the success that all of us wish for 
them. 



Information on improper Treatment off 
Americans Detained in Hungary 

[Beleased to the press October 7] 
Paul Kuedemann and George Bannantine, 
American officials of Maort whose release from 
custody by the Hungarian authorities was the 
subject of an announcement by the Department 
of State on September 27, 1948,^ have now returned 
to this country. Supplementary information, 
which they have already made known to the press, 
is available concerning the circumstances of their 
recent detention. 



494 



N Of Oct. 10, 1948, p. 469. 



With regard to the so-called "confessions" 
which have been attributed to them by the Hun- 
garian authorities, Mr. Ruedemann and Mr. Ban- 
nantine have affirmed that these statements were, 
in fact, prepared by the Hungarian police, that 
the contents of the documents are wholly false 
and that they copied and signed these "confes- 
sions" only under duress. The two men were 
placed separately in solitary confinement in under- 
gi'ound cells for the first four days and were sub- 
jected to long periods of questioning at all hours 
of the day and night. On various occasions they 
were required to stand with their faces against 
the wall and arms upraised until they collapsed. 
During this time, they were permitted very little 
food and sleep. 

The arbitrary detention of these American citi- 
zens, the unfoinided allegations made against 
them, and the improper treatment which they 
received while in custody are characteristic of the 
methods employed by police states, where the 
rights and dignity of the individual are, in prac- 
tice, ignored. 



Military Mission Agreement With Argentina 

[Released to the press October 6] 

There was signed on October 6, 1948, by Robert 
A. Lovett, Acting Secretary of State, and Dr. 
Jeronimo Remorino, Argentine Ambassador to 
the United States, an agi-eement providing for the 
detail of officers and enlisted men of the United 
States Army as an advisory mission to serve in 
Argentina. The agreement is to continue in force 
for four years from the date of signature, but may 
be extended beyond that period at the request of 
the Government of Argentina. 

The provisions of the agreement are similar to 
those contained in numerous other agreements be- 
tween the United States and certain other Amer- 
ican republics providing for the detail of officers 
and enlisted men of the United States Army, 
Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps to advise the 
armed forces of those countries. The provisions 
relate to the duties, rank, and precedence of the 
personnel of the mission, the travel accommoda- 
tions to be provided for the members of the mission 
and their families, and other related matters. 



THE CONGRESS 

Aid to China. Message from the President of the United 
States transmitting a proposed program of aid to China. 
S. Doc. 120, 80th Cong., 2d sess. 4 pp. [Feb. 18, 1&48.] 

Summary of Legislation Enacted by tiie Eightieth Con- 
gress, Together With a Preliminary Statement Relative 
Thereto Pursuant to the Request of the Honorable Ken- 
neth S. Wherry, United States Senator From Nebraska. 
S. Doc. 198, 80th Cong., 2d sess. ill, 52 pp. 



Department of State Bulletin 



The Spotlight of the International Scene ^ 



BY CHARLES E. SALTZMAN 
Assistant Secretary for Occupied Areas 



It was suggested that I talk to you about some 
of the focal points of trouble in the world today. 
This affords me a wide range of topics — much too 
wide for treatment in a single talk. It is an un- 
happy commentary on human atfairs today that 
the trouble spots appear to be more numerous than 
those left untroubled. Therefore I shall limit my- 
self primarily to a discussion of the Berlin situa- 
tion, within the larger context of American foreign 
policy. AVhat I shall say is merely a review of 
policy statements and background that have al- 
ready been made public. The State Department 
issued the Wliite Paper last week which reviewed 
in considerable detail the course of events with re- 
spect to the Berlin situation, and representatives 
at the United Nations have made the American 
position plain in their statements before the Gen- 
eral Assembly and the Security Council. Wliat 
I am saying, therefore, is merely a review and a 
paraphrase of what has been said. 

• ■ ■ • • 

In appraising our present situation, it may be 
instructive to recall our foreign policy course dur- 
ing the past few years. The familiar Von Clause- 
witz dictum was that war is an instrument for 
carrying out political policy by other than political 
means. We might define American foreign policy 
since 194.5 as being in a sense the reveree : an effort 
to achieve by peaceful means the same objectives 
for which we fought the war. Every nation's for- 
eign policy is necessarily based on its fundamental 
national interest. We fought Germany and Japan 
because they threatened our national security — 
our right to live and govern oui-selves as we see fit 
and to enjoy equal rights with other nations in 
world trade and other international relationships. 

The paramount aim of our foreign policy today 
is still the preservation of our freedom and inde- 
pendence, our right to develop and order our own 
affairs without domination or interference from 
abroad. We can best maintain our independence 
and integrity, and develop our own resources in 
the best interest of our people, in a peaceful world 
community composed of other free and independ- 
ent nations, each engaged in pi-oviding the best 
life possible for its own people. Therefore, as a 
means of achieving our number one objective, we 

October 17, 1948 



have as a secondary objective the establishment 
of a world order conducive to peace and construc- 
tive human progi'ess. 

Thus we find that the United States and most of 
the other countries of the world today are in fun- 
damental agreement on the essential objects of 
international relationships. We have a common 
purpose and a community of interest with the 
great majority of the other nations. There are 
minor differences, of course, but these are all sus- 
ceptible of adjustment by the ordinary processes of 
negotiation. The supremely important thing is 
that the United States and the majority of other 
nations agree on fundamental principles and are 
cooperating on hundreds of practical details that 
make up the world's business. 

International cooperation in overcoming the 
suffering and devastation caused by the war and 
in constructing a healthy, peaceful world order has 
been the keynote of United States policy. Even 
while the war was being fought, we took the lead 
in the international conferences that resulted in 
the creation of Unpra, the Food and Agriculture 
Organization, the World Bank, the International 
Monetary Fund, and the United Nations itself. 

These plans for cooperative action were based 
on the assumption, or at least the hope, that the 
wartime collaboration of the Allied nations would 
continue in the postwar period ; that all the Allies 
had a common, constructive, postwar objective and 
meant what they said in professing such an objec- 
tive. The United States and the other major 
Allied powers made every effort to assure the 
Soviet Union that we sincerely desired to work 
in close cooperation with them after the war. We 
went to great lengths to convince the Russians that 
our postwar plans did not threaten them in any 
way and that the postwar settlements would take 
into account the damage suffered by Russia in the 
war and its legitimate security requirements. 

After the fighting ended, we continued to hope 
that the Soviet Union would reciprocate the 
friendship and cooperatioii which the United 
States and the other Western nations extended in 
concrete form and on many occasions. However, 

' Address delivered at the University of New Hampshire, 
Durham, N. H., on Oct. 7, 1948, and released to the press 
on the same date. 

495 



THE RCCORO OF THE WEEK 

it became increasingly evident that Soviet policy 
was animated by a spirit of rivalry and antago- 
nism and that its primary aim was territorial ex- 
pansion and the extension of Communism by 
every possible means, regardless of the rights and 
wishes of other peoples. It is now perfectly plain 
that the policy of the Soviet Union is not based on 
a genuine spirit of reciprocity and cooperation, 
but on the dogmatic doctrine that conflict between 
Communism and the rest of the world is inevitable 
and must continue until one of the two rival sy- 
stems utterly destroys the other. No matter what 
the Communists may say on the cynical grounds 
that the end justifies the means, all their acts con- 
firm the conclusion that they are determined to 
dominate the world and impose their will on all 
other peoples. 

This is the real and fundamental cause of the 
differences that now dangerously divide the world 
and imperil peace. It is not merely a struggle for 
power between the Soviet Union and the United 
States, as some even in this country would have 
us believe. It is a contest of wills between the 
group of police states directed from the Kremlin 
and the free peoples of the world, whom the Soviet 
dictators are trying, for whatever reason, to 
dominate and control through the instrumentality 
of international Communism. 

The struggle is now world-wide and intense. It 
is a conflict which the United States does not 
desire and which we sought by all honorable means 
to avoid. But the threat exists, and it jeopardizes 
our national security and the fundamental rights 
of our people as surely as Hitler did. We have no 
recourse but to recognize the challenge and to take 
bold measures to meet it successfully. 

The record of the past three years shows that 
this Government has recognized the threat and 
has met it with measures that have achieved a 
considerable degree of success. "Various well- 
known examples can be cited, such as our support 
of Iran, Greece, Turkey, Korea, Austria and, of 
course the most outstanding, the Marshall Plan 
itself. Our Government has consistently sought 
to further the objectives of the United Nations 
and to make the Charter the guiding principle 
in the conduct of international affairs. It has 
initiated steps to help Germany regain the status 
of a worthy member of the family of nations, and 
has stood firm in Berlin, the most critical point of 
contact between the Soviet Union and the Western 
powers. 

As a result of our efforts, combined with those 
of the other Western powers, direct Soviet control 
has extended no further than, roughly, the line 
reached by the Russian armies in 1945. The free 



"BuiiETiN of Oct. 10, 1948, p. 455. 
' Bulletin of Dec. 15, 1046, p. 1102. 



nations outside the area occupied or dominated 
by Soviet troops remain free and are substantially 
stronger today than they were a year ago. The 
boasted monolithic solidarity of the Communist 
regimes of Eastern Europe shows unmistakable 
cracks that bear witness to internal stresses that 
even the secret police have been unable to elimi- 
nate or gloss over. 

This, in brief, has been our reaction to the world- 
wide storm of which Berlin is the vortex. A more 
detailed appraisal of the situation at Berlin and 
the events that led to the submission of tliis ques- 
tion to the United Nations may be instructive.^ 
We have been told by some Americans, for ex- 
ample, that we could settle all our differences with 
the Soviets if only we would sit down around the 
conference table and enter into open-minded nego- 
tiations. This advice has been reiterated, in spite 
of earlier disillusioning experiences around the 
conference table. We have found from experi- 
ence that it is impossible to deal with the Russians, 
like other nations, on a quid fro quo basis. They 
take the quid and try to keep the quo. 

This observation is substantiated by the record 
of our dealiiigs with the Soviet Union in regard to 
Germany. The plans for the Four Power occu- 
pation of Germany were worked out by the major 
Allied powers before V-E Day and were confirmed 
and elaborated in the Potsdam agreement of 
August 2, 1945. The right of free access of 
American personnel and supplies to Berlin was a 
requirement of the Four Power agreements and 
was sanctioned by usage for three years. 

One of the key provisions of the Potsdam agree- 
ment stipulated that Germany was to be treated as 
an economic unit. It is obvious that unless it were 
so treated, no permanent rehabilitation of Ger- 
many along sound and peaceful lines would be 
possible. The Western powers tried repeatedly 
in the Allied Control Council and in the Council of 
Foreign Ministers to have this requirement put 
into effect, but without success. Instead, it ig 
obvious that the economy of the Soviet zone of 
Germany has been systematically Sovietized and 
that the Soviet zone has become in effect an eco- 
nomic appendage of the Soviet Union. These uni- 
lateral actions of the Soviet Union have kept Ger- 
many divided economically and have placed ser- 
ious obstacles in the way of the recovery of Ger- 
many to even a subsistence level, not to mention 
the laandicap this has imposed on European re- 
covery as a whole. 

Two years ago, when attempts to accomplish 
German economic unity had been made in the Con- 
trol Council for more than a year with no success, 
the American and British Governments deter- 
mined to unify as much of Germany as they could 
in the interest of revising the prostrate economy. 
So in December 1946 the American and British 
zones were merged for economic purposes.^ 



496 



Department of State Bulletin 



The United States and Britain also felt that the 
Germans must be given progressively greater 
responsibility in political affairs to prepare Ger- 
many for eventual return to self-govermnent as a 
democratic and peaceful nation. Early this year 
the United States and Britain consulted in London 
with the French, Belgian, Netherlands, and 
Luxembourg Governments. Agreement was 
reached that, in view of the seeming impossibility 
of reaching Four Power agreement on German 
imity within any foreseeable future, the western 
zones of Germany collectively should be allowed to 
establish their own governmental organization, 
with which the remainder of Gei-many could sub- 
sequently join.* 

While tlie London talks were in progress, the 
Soviet Delegation left the Allied Control Council 
and did not return. This wrecked the Four Power 
administration of Germany. Subsequently, the 
Soviet Representative withdrew from the Berlin 
Kommandatura. 

The Western powers, having failed in repeated 
efforts to obtain Soviet agi-eement on a Four Power 
plan for currency reform for Germany, introduced 
a new currency in their zones last June 18. The 
Soviets then introduced a new currency in their 
zone and tried to apply it to all of Berlin. The 
Western powers therefore found it necessary to 
introduce their own currency in their sectors of 
Berlin." 

As early as last March 30, the Soviet authorities 
began to apply restrictions to communications and 
transportation between the Western zones and 
Berlin. These reached a climax on June 23, when 
the Soviet authorities halted all rail, highway, and 
water transportation. This amounted to a block- 
ade of the two and half million Germans and the 
Allied personnel in the western sectors of Berlin. 
The pretext first given by the Soviets was "tech- 
nical difficulties", but they later made it clear that 
their real motive was retaliation for the decisions 
of the Western powers at the London conference. 

The American and British authorities began to 
supply their sectors of Berlin by air and have con- 
tinued to do so with increasing success. The air- 
lift operation has saved the Western sectors of 
Berlin from being starved into submission and is 
an achievement in which the American and British 
peoples can take great pride. But it is an ex- 
pensive substitute for normal supply methods. 
The Western powers have used the time bought by 
the American and British air forces to enter ne- 
gotiations for lifting the totally unwarranted 
blockade and permitting a resumption of normal 
supply by land and water routes. 

Efforts of the Military Governors of the 
Western powers in Berlin to accomplish this 
proved ineffective and the representatives of the 
three Western powers in Moscow began a series of 

Ocfober 17, 1948 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

conferences with Foreign Minister Molotov and 
Generalissimo Stalin in an attempt to effect a 
settlement. 

The Western powers repeatedly stated that they 
were standing firmly on their rights in Berlin — 
rights derived from participation in the military 
defeat and unconditional surrender of Germany 
and confirmed by formal agreements among the 
Four Powers. They emphasized that their right 
to be in Berlin is "unquestionable and absolute," 
and that "they do not intend to be coerced by any 
means whatsoever into abandoning this right." 
They made it clear that they regarded the situa- 
tion created by the Soviet blockade as extremely 
serious but capable of settlement. 

The record of the negotiations has been made 
public in the White Paper issued recently by this 
Government." Mention shall be made only of the 
main points. In the meeting with American Am- 
bassador Smith and the British and French Eep- 
resentatives on August 2, Stalin proposed a settle- 
ment based on the simultaneous replacement of 
the Western currency with Soviet currency for all 
Berlin and the removal of all transport restric- 
tions. He also expressed the insistent wish that 
the decisions of the London conference on Western 
Germany not be carried out, but he did not make 
this a condition for settlement of the Berlin situa- 
tion. Ambassador Smith made it clear that the 
Western powers always were willing to discuss 
with the Soviets any problem concerning Ger- 
many, pi'ovided we were not doing so under duress, 
as in the case of the blockade. 

When these proposals were submitted to the 
Western governments, they accepted the Soviet 
mark as the sole currency for Berlin in principle, 
with the proviso that its issue and use be subject 
to Four Power control. They also insisted on 
Four Power arrangements to cover trade between 
Berlin and the Western zones. Otherwise the So- 
viets would have practical control of the economic 
life of Berlin and might have us at their mercy 
there. 

The Western representatives in Moscow then 
engaged in protracted negotiations with Molotov 
on the wording of the draft of a Four Power com- 
munique on the proposals. Molotov tried to limit 
the transport restrictions to be removed only to 
those imposed after June 18. He also tried to 
reintroduce the question of the London agreement 
on Western Germany, and to leave the proposed 
Soviet curi-ency for Berlin and the trade of Berlin 
under Soviet control. All these conditions were 
contrary to the previous proposals. The discus- 



' Bulletin of Mar. 21, 1948, p. 380. 
' Bulletin of June 2T, 1948, p. 385. 

° See The Berlin Crisis, a Report on the Moscoio Discus- 
sions, 1948, Department of State publication 3298. 

497 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

sions reached an impasse and the Western rep- 
resentatives obtained another meeting with Stalin. 

At this meeting, on August 23, the discussion 
centered on a directive which the four governments 
would send to their military governors in Berlin 
for working out the technical details of the prin- 
ciples already agreed upon. On this occasion. Am- 
bassador Smith obtained confirmation from Stalin 
that the transport restrictions to be lifted included 
those imposed before as well as after June 18. 
Stalin also confirmed the understanding of the 
Western powers that the Soviet currency for Ber- 
lin would be controlled and supervised by the Four 
Powers jointly. 

Following another meeting with Molotov on 
August 27, in which he again tried vmsuccessfully 
to tie the hands of the Western powers with respect 
to the London decisions, an agreed directive was 
dispatched to the four military governors in 
Berlin. 

Beginning August 31, the military governors 
met daily in Berlin during the week given them to 
complete their task. In the words of the Wliite 
Paper, "It soon became apparent that Marshal 
Sokolovsky (the Soviet Military Governor) was 
not ready to honor the understandings reached in 
Moscow." He went outside the terms of the agreed 
directive and sought to impose restrictions on air 
traffic. Despite Stalin's agreement, Sokolovsky 
declared he would agree to remove only those 
transport restrictions imposed after June 18. He 
also sought to subject the currency and trade of 
Berlin to exclusive Soviet control. The discus- 
sions in Berlin ended in futility and frustration. 

The Western powers then delivered an aide- 
memoire to Stalin and Molotov in which they cited 
the principles agreed upon and the assurances 
given during the previous discussions in Moscow, 
and contrasted the divergences from them appar- 
ent in Marshal Sokolovsky's position. The three 
Western Governments asked pointedly if the So- 
viet Government was prepared to carry out the 
understandings previously reached and to instruct 
the Soviet Military Governor to be bound by them. 
Molotov's reply upheld the position taken by Mar- 
shal Sokolovsky and blamed the Western powers 
for the failure of the Berlin discussions. Another 
exchange of notes left the matter substantially 
unchanged. 

On September 26 the three Western Govern- 
ments addressed identical notes to the Soviet Gov- 
ernment in whicli they reviewed the course of the 
negotiations and concluded that the issue between 
the Soviet Government and the Western powers 
was not difficulties in communication or in cur- 
rency regulation.'' "The issue," they declared, "is 
that the Soviet Government ... is attempt- 



' Bulletin of Oct. 3, 1948, p. 423. 
' Bulletin of Oct. 10, 1048, p. 455. 



498 



ing by illegal and coercive measures in disregard 
of its obligations to secure political objectives to 
which it is not entitled and which it could not 
achieve by peaceful means." 

The Western Governments asserted that the 
Soviet Government was solely responsible for cre- 
ating a situation which rendered impossible fur- 
ther recourse to the processes of peaceful settle- 
ment specified in article 33 of the United Nations 
Charter. They further declared that the situation 
created by the Soviet Union constitutes a threat to 
international peace and security. The three Gov- 
ernments stated that, while reserving full rights 
to take any necessary measures to maintain their 
position in Berlin, they would refer the action of 
the Soviet Government to the Security Council of 
the United Nations. 

The three Governments on September 29 re- 
ferred the matter to the United Nations as a threat 
to the peace within the meaning of chapter 7 of the 
Charter.^ Article 39, the first article of that chap- 
ter, states that: 

"The Security Council shall determine the ex- 
istence of any threat to the peace, breach of the 
peace, or act of aggression and shall make recom- 
mendations, or decide what measures shall be 
taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to 
maintain or restore international peace and 
security." 

The case presented by the Three Powers lies . | 
squarely within the province of the United Na- f 
tions, because the issue is whether coercion may be 
used by one Member against others in pursuance of 
its political objectives in such a way that peace is 
threatened. The three Western powers, therefore, 
have submitted to the United Nations a matter that 
is within its general responsibility. They have 
laid their full case before the proper forum, the 
Security Council, for its judgment on the merits. 
It is well known, of coui-se, that a permanent mem- 
ber of the Security Comicil can frustrate the Coun- 
cil's action by exercise of the veto power. How- 
ever, the three Western Governments have made . > 
it clear that they will exhaust every possibility | 
and collaborate in every way through United Na- 
tions procedures to remove the threat to peace. 
The present case places on the Soviet Union a clear 
responsibility for demonstrating before the eyes 
of the world the extent to which it will honor its 
obligations under the Charter. 

The painstaking effort of the Western powers to 
find a satisfactory solution of the critical Berlin 
situation through direct negotiation with the high- 
est authorities of the Soviet Union yielded only 
bitter disappointment and did not remove the most i 
dangerous threat to world peace that now exists. ' 
But this experience, though exasperating and frus- 
trating, confirmed the earnestness of the Western 

Department of State Bulletin 



powers in seekincr to compose their differences with 
the Soviet Union by negotiation, as long as there 
is tlie least hope of success. It also emphasized 
their unalterable determination not to compromise 
on vital principles, nor yield to coercion, nor take 
the easy but fatal way of appeasement. 

The Moscow-Berlin discussions should clarify 
for the American people the nature of the para- 
mount problem which this country faces in world 
affairs. The record provides a case history of the 
enormous difficulties encountered by a peaceful, 
democratic government in dealing with an aggres- 
sive dictatorship-type government with wholly 
different objectives and a wholly different concept 
of international relations. 

This is a new kind of test for the American 
people. "We have responded to the terrible ordeal 
of war with a singleness of purpose and a con- 
centration of effort that have always brought vic- 
tory. But we are engaged now in a struggle that 
cannot be settled properly by some quick and de- 
cisive action. We are exerting our utmost effort 
to avoid war. We hope to win this conflict this 
side of war, by patience, calmness, and spiritual 
fortitude. Perhaps this will not be possible, but 
we shall proceed on the assumption that it is 
possible. 

The primary lesson of our postwar experience 
and particularly of the past few months is that 
there is no short cut to the kind of world we want. 
We dare not seek the easy way out through wishful 
thinking, escapism, or appeasement, lest we drop 
through the trap door to oblivion. There is no 
magic formula, no man-made miracle, that will 
quickly free us of the ever present danger inherent 
in the machinations of a ruthless and unrestrained 
group who wield great power. 

The eyes of the American people should now be 
fully opened. We have completed a painful proc- 
ess of disillusionment. We know now that the 
Soviet rulers have no intention of cooperating in 
establishing peace and order in the world. They 
have made this abundantly clear by their postwar 
behavior. The Soviet Union is the only major 
power that has annexed territory as a result of 
the war. It has used its special position in eastern 
Europe to dominate and exploit smaller countries 
and reduce them to the status of satellites. It has 
flouted the will of the majority in the United Na- 
tions by excessive use of the veto and by boycotting 
the Interim Committee of the General Assembly 
and the special Commissions for Korea and the 
Balkans. It has blocked the majority plan for 
the international control of atomic energy, with- 
out offering a satisfactory substitute. It used its 
dominant role in the recent Danubian conference 
to dictate terms that ostensibl}- assure freedom of 
navigation but actually give the Soviets absolute 

October 17, 1948 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

control over all commerce on the lower Danube. 
It delayed and impeded the peace treaties with 
the lesser former enemy states and has obstructed 
the negotiation of peace settlements with 
Austria, Japan and, most conspicuously, Germany. 
It rejected an invitation to participate in the Euro- 
pean Recovery Program and proclaimed its deter- 
mination to defeat that gi-eat* cooperative 
enterprise. 

The Soviet rulers have thus made it plain that 
their real aim is world domination through the 
instrumentality of Communism and that they will 
stoop to any stratagem of coercion, subterfuge, 
duplicity, or double-dealing that serves their pur- 
pose. Their aims and their methods are a direct 
threat to the national security of the United States. 
Forewarned by this knowledge, we must be fore- 
armed by an alertness to danger and a readiness to 
preserve our security and freedom at all cost. If 
we do so, the prospects of peace will be much 
greater, since it would then be less likely that any 
foreign power would attempt to coerce this and 
other countries by force. 

This is the ordeal which we and the other free 
peoples of our time must endure and survive. It 
is a reality which we must face and grapple with — 
from which we cannot turn away. The first re- 
quirement is that we clearly recognize the danger 
and meet it energetically and courageously. We 
have what it takes to win if we understand our 
problem. 

In view of the implications of the problem, 
surely nothing is more important today to every 
American citizen than to know and understand 
what has happened in the world since the end of 
World War II and what these events mean to the 
United States. It is of utmost importance that 
every citizen understand what has happened and 
follow as carefully as possible the development of 
events from now on in order that we and our 
neighboi-s may be in a position to judge for our- 
selves whatever may be necessary in our national 
interest and to protect our national security. It is 
supremely important that we understand, support, 
and, if necessary, urge those actions, both domestic 
and foreign, which may, as time goes on, best pro- 
tect our national security and the world's peace. 

I wish some assurance could be given that the 
critical situation in Berlin will be resolved peace- 
fully and soon. Such assurance cannot be given. 
All that the American Government and the other 
governments with which it is associated can do is 
to assure their citizens that they will do their 
utmost to keep the peace by all means consistent 
with justice and honor. 

I think that is all the American people will ask 
of them. 

499 



Franco-American Negotiations on Motion Pictures 



ANNOUNCEMENT OF JOINT DECLARATION 



French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman, 
Minister of Industry and Commerce Robert La- 
coste, and Ambassador Jefferson Caffery signed 
on September 16 in Paris a Joint Declaration of 
the Government of the United States of America 
and the Government of the French Republic on 
Motion Pictures. 

The French Government in January 1948 re- 
quested negotiations looking toward modification 
of the Franco- American (Blum-Byrnes) motion- 
picture understanding of May 28, 1946, in accord- 
ance with its provisions. ^ The negotiations not 
having reached a conclusion satisfactory to both 
Governments within six months from the request 
for negotiations, the Blum-Byrnes understanding, 
as provided therein, has expired. Further nego- 



tiations resulted in the Joint Declaration of Sep- 
tember 16, 1948, the text of which is attached. 

The Department of State considers that the 
screen quota decided upon by the French Govern- 
ment (nve weeks a quarter reserved for the show- 
ing of French films) is not inconsistent with the 
provisions of article IV of the General Agi-eement 
on Tariffs and Trade. The Department also con- 
siders that the French Government's decision to 
, institute a distribution quota system limiting the 
number of foreign feature films dubbed into 
French which will be authorized for distribution 
annually in the French Union is not inconsistent 
with the provisions of articles XII and XIII of 
the general agreement in view of the current 
French balance-of -payments diflSculties. 



JOINT DECLARATION OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC ON MOTION PICTURES 



The Government of the United States of 
America and the Government of the French Re- 
public have, at the request of the latter, re-ex- 
amined certain questions relating to the distri- 
bution and exhibition in the French Union of 
American motion picture films, and, in particular, 
the Franco-American motion picture understand- 
ing of May 28, 1946. During these conversations, 
the specific problems relating to the distribution 
and exhibition of American films in the French 
Union have been discussed in the light of the spe- 
cial conditions facing the French Government 
resulting from its external financial position and 
balance of payments and other postwar problems 
of economic adjustment. These conversations 
have taken place with due regard for the relevant 
provisions of the international conventions and 
agreements to which both Governments are par- 
ties. 

I. The French Government has informed the 
Government of the United States of America that 
in view of the current situation in the French film 
industry it is necessary to increase the screen time 



' Bulletin of June 9, 1946, p. 999. 
' Annexes not printed. For complete text, see Depart- 
ment of State press release 746 of Sept. 16, 1948. 

500 



reserved to films of national origin. The Franco- 
American motion picture understanding of May 
28, 1946 having exijired in accordance with the 
provisions therein, the French Govermnent has 
decided, consistent with Article IV of the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade of October 30, 
1947, to reserve five weeks per quarter for the 
exhibition of French films, except as otherwise 
noted (Annex A).^ 

II. The French Government has decided to 
make certain modifications in its administrative 
regulations regarding the two-year rule, fifteen 
situations restriction, and allocation of raw stock 
(Annexes B, C and D). 

III. In view of the current French external 
financial situation and balance of payments, the 
French Government has decided to institute a 
distribution quota system ( applicable to imported 
films which are dubbed in France for distribution 
in the French Union) which it considers to be 
within the provisions of Articles XII and XIII of 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. 
Recognizing its obligations under the above-men- 
tioned articles of the General Agi'eement, the 
French Government undertakes to relax progres- 
sively the restriction referred to in this paragraph 
as its balance of payments situation improves and 

Department of State Bulletin 



to eliminate the restriction when conditions no 
longer justify its maintenance (Annex E). 

Tlie Government of the United States of 
America takes note of this decision of the French 
Government without prejudice to any rights which 
the United States Government may have under 
the General Agreement with respect to any action 
which the French Government may take to im- 
plement this decision. 

IV. The two Governments have reached a mu- 
tually satisfactory understanding with respect to 
the financial problems arising from the distribu- 
tion and exhibition in the French Union of Amer- 
ican films (Annex F). 

V. The arrangements outlined above shall enter 
into force retroactively on July 1, 1948, and 
shall remain in effect for four years from that 
date. Either party may request, within two 
months of the expiration of each annual period, a 
review of the provisions contained in any of the 
annexed documents, except as otherwise provided. 
This agreement, however, shall continue in full 
force and effect for four years except to the extent 
that both parties agree to modifications thereof. 

Done at Paris, in duplicate, in the English and 
French languages, this sixteenth day of Septem- 
ber, 1948. 

For the Government of the United States of 
America : 

Jefferson Caffert 
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 
of the United States of America 

For the Government of the Kepublic of France : 

Robert Schtjman 
Minister of Foreign Affairs 
of the Rejnthlic of France 

Robert Lacoste 
Minister of Inditstry and Commerce 
of the Republic of France 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Between 500,000 and 600,000 displaced persons 
are now concentrated in more than 200 camps 
maintained throughout Germany and Austria and 
in parts of Italy by the International Refugee Or- 
ganization, a unit of the United Nations. In ad- 
dition, up to 400,000 others who are homeless out- 
side of the camps in Central Europe are also po- 
tential applicants for admission into the United 
States. 

From this group of about a million left homeless 
by the ravages of World War II in Europe, 205,000 
are to be permitted by law to enter the United 
States during the next two years, provided they 
can meet qualifications as to skills, ethnic origins, 
and time of arrival at their present abodes, and 
provided also satisfactory assurances in their be- 
half have been provided for employment, housing, 
or against their becoming public charges. 

The 72 Foreign Service personnel now to pro- 
ceed into Germany, Austria, and Italy, evenly di- 
vided between visa officers and clerks, are the fore- 
runners of a very much larger group which will 
be required to implement the displaced-persons 
program. A preliminary sum of $250,000 has al- 
ready been allocated for the purpose, mostly to 
the Foreign Service, by the Displaced Persons 
Commission. The rate of spending, it is esti- 
mated, will exceed the approjoriation made avail- 
able to the Displaced Persons Commission, and 
therefore it is expected that a deficiency appro- 
priation will be requested of Congress in March of 
1949. 

The work of providing transportation of dis- 
placed persons from Europe into the United States 
IS being expedited by a staff of some 20 selectors 
and analysts of the Displaced Persons Commis- 
sion in the various camps, who have been screen- 
ing eligibles fi"om the thousands of cases already 
processed by already over-worked American con- 
sular staffs. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 

Foreign Service To Assist Displaced Persons 
Commission 

[Released to the press October 8] 

A group of 72 members of the Foreign Service 
experienced in visa work are being rushed into 
Germany, Austria, and Italy as the result of budg- 
etary clearance obtained on October 8 at a meet- 
ing of Budget Bureau officials with representatives 
of the Department of State and the Displaced 
Persons Commission. The arrival of this group 
at their new posts in Central Europe is expected 
to break the log jam which has been holding up 
the displaced-persons program passed by Congress 
at the last session. 

Ocfofaer 17, 1948 



Richard C. Patterson, Jr., Appointed 
Ambassador to Guatemala 

Appointment of Richard C. Patterson, Jr., of 
New York City, as United States Ambassador 
to Guatemala was announced on September 29 by 
the White House. 



Resignation of Dwight Griswold 

On September 15 the White House announced the resig- 
nation of Dwight Griswold as Chief of the American Mis- 
sion for Aid to Greece, effective September 15, 1948. For 
the texts of Mr. Griswold's letter to the President and 
the President's reply, see White House press release of 
September 15, 1948. 



Consular Offices 

The American Consulate at Plymouth, England, was 
closed to the public on September 30, 1948. 

501 



Executive Order Issued for Administration of 
Trade-Agreements Program 



On October 5, 1948, the President signed Execu- 
tive Order 10004/ prescribing revised procedures 
for the administration of the reciprocal trade- 
agreements program in accordance with the Trade 
Agreements Act of 1934, as amended, and the 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1948.^ The 
new Executive order inchides subject matter here- 
tofore covered by three earlier orders which are 
revoked. 

The new order, in general, continues in effect 
earlier practice under the trade-agreements pro- 
gram with modifications made necessary by the 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1948. The 
order prescribes procedures to be followed by the 
Trade Agreements Committee in concluding trade 
agreements; by the Committee for Keciprocity 
Information in obtaining the views of interested 
persons on agreements ; and by the Tariff Commis- 
sion in the event of serious injury or threat of 
serious injury to domestic industry. 

The Interdepartmental Committee on Trade 
Agreements will continue to function as the cen- 
tral operating committee, giving effect to the re- 
quirement of the Trade Agi-eements Act that the 
President seek information and advice from cer- 
tain named government agencies before conclud- 
ing a trade agreement. Membership in the Com- 
mittee will consist of persons appointed by the 
Secretaries of State, Treasury, Defense, Agricul- 
ture, Commerce, and Labor and by the Adminis- 
trator for Economic Cooperation, under the chair- 
manship of the representative from the Depart- 
ment of State. In accordance with the Trade 
Agreements Extension Act of 1948, the Tariff 
Commission no longer has a representative as a 
member of this Committee, but arrangements have 
been made for an observer from the Tariff Com- 
mission to attend the meetings of the committee 
for the purpose of supplying the information 
hereinafter referred to. 

The Committee for Reciprocity Information, 
which will continue to receive, digest, and circu- 
late to the entire trade-agreements organization 
the views of interested persons regarding any 
phase of proposed or existing trade agi-eements, is 
to consist of the same persons as those who are 
members of the Committee on Trade Agreements. 
The Committee for Reciprocity Information will 



' 13 Fed. Reg. 5851. 

* Bdixetin of Mar. 14, 1948, p. 351. 



502 



function under the chairmanship of the represent- 
ative of the Department of (Jommerce, and its 
offices are being moved to the Department of 
Commerce. 

The order provides that, as before, the Trade 
Agreements Coimnittee shall submit to the Presi- 
dent for his approval a list of articles on which 
possible United States tariff concessions may be 
considered in the negotiation of proposed trade 
agreements. Upon approval of the list by the 
President, the Trade Agreements Committee pub- 
lishes the list and a notice of intention to nego- 
tiate. At the same time the Committee for Rec- 
iprocity Information announces opportunity for 
the submission of written testimony and for sub- 
sequent oral testimony concerning concessions to 
be offered and granted. 

In accordance with the 1948 act, the list is also 
to be transmitted to the Tariff Commission upon 
being approved by the President, for confidential 
report by the Commission as to the minimum 
United States duties which are required, in its 
judgment, to avoid threat of serious injury to 
domestic industry, and as to any United States 
import restrictions in addition to those already in 
effect, necessary to prevent such injury. In the 
course of its investigations, the Commission is to 
hold public hearings. Reports of the Commission 
are to be completed within 120 days and trans- 
mitted to the President for his guidance in ap- 
proving concessions to be offered in proposed trade 
agreements. 

The Tariff Commission is also to furnish to the 
interdepartmental trade-agreements organization 
factual data relative to production, trade, and con- 
sumption of articles under consideration for con- 
cession by the United States, and is to supply facts 
on probable effects of granting concessions and on 
the competitive factors involved. 

Similarly, the Department of Commerce is to 
submit to the Trade Agreements Coimnittee studies 
of the trade and other facts regarding each article 
exported from the United States on which the 
United States may consider seeking a foreign con- 
cession in a trade agreement. 

On the basis of all the data available, the Trade 
Agreements Committee recommends to the Presi- 
dent concessions to be sought or offered. A full 
report must also be made by the dissenting mem- 
ber or members on any dissent from the Commit- 
tee's recommendations. 

Department of State Bulletin 



In conformity with past practice, each agree- 
ment is to contain a niost-favored-nation commit- 
ment, and as required in an earlier order, all trade 
agreements are to include the comprehensive 
escape clause providing that future concessions 
may be modified or withdrawn if, as a result of 
unforeseen developments and of a concession in 
the trade agreement, any article on which a con- 
cession has been granted is being imported in such 
increased quantities and under such conditions as 
to cause or threaten serious injury to domestic 
industry. Procedure is also provided, as in an 
earlier order, for Tariff Commission investigations 
to determine and recommend to the President for 
his consideration in the light of the public interest 
whether concessions are causing or threatening in- 
jurv under this clause. 

Both the Trade Agreements Committee and the 
Tariff Commission are to keep mformed at all 
times of the operation and effect of agreements in 
force. At least once a year the Commission is to 
submit to the President and to Congress a factual 
report on operation of the program. 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

and those countries. A treaty was negotiated with 
Haiti for the further Haitianization of the treaty 
services, but it was rejected by the Haitian Con- 
gress. In Nicaragua assistance was given in the 
supervision of an election, following which the 
Guardia Nacional was transferred to Nicaraguan 
officers and the United States Marines were with- 
drawn from the country. 

Other subjects treated include an Argentine pro- 
posal for an antiwar treaty, trade relations with 
Argentina, and claims conventions with Mexico 
and Panama. 

Foreign Relations of the United States, volume 
V, The American Republics, was compiled by 
Victor J. Farrar of the Division of Historical 
Policy Eesearch, under the direction of E. R. Per- 
kins, Editor of Foreign. Relations. Copies of this 
volume (979 pages) may be purchased from the 
Superintendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, D. C, for $3.25 each. 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Volume V of Foreign Relations of the 
U.S., 1932, Released 

[Released to the press October 9] 

The Department of State released on October 6 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1932, 
volume V, The American Republics. This volume 
completes the Foreign Relations series for 1932. 

Diplomatic attention of the United States with 
respect to its neighbors to the south in 1932 was 
centered in efforts to assist in the adjustment of 
conflicts between sister republics. Fighting was 
renewed in the Chaco dispute between Bolivia and 
Paraguay, with the Commission of Neutrals 
headed by Francis White endeavoring to secure 
peace through its own good offices and by the co- 
operation of the ABCP Republics (Argentina, 
Brazil, Chile, and Peru) and the League of Na- 
tions. The controversy between Colombia and 
Peru concerning Leticia threatened to bring open 
warfare. There were also boundary disputes be- 
tween Ecuador and Peru and between Guatemala 
and Honduras. 

To add to the international conflicts there was 
political unrest, insurrection, or successful revolu- 
tion in Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salva- 
dor, Honduras, and Peru. In some of such 
disorders Communism played a part. The United 
States followed a policy of nonintervention in 
these domestic conflicts but was concerned with the 
* protection of American rights and the question of 
the recognition of new governments. 

Documents in the sections on Haiti and Nica- 
ragua deal with problems concerning the special 
relations then existing between the United States 

Ocfofaer 17, J 948 



Appointment of Officers 

Benjamin M. Hiilley as Chief of the Division of Northern 
European Affairs, effective July 25, 1948. 

Willard F. Barber as Chief of the Division of Central 
America and Panama Affairs, effective September 5, 1948. 

G. Fredericli Keinhardt as Chief of the Division of 
Eastern European Affairs, effective August 30, 1948. 

Jack C. McDermott as Chief of the Division of Inter- 
national Press and Publications, effective September 5, 
1948. 

Richard M. Scammon as Chief of the Division of Re- 
search for Europe, effective August 27, 1948. 

Walter Wilds as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Occu- 
pied Areas, effective October 6, 1948. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Department of State 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. 0. Address re- 
guests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except 
in the case of free publications, which may be obtained 
from the Department of State. 

Fourth Report to Congress on Assistance to Greece and 
Turkey for the period ended June 30, 1948. Economic 
Cooperation Series 12. Pub. 3278. 71 pp. 250. 

Fourth quarterly report of expenditures and activities 
in conjunction with the program for aid to Greece 
and Turkey. Appraises the military and economic 
.situation in Greece and Turkey at the close of one 
year of U. S. aid. 

Diplomatic List, September 1948. Pub. 3281. 190 pp. 

30(f a copy ; $3.25 a year domestic, $1.50 a year foreign. 

Monthly list of foreign diplomatic representatives in 
Washington, with their addresses. 

503 



^jCe^rU^ 



The U.N. and Specialized Agencies Page 

Third Regular Session of the General Assem- 
bly: 
Discussions on Progress of TJ.N. in Paris: 

Statement by the President 483 

Statement by Secretary Marshall .... 483 
Discussion in the Security Council of the 
Berlin Crisis. Statement by Philip C. 

Jessup 484 

The U.S. in the U.N 490 

General Policy 

Asia Today. By W. Walton Butterworth . . 492 
Information on Improper Treatment of 

Americans Detained in Hungary .... 494 
The Spotlight of the International Scene. 

By Charles E. Saltzman 495 

International information and 
Cultural Affairs 

First Congress of the International Theatre 

Institute. Article by Rosamond Gilder . 488 

Economic Affairs 

Second Meeting of Wool Study Group .... 491 

Treaty Information 

Military Mission Agreement With Argen- 
tina 494 



Treaty Information — Continued F«g* 

Franco-American Negotiations on Motion 
Pictures: 
Announcement of Joint Declaration .... 500 
Joint Declaration of the Government of 
the United States and the Govern- 
ment of the French Republic on Mo- 
tion Pictures 600 

Executive Order Issued for Administration 

of Trade-Agreements Program 502 

Tlie Foreign Service 

Foreign Service To Assist Displaced Per- 
sons Commission 501 

Richard C. Patterson, Jr., Appointed Am- 
bassador to Guatemala 601 

Resignation of Dwight Griswold 501 

Consular Offices 501 

The Department 

Appointment of Officers 608 

Publications 

Volume V of Foreign Relations of the U.S., 

1932, Released 503 

Department of State 503 

The Congress 491, 494 



t 



wm^Mmotovi 



Rosamond Oilder, author of the article on the First Congress of the 
International Theatre Institute, is Secretary of the American National 
Theatre and Academy and Secretary General of the United States 
Center of the International Theater Institute, and was a member of the 
United States Observer Delegation to the theater meeting at Praha, 
Czechoslovakia. 



V. i. aovuHHiiir nmrm orricii i>4i 



tJrie/ ^eha^tmeni/ aw tnai& 






DISCUSSION OF THE PALESTINE SITUATION IN 

COMMITTEE I • Statement hy Ralph Bunche . . 517 

WORLD CONFIDENCE AND THE REDUCTION OF 
ARMED FORCES: THE AMERICAN OBJECTIVE • 

Remarks by Ambassador Warren R. Austin 511 



NORTH PACIFIC REGIONAL AIR NAVIGATION 

MEETING OF THE ICAO • Article by Clifford 

p. Burton 523 



CONSTITUTION-MAKING AT BONN • An Article . . 507 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XIX, No. 486 
October 24, 1948 




-*TB» 



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•'vr ^,^j,j 




I 



U. 



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1348 



'eha/yime/nt 



y^.^ bulletin 

Vol. XIX, No. 486 • Publication 3320 
October 24, 1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Docnments 

U.S. Govemment Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.O. 

Peici: 

£2 issues, domestic $5, toreign $7J5 

Single copy, 15 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
Of State BtJLLETm as the source will be 
ftppreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
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Service. The BULLETIN includes 
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by the White House and the Depart- 
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currently. 



CONSTITUTION-MAKING AT BONN 



An Article^ 



Overshadowed by the more dramatic develop- 
ments that are taking place in Berlin, a conclave 
of G5 German political leaders is sitting these days 
at Bonn on the Khine— a meeting that may rank 
in the perspective of history as a much more sig- 
nificant event. This "Parliamentary Council", as 
it is officially called, is engaged in the task of draw- 
ing up a constitution for the government of West- 
ern Germany. 

These 65 men are the representatives of the 46,- 
000,000 Germans who live in the states of the 
Western zones of Germany. Assembled in this 
gathering are the delegates from Bavaria, Wiirt- 
temberg-Baden, Hesse, and the city of Biemen in 
the United States zone; North Ehine Westphalia, 
Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein, and tlie city 
of Hamburg in the British zone; and the Khine 
Palatinate, South Baden, and Wiirttemberg-Ho- 
henzollern in the French zone. Furthermore, Ber- 
lin, the former German capital, is represented by 
a delegation of five which may take part in the 
discussions but may not vote. 

This constitutional convention was solemnly 
opened in the presence of leading Allied Military 
Government officials and the German ministers 
president in the Western zones on September 1, 
and is expected to sit at least until the end of Oc- 
tober. Its debates are being held in the quarters 
of the Pedagogical Academy, a teachers' training 
college. It is an ultramodern building located on 
the banks of the Rhine, so that the delegates, look- 
ing through the window of the main hall, can see 
the ships passing up and down on this storied 
river. 

The significance of the assembly lies in the fact 
that it represents the first attempt to reconstruct 
Germany- politically since Count Schwerin-Krosig 
announced the capitulation of Xazi Germany at 
Flensburg on May 7, 1945. It is a coincidence that 
this gathering should be held exactly 100 years 

October 24, 7948 



after the Frankfort Parliament in 1848 had finally 
attempted to bestow a democratic constitution on 
the people of Germany. And almost 30 years had 
elapsed since the Weimar convention drafted the 
constitution of the first German republic. 

While both Frankfort on the Main and Weimar 
are closely associated with the name of Goethe, 
the present constitution-makers of German}^ are 
meeting in the pleasant Rhine town that is known 
throughout the world as the birthplace of Bee- 
thoven as well as the seat of an ancient and famous 
university. But there is one vital difference be- 
tween the Frankfort and Weimar congresses and 
the gathering at Bonn. While the earlier conven- 
tions represented all of Germany, no delegates 
from tlie Soviet zone are permitted by the Russian 
authorities to attend the sessions of the Parliamen- 
tary Council. Bomi is therefore no German Na- 
tional Assembly. Arid although it is the most 
important step that has been taken since the war 
to obtain the political unity of Germany, the Rus- 
sians and their Communist supporters are shouting 
from the housetops that the Bonn convention is 
"splitting Germany." 

The political leaders at Bonn are very sensitive 
about this accusation — so sensitive that they are 
careful to emphasize the fact that what they are 
doing now is laying the foundation of what they 
call "a provisional government of a state-frag- 
ment" and not the definitive constitution of a 
united Germany. This all-German constitution, 
they contend, can only be written when the repre- 
sentatives from all over the Reich can convene and 
when Germany's political sovereignty has been re- 
stored. And this constitution, they assert, cannot 



' Prepared by John Elliot, Chief, Political Activities 
Branch, Civil Administration Division, Omgus. This ar- 
ticle is reprinted from the Information Bulletin, of Oct. 5, 
1948. of the U.S. Military Government in Germany. 

507 



be drafted while Germany is under Allied occu- 
pation. 

This German point of view was aptly expressed 
by Dr. Carlo Schmid, eminent professor of polit- 
ical science from the University of Tiibingen, in 
his address before the Social Democratic Congress 
in Dusseldorf early in September. Said Schmid : 

"No definitive solution will be sought in Bomi. 
All who work there, at least all Social Democrats, 
know that only a provisional government can be 
created. We will be able to create a state in the 
true sense of the word only when an agi'eement of 
the four occupying 2:)0wers has been reached con- 
cerning an all-German policy. Every other solu- 
tion would be bought at the risk of a world 
catastrophe." 

This fear of leaving themselves open to the 
charge of being guilty of "splitting" Germany was 
the cause of the protracted debate on nomencla- 
ture between the three Allied Military Gover- 
nors of Western Germany and the ministers 
president of the 11 states. The Germans objected 
to calling the document whicli they were sum- 
moned to draw up a "constitution" as stipulated 
in the London agreement concluded by the United 
States, British, and French Governments, which 
constitutes the legal basis of the Bonn meeting. 
The Germans succeeded in getting the name 
changed to "Fundamental Law of a Provisional 
Constitution" {Grwidgesetz VorlMwfige V erf as- 
sung). Likewise, instead of labeling itself a Con- 
stitutional Convention, the Bonn gathering styles 
itself a Parliamentary Council. 

Finally, the German ministers president ob- 
jected to the proposal to have their constitution 
ratified at a referendum. They feared that this 
would give a binding character to a document — a 
distinction which they felt sliould be reserved for 
the definitive constitution of Germany. They 
pleaded that this charter should be ratified by the 
parliaments of the states. The Allied Military 
Governors in the end agreed to pass on the German 
objections to their respective governments, but no 
decision lias as yet been taken on this point. 

The delegates to the Bonn convention were 
named by the state parliaments according to the 
political strength of the political parties repre- 
sented in them, in the ratio of one delegate to every 
375,000 inhabitants. Hence, the Bonn convention 

508 



reflects the political division of Germany as re- 
corded by the last state parliamentary elections 
(these were held in the United States zone in 
November and December 1946) , and do not neces- 
sarily indicate existing German political thought. 
Tlie Bonn convention is made up as follows : 

CDU/CSU 27 

SPD 27 

Liberals 5 

Communists 2 

Center Party 2 

German Party 2 

Total 65 

It will be seen that the Parliamentary Council 
is dominated by tlie two big parties, Christian 
Democratic Union bloc (including its sister party, 
the Christian Social Union of Bavaria and the 
French zone) and the Social Democratic Party. 

The Bavarian Party, whicli is today rivaling the 
CSU in that state, is not represented at all in the 
convention because it did not exist at the time of 
the Bavarian elections. It is a party composed 
of dissidents from the CSU. It represents extreme 
Bavarian home rule, if not separatist elements, and 
its failure to have a voice in the convention weak- 
ens the federalistic faction. 

The Bonn convention has been organized by 
these two big parties. Konrad Adenauer, long 
time mayor of Cologne and leader of the CDU in 
the Britisli zone, was unanimously elected presi- 
dent of the Assembly. Its deputy chairman is 
Adolph Schonfelder, Social Democratic president 
of the Hamburg Biirgerscliaft. 

Some of the ablest political figures of contem- 
porary Germany are sitting in the Bonn Parlia- 
ment. Besides Adenauer, the CDU is represented 
by Anton Pfeiffer from Bavaria, who dominated 
the Chiemsee meeting which drew up a list of 
proposals for the Bonn gathering. 

The Social Democratic delegation includes Dr. 
Walter Menzel, tlie Minister of the Interior in 
North Rhine Westphalia, who has drawn up the 
Social Democratic paper on what the new constitu- 
tion ought to be; Professor Bergstriisser, an au- 
thority on international law who comes from 
Hesse; and Carlo Schmid, who next to Dr. Kurt 
Scliumacher is probably the dominating figure in 
his party. 

The Democrats have sent Theodor Heuss, a vet- 

[iepat\mQn\ of Sfafe Bulletin 



eran German liberal who was formerly Minister 
of Education in Wiir(tonibcri>-Baden. 

Although tlie Communists have onl}^ two dele- 
gates at the convention, one of them is their leader 
in Western Germany — Max Reimami. He is an 
able and aggressive debater. 

Berlin is represented by a delegation consisting 
of Paul Liibe, the former Reichstag president; 
Ernst Renter, Otto Suhr, speaker of the Berlin 
City Council ; Jakob Kaiser, the former CDU lead- 
er in the Eastern zone who was deposed from his 
office by the Russians; and Dr. Reiff of the Liberal 
Democratic Party. 

The Communists' attitude toward the conven- 
tion was laid down by Reimann in the opening 
meeting. They deny that the Bonn convention has 
any authority to draft a constitution for Western 
Germany. Reimami submitted a motion to the 
eifect that the "Parliamentary Council was insti- 
tuting discussions on a separate West German 
constitution," and warned that the Bonn meeting 
■would have disastrous consequences on the Moscow 
and Berlin negotiations. After rowdy scenes that 
recalled the debates in the prewar German Reichs- 
tag, his motion was defeated with only the two 
Communists supporting it. 

As in the Philadeli^hia Convention of 1787 that 
drew up the American Constitution, the principal 
issue at stake in the Bonn gathering revolved 
around the distribution of power between the cen- 
tral government and the states. The London 
agreement stipulates that the Western German 
government shall be federal in character, but then 
what is federalism? The United States Constitu- 
tion, as it is interpreted and applied today, would 
seem perilously like an Einheits-Staat (unified 
state) to James Madison and most of the Philadel- 
phia delegates. 

The Social Democrats are the champions of a 
strong central government. They would like to 
see the Western German government have powers 
closely analogous to those of the Weimar Republic. 
Their views on the subject have been embodied in 
a report bearing the name of Walter Menzel, the 
SPD minister of the interior in the Government 
of North Rhine Westphalia. 

The Christian Democratic-Christian Socialist 
bloc, on the other hand, wants a central govern- 
ment of limited powers with all rights not ex- 
pressly given to it reserved to the states. The 



Bavarians, in particular, are the exponents of the 
states-rights school of thought, and their ideas 
have found expression in the so-called "EUwangen 
Document" named after the town in AViirttemberg 
where this paper was drafted by a group of Ba- 
varian politicians last spring. 

Generally speaking, it may be said that the 
Social Democrats represent the ideas of Alexander 
Hamilton so far as central government is con- 
cerned, whereas the Christian Democrats embody 
the Jeffei-sonian ideas of states' rights. 

As the SPD and CDU/CSU are equally bal- 
anced in the Bonn convention, the struggle between 
the unionists and the federalists is likely to prove 
close and tense, with the issue perhaps being de- 
cided ultimately by the 11 voters of the minor 
parties. 

The principal point at issue will probably center 
around what body is to raise and distribute the 
taxes — the central government or the states. 

In the Bismarckian Reich the central govern- 
ment could indeed raise revenue from custom du- 
ties, but for most of its funds it was dependent 
upon the states. But under the Weimar Republic, 
the central government levied practically all the 
taxes, including income taxes, and distributed part 
of these revenues to the states, which were there- 
fore rendered financially dependent on Berlin. 

This reform, the work of the able Center Party 
financial expert, Matthias Erzberger, constituted 
what is probably the most important distinction 
between imperial Germany and the Weimar Re- 
public. Bonn may witness a bitter controversy as 
to whether the future Western German government 
will adhere to the Erzberger reform or set the 
clock back to Bismarck's day. 

Some idea of what the future constitution of 
Western Germany may contain, or what the chief 
issues are that will be fought out before the Bonn 
convention, may be gleaned from the majoi-ity 
report submitted by the Chiemsee conference. 
This was a body of 22 men — two from each state — 
appointed by the ministers president to work out 
a draft to be laid before the Bonn convention as a 
basis for its debates. These delegates met from 
August 10-22 in the gorgeous jialace built by King 
Louis II of Bavaria upon an island in the middle 
of the idyllic Chiemsee. 

The Chiemsee experts recommended that the 
Western German state should constitute a "state- 



Ocfober 24, 1948 



509 



fragment" {Stoats-Fragment) , not a "full state" 
(Vollstaat). This' was done to stress the provi- 
sional character of the Western German constitu- 
tion. 

This solution was chosen as the best of three al- 
ternatives. The other two ijossibilities were (1) 
creation of a Western State which it was feared 
would be tantamount to separation; (2) a forma- 
tion of a "German federal republic" with claims 
to exerting its authority over all Germany, even 
though it was obvious that it could not make its 
laws effective in the Russian zone. This alterna- 
tive was regarded as being too aggressive in char- 
acter and was not seriously considered. 

The Chiemsee majority report recommends that 
the states shall have control over educational and 
cultural affairs but that the central government 
shall have far-reaching powers in the matter of 
financial legislation. It specifies that the central 
government shall have exclusive legislative au- 
thority to impose custom duties and shall have pri- 
ority in regard to legislation concerning income 
and i^roperty taxes as well as sales and consump- 
tion taxes. 

It is proposed that the union shall have a bi- 
cameral parliament. The lower chamber shall be 
a Bundestag representing the people, like the 
American House of Representatives; while the 
Upper House, the Bundesrat, shall consist of rep- 
resentatives of the states. Unlike the American 
Congress, however, the delegates of the Bimdesrat 
shall not be elected by the people, but shall be ap- 
pointed by the state governments, as in the Weimar 
Republic. 

The majority report further recommends that 
the executive branch of the government should be 
headed by a Bundesjirdsident. He is to be elected 
by the joint votes of the two houses of parliament 
just as the French president is elected by the Na- 
tional Assembly. 

The Chiemsee experts propose that the Western 
German state should have the cabinet system of 
government as is common in Europe, in i^reference 
to the American presidential system in which the 
chief executive remains in power for a fixed period 
of time. 

The Chiemsee majority report also suggests that 
the West German state should be called the 
"League of German States." 

The struggle in the Bonn convention between the 

510 



unionists and the federalists is foreshadowed by 
two proposals concerning the text of the preamble 
to the constitution. According to one version, all 
constitutional jsower emanates from the German 
peoiDle, while according to the federalist school of 
thought, the source of power resides in the individ- 
luxl states. ! 

Social Democratic headquarters have made it 
clear, however, that they did not consider the 
Chiemsee report as a document that had to be ac- 
cepted or rejected in toto. Fritz Heine, the party's 
secretary at Hannover, said that the Chiemsee 
paper might well "be thrown in the wastebasket" 
although he conceded that some points from it 
might be incorporated in the future German con- 
stitution. But he declared that the SPD would 
never consent to the proposal that the West Ger- 
man state should be called a "League of German 
States" — a name that doubtless suggested to him 
a Confederation rather than a Union. 

Coincident with the drafting and ratification 
of a constitution for Western Germany, two other 
important papers in accordance with the London 
agreement will be promulgated. One is the Occu- 
pation Statute, which will be decreed by the three 
Western jiowers. This document will serve as the 
Magna Carta of the people of Western Germany, 
defining their rights vis-a-vis the occupying 
powers. 

The second will be alteration of German state 
boundaries which the German leaders had been 
authorized to make. It seems likely at present 
that only one such change will be made, namely the 
amalgamation of Baden and Wiirttemberg. This 
merger would be a territorial reform all to the 
good, since it would correspond to the claims of 
both history and tradition and would create a well 
balanced state in southern Germany approximately 
equal to Lower Saxony in respect to population. 

The work of the Bonn convention bids fair to 
be an historic milestone in Germany history. The 
creation of a political government for Western 
Germany will be an important step towards the 
ultimate unification of all Germany. The West- 
ern German state will be a magnetic force that will 
tend to attract into its orbit the part of Germany 
now under Russian rule. In this sense, the West- 
ern German state may v.ell i^laj- the same role for 
(Continued on page 526) 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



THIRD REGULAR SESSION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 
World Confidence and the Reduction of Armed Forces: The American Objective 

REMARKS BY AMBASSADOR WARREN R. AUSTIN' 
U.S. Delegate to the General Assembly 



I discuss the proposal of the Soviet. Union for a 
one-third reduction in the armed forces of the per- 
manent members of the Security Council. The 
question of the prohibition of atomic weapons, 
which is provided for in the plan of the United 
Nations Atomic Energy Commission, is now being 
considered by a subcommittee of this committee. 

Two years ago the General Assembly of the 
United Nations recommended that the Security 
Council formulate practical measures to provide 
for the general regulation and reduction of arma- 
ments and armed forces. On February 13, 1947, 
the Security Council established for this purpose 
the Commission for Conventional Armaments. 

It is significant that, in the year and a half of 
the Commission's operations, the Soviet Union 
found no occasion to introduce this proposal which 
we have before us. Furthermore, I call to the at- 
tention of this Committee the fact that nine of the 
eleven members of the Commission for Conven- 
tional Armaments have agreed upon what they 
consider the essential principles which should 
govern the formulation of proposals for the regu- 
lation and reduction of armaments and armed 
forces. The Soviet Union has not accepted these 
principles. Let us examine these principles in an 
effort to determine whether or not the proposal 
brought forward by the Soviet Delegate today 
meets the standards set by the great majority of 
the members of the Conventional Armaments 
Commission. They determined that a system of 
regulation and reduction of armaments and armed 
forces can only be put into effect in an atmosphere 
of international confidence and security. Nine out 
of eleven report that one example of conditions 
essential to security is the establishment of an 
adecjuate system of agi'eements under article 43 
of the Charter. This position was not limited to 
the United Kingdom and the United States as as- 
serted by B\-elorussia. 

Is the Soviet Union prepared to permit the 
United Nations to have effective armed forces on 
the basis of the principles considered essential by 
the other permanent members of the Security 
' Coxmcil ? The actions of its representatives in the 
Military Staff Connnittee and the Security Coun- 
cil do not indicate this to be the case. 

Ocfofaer 24, 1948 



Another condition considered essential by the 
majority is the establishment of effective, enforce- 
able international control of atomic energy. I 
hope that the Soviet Union will find it possible to 
accept the only system of international control and 
I^rohibition which the majority have found ade- 
quate. 

Another condition essential to world confidence 
and security is the conclusion of the peace settle- 
ments with Japan and Germany. It is impossible 
for any nation to determine its military require- 
ments for self-preservation until these conditions 
have been accomplished. But can conditions of 
confidence and security be created as long as one 
of the permanent members of the Security Coun- 
cil blocks the formulation of a lasting peace? 

Can there be confidence and security when one 
of the permanent members of the Security Coun- 
cil creates a threat to peace by imposing a land 
blockade of Berlin? 

Can there be confidence and security when one 
of them refuses to participate in the efforts of the 
Security Council to remove this threat to world 
peace ? 

Can there be confidence and security when one 
of them frustrates the effoiis of all the other oc- 
cupying powers for a pacific settlement of the 
dispute ? 

I call your attention also to the fact that the 
principles considered essential by nine of the 
eleven members of the Commission for Conven- 
tional Armaments also call for a system of ade- 
quate safeguards which, by including an agreed 
system of international supervision, would insure 
the observance of the provisions of the resolution 
or convention by all parties. These, too, must 
precede the initiation of any disarmament. 

The crucial aspect of this question is the stead- 
fast refusal of the Soviet Union, in the study of 
atomic-energy control and in the field of conven- 
tional armaments, to agree in common with other 
members to the opening of its territory to repre- 
sentatives of the United Nations so that they might 



'Made before Committee I (Political and Security) in 
Paris on Oct. 12, 1948, and released to the press on the 
same date. Printed also as Department of State publi- 
cation 331!). 

511 



THE UNITBD NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

determine whether the agreements are being 
carried out. 

Does any member of this committee think for a 
moment that the Members of the United Nations 
shoukl disarm while the Soviet Union gives no 
evidence whatsoever that it is willing to partici- 
pate in the world community to the extent re- 
quired for the control of atomic energy and the 
regulation of armaments? 

In its resolution the Soviet Union proposes a 
system of supervision and control "within the 
framework of the Security Council." The ob- 
jective in steering this proposal into the Security 
Council, with the veto as the trap door, is too 
obvious to permit serious consideration. Such 
attitude is an ancient one; the Soviet proposals 
for disarmament made in 1927 at Geneva were 
really aimed at another objective than disarma- 
ment, as shown in a resolution of the sixth congress 
of the Communist International : 

"The aim of the Soviet proposal was not to 
spread pacifist illusions, but to destroy them ; not 
to support capitalism by ignoring or toning clown 
its shady sides, but to propagate the fundamental 
Marxian postulate, that disarmament and the 
abolition of war are possible only with the fall 
of capitalism. . . ." 

I ask again — Why has Mr. Vyshinsky presented 
his proposal to this body instead of to the Com- 
mission for Conventional Armaments? Could it 
possibly be for propaganda effect? 

The world situation is too grave to permit any 
further play with words. I say this deliberately 
after listening to hour after hour of Soviet ora- 
tory. In a most revealing manner our Soviet col- 
leagues have, during the past two weeks, exposed 
to us }iot only the vanity of such word structures 
but also their emptiness. 

Mr. Vyshinsky has mentioned his aversion to 
war. He has, in particular, depicted at great 
length the horrors of atomic warfare. He has 
freely — very freely — in quoting from one of his 
favorite American magazines translated the ex- 
pression "technical improvement" into the word 
"progress" on the part of the United States in 
manufacturing even deadlier atomic bombs than 
that used at Hiroshima. He has then proceeded 
to wave this distorted example of American in- 
ventiveness in the face of dismayed and already 
overwrought mankind. 

Is it not strange that in this "paean of peace" 
he has placed the accent on atomic warfare? 
Consistently he has dwelt on the frightful effects 
of the ever bigger and better atomic bombs which 
he generously attributes to American resourceful- 
ness and efficiency. Is it not strange that except 
for a word here and a sentence there he has not 
placed the accent on war, just plain war? Is it 
not curious that, instead of concentrating his ire 

512 



on that desperately out-of-date ultimate instru- 
ment of the policy of nations, he has confined his 
highest flights of oratory purely to atomic war- 
fare? 

I accept the recent challenge of my Soviet col- 
league to study Marxian teaching as currently ex- 
pounded today in the Soviet Union for the answer. 
Aggressive warfare in the Soviet Socialist of- 
ficialdom has not yet fallen into disrepute. For 
the time being only atomic warfare is to be 
dreaded and avoided at all costs. Indeed war it- 
self is still a recognized means of achieving a 
Comminiist world society. 

The Soviet Union for more than a year has 
pretended to devote itself to a so-called "peace 
offensive". Mr. Vyshinsky has spoken much of 
the peaceful intentions of the Soviet Union as con- 
trasted to the alleged warlike and aggressive in- 
tentions of the United States. Yet by what 
evidence are we to judge the peaceful intentions 
of the Soviet Union? 

In the first place there is a vast Communist 
literature which reveals much concerning the in- 
tentions of the Soviet Union. If these writings 
are outdated, not valid, or do not reiDresent the 
policy of the Soviet Union, assurance of that fact, 
followed by concrete action, would begin to re- 
move the apprehensions felt by many seated about 
this table. But until that time we have no re- 
course other than to accept as valid the statements 
which have been made repeatedly by authoritative 
representatives of the Soviet Union. 

We hope it is not ti'ue that the Soviet Union 
believes and acts on the premise that a conflict 
between Russia and the Western World is inevi- 
table, and we hope that Mr. Vyshinsky can assure 
us that such is not the case. 

Yet the History of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union, a book whose tenth anniversary of 
publication was celebrated last month in Moscow, 
which has been printed in 62 languages and dis- 
tributed in more than 33 million copies, states that 
"Lenin has pointed out that war is an inevitable 
concomitant of capitalism." This history, which 
is taught the length and breadth of the Soviet 
Union, teaches that there are just wars, wars 
which are waged, for example, "to liberate the 
I^eople from capitalist slavery." 

In a book jniblished in 1947 entitled The Econ- 
omy of the U.S.S.R. During World War II, the 
Deputy Premier of the U.S.S.R. and Chief of the 
State Planning Commission states as follows : 

"Lenin and Stalin warned the Socialist home- 
land again of the inevitability of historical battles 
between imperialism and socialism and prepared 
the peoples of the U.S.S.R. for these battles. Lenin 
and Stalin explained that wars which a working 
class, having defeated its own bourgeoisie, wages 
in the interests of its socialist homeland and 
in the interests of strengthening and developing 
socialism, are lawful and holy wars. . . . 

Department of State Bulletin 



'"To proYont the possibility of appeai-ance 
within a I'utui'i' period of new imperialist aggres- 
sion against the Socialist homeland, and the be- 
ginning of a third world war, it is necessary that 
the aggressor imperialist eonntries be disarmed 
militarily and economically, and that the anti- 
imperialist democratic countries rally together. 
It should not be forgotten that the capitalist eco- 
nomic system abroatl of itself produces aggressive 
wars and the leaders of such wars. . . ." 

Finally. Mr. Chairman, as recently as Septem- 
ber '22, li'-lS, the Soviet newspaper Isvestia stated : 

"The capitalist system is doomed to destruction. 
However, the downfall of cai)italism will not 
come of itself. Capitalism can only be destroyed 
in a fierce class struggle." 

If the Soviet Union regards those governments 
which do not subscribe to Communism as the rep- 
resentatives of the "capitalism" it seeks to destroy, 
then how can we avoid feeling apprehensive? 
When we hear Soviet representatives talk about 
the peace offensive, we recall that in April 1948 
a Communist Party publication in Paris defined 
"final victory over war'' as "victory over capital- 
ism". Is this not a ghastly definition of peace? 

It is clear that in the Soviet Union war is not 
only regarded as inevitable but is actually glori- 
fied by its cultural leaders. 

Issue no. 44 of the Literary Gazette, which, like 
all Soviet publications, carries official sanction, 
only two years ago stated the following : 

"We do not intend to abandon the war theme. 
. . . We must write about war in such a way that 
the generation of young Soviet people which come 
after us will love arms and be ready for battles 
and victories." 

Perhaps Mr. Vyshinsky can show us that offi- 
cial utterances, some of them made less than a 
month ago, were not intended to mean what they 
say. Perhaps Mr. Vyshinsky can withdraw the 
thesis that a war between the Soviet Union and 
the capitalist countries is inevitable and that Com- 
munism teaches that our system must be destroyed. 
Until he does, however, we cannot ignore the 
warnings in the writings of Soviet authorities. 

So much for Soviet philosophy and the peace 
of mind which it may inspire in their non-Marxist 
neighbors. 

Xow let us briefly consider whether peace of 
mind can be assured by the past actions of the 
U.S.S.R. 

