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General Policy P^ge 

United States Developments in Human 

Rights During 1949 483 

Resolutions Adopted at the Sixth Session of 

the Commission on Human Rights . . 490 
Korean Relief Assistance Fund Established . 492 
Republic of Indonesia Established .... 492 

Letters of Credence : Iran 492 

Tributes to General Smuts. Messages from 
President Truman and Secretary Ache- 
son 601 

Delegation to Inaugural Ceremonies for 

President of El Salvador 509 

Discussion With Foreign Ministers Beneficial 
to Cause of Peace. Statement by Secre- 
tary Acheson 509 

Forced Labor Conditions in Communist- 
Dominated Countries. By Walter 

Kotschnig 510 

Text of Resolution 512 

United States in the United Nations .... 518 

Treaty Information 

U.S.-Union of Burma Sign Agreement for 

Economic Cooperation 500 

U.S.-Panama Sign Road Convention for Se- 
curity of Panama Canal 500 

President Signs Trade Proclamation; Agree- 
ment With Mexico Terminated .... 501 

Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Eco- 
nomic Development Between the United 
States and Uruguay 502 

Informal Discussions To Be Held on Japanese 
Peace Treaty. Statement by the Presi- 
dent 513 

International information and Cultural 
Affairs 

Americans Visiting Abroad 501 

Technical Assistance 

Progress on Point 4. By Capus M. Waynick . 493 
Methods of Financing Economic Develop- 
ment of Underdeveloped Countries . . 497 



Technical Assistance — Continued 

Page 

Administration of the Act for International 

Development: 

Statement by the President 499 

Executive Order 10159 499 

International Organizations and Confer- 
ences 

U.S. Delegations: 

Civil Aviation Organization 513 

Herring Technology (Fag) 614 

Chestnut Tree Production 514 

Itd: Administrative Council 514 

The Congress 

Administration of the Act for International 
Development: 

Statement by the President 499 

Executive Order 10159 499 

The President Does Not Approve Amended 

Nationality Act 516 

Arbitrary Appropriations Cuts May Impair 
Government Services. Statement by the 
President 517 

The Department 

Bureau of Inter-American AflTairs 514 

Bureau of European Affairs 614 

Office of Budget and Finance 515 

Milton Katz Confirmed as Ece Representa- 
tive 515 

Information Expansion Discussed With Busi- 
ness Officials 515 

Appointment of Officers 515 

The Foreign Service 

U.S. Holds Consular Meeting in North 

Africa 515 

Consular Offices 516 

Resignation of Ambassador Childs .... 616 

Correction 498 



U S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1980 



^^s 









THE PEACE THE WORLD WANTS • Address by Secretary 

Acheson 523 

U.S., FRENCH, AND U.K. FOREIGN MINISTERS 
CONCLUDE MEETINGS: 

FINAL COMMUNIQUE ON CONCLUSIONS 530 

COMMUNIQUE ON WESTERN GERMANY 530 

REPORT OF UNITED NATIONS COMMAND OPERA- 
TIONS IN KOREA: AUGUST 16-31 534 

U.N. COMMISSION ON KOREA REPORTS TO THE 
GENERAL ASSEMBLY 540 



For complete contents see back cover 




Vol. XXIII, No. 587 
October 2, 1950 







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bulletin 



Vol. XXIII, No. 587 • Publication 3976 
{Ocloher 2, 1950 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documenlf 

U.S. Government Printing Offlct 

WasliinEton 25, D.C. 

Price: 

52 issues, domestic $6, foreign $8.5U 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this pubiication has 

been approved by the Director of the 

Bureau of the Budget (July 29, 1849). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State BtJLLETiN as the source will If 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of Slate and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



THE PEACE THE WORLD WANTS 



Address hy Secretary Acheson ^ 



THIS MEETING of the General Assembly is a 
meeting of decision. 

Before us lies opportunity for action which can 
save the hope of peace, security, well-being, and 
justice for generations to come. Before us also 
lies opportunity for drift, for irresolution, for 
effort feebly made. In this direction is disaster. 
The choice is ours. It will be made whether we 
act or whether we do not act. 

The peoples of the world know this. They will 
eagerly follow every word spoken here. Our 
words will reach them mingled with the sound of 
the battle now raging in Korea. There, men are 
fighting and dying under the banner of the United 
Nations. Our Charter, born out of the sacrifices 
of millions in war, is being consecrated anew to 
peace at the very moment of our meeting. The 
heroism of these men gives us tliis opportunity to 
meet and to act. Our task is to be worthy of them 
and of that opportunity. 

We meet also with full knowledge of the great 
anxiety which clutches at the hearts of the j^eople 
of this earth. Men and women everywhere are 
weighted down with fear — fear of war, fear that 
man may be begetting his own destniction. 

But man is not a helpless creature who must 
await an inexorable fate. It lies within our power 
to take action which, God willing, can avert the 
catastrophe whose shadow hangs over us. That 
terrible responsibility rests upon every man and 
woman in this room. At the end of this meeting 
each of us must answer to his conscience on what 
we have done here. 



" Made before the plenary session of the General Assem- 
bly at Flushing Meadow, N. Y. on Sept. 20 and released 
to the press on the same date ; also printed as Department 
of State publication 3977. 



How have we come to this condition of fear and 
jeopardy ? The lifetime of many here has seen the 
rise and fall of empires, the growth of powerful 
nations, the stirrings of great continents with new- 
born hojoe, the conquest of space, and great inven- 
tions, both creative and destructive. We have 
lived in a century of alternating war and hope. 

Now, the foundation of our hope is the United 
Nations. Five years ago we declared at San 
Francisco our determination "to save succeeding 
generations from the scourge of war," our faith 
in fundamental human rights, our belief in justice 
and social progress. During the years that have 
intervened, some of us have worked hard to bring 
this about. 

There is no longer any question : Will the United 
Nations survive? Will the United Nations suffer 
the fate of the League of Nations? This question 
has been answered. If by nothing else, it has been 
answered by United Nations action against ag- 
gression in Korea. Blood is thicker than ink. 

But a pall of fear has been cast over our hopes 
and our achievements. 

What is the reason for this fear? Wlay is it 
that we have been unable to achieve peace and 
security through the United Nations in these 5 
years? Why has there not been the cooperation 
among the great powers which was to have but- 
tressed the United Nations? "Wliy have we not 
been able to reach an agreement on the control of 
atomic energy and the regulation of armaments? 
Wliat has been the obstacle to a universal system of 
collective security? 

We have been confronted with many and com- 
plex problems, but the main obstacle to peace is 
easy to identify, and there should be no mistake 
in anyone's mind about it. That obstacle has 



October 2, 1950 



523 



been created by the policies of the Soviet Govern- 
ment. 

We should be very clear in our minds about this 
obstacle. It is not the rise of the Soviet Union 
as a strong national power which creates difficul- 
ties. It is not the existence of different social and 
economic systems in the world. Nor is it, I 
firmly believe, any desire on the part of the Rus- 
sian people for war. The root of our trouble is to 
be found in the new imperialism directed by the 
leaders of the Soviet Union. 

To be more explicit, the Soviet Government 
raises five barriers to peace. 

Firsts Soviet efforts to bring about the collapse 
of the non-Soviet world, and thereby fulfill a pre- 
diction of Soviet theory, have made genuine nego- 
tiation very difficult. The honorable representa- 
tive of Lebanon, Dr. Charles Malik, stated it 
precisely at our last Assembly when he said: 
"There can be no greater disagreement than when 
one wants to eliminate your existence altogether." 

Second^ the shroud of secrecy which the Soviet 
leaders have wrapped around the people and the 
states they control is a great barrier to peace. 
This has nourished suspicion and misinformation 
in both directions. It deprives governments of 
the moderating influence of contact between peo- 
ples. It stands in the way of the mutual knowl- 
edge and confidence essential to disarmament. 

Third, the rate at which the Soviet Union has 
been building arms and armies, far beyond any 
requirement of defense, has gravely endangered 
peace throughout the world. While other coun- 
tries were demobilizing and converting their in- 
dustries to peaceful purposes after the war, the 
Soviet Union and the territories under its control 
pushed preparation for war. The Soviet Union 
has forced countries to rearm for their self-defense. 

Fourth, the use by Soviet leaders of the interna- 
tional Communist movement for direct and indi- 
rect aggression has been a great source of trouble 
in the world. With words which play upon hon- 
est aspirations and grievances the Soviet leaders 
have manipulated the people of other states as 
pawns of Russian imperialism. 

Fifth, the Soviet use of violence to impose its 
will and its political system upon other people is a 
threat to the peace. There is nothing unusual in 
the fact that those who believe in some particular 
social order want to spread it throughout the 
woi-ld. But as one of my predecessors, Secretary 
Adams, said of the efforts of an earlier Russian 



ruler, Czar Alexander, to establish the Holy Alli- 
ance, the Emperor "finds a happy coincidence be- 
tween the dictates of his conscience and the 
interests of his empire." The combination of this 
international ambition and the Soviet reliance on 
force and violence — though it be camoufiaged as 
civil war — is a barrier to peaceful relations. 

This conduct conflicts with the Charter of the 
United Nations. It conflicts with the "Essentials 
of Peace" Resolution passed at our last Assembly. 
It has created a great and terrible peril for the 
rest of the world. 

Even this conduct has not made war inevitable — 
we, for our part, do not accept the idea that war is 
inevitable. But it has lengthened the shadow of 
war. This fact cannot be obscured by propaganda 
which baits the hooks with words of peace and, 
in doing so, pi-ofanes the highest aspirations of 
mankind. 

Strength To Prevent Aggression 

There is only one real way the world can main- 
tain peace and security in the face of this con- 
duct. That is by strengthening its system of col- 
lective security. Our best hope of peace lies in 
our ability to make absolutely plain to potential 
aggressors that aggression cannot succeed. The 
security of those nations who want peace and the 
security of the United Nations itself demand the 
strength to prevent further acts of aggression. 

One of the fundamental purposes of the United 
Nations, as expressed in article 1 of the Charter, 
is that it shall ". . . take effective collective 
measures for the prevention and removal of threats 
to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of 
aggression or other breaches of the peace . . ." 

The action of the United Nations to put down 
the aggression which began on June 25 against the 
Republic of Korea was exactly the effective collec- 
tive measure required. It marked a turning point 
in history, for it showed the way to an enforceable 
rule of law among nations. 

The world waits to see whether we can build on 
the start we have made. The United Nations must 
move forward energetically to develop a more ade- 
quate system of collective security. If it does 
not move forward, it will move back. 

Article 24 of the Charter gives the Security 
Council primary responsibility for the mainte- 
nance of peace. This is the way it should be. But 
if the Security Council is not able to act because 
of the obstructive tactics of a permanent member, 



524 



Department of State Bulletin 



the Charter does not leave the United Nations 
impotent. The obligation of all members to take 
action to maintain or restore the peace does not 
disappear because of a veto. The Charter, in 
articles 10, 11, and 14, also vests in the General 
Assembly authority and responsibility for matters 
affecting international peace. The General As- 
sembly can and should organize itself to discharge 
its responsibility promptly and decisively if the 
Security Council is prevented from acting. 

To this end, the United States delegation is plac- 
ing before the Assembly a number of recommenda- 
tions designed to increase the effectiveness of 
United Nations action against aggression. 

This program will include the following pro- 
posals : 

First, a provision for the calling of an emer- 
gency session of the General Assembly upon 24 
hours' notice if the Security Council is prevented 
from acting upon a breach of the peace or an act 
of aggression. 

Second, the establishment by the General As- 
sembly of a security patrol, a peace patrol, to 
provide immediate and independent observation 
and reporting from any area in which interna- 
tional conflict threatens, upon the invitation or 
with the consent of the state visited. 

Third, a plan under which each member nation 
would designate within its national armed forces 
a United Nations unit or units, to be specially 
trained and equipped and continuously main- 
tained in readiness for prompt service on behalf 
of the United Nations. To assist in the organiza- 
tion, training, and equipping of such units, we 
will suggest that a United Nations military adviser 
be appointed. Until such time as the forces pro- 
vided for under article 43 are made available to 
the United Nations, the availability of these na- 
tional units will be an important step toward the 
development of a world-wide security system. 

Fourth, the establishment by the General As- 
sembly of a committee to study and report on 
means which the United Nations might use 
through collective action — including the use of 
armed force — to carry out the purposes and prin- 
ciples of the Charter. 

The United States delegation shall request that 
these proposals be added as an item to the agenda. 
It is the hope of our delegation that the Assembly 
will act on these and other suggestions which may 
be offered for the strengthening of our collective 
security system. 



In so doing, we mustkeep clearly before the world 
the purpose of our collective security system, so 
that no one can make any mistake about it. 

We need this defensive strength against further 
aggression in order to pass through this time of 
tension without catastrophe and to reach a period 
when genuine negotiation may take its place as 
the normal means of settling disputes. 

This perspective is reflected in the proposals of 
the Secretary-General for a 20-year program, a 
perspective from which we can derive the steadi- 
ness and patience required of us. 

This perspective takes into account the possibil- 
ity that the Soviet Government may not be in- 
herently and unalterably committed to standing 
in the way of peace and that it may some day 
accept a live-and-let-live philosophy. 

The Soviet leaders are realists, in some respects 
at least. As we succeed in building the necessary 
economic and defensive military strength, it will 
become clear to them that the non-Soviet world 
will neither collapse nor be dismembered piece- 
meal. Some modification in their aggressive poli- 
cies may follow if they then recognize that the 
best interests of the Soviet Union require a coop- 
erative relationship with the outside world. 

Time may have its effect. It is but 33 years since 
the overthrow of the Czarist regime in Russia. 
This is a short time in history. Like many other 
social and political movements before it, the Soviet 
revolution may change. In so doing, it may rid 
itself of the policies which now prevent the Soviet 
Union from living as a good neighbor with the 
rest of the world. 

We have no assurance that this will take place. 
But, as the United Nations strengthens its col- 
lective security system, the possibilities of this 
change in Soviet policy will increase. If this does 
not occur, the increase in our defensive strength 
shall be the means of insuring our survival and 
protecting the essential values of our societies. 

But our hope is that a strong collective security 
system will make genuine negotiation possible and 
that this will in turn lead to a cooperative peace. 

It is the firm belief of the people and the Gov- 
ernment of the United States that the United Na- 
tions will play an increasingly important role in 
the world during the period ahead as we try to 
move safely through the present tensions. 

I have already stressed the importance we at- 
tach to the United Nations as the framework of an 
effective system of collective security. The steps 



October 2, 1950 



525 



we take to strengthen our collective security are 
not only essential to the survival of the United 
Nations, but will contribute positively toward its 
development. The close ties of a common defense 
are developing an added cohesion among regional 
groups. This is a significant step toward a closer 
relationship among nations and is part of the 
process of growth by which we are moving toward 
a larger sense of community under the United 
Nations. 

The United States also attaches importance to 
the universal character of the United Nations, 
which enables it to serve as a point of contact 
between the Soviet Union and the rest of the world 
during this period of tension. 

As our efforts to strengthen the collective secur- 
ity system become more and more effective, and as 
tensions begin to ease, we believe that the United 
Nations will be increasingly important as a means 
of facilitating and encouraging productive negoti- 
ation. 

The United States is ready and will always 
be ready and willing to negotiate with a sincere 
desire to solve problems. We shall continue to 
hope that sometime negotiation will not be merely 
an occasion for propaganda. 

Solving the many difficult problems in the world 
must, of course, be a gradual process. It will not 
be achieved miraculously, overnight, by a sudden 
dramatic gesture. It will come about step by 
step. We must seek to solve such problems as we 
can, and endure the others until they too can be 
solved. 

The Problems of Korea and Formosa 

Among the immediately pressing problems 
which require the attention of the General Assem- 
bly are the aggression against the Republic of 
Korea, and the problem of Formosa. 

In a special and indeed a unique sense, the 
Republic of Korea is a responsibility of the United 
Nations. The actions of this Assembly, in its ses- 
sions of 1947 and 1948, outlined the United Na- 
tions aspirations for its future. Before the aggres- 
sion of last June, the failure to achieve these 
purposes had been a matter of deep disappoint- 
ment and concern. The aggi'ession of June 25 
raised a new challenge, which was met by the 
stout action to which I have already referred. 

I have every belief and confidence that this 
challenge and defiance to the authority of the 



United Nations will be crushed as it deserves to 
be, and that thereafter the future of this small 
and gallant country may be returned where it 
belongs — to the custody of its own people under 
the guidance of the United Nations. 

From the outset, the United States has given its 
full support to the actions of this Assembly and 
of the Security Council. We shall continue to 
support the decisions of the United Nations as the 
future course of events unfolds. 

We shall do our full part to maintain the im- 
pressive unity which has thus far been demon- 
strated in Korea. 

The aggressive attack upon the Republic of 
Korea created the urgent necessity for the military 
neutralization of the island of Formosa. The 
President of the United States, in announcing on 
June 27 the measures taken to effect this neutrali- 
zation, emphasized that these measures were to 
prevent military attack either by mainland forces 
against Formosa or by forces from Formosa 
against the mainland. The President made it 
clear at that time and on several subsequent occa- 
sions, that these measures were taken without 
prejudice to the future political status of Formosa, 
and that the United States has no territorial ambi- 
tions and seeks no special position or privileges 
with respect to Formosa. 

It is the belief of my Government that the prob- 
lem of Formosa and the nearly 8 million people 
who inhabit it should not be settled by force or by 
unilateral action. We believe that the interna- 
tional community has a legitimate interest and 
concern in having this matter settled by peaceful 
means. 

Accordingly, the United States delegation pro- 
poses that the General Assembly should direct its 
attention to the solution of this problem under 
circumstances in which all concerned and inter- 
ested parties shall have a full opportunity to ex- 
press their views, and under which all concerned 
parties will agree to refrain from the use of force 
while a peaceful and equitable solution is sought. 

We shall therefore request that the question of 
Formosa be added to the agenda as a matter of 
speciiil and urgent importance. 

Advances which can be made on these specific 
issues, and the improvement which can result from 
an effective collective security system, may help 
the United Nations to move in the direction of 
settlement of further disputes. 



526 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



We also anticipate tliat, as our collective secu- 
rity system is strengthened, our efforts to achieve 
the regulation of armaments may then begin to be 
productive. 

My country reaffirms its support of the United 
Nations plan for the international control of 
atomic energy which would effectively prohibit 
atomic weapons. We will continue to give sym- 
pathetic consideration to any other proposals that 
would be equally or more effective in accomplish- 
ing this purpose. We reaffirm our support of the 
efforts of the United Nations to work out the basis 
for effective regulation and reduction of conven- 
tional armaments and armed forces. 

Li talking about disarmament, we must keep one 
elementary point absolutely clear : that is, that 
the heart and core of any real disarmament is 
confidence that agreements are being carried out 
by every armed nation. No one nation can have 
such confidence, unless it has knowledge of the 
real facts in other countries. Such knowledge can 
come only from international controls based upon 
free international inspection in every country. 
There are no safe short-cuts. 

Disarmament has been the subject of a great 
deal of propaganda effort, and this will doubtless 
continue to be the case. To those who advance 
various disarmament plans for propaganda pur- 
poses, the United Nations has only to ask this sim- 
ple question : If you mean what you say, are you 
willing to take the first step? That first step is 
the acceptance of effective safeguards under the 
United Nations. There can be no other basis for 
disarmament. Only when every nation is willing 
to move into an era of open and friendly coopera- 
tion in the world community will we begin to get 
genuine progress toward disarmament. 

We believe nevertheless that efforts in this direc- 
tion should continue, that plans should be made, 
and negotiations should go on. This subject is of 
such vital significance that no stone should be left 
unturned, in the hope that these efforts will some- 
day be successful. 

As Mr. Bredo Stabell, the honorable representa- 
tive of Norway, put it so well, in a meeting of the 
Commission for Conventional Armaments: 

"No good farmer fails to prepare for the sum- 
mer's sowing and harvest during the dark and cold 
days of fall and winter. In my country, lying 
astride the Arctic Circle, the farmer would never 
reap any harvest at all if he were to postpone his 



labors until the growing season is upon him." 
Mr. Stabell continued : "It requires courage and 
steadfast adherence to the principles of the United 
Nations to explore the possibilities of regulating 
and reducing armaments when rearmament to op- 
pose lawless aggression is the dire need of the day. 
I trust, however, that the United Nations will not 
be found wanting in foresight and steadfastness 
in this important field." 

To reap the harvests of peace in the future, if 
I may make use of Mr. Stabell's excellent image, 
we must plan and work now. 

The War Against Want 

I have stressed the work we must do to 
strengthen and develop our collective security sys- 
tem. This is something none of us wants to have 
to do, but in the world in which we live, we have 
no choice but to push ahead energetically with this 
task. 

Does this mean that all the other things we 
would like to be doing, the creative, the productive 
activities, should be put aside for a later time? 

Not at all. We must keep pushing ahead at the 
same time with our efforts to advance human well- 
being. We must carry on with our war against 
want, even as we arm against aggression. We 
must do these two things at the same time, because 
that is the only way we can keep constantly before 
us the whole purpose of what we are doing. 

Unlike the medieval monks who all through 
life kept before them a skull as a symbol of death, 
we must keep before our eyes the living thing we 
are working for — a better life for all people every- 
where. 

We have it in our power now, on the basis of 
the experience of the United Nations and the 
specialized agencies, and of many member nations, 
to transform the lives of millions of people, to take 
them out from under the specter of want, to give 
people everywhere new hope. 

We can meet and we must meet the challenge of 
human misery, of hunger, poverty, and disease. 

As an example of the kind of need to which we 
must put our efforts, I would like to speak of the 
problem of the use and ownership of land, a source 
of misery and suffering to millions. 

In many parts of the world, especially in Asia, 
nations have been seeking to achieve a better dis- 
tribution of land ownership. Leaders in India 
and Pakistan, for example, are keenly aware of 



October 2, 1950 



527 



this problem, and are taking steps to deal with it 
effectively. 

In Japan, as the result of a land-reform pro- 
gram, 3 million farmers — well over half of all the 
farmers in Japan — have acquired land. 

In the Republic of Korea, where previously 
there had been twice as many tenants as owners 
of land, a redistribution of farmlands had, by the 
time of the invasion, changed this ratio so that 
those who owned land outnumbered those who 
held their land in tenancy. Plans scheduled for 
this summer would have made farm owners of 
90 percent of the farm families. 

In each of these countries, the result of redis- 
tribution of this land has been to give the indi- 
vidual farmer an opportunity to work for himself 
and to improve his status. 

These examples I have cited are not slogans or 
phrases. They suggest what can be done on a 
cooperative, democratic basis, by processes of 
peaceful change, which respect the dignity of the 
individual and his right to self-reliance and a 
decent livelihood. The result has not been what 
has been called land-reform in certain other parts 
of the world — to collectivize the farmer and to 
place him under the complete control of the gov- 
ernment instead of the land-owner. 

Equally important is the problem of better use 
of the land. Control of soil erosion, better seeds, 
better tools, and better fertilizers are needed in 
almost every country, but especially in parts of 
Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America, 
where the people suffer gi-eatly from inefficient 
use of their land. 

The major responsibility in these fields rests, of 
course, with governments, but the United Nations 
should make special efforts to advise and assist 
governments in improving land use and produc- 
tivity. A considerable portion of the funds 
pledged for the Technical Assistance Program is 
already available, to enable us to push ahead with 
an attack on such problems as these, as well as 
problems of health, education, industrialization 
and public administration. 

A vast opportunity awaits us to bring, by such 
means as the United Nations has been developing, 
new hope to millions whose most urgent needs are 
for food, land, and human dignity. 

These efforts, and this experience, if concen- 
trated on areas of particular need, can have a com- 
bined impact of exciting proportions. 

The place to begin is Korea. 



The Challenge in Korea 

Just as Korea has become the symbol of resist- 
ance against aggression, so can it become also the 
vibrant symbol of the renewal of life. 

A great deal is now being done through the 
United Nations and under the unified command 
for the relief of the Korean people. This aid 
needs to be vastly increased. 

But there is another job which needs to be done, 
and a greater one. As peace is restored in Korea, a 
tremendous job of reconstruction will be required. 

The devastation which has overtaken Korea is 
a consequence of the aggression from the North. 
It is probably unrealistic to expect that those who 
might have prevented or recalled this aggression 
will make available the help needed to repair the 
damage caused by this invasion. 

The lives lost as the result of this aggression 
cannot be recalled, but as the people of Korea set 
about the task of reestablishing a free and inde- 
pendent nation, as they begin to rebuild their 
country, the United Nations must be prepared to 
marshal its resources and its experience to help 
them. 

Here, by focusing on one place of extreme need, 
the United Nations and the specialized agencies 
can demonstrate to the world what they have 
learned about helping people to combat disease, 
to build hospitals, schools and factories, to train 
teachers and public administrators, to make the 
land fertile. 

This is a job that can be done. It will take sub- 
stantial funds and resources, and those are avail- 
able. Fifty-three governments have pledged their 
support to the United Nations defense of Korea. 
Some of them have been unable to contribute mili- 
tary personnel or equipment. But all of them, I 
am sure, will want to contribute food, transporta- 
tion and industrial equipment, construction mate- 
rials and technicians, to the great task of re- 
construction. 

My Government is prepared to join with other 
member nations in making resources and personnel 
available. When the conflict in Korea is brought 
to a successful conclusion many of the doctors, 
engineers, and other technicians, and much of the 
resources now being used to suppoi-t the United 
Nations military action, will be made available 
by my Government to a United Nations recovery 
force. 

I suggest that the General Assembly have the 



528 



Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



Economic and Social Council set up a United Na- 
tions recovery force to harness this great collec- 
tive effort. 

These measures not only will aid in restoring 
the people of Korea quickly to a condition of peace 
and independence, but they will demonstrate to 
the people of the world the creative and produc- 
tive possibilities at the command of the United 
Nations. 

Out of the ashes of destruction, the United Na- 
tions can help the Korean people to create a society 
which will have lessons in it for other people every- 
where. What the United Nations will be able to 
do here can help set a pattern of coordinated eco- 
nomic and social action in other places, where 
the need is for development, rather than rehabili- 
tation. 

We look forward to a time when members of the 
United Nations will be able to devote their energies 
and their resources to productive and creative ac- 
tivities, to the advancement of human well-being, 
rather than to armaments. 

When the time comes that a universal collective 
security system enables nations to reduce their 
burden of armaments, we hope that other nations 
will join us in pledging a good part of the amount 
saved to such productive United Nations activities 
as I have described. 

A world such as this, in which nations without 
exception work together for the well-being of all 
mankind, seems a very distant goal in these days 
of peril, but our faith in its ultimate realization 
illumines all that we do now. 

Toward a Larger Freedom 

In building a more secure and prosperous world 
we must never lose sight of the basic motivation 
of our effort : the inherent worth of the individual 
human person. Our aim is to create a world in 
which each human being shall have the oppor- 



tunity to fulfill his creative possibilities in har- 
mony with all. 

It is our hope that the relaxation in international 
tension, which we seek, will be accompanied by a 
great restoration of human liberty, where it is 
now lacking, and progress everywhere toward the 
"larger freedom." 

But the safeguarding of human freedom is not a 
distant goal, nor a project for the future. It is a 
constant, immediate, and urgent concern of the 
United Nations. 

The United Nations should keep forever in mind 
the objectives set forth in the universal declaration 
of human rights, and we should press forward 
with the work of our distinguished Human Rights 
Commission. 

While we are engaged in creating conditions of 
real peace in the world, we must always go for- 
ward under the banner of liberty. Our faith and 
our strength are rooted in free institutions and 
the rights of man. 

We speaK here as the representatives of govern- 
ments, but we must also speak the hearts of our 
countrymen. We speak for people whose deep 
concern is whether the children are well or sick, 
whether there is enough food, whether the roof 
leaks, whether there will be peace. 

But peace, for them, is not just the absence of 
war. 

The peace the world wants must be free from 
fear — the fear of invasion, the fear of subversion, 
the fear of the knock on the door at midnight. 

The peace the world wants must be free from 
want, a peace in which neighbors help each other, 
and together build a better life. 

The peace the world wants must be a moral 
peace, so that the spirit of man may be free, and 
the barriers between the hearts and minds of men 
may drop away and leave men free to unite in 
brotherhood. 

This is the task before us. 



October 2, 1950 



529 



U.S., French, and U.K. Foreign Ministers Conclude Meetings 



IReleased to the press in New York and Washington September 19] 



FINAL COMMUNIQUE 

ON CONCLUSIONS REACHED 

The Foreign Ministers of France, the United 
Kingdom, and the United States concluded their 
scheduled meetings at New York on September 18, 
after having participated in the meeting of the 
North Atlantic Treaty Council and having con- 
sulted representatives of other governments inter- 
ested in the problems before them. 

As indicated in the interim communique issued 
on September 14, they exchanged views frankly 
and fully in regard to a wide range of problems 
of common concern. The Ministers intend, during 
the opening days of the General Assembly, to con- 
tinue their exchan,ge of views as occasion may 
arise. Some of the questions which they discussed 
will form the subject of United Nations consid- 
eration during coming weeks. The Ministers were 
agreed that tne efforts of the United Nations to 
resist threats to the peace and to achieve peaceful 
settlements will receive their firmest support. 

The Ministers' chief concern during their pres- 
ent meeting was with urgent measures required to 
safeguard the security of the free world in Europe 
and m Asia in order that peace will be maintained. 
The Ministers were agreed that this will continue 
to be their chief concern and that, in conjunction 
with the members of the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization and other friendly governments, 
they will see to it that the necessary measures to 
achieve this end are worked out and applied with 
the greatest possible despatch. 

In their consideration of German questions, the 
Ministers were greatly assisted by the report of 
the intergovernmental study group which has been 
meeting in London during the past 3 months. The 
Ministers decided that this group, which was ap- 
pointed at their London meeting in May, should 
be continued. The Ministers also had the advan- 
tage of the presence in New York of their three 
High Commissioners from Germany. The conclu- 
sions reached by the Ministers on a large number 



of questions affecting Germany are stated in an 
annex to this communique. 



COMMUNIQUE ON WESTERN GERMANY 

The Foreign Ministers have reviewed the situa- 
tion in Germany and Allied relations with the 
Federal Republic, in the light of developments 
since their last meeting in London in May 1950. 
They have taken into account in their examination 
the views which have been expressed on recent 
occasions by the Government of the Federal 
Republic. 

They and their Governments share the desire 
of the German people for the unification of Ger- 
many on a basis which respects the fundamental 
liberties. Despite their efforts to achieve this end, 
it will obviously not be realized so long as the 
Soviet Union continues to ignore proposals for 
democratic all-German elections, and to stage con- 
trolled elections such as the one to be held in the 
Soviet zone on October 15. Pending the unifica- 
tion of Germany, the three Governments consider 
the Government of the Federal Republic as the 
only German Government freely and legitimately 
constituted and therefore entitled to speak for 
Germany as the representative of the German 
peojile in international affairs. 

They reaffirm their desire, of which they have 
already given many proofs, to integrate the Fed- 
eral Republic into the community of free nations. 
They are convinced that the overwhelming major- 
ity of the German people want to take part in 
building the European community, and in 
strengthening its common civilization. It appears 
to them that the time has now come to take a new 
step toward the attainment of these aims. 

Termination of State of War 

In the spirit of the new relationship which they 
wish to establish with the Federal Republic, the 



530 



Department of State Bulletin 



three Governments have decided, as soon as action 
can be taken in all three countries in accordance 
with their respective constitutional requirements, 
to take the necessary steps in their domestic legis- 
lation to terminate the state of war with Germany. 
This action will not affect the rights and status 
of tlie three powers in Germany, which rest upon 
other bases. It will, however, create a firmer 
foundation for the developing structure of peace- 
ful and friendly relationships and will remove 
disabilities to which (Jerman nationals are subject. 
It is hoped that other nations will find it possible 
to take similar action in accordance with their own 
constitutional practices. 

The three Ministers have given serious consider- 
ation to the problem of the security of the Federal 
Republic in both its external and its internal 
aspects. They recognize the fact that outright 
military units have been created in the Soviet zone 
of occupation and this fact together with recent 
events in Germany and elsewhere have given rise 
to a situation of great concern. 

The Allied Governments consider that their 
forces in Germany have in addition to their occu- 
pation duties also the important role of acting as 
security forces for the protection and defense of 
the free world, including the German Federal Re- 
public and the AYestern sectors of Berlin. To make 
this protection more effective the Allied Govern- 
ments will increase and reinforce their forces in 
Germany. They will treat any attack against the 
Federal Republic or Berlin from any quarter as 
an attack upon themselves. 

The Ministers are fully agreed that the re-crea- 
tion of a German national army would not serve 
the best interests of Germany or Europe. They 
also believe that this is the view of the great 
majority of the German people. 

The Ministers have taken note however of sen- 
timents recently expressed in Germany and else- 
where in favor of German participation in an 
integi'ated force for the defense of European 
freedom. The questions raised by the problem 
of the participation of the German Federal Re- 
public in the common defense of Europe are at 
present the subject of study and exchange of 
views. 

As regards internal security, the Foreign Min- 
isters recognize the necessity for insuring that the 
German authorities are enabled effectively to deal 
with possible subversive activities. To this end, 
the Foreign Ministers have agreed to permit the 
establishment of mobile police formations organ- 
ized on a land basis but with provisions which 
would enable the Federal Government to have 
adequate powers to make effective use of all or 
part of this force in order fully to meet the exigen- 
cies of the present situation. The High Commis- 
sion and the Allied Forces in Germany will render 
such assistance as may be feasible in the rapid 
establishment of this force. 



New Phase in Relations With Germany 

The new phase in the relations between the 
Allies and the Federal Republic will be marked 
by major extensions of the authority of the Fed- 
eral Government. To make this possible, the 
occupying powers are pi-epared to amend the 
Occupation Statute while maintaining the legal 
basis of the occupation, and the Federal Republic 
will be expected to undertake certain commitments 
and other actions consonant with its new respon- 
sibilities. 

In the field of foreign affairs, the Federal Gov- 
ernment will be authorized to establish a Min- 
istry of Foreign Affairs and to enter into diplo- 
matic relations with foreign countries in all suit- 
able cases. In other fields, and particularly in 
relation to internal economic matters, far-reach- 
ing reductions will be made in existing controls, 
and the present system of review of German legis- 
lation will be modified. In certain cases, the 
Allied powers will cease as soon as the Federal 
Government has given undertakings or taken suit- 
able action. The High Commission will promptly 
begin discussions with the Federal Government to 
work out the necessary agreements for such under- 
takings. 

The Foreign Ministers have also agreed that a- 
review of the prohibited and limited industries 
agreement shall be undertaken in the light of the 
developing relationships with the Federal Repub- 
lic. Pending this review the High Connnission 
has been instructed to remove forthwith all restric- 
tions on the size, speed, and number of commercial 
cargo ships built for export and to allow steel to 
be produced outside the present limitation where 
this will facilitate the defense effort of the west. 



Tribute to People of Berlin 

The three Governments pay tribute to the con- 
tinued steadfastness of the people of Berlin in the 
valiant struggle of the city to preserve its freedom. 
They will continue to oppose aggression in any 
form against the people of the city, and are taking 
steps to strengthen Allied forces there. In view 
of the heavy price Berlin has had to pay to defend 
its freedom, the Governments will continue their 
efforts to alleviate its economic situation. They 
have directed the High Commission to review the 
statement of principles governing the relationship 
between the Allied Kommandatura and Berlin, 
and to liberalize Allied controls in the city to the 
maximum extent practicable. 

These decisions mark an important stage in the 
normalization of the relations and should con- 
tribute toward the creation of an atmosphere of 
mutual confidence and understanding. They rep- 
resent a major advance toward the progressive 
return of Germany to partnership in Western Eu- 
rope and the consolidation of the western nations 
in their efforts to establish a firm basis for the 
future peace of Europe and the world. 



October 2, 1950 



531 



NAC-U.S. Proposals Designed To Strengthen World Freedom 



INTEGRATED ARMY IN EUROPE 
TO DETER AGGRESSIVE INTENT 

Statement hy Philip C. Jessup 
Amhassador at Large ^ 

The presence in New York of Mr. Bevin, the 
Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom; Mr. 
Schuman, Foreign Minister of France; and Sec- 
retai-y of State Acheson made possible a meeting 
of the so-called "Big Three" — the Foreign Secre- 
taries of the three states which have occupation 
troops in Western Germany. The many actions 
which the three Ministers took last week reflected 
their desire to take important further steps in 
the process of integi-ating the Federal Republic of 
Germany into the community of free nations. 
These actions mark a new phase in the relations 
between the occupying powers of Germany. The 
Ministers agreed to grant more authority to the 
Federal Republic, including more control over 
her foreign affairs. Provision was also made for 
the creation of a mobile German police force to 
increase the internal security of the Republic with- 
out altering the rights of the occupying force. The 
Ministers agreed to seek the termination of the 
state of war with Germany. This decision is part 
of the over-all objective of normalizing relations 
with the Republic and progressively returning 
Germany to partnership in Western Europe. 

The 12 members of the North Atlantic Council 
were also hard at work last week in New York on 
the problem of preventing war by strengthening 
the military forces of the free world in Europe. 
Secretary of State Acheson made a revolutionary 
proposal, which was welcomed by the other Min- 
isters, to create an integrated army in Europe as 
soon as possible. This army would be made up 
of contingents from each of the 12 members of the 
North Atlantic Treaty organization. The addi- 
tional forces which President Truman said on Sep- 
tember 9 would be sent to Europe would be the 
first United States contribution to the new com- 
bined army. These American troops, as well as 
the forces sent by the other treaty states, would 



' Made over NBC's television network on Sept. 24 and 
released to the press on the same date. 

532 



be commanded by one man who would have a staff 
assigned to him made up of officers from the states 
which have contributed forces. The supplying and 
financing of this new army would be the joint re- 
sponsibility of all treaty members. The total 
strength of this integrated force must be equal to 
the task of keeping Europe free — of forcing any 
aggressor to ponder long and hard before starting 
out to conquer Europe. 

One of the problems which immediately arises in 
talking about defense of Europe is how Germany 
could contribute to this major undertaking. The 
United States believes that plans for the integrated 
European force should provide for a contingent 
from Germany. This deHnitely does not mean that 
we would build up a national German army or a 
German General Staff. All agree that this would 
not serve the best interest of Germany or Europe. 
Tlie majority of the German people also seem to 
share this view, but the United States does think 
that Germans should be allowed to take part in the 
joint defense of Europe through participation in 
an integrated force. 

The North Atlantic Council discussed these 
problems this week and then recessed for a few 
days to give the Ministers time to explain the 
plans to their Governments. The Ministers, most 
of whom are now attending the United Nations 
General Assembly at New York, will meet again 
in a week or so to decide on ways of speeding up 
the creation of a strong enough military force in 
Europe to discourage any power from breaking 
the peace. During the interval, Mr. Moch and 
Mr. Shinwell, the French and British Ministers of 
Defense, have come to the United States and have 
talked with Secretary of Defense Marshall and 
Messrs. Acheson, Bevin, and Schuman. 

All of you will be hearing a great deal more 
about this plan for an integrated defense force 
in Europe because our contribution to making this 
force strong and efficient would mean sacrifices 
for all of us. The United States as well as every^ 
treaty member must deny itself many things in 
order to meet the challenge to free peoples every- 
where. We must be ready to do our part as others 
do theirs. 

When the United States signed the North At- 
lantic Treaty, we agreed that our freedom was 

Depatimenl of State Bulletin 



linked to the freedom of the Western European 
states. This week, we have made clear to our 
allies that we mean every word that we have said 
and are anxious to act now to create the strength 
in Europe which is vital to protect all of us against 
an attack against any one of us. 



AUTHORIZATION FOR GENERAL ASSEMBLY 
TO USE ADEQUATE PEACE PATROL 

Statement hy John Foster Dulles 
Consultant to the Secretary ^ 

The Fifth General Assembly of the United Na- 
tions is now under way. It is the most important 
gathering that has been held since the San Fran- 
cisco Conference 5 years ago. It is going to de- 
cide whether the free world can organize enough 
unity to avoid being pulled to pieces little by little. 

There is United Nations action in Korea today. 
However, it was pretty much an accident tiiat it 
happened that way. Eussia was then boycotting 
the Security Council so that it missed the chance 
to veto the Security Council appeal to the mem- 
bers to act to defend Korea. Also, the United 
States had considerable air power and some land 
power nearby because she was occupying Japan. 

For the future, we can not let the security of 
the free world depend upon lucky chance. The 
United Nations should be organized so that it 
can always be on the job, so that there will always 
be adequate force quickly available. 

Our United States delegation under the leader- 
ship of Secretary Acheson has made a momentous 
proposal for a standing and alert world-wide 
"peace patrol." 

Under it the Assembly would have observers at 
danger points throughout the world to keep the 
United Nations advised of threats of aggression. 
They would be the eyes and ears of the United 
Nations. 

In the second place, all the members would create 
military forces trained and equipped for action if 
requested by the United Nations. That would 
mean that there would be no repetition of the 
Korean affair where all the initial burden fell upon 
the United States because she alone had military 
forces available. 

Finally, if the Security Council is prevented 

' Made over NBC's television network on Sept. 24 and 
released to the press on the same date. 



from acting by a veto, then the Assembly where 
there is no veto would meet instantaneously on 2i 
hours notice to bring the military forces into 
action. 

By her program, the United States is giving 
leadership to strengthen the United Nations. 
Our program will involve cost and effort by all 
the nations, but security can not be had cheaply 
and no nation is entitled to United Nations pro- 
tection unless it is willing to sliare the burden of 
common effort. 

All everywhere who have talked so much about 
a "strong" United Nations will now have a chance 
to work for it. 



Creation of Common Military Forces 
Studied by Nortli Atlantic Council 

NAC Communique of September 18 
[Released to the press Septcmher 19] 

The North Atlantic Council has devoted its 
3-day meeting to a thorough discussion of the 
major questions presented by the urgent need to 
strengthen collective defense. The Council was 
determined to proceed with the necessary measures 
to this end. 

The discussions dealt with matters of far-reach- 
ing importance and related principally to the 
creation, in the shortest possible time, of an inte- 
grated military force adequate for the defense of 
freedom in Europe, and to the related questions of 
the character of participation in the force, its mili- 
tary organization, and matters of supply, finance, 
and raw materials. 

The proposal for such a force supported by ap- 
propriate supply and financial arrangements, 
based on collective effort, was warmly welcomed, 
and it was decided that the Ministers should 
promptly consult their Governments as to the way 
in which such a plan could be put into effect. 
Many of the problems involved considerations of 
a character which make such consultations neces- 
sary so as to enable definite decisions to be taken 
promptly. 

To permit these consultations to take place, the 
Council has recessed subject to call by the chairman 
durinor the next 2 weeks. 



October 2, 1950 



533 



REPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS COMMAND OPERATIONS IN KOREA 



For the Period of August 16-31, 1950 < 



C.N. doc. S/1796 
Transmited Sept. 18, 1950 

I herewith submit report number four of the 
United Nations Command oj^erations in Korea for 
the period 16 to 31 August, inclusive. Eighth 
Army communiques (numbers 41 through 65) and 
Korean releases (numbers 254 through 352) pro- 
vide detailed accounts of these operations. 

Ground Operations 

During this period, the North Korean forces, 
still operating with twelve divisions, concentrated 
on preparations for renewed offensive activity, de- 
spite heavy blows and serious local losses inflicted 
by United Nations Forces. The enemy gradually 
reinforced units opposite the extreme flanks and 
center of the United Nations perimeter and, 
through the application of gradually increasing 
pressure along the entire northern front, has 
achieved moderate local gains in the face of con- 
tinuing United Nations resistance. Front lines 
for the entire period ran generally from Tongyong 
on the south coast northward to the confluence of 
the Nam and the Naktong Kivers, thence north 
along the Naktong River to a point several miles 
north of Waegwan, thence generally eastward 
through the Kunwi area to the Kigye area con- 
tinuing to the east coast north of Pohang-dong. 

In the east coast sector, the North Korean 12th 
Division was driven back by attacks of the First 
Eepublic of Korea Corps which regained Pohang 
and Kigye on 18 August. By 26 Augvist, the 
enemy 5th Division entered into action and to- 



' Transmitted to the Security Council by Ambassador 
Warren R. Austin, U.S. representative in the Security 
Council, on Sept. IS. For texts of the first, second, and 
third reports to the Security Council on U.N. cotamand 
operations in Korea, see BtlLLETiN, of Aug. 7, 1950, p. 203 ; 
Aug. 28, 1950, p. 32.3 ; and Sept. 11, 1950, p. 403, respectively. 

534 



gether with the 12th Division renewed the attack, 
retook Kigye, and pushed United Nations Forces 
back to a line two miles north of Pohang. How- 
ever, Kigye changed hands and was again retaken 
by the Republic of Korea Army on 29 August but 
was lost to the North Koreans on 30 August. 

Concurrently, the principal enemy effort was di- 
rected against the Taegu salient during this period 
and, by 28 August, had scored moderate gains 
along the northern part of the arc in the zone of 
action of the II Republic of Korea Corps. The 
enemy 1st and 13th Divisions forced the United 
Nations defenders back several thousand yards, 
taking Kumhwa in their most extensive advance. 
In repeated local attacks, the enemy 8th Division 
took Uihung on 27 August. The 2nd and 3rd 
North Korean Divisions near Waegwan were in- 
creasingly active, though no major effort is in evi- 
dence as yet. The net enemy gains, however, 
represented only local effect of no decisive char- 
acter. Eneniy long-ranged artillery emplaced 
west of the Naktong River has shelled Taegu in- 
effectively on a number of occasions in nuisance 
firing. 

Operations in this northern and eastern sector 
were primarily by Republic of Korea Army units, 
intermittently supported by United States units. 
The 6th, 8th, Capitol, 3rd, and 1st Republic of 
Korea Divisions have been in battle continuously 
since the war began against an enemy with initial 
favorable odds in mass and armor. Though oper- 
ating on extended frontages of sixteen to twenty 
miles these divisions have maintained their tacti- 
cal unity and their current recovery and perform- 
ance is most gratifying. 

In a wide bend of the river south of Tuksong, 
the enemy 10th Division has held a bridgehead 

Department of State Bulletin 



in an inactive state since mid-August. This pene- 
tration, estimated at one to two enemy regiments, 
was being effectively contained by United Nations 
Forces at the close of the period. 

Farther south, near the confluence of the Nam 
and Naktong Rivers, attacks by the United States 
24th Division and the Marines eliminated a major 
penetration of the Naktong defense line on 18 
August. Here, the enemy 4th Division was de- 
cisively defeated, lost its bridgehead, and was 
thrown westward aci'oss the Naktong River, suf- 
fering very heavy losses in both personnel and 
equipment. 

At the southern end of the front in the Chinju- 
Haman corridor, the North Korean 6th Division, 
having been severely mauled in early August, 
cautiously restored contact with United Nations 
Forces, beginning 16 August, along a north-south 
line about two miles west of Haman. By 19 
August, this division, augmented by two regi- 
ments, probably of the 7th Division, initiated a 
series of sharp probing attacks which continued 
to engage the attention of United Nations defend- 
ing forces, though they have netted the enemy 
small gains on the gi'ound. One mountain, Sobuk- 
San, has changed hands several times. Mean- 
while, the large volume of rear area troop and 
vehicular movements indicate that the enemy in- 
tends to maintain strong pressure on this front, 
which represents the greatest threat to the United 
Nations base at Pusan. Prisoners from the Noi'th 
Korean 6th Division report that two of the three 
organic regiments are composed of troops who 
previously served in the Chinese Communist 
Armies. 

United Nations Forces were augmented by the 
arrival of British Army combat iniits in Korea. 

Naval Operations 

During the period of this report, the United 
Nations Naval Forces have encountered only 
slight resistance by the enemy. Comj^lete United 
Nations control of the seas continues, with guar- 
anteed safe arrival in Korea of additional troops 
and supplies, and safe removal by sea of the sick 
and wounded. Naval patrol forces have met little 
interference, and a close patrol of the Korean 
coast is being maintained. 

Further augmentation of Naval Forces is con- 
tinuing. New units arriving during the period 
of this report have been mostly from the United 
States Navy. The entire Naval organization is 



well integrated, functioning smoothly, and coordi- 
nated efficiently with United Nations Army and 
Air Force units. 

The United Nations Naval Force, now fortified 
by many smaller elements which together consti- 
tute a well balanced Navy, has attained such a 
degree of efficiency that it is now capable of as- 
suming any type of Naval mission in Korean 
waters. 

Operational efficiency has reached very high 
standards. Naval Forces not only continue to per- 
form all tasks assigned but are steadily increas- 
ing the ranges of application. 

Basic logistic problems have been solved. 

Naval aircraft operating from ships and land 
bases are performing the battle tasks of reconnais- 
sance, spotting for artillery and naval bombard- 
ment, strafing and dive bombing of both tactical 
and strategic targets. Shore bombardment of 
military targets, harassing fire, and destruction of 
coastal land communications is carried on contin- 
uously by surface craft. Limited amphibious 
landings and water lift of troops have been con- 
ducted. Raiders have been landed for special 
tasks. Islands in strategic locations have been 
seized. Carrier aircraft have simultaneously given 
direct support to ground elements while striking 
strategic targets in Noi-th Korea. United States 
Marines have participated with traditional valor 
and great effectiveness in important land opera- 
tions in the southwestern sectors. 

As long as the enemy compels innocent civilians 
to serve his purpose in front line areas, the prob- 
lem of avoiding casualties to non-combatants is 
exceedingly difficult. Our Naval bombardment 
forces, both surface and air, are exercising every 
precaution to avoid harming the civilian popula- 
tion and are employing every possible means to 
identify and destroy military targets only. 

Air Operations 

Enemy air strength continued to diminish until 
near the end of the period when a few minor single 
plane raids were staged. However, twin-engined 
bombers have been sighted recently on enemy air- 
fields in both North and South Korea, leading to 
the belief that his air force has been strengthened 
by aircraft from outside Korea which are pre- 
pared to stage forward at an opportune time. 

The combined air forces of the United Nations 
daily are producing a superior effort in support 



October 2, 1950 



535 



of ground forces. From the early strikes on 29 
June of the United States Far East Air Forces 
jet aircraft, in support of ground forces of the 
Republic of Korea, the complete integi-ation of 
the air and gi-ound efforts has been outstanding. 
The air units of Australia, of the Republic of 
Korea, of the United States Navy and Marines, 
and of the British Navy have joined the United 
States Air Force in the effective tactical support 
of all ground forces. Answering the call of 
United States Army, Marine, or Republic of 
Korea ground forces for air support may be air- 
craft from any of the United Nations Forces in 
the air over Korea. 

Control parties located with front line troops 
and observers in aircraft continued, over the 
enemy's and our own front lines, to direct air 
strikes in a matter of minutes upon any targets , 
that reveal themselves. 

The enemy shuns exposure by day, concealing 
his supplies and reserves in homes, in schools, and 
other public buildings. He drives his tanks and 
trucks through walls of simple peasant shelters 
that he might avoid daylight detection. 

Enemy movement and attack by night are being 
countered by ever expanding operations of night 
intruder aircraft. These pLanes, equipped with 
special devices, have successfully harassed him by 
night, causing considerable reduction to his 
operations. 

The enemy massed across the Naktong River 
from Taegu on 16 August was subjected to the 
heaviest tactical assault yet momited when me- 
dium bomber aircraft delivered over 850 tons of 
bombs on the aggressor forces. Fighter-bomber 
aircraft roving the salient following this strike 
found few targets in the desolate area. 

Evidence continues to be gathered showing the 
depletion of stocks of munitions and supplies in 
the combat zone. 

The program of interdiction of the transporta- 
tion system supporting North Korean forces has 
reduced extensively the enemy's resupply poten- 
tial and has hampered his movement of reinforce- 
ments. Countless bridges have been destroyed, the 
utility of the enemy's marshaling yards has been 
drastically reduced, many of his raili-oad repair 
and maintenance facilities have been eliminated. 
The efficiency of the interdiction program is 
clearly indicated by the quantities of rolling stock 
immobile in yards and on sidings. The enemy em- 
ploys every expedient to substitute for the de- 



stroyed bridges. His transportation is subjected 
to attrition by all feasible means. 

Pin point destruction of industrial and other 
military objectives in North Korea continues. 
Evaluation of photographs of these objectives 
after attacks shows remarkable accuracy has been 
obtained in striking the selected targets which 
in every instance have been of military signifi- 
cance. Targets have been great chemical com- 
plexes, iron works, electric power plants, tank 
assembly plants, deep-water docks, and other 
similar installations which enhance North Korean 
war potential. All continue subject to attack until 
United Nations Forces attain their goals. 

United Nations Air Forces have dealt severe 
blows to war industries and transportation in 
Pyongyang, in Hamliung and Hungnam, in Won- 
san, Songjin, Chinnampo, Chongjin, and Rashin. 
The Noi'tli Korean populace has been warned by 
radio and by leaflets to vacate their areas that con- 
tain military targets. They have been urged "to 
leave these cities and go to the country or to the 
mountains". They have been informed that "mil- 
itary installations will be destroyed by United 
Nations planes", but that, "the United Nations Air 
Forces will do everything possible to protect inno- 
cent civilians from the war forced on Korea by 
the Communists". United Nations aircraft have 
been ordered to confine operations to military 
targets. 

The accusation that United Nations aircraft 
have attacked the civilian populace has no basis of 
factual ity. 

Foreign Support for North Korean Forces 

Considering that the present aggression of the 
North Korean forces is largely Communist-led, 
-planned, and -inspired, it is appropriate to review 
existing evidence of material and technical assist- 
ance rendered to North Korea, specifically, evi- 
dence of munitions which the Soviet Union has 
provided and is now jiroviding to the North 
Korean forces, as well as evidence of trained mili- 
tary personnel which the Chinese Communist 
forces have furnished. 

The U.S.S.R.-domination of the northern por- 
tion of Korea began when Soviet occupation au- 
thorities arbitrarily interpreted the 38th parallel 
as a permanent delineation between two military 
zones. Immediately following the surrender of 
Japanese forces in Korea, in September 1945, the 
Soviets began to organize a North Korean military 



536 



Department of State Bulletin 



force under the guise of a national police force or 
constabulary. This force, now known as North 
Korean People's Army, has from its inception been 
trained, supervised, and logistically supported by 
the Soviet Union. 

The supply of munitions and equipment to 
North Korea prior to the withdrawal of the Soviet 
Occupation Forces in December 1948 is openly 
acknowledged by the Soviets. However, they 
claim that all materiel now being utilized by North 
Korean forces was provided prior to their with- 
drawal and that there has been no resupply from 
Soviet sources since that time. 

Despite this Soviet claim, however, since the out- 
break of the war, a wide variety of definitely iden- 
tified Soviet equipment captured from the North 
Koreans in battle bears the manufacturing date of 
1949 or 1950. Obviously, dated materiel could not 
have been provided prior to December 1948, 
thereby further confirming the many reports re- 
ceived by this Headquarters of Soviet delivery 
of munitions to North Korean forces during 1949 
and 1950. Physical proof of such deliveries now 
includes 10 specific items fully reported, including 
photographs, as well as the physical items, for- 
warded to appropriate United States Army serv- 
ices. Among forwai'ded definitely identified items 
were a 7.62mm PPSH-41 sub-machine gun; an 
aircraft radio receiver type RSI-61-1 ; 2 types of 
hand grenades; and ammunition of varying types 
and calibres. In addition to these items, some 
forty-one other pieces of equipment, including 
small arms, armored vehicles, artillery, and am- 
munition have been captured from the North Ko- 
reans and are definitely established to be of Soviet 
manufacture. 

It may be possible that Morth Korea is manu- 
facturing some materiel, particularly small arms. 
However, her industry is not capable of providing 
heavy equipment such as armor, tanks, and 
artillery. 

To date, there has been no confirmation of direct 
or overt Chinese Communist participation in the 
Korean conflict; however, they have furnished 
substantial if not decisive military assistance to 
North Korea by releasing a vast pool of combat- 
seasoned troops of Korean ethnic origin, which 
provided the means for expansion of the North 
Korean army. This fact, originally established 
by miscellaneous information emanating from the 
Manchuria-Korea area during the past four 
years, is now fully confirmed by numerous pris- 

October 2, 1950 

007027—50 3 



oner-of-war interrogations since the outbreak of 
hostilities in Korea. A substantial percentage of 
all prisoners-of-war so far interrogated have re- 
ceived training in Manchuria or have performed 
active service with the Chinese Communist Anny ; 
at least half of the personnel and particularly those 
officers and non-commissioned officers in the North 
Korean 5th, 13th, and 15th Divisions, and the 
766th Indeijendent Unit have participated in 
training or combat action with the Chinese Com- 
nuniist Army. The Chinese Communist Army 
returned many of these Korean troops to North 
Korea during the past year. 

Approximately 140,000 Korean troops have par- 
ticipated in training and combat action with the 
Chinese Communist forces in one of three cate- 
gories: (a) the Korean Volunteer Army, which 
was formed from Koreans in Communist-held 
China and Manchuria during 1945^6; (b) 
U.S. S.R. -trained Koreans, who were transferred 
from North Korea and were integrated into the 
Korean Volunteer Army or Chinese Communist 
Army to gain combat experience; and (c) 
U.S.S.R.-trained Koreans, who participated in 
training at Chiamussu, Manchuria, or attended the 
officer's candidate school at Lungchingtsini, Man- 
churia. During the early part of 1947, the Korean 
Volunteer Army was integrated into the Chinese 
Communist Army in Manchuria. A great num- 
ber of these troops have subsequently fought wath 
the Chinese Communist Army as far south as 
Luichou Peninsula in the Hainan Island opera- 
tion. After the Commmiist conquest of Man- 
churia during the fall of 1948, Korean troops 
began filtering back into North Korea. An accel- 
eration of this movement became apparent dur- 
ing the early part of 1950, and, by the middle of 
February 1950, Korean troops of the Chinese 
Communist 4th Field Army had departed from 
South China for North Korea. At the time of the 
outbreak of hostilities in Korea, a probable aggre- 
gate of 40,000 to G0,000 Koreans trained by the 
Chinese Communists had been released and inte- 
grated into the North Korean army to expand the 
initial divisions and constabulary brigades to a 
current battle order of thirteen to fifteen divisions, 
without mentioning corps troops, line of com- 
munication troops and service elements. 

Atrocities 

Treatment of United Nations prisoners taken 
by enemy forces has on occasion been character- 



537 



ized by extreme brutality. Positive evidence of 
murdering of prisoners with bound liands has led 
me to issue a warning to the Connnander in Chief 
of the North Korean forces on this subject. 

The first instance of this character was dis- 
covered 10 July 1950 when United Nations troops 
retook lost ground and discovered dead American 
soldiers with their hands tied behind their backs, 
obviously killed while captives, since all had been 
shot through the head. Official photographs of 
four of these murdered Americans constitute 
visual proof. 

A second was the murder of thirty-six Ameri- 
can prisoners on the afternoon of 17 August 1950. 
Forty-one American soldiers, serving the United 
Nations cause, had been captured by an over- 
whelming Communist force on the morning of 
15 August. Immediately after their capture each 
prisoner was stripi)ed of all means of identifica- 
tion and each man's hands tied behind his back 
with telephone wire or shoe laces taken from his 
boots. The men were held prisoners for thirty- 
six hours without food. At the end of this time, 
the group of Americans were told to stand up 
whereupon they were sprayed by fire from indi- 
vidual weapons of approximately fifteen to seven- 
teen North Koreans. After the men had fallen 
to the ground, they were fired upon once again to 
insure that all were dead. After the North Korean 
soldiers had left the scene, five soldiers still alive 
were able to make their waj' back to American 
lines. All victims in this massacre were members 
of the 1st Cavalry Division, United States Army. 

Prisoners of War 

In sharp contrast to the foregoing, Mr. Fred- 
erick Bieri, International Eed Cross representa- 
tive accredited to the United Nations Forces in 
Korea reports that according to Korean standards, 
Republic of Korea treatment of prisoners of war 
was "perfect" and that he had never previously 
known a case when prisoner of war guards from 
their own personal supply had presented ciga- 
rettes and fruits to prisoners. 

Over 2,000 prisoners of war were taken by 
United Nations Forces during the period. This 
is many times the number that have been taken 
in previous periods. Enemy desertions, though 
limited in scale, are increasing, apparently as a 
direct result of United Nations guarantees of 
humane treatment. Curiously enough, some offi- 



cer defectees are highly Communist-trained and 
have served in their units as political-cultural 
"morale" officers, suggesting that propaganda 
officers themselves are most susceptible to an effec- 
tive presentation of accurate information. 

Psychological Warfare Operations 

Daily United Nations radio broadcasts and over 
37,000,000 air-dropped leaflets are providing the 
last channels to the Korean people for dissemina- 
tion of the tnitli. Communist falsification of mil- 
itary claims is being relentlessly exposed by 
United Nations newscasts and news sheets. Seven 
million leaflets guaranteeing humane treatment of 
prisoners of war have been dropped over enemy 
lines. North Korean soldiei'S, who have been re- 
peatedly told by their masters that captm-e or 
surrender will place their lives in grave jeopardy, 
are becoming increasingly cognizant of the du- 
plicity of their leaders. An official message from 
the United Nations Command, transmitted by 
leaflets in Korean and in English, has warned 
North Korean military officers in Pyongyang and 
in field division headquarters, that United Nations 
prisoners must be accorded the humane treatment 
guaranteed by the rules and precedents of war. 

Conditions in Korea 

There exists a very high state of morale both 
among the civilian population in general and in 
the Government offices of the Kepublic of Korea. 
Although the area under control of the United 
Nations Forces at the present time has a great 
number of refugees, these refugees are being as- 
sisted in every way possible to provide them shel- 
ter and other necessities of life. 

A great amount of this assistance is coming 
from volunteer aid from such organizations as 
have been established since 25 June; for example: 
The Emergency Central Committee of the Korean 
Red Cross organized by Dr. Helen Kim, an emi- 
nent educator in Korea. This organization com- 
prises volunteer workers who assist in the 
relocation of refugees and distribution of food 
and certain relief supplies. In addition to pro- 
viding relief and assistance to refugees, this body 
provides assistance to military casualties of the 
Republic of Korea Army by volunteer nursing aid, 
by procuring and rolling bandages and surgical 
dressings, and in some cases, assisting in the med- 
ical treatment of the casualties. 



538 



Department of State Bulletin 



Another evidence of l)igh morale is the forma- 
tion of a Patriotic League to give all-out assistance 
to the United Nations effort in Korea. This is, 
again, an organization of volunteer workers who 
assist in volunteering needed labor and procuring 
equipment or indigenous supplies for use by 
United Nations Forces. 