The aggrandizement of Soviet territory has al- 
ready been referred to. Indignantly the Soviet 
Delegation has asserted that these annexations had 
been effected with democratic consultations of the 
populations according to the enlightened standards 
of the Soviet Constitution. Does this statement 

Ocfofaer 24, 7948 



THE UN/rED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZBD ACBNCIBS 

stand analysis? Even nioi'c, does it stand the test 
of Mr. Vyshinsky's beloved "critique"? Let us 
consider eastern Poland. Somehow I seem to 
remember that the democratic processes of annex- 
ation started in September 19;5i) by a sudden over- 
night military offensive against an already 
defeated foe. This conquest was conducted in full 
harmony and technical cooperation with the 
Nazis. The Soviet Union approved by the stroke 
of a pen on August 23 of that year the alliance, and 
suddenly became a working partner with the oft- 
denounced Nazis. And did not Generalissimo 
Stalin, after the Nazi-Soviet partition of Poland, 
telegraph to Ribbentrop, the Nazi Foreign Minis- 
ter: "The friendship of the people of Germany 
and the Soviet Union, cemented by blood, has every 
reason to be lasting and firm." As to the "demo- 
cratic" ratification of the inclusion of this large 
part of prewar Poland in the Soviet Union by the 
populations themselves, we learn little (and I 
think we all would keenly be interested to hear) 
about details thereof from the Soviet Delegation. 
However, it really should not be necessary to seek 
far for enlightenment. Any nation, any individ- 
ual with any kind of experience of universal 
suffrage does not have to be told a great deal about 
the democratic character of elections and plebi- 
scites which yield 99-percent results. 

The Baltic States also began on their "volun- 
tary" road to incorporation by the arrival of the 
Red Anny in the fall of 19o9, followed by their 
comi^lete takeover after the French campaign of 
1940, at a time when there was no question of lib- 
erating these small countries from an enemy yoke. 
We recall that the entrance of the Latvian Repub- 
lic into the Soviet Union was presided over by no 
less a person than my distinguished colleague, Mr. 
Vyshinsky. 

Let us pass on down the years. First, we en- 
counter the "great hope", the hope generated in 
the bosom of every generous human being when 
the embattled Russian people played such a great 
part in defeating Nazi German}', when hope was 
kindled that the relentless doctrines of Marx and 
of Lenin, doctrines of hatred between classes and 
also of inevitable strife, had made way for a more 
enlightened concept of relations between men and 
states. 

For a long while most people clung tenaciously 
to this hope, unwilling to yield and abandon their 
vision that a new Morld, at last better, with un- 
limited possibilities for the future, had dawned. 
They insisted on disbelieving the evidence. Grad- 
ually the realization developed that, indeed, noth- 
ing was changed. 

Is it really necessai*y to go into details regarding 
the domination of Rumania, Poland, Hungaiy, 
Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Yugo- 
slavia? Recent events in truly impressive detail 
have disclosed that the price of Soviet friendship 
is complete subservience to Soviet policy. 

513 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPBCIAIIZBD ACBNCIES 

The satellites of the U.S.S.R. were not alone 
to feel the heavy hand of its constant drive for 
world power, a drive camouflaged by words ap- 
propriated from liberty's lexicon, words of vital 
meaning to those who enjoy freedom, but decep- 
tive and ineaningless in the Russian policy toward 
her satellites. 

Cause for disillusionment and alarm also exists 
in the Orient, as the distinguished representative 
of China gave testimony yesterday. There, too, 
Communist directives preach war and bloodshed, 
which facts confirm. In a lengthy resolution 
adojjted by the sixth world congress of Commu- 
nist International at Moscow on September 1, 1928, 
the following directive concerning China is f oimd : 

"The Communist Party (in China) must every- 
where propagate among the masses the idea of 
Soviets, the idea of the dictatorship of the prole- 
tariat and peasantry, and the inevitability of the 
coming revolutionary mass armed uprising." 

That "mass armed uprising" preached from 
Moscow in 1928 is now in full swing. The people 
of Manchuria after long years under Japanese 
domination and after having their factories de- 
spoiled of equipment by the Soviet Army are now 
suffering untold hardships from armed Chinese 
Communist forces who are seeking by force to 
destroy the constituted authority of China, whose 
representatives sit here among us today as fellow 
members. These Communist forces have also 
penetrated into the heart of China seeking to de- 
stroy and despoil. Another dangerous develop- 
ment has occurred. The U.S.S.R. obtained as 
part of its price for entering the war against 
Japan special positions at Port Arthur and Dairen, 
Chinese territory, which have been so utilized 
effectively to bar China from exercising its legal 
authority. 

In Korea, where a people of 30,000,000 held high 
hopes for complete independence at the end of the 
war in the Orient in September 1945, those hopes 
have been and are being betraj'ed through Soviet 
opposition to any rational solution. That opposi- 
tion moreover has been maintained in complete 
disregard of a resolution adopted by the General 
Assembly on November 14, 1947, providing a fair 
and honorable solution of the Korean problem. 
Can the Korean people look forward with equa- 
nimity to any solution when a large Soviet-trained 
armed force awaits in North Korea an oppor- 
tunity to march southward ? 

The states of western Europe have also been the 
victims of this new form of aggression. The Com- 
inform was formed so as better to correlate the 
work of destruction to be accomplished. At all 
costs western Europe nuist not regain its feet, for 
should it do so it would successfully resist Com- 
munist penetration. At all costs the homeland of 
Western civilization must be kept in a constant 

514 



state of tui'moil and economic chaos. It must be 
kept in a state of fear and worry, so as to be unable 
to concentrate on the great task of reconstruction. 
The economic blood transfusion from the United 
States must at all costs be nullified by recurring 
strikes and curtailed production. The Commu- 
nist Parties of France, Italy, the United Kingdom, 
Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg re- 
ceived tlieir orders accordinglj', and with the un- 
reasoning discipline which is one of the many ter- 
rifying aspects of modern Communism the vari- 
ous Communist Parties proceeded to execute this 
deliberate plan of sabotage. 

Overnight the Communist slogan was no longer 
"woi'k and produce" as it had been in the first 
post-liberation period. As soon as it became ob- 
vious that returning health would protect these 
bodies politically against the Communist views 
the new slogan became "destroy and wreck." 

Perhaps most surprising of all is the complete 
brazenness with which these so-called national 
parties admit their allegiance to a foreign jjower. 

We have had a striking illustration right here 
in Paris since this General Assembly convened. 
The official Communist organ, Humaniie, on Oc- 
tober 1 i^ublished the following statement by the 
Politburo : "The people of France will never fight 
the Soviet Union." Let us ponder exactly what 
this means. A French political party declares 
openly that it will never participate in a war 
against another nation and this regardless of the 
circumstances under which a conflict might de- 
velop. For "my country right or wrong" the 
Communists of all lands now substitute "the 
U.S.S.R. right or wrong." 

Are we dreaming? Can such tactics, such ac- 
tions, such a record be those of one of the founders 
of the United Nations? Harking back to that 
day of hope, June 26, 1945, when the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics signed the Charter, 
what a crashing discord in the world's hymn of 
peace. Perhaps this apparent contradiction can 
best be explained by a quotation from Lenin with 
reference to Communist penetration of trade- 
unions (Left-wing Communism, an infantile dis- 
order) : "It is necessary to be able to withstand 
all this, to agree to any and every sacrifice, and 
even — if need be — to resort to all sorts of strata- 
gems, maneuvers and illegal methods, to evasion 
and subterfuges in order to penetrate the trade 
unions, to remain in them and to carry on Com- 
munist work in them at all costs." 

Let us for a few moments refresh our memories 
so as better to judge the record against the lofty 
purposes so well set forth in the Charter's pre- 
amble and first two articles : 

WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS 
DETERMINED 

to save succeeding generaticms from the scov/rge of 
Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



tear, lohich fivice in our lifetime has brought vm- 
told sorrow to mankind, and 
to reaffirm, faith in fundamental human rights, hi 
the dignity and loorth of the human perxon, in the 
equal rights of men and women and of nations 
large and small, and 

to establish conditions under xohich justice and re- 
spect for the obligations arising from treaties and 
other sources of intertiational law can be main- 
tained, and 

to promote social progress and better standards of 
life in larger freedom, 

AND FOR THESE EXDS 

to practice tolerance and live together in peace 

with one another as good neighbors, and 

to unite our strength to maintain international 

peace and security, and 

to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the 

institution of methods, that armed force shall not 

he used, save in the common interest, and 

to employ international machinery for the proino- 

tion of the economic and social advancement of all 

peoples, 

HAVE RESOL^'ED TO COMBINE CUB EFFORTS TO ACCOM- 
PLISH THESE AIMS. 

Accordingly, our respective Governments, through 
representatives assemhled in the city of San Fran- 
cisco, ioho have exhibited their full powers fownd 
to be in good and due form, have agreed to the 
present Charter of the United Nations and do 
hereby establish an international organization to 
he known as the United Nations. 



Article 1 

The Purposes of the United Nations are : 

1. To maintain international peace and security, 
and to that end: to take effective collective meas- 
ures for the prevention and removal of threats 
to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of 
aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to 
bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity 
with the principles of justice and international 
law, adjustment or settlement of international dis- 
putes or situations which might lead to a breach 
of the peace; 

2. To develop friendly relations among nations 
based on respect for the principle of equal rights 
and self-determination of peoples, and to take 
other appropriate measures to strengthen univer- 
sal peace; 

3. To achieve international cooperation in solv- 
ing intematianal problems of an economic, social, 
cultural, or humanitarian character, and in pro- 
moting and encouraging respect for human rights 
and for fundamental freedoms for all without dis- 
tinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and 

October 24, 1948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

4- To be a center for harmonising the actions 
of nations in the attainment of these common ends. 

Article 2 

The rganization and its Members, in pursuit 
of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall act in Oic- 
cordance with the following Principles. 

1. The Organization is based on the principle 
of the sovereign equality of all its Members. 

2. All Members, in order to ensure to all of them 
the rights and benefits resulting from jnembership, 
shall fulfil in good, faith the obligations assumed 
by them in accordance with the present Charter. 

3. All Meinbers shall settle their inter national 
disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that 
international peace and security, and justice, are 
not endangered. 

4- All Members shall refrain in their interna- 
tional relations from the threat or use of force 
against the terntoi'ial integrity or political inde- 
pendence of any state, or ^V^ any other manner in- 
consistent with the Purposes of the United 
Nations. 

5. All Members shall give the United Nations 
every assistance in any action it takes in accord- 
ance with the present Charter, and shall refrain 
from giving assistance to any state against which 
the United Nations is taking preventive or en- 
forcement action. 

6. The Organization shall ensure that states 
which are not Members of the United Nations act 
in accordance with these Principles so far as may 
be necessary for the maintencmce of international 
peace and security. 

7. Nothing contained in the present Charter 
shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in 
matters which are essentially within the domestic 
jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Mem- 
bers to Submit such matters to settlement under 
the present Charter; but this principle shall not 
prejudice the a/pplication of enforcement measures 
wider Chapter VII. 

With complete candor, I shall now speak about 
the security situation in which we must consider 
the proposal of the Soviet Union for a one-third 
reduction of armed forces. In doing so, I quote 
from a statement that Secretary of State Marshall 
made before the Foreign Affairs Committee of the 
House of Representatives of the United States on 
May 5, 1948. He said that— 

"When universal agreement to the Charter was 
achieved, the strength of the major powers in rela- 
tion to one another was such that no one of them 
could safely break the peace if the others stood 
united in defense of the Charter. Under existing 
world circumstances the maintenance of a com- 
parable power relationship is fundamental to 
world security." 

To what extent did the United States demobi- 

515 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

lize? Let me cite the statement made by Secre- 
tary Marshall before the Women's National Press 
Club in Washington on July 1, 1947 : 

". . . At the end of the war our government 
demobilized the greatest concentration of military 
power that the world has ever seen. Our ai-med 
strength was deployed from the Elbe in Germany 
to the Islands of Jai^an. This great array was 
demobilized with amazing rapidity until only com- 
paratively small garrisons of troops were left on 
the necessary occupation duty in tlie principal 
enemy countries. No conditions were attached to 
this withdrawal. . . . No political parties sub- 
servient to United States interests have been left 
behind in European countries to attempt conquest 
of governments from within. No American 
agents have sought to dominate the police estab- 
lishment of European countries. No 'joint Amer- 
ican-European companies' have been forced upon 
reluctant governments. I do not cite this record 
as evidence of our peaceful intentions by way of 
indulging in national boasting, but merely because 
it is true. . . ." 

During this period it has become progressively 
clearer that serious misconceptions prevail in the 
minds of the leaders of the Soviet Union. It is 
a misconception to suppose that differing systems 
cannot live side by side in peace under the basic 
rules of international conduct prescribed by the 
Charter of the United Nations. These rules are 
obligatory upon all Members. 

The United Nations must dispel these miscon- 
ceptions of the Soviet leaders. It must bring 
about a more realistic view of what is possible and 
what is impossible in the relationship between the 
Soviet Union and the world at large. This will 
restore to international society the equilibrium 
necessary to permit the United Nations to function 
as contemplated at San Francisco, 

The United States realized the need for this 
equilibrium. The first necessary step was to in- 
sure the freedom and independence of the Mem- 
bers of the United Nations. The ability of demo- 
cratic peoples to preserve their independence in 
the face of totalitarian threats depends upon their 
determination to do so. That determination in 
turn depends upon the development of a healthy 
economic and political life and a genuine sense of 
security. 

The United States Government, therefore, is 
responding to requests to provide economic as- 
sistance to various countries in Europe and else- 
where. The United States is cooperating with 
16 European countries in a recovery program pro- 
viding for self-help and mutual aid. 

In addition the United States Government is 
now considering the steps necessary to bring the 
national military establishment to the minimum 
level required for international security. 

= A/C.l/319of Oct. 10, 1948, and A/C.1/309 of Oct. 1, 1948. 
516 



Action necessary on the part of the United 
States to lestore this balance-of-power relation- 
ship may be less onerous than for some other 
nations which are already spending a very large 
percentage of their national income on arma- 
ments. The United States for the fiscal year 1948- 
49 is spending only 5.9 percent of its national in- 
come for military purposes, despite the fact that 
this represents some increase over the low point 
since the war. This is to be compared with the 
figure of 17 percent for the Soviet Union men- 
tioned by Mr. MacNeil the other day. 

Gentlemen, I repeat that, until present con- 
ditions of world fear and insecurity are rej)laced 
by an atmosphere of international confidence and 
security, not only will it be impossible to institute 
effective systems of control and reduction of arma- 
ments but the whole field of international relations 
will be subject to continuous discord. 

The people of the United States are deeply 
interested in the reduction of national armaments 
and are prepared to consider most carefully any 
io7ia fide proposal for lightening the burden of 
armaments. As a matter of fact, however, the 
United States disarmed too far and too fast after 
the last war. The overriding consideration is the 
maintenance of international peace and security. 
We know that maintenance of this international 
peace and security dejDends upon strength and 
resolution of those states who in the final analysis 
are prepared to act in support of the world com- 
munity against aggression. 

Indeed, the security of many nations seated at 
this table dejiends upon this fundamental fact. 
The world learned from Germany and Japan what 
can happen when leading memfjers of the inter- 
national community are or are thought to be lack- 
ing in strength or resolution. I call upon the So- 
viet Union to work with us to reduce world ten- 
sion and to dispel the dread and suspicion which 
are filling the lives of so many of our peoples and 
making our efforts for world organization so dif- 
ficult. 

Before closing I wish to state that the Delega- 
tion of the United States has considered care- 
fully and will vote for the resolutions which have 
been submitted to this committee by the Dele- 
gations of the United Kingdom and Syria.- 
Taken together these resolutions are entirely con- 
sistent with the ])osition of the United States. 
Article 26 of the Charter provides "that — . . . the 
Security Council shall be responsible for formu- 
lating . . . plans to be submitted to the Mem- 
bers of the United Nations for the establishment 
of a system for the regulation of armaments." 

Despite the fact that the work of this Commis- 
sion has continued to be hampered by the dema- 
gogic appeals and irresponsible propaganda of 
the Soviet Union, the United States believes that 
the Commission must proceed with its work. 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



Discussion of the Palestine Situation in Committee I 



STATEMENT BY RALPH BUNCHEi 



Acting U.N. Mediator in Palestine 



It is with heavy heart that I make this statement 
to the Committee today. But for that crime in 
Jerusalem committed by a band of despicable gang- 
sters it would be Count Bernadotte himself who 
would be speaking to you now. The late mediator 
was not only my chief but a treasured friend. In 
these months since the end of May, I had come to 
know him well. He was an utterly honest and 
fearless man, completely independent in his think- 
ing, and thoroughly devoted to the effort to bring 
peace to Palestine. He had no axe to grind, no 
vested interest to serve. The views which I wiU 
briefly express to you today will, I think, be very 
close to the views which Count Bei'nadotte himself 
would have expressed had he lived to enjoy the 
privilege of sitting with you, a privilege which he 
would have greatly appreciated. 

The progress report of the late mediator which 
is before you as document A/648, sets forth quite 
clearly in part one the views of Count Bernadotte 
on the mam issues in the Palestine conflict today. - 
I need not repeat these views, and the more so since 
I am in full accord with them. If I may take the 
liberty of doing so, however, I would like briefly 
to give some emphasis to what appears to me to be 
the inescapable logic of the situation in Palestine 
with which this Assembly is now confi'onted. 

Since the termination of the mandate on May 15 
of this year, there have been three signal develop- 
ments in Palestine : — The proclamation of a Jew- 
ish state, resort to forceful measures by the Arab 
states, and the intervention of the Security 
Council. 

1. A Jewish state was proclaimed in that part 
of Palestine envisaged for the Jewish state in the 
resolution of the General Assembly of last Novem- 
ber 29. That Jewish state did not come about in 
accordance with the processes and procedures fore- 
seen in the Assembly's resolution. But it was no 
less real because of that and it could confidently 
base its right to exist on the fact that the majority 
of the Members of the United Nations had en- 
dorsed the idea of a Jewish state in Palestine, a 
mandated territory and therefore an international 
responsibility, moreover, this was no nominal or 
paper state. From the very day of its proclama- 
tion it had a vibrant reality. It boasted an active 
and vigorous government, a national esprit and 
cohesion, and a well organized and well trained, if 
poorly equipped, army. It was a going concern 

Ocfober 24, 1948 



from the day of its birth. It was readily apparent 
to even the casual observer that the nationalist 
spirit of the Jewish inhabitants of this state was 
so strong and deeply rooted as to render entirely 
illusory any suggestion that a Jewish state in Pal- 
estine could be prevented by any means other than 
force of sufficient strength to completely crush the 
Jewish community. In the five months since its 
inception, this Jewish state has consolidated and 
strengthened its position, both nationally and in- 
ternationally. 

2. On the other hand, Arab opposition to the 
new Jewish state was so intense as to induce the 
Ai'ub states to resort to violent measures. Open 
warfare between the newly proclaimed Jewish 
state and the states members of the Arab League 
broke out coincidentally with the termination of 
the mandate and the proclamation of the Jewish 
state. This, of course, had not been envisaged by 
the resolution of November 29. Until halted by 
the two truces achieved through the intervention 
of the Security Council, it was warfare as deadly 
as it could be made with the limited weapons and 
supplies available to the contestants. It was war- 
fare brought on by the fact that the Jews had 
taken the political offensive on the termination of 
the mandate and proclaimed a state, while the 
Arab states, in retaliation, took the military of- 
fensive and moved their troops into Palestine with 
the avowed purpose of protecting the Arab inhabi- 
tants of Palestine by crushing the infant Jewish 
state. This military effort was exerted not by the 
Arabs of Palestine but primarily by the armies of 
the Arab states witii the objective of protecting the 
Arabs of Palestine from an alleged danger of Jew- 
ish domination. It cannot be said that the Arabs 
had not given ample warning of their firm inten- 
tions in this regard. Their willingness to resort to 
this extreme action is an accurate gauge of the in- 
tensity of Arab feelings as regards the injustice to 
them of a Jewish state in Palestine. 

3. By the intervention of the Security Council 
the warfare in Palestine has been twice stopped 
and at present remains stopped. In fact, the reso- 
lution of the Security Council of July 15, 1948, 
which ordered both parties to cease fighting, al- 



' Made on Oct. 15, 1948, and printed from telegraphic 
text. 

' For conclusions of the report, see Bulletin of Oct. 3, 
1948, p. 436. 

517 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

though it makes reference to a truce of undefined 
duration, also prohibits any further recourse to 
military action as a means of settling the dispute. 
The imposed "truce" of July 18 is really a per- 
manent cease-fire order. The opposing armies 
have now been confronting each other since July 
18, but they are forbidden to resume fighting. If 
either side should provoke a resumption of hostili- 
ties it would have to do so in open defiance of the 
order of the Security Council and thereby run the 
risk of invoking the threat of sanctions embodied 
in the July 15 resolution. The Security Council 
order stands and it cannot be assumed that either 
side will wish to run the risk of shouldering re- 
si^onsibility for open defiance of this order by a 
deliberate resumption of hostilities. On the other 
hand, this permanent cease-fire order, which is also 
described in the resolution as a truce, has been re- 
garded by both parties as a truce, and therefore of 
temjjorary ratlier than permanent duration. 
Moreover, it has been administered and supervised 
as a truce. The armies have not been withdrawn 
or demobilized. On the contrary, they have been 
confronting each other in full battle array, and 
alerted for battle, for almost five months now, ex- 
cept for the intense fighting during the nine day 
interval between the two truces. The strain and 
tension are very great, and it is most assuredly not 
a situation which can be maintained indefinitely. 
The existing truce clearly must be superseded by 
something more durable and secure — either a 
formal peace or an armistice, either of which would 
be more consistent with the Security Council order 
than the present precarious truce. 

It is unthinkable that Arabs and Jews should be 
permitted to resume hostilities in Palestine. The 
threat to the peace of the Middle East generally 
and even to the world from conflict in Palestine, is 
far too great. 

There have already been some danger signals 
of outside interests in the conflict, which might 
render doubtful any assumption that a renewed 
conflict could be confined to Palestinians and the 
Arab states. 

The role of mediator was defined in resolution 
186 (S-2) of the General Assembly of May 14, 
1948. Among other functions that resolution di- 
rected the mediator to "use his good offices to pro- 
mote a peaceful adjustment of the future situation 
of Palestine". This was the function to which 
Count Bemadotte devoted major concentration 
from the beginning of his effort in Cairo on May 
28, although the supervision of the truce under the 
resolution of the Security Council, and more re- 
cently, the tragic refugee problem, consumed much 
of his time and energy. 

In directing his attention towards achieving a 
peaceful adjustment of the Palestine situation, the 
mediator was confronted with the necessity of 
defining the premises upon which his efforts would 

518 



be based. His decision in this regard was a prac- | 
tical one, dictated in large measure by circum- * 
stances entirely beyond his control. 

Arab repi'esentatives, for example, with whom 
he consulted frequently and at great length, con- 
stantly emphasized what they would describe as 
the historic injustice of the Balfour Declaration, 
the terms of the mandate, the mandate itself, the 
Jewish nationalist aspirations, and the resolution 
of the General Assembly of 29 November on the 
one hand, and the fundamental equality and de- 
mocracy of an Arab state in the whole of Palestine 
on the other. Count Bernadotte, however, quite 
rightly in my view, did not regard it as within his 
purview to pass judgment upon the validity and 
the justice of decisions previously taken by the 
international community. On the same grounds, 
and, in view of the nature of his terms of reference, 
for instance, he did not consider himself to be 
rigidly bound by the details of the resolution of 
the General Assembly of 29 November but recog- 
nized, nevertheless, that its basic conclusions rep- 
resented the expressed will of more than two thirds 
of the members of the United Nations, and could 
not, therefore, be ignored. 

It is undeniable, therefore, that in his approach 
to the problem. Count Bernadotte was inevitably 
influenced by the fact that, Arab opposition not- 
withstanding, there had been, especially during 
the past 30 years, a progressive recognition by the 
international community of a special position for 
the Jewish community in Palestine, culminating 
in the resolution of 29 November and the procla- ■ 
mation by the Jews themselves of a state of their f 
own in a part of Palestine. 

On the other hand, the mediator was not in- 
fluenced by that part of the claims of the Jews to 
a historic right to Palestine based upon their an- 
cient residence in that country and their religious 
association with it, rather than formal interna- 
tional sanctions. He did not accept, therefore, the 
Jewish contention that it was they who were al- 
ways called upon to compromise. Since he could 
not accept their alleged historical claims to the 
whole of Palestine, including Transjordan, he 
could not admit the contention that acceptance of 
the 29 November resolution constituted a compro- 
mise on their part, and that any alteration in the 
terms of that resolution not favorable to them 
would compound a compromise previously made.* 

It was within this milieu that the mediator, 
through four months of negotiation of unprece- 
dented intensity, strove, by trial and error, through 
reason and persuasion and every other honorable 
means, to find a common ground upon which the 
conflicting parties might meet. This common 
ground was never found. That it was not found 
was due entirely to the intransigence of the par- 
ties. On the fundamental issues, each side re- 
mained adamant. 

Department of State Bulletin 



In view of tliis fact, the mediator was forced to 
the conchision that it Mas not now possible, by 
means of an intermediary, to bring the two parties 
towther and achieve agreement between them. 
The Arab representatives steadfastly refused to 
meet the Jewish representatives, either in the pres- 
ence of the mediator or otherwise, since they con- 
sidered any such step as a tacit admission on their 
part of the right of the Jewish state to exist. 

The mediator, however, did not conclude from 
these facts that the problem of Palestine cannot be 
solved by peaceful means, or that a basis for agree- 
ment between the parties can never be found. 
Failure to bring the parties together would, it is 
true, preclude any immediate possibility of a tidy, 
definitive solution, which is very much to be de- 
sired. But there was an alternative which derived 
precisely from the very rigidity of the parties who 
were at the same time in the predicament of having 
to defy the Security Council in order to resort to 
the simple expedient of trial by force of arms. 

It was with this in mind that the mediator 
pointed out in paragraph 10 on page 4 of his re- 
port that : 

"Although it cannot be said that neither side will 
fight again under any circumstances, I am strongly 
of the view that the time is ripe for a settlement. 
I am reasonably confident that given the perma- 
nent injunction against military action issued by 
the Security Council, and firm political decisions 
by the General Assembly, both sides will acquiesce, 
however reluctantly, in any reasonable settlement 
on which is placed the stamp of approval of the 
United Nations. I do not mean to imply that there 
is at the moment bright prospect for formal agree- 
ment between the two parties. But, in my opinion, 
although such formal agi'eement would be highly 
desirable, it is not indispensable to a peaceful set- 
tlement at this stage. Wliat is indispensable is 
that the General Assembly take a firm position on 
the political aspects of the problem in the light of 
all the circumstances since its last session, and that 
its resolution be so reasonable as to discourage any 
attempt to thwart it and to defy the Security 
Council order by the employment of armed force." 

It was on the basis of this assumption also that 
the mediator considered it highly essential that 
the question of Palestine come before the General 
Assembly at this time and that the political aspects 
of the problem be reviewed and unequivocally 
pronounced upon in the light of all the relevant 
factors. 

In my opinion, in the present circumstances, two 
needs are uppermost in the most imperative sense. 
The first of these needs is a reasonable basis for the 
assumption that neither party will again resort to 
force in order to make its views prevail and as a 
means of gaining its objectives. In this regard, 
reason for hope is to be found in the fact that 

Ocfofcer 24, 1948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

settlement by force has been tried and has been 
checked. I do not find it possible to believe that 
either side wishes to resume hostilities or that 
either side has found settlement by force of arms a 
profitable expedient. Despite the conflict which 
has raged in Palestine and despite the gidf which 
still divides the antagonists, there is on both sides 
a desire and a need for peace arising from the fact 
that war is a costly, even disastrous, interruption 
in the normal course of development of both Arab 
and Jewish communities in the Middle East. 

The second of these needs is for the General 
Assembly, as the representative body of the inter- 
national community, to set forth its position on the 
following fundamental political issues affecting 
this former mandated territory with regard to 
which its responsibility continues : 

A. Permanent peace in Palestine. 

B. The Jewish state in Palestine. 

C. The general configurations of the boundaries 
of sucn a state. 

D. International guarantee for such boundaries. 

E. The future status of Jerusalem. 

F. The disposition of the Arab-controlled area 
of Palestine. 

G. Guarantees for the rights of all inhabitants 
of Palestine. 

H. The repatriation and resettlement of Arab 
refugees. 

I. The nature of the machinery to be employed 
as a vehicle for continuing United Nations in- 
tervention in the problem imtil all of its major 
aspects are finally disposed of. 

It would not appear essential in this regard that 
a detailed plan, a blueprint, be devised for this 
purpose. Indeed, any such detailed scheme, in 
view of all the developments since last November, 
and the present situation in Palestine, might well 
be undesirable. Assuming always that the parties 
do not again resort to force, it would seem that a 
somewhat general treatment of the subject, which 
while making clear the position of the United 
Nations on major issues woidd leave to the parties 
the burden of peaceful adjustment, might have 
great merit. 

The conclusions set forth in part one of the 
mediator's report might well provide a basis for a 
general treatment of this kind. These conclusions 
represent the constructive deductions which Count 
Bernadotte had arrived at on the basis of his ex- 
tensive and fruitful consultation on the problem 
over a period of four months. He did not presume 
to present them as recommendations to any organ 
of the United Nations. As the mediator's report 
points out in paragi-aph 13 on page 5, these con- 
clusions were designed of settlement and concilia- 
tion of the differences between the two parties. It 
was, indeed, his intention to renew in Paris his 
consultations with the representatives of the par- 
ties in pursuance of the elusive objective of mutual 

519 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

agreement between them. It was his thought that 
if the conclusions set forth in the report could not 
be accepted by Arabs and Jews as a basis for dis- 
cussion they still would be available to the General 
Assembly for such use as it might see fit to make of 
them. Count Bernadotte harbored no illusions, 
that either Arabs or Jews would embrace the con- 
clusions in their entirety, nor did he deem it essen- 
tial for them to do so, however desirable that might 
be. He was convinced, as I am convinced, that the 



voice of the United Nations speaks with consider- 
able authority in Palestine; this voice, in truth, 
was the sole foundation of his effort and his un- 
challengeable achievements. 

At the appropriate time, should the Committee 
desire it, I would be pleased to present a statement 
dealing exclusively with the conclusions in the re- 
port and giving an explanation and elaboration of 
each of them, and also the answer to any question 
regarding the report. 



The United States in the United Nations 



[October 15-22] 

The Roll of the United States 

George F. Kennan, in his address before the 
Herald-Tribune Forum on October 20,' stated that 
if we mean business in our determination to make 
the United Nations work, we must remember that 
we have before us a task "as difficult and as arduous 
as any that this country has ever tackled in peace 
or in war". If that is our purpose, he said, then 
we must shape and align the realities of interna- 
tional life so that they "speak for themselves with 
an eloquence greater than words — that they con- 
vince the skeptical as words have thus far failed to 
do, that the road of international collaboration is 
after all the fastest, the most practical, and the 
safest of the paths of national policy. And where 
people are not open to argument on considerations 
of the connnon good, then they must be shown that 
this same conclusion flows even from the narrowest 
and most embittered sense of self-interest, which 
it does. 

"This is the job we have to do. 

"It is not, in reality, a new task, or one that lies 
only before us. We have already been deeply en- 
gaged in it for a long time. 

"And it is not our task alone. It is a responsi- 
bility which we share with the other peace-loving 
nations of the world. It is entirely fallacious to 
regard the differences which now separate the 
United States and the Soviet Union merely as a 
struggle between those two powers. The conflict 
which exists inside the United Nations is not a 
conflict between the United States and the 
U.S.S.R. It is a conflict between the majority of 
the U.N. members, acting in support of the Charter, 
and a group of governments who refuse to abide 

' For the complete text of Mr. Kennan's address, see 
Department of State press release 853 of Oct. 20, 1948. 

520 



by its provisions or to recognize the over-riding 
international obligation which the Charter consti- 
tutes. 

"We have now reached one of the most compli- 
cated and delicate phases of this long and difficult 
effort. We have been compelled to place before 
the United Nations a matter of great seriousness 
which it had proven impossible to compose by 
peaceful means outside of the United Nations. We 
were aware that this would constitute a severe test 
of the organization, and one which we would have 
preferred to have spared it. But we had no alter- 
natives other than to meet the threat of force with 
action in order to break the blockade of Berlin, or 
to do nothing at all and thus permit this threaten- 
ing situation to develop in an ominous silence and 
uncertainty, conducive to every sort of alarmist 
speculation and hysteria. 

"This is a situation which is easy neither for us 
nor for our friends. It is going to take all we 
can bring to it in the way of steadiness and under- 
standing and mutual confidence. But we must 
always understand that on the successful resolu- 
tion of it there hangs more than the removal of 
restrictions on the supply of a single city; there 
hangs the removal of one more great obstacle on 
the road to a world in which international organi- 
zation can really function." 

The Berlin Crisis 

A resolution aimed at peaceful solution of the 
Berlin crisis was presented to the Security Coun- 
cil in Paris on October 22 by six neutral nations 
(Argentina, Belgium, Canada, China, Colombia, 
and Syria) which have been striving to solve the 
problem since it was posed by the United States, 
Great Britain, and France. 

The text of the resolution follows : 

The Security Council having carefully considered the 
series of events which have led to the present grave situa- 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



tion in Borlin, coMscioiis of the council's primary respon- 
sibility for the maintenance of international peace and 
security, and acting in accordance with Article 40 of the 
Charter in order to prevent an aKKravation of the situation 
in lierlin. in particular, by preparing the way to its settle- 
ment, calls upon the four governments who have respon- 
sibilities in Germany and in Berlin as the occupying 
powers — France, the United Kingdom, the United States 
of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

1. To prevent any incident which would be of a nature 
such as to aggravate the present situation in Berlin, 

2. To put into effect, simultaneously, namely on the day 
of notification of this resolution to the four governments 
concerned, tlie steps required for the fulfilment of points 

(a) and (b), which are set forth hereunder; 

(a) Immediate removal by all parties of all restrictions 
on communications, transport, and commerce between 
Berlin and the Western zones of Germany, and the re- 
strictions on transport and commerce to and from the 
Soviet zones of Germany, it being understood that said 
restrictions are the ones applied by the parties after the 
first day of March 1948. 

(b) An immediate meeting of the four military gov- 
ernors to arrange for the unification of currency in Berlin 
on the basis of the German mark of the Soviet zone. The 
four military governors will fix the conditions for the 
introduction, cireulaticm and continued use of the German 
mark of the Soviet zone, as sole currency for the whole of 
Berlin, and to arrange for the withdrawal of the Western 
mark. 

All the foregoing to be in accordance ■with the terms and 
conditions defined in the joint directive delivered to the 
four military governors in Berlin, agreed upon by the four 
governments in Moscow, and issued on 30 August, 1948, 
and to be carried out under the control of the quad- 
ripartite financial commission, whose organization, power* 
and responsibilities are therein described. 

This measure must be totally fulfilled by the date in- 
dicated in Paragraph (c). 

(c) The date referred to in the last part of paragraph 

(b) .shall be the 20th November 1948. 

3. Within 10 days following the fulfillment of the meas- 
ures provided for in Section Two, or on such date as is 
mutually agreed between the four governments, to reopen 
the negotiations in the Council of Foreign Ministers on 
all outstanding problems concerning Germany as a whole. 

Palestine 

The Security Council on October 19 ordered a 
halt to the fighting between Israeli and Egyptian 
forces over supply routes to the Negev area in 
southern Palestine. The Council also reminded 
the parties in the Palestine dispute of their obli- 
gations under the Council's blanket cease-fire 
orders. The last such order, dated August 19, was 
unconditional and had no time limit. 

Tlie Council met at the request of Acting U.N. 
Mediator Ralph Bundle after U.N. truce officials 
failed through their own efforts to halt the Negev 
clashes. 

The resolution adopted by the Council on the 
Negev fighting was submitted by Syria and em- 
bodied Dr. Bunche's recommendations. The first 
part of the resolution, ordering the immediate 
cease-fire, was adopted unanimously. The rest of 
the resolution was adopted by a 9-0 vote, the 
Soviet Union and the Ukraine abstaining. 

The resolution calls on both Israeli and Egyp- 
tian forces to withdraw from any positions not 

October 24, 1948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

occupied at the time of the Negev outbreak, which 
began on October 15. Conditions governing the 
passage of supply convoys to the Jewish settle- 
ments in the Negev are to be set by U.N. truce offi- 
cials and both sides are required to negotiate, either 
directly or through U,N. truce machinery, any 
outstanding problems. 

The Council reaffirmed its previous all-Pales- 
tine cease-fire orders by adopting unanimously the 
joint Chinese-British resolution submitted last 
week. It calls on the Palestine parties to enstu-e 
the safety of U.N. personnel and their ready access 
to all places where their duties require them to go, 
including airfields and ports. It also calls on the 
parties to do their utmost to bring to justice all 
l^ersons assaulting U.N. personnel. A Soviet 
amendment accepted by the Council adds that U.N. 
observers should not go beyond objective reports 
to the Council. 

On October 21 Dr. Bunche set Friday noon 
(GMT) as the deadline for Israeli and Egyptian 
forces fighting in the Negev, Palestine's southern 
desert, to cease fire. The Security Council had 
previously issued the cease-fire order. 

Dr. Bunche transmitted the deadline by cable 
simultaneously to the Israeli and Egyptian Gov- 
ernments through U.N. Representatives in Tel 
Aviv and Cairo. 

Atomic Energy Resolution Adopted 

Committee I completed its work on the atomic 
energy question on October 20 by approving, 41 
to 6, with 10 absentions, a four-point Canadian 
proposals, as amended, to continue consultations 
aimed at establishing an effective system of inter- 
national control and outlawing atomic weapons. 
This proposal will go to the General Assembly, 
where a two-thirds majority is required for 
adoption. 

The General Assembly 

Having examined the first, second and third reports of 
the .\tomic Energy Commission which have been trans- 
mitted to it by the Security Council in accordance with 
the terms of the General Assembly resolution of 24 Janu- 
ary 1946: 

1. Approves the general findings (part II C) and rec- 
ommendations (part III) of the first report and the spe- 
cific proposals of part II of the second report of the com- 
mission as constituting the necessary basis for establish- 
ing an effective system of international control of atomic 
energy to ensure its use only for peaceful purposes and 
for the elimination from national armaments of weapons 
in accordance with the terms of reference of the Aec. 

2. Expresses its deep concern at the impasse which has 
been reached in the work of the Aec as shown in its third 
report and regrets that unanimous agreement has not yet 
been reached. 

3. Requests the six sponsors of the General Assembly 
resolution of the 24th of January. 194G, who are perma- 
nent members of the Atomic Energy Commission, to meet 
together and consult in order to determine if there exists 
a basis for agreement on international control of atomic 
energy to en.sure its use only for peaceful purposes and 
for the elimination from national armaments of atomic 
weapons and to report to the General Assembly results of 
their consultation not later than its next regular session. 

521 



THE UN/TED NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZBD AGENCIES 

4. Meanwhile the General Assembly calls upon the Aec 
to resume its sessions, to survey its program of work, and 
to proceed to the further study of such of the subjects 
remaining in the program of work as it considers to be 
practicable and useful. 

The effect of the resolution is to turn the stale- 
mated issue of atomic energy control over to the 
United States, U.S.S.K., the United Kingdom, 
France, China, and Canada to see whether they can 
find a basis for agreement between now and the 
time when the General Assembly meets for its next 
regular session. 

The resolution as adopted is a revision of the 
proposal originally submitted by Canada and re- 
ported out by a special subcommittee. The orig- 
inal draft would have left the issue to the five 
major powers and Canada to solve the impasse 
created by the Soviet Union, and would have di- 
rected them to report at the next regular session. 
Meanwhile, the Atomic Energy Commission itself 
would have been inactive. 

In announcing the United States' acceptance of 
the wishes of the other nations, Ambassador Austin 
emphasized that in agreeing to the revision, the 
United States was not retreating from its oft- 
stated view that the solution to the control impasse 
is outside the Aec's competence and "that other 
means of establishing cooperation must be ex- 
plored". 

Non-Self-Governing Territories 

At a meeting of the Trusteeship Council in Paris 
on October 18 the United States supported an 
Indian resolution calling on states administering 
non-self-governing territories to notify the Gen- 
eral Assembly of changes in territorial constitu- 
tional position or status resulting in discontinuance 
of transmission of information called for under 
provisions of the Charter. 

The resolution was adopted by a vote of 29 to 0, 
with 17 abstentions, after a Polish attempt to 
broaden the resolution and Belgian efforts to limit 
it were rejected. 

Terming the resolution "logical and proper." 
Francis B. Sayre, U. S. Delegate said: 



"The United States now transmits vohmtarily 
information regarding the development of institu- 
tions of self-government within its territories. 
Even in the absence of such a resolution, the United 
States would expect to inform the United Nations 
of any change in constitutional position and status 
of any of its territories as a result of which it be- 
lieved it unnecessary in resjject to such territory 
to transmit further information under the Charter, 
and in so doing to give such accompanying infor- 
mation as might be appropriate. In voting for 
this resolution, it is the understanding of my Gov- 
ernment that transmission of the information re- 
quested does not alter the right of each admin- 
istering state to determine constitutional position 
and status of any particular territory under its 
sovereignty". 

Cooperation Resolution 

The five major powers found themselves in 
agreement on October 21 as each expressed support 
for a Mexican resolution appealing to the great 
powers to "redouble their efforts, in a spirit of 
solidarity and mutual understanding, to achieve 
in the briefest possible time final settlement of the 
war and the conclusion of all peace treaties". 

Unqualified support for the resolution was 
voiced by the United States, the United Kingdom, 
and China. The Soviet Union and France also 
endorsed the resolution but suggested rewording. 
In addition, seven other nations spoke for adoption 
of the Mexican appeal. 

The United States was the first of the great 
powers to speak out in favor of the Mexican resolu- 
tion, the speaker being John Foster Dulles, of the 
U.S. Delegation. The statement was Mr. Dulles' 
first at a formal meeting of the current General 
Assembly. 

Mr. Dulles emphasized that although the major 
powers have the right of initiative regarding the 
peace treaties, this right must be used "affirma- 
tively and constructively, and if not so used, the 
consequences are of concern to all members of the 
United Nations". 



522 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



North Pacific Regional Air Navigation Meeting of ICAO 



BY CLIFFORD P. BURTON 



The North Pacific Regional Air Navigation 
Meeting lield at Seattle, Washington, July 13-29, 
19-18, under the auspices of tlie International Civil 
Aviation Organization (Icao) was the eighth 
in the original series of ten regional meetings 
scheduled by Icao to survey aviation facilities 
throughout the world. Upon the completion of 
the series Icao will have an index of facilities 
needed by international civil aviation on all the 
important air routes of the world. The remain- 
inw regional meetings projected by Icao are the 
African - Indian Ocean Meeting and the South- 
east Asia Meeting. 

The worlt of the regional air-navigation meet- 
ings, namely, the provision of safe and adequate 
transportation to intei-national travelers, is basic 
to all Icao programs in tlie technical field. The 
United States as host government provided tlie 
international secretariat for the Seattle meeting 
with assistance from the technical staff of Icao 
at Montreal. 

Nine voting countries were present: Australia, 
Canada, China, the Netherlands. New Zealand, the 
Philil^pines, Siam, tlie United Kingdom, and the 
United States. In addition, Chile, tlie Dominican 
Republic, Poland, and the Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics sent observers. International or- 
ganizations represented were the International Air 
Transport Association, the International Meteor- 
ological Organization, and the United Nations. 

The main meeting was preceded by a meeting 
of a fact-finding group which convened the week 
prior to the regional meeting in order to examine 
and document operational data for the convenience 
and use of the main meeting. The Seattle meet- 
ing was the first time such a gi-oup was convened. 
Since it proved its usefulness, the pattern will be 
made use of at subsequent regional meetings. 

Tlie organization employed at the North Pacific 
Regional Air Navigation Meeting was similar to 
tliat used at previous regional meetings. It con- 
sisted of the General Committee, Subcommittee 1 
of the General Committee, and technical commit- 
tees in the fields of telecommunications and radio 
aids, meteorology, search and rescue, air-traffic 
control, aerodromes, air routes, and ground aids. 
The Creneral Committee did not liandle any sub- 
stantive material as all technical matters were 
handled by its No. 1 Subcommittee or in the other 
technical committees. Clifford P. Burton, Chair- 

Ocfofaer 24, 1948 



man of the United States Delegation, was elected 
Chairman of the meeting, with Colonel Cheng-Fu 
Wang of China and Colonel Sphrang Devahdstin 
of Siam elected First Vice Chairman and Second 
Vice Chairman respectively. 

The results of the meeting were quite satis- 
factory to the United States as the United States 
position, as approved by the interdepartmental 
Air Coordinating Committee, was upheld to a high 
degree. Specific accomplishments in the technical 
fields are given in the brief summary that follows. 

Flight Operations. — Problems in connection 
with this subject were handled by the No. 1 Sub- 
committee of the General Committee. The Com- 
mittee recommended slight alterations in the 
boundaries of the Icao regions to exclude the 
northern portion of Alaska and to extend the 
southwestern boundary southward to include the 
Philippines and the eastern coast of China (and 
Hong Kong). A standard altimeter setting of 
29.92 inches of mercury was recommended for the 
ocean areas excluding the area approximately 100 
miles from the shore line. In these latter areas a 
QNH value for altimeter settings will be utilized 
for both terrain clearance and altitude separation. 
In the field of dimensional units it was agreed that 
the yellow table published by Icao would be used 
over the land areas of the United States and Can- 
ada with an exception thereto in the ocean areas 
and the Aleutian chain wherein nautical miles and 
knots would be substituted for statute miles per 
hour. The subject of publications and manuals 
was handled in connection with NOTAM pro- 
cedures, and the position of the United States was 
upheld in its entirety. 

Aerodromes, Air Routes, and Ground Aids. — 
The Committee selected regular, alternate, and 
supplementary aerodromes required for North 
Pacific air routes. Also, certain aerodromes by 
class Avere selected for improvements. It recom- 
mended that all aerodrome improvements be com- 
pleted as rapidly as possible but in no case later 
tlian July 1, 1953. The Committee agreed that 
obstruction marldng and ground markers should 
exist on air routes, that night ligliting should be 
provided at all regular and alteinate aerodromes, 
and that approach lights should be visible where 
instrument landing systems are installed and where 
practical at all other regular and alternate 
aerodromes. 

523 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVBIOPMENTS 

Ah' Traffic ContruJ. — The Committee recom- 
mended the establishment of flight information 
regions over most of tlie \yater areas of tlie North 
Pacific. Approach and aerodrome control service 
■was recommended for those aerodromes where the 
traffic density justified their establishment. Dur- 
ing the development of supplementary procedures 
for this region, the Committee recommended that 
action be taken to amend the Soutli Pacific supple- 
mentary procedures so as to be consistent with the 
North Pacific supplementary procedures. 

Telecommunications and Radio Aids to Air 
Navigation. — The Committee recommended addi- 
tional point-to-point and air-ground aeronautical 
communication circuits to take care of meteor- 
ology, air-traffic control, and search-and-rescue 
requirements. In addition, reconnnendations 
were made for additions to the aeronautical radio- 
navigation aids to meet the needs of the present 
and proposed routes and aeronautical services 
operating within the region. 

Aeronautical Meteorology. — The Committee re- 
viewed the existing system of meteorological tele- 
communications and pi'epared detailed recjuire- 
ments for the exchange of meteorological informa- 
tion between the various meteorological offices 
as well as for broadcast to aircraft in flight. The 
Committee recommended the establishment of 
eight ocean weather ships, the exact location to be 
determined in general by the implementing state, 
taking into consideration the requirements of the 
other technical services such as search and rescue, 
telecommunications, and air-traffic control. 

'Search and Rescue. — The Committee reviewed 
and tabulated the search-and-rescue facilities pro- 
vided in the region and recommendations for cer- 
tain additions were made to meet the minimum 
requirements for the I'egion. 

U.S. Delegation to International 
Tin Study Group 

The Department of State announced on October 
13 the composition of the United States Delegation 
to the Third Meeting of the International Tin 
Study Group, scheduled to open at The Hague on 
October 25, 1948. The Delegation is as follows : 

Chairman 

Donald D. Kennedy, Chief, International Resources Divi- 
sion, Department of State 

Advisers 

Glion Curtis, Jr., American Embassy, The Hague 

Carl Ilgenfritz, Vice President, United States Steel 
Corporation 

Charles W. Merrill, Chief, Metal Economics Brancli, Bu- 
reau of Mines, Department of the Interior 

Erwin Vogelsang, Chief, Tin and Antimony Section, Non- 
ferrous Metals and Minerals Division, Department of 
Commerce 

524 



W. F. McKinnon, Associate Director, Office of Metals Re- 
serve, Reconstruction Finance Corporation 

Evan Just, Director, Division of Strategic Materials, Eco- 
nomic Cooperation Administration 

The International Tin Study Group will review 
the report of its working party which met at The 
Hague in June. It will also review the world 
statistical position of tin and discuss common 
problems in connection with production, consump- 
tion, and trade in tin. 

The International Tin Study Group was estab- 
lished upon a recommendation of the World Tin 
Conference, held at London in October 191G, to 
which the principal tin-producing and -consum- 
ing countries of the world sent representatives. 
The last meeting of the Group — the second — was i 
held at Washington, D.C., April 19-24, 1948. | 

U.S.-Mexican Fisheries Conference 

[Released to the press October 15] 

Fisheries problems of mutual interest to the 
United States and Mexico will be the subject for 
discussion between the two Governments at a con- 
ference to be held in Mexico City beginning on 
October 25. 

In line with its program of advancing measures 
designed to conserve fisheries resources of the high 
seas the United States is interested in entering into 
a joint fisheries-conservation agreement with 
Mexico. However, tlie present talks are primarily 
of an exploratory nature, it was emphasized, and 
delegates are expected to make recommendations fi 
for later consideration by the various federal agen- T 
cies, interested state governments, and representa- 
tives of industry. 

The United States and Mexico have several bi- 
lateral agreements by which tlie two countries have 
harmoniously achieved the solution of specialized 
problems in a spirit of friendly cooperation. The 
equally outstanding success of the bilateral fish- 
eries conventions between Canada and the United 
States, by means of which the valuable halibut and 
sockeye-salmon fisheries have been conserved and 
developed, makes it appear that cooperation in the 
sphere of fisheries with our southern neighbor 
would also be mutually beneficial. 

THE CONGRESS 

Report of Activities of National Advisory Council on 
International Monetary and Financial Problems. Mes- 
sage from the President of the United States transmitting 
report of the National Advisory Council on International 
Monetarv and Financial Problems covering its operations 
from Oct. 1, 1947, to Mar. 31, 1948. H. Doc. T37, 80th Cong., 
2d sess. vi, 56 pp. 

Calling on the President for Information Concerning 
the Potsdam Agreements and Violations Thereof by So- 
viet Russia. S. Rept. 1440, 80th Cong., 2d sess., to accom- 
pany S. Res. 213. 11 pp. 

Amending the Trading with the Enemy Act. S. Rept. 
1619, SOth Cong., 2d sess., to accompany S. 2764. 3 pp. 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



U.S.S.R. Travel Restrictions for Diplomatic Personnel 



SUPPLEMENT TO 1941 LIST 



Tlio American Embassy at Moscow has received 
a circular note from the Foreign Office, of the 
U.S.S.K. The note, dated September 30, 1948, 
refers to the Foreign Office note of May 16, 1941, 
in terms indicating that the restrictions of that 
date are still considered in effect and in supplement 
thereto transmits a new and greatly expanded list 
on points and localities in or to which travel is 
lirohibitfd for members of the staffs of foreign 
missions and consulates. For all practical pur- 
jposes the list covers the entire territory of the 
IJ.S.S.R. Certain omissions, such as points in the 
Georgian Kepnblic and Yakutsk, U.S.S.R., are 
notable; the principal additions are the newly 
acquired territories, such as Sakhalin. 



In theory, travel is permitted through certain 
areas, but one cannot reach those areas without 
crossing forbidden zones. 

The restriction to 50 kilometers radius of Mos- 
cow is entirely new, not having been included in 
the 1941 note. Travel even in this small radius 
is subject to so many exceptions — i.e., raiorhs (dis- 
tricts) where travel is forbidden even though less 
than 50 kilometers distant — that to all intents and 
purposes members of the foreign missions are re- 
stricted to Moscow city limits. 

American correspondents have written stories 
about the new restrictions, but their stories have 
been held up b}' the Soviet censor. 



NOTES OF MAY 16, 1941, AND SEPTEMBER 30, 1948 



[Translation] 

PEOPLES COMMISS.\RIiT 

FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS 
Pr/140 

NOTE VERBALE 

The People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs 
has the honor to bring to the attention of the 
[ . . . Mission] the information that, beginning 
with this date, the Government of the U.S.S.R. 
has established a procedure whereby the travel on 
the territory of the U.S.S.R. of diplomatic and 
consular representatives in the U.S.S.R. of foreign 
states, as well as of employees of foreign embassies, 
legations and consulates, may take place only on 
condition that such persons previously inform the 
appropriate organs of the People's Commissariat 
for Foreign Affairs, the People's Commissariat for 
Defense and the People's Commissariat for the 
Navy, with regard to trips planned, indicating 
the itinerary, the points of stop-over and the 
length of travel, so that such trips may be regis- 
tered by the above-mentioned organs. 

At the same time, the same Decree of the Soviet 
Government has declared as prohibited (for 
travel) the points and localities in the U.S.S.R. 



A note attached to the list reads 



' Not here printed. 
' List not here printed, 
as follows : 

Members and employees of embassies, missions and con- 
sulates are allowed to travel without notifying in advance 
the approjiriate organs of tlie Ministry of Foreign .\ffairs 
of the rssu or the Ministry of Armed Forces of the USSR 
within a radius of 'iO km. from Moscow, with the exception 
of the following raions of Moscow oblast: Dmitrov, 

Oc/ober 24, 1948 



enumerated in the list which is attached hereto.^ 
Moscow, May 16, 19-'il. 

[To all Embassies and Missions] 
Moscow 



[Tr.inslation] 

MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS 

OF THE USSR 
No. 1130/Pr. 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR 
presents its compliments to Embassies and Mis- 
sions and has the honor to communicate that after 
revision of the list of forbidden points and locali- 
ties of the USSR transmitted with note no. 140/Pr. 
of the People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs 
of the USSR, dated May 16, 1941, the Government 
of the USSR has approved a new list of forbidden 
points and localities of the USSR, which is at- 
tached hereto.^ 

Moscow, September 30, 1948 

Seal no. 1 of the 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR. 

[To all Embassies and Missions] 
Moscow 



Zvenigorod, Kuntsevo, Krasnogorsk, Kra-snopolyansk, 
Podolsk, Ramensk, Tushiuo, Khimki and Shchelkovo, 
where travelling is forl)idden. 

As an exception, it is permitted to go to the cities of 
Klin and Zagorsk as well as to Yasnaya Polyana (Tula 
ohlust), providing the travellers proceed along the main 
automobile highway and have notified in advance the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of tlie USSR or the Ministry 
of Armed Forces of the USSR about the trip. 

525 



THE RECORD OF THE WBBK 

Relaxing of Visa Restrictions by 
U.S. and Belgium 

[Released to the press October 15] 

The Belgian Government, as of October 15, 
1948, will waive visa requirements, but not pass- 
port requirements, for American citizens proceed- 
ing to continental Belgium for transit or for a 
period of stay not exceeding two months. 

The United States, because of existing laws, may 
not reciprocate in identical terms. However, the 
United States will grant passport visas without 
fees and valid for a period of 24 months, instead 
of the present 12 months' period of validity of such 
visas, to Belgian nationals who are proceeding 
to the United States and its possessions for busi- 
ness or pleasure purposes, and who are bona fide 
nonimmigrants within tlie meaning of the immi- 
gration laws, provided the Belgian passport of 
each bearer remains valid during the period of 
validity of the visa. 



and it is now hoped by the two Governments that 
it will be possible to reach final agreement within 
the near future. 

This is the most comprehensive treaty of its kind 
that Ireland has undertaken to negotiate with any 
country. The provisions of the text now being 
put in shape by representatives of the two Gov- 
ernments will lay a broad, long-term, contractual 
basis for the economic relationships between Ire- 
land and the United States and for the fundamen- 
tal rights and privileges that the nationals of each 
country enjoy in the other. Currently, these are 
lai'gely based on treaties concluded between Bri- 
tain and the United States during the nineteenth 
centuiy. The new agreement is expected to 
modernize pertinent features of these old treaties 
and to contain also many new clauses that reflect 
present-day needs and developments. 

The discussions are being pursued in a spirit of 
mutual appreciation of the common ideals and out- 
look of tlie two nations. 



Visas Not Required for Italy 

[Released to the press October 5] 

The Department of State has been advised that 
at the present time the Italian Government does 
not require visas of American tourists for travel 
to Italy. It has also been advised that as of 
November 1, 1948, visas will not be required of 
American citizens for visits to Italy either for 
business or pleasure. 

Since the Registration Act of 1940 requires that 
all persons other than American citizens entering 
this country must have United States visas, it is 
not possible to disjiense with visa requirements in 
the case of Italian citizens coming here. However, 
as of November 1, the United States will recipro- 
cate to the extent of issuing visas gratis for those 
Italians coming to this country temporarily for 
business or pleasure. These visas will be valid for 
a period of 24 months. In the case of Italians 
wishing to immigrate to the United States, immi- 
gration visas costing $10 will continue to be 
required. 



Negotiations on Treaty of Friendship 
Between U.S. and Ireland Resumed 

[Released to the press October 15] 

The Department of External Affairs of Ireland 
and the American Legation in Dublin announced 
on October 15 that negotiations have been resumed 
at Dublin for the purpose of concluding a compre- 
hensive treaty of friendship, commerce, and navi- 
gation between Ireland and the United States. 
Exploratory discussions were initiated last May, 

526 



Constitution-Making at Bonn- 

from page 610 



-Continued 



Germany that the kingdom of Piedmont did in 
unifying Italy in the nineteenth century. 

It may be regarded as a striking coincidence that 
the Bonn convention is meeting on the one hun- 
dredth anniversary of the German Revolution of 
1848. The Frankfort Parliament that met that 
year tried to establish German unity on the basis of 
liberty and democracy but failed because of the 
political dilettantism of many of the delegates and 
because of the lack of vision of the King of Prussia. 
German unity was, instead, effected on the basis of 
autocracy by the methods of militarism with dis- 
astrous consequences not only to the Reich but to 
the whole world. 

Today the Bonn Parliamentary Council is at- 
tempting to make good where Frankfort failed 
in establishing German political union on a demo- 
cratic foundation. The combined German- Amer- 
ican Carl Schurz Memorial Celebration, which was 
held in Frankfort just two days after the opening 
of the Bonn convention to do honor to the Forty- 
Eighters who emigrated to America, was a signi- 
ficant reminder of the close and sympathetic in- 
terest with which not only United States Military 
Government but the American people are follow- 
ing the efforts of the men of Bonn to carry this 
mission to a successful conclusion. 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



Double Taxation: Discussions With Greece 

[ReleaBed to the press October 14] 

Discussions between Ainei"ican and Greek tech- 
nical experts looking to the conclusion of treaties 
for the avoidance of double taxation and for ad- 
ministrative cooperation in prevention of tax eva- 
sion with respect to income taxes and to taxes on 
estates of deceased persons will be held at Athens 
in the latter part of November. 

If the discussions are successful and a basis for 
agreement is found, they will result in the prepa- 
ration of draft treaties which will be submitted by 
the negotiators to their respective governments 
for consideration with a view to signing. 

In preparation for the discussions, the Ameri- 
can delegation will welcome conferences with in- 
terested parties or statements and suggestions f I'oni 
them concerning problems in tax relations with 
Greece. Comnumications in this connection should 
be addressed to Eldon P. King, Special Deputy 
'Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Bureau of 
Internal Revenue, Washington 25, D.C. 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

be of the most value if submitted within the next 
30 daj-s. All connnunications on these matters 
should be addressed to The Secretary, Committee 
for Reciprocity Information, Department of Com- 
merce, Washington 25, D.C. 

The items which will be the subject of rene- 
gotiation are given in Department of State press 
release 825 of October 11, 1948. The negotiations 
may also include consideration of new concessions 
on products not now in the respective schedules of 
any of the four countries or additional concessions 
on products already in such schedules. 



Austria Extended Time for Renewing 
Trade-Marif Registrations 

The extension of time until and including Feb- 
ruary 28, 1949, for renewing trade-mark registra- 
tions wnth respect to Austria was granted by the 
President in proclamation 2816 (13 Fed. Reg. 
5927) on October 9, 1948. 



Renegotiations of Certain Tariff Concessions 
Granted by Brazil, Ceylon, Cuba, and Pakistan 

As was indicated in the Department of State 
BtTLLETix of October 3, 1948, page 445, it was de- 
cided at the second session of the contracting par- 
ties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
held at Geneva from August 16 to September 14 
that, because of special problems facing Brazil, 
Ceylon, Cuba, and Pakistan, certain tariff conces- 
sions granted by these countries to the other con- 
tracting parties would be the subject of renegotia- 
tions. 

The purpose of these i-enegotiations is to reach 
agreement upon adjustments in the rates of duty 
on the items which are listed below for each 
country. The renegotiations are to be carried out 
initially between the pairs of countries chiefly in- 
terested in the particular concessions involved. 
However, any modifications in the schedules of 
tariff concessions of these four countries agreed 
upon during such bilateral negotiations must re- 
ceive final approval by all of the contracting 
parties. 

Any views of interested persons with regard to 
these renegotiations should be submitted to the 
Committee for Reciprocity Information, which is 
the committee established to receive views on 
trade-agreement matters. Since it is proposed to 
begin initial discussions between each of these 
four countries and the United States on products 
of primary interest to the United States as soon 
as possible, it is suggested that any such views will 

Ocfofaer 24, 1948 



China Makes Lend-Lease Payment 

[Released to the press October 13] 

The Department of State announced on October 
13 that the Government of China has paid to the 
Treasury of the United States $2,824,930.75, repre- 
senting the second annual installment on principal 
and interest of the lend-lease pipeline agreement 
with China. 

This agreement, concluded in June 1946, repre- 
sented lend-lease material on order by the Chinese 
Government at the end of the war, totaling ap- 
proximately $51,000,000. The agreement provides 
for repayment over a SO-j'ear period at 2% percent 
interest. 



Appointment of U.S. Member to International 
Joint Commission 

The Department of State announced on October 
11 the appointment by President Truman of Eu- 
gene W. Weber, Special Assistant to the Assistant 
Chief of Engineers for Civil Works, Department 
of the Army, as a member of the United States 
Section of the International Joint Commission, 
United States and Canada. This appointment 
fills the vacancy on the United States Section of 
the Commission which has existed since the death 
of R. Walton Moore, Counselor of the Department 
of State, on February 8, 1941. The Commission 
will hold its semiannual meeting in Ottawa, Can- 
ada, beginning October 12, 1948. 

527 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Belgium and Luxembourg Join in U.S. 
Fulbright Plan 

[Released to the press October 8] 

Belgium, Luxembourg, and the United States 
signed on October 8 an agreement under the Ful- 
bright act, putting into operation the pi'ogram 
of educational exchanges authorized by -Public 
Law 584, 79th Congress. The signing took place 
in Brussels, with Education Minister Camille 
Huysmans rej^resenting the Belgian Government, 
the Charge d'Affaires for Luxembourg represent- 
ing that country, and Ambassador Alan G. Kirk 
representing the United States. It was the seventh 
agreement signed under the act, jjrevious agree- 
ments having been made with the Governments of 
China, Burma, the Philippines, Greece, New Zea- 
land, and the United Kingdom. 

The agreement provides for a United States 
Educational Foundation in Belgium to assist in 
the administration of the educational program 
financed from certain funds resulting from the 
sale of United States surplus property to these 
countries. The present agreement provides for 
an annual program of the equivalent of $150,000 
in Belgian francs for educational purposes. The 
program will include the financing of "studies, 
research, instruction, and other educational activi- 
ties of or for citizens of the United States of 
America in schools and institutions of higher 
learning located in Belgium, the Belgian Congo, 
and Luxembourg, or of the nationals of Belgium, 
Belgian Congo, and Luxembourg in the United 
States schools and institutions of higher learning 
located outside the continental United States . . . 
including payment for transportation, tuition, 
maintenance, and other expenses incident to 
scholastic activities ; or furnishing transportation 
for nationals of Belgium, tlie Belgian Congo, and 
Luxembourg who desire to attend United States 
schools and institutions of higher learning in the 
continental United States . . . whose attendance 
will not deprive citizens of the United States of 
America of an opportunity to attend such schools 
and institutions." 

Tlie Foundation in Belgium will have an eight- 
man Board of Directors, the lionorary chairman of 
which will be the United States Ambassador to 
Belgium. Members of the Board will consist of 
five United States citizens resident in Belgium in- 
cluding a representation from the United States 
Embassy in Brussels, two citizens of Belgium, and 
one citizen of Luxembourg. 

In discussing the jirogram in Brussels, Ambas- 
sador Kirk said : 

"I am very happy about the agreement, because 
I believe it will continue the tradition of exchange 



'For an account of tlie Commission's first meeting, see 
Department of State iiul)lication 3.313. 

528 



of students between our universities which has re- 
sulted in producing many leaders of thought, edu- 
cation, and government in Belgium and Luxem- 
bourg. Also there has been created an outstand- 
ing body of Americans who know and love the 
culture of your country. Even more, with the 
great interest now being taken by our universities 
and private foundations in the United States in 
providing fellowships for foreign students, I look 
forward to an increasing number of the young men 
and women of Belgium and Luxembourg finding 
such opportunities in our country. Although the 
development of such a program necessarily re- 
quires time, its importance is well understood in 
educational circles in the United States. This is 
definitely not a one-way street, along which only 
American traffic will pass. 

"During the past year, ten fellowship students 
went to the United States for advanced study 
under the auspices of the Belgian-American Edu- 
cational Foundation. Others were sent by Amer- 
ican Rotary, and the American Association of 
University Women provided for several students. 
There are even cases where the American students 
themselves, at some of our universities, have con- 
tributed the funds or the expenses of selected 
foreign students. This, I sincerely believe, is 
only a beginning. The cordial regard which our 
countries have for each other will assure that the 
two-way street will be well traveled." 

Information about specific opportunities for 
American citizens to study, teach, or undertake 
research in Belgium, Luxembourg, or the Belgian 
Congo will be made public in the near future. In- 
quiries about these opportunities and requests for 
application forms should be addressed to the fol- 
lowing three agencies : Institute of International 
Education, 2 West 45th Street, New York 19, N.Y. 
(for graduate study) ; United States Office of 
Education, Federal Security Agency, Washington 
25, D.C. (for teaching in Belgian elementary and 
secondary schools) ; and tlie Conference Board of 
Associated Research Councils, 2101 Constitution 
Avenue NW., Washington 25, D.C. (for teaching 
at the college level and for post-doctoral research) . 

Second Meeting of Educational Exchange 
Advisory Commission 

Consideration of the basic principles of United 
States educational exchanges witli specific refer- 
ence to the problems of Eastern Europe and the 
Iron Curtain countries was undertaken at the sec- 
ond meeting of the United States Advisory Com- 
mission on Educational Exchange in a two-day 
session, October 18 and 19.^ 

In addition, the Commission discussed problems 
presented to it by George V. Allen, Assistant Secre- 
tary of State for public affairs, concerning the dis- 
posal of art objects now in this country from oc- 
cu^jied countries. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Sales and Transfers of Nondemilitarized Combat Materiel 



[Ueleased to the press October 1-] 



List of consimmiated sales of surplus combat 
materiel, effected by the Department of State in 
its capacity as foreign-surplus disposal agent, dur- 



ing the months of February, April, May, July, and 
August, 1948, and December 1947, as reported to 
the Munitions Division of tlie Department through 
October 11, 1948, and not previously announced 
is as follows: 



Country 



Description of mat6riel 



Procurement cost 



Sales price 



Date of 
transfer 



Brazil . . 

China . . 

Denmark . 
Finland . 

Italy . . . 
Mexico . . 

Netherlands 



Norway . . . . 
United Kingdom . 
Venezuela . . . 



Spare parts for aircraft engines 

Miscellaneous spare parts for machine guns, armored cars, 
and cleaning and preserving materials. 

Miscellaneous parts and equipment for aircraft 

42 P-47-D Aircraft (militarized) 

255 Aircraft engines (for C-46s and C-47s) 

Torpedo boat T-19 (non-demilitarized) 

5 Minesweepers to Finnish Purchasing Mission (demilitar- 
ized). 

1 Minesweeper to Italian national (demilitarized) . . . . 

Helmets and liners 

66 Tank engines — to be demilitarized for scrap 

Miscellaneous ordnance equipment 

Ammunition 

Ex-German freighter, Drau 

1 LST for scrap (demilitarized) 

Miscellaneous gas masks and repair kit, bayonets, binocu- 
lars, carbines, clinometers, machine guns, truck mounts, 
helmets and liners. 



$22, 648. 70 
22, 236. 01 

5,093,273. 15 
6,781,451.00 
3, 798, 547. 50 

(') 
2, 911,250. 00 

582, 250. 00 

74, 500. 00 

192, 030. 00 

1, 877. 00 

1, 560. 00 

(') 

2, 171, 280. 00 

63, 507. 91 



$1, 132. 44 
9, 609. 1 1 

891, 322. 80 
544, 500. 00 
393, 500. 00 
5, 000. 00 
175,000.00 

25, 050. 00 

7, 450. 00 

60, 000. 00 

303. 10 

80. 00 

422, 500. 00 

1,800. 00 

7, 206. 01 



8/7/48 
8/27/48 

7/29/48 

8/7/48 

8/16/48 

Feb. 48 

5/5/48 

4/10/48 
8/19/48 
8/3/48 
8/13/48 
8/13/48 
7/26/48 
12/17/47 
8/16/48 



I Captured enemy materiel. 



« Korea, 1945 to 1948" Released 

[Released to the press October 15] 

The Depai'tment of State announced on October 
15 the issuance of its newest publication, Korea, 
IDJfO to lOJfS. This pamphlet reviews the political 
developments within Korea from the time of entry 
of the U.S. Army forces into that country to the 
present, with special emphasis on the period after 
March 1947 not covered by the Department's pre- 
vious publication, Korea's Imdependence. It con- 
tains also a survey of Korean economic conditions 
and a supplementary selection of documents. 