Government offices are operating on a twenty- 
four hour basis, even at Cabinet and Ministerial 
levels, to cope with every situation at any time it 
may arise. 

Other signs of high morale of the people of 
Korea are indicated by the numerous "welcome" 
signs in all of the various communities and the 
spontaneous contribution of refreshments to 
United Nations troops. In fact, in all walks of 
life and in all fields of endeavor there exists only 
the highest morale and the indomitable will to 
win. 

Civilian Relief 

In surveying the relief needs in Korea, it has 
been determined that the Republic of Korea was 
able during its withdrawal to salvage sufficient 
food supplies to provide subsistence for individ- 
uals in the area under control of United Nations 
Forces during the period of this report. However, 
it is estimated that these stocks will be inadequate 
to provide even a minimum subsistence after the 
middle of September. Arrangements, therefore, 
have been made as an emergency measure to sup- 
ply the Republic of Korea with 15,000 metric tons 
of rice and 5,000 metric tons of barley in Septem- 
ber, and 20,000 metric tons of rice and 10,000 met- 
ric tons of barley in the month of October. 

The Republic of Korea has adequate raw cotton 
on hand and in shipment for operation of the 
cloth producing facilities in the area under pro- 
tection of United Nations Forces until the end of 
December. The quantity of cloth produced dur- 
ing this period, however, would represent only a 
two months normal supply. 

The Army Command in Korea has submitted an 
estimate of requirements for medical supplies and 
equipment, insecticides, chemicals for water puri- 
fication, serums, vaccines, and antitoxins. To 
alleviate possible suffering resulting from procure- 
ment time lag, approximately twenty-five percent 
of these requirements have been procured locally 
as an emergency measure. The remainder of the 
requirements has been forwarded through estab- 



lished channels to appropriate procurement 
coordinators. 

At the present time, relief supplies are being 
delivered to Korea by military means and are 
being distributed in Korea by the Republic of 
Korea, Office of Supply. Through the Depart- 
ment of the Anny, United Nations persomiel of 
certain technical qualifications have been requested 
who will operate under military conunand to assist 
the Republic of Korea in distribution and efficient 
utilization of relief supplies and provide adequate 
liaison and coordination between the Republic of 
Korea and United Nations military forces on relief 
mattere. 

Subsistence supplies are becoming a problem of 
iimnediate concern which will require the whole- 
hearted assistance of all members of the United 
Nations. With the advent of climatic change, as- 
sistance will be required in providing adequate 
clothing and blankets for the civilian population 
of Korea. Urgently needed medical supplies are 
a cause of grave concern and I trust will be given 
immediate attention. Estimated requirements of 
food, clothing, and medical and relief supplies 
are being continuously computed and forwarded 
to the Joint Araiy, EGA, State Coordinating Com- 
mittee for procurement in accordance with estab- 
lished procedure. There is little doubt that the 
Members of the United Nations will contribute 
as generously to the relief of the destitute people 
of Korea as they have to the military effort. 

In Conclusion 

1. United Nations strength to accomplish the 
United Nations mission in Korea is growing slowly 
but steadily. 

2. British Army units have arrived in Korea. 

3. The United Nations air force and naval air 
attacks on purely military targets are bringing im- 
portant results on the invader's ability and will to 
fight. The charges of indiscriminate bombing in 
Korea are groundless. 

4. The United Nations fighting forces are con- 
ducting their operations with valor, efficiency, and 
a determination to win. The magnificent coordi- 
nation of all services not only within forces of one 
nation but also between forces of different nations 
is a tribute to those forces and the nations they 
represent. 

5. Positive proof has been obtained that during 
1949 and 1950 the Soviets have supplied the North 
Korean forces with munitions and the Chinese 



October 2, 1950 



539 



Communists have supplied trained manpower. 

6. The North Koreans have in some instances 
conducted savagely barbarous killings of captured 
Americans. 

7. Both the Republic of Korea Government and 
people are valiantly and courageously supporting 
the cause to the extent of their capabilities. 



8. Requirements for civilian relief assistance 
and supplies have so far been met by emergency 
measures but prompt action by Member nations 
is needed to provide food, warmth, and medical 
supplies during the coming winter. 

9. The forces to be provided by Member na- 
tions are urgently needed in Korea. 



U.N. Commission on Korea Reports to the General Assembly 



In its report to the General Assembly,^ issued on 
September 13, the United Nations Commission on 
Korea (Ukcok) declares: 

The invasion of the territory of the Republic of Korea 
by the armed forces of the North Korean authorities was 
an act of aggression initiated without warning and with- 
out provocation, in execution of a carefully prepared plan. 

The Commission's report, which covers the 
period from December 15, 1949, to September 4, 
1950, departs from the usual form of report as 
"unsuitable to this emergency," and opens with the 
events of Sunday June 25 when, at 1 :30 p. m., it 
was officially informed of the North Korean in- 
vasion. 

It recalls that Uncok observers had submitted, 
only the day before the aggression occurred, a re- 
port covering an inspection the length of the 38th 
parallel in which they found that the South 

' U.N. doc. A/lS'iO, Sept. 8, 19r)(). The excerpts and sum- 
mary as printed here were release<l to the press by the 
U.N. Department of Public Information on Sept. 14, lO.'iO. 

The report is divided into four parts that deal with 
aggression, survey of the situation in Korea prior to the 
act of aggression, the functioning of the Commission since 
aggression, and analysis and <()nrlusions. Also included 
in the report are five ;uinexes, in<liiding texts of General 
Assembly resolutions, lists of delegations, appeal of the 
Central Committee of the Democratic Front for the .attain- 
ment of Unification of the Fatherland, report of the Com- 
mission's field trips, anil a map of Korea. The report was 
signed at House No. 828 at Camp Hialeah, Pusan, Korea, 
by the following nations represented on the Commission : 
India, Australia. China, El Salvador, France, the Philip- 
pines, and Turkey. 

The United Nations Ccminiission on Korea was initially 
established by General Assembly resolution 19.5 (III), 
adopted on December 12, 104S. It was continued in being 
by General Assembly resolution 203 (IV), adopted on 
October 21, 1949. 

The Connnission reconvened in Seoul on December 15, 
1949. Since that date, the Connnission has held 69 meet- 
ings. Thirty-four were held in Seoul, one at Suwon, three 
in Camp Halvata (Japan), one in Tokyo, one at Taejon, 
and the remainder at Pusan. 



Korean army was organized entirely for defense 
and was in no condition to carry out attack on a 
large scale against forces of the North. 

Subsequent events, the Commission points out, 
gave a signiiicance to the observers' findings of 
wliich they could not have been aware when they 
drafted them. 

On the basis of its observers' report and of its 
knowledge of the general military situation, the 
Commission records the unanimous oi)inion that 
no offensive could possibly have been launched 
across the 38th parallel by the Republic of Korea — 
as North Korea alleged. 

On the other hancl, it does find that the North 
Korean invasion cannot have been the result of a 
decision taken suddenly to repel a mere border 
attack. It was an invasion presupposing "a long- 
premeditated, well prepai-ed and well-timed plan 
of aggression." 

It is the considered opinion of the Commission that this 
planning and preparation were deliberate, and an essen- 
tial part of the policy of the North Korean authorities. 

Origin of Struggle in Korea 

Having given its findings on the aggression, the 
Commis.sion examines the origin and nature of the 
struggle in Korea. It recalls how the 38tli parallel 
became the line of demarcation between the zones 
of military occupation of the United States and the 
U.S.S.R. to whose respective forces Japanese troops 
south and north of the parallel were to surrender. 

The U.S.-U.S.S.R. Joint Commission on Korea, 
set up in accordance with the Moscow Declaration 
of December 1945, became deadlocked on the pro- 
cedure to be followed in consulting with '"Korean 
democrat ic part ies and social organizations." This 
di.sagreement, says Uncok's report, is the root of 
the ))rosent conflict. 

Behind this disagreement, lay differences of out- 
look and policy, differences which did not spring 



540 



Department of State Bulletin 



from anythino; inherent in the Korean situation 
itself, says the Commission. 

They were a manifestation of those wider differences 
which have become so marlced a feature of the international 
scene. 

In the liglit of all that has happened in Korea 
since the initial disagreement, continues the Uncok 
report, it can now be inferred that "United States 
policy had no other objective than the creation 
of an independent and democratic Korea . . ."; and 
that had U.S. policy prevailed "it would have 
hardly resulted in the retention by popular vote of 
the Kim II Sung regime in Nortli Korea, the 
regime . . . which carries the responsibility for the 
aggression." 

The report reviews the General Assembly dis- 
cussion on the Korean question in 1947 and states 
that the two proposals submitted by the Soviet 
delegation — namely that the First Committee 
should invite elected representatives of the Korean 
people from north and south to take part in the 
discussion and that the occupying powers should 
simultaneously witlidraw their troops in the be- 
ginning of 1948 — revived, in different form, the 
disagreement on the method of electing democratic 
rejiresentatives which had deadlocked the Joint 
Commission. 

The eventual decision of the Assembly, the re- 
port recalls, was that elected representatives of the 
Korean people should take part in the consider- 
ation of the Korean question but, in order to insure 
that these rej^resentatives were, in fact, duly elected 
by the Korean people and not mere appointees of 
the military authorities in Korea, it established a 
United Nations Temporary Commission "to be 
present in Korea with rights to travel, observe, and 
consult throughout Korea." Further, it recom- 
mended that elections be held in Korea not later 
than the end of March 1948 to lead to the estab- 
lishment of a national assembly and national 
government of Korea. 

The U.S.S.R., in accordance with her intention 
announced in the Assembly, declined to take part 
in the work of the Temporary Commission since 
the Assembly had taken its decision on the Korean 
question without hearing representatives of the 
Korean people. 

The division of Korea by the 38th parallel, the 
Commission declares, is artificial and unnatural 
and runs counter to the fervent desire of the whole 
Korean people for unification. 

Exclusion of the United Nations Temporary 
Conunission from North Korea consolidated the 
division. It also prevented the Temporary Com- 
mission from sui^ervising elections throughout the 
whole of Korea. Commenting on the refusal of 
the North Korean authorities to accept interna- 
tionally supervised elections, the report says that 
it would appear that behind this refusal — 

lay a fear that, by doing so, they would promote the 
realization of a free democracy in Korea. It would also 
appear that behind their criticism of elections in South 



Korea alone lay their intention to obstruct in every way 
possible the realization of such a democracy in a part of 
Korea. 

The act of aggression connnitled on June 25, 
says the Commission, revealed that the objective 
of the North Korean authorities had all along 
been to secure by force what could not be gained 
by other means. Aggression was preceded by "sus- 
tained efforts to undermine and weaken the Repub- 
lic of Korea." 

While an invading force was being trained and 
equipped, the North Koreans did everything, says 
the Commission, to spread confusion and discon- 
tent in South Korea. Inflammatory propaganda 
calculated to create dissension ; aid to armed bands 
sent to invade South Korea ; maintenance of a state 
of tension along the 38th parallel; creation of 
confusion in the minds of the southern population 
by false offers of unification by peaceful means. 
. . . These are listed by the Commission as being 
tactics used by the north in its plan of aggression. 

Referrin.g to a North Korean appeal made on 
June 7 and repeated on June 19 "for the peaceful 
unification of the fatherland" — 6 days before the 
invasion — , the Commission comments that such 
an ajjpeal could have had no other purpose than 
to divert the attention of the Republic from all 
thought of aggression from the north. 

Situation Before Invasion 

One part of the Commission's report gives a 
detailed survey of the situation in Korea jirior to 
June 25. It records the failure of the Commission 
to establish any contact with the North Korean 
authorities and contrasts the cooperative attitude 
of the Republic with the attacks continually made 
on the Commission by North Korean projiaganda. 

General elections were held in South Korea on 
May 30, 1950, the first to be conducted under the 
Government of the Republic. The United Nations 
Commission organized teams to cover the whole 
of South Korea to observe the general arrange- 
ments for carrying out the elections and to ascer- 
tain whether these were conducted in a free and 
democratic atmosphere. 

The Commission gives the following general 
conclusions regarding the elections: 

Very considerable enthusiasm was everywhere 
shown by the electorate. A high percentage, al- 
most 90 percent, cast their votes. The electoral law 
and regulations were adequate and generally en- 
forced. The secrecy of the ballot was respected. 
Lack of a developed party system and discipline 
led to an excessive number of candidates and made 
the choice of voters needlessly difficult. As no 
clearly defined party programs were placed be- 
fore the electorate, votes were cast for individual 
candidates on their personal rather than on their 
party merits. No undue pressure was exerted to 
influence the vote in favor of a particular candi- 
date. There was certain concrete evidence of 



October 2, 1950 



541 



interference by the authorities with candidates and 
their election" campaigns. This interference, in 
the main, was carried out by local police. Some 
candidates who were under arrest were actually 
elected and the voters seemed to react against 
police interference by supporting those candidates 
with whom the police had interfered. 

The final conclusion of the Commission on the 
May 30 elections was: 

. . . notwithstanding some eases of interference, the 
voters were able to exercise their democratic freedom of 
choice among candidates and cast their votes accordingly. 

The newly elected National Assembly of 210 
members, which contained only 31 members of the 
old, met for the first time on June 19. Six days 
later, the report points out, the aggression oc- 
curred, thereby temporarily interrupting the new 
body's work. 

The Commission describes relations between the 
Korean Executive and Legislature in the last 2 
years and finds that several factors, including the 
growing civic responsibility shown by the Legis- 
lature, augured well for the future of representa- 
tive government in Korea. It explains, however, 
how the need to safeguard the stability and secu- 
rity of the Republic from the threat from the north 
gradually became the controlling factor in all 
major activities of the administration. 

The report deals with the application of the 
National Security Act under which many thou- 
sands were imprisoned and with steps taken by the 
Republic to stamp out the guerrilla movement. 

As to its present activities, the Commission re- 
ports that it is lending all possible support to the 
action of the United Nations to repel aggression, 
its chief concerns being in the political and human- 
itarian fields such as the refugee problem. To its 
field observers, the Commission has assigned the 
task of observing political factors arising out of 
the eventual withdrawal of North Korean forces, 
gathering political information received from 
prisoners of war or other witnesses in the field, 
establishing facts on perpetration of atrocities, 
and obtaining information on the scope of the 
refugee problem. 

Analysis and Conclusions 

In a final section, the Commission sets forth the 
following analysis and conclusions : 

RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE AGGRESSION 

The invasion of the territory of the Republic of 
Korea by the armed forces of the North Korean 
authorities, which began on June 25, 1950, was an 
act of aggression initiated without warning and 
without provocation, in execution of a carefully 
prepared plan. 

This plan of aggression, it is now clear, was an 
essential part of the policy of the North Korean 
authorities, the object of which was to secure con- 



542 



trol over the whole of Korea. If control could not 
be gained by peaceful means, it would be achieved 
by overthrowing the Republic of Korea, either by 
undermining it from within or, should that prove 
ineffective, by resorting to direct aggression. As 
the methods "used for undermining the Republic 
from within proved unsuccessful, the North Ko- 
rean authorities launched an invasion of the terri- 
tory of the Republic of Korea. 

ORIGIN AND NATURE OF THE CONFLICT 

The origin of the conflict is to be found in the 
artificial division of Korea and in the failure, in 
1945, of the occupying powers to reach agreement 
on the method to be used for giving independence 
to Korea. This failure was not due to anything 
inherent in the attitude of the people of Korea 
themselves, but was a reflection of those wider and 
more fundamental differences of outlook and pol- 
icy which have become so marked a feature of the 
international scene. 

This artificial division was consolidated by the 
exclusion from North Korea of the United Nations 
Temporary Commission which had been charged 
by the General Assembly to observe the holding of 
elections on a democratic basis in the whole of 
Korea. In the circumstances, it was decided to 
hold such elections in South Korea alone. 

Had internationally supervised elections been 
allowed to take place in the whole of Korea and 
had a unified and independent Korea thereby come 
into existence, the present conflict could never have 
arisen. 

PROSPECTS OF UNIFICATION 

The Korean people, one in race, language, and 
culture, fervently desire to live in a unified and • 
independent Korea. Unification can be the only | 
aim regarding Korea. It did, however, appear to 
the Commission before the aggression took place 
that unification through negotiation was unlikely 
to be achieved if sucii negotiation involved the 
holding of internationally supervised elections on 
a democratic basis in the whole of Korea. Experi- 
ence suggested that the North Korean authorities 
would never agree to such elections. 

It was hoped that, at some stage, it might be pos- 
sible to break down the economic and social bar- 
riers between the two political entities as a step 
toward unification. That, too, proved illusory as 
the North Korean authorities persisted in their 
policy of aiming at the overthrow of the Republic 
of Korea. 

After the consolidation of the division of Korea, 
propaganda and hostile activities on the part of 
the North Korean authorities accentuated tension 
which, in turn, stiffened the attitude of the Gov- 
ernment and people of the Republic of Korea and 
even further prejudiced such possibility of unifi- 
cation by negotiation as might have remained. 
Notwithstanding the continued efforts of the Com- 

Deparfment of Sfafe Bulhfin 



mission, it apjieared on the eve of the aggression 
that the Korean peninsuhi woukl remain divided 
indefinitely, or at least until international tension 
had slackened. 



DEVELOPMENT OF REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT 
IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 

The necessity to safeguard the stability and 
security of the Republic of Korea from the threat 
from the north gradually became a controlling 
factor in all the major activities of the administra- 
tion of the Republic and absorbed energies and 
resources which were needed to carrj' out the eco- 
nomic and social reconstruction prograrmne and 
to develop the new form of representative govern- 
ment. 

The first 2 years of the new National Assembly 
reflected clearly the difficulties which it would be 
normal to expect in a body dealing with a new and 
unfamiliar political structure. It had become 
clear, long before the act of aggression occurred, 
that the Legislature was making good progi-ess in 
its efforts to exert parliamentary control over all 
departments of government and would not rest 
content until its relations with the Executive had 
been satisfactorily adjusted. The growing civic re- 
sponsibility shown by the Legislature augured well 
for the future of representative government in 
Korea. 

At the elections of May 30, 1950, the people 
showed very considerable enthusiasm, and the 
electoral machinery functioned well. Among the 
cases of interference with candidates which oc- 
curred, some were explainable in the light of the 
stringent precautions which the Government found 
it necessary to take in order to safeguard the sta- 
bility and security of the state against the threat 
from the north. Although there appeared to be 
little justification for interference in some other 
cases, the results of the elections, in which many 
candidates critical of the administration were re- 
turned, showed that the voters were, in fact, able 
to exercise their democratic freedom of choice 
among candidates and had cast their votes ac- 
cordingly. The results also showed popular sup- 
port of the Republic and a determination to im- 
l^rove the administration by constitutional means. 

The division of Korea added to the economic 
difficulties that had arisen at the end of the Japa- 
nese domination and made it most difficult for the 
Republic of Korea to become self-supporting. 
Funds which might have been expended for the 
execution of the social and economic programme of 
the Republic were consumed by heavy defence ex- 
penditures. Nevertheless, when the aggression 
occurred, substantial progress was being made with 
that programme. 



KOREAN NEEDS AND ASPIRATIONS 

Serious problems of reconstruction and rehabili- 
tation, particularly the grave refugee problem, al- 



ready confront the counti-y. To these problems, 
will be added problems of yet greater magnitude 
when the military conflict comes to an end. It will 
be quite beyond the capacity of the counti-y to 
provide from its own resources means for rehabili- 
tation. A healthy and viable democracy in Korea 
cannot come into being unless very considerable 
aid and assistance is provided from outside Korea. 
Finally, as the division of the country and the 
resulting antagonisms were artificial, the Commis- 
sion believes that, when the conditions untier which 
they arose disappear, it will be possible for the 
Korean people of both north and south to come 
again together, to live in peace, and to build the 
strong foundations of a free, democratic Korea. 



Current United Nations Documents: 
A Selected BibliograpFiy' 

Economic and Social Council 

The Economic Development of Latin America and its 
principal problems. Economic Commission for Latin 
America. [E/CN. 12/89/Rev. 1, Apr. 27, 1950.] 59 
pp. printed. 400. 

Trusteeship Council 

Examination of Petitions, Classification, and Summary of 
Petitions. Memorandum prepared by the Secretariat. 
T/639, May 26, 1950. 46 pip. mimeo. 

General Assembly 

United Nations Conciliation Commission For Palestine 
Seventh Progress Report (for the period from May 
&-J'uly 12, 1950). A/12S8, July 17, 1950. 17 pp. 
mimeo. 

Information From Non-Self-Governing Territories : Sum- 
mary and Analysis of Information Transmitted Under 
Article 73 e of the Charter. Report of the Secretary- 
General. Analysis of information on Agriculture. 
A/1297, July 28, 1950. 30 pp. mimeo. 

Information From Non-Self-Governing Territories : Sum- 
mary and Analysis of Information Transmitted Under 
Article 73 e of the Charter. Report of the Secretary- 
General. Analysis of information on Labour. A/1298, 
July 26, 1950. 33 pp. mimeo. 

Department of Public Information, Research Section 
Background Paper No. 62. The Korean Question 
Before The United Nations ( September 1947-Oetober 
1949). St/DPI/SER. A/62, May 18, 1950. 30 pp. 
mimeo. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2r'60 Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

The United Nations Secretariat has established an Offi- 
cial Records series for the General Assembly, the Security 
Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship 
Council, and the Atomic Energy Commission ; which in- 
cludes summaries of proceedings, resolutions, and reports 
of the various commissions and committees. Pulilications 
in the Offlcinl Records series will not be listed in this 
department as heretofore, but information on securing 
suliscriptions to the series may be obtained from the 
International Documents Service. 



October 2, 1950 



543 



Preserving International Peace and Security Through General Assembly Action 



hy John D. Hickerson 

Assistant Secretary for United Nations Affairs ' 



One event dwarfs all others of the past 5 years 
and sets the tone for the coming General Assembly 
meeting: the combined military forces of members 
of the United Nations and of the Republic of 
Korea are locked in a struggle with the armies of 
the North Korean Communists. They are fight- 
ing in a historic attempt to repel the flagrant 
aggression against the Republic of Korea and to 
restore peace and security in the area. 

The unprovoked aggression against the Repub- 
lic of Korea resulted in the first real collective 
military action against aggression in history. The 
issues were immediately clear to the free world. 
This was not simply an invasion of a small state 
by her neighbor. It was a direct attack upon the 
United Nations itself — upon the whole system of 
collective security. A bomb drojiped on the Gen- 
eral Assembly convening at Flushing Meadow 
could not have been a more direct aggression 
against the United Nations itself. This is the 
perspective in which the events must be kept. All 
of Mr. Malik's diversionary rantings and tactics 
cannot transform this attack upon the United Na- 
tions into an attack by the Republic of Korea, or a 
civil war, or some sort of "intervention" by the 
United States at the behest of Wall Street. 

The free nations of the wo)-ld have seen the 
situation in its true light. Fifty-three members 
of the United Nations have supported the forth- 
right action of the Security Council on June 25 
and Jime 27. 

Reason for Free World^Unanimity 

What accounts for this unanimity among the 
free peoples of the world — in spite of the risks, in 
spite of the sacrifices, in spite of the Soviet threats 
and lies? Tlie answer is simple and inspiring. We 

' An address made before the American Association for 
the U.N. and the National Committee for U.N. Day at 
New York on Sept. 17 and released to the press on the 
same date. 



544 



have at last learned the bitter lesson of history — 
that all who sincerely desire peace must unite to 
repel the first attempt at aggression. That is what 
the free world has done in Korea. 

From the standpoint of military security, Korea 
is of no particular importance to the United States 
or, I suppose, to any of the other 52 members. 
But as a symbol, she is of tremendous significance — 
a symbol of the determination of all free nations 
that aggression will be firmly resisted, that an at- 
tack upon the United Nations will not be counte- 
nanced. When peace and security are restored to 
Korea — as they will be — by the United Nations 
forces, the prompt, firm, and courageous action of 
the United Nations will have made every nation, 
large and small, more secure. And in the wake 
of military victory, we must not forget the Korean 
people. They must be nursed back to health. 
Their cruelly ravaged land must be repaired. 
They must be given a fair opportunity to achieve 
the goals of freedom and indeiiendence and unity 
wjiich have been approved by the United Nations. 

The Security Council, on July 31, called upon 
the specialized agencies of the United Nations to 
assist the Korean people in their hour of need.^ 
Already plans have been made and assistance is 
being given by such agencies as Who, Fao, Iro, and 
UNESCO. At the present time, they can reach only 
the Koreans who are behind the United Nations 
lines. Their tasks will become greater as the 
United Nations lines are pushed forward. When 
peace and security are restored to the entire area, 
the United Nations should be prepared to give to 
the Korean people every possible assistance in re- 
habilitating their victimized country. I am sure 
that the General Assembly, which since 1947 has 
taken such a direct interest in Korea, will want to 
lay the groundwork for such a program at its fifth 
session. 



' Bulletin of Aug. 14, 1950, p. 243. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Significance of Korean Conflict 

The General Assembly will not only want to in- 
sure that the proper future plans are made for 
Korea. The Korean situation looms so large in 
our minds at this time because the reaction of the 
free world has given hope to mankind that we may 
really be on the verge of developing a genuine and 
effective system of collective security. The Gen- 
eral Assembly will certainly want to examine 
carefully the lessons learned from the Korean 
experience so that it may develop effective plans 
for preventing future aggression. 

Between June 25 and July 31, the Security 
Council operated efficiently to lay the necessary 
groundwork for repelling the aggression in Korea. 
Perhaps the most significant single action during 
this period was the resolution of June 27 which 
recommended — 

that the members of the United Nations furnish such 
assistance to the Republic of Korea as may be necessar.v 
to repel tlie armed attack and to restore international 
peace and security in the area. 

I have stressed the word "reconnnended." The 
Security Council had no armed forces at its dis- 
posal which it could order to the scene of action. 
It had to rely upon the willingness and ability of 
the individual members of the United Nations to 
take the necessary action. The response, as you 
know, was overwhelming. But we should bear 
in mind that the response was to a recommendation 
and not to an order. 

Had the Soviet representative attended the Se- 
curity Council meetings in June and July, he would 
unquestionably have vetoed the resolutions passed 
in the Security Council. His conduct since his 
return on August 1 has made this clear beyond any 
doubt. The first resolution before the Security 
Council after Mr. Malik's return was certainly 
less far-reaching than any of those passed during 
June and July. It condemned the North Korean 
authorities for their continued defiance of the 
United Nations, called upon all states to use their 
influence to prevail upon the North Korean author- 
ities to cease this defiance, and called upon all 
states to refrain from taking any action which 
woidd assist or encourage the North Korean au- 
thorities and to refrain from action which might 
lead to the spread of the Korean conflict to other 
areas and, thereby, further endanger peace and 
security. And yet this resolution became the vic- 
tim of the Soviet representative's forty-fourth 
veto. 

Then came the resolution to investigate the ac- 
cusation by the Communist China regime that we 
had bombed installations and civilians just over 
the Manchurian border. We took what every fair- 
minded jDerson will agree was a reasonable and 
generous position : We did not know whether the 
incident had occurred. If it had, it was certainly 
a mistake because firm orders had been given not 
to cross the Korean boundary. When we received 



information that one of our planes might have 
accidentally strafed the area, we immediately in- 
formed the Security Council. We said that if the 
facts indicated that our airmen had been responsi- 
ble for any damage, we would gladly pay the full 
amount of damages assessed by an impartial com- 
mission. We even went so far as to propose a 
resolution appointing two fair and reputable 
members of the United Nations who had diplo- 
matic relations with Communist China, India, and 
Sweden, to make an investigation. Yet when this 
resolution finally was brought to the vote, the 
Soviet representative cast his forty-fifth veto. 

From this, it becomes clear that while we can- 
not predict whether the Soviet representative will 
attend any particular Security Council sessions, 
we must always assume that he will choose to at- 
tend and will veto effective action to preserve the 
peace. 

Courses of Action for the U.N. 

Where does this leave us ? Must the peace-lov- 
ing members of the United Nations shudder help- 
lessly at this possibility? Is this great organiza- 
tion, dedicated to the preservation of peace and 
security, to be powerless whenever the Soviet 
representative simply chooses to add to his string 
of 45 vetoes and block any effective action against 
aggression ? Of course not. The privilege of ex- 
ercising a veto in the Security Council does not 
relieve the members of the United Nations of the 
solemn obligations of the Charter. Nor should 
the threat of the veto, or the use of the veto, deter 
the peace-loving members of the United Nations 
from finding ways to preserve the peace within the 
framework of the Charter. 

The reaction against Soviet obstructionism has 
been so intense that it has produced some demands 
that the Soviets be expelled from the United Na- 
tions. It is easy to understand the emotional drive 
behind this proposal, but I question its wisdom. 
Let us take a look at some of the practical reasons 
why this step would be a mistake. 

CONTINUED NEGOTIATION 

Tlie United Nations is almost the only remain- 
ing forum in which the free world can negotiate 
with the Soviets. As long as there is hope that we 
can impress them with our determination not to 
yield to aggi-ession, we want to continue to try to 
do so — not only by deeds but also by words. We 
will continue to negotiate as long as there is any 
possibility of success, and we regard the United 
Nations as the best place for such negotiations. 

The Soviets are bound by Charter obligations. 
The Charter is a treaty, perhaps the most solemn 
treaty of this era. We should do nothing to re- 
lease the Soviets from their commitment under 
the Charter to maintain international peace and 
security. It is true that they may violate their 



October 2, 1950 



545 



Charter pledges, but it is desirable that they con- 
tinue to be bound by those pledges as long as pos- 
sible, and constantly reminded of them. 

The aim of the United Nations should be to ac- 
quire more members rather than to decrease the 
present membership. Messrs. Malik and Vyshin- 
sky may not be very approachable — but they are 
more so here at New York than behind the iron 
curtain. Although their presence has not yet 
contributed noticeably to harmony and peace, 
there is always the hope that they may some time 
realize that their constant flouting of the Charter 
runs so counter to the overwhelming weight of 
world opinion that in the long run it will not pay. 

Finally, there is the blunt fact that, whether we 
like it or not, a permanent member of the United 
Nations cannot be expelled under the Charter 
against her consent because she could always veto 
the resolution in the Security Council, and a Se- 
curity Council recommendation to the General 
Assembly is essential. 

The Soviets might choose of their own accord 
to leave the United Nations. We could not con- 
trol such a decision. But in our planning, we 
should assume that they will remain in the XJiiited 
Nations. 



GENERAL ASSEMBLY ACTION AGAINST AGGRESSION 

Does this mean that we must give up any hope 
that the United Nations will take effective, col- 
lective measures against aggression as lon^ as the 
Soviets choose to remain in the United Nations 
and exercise their veto? Certainly not. There 
is no veto in the General Assembly, and the Gen- 
eral Assembly has broad powers and responsibili- 
ties under the Charter. In 19i7, for example, the 
Soviet representative vetoed a Security Council 
resolution to send a United Nations Commission 
to the troubled Balkans, but the matter did not 
end there. The General Assembly asserted itself 
by setting up its own Commission despite the op- 
position of the Soviets. The General Assembly 
will want to examine its own experience and au- 
thority in the light of the lessons of Korea in order 
to devise effective measures to suppress aggression 
when the Security Council is paralyzed. The 
Korean situation has revealed that most of the 
members of the United Nations will respond favor- 
ably to a United Nations "recommendation" that 
military assistance be given to a victim of aggres- 
sion. As I pointed out earlier, the most important 
single Security Council resolution in Korea, that 
of June 27, was couched in terms of recommenda- 
tion. If such a Security Council resolution were 
to be vetoed in a future case of aggression, might 
not the same results be achieved within the frame- 
work of the Charter upon a resolution of the Gen- 
eral Assembly? 