The pamphlet. Department of State publication 
3305, will be sold by the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, Government Printing Office, Washington 
25, D.C., for -25 cents a copy with a 25 percent 
discount to purchasers of 100 copies or more. 



PUBLICATIONS 
Department of State 

For iulv hii tile tiuiJcriiitendcnt of Documents, (lovcniinciit 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Address requests 
direct to tlie Huperintendcnt of Documents, except in the 
case of free publications, which may he obtained from the 
Department of State. 

October 24. J 948 



Education: Cooperative Program in Peru. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 1740. Pub. 3166. 25 
pp. 100. 

Arrangement Between the United States and Peru — 
effected by exchange of notes signed at Lima April 1 
and 15, 1944; entered into force April 15, 1944; And 
Memorandum of Agreement — Signed at Lima April 4, 
1944; effective April 4, 1944: Supplementary Agree- 
ment No. 1 — Signed at Lima January 30, 1945 ; en- 
tered into force January 30, 1945; Supplement to 
Memorandum of Agreement — Signed April 30, 1945; 
entered into force April 30, 1045. 

Economic Cooperation with Iceland Under Public Law 
472 — SOth Congress. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1787. Pub. 3252. 69 pp. 20^. 

Agreement Between the United States and Iceland — 
Signed at Reykjavik July 3, 1948; entered into force 
July 3, 1948. " 

Economic Cooperation with Italy Under Public Law 472 — 
SOth Congress. Treaties and Other International Acts 
Series 1789. Pub. 3253. 55 pp. 15^. 

Agreement Between the United States and Italy — • 
Signed at Rome June 28, 1948; entered into force 
June 28, 1948. 

National Commission News, October 1948. Pub. 3292. 
10 pp. 10«; a copy ; $1 a year domestic, $1.35 a year foreign. 

Prepared monthly for the United States National Com- 
mission for UNESCO. 

529 



Departmental Regulations 



THE DEPARTMENT 



270.1 Departmental Responsibilities in the Programs 
for Acquisition and Use of Foreign Currency and Credit 

Assets: (Effective 8-&-4S) Experience with and re- 
sponsibility for the use of foreign currency and credit 
assets within the Department have crystallized to the 
point where the existing arrangements can now be formal- 
ized in this regulation. 

I General. 

A Acquisition and U.se. As a result of the sale of 
surplus property abroad and the making of lend-lease set- 
tlements, the United States has acquired foreign currencies 
and credits amounting to several millions of dollars and is 
in a position to acquire substantially more. These foreign 
currencies and credits can be and are being employed to 
provide funds for the acquisition or improvement of real 
property for the Foreign Service ; to promote educational 
activities contemplated by the Fulbright Act ; and, in some 
instances, to meet current Governmental exi)enses abroad. 

B Specific Use. Except for expenses for an adminis- 
trative staff, the Fulbright Program is being financed solely 
through the use of foreign currency and credit assets 
arising from the sale of surplus properties abroad and does 
not depend upon current appropriations. For the foreign 
buildings program and for Departmental administrative 
expenses abroad, foreign currency and credit assets, ob- 
tained either from surplus property sales or other sources, 
are purchased from the Treasury Department or from such 
other Government agency or corporation as may have such 
currencies or credits, with funds obtained from current 
appropriations specified for these purposes. 

II Office and Division Responsibilities. Subject to 
the policy determinations and general supervision of the 
appropriate Assistant Secretaries and Office Directors, re- 
.sponsibilities under these programs are delegated as fol- 
lows : 

A 
will: 



Division of Organization and Budget (OB). OB 



1 Coordinate Departmental planning for the use 
of foreign currencies and credits for the various pro- 
grams and allocate available currencies and credits in 
accordance with approved plans. The coordinating re- 
siKinsibility includes clearance of proiiosals of the Divi- 
sion of Foreign Buildings Operations (FBO) and the 
Division of Exchange of I'ersons (lEP) for foreign cur- 
rencies and credits to be drawn down from foreign 
governments and for reservation of foreign currencies 
on deposit in the Treasury ; clearance of FBO and lEP 
requests for requisitions to foreign governments for cur- 
rency draw-downs ; and clearance of FBO requests for 
purchases of unreserved currencies from United States 
Government agencies. 

2 Develop plans and recommendations for use of 
foreign currency and credit assets to pay Departmental 
administrative expenses abroad. 

3 Maintain necessary liaison with and obtain re- 
quired clearances from the Bureau of the Budget. 
Ascertain through the Bureau of the Budget that pro- 
posed plans for use of foreign currency and credit assets 
are in accord with the President's over-all program. 

4 Review and approve necessary reports to the 
Congress or Bureau of the Budget on foreign-currency 
and credit-usage programs. lEP will be responsible 
for educational-program reports ; FBO for buildings- 
program reports ; OB for reports on general administra- 
tive expenses. 



5 Prepare other consolidated reports as may be I 
required ; FBO, lEP, and other olfices concerned supply- 
ing OB with any additional information required for 
this purpose. 

6 Maintain a central record, by country and pro- 
gram, showing source, allocation, and utilization of 
foreign currencies and credits. As required, OB will 
issue reports, based upon this record, for the use of all 
interested offices, such as FBO, lEP, Office of the Foreign 
Liquidation Comnjissloner (OFLC ). and Office of Finan- 
cial and Development Policy (OFD). 

7 On request, provide technical advice on budget, 
organization, and management matters relating to edu- 
cational-foundation operations. 



B 



Division of Finance (DP). DF will : 



530 



1 Act as the central drafting and transmitting 
point for all requests to draw down foreign currencies as 
payments under surjilus property, executive, and lend- 
lease agreements. 

2 Conduct necessary liaison with the Treasury 
Department and other Government agencies and cor- 
porations from which foreign currencies may be pur- 
chased, regarding specific foreign-currency jmrchase 
transactions including liaison with respect to reimburse- 
ment from FBO and general administrative appropria- 
tions for foreign currencies purchased from whatever 
source. 

3 Designate dejKisitories for foundation funds. 

4 Upon request provide technical advice and assist- 
ance in fiscal and accounting matters relating to the 
acquisition and use of foreign currency and credit assets. 

5 Prepare certification for Fulbright purposes un- 
der Treasury Regulation 799. 

C Division of Exchange of Persons (lEP). lEP 
will: 

1 Develop educational programs under the Ful- 
bright Amendment to the Surplus Proiierty Act. 

2 Draft and negotiate through appropriate Depart- 
mental channels, executive agreements with other gov- 
ernments establishing educational programs. 

3 Initiate requests, through OB, for concurrence 
of the Bureau of the Budget for the reservation of for- 
eign currencies for the Fulbright Program. 

4 Initiate requests, thi'ough OB, for reservation of 
foreign currencies by the Treasury Department. 

5 Initiate requests, through OB for draw-downs or 
transfers of foreign currencies. 

6 Initiate requisitions, through DF, for foreign 
currencies to be transferred to particular foundations 
from Treasury holdings. 

7 Supervise, review, and issue regulations govern- 
ing educational-foundation operations (including organ- 
ization, budget, and fiscal operations). 

8 Estatjlish a basis for each foundation to main- 
tain adequate current records of its operations. 

9 Prepare reports on educational-program activi- 
ties for transmission to the Congress, as required by pub- 
lic law (60 Stat. 755), and provide information on the 
Fulbright Program for inclusion in other Departmental 
reports. 

D Division of Foreign Buildings Operations (FBO). 
FBO will : 

1 Develop foreign-buildings programs utilizing 
available foreign currencies and credits under public law 
(60 Stat. 663). 

Departmenf of Slafe Bulletin 



ACTIVITIES AND DEPARTMENTS 



2 Negotiate, through appropriate Di'purtniental 
cliannels, agreements with foreign governmeuts for tlie 
acquisition of property. 

3 Initiate requests, through OB for reservatious of 
foreign currencies by the Treasury Department. 

4 Initiate requests, througli OB and DF, for draw- 
downs or purchases of unreserved foreign currencies. 

5 Initiate requests, through DF, for purchases of 
reserved foreign currencies. 

G Initiate, through OFLC, instructions authorizing 
acceptance of specitic properties as payments in kind 
under the provisions of surplus-property and lend-lease 
agreements authorizing acceptance of property. FBO 
will furnish OFLC with tlie customary Certiticate of 
Valuation, stated in terms of United States dollars, 
which will he used by OFLC as a basis for acknowledg- 
ing the payment by the foreign government and for trans- 
fer of funds from the Foreign Service Buildings Fund to 
Miscellaneous Receipts (Proceeds of Surplus Property or 
proceeds from Lend-Lease Settlements). 

7 Prepare reports on utilization of foreign cur- 
rency and credit assets in the buildings program as 
required. 

E Division of Financial Affairs (FN). 

1 While the surplus property and lend-lease pro- 
grams involve several divisions of OFD, FN is primarily 
responsible for the foreign-currency aspects of those 
programs. FN will : 

a Make the basic economic- and financial-policy 
judgments regarding the acceptance of foreign cur- 
rencies in lieu of dollar obligations. In those cases in 
which economic conditions do not warrant the accept- 
ance by the United States of foreign currencies in lieu 
of dollars, the office responsible for the program for 
which the foreign currency is to be used, may forward 
a recommendation to the Under Secretary to accept 
the foreign currencies on other grounds. 

b Determine whether foreign-currency provisions 
will be incorporated in new lend-lease agreements. 

c Determine, in applicable cases, the policy with 
respect to the drawings of foreign currencies in lieu of 
United States dollars under the foreign-currency op- 
tion authority. 

d Amend, for countries whose economic and 
financial prospects warrant it, lend-lease agreements 
in order to authorize acceptance of local currency 
or payment in kind in lieu of payment in dollar 
obligations. 

e Conduct necessary liaison with the Treasury 
Department and other interested United States Gov- 
ernment agencies with respect to foreign financial- 
policy aspects of the programs including exchange 
rates, convertibility of foreign currencies and ap- 
plicability of foreign-exchange control regulations. 



f Review and clear proposed FuUiright executive 
agreements, certifications for Fulhright purposes un- 
der Treasury Regulation 700, proposed reservations 
for foreign currencies and credits for Departmental 
programs, and draw-downs of foreign currency and 
credit assets under surplus-property and lend-lease 
agreements for conformance to appropriate aspects 
of United States foreign financial policy including 
those relating to exchange rates, convertibility of 
foreign currencies, and applicability of foreign-ex- 
change control regulations. 

g Advice OFLC and the War Assets Administra- 
tion (WAA) (or its successors) regarding the ac- 
ceptance of foreign currency in connection with cash 
and credit sales of surplus pioperty which cannot 
be made for dollars. Also advise OFLC and WAA (or 
its successors) in the formulation of agreement clauses 
granting the United States Government the option of 
drawing foreign currency in lieu of dollars. 

2 The foreign buildings program, with respect to 
United States foreign financial-policy aspects, will be 
cleared between FBO and FN at the beginning of each 
fiscal year. Should it become necessary to make sub- 
stantial variations in the original proposal, FBO will 
clear the changes in advance with FN. 

F Legal Adviser (L). L will review Fulbright 
executive agreements for conformance with enabling legis- 
lation ; draft and review proposed legislation affecting the 
use of foreign currencies and credits ; and furnish neces- 
sary legal opinions regarding the use of foreign currencies 
and credits under existing legislation. 

G Oflice of the Foreign Service (OFS). OFS will 
provide advice and assistant to the Office of Educational 
Exchange (OEX) on the administrative relationships be- 
tween the Foreign Service establishments and educational 
foundations. 

H Office of the Foreign Liquidation Commissioner 
(OFLC). OFLC will: 

1 Review and clear instructions pertaining to the 
acquisition of foreign currencies and properties as pay- 
ments under the provisions of surplus-property agree- 
ments, as well as under joint surplus-property and lend- 
lease agreements, except that routine acquisitions of 
foreign currency made in accordance with agreed pro- 
cedures and within established allocations need not be 
individually cleared. 

2 Maintain accounts necessary to establish records 
of pa.vments received and balances due from foreign 
governments under surplus-property agreements. 

3 Determine the terms of payment, including those 
relating to the acquisition of foreign currency and prop- 
erty, which will be incorporated in new surplus-property 
agreements and in appropriate amendments to existing 
agreements. With regard to the acquisition of foreign 
currency, OFLC will consult with FN. 



Ocfober 24, J 948 



531 







The United Nations and Page 

Specialized Agencies 

Third Regular Session of the General As- 
sembly: 
World Confidence and the Reduction of 
Armed Forces: The American Objec- 
tive. Remarks by Ambassador War- 
ren R. Austin 511 

Discussion of the Palestine Situation in 
Committee I. Statement by Ralph 

Bunche 517 

The U.S. in the U.N 520 

North Pacific Regional Air Navigation Meet- 
ing of IcAO. Article by Clifford P. 
Burton 523 



Occupation Matters 

Constitution- Making at Bonn. An Article . 



507 



Economic Affairs 

U.S. Delegation to International Tin Study 

Group 524 

U.S.-Mexican Fisheries Conference .... 524 

Relaxing of Visa Restrictions by U.S. and 

Belgium 526 

Visas Not Required for Italy 526 

Renegotiations of Certain Tariff Concessions 
Granted by Brazil, Ceylon, Cuba, and 
Pakistan 527 

Austria Extended Time for Renewing Trade- 
Mark Registration 527 

Appointment of U.S. Member to Inter- 

tional Joint Commission 527 



Economic Affairs — Continued Page 

Sales and Transfers of Nondemilitarized 

Combat Materiel 529 

General Policy 

U.S.S.R. Travel Restrictions for Diplomatic 
Personnel: 

Supplement to 1941 List 525 

Notes of May 16, 1941, and September 30, 

1948 525 

Treaty Information 

Negotiations on Treaty of Friendship Between 

U.S. and Ireland Resumed 526 

Double Taxation: Discussions W ith Greece . 527 

Renegotiations of Certain Tariff Concessions 
Granted by Brazil, Ceylon, Cuba, and 
Pakistan 527 

China Makes Lend-Lease Payment 527 

International Information and 
Educational Affairs 

Belgium and Luxembourg Join in U.S. 

Fulbright Plan 528 

Second Meeting of Educational Exchange 

Advisory Commission 528 

Publications 

"Korea, 1945 to 1948" Released 529 

Department of State 529 

The Department 

Departmental Regulations 530 

The Congress 524 



wm^nmdo/M 



Clifford P. Burton, Chairman of the United States Delegation 
to the North Pacific Regional Air Navigation Meeting, is Chief 
of Technical Mission, Civil Aeronautics Administration, Depart- 
ment of Commerce. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTIN6 OFFICE: Il4t 



^"fsr^ /'//3 



iJAe/ z^eha^y^t^itent/ /(w t/taie^ 





WHY WE SUPPORT THE U.N. • Address by Amhassador 

Warren R. Austin •• 551 

U.S. PROPOSES SIX SPONSORING POWERS DIS- 
CUSS ATO.AHC ENERGY ISSUES 
U.S. ACCEPTS ATOMIC ENERGY RESOLUTION 

Statements by Ambassador Warren R. Austin . . • . 535, 539 

REVIEW OF ALLIED ACTION ON BERLIN BLOCK- 
ADE • Statement by Philip C. Jessup 541 

RECOMMEIVDATIONS ON PROBLEMS OF EDUCA- 
TIONAL EXCHANGE WITH EASTERN EURO- 
PEAN COUNTRIES • Report of the U.S. Advisory 
Commission •• 560 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XIX, No. 487 
October 31, 1948 




1 



^ei«» ci» 



U. S. SUPERKOENDENT OF DOCUMtKIf 

DEC 2 1948 




■*T«» O* 



^,%wwy*. bulletin 



Vol. XIX, No. 487 • Publication 3322 
October 31, 1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, DC. 

Pkice: 

62 Issues, domestic $6, foreign $7.26 

Single copy, 16 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bdlletik as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
natiorutl affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter' 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



U.S. Proposes Six Sponsoring Powers Discuss Atomic Energy Issues 



STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR WARREN R. AUSTIN IN COMMITEE P 



U.S. Delegate to the General Assembly 



The resolution of Canada now before the Com- 
mittee, provides in paragraph 1 for approval by 
the General Assembly of the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission's plan of control and prohibition as set 
forth in the general findings (part II C) and 
recommendations (part III) of the first report, 
and the specific proposals of part II of the second 
report of the Commission. The plan was de- 
veloped by, and we believe has the support of, 
all the nations who have at any time served on the 
Atomic Energy Commission, with the exception 
of the Soviet Union, Poland, and the Ultraine ; in 
other words, a majority of 14 states and a minority 
of 3. 

The Soviets have recently announced that they 
would be willing to negotiate simultaneously two 
treaties which, as many speakers have already 
pointed out, would have to be closely interlocked. 
But the Soviet proposal does not alter the condi- 
tions necessary for effective control. These condi- 
tions remain the same. They are laid down in the 
two reports. They have been developed by the 
serious work of the delegates of 14 nations. They 
have been discussed with the Delegatesof theSoviet 
Union for over two years. It would do no good 
to repudiate this work and start all over again, if 
indeed that were possible. The same facts, the 
same necessities, would require the same control. 
The facts of the problem, the nature of the fission 
process, indeed, the dual nature of U-235 and 
plutonium, which may be used either as fuels or 
as explosives, remains the same. The United 
States believes that the plan and present proposals 
of the United Nations Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion constitute the necessary basis for establishing 

October 31, 1948 



effective control of atomic energy and prohibition 
of atomic weapons and will vote accordingly for 
paragraph 2 of the Canadian resolution, which is 
a simple expression of fact. Paragraph 3 of the 
Canadian resolution deals with the problem of how 
to get negotiations started again, so as to complete 
the treaty or convention on which certain work 
remains to be done. The Canadian resolution pro- 
poses a solution. 

A number of other solutions have been suggested 
to solve the problem. One proposed solution is 
that of the Soviet Union. The Soviets have pro- 
posed in their resolution that we repudiate the 
work of the past two and a half years and start 
all over again under the terms of reference laid 
down by the General Assembly in 1946. But the 
Soviets interpret these terms of reference in a man- 
ner different from the interpretation given by the 
majority of the Commission. The Soviets inter- 
pret these terms of reference to mean that pro- 
hibition and control must be put into effect, si- 
multaneously, and that control be simultaneous 
on all control activities. Their position was made 
perfectly clear in the statements which the Soviet 
Delegate, Mr. Malik, made before the Subcommit- 
tee. He desired that other nations should agree to 
the simultaneous conclusion and bringing into 
force of two conventions, one for control and one 
for prohibition, and ". . . that the Atomic En- 
ergy Commission should resume its work on the 
basis of the resolution of the General Assembly of 
January 1946". He then said, concerning the sys- 

" Made on Oct. 18, 1948, and released to the press on the 
same date. 

535 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPCCIAIIZED AGENCIES 

tern of stages contained in the General Assembly's 
resolutions of January 24, 1946, and I quote from 
the summary record of his remarks, "that system 
of stages had been intended to facilitate the studies 
of the Atomic Energy Commission but now the 
United Kingdom and the United States had given 
the system of stages another meaning: They ex- 
tended it to the putting into effect of the system 
of control." 

Putting together these two statements made by 
the Eei^resentatives of the Soviet Union during the 
meetings of the Subcommittee, we see that the so- 
called concession proposed by the Soviet Union 
had attached to it new conditions which were de- 
signed to commit the General Assembly to a sys- 
tem of control which would prevent the treaty 
going into effect by stages as required by the Com- 
mission. Such a proposal is not a concession. It is 
simply a maneuver designed to provide for the 
destruction of atomic weapons in one country be- 
fore, and probably a long while before, there had 
been any determination of whether or not atomic 
weapons existed in another country. By demand- 
ing that prohibition be simultaneous with control, 
without any gradual steps or stages by which both 
prohibition and control would go into effect, the 
Soviet proposal would eliminate atomic weapons 
and explosives in one country many months, or 
perhaps years, before the system of control and 
inspection had been able to locate and determine 
the existence of atomic weapons and explosives 
in certain other countries. Such an arrangement 
would, of course, be wholly unacceptable. The 
majority of the Atomic Energy Commission have 
an entirely different view of the problem. 

The majority believe that the terms of reference 
of the General Assembly clearly provide and make 
possible that the treaty should go into effect by 
stages. Moreover, the practical realities in put- 
ting controls into effect require time. In the words 
of the first report, which is part of the plan of the 
Commission: "The treaty or convention should 
embrace the entire program for putting the inter- 
national system of control and inspection into 
effect, and should provide a schedule for the com- 
pletion of the transition process over a period of 
time, step by step, in an orderly and agreed se- 
quence leading to the full and effective establish- 
ment of international control of atomic energy". 



These stages would, of course, include the step- 
by-step elimination of atomic arms coincident with 
the step-by-step establishment of control, leading 
to the final result of complete control, known 
elimination and enforceable prohibition. These 
steps or stages have not yet been laid down. 

According to the Commission's third report no 
useful purpose would be served by trying to deter- 
mine the form and timing of stages until the Soviet 
Union is ready to take a sincere part in the nego- 
tiations on the basis of accepted principles. We 
have been through this debate over and over again 
in the Atomic Energy Commission in the past two 
and a half years. It would not be possible nor 
reasonable to go back and start this debate all 



over agam. 



The Soviet resolution would commit the General 
Assembly to a course under which no majority of 
sincere men in the Atomic Energy Commission 
could develop an effective plan. It is wholly un- 
acceptable. Another proposed solution to the 
problem of renewing negotiations is that proposed 
in the Indian resolution. That resolution pro- 
vides that the Atomic Energy Conmiission would 
go back to work and complete the drafting of a 
treaty on the basis of the work already done. 
Those who drafted the Indian resolution hoped at 
first that the Soviet Union would cooperate in the 
work of the Commission on this basis and included 
such a clause in the resolution. But in the Sub- 
committee Mr. Malik said on October 11: "The 
U.S.S.E. do not agree with the provisions which 
is included in the Indian resolution, that there are 
indications that the situation which led to the 
closing of the work of the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion no longer exists". This clause had therefore 
to be omitted. The Indian resolution now means 
that the work should go on without the Soviet 
Union, but we do not agree that this would be a 
solution. Indeed, we believe that in the long run 
it would gravely set back the hope of agreement. 
In the matters which now remain for discussion, 
the political aspects are so important that it would 
be impractical and, we believe, harmful to discuss 
them except in full and open cooperation among 
all the major countries involved, and against the 
background of unanimous agreement on the 
majority jjlan as thus far developed. 



536 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Let us consider some of these matters which still 
remain to be agreed upon in detail in order to 
complete a treaty. There is the matter of sanc- 
tions. Under the plan proposed by the Soviet 
Union sanctions would be terribly important. The 
Soviet plan proposes the operation of nuclear 
plants by nations, with an international agency 
carrying out periodic inspections to see whether 
they are opei'ating within the rules of techno- 
logical exploitation agreed upon in the treaty, or 
set out by the agency. If these rules were violated, 
that is, if a nation made more nuclear fuel than 
the rules provided, the international agency would 
tlien make a recommendation to the Security 
Council. To set the matter right, the Security 
Council might have to employ sanctions. Such 
infractions by national plants would probably 
come up quite often, and sanctions would be con- 
tinually and terribly important. Failure of the 
Security Council to act because of the veto, which 
is probable in certain cases, would create a most 
serious situation. Under the plan proposed by 
the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission 
all plants would be owned and operated by the in- 
ternational agency. The quota of nuclear fuels 
to be used for peaceful purposes would be defined 
in the treaty and the international agency would 
be required to carry out these treaty provisions. 
Under the Commission plan, major sanctions 
would only be required in the case of violations, 
such as seizure or refusal of inspection, which 
might be expected to occur only at rare intervals. 
In an atmosphere of cooperation in the basic ele- 
ments of conti'ol, tlie matter of the veto could 
probably be worked out quite easily. Further 
elaboration of the veto matter by the majority 
without Soviet agreement and presented apart 
from consideration of the plan as a whole would 
tend to confirm present frictions. 

Let us examine the matter of stages. Contrary 
to what seems to be the impression of the Soviet 
Delegates, judging from their remarks before this 
Committee, neither the first nor the second report 
of the Commission lays down the order of stages. 
The order of stages is one of the matters still to be 
agreed upon before a treaty can be completed. It 
surely is evident that the order of the stages will 
be greatly affected by tlie conditions of world secu- 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

rity existing at the time tlie treaty is to go into 
effect. For instance, the time at which disposal 
of atomic weapons would take place would depend 
upon the rapidity with which effective control 
could go into effect. This in turn would depend 
upon the openness existing between nations at the 
time the treaty was signed. If the Communist 
states were still a closed system, it would take time 
to open them up so that control could become effec- 
tive. And make no mistake about it, such opening 
up is fundamental to effective control. But if the 
Communist states had already opened their borders 
to the extent now prevalent in other states, it would 
take much less time to establish controls, and dis- 
posal of weapons could take place much sooner. 

To attempt to lay down stages now when agree- 
ment on other matters is so distant would only 
increase the suspicions and differences which now 
exist. 

In the matter of staffing the organization, some 
discussions were held in the Commission just prior 
to the drafting of the third report. It was quickly 
appai'ent that no agreement could be reached on 
staffing, until the functions of the international 
agency were agreed upon. The Soviet Delegates 
themselves stated that further discussions of staff- 
ing were useless until agreement was reached on 
the functions of the proposed agency. Such dis- 
cussions might indeed be harmful, since they would 
point up the differences and make later agreement 
more difficult. 

For these and other reasons we were compelled 
to disagree with the point of view advanced in the 
Syrian resolution that work in the Commission 
might usefully go on, even though the Soviet were 
not taking part. 

The United States holds firmly to the views so 
cogently expressed in the third report that no 
further progress can be made at the level of the 
Atomic Energy Commission until all the members 
of the Conmaission agree to accept, as constituting 
the necessary basis for further work, the reports 
as approved by the General Assembly. The 
United States further believes that since such ac- 
ceptance is not now forthcoming, the best, and 
probably the only hope of obtaining it is by 
consultation among the sponsoring powers. This 
is the solution proposed in paragraph 3 of the 
Canadian resolution. 



Ocfofaer 31, 1948 



537 



THB UNITBD NATIONS AND SPECMUZED ACENCIBS 

It is because we so earnestly seek agreement, be- 
cause we still hope for ultimate agreement, how- 
ever dim the present prospects, that we strongly 
urge this course which would follow from the ac- 
ceptance of the resolution now before us in its 
entirety. 

In taking this position we will no doubt further 
increase the suspicions of the Soviet powers as to 
our motives. Other nations have said that the 
offer of the United States under certain condi- 
tions was a generous oifer. But the Soviet Union 
have sought other motives to account for our 
strange action. The motive they seem unable to 
understand is our deep concern for the kind of 
world the American people desire to live in. The 
American people desire to live in a world where 
individual human beings, as well as independent 
nations, great and small, have the greatest possible 
liberty and freedom consonant with the liberty 
and freedom of othei'S. They desire to live in a 
world where all men are equal under the law. As 
a means to these ends and as an end in itself, they 
seek a world in which there is openness among all 
nations, freedom to move easily across national 
borders, freedom of information, and a free ex- 
change of scientific and cultural ideas among the 
nations. 

That is the kind of world the people of the 
United States desire. It is towards that kind of 
world that United States foreign policy is oriented 
and towards which we are earnestly striving. We 
envisage such a world in the field of atomic energy. 
It is envisaged by the United Nations Atomic 
Energy Commission in the plan which is now pre- 
sented to the General Assembly. In the field of 
atomic energy no effective control is possible ex- 
cept in such a world. Unless we all consider this 
matter on the basis of these realities, we are only 
laying up dangers for the future. 

Over two yeai's ago the United States made an 
offer to give up its atomic weapons, its great 
plants for making the explosives which are used 
in atomic weapons, and for making the nuclear 
fuels which may at some later date provide power 
for industry, and offered to give up its knowledge 
derived at such great expense and from such long 
years of study, so that there would no longer be 
any secrets in this field, and all its knowledge 



would be open to all the world. The United States 
made one condition to this offer. It is a serious 
condition. 

That condition is that there should be set up an 
effective, enforceable, international system of con- 
trol and prohibition. This is consistent within the 
policy by which the Atomic Energy Commission of 
the United States is governed. The Atomic 
Energy Act of 1946 provides in Section 10 (a) (1) 
"That until Congress declares by joint resolution 
that effective and enforceable international safe- 
guards against the use of atomic energy for de- 
structive purposes have been established, there 
shall be no exchange of information with other na- 
tions with respect to the use of atomic energy for 
industrial purposes". In practice the condition 
would mean that the world would be thrown open 
to a broad exchange of information, to a consider- 
able free movement of persons, so that effective, 
enforceable control of atomic energy would be 
made possible. 

These conditions must be fulfilled. Therefore, 
the second subparagraph of Section 10 (a) of the 
Atomic Energy Act of 1946, would go into effect: 
"(2) That the dissemination of scientific and tech- 
nical information relating to atomic energy should 
be permitted and encouraged so as to provide that 
free interchange of ideas and criticisms which is 
essential to scientific progress". The United States 
does not intend to give up its atomic weapons ex- 
cept under a system of control sufficiently effective 
to guarantee that other nations do not have, and 
cannot secure, these weapons. We believe that the 
majority of the nations of the world support us in 
this position. We believe that the majority of the 
nations want this same kind of open world which 
is desired by the United States. 

In the light of what I have just said, the situa- 
tion in which the Atomic Energy Commission now 
finds itself is much more diiiicult than mere dis- 
agreement on the details of negotiations. The 
situation which has led to the impasse in the 
Atomic Energy Commission has been clearly an- 
alyzed in the third report of the Atomic Energy 
Commission. This analysis is based on the firm 
conclusions of the Commission after over 30 
months of negotiation. It is an analysis which 
honesty and forthrightness require us all to ap- 
preciate. It brings us down to the plain realities 



538 



Deparfment of State Bvlletin 



of the situation with which we are faced. This is 
not a temporary breakdown in negotiations which 
can be remedied b\' further discussions at the level 
of the Atomic Energy Commission. This situa- 
tion is caused by the refusal of the Soviet Union 
to participate in the world community on a co- 
operative basis. 

Tlio Communist states have set up a closed sys- 
tem and over a large area of the world have drawn 
an Iron Curtain behind which things go on in 
secret, things of which the rest of the world is 
properly suspicious. So long as the Communist 
states continue this position, effective international 
control of atomic energy will be impossible. So 
long as tlie Communist states continue this system 
of secrecy, the safeguards which other nations 
deem indispensable cannot be made effective. So 
long as this situation continues, all the world will 
be suspicious of Soviet motives and will, of neces- 
sity, arm against unlmown dangers. 

The Communist states desire to live in a secret 
world of their own, behind which, for all we know, 
they may arm and prepare their people for war. 
We do not desire to live in such a world. That is 
the impasse in which the United Nations Atomic 
Energy Commission finds itself. This is the im- 



TH£ UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

passe which cannot be overcome by the Atomic 
Energy Commission. It can be overcome only by 
the aroused, the insistent consecution, the moral — 
not mechanical — majority of free men who have a 
right to insist that they remain free. 

The basis on which the M'ork of the Atomic En- 
ergy Commission might be resumed should be dis- 
cussed, so it seems to us, not in a technical body 
such as the Atomic Energy Commission, but in 
consultation among the six sponsoring powers 
who fii-st proposed to the General Assembly that 
this matter be undertaken by the United Nations 
and who should now find a means for its continu- 
ance. If they find this means, the Atomic Energy 
Commission would be immediately reconvened. 
But if the sponsoring powers should not be success- 
ful, they must report to the General Assembly, 
which will then decide what steps should next be 
taken. 

We believe that this would be the best means of 
bringing about that for which we all so devoutly 
hope, the reconvening of the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission under conditions which will result m the 
completion of a treaty acceptable to all nations. 
The United States will vote for the Canadian reso- 
lution in its entirety. 



U.S. Accepts Atomic Energy Resolution 

STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR WARREN R. AUSTIN IN COMMITTEE i> 



Mr. President, The United States will acquiesce 
in the amended resolution which has now been ac- 
cepted by Australia. That is to say, the Canadian 
resolution as it shows on A/C.1/340. However, I 
want it clear that we adhere to the principles and 
policies that we have advocated throughout this 
debate. We are not retracing our steps or retreat- 
ing from the position that we have stated here 
several times. We are fii-mly persuaded that the 
report of the Atomic Energy Commission, the 
third report, represents the fact when it says: 

'Tn this situation the Commission concludes that 
no useful purpose can be served by carrying on 
negotiations at the Commission level". 

Wliy is that so? Well, the Commission states 
why it is so, namely, and I am quoting: 



"The failure to achieve agreement on the inter- 
national conti'ol of atomic energy arises from a 
situation that is beyond the competence of this 
Commission". 

In other words, it is the same deep-seated po- 
litical division separating East from West and 
the Commission found, after long experience, that 
was a constant barrier to accomplishments of 
agreement, of cooperation, and collaboration upon 
this vital question in the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion. Therefore, it recommended a suspension — 
not the kind of suspension which my friend Colo- 



' Made on Oct. 19, 1948, and released to the press on the 
same date. 



October 31, 1948 



539 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

nel Hodgson speaks of — that is, indefinitely sus- 
pended. On the contrary, it expressly recom- 
mended a limitation and it used the word "until". 
That is probably why the word "when" was used 
in this resolution as it was originally drafted. It 
was the appropriate word and referred to the rec- 
ommendation of the Commission. Now, this is 
what they recommended : 

"The Atomic Energy Commission therefore rec- 
ommends that until such time as the General As- 
sembly finds that this situation no longer exists or 
until such time as tlie sponsors of the General 
Assembly resolution of 24 January, 1946, who are 
the permanent members of the Atomic Energy 
Commission, find, through prior consultation that 
there exists a basis for agi'eement on the interna- 
tional control of atomic energy, negotiations in the 
Atomic Energy Commission be suspended." 

Now, that is plain English and anybody that in- 
terprets that to mean an indefinite suspension is 
straining the English language. That is a suspen- 
sion only until certain events occur and it contem- 
plates something constructive being done. The 
resolution offered here and under consideration up 
to this point recommended what had the most 
promise of accomplishment in it. That is, con- 
sideration of those factors which were in the way 
of agreement in the place where they have to be 
considered, that is, on a higher level entirely. 

Now, it developed here that this little undercur- 
rent ran through this great Conmiittee — anxiety 
that the project of international control was being 
given up — indefinitely suspended — and so many 
amendments reached toward something that would 
give hope and assurance to the world that that was 
not going to take place. 

Now, believe me, the United States respects the 
opinion of its colleagues on this Committee and 
when it sees a movement of opinion like that 
around this table, it gives attention to it. And, 
notwithstanding the fact that we still believe 
firmly that the only place where we can unravel 
this tangle — the tangled threads — is on a higher 



level, nevertheless, we are going to acquiesce in the 
obvious feelings of this Committee. "We are going 
with you. Don't let anj-body assert that the United 
States tries to coerce or force its opinion. I can 
give you evidence now, this minute, to the contrary. 
We are going to vote for this although we still ad- 
here to the opinion expressed in that report of the 
Atomic Energy Commission and supported by our 
endeavors here with all the strength we have. 

Mr. President, I think it would be the gravest 
error to slip back to February 1947 and merge con- 
trol of atomic-energy studies with conventional 
armaments. This is an old fight which was fin- 
ished, we thought, in the Security Council in Feb- 
ruary 1947, and yet we see it raising its head from 
time to time. Just why should we mix this work 
all up? Wliy should we set back what has been 
gained ? It is a great study that has been carried 
forward for thirty months with a definite report of 
progress. Now, are we going to give it strength? 
Are we going to have it carried on with the moral 
approbation of the largest number of coimtries in 
the United Nations, or are we going to weaken it in 
every way that we can ? For example, put in here 
proof of it — the words "in substance" or the words 
'"in principle". Weasel words to tear down that 
which we are reaching for? We cannot get any- 
thing more out of the General Assembly than its 
moral power. We must reach for all the moral 
strength that we can have to support this very in- 
telligent accomplislunent of the Atomic Energy 
Commission — for it is the accomplislmient of the 
Commission, you understand. The majorit}' rule 
obtained there and it is only by the strangest atti- 
tude towards democratic principles that we find a 
small minority persistently resisting the decision 
of the Atomic Energy Commission. 

So, we now give our allegiance to this amend- 
ment — this amended resolution of Canada here — 
pro^aded it is not mangled by amendments or by 
some conduct of this Committee that would rob it 
of the only thing that there is in it, and, that is, 
the moral power of the General Assembly. 



540 



Department of State Bulletin 



Review of Allied Action on Berlin Blockade 



STATEMENT BY PHILIP C. JESSUP' 



Deputy U.S. Representative in the Security Council 



The distinguished representative of the United 
Kingdom has given the Council a complete review 
of the facts of the complex blockade measures im- 
posed by the Soviet Union over a period of months. 
These are actions which were designed to deprive 
the Western powers of their legal rights in Berlin 
and force the German capital into the Soviet eco- 
nomic and political system. These are acts which 
taken as a whole constitute duress and threat of 
force, such as are wholly inconsistent with the obli- 
gations imposed on members of the United Nations 
by the Charter. 

At the very moment in which the Security Coun- 
cil is considering the blockade, Soviet authorities 
have taken additional steps to tighten it. They 
announced in Berlin yesterday that, effective as of 
yesterday, all vehicles coming from the Soviet zone 
into Berlin must enter thi-ough the Soviet sector. 
In other words, as regards vehicular traffic into the 
Western sectors of Berlin, a watertight blockade 
has now been clamped about the perimeter of the 
city. The manner in which these measures have 
been taken provides a striking illustration of the 
Soviet blockade methods. Suddenly, without 
prior warning, a police cordon is thrown around an 
area comprising two thirds of Berlin. Instead of 
a simple reasonable system of inspection at the 
point of entry, a vehicle must detour 40 or 50 miles 
in order to enter the city from the east. Instead 
of the use of an agreed-upon documentation for the 
entry of this vehicle, it must possess unspecified 
and unilaterally decreed papers. Its ultimate fate, 
should it persist in wishing to enter the West sec- 
tors from the Soviet sector, is seizure of the vehicle 
and its cargo, including food. We are informed, 
indeed, that yesterday patrols of police in the 
Soviet sector began inspecting all vehicles trying 
to enter the West sectors. One thing emerges 



clearly from these announcements and actions : the 
blockade not only exists, but is being intensified. 
The duress of which we complained and which is a 
bar to negotiations is being increased even as the 
Security Council deliberates. 

There is an aspect of the blockade measures 
which I particularly wish to be re-emphasized to 
members of the Coimcil. As I pointed out before, 
under a series of international agreements the four 
occupying powers undertook responsibilities for 
the population of the sectors of Berlin committed 
to their charge. The blockade is a method used 
by the Soviet Union for the expansion of its power 
in utter disregard of these joint responsibilities 
and with callous indifference to the effect of their 
measures upon the population of the Western sec- 
tors. I would also remind the Council that it was 
not until a month after the blockade was imposed 
that the Soviet Union made their offer to supply 
food and coal to the Western sector. It was thus 
clear that they originally contemplated putting 
this pressure on the population in an attempt to 
break their spirit, and it was only after the success 
of the air lift was demonstrated that the attempt 
was made to counter the air lift with the offer of 
Soviet supplies. 

This is the blockade which Vyshinsky says is 
entirely mythical. , 

His contention that there is no blockade has 
been amply disproved by facts. The Soviet in- 
terpretation will in any event be somewhat dis- 
puted by two and one-half million people who are 
the direct object of Soviet power politics, who are 
faced with a choice between accepting the real and 
potential hardships of the blockade or accepting 
Soviet political food and political coal and hence 

' Made before the Security Council on Oct. 19, 1948, and 
released to the press on the same date. 



Ocfofaer 37, 1948 



541 



THB UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

Soviet and Communist political domination. 
Tlieir choice has been clear and unmistakable from 
the beginning. They have chosen hardship and 
freedom. This is a hopeful sign for the future 
peace and security of Europe, for the sake of which 
the Four Powers undertook the occupation of Ger- 
many. Let us not forget that at Potsdam it was 
declared that the Allies will take in agreement 
together, now and in the future, the other measures 
necessary to assure that Germany never again will 
threaten her neighbors or the peace of the world. 
It is not the intention of the Allies to destroy or 
enslave the German people. It is the intention of 
the Allies that the German people be given the 
opportunity to prepare for the eventual reconstruc- 
tion of their life on a democratic and peaceful 
basis. That was agreed at Potsdam. The Soviet 
Government, using the harsh instrument of the 
blockade, has indeed chosen a strange way in Ber- 
lin to live up to its agreement to democratize Ger- 
man political life. Thanks to the air bridge and 
the support given it by Berliners, the Soviet Gov- 
ernment has not succeeded in its purpose. 

Let us get down to the bare bones of the matter. 
There is Berlin, an island in the midst of the Soviet 
zone. By international agreement Berlin is a city 
under the administration of four countries — 
France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
the United Kingdom, and the United States. It 
is not a Russian city. Officials and troops of four 
countries are in that city carrying out their duties 
in the several sectors assigned to them by interna- 
tional agreement. Questions affecting the city as 
a whole, under those same agreements, are sup- 
posed to be controlled by the four countries acting 
together in the Control Council and Kommanda- 
tura — two bodies which they set up for that pur- 
pose. In 1945 all four agreed that all four should 
share in bringing essential supplies of food, fuel, 
etc., to Berlin and in distributing those suppUes in 
Berlin. 

For about three years this island city of Berlin 
was administered under these agreements. Then 
in 1948, for one reason or another (I shall not now 
pause to review the evidence which shows what the 
reason was; the varying and inconsistent reasons 
advanced by the Soviet command for these re- 
strictions have already been revealed) , the Soviet 



Union, one of the Four Powers, walked out of 
the Control Council and Kommandatura and be- 
gan to close the routes to Berlin. All these routes, 
by rail, road, and canal, cross the Soviet zone terri- 
tory to reach Berlin. The Soviet Army is sta- 
tioned all through that territory and therefore is 
in the physical position to prevent traffic from 
crossing it. They have not the right to prevent 
this traffic because they agreed that France, and 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the U. K. 
and the U. S. should all share in administering 
Berlin, and Premier Stalin himself in 1945 agreed 
that they had a right to go in and out of Berlin to 
and from their own zones. But the Soviet Union 
has the physical power and has threatened to use 
it. It does not have the same physical power of 
control over the air and therefore the three West- 
ern Governments are using air lanes. The air lift 
has imposed tremendous additional burdens upon 
the three Western powers who have exactly the 
same right as the Soviet Union to be in Berlin. 
But if we three Western countries had been un- 
willing to make that effort, we would be default- 
ing on our recognized responsibilities for the eco- 
nomic and political welfare of the Berlin popula- 
tion. It is not unreasonable to assume that the 
objective of the Soviet Union is to place the West- 
ern powers in a position where they cannot carry 
out those responsibilities. It is absurd for the 
Soviet Union to argue that there is no blockade 
merely because we can still reach our own sectors 
of Berlin by air or because they belatedly offered 
to supply food in exchange for political control. 

One does not need to be an expert on the Charter 
to realize that the use of physical power backed by 
armed force in an attempt to prevent us from go- 
ing where we have a right to be and where we have 
international duties to perform, is a violation of 
the purposes and principles of the United Na- 
tions. If the Soviet Union had complaints against 
the three Western countries, the whole system of 
the Charter clearly requires them to try to settle 
these differences by peaceful means. Did they try 
to do so ? They did not. 

From the beginning of 1948 until their surface 
blockade became complete, they never suggested 
that we have a meeting of the Council of Foreign 
Ministers to discuss the broad questions of the 



542 



Department of State Bulletin 



future of Germany. From the time they with- 
drew from the Control Council in March 1948, they 
never suggested negotiations by any other body. 
Instead they used the extreme measure of the 
blockade. 

Some people may think there was no real threat 
of force because they did not actually open up on 
our trains and trucks and barges with machine 
guns and artillery. But let me give you a picture 
as presented by an actual case. On June 21, 1948, 
United States military train no. 20, under com- 
mand of an American officer and carrying one 
warrant officer and an interpreter and six train 
guards, left Helmstedt en route to Berlin. 

Despite the fact that it had complied with all 
agreed regulations, the train was stopped at the 
Eussian control point. There were three days of 
argument during whicli Eussian demands were 
frequently altered. Finally the Eussian com- 
mandant ordered all U. S. personnel off the rail 
property, which he claimed was under Soviet con- 
trol and onto guard cars. Two American guards 
were forced off the U. S. engine by a Eussian 
colonel and two armed Eussian guards. Other 
Eussian guards with automatic guns were placed 
beside the train in various spots. Soviet guards 
rode the train to the border point where they 
alighted and the train proceeded back to 
Helmstedt. 

Now as I pointed out to the Security Council 
before, we could have used armed force against 
this Soviet threat or we could have meekly sub- 
mitted and surrendered our rights and duties in 
Berlin, subjecting nearly two and one-half million 
Germans to Soviet rule with all that that implies. 
Wliat we actually did and are still doing is live 
up to our obligations under the Charter of the 
United Nations and to try to settle the question 
by peaceful discussions while continuing to dis- 
charge our obligations in Berlin. 

This leads me to the second question which has 
been put to us. I quote it : 

"We request the repi'esentatives of the U. S. A., 
the U. K., France, and the Soviet Union to explain 
circumstantially the agreement involved in the 
instructions given to the Military Governors of the 
Powers in Berlin and to give the detailed reasons 



THE UNtTBD NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZBD ACBNCIES 

that prevented the implementation of those 
instructions." 

The Soviet Government will, however, appre- 
ciate that the thiee Governments are unable to 
negotiate in a situation which the Soviet Govern- 
ment has taken the initiative in creating. Free 
negotiations can only take place in an atmosphere 
relieved of pressure. This is the issue ; the present 
restrictions upon communications between Berlin 
and the Western zones offend against this prin- 
ciple. "Wlien this issue is resolved, such difficulties 
as stand in the way of a resumption of conversa- 
tions on lines set out should be removed. 

I have already given the Council on October 6 an 
outline of the discussions which followed.^ I shall 
repeat the essential points. 

At the close of the meeting on August 2, Stalin 
seemed to meet our point of view. He proposed 
that lifting restrictions on transport and commerce 
should be carried out simultaneously with the in- 
troduction in Berlin of the German mark of the 
Soviet zone and the withdrawal from Berlin of 
the Western mark "B". 

The three Western Governments assumed that 
Stalin's proposal was based on the establishment 
of Four Power control over currency in Berlin and 
therefore could be accepted. Accordingly, in the 
next meeting with Molotov on August 6 the three 
Western Eepresentatives suggested that a com- 
munique should be agi'eed upon by the Four Gov- 
ernments which would announce the lifting of the 
blockade, the introduction into Berlin of the Ger- 
man mark of the Soviet zone as tlie sole currency 
of the city, under adequate Four Power control, 
and an agreement to hold a Four Power meeting 
to consider outstanding questions with respect to 
Berlin and Germany. This document will be 
found in our White Paper.^ You will note that 
it was a simple proposal and, in addition to the 
points I have just mentioned, spelled out Four 
Power safeguards with respect to currency which 
we considered essential. 

The Soviets did not accept immediately the 
draft communique. Instead, protracted discus- 

' Bulletin of Oct. 17, 1948, p. 884. 

' Department of State publication 3298. 



October 31, 1948 



543 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

sions were held between the Four Powers over a 
three-week period until the directive was agreed 
to on August 30. I think it unnecessai-y to give 
here a detailed chronological account of those dis- 
cussions. That account is given in the Wliite 
Papers which have been published by the United 
States Government and by the British Govern- 
ment. If you will compare the proposals made by 
the Three Powers on August 6 with the agreed 
directive, differences between them will be clear. 

When agreement was reached on August 30 as 
to the terms of the directive, the U.S. Govern- 
ment believed that no more than administrative 
acts by technical expei-ts in Berlin were required 
to carry out the directive. There had been an ex- 
haustive discussion on all issues of principle in 
the directive. So far as we knew full accord had 
been reached. The only thing that remained was 
to put into effect the principles agreed upon which 
we assumed could be done by the four Military 
Governors. 

The directive met the points made by the Soviet 
Government in Moscow and at the same time was 
consistent with the maintenance of our rights in 
Berlin. 

Stalin gave specific assurances on the question 
of Four Power control over currency in the August 
23 meeting with Representatives of the three 
Western Governments. 

As reported by Smith : 

"Stalin stated that the German bank of emission 
controlled the flow of currency throughout the 
whole Soviet zone, and it was impossible to exclude 
Berlin from the Soviet zone. However, if the ques- 
tion were asked whether it did so without being 
controlled itself, the answer was 'no'. Such con- 
trol would be provided by the Financial Commis- 
sion and by the four Commanders in Berlin, who 
would work out arrangements connected with the 
exchange of currency and with the control pro- 
vision of currency, and would supervise what the 
bank was doing." 

No unresolved issues of substance appeared to 
be involved on August 30 when the directive was 
sent to the four Military Governors in Berlin. 

But what was our experience in Berlin ? 

In answering this question, one needs remember 
what the situation was when the discussions be- 



gan. The beginning was on July 6 when the three 
Governments sent the first notes to the Soviets. 
By that time, the Soviet interruption of highway, 
railroad, and canal traffic was complete and the 
three Western powers had been forced to resort 
to the air lift to cany out their acknowledged 
duties in Berlin. This was the situation creating 
a threat to the peace which still exists, and which 
will continue to exist until the restrictions of sur- 
face travel are removed. For over three months 
we have been trying to remove this threat to the 
peace by peaceful means. When direct discus- 
sions failed, we tui'ned to the Security Council, 
which by the Charter has been given the primary 
responsibility for tlie maintenance of interna- 
tional peace and security. 

We turned to the Security Council on September 
29 for exactly the same reason that we entered into 
the discussions with the Soviet Government in 
July, namely, to remove the threat to the peace. 
We did not come to the Security Council in July, 
because article 33 of the Charter required us "first 
of all" to exhaust the possibility of direct discus- 
sion. But the threat to the peace existed in July as 
it exists now in October. 

In July we wondered whether there were some 
detail, some misunderstanding, which caused the 
Soviet Government, however improperly and il- 
legally, to use force instead of conference. If that 
were the case, the diflBculty could be removed. If, 
however, as all signs seemed to indicate, the Soviet 
Union was using the threat of force to get us out 
of Berlin, that was a different matter. So we put 
the question to Stalin on August 2 in Moscow. 
Smith, of the U. S., spoke for the three Govern- 
ments. I want to quote his words which you will 
find printed in full in the U. S. White Paper : 

"The United States, the United Kingdom and 
France do not wish the situation to deteriorate 
further and assume that the Soviet Government 
shares this desire. The Three Governments have 
in mind restrictive measures which have been 
placed by Soviet authorities on communication be- 
tween the Western zones of Germany and Western 
sectors of Berlin. It was the feeling of our Grov- 
ernments that if these measures arose from tech- 
nical difficulties, such difficulties can be easily 
remedied. The Three Governments renew their 



544 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



offer of assistance to this end. If in any way re- 
lated to the currency problem, such measures are 
obviously uncalled for, since this problem could 
have been, and can now be, adjusted by representa- 
tives of the four jDOwers in Berlin. If, on the 
other hand, these measures are designed to bring 
about negotiations among the four occupying 
powers they are equally unnecessary, since the 
Governments of the United Kingdom, the United 
States and France have never at any time declined 
to meet representatives of the Soviet Union to dis- 
cuss questions relating to Germany. However, if 
the purpose of these measures is to attempt to 
compel the three Governments to abandon their 
rights as occupying powers in Berlin, the Soviet 
Government will understand from what has been 
stated previously that such an attempt could not be 
allowed to succeed." 

Smith went on to say : 

"In spite of recent occurrences, the three powers 
are unwilling to believe that this last reason is the 
real one. Rather they assume that the Soviet Gov- 
ernment shares their view that it is in the interest 
of all four occupying powers, of the German peo- 
ple and of the world in general to prevent any 
further deterioration of the position and to find a 
way bj- mutual agreement to bring to an end the 
extremely dangerous situation that has developed 
in Berlin." 

The record shows that the Soviet Military Gov- 
ernor departed from the directive on three funda- 
mental matters of principle. First, he asserted 
that the use of the air corridors to Berlin from 
the west would be limited to supplying the needs 
of the occupation forces; but the directive called 
for the lifting of restrictions, not the imposition 
of new ones. Second, he maintained that the trade 
of Berlin with the Western occupation zones and' 
third countries should be controlled exclusively by 
the Soviet Military Command, but the directive 
provided that a "satisfactory basis" of trade should 
be worked out rather than unilateral control. 
Third, the Soviet Commander insisted that the 
Four Power Financial Commission would not have 
the necessary authority with respect to the activ- 
ities in Berlin of the German bank of emission 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

despite the explicit understanding to the contrary 
reached with Stalin August 23 on this point. 

The three Western Governments decided to take 
these issues back to Moscow to determine whether 
tlie Soviet Government itself was also going to dis- 
regard the agreements which had been reached. 

However, in going back to Moscow, we did be- 
lieve that it was essential to obtain an unequivocal 
affirmation by the Soviet Government of the prin- 
ciples of the August 30 directive. We were not 
prepared to embark on another round of long dis- 
cussion which would simply reproduce what had 
gone before and which would open for f urtlier dis- 
cussion principles previously settled. We wanted 
unequivocal answers to the three questions. We 
then wanted performance on those answers in Ber- 
lin. "Wliat happened when we went back to 
Moscow ? 

The three Western Governments requested m 
their aide-memoire of September 14 that the So- 
viet Government affirm the understanding reached 
in Moscow concerning those three issues and in- 
struct the Soviet Military Governor to carry out 
these undertakings. A reply was received by the 
three Western Representatives in Moscow on Sep- 
tember 18. In that reply the Soviet Government 
upheld the jjosition of the Soviet Military Gov- 
ernor to the effect that the use of the air corridors 
in the future be limited to supplying the require- 
ments of the occupation forces in Berlin contrary 
to the Control Council decision of November 30, 
1945. "Wliile admitting that the trade of Berlin 
should be under Four Power control, the Soviet 
Government maintained that actual issuance of 
export-import licenses should be controlled by the 
Soviet military administration. This would have 
vitiated Four Power control over trade. The reply 
seemed to go back to acceptance of the principle 
that the Financial Commission would have author- 
ity only over certain activities in Berlin of the 
German bank of emission. 

It is evident that we did not obtain the simple 
affirmation we sought of the agreed principles of 
the August 30 directive. Nor did we obtain any 
assurance that the Soviet Government would in- 
struct the Soviet Military Governor to follow the 
directive. In short, we obtained an unsatisfactory 
reply. In view of all that had happened before, 



Ocfofaer 31, 7948 



545 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

we came to the considered opinion that the Soviet 
Government was attempting to secure political ob- 
jectives to which it was not entitled and which it 
could not achieve by peaceful means. We dis- 
covered that the talks we were holding were serv- 
ing as an excuse to prolong the blockade rather 
than as a means of removing it. 

Therefore, on September 22, the three Western 
Governments sent identic notes to the Soviet Gov- 
ernment in which they restated their positions on 
the three principal issues and in which they also 
asked the Soviet Government to lift the blockade 
and specify the date on which it would be done.* 

The Soviet reply to this note was received on 
September 25.^ It still did not explicitly clarify 
all of the points which we had taken back to Mos- 
cow. It did not state that the Soviet Government 
agreed that commercial freight and passengers 
could move to Berlin by air. It did, perhaps, 
imply that the air corridors might be used for this 
purpose. However, it stated that there must be 
control by the Soviet High Command over the 
transport of commercial cargoes and passengers. 
Tlie Soviet reply thus raised a new question. We 
could not agree that the Soviet Command should 
exercise such control. We had stated repeat- 
edly in Berlin that insi)ection for protection of 
currency would be necessary but that it must be 
exercised on the basis of agreed quadripartite 
regulations. 

I want to point out that in the circumstances 
existing in Berlin, protection of the currency of 
the Soviet zone is wholly unrelated to the volume 
of freight or the mmiber of passengers moving by 
land, water, or air between the Western zones and 
Berlin. Pi-otection for currency of the Soviet 
zone, as a practical matter, can be had through 
adequate exchange and currency controls as be- 
tween the two areas, not through control of tiaffic. 
The Governments of France, the U.K., and the 
U.S. have always been prepared to agree to reason- 
able safeguards for the protection of the Soviet 
zone German mark. They have always been and 
still are prepared to agree to reasonable regula- 

' Bulletin of Oct. 3, 1948, p. 423. 

' ma. 

' U.N. doc. S/1020, Sept. 29, 1948. -See also Buixetin of 
Oct. 10, 1948, p. 455. 



tions over traffic. Limitation of and control over 
the volume of traffic that moves between the West- 
ern zones and Berlin should not be confused with 
the wholly separate and unielated question of 
currency and exchange control. The Soviets have 
used this as one of their excuses for establishing 
the blockade and as reason for claiming the right 
to impose restrictions on the use of air corridors 
for transpoi'tation of freight and passengers. This 
is a subterfuge on the part of the Soviets to place 
air traffic and Berlin under control of the Soviet 
Command. 

Because further talks had become manifestly 
futile, we informed the Soviet Government that 
we were referring the matter to the Security Coun- 
cil in our identic notes of September 26-27. We 
sent our notification to the Secretary-General of 
the United Nations on September 29.^ 

As you are aware, the Soviet Government sent 
a note to the three Western Governments on Oc- 
tober 3, even after we had referred the case to the 
United Nations. That note is a further illustra- 
tion of the tactics which have been pursued by the 
Soviet Government throughout these talks. It 
suggests for example that the matter of air-traffic 
control to prevent illegal currency and smuggling 
operations should be capable of mutually satisfac- 
tory negotiation but it carefully refrains from 
making a definite commitment. It is another ex- 
ample of the evasions, and apparent unwillingness 
to affirm understandings already reached. 

Now we are asked why was it that the whole 
matter was not settled on the basis of the directive 
of August 30. Stated in another way, the question 
is, "Why did the threat to jjeace continue after Sep- 
tember 7 when conversations of the four Military 
Governors were concluded, or after the 14th of 
September when the three Western Governments 
wrote the Soviet Government explaining in what 
respects Sokolov.sky had refused to live up to the 
understanding reached in Moscow?" 

A simple and direct answer to the question is 
that the threat to peace did not end then because 
it was the Soviet blockade measures which caused 
the threat to peace and the Soviet Government 
refused to lift the blockade. The Soviet Govern- 
ment created the threat to peace and the Soviet 
Government can remove it. 



546 



Department of State Bulletin 



To sum up, the three Western powers were pre- 
pared to discuss practical arrangements to deal 
with the currency problem in Berlin or other prob- 
lems as long as there was the slightest reason to 
believe that the restrictions imjjosed by the Soviet 
Government were in any way related to such prob- 
lems. But when it became apparent as tlie conver- 
sations jjrogressed and particularly after the 
Soviet repudiation of the agreed interpretation 
of the August 30th directive, that the real Soviet 
intention was to force the abandonment of our 
rights in Berlin, which Stalin had been informed 
was totally unacceptable to the Western powers, 
it was obvious that the discussions were doomed 
to failure. In our view these discussions prove 
conclusively and we so stated in our notes of 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIAUZBD AGENCIES 

September 2G-27 that the Soviet Government was 
and is attempting by illegal and coercive measures 
in disregard of its obligations to secure political 
objectives to which it is not entitled and which it 
could not achieve by peaceful means. We could 
not continue to discuss even on the currency ques- 
tion under a clearly established attempt to attain 
such objectives by coercion and duress. 

In demanding the immediate lifting of the 
blockade which constitutes a threat to peace, we 
in no way seek to be released from our commit- 
ment to carry out the directive of August 30. We 
are asking the Security Council to remove the 
threat to the peace, not to avoid a discussion with 
the Soviet Government, but to make it possible to 
engage in discussions free from duress. 



Current United Nations Documents: A Selected Bibliography 



General Assembly 



Non-Self-Governing Territories. Information Transmit- 
ted Under article 73e of the Charter. Report of the 
Special Committee. A/593, October 1, 194S. 51 pp. 
mimeo. 

Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. Report 
of the Secretary-General. A/626, September 7, 1948. 
9 pp. mimeo. 

Headquarters of the United Nations. Report of the Sec- 
retary-General. A/627, September 8, 1948. 7 pp. 
mimeo. 

Report of the Committee on Contributions. A/628, Sep- 
tember 7, 1948. 8 pp. mimeo. 

Transfer to the United Nations of the Functions Exercised 
by the Government of the French Republic Under the 
International Agreement of 18 May 1004 and the In- 
ternational Convention of 4 May 1910 for the Sup- 
pression of the White Slave Traffic, and the Agree- 
ment of 4 May 1910 for the Suppression of Obscene 
Publications. A/639, September 9, 1948. 35 pp. 
mimeo. (Also, A/639/Rev. 1, October 8, 1948.) 

Composition of the Secretariat and the Principle of Geo- 
graphical Distribution. Report of the Secretary-Gen- 
eral. A/652, September 2, 1948. 21 pp. mimeo. 

Adoption of the Agenda of the Third Regular Session and 
Allocation of Items to Committees. A/653, September 
23, 1948. 14 pp. mimeo. 

United Nations Guard. Report of the Secretary-General. 
A/65G, September 28, 1948. 13 pp. mimeo. 

Transfer to the United Nations of the Residual Assets and 
Activities of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion Administration. Report by the Secretary-Gen- 
eral. A/66o, October 4, 1948. 28 pp. mimeo. 



Draft Protocol Bringing Under International Control 
Drugs Outside the Scojie of the Convention of 13 July 
1931 for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating 
the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs, As Amended by 
the Protocol Signed at Lake Success on 11 July 1946. 
Report of the Third Committee. A/666, October 5, 
1948. 7 pp. mimeo. 

Reparation for Injuries Incurred in the Service of the 
United Nations. Memorandum by the Secretary- 
General. A/674, October 7, 1948. 7 pp. mimeo. 

OfBcial Records of the Second Special Session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. Volume I. Plenai-y Meetings of the 
General A.ssembly. Summary Records of Meetings. 
10 April-14 May 1948. sxvi, 47 pp. printed. 750. 

Economic and Social Counci 

Official Records. Second Year. Fifth Session. From the 
S5th meeting (19 July 1947) to the 121st meeting (16 
Augu.st 1947). xvi, 4S0 pp. printed. $5.00. 

Security Council 

Official Records, Third Year. 333rd and 334th Meetings. 
13 July 1948. No. 95. 56 pp. printed. 600. 339th 
and 340th Meetings. 27 July 1948. No. 98. 50 pp. 
printed. 50«;. 343rd Meeting. 2 August 1948. No. 
100. 22 pp. printed. 250. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 2060 Broadway, New Y'ork City. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 



October 31, 1948 



547 



United Nations Day 



STATEMENTS BY SECRETARY MARSHALL' 



With the other members of tlie United States 
Delegation, I am attending in Paris the third reg- 
ular session of the General Assembly of the United 
Nations. For five weeks this has been a period of 
extraordinary activity, as we have been dealing 
daily with matters of utmost world concern. Make 
no mistake about it, what is being done here has a 
profound meaning for every American. 

It is fortunate, I think, that United Nations Day 
is being observed while the General Assembly is in 
session. The critical nature of issues we are debat- 
ing should cause the people of the world to think 
both seriously and realistically about what the 
United Nations really is and what people may 
rightfully expect it to accomplish in their behalf — 
that is, in behalf of world peace. 

The most vivid impression I have received in 
the past few weeks is the new appreciation of the 
indispensable part the organization of the United 
Nations has come to play in the affairs of the world 
community. I wish I could convey to all of you 
at home the stirring sense of reality and vitality 
we feel from participating in these meetings. 
Certainly no one here doubts that they are part 
of an organization engaged in the most important 
business in the world today — that is, an intense 
effort to save this and succeeding generations from 
the scourge of war. 

But we realize that the United Nations cannot 
hope to succeed unless it boldly comes to grips 
with the realities of the world situation. It can- 
not exist merely as a symbol above and apart from 
human struggle. If the organization is to justify 
the hopes of mankind, it must gather strength to 
surmount the difficulties, the crises of the world, 
and bring about peaceful solutions for them. 

The most important fact of international life 
today which every country must take into account 
is the fact that the United Nations is a living, dy- 
namic institution. This does not mean that we 



' The first statement was made over the CBS network 
on the occasion of the observance of United Nations Day, 
Oct. 24, 1948, and released to the press on the same date. 
The second statement was made to American students 
on the occasion of United Nations Week over the NBC net- 
work on Oct. 22, 194S, and released to the press on the same 
date. 

548 



can find solutions for all our complicated inter- 
national problems easily and automatically by 
referring them to the United Nations, nor does it 
mean that we should lose our perspective — or fear 
that doomsday is just around the corner if the 
United Nations does not ^jrovide quick and satis- 
factory solutions. Some of these problems have 
already defied the ingenuity of Member Nations 
that make up the United Nations, and because the 
United Nations is inseparably a part of the real 
imperfect world in which it exists it is subject to 
the same disabilities and frustrations that beset 
the negotiations of its individual members. We 
would make a fundamental error if we disregarded 
these realities and considered the United Nations 
as some short cut to Utopia. There is neither a 
short cut nor a Utopia. We live in a human world 
with all man's frailties and failings, which I have 
come to think are more jironounced in nations 
than in individuals. 

The United Nations Charter recites specific 
limitations which were passed on by the fifty na- 
tions that created the organization. The United 
Nations is in no sense a supergovernment. It 
does not have complete authority over sovereign 
nations which compose its membership. They did 
voluntarily agree to cooperate within the provi- 
sions of the limited authority conferred upon it 
by the Charter, but the achievements of the United 
Nations are limited to the willingness of various 
nations to cooperate. The difficulties, successes, 
and failures of the United Nations directly reflect 
existing relationships among nations. 

The attention of our people has been focused on 
political disputes debated in the Security Council 
and the excessive use of the veto in that organiza- 
tion. This has led to an impatient desire to force 
hasty revision or even complete overhauling of 
the whole United Nations machinery. Many of 
these proposals are unrealistic in that they confuse 
cause with effect. They propose cures for symp- 
tom instead of for disease. The truth is that the 
means for cooperation jDrovided by the United 
Nations are not, I repeat, are not inadequate — it 
is a lack of genuine desire for cooperation on the 
part of certain nations that brings about the pres- 
ent feeling of futility and frustration. 

Department of State Bulletin 



This obstructive attitude or procedure is the 
most serious liuiitiition of all, it is the jjreatest 
blight on the ellectiveiiess of the United Nations. 
It has boon imposed contrary to the wishes of the 
majorit_y of the Member nations, and contrary to 
understandings reached in San Francisco. Yet 
tlie Uiiited Nations unquestionably represents the 
maxinium degree of intei'national cooperation 
tliat is possible at this time. 

The way to increase the cooperative spirit is not 
by deliberately destroying the inadequate unity 
that now exists, but rather by careful and patient 
cultivation of greater unity through the processes 
of the United Nations. 

Always keep in mind that the United Nations 
today provides the forum in which world opin- 
ion can be brought to bear on the niost critical 
world disputes. In time the cumulative effect of 
moral judgments of the large majority of mankind 
expressed through the organization will inevitably 
exert a powerful influence upon even the most re- 
calcitrant government. 



THE UNITBD NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZeO ACENCWS 

The United States will associate itself with as 
much of the world as will sincerely devote its 
efforts to the realization of the aims proclaimed in 
the Charter of the United Nations. Our govern- 
ment is resolved to seek peace and understanding 
m accordance with the Charter both inside and 
outside the United Nations. We will not allow 
misuse of United Nations procedures or obstruc- 
tion of our efforts, singly or in concert with other 
nations, to dismay or defeat us. 

I urge all Americans to observe United Nations 
Day in a practical manner by increasing their 
knowledge and understanding of the organization, 
particularly the Charter. The United Nations 
was born out of world disaster and has had to be 
nurtured during continuing crises. Given a 
reasonable opportunity the United Nations will 
grow and develop through other crises to its ma- 
turity. That is the way of civilization. There is 
no better road — no shorter — in fact, there is no 
other road — to lasting peace. 



I am addressing you from Paris, where the 
United States is taking an active part in the de- 
liberations of the United Nations. This meeting 
is dealing with serious problems in world affairs, 
some of which will affect your personal lives for 
years to come. 

I wish it were possible for me to meet you per- 
sonally, in your gatherings at schools throughout 
our country, to impress on j'ou the great impor- 
tance of the organization of the United Nations 
and the duty you owe to yourself and your country 
to help strengthen the United Nations and make of 
it a tremendous influence for peace in the world. 

The people of our country have just passed 
through a terrible war in defense of our right to 
live in freedom and to govern ourselves as we see 
fit. Great sacrifices were made, hundreds of thou- 
sands of lives of our young men given to keep for 
us and for future Americans the kind of libeily 



and ways of life that have been so wonderfully 
developed in America. 

Now we are engaged in a great effort to save 
succeeding generations from the scourge and hor- 
rors of war and to bring progress and prosperity 
to the world. Our efforts are centered on the 
United Nations, the world's best hope for peace. 

We only began this great enterprise three years 
ago. We must look to you to carry it forward to 
strength and power. You are young. You have 
a fresh viewpoint and vigor. Make the United 
Nations your own organization by learning all you 
can about it, what it is, what its purposes are, 
how it operates. Read the Charter and re-read it, 
until you understand it as thoroughly as you do 
our own Constitution. Identify yourself with the 
United Nations and work unceasingly to make it 
the means by which you and the young people of 
other lands can live together in peace and happi- 
ness in the years ahead. 



ADDRESS BY GEORGE V. ALLEN' 
Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs 



I am glad to talk with you tonight about the 
United Nations because many people who read the 
daily headlines, reporting disputes in the General 
Assembly in Paris, are inclined to overlook the 
really significant developments now taking place. 
Many people are skeptical that any progress can 
be made, under present world conditions, towards 
the creation of an effective world organization, 

Ocfober 37, 7948 



but progress is being made toward that end every 
day. 

Today, in Paris, the spokesmen of the world 
are debating ways and means by which nations 
can work creatively toward building an effective 

' Address broadcast over WRC in Washington on Oct. 
22, 1948, and released to the press on the same date. 

549 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

peace. A large majority of the hundreds of dele- 
gates present are showing more and more clearly, 
when the chips are down, that they appreciate the 
necessity for preserving the dignity and worth of 
the individual, and are aware that an eifective 
world organization can only be built on democratic 
principles. 

In each debate in Paris, this issue is becoming 
more clear cut. We are getting down to rock bot- 
tom. The question of the control of Berlin is 
incidental to the basic question whether anti- 
democratic methods of force and coercion shall be 
permitted to continue as a means of conducting 
international relations. As the various individual 
cases are discussed, this basic issue underlying 
them all emerges more clearly. 

The fact that more and more people of the world 
are steadily realizing the fundamental question in- 
volved is more important to me than the political 
disagreements which are hitting the headlines. 
The quarrel is not between the United States and 
Russia ; it is between democracy and totalitarian- 
ism, between aggression and nonaggression, be- 
tween moral and immoral international conduct. 

But the political debates in Paris by no means 
tell the whole United Nations story. Tlie Security 
Council, as "trouble shooter" for the United Na- 
tions, receives most of the headlines, but the less 
spectacular day-to-day advancements made by the 
United Nations and by its specialized agencies in 
social and economic fields are perhaps equally 
important. 

A vast new machinery of international coopera- 
tion has come into being since 194:5. A study of 
the United Nations organization chart will re- 
veal commissions, coimcils, and special agencies 



which offer Member Nations a meeting ground to 
attack almost every type of common problem, 
such as the control of contagious diseases, edu- 
cational reconstruction, and many others of equal 
importance. Some people think there are too many 
such agencies and bureaus, but each is important, 
and their constant if quiet endeavors and achieve- 
ments add up to a significant total. In §ome of 
these agencies, delegates of widely divergent polit- 
ical views work in close technical cooperation and 
harmony. 

This, very briefly to be sure, rounds out the story 
I wish to share with you tonight. Let me repeat. 
I find strength in the fact that the aims and prin- 
ci^jles embodied in the Charter of the United Na- 
tions are identical with those of the American 
people, and that they express accurately the hopes 
of all other democratic peoples. The basic fault is 
not in the Charter, but in the fact that some of 
its Members continue to employ undemocratic 
methods of force and coercion to achieve their 
international goals. But the longer the issues are 
debated, the more clear it becomes to all the world, 
including increasing numbers of people behind the 
Iron Curtain, that the basic issue involved is 
morality in international conduct against im- 
morality, national independence against subservi- 
ence to an alien rule, and human liberty against 
the subjection of this individual to the dictates of 
a ruling clique. 

Progress is being made, and with a steadfast 
conviction in the superiority of democratic prin- 
ciples over any other system of conduct yet de- 
vised, we shall succeed in building a world order 
which will stand in the noonday sun, strong and 
firm on its solid support— the people of the United 
Nations. 



550 



Department of State Bulletin 



WHY WE SUPPORT THE UNITED NATIONS 



By Ambassador Warren R. Austin ' 



Today marks the first oflScial, world-wide ob- 
servance of United Nations Day, designated by 
unanimous reconnnendation of the General Assem- 
bly in 1947. On this day people are gathered in 
all parts of the world to discuss problems before 
the United Nations and to express their determina- 
tion, in the words of the Charter, "to save succeed- 
ing generations from the scourge of war". 

It is fitting that this world-wide testimony to 
humanity's greatest hope for peace, the United 
Nations Charter, should occur on the day dedicated 
to the one Father of all mankind ; it is fitting that 
this observance should fall on the day of prayer, 
and that mankind's prayers for peace and justice 
are rising in unison around the earth. 

I feel greatly honored to have a part in Britain's 
observance of this universal holiday in Central 
Hall, Westminster, in which the organization be- 
gan its life. It was the people of this island whose 
valor and determination in the darkest hours made 
possible the victory from which emerged the 
United Nations. Faced, as we now are, with the 
certainty that the development of the United Na- 
tions will require from all of us much of the same 
spirit, I feel especially privileged to observe this 
day with people who, in our time, have so dis- 
tinctly identified their country with qualities of 
faith and courage. 

The people of my country cherish the partner- 
ship with you that helped create the United Na- 
tions. We are united in our desire to see that 
partnership grow in collective effort to strengthen 
the United Nations. 

Today, in the United States, our national elec- 
tion campaign is suspended so that people may join 
in rallies in every state to manifest support for the 
United Nations. It provides us with another op- 
portunity to demonstrate that our participation in 
the United Nations is based on the national will, 
and not on the platform of any one political party. 
Both major parties have published pledges to sup- 
port the United Nations. 

The Democratic platform states: "We support 
the United Nations fully and we pledge whole- 
hearted aid toward its growth and development." 

The Kepublican platform provides : "We believe 
in collective security against aggression and in be- 
half of justice and freedom. We shall support the 
United Nations — the world's best hope in this 
direction, striving to strengthen it and promote 
its effective evolution and use." 

Ocfober 31, 1948 



The United States Delegation in Paris is a bi- 
partisan delegation and the policies of that dele- 
gation have not become the subject of partisan 
debate in the election campaign now nearing its 
end. Our people are able to observe at close range 
the growth of the organization from its beginnings 
in the Dumbarton Oaks conversations through the 
writing of the Charter, on our Pacific Coast, to 
the establishment of its home on our Atlantic 
Coast. Our students, editors, political leadere, 
and public visit sessions of the. General Assembly, 
Security Council, Trusteeship Council, Economic 
and Social Council, and other agencies of the 
United Nations. They return to their communi- 
ties with firsthand reports of how representatives 
of 58 nations are progressing with their work. 
This all makes the United Nations very real to our 
people. 

One reason we are glad that the General Assem- 
bly is being held in Paris this year is that it is 
giving the people of Europe a better opportunity 
to visit its sessions, and to feel their intimate rela- 
tion to it. There is an inherent basis for the Amer- 
ican support of the United Nations. During most 
of our history, we have been receiving the sons and 
daughters of all nations, and especially from 
Europe. We have become a United Nations coun- 
try, exemplifying that men of every nationality, 
religion, color, and race can live together in peace, 
and cooperate for the welfare of all. I would not 
imply that we have achieved our ideal. Our ef- 
forts to insure the fulfillment of the guaranties of 
equal rights must be pursued endlessly, and with 
enlightened vigilance. Our own difficulties make 
us keenly sensitive to the tremendous task faced 
by nations in building the envisioned world com- 
munity, and they give us the patience necessary to 
reach that goal. Many of these people who came 
to the United States were bitter over the wars and 
quarrels of Europe. They had turned their backs 
on the old world and dreamed of building a new 
world in splendid isolation. 

Through hard experience the American people 
came to realize that in an interdependent world no 
nation can escape the consequences of war, and 
every nation depends to some extent on world order 
for its own social and economic well-being. Once 
having reached this conviction, the overwhelming 
majority of the American people demanded full 

' Address made at Central Hall, Westminster, London, 
Oct. 24, 1948, and released to the press on the same date. 

551 



THE UN/TED NATIONS AND SPECIAUZBD ACENCIB5 

United States participation in the United Nations, 
and they have supported every measure for 
collective security and international economic 
cooperation. 

I realize what the experience of Europeans has 
been. They had high hopes of outlawing war and 
building collective security through the League. 
They gave support to that first effort to build a 
world organization. They were disappointed and 
disillusioned when the Senate of the United States 
held aloof from the League. Their hopes were 
dashed as the League failed to stand by the cove- 
nant when Mussolini attacked Ethiopia, when 
Japan moved into Manchuria, when the Nazis 
seized the Rhineland, then Austria and Czecho- 
slovakia. 

To my mind the great difference between the 
1930's and the present is that then the majority of 
the League members were falling apart to become, 
one by one, victims of aggression ; while today the 
majority of the members of the United Nations are 
closing ranks to create a united front against ag- 
gression. That difference is so important as to 
justify a real hope for the efforts in which we are 
now engaged to avoid war. 

Our difficulties are so obvious and complex as to 
provoke skepticism in some, but they challenge the 
great interest and effort of an increasing majority. 

Just two days ago, we were greatly strengthened 
by the achievements of one day : 

The Security Council elected five judges to the 
International Court of Justice, the General Assem- 
bly did likewise, revealing a high degree of accord 
between East and West. 

The Political and Security Committee, after 
thorough debate, agreed upon the Mexican reso- 
lution with unanimity of the 58 members. (The 
conference broke into animated applause at this 
heart-warming accomplishment.) The resolution 
recalled faith in the principles of the Atlantic 
Charter; the pledge of the members in the United 
Nations and proclaimed that only with continuing 
and growing cooperation and understanding 
among the three countries which made the Yalta 
Declaration, and among all the peace-loving na- 
tions, could the higher aspirations of humanity 
be realized. 

One of the contributions to wider cooperation 
was made by the Soviet Union in the Subconmiit- 
tee. It initiated paragraph 4 of the Mexican draft 
recommending that the powers signatory to the 
agreement of December 1945, and the powers 
which subsequently acceded thereto, "associate 
with them in the performance of such a noble task 
(the settlement of the war and the conclusion of 
all the peace settlements) the states which sub- 
scribed and adhered to the Washington Declara- 
tion of January 1, 1942." 

552 



The Security Council, considering the Berlin 
question, by unanimous consent, tabled a reso- 
lution winch was proposed by the six neutral mem- 
bers. We prayerfully look forward to the con- 
sideration of that resolution next week. 

As I left Paris for this meeting, I received official 
notification, as President of the Security Council, 
that its resolution for an immediate and effective 
cease-fire in the Negeb, has been obeyed by both 
Jews and Arabs. 

We do not serve our cause by overestimating 
short-run gains, nor by underestimating the long- 
range difficulties. But, as we advance toward col- 
lective security, step by step we grow more effi- 
cient with each succeeding accomplishment. 

We created and set in motion the most ambitious 
organization for peace ever conceived. We built 
up an efficient Secretariat, introduced novel meth- 
ods of breaking down barriers of language, de- 
veloped fact-finding facilities, and arsenals of in- 
formation for combating such ancient causes of 
was as disease, hunger, and ignorance. We created 
commissions and specialized agencies to deal witli 
the whole range of vital problems through inter- 
national consultation; the problems of control of 
atomic and other weapons of mass destruction ; of 
reduction and regulation of armaments ; of human 
rights; of finance and trade; of health and nar- 
cotics; of food and agriculture; of economics and 
emplo3'ment; of education, science, and culture; 
of labor standards ; of displaced and stateless per- 
sons. 

The fact that we have a vast international or- 
ganization, this year holding more than 5,000 
meetings in various places throughout the world, 
enables us to see in bold relief the differences and 
tensions between nations as they appear. 

I should like to discuss with you frankly these 
tensions, to suggest action to relieve them, and thus 
hasten the realization of collective security as en- 
visaged in the United Nations Charter. 

A great part of the tension in the United Na- 
tions grows out of the fact that economic and social 
instability in the wake of the war has favored the 
growth of Communist parties in many countries. 
Communist leaders in these countries try to exploit 
chaotic conditions to seize power. In those coun- 
tries where Commmiists have been able to call 
upon the Red Army either for direct help or as an 
imminent threat, they have succeeded. It is sig- 
nificant that they have succeeded nowhere else. 
But, as country after country has fallen under 
Soviet domination, and as Communist parties in 
other countries have demonstrated their role as 
Moscow-directed fifth columns, the black cloud of 
fear has spread over all of Western Europe and 
has darkened the horizon of the United Nations. 

These fears and their causes wei'e laid before the 
General Assembly with directness and candor in 

Department of State Bulletin 



two brilliant speeches: one by Mr. Spaak. Prime 
Minister of Belgium ; the other by Mr. Bevin, your 
Foreign Minister. 

Our failure to support the balance of power 
existing at the time the Charter was signed has 
been a contributing factor. The rapid demobil- 
ization of our armies enabled the Kremlin to ex- 
tend its domination, to encourage paralysis rather 
than productivity, to spread fear where there 
should liave been hope. 

We expected, when the Charter was signed at 
San Francisco, that force would cease to be the 
dominant factor in relations between nations. 
This hope sprang from the heart of a nation which 
then possessed the gi'eatest concentration of mili- 
tary power the world has ever seen. We hoped 
and believed that in seeking solutions for postwar 
problems, our war-born unity would be main- 
tained. And so, our country, like jours, demobil- 
ized with reckless velocity. It has been a bitter 
and. in many respects, costly lesson. 

I believe there will be peace, because this time we 
are making perfectly clear, in advance, that we 
are not willing to suiamit to extortion as the price 
of peace. I believe there will be peace, because of 
the firm and determined unity which exists be- 
tween our two countries and with France; and 
because this unity is receiving sujiport from an 
overwhelming majority in the United Nations. 

I perceive a new hope arising in the General 
Assembly now meeting in Paris. It grows from 
the increasing readiness of the many to unite 
against the threats and crude tactics of the 
few .... 

The Member states, and particularly the states 
of Western Europe, are speaking plainly and per- 
suasively. The kind of tension which results from 
knowing the truth and being fearful of the resiUts 
of expressing it, has been broken in Paris. 

I am persuaded that once the unity of the many 
has been demonstrated persuasively to the few, 
they will seek constructive solution through col- 
laboration. The Second World War might have 
been prevented if the aggressors had been con- 
vinced at the outset of the eventual unity of the 
many defenders. Real unity of the majority and 
expression of it in the United Nations, in the pres- 
ence of the minority, offers our best hope of even- 
tual peaceful settlement. 

The United States does not seek to promote uni- 
formity in the United Nations. We do not seek 
to promote anv' particular political or economic 
system in individual Member states. But we do 
seek to make it possible for free nations to plan a 
peaceful future, in association with others if they 
wish, but without fear or coercion. We do seek 
the creation of conditions in which nations are able 
to safeguard their freedom against aggression. We 
do seek the creation of conditions in which the re- 

Ocfofaer 31, 1948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZED AGENCIES 

sources, skills, and tools of the twentieth century 
may freely be employed for the greater benefit of 
mankind. 

Each nation has the right to choose the method 
by which it shall work toward the common objec- 
tive. No nation has the right to insist that its 
method is the only method. No nation has the 
right to undermine the common objective of a 
peaceful world providing better life and larger 
freedoms for all. 

The spirit of hope which I perceive in the Gen- 
eral Assembly is based also on the fact that West- 
ern Europe in which we meet is now headed to- 
ward economic reconstruction and self-reliance. 
The European Recovery Program is just begin- 
ning to be felt, but signs are unmistakable that the 
common effort is succeeding. 

You know of the success that is flowing from 
your own efforts here in Britain. It is important 
to realize that collective effort is producing col- 
lective results in steel production. A good yard- 
stick of this is provided by Sweden and the Bi- 
zonal area of Germany which have exceeded, as 
you have, the quotas set for the first six months 
of this year. They have surpassed their goals by 
18 percent ; Belgium has done the same by 4 per- 
cent ; Italy by 2 percent ; Austria by 34 percent. 
The Economic Committee for Europe estimated 
that steel production for all of Europe this year 
will exceed 1947 by 11 million tons, and will ex- 
ceed the production cjuota by 4 million tons. 

You have cut your trade deficit by over half for 
the first six months of this year. Greece reports 
great progress in rebuilding its transportation 
system. Petroleum refining is on the increase in 
France. Harvests are promising, and the in- 
creased amount of farm machinery is helpuig to 
insure the full realization of crop possibilities. 

This is your handiwork. This is the product of 
your skills, your management, your patience and 
hard work. "We in the United States have assisted 
financially and technically in great measure, and 
the labor of our workers and our farmers has come 
to your support. Nevertheless, it is primarily 
your accomplishment. We cannot today predict 
the full results, but of this we can be sure : rising 
internal strength for the European Members of the 
United Nations not only strengthens collective se- 
curity, but reduces chaos and misery exploited for 
totalitarian aggrandizement. 

We have great cause to be encouraged, but we 
have little cause to be satisfied. The unity that has 
brought us thus far must be strengthened and ex- 
tended. I hope the economic and political coopera- 
tion now under way in Western Europe can be re- 
garded as only the beginning of a movement to- 
ward European solidarity. 

Plans for collective self-defense contained in the 
Brussels pact should be carried forward. The 

553 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIAIIZBD AGENCIES 

principle of progressively developing regional and 
other collective efforts for self-defense, as defined 
in the so-called Vandenberg resolution, approved 
by our Senate with only three dissenting votes, 
should be implemented. 

The efforts to strengthen the United Nations 
must be continued on many fronts, among them the 
inter-American front. It means, also, unrelaxed 
effort to restrict the application of the veto, to pro- 
vide contingents of armed forces available on call 
of the Security Coimcil, to obtain agreement on 
an effective, enforcible system for the interna- 
tional control of atomic energy. And it means un- 
relenting support of economic and social projects 
sponsored by the United Nations through special- 
ized agencies. 

We can do no less if we are to fulfill the solemn 



pledges made in signing the Charter at San Fran- 
cisco. Nothing has occuri-ed in the intervening 
years to change the principles we there espoused. 
Nothing can ever occur to change the eternal prin- 
ciples animating the Charter. The principle of 
the Fatherhood of the Most High and the brother- 
hood of man, regardless of race, creed, or religion, 
is eternal. The changes which will occur will be 
the result of mankind's spiritual progress in his 
struggles toward that goal — for perfection alone is 
invulnerable. 

May the prayers of this day, rising from the 
hearts of all mankind, be felt in the United Na- 
tions. May we receive from this day's rededica- 
tion to the Charter new courage and inspiration 
for the long task of building a just, abundant, and 
peaceful world. 



554 



Department of State Bulletin 



The United States in tlie United Nations 



Palestine 

[October 23-29] 

The Security Council on October 26 opened de- 
bate on Egrypt's charges that Israel was "con- 
stantly and increasingly "violating the recent 
Negev cease-fire order, but adjourned until Oc- 
tober 28 without taking action. 

Tlie Palestine situation was taken up at an 
emergency session called to weigh Egypt's alle- 
gations. Lebanon and Syria also demanded that 
the Council order Israel to give up territory gained 
in the desert fighting since the most recent out- 
break on October 14. Egypt agreed to withdraw 
its troops to positions occupied on October 14, 
as the embattled contestants were asked to do 
bj^ Ralph Bunche, acting U.N. mediator for 
Palestine. 

Great Britain and China proposed on October 
28 that the Security Council consider sanctions 
against Israel or Egypt, or both, if they fail to 
withdraw their military forces in Palestine's 
Negev area to positions occupied before the recent 
outbreak of fighting. 

The Security Council agreed without objection 
to postpone until October 29 a vote on the proposal, 
which calls for appointment of a seven-nation 
committee to study application of sanctions as 
permitted under article 41 of the Charter. 

In submitting the sanction proposal. Dr. Tingfu 
Tsiang (China) and Sir Alexander Cadogan 
(U.K.) stressed the fundamental principle of the 
Palestine truce that no military advantage should 
accrue to either side. They said the aim was to 
stabilize tlie Palestine situation until a final so- 
lution could be found. 

Ralph Bunche told the Security Council tliat 
each side of the Palestine controversy was guilty 
of what he termed an effort to "win the war under 
the enforced truce". The acting mediator reported 
that as a result of the recent outbreak of fighting 
tlie dispositions of the opposing troops were such 
that an early reopening of hostilities was likely 
unless truce lines wei-e reestablished quickly. 

Dr. Bundle maintained that what is desperately 
needed now is a means of transition fi-om what he 
described as a tenuous truce to permanent peace. 
The parties themselves do not seem to be able to 
accomplish tliis, he asserted. He added : 

"The truce in Palestine has now endured almost 
five months. During this period, the war has been 
held in abeyance by the firm intervention of the 
United Nations. But it cannot be reasonably ex- 
pected that this phase can endure indefinitely". 

He expressed belief that "the critical stage has 
now been reached where bolder, broader action is 

October 31, 1948 



required. Such action should take the form of a 
clear and forceful declaration by the Security 
Council that the parties be required to negotiate, 
either directlv or through truce supervision, 
organized settlement of all outstanding problems 
of the truce in all sectors of Palestine with a view 
to achieving a permanent condition of peace in 
place of the existing truce. 

"Such negotiation would necessarily aim at 
formal peace or, at the minimum, an armistice 
would involve either complete withdrawal and de- 
mobilization of armed forces, or their wide separa- 
tion by the creation of broad demilitarized zones 
under U.N. supervision." 

On October 29 a five-nation subcommittee of 
the Security Council in Paris was set up to con- 
sider several amendments to the joint British- 
Chinese proposal calling for a study of the pos- 
sibility of imposing sanctions in the Palestine 
situation. 

The subgroup, consisting of the United King- 
dom, China, France, Belgium, and the Ukraine, 
is not expected to be able to consider all the amend- 
ments and prepare a revised resolution before No- 
vember 2. After creation of the subcommittee, 
the council rejected a Syrian effort to force further 
discussion on October 30 and adjourned indefi- 
nitely. It will be recalled on the Palestine issue 
when the subcommittee notifies the Council presi- 
dent that the revised draft is ready. Canada sug- 
gested establishment of the subcommittee. 

The Berlin Crisis 

The Foreign Ministers of the United States, 
Great Britain, and France on October 27 re- 
affirmed their countries' willingness to carry out 
the jiroposals embodied in the resolution by which 
the Security Council sought to settle the Berlin 
crisis but which the Soviet Union vetoed. 

After conferring for an hour, the Western 
powers' Foreign Ministers issued tlie following 
statement : 

"The three Foreign Ministers of the United 
States, the United Kingdom, and France con- 
sidered the situation produced by the Soviet veto 
of the Security Council resolution regarding the 
Berlin question. 

"As is known, the three Governments accepted 
that resolution and declared their readiness to 
carry it out loyally, and they stand by their ex- 
pressed willingness to be guided by the principles 
embodied therein. 

"The question is still on the agenda of the Se- 
curity Council. The three Governments are ready 
to continue to fulfil their obligations and to dis- 
charge their responsibilities as members of that 

555 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

body, which is still in a position to consider any 
development in the situation." 

The six neutral nations of the Security Council, 
which had been trying for weeks to find an answer 
to tlie perplexing Berlin question, submitted on 
October 25 a four-point resolution aimed at ami- 
cable settlement of the controversy between the 
Western powers and the U.S.S..K.1 

Nine of the Security Council's 11 members, in- 
cluding the Western powers, voted in favor of the 
proposal; the Soviet Union and the Ukraine op- 
posed the resolution. 

The vetoed resolution called on tlie Four Pow- 
ers to avoid acts which might aggravate the Ber- 
lin situation; lift immediately all restrictions on 
commerce, transportation, and communications 
between Berlin and the four zones of occupation; 
call an immediate meeting of the four Military 
Governors in Berlin to arrange for unification of 
the city's currency by November 20 ; and convene 
the Council of Foreign Ministers to consider the 
entire German question within 10 days of fulfil- 
ment of the measures called for in connection with 
the Berlm issue. 

Reduction of Arms 

An 11-nation U.N. Subcommittee on October 
25 adopted a Belgian resolution which would have 
the Security Council direct its Conventional Arm- 
aments Commission to continue the study of world 
arms reduction, emphasizing the need for an in- 
ternational control system for atomic energy use 
and for a close check on conventional armaments 
of all nations. 

The Subcommittee of the Assembly's Political 
and Security Committee also rejected a Soviet pro- 
posal for one-third arms cut by permanent Mem- 
bers of the Security Council and the proliibition 
of atomic weapons. The vote was 6 to 2: the 
United States, Great Britain, France, Brazil, Bel- 
gium, and China voting affirmatively, the Soviet 
Union and Poland opposing; Lebanon and Aus- 
tralia abstaining. 

The Belgian plan was approved paragraph by 
paragraph, with the Soviet Union and Poland op- 
posing on every vote. 

Immediately after the balloting on the two draft 
resolutions, the Polish Representative submitted 
another proposal which he said would meet gen- 
eral agreement. It was a combination of the de- 
feated Soviet resolution and a Lebanese plan, 
which had earlier been withdrawn. It will be 
submitted in writing on Tuesday and acted upon 
by the Subcommittee on Wednesday. 

The United States was among the nations sup- 
porting the Belgian proposal, which in effect re- 
placed a French draft previously under considera- 
tion, which the United States had sought to amend 
to emphasize the need for world control of atomic 
energy along with conventional arms regulation. 

556 



On that score, the Belgian draft accepted today 
reads that : 

. . . the aim of tlie reduction of conventioual armaments 
and armed forces can only be attained in an atmosphere 
of real and lasting improvement in international relations, 
wliicli implies in particular the application of control 
of atomic energy involving the prohibition of the atomic 
weapon. 

The resolution continues: 

But noting on the other hand that this renewal of con- 
fidence would be greatly encouraged if states were placed 
in possession of precise and verified data as to the level 
of their respective armaments ; 

The General Assembly 

Recommends the Security Council to pursue the study 
of the regulation and reduction of conventional armaments 
in order to obtain concrete results in Implementing 
Article 26 of the Charter as soon as the improvement in 
the international atmosphere permits; 

Trusts that the Commission for Conventional Arma- 
ments, in carrying out its program, will devote its main 
attention to formulating proposals for the receipt, check- 
ing and publication by an international organ of control 
endowed with universally accepted powers, of full in- 
formation to be supplied by member states with regard 
to their effectives and their conventional armaments; 

Invites the Security Council to report to it no later 
than its next regular session on the effect given to the 
present recommendation with a view to enabling it to 
continue its activity with regard to the regulation of 
armaments in accordance with the purposes and principles 
defined in the Charter. 

The Conventional Armaments Commission has 
reported that it considered it futile to continue 
discussions, since the Soviet Union has refused to 
accept the majority wishes on any arms-reduction 
plan. 

The Polish resolution, hastily offered, calls upon 
permanent Security Council Members to take the 
initiative by reducing in the course of one year all 
land, naval, and air forces, and to implement 
measures for arms cuts and for prohibition of 
atomic weapons. It would also establish within 
the Security Council an international control body 
to which full official data on arms and armed forces 
of the five major powers would be submitted. 

United Nations 

The Polish proposal for a reduction in arma- 
ments and prohibition of atomic weapons was re- 
jected on October 27 by the Subcommittee on Dis- 
armament Proposals set up by the U. N. Assembly 
Political Committee. 

The Polish proposal, backed by the Soviet 
Union, was along the lines of the Soviet proposal 
turned down earlier during the week by the sub- 
committee. The vote was 6 to 2 with France, 
Lebanon, and Australia abstaining. 



' Bulletin of Oct. 24, 1948, p. 520. 

Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



U.S. Delegations to International Conferences 



High Frequency Broadcasting 

President Truman approved on October 19 the 
nominations of R. Henry Norweb, Special Ambas- 
sador, as chairman and George E. Sterling, Com- 
missioner, Federal Communications Commission, 
as vice chairman of the United States Delegation 
to the second session of the International Confer- 
ence on High Frequency Broadcasting called by 
the International Telecommunication Union. The 
Conference is scheduled to open at Mexico City 
on October 22. Named by the President to serve 
as delegates are : 

Francis Colt de Wolf, Chief, Telecommunications Divi- 
sion, Department of State 

Ernest W. McFarlanti, United States Senator 

A. Gael Sinison, Consultant, Communications Liaison 
Branch, Department of the Army 

Charles W. Tobey, United State Senator 

Fred H. Trimmer, Chief, Facilities Planning Branch, 
Division of International Broadcasting, Department 
of State 

The other members of the United States Delega- 
tion are as follows: 

Advisers 

Edward Cooper, Secretary, Senate Committee on Inter- 
state and Foreicn Commerce 

Louis E. DeLaFIeur, Assistant Chief, Frequency Alloca- 
tion and Treaty Division, Federal Communications 
Commission 

Mucio Delgado, Chief, Radio Prosram Branch, Division of 
International Broadcasting, Department of State 

Raymond L. Harrell, Telecommunications Attach^, Amer- 
ican Embassy. Habana, Cuba 

Perry Harten, Chief, Stndio Operation, Division of Inter- 
national Broadcasting, Department of State 

Jack W. Herbstreit, Assistant Chief, Frequency Utiliza- 
tion Research Section, Central Radio Propagation 
Laboratories, National Bureau of Standards 

Howard Hotchner, Assistant Chief, Broadcast Division, 
Division of International Broadcasting, Department 
of State 

Joseph M. Kittner, Assistant to the General Counsel, Fed- 
eral Communications Commission 

Roger C. Legge, Jr., Propagation Anal.vst, Division of 
International Broadcasting, Department of State 

Curtis B. I'lummer, Chief. Television Broadcast Division, 
Federal Communications Commission 

Dudley G. Singer, Attach^, American Embassy, Mexico, 
D.F. 

A. Prose Walker, Chief, Allocations Section, Television 
Broadcast Division, Federal Communications Com- 
mission 

October 31, 1948 



Industry Advisers 

Walter E. Benoit, Jlember of the Board of Directors, West- 
ingliouse Radio Stations, Inc. 

Charles B. Denny. Executive Vice President, National 
Broadcasting Company, Inc. 

Royal V. Howard, Director of Engineering, National As- 
sociation of Broadcasters 

George Edward Hughes, Vice President, Director of Inter- 
national Broadcasting, Associated Broadcasters Inc. 

Walter S. Lemmon, President, World Wide Broadcasting 
Foundation 

Louis Henry MacDonald, Chief Engineer, World Wide 
Broadcasting Foundation 

Justin Miller, President, National Association of Broad- 
casters. 

Don E. Petty, General Counsel, National Association of 
Broadcasters 

Forney A. Rankin, Executive Assistant to the President, 
National Association of Broadcasters 

James P. Veatch, Manager, Washington Office of the Fre- 
quency Bureau, Laboratories Division, Radio Corpora- 
tion of America 

Press Liaison Officer 

Dorsey Fisher, First Secretary and Public Affairs Officer, 
American Embassy, Mexico, D.F. 

Secretary of the Delegation 

Ellis K. Allison, Division of International Conferences, 
Department of State 

Special Assistant to the Chairman 

Vivian N. Cartwright, Special Assistant to the Chief, Inter- 
national Radio Frequencies Section, Division of Inter- 
national Broadcasting, Department of State 

The first session of the International Conference 
on High Frequency Broadcasting held at Atlantic 
City, August-October 1947, voted to hold the sec- 
ond session of the Conference at Mexico City. It 
also established a Planning Committee for the 
Conference. The Planning Committee held meet- 
ings at Geneva in the spring of this year and at 
Mexico City beginning on September 13. 

The aim of the forthcoming Conference is two- 
fold : the first is to work out a plan of frequency 
allocations within the bands of the radio spectrum 
set aside for high-frequency broadcasting by the 
International Radio Conference at Atlantic City 
in 1947, and the second is to agree upon a conven- 
tion which would establish an international organ- 
ization to have cognizance of high-frequency 
broadcasting. The plan drawn up by the Confer- 
ence will be forwarded to the Provisional Fre- 
quency Board of the International Telecommuni- 
cation Union for inclusion in a report to a special 
administrative conference which will consider 

557 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

these i-ecommendations to complete the realloca- 
tion of the entire radio-frequency spectrum. 

The high-frequency (short-wave) broadcasting 
is greatly used by many nations for broadcasting 
to other countries. It is within these bands that 
the Voice of America conducts its broadcasting. 



MeteoroSogical 

The designation of Norman R. Hagen, meteor- 
ological attache, American Embassy, London, as 
United States Delegate to the meeting of the 
Regional Commission for Asia of the International 
Meteorological Organization (Imo) was an- 
nounced by the Department of State on October 
30. This meeting is scheduled to be held at New 
Delhi, India, November 10-17, 1948. 

The purpose of the meeting is to promote the 
maximum degree of coordination and standardiza- 
tion among the meteorological services on the 
Continent of Asia. The Asian meeting is of par- 
ticular interest to the United States since the U.S. 
Weather Bureau operates meteorological stations 
and offices in the Pacific which depend upon 
weather reports from the Asian area. 

Included on the agenda are these topics: (1) 
network of stations ; (2) meteorological reconnais- 
sance flights over sea areas; (3) times of observa- 
tion to be adopted in the region with reference to 
the Imo recommendations; (4) marine meteor- 
ology; (5) telecommunications; and (6) broad- 
casts. 

Invitations to attend the forthcoming meeting 
have been extended by the Government of India to 
those governments "that are members of the 
Regional Commission for Asia, and to those bor- 
der countries which have expressed their desire to 
be represented at the meetings of the Commission. 

The Regional Commission for Asia is one of six 
such commissions established by the Imo to deal 
with meteorological problems on a regional basis. 



Semiannual Meeting of International 
Joint Commission Held 

[Released to the press October 18] 

The International Joint Commission met in ex- 
ecutive session in the Victoria Building, Ottawa, 
Ontario, on October 12 and 13. George Spence of 
Regina, Saskatchewan, was acting chairman for 
Canada. A. O. Stanley, of Washington, was chair- 
man of the United States Section. Commission- 
ers Roger B. McWhorter and Eugene Weber, both 
of Washington, were also present. 

Mr. Weber, who has been recently appointed, 
took the oath of office. 

Members of the International Columbia River 
Engineering Board, composed of members acting 

558 



for the United States and Canada, were present, 
as follows : 

Victor Meek, Department of Mines and Resources, Ottawa 
F. G. Goodspeed, Department of Public Works, Ottawa 
M:ij- Gen. K. C. Crawford, Corps of Engineers, U.S. De- 
partment of the Army, Washington 
C. G. I'aulsen, Geological Survey, Department of tlie In- 
terior, Washington 

Victor Meek, chairman of the Canadian Section 
of the Board, summarized its progress report for 
the preceding six months. He called attention to 
the work that has been carried on in British Co- 
lumbia, Idaho, and Montana in respect to flood 
control on the Kootenay River, drilling operations 
for dams, and surveys of potential dam sites. The 
report stated that the Corps of Engineers' report 
(Seattle District) on the Libby Dam site has been 
forwarded to Washington and is under study there 
by the Department of the Army. 

A report was submitted by the International 
Souris-Red Rivers Engineering Board, the mem- 
bers of which are as follows : 

J. W. Dixon, Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the 

Interior, Washington 
Maj. Gen. R. 0. Crawford, Corps of Engineers, U.S. De- 
partment of the Army, Washington 
C. G. Paulsen, Geological Survey, Department of the In- 
terior, Washington 
Victor Meek, Department of Mines and Resources, Ottawa 
A. L. Stevenson, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa 
T. M. Patterson, Department of Mines and Resources, 
Ottawa 

The progress report, which covered the period 
Ajiril-September, set forth the studies that are 
to be made in connection with the Red River of JL 
the North, with a view to flood control. This work ■ 
will include studies to prevent floods such as those 
which have recently done so much damage in the 
City of Winnipeg. It was decided that the investi- 
gations should cover measures for the elimination 
of pollution. 

A progress report was also submitted from the 
International Waterton-Belly Rivers Engineer- 
ing Board, composed of the same members as the 
International Souris-Red Rivers Engineering 
Board. The report outlined the investigations 
that had been conducted in the basins of these 
rivers in the United States and Canada, covering 
the installation of gauging stations, the activities 
of the engineers of both Governments during the 
preceding six months, and the collection of data 
respecting the present and future uses of the 
waters of these streams. 

The Commission decided to have further hear- 
ings at Detroit, Michigan, on November 15 and 16, 
and at Windsor, Ontario, on November 17, 18, 19, 
and 20, on the references of the Governments of the 
United States and Canada in the matter of the 
pollution of St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, and 
Detroit River. A hearing will also be held at Sault 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Ste. Marie, Ontario, on November 22, in regard to 
the pollution of St. Mary's River. 

The report of the International Souris River 
Board of Control in re<!:ard to a number of small 
applications from the Province of Saskatchewan 
for the use of waters of the Sonris River was dis- 
cussed, and the applications were approved by 
the Commission. 



H. van Zile Hyde Appointed U.S. Repre- 
sentative to WHO Executive Board 

[Released to the press October 18] 
The recess appointment by the President of Dr. 
H. van Zile Hyde as United States Representative 
to the executive board. World Health Organiza- 
tion, was announced on October IS by the White 
House. 

The President also approved the appointment of 
Dr. Wilton L. Halverson, Director of Health of 
the State of California, as alternate United States 
representative to the second session of the execu- 
tive board, which is scheduled to meet at Geneva 
beginning October 25. Dr. Hyde, Senior Surgeon 
of the United States Public 'Health Service and 
Assistant Chief of the Health Branch, Office of 
United Nations Affairs, Department of State, and 
Dr. Halverson will be accompanied by Howard B. 
Calderwood of the Department of State, who will 
serve as adviser on the United States Delegation. 



All three were members of the United States Dele- 
gation to the First World Health Assembly, which 
met at Geneva last June. 



Informal Participation in Bolivian 
international Fair 

[Released to the press October 21] 

The United States Government will participate 
informally through the American Embassy at 
La Paz, in the Bolivian International Fair (La 
Paz Quatro-Centenary Exposition) and has sent 
a number of technical documentary fihns and his- 
torical pictures of the United States to La Paz 
for display. This exposition, which opened Oc- 
tober 20, 1948, and will probably continue until 
the end of the year, commemorates the 400th anni- 
versary of the founding of the city of La Paz in 
October 1548 by Alonso de Mendoza, an officer in 
the Spanish A^rmy. Most of the nations with 
which Bolivia maintains diplomatic relations have 
been invited to exhibit the products of their 
industries. 

Several American business firms at La Paz have 
leased a pavilion at the site of the fair. These 
firms with other industrial corporations will ex- 
hibit their products in this building known as the 
"American Pavilion". A room has been set aside 
in this building for the picture display and the 
showing of the American Government fihns. 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



U.S.-U.K. Zone of Trieste Admitted to OEEC Membership and 
ECA Bilateral Agreement Concluded 



[Keleased to the press October 18] 

The Council of the Organization for European 
Economic Co-operation on October 14 admitted 
the U.S.-U.K. zone, Free Territory of Trieste, to 
membership in that organization. In addition, an 
economic cooperation agreement was concluded 
October 17 in Trieste between the U.S. Govern- 
ment and the conmiander of the zone. This agree- 
ment follows closely the pattern of agi'eements 
already concluded between the U.S. Government 
and other participating countries, with appropri- 
ate modifications to take into account the special 
status of Trieste as provided in the treaty of peace 
with Italy. 

Assistance to the U.S.-U.K. zone of Trieste from 
the United States has until now been on a relief 
basis, limited to the goods required to assure the 
population the necessaries of life and prevent eco- 

Ocfober 37, T948 



nomic retrogression. Now the zone is embarking 
upon a recovery program which will encourage the 
rehalDilitation of its economic life. By joining in 
cooperative efforts with the other participating 
countries the zone will also benefit from the 
strengthening of economic relations which were 
of such importance to it in the past, and it will be 
enabled to make its contribution to European 
recovery. 

Participation of the U.S.-U.K. zone in the re- 
covery program will call for close and continual 
consultation between the zone and the Italian 
Government to assure that their programs take 
into account their common interests and that the 
terms of the economic agi-eements concluded be- 
tween the zone and Italy under the provisional 
regime of the Free Territory are followed. 

559 



Recommendations on Problems of Educational Exchange 
With Eastern European Countries 

REPORT OF THE U.S. ADVISORY COMMISSION ON EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE 



Mt dear Mr. Secretary : 

The United States Advisory Commission on 
Educational Exchange has given consideration, at 
the request of the Department of State, to prob- 
lems of educational exchange as regards the coun- 
tries of eastern Europe. We submit herewith our 
recommendations.' 

The educational exchange program is based upon 
the conviction long held ancl amply demonstrated 
by civilized nations that free interchange of per- 
sons and ideas between nations is a source of un- 
derstanding, enrichment, and progress. Since the 
effectiveness of such a program will depend not 
only upon its range or extent but also upon the 
voluntary and unprejudiced spirit in which it is 
conducted, it is obvious that its greatest useful- 
ness will be in relation to the free and democratic 
countries of the world which are glad to avail 
themselves of its reciprocal advantages. 

Although this memorandum deals with the 
countries of eastern Europe, the Commission 
wishes to emphasize that, for reasons which will 
be cited, the program of educational exchange will 
be more limited in scope and immediate effective- 
ness in these barricaded regions of the world than 
is the case where normal and friendly contacts 
obtain. 

The obstacles which have been placed in the way 
of educational and cultural exchanges by a number 
of the countries of eastern Europe are well known 
and need not be detailed. Many efforts have been 
made by official and voluntary agencies in this 
country to establish exchanges with these countries 
but with very few results. In authorizing this 
program, the Congress of the United States laid 
down in the Smith-Mundt Act the principle that 
all official exchanges should be upon a reciprocal 
basis. Since for the present most of the eastern 
European governments are unwilling to recipro- 

' The Commission met for a two-day session on Oct. 18 
and 19, 1948. The next meeting is to he held in Wash- 
ington on Nov. 1.5, 1948. For a review of the first meeting 
of the Commission on Sept. 10, 1948, see Department of 
State publication 3313. This report was released on Oct. 
19, 1948. 

The Commission by resolution recommended that the 
Department of State u.se the Library of Congress and the 
National Gallery of Art as repositories for recovered cul- 
tural ob.iects and works of art looted from the occupied 
areas, until these objects can be returned to their rightful 
owners at a time to be determined by the Department. 

560 



cate, it is not recommended that the United States 
sponsor government-supported exchanges with 
them until their governments give evidence of co- 
operation in the mutually helpful and friendly 
spirit of the Act. This unwillingness to recipro- 
cate will also currently exclude exchange with 
these countries under the Fulbright Act which re- 
quires negotiations by the governments involved 
with assurances that acceptable exchange projects 
in both directions can be initiated and carried out. 
We have, however, many unofficial opportunities 
for contacts and exchange of persons with these 
countries. Not only students, scholars, and scien- 
tists are involved, but also representatives of the 
professions, such as journalism and medicine. 
While these exchanges are initiated and sponsored 
by voluntary agencies, the Department of State 
must make available the necessary travel papers, 
and it is often called upon to facilitate the ex- 
changes in other ways. Should it do this? 

The Advisory Commission, after a full study of 
the problem and of the difficulties involved is 
convinced that the United States Government 
should not close the door to these unofficial ex- 
changes, and we so advise the Department of State. 
Our reasons for this are several. 

lu the first place, it is clear from the evidence 
submitted to us, that our experience in these ex- 
changes, on the whole, has been a good one. While 
some difficulties have been encountered, the ex- 
changes with eastern Europe have brought about 
the correction of erroneous beliefs about this coun- 
try, and a greater appreciation of its institutions, 
and a more critical outlook toward totalitarian 
regimes. 

This practical experience is strongly supported 
by certain general considerations. For the United 
States to close its doors to all contacts with those 
nations with whose philosophy it disagrees would 
be to pull down an iron curtain on our own side of 
the Atlantic, to adopt a policy which we condemn, 
and to lose in world opinion much of the moral 
leadership which this country has enjoyed. Many 
of our own nationals, furthermore, need upon occa- 
sion to visit the countries of eastern and south- 
eastern Europe for business, journalistic, schol- 
arly or other purposes. We cannot well request 
privileges which we in turn deny. These consider- 
ations, together with the positive gains which fol- 
low from such interchange in the correction of 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD Of THE WBEK 



misinformation and the removal of prejudices 
seem to us to justify the maintenance of a broad 
policy of interchange. To cut off contacts with 
the totalitarian nations of the world because of 
fears as to what niipht happen to democratic insti- 
tutions through such contacts would imply a weak- 
ness which has no justification in fact. No army 
ever burned its bridges except in retreat. The 
democratic way of life is not now in retreat. 

Such an interchange of persons between the 
United States and the countries of eastern Europe 
obviously will requii'e careful control. 

American officers, responsible for issuing visas 
and permission to enter the United States should 
satisfy themselves, as far as possible, that indi- 
viduals desiring to come to this country have no 
subversive intentions, but serious and bona fide 
academic, professional, or vocational purposes. 
Permits should be for not more than one year, 
though subject to renewal. 

We do not recommend that the Department en- 
courage immature and inexperienced American 
students to undertake study under present condi- 
tions in eastern Europe. Maturity of judgment 
and experience is desirable in order to appraise 
critically the instruction received, to profit most 
from the total experience, and to avoid personal 
episodes. In all cases of Americans permitted to 
travel in any of these countries, it is desirable that 
they be informed before departure as to condi- 
tions that they will encounter. We recommend 
tliat the State Department accept the responsibil- 
itj' for seeing that this is done. We believe that 
restriction of the travel of individuals entering 
the country or of Americans going abroad under 
the sponsorship of organizations recognized as 
subversive is desirable. 

A special problem exists with reference to the 
holding of international conferences, congresses, 
and institutes. Many such meetings are held by 
reputable organizations which include as partici- 
pants persons with conflicting political views. 
Present United States statutes and regulations 
governing the entrance of foreign nationals make 
it difficult for some of these persons to attend these 
meetings. This eliminates the United States as 
one of the meeting places for organizations of a 
widely international character. This is undesir- 
able from many standpoints. We recommend that 
a more liberal policy be followed in granting per- 
mission to enter for individuals desiring to attend 
the reputable meetings of this kind. 



Letters of Credence 

Sweden 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Sweden, 
Erik C. Boheman, presented his credentials to the 

Ocfober 37, 1948 



President on October 20. For texts of the Am- 
bassador's remarks and the President's reply, see 
Department of State press release 854 of October 
20, 1948. 



Claims Settlement Agreement Between U.S., 
France, and Australia 

[Released to the press October 19] 

An agreement was entered into on October 19 by 
the United States, France, and Australia setting 
forth a procedure for settlement of cargo claims 
arising out of the requisitioning by the United 
States of the S. S. Marechal Joff?-e, a French vessel 
whicli was loading general conunercial cargo in 
the Philippines at the time of the Japanese attack 
in December 1941. The vessel was taken by the 
United States Navy to Australia, where its cargo 
was unloaded, and it was then pressed into service 
m the interest of the war effort. 

Under the agreement which implements a gen- 
eral agreement forming part of the lend-lease and 
claims settlement with France of May 28, 1946, the 
French Government will settle claims of all owners 
of cargo landed in Australia and will pay United 
States citizens in dollars.^ Australia will turn 
over to the French Government the proceeds, in 
Australian pounds, of sales of items in the cargo 
which they effected after unloading in Australia. 

The agreement was signed on behalf of the 
United States by Under Secretary Kobert A. 
Lovett; by Henri Bonnet, the French Ambassa- 
dor, on behalf of France; and by Norman J. O. 
Makin, the Australian Ambassador, on behalf of 
Australia. 



Visit of Secretary Marshall to Greece 

Secretary Marshall arrived in Athens on Octo- 
ber 16 and was greeted at the airport by Prime 
Minister Sophoulis. The Secretary told a press 
conference on October 18 that "we are deej^ly con- 
cerned in the desire to be of assistance to the re- 
habilitation of Greece". 

In connection with Secretary Marshall's visit 
the following statement was released to the press 
in Athens on October 18 : 

"The Secretary has been trying to get to Greece 
for some time. The United States has assumed 
heavy commitments and heavy responsibilities in 
this area in which he is officially much involved. 
He had planned the trip for last week end but he 
left for Washington last Friday. 

' Rltixetin of June 9, 1946, p. 994, and June 30, 1946, 
p. 1127. 

561 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

"This is a difficult time to leave Paris with Berlin 
and the atomic questions being actively discussed 
and Palestine coming up shortly. 

"It did not appear that a longer wait would offer 
a more propitious time for a visit so he decided to 
come this week end. 

"He is very happy to have even this very brief 
visit to Greece." 

The Greek Prime Minister accompanied Secre- 
tary Marshall to the airport when he departed on 
October 18. 



Uprising in Korea Reported 

[Released to the press October 21] 

The Department of State has received a report 
from the United States Special Representative to 
Korea, John Muccio, that on the morning of Octo- 
ber 20 Seoul received reports through Korean 
channels of an uprising in the port town of Yosu 
in the Cholla Namdo Province. 

Mr. Muccio said that exact information was lack- 
ing but that it was fairly well established that 
while a battalion of the Fourteenth Korean Con- 
stabulary Regiment was being mustered for trans- 
fer to Cheju-do (an island off the coast) some 40 
men mutinied. They were joined by an undeter- 
mined number of civilians. A group reportedly 
numbering 500 commandeered a train and headed 
for Sunchon. 

No Americans, military or civilians, have been 
in any way involved. 



U.S. To investigate IVIexican Cliarges of 
Illegal Entry of IVIexican Workers 

[ Released to the prees October 19 ] 

The Charge d'Affaires of Mexico in Washington 
called at the Department on October 18 to express 
the concern of the Mexican Government at the 
actions which he said were recently taken on the 
Mexican border near El Paso by United States 
immigration authorities in permitting and facili- 
tating the illegal entry of Mexican farm workers 
into Texas. The Charge pointed out that this 
action was in violation of the agreement entered 
into by the Governments of Mexico and the United 
States last February 21 ' and had not only caused 
surprise in Mexican official circles but was already 
creating widespread popular reaction. He pointed 
out further that the uncontrolled exodus of so 
many workers from northern Mexico represented 
serious economic loss to the agricultural produc- 
tion of that area and expressed the hope that 

' Bulletin of Mar. 7, 1948, p. 317. 

" Proclamation 2819, 13 Fed. Reg. 6193. 

562 



prompt and effective action would be taken by the 
United States Government to rectify the matter, j 
The Charge said that his Government felt it had I 
no other recourse than to consider the agreement of 
February 21 as abrogated because of tlie unilateral 
action on the part of this Government by certain 
United States officials. 

Assurances were given to the Mexican Charge 
d'Affaires that the matter would be immediately 
investigated by the Department in the hope of 
either making satisfactory explanations to the 
Mexican Government or taking such corrective 
measures as seemed necessary. The hope was ex- 
pressed to the Mexican Charge that, considering 
the traditional and deep feelings of cooperation 
and friendship between the two neighboring 
countries, everything should be done by both Gov- 
ernments to minimize the adverse effects of this 
incident. The Department is taking the matter 
up officially with other interested agencies of the 
Government. 



Reciprocal Copyright Relations Between 
U.S. and the Philippine Republic 

In an exchange of notes dated October 21, 1948, 
between Joaquin M. Elizalde, Philipj^ine Am- 
bassador at Washington, and Robert A. Lovett, 
Acting Secretary of State, there are set forth the 
conditions upon which the benefits of the copyright 
law of each country will be extended to authors 
and copyright proprietors who are citizens of the 
other country. 

The note from the Philippine Ambassador is ac- 
companied by a copy of a proclamation issued on 
October 21, 1948, by Elpidio Quirino, Presidem 
of the Republic of the Philippines, according copy- 
right privileges to authors and copyright proprie- 
tors of the United States. The note from the 
Acting Seci'etary of State to the Philippine Am- 
bassador is accompanied by a copy of a proclama- 
tion issued on October 21, 1948, by the President 
of the United States pursuant to Public Law 281, 
80th Congress (61 Stat. 652), extending to Philip- 
pine authors and copyright proprietors the benefits 
of the copyright law of the United States." 

For texts of the above-mentioned notes and ac- 
companying proclamations see Department of 
State press release 865 of Oct. 21, 1948. 



I 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 

Closing of Consular Offices and Reopening of 

Office at Martinique 

[Released to the press October 18] 

A further realigmnent of posts in the Foreign 
Service was disclosed on October 18 with the re- 
opening of one United States Consulate and the 
closing of two others. The one ordered reopened 

Department of State Bulletin 



is on tlie Fronch-owiied island of Martinique, in 
the West Indies. The two scheduled to close down 
are in Limerick, Ireland, and Bristol, England. 

The decision to abandon the Consulate on Mar- 
tinique was based primarilj^ on efforts to effect 
budgetary savings, as announced less than a month 
ago; but since then I'epresentation made to the 
Department of State has brought about a change 
in plans. Martinique, it will be recalled, played an 
interesting role in the early part of World War II, 
when it was the outpost nearest to the United 
States of the Vichy government. 

While the Consulate at Limerick is being closed, 
a small Foreign Service staff is to be retained at 
the nearby Shannon Airport, so that services regu- 
larly performed for Americans traveling overseas 
by air will not be curtailed. Normal business for 
Americans at Limerick has gone down since the 
end of the war and there are now less than 200 U.S. 
citizens residing in the Limerick area. 

The Consulate at Bristol is being closed because 
a slackening in routine business there seems to 
make this an advisable place to cut Foreign Service 
exi:)enses at a time of budgetary stringency. 



THE DEPARTMENT 
Appointment of Officers 

William C. Johnstone, Jr., as Director of the Office of 
Educational Exchanse, effective AufOist 10, 1048. 

Rus.sell L. Riley as Executive Officer of the Office of 
Educational Exchange, effective June 23, 1948. 



PUBLICATIONS 
Department of State 

For sale by the Superinteyidcnt of Documents, Oovernment 
Printinfj Office, Washington 2.5, D. C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
case of free piihlieations, which may 6e obtained from the 
Department of State. 

Report of the United States Library Mission To Advise 
on the Establishment of the National Diet Library of 
Japan. Far Eastern Series 27. Pub. 3200. 41 pp. 150. 

Report submitted to the Supreme Commander for the 
Allied Powers, February 8, 1948, ou the services which 
an adequate national library may be expected to 
render to Japan ; a summary of tlie proposals sub- 
mitted by the Mission to the Diet Committees ; and 
the text of the National Diet Library laws as enacted 
on February 4, 1948. 

International Office of Public Health. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 1754. Pub. 3212. 54 pp. 150. 

Protocol Between the United States and Other Gov- 
ernments — Sisfned at New York July 22, 1946; rati- 
fication advi.sed by the Senate of the United States 
July 19, 1947; ratified by the President of the United 
States July 28, 1947 ; ratification of the United States 
dep<isited with the United Nations at Lake Success 
August 7, 1947; proclaimed by the President of the 
United States May 19, 1948; entered into force Oc- 
tober 20, 1947. 

Ocfober 31, 7948 



Exchange of Official Publications. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 1767. Pub. 3235. 3 pp. 50. 

Agreement Between the United States and the Re- 
public of the Philippines— Effected by exchange of 
notes signed at Manila April 12 and June 7, 1948; 
entered into force June 7, 1948. 

Cooperative Rubber Plantation Investigations. Treaties 
and Other International Acts Series 1771. Pub. 3245. 
4 pp. 50. 

Agreement Between the United States and Haiti 
Amending Letter Agreement of January 24, 1941 — 
Effected by exchange of notes, signed at Port-au- 
Prince February 3 and 11, 1948; entered into force 
February 11, 1948. 

Economic Cooperation with Norway Under Public Law 
472— SOth Congress. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1792. Pub. 3254. 53 pp. 150. 

Agi-eement Between the United States and Norway — 
Signed at Oslo July 3, 1948 ; entered into force July 
3, 1948. 

Economic Cooperation with the Netherlands Under Public 

Law 472— SOth Congress. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1791. Pub. 3266. 63 pp. 20(t. 

Agreement Between the United States and the Nether- 
lands—Signed at The Hague July 2, 1948; entered 
into force July 2, 1948. 

Selected Publications and Materials Relating to Ameri- 
can Foreign Policy. October 1948. Pub. 3304. 25 pp. 
Free. 

List of Department of State publications relating to 
U. S. participation in the United Nations and its 
.specialized agencies, to the making of the peace, the 
occupation of Germany and Japan, and economic 
reconstruction. 

Korea, 1945 to 1948. Far Eastern Series 28. Pub. 3305. 
124 pp. 250. 

A report on political developments and economic re- 
sources, with selected documents. 

International Educational Exchange; LTnited States Ad- 
visory Commission and the Program of the Department 
of State. International Information and Cultural Series 3. 
Pub. 3313. 10 pp. Free. 

Report of the 1st meeting of the U.S. Advisory Com- 
mission on Educational Exchange and a brief r^sumfi 
of the international exchange program of the Depart- 
ment of State. 



THE CONGRESS 

Foreijrn Aid Appropriation Act, 1949. S. Rept. 1626, 
SOth Cong., 2d sess., to accompany H. B. 6801. 17 pp. 

Authorizing the Secretary of State To Perform Certain 
Consular-Type Fimctions. S. Rept. 1759, SOth Cong., 2d 
sess., to accompany H. R. 4330. 2 pp. 

Investigation of Federal Employees Loyalty Program. 
Interim Report of the Investigations Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Depart- 
ments, pursuant to S. Res. 189 (SOth Cong.), a resolution 
authorizing the Committee on Expenditures in the Execu- 
tive Departments to carry out certain duties. S. Rept. 
1775, SOth Cong., 2d sess. lii, 29 pp. 

Summary of the Legislative Record of the Eightieth 
Congress, Second Session, Together With a Statement 
Relative Thereto Pursuant to a Request of the Honorable 
Alben W. Barkley, United States Senator From Ken- 
tucky. S. Doc. 203, SOth Cong., 2d sess. ii, 38 pp. 

563 



^<yyvCe^yU6/ 



The U.N. and Specialized Agencies page 
U.S. Proposes Six Sponsoring Powers Discuss 
Atomic Energy Issues. Statement by 
Ambassador Warren R. Austin in Com- 
mittee I 535 

U.S. Accepts Atomic Energy Resolution State- 
ment by Ambassador Warren R. Austin . 539 
Review of Allied Action on Berlin Bloclsade. 

Statement by Philip C. Jessup 541 

U.N. Documents: A Selected Bibliography . 547 
United Nations Day: 

Statements by Secretary Marshall- . . . . 548 

Address by George V. Allen 549 

Why We Support the U.N. By Ambassador 

Warren R. Austin 551 

The U.S. in the U.N 555 

H. van Zile Hyde Appointed U.S. Representa- 

tative to Who Executive Board .... 559 

Treaty Information 

U.S.-U.K. Zone of Trieste to Oeec Member- 
ship and EcA Bilateral Agreement Con- 
cluded 559 

Claims Settlement Agreement Between U.S., 

France, and Australia 561 

U.S. To Investigate Mexican Charges of 

Illegal Entry of Mexican Workers . . . 562 

Reciprocal Copyright Relations Between U.S. 

and the Philippine Republic 562 



Economic Affairs page 

U.S. Delegations to International Con- 
ferences: 

High Frequency Broadcasting 557 

Meteorological 558 

Semiannual Meeting of International Joint 

Commission Held 558 

Informal Participation in Bolivian Interna- 
tional Fair 559 

international Information and Cultural 
Affairs 

Recommendations on Problems of Educa- 
tional Exchange With Eastern European 
Countries. Report of U.S. Advisory 
Commission 560 

General Policy 

Visit of Secretary Marshall to Greece .... 561 

Letters of Credence: Sweden 561 

Uprising in Korea Reported 562 

The Foreign Service 

Closing of Consular Offices and Reopening of 

Office at Martinique , . . . 562 

The Department 

Appointment of Officers 563 

Publications 

Department of State 563 

The Congress 563 



1 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PPINTINS CFFICEi 1948 



-K 



u/i€/ ^eha'i^tmeni/ .(w t/tate/ 




SOUND INTERNATIONAL TRADE PROGRAM • By 

PaulU.Mtse 578 



THE VOICE OF AMERICA • Article by Assistant Secretary 

George V. Allen 567 



Vol. XIX, No. 488 
November 7, 1948 




^,«T o. 



DEC % ^^ 




••^^x.. o« •■ 



«>%e -U^efici/ittme^ ^^ C/ia^ VJf W ± J. \D L x i X 



Vol. XIX, No. 488 • Publication 3336 
November 7, 1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Peice: 

C2 issues, domestic $5, foreign $7J25 

Single copy, 15 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bolletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



THE VOICE OF AMERICA 



by Assistant Secretary George V, Allen 



At the time of tl\e debates in Congress a year 
ajro as to whether there shouhl be a Government 
program of foreign information, many people 
felt that America was being vilified abroad from 
every angle and that we should make some answer 
on the short-wave radio. We could not send out 
vast quantities of American newspapers and maga- 
zines, and American visitors could not go in and 
talk with people of many foreign lands. Any 
possibility of penetrating certain areas would have 
to be by radio through the Voice of America. 

The real Voice of America is the voice of the 
thousands of newspapers, periodicals, public 
speakei-s, public officials, private groups, or indi- 
viduals — anyone and everything which, if fused 
together by some magic process, would make up 
the articulate and composite voice of the 147 mil- 
lion people of the United States. If our short- 
wave program is to be the true Voice of America, 
it will reflect their views, not so much as ex- 
pressed in quadrennial elections but in their day- 
to-day lives. 

Nobody seems to be certain about the origin 
of the term "Voice of America", although a man 
who runs a short-wave broadcasting station in 
Boston claims that he first used it about 1938 in 
a private short-wave broadcast to Europe. He 
says he just tagged his broadcast the Voice of 
America, and it caught on. It is one of those 
slogans tliat, by continued use, gets more and 
more currency and builds around itself a connota- 
tion that makes it hard to discontinue. Many 
phrases and terms in the English language are 
created, nobody knows quite why or how. When 
a phrase achieves currency and is firmly established 
it is sometimes beyond changing. The Ameri- 
can public has developed the term "Voice of 
America". 



The purpose of the information program of 
the Department of State, of which the Voice of 
America is a part, is to assist in achieving the aims 
of American foreign policy. The chief aim of 
this policy today is the preservation of the demo- 
cratic way of life, including notably the preser- 
vation of the freedom of the press and the Ameri- 
can system of private enterprise and initiative. 
The achievement of this goal is the concern of 
every American. 

Our information service is therefore fighting 
every day to preserve and extend the very prin- 
ciples which the American press so excellently 
exemplifies. We shall continue to fight with every 
means in our power. 

American journalism and American radio are 
far ahead of journalism and radio anywhere else 
in the world. They achieved that outstanding 
position through the American system of private 
enterprise. If that system breaks down, our pre- 
eminent position in the world will deteriorate. 
The entry of Government into the information 
field should not threaten private activities. We 
hope we can pool our resources, both of Govern- 
ment and of private industry, for the very pur- 
pose of preserving private enterprise. 

Even though the Government will always have 
a responsibility to make its policies known to the 
public, its entry into the general-information field 
is temporary, dictated by the world situation. 
With the triumph of democracy on a broad scale, 
it is hoped that private enterprise will in time be 
able to perform the general-information functions 
entirely and that the activity of all governments 
in the field of information will reduce finally to 
the vanishing point. 

We are awaiting for the day to come when no 
air waves of the world are taken up with the 



November 7, 1948 



567 



efforts on the part of one people to propagandize 
another. But we live in a realistic world. For 
the moment, therefore, since private industry will 
not understake this job, Government must send 
out American information by radio. This is the 
only feasible means for us to reach the people be- 
hind the Curtain. Let us be certain that the Voice 
of America represents genuine American prin- 
ciples — American democracy and liberty and 
freedom. 

The United States Government did not get into 
broadcasting before 1942. Most countries out- 
side the United States — certainly most of those 
in Europe — have always maintained a govern- 
ment monopoly of radio broadcasting, both for 
domestic and foreign programs. In Great Brit- 
ain, for example, only one organization, the Brit- 
ish Broadcasting Company (BBC), broadcasts 
both to people inside Britain and to other people 
all over the world. 

Tlie greatest safeguards to the freedom of in- 
formation as agreed to in principle by 35 nations 
at a recent meeting in Geneva on freedom of in- 
formation is a multiplicity of sources. The radio 
listener can hear only one man's view of the truth 
or the news if there is only one voice on the air. 
Full liberty to tune all over the radio dial is mean- 
ingless if only a single program is broadcast. It 
takes a multiplicity of ideas and views on a prob- 
lem to give the people who are listening the back- 
ground necessary for them to form their own 
judgments. 

But most European countries — all of them with 
only one or two minor exceptions — have had gov- 
ernment-controlled programs since the beginning 
of radio, both for their medium (standard) wave 
inside their country and their short-wave pro- 
grams going abroad. 

Governments which control their broadcasting 
systems soon began to use them in the short-wave 
bands to project their policies outside their own 
territor}', trying to leach into the minds of the 
other people and convince them through methods 
of propaganda. The first time any government 
began to trj', on a larger scale, to convince another 
people of its ideas and thoughts was in 1936, when 
the Nazi Govenmient of Germany put on a 
Russian-language program designed, purely and 
simply, to speak in the Russian language to the 
Russian people — to reach over the heads of the 



Soviet Government and get down to the people 
to try to tell them the Nazi story. 

Very shortly after that, the Nazis put on pro- 
grams in English and French. In 1938 the Brit- 
ish and the French systems also began official, 
government-sponsored programs in foreign lan- 
guages, reaching into the hearts of other countries. 
The United States didn't start such an operation 
before Pearl Harbor. In 1942 the United States 
Government began broadcasting in foreign lan- 
guages to foreign peoples. Since 1929, NBC and 
CBS had done some short-wave broadcasting from 
the United States as a commei'cial venture, but ' 
they had beamed those programs only to Latin : 
America, in Spanish, and had had no government ' 
support. When the war started, the private com- | 
panies could no longer sell advertising on their ] 
foreign-language programs, and United States ) 
stations were about to go off the air. The private | 
companies suggested that the Government take : 
over the operation for the duration of the war, | 
mainly as a war effort but partly as a method to 
keep the programs going. 

Two separate Government agencies were set up 
to do that operation. One, the Office of War In- 
formation, under Elmer Davis, was given the re- 
sponsibility for broadcasting to the Far East, Eu- 
rope, and Africa. An Office of Inter- American ! 
Affairs, set up under Nelson Rockefeller, was given 
charge of the information work in Latin America. 
Both organizations — the Owi and the Oiaa — 
had many activities in addition to short-wave ' 
radio programs. 

At the end of the war, in the fall of 1945, many 
wartime agencies which had been set up for the 
prosecution of the war, including 0\\t and Oiaa, 
were discontinued. Certain pertinent functions, 
however, were lumped temporarily into the De- 
partment of State under an Assistant Secretary : 
for Public Affairs. 

Nobody knew whether the Government was go- 
ing to continue to engage in radio broadcasting. 
Many people thought that the Government's in- 
formation work, a wartime activity, ought to be 
cut off at the end of the war. They felt very 
genuinely that tliis was a field that should be 
reserved for private industry — that American 
newspapers and magazines and radio stations 
could tell foreigners about the United States a 
gi'eat deal better than a Government bureau could. 



568 



Department of State Bulletin 



If private broadcasting companies had been will- 
ing, at the time, to broadcast on short wave to 
foreign countries, the Government, using the tax- 
payers' money, would possibly have been taken 
out of the operation immediately. But no private 
broadcasting company was willing to engage in 
this activity. They couldn't sell nearly enough 
advertising to make it pay. During 1941, which 
was the last year the private companies under- 
took to broadcast programs to Latin America, 
each of the two networks, NBC and CBS, lost 
about 600 or 800 thousand dollars. Consequently, 
we were faced with the fact — shall we have a 
Government program or shall we have no short- 
wave program at all ? 

Many people thought that perhaps it would 
be better to have no program at all. They hoped 
that some day the private companies would again 
resume short-wave broadcasting, when the world 
trade situation would be such that people could 
sell sufficient goods abroad to justify corporations 
in spending money to advertise their goods. 

During the war close relations existed among all 
the Allies, and there was a natural hope that this 
collaboration would continue in peacetime. The 
hope was short-lived. Even before last summer, 
the air waves coming out of Eastern Europe were 
already filled with falsehoods about the United 
States. For example, when I was Ambassador to 
Iran I listened to vilification and misrepresenta- 
tion of American motives day after day after day. 

We could have taken the point of view that the 
Soviet lies would fall by the wayside ; truth would 
out eventually, and we should not even bother to 
answer. 

However, most of the members of Congress con- 
cluded that the time had come Avhen we should 
start answering back, giving the truth. They 
learned, for example, that the American taxpayer, 
since the war, had contributed about 560 million 
dollars for the relief and recovery of Poland alone, 
in connection with various efforts to put the war- 
torn countries of Europe on their feet. 

Yet, in "Warsaw the people were being told 
every day that the purposes of our effort were im- 
perialistic, that Wall Street wanted to get its 
tentacles on the economy of this country, and 
that the United States was out to expand its con- 
trol and domination throughout the world. 
Americans began to ask, "Shall we continue to 



pour out our money in an effort to bring about 
honest reconstruction and the preservation of 
democracy and liberty without telling people what 
our purposes are? Shouldn't there be some 
agency responsible for the job of telling foreigners 
what American policy is?" That view prevailed, 
and Congress passed Public Law 402 of the 80th 
Congress, Iniown as the Smith-Mundt Act, provid- 
ing for both an information program and a longer 
range educational exchange or cultural-relations 
program, to be considered integral parts of the 
permanent conduct of the foreign relations of the 
United States. The purpose was to let the peoples 
of the world know the true aims of the United 
States Government and what the American peo- 
ple are. 

Eight or ten transmitters daily broadcast the 
Voice of America Russian program. We have 
already identified 18 Soviet transmitters which 
the Soviet Government is using in an effort to 
"jam" us. The Soviets use more power and effort 
and time of their transmitters in trying to jam 
us than we use iji sending out the programs. 
Their jamming robs them of the use of trans- 
mitters that are so much needed for their own 
internal and foreign-propaganda woi'k. They 
certainly would not devote valuable time of their 
transmitters if our progi-ams did not "sting". 

One naturally wonders whether our programs 
still get through in spite of all their jamming. 
There are various proofs, particularly in Eastern 
Europe, but also in the U. S. S. R. itself, that they 
do get through : Radio ^Moscow, in its own pro- 
grams, consistently analyzes the programs of the 
Voice of America and tries to refute them; and 
if it cannot find arguments, it starts calling 
names. The Soviet press and radio, despite the 
great amount of jamming, also pay constant at- 
tention to our programs. 