Certainly there is no question that the General 
Assembly would have the authority to make such 
a recommendation. The real question is the prac- 

546 



tical one. Would it be able to operate rapidly and 
effectively enough ? This is surely one of the prob- 
lems which the General Assembly will wish to 
consider during its fifth session. We have also 
learned from the Korean experience the complexi- 
ties of raising a United Nations army quickly and 
effectively. The Soviets have so far prevented the 
formation of permanent United Nations military 
forces, and we may presume that they will continue 
to do so. But, surely, the General Assembly will 
wish to try to find a way of taking advantage of 
the experience learned in Korea in marshaling j 
armed forces from among the peace-loving mem- ^ 
bers of the United Nations. 



STRENGTHENING THE ASSEMBLY 

We must also not lose sight of another signifi- 
caut feature of our Korean experience. The 
United Nations was extremely fortunate, as a 
result of its direct interest in Korea, to have had 
a commission of its own on the spot which could 
observe and report to the Security Council and 
to the General Assembly. The immediate reports 
of the United Nations Commission in Korea were 
of tremendous value in enabling the Security 
Council to appraise the situation promptly. The 
comprehensive report just filed ^ with the Secre- 
tary-General will be extremely helpful to both the 
Security Council and the General Assembly. Hav- 
ing just witnessed the spectacle of Mr. Malik veto- 
ing a proposed impartial commission to investigate 
a complaint by Communist China, it is not hard 
to guess what the Soviet representative on the 
Security Council would do about sending a United 
Nations Commission to a future troubled area. 
Certainly then, the General Assembly will wish to 
consider whether it cannot devise some method for 
being kept informed, objectively and promptly, 
about the situation in threatened areas. 

I do not mean to suggest that the Security Coun- 
cil's primary responsibility to preserve the peace 
should be lessened. The Security Council should 
be given every encouragement and opportunity to 
maintain the peace. But if it is unable to exercise 
the functions assigned to it by the Charter, what- 
e\er the reason, then surely the General Assembly 
slujuld be ready to consider what it can do to 
accomplish the purpose of the Charter. 

I am fully confident that the General Assembly 
will so organize itself as to be able to harness the 
collective will for peace into effective methods of 
preserving the peace. In the General Assembly, 
no one will be aole to veto this collective will for 
peace. 

Unfortunately, we must realize that those who 
seek to undermine the peace will seek to undermine 
new measures that are devised to preserve the 
peace. Our own ingenuity and industry must not 
flag. The quest for peace must go on. If one 
method of resisting aggression is sabotaged by 



' See ante, p. 534. 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



i 



those sponsoring or supporting agression, then 
other methods must be found. Certainly the 
Charter of the United Nations is broad enough. 
All that we need are the determination and skill 
to use all of its resources. 

This is no time for defeatism. It is a time for 
courage and confidence. We are sending to the 
fifth session of the General Assembly an unusually 
able and well-balanced delegation, one that will 
have the firm support of the American people. 
Our delegation will present detailed proposals for 
strengthening the General Assembly to enable the 
United Nations to preserve international peace and 
security. We will examine carefully similar pro- 
posals by other delegations. We are confident that 
the General Assembly will be eager to come to 
grips with this problem and tliat, before the session 
closes, it will have adopted a bold program to sup- 
press aggression and preserve the peace. 



East German Defiance of U.S.S.R. 
Revealed at Berlin Shows 



The response of the huge crowd was unambigu- 
ously anti-Communist to such political references 
as appeared in the cabaret program. The high- 
light of the evening came, however, when it was 
announced that two newsreels would be shown 
which Mere both produced in Germany today and 
the East Zone Defa film. The Eye Witness, came on 
tlie screen. It was met by overwhelming booing 
and whistling which only increased with the flashes 
it contained of special functions attended by Pieck 
and Grotewohl. The reaction was so emphatically 
adverse that the newsreel was cut short and fol- 
lowed by Welt Im Film which met with applause. 
Of particular interest was the restrained but defi- 
nite applause that greeted the showing of reen- 
forcements reaching the United Nations forces in 
Korea. 

The whole event was an emphatic demonstration 
of the failure of the East to win the East Germans 
and bore witness to their courage in defiance of 
their own regime, since care was taken with double 
identification checking to make sure that only East 
residents were in attendance. 



IReleased to the press Septemher JS] 

The Department of State announced today that it has 
received a report from the United States authorities in 
Berlin which discloses "an emphatic demonstration" of 
the failure of the East to win the East Ocrmans and wliich 
"bore witness to their courage in defiance of their own 
regime." 

The demonstration and its results is reported iy otir 
Berlin representatives as follows. 

The successful showing of films to East sector 
and zone residents held at sector border theaters 
for a nominal charge the last 6 weeks prompted 
the experiment of a special evening performance at 
Berlin's large open-air theater, the "Waldbuehne." 
The program was announced only 1 week before 
and chiefly through RIAS (United States radio 
station, Berlin ) . Within 36 hours, the entire 25,000 
tickets had been sold for 2 deutchemarks East each. 
The program consisted of an hour of special num- 
bers by prominent Barlin cabaret artists and the 
EIAS entertainment orchestra, followed by a 
showing of newsreels and the Orson Welles film 
The Third Man which was the picture most re- 
quested by the East Germans attending the sector 
border theater. The whole program was planned 
and carried out under ostensible German auspices 
with the motto "we haven't forgotten you'' but 
without political emphasis. Tlie fact that 25,000 
East Germans gathered together for Western 
entertainment proved to have important political 
weight of itself. Long before the gates were 
opened at 5 o'clock, crowds were waiting for ad- 
mittance, many of whom had come from some 
distance in the East zone. Back numbers of Ber- 
lin newspapers and popular Western magazines, 
as well as the current day's edition of the Neue 
Zeitung, were distributed witliin the gates free 
in quantity and were eagerly collected. 



U.S. Cartoonists Counteracting 
Russian Propaganda 

[Released to the press September 20] 

The pens of American newspaper cartoonists 
have proved to be effective weapons in the Depart- 
ment of State's stepped-up truth campaign to 
counteract Russian propaganda and explain the 
aims and policies of the United States to the world. 

For more than a year, many leading United 
States newspapers have given the State Depart- 
ment permission to disseminate political cartoons 
on a world-wide basis. The cartoon service has 
become one of the most popular features of the 
overseas information program and there is a con- 
stantly increasing demand for additional mate- 
rial from newspapers in the Far East and Latin 
America, as well as in Europe. 

In Ecuador, American cartoons which criticized 
Soviet Russia appeared only 6 times during the 
first month they were distributed. In the second 
month, 24 cartoons were used. In the third month, 
the number had jumped to 64 and is still increasing. 

Newspapers in some countries run the cartoons 
on their front pages. Copies are cut out and 
posted on school and library bulletin boards. Fre- 
quently, newspaper readers enclose cartoon clip- 
pings in letters sent to friends and relatives in 
countries behind the iron curtain. Censors con- 
fiscate some of the drawings but others are so 
subtle that satellite bureaucrats miss their double 
meaning. The cartoons are particularly effective 
in the large areas of the world where there is a 
high illiteracy rate. 



October 2, 1950 



547 



No accurate count of the total readership of 
American cartoons distributed overseas is avail- 
able. However, it lias been estimated that press 
features distributed by the State Department have 
appeared in as many as 10,000 overseas newspapers 
and magazines. 

Among cartoonists whose work has been re- 
printed overseas are Ned White of the xVkron 
Beaco7i Journal, Claude Shafer of the Cincinnati 
Times Star, John F. Knott of the Dallas Morning 
News, Jack Somerville of the Denver Po.st, H. I. 
Carlisle of the Des Moines Reghter and Tribune, 
Philip TJzana of the Hartford Oourant, Charles 
Werner of the Indianapolis Star, S. J. Ray of the 
Kansas City Star, Ross Lewis of the Milwaukee 
Jour7ial, Scott Lang of the Minneapolis Tribune, 
Keith Temple of the New Orleans T imes-Picayune, 
Don Dowling and John Fischetti of the New York 
Herald Tribune, David Marcus of the New York 
Times, Cy Hungerford of the Pittsburgh Post- 
Gazette, Art Bimrose of the Portland Oregonian, 
Burges Green of the Providence Journal, David 
R. Fitzpatrick of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 
Cloyd J. Sweigert of the San Francisco Chronicle, 
Elmer R. Massner of the Rochester Times-Union 
and Herbert Block of the Washington Post. 



U.S. Presents Book Collection 
to People of Argentina 

[Released to the press September 22] 

A basic collection of 350 books from the Presi- 
dent and the people of the United States was pre- 
sented to the people of Argentina in a ceremony 
at Buenos Aires on September 2'2. 

The Department of State announced that the 
United States Ambassador to Argentina, Stanton 
Griffis, made the piesentation for President Tru- 
man to President Juan Peron at the Lincoln 
Library, a United States information center in the 
Argentine capital. 

The gift is in recognition of Argentina's observ- 
ance of 1950 as the centennial year of the death of 
Gen. Jose de San Martin, national hero and liber- 
ator. One of the greatest military geniuses of the 
hemisphere, he is revered as the leading figure in 
the liberation of Argentina, Chile, and Peru. 

President Truman, in a letter transmitted by 
Ambassador Griffis to President Peron, described 
the books as "a gift on behalf of the people of the 
United States to the people of Argentina." He 
pointed out that one of the examples of the libera- 
tor's "wisdom and vision" was his interest in books 
as "instruments of freedom and progress." 

The collection of books was purchased by the 
United States Government through the State De- 
partment's Division of Libraries and Institutes. 



Explosion Destroys VOA Tower 
at Oliio Transmitting Plant 

[Releiised to the press September 18] 

The Departmrnt of State todaij confirmed the following 
sttitriiient issued by the Crosleij Broadcasting Corpora- 
tion at Cincinnati. Ohio. 

An explosion of undetermined cause early Sun- 
day destroyed the 16o-foot tower supporting one 
of the Voice of America antennae at the Bethany, 
Ohio, transmitting plant of the Crosley Broad- 
casting Corporation, officials disclosed today. | 

The blast, which occurred at 2 : 13 a.m., shat- \ 
tered the pole, destroyed its cement foundation, 
and toppled the antenna. 

The FBI has begun an investigation into pos- 
sible sabotage, and a State Department engineer 
is en route to Bethany to check the damage. 

The Bethany plant, which is owned by the Gov- 
ernment and operated for the Department of 
State's International Broadcasting Division under 
contract by the Crosley Broadcasting Corporation, 
is used to Iteam Voice of America broadcasts to 
Europe and Latin America. 

The transmitter station was not on the air at 
the time of the explosion and the future broadcast- 
ing schedules will not be affected. Engineers made 
a prelimiiiary estimate of the damage at about 
5,000 dollars.' 

Bethany was the scene of another explosion last 
May 23 which destroyed a small battery switch 
house. Following an investigation at that time, 
the FBI said there was no evidence of sabotage. 



Letters of Credence 

The Netherlands 

The newly appointed Ambassador of the Nether- 
lands, Dr. J. Herman Van Roijen, presented his 
credentials to the President on September 9, 1950. 
For texts of the Ambassador's remarks and the 
President's reply see Department of State press 
release 9(>9 of September 19. 



Ceremonies Honor Jos6 Artigas 

Centennial memorial services for Jose Artigas, 
Uruguayan national hero, took place on Septem- 
ber 2;') at the Artigas statue, at Washington, D. C. 

President Truman sent a wreath, laid at the 
statue by Edward G. Miller, Jr., Assistant Secre- 
tary for Inter-American Affairs. A wreath from 
the Uruguayan Embassy at Washington was laid 
by Dr. Jose A. Mora, Charge d'Affaires. 



548 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



U.S. Returns Battle Flags 
Captured From Mexico 

[Released to the press September 13] 

Followiii!/ is the text of President Triiiuan's letter to 
President MiiiKel Aleniiin of Mexico, irhich iras read by 
Aiiihiissudvr Walter Thurston at the ceremonii at Mexico 
City on Septeni'ber 13, tipon the return of captured Mexi- 
can battle flays. 

The Congress of the United States of America, 
in accordance with the wishes of the people of this 
coiintiy, has enacted legishxtion authorizing me to 
return to Mexico battle flags in the custody of the 
Dejiartment of Defense. It gives me great pleas- 
ure to carry out this mandate. 

A century ago strong and complex forces, which 
few leaders of the time comprehended and fewer 
still resisted, impelled the peoples of our two 
countries to hostilities. Blood from both coun- 
tries mingled in sacrifice on a score of battlefields; 
that sacrifice is inscribed forever on the scroll 
of our common history. 

The years that have followed have been momen- 
tous in the affairs of man. They have brought 
to our nations greatness and prosperity and, above 
all else, friendship, understanding, respect, and 
peace. It is the fervent desire and firm deter- 
mination of the American people that these con- 
ditions shall constitute the permanent foundations 
of their relations with the people of Mexico. 

To that end, Mr. President, my country is re- 
turning the flags which have been held in hon- 
ored custody. They will be brought to you by 
Gen. Wade H. Haislip, United States Army, and 
by a group of the finest youth of this country, 
cadets from the United States Military and Naval 
Academies and from the Air Force. Their de- 
livery on this date at a site clorious in Mexican 
hearts as the scene of the heroic defense of Chapul- 
tepec Castle and of the last act of valor of the 
Ninos heroes is a fitting tribute to the spirit of 
friendshijj and peace which mai'ks the present day 
relations between our two countries. 

I take this opportunity of renewing to you, 
Mr. President, the assurances of my highest esteem 
and would like to convey, through you, to the 
Mexican people my best wishes for their continued 
well-being and prosperity. 



Foreign Nationals Visiting U.S. 

The visits of the following persons have been 
made possible through grants-in-aid awarded by 
the Department of State under the program for 
the exchange of persons : 

Dr. Moyses de Moraes Vellinho, president of the 
State General Accounting Office of Rio Grande 
do Sul, Brazil, will participate in the colloquium 
on Luso-Brazilian studies to be held at Washing- 



ton on October 4-7 in connection with the Sesqui- 
centennial celebration at the Library of Congress. 
He will also visit educational centers and news- 
paper offices in various cities and will observe 
American Govermnent administration techniques. 

F. E. Louwage, inspector general of the Minis- 
try of Justice, Belgium, will study American 
courts and police systems and confer with officials 
of the United States Department of Justice. 

Sir Patrick Dollan, managing editor of the Glas- 
gow Daily Herald,, Scotland, will study the work- 
ings of the Department of Commerce, with regard 
to international activities, and will confer with 
officers of the Department of Labor and EC A. 

Leonard Louis Boyd, managing director of the 
press (Pty.) Ltd. and president of the United 
Municipal Executive of the Union of South Africa, 
will consult with American journalists and observe 
various aspects of urban development. 

Leone Cattani, director of the Press Associa- 
tion, Rome, Italy, will study trends in American 
journalism and advertising, housing methods, the 
educational system, and Federal, State, and mu- 
nicipal government administration. 

Mrs. Amalia Teresita Scelba, president of the 
Italian Alliance of Women, Rome, will observe the 
social service activities and administrative methods 
of various women's organizations. 



Americans Visiting Abroad 

The Department of State announced on August 
24 that 112 American scholars have received 
awards under the Fulbright Act to teach or con- 
duct research abroad during the next academic 
year.^ 

The countries to which the scholars are assigned, 
together with the number participating, are : 

Belgium, 3; Burma, 4; France, 30; Greece, 5; 
Italy, 20; Netherlands, 6; New Zealand, 2; Nor- 
way, 8 ; Philippines, 6 ; and United Kingdom, 28. 

In addition, the Department of State announced 
that, as of September 15, 454 students were granted 
awards to study abroad for the fall term.^ 

The countries to which the students are assigned, 
together with the number participating, are : 

Belgium, 24 ; France, 249 ; Greece, 12 ; Holland, 
24 ; and United Kingdom, 145. 

Prior to their departure, the groups of students 
meet at New York for a series of orientation meet- 
ings arranged by the Department of State and the 
Institute of International Education. 



' For names and addresses of scholars, see Department 
of State press release 857 of Aug. 24, 1950. 

^ For names and addresses of students, see Department 
of State press release 899 of Sept. 5, 1950; 920 of Sept. 
8, 1950 ; 932 of Sept. 12, 1950, and 945 of Sept. 15, 1950. 



October 2, 1950 



549 



Resupply Mission to U.S.-Canadian 
Arctic Weather Stations 

[Released to the press Aug. SI] 

It was announced in Ottawa and Washington on 
July 11 that one United States Coast Guard and 
three United States Navy vessels with Canadian 
and United States representatives aboard were 
sailing to the Canadian Arctic regions in support 
of the joint weather-station program which is 
being carried out by the Governments of Canada 
and the United States. 

These four ships, the icebreakers U.S.S. Edhto 
and U.S.C.G.C. Easttoind, the cargo vessel U.S.S. 
WhitJey, and the U.S.S. LST 533 which served as 
a cargo vessel, have now returned to east coast 
ports. 

During the summer, they resupplied the joint 
weather station at Alert, on Ellesmere Island, 
Northwest Territories, which was established dur- 
ing the spring of 1950. The supplies and equip- 
ment required for the activation of this station 
were taken in by United States Navy water trans- 

fort in 1948 and by airlift by the Canadian and 
Tnited States Air Forces in the spring of 1950. 
The joint weather stations at Resolute Bay, Corn- 
wallis Island, activated in 1947, and Eureka on 
Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories, activated 
by airlift in the spring of 1947, wei'e also resiup- 
plied. 

En route to Alert, the icebreakers proceeded 
through heavy polar pack ice up to 30 feet 
in thickness, the heaviest encountered in 5 years of 
Arctic resupply operations. The U.S.C.G.C. 
Easttmnd reached 82 degrees 36 minutes 45 seconds 
latitude within 445 nautical miles of the North 
Pole while passing the northeastern tip of Elles- 
mere Island. This is believed to be the noi'thern- 
most point in the Eastern Hemisphere reached by 
any ship under its own power. 

The ships en route to Resolute Bay, the major 
resupply port for the task group, found Lancaster 
Sound completely free of ice and encountered only 
a few small fields of scattered ice in Barrow Strait, 
a favorable condition which had not been enjoyed 
by some of the former resupply missions. Excel- 
lent weather except for fog continued throughout 
the four days the ships were anchored off Resolute 
weather station on Cornwallis Island. 

The U. S. S. Ed'mto carried two helicopters and 
the Eastwind one helicopter, all of which were used 
extensively and to great advantage in short-range 
ice reconnaissance and for the transportation of 
Canadian Government surveyors and other field 
technicians to locations where astro positions, ter- 
rain elevation, geology, and other reconnaissance 
field studies were accomplished. 

Long-range ice reconnaissance was furnished 
exclusively by RCAF aircraft from 405 Squadron 
of the Maritime Group, Halifax, Nova Scotia ; this 



group is commanded by Air Commodore R. C. 
Gordon, CBE. 

The ships which participated in the resupply 
mission wei'e under the command of Capt. G. E. 
Peterson, United States Navy, embarked in the 
U.S.S. Edhto during the first part of the operation 
and in the U.S.C.G.C. Eastwind during the latter 
part. Tlie second in command and Commander, 
Supply Unit, was Capt. M. Van Metre, United 
States Navy. The Edisto was commanded by 
Commander W. F. Morrison, United States Navy; 
the Eastwind by Capt. O. A. Peterson, United 
States Coast Guard ; the Whitley by Capt. E. E. 
Garcia, United States Navy; and the LST 533 by 
Lt. Comdr. J. E. Vautrot, United States Navy. 

The senior Canadian representative who par- 
ticipated in the resupply mission was J. W. Burton 
of the Arctic Division of the Department of Re- 
sources and Development. C. J. Hubbard, Chief 
of the Arctic Project, United States Weather 
Bureau, was senior United States official until his 
untimely death in a RCAF airplane crash at 
Alert on July 31st, 1950, at which time, in ac- 
cordance with a directive from the Chief of the 
United States Weather Bureau, J. Glenn Dyer, 
was assigned this position. 

The joint weather-station program was initiated 
to provide meteorological observations required 
for more accurate short-range forecasting and to 
accumulate research data necessary for the solu- 
tion of long-range forecasting problems. 

The principal ofEcers at the joint weather 
stations are: 



Station 


Canada 


United States 




Officers in Char fir 


Executive Officers 


Resolute 


S. AV. Dewar 


C. 0. Fiske 


Eureka 


N. M. Simon 


R. O. Derrick 


Isachsen 


V. Marsh 


R. Roszek 


Mould Bay 


.J. H. Scarlett 


G. Berclund 


Alert 


J. L. Lafranehlse 


C. J. Clifton 



Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and 
Navigation With Ireland Ratified 

[Released to the press September 15] 

Ratifications of a treaty of friendship, com- 
merce, and navigation between the United States 
of America and Ireland were exchanged yesterday 
at Dublin, thus bringing it into force. The treaty 
is to remain in force for not less than 10 years and 
indefinitely, thereafter, unless either comitry ter- 
minates it on 1 year's notice. 

This treaty, which is similar to those previously 
signed by the United States with Italy and Uru- 
guay, is the first such between the United States 
and Ireland and the first of the sort that Ireland 
has signed with any country. It replaces, greatly 
expands, and modernizes several old treaties con- 
cluded by Great Britain with the United States, 



550 



Department of State Bulletin 



which previously governed Irish-American eco- 
nomic relations. 

The treaty deals in a comprehensive manner 
with the ri<ihts and privileges of nationals and 
corporations of each country in the other; and 
with the treatment that each country will accord 
to the products, shipping, antl other private in- 
terests of the other. Its provisions cover a variety 
of subject matter ranging from freedom of infor- 
mation and workmen's compensation to rights to 
do business, tax treatment, and the activities of 
state-trading organizations. The treaty is an ex- 
ample of the type of treaty the United States is 
seeking to negotiate with many countries with the 
object of encouraging the flow of investment capi- 
tal, expanding world trade, and stimulating pro- 
ductive economic intercourse generally. . 



be withdrawn and tlie new rates of duty which will 
apply after termination of the concessions will be 
made available to the press in a few days. The 
new rates of duty will enter into effect 30 days 
after issuance of a Presidential proclamation 
which will be made shortly. Until the above list 
is available, no information regarding particular 
products to be included on it will be made public. 



Problems of Economic Development 
and Social Progress of the Former 
Italian Colonies 

U.N. doc. E/1846 fRes. 266 (III)] 
Adopted Aug. 15, 1950 

The Economic and Social Council, 



Certain Tariff Concessions Negotiated 
With China Terminated 

[Released to the press August 31] 

Tlie United States proposes, as a consequence 
of the withdrawal of China, effective May 6, 1950, 
from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 
to terminate certain United States tariff conces- 
sions initially negotiated with China at Geneva 
in 1947. These concessions became effective during 
the first half of 1948. 

Article XXVII of the General Agreement pro- 
vides that any contracting party may withdraw, 
in whole or in part, any concession which it ini- 
tially negotiated with a government which has 
ceased to be a contracting party. It provides, 
however, that the government taking such action 
shall notify and, on request, consult with any other 
contracting party having a substantial interest in 
the concession concerned. 

This Government has notified the other con- 
tracting parties to the General Agreement of its 
intention to withdraw certain concessions initially 
negotiated with China and has offered to consult 
with those governments, upon request. An oppor- 
tunity for consultation having been afforded, the 
United States is prepared to withdraw certain 
concessions. A few of the concessions originally 
negotiated with China, in which other contracting 
parties have claimed a substantial interest, will 
not be withdrawn at this time. 

In accordance with the most-favored-nation 
principle, the new rates of duty resulting from the 
termination of the concessions will apply to prod- 
ucts imported from all foreign countries, except 
for such preferential treatment as may be accorded 
to the products of Cuba and the Philippines. 

A list of the items on which concessions are to 



Taking account of General Assembly resolution 266 
(III) whic'i recommends that the Economic and Social 
Council, in stud.ying and planning its activities in connec- 
tion with economically under-developed regions and coun- 
tries, sliould take into consideration the problems of eco- 
nomic development and social progress of the former 
Italian colonies. 

Transmits the above resolution to the Secretary-General, 
to the executive heads of the appropriate specialized 
agencies, and to the Technical Assistance Board for 
guidance when requests for technical assistance are re- 
ceived from the Administering Authorities of the former 
Italian colonies ; 

B 

Mindful of the decision taken by the General Assembly 
on 21 November 1949, and embodied in resolution 289 A 
(IV), that Libya should be constituted an independent 
State, under the auspices of the United Nations, not later 
tban 1 January 1952, and 

Having also sympathetically considered the suggestions 
communicated to it by the United Nations Commissioner 
for Libya, in accordance with paragraph 9 of the above- 
mentioned resolution, and 

Recognizing that the people in Libya stand in great 
need of assistance in the development of their economy 
and in the establishment of an efficient public admin- 
istration in order to create an independent and econom- 
ically viable State, 

Draws the attcntiun of the Secretary-General, the exec- 
utive heads of the specialized agencies, and the Technical 
Assistance Board to the special need for early action in 
Libya ; 

Requests the Secretary-General to present to the fifth 
regular session of the General Assembly specific proposals 
as to the procedure which would enable Libya to continue 
to receive technical assistance after its independence has 
been achieved and before it has become a Member of 
the United Nations or of a specialized agency participating 
in the expanded programme. 



October 2, 1950 



551 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



U.S. Delegations to International Conferences 



General Assembly (Fifth Session) 

Tlie Department of State announced on Sep- 
tember 18 the members of the United States dele- 
gation to the fifth regular session of the General 
Assembly of the United Nations, which will con- 
vene at Flushing Meadow, New York, on Septem- 
ber 19.1 During absences of Secretary Acheson, 
Warren R. Austin will serve as head of the dele- 
gation. 

Represen ta tives 

Dean Acheson, Secretary of State, Department of State 
Warren R. Austin, United States Representative to tlie 
United Nations and United States Representative in 
the Security Council, Ambassador Extraordinary and 
rienipotentiary 
Mrs. Franlilin D. Roosevelt 
John J. Sparkman, United States Senate 
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., United States Senate 
John Foster Dulles 

Alternate Representatives 

Benjamin V. Cohen 

John Sherman Cooper 

Ernest A. Gross, Deputy United States Representative to 
the United Nations and Deputy United States Rep- 
resentative in the Security Council, Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 

Mrs. Edith S. Sampson 

John C. Ross, Deputy United States Representative in 
The Security Council 

Advisers 

Ward P. Allen, Office of European Regional Affairs, De- 
partment of State 

John M. Allison, Director, Office of Northeast Asian 
Affairs, Department of State 

Ruth E. Bacon, Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State 

Hardins P. Bancroft, Director, Office of United Nations 
Political and Security Affairs, Department of State 

Bernhard G. Bechheofer, Office of United Nations Politi- 
cal and Security Affairs, Department of State 

William Tapley Bennett, Jr., Office of Middle American 
Affairs, Department of State 

' The representative and alternate representative were 
confirmed by the Senate on Sept. 15, with the exception 
of Mr. Gross, who was confirmed on Sept. 18. 



Vice Admiral B. H. Bieri, United States Navy, United 
States Representative on the Military Staff Com- 
mittee, United States Mission to the United Nations 

Charles Bolte, Adviser, United States Mission to the 
United Nations 

William I. Cargo, Office of Dependent Area Affairs, De- 
partment of State 

Harlan B. Clark, Office of African and Near Eastern Af- 
fairs, Department of State 

Frank P. Corrigan, Adviser, United States Mission to the 
United Nations 

Thomas J. Cory, Adviser, United States Mission to the 
United Nations 

Boyd Crawford, Administrative Officer and Committee 
Clerk, Hou.se Committee on Foreign Affairs 

Lt. Gen. W. D. Crittenlserger, United States Array, United 
States Rejiresentative on the Military Staff Com- 
mittee, United States Mission to the United Nations 

John C. Dreier, Director, Office of Regional American Af- 
fairs, Department of State 

Benjamin Gerig, Deputy United States Representative in 
the Trusteeeship Council ; Director, Office of Depend- 
ent Area Affairs, Department of State 

James F. Green, Deputy Director, Office of United Nations, 
Economic and Social Affairs, Department of State 

Joseph N. (ireene, Jr., Office of Western European Affairs, 
Department of State 

William O. Hall, Director, Office of International Adminis- 
tration and Conferences, Department of State 

Lt. Gen. H. K. Harmon, United States Air Force, United 
States Representative on the Military Staff Commit- 
tee, United States Mission to the United Nations 

Harry N. Howard, Bureau of Near Eastern, South Asian 
and African Affairs, Department of State 

James N. Hyde, Adviser, United States Mission to the 
United Nations 

George M. Ingram, Chief, Division of International Ad- 
ministration, Department of State 

J. Jefferson Jones, III, Office of Dependent Area Affairs, 
Department of State 

Edmund H. Kellogg, Office of United Nations Economic 
and Social Affair.s, Department of State 

Walter Kotschnig, Deputy United States Representative in 
the I'>'onomic and Social Council ; Director, Office of 
United Nations Economic and Social Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State 

Carol C. Laise, Division of International Administration, 
Department of State 

Phyllis L. LeRoy, Office of Dejyendent Area Affairs, 
Department of State 

Harrison Lewis, Adviser, United States Mission to the 
United Nations 



552 



DepartmenI of State Bulletin 



Isador Liibin, Economic Adviser to tlie Delegation, United 
States Representative in tlie Economic and Social 
Council, I'nited States Mission to the United Nations 

Roswell D. McClelland, Office of Western European Affairs, 
Department of State 

Edward P. Matfitt, Adviser, United States Mission to the 
United Nations 

John Maktos, Assistant Legal Adviser, Department of 
State 

Leonard C. Meeker, OflBce of the Legal Adviser, Depart- 
ment of State 

Frank C. Nash, Deputy United States Representative in 
the Commission for Conventional Armaments, United 
States Mission to the United Nations 

Charles P. Noyes, Deputy United States Representative in 
the Interim Committee of the General Assembly, 
United States Mission to the United Nations 

A. Ogden Pierrot, Foreign Service Officer, Department of 
State 

David H. Popper. Office of United Nations Political and 
Security Affairs, Department of State 

G. Hayden Raynor, Bureau of European Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State 

Stuart W. Rockwell, OflSce of African and Near Eastern 
Affairs, Department of State 

Charles Runyon, Office of the Legal Adviser, Department 
of State 

James Simsarian, Office of United Nations Economic and 
Social Affairs, Department of State 

Wells Stabler, Ofl3ce of African and Near Eastern Affairs, 
Department of State 

Eric Stein, Office of United Nations Political and Security 
Affairs, Department of State 

Jack B. Tate. Legal Adviser to the delegation. Deputy 
Legal Adviser, Department of State 

Paul B. Taylor, Office of United Nations Political and Se- 
curity Affairs. Department of State 

Ray L. Thurston. Foreign Service Officer, Department of 
State 

Harry R. Turkel, Foreign Service Officer, Department of 
State 

Henry S. Villard, Foreign Service Officer, Department of 
State 

David W. Wainhouse, Deputy Director, Office of United 
Nations Political and Security Affairs, Department of 
State 

Alfred E. Wellons, Office of African and Near Eastern 
Affairs, Department of State 

Marjorie Whiteman. Office of the Legal Adviser, De- 
partment of State 

Francis O. Wilcox, Chief of Staff, Senate Committee on 
Foreign Relations 

Principal Executive Officer 

David H. Popper, Office of United Nations Political and 
Security Affairs, Department of State 

Assistants 

Elizabeth A. Brown, Office of United Nations Political and 
Security Affairs, Department of State 

Betty C. Gough, Office of United Nations Political and Se- 
curity Affairs, Department of State 

Assistants to Representatives 

Lucius D. Battle, Special Assistant to the Secretary, De- 
partment of State 

Doris Doyle, Assistant to Mr. Dulles, Department of 
State 

Barbara Evans, Administrative Assistant to the Secretary, 
Department of State 

John E. Home, Administrative Assistant to Senator 
Sparkiuan 

William H. A. Mills, Special Assistant to Ambassador 
Austin. United States Mission to the United Nations 

Cammann Newberry, Administratve Assistant to Senator 
Lodge 

October 2, 1950 



Josephine Thompson. Assistant to Ambassador Austin, 

United States Jlission to the United Nations 
Malvina Thompson, Special Assistant to Mrs. Roosevelt 

Secretary-General 

Richard S. Winslow, Secretary-General, United States 
Mission to the United Nations 

Deputy Secret ary-Oeneral 

Benjamin H. Brown, Deputy Secretary-General, United 
States Mission to the United Nations 

Special Assistants 

Albert F. Bender, Jr., Special Assistant to the Secretary- 
General, United States Mission to the United Nations 

Lee B. Blancliard, Special Assistant to the Secretary- 
General. United States Mission to the United Nations 

Forest D. Murden. Jr., Special Assistant to the Secretary- 
General, United States Mission to the United Nations 

Repoi-ts Officer 

Franklin Porter, Chief, Reporting and Documentation 
Division, United States Mission to the United Nations 

Information Officer 

Porter McKeever, Public Information Adviser, United 
States Mission to the United Nations 

Assistants 

Lowell M, Clucas, Division of International Broadcasting, 

Department of State 
Arthur Kaufman. Division of International Broadcasting, 

Department of State 
John MacVane, Office of Public Information, United 

States Mission to the United Nations 
Frederick Rope, Office of Public Information, United 

States Mission to the United Nations 
Jeanne Singer, Office of Public Information, United States 

Mission to the United Nations 
Gilbert Stewart, Office of Public Information, United 

States Mission to the United Nations 
Chester Williams, Office of Public Information, United 

States Mission to the United Nations 



Tariff Negotiations Under GATT 

The Department of State announced on Septem- 
ber 21 that 39 countries, including the United 
States, are expected to participate in the forth- 
coming tariff negotiations under the General 
Agreement on Tariiis and Trade scheduled to 
begin at Torquay, England, on September 28, and 
the United States has announced its intention of 
negotiating witli 24 of those countries.^ 

The members of the United States delegation 
have been designated from the Departments of 
State, Commerce, Agriculture, Treasury, Labor, 
Interior, Defense, and from the Tariff Commission 
and the Economic Cooperation Administration. 