No law in the Soviet Union at present makes 
it illegal for a Russian to listen to a foreign broad- 
cast. One reason is that although Radio Moscow 
and Pmvda, Izvestia, and all other Soviet news- 
papers spend most of their time screaming against 
our programs, the Soviet Government tries to pre- 
tend that we are having no effect at all — that the 
Soviet people are solid and that they cast at every 
election 99 percent of their votes for the Govern- 
ment. They pretend that our broadcasts would 
not convince anybody; thus it would be incon- 



Novemfaer 7, 1948 



569 



sistent if they made it illegal for a person to listen 
to us. Furthermore, all sorts of foreign broad- 
casts go into Russia. If they banned all listening 
to short wave, Russians could not listen to Radio 
Warsaw, or Bucharest, or Praha, or even to Radio 
Moscow itself, since many Soviet programs are 
sent out on short wave to reach all parts of the 
Soviet Union. 

The Smith-Mundt Act is often referred to as 
a turning point in the conduct of our foreign 
relations, but this type of activity has always been 
carried on by American Government representa- 
tives abroad as a normal part of their activities. 
The work of an American Consul or Minister or 
Ambassador abroad has always been that of ex- 
plaining what the United States is trying to do 
and what America is like. They meet with the 
local press, make public addresses on American 
foreign policy, and talk to individuals, and have 
done so since the beginning of our history. The 
Smith-Mundt Act recognizes in legislation the 
fact that information about the United States 
and explanations of our policy are an integral part 
of the conduct of foreign relations. The act is 
the guidebook for our activities at the present time. 

The act was signed in January of this year. 
Almost immediately thereafter, several com^^ 
mittees of the Congress began a series of investi- 
gations of our oi^eration. Members of the House 
Committee on Appropriations discovered the fact 
that certain broadcasts in the Spanish language 
were being beamed to South America, giving al- 
leged background of a very curious sort about 
the United States. The broadcasts were a series 
of programs, 15 minutes every Wednesday, called 
"Know North America". 

That series happened to come to light by pure 
chance. An investigator of the House Appropria- 
tions Committee, acting for Representative Taber, 
asked to have a look at some sample scripts which 
the Voice of America was sending out. He picked 
up a calendar and said, "You can choose your 
date— send over scripts for either the 15th, 16th. 
or l7th of February". The person who had 
handled the request selected entirely by chance the 
15th of February. He could have selected the 
16th or the I7th. The Know North America 
series, which goes out only once a week, happened 
to go out on that 15th. If the 16th or the l7th 
had been chosen, the series which led to the in- 
vestigation might never have come to light. 



The subject of the February 15 script was Wy- 
oming. It referred to Indian maidens running 
foot races "undressed and unf eathered". This led 
to prompt demands for scripts on other States. 
The one on Texas included a I'emark by a South 
American tourist, quoting a passage from John 
Gunther's Inside U.S.A. to the effect that Texas 
had been born in sin and New England conceived 
in hypocrisy. 

Both Houses of Congi-ess made an immediate 
demand for investigation of why this type of 
program was going out, particularly to find out 
whether the persons who were sending out this 
kind of misrepresentation of the United States 
were merely careless, whether they thought they 
were amusing, or whether there was a deeper sub- 
versive significance in it. Several committees 
vied with each other for the privilege of holding 
the hearings. Both the House Committee on Ex- 
ecutive Expenditures and a joint committee of the 
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations and on 
Executive Expenditui"es held investigations. Re- 
ports issued at the close of those investigations 
pointed the finger quite properly at the Depart- 
ment of State for not having adequately super- 
vised the programs. 

The truth of the matter was that the programs 
were written in Spanish, and nobody in the De- 
partment of State had translated them or, in fact, 
even Imew what was in them. One might ask, 
"How in the world did a situation of that sort 
come about?" 

During the evolution of the legislation it was 
thought that private industry would not under- 
take an extensive short-wave information pro- 
gram because it was not commercially feasible. 
Government money, therefore, had to be voted for 
it to be done. Congress stated clearly that private 
industry could do a better job than Goverimient 
and could do it more efficiently and more effec- 
tively. The State Department, therefore, was put 1 
mider strict instructions to use private industry 
for short-wave broadcasting to the maximum ex- 
tent feasible. 

The legislation made provision for contracts to 
be made with private broadcasting agencies (NBC 
and CBS) that would carry on about 70 percent 
of the broadcasting, including all the broadcast- 
ing to Latin America. The State Department un- 
dertook to do about 30 f»ercent itself, including all 
the broadcasts beamed to the Iron Curtain coun- 



570 



Departmenf of Slate Bulletin 



tries of Central and Eastern Europe. Those were 
the more delicate areas, and the script writer had 
to be in immediate contact with the policy of the 
Government and liad to have inside information 
in order to be able to do the job. The private com- 
panies recosrnized the heavy responsibility of 
broadcasting into that area. If they said some- 
thing that was not in accord with policy or with 
facts, they might cause great mischief. They 
were happy to have the State Department un- 
dertake the responsibility for Iron Curtain 
broadcasting. 

The Know North America series was one of 
the broadcasts being done by NBC under contract 
with the Department of State. Taxpayers' money 
was being used to pay for it, but considerable 
honest difference of opinion arose between the 
private broadcasting companies and the represent- 
atives of the Department of State regarding the 
extent of the Department's responsibility for su- 
pervising those programs. 

Some officials of the commercial companies said, 
in all honest}', whenever the question of State De- 
partment supervision arose during the past year, 
that the Govermnent did not know how to run a 
broadcast, that private companies had had great 
experience in broadcasting and had built up 
thi'ough private initiative and energy the gi"eat 
American broadcasting systems and Imew a lot 
more about this than the Government. They 
pointed out that Congress had shown its recogni- 
tion of this fact when it had required by law that 
private industry be used to the greatest extent 
possible. 

The chief advantage of the investigations which 
Senator Ferguson and his committee held was to 
clarify the question of responsibility beyond any 
doubt. The Senator indicated that if taxpayers' 
money was involved, the State Department had 
full responsibility for supervision. But when- 
ever we went to the National Broadcasting Com- 
pany or the Columbia Broadcasting Company and 
said their scripts were not telling the proper story 
about the United States and that we felt we should 
blue-pencil this or that, they were naturally in- 
clined to cry "censorship". They pointed out that 
the U.S. Government spends taxpayers' money to 



buy the New York Times every day for our offi- 
cial United States libraries abroad, but we do not 
tell the Times what to say in its columns or edi- 
torial page. Most of our libraries have John 
Gunther's book, from which the objectional pas- 
sages were quoted. Should they tear out the 
offending pages? 

As a result of the investigations, the private 
companies are now telling us : 

"All right, you win. We recognize now that 
tlie Congress considers the State Department to 
have full responsibility for every word that is 
said over Voice of America programs, whether 
those programs are written by the State Depart- 
ment or by a private agency. Congress says that 
since taxpayers' money is involved, we can't hide 
behind the skirts of any provision of the law stat- 
ing that private companies can broadcast more 
effectively than the Government. We now recog- 
nize what Congress wants you to do about it. But 
if that is the way it is, we don't want to have 
anything more to do with it." 

So they came to us on July the first and said : 
"Please take this program back. We don't want 
to have it any more. You do 100 percent of the 
broadcasting." 

Many people have asked the Department 
whether it plans to increase the Voice of America 
jirogram in the light of the world crisis. In 
reality, the Department has more interest in im- 
proving the programs that it has, in making them 
good, hard-hitting, solid, effective progi-ams, than 
in using, for example, more languages such as 
Vietnamese. Siamese, Indonesian, Malayan, 
Pushtu, and Hindustani. 

It has been pointed out that the Department 
of State could get ten times more listeners to the 
Voice of Ameria broadcasts if entertainment were 
featured. The Congress of the United States, 
however, did not appropriate money for the pur- 
pose of entertainment. The Department would 
have an endless job if it undertook the task of 
entertaining the two billion peoples of the world. 
The Voice of America, therefore, does not include 
programs of dance re.coi-ds and other forms of 
entertainments. Its principal job is one of in- 
formation. 



November 7, 1948 



571 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



U.S. Urges Acceptance of Draft Resolution on Berlin Crisis 

STATEMENT BY PHILIP C. JESSUPi 
Deputy U.S. Representative in tlie Security Council 



Mr. President, I should also like to pay tribute 
to the statesmanship which has produced this draft 
resolution which is now before us. Members of 
the Security Council who have worked with you, 
Mr. President, have themselves borne witness to 
the fact that the achievement of this result in the 
course of their deliberations was the result of 
your leadership in the discussions which have 
been going on. We recognize this draft resolu- 
tion as the result of an imaginative and a sincere 
effort to find a solution to a difficult problem. 
The effort has been made in accordance with the 
best traditions of the international principles 
typified in the Charter of the United Nations. 
Since we so regard this resolution, we have re- 
ceived it with respect and we have given it careful 
study. 

j\Ir. President, as I listened also to the views 
which were expressed here on Friday by those 
who joined in submitting this resolution, I felt 
reassured that the intent and purpose of this res- 
olution are the same as those which we understand 
from studying its text. The resolution is char- 
acterized by the spirit of reciprocity and the de- 
velopment of a logical progression of ideas. As 
we understand the resolution, it contemplates the 
following program. 

On the clay of the notification of the resolution 
to the four Governments concerned, two events 
will take place, or in the words of paragraph 2 
of the resolution, two steps will be put into effect. 
The first step which is mentioned and which is 
to be put into effect on the day of the notification 
is the reciprocal removal of the restrictions im- 
posed since March 1, 1948, by the Soviet Union 
and by the three Western Goverimients on com- 
munications, transport, and commerce between 
Berlin and the Western zones of Germany and to 
and from the Soviet zone. Immediately upon the 
adoption of this resolution and even before its 



'Made in the Security Council at Paris Oct. 25, 1948, 
and released to the press by the U. S. Delegation on the 
same day. 

572 



formal notification, the Government of the United 
States would be prepared to take steps to assure 
compliance on our part with the provisions rel- 
ative to the lifting of the restrictions and the 
meeting of the Military Governors. We assume 
that the brief interval which will elapse between 
the adoption of the resolution and its formal 
notification will be sufficient to enable all of the 
four Governments concerned to issue the necessary 
orders. 

The second step which is mentioned and which 
is to be put into effect on the same day, that is, 
the day of notification, is a meeting of the four 
Military Governors in Berlin. The purpose of 
this meeting is to aiTange for the unification of 
currency in Berlin on the basis of the German 
mark of the Soviet zone under adequate Four 
Power control. The principles which will guide 
the four Military Governors in making these ar- 
rangements are those agreed upon in Moscow and 
embodied in the directive of August 30, 1948. 
These meetings are to be concluded not later than 
the 20th of November. Under the program out- 
lined in the resolution, the Council of Foreign 
Ministers will meet on November 30 unless the 
arrangements to be made by the four Military 
Governors are concluded before November 20, in 
which case the Council of Foreign Ministers will 
meet at an earlier date, namely, ten days from 
the conclusion of the work of the Military Gov- 
ernors. However, the Four Powers jointly agree 
the meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers 
can be held at any other day. 

Mr. President, the United States in a spirit of 
accommodation is ready to accept this resolution. 
We accept the principles stated in it and would be 
prepared to carry it out in full good faith. I 
hope, Mr. President, that there is no member of 
the Council who will not similarly find in this 
i-esolution a reasonable and fruitful program for 
the solution of a grave problem. 

Lat«r Mr. Jessup said: 

Department of State Bulletin 



Mr. President, the United States has taken note 
of the declaration of the Representative of the 
Soviet Union that it proposes to veto the resohition 
which has been proposed by six members of the 
Security Council.- In the judgment of tlie world, 
Mr. President, this was a just and reasonable res- 
olution drafted by fair-minded statesmen of six 
countries from regions scattered widely all over 
the globe. It was proposed by them in the dis- 
charge of their responsibilities as members of the 
Security Council and in an honest attempt to set- 
tle this difficult problem. 

The Representatives of France, of the United 
Kingdom, and of the United States accepted this 
resolution. If the Berlin question is not settled 
on the basis of the pro])osition stated in this res- 
olution, the responsibility will rest squai'ely and 
unavoidably on the Government of the Soviet 
Union. 

Mr. President, the Representative of the Soviet 
Union referred at some length to the so-called di- 
rective of August 30. Perhaps he did not bring 
out as clearly as might well be done the language 
of the preliminary paragraph of that directive 
which reads as follows : 

"The Governments of France, the United King- 
dom, the United States and the USSR have de- 
cided that subject to agreement being reached 
among the four military governors in Berlin for 
their practical implementation the following steps 
shall be taken simultaneously." 

The directive was thus a decision to proceed to 
two simultaneous steps on the basis of an agree- 
ment to be reached by the Military Governors. 
That agreement was never reached. It was never 
reached for reasons which have been amply ex- 
plained to the Security Council by the Repre- 
sentatives of France, the United Kingdom, and 
by myself, and the record has been made fully 
available to the Security Council. 

But, Mr. President, the question of the direc- 
tive is not the i.ssue which is before the Security 
Council. Since that point has again been raised, 
I feel it is incumbent upon me to refer again to 
the communication of the three Governments sub- 
mitting this issue to the Security Council and to 
quote again two sentences from that communica- 
tion of September 29. The communication says : 

"The issue between the Soviet Government and 
the Western Occupying Powers is, therefore, not 
that of technical difficulties of communications nor 
that ... of currency for Berlin. The issue is that 
the Soviet Government has clearly shown by its 
actions that it is attempting b}' illegal and coercive 
measures in disregard of its obligations to secure 
political objectives to which it is not entitled and 
which it could not achieve by peaceful means." 

The three Governments lay before the Secui'ity 
Council the threat to peace which was created 

November 7, 1948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIAUZBD AGENCIES 

by the blockade measures imposed by the Soviet 
Union. 

The argument which we have just heard by the 
distinguished Representative of the Soviet Union 
is an admission that blockade measures which his 
Government has imposed are being used as a 
measure of duress. 

I listened in vain as he was speaking to any 
suggestions in his remarks that he, too, like the 
Representatives of the three Western Governments 
was approaching this draft resolution in a spirit 
of accommodation, in an endeavor to settle the 
problem of Berlin. On the contrary, Mr. Presi- 
dent, he flat-footedly asserted that they would 
continue the threat of their blockade measures 
until the Soviet mark was established as the sole 
currency, not by free agreement, but under Soviet 
dictation. 

Mr. President, the main issues which are before 
the Security Council have been made very clear 
in the proceedings we have had. The resolution 
has been laid before us, which was eminently fair 
in the effort of six governments which led to its 
formulation. It seems to me, Mr. President, that 
we must now ask, "Wliat does the Soviet Union 
want?" 

Does it want a meeting of the Coimcil of For- 
eign Ministers to discuss Berlin or the unification 
of Germany, which always has been and still is the 
aim of the three Western Governments, or to dis- 
cuss questions of Germany as a whole ? The Soviet 
Government can have such a meeting without the 
threat to peace. We told them that before. We 
rejjeat that promise. We have indicated our ac- 
ceptance of that principle iii our approval of the 
draft resolution which was before us. 

Does the Soviet Union want the Soviet zone 
mark to be establi.shed as the sole currency of Ber- 
lin under Four Power control, as Premier Stalin 
himself suggested? They can have that without 
maintaining the blockade. We have told them so 
before and we tell them so again. 

Does the Soviet Union want assurances that we 
do not want to use Four Power control of the cur- 
rency in Berlin to damage or to control the general 
economy of the Soviet zone outside of Berlin? 
They can have such assurances without threat or 
violence. We have made that clear already. We 
make it clear again. 

Does the Soviet Union want guaranties to pre- 
vent the use of transport facilities for black- 
market operations in currency in Berlin? They 
can have such guaranties without resorting to 
duress. Again, it is a matter which we have told 
them before we would do, and we are ready to 
say so again. 

If the Soviet Government will remove all re- 
strictions imposed on transportation, communica- 
tions, and commerce subsequent to March 30, 1948, 

' Bulletin of Oct. 24, 1948, p. 520. See also U. N. doc. 
S/1048, Oct. 22, 1948. 

573 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

between the Western zones and Berlin, the United 
States Government will undertake to provide safe- 
guards for the Western mark B and the Eastern 
mark of the Soviet zone as presented by the United 
States Representative during the course of the 
Berlin discussions. 

Mr. President, as I understood the distinguished 
Representative of the Soviet Union in his remarks 
a few moments ago, he argued that blockade meas- 
ures which have been imposed by the Soviet Union 
were imposed to protect the economy of the Soviet 
zone against the Western mark. However, Mr. 
President, as I have had occasion to point out to 
the Council before, these blockade measures began 
in January, reached their fullness in March and 
the Western mark was not introduced until June 
24. I think it necessary to point out again that 
the matter of restrictions on traffic has nothing to 
do with the question of safeguards to prevent the 
movement of currency. Removal of blockade re- 
strictions imposed upon land communications, 
land and water communications by the Soviet 
Union would restore the normal traffic channels 
of supply and transport which are now confined 
to the air lift. In effect this would merely substi- 
tute the normal ground means of transport for 
present air transport. 

The United States has never intended to use 
currency as a means of adversely affecting the 
economy of the Soviet zone. The objective of cur- 
rency reform is to improve economic life and not 
to destroy it. 



Mr. President, if on the other hand the Soviet 
Union wants to drive us out of Berlin, where we 
have an acknowledged right to be, that result they 
cannot get by maintaining their threat to peace. 
We have stated that position over and over again, 
and that simple fact should now be clear. If the 
Soviet Union wants us to work out technical details 
of the first four questions I put, under duress of 
maintenance of blockade measures, instead of 
through the process of free negotiation, again the 
answer to that question is "No." In short, Mr. 
President, the Soviet Government can get all it 
says that it wants without maintaining the block- 
ade. With the blockade it can get neither what it 
says it wants nor what its actions seem to suggest 
it actually does want. It is the blockade which is 
the barrier and it is the Soviet Union which can 
lift the blockade. 

Mr. President, even now in spite of the fact that 
the Soviet Union has seen fit to indicate that it 
intends to block the efforts of the Security Council 
of the United Nations, if it wishes to end the threat 
to peace which it created, the Berlin question can 
be settled on the basis of the program suggested in 
the draft resolution which is now before the Se- 
curity Council. Tlie three Western Governments 
have indicated their acceptance of the principles 
contained in that resolution. If the Government 
of the Soviet Union would give reciprocal assur- 
ances that that program suggested in that resolu- 
tion would be carried out, it can be done. 



Current United Nations Documents: A Selected Bibliography^ 



Security Council 

Letter from the Representatives of the United Kingdom 
and the United States Dated 6 August 1948 Addressed 
to the President of the Security Council Transmitting 
the Report of the Administration of the Britisli- 
American Zone of the Free Territory of Trieste for 
the Period 1 April to 30 June 1048. S/953, August 6, 
1948. 36 pp. mimeo. 

Committee of Good Offices on tlie Indonesian Question. 
Second Report on Political Developments in West- 
ern Java. S/9C0, May 10, 1948. 39 pp. mimeo. 

Resolution for a Cease-fire Order and Truce Agreement 
Adopted by the United Nations Commission for India 
and Pakistan on 13 August 1948 and the Commission's 
Correspondence witli the Indian and Pakistani Gov- 
ernments in Relation to the Resolution. S/995, 
September 13, 1948. 33 pp. mimeo. 

Documents relating to the Palestine Situation 
Cablegram from the United Nations Mediator Addressed 
to the Secretary-General Dated 7 August 1948. S/955, 
August 7, 1948. 3 pp. mimeo. 
Cablegram Dated 12 August 1948 from the United Nations 
Mediator to the Secretary-General Concerning the 
- Observance of the Truce in Jerusalem. S/9()l, Au- 
gust 12, 1948. 4 pp. mimeo. 

' Printed materials may he secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 29G0 Broadway, New York City. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

574 



Telegram Dated 6 September from United Nations Medi- 
ator Addressed to the Secretary-General Transmit- 
ting Report on Death of French Observers Lt. Colonel 
Joseph Queru and Captain Pierre Jeannel. S/994, 
September 8, 1948. 6 pp. mimeo. 

Cablegram Dated 12 September 1948 from the United 
Nations Mediator Addressed to the Secretary-General. 
S/909, September 13, 1948. 2 pp mimeo. 

Cablegram Dated 27 September 1948 from Ralph Bunehe 
to the Secretary-General Transmitting Report Re- 
garding the Assassination of the United Nations 
Mediator. S/1018, September 28, 1948. 6 pp. mimeo. 

Cablegram Dated 30 September 1948 from Ralph Bunehe 
to the Secretary-General Concerning Truce Super- 
vision. S/1022 October 1, 1948. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Cablegram From Chairman of Truce Commission Dated 
30 September 1948 Addressed to President of Security 
Council. S/1023, October 2, 1948. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Cablegram Dated 3 October 1048 from Ralph Bunehe to 
the Secretary-General Concerning Truce Arrange- 
ments in Jerusalem. S/1024, October 4, 1948. 2 pp. 
mimeo. 

Report Dated l(i September 19-18 by the United Nations 
Mediator on the Observation of the Truce in Pales- 
tine During the Period from 11 June to 9 July 1948. 
S/102.5, October 5, 1948. 38 pp. mimeo. 

Cablegram Dated 14 October 1948 from the Chairman of 
the Truce Commission Addressed to the President of 
the Security Council Concerning Violations of the 
Truce by Arab Forces in Jerusalem. S/1034, Octo- 
ber 15, 1948. 1 p. mimeo. 

Department of State Bulletin 



The United States in the United Nations 

Palestine: Security Council orders Negev withdrawal 

The Security Council adopted on November -4 
an iunended Britisli-Chinese resolution calling- for 
withdrawal of Israeli and Egyptian forces from 
any positions gained in the Xegev since October 14, 
wiien recent hostilities in that area of Palestine 
began. 

The resolution was approved by a nine-to-one 
vote, with the Soviet Union abstaining, after 
revisions embodied in a U.S. amendment were 
accepted. The Ukraine cast the opposing vote. 

The U.S. amendment eliminated from the origi- 
nal resolution specific mention of article 41 of the 
U.N. Charter, under which noncompliance could 
be met by economic sanctions. The amended reso- 
lution instead provides that in the event of non- 
compliance a seven-nation council committee will 
study the situation "as a matter of urgency" and 
report to the council "on further measures it could 
be appropriate to take under Chapter VII of the 
Charter." 

Chapter VII includes article 41 and other en- 
forcement provisions but the resolution, as now 
worded, does not specify what measures would be 
considered in the event of the noncompliance. The 
original British-Chinese resolution specified meas- 
ures under article 41 — the economic sanctions 
section. 

Israeli Representative Aubrey Eban objected to 
both the original and the amended version, claim- 
ing that the Negev, awarded to Israel under the 
partition resolution adopted by the Assembly last 
year, is an integral part of Israel. 

The advances in the Negev fighting have been 
Israeli advances and the called for withdrawal 
would be from positions taken from Egyptian 
forces. 

Jacob Malik, Soviet Delegate, called for direct 
negotiations between Israeli and Egyptian Repre- 
sentatives. Representative Eban said this was 
acceptable. Egypt, however, supported the 
adopted resolution with the comment that it could 
be stronger and again asserted that it could not 
recognize the Jews as a negotiating party. 

In presenting the U.S. amendment, Philip 
Jessup pointed out that the council's main task is 
to keep the jDeace in Palestine and not to lay down 
a settlement and that positions taken by the coun- 
cil members on the truce question do not prejudice 
positions they may take in the Assembly on the 
political settlement problem. 

The U.S. amendment si^ecifies that the Negev 
withdrawal is being called for without jirejudice to 
the rights, claim, or position of the two parties 
"or to the position which the members of the 
United Nations maj- wish to take in the General 
Assembly" on political settlement. 

Mr. Jessup, in stressing the truce aspect, said 
that the truce mu.st be maintained "until arrange- 

November 7, 1948 



ments can be made to replace the truce by a more 
permanent peaceful settlement". 

He characterized council action to maintain the 
ti'uce as "a necessary prerequisite to General As- 
sembly consideration" whicli "does not prejudice 
the result of such consideration in any way". 

The resolution calls for establishment of truce 
lines in the Negev by Israeli and Egyptian Repre- 
sentatives. Failing establishment of these lines 
by the two parties, "permanent lines and neutral 
zones shall be established by decision of the acting 
mediator". 

Refugee Aid. The 26-nation Executive Board 
of the International Children's Emergency Fund 
has allocated $6,000,000 for supplementary relief 
of 250,000 child and mother refugees from combat 
areas in Palestine. The Program Committee had 
recently recommended that $2,200,000 be added to 
the $411,000 ])reviously allocated for relief in that 
area. However, the Executive Board approved 
the larger figure of $6,000,000 on November 5, after 
hearing a report on needs of the refugees. 

Maurice Pate, Unicef executive director, 
pointed out that the organization can help only 
children and pregnant and nursing mothers among 
the half-million homeless Palestinians. The need 
for basic relief, such as the $30,000,000 program 
suggested by acting mediator Ralph Bunche, he 
pointed out, remains unchanged. 

A summary of Unicef activities to date shows 
that 155,625 Arab mothers and children up to 15 
years old have received aid. No figures are yet 
available on the number of Jewish mothers and 
children assisted. Relief supplies are being dis- 
tributed in camps in Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, 
and Trans-Jordan. 

Meanwhile, the Assembly's Social, Humanitar- 
ian and Cultural Committee, on October 30, 
named a 15-member subcommittee to examine all 
the proposals regarding Palestine refugees that 
have been made so far and to work out a draft 
resolution. 

Subcommittee members were instructed to con- 
sult Secretary-General Lie on the question of ad- 
ministering a proposed Palestine refugee relief 
fund. The Legal Committee will be asked to give 
urgent consideration to the legality of the fund 
idea. 

In the Social Committee on October 29, Mrs. 
Franklin D. Roosevelt introduced a joint Anglo- 
American resolution calling for a Palestine refu- 
gee aid program budgeted at $29,500,000. 

In presenting the resolution, Mrs. Roosevelt 
said, "We believe that the acting mediator's esti- 
mate of the number of persons for whom relief 
should be supplied and the period of time for the 
j^rogram both repi'esent a sound basis for action 
by the General Assembly. . . . 

"It has not been determined whether the 
refugee movement has reached its peak nor in 

575 



-il 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZBD AGENCIES 

what degree some of the refugees may be absorbed 
during the period of tlie program in the areas in 
which they have found refuge. On the basis of 
information available it would appear reasonable 
to assume that 500,000 persons will require assist- 
ance for the period of the program. The period 
of time proposed will carry through the next har- 
vest. We anticipate that the ^jrogram of relief 
will be launched as soon as funds are available 
and the necessary organization can be established. 
For this purpose December 1, 1948 represents a 
realistic date. ... It will be recognized, 
however, that this problem lequires an operation 
of a character different from normal United Na- 
tions activities and that it requires a different 
budgetary treatment. Consequently we believe 
that the cost of this program should not be made a 
part of the United Nations budget. We endorse, 
thei'efore, the proposal in the resolution submitted 
by the United Kingdom and the United States 
that the General Assembly ui'ge all Members of 
the United Nations to make as soon as possible 
voluntary contributions in kind or in funds suffi- 
cient to ensure that the amount of supplies and 
^ilnds required are obtained." 

Every effort should be made to use all available 
volunteer international and local organizations, 
Mrs. Roosevelt stated, and recommended that "the 
International Committee of the Red Cross, the 
League of Red Cioss Societies, and the Interna- 
tional Children's Emergency Fund can be particu- 
larly helpful because they can readily bring into 
service the experienced disaster and I'elief per- 
sonnel known to them." 

Korea: Commission's Report 

The continued concern of the General Assembly 
for the attainment of national independence and 
unity in Korea is called for in the report of the 
Korean Commission, made public on October 30. 

The commission's report to the Assembly noted 
with regret "the grim reality of a divided Korea," 
with a government in the south set. up as a result of 
U.N.-observed elections in May and another in the 
north set up "arbitrarily by steps which were not 
under international observation". The northern 
zone has been under Soviet occupation and the 
south occupied by the United States. 

In its report, the conuuission stressed the urgent 
need for establishing procedures for peaceful 
negotiation between the two regimes in Korea, 
adding that this "must take place before military 
evacuation of the occupying forces abandons 
Korea to the arbitrary rule of rival political 
regimes wliose military forces might find them- 
selves driven to internecine warfare." 

The Soviets have unilaterally announced the 
beginning of withdrawal of their troops, leaving 
their zone in the hands of a Communist-dominated 
regime. The United States is turning over admin- 

• Documents and State Papers, September 1948. 
576 



istration of its zone to the newly elected govern- 
ment at Seoul. 

The re]Dort stressed that the conmiission, follow- 
ing the will of the Assembly, has always concerned 
itself with Korea as a whole. But this has been 
thwarted, tlie report said, by the refusal of Soviet 
authorities to allow the commisssion to visit the 
Soviet zone or conduct U.N.-observed elections 
there — in contrast to the cooperation given by 
U.S. authorities in the south. 

Immediate unification of Korea is essential if 
that country's social, political, and economic well- 
being is to be served, the commission held. 
Efforts of Korean leaders to achieve this end have 
failed largely because of "the tension prevailing 
in the international situation", the commission 
found. 

Atomic Energy: Resolution Adopted 

The General Assembly on November 4 over- 
whelmingly voted its approval of the atomic con- 
trol plan developed over the past two years by the 
Atomic Energy Commission. 

The vote, on the revised Canadian resolution 
previou.sly approved in committee, was 40 to six, 
Soviet group opposing. The Soviet proposal was 
defeated by the same vote. 

Spain: Economic Statistics 

The Legal Committee of the General Assembly 
on November 2 voted 21 to 14 to delete a portion of 
a resolution under debate which would specifically 
bar Spain from an international convention on 
economic statistics. 

Radio Plan Approved 

The Assembly Achninistrative Committee on 
October 30 adopted a resolution calling on the 
Assembly to approve in principle the establish- 
ment of a U.N. telecommunications system. 

The resolution was submitted jointly by the 
United States, the Soviet Union, and France. 

If the resolution is approved at a later Assem- 
bly plenary session, it will permit the United 
Nations to seek shortwave broadcasting frequen- 
cies at the current telecommunications conference 
being held at Mexico City. 

At present, the United Nations depends on the 
generosity of U.S. and Canadian shortwave sys- 
tems for its transmission time. 

Greece: Third Interim Report 

In a third Interim Report which was approved 
unanimously on October 22, the Special Com- 
mittee on the Balkans said that facts which have 
come to its notice during this period confirm and 
strengthen the conclusions of its General and Sup- 
plementary reports.^ 

This is Unscob's third Interim Report, the pre- 
vious two having been sent to the General Assem- 
bly on December 31, 1947, and January 10, 1948, 
at the time of a large-scale guerrilla attack against 
Konitsa in Epirus. 

Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ^ 



Adjourned during October 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : Meeting of Admin- 
istrative Council. 
IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

Fifth Session of Council 

Legal Committee 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Third 

Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors. 
International IVIonetarj' Fund: Third Annual Meeting of the Board 

of Governors. 
Ilo (International Labor Organization) : Technical Tripartite Con- 
ference on Safety in Factories. 
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organi- 
zation) : 
Conference to Constitute au International Union for the Protection 
of Nature. 

Social Tensions Conference 

Who (World Health Organization) : 

Expert Committee on Tuberculosis 

Expert Committee on Venereal Disease 

Expert Committee on Pharmacopoeias 

Pan American Sanitary Organization: 

Meeting of Executive Committee 

Meeting of Directing Council 

International Wool Study Group: Second Meeting 

International Council for Exploration of the Sea 

Upu (Universal Postal Union): Meeting of the Executive and 
Liaison Committee. 

Fourth Pan American Consultation on Cartography 

Ninth General Conference on Weights and Measures 

Fifth Inter-American Congress of Surgery 

Second Meeting of South Pacific Commission 

International Tin Study Group: Third Meeting 

In Session as of November 1, 1948 

United Nations: General Assembly: Third Session 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : 

Provisional Frequency Board 

Planning Committee for High Frequency Broadcasting Conference . 

International Conference on High Frequency Broadcasting . . . . 

Bolivian International Fair 

Ilo: Industrial Committee on Textiles: Second Session 

Who: Second Session of Executive Board 

Scheduled for November 1948 

Gatt (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) : Meeting of Com- 
mittee on Special Exchange Arrangements. 
Fag (Food and Agriculture Organization) : 

Fourth Session of Council 

Fourth Session of Annual Conference 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : 

Industrial Committee on Petroleum; Second Session 

Preparatory Conference on Labor Inspection in the Asian Countries . 

Joint Maritime Commission 

Governing Body: 107th Session 

Imo (International Meteorological Organization) : Meeting of Regional 
Commission for Asia. 

Empire Parliamentary Association 

West Indian Conference: Third Session 

Who (World Health Organization): Expert Committee on Internat- 
ional Epidemic Control. 

Second Inter- American Congress on Brucellosis 

UNESCO : General Conference: Third Session 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : Southeast Asia 

Regional Air Navigation Meeting. 
United Nations: Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: 
Fourth Session. 



Geneva . . 

Montreal . 
Lisbon . . 
Washington 

Washington 

Geneva . . 



Fontainebleau, France . 
Paris 



Paris . 
Paris . 
Geneva 



Mexico City . . . 
Mexico City . . . 

London 

Copenhagen . . . 
Locarno and Bern 

Buenos Aires . . . 
Paris and Sevres . 

La Paz 

Sydney 

The Hague . . . 



Paris 



Geneva . . 
Mexico City 
Mexico City 
La Paz . . 
Geneva . . 
Geneva . . 



Washington 
Washington 



Geneva . . . 
Kandy, Ceylon 
Geneva ... 
Geneva . . . 
New Delhi . . 



Hamilton, Bermuda . 
Guadeloupe . . . . 
Geneva 



Mendoza, Argentina 

Beirut 

New Delhi 



Glenbrook, Australia 



' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. 
November 7, 1948 



London Nov. 1- 



1948 

Sept. 1-Oct. 5 

Sept. 7- 

Sept. 24-Oct. I 

Sept. 27-Oct. 1 

Sept. 27-Oct. 1 

Sept. 27-Oct. 16 



Sept. 30-Oct. 7 

Oct. 8- 

Sept. 30- 
Oct. 1,5-19 
Oct. 15-21 

Oct. 2-3 
Oct. 4-16 
Oct. 4r-6 
Oct. 4-11 
Oct. 11-21 

Oct. 12- 
Oct. 12-21 
Oct. 17-21 
Oct. 25- 
Oct. 25- 

1948 

Sept. 21- 

Jan. 15- 
Sept. 13- 
Oct. 22- 
Oct. 20- 
Oct. 26- 
Oct. 25- 



Nov. 8-13 
Nov. 15- 

Nov. 9- 
Nov. 15- 
Nov. 26- 
Nov. 29- 
Nov. 15- 

Nov. 15- 
Nov. 15- 
Nov. 15- 

Nov. 17- 
Nov. 17- 
Nov. 23- 

Nov. 29- 



577 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Sound International Trade Program: 
Its Meaning for American Business 



by Paul H. Nitze ^ 



Deputy to the Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs 



At the end of World War II, we were confronted 
with a world economy even more seriously out of 
joint than most of us then realized. Six years of 
struggle had depleted the resources, both financial 
and material, of a large segment of mankind. The 
apparatus of many countries for the production 
and clistribution of goods was in a shambles. In 
others it had been seriously distorted to meet the 
specialized needs of war. Critical economic dislo- 
cations had given rise in many countries to strict 
governmental controls over all important economic 
activities. Moreover, important changes in the at- 
titudes of individuals and governments towards 
the problems of trade and economic organization 
in general had taken place. The growing economic 
and political strength of organized labor and agri- 
culture had brought about a situation in which 
wage and price adjustments to changing economic 
conditions were difficult to make. There had been 
a growth of social consciousness and wider claims 
upon governments for the welfare of their people, 
the avoidance of unemployment, and the provision 
of social security. 

The combination of these and other factors had 
led to an increase of economic planning and na- 
tionalization of industry in the domestic field and 
of state trading in the field of international trade. 
These influences in the main lead away from the 
determination of trade channels on the basis of 
market considerations and away from the correc- 
tion of trade imbalances by internal deflation and 
price-level adjustments, as was characteristic of 
the nineteenth century systems of trade. For the 
private trader and his government, they have 
created new problems of increasing importance 
which have to be reckoned with. 

^ powerful are these factors in today's trading 
world, that they have affected even the United 
States, where private competitive enterprise flour- 
ishes to a greater extent than anywhere else in the 
world. Even we have felt the need to control ex- 
ports, support many farm prices, engage in gov- 
ernment purchasing of certain foodstuffs and raw 
materials, and limit the use of scarce materials. 



' Address made before the Twentieth Conference on 
Distribution, in Boston, Oct. 25, 1948, and released to the 
press on the same date. 

578 



Segments of the American people exert strong 
pressures for limitation of imports, for payment 
of subsidies, or for other governmental measures 
when the operation of the competitive price 
mechanism threatens to become painful. 

Since the end of the war, and jiarticularly in the 
last year, the world has made steady progress in 
overcoming some of the most acute material 
shortages and in correcting some of the major 
trade imbalances. Tliere is still, however, a long 
and difficult road ahead. 

EXPANSION OF WORLD TRADE 

It is in this setting of the world as it is and of 
the actual problems that confront us that we must 
consider what constitutes a sound international 
trade program. 

In the nineteenth century^ common principles of 
international trade were tacitly understood and ac- 
cepted by all countries. Today, however, with the 
emergence of new forces and new problems, spe- 
cific international agreement is necessary. 

I think that businessmen will agree that at least 
four basic conditions are necessary for a sound ex- 
pansion of world trade: stability; good markets; 
fair rules of trade; and procedures for settling 
trade disputes. 

Let us see whether and to what extent our inter- 
national trade program contributes to these objec- 
tives. 

Stability 

Stable conditions of international trade obvi- 
ously cannot be achieved easily or overnight. The 
uitceitainties of disturbed economic conditions to- 
day are enhanced by overshadowing political un- 
certainties. But there are positive steps which 
can be taken towards this end. 

First, there can be judicious assistance to the 
building up of the damaged productive resources 
and economic machinery of other friendly coun- 
tries. Second, there can be international agree- 
ment on the objectives and principles which all 
would like to see govern international trade. 
Third, there can be international action for the 
moderation of exchange fluctuation. 

The United States had led in working for the 

Department of State Bulletin 



restoration of imich-nei'dod stability in interna- 
tional trade by being one of the chief architects of 
the United ^^ations and its specialized agencies, 
particularly the International Monetary Fund and 
the proposed International 'I'lade Organization, 
and by undertaking the European Recovery Pro- 
gram. Through tiiese measures we have sought, 
by international agreement, to achieve settlement 
of ])oliticul problems, to give a connnon direction 
to decisions on trade policy, to moderate exchange 
fluctuations, and to assist in the restoration of the 
basic economies of the Western European democra- 
cies. All of these measures help to bring more 
stability into the conditions of intei'national trade. 

Good Markets 

Good markets are basic to sound trade. To be 
good markets, they must be accessible and they 
must be able to pay for the goods they receive. 
Goods can be disposed of by gift or barter deals, 
but neither provides what we would consider a 
sound market. 

Through the European Recovery Program, 
European countries are being helped to restore 
their production and hence their capacity as sound 
markets for each other, for us, and for the rest 
of the world. 

Loans have been made to other countries through 
the Export-Import Bank for the expansion of 
necessary facilities which will assist in their eco- 
nomic development. The International Bank for 
Reconstmiction and Development has been estab- 
lished for the same purpose. 

A beginning has been made in reaching agi'ee- 
ment upon principles designed to promote the 
flow of private capital and technical skills into 
areas which can use them to foster their produc- 
tivity and development, and hence their emer- 
gence as good markets as well as good suppliers. 
This has been done at Bogota in the e<:-onomic 
agreement of Bogota, and at Habana in the Char- 
ter for an International Trade Organization. 

The reduction of artificial trade barriers also 
helps to make good markets. At Geneva last year, 
23 nations negotiated for selective reduction of 
their tariffs, not only with the United States but 
with each other. The result was the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, in which 23 
countries reduced tariff rates on some products 
and bound rates against increase on other prod- 
ucts for about 45.()()0 individual items covering 
over one half of the total foreign trade of the 
world. 

These are major steps toward the sound de- 
velopment of good markets. 

I have been asked whether the United States, 
with only one vote, will not be outnumbered in the 
Ito by the many smaller countries and forced to 
accept all kinds of things that it does not like. I 
do not think we need to be afraid. Such a thing 
has not yet happened in any international agency 

November 7, 1948 



IHi. RECORD Of THE y^ilYt. 

with which we work. Such a fear leaves out of 
account the strategic position of leadership that 
the United States enjoys in the world. As a mat- 
ter of fact, many smaller countries are concerned 
that the United States and other large countries 
will dominate Ito, regardless of the one vote for 
each, simply because, in the nature of the case, the 
larger countries cannot help having more influence 
in world affairs. 

The truth is that there are always those who fear 
that their country will be outnumbered by other 
countries in any kind of an international organiza- 
tion. If reason did not overcome this narrow 
fear, there would never be organized international 
cooperation between sovereign countries. I am 
not such a fatalist. I believe that sovereign na- 
tions can work together. I do not think that pes- 
simistic resignation pays dividends either in busi- 
ness or in national success. American life is built 
upon a different foundation — faith in our destiny, 
courage in the future. 

Fair Rules of Trade 

I said at the outset that one of the elements that 
a businessman wants to see included in a sound 
trade program is fair rules of trade. This is what 
the Charter for an International Trade Organiza- 
tion, agreed upon by representatives of 53 nations 
at Habana in March 1948, seeks to provide. 

As "World War II drew to a close, many people 
in the United States, the British Empire, and 
other countries felt that the absence of fair rules 
of trade in the decades after the first World War 
had contributed significantly to the economic war- 
fare that "dried up"' world trade in the 1930's. 
Then, each country traded on the basis of the law 
of the jungle, and the devil took the hindmost. 
As one European statesman put it: 

"We competed with one another in devices to 
restrict the volume of world trade and then 
fiercely competed with one another for a greater 
share of that smaller total." 

AVith this in mind, we in the Government began 
to work, even while hostilities were still going on, 
to lay the basis for the establishment of fair rules 
of conduct over the widest possible area of trade. 
One of the first acts of the Economic and Social 
Council of the United Nations was to appoint a 
Preparatory Committee of 18 nations to prepare 
an agenda for a World Conference on Trade and 
Employment, which was finally held at Habana 
from November 1947 to March 1948. Representa- 
tives of 53 nations there agreed upon the text of 
a Charter for an International Trade Organiza- 
tion for submission to their respective legislatures. 
It is expected that this Charter will be submitted 
to our Congress in the next session. 

The Charter establishes a code of rules that 
countries voluntarily agree to follow with respect 
to their trade with each other. These rules cover a 

579 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

■wide range of international trade relationships: 
Tariffs, quotas, subsidies, foreign exchange, cus- 
toms formalities, cartels, commodity agreements, 
most-favored-nation treatment, and the interna- 
tional aspects of foreign investment, employment, 
and economic development. Most of them repre- 
sent commitments by governments to refrain from 
taking specified governmental actions affecting 
trade which they would otherwise be at full liberty 
to take. 

I won't try to describe these rules in detail, but 
I do feel that it would be useful to state in gen- 
eral terms what they seek to do. They have two 
aspects. They state the agreed general principle 
and they indicate how, or to what extent, it must 
be applied. Let me illustrate. 

Certain important rules can, and therefore 
would, come into immediate and full operation 
when the Charter enters into force. Rules of this 
kind are those requiring simplification of. customs 
formalities, the curbing of international cartels, 
and many more. 

The problem is, however, more complicated with 
resisect to others. For example, one of the im- 
portant rules is that nations undertake to nego- 
tiate for the reduction of tariffs. But, clearly, no 
nation will undertake in advance to reduce all its 
tariffs or even any particular tariff. Therefore, 
the Charter provides that negotiations shall be on 
a selective, product-by-product basis, which will 
afford adequate opportunity to consider the needs 
of individual indtistries and that members shall 
be free not to grant concessions on particular pro- 
ducts. It also provides an "escape" clause under 
which if, as a result of a reduction and of unfore- 
seen circumstances, imports increase so as to 
threaten serious injury to a domestic industry, the 
reduction may be withdrawn. 

Another important principle is that nations will 
not use quotas to restrict their trade or to discrimi- 
nate against the trade of a particular country. 
But, clearly, under present conditions very few 
countries can apply this rule completely, no matter 
how much they may desire to do so. They just 
don't have enough foreign exchange to pay for all 
the imports their people want. Therefore, they 
must keep their imports down to the amount thej' 
can pay for and concentrate on the ones they really 
need, just as an individual of limited means does 
in preparing his family budget. So the Charter 
permits the use of quotas to accomplish this 
necessary budgeting only as long as a real shortage 
of foreign exchange lasts. 

Thus, in situations where the agreed principle 
cannot be fully put into effect, members are not 
asked to do the impossible. They are, however, 
obliged to comply to the fullest extent, and at the 
earliest moment that they can, and they may be 
called to account by other members or by the Or- 
ganization if they fail to do so. The conditions 

580 



under which failure to comply fully with the rules 
can be justified are very specifically defined. 

I give these illustrations because concern has 
been voiced in some quarters that exceptions in the 
Charter will have the effect of vitiating the rules 
which it lays down. Quite the contrary. The 
existence of the exceptions is what makes it pos- 
sible for many nations to accept the rules and start 
putting them into effect, at least partially, pending 
the time when they can do so fully. 

Procedures for Settling Trade Disputes 

The Ito would provide a permanent mechanism 
for the orderly settlement of international eco- 
nomic disputes. This permanent feature is im- 
portant. We learned from the experience of the 
World Economic Conference, in 1927, and the Lon- 
don Monetary and Economic Conference, in 1933, 
that intermittent intei'national conferences, ac- 
companied by broad declarations of principle (as 
some people now propose), are not an effective 
means of resolving world economic problems, of 
avoiding depressions, or averting economic war- 
fare. A permanent international agency, operat- 
ing on the basis of specific commitments, is a far 
more effective instrument for these purposes. 

An international body to handle trade must have 
flexibility if it is to handle satisfactorily changing 
world conditions. Therefore, the Charter, like the 
United States Constitution, has a procedure of 
amendment and provides for a comprehensive re- 
view of its provisions within five years. 

Each member of the Ito would have one vot«, 
and decisions would, in the main, be by majority 
vote. The Organization could not force any coun- 
try into any act against its desire. But if a mem- 
ber violated a commitment accepted under the 
Charter, the Organization could authorize other 
members to withdraw from the offender the privi- 
leges that all members grant to each other under 
the Charter. The right to withhold privileges to 
offenders, together with the persuasion exercised 
in the Ito forum, plus the force of public opinion, 
would constitute the sanctions of the Ito. 

FUTURE COURSE 

I have given particular emphasis to the Ito in 
this discussion of a sound international trade pro- 
gram, first, because it is new and less well known 
than the othei- facets of our international trade 
polic}', and second, because of the very special 
potentialities which it has today for the business- 
men of the United States. As I have indicated, the 
private-enterprise system in which we believe is 
now called upon to operate in a very different and 
less congenial world than that which existed be- 
fore World War I or even between the two world 
wars. New and powerful forces are at work which 
tend to make it more and more difficult for the pri- 
vate trader to do his business abroad. These forces | 

Department of Slate Bulletin \ 



are tlie result of economic adversity, or new philos- 
()])liios, or both. This Government has the respon- 
sibility of working out with other governments 
agreement on principles which will give the maxi- 
mum opportunity for the private trader to con- 
duct his business and exercise his ingenuity and 
ability. 

AVe do not guarantee that the measures taken 

, or proposed will cure the deep-seated ills of the 

I world trading systems overnight. And we do not 

[ undertake that they will restore international 

j trade completeh^ to private enterprise. The 

i changes which have taken place in the world are 

too deep for that. But we are convinced that these 

i measures are positive steps which will help to 

cure those ills, help to eliminate the necessity for 

continued assistance to other countries by the 

United States, and help to create the conditions 

under which private enterprise can have its best 

chance. 

Let us assume for the moment that we go for- 
ward without the Ito. What would be likely to 
hapj)en? 

I have pointed out that governments are in the 
international trade picture more than ever before; 
that they have at their disposal new, highly effec- 
tive, and ingenious techniques for the control of 
trade; and that the cii'cumstances in which their 
countries find themselves create powerful demands 
for the use of these techniques in the narrow and 
short-run national interest. The Charter, basical- 
ly, imposes limitations upon the use of those tech- 
niques, confining it to cases which all have agreed 
are legitimate. If the rules of the Ito are not 
accepted, countries will be free to use these con- 
trol techniques, not only in the cases j^ermitted by 
the Charter, but in all other cases as well. 

To be specific : If the rules of the Ito are not 
accepted, countries will be free to use quotas as 
long as the}' like to limit or change the course 
of their trade not oidy for reasons of exchange 
shortage, but also for pure protection and political 
favor. They will be free to give new preferences 
in their tariffs. They will have no obligation 
whatsoever to negotiate for the reduction of their 
tariffs or for the elimination of their present pref- 
erences. They will be free to maintain and in- 
tensify confused, complicated, arbitrary, secret, 
and obstructive customs regvdations. They will 
be under no obligation whatever to do anything 
at all about the restrictive practices of interna- 
tional cartels. They will be free to take any form 
of arbitrary action they desire with respect to 
the treatment of foreign capital within their 
borders. They will be free to conduct state trad- 
ing enterprises in wholly uncontrolled competition 
with private enterprise. 

Where does the private trader stand in such a 
world? And where does his government stand 
when he comes to it and asks it to protest on his 

November 7, 1948 



THE RECOKO OF THE WEEK 

behalf against the arbitrary action of some other 
government that injures his business? We can 
say to the other government that we don't like 
what it is doing and that its action hurts our 
citizens. And this often produces results. But 
we have worked to develop the Ito because we 
want to be able to say to that other government 
that we are protesting what it has done, not only 
because it hurts our citizens, but also because it 
violates an obligation which it has assumed not 
only to us but to other countries as well. And 
we want to be able, if necessary, to call that gov- 
ernment to account before those other countries 
and before the public opinion of the world. This 
will immeasurably strengthen our hand in serving 
your legitimate interests. 

CONCLUSION 

Finally, we cannot get away from the fact that 
in today's world political and economic considera- 
tions are inextricably interrelated. Political un- 
certainties make for disturbed economic condi- 
tions. It is brought home to every one of you 
each morning as you read your daily paper that 
one of the basic factors retarding the world's re- 
covery has been the strength and aggressiveness of 
international Communism. The economic and po- 
litical difficulties which have existed since the war 
liave been exploited to the full by the Soviet Union 
and its agents abroad. 

Every one of the measures which I have de- 
scribedj the International Bank, the International 
Monetary Fund, the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade, the International Trade Or- 
ganization, has been open to the Soviet Union. It 
has been invited to join in these cooperative ef- 
forts to restore world production and world trade. 
It has consistently refused to do so. It has op- 
posed these efforts. It has inveighed against 
them in its press, and over the air, and in the 
United Nations. The Ito, for example, which 
we regard as a means of promoting and stabilizing 
trade by the common effort of all friendly na- 
tions on equal terms and for the benefit of all, has 
been called by the Soviets an organization to "con- 
tribute to the domination of the U. S. A. in world 
markets", part of "the drive of American im- 
perialism toward world domination". We are 
charged with "seeking to open world markets 
and sources of raw materials to the further pene- 
tration of American monopolies", and through 
the Marshall Plan and the Ito "to enslave not 
only Europe, but the whole world". Foreign 
Trade, the monthly magazine of the Soviet Min- 
istry of Foreign Trade, said : 

"One of the means of establishing world domina- 
tion is the foreign trade program of American 
imperialism. This program has found its final 
expression in the American proposals for the crea- 
tion of an International Trade Organization. 

581 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

The objective of these proposals lies in the crea- 
tion of a new trade organization of the type which 
will make possible the strengthening of the eco- 
nomic position of the U. S. A. in the capitalist 
world."' 

Why this spate of abuse of Ito? Why do the 
Eussians use every means at their command to 
sabotage the Eui'opean Kecovery Progi'am ? Be- 
cause they fear and fight any measure which will 



have the effect of strengthening and unifying the 
non-Communist world. They fear and fight the 
program I have described because to the extent 
that it helps to establish stability and sound mar- 
kets and fair rules of trade, as it will, so does it 
also help to strengthen and unify the non-Com- 
munist world to stand against the menace of an 
alien ideology and to prove by the acid test of ac- 
complishment that the way of the free nations is 
the better way. 



Position on Provisional Government of Israel 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House on October 24] 

The Republican candidate for President has 
seen fit to release a statement with reference to 
Palestine. This statement is in the form of a 
letter dated October 22, 1948, ten days before the 
election. 

I had hoped our foreign affairs could continue 
to be handled on a nonpartisan basis without being 
injected into the presidential campaign. The Re- 
publican candidate's statement, however, makes 
it necessary for me to reiterate my own position 
with respect to Palestine. 

I stand squarely on the provisions covering 
Israel in the Democratic Platform. 

I approved the provisions on Israel at the time 
they were written. I reaffirm that approval now. 

So that everyone may be familiar with my posi- 
tion, I set out here the Democratic Platform on 
Israel : 

President Tniman, by granting immediate recognition 
to Israel, led the world in extending friendsliip and wel- 
come to a people who liave long sought an<l justly deserve 
freedom and independence. 

We pledge full recognition to the State of Israel. We 
aiBrni our pride that the United States, under the lead- 
ership of President Truman, played a leading role in the 
adoption of the resolution of November 29, 1947, by the 
United Nations General Assembly for the creation of a 
Jewish state. 

We approve the claims of the State of Israel to the 
boundaries set forth in the United Nations' resolution 
of November 21) and consider tliat modifications thereof 
should be made only if fully acceptable to the State of 
Israel. 

We look forward to tlie admission of the State of Israel 
to the United Nations and its full participation in the 
international community of nations. We pledge appro- 
priate aid to the State of Israel in developing its economy 
and resources. 

We favor the revision of the arms embargo to accord 
to the State of Israel the right of self-defense. We pledge 
ourselves to work for the modification of any resolution 
of the United Nations to the extent that it may prevent 
any such revision. 

We continue to support, within the framework of the 
United Nations, the internationalization of Jerusalenj and 
the protection of the holy places in Palestine. 

582 



I wish to amplify the three portions of the plat- 
form about which there have been considerable 
discussion. 

On May 14, 1948, this country recognized the 
existence of the independent State of Israel. I 
was informed by the Honorable Eliahu Epstein 
that a Provisional Government had been estab- 
lished in Israel. This country recognized the 
Provisional Government as the de facto authority 
of the new State of Israel. Wlien a permanent 
government is elected in Israel it will promptly 
be given de jure recognition. 

The Democratic Platform states that we ap- 
prove the claims of Israel to the boundaries set 
forth in the United Nations' resolution of Novem- 
ber 29, 1947, and consider that modifications 
thereof should be made only if fully acceptable 
to the State of Israel. 

This has been and is now my position. 

Proceedings are now taking place in the United 
Nations looking toward an amicable settlement 
of the conflicting positions of the parties in Pales- 
tine. In the interests of peace this work must go 
forward. 

A plan has been submitted which provides a 
basis for a renewed effort to bring about a peaceful 
adjustment of differences. It is hoped that by 
using this plan as a basis of negotiation, the con- 
flicting claims of the parties can be settled. 

With reference to the granting of a loan or 
loans to the State of Israel, I have directed the 
departments and agencies of the Executive Branch 
of our Government to work together in expediting 
the consideration of any applications for loans 
which may be submitted by the State of Israel. 

It is my hope that such financial aid will soon 
be granted and that it will contribute substantially 
to tlie long-term development and stability of the 
Near East. 

Department of Slate Bulletin 



Brussels Proposals Not Received by United States 



Actiiio: Secretary Lovett told his press confer- 
ence on October 2Y, that if and when the signa- 
tories to the Brussels pact submit North Atlantic 
security proposals to the United States, such pro- 
posals woukl be considered in the light of the 
Vandenberg resolution adopted by the United 
States Senate last June. 

Mr. Lovett pointed out, however, that such a re- 
quest had not been received here, but that if and 
when it was received, it would be considered in 
accordance with the guiding principles of the 
Vandenberg resolution. 

That resolution placed the Senate on record as 
favoring "progressive development of regional 
and other collective arrangements for individual 
and collective self-defense in accordance with the 
purposes, principles, and provisions of the 
Charter'' and '"association of the United States, by 
constitutional process, with such regional and 
other collective arrangements as are based on con- 
tinuous and effective self-help and mutual aid, and 
as affect its national security." 

It was in accordance with this resolution, Mr. 
Lovett recalled, that exploratory talks were ini- 
tiated in Washington July 6, between representa- 
tives of the Brussels pact countries and the Depart- 
ment of State.^ 

When the conversations were opened, the De- 
partment of State described them as "concerning 
problems of common interest" in relation to the 
Vandenberg resolution. It was pointed out at 
that time that no information concerning the sub- 
stance of these exploratory talks would be made 
public before decisions were reached. 

These exploratory talks have been completed, 
Secretary Lovett announced, and since they were 
informal, no commitments were involved. 

The spadework represented by these conversa- 
tions, he added, would facilitate further negotia- 
tions wlien they are opened. Congressional lead- 
ers of both major United States political parties 
were kei:»t informed during the conversations, Mr. 
Lovett said. 

He noted that the Washington conversations 
covered a wide variety of subjects, including a 
whole era of pacts, and mostly the methods by 
which United States security and world peace 
could best be obtained. The Acting Secretary 
said he did not know who originated the idea of a 
North xVtlantic pact, but that the idea of a North 
Atlantic community of nations was an old one. 

Further comment, Mr. Lovett told the reporters, 
would have to await receipt by the United States 
of proposals from the Brussels pact countries. 

■ BinxETiN of July 18, 1948, p. 70. 

November 7, 7948 



The following is the telegraphic text of the 
communique issued by the five Foreign Min- 
isters at the conclusion of their meeting on 
October 27: 

The Foreign Ministers of the Five Signatory 
Powers of the Brussels treaty met in Paris on the 
25th and 26th of October, 1948, for the third regu- 
lar .session of the Consultative Council. 

After examining tlie decisions taken by the five 
Defence Ministers at their meeting on 27-28 Septem- 
ber 1948, including the setting up of the land, sea 
and air command organization of Western Union, 
the Council gave its approval to the principles gov- 
erning the defence policy of the Five Powers which 
are based on the Brussels treaty and on the Charter 
of the United Nations. 

The Council also made a preliminary study of the 
question of North Atlantic security and the con- 
versations on this sub.ject which took place in Wash- 
ington during the summer. 

This examination resulted in complete agreement 
in the Council on the principle of a defensive pact 
for the North Atlantic and on the next steps to be 
taken in tins direction. 

The Council approved the suggestions made by the 
five Finance Jlinisters on the 7 October 1948. In 
order to carry out these suggestions as rapidly as 
possible the Council decided to set up a Committee 
of Experts to study the financial and economic 
questions rai.sed by the organization of the defence 
(.)f Western Europe. 

The Council next took note of the progress ac- 
complished in the social and cultural fields, and 
api>roved the reports submitted to it. 

As regards the question of European unity, the 
Council decided to set up a committee of representa- 
tives chosen by the trovernments of the five signa- 
tory powers of the treaty of Brussels, consisting 
of five French, five United Kingdom, three Belgian, 
three Netherlands, and two Luxembourg members. 

The object of this committee, which will meet in 
Paris, will be to consider and to report to govern- 
ments on the steps to be taken toward securing a 
greater measure of unity between European 
countries. 

To this end, the committee will take into con- 
sideration all suggestions which have been or may 
be put forward by governments or by private organi- 
zations. In this connection it will examine the 
Franco-Belgian suggestion for the convening of a 
European Assembly and the British suggestion re- 
lating to the establishment of a European Council 
appointed by and responsible to governments for 
the purpose of dealing with matters of common con- 
cern. This committee will draw up a report for 
submission to the Consultative Council at its next 
meeting. 

Finally, the Foreign Ministers proceeded to a full 
exchange of views on various international prob- 
lems, certain of which are now being con.sidered in 
the United Nations Assembly and the Security 
Council. 



583 



Reparations Program in Western Zones of Germany 



THREE POWER STATEMENT ' 



Since the reparations programs covering the 
three Western zones of Germany were published 
in October and November 1947,- the European Ke- 
covery Program has come into being and is now 
vitally affecting the progress of recovery. The 
Governments of France, the United Kingdom, and 
the United States have therefore had under con- 
sideration the desirability of insuring that the 
reparations programs are still fully consonant 
with the needs of European recovery. It has been 
agreed by the three Governments that there is a 
need to examine certain portions of the reparations 
lists with a view to determining to what extent 
some plants on those lists might better serve the 
needs of European recovery if left in Germany 
than if lemoved and re-erected elsewhere. Pur- 
suant to section 115 (f) of the United States 
Foreign Assistance Act, a preliminary review of 
the lists has already been made by the United 
States Government and a list of plants which re- 



quire more detailed study has been drawn up. 
The further review of these plants will be con- 
ducted by the Industrial Advisory Committee of 
the Economic Cooperation Administration main- 
taining close touch with officials of the other two 
Governments concerned, who will cooperate in 
every way. It is hoped to complete this review 
within a few weeks. Further plants will be made 
available to the Inter- Allied Keparations Agency 
for allocation as rapidly as possible while this 
investigation is in progress. 

The review is beuig conducted from the stand- 
point of European economic recovery and not with 
the object of bringing about any general read- 
justment of the reparations programs. It is in- 
tended by the Three Powers that subject to what- 
ever deletions from the reparations lists may be 
agreed as a result of this review the balance of the 
reparations programs shall be brought to a speedy 
conclusion. 



The Struggle for Freedom in Greece 



STATEMENT BY HENRY F. GRADY ^ 

American Ambassador to Greece 



Eight years ago today, the entire world was 
electrified by an event that has already gone down 
as a landmark in history. 

On that clay, the Greek people I'ose as one man 
and cried "No !" to the powerful invader. 

It was the first real check on the aggressive 
might that had unleashed the second world war. 

Greece has known little peace since that time. 
Again today she is engaged in a trying struggle 
against what honest men the world over recognize 
as the force of evil. Call it militant Pan-Slavism, 
call it Eed Totalitarianism, call it Neo-Fascism — 
it is the same. It is the force of destruction, 
of fanaticism, of chaos. 

It is more than ironic that while the Greek 
people — with the help of their fi-iends — are seek- 
ing with every means to rebuild their country, to 
achieve the long-sought peace, to join in the great 

' Issiietl by tbe Department of State and the Economic 
Cooperation Administration on Oct. 27, 1948, and released 
to the press on the same date. 

" Not here printed. 

' Made in Athens on Oct. 28, 194S, and released to the 
press in Washington on the same date. 



and inspiring program of recovery which now 
animates the rest of free Europe, that at this very 
moment the enemy from within and without bends 
every effort toward destruction and chaos. 

The world may well admire the struggle which 
the hard-pressed people of Greece are waging 
again toward their freedom, and those who think 
the struggle an easy one must be either naive or 
ignorant of the facts. We who are here, we who 
are on the spot helping the Greeks to retain their 
nation and their liberty, heliaing them to remain 
in the community of free nations, do not under- 
estimate these difficulties, these tremendous ob- 
stacles. We are sure that they will be overcome — 
and overcome by the Greeks themselves. 

On this great day, I would like to make but one 
salute — to the Greeks who are waging this great 
struggle; chiefly, of course, to those in actual com- 
bat against their enemy, but also to all elements 
in Greek life which are contributing to this great 
national effort. 

For again the Greeks are saying "No !" Again 
they have made the hard choice. Again they have 
chosen freedom. 



584 



Department of State Bulletin 



Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of tlie 
Republic of Turkey 

Statement hy the President ' 

On the twenty-fifth anniversary of the found- 
ing of the Repu'blic of Turkey, the people of the 
United States join nie in extending cordial greet- 
ings and best wishes to President Inonii and to the 
people of Turkey. 

The full significance of this anniversary could 
hardly have been foreseen a quarter of a century 
ago when tlie Turkish IJepublic was proclaimed. 
In America, we were from the beginning filled 
with admiration for the resolute struggle of the 
Turkish nation to go forward under the indomi- 
table leadership of Turkey's first President, Kemal 
Atatiirk. We have watched with sympathetic 
interest the profound social and cultural reforms 
effected in two brief decades. We are happy that 
the advancements of science in this air-travel age 
have so reduced the distance between our two 
countries that we no longer feel remotely sep- 
arated. We are still happier that the decision 
of the Turkish nation to continue the develop- 
ment of democratic institutions and to further 
safeguard hmnan rights and liberties is being cai"- 
ried out at a time when these ideals — so dear to all 
Americans — are being ruthlessly crushed and ob- 
literated in many parts of the woi'ld. 

The political independence and territorial in- 
tegrity of Turkey are of great importance to the 
security of the United States and of all freedom- 
loving peoples. In conformity with the purposes 
and principles of the Charter of the United Na- 
tions, I recommended to the American Congress 
on Marcli 12, 1947, the extension of assistance to 
Turkey and to Greece. This program, as au- 
thorized by the American Congress two and one- 
lialf months later, has since been extended for a 
second year — that is. through June 1949. The ef- 
fective way in which Turkish and American 
personnel are cooperating on this program is a 
further, and most striking, example of the mutual 
ties that bind our countries. 

I am deeply grateful that during this troubled 
postwar period the relations between the United 
States and the Republic of Turkey, inspired by a 
common ideal for the establishment of security 
for all nations through just and lasting peace, 
have been strengthened and consolidated. 

Double Taxation Convention With 
Belgium Signed 

(Released to the press October 28] 

On October 28, 1948, Robert A. Lovett, Acting 
Secretary of State, and Baron Silvercruys, Bel- 
gian Ambassador in Washington, signed a con- 
vention between the United States and Belgium 

November 7, T948 



TH£ RECORD OF IHE WEEK 

for the avoidance of double taxation and the pre- 
vention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on 
income. 

The provisions of the convention are similar in 
general to those contained in income-tax conven- 
tions now in force between the United States and 
tlie United Kingdom, Canada, France, and 
Sweden. 

The convention provides that instruments of 
ratification shall be exchanged and that the con- 
vention shall become effective on January 1 of the 
year in which the exchange of such instruments 
takes place. 

Steps Taken To Repatriate 
Mexican Workers 

[Released to the press October 25] 

On October 18 the Mexican Embassy presented 
a note to the Department calling attention to cer- 
tain irregularities which hud occurred in the vicin- 
ity of El Paso in connection with the entry of a 
large nuniber of Mexican farm workers and their 
employment on farms in Texas and other western 
States under conditions other than those prescribed 
in the agricultural-workers agreement of Febru- 
ary 21, 1948. 

In a note dated October 22, the Department ex- 
pressed its regret that this incident had occurred 
and stated that measures had been taken to correct 
the situation. The United States agreed to com- 
mence prompt repatriation of the Mexican work- 
ers who entered illegally, as required by article 29 
of the agreement; to halt further illegal immi- 
gration of Mexican farm workers; and to con- 
tinue extending to Mexican workers legally in the 
ITjiited States the advantages and conditions pro- 
vided in the agreement. 

The reply of the Mexican Embassy, dated Oc- 
tober 23, accepts as satisfactory the American note 
and states that the fulfilment of the commitments 
set forth therein will bring the incident to a close. 

Reaction in the Mexico City press to the Amer- 
ican note, which was published in its entirety, was 
highly favorable. 

It is understood that the Immigration and Nat- 
uralization Service has already begun to deport 
to Mexico the workers who entered contrary to 
the agreement. 

Exchange of Notes Between the U. S. and Mexico 

October 22, 191^ 
Sir : I refer further to your attentive note of 
October 18, 1948, concerning irregidarities which 
have occurred in the vicinity of El Paso in connec- 
tion with the entry of certain Mexican farm work- 



" Recorded by the Voice of America for delivery on the 
occa.sion of the Turki.sh National Holiday, Oct. 29, 1048, 
and released to the press on the same date. 

585 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

ers under conditions other than those established 
by the exchange of notes of February 21, 1948. 

An investigation of the circumstances of this 
case confirms that the entry of these Mexican na- 
tionals was indeed illegal and that they were not, 
as required by Article 29 of the agreement, imme- 
diately deported to Mexico. I deeply regret that 
these irregularities have occurred. 

I am ha'ppy to inform you at this time, however, 
that orders have been issued that the Mexican na- 
tionals who entered illegally be promptly returned 
to Ciudad Juarez. Kepatriation of these workers 
has already commenced. 

Orders have already been issued to stop all fur- 
ther illegal or clandestine immigration along the 
border. 

Nothing which has happened, of course, will m 
any way affect the rights and privileges of the 
Mexican nationals who are now legally m the 
United States in fulfillment of contracts entered 
into under the agreement. They will continue to 
enjoy the immunities and prerogatives set forth 
in the agreement and individual work contracts 
and the existing satisfactory arrangements for 
participation of Mexican consuls in discussions of 
any misunderstandings which may arise will con- 
tin'ue as in the past. 

It is my sincere hope that the corrective measures 
which have been described above and which will 
be carried out to the best of my Government's 
ability, will be found satisfactory to your Govern- 
ment. 

With sincere expressions of profound regret for 
the serious instance of non-compliance which has 
occurred, I take this opportunity to express my 
Government's appreciation for the cooperation 
Mexico has given in the past and which I hope will 
continue in the future. 

I avail myself [etc.] Kobeet A. 'Lo^^TT 



Washington, D. C, October m, 1948 
Mr. Secretary : I have the honor to acknowledge 
receipt of Your Excellency's note of October 22 
relative to the irregularities which occurred in the 
vicinity of El Paso in connection with the entry 
into the United States of Mexican agricultural 
workers under conditions other than those ex- 
pressed in the exchange of notes of February 21, 
1948. 

Upon instructions from my Government, I am 
pleased to inform Your Excellency that it has 
found satisfactory the statements made by the De- 
partment of State, as well as the measures adopted 
by the American authorities, measures the realiza- 
tion of which, already commenced, brings an end 



' For test of the decision, see Blixetin of Aug. 3, 1947. 
p. 216. For Basic Initial Post-Surrender Directive to Su- 
preme Commander for the Allied Powers for the Occupa- 
tion and Control of Japan, see Documents and State 
Papers of April 1948, p. 32. 



586 



to this lamentable incident, which has been re- 
solved, as was to be expected, in the spirit of jus- 
tice, good neighborliness and friendly cooperation 
which has always governed relations between 
Mexico and the United States. 
I avail myself [etc.] 

Rafael de La Colixa 
Charge iVAifaires ad interim 

U.S. Policy in Japan Founded on 
FEC Basic Policy Decision 

[Released to the press October 28] 

With regard to the statement by the Soviet 
Ambassador before the Far Eastern Commission 
on October 28, which was given to the press, it 
should be pointed out that General MacArthur, as 
a top United States Commander, holds conferences 
in Tokyo with high United States military officers 
from time to time and these are purely routine 
matters of sole concern to this Government. 

With respect to the allegation that the former 
Japanese naval base at Yokosuka is being con- 
verted into a modern naval base, it may be stated 
categorically that this is not true. This base has 
beeifused from the beginning of the occupation by 
the United States naval forces supporting the Su- 
preme Commander for the Allied Powers m car- 
rying out the objectives of the occupation— which 
it is both necessary and proper for them to do. 
Accordingly, the implication that the Far Eastern 
Commission decision on the basic post-surrender 
policy for Japan is being violated is wholly with- 
out foundation.' 

American National Red Cross Extends 
Relief in Near East 

[Released to the press October 24] 

The American National Eed Cross has informed 
the Department of State that it shares the con- 
cern expressed by the Department for the health 
and welfare of the victims of hostilities in the 
Near East. Accordingly, the Red Cross has ap- 
proved an extension of its disaster relief program 
to help meet the present emergency in the Near 

East. . , , •, 

In addition to assistance which it has made avail- 
able during recent months, the Red Cross will now 
send to the Near East 3,000 blankets, 150,000 yards 
of cotton cloth, 5,000 finished garments, 10,000 
layette items, and 150,000 cakes of soap. On its 
part the National Children's Fund of the Ameri- 
can Junior Eed Cross will furnish 30,000 layette 
items, educational supplies, and, contingent upon 
subsequent determination of need, food for a chil- 
dren's feeding program. This additional aid will 
increase to approximately $700,000 the material 
value of assistance which has been contributed by 
the American Red Cross. 

The American Red Cross has also announced its 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



I 



intention to fnrnish the services of three relief 
experts to lielp observe the distribution of Ameri- 
can Red Cross supplies and to coordinate Ameri- 
can Red Cross activities with those of the League 
of Red Cross Societies, the International Com- 
mittee of the Red Cross, tlie United Nations, and 
other orpanizations. 

It is prepared also to consider additional re- 
quests for relief supplies from its representatives 
after they have arrived in the Near East and 
have surveyeil tlie need for further assistance from 
the American Red Cross. 

THE DEPARTMENT 

Functions of the Secretary of State in 
National Election 

[Released to the press October 29] 

The Department of State on Monday, Novem- 
ber 1, will take the first step in the series of duties 
which fall to the Secretary of State in connection 
with the election of President and Vice President. 
Acting Secretary of State Robert A. Lovett will 
send to the Governors of the 48 States a letter 
outlining the procedvire laid down in the law for 
the receipt and transmission by the Department 
of Stat« to the Congress of certificates of the 
appointment of the electors of the several states 
and of the votes of the electors. 

These ministerial duties are assigned to the 
Secretary of State, who has been the channel for 
communication between the Government of the 
United States and the governments of the several 
States on these Constitutional matters since the 
law of March 1, 1792. The duties of the Secre- 
tary of State have remained the same under vari- 
ous revisions of the law, which in its present form 
is Title 3. Chapter 1, of the United States Code, 
enacted as recently as June 25, 1948. 

The duties of the Secretary of State in con- 
nection with the presidential election are to re- 
ceive from the State authorities of those States 
two certificates and to transmit them to the Con- 
gress. These are : 

1. Certificate of the appointment of electors of 
President and Vice President from the executive 
of each State as well as the list of all other candi- 
dates for electors, with the number of votes re- 
ceived by all of them. Copies of this certificate 
will be transmitted to tlie Speaker of the House of 
Representatives and the President j^ro tempore of 
the Senate. 

2. Certificate of the separate vote of electors of 
each State for President and Vice President to be 
taken on December 13. with the list of the electors 
sent by the electors of each State. A copy of this 
certificate is transmitted by the Secretary of State 
to the President ]>ro tempore of the Senate, pend- 
ing the joint session of the Congress to canvass 
the vote on January 6, 1949. 

November 7, ?948 



The Secretary of State retains the original of 
the certificate of the ascertainment of electors and 
a copy of the vote of the electors as the official 
public record for the National Archives. 

PUBLICATIONS 
Department of State 

For sale hii the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printiiif/ Offlee. Wiisltinyton 25, D. C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
ease of free publications, which may he otitained from the 
Department of State. 

Establishment of Diplomatic Relations With the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics. European and British Com- 
monwealth Series 2 (new series). Reprint. Pub. 528. 
22 pp. 104. 

A literal print of the documents. 

UNESCO and You. International Organization and 
Conference .Series IV ; United Nations Educational, Scien- 
tific and Cultural Organiz<ation 4. Reprint. Pub. 2904. 
41 pp. lo<t. 

Questions and answers on the bow, what, and why 
of your share in UNESCO, together with a six-point 
program for Individual action. Revised as of March 
1, 1W8. 

The Foreign Service of the United States. Department 
and Foreign Service Series 1. Reprint. Pub. 2991. 
81 pp. 2a(f. 

Educational preparation for Foreign Service Officers 
and entrance examinations. 

Financial and Economic Relations. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 1757. Pub. 3221. 52 pp. 15<f. 

Agreements and supjilementary exchanges of notes be- 
twe<'n the United States and Ital.y — signed at Wash- 
ington August 14, 1947; entered into force August 
14, 1947. 

Economic Cooperation With Norway Under Public Law 
472 — 80th Congress. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1792. Pub. 3254. 53 pp. 15«S. 

Agreement between the United States and Norway — 
signed at Oslo July 3, 1948 ; entered into force July 
3, 1048. 

Documents & State Papers, September 1948. Vol. I. No. 
0. Pub. 3284. G4 pp. 30(» a copy; $3, 12 issues. 

A monthly periodical, supplementary to the Depart- 
ment of .State BtrLLETiN, containing doctmieuts and 
articles pertaining to international relations and 
activities of the State Department and the Foreign 
Service. 

Diplomatic List. October 194S, Pub. 3310. 195 pp. 30«! 
a copy; $3.25 a year domestic, $4.50 a year foreign. 

Monthly list of foreign diplomatic representatives In 
Washington, with their addresses. 

World Confidence and the Reduction of Armed Forces: 
The American Objective. International Organization and 
Conference Series III, 18. Pub. 3319. 14 pp. 

Remarks by Warren R. Austin, U. S. Delegate to the 
Third Session of the General A.ssenibly, Paris, Octo- 
ber 12, 1948. 

587 




The United Nations and Page 

Specialized Agencies 

U.S. Urges Acceptance of Draft Resolution 
on Berlin Crisis. Statement by Philip C. 

Jessup 572 

U.N. Documeuts: A Selected Bibliography . 574 
The U.S. in the U.N 575 

General Policy 

Position on Provisional Government of Israel. 

Statement by the President 582 

Brussels Proposals Not Received by U.S. . 583 

The Struggle for Freedom in Greece. State- 
ment by Henry F. Grady 584 

Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of the Republic of 

Turkey. Statement by the President . 585 

Occupation Matters 

Reparations Program in Western Zones of 

Germany. Three Power Statement . . 584 

U.S. Policy in Japan Founded on FEC Basic 

Policy Decision 586 

Economic Affairs 

Sound International Trade Program: Its 
Meaning for American Business. Ad- 
dress by Paul H. Nitze 578 



Economic Affairs — Continued Page 

American National Red Cross Extends Relief 

in Near East 586 

Calendar of International Meetings . . 577 

Treaty Information 

Double Taxation Convention With Belgium 

Signed 585 

Steps Taken To Repatriate Mexican Workers. 
Exchange of Notes Between the U.S. and 
Mexico 585 

International Information and 
Cultural Affairs 

The Voice of America. Article by Assistant 

Secretary George V. Allen 567 

The Department 

Functions of the Secretary of State in Na- 
tional Election 587 

Publications 

Department of State 587 



N 



>. s. oo>eiiiiEiiT Hiarma ofpicei ii48 



tJAe/ ^ehoT^tT^te'yii/ /(w tnate^ 






ADOPTION OF ATOMIC ENERGY RESOLUTION • 

Statement by Warren R. Austin ......••• 602 

DISCUSSION OF GREEK PROBLEM • Statements by 

John Foster Dulles 607 

UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COOPERATION • 

Article by Norman Burns ...•..••.•• 598 

ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES %• Article 

by George N. Monsma 591 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XIX, No: 

November 14, 1948 




-t-res o^ 



„v*"Io. 




%e Qe/icvy^ene ^ ^lale J3 111161111 



Vol. XIX, No. 489 • Publication 3343 
November 14, 1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

tJ.S. Government Printing OfBce 

Washington 26, D.O. 

Price: 

62 issues, domestic $5, foreign $7.26 

Single copy, 15 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES 



by George N. Monsnia 



In the midst of the unsettled world conditions it 
is heartening to remember that there is an associa- 
tion of nations which has stood the test of almost 
60 yeai-s of existence and today is stronger and more 
virile than ever before. The Organization of 
American States is the oldest organization of in- 
dependent, sovereign nations in existence, although 
it has been known by various names during these 
years. The American Republics are a family of 
nations, and, as in all families, there may be some 
disagreements and misunderstandings from time 
to time, but it is all in the family, and underneath 
is the firm ground of family unity. 

Before going further in a discussion of this sub- 
ject, let us refresh our memories on the countries 
comprising the Pan American family of nations. 
Beginning with the United States and working 
south, we have our neighbor, Mexico, which is the 
only Latin American country having a common 
border with us. Then the Central American coun- 
tries — Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nica- 
ragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. To the east, the 
Caribbean countries — Cuba, Haiti, and the Do- 
minican Republic. Moving south to the South 
American Continent, we have along the north and 
west coast Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, 
and Chile. On the east are Brazil and Argentina, 
with Uruguay and Paraguay in between, and Bo- 
livia in the center of the continent. 

Four languages are used in these 21 republics — 
Portuguese in Brazil, French in Haiti, English in 
the United States, and Spanish in the other 
countries. 

As the United States won its independence from 
England under the leadership of George Wash- 
ington, so the countries of Latin America gained 



their independence from European powers under 
such great leaders as Simon Bolivar and San 
Martin. 

United States Policy 

It was early recognized in this country that the 
interests of the American Republics are inexorably 
tied together by geographic propinquity and com- 
mon ideals, such as love of freedom and democratic 
aspirations. The United States policy with re- 
spect to the other American Republics has devel- 
oped through the years in accordance with the ebb 
and flow of national and international events of 
history. The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 has been 
a unilateral doctrine which says in effect that the 
United States would consider it dangerous to its 
security if European powers were to seize further 
territory in or impose further jiolitical control over 
any portions of this hemisphere. The Monroe Doc- 
trine was a unilateral statement of United States 
policy rather than an inter- American pronounce- 
ment. The era of multilateral cooperative ar- 
rangements between the American Republics such 
as we have witnessed during the past 60 years 
had not yet arrived. 

The basic friendship between the nations of the 
Americas weathered the frictions of our period of 
"manifest destiny", when the United States was 
expanded to the Pacific and when Texas and Cali- 
fornia were added to the Union. This basic 
friendship has survived in spite of the irritations 
and frictions of the early part of the present cen- 
tury, when the United States intervened from time 
to time in the affairs of the other American 
Republics. 

The 1930's and 40's have been characterized by 



November 14, 1948 



591 



an intensification and broadening of cooperation 
with the other American Republics, with a result- 
ant feeling of good neighborliness and good will. 

Characteristics of the Inter-American System 

If there is a key word for the inter-American 
system, if there is a word that can summarize the 
attributes of the system, that word is coopera- 
tion — cooperation in all of our relations, political, 
economic, and cultural. The inter- American sys- 
tem possesses numerous characteristics, all of 
which together form the pattern of cooperation. 

One of these characteristics is solidarity. Inter- 
American solidarity is revealed in numerous ways, 
but perhaps in no sphere is it more strongly evi- 
dent than in the field of common defense. In 1940 
at the second meeting of Ministers of Foreign Af- 
fairs, at Habana, when World War II had com- 
menced in Europe, the American Republics agreed 
that an attack by a non-American state upon an 
American state would be considered an attack 
against all the American Republics and that in the 
event of such an attack, the American Republics 
would consult, to agree upon measures that should 
be taken. The month following Pearl Harbor, the 
Foreign Ministers met in Rio de Janeiro to outline 
cooperative measures, and the period of the war 
was one of unprecedented cooperative activity 
among the American Republics. The solidarity of 
the otlier American Rejiublics in the matter of de- 
fense was further implemented last year by the 
signing of the treaty of Rio de Janeiro. In addi- 
tion to enunciating the principle that an attack on 
one of the American states is an attack on all, the 
treaty provides that in case of an armed attack 
by any state against one of the American states 
within the geographic limits specified in the 
treaty or within the territory of an American 
state, the contracting parties are obligated to ren- 
der immediate assistance, the nature of such assist- 
ance to be determined by each state. The con- 
tracting parties are also obligated to consult, in 
order to determine what collective measures will 
be required pf all. In the case of armed attacks 
outside of the region defined in the treaty or out- 
side the territory of the American Republics, and 
in the case of aggression or situations that endan- 
ger the peace of America anywhere in the world, 



' Bulletin of Sept. 14, 1947, p. 505. 
592 



there is an obligation on the part of the contract- 
ing parties to c.onsult for the purpose of deciding 
which of the collective measures specified in the 
Charter will be taken by all. Decisions on the 
specified collective measures under the treaty will 
be made by a vote of a two thirds majority and 
will be binding on all states with the one excep- 
tion that no state will be required to use armed 
force without its consent. 

The Rio treaty is a striking example pf the soli- 
darity of the American Republics. Eleven nations 
have already deposited their instruments of rati- 
fication, and several others are now in the process 
of ratifying the treaty. It is anticipated that the 
necessary ratifications to bring the treaty into ef- 
fect (two thirds of the signatory states) will be 
deposited before long. The Rio treaty has been 
characterized by Senator Vandenberg as ". . . 
cheerful, encouraging and happy news in a cloudy, 
war-weary world which is groping, amid constant 
and multiple alarms, toward the hopes by which 
men live. It is good for us. It is good for all our 
neighbors. It is good for the world" .^ 

A second characteristic of the inter-American 
system is the recognition and respect for the equal 
sovereignty of each American nation. In inter- 
American assemblies each country has one vote, 
the small as well as the large. There is no attempt 
of the larger nations to lord it over the smaller 
ones. All members of the system are equally 
sovereign. 

Going hand in hand with the principle of equal 
sovereignty is the principle of nonintervention, 
which is a third characteristic of the inter- Amer- 
ican system. The American Republics agreed at 
Montevideo in 1933 that no state has the right to 
intervene in the internal or external affairs of 
another American Republic. The United States 
scrupulously observes this commitment in its rela- 
tions with the other American Republics. Inter- 
vention has no place in a cooperative system, such 
as the inter- American system. 

Consultation is a fourth characteristic of the 
system. The American Republics subscribe to the 
principle that they should consult in regard to all 
matters of mutual concern, and they have been 
practicing such consultation for nearly 60 years on 
an ever-increasing range of subjects. Consulta- 
tion has had special significance in the inter- Amer- 
ican system since 1936, when the principle of con- 

Department of State Bulletin 



sultation was given treaty form. Consultation 
between sovereign equals is, of course, the very 
antithesis of coercion by a powerful nation of 
weaker neighbors. 

A further characteristic of the system is the 
desire of the American Republics to settle by 
peaceful means any disputes which might arise 
between them. The inter-American machinery 
for peaceful settlement of disputes has its roots 
in the Gondra treaty of 1923, which has been am- 
plified and strengthened by subsequent agree- 
ments. 

The inter-American system places great em- 
phasis on cooperation for the general welfare. It 
is an accepted principle that cooperation among 
all the states is necessary for the advancement and 
Melfare of the peoples of the Americas. It is 
important that there should be a satisfactory 
standard of living in all the American Republics. 
A standard of living compatible with the dignity 
of human personality is imperative not only be- 
cause of humanitarian considerations and socio- 
logical principles but also because a community 
or country which is constantly threatened by des- 
titution and poverty becomes a fertile ground for 
alien ideologies which may become a threat to the 
security of the neighboring nations. On the other 
hand, a community with a satisfactory standard 
of living is the best insurance against the entrance 
of totalitarianism; it is the best assurance of a 
continuance of a democratic system. 

The United States has cooperated whole-heart- 
edly in such multilateral endeavors as the Pan 
American Sanitary Bureau, which is the inter- 
American health organization. It has also been 
active in bilateral programs. Through the Insti- 
tute of Inter- American Affairs, the United States 
and other American Republics cooperate in health 
and food-production programs. Through the In- 
terdepartmental Committee on Scientific and Cixl- 
tural Cooperation the United States cooperates 
extensively in the scientific and technical field, 
and in the exchange of students and specialists. 
Cooperation among the American Republics for 
the improvement of economic and social conditions 
is a means for undergirding democracy in the 
hemisphere. 

A further characteristic of the inter-American 
system is the support which it gives to the United 
Nations as a regional arrangement under the 

November 14, 1948 



United Nations Charter. The United Nations 
Charter provides that regional organizations shall 
have a function in the peaceful settlement of dis- 
putes and contemplates that regional arrange- 
ments may have certain enforcement functions 
under authority of the Security Council. The 
American Republics are loyal in their support of 
the world organization. They acknowledge that 
cooperation between their American neighbors 
does not preclude the necessity for cooperation on 
a world-wide basis. At the same time, the Ameri- 
can Republics recognize that world-wide coopera- 
tion does not preclude the close and fruitful rela- 
tionship which the American Republics have de- 
veloped over the course of years. Very far from 
being mutually exclusive, cooperation on a world- 
wide basis and regional cooperation in the inter- 
American system, supplement one another — the 
regional cooperation giving support to world- 
wide cooperation in the United Nations. 

The American Republics have a long history of 
cooperation in economic matters; in fact, the 
present-day Pan American Union started as a com- 
mercial bureau of the American Republics. 
There is at present an Inter-American Economic 
and Social Council. Economic cooperation has 
its roots in economic interdependence. It is safe 
to assume that the coffee you had for dinner today 
was made from coffee grown in Brazil or one of 
the other American Republics. Many other in- 
stances of this kind could be mentioned. On the 
other hand, many of the products of New Jersey 
and other states of the Union find their way to 
South America. Inter-American trade is impor- 
tant to the American Republics. Many of the 
other American Republics are in need of economic 
development, for which they need tools and ma- 
chinery. To purchase tools and machinery re- 
quires foreign exchange. Problems of this kind 
ai-e to be discussed at an Inter- American Economic 
Conference in Buenos Aires in the spring of next 
year. 

Organization of the System 

The characteristics of the inter-American sys- 
tem find their expression in the organizational 
set-up of the system. The agency with which 
there is the greatest familiarity in the United 
States is the Pan American Union. The Pan 
American Union is the permanent organ of the 

593 



inter-American system which, of course, is far 
more extensive than the Union itself. 

The organization of the inter-American sys- 
tem is depicted on the accompanying chart. The 
title, "Organization of Ajnerican States", and the 
subtitle, "The International Organization of the 
21 American Republics established by the Charter 
signed at the Ninth International Conference of 
American States, Bogota, Colombia, 1948", appear 
on this chart. Wliile the name, "Organization of 
American States", was selected in Bogota in the 
spring of this year, the organization or association 
of American states itself dates back to the First 
International Conference of American States held 
in Washington in 1889-90. At this conference the 
International Union of American Republics came 
into being. The present Organization of Ameri- 
can States is the lineal descendant, or perhaps it 
would be more accurate to say, the reorganization 
of the International Union of American Republics 
of 1889-90. 

One of the main purposes of the Bogota confer- 
ence was to work on a reorganization of the inter- 
American system. The system had experienced a 
spontaneous growth from the days of its inception 
and the need was quite generally felt for integi-a- 
tion and coordination of the various inter- Ameri- 
can organizations and agencies that had developed. 
The Bogota conference prepared a charter for the 
Organization of American States which provides 
an integrated system for the various agencies of 
the Organization. 

The box at the top of the chart relates to the 
Inter-American Conference. This is the supreme 
organ of the Organization and decides the general 
action and policies of the Organization. All mem- 
ber states of the Organization are represented at 
the Inter-American Conference and each state has 
the right to one vote. The conference will meet 
every five years in regular session ; however, spe- 
cial sessions may be called with the approval of 
two thirds of the governments. There have been 
nine inter-American conferences of this type in 
the past, beginning with the one in Washington 
in 1889-90, the most recent one being at Bogota. 

The straight line down from the Inter- Ameri- 
can Conference leads to the Council of the Organi- 
zation, which is the permanent executive body of 
the Organization. The Council is composed of 
one representative of each of the member states. 



The Council meets at the Pan American Union 
building in Washington at regular intervals — in 
the past usually once a month, but in the future it 
will probably meet twice a month. Many of the 
countries are represented by a full-time represen- 
tative, with the rank of Ambassador; others have 
appointed their Ambassador to Washington to 
serve as their representative on the Council. The 
Council makes recommendations to the govern- 
ments, to the Inter- American Conference, and to 
the agencies of the system. It serves as a point of 
coordination for the functioning of the whole sys- 
tem, and promotes and facilitates collaboration 
between the Organization of American States and 
the United Nations and other international 
agencies. ■ 

The straight line down from the Council of the 
Organization, on the chart, leads to the Pan Ameri- 
can Union. The picture in this box of the chart is 
the Pan American Union building located on the { 
corner of I7th Street and Constitution Avenue in ' 
Washington, D. C. Visitors in Washington find I 
it very interesting and worthwhile to stop at the i 
Pan American Union building and see the many 
exhibits jjortraying the arts and industries of the 
other American Republics, as well as the tropical 
garden in the center of the building, and the beau- 
tiful Hall of the Americas ; also the Council Room 
where the Council of the Organization holds its 
sessions and where the committees of the Council 
meet. 

The Pan American Union had its inception in 
1890 when the First International Conference of 
American States established it as the Commercial 
Bureau of the American Republics. In 1910 its 
name was changed to the Pan American Union. 
The Pan American Union is the central and perma- 
nent organ and general secretariat of the Organiza- 
tion. As is indicated on the chart, it has five de- 
partments — International Law and Organization, 
Economic and Social Affaii's, Cultural Affairs, In- 
formation, and Administrative Services. Through 
these departments it promotes economic, social, 
juridical, and cultural relations among the mem- 
ber states. It also does preparatory work for in- 
ter-American conferences and serves as secretariat 
for the Council of the Organization and various 
inter-American conferences. The work of the 
Union has expanded to such an extent during the 
years of its existence that it is using every avail- 



594 



Department of State Bulletin 



ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES 

The International Organization of the 21 American Republics established by the Charter 
signed at the Ninth International Conference of American States, Bogotd, Colombia,l948. 




TKE 
INTER -AMERICAN CONFERENCE 




Supremo Organ of the Organizotion 
Decides generol action and policy 



THE COUNCIL 
OF THE ORGANIZATION 




Permonent Executive Body ond 
Provisionol Organ ot Consultation 



INTER -AMERICAN 

ECONOMIC 

AND 

SOCIAL COUNCIL 



INTER-AMERICAN 

COUNCIL 

OF JURISTS 



INTER-AMERICAN 
JURIDICAL COMMITTEE 



llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 
lllllllilllilllllllllllllllll 




THE 
PAN AMERICAN UNION 




General Secretariat 
ot ttie Organization 



DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL 
LAW AND ORGANIZATION 



DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC 
AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS 



DEPARTMENT OF 
CULTURAL AFFAIRS 



DEPARTMENT OF 
IN FORMATION 



DEPARTMENT OF 
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES 



INTER-AMERICAN 

CU LTU R A L 

COUNCIL 



COM M ITTEE FOR 
CULTURAL ACT ION 



The Directors of these Departments ore the 
Executive Secretaries ot the respective CowKJh. 



November 14, 1948 



(Courtesy of the Pan American Union) 

595 



able bit of space in the Pan American Union build- 
ing, as well as extra space obtained in other build- 
ings in Washington. It is in urgent need of the 
additional building which is being constructed at 
the present time on Constitution Avenue between 
18th and 19th Streets, just across' the street from 
its present building. 

At the top of the chart and to the left, is a circle 
for the Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs. The Meeting of Foreign Minis- 
ters considers problems of an urgent nature and 
serves as the Organ of Consultation under the Rio 
treaty. Any member state may request that a meet- 
ing of consultation be called. When such a request 
is made, the Council of the Organization decides 
whether the meeting sliovdd be held. If an armed 
attack occurs within the territory of an American 
Republic or within the region specified in the Rio 
treaty, the Chairman of the Council of the Organi- 
zation must call a meeting of Foreign Ministers 
immediately, at the same time calling a meeting of 
the Council itself, which is to serve provisionally 
as the Organ of Consultation. 

Just below the circle on the chart for the Meet- 
ing of Ministers of Foreign Affairs is a smaller 
circle devoted to the Advisory Defense Committee. 
The Advisory Defense Committee is composed of 
the highest military authorities of the American 
states participating in a Meeting of Foreign Min- 
isters when it is acting as the Organ of Consulta- 
tion. It is convoked under the same conditions as 
the Organ of Consultation in order to advise the 
Organ of Consultation on problems of military 
cooperation that may arise in connection with the 
application of treaties on collective security. The 
Committee may also meet under certain other con- 
ditions, for technical studies and reports on spe- 
cific subjects. 

On the right of the chart are also two circles — 
the top circle, "Specialized Conferences", refers to 
conferences of the American Republics which meet 
to consider technical matters or to develop specific 
aspects of inter-American cooperation. The eco- 
nomic conference to be held in Buenos Aires next 
spring is a conference of this type. These confer- 
ences are called when the need for them is felt, or 
pursuant to provisions in existing inter- American 
agreements. 

The smaller circle on the right deals with spe- 
cialized organizations. These are inter-American 

596 



organizations which have been established by mu- 
tual agreement and have functions with respect to 
a given field of common interest to the American 
states, such as health, transportation, commerce, 
geography, and history. Agreements are to be en- 
tered into between the Council and specialized or- 
ganizations defining the relations that shall exist 
between the respective agencies and the Organiza- 
tion of American States. 

On the lower part of the chart to either side of 
the Pan American Union are boxes containing the 
names of three Councils — The Inter-American 
Economic and Social Council, the Inter- American 
Council of Jurists, and the Inter-American Cul- 
tural Council. 

The first of these — the Inter-American Eco- 
nomic and Social Council — is currently in exist- 
ence and has been for several years. Its principal 
purpose is the promotion of the economic and so- 
cial welfare of the American nations through ef- 
fective cooperation for the better utilization of 
their natural resources, the development of their 
agriculture, commerce, and industry, and the rais- 
ing of the standards of living of their people. The 
Inter-American Council of Jurists and the Inter- 
American Cultural Council are new councils first 
provided for in the chai'ter signed at Bogota, al- 
though the Inter- American Juridical Committee, 
the permanent committee of the Inter-American 
Council of Jurists, is a continuation of the Juridi- 
cal Committee which has been in existence for sev- 
ei'al years in Rio de Janeiro. The Juridical Coun- 
cil will serve as an advisory body on juridical 
matters, will promote the development and codifi- 
cation of international law, and will study the pos- 
sibility of attaining uniformity in the legislation 
of various American countries. The Cultural 
Council will seek to promote free relations and 
mutual understanding among the American peo- 
ple in order to strengthen their educational, 
scientific, and cultural ties and to promote and 
coordinate activities in these fields. As in the 
case of the Inter-American Economic and Social 
Council, all of the American Republics will be 
represented on the Juridical and Cultural Coun- 
cils. The Council of the Organization has a com- 
mittee at work at the present time which is 
preparing for the actual establishment of the 
Juridical and Cultural Councils. 

The foregoing is a summary of the organization 
of the inter-American system as contemplated by 

Department of State Bulletin 



the charter signed at Bogota. The charter is a 
treat_v, and hence, will have to be ratified by the 
Kepublic's in accordance with their respective con- 
stitutional procedures. It will enter into force 
among the ratifying states when two thirds of the 
signatory states have deposited their ratifications. 
However, since the charter is actually a reorgani- 
zation of an existing system rather than a com- 
pletel}^ new organization, and since all of the 
American Republics signed the charter, the Bo- 
gota conference felt that there was every reason 
for placing the organizational set-up in eti'ect im- 
mediately, so that the benefits of the reorganiza- 
tion could be attained immediately, without hav- 
ing to wait for the necessary 14 ratifications. 



The Bogota conference, therefore, passed a reso- 
lution which places the organizational set-up of 
the charter in effect provisionally and also speci- 
fies that the new organs provided for in the char- 
ter shall be established on a provisional basis. 

The inter- American system is a mighty bulwark 
of solidarity in a turbulent world. Here equal 
sovereignty is recognized, countries avoid inter- 
vention in each other's internal affairs, but con- 
sult on matters of mutual interest. Here we have 
peaceful settlement of disputes and cooperation 
for the general good. Such a system, such an or- 
ganization of states, such a free community of 
neighboring nations, is a tower of strength to the 
United Nations and to the world. 



Related Department of State Publications on the American Republics 

The following publications may be secured from 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. 

Report of Delegation of United States to Inter- 
American Conference on Problems of War and 
Peace, Mexico City, Feb. 21-Mar. 8, 19i5. Con- 
ference Series 85. Pub. 2497. 1946. 371 pp. 
550. 

Report on the work of the Conference, with ap- 
pendixes, including the Final Act of the Con- 
ference and draft resolutions presented to the 
Conference. 

Cultural Centers in the Other American Repub- 
lics. By Dorothy Greene and Sherly Goodman 
Esman, Department of State. Inter-American 
Series [30]. Pub. 2503. 1946. 20 pp. 50. 

An explanation of activities and studies in the 
cultural centers established in the American 
republics by local groups and U.S. nationals. 

Sharing "Know-How" — An Inter-American 
Achievement. Foreign Affairs Outline No. 
14. Inter-American Series 34. Pub. 2949. 
1947. 4 pp. Free. 

Development of inter-American bilateral scien- 
tific and cultural cooperation during and after 
the war, effected principally through the Inter- 
departmental Committee on Scientific and Cul- 
tural Cooperation and the Institute of Inter- 
American Affairs. 

Cooperation in the Americas: Report of the In- 
terdepartmental Committee on Scientific and 
Cultural Cooperation, July 1946-June 1947. 
International Information and Cultural Series 
1. Pub. 2971. 1948. 146 pp. 400. 

November 14, 7948 



A discussion of the cooperative scientific and 
technical projects, the exchange of persons, 
and other cultural interchanges between the 
Americas. 

Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance 
of Continental Peace and Security, Quitan- 
dinha, Brazil, Aug. 15-Sept. 2, 1947: Report 
of the Delegation of the United States of Amer- 
ica. International Organization and Confer- 
ence Series II, American Republics 1. Pub. 
3016. 1948. 225 pp. 400. 

A discussion of all phases of the Inter- American 
Conference for the Maintenance of Continental 
Peace and Security, with ample documentation. 

Sovereignty and Interdependence in the New 
World : Comments on the Inter- American Sys- 
tem. Inter-American Series 35. Pub. 3054. 
1948. 32 pp. Free. 

An article by William Sanders describing vari- 
ous phases of inter- American cooperation as it 
has developed during the past 60 years. 

Address by the Secretary of State Before the 
Second Plenary Session of the Ninth Interna- 
tional Conference of American States, Bogota, 
Colombia, Apr. 1, 1948. International Organi- 
zation and Conference Series II, American Re- 
publics 2. Pub. 3139. 1948. 14 pp. Free. 

Presenting the U.S. point of view on inter- 
American cooperation and organization. 

Significance of the Institute of Inter-American 
Affairs in the Conduct of U.S. Foreign Policy. 
Inter-American Series 36. Pub. 3239. 1948. 
19 pp. 150. 

A series of articles by Louis J. Halle, Jr., on 
inter- American cooperation under the Institute 
with emphasis on the fields of agriculture, educa- 
tion, and health. 

597 



UNITED NATIONS ECONOIVIIC COOPERATION 

by Norman Burns 
Adviser, Office of International Trade Policy 



In the midst of World War II, a commission of 
the Federal Council of Churches proposed six pre- 
requisites of "a just and durable peace". One of 
those proposals relates directly to United Nations 
economic cooperation. It reads as follows : 

"The peace must make provision for bringing 
within the scope of international agreement those 
economic and financial acts of national govern- 
ments which have widespread international re- 
percussions." 

The commission exjjlained its proposal in a brief 
comment : 

"Science", it said, "has made it possible for the 
world to sustain a far greater population than was 
formerly the case and to attain for that population 
a high standard of living. But this involves a 
large degree of transportation and interchange be- 
tween one nation and another. Thus all people 
are subject to grave risk, so long as any single gov- 
ernment may, by unilateral action, disrupt the flow 
of world trade. This is a form of anarchy that 
creates widespread insecurity and breeds disorder. 
It prompts nations to seek self-sufficiency for 
themselves at the expense of others. We do not 
here envisage, as presently practical, a condition 
of 'free trade'. But the world does require that 
the areas of economic interdependence be dealt 
with in the interest of all concerned and that there 
be international organization to promote this end." 

Need for International Economic Cooperation 

This trend of thought motivated the creation of 
a postwar structure of international economic co- 
operation. Thoughtful people had become con- 
vinced of the economic interdependence of the 
various countries. They had seen from their own 
experience how unilateral action by each coinitry, 
without adequate regard to the effect of its action 
on other countries, had led to economic warfare 
that "dried up" international trade in the 1920's 

598 



and 1930's. They had seen how the mishandling of 
the world's economic problems in the interwar 
years had created political instability that ren- 
dered more difficult the task of maintaining the 
peace. They knew that World War II had dis- 
rupted world economic life far more than had the 
first woi'ld war. The second world war had 
lasted for a longer period of time and had de- 
stroyed more life and more property over a wider 
area of the globe than any previous war. Many 
people realized that if our kind of world was to 
survive this holocaust, the various countries would 
have to cooperate in political and economic mat- 
ters to achieve economic recovery as quickly as 
possible. 

Postwar Progress 

Within the short space of three years, the United 
Nations have created an operating mechanism for 
international economic cooperation — something 
they had not been able to do after the first world 
war. At times the obstacles seemed almost insup- 
erable. Yet when we consider the situation today 
in relation to 1945, the accomplishment seems very 
great indeed. Within three years after the first 
world Mar, the United States experienced the se- 
vere depression of 1921; and famine stalked 
through many foreign lands. Today the United 
States industrial production is two thirds above 
that of prewar years ; agricultural jDroduction, one 
third above. Canadian and Latin American pro- 
duction is substantially higher than before the 
war. By the end of 1947, nearly all the European 
countries (except Germany) had reached or ex- 
ceeded their prewar industrial output, according 
to the latest annual report of the International 
Fund. Western Germany's industrial output is 
now 70 percent of the prewar level. Exports from 
the 16 Western European countries iDarticipating 
in the European Recovery Progi'am were 30 per- 
cent greater in volume in 1947 than in 1946, and 
the 1947 volume was only 10 to 15 percent less than 

Department of State Bulletin 



in 1938. The bread-grain production of Western 
Europe in 1948 was about 12 percent below the 
1938 vohime, according to the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture. 

The fact that emerges from these broad com- 
parisons is that after the most devastating of all 
wars and in the face of determined Communist 
attempts to prolong the disruption of war-torn 
countries, the non-Communist world had made 
gi'eat strides toward economic recovery. The ma- 
jor reason for the success thus far achieved lies in 
the determination of the non-Communist world to 
follow a course of international economic coopera- 
tion. The United States has contributed in full 
measure to such cooperation. Without United Na- 
tions cooperation and United States assistance, 
such recovery would not have been possible. 

Instruments of U.N. Economic Cooperation 

The United Nations economic structure consists 
of the Economic and Social Council and the spe- 
cialized agencies. The Economic and Social Coun- 
cil serves as a forum for the discussion of all eco- 
nomic and social matters pertinent to economic 
stability and well-being as a basis for peace. It is 
composed of 18 Member Countries elected by the 
General Assembly for three-year terms. It has 
been meeting twice a year (seven meetings to 
date) , and its next meeting will be at Lake Success 
in February 1949. The United States Representa- 
tive on the Council is Willard L. Thorp, Assistant 
Secretarj^ of State for economic affairs. 

The authority of the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil is confined to consultation, discussion, and rec- 
ommendation; it has no coercive power. It may 
make recommendations, on the basis of majority 
vote, to the General Assembly, Member Govern- 
ments, the specialized agencies, and, under certain 
conditions, to the Security Council. It may con- 
sider any kind of economic or social question 
brought before it by Governments Members of the 
United Nations, or, in certain cases, by nongovern- 
mental organizations which have consultative 
status with the Economic and Social Council. It 
may deal with regional economic problems. It has 
called conferences to deal with the conservation of 
natural resources, freedom of the press, and the 
establishment of the World Health Organization. 
Its resolution of February 1946 proposed the call- 
ing of an international trade conference to reduce 



world-trade barriers and to expand world trade. 
This resolution led to the 23-nation General Agi'ee- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade, negotiated at Geneva 
last year, and to the Havana Charter for an Inter- 
national Trade Organization. The Economic and 
Social Council is responsible, also, for coordinat- 
ing the activities of specialized economic organi- 
zations, such as the International Bank, the Inter- 
national Fund, the Food and Agriculture Organi- 
zation, the International Labor Organization, and 
the proposed International Trade Organization. 

The International Bank was created in 1945 to 
make long-term loans for the reconstruction and 
development of member countries. Its total capi- 
tal amounts to 8,286 million dollars ; its resources 
in terms of gold, dollars, and United States bonds 
amount to one billion dollars. It has granted re- 
construction loans amomiting to 525 million dol- 
lars to France, the Netherlands, Denmark, Lux- 
embourg, and Chile. According to a recent press 
statement by John J. McCloy, president of the 
Bank, the Bank may make further loans up to 
478 million dollars within the next six months. 
Securities have been sold in the United States 
amounting to 250 million dollars, and Mr. McCloy 
said that further issues are contemplated. Bank 
securities are legally authorized investments for 
institutional investors for all national banks, for 
commercial banks in 41 States, for savings banks, 
and insurance companies in 22 States, and for trust 
funds in 28 States. 

The International Monetary Fund, a sister or- 
ganization of the Bank, was established to reduce 
wide fluctuations in exchange rates between dif- 
ferent currencies. It advises member countries 
in the establishment of exchange rates; it serves 
as a continuous forum for consultation on such 
problems; it sends technical missions to member 
countries, at their request, to help them put their 
fiscal affairs in order; and it buys and sells for- 
eign exchange. In the period from July 1, 1947, 
to April 30, 1948, it bought 544 million dollars of 
foreign currencies. Voting power in the Bank and 
the Fund is based primarily upon the country's 
participating capital. The United States has 
33.65 percent of the Bank votes and 30.62 percent 
of the Fund votes. The latest annual reports of 
the Bank and the Fund contain excellent surveys 
of the present world economic situation. 

The Food and Agriculture Organization and the 



November 14, 1948 



599 



International Labor Organization have special- 
ized economic functions. The former makes rec- 
ommendations on world supplies and requirements 
of foodstuffs, the latter on world labor conditions. 
Like the Bank and the Fund, each has a member- 
ship of ajjproximately 50 countries. The Soviet 
Union is not at present a member of any of these 
agencies except the Economic and Social Council, 
where it usually opposes the economic programs 
of the non-Communist world. Finland, Poland, 
Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia are members of 
most of the specialized agencies. 

The United Nations economic structure is now 
virtually complete except for the establishment of 
the proposed International Trade Organization. 
During the Habana conference last spring, repre- 
sentatives of 54 nations agreed upon a draft Char- 
ter for an International Trade Organization. 
This Charter will be submitted to the legislatures 
of the various countries for ratification. It will 
be submitted to the United States Congress prob- 
ably early next year. 

The Charter does two things: it establishes a 
code ,of fair-trade rules that countries voluntarily 
agree to follow in their trade with each other ; it 
proposes an organization to implement the rules 
of fair trade and to serve as a forum for the settle- 
ment of trade disputes between members. The 
Charter seeks to avoid the kind of economic war- 
fare between countries that limited world trade in 
the 1920's and 1930's. 

The United States has actively sponsored this 
project, through five years of international dis- 
cussions and conferences, for the reason voiced m 
the resolution of the Federal Council of Churches, 
namely, that when governments are free to take 
unilateral action to disrupt the flow of world trade, 
the inevitable result is "anarchy that creates wide- 
spread insecurity". Cordell Hull, then Congress- 
man from Tennessee, proposed the creation of such 
an organization during the first world war. His 
resolution in the House of Representatives, April 
23, 1917, proposed a "permanent international 
trade agreement congress" to consider "all inter- 
national trade methods, practices, and policies 
which in their effects are reasonably calculated to 
create dangerous and destructive commercial con- 
troversies or bitter economic wars" and "to formu- 
late treaty arrangements with respect thereto, de- 
signed to eliminate, prevent, and avoid the inju- 



rious results and dangerous possibilities of eco- 
nomic warfare . . . ". 

The Charter rules cover the whole range of in- 
ternational trade relationships: tariffs, quotas, 
subsidies, foreign exchange, customs formalities, 
cartels, commodity agreements, nondiscrimina- 
tion, and the international aspects of foreign in- 
vestment, employment, and economic develop- 
ment. 

The basic principles of the Charter are simple. 
Countries voluntarily agree t.o follow certain fair 
rules of trade. If countries desire to take certain 
actions, they must consult with each other. The 
Charter rules represent commitments by govern- 
ments to refrain from various governmental ac- 
tions which they are now at full liberty to take, 
that interfere with private trade. Thus the Char- 
ter gives greater scope for the development of 
trade on the basis of competitive rather than po- 
litical considerations. This favors private enter- 
prise. 

One basic princii^le of the Charter is that coun- 
tries should negotiate for the reciprocal reduction 
of world-trade barriers. Substantial progress has 
already been accomplished under the 23-nation 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade nego- 
tiated at Geneva last year. Under this agreement, 
the 23 countries reduced tariff rates on some items 
and bound tariff rates against increase on other 
items for products accounting for over one half of 
the world's total foreign trade. This was the most 
comjDrehensive attempt ever undertaken to reduce 
world-trade barriers. The general agreement is 
already in effect for all the 23 countries except 
Chile; it includes the United States, the British 
EmjDire countries, France, Belgium, the Nether- 
lands, China, and certain Latin American coun- 
tries. Next Ajaril 11 more countries (Sweden, 
Deninark, Finland, Italy, Greece, Peru, Uruguay, 
Dominican Republic, Haiti, El Salvador, and Nica- 
ragua) will negotiate with each other and with the 
23 nations of the General Agreement for a fur- 
ther reduction of world-trade barriers. The 
United States will conduct its negotiations in ac- 
cordance with the usual Reciprocal Trade Agree- 
ments Act. The Soviet Union, although invited, 
did not participate in either the trade agreement 
or the Charter negotiations. The Soviet Union 
has opposed the Charter. Mr. Arutiunian, speak- 
ing for the Soviet Union before the Economic and 
Social Council, August 11, 1948, claimed that the 



600 



Department of State Bulletin 



International Trade Organization would "exert 
pressure on countries practicing state-controlled 
trade" and that it would "contribute to the domi- 
nation by the U. S. A. of world markets". 

The European Recovery Program is not an in- 
tegral part of the United Nations structure, but it 
complements United Nations economic coopera- 
tion. The basic i-eason for the European Recovery 
Program was that Western Europe, as a result of 
war-dislocations, was unable to support itself. In 
19-47, for example. Western Europe's dollar deficit 
on current account upon the Western Hemisphere 
amounted to 8 billion dollars, according to the In- 
ternational Fund. The choice was either for the 
United States to extend aid to help Europe restore 
its economy quickly or for Europe to restrict its 
imports to its means of payment. The latter 
meant restriction of European consumption to a 
point that would be perilous to the economic and 
political stability of Western Europe. The United 
States Congress, following a bipartisan policy, 
voted 5 billion dollars for the European Recovery 
Program in the 12- to 15-month period beginning 
April 1948; one half of this amount has already 
been authorized for procurement. Paul Hoffman, 
Administrator of the progi-am, says that further 
assistance will be needed until the summer of 1952, 
at which time Western Europe will be on a self- 
sustaining basis. But there is an "if" — if world 
trading conditions are such as to permit an expan- 
sion of world trade. 

It is because of this "if" that the ultimate suc- 
cess of the European Recovery Program is closely 
associated with the United States trade program. 
Europe cannot support itself without a flourishing 
world trade, because the European economy is 
built upon the procurement of raw materials in 
some countries and the sale of manufactured prod- 
ucts in other countries. The United States Con- 
gress recognized this basic situation in the "Eco- 
nomic Cooperation Act of 1948", which created the 
European Recovery Program, when it required 
under the act (section 115) that the United States 
cooperate "with other participating countries in 
facilitating and stimulating an increasing inter- 
change of goods and services among the partici- 
pating countries and with other countries and co- 
operating to reduce barriers to trade among them- 
selves and with other countries". 

The International Bank, in its latest annual 
report, also emphasizes that in the long run Euro- 
November 14, J 948 



pean recovery depends upon a large world trade. 

It says in this respect : 

"Unless the markets for European products can 
be broadened and greater freedom of intra-Euro- 
pean trade can be attained, the hope for ultimate 
European recovery will be dimmed and the oppor- 
tunity afforded by Erp will be lost. Trade bar- 
riers in whatever form tend to breed productive 
inefficiency. They enable inefficient and uneco- 
nomic enterprises to survive and prevent efficient 
producers from reaching the markets they need 
to improve their efficiency and increase their pro- 
duction." 

Thus the Habana Charter for an International 
Trade Organization and the world trade barrier 
reduction program of the United States Govern- 
ment — ^both of which are instruments to expand 
world trade — complement the European Recovery 
Program. The recovery progi-am is intended to 
put Europe on its feet as quickly as possible; the 
United States trade program and the Charter are 
intended to establish trade conditions that will 
enable Europe to stay on its feet after American 
emergency financial aid comes to an end. 

Conclusions 

United Nations economic cooperation is now a 
living reality. It is already functioning as re- 
gards the non-Communist world. The United 
States has contributed in full measure toward that 
recovery, at great cost to the finances and resources 
of this country. We did so because we knew that 
with our support, the postwar world might re- 
cover; without it, no one knew what the future 
might hold forth. The real issue was faith in a 
way of life. 

The path of United Nations economic coopera- 
tion has not been easy. One keystone in the struc- 
ture — the International Trade Organization — has 
not yet been established. In the United Nations 
structure, precisely the same as in national govern- 
ments, organizations tend to overlap each other. 
In the United Nations structure, precisely as in 
national governments, some people and some coun- 
tries are more interested in words than in deeds. 
In the United Nations negotiations, as in national 
governments, there are conflicts and differences of 
opinion. It is not always easy to make such or- 
ganizations work effectively. The United Na- 
tions economic organizations can work only if the 

601 



Member Governments want them to work. The 
United Nations organizations were confronted 
with postwar economic problems of appalling 
magnitude. Communist strategy has been to pro- 
long and aggravate these problems. 

The problem of the future concerns the relation 
of the democratic and the Communist world. In 
this situation there are "pluses" for the democra- 
cies. Partly as a by-product of the United Nations 
activity, public opinion in each country under- 



stands more clearly than ever before the nature 
of the world's economic and political problems. 
This is a plus in the balance. Another plus is 
that the democratic countries, notwitlistanding all 
difficulties, have shown that they can work to- 
gether; they have actually achieved tremendous 
progress toward world recovery. Another plus 
is American leadership, which, in the future as in 
the past, will count heavily in the balance of world 
affairs. 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Adoption of Atomic Energy Resolution 



STATEMENT BY WARREN R. AUSTIN > 
U.S. Delegate to the General Assembly 



We have before us the resolution on atomic en- 
ergy ^ adopted by more than a two-thirds vote at 
the 165th meeting of the first committee on Octo- 
ber 20, 1948. 

The resolution approves the general findings 
and recommendations of the first i-eport, and the 
specific proposals of Part II of the second report 
of the Atomic Energy Commission, as constitut- 
ing the necessary basis for the control of atomic 
energy to insure its use only for peaceful purposes, 
and for the elimination from national armaments 
of atomic weapons, in accordance with the tenus 
of reference of the Atomic Energy Commission. 
It requests the six powers who were the sponsors, 
on the General Assembly, of the resolution which 
resulted in setting up the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion, to consult in order to determine if there ex- 
ists a basis for agreement. Meanwhile, it calls 
upon the Atomic Energy Commission to resume 
its sessions and to proceed with the further study 
of such of the subjects remaining in its program 
of work as it considers to be practicable and useful. 

The United States voted for this resolution in 



' Made before the Plenary Session of the General As- 
sembly in Paris on Nov. 3, 1948, and released to the press 
on the same date. 

' See p. 606. 

» BULLETIN of Oct. 31, 1948, p. 539. 

602 



Committee I.^ It will vote for it in this plenary 
session. In doing so, it is carrying out the commit- 
ment which it made to turn over its atomic weap- 
ons, its plants, and all its knowledge in this field, 
to an international agency in order that atomic 
weapons might be forever prohibited, and that 
peaceful uses of atomic energy might be success- 
fully developed. To this commitment, it attached 
only one condition, namely: that a system of safe- 
guards should be set up, such that, when the 
United States disposed of its atomic weapons, it 
would not be possible for any other nation to make 
or use atomic energy for destructive purposes. 

We believe that the general principles and spe- 
cific proposals of the Atomic Energy Commission, 
which have been developed after long discussion, 
and with such painstaking care, meet this condi- 
tion. Many alternatives have been considered but 
none has been found which would contain equal 
guaranty of security to all nations. 

In this matter, the interest of the United States 
is no different from the interest of any other coun- 
try. Any weakness in the plan of control which 
would allow a possibility of a new threat of atomic 
weapons anywhere in the world after the sign- 
ing of the treaty, would be disastrous to peace and 
security. There is no nation, great or small, which 
would be willing to envisage such a possibility. 

Department of State Bulletin 



We firmly believe that the Soviet Union, when it 
has fully coiisitlered all aspects of this situation, 
and is read}* to enter into a treaty for control and 
prohibition, will demand, as do all other nations, a 
phin wliich embodies every possible safeguard. 
When that time comes, it seems likely that the 
Soviet Union Mill itself insist on the safeguards 
embodied in this very plan, which they now so 
bitterly oppose. 

The resolution before us also calls upon the six 
sponsors of the General Assembly resolution of 
January 24, 194('>,' who are the permanent members 
of the Atomic Energy Commission, to meet to- 
gether and consult in order to determine if there 
exists a basis for agi-eement on the international 
control of atomic energy to insure its use only for 
peaceful purposes, and for the elimination from 
national armaments of atomic weapons. The 
United States shares the view of the majority of 
the nations members of the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission, as expressed in the Commission's third 
report,' that such consultations are necessary. The 
impasse in the Atomic Energy Commission is 
basically due, not to differences in the technical 
details of the plan, but to the refusal of the Soviet 
Union to accept, in the words of the third report: 
"The nature and extent of participation in the 
world community required of all nations in this 
field." It is the desire of the United States that 
these consultations should be at a high level and 
principally concerned with the cause of the Soviet 
Union's finding itself at present unwilling or un- 
able to take a cooperative part with other nations 
in the necessary measures for the maintenance of 
peace. 

We do not assume that at the very first con- 
sultation the great difficulties which separate the 
Soviet Union from the countries of the Western 
world will be immediately resolved. But we be- 
lieve that the time is appropriate for consulta- 
tion on these matters. We do very seriously hope 
that quiet and mature discussion in an atmosphere 
of intelligent deliberation may make for progi'ess 
in mutual understanding, and pave the way for 
ultimate solutiojis. We believe that the terrible 
problem of atomic energy would provide a frame- 
work which would keep constantly before the con- 
sulting powers the urgent necessity for agreement 
on measures which would resolve present difficid- 
ties, and which would lift from the hearts of na- 
tions the overshadowing fear of atomic warfare. 

As an additional step towards attaining this 
great objective, the General Assembly in this reso- 
lution calls upon the Atomic Energy Commission 
to resume its sessions, to survey its program of 
work, and to proceed to the further study of such 
of the subjects remaining in the progi'am of work 
as it considers to be practicable and useful. 

After the experience of the past two years in the 
Atomic Energy Commission, the United States had 

November 74, 7948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

about reached the conclusion that no further con- 
crete advance could be made in the Atomic Energy 
Connnission itself until some agreement had been 
reached on the basic barriers to immediate accept- 
ance of a plan of prohibition coupled with effec- 
tive control. The attitude of the United States in 
this respect was shared by the nine majority mem- 
bers of the Atomic Energy Commission when they 
voted for the third report. However, in the debate 
in Committee I, the Delegates of Syria, of Aus- 
tralia, and of India urged that the work of the 
Commission be continued in one or another form. 
This feeling was expressed by many other dele- 
gates, and the United States concurred. We say 
now to the General Assembly that we loyally par- 
ticipate in the request it is making upon the 
Atomic Energy Commission to resume its sessions, 
that we will earnestly proceed to the survey of the 
program of work of the Commission, and to the 
further study of such of the subjects remaining in 
the program of work as the Commission, in its dis- 
cretion, considers to be practicable and useful. 

The United States will do its share to carry out 
this mandate of the General Assembly in such a 
way as to advance, by every possible means, 
toward our common goal of control, and elimina- 
tion from national armaments, of this dangerous 
weapon. 

In making this promise, we are continuing a 
policy to which the people of the United States 
have been committed since the beginning of the 
Atomic Age. On October 27, 1945, the President 
of the United States, in his Navy Day address, re- 
affirmed the fundamentals of the United States 
foreign policy in the new frame of reference of the 
atomic bomb. In effect, he told the world that we 
hold the bomb and our knowledge of atomic energy 
as a "sacred trust", and that in no way did our 
possession of such a weapon constitute a threat to 
any nation, or make a departure from our basic 
foreign policy. 

By the end of the first year of the Atomic Age, 
the United States had initiated action that : 

Led to the creation of the mechanisms for inter- 
national consideration of atomic controls; 

Devised a detailed plan for the world control of 
nuclear energy under an International Atomic De- 
velopment Authority representing all of the 
United Nations; 

Adopted by Act of Congress a strict national 
control of all fissionable materials under a civilian 
commission ; 

Released radioactive materials (isotopes) for 
medical, biologic, and scientific research, and 

Through its representative to the newly created 



' Bulletin of Feb. 10, 1940. p. 198. 

' Department of State publication 3179. 



603 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZED AGENCIES 

United Nations Atomic Energy Commission had 
proposed a plan for the international control of 
atomic energy. 

A notable part of this record is the public policy 
declared in the Atomic Energy Act of lOie.*^ 
That carefully considered legislation primarily 
relates to domestic control. However, in the 
evolution of policy declared by that act the mag- 
nitude and complexity of the task to be met in 
international planning and intergovernmental 
collaboration, was discovered. Therefore, both 
national and international policies of atomic- 
energy control were brought close together in the 
technical study and political discussion which re- 
sulted in the Act. Consequently, we find that this 
law, devoted to domestic administration, provided, 
in part, in the very first section : 

Purpose of Act. It is the purpose of this act to effec- 
tuate the policies set out in Section 1. (a) By providing, 
among others, for the following major programs relating 
to atomic energy. 

(2) A program for the control of scientific and tech- 
nical information which will permit the dissemination of 
such information to encourage scientific progress, and 
for the sharing on a reciprocal basis of information con- 
cerning the practical industrial application of atomic 
energy as soon as effective and enforceable safeguards 
against its use for destructive purposes can be devised, 

(5) A program of administration which will be con- 
sistent with the foregoing policies and with international 
arrangements made by the United States, and which will 
enable the Congress to be currently informed so as to take 
further legislative action as may hereafter be appropriate. 

In Section 8 of the same act we find this p^o- 
vision : 

Any provision of this Act or any action of the Commission 
to the extent that it conflicts with the provisions of any 
international arrangement made after the date of enact- 
ment of this Act shall be deemed to be of no further 
force or effect. 

In the performance of its functions under this Act, the 
Commission shall give maximum elfect to the policies 
contained in any such international arrangement. 

The declarations of the Atomic Energy Act of 
1946 show clearly the intentions of the American 
people with respect to the relationship between 
domestic and international control of atomic 
energy. 

More recently, on June 11, 1948, the Senate of 
the United States set forth as one of the objec- 
tives which the United States Government is par- 
ticularly to pursue, the following : 

"Maximum efforts to obtain agreement among 
member nations upon universal regulation and 
reduction of armaments under adequate and de- 
pendable guaranty against violations." 

International control of atomic energy was con- 
sidered "the immediately crucial aspect of the 
entire problem of armaments". 



' S. Rept. 1211, 79th Cong, (the McMahon bill). 



604 



These declarations are important because they 
represent the will of the American people ex- 
pressed by the Congress elected by them. They 
provide a clear and continuing mandate for the 
carrying out of American policy as established by 
the people. 

In this brief sketch of early policy development 
the General Assembly may perceive the relation 
to world safety of the principles and policies con- 
tained in the proposed resolution. 

In the first meeting of the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission, the United States suggested certain prin- 
ciples which might be used by the Commission as 
a basis for its studies. . During the almost three 
years which have followed, other nations have 
made important contributions to these principles. 
Notably, there have been contributed the pro- 
posal that quotas representing the proportion of 
nuclear fuel which would be assigned to each na- 
tion for peaceful purposes, should be written into 
the treaty, and not left to the arbitrary decisions 
of the international agency; and, further, the 
principle that upon the signing of the treaty, pro- 
duction of nuclear fuel should be kept to a mini- 
mum necessitated by actual beneficial uses. These 
new principles were accepted by the United States, 
the first, because it dispelled the charge that the 
international agency would be armed with arbi- 
trary powers by which it might interfere with the 
economic life of other nations, and the second, be- 
cause it enormously increases the security of the 
world during that considerable period of time 
which may elapse before atomic energy finds its 
proper place in the world economy for the produc- 
tion of power. 

The debate in the first committee was concerned 
almost entirely with the removal of the threat of 
atomic war. We feel that the debate on this reso- 
lution would not be complete unless the Assem- 
bly gives consideration to the other vital purpose 
laid down by the General Assembly in giving the 
Atomic Energy Commission its terms of reference, 
namely, the development of atomic energy for 
peaceful purposes. 

The products of nuclear fission can be employed 
in nondangerous quantities over a wide range of 
scientific activities, from which we may hope for 
considerable benefits to mankind. Indeed, benefits 
of this sort are already being attained, in part 
through the distribution by the United States of 
isotopes produced in its plants and laboratories 
and made available to all nations who are willing 
to publish the results of their work. But the great 
field of advance lies in the possibility that large, 
and, thus unfortunately, dangerous quantities of 
nuclear fuel may be used to produce electricity for 
power, and thus open a new era of well-being to 
vast numbers of people to whom other power re- 
sources are not available. Scientists tell us that 
it may take from 10 to 50 years before power from 

Deparfment of Sfate BuUefin 



nuclear fission can be produced on a basis to com- 
jjete, even in a remote region with power produced 
from other fuels. The length of time which will 
be required for this great peacetime achievement 
of science will depend, to a large degree, upon the 
free world-wide exchange of information in this 
field. 

At the present time, progress is being made 
slowly by individual nations, limited in their re- 
sources and forced to throw over their work a veil 
of secrecy which prevents their receiving the help 
of scientists from other countries. 

Under the proposals now put forward by the 
United Nations Atomic Energy Commission, 
which are before you for approval, this situation 
would be very rapidly improved. 

In the plan of the Commission, it is proposed 
that scientific research with nondangerous quan- 
tities of atomic materials would be carried on 
under license in national and private laboratories. 
The atomic materials used or produced would be 
owned by the agency. The purpose of the license 
would be to insure that dangerous quantities were 
not involved, that atomic weapons were not devel- 
oped, and that all information on the research 
and its results were immediately reported to the 
agency so that it could be freely interchanged and 
made public. There would be no other restrictions 
on scientific research with nondangerous quan- 
tities of material. 

Thus, research in beneficial uses would not be 
confined to agency laboratories. The conduct of 
such research by nations and individuals would be 
promoted and encouraged by the agency which 
would be authorized to make available personnel, 
materials, facilities, and funds for these purposes. 
By such assistance and by publishing all informa- 
tion relating to atomic energy the agency would 
facilitate international cooperation among scien- 
tists and would give an immediate and enormous 
impetus to scientific research. 

After the establishment of international control, 
important peaceful benefits of atomic energy 
would be available to all participating nations. 
The most immediate of these beneficial applica- 
tions is in the field of biology and medicine. A 
possible future application is in the development 
of atomic power. There are many scientific, tech- 
nical, and engineering problems to be solved before 
atomic power can become a practical reality. 
There are also questions of economic feasibility 
which need to be answered. To solve these prob- 
lems and answer these questions, the international 
agency would promote i-esearch and development 
on atomic power in its own laboratories and in 
national and private laboratories. 

Whenever experimental work on power under- 
taken by a nation reaches a point at which further 
development would require the use of atomic mate- 
rials in dangerous quantities, the agency itself 
unequivocal terms. The General Assembly now 

November 14, 1948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZBD AGENCIES 

would take over such a development in cooperation 
and agreement with the nation concerned, and 
carry forward the work provided the agency 
deemed it to be consistent with the general require- 
ments of security. Experimental or pilot plants 
would be set up, owned and operated by the agency 
in several countries, and the experimental and de- 
velopment work done in those plants would be 
carried on with the help of scientists and engineers 
from many countries. All of the results of such 
experimental developments would be freely cir- 
culated and published. There would thus be every 
prospect for an enormous acceleration of this im- 
portant work which holds so much hope for man- 
kind. 

When and if the time comes that atomic energy 
can be used to produce power on an economical 
basis, the international agency would, subject to 
the requirements of security, make such power 
available at the request of any nation ready to 
enter into appropriate agreements. Thus all na- 
tions, with the minimum of interference in their 
economic affaii-s, would enjoy the benefits and the 
positive advantages that would arise from the co- 
operative development of atomic energy and the 
sharing of information, facilities, and personnel. 

We know of no way other than the method of 
an international agency as now proposed, by which 
mankind could hope so soon to derive these full 
and important peacetime benefits. Until such a 
plan is adopted, the secrecy required to protect not 
one nation but all nations against the clandestine 
acquisition and ownership of atomic weapons will 
remain. This secrecy inevitably acts as a delaying 
factor in the advance towards the constructive use 
of atomic energy. 

We have touched on this matter here because 
while this plan and proposal of the Atomic Energy 
Commission has as its negative side the necessity of 
controlling atomic weapons and prohibiting their 
use, it has on its positive side a great constructive 
purpose which can be fully attained in no other 
way. 

Since August 8, 1945, the United States has con- 
sistently maintained the view that atomic weapons 
must be removed from national armaments. For 
over three years, the United States has worked 
toward that end. This has been, and still remains, 
our consistent purpose. Our offer still stands. 

The United Nations Atomic Energy Commission 
has labored arduously to set forth in a single plan 
those two great objectives of the General Assem- 
bly, which were laid down in the terms of reference 
to the Commission. 

We believe that the General Assembly is now at 
the point of taking a critical step towards the im- 
plementation of the work of the Commission. 

^Miat is needed is that the mandate of the Gen- 
eral Assembly should be expressed in clear and 

605 



THE UNITBD NATIONS AND SPECIALIZBD AGENCIES 

unequivocal terms. The General Assembly has an 
opportunity to approve this resolution by the 
vote of an overwhelming majority of its members. 
In doing so, the Assembly would add to the opin- 
ion of its Atomic Energy Commission the moral 
power of its carefully considered judgment. It 



would provide a new lever by which new forces 
of cooperation could be activated. It would stim- 
ulate the faith of uncounted millions of anxious 
Ijeople that the United Nations can and will per- 
severe, however complex the differences, to the 
pacific solution. 



Resolution on Reports of the Atomic Energy Commission ^ 



The General Assembly, 

Having examined the first, second and third 
reports of the Atomic Energy Commission which 
have been transmitted to it by the Security Council 
in accordance with the terms of General Assembly 
resolution 1 (I) of 24 January 1946, 

1. Approves the General Findings (part II C) 
and Eecommendations (part III) of the first re- 
port and the Specific Proposals of part II of the 
second report of the Commission as constituting 
the necessary basis for establishing an effective sys- 
tem of international control of atomic energy to 
ensure its use only for peaceful purposes and for 
the elimination from national armaments of 
atomic weapons in accordance with the terms of 
reference of the Atomic Energy Commission ; 

2. Expresses its deep concern at the impasse 
which has been reached in the work of the Atomic 
Energy Commission as shown in its third report 



and regrets that unanimous agreement has not yet 
been reached ; 

3. Requests the six sponsors of the General As- 
sembly resolution of 24 January 1946, which are 
the permanent members of the Atomic Energy 
Commission, to meet together and consult in order 
to determine if there exists a basis for agreement 
on the international control of atomic energy to 
ensure its use only for peaceful purposes and for 
the elimination from national armaments of 
atomic weapons, and to report to the General As- 
sembly the results of their consultation not later 
than its next regular session : 

4. Meanwhile, 

The General Assembly, 

(JaUs upon the Atomic Energy Commission to 
resume its sessions, to survey its programme of 
work, and to proceed to the further study of such 
of the subjects remaining in the programme of 
work as it considers to be practicable and useful. 



Current United Nations Documents: A Selected Bibliography' 



Trusteeship Council 

Report of the Drafting Committee on the Report on the 
Administration of New Guinea for the Year 1 July 
1946 to 30 June 1947. 17202, July 29, 1948. 19 
pp. mimeo. 



" Contained in U.N. doc. A/690, Oct. 23, 1948. Adopted by 
the First Committee on Oct. 20, 1948. 

^ Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 2960 Broadway, New York City. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the Unitecl 
States. 



Report on the Adniiinstration of Tanganyika for 1947. 

T/204, July 30, 1948. 42 pp. mimeo. 
Report on the Administration of South West Africa 

for 1946. T/209, August 2, 1948. 10 pp. mimeo. 
Non-Self-Governing Territories. Summaries and analysis 

of information transmitted to the Secretary-General 

during 1947. vii, 509 pp. printed. $4.00. 

Atomic Energy Commission 

An Internatiunal Biljliography on Atomic Energy. 
Scientific Aspects. Volume II. Part III — The 
Biological and Medical Effects of High Energy Radia- 
tion. Part IV — Isotopes in Biology and Medicine. 
(Preliminary Edition). AEC/INF/9, September 17, 
1948. mimeo. 



606 



Department of State Bulletin 



Discussion of Greek Problem 



STATEMENTS BY JOHN FOSTER DULLES IN COMMITTEE I' 
U.S. Delegate to the General Assembly 

Continuation of Ballon Commission 



We now deal with the substance of the agenda 
item: ''Threat to the political independence and 
territorial integrity of Greece". Unfortunately, 
the threat to Greece is not an isolated fact. 
Kather it is part of a larger problem, many phases 
of which come before the United Nations. 

In Greece, Communists are attempting to over- 
throw the Government by violence, and in this 
effort they are receiving aid from other countries 
that are already Communist controlled. This vio- 
lent effort to establish in Greece a Communist gov- 
ernment is but part of a general effort to extend 
the power of Soviet Communism throughout the 
world. The Security Council has been consider- 
ing another jDhase of this problem as it dealt with 
the coercive measures being taken by the Soviet 
Union to extend its power over all Berlin. This 
Assembly will deal with another phase when we 
take up the agenda item of Korea. Wlierever one 
looks, whether it be to Europe, Africa, Asia, or 
the Americas, there is apparent the same pattern 
of effort — namely the incitement, from without, of 
coercion, fear, and violence within to achieve inter- 
national political objectives. The manifestations 
of this effort differ only as they are adjusted to 
meet local situations. 

There is nothing surprising about this uniform- 
ity, for it reflects what Communists throughout 
the world have been consistently taught and what 
tliey are being taught today. The Soviet, tliey are 
told, will not be safe until the non-Communist 
nations have been so reduced in strength and num- 
bers that Communist influence is dominant 
throughout the world, and that, in such efforts, 
the Soviet Communist Party is the "vanguard", 
the "shock-brigade" of the world proletariat. It 
is furthermore taught that this result cannot be 
achieved by peaceful reform but only by metliods 
of revolution. Therefore, when througliout the 
world, Communists seek to weaken and overthrow 
non-Communist governments and use force, coer- 
cion, and terrorism, they are only doing what their 
foreign leaders have taught them to do. 