The chairman of the delegation is Willard L. 
Thorp, Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs; 
Winthrop G. Brown, Director of the Office of In- 
ternational Trade Policy of the Department of 
State, is alternate chairman ; and Carl D. Corse, 
Chief of the Commercial Policy Staff of the De- 
partment of State and Chairman of the Trade 
Agreements Committee, is vice chairman. 

' Bulletin of May 15, 1950, p. 762 ; May 29, 1950, p. 866 ; 
Aug. 28, 1950, p. 343. 

553 



Of the countries expected to participate in the 
Torquay negotiations, the following 32 are already 
contracting parties to the General Agreement: 
Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Cey- 
lon, Chile, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the 
Dominican Republic, Finland, France, Greece, 
Haiti, India, Indonesia, Italy, Lebanon, Liberia, 
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nic- 
aragua, Norway, Pakistan, Southern Rhodesia, 
Sweden, Syria, the Union of South Africa, the 
United Kingdom, and the United States. 

Seven countries are expected to participate in 
the negotiations with a view to becoming contract- 
ing parties to the General Agreement. These are : 
Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Guate- 
mala, Korea, Peru, the Republic of the Philippines, 
and Turkey. 

The existing contracting parties will negotiate 
among themselves for new and broader trade- 
barrier concessions in addition to those granted at 
Geneva in 1947.^ The "new" countries will nego- 
tiate among themselves and with the existing con- 
tracting parties. Each country will negotiate 
with those others with which her trade provides 
a basis for mutually advantageous concessions. 

The United States has announced her intention 
of negotiating with the following 24 countries: 
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, 
Cuba, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, France, 
the Federal Republic of Germany, Guatemala, 
India, Indonesia, Italy, Korea, Luxembourg, the 
Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Swe- 
den, Turkey, the Union of South Africa, and the 
United IGngdom. 

In preparation for the forthcoming negotia- 
tions, the interdepartmental trade-agreements or- 
ganization of the United States Government has 
made an item-by-item study of the products on 
which the United States may either request or 
offer concessions during the negotiations. In ac- 
corclance with Executive Order No. 10082,=' the 
Tariff Commission has provided, with regard to 
each import item on which a United States con- 
cession may be considered, a study of production, 
consumption, trade, competitive factors, and prob- 
able effects of a concession. The Department of 
Commerce has made a similar study for each ex- 
port item on which the United States may request 
a concession from a foreign country. 

Lists of items on which United States conces- 
sions may be considered have been published " and 
the Committee for Reciprocity Information has 
held hearings (in May and June) on two of these 
lists. Hearings on another list will open Septem- 
ber 25. No United States concessions will be con- 
sidered for any import item which has not ap- 
peared on one of these lists or on any list that may 

'Bulletin of Nov. 9, 1947, p. 003; Nov. 30, 1947, p. 
1,042 ; Dec. 28, 1947, p. 1,258. 
' Bulletin of Oct. 17, 1049, p. 593. 
' Department of State publications 3819, 3854, and 3944. 



subsequently be published and be made the subject 
of further hearings. 

The purpose of publishing the lists and holding 
the hearings is to provide opportunity, as required 
by the Trade Agreements Act, for interested per- 
sons to present views and information on the pro- 
posed negotiations. 

It is on the basis of the studies of the various 
Government agencies participating in the trade- 
agreements program, and of the views and infor- 
mation developed at the public hearings, that the 
Interdepartmental Committee on Trade Agree- 
ments makes its recommendations to the Presi- 
dent with regard to concessions which are to be 
sought or offered during the negotiations. What 
concessions are actually obtained or granted de- 
pends, of course, on the success of the negotiations. 

At the conclusion of the country-with-country 
negotiations at Torquay, all the schedules of con- 
cessions will be examined by all the participating 
countries and, if they are approved, will be inte- 
grated into the General Agreement. All con- 
cessions granted by each country will be applicable 
to the products of all the other contracting parties 
and will not be limited merely to the country with 
which they were initially negotiated. 

The following members will make up the United 
States delegation: 

Cluiirman 

Willard L. Thorp, Assistant Secretary of State 

Alternate Chairman 

Winthrop G. Brown, Director, Office of International Trade 
Policy, Department of State 

Vice Chairman 

Carl D. Corse, Chief, Commercial Policy Staff, Depart- 
ment of State 

Members of the Delegation 

Patten D. Allen, Foreign Service officer, American Em- 
bassy, Brussels 

Philip Arnow, Chief, Trade Agreements Branch, Office of 
International Labor Affairs, Department of Labor 

Charles F. Baldwin, Foreign Service officer, American 
Embassy, London 

Richard T. Black, Telecommunications Policy Staff, De- 
partment of State 

Milton H. Blick, International Trade Economist, Fiscal 
and Trade Policy Division, ECA, Washington 

Merwin Bohan, Foreign Service Reserve officer. Depart- 
ment of State 

George Bronz, Office of General Counsel, Department of 
the Treasury 

Walter Buchdahl, Economist, Office of International 
Trade, Department of Commerce 

Mrs. Louise E. Butt, Foreign Trade and Policy Division, 
Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, Department 
of Agriculture 

Albert Clattenburg, Foreign Service officer, American Em- 
bassy, Lisbon 

William A. Conkright, Foreign Service officer, American 
Embassy, Seoul 

Martin B. Dale, Economist, Office of International Trade, 
I>epartment of Commerce 

Prentice Dean, Special Adviser, Office of International 
Programs, Department of Defense 



554 



DeparfmenI of State Bulletin 



Robert D. Donogh, Economist, Office of International 

Trade, Department of Commerce 
Ben D. Dorfman, Chief Economist and Chief of Economics 

Division, Tariff Commission 
Dana Dnrand, T'nited States Tariff Commissioner 
Allen H. Garland, Britisli Commonwealth Division, Office 

of International Trade, Department of State 
Betti C. Goldwasser, Office of International Labor Affairs, 

D I'partnient of Labor 
Frank Gonet, Principal Commodity Specialist, Tariff 

Connuission 
Mrs. Di>ane M. Giady, Economist, Office of International 

Trade, Department of Commerce 
William F. Gray, Office of Northwest Coast Affairs, De- 
partment of State 
Hubert Havlik, Deputy Director, Finance and Trade Di- 
vision, Office of the Special Representative, ECA, 

Paris 
Celia F. Herman, Economist, Office of International Trade, 

Department of Commerce 
Kuowlton V. Hicks, Foreign Service officer, American 

Legation, Vienna 
Mrs. Amelia H. Hood, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, 

Department of State 
W. R. Johnson, Assistant to the Commissioner of Customs, 

Department of the Treasury 
Willard L. Kane, Principal Commodity Specialist, Tariff 

Commission 
John H. Kcan, Economist, Office of International Trade, 

Department of Commerce 
Anthony B. Kenkel, Principal Economist, Tariff Com- 
mission 
John M. Kennedy, Office of Western European Affairs, 

Department of State 
Karl H. Koranyi, Economist, Office of International Trade, 

Department of Commerce 
Hyman Leikind, Senior Commodity Specialist, Tariff 

Commission 
James H. Lewis, Office of British Commonwealth and 

Northern European Affairs, Department of State 
Francis Lincoln, Office of Greek, Turkish and Iranian 

Affairs, Department of State 
AUyn C. Loosley, Principal Economist, Tariff Commission 
David Lynch, Principal Economist, Tariff Commission 
Harold P. Macgowan, Adviser on trade-agreements policy. 

Department of Commerce 
Elizabeth McGrory, Office of Middle American Affairs, 

Department of State 
Carlisle C. Mclvor, Foreign Service staff officer, Ecotiomic 

Cooperation Administration 
Stanley Mehr, Agricultural Economist, Department of 

Agriculture 
Kathleen Molesworth, Foreign Service officer, American 

Embassy, London 
John Montgomery, Office of Western European Affairs, 

Department of State 
William H. Myer, Chief, Metahvorking Machinery Section, 
Office of International Trade, Department of Com- 
merce 
Percy K. Norris, Agricultural Economist, Department of 

Agriculture 
Waltei- W. Ostrow, Office of International Finance, De- 
partment of the Treasury 
Went worth W. Peirce, Senior Economist, Tariff Commis- 
sion 
Vernon L. Phelps, Assistant Chief, Commercial Policy 

Staff, Department of State 
Anthony J. Poirier, Consultant on tariffs and trade agree- 
ments. Department of Commerce 
Daniel J. Keagan, Foreign Service officer, Paris, France 
George C. Reeves, Associate Economist, Tariff Commis 

si on 
Dexter V. Rivenburgh, Price Support and Farm Supply 
Branch, Production and Marketing Administration, 
Department of Agriculture 



George L. Robbins, Agricultural Economic Statistician, 
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Department of 
Agriculture 

Richard H. Roberts, Chief, Programs Analysis Division, 
Production and Marketing Administration, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture 

Robert B. Schwenger, Chief, Regional Investigations 
Branch, Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, De- 
partment of Agriculture 

John F. Shaw, Office of Philippine and Southeast Asian 
^yfairs. Department of State 

Mrs. Louise Sissman, Office of South Asian Affairs, De- 
partment of State 

Enoch W. Skartvedt, International Trade Economist, 
Office of International Trade, Department of Com- 
merce 

Constant Southworth, Office of British Commonwealth 
and Northern European Affairs, Department of State 

Don Stoops, Assistant to the Administrator, Production 
and Marketing Administration, Department of 
Agriculture 

Mrs. Musedorah Thoreson, Office of British Common- 
wealth and Northern European Affairs, Department 
of state 

Carl J. Whelan, Principal Economist, Tariff Commission 

C. Thayer White, Office of Northeast Asian Affairs, De- 
partment of State 

Thomas Wilson, Director of Areas Division, Office of In- 
ternational Trade, Department of Commerce 

Earlc M. Winslow, Principal Economist, Tariff Commis- 
sion 

Earnest Wolff, Senior Economist, Tariff Commission 

Henrv D. Wyner, Bureau of German Affairs, Department 
of State 

Secretariat 
Executive Secretary 

Frederick D. Hunt, Foreign Service officer. Division of 
International Conferences, Department of State 

Technical Secretary 

Mrs. Margaret H. Potter, Commercial Policy Staff, Depart- 
ment of State 



Woo! Study Group 

The Department of State announced on Sep- 
tember 20 that the fourth annual meeting of the 
International Wool Study Group will convene at 
London on October 2 with the following United 
States delegation in attendance : 

Chairman 

Julius C. Holmes, Minister, American Embassy, London 

V ice-Chairman 

Willis C. Armstrong, Associate Chief, Economic Resources 
and Seairity Staff, Department of State 

Advisers 

Floyd E. Davis, Head, Wool and Livestock Division, Office 
of Foreign Agricultural Relations, Department of 
Agriculture 

Norris S. Haselton, Acting Officer in charge, Economic 
Affairs, Office of British Commonwealth and North- 
ern European Affairs, Department of State 

Stephen J. Kennedy, Research Director of textile, clothing 
and footwear. Research and Development Branch, 
Office of the Quartermaster General, Department of 
the Army 



October 2, 1950 



555 



Rene Lutz, Industry Operations Bureau, Department of 
Commerce 

Paul O. Nyhus, Agricultural Attach^, American Embassy, 
London 

Richard H. Roberts, Chief, Program Analysis Division, 
Livestock Branch, Production and Marketing Admin- 
istration, Department of Agriculture 

Industry Advisers 

Harold A. Bishop, Boston Wool Trade Association, Boston 
Glen Brown, National Association of Wool Manufacturers, 

New York. 
C. J. Fawcett, General Manager, National Wool Marketing 

Corporation, Boston 

Adviser and Secretary 

Stanley Nehmer, Economic Resources and Security Staff, 
Department of State 

The Wool Study Group was created jDursuant 
to a resolution adopted at the international wool 
talks at London in November 1946 and is composed 
of those countries which are substantially inter- 
ested in the production, consumption, or trade in 
wool. The f orthcominfi meeting will be of special 
significance because of the nature of the world 
wool situation. It is expected that the meeting 
will review in detail the current wool problem 
arising from reduced supply and increased de- 
mand and will consider ways to meet the problems 
of consumers and producers. 

Pan American Sanitary Organization 

The Department of State announced on Sep- 
tember 22 that the President has appointed the 
following persons to represent the United States 
on the Directing Council and Executive Commit- 
tee of the Pan American Sanitary Organization : 

Directing Council 

United States Representative 

Leonard A. Scheele, M. D., surgeon general, Pijblic Health 
Service, Federal Security Agency 

Alternate United States Representatives 

H. van Zile Hyde, M. D., director. Division Health and 
Sanitation, Institute of Inter-American Affairs 

Howard B. Calderwood, OflBce of United Nations Eco- 
nomic and Social Affairs, Department of State 

Executive Committee 

United States Representative 

H. van Zile Hyde, M. D., director. Division Health and 
Sanitation, Institute of Inter-American Affairs 

Alternate United States Representatives 

Frederick J. Brady, M. D., assistant chief. International 
Organization Branch, Division of International 
Health, Public Health Service, Federal Security 
Agency 

Howard B. Calderwood, Office of United Nations Eco- 
nomic and Social Affairs, Department of State 

The United States representative on the Ex- 
ecutive Committee, Dr. H. van Zile Hyde, was ap- 
pointed to that post by the President on April 17, 
1950. 



The Pan American Sanitary Organization 
(Paso), organized in 1902 as the Pan American 
Sanitary Bureau, has as its purpose the coordina- 
tion of the public health efforts of the coimtries 
of the Western Hemisphere. Through the present 
Pan American Sanitai-y Bureau, which serves as 
the secretariat of the Organization and also acts 
as the regional oiRce of the World Health Organi- 
zation in the Americas, advisory services are pro- 
vided and programs for the control of tuberculosis, 
venereal disease, malaria, etc., are developed to 
assist in raising the level of health, and thereby 
to contribute to the improvement of the economic 
and social well-being, of the people of the Amer- 
icas. All 21 American Eepublics are members of 
the Organization. 

The Executive Committee, one of the compo- 
nents of the Organization, is composed of repre- 
sentatives of seven elected member states and 
meets twice a year, once at headquarters at Wash- 
ington, D.C.J and once in conjunction with the 
annual meeting of the Directing Council. The 
Executive Committee advises on the activities to 
be undertaken by the Organization. 

The Directing Council serves as the Regional 
Committee of the World Health Organization in 
the Americas and acts on behalf of the Pan Amer- 
ican Sanitary Conference between its meetings. 
Each member state of the Organization has one 
representative on the Council which meets 
annually. 

The Pan American Sanitary Conference, which 
is the governing body of the Organization, meets 
every 4 years. In addition to the 21 member coun- 
tries, it is anticipated that France, the Nether- 
lands, and the United Kingdom and their de- 
pendent territories will be represented at the forth- 
coming Thirteenth Conference. 

The United States delegations to current meet- 
ings of the Pan American Sanitary Organization 
at Ciudad Trujillo, Dominican Republic, are as 
follows : , 



ELEVENTH AND TWELFTH MEETINGS OF 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE— SEPTEMBER 20-23 AND OCTOBER 11 

United States Representative 

H. van Zile Hyde, M.D. 

Alternate United States Representative 

Frederick J. Brady, M.D. 

Adviser 

James F. Anderson, Division of International Administra- 
tion, Department of State 

FOURTH SESSION OF DIRECTING COUNCIL— SEPTEMBER 25-30 

United States Representative 
Leonard A. Selieele, M.D. 
Alternate United States Representative 
H. van Zile Hyde, M.D. 



556 



Department of State Bulletin 



Advisers 

James F. Anderson (Secretary of the Delegation) 
William Belton, First Secretary, United States Embassy, 

Ciudad Tnijillo 
Frederick J. Brady, M.I>. 
John S. Moorhead, M.D., Commissioner of Health, Virgin 

Islands, Department of Health, Charlotte Amalie, 

Virgin Islands 
Juan A. Pons, M.D., Commissioner of Health, San Juan, 

Puerto Rico 



THIRTEENTH PAN AMERICAN SANITARY CONFERENCE- 
OCTOBER 2-10 

Chairnwn 

Leonard A. Scheele, M.D. 

Delegate 

H. van Zile Hyde, JM.D. 

Alternate Delegate 

Frederick J. Brady, M.D. 

Adiusers 

James F. Anderson 
William Belton 

Kenneth R. Iverson, President, Institute of Inter-Ameri- 
can Affairs 
John S. Moorhead, M.D. 
Juan A. Pons, M.D. 

These sessions of the Pan American Sanitary- 
Organization will approve the program and 
budget for the calendar year 1951, will select the 
permanent site of the Pan American Sanitary 
Bureau and will elect a director of the Bureau. 



THE CONGRESS 



Legislation 

Effects of Foreign Oil Imports on Independent Domestic 
Producers : Hearings before the Select Committee on 
Small Business, House of Representatives, 81st Cong., 1st 
sess., pursuant to H. Res. 22, a resolution creating a 
select committee to conduct a study and investigation of 
the problems of small business; Part 1, Dallas, Tex. — May 
25 and 26, 1949, Washington, D. C— June 9 and 15, 1949, 
New York, N. Y.— July 14, 1949, Witchita, Kans.— August 
IT, 1949. vi, 332 pp. 

— Part 2, New York, N. Y. — November 15, and 16, 
1949, Washington, D. C— November 30, 1949. iv, pp. 333- 
560. 

To Seek Development of the United Nations into a World 
Federation : Hearings before the Committee on Foreign 
Affairs, House of Representatives, 81st Cong., 1st sess., 
on H. Con. Res. 64 (and related pending resolutions), 
a concurrent resolution to seek development of the United 
Nations into a world federation. October 12 and 13, 1949. 
vii, 292 pp. 

Study of Monopoly Power: Hearings before the sub- 
committee on study of monopoly power of the Committee 
on the Judiciarv, House of Representatives, 81st Cong., 
2d sess., on H. R. 6679 (H. R. 7827), a bill to increase 
criminal penalties under the Sherman and Clayton anti- 



trust acts, February 1 and 15, 1950, including also Hear- 
ings on H. R. 6987 — a bill to provide that the Attorney 
General shall make periodic reports to the Congress with 
respect to consen tdecrees and pleas of nolo contendere 
in certain antitrust proceedings, and for other purposes, 
February 8, 1950, and H. E. 5041— a bill to amend the act 
entitled "an act to promote export trade, and for other 
purposes," approved April 10, 1918, to provide that no 
export trade association shall restrict any foreign buyer 
from dealing directly, or through an agent of his own 
selection, witli any producer, manufacturer, or seller and 
Committee Print No. 1 — a proposed bill to amend the act 
entitled "an act to promote export trade, and for other 
purposes," approved April 10, 1918, February 23, 24, and 
March 1, 1950 ; Serial 14, Part 3. vi, 230 pp. [Department 
of State, pp. 147-154.] 

Revising Title IS, United States Code, entitled "Crimes 
and Criminal Procedure." S. Rept. 1652, 81st Cong., 2d 
sess. [To accompany H. R. 6480.] 3 pp. 

Certain Cases in Which the Attorney General Had 
Suspended Deportation. S. Rept. 10G2, 81st Cong., 2d 
sess. [To accompany S. Con. Res. 90] 2 pp. 

Abacd Production Act of 1950. S. Rept. 1678, 81st Cong., 
2d sess. [To accompany S. 3520] 3 pp. 

Amending the Tariff Act of 1030 to Provide for Exemp- 
tion From Duty of Certain Sound Recordings Imported 
by the Department of State and for Other Purposes. S. 
Rept. 1742, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany S. 3545] 
2 pp. 

Certain Cases in Which the Attorney General Had 
Suspended Deportation. S. Rept. 1663, 81st Cong., 2d 
sess. [To accompany S. Con. Res. 91] 2 pp. 

Amending the Act of August 9, 1939, to Redefine the 
Term "Contraband Article" With Respect to Narcotic 
Drugs. S. Rept. 1755, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accom- 
pany S. 3380] 3 pp. 

Reorganization Plans of 1950. S. Rept. 1774, 81st Cong., 
2d sess. 24 pp. 

Extending Authority of the Secretary of Commerce 
Under Ship Sales Act of 1946. S. Rept. 1783, 81st Cong., 
2d sess. [To accompany S. 3571] 8 pp. 

Providing for the Common Defense Through the Regis- 
tration and Classification of Certain Male Persons, and 
for Other Purposes. S. Rept. 1784, 81st Cong., 2d sess. 
[To accompany H. R. 6826] 12 pp. 

Extending the Rubber Act of 1948 (Public Law 469, 80th 
Cong.). S. Rept. 1786, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accom- 
pany H. R. 7579] 7 pp. ; Part 2, 4 pp. 

Certain Cases in Which the Attorney General Had 
Suspended Deportation. S. Rept. 1826, 81st Cong., 2d 
sess. [To accompany S. Con. Res. 95] 2 pp. 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Act. S. Rept. 1830, 81st 
Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany S. 2801] 8 pp. 

Permitting Canadian Vessels to Transport Merchandise 
and Passengers Between Alaskan Ports and Continental 
United States for a Temporary Period. S. Rept. 1842, 
81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany S. 3771] 4 pp. 

Merchant Marine Study and Investigation. Hearings 
before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate 
and Foreign Commerce. S. Res. 50. A resolution au- 
thorizing the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Com- 
merce to investigate problems relating to the United 
States Merchant Marine and on S. 2786 — a bill to amend 
the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended, to further 
promote the development and maintenance of the Amer- 
ican Merchant Marine, and for other purposes. Part 2 — 
February 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 23 and 24, 1950. (De- 
partment of State, p. 119.) 81st Cong., 2d sess. 517 pp. 

Contributions to CARE. Hearing before a Subcommit- 
tee of the Committee on Armed Services. S. 249(3 — A bill 
to authorize contributions to Cooperative for American 
Remittances to Europe, Inc. 81st Cong., 2d sess. 33 pp. 

To Amend the Philippine Rehabilitation Act of 1946. 
Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, H. R. 
S. 1033 and H. R. 7600— Bills to further amend the Philip- 
pine Rehabilitation Act of 1946, Oct. 3, 1949, and Feb. 14 
and Apr. 24, 1950. (Department of State, p. 93.) 81st 
Cong., 1st and 2d sess. 218 pp. 



October 2, 1950 



557 



The United States in the United Nations 



[September 23-29, 1950] 

General Assembly 

The General Assembly, in the second week of 
its fifth session, concluded a general debate, after 
hearing statements by the delegates of 27 addi- 
tional countries and the Secretary-General. Ex- 
pressing agreement with the proposals made by 
Secretary Acheson to strengthen the United Na- 
tions, Ambassador Hernan Santa Cruz (Chile) 
advocated the conclusion of a "solemn pact" in 
which member nations would commit themselves 
to harmonize their efforts and resources: (1) to 
carry out United Nations decisions directed to- 
ward repelling direct or indirect aggression and 
General Assembly recommendations concerning 
peace and security, (2) to ensure economic stabil- 
ity and promote the economic development of 
backward areas, and (3) to compel respect for 
the fundamental rights and freedoms mentioned 
in the Charter and in the Declaration on Human 
Rights. 

The Yugoslav Foreign Minister, Edvard Kar- 
delj, proposed the establishment of a "permanent 
international commission of good offices," com- 
posed of the six nonpermanent members of the 
Security Council and of six other states (exclud- 
ing the five permanent members of the Council) 
to be elected by the General Assembly for the 
purpose of facilitating conversations and negotia- 
tions for the peaceful settlement of international 
disputes. Pointing out that the difficulty at times 
to differentiate between aggression and self-de- 
fense, the Yugoslav delegate also introduced a 
resolution whereby any state, launching military 
operations, would be obliged to state publicly 
within 24 hours readiness to cease fire and to with- 
draw forces from foreign territory and to act 
accordingly if the other party made a similar state- 
ment. Any state failing to honor this obligation 
would be held responsible for breach of the peace. 
The British Foreign Minister, Ernest Bevin, ex- 

Sressed his belief that the Security Council, in the 
ecisions on Korea, had correctly interpreted the 
silent feeling of millions of people and had sur- 
prised the aggressors who had counted on pre- 
senting the world with a fait accompli. Mr. 
Bevin added that the United Nations must be 
prepared to face any emergency, and he declared 
that the United Kingdom was in full agreement 
with the objectives of Secretary Acheson's plan 
to strengthen the United Nations against aggres- 
sion. Strong support for the United States pro- 



posal was expressed by the delegates of Turkey, 
Canada, Norway, the Philippines, Uruguay, Bo- 
livia, Colombia, and Cuba. 

On September 26, the Assembly approved, with 
slight modifications, the General Committee's re- 
port on the agenda, which now includes 70 items 
and on the allocation of these items to commit- 
tee. Soviet efforts to eliminate the following items 
were decisively defeated on threats to the political 
independence and territorial integrity of Greece: 
the Chinese charges against the U.S.S.R. ; alleged 
violations of human rights in Bulgaria, Hungary, 
and Rumania; radio jamming; and the failure of 
the U.S.S.R. to repatriate prisoners of war. The 
General Committee's report also recommended that 
October 4 be set as the deadline for the introduc- 
tion of new agenda items and that November 30 
be adopted as the target date for the closing of 
the present session. 

In addition to its six regular committees, the 
Assembly will again have an Ad Hoc Political 
Committee and a Joint Second and Third Com- 
mittee in the economic antl social field. Under the 
chairmanship of Dr. G. J. van Heuven Goedhart 
(Netherlands), Committee III (Social) on Sep- 
tember 27 elected A. S. Bokhari (Pakistan), Vice- 
Chairman and Dr. Raul Noriega (Mexico), Rap- 
porteur. The Committee also decided unani- 
mously to consider the first three items on the 
agenda in the following order : advisory social wel- 
fare services, long-range activities for children, 
and the report of the Economic and Social Coun- 
sel. The following day the Committee termed its 
social welfare services one of the United Nations 
most constructive activities ; Mrs. Edith S. Samp- 
son (United States), strongly supported their ex- 
pansion. She urged that some of the service's 
funds be used in Korea and suggested that addi- 
tional resources might be obtained from the receiv- 
ing governments and from the special technical 
assistance account. 

Committee VI (Legal) also held its first meet- 
ing on September 27, under the chairmanship of 
Ambassador Outrata (Czechoslovakia) and elected 
Dr. Jacob Robinson (Israel), Vice-Chairman and 
Adnan Kural (Turkey), Rapporteur. The same 
day the Committee completed two of the agenda 
items, regarding voting in the Assembly and rep- 
arations for injuries incurred in the service of the 
United Nations. The Committee then decided to 
take up the question of a permanent invitation to 
the Arab League to be represented at sessions of 
the General Assembly by an observer. 



558 



Department of State Bulletin 



Security Council 

For the first time since June 25, the attention 
of the Security Council was focussed during tlie 
past week on items other than the "Comphxint of 
of aggression upon the Republic of Korea." On 
September 26, after acting favorably on a resolu- 
tion to recommend the Republic of Indonesia for 
membei-ship in the United Nations, the Security 
Council began an involved and heated debate on 
the Soviet-proposed item, "Complaint of armed 
invasion of Taiwan (Formosa)" — in particular, 
on the question of extending an invitation to 
representatives of the "People's Republic of 
China" to participate in Security Council dis- 
cussions on that matter. 

The debate on the Formosa item began with a 
discussion of the desirability and legality of con- 
current consideration of this question in both the 
Security Council and the General Assembly. Am- 
bassador Tsiang (China) argued that, since the 
General Assembly had already voted to consider 
the item, simultaneous discussion in the Security 
Council was forbidden. He, therefore, moved 
that the Security Council cease examination of 
the Formosa item during consideration by the 
Assembly. A Soviet draft resolution to invite a 
Chinese Communist representative to attend 
Council meetings concerned with the Formosa 
question was also before the Council, which Soviet 
representative insisted should be considered be- 
fore the Chinese proposal. 

At the meeting the following day, the Council, 
after adopting a second agenda item, "Complaint 
of aggression upon the Republic of Korea," re- 
sumed debate on the question of inviting a repre- 
sentative of the Peiping regime. At this time, the 
Ecuadoran representative submitted a draft 
amendment to the Chinese proposal, setting De- 
cember 1 (later changed to November 15 at Presi- 
dent Jebb's suggestion) for resumption of the 
Council's discussion of the Formosa item, at which 
time a representative of the "People's Republic of 
China" would be invited to be present. 