Of course, under the Charter of the United 
Nations, men are entitled to follow the dictates 
of their conscience and their reason, and to 

November 14, ?948 



attempt, by example and persuasion, to bring 
others to share their beliefs. That, we believe, is 
a human right and fundamental freedom that the 
Charter consecrates. But, and this is the essen- 
tial, the Charter does not countenance using vio- 
lence to achieve international ends. Article 2 (4) 
binds all the Members broadly to "refrain in their 
international relations from the threat or use of 
force". This does not mean that the Charter 
attempts to freeze the stattu^ quo. On the con- 
trary, throughout its preamble and its articles runs 
the theme of a changing world, a world in which 
there is "social progress and better standards of 
life in larger freedom". (Preamble.) Article 14 
gives this General Assembly the authority to "rec- 
ommend measures for the peaceful adjustment of 
any situation regardless of origin, which it deems 
likely to impair the general welfare or friendly 
relations among nations". But such adjustment 
must be "peaceful". 

There is thus a basic contradiction between the 
Charter theory of peaceful change, by evolution, 
and the Communist doctrine of violent change, by 
revolution. And it is because Soviet Communism 
teaclies and practices the use of violence that the 
United Nations has found it impossible, as yet, to 
relieve the peoples of the world from the heavy 
burden of armament and the even heavier burden 
of fear. 

So long as Soviet Conununisra does preach and 
practice revolution as a means to destroy the social 
order elsewhere and to achieve world-wide politi- 
cal ambitions, many are bound to wonder whether 
the Communist Governments signed the United 
Nations Charter with integrity of purpose. The 
United Nations is, however, faced with that prac- 
tical situation. Under the circumstances, it must 
do what it can to check the threat and use of vio- 
lence and thereby to remove the pall of fear which 
overhangs the world. Its mean to this end are 
inadequate. "Action" is a primary responsibility 
of the Security Council, and in the "Security Coun- 
cil the Government of Soviet Kussia wields a 
power of veto. That, indeed, is why this Balkan 

'Made on Oct. 26 and Nov. 5, 1948, respectively, and 
rclea.sed to the press on the same date. 

607 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECMl/ZED AGENCIES 

affair is before the Assembly. The Soviet Union, 
by its veto last year, made the Security Council 
impotent to deal with it. 

The Assembly has, however, great possibilities 
if they are properly understood and fully used. 
The Assembly can expose the facts and by so doing 
can build up a moral judgment so widespread and 
so weighty that no nation will igiiore it. Marshal 
Stalin said of the League of Nations that "despite 
its weakness the League might nevertheless serve 
as a place where aggressors can be exposed". He 
put his finger on a great power — the power of 
exposure. It does not work with precision or with 
immediacy, but it is, in the long run, a power to 
which all are sensitive for histoi-y has proved that 
those who flout it pay, some day, a heavy penalty. 

So, in a world where some nations believe in 
methods of violence, this Assembly must set itself 
the hard task of exposing every such manifesta- 
tion and gradually developing a world opinion so 
condemnatory of such methods, so disposed to 
suppress them, that violent methods will gradually 
fall into disuse as ineffectual and dangerous to 
those who employ them. Then at last we shall 
have a world in which, despite differences, men 
will, in the words of the Charter, "practice toler- 
ance and live together in peace with one another 
as good neighbors". 

Greece is a case in point. Last year this Assem- 
bly established a Special Committee on the 
Balkans, composed of eleven Member States and 
charged with two main functions : To be available 
to assist Greece and its three northern neighbors 
to settle their differences amicably if, happily, 
their mood should make this possible and, sec- 
ondly, to inform the United Nations and, through 
it, the world, regarding the conditions along the 
northern Greek frontier. 

Unfortunately, the Committee was unable to 
perform its first function, for Albania, Bulgaria 
and Yugoslavia refused to cooperate with the 
Committee. However, the unanimous factual 
conclusions of that Committee are now before this 
Assembly and these facts ought to be studied and 
proclaimed so that all will know. 

On the basis of 86 first-hand observation reports, 
and through the testimony of more than 700 wit- 
nesses, the Committee has found unanimously 
that '— 

The Greek guerrillas fighting against the Greek 
Government have received large aid and assistance 
from Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia and have 
been furnished war material and other supplies 
from those countries. Great quantities of ai-ms, 
ammunition, and other military stores have come 
across the border to Greek guerrillas, notably dur- 
ing times of heavy fighting. 



' See Documents and State Papers, September 1948. 
608 



The territory of Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugo- 
slavia has frequently been used as a base of mili- 
tary operations, and the guerrillas have frequently 
moved at will across the frontiers for tactical rea- 
sons. When the guerrillas are pinned against the 
frontier, they fall back across it, using it as pro- 
tection, and then reappear elsewhere. 

Thus in essence an international border be- 
comes a weapon of aggression against those who 
respect it. 

The i-eports of the Conunittee are replete with 
concrete instances of the actual use of Yugoslav, 
Albanian, and Bulgarian territory. For example : 

On March 1, 1948, there was heavy machine gun 
fire from Yugoslavia into Greece, for about five 
houi-s during daylight. Another machine gun in 
Yugoslavia territory fired into Greek territory for 
a period of seven hours, while three men in Yugo- 
slav uniforms chatted with the crew of the machine 
gun. 

On July 11th there was artillei"y fire, on July 
12th mortar fire, and on July 18th machine gun 
fire from Albania against the Greek national army. 

On August 7, 1948, mortar fire was heard from 
within Bulgarian territory and on the same day 
two of the IJnited Nations observere were actually 
wounded by artillery fire from Bulgarian terri- 
tory. A plane bearing Bulgarian markings ap- 
parently machine-gumied Greek troops on August 
17th. 

These are but a few of many incidents actually 
observed by the United Nations Special Committee 
itself and are quite apart from the incidents 
reported by witnesses heard by the Committee. 

The unanimous factual conclusion of the Spe- 
cial Committee is that what has happened "con- 
stitutes a threat to the political independence and 
territorial integrity of Greece and to peace in the 
Balkans". It has happened despite the fact that 
the last session of the General Assembly by vote 
of 40 to 6 had called upon Albania, Bulgaria, and 
Yugoslavia "to do nothing which could furnish 
aid and assistance" to Greek guerrillas. 

Some might say that, since these are the facts, 
the General Assembly resolution has failed. 
Such a conclusion is, I submit, totally unjustified. 
In fact, the General Assembly has not failed. It 
has not, to be sure, achieved immediate obedience 
to its will. But the General Assembly was never 
given authority to command obedience. It de- 
pends primarily on the power of public opinion 
and to build that up takes time, patience, and per- 
sistence. Already, however, the General Assem- 
bly has had an influence. It has had an influence 
in promoting aid to Greece. It has had an influ- 
ence even along the northern frontier. The rep- 
resentative of my Government who served on the 
Special Committee believes, and I understand 
others believe, that if it had not been for the pres- 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



ence of the Special Committee in Greece, the mili- 
tary aid given by the northern neighbors of Greece, 
■vrould have reached far greater proportions than, 
in fact, has been the case. There can, I think, be 
no doubt (hat the northern neighbors of Greece 
have, in fact, been restrained by the presence of 
the Committee and its power of exposure at this 
"town meeting of the world". 

All governments are sensitive to public opinion 
and, however eager they may be to promote vio- 
lence to achieve their international ends, they are 
reluctant to do so if their conduct exposes them to 
the condemnation of world opinion and to the 
resistance that that opinion inspires. The record 
before us is bad as to the conduct of some nations — 
it is dismullj' bad — but it is not fatally bad, for 
Greece survives. We can reasonably feel that the 
Assembly action of last year has been one of the 
indispensable factors that have, so far, preserved 
for Greece the integrity and sovereignty which it 
was hoped this Organization could secure for all 
time for all of its Members. 

Greece not only survives but, thanks to its own 
efforts and those of the United Nations and of 
other friendlj' states, Greece is steadily making 
progress in the rehabilitation of the country and 
in making good the terrific losses which Greece 
suffered when she resisted Nazi aggression and 
became its victim. Her army has made great sac- 
rifices in bringing security to the Greek people 
and resisting the terroristic tactics of the guerrilla 
forces. Greek railroads are being rebuilt, the 
roads and bridges are being reconstructed, crops 



1H£ UNITED NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZED AGENCIBS 

are increasingly being cultivated, political condi- 
tions are stabilizing, and there are being created 
these "conditions of stability and well-being 
which" the Charter recognizes (article 65) ''are 
necessary for peaceful and friendly relations 
among nations based on respect for the principle 
of equal rights and self-determination of peoples". 

I submit that the action of the United Nations 
in regard to Greece constitutes not a failure, but a 
success. The Members of the United Nations who 
have cooperated in this effort can properly be 
proud. It is, in my Govermnent's opinion, abun- 
dantly clear that this effort to save Greece, which 
already has good results, should be carried on to 
the complete success that is now in sight. There- 
fore, my Government, in conjunction with the 
Governments of China, France, and the United 
Kingdom, is submitting and supporting a resolu- 
tion which, in essence, continues the present Com- 
mission with the dual function of observation and 
good offices; which calls upon Greece's northern 
neighbors to cease and desist from aiding the effort 
violently to overthrow the Greek Government ; and 
which assures a continuing exposure which will 
make it certain that, if there is continued violation 
of the Charter, world opinion will gi'ow steadily 
more condemnatory, more resolute, and more 
potent to restrain aggression. 

I hope, however, that events will not take that 
course, but that this general debate may demon- 
strate the possibility of a peaceful solution con- 
sistent with the political independence and terri- 
torial integrity of Greece. 



Concern for Peace in the Balkans 



Mr. Chairman, I wish first to comment on the 
attempt of the Soviet Delegation to divert atten- 
tion by charging that the United States is develop- 
ing Greece as a base for aggression in pursuance 
of its goal of "world mastery". That charge was 
repeated in chorus by the other Communist-con- 
trolled Delegations. Of course, Mr. Chairman, the 
United States Delegation denies that charge as 
vicious falsehood. But I realize that all govern- 
ments always deny aggressive intentions. So, I 
invite a more searching test, that of deeds. 

Within the last 30 years the United States has 
twice been one of the principal victors in world 
war. Thereby we became possessed of vast power 
beyond our border. Yet, in the course of those 30 
years, our national domain has actually contracted, 
not expanded. That simple fact speaks, I think, 
with significant eloquence. 

After AVorld War I we quickly withdrew from 
Europe a military force that was tremendous. We 
virtually disarmed ourselves. Under the treaties 
of Versailles and of Berlin, we took no territory 
and no reparation. We were satisfied to have 
helped to save the free institutions of Europe. 

November 14, 1948 



Three years ago the United States had on the 
continent of Eui'ope a military force that was one 
of the most potent the world has ever known, not 
just in numbers, but in its superb quality and its 
unmatched mechanized equipment. Our land 
forces in Europe consisted of over 3 million com- 
bat troops, with more than 14,000 tanks. We had 
here more than 17,000 aircraft manned by about 
half a million men. Our Navy was operating in 
the European theatre more than 5,000 vessels. 

What of that i-emains in Europe today? The 
merest fragment, perhaps 3 percent. There are 
less than 500 men in Greece and not one of these 
a combat soldier. We disposed of or destroyed 
more than 5 million long tons of military stores in 
AVestern Europe and we destroyed here more than 
4,000 complete United States aircraft. When we 
withdrew, we withdrew cleanly. We organized no 
disloyal groups, no fifth columns, to do our will. 
Our deeds, Mr. Chairman, are not the deeds of a 
nation that is set on world mastery. 

It is quite true that the United States has now 
checked its program of disarmament. That is not 
our preference. It is due to the fact that the defeat 

609 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECMt/ZED AGENCIES 

of Germany and Japan did not, as we had hoped, 
end the fears of the free peoples. Indeed a new 
fear now grips them and it is a fear that, unhap- 
pily, cannot now be allayed by international organ- 
ization alone. That is in part because tlie Security 
Council's power to decide is crippled by veto and 
its power to act is crippled by lack of military con- 
tingents. It is in part because the threat is 
deviously contrived. 

So long as that is the situation, the United States 
intends to be strong. We make no apology for 
that, because our strength is not for ourself alone. 
It is our purpose so to unite and strengthen the 
forces of freedom that they will not have to fear. 
In so acting we are, or course, motivated by self- 
interest. I do not pretend otherwise. But the 
self-interest we are serving merges with the self- 
interest of all those who I'enounce methods of vio- 
lence, coercion, and terrorism and who, in the 
words of the resolution which last Wednesday the 
Assembly adopted unanimously, conform their 
policies to the Atlantic Charter declaration that 
all the men in all the land should live out their lives 
in freedom from f ear.^ 

Our growing national strength no doubt dis- 
pleases some; but it does not, I believe, frighten 
any. I ask each delegate to search his own mind 
and come to his own conclusion as to who and what 
his nation fears. I shall be satisfied with a silent 
verdict, for I know that some fear even to express 
their fear. 

The Governments of Albania, Bulgaria, and 
Yugoslavia do not like it that the Government of 
Greece is getting from abroad military aid that it 
requested. But these northern neighbors of 
Greece can, if they want, bring that to an end. 
Let them comply with the solemn recommenda- 
tions of the United Nations Assembly. Let them 
end their incitement and shielding of Greek guer- 
rillas and Communist rebels and the giving to them 
of aid and comfort. Let them resume neighborly 
relations with the Greek Government. The Greek 
people, who have already endured eight years of 
cruel violence, surely want nothing more than to 
return to ways of peace and to dedicate their whole 
effort to the imperative tasks of reconstruction. 
Any Greek Government that maintained a military 
establishment for purposes other than indepen- 
dence, territorial integrity, and internal security, 
would quickly forfeit for Greece the support and 
sympathy she now enjoys. 

I turn now to consider the Four Power draft res- 
olution and in the first instance its acceptance of 
the special committee findings that the northern 
neighbors of Greece have allowed their territory to 
be used by Greek guerrillas and rebels and have 
otherwise aided and assisted them. A great effort 
has been made here to discredit these findings. 

" See p. 614. 

610 



In fact, the special committee was unanimous in its 
factual conclusions and that, in my opinion, ought 
to be sufficient. Neither the Assembly nor the first 
committee with its large membership and crowded 
calendar can undertake, as a court of first instance, 
to weigh all the available evidence. 

The special committee spent a year in actual ob- 
servation. It saw for itself and it talked with 
hundreds of people to get their impressions. No 
doubt many of the people with whom they talked 
were unreliable. The special committee itself says 
so. But surely the special committee is better 
qualified than we are to decide what weight should 
be given to what it saw and heard. To call the 
report of the special committee "garbage", as has 
been done here, is to insult a competent, hard work- 
ing, and conscientious organ of the United Nations, 
the members of which have endured much personal 
risk and hardship in order to carry out the desire 
of the General Assembly that, at this session, it 
should have knowledge of the facts through an 
agency of its own choosing. 

There can be no doubt that — as unanimously 
found by the special committee — "the Greek guer- 
rillas have received aid and assistance from Al- 
bania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia ; that they have 
been furnished with war material and other sup- 
plies from those countries; that they have been al- 
lowed to use the territories of Albania, Bulgaria, 
and Yugoslavia for tactical operations; . . . ." 
The difficult question that confronts us here is not 
to decide what the facts are, but to decide what to 
do about them. 

The debate shows that all of us feel disappointed 
that there is not open to this Assembly some quick 
and direct method of putting an end to the existing 
situation. The Four Power proposal would, in 
effect, continue the special committee, with some 
clarification of its powers. That is what the spe- 
cial committee itself recommends, and it is hard 
to see any other course that is open to us. 

Of course, if the northern neighbors of Greece 
were, in fact, willing to cooperate with this Assem- 
bly and with its special committee, that would 
make it jDOssible to give the committee a different 
and more constructive task. There is, however, no 
present basis for planning on that assumption. 
The northern neighbors of Greece have heard 
moving pleas from Greece and others. So far, 
their responses indicate that the Assembly is face 
to face with the same hard attitude of noncoopera- 
tion as has confronted it up to now. 

Nevertheless, in the hope that this attitude may 
change, and the Assembly, in this situation, can 
serve the charter purpose of "harmonizing the 
actions of nations", the Four Powers, which spon- 
sor the draft resolution before you, propose to add, 
at paragraph 10 (C), an authorization to the spe- 
cial committee on its discretion to appoint one or 
more persons to use their gooti offices to promote 
cooperation with Greece that is sought of Albania, 

Department of State Bulletin 



Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia. In that vray the As- 
sembly will have established means for reconcilia- 
tion if developments sliould seem to make that pos- 
sible. That, 1 believe, will respond to desires that 
have been expressed here in the course of the gen- 
eral debate, including also ideas that, we under- 
stand, have been expressed by members of the spe- 
cial committee, particularlj- the representatives of 
Pakistan and Brazil. 

The primary dependence of the Assembly will, 
however, have to be upon its power to expose what 
happens and in that way to influence public opinion 
and national action throughout the world. Of 
course, tliat process does not give immediate de- 
cisive results. Nevertheless, as I pointed out in 
my opening statement, the power to expose, the 
power to educate public opinion, is, in fact, the 
most fundamental of all powers. We can see it 
here at work. 

There is little doubt that the situation along the 
northern frontier of Greece, bad as it is, would be 
far worse but for the fact that a United Nations 
committee was there to observe and report. Also, 
the facts that have been observed and publicly re- 
ported have influenced public opinion at least in 
the member state for which I speak. In conse- 
quence more is being done by the United States to 
help Greece than would otherwise be the case. 

The representatives of the Soviet Union, Yugo- 
slavia, Albania, Bulgaria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, 
Byelorussia, and the Ukraine have here devoted 
many hours to attempts to discredit the factual 
findings of the special committee. Why have they 
done so? Because they are afraid to let those 
findings go unchallenged. Their conduct here is 
unmistakable proof, if indeed proof were needed, 
that nations whose conduct threatens the peace do 
fear the consequences of exposure. 

Therefore, Mr. Chairman, I hope that this As- 
sembly will continue to exercise its power of expo- 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

sure and that this year's resolution will be clearer, 
in this resi)ect, than was that of last year. 

In conclusion, Mr. Chairman, the United States 
Delegation believes that the Four Power proposal, 
with the addition I have indicated and with per- 
haps some changes to reflect constructive criticism, 
such as that of the Australian Delegation, consti- 
tutes the wisest course we can recommend to the 
General Assembly. It is in the main based upon 
the reports of the Special Committee for tlie Bal- 
kans, which was set up by the General Assembly 
last year for the very purpose of providing this 
session with findings and recommendations which 
would result from study of the situation on the 
spot. 

The reports before us are the fruits of a difficult 
and testing experience. Violent efforts have been 
made to divert attention from them and torrents 
of abuse, ridicule and sarcasm have been poured 
upon them. But, as the general debate draws to 
a close, we can see that these findings and recom- 
mendations survive as the only solid foundation 
for future action. Nothing that has transpired 
here would justify this committee in setting aside 
the expert views on which the General Assembly 
expected us to act and substituting for them some 
inexpert improvisations of our own. Therefore, 
Mr. Chairman, the United States Delegation 
stands on the Four Power resolution which, in 
turn, stands on the findings and recommendation 
of our special committee. We think that that res- 
olution can be improved in some respects by incor- 
porating constructive ideas that have emerged in 
the course of the general debate. I have never 
known a general debate that did not add to the 
sum total of our wisdom, and I am glad to pay 
that tribute to the debate we now conclude. I3ut 
in the main, we shall, I hope, stick to the lines of 
action that our special committee has recom- 
mended. 



U.S. Position on Palestine Resolution 



STATEMENT BY PHILIP C. JESSUP' 
Deputy U.S. Representative in the Security Council 



Mr. President, I wish to speak very briefly about 
the position of my Government on the resolution 
before us. In the first place, we should like to 
suggest certain amendments which we believe 
would improve and clarify the resolution. It is 
not our purpose to com])licate the situation at this 
time but we hope that the proposers of the resolu- 
:ion will be able to accept the following suggested 
•hanjres. 



First, we suggest that the first word of the 
fourth paragraph, the word "endorses" be deleted 
and there be substituted the words "takes note of". 
The purpose of this change is to remove any incon- 
sistency between the fourth and fifth paragraphs. 
The request of the Acting Mediator was stated in 

' Made on Nov. 4, 1948, and released to the iiress on the 
same date. 



November 14, 1948 



611 



THE UNITBD NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

somewhat precise terms and, of course, could not 
reflect the discussions in the Council on the question 
of withdrawal, particularly the views expressed 
by the distinguished representative of France. 
That discussion has been reflected in the fifth para- 
graph. Although it is our view that the fifth and 
sixth paragraphs are the operative sections and 
the first four are preambulatory in character, nev- 
ertheless we believe it would be helpful to remove 
any misunderstanding which might arise on that 
point. 

Secondly, we suggest there be added after the 
words "interested governments" in the fifth para- 
graph the following-— "without prejudice to their 
rights, claims or position with regard to a peaceful 
adjustment of the future situation of Palestine or 
to the position which members of the Security 
Council may wish to take in the General Assembly 
on such peaceful adjustment". The purpose of this 
suggestion is to separate the issue of the truce from 
that of the final settlement. We believe there 
should be a clear understanding that the mainte- 
nance of a truce has from the beginning been 
without prejudice to the final political result and 
that we are not intending here in this resolution 
to prejuclice in any way the political position of 
the parties or of the members of the Security 
Council. 

Third, we believe that it might be helpful to 
substitute the following for the final paragraph : 

"Appoints a committee of the Council, consisting 
of the five permanent members together with Bel- 
gium and Colombia to advise the Acting Mecliator 
with regard to his responsibilities under this reso- 
lution, and in the event that either party or both 
should fail to comply with the preceding para- 
graph of this resolution, to study as a matter of 
urgency and to report to the Council on further 
measures it would be appropriate to take under 
Chapter VII of the Charter." 

We make this last suggestion in order to afford 
the acting mediator an opportunity to consult a 
responsible body in connection with the very heavy 
responsibilities which are placed upon him by this 
resolution. Further, it would allow the commit- 
tee to consider the situation in the light of chapter 
VII as a whole and would not restrict its work 
within the framework of article 41. 

The one simple, clear element which has been 
constant throughout the tortuous history of the 
Palestine question before the United Nations has 
been the expressed determination on the part of 
the United Nations that, however men might cliffer 
about the final political result, such a result must 
be reached by peaceful means and not by war. 

Today we are talking about a truce ; we are not 
talking about the nature of a political settlement. 
When we talk about a truce, the parties are not 
merely Israeli and Arabs. There is another — and 
greater — party of interest, the entire international 

612 



community — the rest of the world. The interest 
of the international community in a peaceful set- 
tlement is paramount. Both great powers and 
small must confess to this overriding interest. 
It is fundamental to the Charter and is the prin- 
cipal reason for the very existence of the Security 
Council. 

The General Assembly expressed itself on this 
aspect of the Palestine problem in its resolution of 
November 29, 1947, and, more particularly, in its 
resolution of May 14, 1948. The Security Council 
itself has devoted great effort to a truce, efforts 
which are reflected in resolutions of March 5, 
April 1. April 17, April 23, May 22, May 29, July 
7, July 15, August 19, and October 19 of the present 
year. To these efforts have been added the loyal 
and devoted effort of the subsidiary bodies of both 
the Assembly and the Council which were given 
various responsibilities in Palestine. Many Gov- 
ernments Members of the United Nations sup- 
ported these United Nations actions by strong 
counsel to the parties through diplomatic channels. 

The result has not been a perfect truce, that no 
one can claim ; but the result has not been all-out 
war. No one of the parties has found that the 
truce has always satisfied their own particular de- 
sires; at one time or another, in the variety of local 
situations arising in various parts of the country, 
all parties have felt the truce as a restraint upon 
the temptation to exploit a local or temporary ad- 
vantage. But no one can doubt that both Jewish 
and Arab peoples have greatly benefited from the 
cease-fire, imperfectly observed as it has been. As 
those who are immediately and emotionally in- 
volved are unwilling to confess such benefits, the 
rest of the world community has no doubt of it. 

The stake of tlie United Nations in this partic- 
ular truce is established not only as a matter of 
principle but through the specific contribution 
made by the United Nations itself to the mainte- 
nance of a cease-fire. Servants of the United Na- 
tions, by the hundreds, have exposed themselves 
to hardship and danger in order to bring peace 
to Palestine. A number have lost their lives. 
Many Jews and many Arabs are alive today be- 
cause of the disinterested and devoted effort of 
these men who have had no other puri:)ose than 
to save the peoples of Palestine from war. In 
addition, the peace-making efforts of the United 
Nations have required a most substantial mate- 
rial and financial outlay. 

We believe it essential to continue the truce until 
arrangements can be made to replace the truce by 
a more permanent peaceful settlement. Indeed 
without a truce, a peaceful settlement becomes im- 
possible. We believe the present resolution is con- 
sistent with, and a necessary reinforcement of, the 
previous resolutions of the Security Council and 
of the General Assembly concerning the truce. 
The United States supported each of these earlier 

Department of State Bulletin 



efforts to maintain a cease-fire in Palestine; we 
shall, therefore, support the resolution now before 
us wliich we hope will be adopted with the changes 
we have suggested. 
In conclusion, I wish to repeat that we are dis- 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECfAllZEO AGENCIES 

cussing a truce, not a political settlement. Our 
action here in the Council is a necessary prereq- 
uisite to General Assembly consideration, but does 
not prejudice the result of such consideration in 
any way. 



TEXT OF DRAFT RESOLUTION' 



The Security Council, 

Having decided ou tlie fifteenth July that, subject to 
further decision by the Security Council or the General 
Assembly, the truce shall remain in force in accordance 
with the resolution of that date and with that of twenty- 
ninth May 1948 until a peaceful adjustment of the future 
situation of Palestine is reached ; 

Having decided on the nineteenth August that no party 
is permitted to violate the truce on the ground that it is 
undertaking reprisals or retaliations against the other 
party, and that no party is entitled to gain military or 
political advantage through violation of the truce ; and 

Having decided on the twenty-ninth May that, if the 
truce was subsequently repudiated or violated by either 
party or by both, the situation in Palestine could be recon- 
sidered with a view to action under chapter VII of the 
charter ; 

Endorses the request communicated to the Government 
of Egj-pt and the Provisional Government of Israel by the 
acting mediator on the twenty-sixth October (S/IO.'JS) 
following upon the resolution adopted by the Security 
Council on nineteenth October 1948; and 

Calls upon the interested governments : 



(1) To withdraw those of their forces which have ad- 
vanced beyond the positions held on fourteenth October, 
the acting mediator being authorized to establish pro- 
visional lines beyond which no movement of troops shall 
take place ; 

(2) To establish, through negotiations conducted di- 
rectly between the parties or failing that, through the 
intermediaries in the service of the United Nations, perma- 
nent truce lines and such neutral or demilitarized zones as 
may appear advantageous. In order to ensure henceforth 
the full observance of the truce in that area. Failing an 
agreement, the permanent lines and neutral zones shall 
be established by decision of the acting mediator ; and 

Appoints a committee of the Council, consisting of the 
tive permanent members together with Belgium and Co- 
lombia, to examine urgently and report to the Council on 
the measures which it would be appropriate to take under 
article 41 of the charter if either party or both should fail 
to observe the conditions prescribed in the two subpara- 
graphs of paragraph 5 of this resolution within whatever 
time limits the acting mediator may think it desirable to 
fix. 



Resolution on the Palestinian Question 



The Security Council 

Having in mind the report of the Acting Me- 
diator concerning the assassinations on 17 Sep- 
tember of the United Nations Mediator Count 
Folke Bernadotte and United Nations Observer 
Colonel Andre Serot (document S/1018), the re- 
port of the Acting Mediator concerning difficulties 
encountered in the supervision of the truce (docu- 
ment S/1022) ; and the report of the Truce Com- 
mission for Palestine concerning the situation in 
Jerusalem (document S/1023) ; 

Notes with concern that the Provisional Gov- 
ernment of Israel has to date submitted no report 
to the Security Council or to the Acting Mediator 
regarding the progress of the investigation into 
the assassinations; 

Requests that Government to submit to the Se- 
curity Council at an early date an account of the 
progress made in the investigation and to indicate 
therein the measures taken with regard to negli- 
gence on the part of officials or other factors affect- 
ing the crime; 

Reminds the governments and authorities con- 
cerned that all the obligations and responsibilities 

November 14, 1948 



of the parties set forth in its resolutions of 15 July 
and 19 August 1948 are to be discharged fully and 
in good faith ; 

Reminds the Mediator of the desirability of an 
equitable distribution of the United Nations ob- 
servers for the purpose of observing the truce on 
the territories of both parties ; 

Determines, pursuant to its resolutions of 15 July 
and 19 August 1948, that the Governments and 
authorities have the duty : 

(a) to allow duly accredited United Nations 
Observers and other Truce Supervision personnel 
bearing proper credentials, on official notification, 
ready access to all places where their duties require 
them to go including airfields, ports, truce lines 
and strategic points and areas ; 

' The foregoing comments of Dr. Jessup were addressed 
to a draft resolution reported by the .Security Council 
subcommittee on the Palestine question, which was made 
up of Representatives of China, France, the United King- 
dom, Belgium, and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Re- 
public. Only the latter country dissented from the opinion 
of the subcommittee in presenting the draft resolution. 

' U.N. doc. S/104.5, Oct. 19, 1945, adopted at the 3G7th 
meeting of the Security Council on that date. 

613 



THB UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

(b) to facilitate the freedom of movement of 
Truce Supervision personnel and transport by 
simplifying procedures on United Nations air- 
craft now in effect, and by assurance of safe-con- 
duct for all United Nations aircraft and other 
means of transport ; 

(c) to co-operate fully with the Truce Super- 
vision personnel in their conduct of investigations 
into incidents involving alleged breaches of the 
truce, including the making available of witnesses, 
testimony and other evidence on request; 

(d) to implement fully by appropriate and 
prompt instructions to the Commanders in the 



field all agreements entered into through the good 
offices of the Mediator or his representatives ; 

(e) to take all i-easonable measures to ensure 
the safety and safe-conduct of the Truce Supervi- 
sion personnel and the representatives of the 
Mediator, their aircraft and vehicles, while in ter- 
ritory under their control ; 

(f) to make every effort to apprehend and 
promptly punish any and all persons within their 
jurisdictions guilty of any assault upon or other 
aggressive act against the Truce Supervision per- 
sonnel or the representatives of the Mediator. 



Appeal to the Great Powers To Renew Their Efforts To Compose 
Their Differences and Establish a Lasting Peace ^ 



1. Whereas it is the essential purpose of the 
United Nations to maintain international peace 
and security and to that end it must co-ordinate its 
efforts to bring about by peaceful means the settle- 
ment of international disputes or situations which 
might lead to a breach of the peace, 

2. Whereas the United Nations should be a 
centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in 
the attainment of this common end, 

3. Whereas the United Nations cannot fully 
attain its aims so long as the recent war remains 
in process of liquidation and so long as all the 
peace treaties have not been concluded and put 
into force, 

4. Whereas the Great Allied Powers, which 
bore the heaviest burden in the war and whose 
common sacrifice and effort were the prime cause 
of victory, have reaffirmed, on many solemn oc- 
casions, their determination to maintain and 
strengthen in the peace that unity of purpose and 
of action which has made possible the victory of 
the United Nations, 

5. Whereas the aforementioned Allied Powers, 
which undertook at the second Moscow Conference 
responsibility for drafting and concluding the 
peace treaties, have not been able, after three years 
of effort, to obtain the full realization of their high 
mission by building a just and lasting peace, 

6. Whereas the disagreement between the said 
Powers in a matter of vital importance to all the 
United Nations is at the present time the cause of 
the deepest anxiety among all the peoples of the 
world, and 

7. Whereas the United Nations, in the per- 
formance of its most sacred mission, is bound to 
afford its assistance and co-operation in the settle- 



' Contained in U.N. doc. A/694, Oct. 26, 1948. 
614 



ment of a situation the continuation of which in- 
volves grave dangers for international peace, 

The General Assembly 

1. Recalls the declarations made at Yalta on 
11 February 1945 by Churchill, Roosevelt and 
Stalin, in which the signatories 

"reaffirm our faith in the principles of the 
Atlantic Charter, our pledge in the Declaration 
by the United Nations, and our determination to 
build in co-operation with other peace-loving na- 
tions a world order under law, dedicated to peace, 
security, freedom and the general well-being of 
all mankind", 

and proclaim that 

"only with continuing and growing co-operation 
and understanding among our three countries, and 
among all the peace-loving nations, can the high- 
est aspiration of humanity be realized — a secure 
and lasting peace which will, in the words of the 
Atlantic Cnarter 'afford assurance that all the men 
in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom 
from fear and want' " ; 

2. Endorses these declarations and expresses its 
convictions that the Great Allied Powers will, in 
their policies, conform to the sjjirit of the said 
declarations ; 

3. Recominends the Powers signatories to the 
Moscow Agreements of 24 December 1945, and the 
Powers which subsequently acceded thereto, to 
redouble their efforts, in a spirit of solidarity and 
mutual understanding, to secure in the briefest 
possible time the final settlement of the war and 
the conclusion of all the peace settlements ; 

4. Recomviends the aforementioned Powers to 
associate with them, in the performance of such 
a noble task, the States which subscribed and ad- 
hered to the Washington Declaration of 1 January 
1942. 

Depattmenf of Stafe Bulletin 



The United States in the United Nations 



Balkan Committee 

The Political and Security Committee adopted 
by 48-6 vote on November 10 a resolution con- 
demning the aid given to Greek guerrillas by 
Yugoslavia. Albania, and Bulgaria and providing 
for continuation of the Greek border watch by the 
Special Committee on the Balkans. The six op- 
posing ballots were cast by the Soviet bloc. 

The resolution, submitted jointly by the United 
States. Britain, France and China, also calls upon 
Greece's nortliern neighbors to cease their support 
of the Greek guerrillas and cooperate with Greece 
for peaceful settlement of the Balkan dispute in 
accordance with previous Assembly recommenda- 
tions. 

In corollaiy action, the committee also adopted 
unanimously an Australian resolution calling for 
an immediate meeting in Paris, under Assembly 
auspices, of representatives of the four Balkan 
states to explore possibilities of agi'eement on 
methods to resolve their dilferences. 

Both resolutions will be sent to the Assembly for 
final action. 

Later, the committee began, at Soviet request, a 
paragraph-by-paragraph consideration of a Soviet 
resolution, and immediately rejected a paragraph 
in the resolution calling for dissolution of Unscob. 
It also turned down the preamble attacking "for- 
eign interference" in Greece. 

Two paragraphs of the Soviet resolution, call- 
ing upon Greece and her northern neighbors to 
establish diplomatic relations and renew frontier 
conventions, were approved unanimously. 

The adopted resolution on continuation of 
Unscob provides that the U.N. body shall "have 
its principal headquarters in Greece, and with the 
cooperation of the govermnent or governments 
concerned, shall perform its functions in such 
places as it may deem appropriate for the fulfil- 
ment of its mission." 

Palestine 

Final administrative details of the proposed 
$29,000,000, nine-month program for relief of Pal- 
estine refugees are now being completed in a sub- 
committee of the General Assembly's Social 
Committee. 

The subcommittee decided on November 10, by a 
vote of seven to three, to propose to the Assembly 
that the Secretary-General appoint a director of 
the relief program and that the Assembly Presi- 
dent pick a seven-member committee to advise the 
Secretary-General on the program. The group 
had previously agreed that the plan for aid to 
Middle East refugees — sponsored by the United 
States, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and the 
Netherlands — would be carried out through a spe- 

November 14, 1948 



[November 8-13] 

cial fund to be made up of contributions from 
Member Nations, the fund to be under the direct 
supervision of the Secretary-General. 

Anticipating a delay in final establishment of 
the program, the Assembly's Budgetary Commit- 
tee last week approved an advance of $5,000,000 
from the working capital to cover the cost of im- 
mediate aid. This sum is to be repaid from future 
contributions. 

Meanwhile, the first shipment of relief supplies 
sponsored by the International Children's Emer- 
gency Fund has arrived at Haifa from the United 
States, aboard the S. S. Skagumy Victory. In this 
shipment, the Unicef included 4,540 kilograms of 
dried milk, 1,225 kilograms of cod-liver oil, 1,816 
kilograms of margarine, and 200 of rice. 

Tlie supijlies are to be sent to Haifa, Tel Aviv, 
and Nazareth, where they will be distributed to 
mothers and children among both Arab and Jew- 
ish refugees. Supervising the distribution is Dr. 
Jean Mabileau, Deputy Director of Unicef for the 
Middle East. Dr.. Mabileau declared, upon the 
arrival of the supplies at Haifa, that: "A major 
battle has just been won in Palestine. The win- 
ners ai'e some 25,000 babies, nursing mothers, and 
pregnant women among the Jewish and Arab ref- 
ugees living in the Jewish part of Palestine. And 
in this battle, there are for once no losers." 

Tliis Unicef relief program is in addition to the 
more extensive aid project first proposed to the 
Assembly by Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, U.S. 
Delegate, and now being worked out in the Social 
Committee. This larger program is intended to 
cover the almost 400,000 refugees not eligible for 
Unicef relief. Still other efforts are being made 
in the United States by private organizations, such 
as the American Red Cross ancl National Chil- 
dren's Fund, to assist 500,000 homeless Palestini- 
ans whose plight was brought to world attention 
by Ralph Bunche, acting U.N. mediator for Pales- 
tine. 

On November 10 several more suggestions for 
effecting peace in Palestine were added to the No- 
vember 9 proposals of Ralph Bunche, acting U.N. 
mediator for Palestine. Dr. Bunche asked for an 
armistice, for separations of the contending forces 
by broad demilitarized zones and for ultimate 
withdrawal of and reduction of Jewish and Arab 
ai"med forces. He wanted the paities to negotiate 
only through the good offices of the mediator. 

Dr. Bunche submitted a tentative plan for pro- 
visional truce lines later at the first meeting of a 
seven-nation subcommittee of the Council. 

The committee, appointed by the Council No- 
vember 4, comprises the five major powers plus 
Belgium and Colombia. At the start of the No- 
vember 10 meeting, Dr. Roberto Urdaneta Ar- 
belaez of Colombia was elected as chairman. The 

615 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPBCIALIZID AGENCIES 

task of the committee is to advise Dr. Bunche on 
Charter regulations respecting breaches of the 
peace and acts of aggression. This committee will 
meet again on November 12. 

Economic Committee 

Willard Thorp, U.S. Delegate to the Assembly 
and Assistant Secretary for economic affairs, 
again on November 10 emphasized in the Economic 
Committee that United States trade policies are 
directed toward full cooperation in world recovery. 

The statement was in answer to charges made 
by Soviet bloc representatives in the committee, 
alleging discrimination by the United States in 
granting export licenses and in general trade poli- 
cies. 

In reply to the charge that the volume of 
American exports was proof of expansionist char- 
acter, Mr. Thorp asked: "Is it exiDansionist to re- 
build countries with which we normally compete?" 
and added : "We are helping to raise the level of 
agriculture in countries which are taking Ameri- 
can agriculture products. The people who suffer 
because of exports from us are not the receiving 
countries. Those who suffer are the American 
taxpayers." 

On the allegation that one of the foundations of 
the recovery program is the United States right 
to control export trade of participating countries, 
Mr. Thorp said : "We have heard of the lame ef- 
fort on the part of the Polish Delegate to find in 
bilateral agreements justification for this conclu- 
sion. The French Delegate has already refuted 
this." 

In recalling the recent Danube conference, 
which was dominated by the Soviet Union and its 
satellites, he noted: "The so-called convention, 
while allowing freedom of navigation on equal 
terms, makes use of port facilities subject to 
agreement with certain transport companies with 
no adequate safeguards against discrimination. 
In Hungary and Rumania joint shipping com- 
panies — half Soviet-owned — have a substantial 
monopoly on all port facilities. Without explicit 



guaranties of nondiscrimination of the use of 
these facilities, the principle of freedom of navi- 
gation is meaningless." 

Berlin Currency Problem 

Secretary-General Tyrgve Lie is making a 
study of the currency problem in Berlin. In this 
connection he has consulted Mr. Evatt, and will 
consult Mr. Bramuglia on his return from London. 

The Berlin currency problem is part of the Ber- 
lin issue, which was brought before the Security 
Council by the United States, France, and Great 
Britain. They charged that the Soviet blockade 
of the western sectors of the city constituted a 
threat to peace. 

A resolution was drawn up by the six neutral 
members of the Council, calling for the immediate 
lifting of restrictions on traffic between Berlin and 
the four occupation zones in Germany and provid- 
ing procedure for unification of Berlin currency by 
November 20. 

Tliis resolution, accepted by the three Western 
Powers, was vetoed on October 25 by the Soviet 
Union and the case is still on the Councirs agenda. 

On November 13 Mr. Evatt and Mr. Lie sub- 
mitted a communication to the Four Powers con- 
cerned asking for immediate conversations to re- 
sume negotiations on the present crisis and on the 
remaining peace settlement for Germany, Austria, 
and Japan. 



CORRECTION 

Functions of Control of Foreign Assets in United 
States Transferred 

In the Bulletin of October 10, 1948, page 472, 
appeared an item announcing the transfer of func- 
tions relating to the control of foreign assets in the 
United States from the Treasury Department to 
the Department of Justice. The caption, "Control 
of Foreign Assets in U.S. Ended", should be 
changed to read "Functions of Control of Foreign 
Assets in U.S. Transferred". 



616 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Members of Tin Study Group To Consider 
Advisability of Agreement 

[Ueleased to tile press Novemln'r 1] 

The Department of State received on Novem- 
ber 1 the followin<j statement, released at The 
Hague on October 29, 1948 : 

"The International Tin Study Group held its 
third session at The Hague fi'om the 25th to the 
29th of October. 

"The group had before it the report of the 
Working Party which had met in June. The pur- 
port of this report was that it would be appro- 
priate and practicable to conclude an international 
tin agreement on the lines set out in the report. 

"The group modified these proposals in certain 
respects and has forwarded to the member govern- 
ments a recommendation that after certain pre- 
paratory steps have been taken the member gov- 
ernments should be asked to inform the Secretary 
whether thej^ would be disposed to enter into an 
agreement on the broad lines proposed and are 
willing to attend a conference to put the agi'ee- 
ment into final form and to conclude it. If a 
sufficient number of affirmative replies is received, 
the Secretary General of the United Nations will 
be asked to convene an intergovermnental tin con- 
ference next spring". 

Chairman of the United States Delectation to 
the Tin Study Group was Donald D. Kennedy, 
Chief, International Resources Division, Depart- 
ment of State. 



Ward M. Canaday Becomes U.S. Commissioner 
of Caribbean Commission 

Ward M. Canaday took his oath of office as 
United States Commissioner and Chairman of the 
United States Section of the Caribbean Commis- 
sion on November 5. The oath was administered 
by Stanley Woodward, Chief of Protocol, at the 
Department of State in the presence of a large 
group of associates and friends. Mr. Canaday was 
appointed by the President on October 30, 19i8. 

Mr. Canaday will attend the Third Session of 
the West Indian Conference, held biennially under 
the auspices of the Caribbean Commission, which 
will convene in Guadeloupe, F.W.I., on December 
1, 1948, and the Seventh Meeting of the Caribbean 
Commission, which will be held concurrently 
with the West Indian Conference. 

Mr. Canaday succeeds Charles W. Taussig of 
New York, who died on May 9, 1948. Mr. Taussig 
had been appointed by President Roosevelt in 

November 14, 1948 



March 1942 as United States Co-Chairman of the 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, which 
in December 1945 became the Caribbean Commis- 
sion. 

The Caribbean Commission, of which France, 
the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the 
United States are members, is a consultative and 
advisory body established to encourage and 
strengthen social and economic cooperation be- 
tween the four metropolitan countries and their 
territories in that area. 



U.S. Delegation to ILO Textiles Committee 

The Department of State announced on October 
28 the composition of the United States Delega- 
tion to the second session of the Textiles Commit- 
tee of the International Labor Organization, which 
session opened October 26, at Geneva, as follows : 

Government Representatives 

Arnold L. Zempel, Associate Director, Office of Interna- 
tional Labor Affairs, Deiiartment of Labor 

Kene Lutz, CTaief, Textile Section, Textile and Leather 
Branch, Department of Commerce 

Adviser 

Hersey E. Riley, Chief, Branch of Construction Statistics, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor 

Employers' Representatives 

Herbert H. Schell, President, Sidney Blumenthal and Co., 
Inc., New York, N. Y. 

Edwin Wilkinson, Assistant to the President, National As- 
sociation of Wool Manufacturers, New York, N. Y. 

Workers' Representatives 

Anthony Valente, International President, United Textile 

Workers of America, Washington, D. O. 
Francis M. Schaufenbil, Vice President, United Textile 

Workers of America, Lawrence, Mass. 

The agenda for the meeting includes: (1) a 
general report dealing with action taken in the 
various countries to give elfect to the resolutions 
of the first session of the Committee, held at Brus- 
sels in November 1946; (2) report on recent de- 
velopments and events in the textile industry; 

(3) discussion of employment problems, with 
special reference to recruitment and training; and 

(4) problems of industrial relations. 

The Textile Committee is one of eight industrial 
committee of the Ilo established for the pur- 
pose of examining social and economic aspects of 
international labor standards in the respective in- 
dustries and adopting resolutions for their im- 
provements. 

617 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Procedure for Transmitting Electors' Certificates 



LETTER FROM THE ACTING SECRETARY OF STATE TO THE 48 GOVERNORS 



[Released to the press November 3] 

Acting Secretary Lovett on November 1, 1948, 
sent to the Governors of the 48 States a letter out- 
lining the procedure laid down in the law for the 
receipt and transmission by the Department of 
State to the Congress of certificates of the appoint- 
ment of the electors of the several States and of 
the votes of the electors. 

Following is the text of the letter : 

November i, 191^ 
The Honorable 

The Governor of 

Sir: The laws of the United States relating to 
presidential elections requii'e the performance of 
certain duties by State executives, electors of 
President and Vice President, and the Secretary 
of State of the United States. I send for your con- 
venient reference copies of a publication of the 
Department of State entitled Presidential Elec- 
tions^ containing the relevant provisions of the 
Constitution and of the United States Code (Pub- 
lic Law 77l-80th Congress). The number of 
copies transmitted is sufficient to enable you, if 
you so desire, to furnish one to each elector of your 
State and to each official having duties in that 
connection. 

Title 3, Chapter 1. Section 6, United States Code, 
provides that the executives of each State shall, 
as soon as practicable after the conclusion of the 
appointment of electors in such State, communi- 
cate bj' registered mail, under the seal of the State, 
to the Secretary of State of the United States, a 
certificate of ascertainment of the electors ap- 
pointed. This certificate shall set forth not only 
the names of the electors appointed and the votes 
received by each, but .shall also list the names of 
all other candidates for elector of President and 
Vice President and the number of votes received 
by each of them. The Secretary of State of the 
United States is required to transmit copies of each 
such certificate to the two Houses of Congress. I 
shall therefore be grateful if you will be good 

618 



enough to furnish me with an original and two 
exact copies of such certificate. 

The law provides that the electors shall meet 
and give their votes on the first Monday after the 
second Wednesday in December next following 
their appointment, i.e. on December 13, 1948, and 
that the counting of the electoral votes in Congress 
shall proceed on January 6, 1949 (Title 3, Chapter 
1, Sections 7 and 15, United States Code). 

Title 3, Chapter 1, Section 11, United States 
Code, imposes on the electors of each State the 
duty of forwarding by registered mail to the Sec- 
retary of State of the United States two certificates 
of the electors containing the two distinct lists of 
the votes of electors for President and for Vice 
President respectively, in the form prescribed by 
Section 9 thereof. 

If no such certificate of vote and list has been 
received from the electors of any State by the 
President of the Senate or by the Secretary of 
State by the fourth Wednesday in December, after 
the meeting of the electors shall have been held, 
i.e. by December 22, 1948, it is provided that the 
President of the Senate, or, if he is absent from 
the seat of government, the Seci'etary of State, re- 
quest the secretary of state of the State to transmit 
by registered mail the certificate and list lodged 
with him by the electors of that State to the Presi- 
dent of the Senate (Title 3, Chapter 1, Section 
12). Under the same conditions, a like demand 
shall be made upon the judge of the District in 
which the electors shall have assembled for the 
certificate and list lodged with him by the electors 
of that State (Title 3, Chapter 1, Section 13). 

It will be observed that for the performance of 
the duties imposed upon the Secretary of State 
of the United States by the provisions of law 
under consideration it will be necessary that State 
executives and electors cooperate promptly and 
this cooperation I earnestly request. 
Very truly yours, 

Robert A. Lo^titt 

Department of State Bulletin 



Mexican Architects Visit U.S. 

Two professors of arcliiU>cture, Alonso Mariscal 
and Eugenio Peschard Delgado, of the National 
University of Mexico City, have arrived in Wash- 
ington to begin a two months' study of American 
methods of teaching architecture. Their visit here 
is being made under tlie travel-grant program of 
the Deitartment of State. 

Messrs. Mariscal and Peschard will visit the 
schools of architecture of Harvard and Columbia 
Universities, tiie Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, the Illinois Institute of Technology, and 
the Chicago Art Institute. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 

Assignment of First Social- 
Welfare Attaches 

[Released to the press November 4] 

In June 1948, a public-health attache program 
was inaugurated bj' the Department in cooperation 
with the Public Health Service of the Federal 
Security Agency. The purpose of that program 
is to carry public health and medical tlevelop- 
ments of the United States to other countries and 
to bring their current research and activities in 
these fields to this country. 

Miss Evelj'n Hersey, graduate of the Pennsyl- 
vania School of Social Work, formerly Assistant 
to the United States Commissioner of Immigra- 
tion and Naturalization and, before that, service 
director for the American Committee for Christian 
Refugees, has left for her post as social-welfare 
attache at New Delhi, India. 

Irving J. Fasteau, graduate of the New York 
School of Social Work, formerly supervisor of so- 
cial service of the State Board of Child Welfare, 
New Jersey, and immediately prior to that, Chief 
of the UxRRA Mission to Finland, took up his post 
as social-welfare attache in the American Embassy 
in Paris in May 1948. 

The idea of having a few specialists in the field 
of social welfare attached to foreign posts at se- 
lected points throughout the world originated sev- 
eral j-ears ago. The idea grew from a recognized 
need of the Department of State and other gov- 
ernmental agencies for more technical informa- 
tion about social-welfare developments in foreign 
countries and a better knowledge of their rela- 
tionship to the political and economic conditions 
irt those countries. The Federal Security Agency, 
with its wide range of Federal social-welfare func- 
tions, has been the agencj' most instrumental in 
assisting in developing the social-welfare attache 
program. Other Federal departments that have 
had varying degrees of interest in the program are 
the Bureau of Prisons of the Department of Jus- 
November 74, J948 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 

tice, the Department of Labor, the Office of the 
Administrator of the Housing and Home Finance 
Agency, and the Bureau of Human Nutrition and 
Home Economics of the Department of Agricul- 
ture. Nongovernmental agencies, which will find 
useful the kind of information which can be pro- 
vided by these social-welfare specialists, include 
the American Association of Social Workers, the 
American Association of Schools of Social Work, 
the National Social Welfare Assembly the Amer- 
ican Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign 
Service, Inc., and the American Red Cross. 

Although the functions of a social-welfare at- 
tache vary according to conditions prevalent at 
the particular post, the duties include the following 
types of activity : 

(1) Providing information for the Department 
and other governmental and voluntary agencies 
regarding social-welfare developments and con- 
ditions in foreign countries. Fields of interest 
include: social insurance, financial assistance to 
low-income groups, child welfare, care of the phys- 
ically and mentally handicapped and tlie aged, 
vocational rehabilitation, and treatment of the 
delinquent and criminal and the social aspects of 
housing. 

(2) Informing the Department and other gov- 
ernmental and private agencies about both official 
and unofficial attitudes in the country to which an 
attache is assigned concerning the programs of 
international organizations in the social field, par- 
ticularly the Economic and Social Council of the 
United Nations and its specialized agencies. 

(3) Appraising the effect, as well as some of the 
welfare aspects of American overseas aid pro- 
grams, both governmental and voluntary; facili- 
tating and aiding in the coordination of the work 
of United States public and private welfare agen- 
cies engaged in overseas programs affecting that 
country. 

(4) Serving as a consultant in the Embassy on 
social-welfare problems of United States citizens 
and alien dependents of citizens brought to the 
attention of foreign jjosts. 

At the present time the program is limited to two 
attache posts. As the program develops, it is 
hoped that, through a positive demonstration of 
the efficacy of the services which social-welfare at- 
taches may provide, the number may be increased. 
The attaches are Foreign Service Reserve officers 
and are administratively responsible to the Am- 
bassadors of the posts to which tliey are assigned 
and to the Director General of the P'oreign Service. 
The social- welfare attaches, as is true for the labor 
attaches, receive technical guidance from the Divi- 
sion of International Labor and Social Affairs lo- 
cated in the Office of International Trade Policy 
under the Assistant Secretary of State for eco- 
nomic affairs. 

619 



^cm^e/n^ 



The U.N. and Specialized Agencies Page 
United Nations Economic Cooperation. Arti- 
cle by Norman Burns 598 

Adoption of Atomic Energy Resolution. State- 
ment by Warren R. Austin 602 

Resolution on Reports of the Atomic Energy 

Commission 

U N. Documents: A Selected Bibliography . 606 
Discussion of Greek Problem. Statements 
by John Foster Dulles in Committee I: 
Continuation of Balkan Commission ... 607 
Concern for Peace in the Balkans .... 609 
U.S. Position on Palestine Resolution: 

Statement by Philip C. Jessup 611 

Text of Draft Resolution 613 

Resolution on the Palestinian Question . . 613 
Appeal to the Great Powers To Renew Their 
Efforts To Compose Their Differences and 

Establish a Lasting Peace 614 

The U.S. in the U.N 615 

Economic Affairs 

United Nations Economic Cooperation. 

Article by Norman Burns 598 



Economic Affairs — Continued 

Members of Tin Study Group To Consider 
Advisability of Agreement • 

Ward M. Canaday Becomes U.S. Commis- 
sioner of Carribean Commission .... 

U.S. Delegation to Ilo Textiles Committee . 

Treaty Information 

Organization of American States. Article by 
George M. Monsma 

General Policy 

Organization of American States. Article by 
George M. Monsma 

The Department 

Publications on the American Republics . . 

Procedure for Transmitting Electors' Certifi- 
cates. Letter From the Acting Secretary 
of State to the 48 Governors 

Mexican Architects Visit U.S 

The Foreign Service 

Assignment of First Social- Welfare Attaches . 



Page 
617 

617 
617 



591 



591 



597 



618 
619 



619 



George N. Monsma, author of the article on the Organization 
of American States, is Assistant Chief of the Division of Special 
Inter-American Affairs, Office of American Republic Affairs, 
Department of State. 



U. S. GOVEBKMENT PRINTING 0FFICEM94B 



^/i€/ z!/)eha/^tmeni/ /(w tnate^ 





GENERAL ASSEMBLY CONSIDERS STEPS FOR 

REDUCTION OF ARMAMENTS • Statement by 
Frederick H. Osborn 630 

ANNOUNCEMENT OF INTENTION TO ENTER 

TARIFF NEGOTIATIONS 642 

NATURAL RESOURCES IN A WORLD OF CON- 
FLICT • Article by Paul H. Nitze 623 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XIX, No. 490 
November 21, 1948 







■*tes 



k«»»» o* 



^6 2 1946 







«>we z/^efut/yi^e^ ^ C/laie YJ LI 1 1 w L 1 ± JL 



Vol. XIX, No. 490 • Publication 3346 
November 21, 1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Ooveroment Printing OtDce 

Washington 25. DC. 

Prici: 

62 Issues, domestic $5, foreign $7.25 
Single copy, 16 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

I^ote: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, proindes the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government uiith information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the icork of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative fnaterial in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



NATURAL RESOURCES IN A WORLD OF CONFLICT 

fey Paul H. JSilze 
Deputy to the Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs 



There is today widespi'ead concern as to the 
adequacy of natural resources to support the 
world's increasing population. Malthus has come 
back into fashion, and Malthusian gloom per- 
vades many of our discussions of trends in other 
parts of the world and of the effectiveness of the 
international policies we adopt. It will perhaps 
give a little perspective to this problem if I recall 
a talk I had with Sir Montagu Norman in 1932, 
when he was Governor of the Bank of England. 
He felt then that the basic problem in the world 
was overproduction, that technical advances in 
production had been so rapid that -the world as 
a whole was experiencing a crisis arising out of al- 
most universal overproduction. Moreover, he 
thought that such a condition would be chronic 
for the foreseeable future. 

It seemed to me then, and it seems to me now, 
that Sir Montagu's analysis was only a partial 
analysis of an extremely complex pattern of inter- 
related factors and that he overemphasized the 
abundance of resources and ignored the possibil- 
ity of a well-functioning economy and a great war, 
causing a scarcity of resources. It seems to me 
that there is an opposite danger of a partial analy- 
sis based on an assumption that this scarcity of 
natural resources will be extreme. Oversimpli- 
fication is a constant hazard in this infinitely com- 
plicated field. 

One point is crystal clear, however, and that is 
that we should not shy away from the facts. We 
should examine such facts as are available to us to 
the best of our ability. Then, having ascertained 
the facts, or at least as many as we can, we should 
develop a positive program of action that holds out 
realistic prospects of accomplishment and attempt 
to carry it out. Although we must not hesitate to 

November 2?, 1948 



develop a program and carry it out, we must all the 
time maintain a certain degree of humility as to 
our ability to foresee how the various interrelated 
factors will in fact work themselves out. Unpre- 
dicted and unpredictable events abound, especially 
when human beings are involved, and this problem 
of the relation of man to his resource environment 
is just as much a human problem as it is a natural- 
resource problem. 

Considering first the nonrenewable resources, 
one of the hard facts of life is that the minerals 
necessary for a highly developed civilization can 
be drawn from the earth in only limited quanti- 
ties. Some are located at such depths, at such 
places, and in such combinations as to make them 
extremely difficult or even impossible to obtain. 
Furthermore, the minerals that we do know about 
and can get at without too much difficulty are dis- 
tributed around the world in a haphazard fashion, 
from the point of view of human use. 

It would be comforting if, once we got minerals 
out of the ground, we could keep on using them in- 
definitely. But there is much permanent loss, 
ranging from total loss, in the case of fuels, to only 
slight loss — for example, in the case of lead used 
in storage batteries. At present rates of consump- 
tion, there is an appreciable drain on the known 
mineral resources of the world. 

The facts about renewable natural resources are 
moie complex, but it seems to be generally agreed 
that unless thoroughgoing conservation measures 
are widely employed, erosion, soil exhaustion, de- 
forestation, lower water tables, silting up of 
streams, and related developments will soon bring 
results which would be even more serious than the 
permanent loss of certain of our mineral resources. 

623 



Against these broad natural-resource facts we 
have the facts of population. The world's popula- 
tion increased from 400 millions in the sixteenth 
century to some 800 millions in the nineteenth, and 
is now estimated at approximately 2,200 millions. 
Population growth generally changes only slowly 
and as a result of complex factors. A substantial 
change in world population trends in the next 
few decades is not probable. Even a decline in 
the annual increments is unlikely for a consider- 
able time to come. By the end of this century, the 
world's population may be close to 3 billion people. 

The situation is quite different in various parts 
of the world. First, there are the countries of in- 
cipient population stability, namely the countries 
of Western Europe and North America. Second, 
there are the countries of transitional growth, in- 
cluding the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe gener- 
ally, much of Latin America, and Japan. Third, 
there are the countries with a high growth poten- 
tial, especially China and India. 

Certain interesting comparisons can be made 
among these three types of countries. The first 
and second types each have one fifth of the popu- 
lation of the world ; the third type has three fifths. 
In type 1, the median age is about 35 years and the 
life expectancy at birth is about 60 years ; in type 2, 
the median age is about 25 years and the life ex- 
pectancy is about 50 ; in type 3, the median age is 
about 20 years and the life expectancy is between 
30 and 40 yeai'S. These are striking differences. 
Birth rates are falling rapidly in types 1 and 2, 
but not in type 3. Death rates are low and fairly 
constant in type 1, falling rapidly in type 2, and 
continuing high in type 3. The likely develop- 
ments of the coming years, namely declining birth 
rates and low or declining death rates in the more 
advanced countries, but mainly declining death 
rates in the less developed areas, which already 
have well over half the world's population, will 
mean a somewhat smaller percentage of the world's 
population for the type 1, or, generally speaking, 
the western countries, and a somewhat larger per- 
centage for types 2 and 3, especially 3. This is a 
political-economic fact, or probable fact, that must 
always be borne in mind. 

It is clear that the United States will gradually 
come to have a smaller percentage of the people 
of the world. This may make our own problem 
of adaptation to limited resources easier than for 



the w.orld as a whole, especially in view of the high 
productivity of our people. 

There is another important aspect of the popu- 
lation and resources problem, which is sometimes 
overlooked. During the last 100 years or so, pro- 
duction and consumption, as well as population, 
have increased greatly. At the same time democ- 
racy and popular education have advanced rap- 
idly. The result has been a tremendous rise in 
aspirations for the good things of life, in the mate- 
rial as well as the spiritual realm, on the part of 
the great mass of people over the world. People 
are not satisfied with their present lot. They want 
more things to eat, wear, and enjoy now. "Pie in 
the sky by and by" seems to have less appeal than 
it perhaps once did. Moreover, people in many 
countries have sufficient political power to make 
their wants felt. Governments are under obliga- 
tion to do something to improve the lot of the com- 
mon man. Whether the resource base exists for 
providing the rapidly increasing popidations with 
the high levels of physical consumption they de- 
sire is a real question. If not, political stability 
will depend to a considerable extent on people ad- 
justing their consumption sights to something 
within the range of practical possibilities. 

Another factor bringing pressure on natural re- 
sources is of course the need for military estab- 
lishments. War is expensive in terms ,of natural 
resources as well as human, and the exhaustible 
mineral resources are especially hard hit in this 
day of industrialized warfare. The present mo- 
ment is not a happy one for predicting an imme- 
diate decline in the military drain on resources. 

It is too bad that there is not an annual or quin- 
quennial volume that lists all the natural resources 
of the world and tells where they are and how 
much thei'e is of them. Such a volume would 
probably not be generally accepted as authorita- 
tive and for a very good reason. Natural resource 
is in part a relative term. It has meaning only in 
the context of the potential use to which we think 
the resource can be put. The nitrogen in the air, 
the gold in the sea, or the minerals of the core of 
the earth are not counted as part of our natural 
resources. In a very real sense, resources do not 
exist unless we are resourceful enough to find ways 
and means of using them. Differences of opinion 
as to what resources exist and the technical and 
economic possibilities of converting them to man's 



i 



624 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



use are such as to make authoritative cataloging 

cliflicult. 

The relativity of the concept of "natural re- 
sources" must always be kept in mind. For ex- 
iun]ile, titanium, which was formerly important 
largely because it was an obnoxious impurity in 
steel manufacture, has in recent years become an 
important substitute for lead in the manufacture 
of paint, and now that an economical process has 
been found for refining it into a pure metal, tita- 
nium ore deposits, once a drug on the market, may 
come to have strategic significance. 

During the war the Office of Imports of the For- 
eign Economic Administration was largely con- 
cerned with tlie procurement of strategic matei'ials 
abroad and the preclusive buying of materials to 
deny them to the enemy. Some consideration was 
also given, however, to the foreseeable raw-mate- 
rials problems which would arise tluring the peace. 
In that connection, our various commodity experts 
were asked to estimate the remaining world re- 
sources of the various metals and minerals which 
they were engaged in procuring. The most com- 
petent were generally the most reluctant to set a 
figure down in black and white because of the al- 
most interminable qualifying footnotes that would 
have had to be added to explain exactly what the 
figure meant and what it did not mean. 

Quite apart from this problem of the relativity 
of natural resources are two other stumbling blocks 
to adequate knowledge about the quantity of nat- 
ural resources. One is that it takes a considerable 
amount of high-quality hvunan resources and some 
other facilities to collect resource information. 
The other, a sad one, is that certain governments 
shoot people who divulge even to their own citi- 
zens much about resources in their countries. 

In spite of these difficulties, one can say some- 
thing about the resource position of the world and 
the United States. It is convenient to continue 
the distinction between renewable and nonrenew- 
able resources. 

Of the renewable, nothing compares with soils 
in importance. The broad fact here is that top- 
soil builds up slowly, and through neglect and 
careless agricultural practices the world is losing 
a great amount of valuable topsoil. We in the 
United States, it is believed, take better care of 
our land than do people in many countries, 
although we are still behind a number of coun- 



tries in soil-conservation practice. Despite this, 
the war and postwar years have seen tremendous 
accomplishments by United States agriculture, 
based on improved practices, better seeds, and new 
techniques that have made these accomplishments 
possible. Without them the United States would 
have been in no position to help other countries of 
the world avoid mass starvation and the resulting 
economic and political chaos. 

The most immediate concern of the United 
States is the minerals field. In general this coun- 
trj' is well endowed with mineral resources. It is 
this endowment which has, among other things, 
made it possible for the 7 percent of the world's 
population in the United States to produce 40 
percent of the world's goods. Without this en- 
dowment we could not have shipped abroad some 
140 million tons of military and other equipment 
during the war. 

Today there are many shortages of mineral sup- 
plies in the United States. The Bureau of Mines 
has estimated our commercial mineral reserves in 
relation to the 1935-39 annual rate of use. The 
United States has no commercial reserves of flake 
graphite, quartz crystals, industrial diamonds, tin, 
and nickel. Our commercial reserves have been es- 
timated at one year for chromite, 2 years for man- 
ganese, 3 for asbestos and mercury, 4 for platinum 
and tungsten, 7 for vanadium, 9 for bauxite, 12 for 
lead, 19 for zinc, and 34 for copper. Since that 
time prices have advanced substantially, probably 
throwing additional ore into the commercial class. 
On the other hand, further depletion has taken 
place, and the 1935-39 rate of use has been found 
to be at least 30 percent under current annual re- 
quirements, even with all the technological im- 
provements in consumption that enable us to 
stretch our supplies. 

The pressures arising from a growing shortage 
of high-grade mineral reserves are bound to have 
far-reaching effects on our domestic economy, and 
to some extent abroad. The case of the imminent 
exhaustion of the high-grade Mesabi iron ores is 
a good example. Already northern New York 
iron mines, once abandoned, are being reopened; 
experimental work is going forward rapidly in the 
beneficiation of lower grade iron ores; production 
from deposits in North Africa is increasing; proj- 
ects are under way or under consideration in 
Brazil, in Venezuela, and in Liberia. The recov- 



November 27, 1948 



625 



ery of iron and steel scrap has taken on a new 
importance, and negotiations have just been com- 
pleted with the United Kingdom which should 
result in steel scrap moving from Germany to the 
United States. Improvements in the steel-making 
processes are being stimulated. The problem will 
be met, but only by the application of a vast 
amount of technical and other energies. 

Similarly, in other segments of the metals field, 
serious problems are arising that require new tech- 
nical developments, the substitution of a more 
plentiful metal for a less plentiful, more economi- 
cal forms of utilization, and above all a far greater 
emphasis upon the recovery of scrap. In the long 
run we must reduce the wastage of nonrenewable 
resources to an absolute minimum. Such a re- 
duction does not necessarily mean a halt in the 
increase in our standard of living; but it does 
mean a much more intelligent use of the resources 
which we have. As an illustration of what can 
be done, we remember our amazement and distress 
at discovering, just after the war, that Germany 
had been able to triple its war production between 
1942 and 1945 with no substantial increase in its 
raw materials, but just by more efficient use of 
those materials. This effort was largely made by 
redesign of equipment and new techniques of 
production. 

Our fuels are used up when they are burnt, 
and no recovery as scrap is possible. Fortunately, 
our coal reserves are very great, and by and large 
those of other countries are also of long life. Our 
oil reserves are not in such a happy position, al- 
though much has been done to improve extraction 
techniques. For the immediate future the rapid 
development of Middle Eastern reserves should 
ease the tight world petroleum situation. In the 
long run the problem would not be so great in the 
energy field if water, solar, atomic, or wind sources 
could be harnessed in adequate volume. It is clear 
that an increase in the energy base of the world 
economy is fundamental to sustained large-scale 
advance. 

Up to this point only passing reference has been 
made to the ways of mitigating or actually im- 
proving what looks to some like the sad long-run 
plight of the human race. Now let us see what are 
or might become mitigating factors and how prac- 
ticable they would appear to be. 

Of the ways in which the seriousness of this 
world situation might conceivably be mitigated, 

«26 



some are not within our power to do very much 
about at the present time. One is a rapid decline 
in population or even a rapid decline in the rate of 
increase of population. Another is large-scale 
movements of population. Another is a general 
reduction of people's desires for the things of this 
world which involve, directly or indirectly, drains 
on scarce natural resources. A fourth is a signifi- 
cant reduction of the amount of resources going 
to military establishments. 

There are certain other ways of mitigating the 
impact of resource shortages that it is within our 
power to do something about. Improved tech- 
niques for resource development and conserva- 
tion, even on the basis of current knowledge if 
widely applied, hold substantial prospects for mit- 
igating the problem. The results of such appli- 
cation may not be estimated now statistically, but 
concern for natural resources would be much less 
panicky if existing knowledge were being fully 
put to practical use. 

To accomplish this result, four basic things seem 
to be required. The first is knowledge ; the second 
is wide dissemination of that knowledge ; the third 
is the appropriate organizational techniques for 
efficiently implementing that knowledge; and the 
fourth is sufficient capital, or to put it another way, 
enough excess of productive effort over current 
consumption to enable us to execute the actual 
projects involved. 

On all four counts, the United States is in a 
favorable situation, compared with the rest of the 
world. We are fortunate in one further respect, 
the freedom from internal barriers within the 
United States to a free movement of knowledge, of 
people, of goods, and .of the capital necessary for 
resource development and conservation. 