At the September 28 meeting, after considerable 
procedural debate over the order of voting, the 
Security Council rejected the three draft resolu- 
tions concerning the Formosa question. The 
Chinese move to defer Security Council considera- 
tion until the Assembly completed its examination 
was defeated by a vote of 2 (Cuba, China) -6-3 
(United States, Ecuador, France). The Soviet 
proposal to invite a representative of the "Peo- 
ple's Republic of China" to participate without 
delay in Council discussion of the question was 
voted down 6-3 (United States, China, Cuba) -2 
(Ecuador, Egypt) . The operative paragraphs of 
the Ecuadoran draft to defer Council debate until 
November 15, at which time Chinese Communists 
would be allowed to participate, were defeated 
6-4 (United States, Cuba, China, Egypt) -1 
(Yugoslavia). 



Following the last vote, the Yugoslav repre- 
sentative sought to chauTO his abstention, based 
on liis dislike of a 6-weeRs' deferment, to an af- 
firmative position. Although this request was 
strongly objected to as a precedent-making move 
by the Egyptian delegate, and though the Chinese 
representative continued to insist that in any case 
he had a right to veto. President Jebb maintained 
the matter was procedural and pointed out that 
any delegate could reintroduce the operative para- 
graphs of the Ecuadoran proposal at the next 
meeting, September 29. The meeting then 
adjourned. 

Indonesia Becomes Member 

On September 25, Indonesia's application for 
membership in the United Nations was filed by 
Dr. L. N. Palar, Indonesian observer at Lake 
Success, with the request that for consideration 
by the Security Council and the General Assembly 
as soon as possible. The next day, the Security 
Council, by ten affirmative votes and one absten- 
tion (China), recommended that the Republic 
of Indonesia be admitted to the United Nations. 

On September 28, Indonesia became the Six- 
tieth member of the United Nations by a unani- 
mous decision of the General Assembly. In his 
first speech as Indonesian delegate to the United 
Nations, Dr. Palar thanked the General Assembly 
for its action and stated that his Government owed 
a considerable debt to the United Nations for aid 
in the negotiations with the Netherlands Govern- 
ment. 

Earlier, Ambassador Gross had said that the 
United States w\as ready to discuss the Soviet alle- 
gations on Formosa in either the Security Council 
or the General Assembly or in both bodies, al- 
though he thought the placing of these charges 
before the Assembly had complicated matters. 
The United States opposed deferment and was 
also opposed to an invitation to a Chinese Com- 
munist representative at this stage, not because 
the United States sought to deny a complainant 
an appropriate hearing, but because prior ascer- 
tainment of the facts was necessary; otherwise 
the Security Council might be subverted into 
a forum for propaganda purposes. Mr. Gross 
suggested that one method of dealing with 
such a complaint, as that concerning Formosa, 
was to form a Security Council committee 
which could effectively evaluate the charges ac- 
cording to the facts alone. After the facts were 
secured, he continued, an invitation could be dis- 
cussed; this would be consistent with principles 
of due process and would be following proper 
procedure. In addition, Ambassador Gross made 
clear his understanding that the question of an 
invitation to the Chinese Communists was a pro- 
cedural one and that, therefore, his negative vote 
on this matter did not constitute a veto. 



October 2, 1950 



559 



'wyivCeo'vl^ 



General Policy p^^^ 

The Peace the World Wants. Address by 

Secretary Acheson 523 

U.S., French, and U.K. Foreign Ministers 
Conclude Meetings: 
Final Communique on Conclusions 

Reached 530 

Communique on Western Germany . . . 530 

NAC-U.S. Proposals Designed To Strengthen 
World Freedom: 
Integrated Army in Europe To Deter 
Aggressive Intent. Statement by Philip 

C. Jessup 532 

Authorization for General Assembly To 
Use Adequate Peace Patrol. Statement 
by John Foster Dulles 533 

Creation of Common Military Forces Studied 
by North Atlantic Council NAC Com- 
munique of September 18 533 

Report of the United Nations Command 
Operations in Korea — For the Period 
of August 16-31, 1950 534 

Letters of Credence: The Netherlands . . . 548 

U.S. Returns Battle Flags Captured From 

Mexico 549 

United Nations and 
Specialized Agencies 

Report of the United Nations Command 
Operations in Korea — For the Period of 
August 16-31, 1960 534 

U.N. Commission on Korea Reports to the 

General Assembly 540 

U.N. Documents: A Selected Bibliography . 543 

Preserving International Peace and Security 
Through General Assembly Action. By 
John D. Hickerson 544 

Problems of Economic Development and 
Social Progress of the Former Italian 
Colonies 551 

The United States in the United Nations . . 558 

Treaty Information 

Resupply Mission to U.S. -Canadian Arctic 

Weather Stations 550 



Treaty Information — Continued p^^ 

Treaty of Friendship,. Commerce and Navi- 
gation With Ireland Ratified .... 550 
Certain Tariff Concessions Negotiated With 

China Terminated 551 

International Information and 
Cultural Affairs 

East German Defiance of U.S.S.R. Revealed 

at Berlin Shows 547 

U.S. Cartoonists Counteracting Rvissian 

Propaganda 547 

U.S. Presents Book Collection to People of 

Argentina 548 

Explosion Destroys VOA Tower at Ohio 

Transmitting Plant 548 

Ceremonies Honor Jose Artigas 548 

Foreign Nationals Visiting U.S 549 

Americans Visiting Abroad 549 

Occupation Matters 

U.S., French, and U.K. Foreign Ministers- 
Conclude Meetings: 
Final Communique on Conclusions 

Reached 530 

Communique on Western Germany . . . 530 

National Security 

Creation of Common Military Forces Studied 

by North Atlantic Council 533 

International Organizations 
and Conferences 

U.S. Delegations: 

General Assembly (Fifth Session) .... 552 

Tariff Negotiations Under GATT .... 553 

Wool Study Group 555 

Pan American Sanitary Organization . . . 556 

The Congress 

Legislation 557 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 19B0 



tJrie/ z!/)eh€(/yi'men{/ /(w C/tai0 




REVIEWING AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY SINCE 

1945 • Statement by Senator Tom Connolly 563 

INTEGRATED FORCE 'UNDER CENTRALIZED 
COMMAND TO DEFEND WESTERN EUROPE- 
COMMUNIQUE OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC 
COUNCIL 588 

LET FREEDOM RING • By Ambassador Philip C. Jessup . 583 

PEACE AND SECURITY FOR THE FUTURE OF 

KOREA • By Ambassador Warren R. Austin 579 



JPbr complete contents see back cover 




Vol, XXIII, No. 588 
October 9, 1950 



^©NT o*. 




*''*'?^°*« 




^a,w^.^r.. bulletin 



Vol. XXIII, No, 588 • Publication 3981 
October 9, 1950 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

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Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (July 29, 1949). 

iVote; Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
0» State Btn,LKTiN as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
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of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



Reviewing American Foreign Policy Since 1945 



Statement by Senator Tom Connally 

Chairman of the Senate Co-mmittee on Foreign Relations ^ 



CURRENT PROBLEMS IN FOREIGN POLICY 

Mr. President, before the Senate begins its re- 
cess I should like to take a few minutes to review 
the foreign policy of the United States. I feel 
compelled to do so because of the confusion that 
has arisen due to a number of developments in this 
field since the beginning of the Eighty-first Con- 
gress. Notable among these are the host of un- 
justified criticisms of our Far-Eastei"n policy and 
various unwise efforts at injecting partisan politics 
into the conduct of our foreign relations. 

Mr. President, it is always tempting in such a 
situation to strike back at the critics and to dem- 
onstrate — as would be so easy in this case — how 
unwise they are, particularly those who would 
serve their own selfish ends at the expense of their 
country. But I propose to resist that temptation 
and to address my remarks to the people of the 
United States who are anxious to know the facts 
about the foreign policy of our country at this 
critical juncture in our history. 

At the outset, I am sure, I need scarcely re- 
mind anyone in this body, and, indeed, in the coun- 
try as a whole, of the world significance of our ac- 
tions abroad. Our foreign policy is of the deepest 
moment both to the citizens of the United States 
and to the people of the entire world. It is in this 
sj^irit that I wish to set the record straight. 

Mr. President, ever since the last great conflict 
our policy has been based on the assumption that 
war with the Soviet Union can be avoided. War is 
not inevitable. We may be in for a long period of 
Communist subversion, intrigue, sabotage, and, in 
peripheral areas like Korea, even armed aggres- 
sion. But if we pursue the course we are now em- 
barked upon with determination and vigor, we 
may be able to convince the Kremlin that open 
hostilities with the West would be a tragic 
mistake. 



' Presented to the Senate on Sept. 22 and reprinted 
from Congressional Record of the same date, p. 15,761. 

Ocfofaer 9, J 950 



So long as there is a good chance for us to avoid 
war in this manner those who argue that we should 
launch a preventive war against the Soviet Union 
are doing a real disservice to their country and to 
the cause of world jieace. Such an argument not 
only plays squarely into the hands of Communist 
propagandists; it tends to bring on the very thing 
we are desperately trying to prevent. 

If there is anything upon which the American 
people are agreed it is that the gi'eatest threat to 
world convalescence and peace is the political and 
social cancer of international communism. We 
know that this organism of evil is attacking the 
international body at many vital points. It has 
fastened on weakened members and remains a con- 
stant threat even to the healthy tissue. Our action 
against Communist imperialism will continue in 
its course of restoring and rebuilding democrati- 
cally minded nations so that they will have the 
strength and the will to resist aggression and de- 
fend their liberty. The keystone of this policy of 
containment has been described as the develop- 
ment of situations of strength. We know that 
Soviet policy and Soviet action are closely attuned 
to the facts of any given circumstance. Our plans 
call for taking a firm hand in connection with cer- 
tain key situations so that the masters of the Com- 
munist campaign will abandon their drive for 
world dominion and adopt a more reasonable live- 
and-let-live approach. 

The recent conversations which Secretary Ache- 
son had with our North Atlantic neighbors deal 
with several such situations and the current meet- 
ing of the United Nations Assembly will take 
up others. Let me review briefly some of these 
problems. 

Security in Western Europe 

Immediately under discussion is the focal point 
of our whole policy — the security of western 
Europe. Despite the war in Korea and the ten- 



563 



sion throughout the Far East — let us never forget 
it — Europe is still the pivotal point. Continued 
weakness in western Europe will free the Soviet 
Union for aggressive action everywhere. A 
strong Europe is a barrier, not only to Soviet 
ambitions in the West but to the Kremlin's free- 
dom of action in the Middle East and in the Far 
East as well. It is this fundamental fact which 
was behind the recent Presidential announcement 
of assigning additional units of ground troops to 
western Europe. I heartily agree with the Presi- 
dent's insistence that this increase in American 
forces there must be accompanied by similar 
efforts on the ]>art of the nations of western 
Europe. I admit that their contributions to the 
defense of the North Atlantic area has entailed 
some sacrifices. But it is imperative that far more 
be done. Every one of the signatories to the 
North Atlantic Pact must contribute its fair share 
if western Europe is to be made secure. France 
has indicated a willingness to raise 15 divisions. 
When, and only when, the men to fill the ranks are 
recruited, France will have demonstrated her de- 
termination to do her part. As for Britain, their 
budgetary provision for an increased land army is 
a beginning but only a beginning. I do not men- 
tion these two nations to single them out but 
merely to indicate that nothing less than a maxi- 
mum effort will create the necessary force. There 
is no easy way to do this job. We are all going to 
have to take in our belts several notches before we 
can reach that stage of preparedness where we can 
feel safe from Communist aggression. 

The North Atlantic Council has already agreed 
that the defense forces of western Europe will be 
organized on a balanced and collective pattern. 
This is a sound and common-sense decision. 
There is no practical alternative. Nevertheless, 
bitter experience has demonstrated that forces 
tmder national command — however well-bal- 
anced — lack the unity and the cohesion essential 
for maximum effectiveness in combat. We must 
now press on to the next step — the establishment 
of an integrated military force of a power sufficient 
to safeguard freedom in western Europe. This 
force should be under a supreme commander, 
assisted by a combined staff and with full au- 
thority to exercise command. 

It is in the context of a European army that we 
ought to consider one particular important prob- 
lem that has concerned us all — the role of Germany 
in the defense of western Europe. 

THE ROLE OF GERMANY 

I am convinced that it is time for us to put an 
end to a contradiction in fact which has existed 
since the formation of the North Atlantic Council. 
We talk in terms of the defense of western Europe. 
But even an armchair strategist can see that the 
defense of western Europe involves the defense of 
western Germany. Any other concept is unthink- 



able. If we were to fix our defenses on the Rhine, 
we would automatically accord to the Soviet the 
manpower of western Germany, that vast reseiwoir 
of technical skills and the great industrial centers 
of the Ruhr and the Saar. In effect, we would be 
turning over to the Soviet on a silver platter pre- 
cisely those elements which they need the most. 

The recent decision to ask Congress to terminate 
the state of war with West Germany is an essen- 
tial step in making Germany an integral part of 
the western European community. Likewise, the 
decision to permit an increase in the German police 
force will place western Germany in a far better 
position to deal with Communist disorders and 
sabotage. But we must go further than that. We 
must acknowledge the right and indeed the duty 
of the Germans to contribute not only to their own 
defense but to the defense of western Europe as 
well. It is time that provision is made for the 
inclusion of German units in the integrated Euro- 
pean army toward which we are working. 

Now I understand fully and sympathize thor- 
oughly with the natural reaction of the French 
people to anything that looks like German rearma- 
ment. The sound of Nazi hobnails goosestepping 
down the boulevards of Paris is too fresh in their 
memory for them to have any other reaction. But 
they must be convinced that what is sought does 
not involve the creation of a German army. What 
is sought is the creation of a European army. 
What is sought is the use of German troop units 
in an integrated European force under a supreme 
allied commander. With this sort of arrange- 
ment French people will have an iron-clad guar- 
anty tliat a German army, under a German general 
staff, will never again menace France's eastern 
borders. 

The principle of European integration, which 
is basically sound, should also be extended to the 
production of military equipment. Western Eu- 
rope is a great workshop second only to America. 
Collectively, it has an imposing industrial poten- 
tial. This productive capacity should be organ- 
ized so that each nation concentrates on the 
weapons and equipment which it is best equipped 
to produce. 

With these points past the agreement stage and 
in the action phase, I think that we would be well 
along toward the creation of the situation of 
strength in western Europe which conditions there 
demand. With the Soviet force of over 100 divi- 
sions just behind the iron curtain, the existence 
of the present military vacuum in the West creates 
a situation so hazardous as to demand the most 
strenuous efforts of which we all are capable. 

The Far East 

In the Far East, it is my conviction that we 
should press forward without delay with the con- 
clusion of a treaty of peace with Japan. As Gen- 
eral MacArthur has so correctly pointed out, a 



564 



Deparlmenf of State Bulletin 



military occupation drops sharply in effectiveness 
after 5 years. Our forces are just completing 
their fifth year in the home islands. As time goes 
on, their continued presence will be less and less 
of an asset and more and more of a liability. A 
just treaty of peace, which takes into account the 
militai-y requirements of the American position 
in the western Pacific and world peace, will free us 
of occupational burdens without weakening our 
defenses. Possibly some American military units 
should remain in Japan, not as an occupying force 
but to prevent the creation of a vacuum into which 
alien forces would almost certainly move. 

FORMOSA AND COMMUNIST CHINA 

With regard to the related problems presented 
by Formosa, Communist China, and Korea, we 
must continue a cool and level-headed approach 
which does not lose sight of both our immediate 
and long-range interests. Obviously, as long as 
the war in Korea continues, we must safeguard 
onr flank by neutralizing the island of Formosa. 
That is the reason the President has ordered the 
Seventh Fleet to stand by in Formosan waters. 
However, we must avoid like the plague any uni- 
lateral action on our part to solve the problem of 
what to do with Formosa once the victoi-y in Ko- 
lea has been won. By any terms, this is a United 
Nations problem and the sooner it is brought to 
the consideration of that organization the better. 
It would perhaps be well to grasp this issue by the 
forelock by moving for the immediate appoint- 
ment of a United Nations commission to study 
the matter. This move would reassure our many 
friends in the Far East and would establish be- 
yond contradiction that we have no designs on the 
island. All interested parties could present their 
views before such a commission. 

The great and overriding problem in dealing 
with Formosa, and with the Red regime in China, 
is that under no circumstances should we allow 
ourselves to be tricked into a shooting war on the 
Chinese mainland. While Formosa is important 
to our security, it is cei'tainly not that important. 
If by some maneuver the Soviets could involve us 
in land warfare with Mao Tse-tung, there would 
be rejoicing in the Kremlin. The burden imposed 
on our resources and our manpower would bleed 
us white and the Soviets could then pursue their 
diabolical plan to subjugate mankind without fear 
of effective opposition. 

Mr. President, many ball players and some poli- 
ticians spend far too much time looking at the 
grandstand. Let us keep our eyes on the ball. 
The real danger to the United States and to world 
peace is not Red China but Red Russia. 

AVhile we are determined to avoid war with Red 
China, we must continue to refuse to support those 
moves which come under the heading of appease- 
ment. We should continue to oppose the seating 
of Communist representatives in the United Na- 
tions. The replacement of the Nationalist delega- 



tion to the United Nations by the Communists 
would be a farce as long as they flout the principles 
of the United Nations Charter and disregard the 
long-established rules of international law. 

In connection with our desire to avoid war with 
the Chinese Communists, it is not unlikely that 
we will have the cooperation of the Chinese Red 
leaders themselves. Like their Kremlin proto- 
types, they are hard-boiled realists. We must give 
them credit for having common sense enough to 
realize that even a successful war against the 
United States would accomplish nothing so much 
as to fold them in the fatal embrace of the Russian 
bear. 

Mr. President, Mao Tse-tung knows full well 
the danger that confronts his country. He must 
know all about Russian ambitions in the Far East. 
He must know the master planners in the Kremlin 
would like to dismember his country. He must 
know it would be folly for China to yield to Com- 
munist pressures and go to war against the free 
countries which have always been fi-iends of the 
Chinese people. 

In China, as in other regions, we must tailor 
our policies to fit our purposes. We have made it 
clear and we must continue to make it clear that 
we have absolutely no territorial or aggressive 
designs on China or on any other country. We 
must avoid impulsive and foolish acts, such as the 
unilateral occupation of Formosa, which would 
gravely antagonize the Chinese people and cast 
dark clouds of suspicion over us throughout all 
Asia. 

It is true, Mr. President, that what happens in 
Asia is of vital interest to the United States and to 
all peace-loving nations. We must, however, em- 
brace the fundamental proposition that the prob- 
lems of that great area will have to be worked out 
by the people and the governments of Asia. We 
can do much to help, but we cannot take over. 

Moreover, we must never lose sight of our major 
objective in China — to restore the ties of friend- 
ship which have traditionally existed between us 
and the Chinese people. As a more immediate 
purpose, we should do what we can to prevent the 
450 million people of China from coming under 
the complete domination of Moscow. That has 
not happened yet, and it is vital that it should 
not happen. 

KOREA 

The spectacular progress of the United Nations 
army in Korea poses very sharply the question as 
to just what the United Nations should do when 
its victorious forces reach the 38th parallel. Let 
me emphasize that this is not a matter for the 
United States to decide. It is a decision which 
the United Nations itself must make. 

The General Assembly has twice resolved, by 
votes unanimous but for the Soviet bloc, that 
Korea should be united and independent. The 
responsibility for blocking these efforts rests 



October 9, 1950 



565 



squarely on the Soviet Union. In the face of this 
obstructionism, it might be helpful for the Gen- 
eral Assembly once more to reassure the world 
that the creation of a united and free Korea re- 
mains the purpose of the United Nations. Such 
a policy could imply no threat to Korea's neigh- 
bors or to the peace of Asia. On the other hand, 
without it there can be no assurance that the Com- 
munist leadership of North Korea will not plot 
another aggression against the Republic of Korea. 
While the United Nations has set up the goal 
of a united Korea, I do not think it is possible 
to detei-mine now just what our troops will do 
when they reach the 38th parallel. I repeat, that 
is for the United Nations to decide. And that 
decision cannot be made intelligently until we 
know how and under what circumstances United 
Nations forces reach the dividing line between 
North and South Korea. 

Strengthening the United Nations 

While I am speaking about the United Nations 
I would like to call attention to the very able ad- 
dress given by Secretary Acheson at the opening 
session of the General Assembly on Wednesday 
in New York. Many of his suggestions are of a 
constructive nature and, if adopted, woidd make 
the United Nations a more effective instnunent 
for world peace. In particular it would be very 
helpful if each member nation would designate 
certain armed forces which would be specially 
trained and held ready for prompt service on be- 
half of the United Nations. 

Because of Russia's flagrant abuse of the veto 
it is apparent that we shall have to place more 
and more emphasis on the General Assembly. For 
that reason the rules of the Assembly should be 
changed so as to permit it to act quickly and de- 
cisively in an emergency. The time required to 
convene the Assembly should be drastically cut, 
and a pennanent United Nations peace patrol, 
which could look into areas where intei-national 
conflict is brewing, should be created. These steps, 
together with the special United Nations forces 
which I have referred to above, would give to the 
Assembly some of the teeth which the Security 
Council now lacks. 

In addition to Secretary Acheson's pi'oposals, I 
think we ought to work vigorously toward imi- 
versality of membership within the United Na- 
tions structure. Many peace-loving nations — in- 
cluding Italy, Portugal, Ireland, Finland, 
Austria, Ceylon, Jordan, and the Republic of 
Korea — have been denied admission to the or- 
ganization by the Soviet veto. The United Na- 
tions needs their support and they should be ad- 
mitted without further delay. 

In our day-to-day consideration of these and 
other specific problems, we should keep in constant 
view those long-range objectives which underlie 
American foreign policy. This policy is dedicated 
to the achievement of peace and the erection of an 



international association of free peoples who work 
together in harmony for their mutual advantage. 
We seek a world in which justice, order, and 
progress prevail. 

To achieve these objectives, we have relied and 
we must continue to rely on a set of basic princi- 
ples which can best be described as principles for 
building total peace. 

Principles for Building Total Peace 

First. We must continue to give unfaltering sup- 
port to the United Nations and seek to strengthen 
it in every possible way. The United Nations 
must remain the cornerstone of American foreign 
policy. 

Second. The military strength of the free world 
must be increased to provide for the common de- 
fense and to enable the free nations to carry out 
their obligations to the United Nations and their 
commitments under such regional agreements as 
the North Atlantic and Rio Treaties. 

Third. We must continue our programs of eco- 
nomic and technical assistance to friendly coun- 
tries. A people with a rising standard of living 
and with hope for the future are immune to the 
preachments of communism. This is our most 
potent weapon and one for which the Kremlin can 
find no defense. 

Fourth. As a corollary, we must work for the 
extension of fundamental human rights and a 
decent respect for the dignity of the individual 
to areas where these do not now prevail. 

Fifth. We must do our best to help the people 
of the world understand, through a vigorous cam- 
paign of truth, that the democratic way of life is 
best. The big-lie technique of the dictators may 
have certain temporary advantages but the truth 
will aways win out in the end. 

Sixth. We must always remember that the core 
of every major world problem today is Soviet Rus- 
sia. If we can solve the problem of Russia, solu- 
tions to our other difficulties will follow almost 
automatically. We must not be diverted from 
this central fact. 

These principles, Mr. President, are in the en- 
lightened self-interest of the American people. 
The cost will be great; but if we did nothing, it 
would eventually be a thousand times greater. 
And if we are successful, the world will enter on 
such a period of peace and prosperity that the cost 
will seem but a trifle. 

Now, Mr. President, it is important that our 
policy and the principles upon which it is based 
be considered in their proper historical frame- 
work. I therefore turn to a rather detailed review 
of developments since 1945. 

AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY SINCE 1945 

Mr. President, we all know the axiom that what 
is iiast is prologue. Therefore. I think that we 



566 



Department of State Bulletin 



will be able to evaluate our prospects for peace 
and successful world relations by a factual recapit- 
ulation of the events of the last 5 years. Such a 
i-eview will also serve to straijjhten out the record 
of what has actually hap]H'ned and why. 

Recently some individuals who find certain 
world events not to their liking have been eufrajied 
in either an unwitting or a cynical rewrite of his- 
tory in their search foi- a reason to lay the blame 
at the administration's door. Such a practice does 
the country a profound disservice and, if con- 
tinued, will be a barrier to the development of the 
sound and jn'oductive policy required in the future. 

To obtain a true perspective on American for- 
eign policy, it is necessary to consider the facts in 
their proj)er framework. To begin with we must 
return to the dark day of December 7, 1941, the 
treacherous Japanese attack against Pearl Harbor, 
and the declaration of war by Nazi Germany 
which followed hard on its heels. 

World War II 

We faced a powerful and well-armed pair of 
enemies. The German Wehrmacht and the Luft- 
waffe had more than double the strength of any 
force that we could bring against them. On the 
other front, we faced a Japanese military machine 
of more than 5 million men, which was well en- 
trenched in a series of defensive positions that ran 
in a wide arc from the home island through 
Oceania. As allies we had the British Common- 
wealth and the other signers of the United Nations 
Declaration. On the thesis that anyone who was 
fighting the Nazis would receive support, we joined 
forces with the U. S. S. R. against the Axis. Dur- 
ing the 31/^ years of fighting that followed, the 
Soviet army engaged and defeated more than 200 
divisions which might otherwise have been in the 
line against American troops. 

In support of the administration's proposed aid 
program — the second alternative — Secretary Mar- 
shall said : 

We hope that the program we are presenting to Con- 
gress will assist in arresting the accelerating trend of 
economic deterioration to provide the Chinese Government 
with a further opportunity to lay the groundwork for 
stabilizing the situation. In these circumstances, I con- 
sider that this program of economic assistance proposed 
with the full recognition of all the unfavorable factors in 
the situation, is warranted by American interest. 

General Marshall declared further: 

We must be prepared to face the possibility that the 
present Chinese Government may not be successful in 
maintaining itself against the Communist forces or other 
opposition that may arise in China. 

Thus, we have a responsible Cabinet officer, who 
at the same time is one of the great military minds 
of modern times, spelling out the basic element of 
United States far eastern policy, setting down 
reasons underlying the chosen course and frankly 
pointing out that the selected course might not pre- 
vent a Communist China. 



The Eightieth Congress rewrote the administra- 
tion's proposed China Aid Act, cut the 570 million 
dollars assistance requested to 400 million dollars, 
and reduced the duration from 15 to 12 months. 
Attempts by individual Members of Congress to 
provide military aid for China on the same basis 
as such aid was being supjilied to Greece and Tur- 
key were rejected by Congress. The then chair- 
man of the Committee on Foreign Relations, the 
senior Senator from Michigan [Mr. Vandenberg], 
declared — 

. . . the Committee on Foreign Relations wishes to make it 
unmistakably clear in this as in all relief bills that there 
is no implication that American aid involves any con- 
tinuity of obligation beyond specific current commitments 
which Congress may care to make. We do not, we cannot 
underwrite the future. 

. . . Your committee believes, as a matter of elementary 
prudence, that this process must be completely clear of any 
Implication that we are underwriting a military campaign 
of the Nationalist Government. No matter what our 
heart's desire might be, any such implication would be 
impossible over so vast an area. 

I go into such detail over this particular step in 
our relations with China to establish beyond any 
reasonable question that this decision was ap- 
proved by a Congress fully aware of the risks 
involved. The bill passed by the Eightieth Con- 
gress was changed in effect and cut in amount. 
Thus, it was completely bipartisan in character. 

I should also like to stress that this was the 
critical decision of our China policy. Wlien it 
was made, the Nationalist military strength was 
nearly twice that of the Communists. If it was 
imprudent for America to underwrite the Na- 
tionalist military effort at a time when they en- 
joyed a 2-1 edge, it would have been madness 
to have undertaken such a commitment at a later 
date when the situation was reversed and the 
Nationalist arms were in full retreat before 
superior Communist armies. 

Supplies to Nationalist Government 

Let me also say here that the China Aid Act of 
1948 was faithfully carried out by the administra- 
tion. Any delays in the shipment of military sup- 
plies purchased by the Chinese Nationalists with 
the 125 million dollars grant provided in the act 
arose from the failure of the Chinese Government 
to make its needs promptly known. Furthermore, 
there is not a jot of evidence to indicate that the 
delays, regardless of cause, were a significant fac- 
tor in the Nationalist defeats. General Marshall 
told the House Committee on Foreign Affairs in 
February 1948 that between July 1946 and May 
1947 "the Chinese Government had sufficient 
munitions for their armies and there was no em- 
barrassment to them." As late as November 
1948, Major General Barr reported, "No battle has 
been lost since my arrival due to lack of ammuni- 
tion or equipment." 

The vast manpower and military potential of 
Russia was a great asset in our struggle against 



Ocfober 9, J 950 



567 



Hitler. In the interest of their own survival, the 
democracies, however much they detested the in- 
ternal dictatorship of the Soviets, could adopt no 
other policy than to welcome the support of the 
Eussian armies. Once it became apparent that 
the Soviet Union could survive the initial shock 
of the German armies, one of the most important 
tasks of the Allied military authorities was to keep 
Russian armies in the field and actively fighting 
against the Germans. This situation became even 
more acute following our landings in Normandy 
since any slackening of the Russian effort might 
have released sufficient German divisions from the 
eastern front to produce a military catastrophe in 
the west. The eastern front, which contained 
three-fourths of the German troops, was essential 
to our military campaign in Europe. The men in 
charge of our war effort were thinking of the 
quickest way to win the war and the best way to 
save American lives. They were not thinking of 
politics. 

Cordell Hull, that great Secretary of State and 
our beloved former colleague, said : 

We must ever remember that by the Russians' heroic 
struggle against the Germans they probably saved the 
Allies from a negotiated peace with Germany. Such a 
peace would have humiliated the Allies and would have 
left the world open to another Thirty Years War. 

He also said that the policy to be followed to- 
ward Russia rested on two bases. The first was : 

Continue in constant, friendly discussion with the Rus- 
sians. Consult them at every point. Engage in no "cussin 
matches" with them. Explain to them, again and again 
if necessary, the principles upon which we felt peaceful 
international relations would prosper. Show them as 
clearly as possible the superior advantages to Russia of 
wholehearted cooperation with other nations as compared 
with the minor advantages of predominance in neighboring 
states. Make it clear to them that we did not ob.ieet to 
a nation's preaching the merits of its form of government, 
whether communism or democracy, but that we did object 
to a nation's interfering in the internal affairs of other 
nations. 

This view wasn't limited to Democrats. The 
late Mr. Wendell Willkie had some views about the 
Russians, too. This is what he said : 

First, Russia is an effective society. It works. It has 
survival value. The record of Soviet resistance to Hitler 
has been proof enough of this to most of us, but I must 
admit in all frankness that I was not prepared to believe 
before I went to Russia what I now know about its 
strength as a going organization of men and women. 

Second, Russia is our ally in this war. The Russians, 
more sorely tested by Hitler's might even than the British, 
have met the test magnificently. Their hatred of fascism 
and the Nazi s.vstem is real and deep and bitter. And 
this hatred makes them determined to eliminate Hitler and 
exterminate the Nazi bliglit from Europe and the world. 

Third, we must work with Russia after the war. At 
least it seems to me that there can be no continued peace 
unless we learn to do so. 



ZONAL DIVISION OF GERMANY AND YALTA AGREEMENTS 

Under these circumstances, which were at the 
time bej^ond alteration, we had to agree as to the 



best way to fight the war and as to what would be 
done when it was won. One such agreement set 
up zones of occupation in Germany. This was an 
unavoidable move ; as the armies in the west and 
the east converged on central Germany it was 
necessary that a line be drawn through Germany 
at which they would meet. Such a line was drawn 
on the basis of the best judgment of our military 
leaders. This is the origin of the first and imavoid- 
able division of Germany. 

Our experience in Italy demonstrated conclu- 
sively that a zonal arrangement was essential for 
a proper administration and assignment of re- 
sponsibilities in the chaos that then prevailed in 
Germany. Therefore, for administrative purposes 
Germany was divided into zones. Berlin pre- 
sented a peculiar problem because of the tradition 
that the victors occupy the capital of the van- 
quished nation. It was decided that the troops of 
all four nations would occupy Berlin. Since that 
city was in the Russian zone, the right of access 
perforce had to be negotiated with the Soviet. 

These and our other wartime agreements with 
the Soviets were military in origin. At the time 
the zonal lines were drawn, military men believed 
that they were east of the farthest potential ad- 
vance of the western armies and that they would, 
therefore, result in an actual withdrawal of Rus- 
sian forces from the final point of their greatest 
advance. The fact that the placing of these zonal 
lines did not so result was due to a shift in the 
fortunes of war which resulted in greater success 
in the west than we had predicted. Now that the 
campaign has been completed, it is easy to assert 
that it would have been better to have had no 
zonal agreements but rather that the respective 
armies occupy as much of Germany as they had 
conquered. However, it should not be overlooked j 
that the zonal agreement forced a Soviet with- 
drawal in Austria. 

President Truman obtained directly from Stalin 
an assurance that free access by rail, road, and 
water from the western zones to Berlin would be 
worked out by the commanders. With the benefit 
of hindsight, it is easy to see now that some more 
certain arrangement would have been better. But 
none appeared practicable or, in fact, necessary at 
the time, and the risk involved was more than out- 
weighed by the benefit of having the western 
powers in Berlin. Except for Germany, the pres- 
ent iron curtain represents, with minor variations, 
the en stern edge of the advance of Soviet armies 
into Europe during World War II. Once the 
Soviet armies entered eastern Europe in pursuit 
of the Germans, there could be no question of giv- 
ing away eastern Europe. The question was what 
we could do to influence the course of events in 
areas which were under Soviet control. 

In return for acknowledging the unalterable 
geographical fact of the presence of Soviet armies 
in eastern Europe, we obtained from the Russians 
the promise that free election would be held in 



568 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Soviet-occupied countries. These pledges have 
been the means by which the Soviet machinations 
in eastern Europe have been unmasked. Thus, the 
YaUa agreements have been the basis for nearly 
every ofhcial United States protest against Soviet 
moves to gain domination of eastern Europe. In 
no way can the record of Yalta be construed as a 
sell-out to the Soviet. On the contrary, it put in 
the hands of the United States a diplomatic 
weapon of great value. As a final commentary 
on the question of which party came off best at 
Yalta, there is evidence that the Soviet leaders 
believe that they were "done in" by these agree- 
ments. Their major objective was to obtain 
through the agreements a controlling intei'est in 
the great industrial comijlexes of the Ruhf and 
Saar valleys. This they were denied. 

DECISIONS IN THE FAR EAST 

Now there are those who say, "Look at the Far 
East — that was where we suffered the initial diplo- 
matic defeat and where our representatives began 
to 'give China to the Communists'." 

None of the facts luiderlying the agi'eements in 
the Far East supi:)ort this contention in any way, 
shape, or manner. The decisions applying to the 
Far East were basically and essentially military 
decisions founded on purely military considera- 
tions. We must remember that at the time of Yalta 
there was still a long and hard road ahead before 
we could look for a German defeat. The Rhine 
was not crossed until ISIarch of that year. 

In the Pacific, victory was even further away. 
American troops -entered Manila on the first day 
of the conference. The bloody struggles for Iwo 
and Okinawa were still ahead. Bej^ond them 
waited a Japanese army of 5 million men which 
had lavishly demonstrated its willingness to fight 
to the death. The attached air component included 
at least 5,000 of the kamikaze-suicide aircraft. 

The atom bomb was still a scientific question 
mark and could not be relied upon as a military 
factor. 

Pacific strategy called for a tighter sea-and-air 
blockade and greatly intensified strategic bomb- 
ing to be followed by an assault on Kyushu No- 
vember 1. A landing on Honshu was scheduled 
for 4 months later. These operations would 
directly involve an American force of 5 million 
men and military estimates saw the war continu- 
ing into 1947 with a cost of a million casualties. 

The leaders who made the decisions at Yalta 
relative to the Far East did not decide on the basis 
of politics. The compelling and overriding con- 
sideration was a quicker end to the war and the 
saving of the lives of hundreds of thousands of 
GI's. The best means to accomplish this was the 
Soviet entrance into the war against Japan. The 
timing of this entrance was of even greater impor- 
tance than the fact of Soviet pai'ticipation itself. 
Everyone familiar with the situation was well 



aware that after United States forces had crushed 
the armies of Imperial Japan, the Soviets would 
declare war and cross the Amur River into Man- 
churia. It was further realized that nothing short 
of military action could stop them. 

The objective, then, was to have the eastern 
Soviet force engage the crack Kwangtung army in 
Manchuria and Korea in time to prevent these 
Japanese from being shuttled across the Korean 
straits to defend the home islands against the 
American assault. At Yalta, the Soviet Union 
promised to enter the war against Japan within 
3 months after the end of the war in Europe. Our 
military leaders were jubilant. They were con- 
vinced the Soviet promise meant the difference 
between death and life for scores of thousands of 
American troops. 

In addition, the United States obtained from 
the U.S.S.R. recognition of Chinese Nationalist 
sovereignty over Manchuria and a Soviet commit- 
ment to make a Treaty of Friendship and Alliance 
with Chiang Kai-shek. This agreement was con- 
cluded to Chiang's satisfaction. 

In return, America conceded to the Soviet no 
territories or rights which the latter did not for- 
merly own or could not have taken. 

There may be some who now say that they fore- 
saw that the war in the Pacific would end as 
abruptly as it did. If that is true, they were very 
quiet about their knowledge at the time. At any 
rate, the Soviet Union entered the war on schedule 
as a result of a prudent and calculated military 
decision, which was richly justified by the circum- 
stances under which it was made. 

Who among the critics of Yalta will now rise 
and say that he would have done otherwise at the 
time ? 

That, Mr. President, is a factual review of the 
Yalta Agreement. I believe that when these 
agreements are examined by the historians of 
tomorrow they will be adjudged in their true char- 
acter of recognizing the military realities under 
which they were negotiated. 

Policy in Europe 

Any honest review of American policy and pro- 
grams will disclose a record of solid achievements. 
Let us take as a ready example our policy in 
Europe as the pivotal point of our postwar actions. 
Again, we must examine what has been accom- 
plished in the light of the circumstances under 
which these accomplishments were achieved. 

Western Europe after VJ-day was a mass 
of wreckage. The political structure, where it 
existed as an entity, was badly strained. Social 
patterns had been disrupted. The production of 
food and goods was well below prewar levels and 
only a fraction of the minimum needs of the conti- 
nent. The organization of the United Nations 
had offered a long-range framework for the peace- 
able reorganization of international affairs. 



Ocfofaer 9, 7950 



569 



Nevertheless, the United Nations and the United 
States were confronted with an emergency of 
staggering proportions. Hunger was widespread. 
Prospects for an increase in agricultural produc- 
tion were dim, and there was unemployment every- 
where accompanied by its dangerous partner, 
unrest. In the United Nations, America took the 
lead in fast and effective remedial moves. 

We contributed a major portion of the Unnra 
supi^lies and then participated in a post-UNNRA 
program. In eflFect, these two steps enabled many 
of the nations of western Europe, as well as of 
other parts of the world, to survive. 

MARSHALL PLAN 

Subsequently, General Marshall, in his famous 
commencement address at Harvard University, 
made the general proposals for European recon- 
struction and rehabilitation which we now know 
as the Economic Cooperation Administration. 
For its inspiration and imaginative approach to 
problems already in the crisis stage, this action 
has no historic precedent. 

AVliile the infinite and puzzling details of the 
Marshall plan were being thrashed out, a crisis 
developed in Italy. Italy was a defeated nation, 
which in normal times could boast only meager re- 
sources, and was traditionally plagued with ovei-- 
population and a host of other economic and social 
problems. This nation had been prostrated bv 
war and was totally unable to set about her own 
reconstruction on anything near the required scale. 
There was every reason to believe that a domestic 
Communist Party would profit from the wide- 
spread discontent and the approaching chaos to 
the extent of gaining control in the election 
which was to come. In the fall of 1947, America 
put through the interim-aid program which eased 
Italy's immediate problems, and alleviated condi- 
tions which local Communists were exploiting. 
This material aid was complemented by a bril- 
liantly executed information campaign which ex- 
posed Communist propaganda and restored faith 
in democracy. In the crucial election, the Com- 
munists were soundly beaten and Inive been unable 
to recover from this set-back. Here we have a 
prime example of a foreign policy that produced 
the right action on adequate scale and in time. 



regime in the northern province of Azerbaijan. 
On Security Council insistence, Soviet troops were 
withdrawn, and the regime collapsed. Since then, 
Soviet pressure has continued, but the Iranian 
Government has resolutely withstood that pres- 
sure. The United States has continued to assist 
Iran, and currently a survey mission is there mak- 
ing studies of potential Export-Import Bank 
projects capable of improving Iranian economic 
conditions. 

GREEK-TURKISH AID PROGRAM 

This pattern with some variations was retraced 
in both Greece and Turkey in the Truman doctrine. 
In March 1947, the Greek Government, whose 
continuance in power was gravely threatened by 
Communist-supported guerrillas, appealed to the 
United States for help. President Truman came 
before the Congress and set forth the doctrine that 
the United States should support free peoples who 
are resisting attempted subjugation by armed 
minorities or by outside pressures. The United 
States subsequently gave the Greek Government 
enough economic and military assistance to sub- 
due the insurrection and restore stability to the 
nation. 

Turkey, meanwhile, was being subjected to di- 
rect pressure from the Kremlin. Wliile the Turk- 
ish people were by no means inclined to lie down 
and roll over upon command from Moscow, the 
domestic measures the Government took to counter 
the threat to its sovereignty were a severe strain on 
the national economy. Material assistance and 
technical counsel from the United States enabled 
the Tuiks to step up the power of their defenses 
and, at the same time, ease the economic pressures 
that defense measures exerted. In the face of this 
resistance, the Eussian threat was abated. The 
United States has boosted the determination of 
the peoples of these countries to preserve their own 
independence. So far, they have been prevented 
from falling into Communist control, and the 
Soviet drive toward the Mediterranean, the Near 
East, and Africa has been checked. United States 
policy has been an important factor in transform- 
ing this area into a cornerstone of European and 
Near Eastern security rather than a stepping stone 
for Communist conquest. 



RED THRUST AT IRAN CHECKED 

The political success scored by American policy 
in Italy was i-epeated elsewliere in western Europe 
and the Middle East. These instances are concrete 
demonstrations of the effective and steady anti- 
Communist character of our postwar policies in 
the international field. It has been almost for- 
gotten that the United States by vigorous action 
in the Security Council was instrumental in check- 
ing a Soviet thrust at Iran, an oil -rich country 
strategically placed between the U.S.S.K. and the 
Arabian Sea. The Soviet army set up a puppet 



RESULTS OF AID PROGRAMS 

In western Europe proper, the Marshall plan 
served a dual purpose. It made a vital contribu- 
tion to the rehabilitation of the western democra- 
cies whose well-being is so essential a component of 
American security. It also dealt a severe blow to 
Communist hopes for penetration into the indus- 
trial west. 

The economic results traceable to the postwar 
aid programs — particularly the Marshall plan — 
have been extraordinary. Industrial ])roduction is 
substantially above prewar levels as are most cate- 



570 



Department of State Bulletin 



gories of ap;ricultural production. The produc- 
tivity of labor has been stepped up, and, in most of 
the participating; nations, tliere has been a real 
improvement in the standard of livino;. 

Besides these material advances there have been 
great intangible benefits. It should be noted that 
since the war no western European governments 
of either the extreme right or left have come into 
power. There haA^e been no serious internal dis- 
orders and confidence in the validity of the demo- 
cratic processes is strong. Everywhere there is 
evidence of a trend away from connnunism. In 
Austria, for example, free elections in the zone 
occupied by Soviet troops resulted in only a negli- 
gible fraction of pro-Communist votes. 

The cooperation which has been encouraged by 
the functioning of the Marshall plan is exempli- 
fied in the workings of the Council of Europe. 
Here is a functioning international assembly that 
openly regards itself as a rudimentary parliament 
of Europe. Another example can be found in the 
so-called Schuman plan and in the proposals for 
a common organization for military production. 
This growing acceptance of the idea of Europe as 
an entity is a healthy and promising development 
toward a self-sustaining and peaceful Europe. 

MILITARY ASSISTANCE 

Manifestly economic strength cannot be di- 
vorced from security. As Soviet attacks on the 
Marshall plan increased in virulence and the ag- 
gressive aims of the Kremlin came more and more 
into the open, it became obvious that where we 
needed strong allies we had vulnerable friends. 
The United States, therefore, took a leading role 
in developing the political and military comple- 
ments to the Marshall plan. The strategic inter- 
dependence of the North Atlantic countries was 
made open and manifest by the drafting of the 
North Atlantic Treaty. The treaty involved a 
revolutionary international commitment for the 
United States and bound the nations of the com- 
munity in a defensive agreement which provided 
vital assurance of aid in case of aggression. It 
also provided for the establishment of collective, 
balanced forces for the joint defense of the area 
under an over-all strategic plan. 

American policy then produced the move that 
would put muscle into this concept and provide 
our allies in western Europe and elsewhere with 
the weapons and materiel needed to strengthen 
their defenses — the mutual defense assistance 
program. 

It should be emphasized here that both the 
North Atlantic Treaty and the mutual defense 
program are entirely and specifically within the 
framework of the United Nations Charter. 

OCCUPATION OF GERMANY 

The occupation of Germany is now in its fifth 
year and can take much credit for the wholesome 



changes that have been brought about in the Ger- 
man political and economic picture. Military gov- 
ernment went a long way toward decontaminat- 
ing the western zones of nazism and clearing the 
site for the reconstruction of Germany as a peace- 
ful and productive member of the western Euro- 
pean community. The task of reconstruction it- 
self is the assignment of the civilian regime that 
is now in control of Germany. 

Through the reparations program, Germany's 
industrial potential for aggression has been elimi- 
nated and her neighbors pai-tially compensated for 
what they suffered from the war. The freely 
elected federal republic is functioning and by its 
actions has shown itself to have the possibilities 
of a foundation for a democratic Germany. 

In Germany, as elsewhere, things have not been 
perfect. There have been mistakes made, and we 
have learned much from them. We would be less 
than human if that were not the case. 

Although it has been lengthy, this review is by 
no means a complete and detailed presentation of 
American actions and results therefrom in Europe 
and the Middle East. In the over-all, it does pre- 
sent the factual and unprejudiced picture of what 
we have been able to accomplish there. To me, it 
borders on a triumph. Four years ago, half a 
continent was gutted by war ; much of its produc- 
tive plant was rubble. Its peoj^le were starving 
and communism, or equally unpalatable brands 
of totalitarianism, was making great strides. To- 
day, a great economic resurgence has taken place. 
Much that was destroyed has been rebuilt. The 
standards of living have been restored, and what 
was politically and militarily a tinder box has 
been transformed into a stable area which is de- 
termined to stand up for its political liberties and 
is making great material sacrifices in its prepara- 
tions to do so. 

Western Hemisphere Relations 

Before moving to another major area which has 
recently been the subject of some controversy, I 
should like to touch briefly on our foreign rela- 
tions as they apply to the Western Hemisphere. 
The importance of our achievements in this area 
should not be underrated merely because they have 
made few headlines. 

With the other American Kepublics, our objec- 
tive has been the continued strengthening and 
cementing of a pattern of relationships which is 
already established. We have aimed at building 
inter-American unity for common action and at 
improving the economic and social structures so 
that the solidarity we seek will have a stable 
foundation. The most impressive advance in in- 
ter-American relations is the development of the 
Organization of American States from the patch- 
work inter-American system that existed 5 years 
ago. 

At the end of World War II, inter-American 
agencies were loosely comiected bodies that had 



October 9, 1950 



571 



gone through a Topsy-like growth. Cohesion and 
integration of their function was notable by its 
absence. The basis for the Oas is the Treaty of 
Eio de Janeiro, drafted in 1947 and now ratified 
by all but tliree of the American states. In many 
respects, the Rio treaty was the progenitor of the 
North Atlantic Pact. It is a defensive alliance 
under the terms of the United Nations Charter 
aimed at discouraging aggression. It has already 
proved its effectiveness in dealing with impending 
conflict when it was invoked early this year by the 
Haitian and Dominican Governments with regard 
to the rising tension in the sensitive area of the 
Caribbean. The Organization of American States 
swung into action. Tensions were reduced, the 
issues resolved, and a settlement made. 

Beyond this function, the Oas has developed 
inter-American cooperation in a variety of fields 
such as health and sanitation, improvement of 
agriculture, the exchange of technical knowledge 
and skills, and economic and social development 
generally. A common inter-American policy and 
procedure for programs of technical cooperation 
has been agreed upon by all the nations of the 
hemisphere. 

Chronic economic problems in many of the other 
American Republics have been the target of co- 
operative action between the United States and 
other nations of the Americas. Aside from ma- 
terial benefits derived from such action there 
has been a perceptible decline in the strength of 
the Communist elements south of the Rio Grande. 
The Marxist Labor Confederation — the CTAL — 
has been losing members to the anti-Communist 
labor organizations. 

As a result, the American states comprise a 
solid community of good neighbors. The basic 
relations of the United States to each of the other 
Republics of the hemisphere are sound, friendly, 
and effective. In good part this situation is at- 
tributable to the shaping of an intelligent policy 
which has been consistently applied. 

Far Eastern Policy 

American policy toward the Far East involves 
an area of great controversy where certain critics 
have been raising strident cries to voice their dis- 
satisfaction with the course of events in that part 
of the world. Once more, accurate perspective 
requires a careful analysis of developments there. 
It is essential to keep in mind that we are dis- 
cussing a region which encompasses 2 billion 
people of widely different culture, customs, lan- 
guage, and history. We are dealing with forces 
whose origin stretches back to the seventeenth cen- 
tury and whose strength has been gathering over 
a period of 150 years. In these terms it is im- 
portant to link closely the basis of American 
policy with America's capacity to execute that 
policy. 

Certain elements have charged that American 
[lolicy in the Far East sold Chiang Kai-shek down 



the river and gave China to the Communists. 
Basically, this statement ignores the realities 
which confront us in the Far East. It is this sort 
of approach which can bring the United States 
to a major catastrophe. This sort of reasoning 
can enmesh us in a land war with Communist 
China from which we might never extricate our- 
selves. We would pour our wealth, our manpower, 
and our physical resources into an endless struggle 
on the Asiatic mainland until sheer exhaustion 
compelled us to stop. In the meantime, the Polit- 
buro would sit quietly by watching this epic 
of American folly. When we were completely 
stripped of our strength, the Kremlin would be 
quite free to move anywhere and everywhere its 
greedy heart desired. 

In addition, this sort of thinking neglects the 
elementary fact that the influence and effect that 
the United States may exei't in any particular 
region of the world is limited. Before we can 
intelligently shape foreign policy we must have 
an accurate and precise knowledge of those limits. 

Consequently, the concept which pictures the 
United States as giving China to the Communists 
is an absurdity. Obviously, China was not ours 
to give, and, furthermore, the power to prevent a 
Communist take-over was greatly in excess of the 
limited influence that we could exert in the Far 
East. 

Let us briefly examine here what actually hap- 
pened to China in the postwar years. 

CHINA 

After the Japanese surrender, the Chinese Na- 
tionalists, under the victorious leader, Chiang Kai- 
shek, controlled the vast majority of the Chinese 
people, the bulk of its natural resources, the prin- 
cipal cities and lines of communication, and most 
of the centers of industrial production. The Na- 
tionalist Army in size, quality, and equipment was 
vastly superior to the Chinese Communists' Eighth 
Route Army. 

The Nationalist regime enjoyed the active sup- 
port of the United States. America provided 
(Chiang's Government with more than 2 billion 
dollars in economic and military assistance. The 
United States command in the Pacific, by plane 
and ship, transported more than 400,000 National- 
ist troojis to Shanghai and north China to accept 
the surrender of the Japanese Army and to enable 
the Rationalists to take immediate control of the 
area. The United States also helped out in other 
ways. .More than 50,000 Marines were moved to 
north China to help the Nationalists take over. 

By any reasonable yardstick, the Nationalists 
stood to win the postwar struggle with the Chinese 
Communists hands down. Yet^^ in 4 years, they 
were chased off the mainland of China to the island 
of Formosa. 

How could this happen ? 

What were the factors in the situation which 
surmounted the Nationalists' enormous advan- 



572 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



tage and physical strength in such a short time? 
An informed consensus on the Chinese civil war is 
that a trio of intangibles brouglit on the National- 
ist downfall. They were the factors of morale, 
leadership, and public support. It is undeniable 
that, as compared to the Nationalists, the Chinese 
Communists had the will to fight, M'ere ably led, 
and were fully awai'e of the importance of public 
support. This is the unpleasant fact, and we must 
accept it. We have direct evidence to this effect 
as late as November 19-18 in Major General Barr's 
report to the Department of the Army. The gen- 
eral was submitting a professional report as a pro- 
fessional soldier in the discharge of liis duties as 
the Director of the Joint United States Military 
Advisory Group. He said: 

Their (the Chinese Nationalists) military debacles, in 
my opinion, can all be attributed to tlie world's worst 
leadership and many of the morale-destroying factors 
leading to a complete loss of will to fight. 

As Communist strength rose and the Nationalist 
power declined, the decisive character of these in- 
tangibles became painfully clear. For the United 
States, they posed a grave question. Wliat should 
we do about it ? _ There were two alternatives. We 
miglit pour aid into China on an even more mas- 
sive and increasing scale. Such a course would 
have placed an incalculable burden on an already 
heavily loaded American people and would have 
constituted a major dissipation of American re- 
sources. It might well have placed United States 
armed forces in China in a sordid and pointless 
repetition of the Japanese venture there. 

The alternative was to try to induce the Chinese 
Nationalists to correct the fatal weaknesses in their 
administration. It was suggested that United 
States aid would be used not only to counter- 
balance those weaknesses but as an inducement to 
the Chinese Nationalists themselves to correct 
them. At the same time, of course, the aid would 
provide an opportunity for the Nationalists to take 
the necessary remedial steps. The decision to try 
this course was adopted on completely realistic 
grounds. It was recognized that it probably would 
not succeed unless the Nationalists used the oppor- 
tunity given them to help themselves. 

General MarshaWs Analysis 

In February 1918, then Secretary of State Mar- 
shall gave the Committees on Foreign Affairs and 
Foreign Relations of the Eightieth Congress a 
careful and detailed analysis of the situation in 
China. He warned against the first course of ac- 
tion in which the United States would assume any 
direct responsibility for the conduct of the civil 
war in China or for the Cliinese economy, or both. 

He stated : 

It would be impossible to estimate the final cost of a 
course of this magnitude. It would involve this Guvern- 
ment in a continual commitment from which it would be 
practicably impossible to withdraw and it would very 
probably involve grave consequences to this Nation by 



making China an arena of international conflict. An at- 
tempt to underwrite the Chinese economy and the Chinese 
Government's military effort represents a burden on the 
United States economically and a military responsibility 
which I cannot recommend as a course of action for this 
Government. 

Experts estimate that in the 41/2 months from 
the fall of Tsinan in September 1948 to the fall 
of Peiping in January 1949 the Nationalists lost 
400,000 rifles. Foreign observers of the entry of 
the Chinese Communist forces into Tsinan, Peip- 
ing, Nanking, and Shanghai remarked on the high 
proportion of those forces which was equipped 
with American arms. From this, it is logical to 
assume that American military equipment pro- 
vided to the Nationalists would likely be a major 
source of the arms which the Chinese Communists 
would use in any attack on Formosa. How can it 
be argued that the Nationalists lacked the military 
equipment required to defeat the Communists but 
had sufficient to provide from the stocks a major 
source of weapons for the Communists them- 
selves ? The Communists looked upon the United 
States as their quartermaster and Chiang as their 
supply sergeant. 

It is further impossible to argue seriously that 
the course of military events on the China main- 
land would have been significantly altered by 
United States military advice short of the virtual 
taking over and running of the entire Chinese 
military establishment with the probable inclu- 
sion of American military units. 

There is evidence which conclusively proves this. 
General Wedemeyer and later General Marshall 
warned the Nationalists against overextending 
themselves by attempting to occupy Manchuria 
before they had consolidated their position in 
North China. The advice was disregarded. As a 
result, the cream of the Chinese Nationalist armies 
was lost in Manchuria. General Barr was author- 
ized to provide operational counsel informally to 
the Generalissimo, the Minister of National De- 
fense, and the Chief of the Supreme Staff. His 
own record of attempts to offer advice, which in 
most cases was rejected or not acted upon, is set 
forth in detail in the China white paper. 

Nationalists Lost Popular Sup-port 

Another step in the decline of the Nationalist 
cause was foreseen in another report by General 
Barr to the Department of the Army. Essen- 
tially, this dealt with the Nationalists' loss of 
popular support. Barr informed headquarters : 

It is extremely doubtful that the National Government 
could muster the necessary popular support to mobilize 
sufficient manpower in this area (South China) with 
which to rebuild its forces even if time permitted. Only 
the employment of United States armed forces to block 
a southern advance of the Communists, which I emphati- 
cally do not recommend, would enable the Nationalists 
to maintain a foothold in southern China against a deter- 
mined Communist advance. . . . The complete defeat of 
the Nationalist Army is inevitable. 

Unfortunately, it required only a few months to 



Ocfofaer 9, J 950 



573 



establish General Barr as a competent military 
observer and tragically, a true prophet. 

Thus, we see that the Communist victory in 
China came about because of the political, the 
moral, and the military weakness of the National- 
ist GoTernment. They did not lack for men, 
weapons, or equipment. Such economic aid as 
was needed was provided by the American Gov- 
ernment. The factors that bronght about the fall 
of the Nationalists in China were the intangibles 
of successful and effective government which no 
outside party can supply. If we are honest with 
ourselves, we must admit that whether we like it 
or not, the influence of American policy in China 
was incapable of overcoming these shortcomings 
of the Chinese Nationalist Government. We took 
a calculated risk in extending to that government 
the maximum practical aid and technical counsel. 
Through no fault of American policy, Chiang 
misused the aid, ignored the advice. The Na- 
tionalist cause collapsed through its own incom- 
petence. 

^Question of Formosa 

^ We now find ourselves confronted with the latest 
edition of our China problems — the question of 
Formosa, which is now the seat of the Nationalist 
Government. Here again is the time for uncom- 
promising realism and for a willingness to analyze 
facts as they are in terms of American interest. 
United States policy on Formosa was enunciated 
publicly by the President in early January of 
this year. " This policy was founded on the best 
professional conclusions available to the American 
Government. Before this decision was reached, 
all available information on the Nationalist ca- 
pacities for staging a successful defense of For- 
mosa pointed to an unwelcome conclusion, namely, 
that without the use of United States Armed 
Forces in the island's defense, it would fall to the 
Chinese Communists sometime before the end of 
this year. 

<^ The second factor in this policy was a repeated 
and reexamined appraisal of the strategic im- 
portance of Formosa to the United States by the 
highest military authorities in the Government. 
This evaluation considered Formosa not only as a 
land mass in a limited geographic area but in terms 
of the world situation. The evaluation acknowl- 
edged tliat strategic as the island of Formosa was, 
it was not vital to our defense and that under the 
then-existing conditions was of insufficient im- 
^portance to justify the use of American forces to 
protect it. 

*■ I emphasize that this is a professional evalua- 
-tion and is not to be confused with one which has 
been advanced that "a little military aid" from 
America would enable the Cliinese Nationalists to 
hold Formosa. This January decision was im- 
portantly affected by the adventure and aggres- 
sion upon which the North Koi'ean Communists 
embarked several months ago. The United States 



lived up to its stand against aggression and, at the 
request of the United Nations, sent military units 
to South Korea. This move added a fresh military 
factor to the Formosa equation. With United 
States troops in combat on the Korean peninsula, 
it was regarded as sound military tactics to safe- 
guard their flank by taking special steps to ensure 
that the island of Formosa was neutralized. The 
Seventh Fleet was given this mission. 

This by no means constitutes a reversal of policy 
but rather an adaptation of policy to a new and 
dominant factor. 

The facts of China may be hard to swallow. But 
they must, nevertheless, be taken into account in 
the policy which is being shaped to advance Amer- 
ican interests in the Oi'ient. 

Presently, for example, that policy does not con- 
template United States recognition of Communist 
China. We continue to oppose the admission of 
Mao's representative to the United Nations. In 
the future, as in the past, we will do all in our 
power to keep China free of Soviet control. 

Our policy recognizes that in acting in the Far 
East, America must respect the interests of India, 
Pakistan, and other nations in that area. Despite 
arguments to the contrary, it would be a serious 
error for the United States to go ahead entirely 
on its own to settle the question of Formosa. It 
is properly a United Nations problem and should 
be handled by that organization. 

KOREA 

At this point, I should like to clarify the pattern 
of American actions toward Korea and, at the 
same time, correct some distortions of American 
policy and action on that troubled peninsula. 
Prior to June 25, when the Communists invaded 
the fledgling independent Eepublic of South 
Korea, the United States had followed a steady 
policy of strengthening the new Nation both eco- 
nomicall}' and militarily. 

As far as Korea is concerned, the United States 
Government has religiously lived up to its declara- 
tions initially made at the conference in Cairo in 
1943. At that time, the parties to the conference 
stated their determination that Korea should be 
independent. This guarantee was reaffirmed at 
Potsdam and was joined in by the Soviet when 
they formally declared war on Japan. We have 
not, and will not, abandon that stand. 

The division of Korea along the line of 38th 
parallel had its origin in General Order No. 
1 issued by General MacArthur in September 1945. 
Under this order the Soviet commander was to 
accept the surrender of all Jajxinese forces to the 
north and the American commander those in the 
south. 

In short order, it became ajiparent that the 
Soviet intention was to create an oriental version 
of the iron curtain. The American commander 
tried vainly to negotiate with his Soviet opposite 
to reunite the country and then referred tJie prob- 



574 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



lem to a hijiher level. The Moscow ii<];reements, in 
late 1045, <;ave rise to the hope that a workable 
formula for unification had been reached. For 
2 rears the United States tried to transform this 
hope into a reality. We then I'eferred the problem 
to the United Nations, and this resulted in a 
United Nations resolution in November 1947 call- 
ing for elections thi-oughout Korea under the ob- 
servation of United Nations representatives. 