Optimum conservation and utilization of re- 
sources cannot, however, be adequately achieved by 
domestic measures alone, either in the United 
States or in any other nation. On the interna- 
tional front also there are important fields for 
action, involving international trade, interna- 
tional capital movements, and international 
diffusion of scientific and technical knowledge. 

Consider trade first. Many of the particular re- 
source shortages of the United States are today 
being met by imports from abroad. As resources 
are further developed in other countries, we hope 
that increased imports will be possible. The 
United States is today, however, exporting a far 

Department of State Bulletin 



larger total volume of goods than it imports. This 
is true not only in a dollar sense but also in the 
sense of the resources that go into the goods pur- 
chased with these dollars. 

At the time of the congi'essional consideration of 
the European Recovery Progi-am, the capacity of 
the natural-resource position of the United States 
to withstand the drain involved was considered. 
After consideration, it was felt that we coidd stand 
the drain, and the program was approved. The 
point is, however, that there are practical limits to 
the extent to which we can export our resources 
without receiving comparable imports. 

Reflecting our concern on this point, both the 
Executive Branch of the Government and the Con- 
gress felt it wise to attach to the rendering of eco- 
nomic assistance to Europe the condition that the 
recipient countries cooperate with us in making 
available reasonable quantities of materials ex- 

\ pected to be in long-term short supply in the 
United States. Again, our stockpiling program is 
part of our attempt to insure adequate supplies of 
strategic resources in case international trade 
should be disrupted by war. In any commodity 
agreements we may negotiate, it is obvious that our 
special interest will be that available supplies 
should be adequate for our needs. 

In the long run it is our belief that not onlj' we 
but all other countries stand to benefit from a rela- 
tively free and equitable exchange of goods in in- 
ternational trade. The uneven distribution of re- 
sources of each country is to some extent overcome 
by such trade. This is a major purpose of the 
projected International Trade Organization. 
The importance of international trade in this 

I whole problem area is also a result of the greater 

' international specialization of labor that it makes 
possible. Development is thus concentrated on 
the most economic resources, with higher living 
levels brought about by the resulting greater pro- 
ductivity in all areas. Greater jjroductivity may 

1 not lessen the total drain on resources, but it cer- 
tainly lessens the impact of growing populations 
on particular resources. International trade has 
never been developed sufficiently to permit us to 
judge how large a contribution it could make to 
well-being. It is tempting to believe that the dif- 
ference in the levels of living between Western 
Europe and the United States derives to a very 
large extent from the existence of barriers to trade 
among the Western European states, in contrast to 



the comparative lack of such barriers between the 
States of the United States. This belief, of course, 
lies behind our strong encouragement of Euro- 
pean economic cooperation. 

In spite of the importance of international trade, 
it is going to be difficult in the coming years to 
maintain a large and increasing volimie of inter- 
national trade. It will be an uphill struggle, even 
with a functioning International Trade Organiza- 
tion. Many countries believe that their economic 
salvation lies in less, rather than more, trade, be- 
cause they think more trade increases their vul- 
nerability to instabilities elsewhere, specifically 
depressions or wars, and because they think they 
can develop themselves internally more rapidly 
by insulating themselves to a considerable extent. 
In attempting both to insulate themselves from in- 
ternational economic instability and to develop as 
rajjidly as possible, many countries severely limit 
their imports of certain products, compete avidly 
for such other imports as steel, machinery, and 
equipment needed for industrialization and al- 
ready in short supply ; and soon face internal in- 
flation which kills their exports, industrial bottle- 
necks arising in their extraordinarily complex 
economic development, and a desperate need for 
large-scale external financial assistance. 

Most of these countries are due for disappoint- 
ment. True, the Soviet Union — with a tremen- 
dous variety of natural resources and an iron 
discipline — has achieved a certain degree of au- 
tarchy ; but this is no sign that many other coun- 
tries — most of them much smaller — can do the 
same. By and large, most other countries simply 
lack the necessary resources. Also, to their great 
credit, they have a much greater concern for the 
freedom and aspirations of the individual. It is 
to be hoped that these countries will see the eco- 
nomic light before they add to their misery by 
going down the rugged path toward an autarchy 
that is certain to be austere. 

The second international approach to the prob- 
lem of resource development and conservation is 
through larger movements of international capital. 
In many countries adequate domestic capital just 
is not available to carry out progi-ams which are 
clearly indicated as being desirable. 

With adequate safeguards, the international 
movement of capital benefits both the recipient and 
the investor, because it helps to develop new re- 
sources and makes possible better utilization of 



November 21, 1948 



627 



existing resources. International capital flow 
tends to be accompanied by managerial and tech- 
nical skills and the latest technological knowledge 
and machinery, and for this reason may contribute 
to a wide sector of the economy to which it moves. 
Our policy is to encourage tlie maximum free 
movement of international investment capital. 
We ourselves know the benefits of foreign capital, 
for mucli of our early American economic de- 
velopment was made possible only by foreign in- 
vestors. Today, most of the demands for inter- 
national capital are centered on the United States, 
and we have made vast sums available to other 
countries, either as regular loans, governmental 
and private, as direct investments by private cor- 
porations, or as gifts. 

In general, the field of development of natural 
resources seems to us more appropriate for pri- 
vate investors than for the United States Govern- 
ment, and we have encouraged borrowers to go to 
private sources of capital wherever possible. Un- 
fortunately, many borrowers are less eager for pri- 
vate capital than for governmental capital, al- 
though the latter is strictly limited in amount and 
in approved uses. As a result of the many bar- 
riers to the entry of private capital into other coun- 
tries, many countries of the world today have had 
and are continuing to have a much smaller flow of 
investment capital than they might otherwise re- 
ceive. The consequence of this situation, of course, 
is that their resources contribute less than they are 
able, both because they are relatively undeveloped 
and because they are being wastefully developed. 
To repeat, we are convinced that both lender and 
borrower gain from a wise investment of capital, 
and it is our policy to encourage the flow of private 
investment capital both in the interest of our own 
lenders and in the interest of the economic de- 
velopment and wise resource utilization of the bor- 
rowing countries. 

It is impossible to mention the potential gain 
from moving capital across national boundaries so 
that it can maximize the productivity of labor and 
land in other countries, without touching at least 
briefly on the possibilities of moving people so 
that they can work with existing resources. It is 
fairly clear that some redistribution of people 
could raise the productivity of workers and hence 
the total world product, both in the primary in- 
dustries and in others. Within the United States, 
for example, the mobility of our labor force is 



one of the great sources of our economic strength. . 
There are, however, numerous difficulties in the 
way of migration in many parts of the world, 
although some measures have been carried out to 
bring workers fi'om surplus areas to labor-short- 
age areas such as Canada, Australia, and Argen- 
tina. 

The tliird and potentially most important inter- 
national method of progressing toward these goals 
is the development, dissemination, and application 
of increasingly efficient technology. It is fair to 
say that the development of such techniques is far 
ahead of their application. This lag in applica- 
tion does not mean that we should slow up on de- 
velopment, but it underlines the imperative neces- 
sity of much more energetic measures to dissemi- 
nate technical information on resource utilization 
and conservation. Much of this already takes 
place through private channels — through the 
press, the technical journals, the radio, the educa- 
tioiial system, even the movies— and the more that 
can be done in this way the better. Certainly, we 
should help to destroy all governmental barriers 
not only to the free flow of news but also, so far as 
security considerations permit, of technical infor- 
mation. Capital rarely moves abroad these days 
without a substantial store of techiiical informa- 
tion and techniques moving with it, so our encour- 
agement of capital flow is indirectly an encourage- 
ment to the diffusion of technical knowledge. A 
very interesting development of the last few years 
in this field has been the formation of development 
corporations, such as those in Latin America ini- 
tiated by the Rockefeller interests, and the group 
working in Liberia under the aegis of former Sec- 
retary of State Edward Stettinius. 

The times call for more than private communi- 
cations and private capital, however, and there is 
widespread interest in and approval of govern- 
mental participation in the international sharing 
of one of our greatest resources — our knowledge of 
liow best to utilize resources. United States Gov- 
ernment funds in this field are administered 
through the Interdepartmental Committee on Sci- 
entific and Cultural Cooperation. A variety of 
technical missions and many interchanges of spe- 
cialized personnel take place with the support of 
the Committee, one of whose guiding principles is 
the need to balance the development of physical 
resources with the development of human 
resources. 



I 



628 



Deparfment of Sfate Bulletin 



Tlie Export-Tniport Bank provides engineers 
and technical advice in connection with the loans 
it extends. In addition, the Institute of Inter- 
American AfTairs has worked out with many of 
our neighbors to the south a jointly supported and 
jointly operated device called the '"Servicio", to 
assist in disseminating technical information and 
training, particularly in the health, agricultural, 
and educational fields. The Economic Coopera- 
tion Act provides specifically for the provision of 
technical and engineering assistance to participat- 
ing countries in Europe. We are now experiment- 
ing with the assignment to our United States Em- 
bassies abroad of scientific attaches for the purpose 
of facilitating the exchange of scientific informa- 
tion and technology. Our Government — unlike 
those governments which censor not only the inter- 
national transmission of information but even the 
expression at home of heterodox scientific opin- 
ion — our Government stands squarely behind the 
greatest possible development of completely objec- 
tive science and technology, and its fullest possible 
sharing with other nations, except where security 
considerations prevent. 

Many of the international organizations in 
which the United States participates have been 
or will be active in different phases of the dis- 
semination of teclinical knowledge; for example, 
the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World 
Health Organization, the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and 
the Organization of American States. The 
United Nations, and particularly the Economic 
and Social Council, are also active in this field 
and coordinate the work of the specialized agen- 
cies. It was the Economic and Social Council that 
took the initiative in calling the United Nations 
Scientific Conference on the Conservation and 



Utilization of Resources, scheduled for May 16- 
June 3, 1949. This nuiltilateral approach is sup- 
plemented and reinforced by the active bilateral 
technical assistance programs mentioned above. 

Over and above the specific foreign-policy ques- 
tions raised by specific resource problems is the 
fact that one of the fundamental purposes of our 
foreign policy is that the United States play an 
appropriate role in establishing political and eco- 
nomic peace in the world. In implementation of 
that policy, we have given our full support to the 
United Nations and to the specialized interna- 
tional agencies, including the Monetary Fund, the 
International Bank, and the projected Interna- 
tional Trade Organization. 

We have supplemented these efforts by con- 
crete and material assistance to almost all countries 
of the world, including the Eastern European 
countries, in recovering from the economic dislo- 
cations of the war. We have been the leading fac- 
tor in halting the advance of that totalitarian ag- 
gression that feeds on economic distress and politi- 
cal chaos. Currently, our major effort is the task 
of completing economic recovery in Europe. 

Finally, it is imiDortant to emphasize that the 
question of whether the world's resources will be 
adequate in the future to provide for essential hu- 
man needs is to a large extent a matter of inter- 
national relations. If there is no real settlement of 
the political and ideological tensions with which 
we are now afflicted, a large part of the resources 
which may be available will be wasted in main- 
taining huge security establishments or in the su- 
preme waste of war itself. The full development 
of potential resources can occur only if interna- 
tional conditions are such as to facilitate the inter- 
change of technical knowledge, the flow of goods, 
and the transfer of capital. 



November 21, 1948 



629 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



General Assembly Considers Steps for Reduction off Armaments 



STATEMENT BY FREDERICK H. OSBORN IN COMMITTEE M 
U.S. Delegate to the General Assembly 



The resolution on disarmament before the Com- 
mittee refers to the fact that "the reduction of 
conventional armaments and armed forces can 
only be attained in an atmosphere of real and 
lasting improvement in international relations". 

In my remarks today, Mr. Chairman, I should 
like to discuss what must be done to attain, first, 
this "atmosphere of real and lasting improve- 
ment in international i-elations" which we all de- 
sire, and, second, the facts about armaments in the 
world today. 

Mr. Chairman, there has been too little analysis 
of why there is an atmosphere of fear and dis- 
trust in the world today. Soviet Representa- 
tives here, like their rulers in the Kremlin, seem 
to us to ignore the real causes for the present ten- 
sion. They pass over lightly the history of the 
past three years. They seem to have forgotten 
the shift in their policies which has taken place 
since we were so recently comrades-in-arms, fight- 
ing side by side in a common cause. 

During the war the American people sympa- 
thized with the Russian people, as we always have 
sympathized with a nation attacked by an aggres- 
sor. We gave the Soviet Union every help we 
could, without asking any questions. 

The people of Russia fought heroically to de- 
fend their country. They were told that the war 
was a war of defense. They were not told that 
the war was about Communism. But after the 
war Stalin's interpretation of Communism was 
again made a major factor in international rela- 
tions. It was only after the war that Soviet 
leaders reconstructed the dialectic of the early 
days of the revolution and with equal emphasis 
in 1947 and 1948 stressed the inevitability of a 
struggle between the Soviet brand of Communism 
and the so-called capitalist states. Examples of 
their present attitude are so numerous that they 
might be quoted for hours on end. Let me take 
only a single and very recent example. The New 
York Times of November 5th carries an article 
which states the following: In the current issue 

' Made on Nov. 11, 1948, and released to the press on the 
same date. Mr. Osborn is the Deputy U.S. Representative 
to the Atomic Energy Commission and is on the Commis- 
sion for Conventional Armaments. 

630 



of Bolshevik, organ of the Central Committee of 
the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, there 
is an extensive article which urges that the foreign 
Communist Parties transform themselves into 
revolutionary parties dedicated to preparing the 
way for armed revolt. According to the author, 
Mr. Burdzhalov, this is a return to the original 
Leninist doctrine. He quoted Prime Minister 
Stalin as saying that the parliamentary struggle 
was only a school for organizing the extra-parlia- 
mentary revolutionary means of struggle. Mr. 
Burdzhalov added that "direction of the revolu- 
tionary activities of the masses is the basic activity 
of the Communists". I will not go on with the 
rest of the article. But it is clear that such pro- 
nouncements, in which we may include Mr. Molo- 
tov's prediction of a year ago that "all roads lead 
to Communism", do not create an atmosphere of 
confidence. 

Mr. Vyshinslcy himself has not allayed our anx- 
iety. He has quoted Lenin on "capitalist encircle- 
ment" and impressed upon us that Communism is j 
the gravedigger of our so-called capitalism. These j 
facts make clear that the Soviet Union is once J 
again publicly professing the aim of world revo- 
lution. 

Behind the tightly sealed borders of the Soviet! 
state almost 10 percent of the world's people are! 
kept ignorant of what goes on in the outside world. 
The people of the rest of the world are disturbed ] 
at the thought of what may be going on behind! 
this veil of secrecy. They are forced to believe,] 
from available information, that the Soviet Un- 
ion has far more men imder arms than any otherj 
nation. 

With this strange background of arms and se- 
crecy, the Soviet Union since the war has done! 
things which have been bad for international rela- j 
tions. 

The Soviet Union has forcibly annexed terri- 
tory. The Soviet Union has destroyed the hopefull 
progress of representative government in the coun-f 
tries of eastern and central Europe. The Soviet! 
Union has obstructed the negotiations of peace 
treaties with Germany and Japan. The Soviet 
Union has refused to accept the plan of the United 
Nations for the control of atomic energy and the 
prohibition of atomic weapons which 46 other na- 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



tions find acceptable in principle. Soviet Repre- 
sentatives have cast 28 vetoes in the Security Coun- 
cil, many of which specifically blocked the peaceful 
settlement of disputes. Their summary rejection 
of the neutrals' plan to settle the Berlin question 
is fresh in our memories. There is every evidence 
that the Soviet Union is actively trying to prevent 
the reconstruction and improvement of living con- 
ditions in western Europe. 

These actions force us to believe that the Soviet 
Union is pursuing the aim of world revolution and 
of destroying the economic and political systems 
which other peoples have chosen for themselves. 
Thus the Soviet Union has created a spirit of in- 
quietude in the rest of the world. The inquietude 
is made worse when the Soviet Union repeats over 
and over things that the rest of the world knows 
are not true. 

It is pure nonsense to say that the United States 
desires to attack the Soviet Union. Any person 
who reads history knows that the people are mas- 
ters of the government they have established in 
the United States; and that the people want peace. 
They would not permit a war of aggression. We 
constantlj' hear from the Soviet Union that the 
American "people" do not control their govern- 
ment. "What nonsense ! Certainly after the events 
of the past week Mr. Vyshinsky should know be- 
yond the shadow of a doubt that the American 
people choose their leaders in free, unfettered elec- 
tions and that no policy can be pursued which is 
not supported and sanctioned by the American 
people. 

The Russian people themselves have no such op- 
portunities to choose their own leaders. When 
they do, a milestone in human progress will have 
been attained. 

In carrying out the mandate of the people, the 
United States has taken very specific steps to im- 
prove world confidence and to better the chances 
for peace. 

The United States has offered to give up the 
atomic bomb, to turn over all its atomic plants to 
an international agency, and to accept the prohibi- 
tion of atomic weapons under the conditions of 
strict control approved by the overwhelming ma- 
jorit}' of this General Assembly. 

The United States, believing that lasting peace 
demands healthy economic conditions, has put 
into effect and is cooperating with the countries of 
western Europe in a program of economic recon- 
struction and rehabilitation. This cooperative en- 
terprise has been closed to no nation and its terms 
have been dictated by no nation. 

The United States has exerted its efforts to 
strengthen the United Nations. We are fully par- 
ticipating in all of its agencies. By contrast, the 
Soviet Union has refused to participate in most 
of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. 

I am not trying to fix the blame or credit for 

November 21, 1948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

these things. I am only trying to place before 
you the facts as they appear to us in the United 
States and also apparently to most of the people of 
western Europe. 

On the basis of these facts, it seems clear that we 
will not attain "an atmosphere of real and last- 
ing improvement in international relations" as a 
prerequisite to disarmament, as required by this 
resolution, until the Soviet Union, not only by its 
words but in its actions, ceases to threaten the 
world with Communist aggression. 

I now come to the facts about armaments. A 
realistic discussion of disarmament must be based 
on consideration of the status of the present pro- 
duction of armaments by the different nations as 
well as on their arms and armies. Let us consider 
first the state of arms production. 

Much detail has been published in all the West- 
ern nations which shows the amounts of money 
now being spent on producing various types of 
arms for gi-ound forces and air forces and naval 
forces. These sums of money are published in 
budgets voted by congresses or parliaments. And 
in the Western countries, budgets are scrutinized 
meticulously and frequently criticized and con- 
tested by elected representatives of the people. 

The Western states, after enormous expendi- 
tures during the war, have reduced their appro- 
priations for the production of arms and for mil- 
itary forces to a relatively normal peacetime figure. 
I am most familiar with United States statistics. 
At the peak of the war years, American military 
expenditures were more than 80 billion dollars a 
year. Today, three years later, and taking into 
account those military expenditures forced upon 
us by present conditions of world insecurity, the 
United States is spending approximately 13 bil- 
lion dollars for defense purposes, or less than one 
sixth of the amount during a war year. Alto- 
gether, at the present time, the United States is 
spending approximately 6 percent of its total na- 
tional income on defense. 

Tlie reduction in the number of men in our 
Army, Navy, and Air Force was even gi'eater: 
from more "than 12 million on June 30, 1945, to 
well less than a million and a half on December 
31, 1947. 

Immediately after the destruction of the Japa- 
nese and German armies, the overwhelming 
weight of American production, which had been 
concentrated on our common enemies, was turned 
at once to the peacetime uses of the American 
people. In addition, the industrial production of 
the American worker has provided goods and food- 
stuffs to help countries which had been occupied 
during the war, in order to restore their peacetime 
economies. These deliveries of goods and food- 
stuffs abroad were made through the contributions 
of the United States to the United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration, and more re- 
cently through the Marshall Plan. 

631 



THB UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

Such a peaceful use of our productive capacities 
was a clear expression of the basic desire of the 
people of the United States. This desire remains 
unclianged. The American people want to pro- 
duce for peace and not for war. But they are not 
ready to jeopardize tlieir security. When during 
the past three years they realized that other na- 
tions remained heavily armed, indeed, appeared to 
be rearming, they took the steps necessary for 
their own protection. They began diverting some 
part of their production to defense. They did so 
with reluctance. They did so by necessity, not by 
choice. They realize only too well that any such 
decision means a corresponding reduction in the 
materials available for the economic and social 
improvement which is the road to world stability 
and to world security. 

At the present thne, 04 percent of the total na- 
tional income of the United States is directed to 
peaceful purposes. This is the productive power 
whicli, when turned to other uses, has made the 
United States so powerful in two world wars. But 
it takes time to turn it from peaceful use into pro- 
duction for war. Its present use is clear evidence 
of our peaceful intent. 

Now let us look for a moment at Soviet produc- 
tion of military supplies and at the Soviet armies. 
Tlie Soviet Union does not follow the example of 
the countries of the Western world in publishing 
details regarding the strength of its armed serv- 
ices, or of monies spent on armaments. The Soviet 
Union does not have a congress or parliament con- 
taining an opposition free to analyze, dispute, and 
seek confirmation of government figures. We must 
therefore use the best published estimates avail- 
able. 

._ On the basis of such estimates, it appears that 
in the Soviet Union approximately 16 percent of 
the national income is now turned to munitions 
and the support of vast armies ; which is more than 
double the proportion spent in the United States, 
or, indeed, in other Western European countries. 
This is a strange situation. The Kussian people do 
not want war. The Soviet leaders do not need to 
convince us of that. The Russian worker, like 
the American worker, wants peace, security for 
his family, and the opportunity to improve his sit- 
uation in life. We recognize that the Soviet Union 
has made progress in reconstruction and rehabili- 
tation since the end of the war. In spite of tlie 
iron-clad restrictions placed on the travel of for- 
eigners in the Soviet Union, our representatives 
there have seen an improvement in living condi- 
tions for Soviet citizens. But we know also that 
these conditions are not imjiroving more rapidly 
because so much of the production of Soviet fac- 
tories is going into war materials. This repre- 
sents a huge drain away from peacetime improve- 
ments. 

In order that tlie Soviet worker may accept this 
situation, he is kept in the fear and dread of war 

632 



by the government itself. He depends for his 
information upon his government-controlled and 
strictly censored press, radio, stage, and cinema. 
He hears only the news his rulers wish him to hear. 
It is distorted for their own purposes. 

When Mr. Vyshinsky makes one of his violent 
sj^eeches in a session of this General Assembly, 
every word he utters is printed in Pravda, Izvestia, 
and the newspapers throughout the vast Soviet 
Union. His speech of October 13 took up a large 
part of three successive issues of the leading Mos- 
cow papers. We have no objection to that — the 
verbatim texts of Mr. Vyshinsky's speeches appear 
in the American press. But the Soviet citizen 
seldom, if ever, gets the chance to read the text of 
a speech by a representative of a Western power. 
Instead he can read only brief, tendentious, dis- 
torted reports of such speeches which effectively 
prevent him from getting an accurate picture of 
our debates here. As an example of such distorted 
and inaccurate reporting, the Moscow papers of 
October 13 stated that in Ambassador Austin's 
speech of October 12 he had made "a whole series 
of slanderous statements founded on the forged 
documents of the Hitlerites and used early this 
year by the United States State Department". 
I need only comment in passing that not one single 
sentence of that speech came from a German docu- 
ment. Stalin's congratulatory telegram to Rib- 
bentrop, which Mr. Vyshinsky implied was a 
forged document, was published at the time in 
the Soviet press and in Communist newspapere 
tliroughout the world, including the issue of De- 
cember 28, 1939, of the Daily Worker. 

I am sometimes gravely apprehensive, Mr. 
Chairman, that the Russian man-in-the-street may 
not be the only Soviet citizen holding a warped 
and twisted view of the world outside the borders 
of tlie Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. My 
misgivings arise from statements made in this 
committee by Mr. Vyshinsky and by recent public 
statements emanating from Moscow. I am led to 
wonder whether the rulers of the Soviet Union, 
tlie members of tlie Politburo themselves, may not 
come to believe the frightening and false propa- 
ganda picture of a world wanting to attack their 
country. I hope such is not the case, and I am 
reluctant to believe it so. I trust that the mem- 
bers of the Politburo, if not the Russian people, 
will have access to and will read carefully the ver- 
batim records of this session of the General As- 
sembly. If they are not then convinced of the 
good faith of non-Communist nations represented 
about this table and of the fact that these nations 
are not planning and will not undertake aggressive 
war against the Soviet Union, then I say these 
gentlemen are blind and impervious to the truth. 

The Soviet citizen yearns for a better life. He 
would hope that he might live in less crowded con- 
ditions, that he might buy better clothes for his 
family, more books for his children, and even some 

Department of State Bulletin 



of (lie motlorn eloctricul appliances — toasters, 
irons, and refrigerators, which are beginning to 
appear on the shelves of Moscow department 
stores. The Soviet citizen would hope that the 
millions of political prisoners working in mines 
and factories might be replaced by free workers 
freely hired. He would hope that he might have 
freedom of choice in his work and place of em- 
ployment. 

But the Soviet Government through all its or- 
gans of publicity is telling the Soviet worker that 
he cannot have these things because the Western 
nations are threatening him with another war. 

AVe may well ask, why does the Soviet Govern- 
ment tell its people things that no other people, 
no other nation, believes to be true? Why is it 
that the Soviet Government demands such a ter- 
rible sacrifice from the Russian people? Is it 
because the rest of the world is even more heavily 
armed and therefore is dangerous to the Russian 
people ? Again, let us look at the facts as they are 
available. 

It is our understanding from published figures 
which the Soviet l^nion has not denied, that the 
Soviet Union has under arms at the present time 
forces totaling around four million men, and its 
associated states another two million. Taking into 
account the proportion between service troops and 
combat troops and the size of Soviet divisions, this 
number woidd mean considerably more than 250 
divisions of combat troops for the Soviet Union 
and the states under its control. 

The Soviet states apparently have available com- 
bat troops at least five times more numerous than 
those of all Western European states put together. 
And bear in mind that it is combat troops which 
are the weapons of conquest and occupation. It 
is only the foot soldiers who can conquer, occupy, 
and subjugate the territory of neighbors. The 
rulers of the Soviet Union know this. They 
learned it from the Germans. 

A reduction of one third would not change the 
disproportion in Soviet armies. So it would not 
relieve the anxieties of other nations. If the re- 
duction in Soviet armies were to be carried out in 
secret behind the Soviet borders it would not re- 
move from other nations the element of suspicion 
which is such a bar to peace. 

Permit me again, Mr. Chairman, to undei-line 
one of the most fundamental points in this ]irob- 
lem. How can we know which of the nations 
should reduce or have reduced their arms by one 
third or by one half or by three fourths without 
basic knowledge on which to make our decision, 
and without real knowledge of what goes on behind 
tlie Iron Curtain ? How can we decide the relative 
strength of one nation vis-a-vis another, in terms 
of numbers of men and types of arms? We must 
have basic information. 

The Soviet Union seems to look upon this ele- 
mentary pi-iiiciple as an evil plot of non-Commu- 

November 2 J, 1948 



JH£ UNITBD NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

nist states to spy out the Soviet land. The United 
States is built on the principle of national sov- 
ereignty and no nation asks another to do what it 
is not willing to do itself. Information in our 
coinitries is already available ; in the Soviet Union 
it is not. The Soviet Representatives dare to deny 
the existence of the Iron Curtain. But Soviet citi- 
zens and diplomats in the United States have al- 
ways been free to travel in our countries wherever 
and however they like; while the Soviet Union, 
except for three or four specified cities, is now 
hermetically sealed to the representatives of other 
governments as it is to their citizens. Even foreign 
diplomats are categorically prohibited from trav- 
eling beyond .50 kilometers from Moscow. They 
aie not now allowed to set foot in eight districts 
within the 50 kilometer radius. They are thus lit- 
erally imprisoned within the city limits of Moscow. 
The fact that these restrictions were imposed dur- 
ing this session of tlie General Assembly unfortu- 
nately does not testify to the present desire of the 
Soviet Government for cooperation and mutual 
understanding. 

I repeat, none of us asks the Soviet Union to 
do more than our own governments are willing 
to do. But we fail to see how progress toward dis- 
armament can be made until we all accept the basic, 
elementary principles of a mutual exchange and 
verification of information. 

Let me return to consider that "improvement in 
international relations" which I mentioned at the 
beginning. How can we bring this about? 

By accepting the principles of the Charter of 
the United Nations the Soviet Union pledged itself 
to cooperation for peace in the world community. 
Can it be that the Soviet Union, having signed 
the Charter, at the same time believes that war is 
inevitable unless some of the members of the 
United Nations change their systems of govern- 
ment ? 

Here then are the realities of the situation. The 
Soviet Union is heavily armed; it is at present 
kept in a position to carry on an aggressive war 
for the continuance of its conquest of the territory 
of other nations. The Soviet Union is spending a 
larger proportion of its manpower and its re- 
sources in preparation for war than are the West- 
ern nations. It is the Soviet Union alone that is 
carrying on a shrill government-directed propa- 
ganda to prepare its people for war. The Soviet 
Union alone is working behind a veil of secrecy. 
How then can the rest of the world disarm ? 

In this situation we meet to consider what steps 
might be taken by the General Assembly in the 
hope of bringing about a reduction of arms, and 
a sense of security among the peoples of the world. 
The Soviet proposal for a reduction of one third 
in the armaments of the five major powers without 
any verification would not bring about this result. 

(Continued on page 641) 

633 



Progress Report on Conditions of Refugees in Near East 



[Released to the press November 4] 

Ralph Bundle, United Nations acting mediator 
for Palestine, on October 18, 1948, submitted to the 
United Nations a progress report ^ on the condi- 
tions of refugees in the Near East. In his report 
he made reference to the statements of the late 
mediator, Count Bernadotte, who wrote on Sep- 
tember 18: 

The choice is between saving the lives of many 
thousands of people now or permitting them to 
die. The situation of the majority of these hap- 
less refugees is already tragic, and to prevent them 
from being overwhelmed by further disaster and to 
make possible their ultimate rehabilitation, it is 
my earnest hope that the international community 
will give all necessary support to make the meas- 
ures I have outlined fully effective. I believe that 
for the international community to accept its share 
of responsibility for the refugees of Palestine is 
one of the minimum conditions for the success of 
its efforts to bring peace to that land. 

The acting mediator stated that the situation of 
the Palestine refugees is now critical, and the 
urgency of the need for assistance has been accen- 
tuated. He further stated that, unless adequate 
and effective aid comes quickly, the position of the 
refugees will become desperate within a few weeks. 
In his report he recalled that the figures cited in 
September on this situation tentatively placed the 
number of Arab refugees at 360,000, and the num- 
ber of Jewish refugees at 7,000. He stated that the 
figure for Jewish refugees remains the same, but 
the figure for Arab refugees must be revised up- 
wards to 472,000. The acting mediator called to 
the attention of the United Nations the critical 
shortage of food, the immediate need for clothing, 
and the fact that some 95,000 are without shelter 
of any sort. 

The report of the acting mediator is borne out by 
numerous reports from American missions in the 
Near East. The refugees have been dependent up- 
on the limited funds which they brought with them 
from their homes, and upon the resources of the 
governments in the states where they took refuge. 
Both of these sources are now almost completely 
exhausted. The situation is most critical in Pales- 
tine and Transjordan. It is estimated that 84,000 
refugees in central Palestine are still without shel- 
ter, and roads are lined with people encamj^ed 

' U.N. doc. A/6S9, Oct. 18, 1948, and A/689, Add. 1, Oct. 
19, 1948. 

634 



under trees or in the open. Hospital facilities are 
totally inadequate to meet the need ; in one area of 
Palestine 1^0 suspected cases of typhoid were sent 
back from a nearby clinic to sleep under the trees 
because of the lack of hospital beds and medicines. 
In southwestern Syria, refugees average 20 to a 
fair-sized room. The infant mortality rate is high 
in this area, and no physician is regularly avail- 
able. In many areas, preventive inoculations 
against diseases have not been undertaken because 
the limited supplies of vaccines must be reserved 
to fight actual outbreaks of disease. 

The situation is particularly critical because the 
refugees include an unusually high proportion of 
"vulnerable" groups : it is estimated that 12 percent 
consist of infants ; 18 percent are from 3 to 5 years 
of age; 36 percent are from 6 to 18 years of age; 
over 10 percent are pregnant women and nursing 
mothers; and 8 percent consist of aged, sick, and 
infirm people. The vulnerable total is, therefore, 
approximately 85 percent of the refugee popula- 
tion. 

With a view to alleviating the increasingly criti- 
cal conditions of Palestinian refugees of all com- 
munities, the United States Delegation to the 
General Assembly, in conjunction with the delega- 
tions of the United Kingdom, Belgium, and the 
Netherlands, introduced a resolution on October 
29, 1948, calling for a United Nations program for 
the relief of Palestinian refugees. The acting me- 
diator has estimated that a program to meet the 
minimum needs of these refugees until the next 
harvest is reaped will cost about $30,000,000. The 
proposed resolution urges all Members of the 
United Nations to make voluntary contributions to 
meet this need, and calls upon the specialized agen- 
cies and voluntary organizations for supplies and 
personnel to assist in relieving the desperate plight 
of these refugees. The Department of State is 
deeply hopeful that the General Assembly will act 
speedily on this resolution. 

American voluntary agencies have contributed 
supplies and funds for the relief of these refugees 
during the past few months and it is hoped that 
their efforts will continue to meet with success. 
The American Red Cross has already contributed 
large quantities of medical supplies and other items 
and has recently made a further contribution of 
blankets and clothing. The American Appeal for 
Holy Land Refugees, with headquarters at the 
Near East Foundation, 54 East 64th Street, New 
York, is continuing to mobilize American volun- 
tary efforts. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Reports of the United Nations Special Committee on the Balkans' 



The General Assembly, 

1. Having consiperkd the Reports by the Special 
Comniittee established by Resolution 109 (II) : 

•2. Having noted the conclusions of the Special 
Comniittee and in particular its unanimous conclu- 
sion that, despite the aforesaid Resolution of the 
General Assembly, "tlie Greek guerrillas have con- 
tinued to receive aid and assistance on a large scale 
from Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, with the 
knowledge of the G<n'ernments of those countries" 
and that the (Jreek guerrillas in the frontier zones 
liave, as found by the Special Committee : 

(1) '"Been largely dependent on external sup- 
ply. Great quantities of arms, ammunition and 
other military stores have come across the border, 
notably during times of heavy fighting. Strongly- 
held positions of the guerrillas have protected their 
vital supply lines from Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and, 
in particular, from Albania. In recent months, 
there has been less evidence of receipt of supplies 
from Yugoslavia by the guerrillas". 

(2) ''Frequently moved at will in territoi-y 
across the frontier for tactical reasons, and have 
thus been able to concentrate their forces without 
interference by the Greek Army, and to return to 
Greece when they wished". 

(3) "Frequently retired safely into the territory 
of Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia when the 
Greek Army exerted great pressure". 

3. Having noted further the conclusions of the 
Special Committee that a continuation of this 
situation ''constitutes a threat to the political in- 
dependence and territorial integrity of Greece and 
to peace in the Balkans" and ''that the conduct of 
Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia has been incon- 
sistent with the purposes and principles of the 
Charter of the United Nations"; 

4. Having noted the recommendations submit- 
ted by the Special Committee; 

5. Considers that the continued aid given by Al- 
bania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia to the Greek guer- 
rillas endangers peace in the Balkans, and is in- 
consistent with the purposes and principles of the 
Charter of the United Xations. 



6. Calls upon Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia 
to cease forthwith rendering any assistance or sup- 
port in any form to the guerrillas fighting against 
the Greek Government; including the use of their 
territories as a base for the preparation or launch- 
ing of armed action : 

7. Again calls upon Albania, Bulgaria and 
Yugoslavia to co-operate with Greece in the settle- 
ment of their disputes by peaceful means in accord- 
ance with recommendations contained in Resolu- 
tion 109(11) ; 

8. Calls upon Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia 
to co-operate with the Special Committee in en- 
abling it to carry out its functions and upon Greece 
to continue to co-operate toward the same end; 

9. Recommends to all Members of the United 
Nations and to all other states that their Govern- 
ments refrain from any action designed to assist 
directly or through any other government any 
armed group fighting against the Greek Govern- 
ment ; 

10. Approves the activities of the Special Com- 
mittee to date, continues it in being with the func- 
tions conferred upon it by Resolution 109(11) and 
instructs it : 

(a) To continue to observe and report on the 
response of Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia to 
the General Assembly injunction not to furnish 
aid to the Greek guerrillas in accordance with Gen- 
eral Assembly Resolution 109(11) and the present 
Resolution; 

(b) To continue to utilize observation groups 
witli personnel and equipment adequate for the 
fulfilment of its task; 

(c) To continue to be available to assist the 
Governments of Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and 
Yugoslavia in the implementation of Resolution 
109(11) and of the present Resolution; 

11. Authorizes the Special Committee to con- 
sult, in its discretion, with the Interim Committee 
(if it is continued) with respect to the j^erform- 
ance of its functions in the light of developments; 

12. Requests the Secretary-General to provide 
the Special Comniittee with adequate staff and 
facilities to enable it to perform its functions. 



The United States in the United Nations 



[November 13-19] 



Control of Armaments 

The General Assembly declared on November 
19 that all nations should possess "exact and au- 
thenticated" data on tiie arms and armed forces 
of otlier nations and that ''real and lasting im- 
provement in international relations" is required 
before measures for international disarmament 
can be safely instituted. 

The world body so declared by adopting the 
Belgian resolution on disarmament accepted by 

November 21, 7948 



the great majority in the Assembly Political Com- 
mittee on November 13. The vote in the General 
Assembly was 43 to 6 with the Soviet and other 
Eastern European countries opposing. 

John Foster Dulles, U.S. Delegate, termed the 
Belgian resolution a ".sound foundation for the 
control of armaments." 



• U. N. doe A/C. 1/352, Oct. 26, 1948, draft resolution 
by China, France, the U.K., and the U.S. 

635 



THE UNITBD NATIONS AND SPEC/AUZED AGENCIES 

The resolution specifies that a condition for reg- 
ulation and reduction of ai-nis and armed forces 
is effective atomic controls under which atomic 
weapons will be banned. It calls on the Security 
Council's Conventional Armaments Commission 
to develop disarmament plans to be effected when 
the desired improvement in international relations 
is brought about and atomic controls are instituted. 
It calls for cooperation of all members of that 
Commission, which comprises the Security Council 
membership. 

Under the majority proposal, the Commission's 
first task would be the formulation of procedures 
for checking and publishing data on national arm- 
aments. 

Mr. Vishinsky, the Soviet Delegate, re-echoed 
his statement of November 13 that the Soviet 
Union would submit armaments data only to an 
international control agency. The Soviet resolu- 
tion, which was rejected by a vote of 38 to 6 on 
November 13 by Committee I, however, made no 
provision for verification. In past discussions the 
Soviet Union has opposed verification by an inter- 
national organ of data submitted by individual 
governments. 

The Soviet proposal also called for prohibition 
of atomic weapons under an international control 
agency within the framework of the Security 
Council. However, this aspect was dealt with 
previously when the Assembly decisively endorsed 
the Atomic Commission plan for an international 
agency with broad powers to supervise all atomic 
materials and facilities to insure atomic energy for 
peaceful uses only. 

Implementation of this atomic plan has been 
blocked by Soviet contention that it would usurp 
national prerogatives and generally open the way 
for interference by the rest of the world, and the 
United States in particular, with the Soviet 
economy. 

Speaking for the Belgian resolution on disarm- 
ament, Mr. Dulles emphasized that the first re- 
quirement "is the ability to' obtain complete and 
accurate, verified and comprehensive" information 
on world armaments. 

"That ability would itself create confidence and 
avoid the present risk that nations will create arm- 
aments in order to meet the imagined armaments 
of others," Mr. Dulles observed, adding: "Igno- 
rance, fear and suspicion can breed an armaments 
race that will itself be provocative of war". 

Referring to Soviet objections, Mr. Dulles 
stated : 

"Some nations in the name of sovereignty refuse 
to accept international controls. They contend 
national promises and national reports ought to 
be an acceptable substitution for international con- 
trol and international verification. The fact is 
national promises and iniverified official reports 
will not serve to allay suspicion. Histoi'y has too 

636 



often proved their unreliability . . . Suspi- 
cion and fear will persist unless there are effective 
international controls. Any nation that refuses 
to do what is in fact necessary to allay fear and 
suspicion is itself a contributor to conditions that 
breed war." 



Palestine Refugee-Aid Plan 

A $29,500,000 relief program for the half-mil- 
lion Palestine war refugees was approved unani- 
mously on November 19 by the General Assembly. 
The program, which is based on a proposal made 
by the United States, Britain, Belgium, and the 
Netherlands, also provides for an immediate ad- 
vance of $5,000,000 from working capital to start 
supplies flowing to the Near East refugee camps. 

The $29,500,000, plus an additional $2,500,000 
for administrative and operational expenses, 
would be raised through voluntary contributions 
from Member and non-Member states, and the 
$5,000,000 advance is to be repaid from this total 
amount. 

The program is to' extend for nine months, end- 
ing on August 1, 1949, when the next harvest is 
expected to bring improved conditions. 

The Assembly also authorized the Secretary- 
General to appoint a director for Palestine refugee 
relief. He is to be assisted by a seven-member 
advisory committee. 

Berlin Currency Problems 

As the President of the Security Council, Juan 
A. Bramuglia, pressed for a solution to the Berlin 
controversy by seeking to find agreement for the 
currency problem, U.S. Secretary of State Mar- 
shall on November 18 summoned to Paris financial 
and monetary experts from Washington and 
Berlin. 

They will assist the U.S. Delegation in prepar- 
ing answers to a questionnaire which President 
Bramuglia submitted to the Western powers and 
to the U.S.S.R. in his latest move to solve the im- 
passe over Berlin. The questionnaire asks pri- 
marily for technical information on how to obtain 
Big Four control of the Soviet mark in Berlin. 

Both Mr. Bramuglia and the Secretary-General 
have experts examining the currency question. The 
United States, hopeful that the studies will be 
coordinated in such manner as to avoid duplica- 
tion, has expressed willingness to cooperate with 
either Mr. Bramuglia or Sir. Lie but has empha- 
sized that its prime interest is in the Security 
Council's efforts. 

As indicated in the August 30 directive agreed 
on at Moscow between envoys of the three Western 
powers and Soviet leaders, the United States 
always has been ready to seek a solution of the 
Berlin currency problem. Likewise, the United 
States assumes that the introduction of the Soviet 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



zone mark as the currency for all of Berlin under 
Four Power control is technically feasible. 

Assembly Approves Permanent Headquarters 
Report 

In a plenary meeting, the General Assembly oil 
November 18 unanimously approved Secretary- 
General Lie's report on establishing pennanent 
lieadquarters in New York City and noted with 
satisfaction the United States agreement to lend 
tlie international organization $65,000,000 for 
building. 

Interim Committee 

The United States on November 17 called for 
continuation of the Interim Committee for an- 
other experimental year and urged all members, 
including the Soviet bloc, to cooperate in the body's 
work. 

The Interim Committee, set up to expedite and 
maintain continuity of Assembh' work between 
regular Assembly sessions, has concerned itself 
mostly during the past year with studj' of the veto 
problem and advising the Korean Commission. 

Great Britain. India, the Dominican Republic, 
and Ecuador were among others supporting con- 
tinuation of tlie Interim Committee and calling for 
participation by all members. Poland, however, 
reiterated its opposition. 

Discussion of the Interim Committee's future 
was the first item on the agenda of the new ad. hoc 
committee which was created to relieve the Politi- 
cal Committee of some of its work. On November 
20 the Committee voted 44 to 6 to extend the In- 
terim Committee for another year. 

Palestine Armistice Proposal 

The Security Council on November 16 called on 
Israel and the Arab States to draw up an armistice 
covering all parts of Palestine. It adopted para- 
graph by paragraph a Canadian-sponsored resolu- 
tion directing the warring parties to negotiate 
directly or througlv United Nations acting medi- 
ator, Ralph Bunche, regarding the establishment 
of demarcation lines and withdrawal or reduction 
of armed forces to insure maintenance of the arm- 
istice pending permanent settlement in Palestine. 

Eight of the Security Council's member nations 
voted for the armistice order, with Syria opposing 
the operative part and the U.S.S.R. and the 
Ukraine abstaining. Tlie Council rejected a Sy- 
rian amendment aimed at extending to Galilee, 
in northern Palestine, a previous order for with- 
drawal of Israeli forces in the Negev desert area. 
Only Syria, China, and Belgium supported this 
plan. 

The armistice directive was appi'oved after a 
Soviet resolution which would have called for 
immediate establishment of formal peace in Pales- 
tine was rejected. 

Philip Jessup, United States Deputy Represent- 

November 21, 1948 

813314 — IS 3 



THE UNITBD NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

ative, termed the Soviet measure not yet practica- 
ble; however, he supported the armistice resolu- 
tion, terming it the first ti-ansitional step from a 
truce to permanent peace. 

Committee I Rejects Invitation to North Korea 
Delegates 

An attempt by the Soviet and Eastern European 
countries in Committee I (Political and Security) 
to have representatives of the so-called North 
Korean Peoples Government invited to partici- 
pate in forthcoming discussion of the Korean 
question was rejected on November 15 by a vote 
of 38-0, with six abstentions. 

The Committee supported the contention of the 
U.S. Delegate, John Foster Dulles, that the U.N. 
Temporary Commission on Korea, as a kind of 
"credentials Committee", should be heard first. 
Mr. Dulles also reminded committee members that 
the U.N. Commission had been denied entrance to 
the northern, or Soviet zone of Korea, where the 
"Peoples Government" was established through 
"elections" which the Commission was not per- 
mitted to observe. 

A nine-member delegation from the Republic 
of Korea whose capital is at Seoul in South Koi'ea 
has made a formal request to participate in Com- 
mittee and Assembly discussions of the Korean 
question. 

Balkan States Discuss Greek Dispute 

Representatives of Albania, Bulgaria, Yugo- 
slavia, and Greece in Paris held their first joint 
discussions with U.N. mediators on November 15 
in an effort to settle the Balkan dispute through 
direct negotiation. 

After having met separately with the U.N. offi- 
cials on November 12, representatives of Greece 
and her three northern neighbors met collectively 
with the mediators for the first time. Officials 
serving as mediators were Herbert Evatt, Presi- 
dent of the General Assembly, Secretary-General 
Ti-ygve Lie, and Selim Sarper of Turkey, Rappor- 
teur of Committee I. 

Trusteeship 

The Assembly acted on November 18 on several 
resolutions relating to trusteeship of dependent 
areas. Two that were approved call on adminis- 
tering powers to accelerate progressive develop- 
ment toward self-government or independence of 
the trust territories under them. Another urges 
nations to increase the expenditure for education 
of the inhabitants of territories for which they 
are responsible and to provide free primary school- 
ing for all. A fourth recommends that the Trus- 
teeship Council investigate every aspect of the 
question of administrative unions between trust 
territories and adjacent political entities and sug- 
gest any safeguards it deems necessary to preserve 
the "distinct political status" of trust territories. 

637 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



U.S. Delegations to International Meetings 



ILO: Petroleum 

The Department of State announced on Novem- 
ber 9 that the following are representing the 
United States at the Second Session of the Peti o- 
leum Committee of the International Labor 
Organization (Ilo) which opened on November 9 
at Geneva for a period of approximately ten days. 

Government Kepresentatives 

Delegates 

Arnold I-. Zempel. Associate Director, Office of Inter- 
I tional Labor AfCairs, Department of Labor 

David E Lonfianecker, Assistant Chief, Petroleum Di- 
vision, Department of State 

Alternate Delegate and Adviser 

Robert E Friedman, Associate Director, Oil and Gas Di- 
vision, Department of the Interior 

Adviser 

Hersev E. Riley, Chief, Branch of Construction Statistics, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor 

Employees' Representatives 

Delegates 

John C Quiltv, Manager of Industrial Relations, Shell 

Oil Company, Inc., New York City Pnmmnv 

C Francis Beatty, Director, Socony-Vacuum Oil Company, 

Inc., New York City 

Advisers 

Channing Rice Dooley, Training Within Industry Founda- 

ValentTie'n" Ludwii' General Manager, Employee Re- 
lations Department, Gulf Oil corporation, Pittsburgh, 

Jamfs'^W Rees, Assistant Vice President, Pure Oil Com- 

R B''RoaperDi°reclor of Safety, Humble Oil and Re- 
fining Company, Houston, Tex. 

WoBKERS' Representatives 

Delegates 

Charles A. Evans, Business Representative of Local Union 
No. 12, International Union of Operating Engineers, 
Los Aneeles, Calif. . ^ . 

Alexis E. Laster, International Representative, Inter- 
national Union of Operating Engineers, El Monte, 
Calif. 
The agenda for the meeting includes: (1) a 
general report dealing with the action taken in 
the various countries to give effect to the resolu- 
tions of the first session of the Committee, held at 
Los Angeles in February 1947, and recent events 

638 



and developments in the industry; (2) discussion 
of recruitment and training for the petroleum in- 
dustry; (3) report on safety and health; and (4) 
the problem of industrial relations in the industry 
as effecting trade-union organization and recog- 
nition, developments in collective bargaining, and 
actual methods for handling disputes. . 

The Petroleum Committee is one of eight in- 
dustrial committees of the Ilo established for the 
purpose of examining social and economic aspects 
of international labor standards in the respective 
industries and adopting resolutions for their im- 
provement. 

British Parliamentary Association 

[Released to the press November 12] 

United States congressional representatives to 
the British Parliamentary Association meeting 
which convened at Hamilton, Bermuda, on Novem- 
ber 15 left Washington on November 13. 

The chairman of the United States Delegation 
is Senator Alexander Wiley of Wisconsin. Also 
included are Senators Bourke B. Hickenlooper of 
Iowa and Elbert D. Thomas of Utah, all members 
of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and 
Senator J. William Fulbright of Arkansas. The 
chairman of the House Dele,gation is Representa- 
tive Henry O. Talle of Iowa, the remainder includ- 
ing Estes Kefauver of Tennessee, Senator-elect 
from that state, and Robert J. Corbett of Pennsyl- 
vania. In Bermuda they were met by heads ot 
the Bermuda Government and United States con- 
sular officials on duty there. 

Tliis is the third such parliamentary conference 
attended by representatives from all the British 
Commonwealth Parliaments and delegates from 
the United States Congress which has been held in 
the Western Hemisphere. The first meeting took 
place during the war in Ottawa, Canada, and 
another conference was held again two years ago 
in Hamilton, Bermuda. 

Heading up the list of British Delegates are 
John Wilmot, M.P., former Minister of SiipplJ 
from the United Kingdom, Senator J. T. Haig, 
K C, leader of the Progressive Conservative Party 
in the Canadian Senate, and "Vernon H. Treatt, 
KC, leader of the Opposition m New South 
Wales, Australia. Delegates are also m attend- 
ance from New Zealand, the Union of South 
Africa, and Bermuda. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Air Navigation in Southeast Asia 

The Deitartinciit of State announced on Novem- 
ber 10 tlie United States Delegation to the first In- 
ternational Civil Aviation Organization (Icao) 
Regional Air Navigation Meeting for the South- 
east Asia Region, convening at New Delhi, India, 
November "J;?, 1948, for an approximate duration 
of tliree weeks. 

C Jut ir)ii tilt 

Clifford v. Burton. Chief of the Technical Mission, Civil 
Aeronautics Administration, Department of Com- 
merce 

Vice Chairman 

Oscar Bakke, Flight Operations Specialist, Civil Aeronau- 
tics Board 

Alternates 

James F. Angier, Chief of the Foreign Section, Civil Aero- 
nautics -Administration 

Norman U. Ilawn, Meteorological Attach^, American 
Eniba.-isy, London 

Victor J. Kayne, Airways Operations Specialist (Icao), 
Civil Aeronautics Administration 

R. F. Nicholson, Representative, Flight Operations 
(la\o). Civil Aeronautics Administration 

Lt. Comdr. Clement Vaughn, Jr., Search and Rescue 
Agency, United States Coast Guard 

Edwin L. White, Chief, Aviation Division, Federal Com- 
munications Commission 

Advisers 

William B. Becker, Operations Division, Air Transport 
Association 

Gene L. Brewer, Airways Radio Specialist (Icao), Civil 
.\eronautics .Administration 

Capt. Etheridge Grant, USN, Head, Civil Aviation Branch, 
Department of the Navy 

Maj. Grove C. Johnson, Civil Liaison Branch, Hq., Mili- 
tary Air Transport Service, Department of the Air 
Force 

Winton E. Modin, representing Aeronautical Radio, Inc., 
and Pan American Airways, Calcutta, India 

George L. Rand, airways operations specialist, representa- 
tive for International Telecommunications — Icao 
retnonal organizations. Civil Aeronautics Adminis- 
tration 

Capt. .\rthnr Yorra, Chief, International and Interde- 
partmental .\dvisory Group, Hq., Air Weather Service, 
M.\TS, Department of the Air Force 

Sccrctartj of Delegation 

Steplien V. C. Morris, Division of International Confer- 
ences, Department of State 

About 20 governments are attending this meet- 
ing which is examining problems of air navigation 
and operations in the Southeast Asian region. 
The delegates are preparing a plan of aids to navi- 
gation and are recommending navigation practices 
to raise the standards of civil aviation in the region 
to those advocated by the Icao Council. The 
meeting is following the usual pattern of regional 
meetings of the Icao and the principal committees 
formed include aerodromes, air routes and ground 
aids, air-traflic control, flight operations, commu- 
nications, meteorology, and search and rescue. 
The practices and procedures recommended by the 
meeting in these fields are being forwarded to the 



>»CnV(n£$ AND DEVELOPMENTS 

Council of Icao at Montreal for consideration and 
approval. 

A Fact Finding Group convened at New 
Delhi approximately a week prior to the regional 
meeting in order to examine and document opera- 
tional data for the convenience and use of the main 
meeting. 

The Southeast Asia meeting is the ninth in 
the original series of ten regional meetings 
scheduled by Icao to survey aviation facilities 
throughout the world. Upon the completion of 
the series Icao expects to have an index of 
facilities needed by international civil aviation on 
all the important air routes of the world. 

The preceding regional meeting, the North 
Pacific Air Navigation Meeting, was held at Seat- 
tle in July. The remaining regional meeting 
projected by the Icao is the African-Indian 
Ocean Meeting. 



Fourth Session of FAO 

The President appointed on November 13 
Charles F. Brannan, Secretai-y of Agriculture, as 
United States Member and Chairman of the 
United States Delegation to the Fourth Session of 
the Conference of the Food and Agriculture 
Organization of the United Nations. This meet- 
ing opened in Washington, D.C., on November 15, 
1948. Named by the President to serve as Alter- 
nate United States Members were : Albert J. Love- 
land, Under Secretary of Agriculture; Fred J. 
Rossiter, Associated Director, Office of Foreign 
Agricultural Relations, Department of Agricul- 
ture; and Edward G. Cale, Associate Chief, Inter- 
national Resources Division, Department of State. 

The President appointed also the following live 
congressional advisers to the Delegation: George 
D. Aiken, United States Senate- Elmer Thomas, 
United States Senate; S. Otis I3]and, House of 
Representatives; Harold D. Cooley, House of Rep- 
resentatives; and Clifford R. Hope, House of Rep- 
resentatives. 

Other members of the United States Delegation 
as annoiuiced on November 13 by the Acting Secre- 
tary of State are as follows : 

AdtHsers 

Edward W. Allen, United States Commissioner, Interna- 
tional Fisheries Commission and International Pacilic 
Salmon Fisheries Commission 

Andrew W. Anderson, Chief, Branch of Commercial Fish- 
eries, Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the 
Interior 

Stanley Andrews, Food Agriculture and Forestry Repre- 
sentative, Omgus 

Miss Persia Campbell, Vice Chairman, National Associa- 
tion of Consumers 

Wilbert M. Chapman, Special Assistant to the Under Sec- 
retary, Department of State 

Philip V. Cardon, Administrator, Agricultural Research 
Administration, Department of Agriculture 

Charles R. Carry, Director, Fishery Products Division, 
National Canners Association 



November 21, 1948 



639 



ACTIVITIES AND DBVBLOPMENTS 

John H. Davis, Executive Secretary, National Council of 
Farmer Cooperatives 

Mrs. Ursula Duflfus, Economic, Financial and Communica- 
tions Branch, Division of United Nations Economic 
and Social Affairs, Department of State 

Foster P. Elliott, Associate Chief, Bureau of Agricultural 
Economies, Department of Agriculture 

Carl N. Gibboney, Deputy Director, Commodities Division, 
Office of International Trade, Department of Com- 
merce 

Tom H. Gill, Society of American Foresters 

Albert S. Goss, Master, The National Grange 

George Mason Ingram, Acting Chief, International Admin- 
istration Staff, Office of United Nations Affairs, 
Department of State 

Charles B. Jackson, General Manager, National Fisheries 
Institute 

William A. Jump, Director, Office of Budget and Finance, 
Department of Agriculture 

William A. Minor, Jr., Assistant to the Secretary, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture 

Wesley R. Nelson, Assistant Commissioner, Bureau of 
Reclamation, Department of the Interior 

W. Raymond Ogg, Director, Department of International 
Affairs, American Farm Bureau Federation 

James G. Patton, President, National Farmers Union 

Miss Hazel K. Stiebeling, Chief, Bureau of Human Nutri- 
tion and Home Economics, Department of Agriculture 

Ralph S. Trigg. Administrator, Production and Marketing 
Administration, Department of Agriculture 

Lyle F. Watts, Chief, Forest Service, Department of 
Agriculture 

Oris V. Wells, Chief, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, 
Department of Agriculture 

Miss Faith M. Williams. Director, Office of Foreign Labor 
Conditions, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department 
of Labor 

Milburn L. Wilson, Director, Extension Service, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture 

Technical Secretary 

James O. Howard, Head, Division of Foreign Agricultural 
Information, Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, 
Department of Agriculture 

Executive Secretary 

Henry F. Nichol, Division of International Conferences, 
Department of State 

Since the first three sessions of the Conference 
were devoted primarily to problems of organiza- 
tion, the Fourth Session should mark an important 
step in the direction of devoting tliese annual meet- 
ings to discussion on world food problems and to 
specific proposals to deal with these problems. 

It is expected that 57 member countries and a 
number of international organizations will be rep- 
resented at the Fourth Session. Also a number of 
national organizations have been invited to at- 
tend open sessions of the Conference. 

The meeting is concerned mainly with: (1) the 
world situation relating to tlie production, market- 
ing, and consumption of food and agricultural 
products, including fish and timber; (2) the tech- 
nical activities of the Organization during the past 
year and its program of work for 1949; and 
(3) major constitutional, administrative, and 
financial issues requiring decision by the Confer- 
ence, including financial problems and the perma- 
nent site of Fao headquarters. 

640 



In regard to the headquarters site, the United 
States Government has recommended Washington 
as the permanent headquarters for the Organiza- 
tion and has made proposals concerning several 
available sites. President H. C. Byrd of the Uni- 
versity of Maryland, after consultation with Gov- 
ernor William P. Lane, Jr., of Maryland, has 
offered a site and assistance in financing a build- 
ing on the campus. Copenhagen and Rome have 
also made ofi'ers. 

UNESCO: General Conference: 

President Truman designated on November 10 
five United States Representatives and five alter- 
nates to the Third Session of the General Confer- 
ence of the United Nations Educational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organization (Unesco), which con- 
vened at Beirut, Lebanon, on November 17. 

United States Representatives 

George V. Allen, Assistant Secretary of State for public 
affairs, and Chairman of the Delegation 

Milton S. Eisenhower, President, Kansas State College, 
Manhattan, Kans., and Vice Chairman of the Delega- 
tion 

Luther H. Evans, Librarian of Congress 

Waldo G. Leiand, Director Emeritus, American Council of 
Learned Societies 

Anne O'Hare McCormick, New York Times 

Alternates 

Kathleen Lardie, Division of Instruction of the Detroit 
Public Schools, Detroit, Mich. 

W. Albert Noyes, Jr., National Research Council, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Frederick D. G. Ribble, Dean, School of Law, University of 
Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. 

Joseph Rosier, President Emeritus, Fairmont State Teach- 
ers College, Fairmont, W. Va. 

George F. Zook, President, American Council on Educa- 
tion, Washington, D. C. 

Special Adviser to the Chairman 

Charles A. Thomson, Director, Unissco Relations Staff, 
Department of State 

Advisers 

Herbert J. Abraham, Assistant Director, Unesco Rela- 
tions Staff, Department of State 

Esther C. Brunauer, Assistant Director, Unesco Relations 
Staff, Department of State 

Ben M. Cherrington, Director, Social Science Foundation, 
University of Denver, Denver, Colo. 

Jolm Duffy Connors, Director, Workers Education Bureau 
of America, New York, N. Y. 

Samuel De Palma, Division of United Nations Economic 
and Social Affairs, Department of State 

Frederick Sherwood Dunn, Yale University, New Haven, 
Conn. 

Frank Grasso, Secretary-Treasurer, United Paperworkers 
of America, Washington. D.C. 

Michael Richard Hanna, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

George Keinieth Holland, Counselor on Unesco Affairs, 
American Embassy, Paris 

Charles M. Hulten, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Admin- 
istration, Department of State 

Kemlric N. Marshall, Director, Division of International 
Educational Relations, United States Office of Educa- 
tion 

Richard P. McKeon, University of Chicago. Chicago, IlL 

Otis E. Mulliken, Division of United Nations Economic 
and Social Affairs, Department of State 

Departmenf of Stafe Bulletin 



Steplit'ii B. L. Penrose, President, American University, 
Heirut, Lebanon 

George U. Stoddard, President, University of Illinois, 
Urbana, 111. 

Louise Wright, Director, Chicago Council on Foreign Rela- 
tions, Chicago, 111. 

Excc-utive Secretary of the Delegation. 

Henry J. Sabatini. Division of International Conferences, 
Deiiartment of State 

In accordance -with the Unesco constitution, the 
Executive Board of Unesco, at its meeting at Paris 
last February, prepared the draft agenda for the 
Third Session of the General Conference. Among 
the items on the agenda are: (1) report of the Di- 
rector-General on the activities of the Organiza- 
tion in 11)48; (2) consideration of reports submit- 
ted by member states iit 1948; (3) discussion of 
certain items in the program for 1948 and of new 
activities proposed for 1949; (4) the Organiza- 
tion's budget; (5) matters which have been raised 
by member states, the United Nations, or other 
specialized agencies; (6) organizational questions 
including the National Commissions of Unesco; 
(7) election of seven members to the Executive 
Board; (8) appointment of the Director-General; 
(9) consideration of recommendations of the Exec- 
utive Board concerning the admission of new mem- 
bers to the Organization; and (10) consideration 
of recommendations of the Executive Board con- 
cerning the admission of observers of international 
nongovernmental organizations to the Third Ses- 
sion of the General Conference. 

The First Session of the Unesco Conference was 
held at Paris in 1946. and the Second at Mexico 
City in 1947. Forty-four member countries are 
expected to send representatives to the Third 
Session. 

UNESCO's Executive Board, on which George D. 
Stoddard is United States Representative, will 
meet at Istanbul prior to the opening of the Beirut 
conference. 

The Unesco program in the United States is 
largely the responsibility of the United States 
National Commission for Unesco, established by 
law to advise the Department of State on matters 
relating to Unesco. Milton S. Eisenhower is 
chairman of the National Commission, which is 
composed of representatives of 60 national organ- 
izations and some 40 members selected as indi- 
viduals active in Unesco's fields of education, 
science, and culture. 

Second Inter-American Congress on Brucellosis 

Dr. James H. Steele, Chief of the Veterinary 
Public Health Section. States Relations Division 
of the United States Public Health Service, was 
appointed on November 12 Chairman of the 
United States Delegation to the Second Inter- 
American Congi-ess on Brucellosis, held at Men- 
doza and Buenos Aires November 17-26, 1948. 
Dr. C. K. Mingle of the Tuberculosis Eradication 
Division of the Bureau of Animal Industry, 

November 21, J 948 



>»CnVIT(£S AND DEVELOPMENTS 

Department of Agriculture, was named delegate. 

The Brucellosis Congress, called by the Pan 
American Sanitary Bureau, is discussing the epi- 
demiology of the disease and proposes measures 
for its t'ontrol. Brucellosis, as it affects humans, 
is popularly known as "undidant fever" and 
''Malta fever". It is transmitted to human beings 
throu,gh animals. According to the Department 
of Agriculture, the disease among animals results 
in monetary losses of approximately 90 million 
dollars a year in this country. It has been even 
more widespread in some of the Latin American 
countries. 

The Congress meets first at Mendoza from 
November 17-20 for discu.ssions on the control of 
the disease; it reconvenes at Buenos Aires from 
November 22-26 for sessions on the clinical aspects 
and research developments. The First Inter- 
American Congress on Brucellosis was held in 
October 1946 at Mexico City. 



Reduction of Armaments — Continued from page 633 

It would perpetuate the present Soviet superiority 
in aggressive forces. It would not reduce the 
threat of Soviet aggression; it might indeed in- 
crease that threat. It would not raise the veil of 
secrecy behind which the rulers of the Soviet Union 
operate and which constitutes such an injustice to 
the Russian people and such a cause of suspicion 
among nations. 

In this situation the General Assembly should 
seek by every possible means a release from the 
tensions arising from the factors we have here de- 
scribed. In the field of armaments the General 
Assembly should develop as rapidly as possible 
under the forms and through the agencies set up in 
the United Nations for that purpose a plan for the 
reduction and control of conventional arms and 
armaments. Such a plan should provide a full 
system of inspection, verification, and publication 
and other safeguards to guarantee against viola- 
tion. Having set up such a plan, we may hope 
that the moral force of world opinion, together 
with the evident advantages of operating within 
the law in cooperation with other nations, may 
bring the Soviet Union to change its attitude. This 
is the proposal embodied in the resolution now be- 
fore this committee. The United States will vote 
for this resolution and will work loyally toward 
carrying otit its purposes. 

Real progress toward peace can only be made 
by slow, careful steps. I have not despaired and I 
hope none of us in this committee has despaired. 
The resolution before us takes us one step toward 
the control of armaments and toward those other 
objectives we all seek. I hoi>e that the unanimity 
which came as a breath of fresh air when we ac- 
cepted the Mexican resolution, will again come to 
us here. 

641 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Announcement of Intention To Enter Tariff Negotiations 



The Interdepartmental Trade Agreements Com- 
mittee issued on November 5 formal notice of the 
United States intention to participate in negotia- 
tions with 11 foreign countries for reciprocal re- 
duction of tariff and other trade barriers, looking 
toward accession of those countries to the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade concluded at 
Geneva on October 30, 1947, by the United States 
and 22 other countries. The forthcoming nego- 
tiations are scheduled to begin at Geneva on April 
11, 1949. Plans for the negotiations were devel- 
oped, and the date was set, at the second session 
of the contracting parties to the General Agree- 
ment, held at Geneva in August and September 
of this year. Announcement of these plans was 
made on September 22, 1948.' 

The 11 countries which have expressed their de- 
sire to accede to the General Agreement and to 
participate in the forthcoming negotiations are: 
Denmark, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, 
Finland, Greece, Haiti, Italy, Nicaragua, Peru, 
Sweden, and Uruguay. The countries which par- 
ticipated in the 1947 negotiations were : Australia, 
Belgium, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Ceylon, Chile, 
China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, France. India, Leb- 
anon, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, 
Norway, Pakistan, Southern Rhodesia, Syria, the 
Union of South Africa, the United Kingdom, and 
the United States. All of these countries except 
Chile had put the General Agreement into pro- 
visional effect by July 31, 1948. 

The countries participating in the 1947 negotia- 
tions and the additional countries expected to par- 
ticipate in the 1949 negotiations together account 
for some two thirds by value of total United States 
exports and almost three fourths of United States 
imports, on the basis of 1947 figures. 

The Trade Agreements Committee also made 
public on November 5, as required by Executive 
Order No. 10,004 of October 5, 1948, a list for each 
country with which the United States proposes to 
negotiate, of all products imported into the United 
States on which possible tariff concessions may 
be considered in the negotiations. The practice of 
publishing such lists has been followed since 1937. 

The procedure to be followed by the United 
States Government in preparing for and carrying 
out the negotiations is in line with that which has 
been followed in previous trade-agreement nego- 
tiations, with such modifications as are made neces- 
sary by the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 

" Bdxletin of Oct. 3, 1948, p. 445. 
642 



1948. Under section 4 of the Trade Agreements 
Act of 1934, as amended, interested persons are 
afforded an opportunity to present their views con- 
cerning the proposed negotiations. Executive 
Order 10,004 designated the Committee for Reci- 
procity Information as the agency to receive such 
views. The representative of the Department of 
Commerce on the Trade Agreements Committee 
is the chairman of the Committee for Reciprocity 
Information. 

The Committee for Reciprocity Information an- 
nounced November 5 tliat public hearings will be 
held beginning December 7. Applications to be 
heard at the public hearings will be received until 
November 29, and the application must indicate 
the product or products, or other aspect of the ne- 
gotiations, regarding which testimony is to be 
presented. The closing date for receiving written 
briefs and statements will be December 7. 

In accordance with the Trade Agreements Ex- 
tension Act of 1948 the lists of products on which 
possible L^nited States tariff concessions may be 
considered have been transmitted by the President 
to the Tariff Commission which is required to in- 
vestigate, hold hearings, and report to him within 
120 days, in regard to each such item, ( 1 ) the extent 
to which United States tariffs or other import re- 
strictions may be reduced without causing or 
threatening serious injury to the domestic indus- 
try producing like or similar articles; and (2) 
what, if any, additional import restrictions would 
be required to prevent such injury. 

Since the statute specifically imposes on the Tar- 
iff Commission the obligation of holding its own 
hearings, parties who wish to be assured that their 
information will be considered by the Tariff Com- 
mission, must present it directly to the Commission 
either at the hearings or in writing before the close 
of the hearings. 

In order to minimize duplication, arrangements 
have been made so that infoi'mation submitted to 
the Tarif