The Soviet masters of North Korea barred the 
United Nations Commission and ignored the res- 
olution. Notwithstanding, the American Govern- 
ment steadfastly continued to do all in its power to 
carrj' out its stated policy and went ahead with 
the establishment of a representative and inde- 
pendent government in South Koi'ea. Thus, 3 
years after VJ-day at least a part of Korea had the 
freedom so long denied it. 

U.N. Resolutions Followed 

Subsequent United States actions, with regard 
to troop withdrawal, aid to Korea, and other com- 
mitments to the new republic were conditioned by 
the declarations of the United Nations Assembly 
and by the dictates of xVmerican strategic responsi- 
bilities on a world-wide basis. The resolution we 
introduced in the United Nations on the with- 
drawal of troops — both Soviet and American — 
from all of Korea was based in large part on an 
estimate by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Joint 
Chiefs believed that in terms of its own military 
security America had only a minor strategic in- 
terest in maintaining troops in Korea. This judg- 
ment took cognizance of the shortage of military 
manpower and our responsibilities and interests 
in other world regions which were of more vital 
concern to us. As an added consideration, the 
American Government believed that the mainte- 
nance of an occupation force on South Korean 
soil would retard the efforts of the South Koreans 
to ready themselves for self-government. 

In September of 1948, we began a gradual re- 
duction of our forces of occupation in Korea. 
This was brought to a halt in November because 
of unsatisfactory local conditions and because the 
United Nations General Assembly had not yet 
taken action on the Korean problem. On Decem- 
ber 12, 1948, the General Assembly recognized the 
lawful character of the Government of the Re- 
public of Korea and again recommended the with- 
drawal of occupation forces as soon as possible. 
Then out of a clear sky, Christmas Day 1948, the 
Soviets announced complete withdrawal from 
North Korea. As usual, they refused to allow any 
verification by United Nations representatives. 
■ In March of 1949, the Departments of State and 
Defense and the National Security Council again 
directed their attention to the problem of South 
Korea. Under the circumstances that then ob- 
tained, military withdrawal was held desirable. 
In view of the Soviet withdrawal, the United 



States could not allow itself to be placed in the 
position of refusing to comply with the United 
Nations directive. But we also resolved to back 
the South Korean Republic politically, economi- 
cally, and militarily. All American troops, save 
an advisory group of 500 officers and men, left 
Korea in June 1949. 

In March 1949, the Republic of Korea had a 
"security" force amounting to 114,000 men. How- 
ever, the Republic's economic situation made it 
incapable of supporting a larger army or of main- 
taining the more complex types of military equip- 
ment. 

The Korean Army of 65,000 men had been 
equipped in large part with American weapons. 
A 4,fl00-man Coast Guard force and the police con- 
tingent of 45.000 had United States sidearms and 
carbines and Japanese rifles in equal numbers. 
They had been trained by American officers. 

Korean Security Problems 

The best military judgment at the time set down 
three Korean security problems in order of prior- 
ity. The first was internal Communist revolt, the 
second violations of the northern border, and 
third, open war with North Korea. On the basis 
of this estimate, the National Security Council 
concluded that the United States should complete 
the equipment of the (■)5,000-man army, that ves- 
sels necessary for the Coast Guard should be made 
available, and that the Republic of Korea should 
get a stockpile of maintenance supplies adequate 
for 6 months replacement plus an emergency 
reserve. 

I would like to call to your minds, at this point, 
that the United States had many commitments 
for military assistance in other sectors: To the 
North Atlantic Treaty nations and to Greece, Tur- 
key, Iran, the Philippines, and "the general area 
of China." In terms of the strategic estimates 
of the importance of these nations, Korea was 
Ijeing helped quite generously. Critics may now 
declare that our military men, or the members of 
our National Security Council, should have real- 
ized that war was going to break out in Korea and 
cut down on assistance to our other allies. The 
fact is that they didn't anticipate the move — -and 
some of those who are most vociferous in tlreir • 
attacks voted against aid to Korea when it came 
before the Congress. These critics also ignore the 
probability that if we had engaged in an all-out 
militai-y build-up in Korea, the Communists would 
probably have stirred up trouble in Indochina or 
in Iran or any one of a half dozen other spots. 

But, as is clear from this history. United States 
handling of Korea proceeded on a basis of our 
entire world position. There is a risk in any 
policy. The sure thing does not exist. The judg- 
ments made on South Korea were carefully 
thought out. They were arrived at on the basis of 
the best available information. 



Ocfober 9, 1950 



575 



Extent of United States Aid to Korea 

We are now hearing charges from some quarters 
that the United States should have given substan- 
tial military assistance to the South Koreans. 
The record shows that we did. We gave them 
arms, originally valued at 57 million dollars and 
the replacement cost of which was more than 
double that amount. Included in this equipment 
was more than 100,000 Garand rifles and carbines, 
2,000 machine guns, 50 million rounds of 30-cali- 
ber ammunition, and a substantial number of 
heavier weapons. These included 60 and 80 milli- 
meter mortars, 105 millimeter howitzers, and 57 
and 37 millimeter guns. We also turned over to 
them thousands of grenade rockets and grenades, 
150 bazookas with 44,000 rounds of ammunition, 
and an assortment of armored cars, trucks, thou- 
sands of mines and demolition charges, a substan- 
tial amount of signal equipment, 79 vessels, and 
liaison aircraft. In addition to these arms, we 
gave them 85 million dollars worth of gear which 
had military value such as tractors, trailers, 
motors, generators, barges, and medical supplies. 
When the size of the South Korean Army is con- 
sidered, this adds up to substantial aid. 

The foregoing is in addition to nearly 470 
million dollars in economic aid which was pro- 
vided to help South Korea get on her feet. 

When the Mutual Defense Assistance Program 
was developed, Korea also came in for considera- 
tion. The Mdap appropriation of late October 
1949 contained 10.2 million dollars for South 
Korea. In what must be an attempt to twist the 
Administration's execution of this program, we 
now hear that South Korea got only $200 worth of 
wire before the Communist attack. It is unneces- 
sary to comment on the unfair inference that this 
was all the military aid that South Korea received 
from us at any time. But it is essential to bring 
out that it was clearly understood that these funds 
were to be spent in part for equipment that was 
on hand in the United States but would require 
from 6-9 months to put in shape. The remainder 
was to go for new equipment which under no cir- 
cumstances could be produced in less than a year. 

Furthermore, the act required that before aid 
could be given an agreement must be negotiated 
with the recipient nation. On passage of the act, 
talks were immediately begun with the South Ko- 
rean representatives and the required agreement 
completed January 26, 1950. The specific items 
most urgently needed were determined by the 
South Korean Government and their advisers in 
the latter part of March of this year. 

We provided available equipment as fast as the 
South Koreans could absorb it and as quickly as 
was consistent with maintaining the strength of 
our own Armed Forces. The performance of 
South Korean troops in combat is testimony to the 
effectiveness of the job done in organizing, train- 
ing, and equipping them. 



United States Return to Korea 

Now it may be asked, if the United States with- 
drew its troops from Korea, why did we send them 
back again? For an authoritative and cogent 
statement on this development, I can do no better 
than to quote President Truman. The President 
declared : 

This outright breach of the peace, in violation of the 
United Nations Charter, created a real and present danger 
to the security of every nation. This attack was, in addi- 
tion, a demonstration of contempt for the United Nations, 
since it was an attempt to settle, by military aggression, a 
question which the United Nations liad been working to 
settle by peaceful means. 

The attack on the Republic of Korea, therefore, was a 
clear challenge to the basic principles of the United Na- 
tions Charter and to the specific actions taken by the 
United Nations in Korea. If this challenge had not been 
met squarely, the effectiveness of the United Nations 
■would have been all but ended, and the hope of mankind 
that the United Nations would develop into an institution 
of world order would have been shattered. 



PHILIPPINES AND INDONESIA 

Against the charge made by some that the 
United States has no policy in the Far East or that 
it has been a failure, I submit that America has 
followed a positive and consistent course of action. 
We climaxed 50 years of friendly cooperation in 
the Philippines by granting them their independ- 
ence in 1946. Because of the suffering of the 
Philippine people from war and Japanese occupa- 
tion, the United States has lent a hand in the re- 
habilitation of that country through the War 
Damage Commission and an extensive program of 
reconstruction under the Rehabilitation Act. We 
have given and will continue to give the Island 
Republic additional assistance via trade and mili- 
tary agreements. The more pressing economic 
problems will be tackled on the basis of studies 
by a special economic survey mission to the Philip- 
pines which was appointed by President Truman. 

South of the new Philippine Republic is an- 
other new member of the democratic common- 
wealth which was assisted in gaining its inde- 
pendence by the good offices and the good will 
of America. I refer to the new Republic of Indo- 
nesia. We have given the new nation economic 
aid to help it over the bumps that a new organism 
must face in its early stages. Last January, a loan 
of 100 million dollars was earmarked for the new 
Republic and 40 million dollars provided out of 
EGA funds. We will support Indonesian partici- 
pation in international organizations and stand 
ready to supply it with the constabulary equipment 
it may need to stave off internal Communist 
threats. 



INDOCHINA AND THAILAND 

While the United States recognizes that Indo- 
china is primarily a responsibility of the French 
Government, we have urged the French to assist 



576 



Department of State Bulletin 



the Indochinese people toward p;rcater independ- 
ence. AVe fan rightfully take a substantial share 
of tlie credit for the new status of Laos, Cambodia, 
and Vietnam and for the independent status the 
Vietnamese have achieved. We are now prepared 
to extend a helping hand to the Vietnam Govern- 
ment in its struggle against a Conniiunist-support- 
ed revolt. We are giving the French and Viet- 
namese forces that are fighting conununism the 
equipment required to put down the Communist 
subversion. We also plan a continued program of 
economic aid. 

Thailand, the oldest independent country in 
southeast Asia, also faces economic and military 
difficidties. Here again the United States is stand- 
ing by with an assistance program designed to 
enable the Government to main its territorial in- 
tegrity. American economic aid to Thailand has 
been instrumental in restoring that nation to a 
relatively health}' economic and financial con- 
dition. 

Our occupation of Japan has been signally suc- 
cessful. Under the aclministration of General 
MacArthur Japan has made great strides toward 
establishing a working democracy. The Japanese 
are making an economic comeback which, if con- 
tinued, will permit them to stand on their own 
feet without need of United States suppoi't. 

The United States Far Eastern policy is es- 
sentially the same as our policy in other parts of 
the world. We recognize a fundamental need for 
world conditions in which freedom can thrive. 
We seek in Asia groups of people governed by in- 
stitutions of their own creation and by men of 
their own choosing. 

We aim at active participation for the nations 
of Asia as full and equal members of the inter- 
national community. We are endeavoring to as- 
sist in the establishment of an Asia which will 
be secure from aggression of any sort and the 
nations of which will settle their disputes among 
themselves by peaceful means. We will assist them 
where we can in the development of their re- 
sources, in the raising of their standard of living, 
and in a maximum increase in mutually beneficial 
trade. We look for a rich and free interchange 
of cultural values with them and a friendly as- 
sociation of peoples and governments over a broad 
spread of political, economic, and cultural matters. 



OTHER ASPECTS OF FOREIGN POLICY 

An inspiring component of our present-day 
foreign policy is the Point 4 Program which is 
now getting under way. For a relatively small 
cost, underdeveloi)cd areas throughout the world 
may obtain technical assistance and valuable 
know-how to help in coping with local agi'icultural 
and industrial problems which have been depress- 
ing the local standard of living. 

The pattern for this effort was laid down in 

October 9, 7950 

908057—50 3 



Latin America where technical cooperation has 
some remarkable accomplishments to its credit. 
Experience gained in this hemisphere serves as a 
valuable guide for the extension of these activities 
to other areas of the world. This progi'am is one 
which has a real and deep meaning to other 
peoples everywhere. It is an inexpensive means 
whereby the United States can help. itself by help- 
ing others. 



International Information 

I have so far said nothing of the aspect of Amer- 
ican foi'eign policy represented by our program of 
international information. Through this effort 
peoples the world over are given an accurate and 
well-documented portrayal of the United States, 
its aims, and its people. We have engaged in a 
battle of words with the Kremlin propagandists to 
counter the Soviet effort to poison world opinion 
against us. 

We have become increasingly aware of the im- 
portance of our information program, and this 
Congress has allocated the Voice of America and 
its allied services increased funds to do the job 
that must be done. Technical problems, which 
are extremely difficult, are being overcome. Our 
broadcasting gives evidence of making significant 
penetration of the iron curtain. The past 6 
months has seen a substantial increase in audience 
mail, notably 318 percent up from the Far East 
and a boost of 824 percent from the Near East and 
South Asia. There is a growing response to the 
news and feature services that parallel the Voice 
broadcasts and a wider and wider demand for the 
motion-picture service. I might add that the 
Voice is receiving more and more compliments 
from the Soviet and satellite press and radio in 
the way of slanderous description of what it is 
trying to do and what it says. Although we spend 
only a fraction of what other nations spend on 
their propaganda, we are, nevertheless, getting 
results. 

The growing effectiveness of our information 
program derives, I believe, from the fact that it is 
devoted to the truth. We will continue this cam- 
paign of truth to a point where no hostile or igno- 
rant source can distort or twist American actions 
or American motives. At this point, we shall 
have achieved the basic international understand- 
ing which is an essential to the foreign policy 
that we have developed. 

Participation in U.N. 

As has been said before, the key to United States 
foreign policy is the establishment of lasting 
world peace. The major means to this end is the 
United Nations to which the United States Gov- 
ernment has given its unflagging and whole- 
hearted support. I believe that the record of 

577 



American actions in the United Nations is one in 
which we can take great pride. 

Our proposal for the control of atomic energy 
is certainly a case in jjoint. When we had exclu- 
sive control of the atom bomb, we took the lead 
in proposing means for its effective international 
control. The Acheson-Lilienthal plan, with some 
modifications, became the majority plan for atomic 
control in the United Nations Atomic Energy 
Commission. This plan was blocked by the Soviet 
Union which advanced a deceptive substitute that 
failed utterly to win outside support. 

We have worked hard and successfully to de- 
velop the parliamentary functions of the United 
Nations and have striven for a more restrained 
use of the veto. We have consistently supported 
proposals to admit to membership the states of 
Jordan, Portugal. Italy, Austria, Finland, Ceylon, 
Nepal, and the Republic of Korea. We have 
pledged 12 million dollars to the Technical Assist- 
ance program and have made sizable contributions 
to the children's fund and the Palestine refugee 
program. We have consistently promoted respect 
for basic human rights and attempted to obtain 
increasing recognition for individual liberty. 

In many of these efforts, we have fallen short of 
our objectives because of the unrestrained obstruc- 
tionism of the Soviet Union. The Soviet use of 
the veto has played a dreary and discordant obli- 
gato to the attempts of the free world to advance 
the cause of peace. 

There are those who now claim that the United 
States failure to insist on a limitation of the veto 
power in the discussions that preceded the creation 
of the United Nations was a major error. This is 
bad vision, even for hindsight. It was clear then 
that any limitation of the veto power beyond that 
agreed to at Yalta would have prevented Soviet 
participation in the ITnited Nations. It is obvi- 
ous that a United Nations in which the Soviet is 
participating, even with an excessive use of the 
veto, is better than no United Nations at all. 

The fact is that the United Nations is the corner- 
stone of our hope for peace. Our willingness, yes 
our determination, to seek peaceful means of ac- 
commodation with the Soviet Union through the 
mechanism of the United Nations has been and 
remains the great source of power in American 
foreign policy. 

The American people know that their Govern- 
ment has made and is continuing to make every 
effort for peace. A war-weary Europe also rec- 
ognizes this and is, further, well aware that the 
intransigence of the Soviet Union is the main 
barrier to achieving the peace. The populations 
of the Near East and the Far East have perhaps 
not fully recognized this until recently — but are 
rapidly becoming aware of it. 

In short, OTir work with the United Nations has 
won us a vital position of moral leadership of the 
free world. We are now placed so that we can 
go forward with the immediate task of strength- 



ening the free world against the forces of aggres- 
sion until such time as the Soviet Union chooses to 
abandon its role as a disturber of the peace and 
returns to the principles of the United Nations 
Charter. 

When the Soviet puppets in North Korea 
launched their attack on the free Republic of 
South Korea, 53 of the 59 members of the United 
Nations joined in a concerted defense of the Re- 
public. This is a convincing demonstration of the 
growing power and effectiveness of the United 
Nations and will perhaps go down in history as 
the point at which a fledgling organization 
achieved maturity. I am convinced that as the 
months pass, the effectiveness of the United Na- 
tions with our vigorous support will continue to 
grow. We now can look forward to a not-far- 
distant time when the United Nations will have 
acquired the jDower to discharge the duties for 
which it was created. 

This, Mr. President, is our hope and our salva- 
tion. 



THE CONGRESS 



Legislation 

Supplemental Estimate of Appropriation — Military As- 
sistance to Foreign Nations. Communication from the 
President of the United States transmitting a supple- 
mental estimate of appropriation to provide military 
assistance to foreign nations, fiscal year 1951, amounting 
to .$1,178,023,729, in the form of an amendment to the 
budget. S. Doe. 194, Slst Cong., 2d sess., 3 pp. 

Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation With 
Ireland, With Protocol Relating Thereto. S. Ex. Kept. 8, 
81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany Executive H, Slst 
Con., 2d sess.] 4 pp. 

Annex to International Telecommunication Conven- 
tion — Telegraph Regulations (Paris Revision, 1949) and 
Final Protocol. S. Ex. Kept. 9, Slst Cong., 2d sess. 
[To accompany Executive J, Slst Cong., 2d se.ss.] 9 pp. 

Convention on Road Tratiic, Dated September 19, 1949, 
and Signed on Behalf of the United States of America and 
20 Other Countries. S. Ex. Rept. 10, Slst Cong., 2d sess. 
[To aeeomijany Executive O, Slst Cong., 2d sess.] 7 pp. 

Convention With Panama With Respect to tlie Colon 
Corridor and Certain Other Corridors in the Canal Zone. 
Message from the President of the United States trans- 
mitting the convention between the United States and the 
Republic of Panama regarding the Colon Corridor and 
certain other corridors through Canal Zone, signed :it 
Panama on May 24, 1950. S. Ex. Q, Slst Cong., 2d sess., 
S pp. 

Convention With Canada, Jlodifying and Supplement- 
ing the Convention and Protocol Relating to Income Taxes. 
Message from the President of the United States trans- 
mitting the convention between the United States and 
Canada, signed at Ottawa on June 12, 1950, modifying and 
supplementing in certain respects the convention and ac- 
companying protocol for tlie avoidance of double taxation 
and the prevention of fiscal evasion in the case of income 
taxes, signed at Washington on JIarch 4, 1942. S. Ex. \i, 
Slst Cong., 2d sess., 14 pp. 



578 



DeparlmenI of State Bulletin 



Peace and Security for the Future of Korea 



hy Amiassadoi- Warren R. Austin 

U.S. Delegate to the General Assembly^ 



I shall speak briefly, because events require us 
to act quickly. 

I shall speak with restraint, because the death 
and destruction in Korea are themselves the tragic 
evidence of the evil and cost of aggression. 

I shall speak frankly, because the issue before 
us involves more than the peace and security of 
Korea. 

The United Nations was defied when the Com- 
mission created by this Assembly was prevented 
by the Soviet occupation authorities from observ- 
ing elections in the northern area. 

The United Nations was defied when Soviet 
occupation authorities installed a puppet regime 
which, according to the Assembly's Commission, 
ruled only by right of a mere transfer of power 
from the Soviet Government. 

The ultimate defiance of the United Nations was 
aggiession by the North Korean regime. 

Defiance of the will and authority of the United 
Nations endangers the peace and security of every 
member nation. 

The origin and nature of the North Korean 
regime cannot be disguised. That origin was 
justification for my Government, on June 27, 
asking the Soviet Government to use its influence 
to halt the invasion and restore the peace. That 
request was rejected. Instead, the representative 
of the Soviet Government, since the first of Au- 
gust, has used the Security Council of the United 
Nations as a forum in which to deny the aggres- 
sion and justify the action of the North Korean 
authorities. 

Preparation for aggression in North Korea 
could have been prevented. The launching of 
aggression from North Korea could have been 
stopped. The support of aggression from North 
Korea could have been withheld. None of this 
happened. The United Nations has had to sup- 
press this aggression by force. 



Mladp before Committee I (Political and Security) on 
Sept. 30 and released to tlie press lay tlie U.S. delegation 
to the General Assembly on the same date. 



Turn From the Past Urged 

Now we must turn from the past and consider 
the future. As we do so, two facts should be 
emphasized. First, the people of the world will 
not accept the standards of conduct represented 
by the Korean aggression. Second, the Govern- 
ment and the people of the United States, for 
their part, wish to cooperate with the Soviet Gov- 
ernment as well as the free members of the United 
Nations to build the kind of world community 
envisaged by the Charter. 

Practical men face facts. These are two of the 
basic facts about the world in which we live. If 
these facts are faced, particularly by the Soviet 
Government, we can turn to the task before us with 
increased hope and confidence for the future of 
mankind. 

Today, the forces of the United Nations stand 
on the threshold of military victory. The opera- 
tions authorized by the Security Council have been 
conducted with vigor and skill. The price paid 
has been high. The sacrifice in anxiety, sorrow, 
wounded, and dead must be abundantly requited. 
A living political, social, and spiritual monument 
to the achievement of the first enforcement of the 
United Nations peace-making function must be 
erected. 

The opportunities for new acts of aggression, 
of course, should be removed. Faithful adher- 
ence to the United Nations objective of restoring 
international peace and security in the area coun- 
sels the taking of appropriate steps to eliminate 
the power and ability of the North Korean aggres- 
sor to launch future attacks. The aggressor's 
forces should not be perniitted to have refuge 
behind an imaginary line because that would 
recreate the threat to the peace of Korea and of 
the world. 



Question of 38th Parallel 

The political aspect of the problem identified 
with the 38th parallel becomes a matter of major 



Oc/ober 9, J 950 



579 



concern for the United Nations. The question 
of whether this artificial barrier sliall remain 
removed and wlietlier the country sliall be united 
now must be determined by the United Nations. 

An ancient people has waited long and suffered 
much for freedom, independence, and unity. On 
three occasions, the General Assembly has regis- 
tered its support of these objectives. The Gen- 
eral Assembly sent Commissions to Korea to assist 
in cari-ying out these aims. Its Commissions have 
not been allowed to operate north of the 38th 
parallel, to observe elections, to ascertain whether 
the people were free to express their will, or to 
accomplish the peaceful unification of Korea. 

The artificial carrier which has divided North 
and South Korea has no basis for existence either 
in law or in reason. Neither the United Nations, 
its Commission on Korea, nor the Republic of 
Korea recognizes such a line. Now, the North 
Koreans, by armed attack upon the Republic of 
Korea, have denied the reality of any such line. 

Whatever ephemeral separation of Korea there 
was for purposes relating to the surrender of the 
Japanese was so volatile tliat nobody recognizes 
it. Let us not, at this critical hour and on this 
grave event, erect such a boundary. Rather, let 
us set up standards and means, principles and 
policies, according to the Charter, by which all 
Koreans can hereafter live in peace among them- 
selves and with their neighbors. 

The great opportunity given by victory inspires 
dedication rather than rejoicing; responsibility 
rather than revenge, consecration rather than 
recrimination. In that spirit, we should consider 
the political action required of us that will con- 
tribute to enduring peace. 

The Korean people should have the right to live 
free from pressure and intimidation. We should 
seek here a solution that will not further the in- 
terests of any one country but which would be for 
the benefit of the Korean people and the whole 
United Nations. 

The United States, therefore, welcomes the dec- 
laration in the draft resolution before you that 
United Nations Forces would remain in Korea 
only as long as is necessary to cari'y out the Gen- 
eral Assembly's recommendations. My Govern- 
ment hopes, in fact, that the major portion of this 
effort will be carried out by units of the United 
Nations Forces from couTitries other than the 
United States. We would be pleased if Asian 
states would contribute the greatest share. 

The United States does not wish to evade its 
duty as a member state. I have been authorized to 
state that my Government seeks no special privi- 
lege or position in Korea. We withdrew our forces 
once before from Korea in connection with tlie 
General Assembly's efforts to achieve the unifica- 
tion of that country. As an earnest of our co- 
operation toward that objective, we will do the 
same again. 

The draft resolution clearly states one of the 



most determined objectives of the United Na- 
tions — the unity and independence of Korea. At 
this moment, we camiot foresee the precise cir- 
cumstances in which unification is to be accom- 
plished. Even if this were not the case, we would 
be ill-advised to try to develop here detailed blue- 
prints for such a complex operation. Therefore, 
we endorse the idea of establishing in Korea a 
strong United Nations Connnission empowered to 
devise practical and effective measures for achiev- 
ing United Nations objectives. 

The Commission would, of course, consult with 
the Unified Command and with the democratically 
selected representatives of the Korean people. At 
an appropriate time, elections by secret ballot, free 
from fraud and intimidation, under the auspices 
of the United Nations Connnission would have to 
be arranged. 

Free Vote in South Cited 

Free, democratic elections already have been 
held south of the 38th parallel. The General 
Assembly has formally declared the Government 
of the Republic of Korea, formed as a result of 
those elections, to be the lawfully constituted Gov- 
ernment in that part of Korea in which the United 
Nations Commission was able to observe elections. 

It is the territory and people of this Government 
that have been ravaged by war; it is the soldiers 
of this Government whose valor and patriotism 
have been strengthened by the United Nations 
Forces. The manner and procedures required to 
unify the countrj? are functions for the United 
Nations to perform, but tlie Government of the 
Republic of Korea has unquestionably earned the 
right to be consulted in all matters relating to 
the future of Korea. 

The future of Korea is, in a special and unique 
sense, the responsibility of the United Nations. 
That is why Secretary Acheson, in his address at 
the opening of this Assembly, placed particular 
emphasis on the task of reconstruction. 

"Just as Korea has become the symbol of re- 
sistance against aggression," he stated, "so can it 
become also the vibrant symbol of the renewal of 
life." 

We cannot limit our horizons to removing the 
scars of war. One of the fundamental purposes 
of our association in the United Nations is self- 
heljo and mutual assistance to remove the causes of 
conflict among men. We live in a world in which 
most of our fellow men eat too little, live too 
wretchedly, and die too j'oung. We also live in a 
world in which misery and disease can be amelio- 
rated if we can only learn how to marshal our 
knowledge and our resources properly. 

Tiie maintenance of enduring peace in Korea, 
and anywhere else in our world community, does 
not mean merely the absence of military opera 
tions. It means pushing ahead with our efforts 
to advance human well-being. And, as Secretary 



580 



Department of State Bulletin 



Acheson stated, Korea is the place in which to 
make an historic beginninsj. 



U.N. Program Required 

Establishing a free and independent nation in 
Korea will require a United Nations program to 
rebuild the economy of Korea and reestablish its 
educational, health, and social institutions. The 
responsibilities proposed for the United Nations 
Unification and Rehabilitation Commission in the 
field or reconstruction and recovery are, in the 
view of the United States, particularly important. 
Urgent action is required so that plans can be made 
to mobilize the resources and equipment needed 
from the member states to aid the Korean people 
to rebuild their factories, their transportation sys- 
tem, their scliools, and their homes. 

The problem of relief and emergency rehabilita- 
tion in Korea is upon us now. We feel that the 
Economic and Social Council should be requested 
to proceed immediately to draw up a program. 
Urgent action also is required to prepare a 
program of reconstruction. The Economic and 
Social Council, therefore, should submit to the 
Assembly at the earliest possible moment, recom- 
mendations for a general program of reconstruc- 
tion and rehabilitation and for the machinery to 
implement it. 

Let us join together in Korea to develop a pat- 
tern of coordinated economic and social action 
which we can employ in other places where the 
need is not to repair the ravages of war but is for 
development. By focusing on one place of ex- 
treme need, the United Nations and its specialized 
agencies can gain strength from experience to aid 
peoples evei"ywhere to combat disease, build hos- 
pitals and schools, train teachers and public ad- 
ministrators, build and operate factories, and ob- 
tain more food from the land. 



Ways To Solve Korean Problem 

In Korea we have learned new lessons in how to 
act collectively to promote security. Tlie lessons 
give endless promise. Let us now learn new les- 
sons in how to act collectively to promote well- 
being. Here is our great opportunity to put into 
practical effect the basic economic and social pre- 
cepts of the Covenant on Human Rights. 

Let us make the United Nations the world's 
construction agency. 

An enduring solution of the Korean problem 
should, in the view of the United States, include 
these elements : 

First: Establishment of a free, independent, 
and united country. 

_ Second : Establishment of a strong United Na- 
tions Commission to consult with all appropriate 
authorities and individuals and to make recom- 
mendations for carrying out the unification 
process. 



Third: Selection of representatives of the Ko- 
rean people in free elections conducted under the 
auspices of the United Nations Commission. 

Fourth : Consultation with the Government of 
the Republic of Korea in all matters pertaining 
to the future of Korea. 

Fifth : Vigorous United Nations efforts to assist 
the reconstruction and development of Korea. 

Sixth : The retention of United Nations forces 
in Korea only as long as is necessary for the 
achievement of United Nations objectives. 

Seventh : Elimination of special privileges for 
any nation and the development of friendly rela- 
tions with all. 

And eighth : Admission of Korea to the United 
Nations and assumption by her of the obligations, 
duties, and privileges of membership. 

These elements for an enduring solution of the 
Korean problem are all contained in the draft reso- 
lution submitted by the delegations of the United 
Kingdom, the Philippines, Australia, Norway, 
Netherlands, Brazil, Cuba, and Pakistan. My 
Government is glad to declare its wholehearted 
support of that resolution. 



New General Assembly Agenda Stems 

The following additional agenda items ^ were 
adopted by the fifth regular session of the General 
Assembly on September 26, according to United 
Nations document A/1400 : under refugees and 
stateless persons, draft convention relating to the 
status of refugees; and also united action for 
peace; declaration on the removal of the threat of 
a new war and the strengthening of peace and 
security among the nations ; and complaint by the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics regarding 
aggression against China by the United States of 
America. 



Geoffrey Parsons Named 
NAC Information Adviser 

Geoffrey Parsons, Jr., has been named infor- 
mation adviser to the deputy United States rep- 
resentative in the North Atlantic Council, Charles 
M. Spofford, the American deputy announced Sep- 
tember 29. Mr. Spofford said that Mr. Parsons 
will also be a member of the International Infor- 
mation Section for the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization which has recently been organized 
Ijy the Council deputies. 

' See Bui-LETiN of Aug. 21, 1950, p. 304 and Sept. 11, 
1950, p. 425. 



October 9, 1950 



581 



Korean Problem Illustrates Great Decisions 
To Be Made by United Nations 



Interview of Secretary Acheson hy Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt ' 



MRS. ROOSEVELT : In your speech to the General As- 
sembly, Mr. Secretary, you spoke of this session as a 
meeting of deci.sion. Was it your thought that the special 
importance of this session arises chiefly out of the Korean 
issue? 

Secretary Acheson : Yes, Mrs. Eoosevelt, Ko- 
rea both raises and illustrates the great decisions 
which have to be made by this General Assembly. 

The first one, I think, is in the area of collective 
security. When the aggression took place against 
Korea, the world held its breath for a moment, 
and, then, when the United Nations made that 
historic decision to throw all the force of its mem- 
bers against the aggression, I think the world 
turned a corner and peace became infinitely more 
possible. 

The task which we have in this General As- 
sembly is to organize the collective security of 
those members who wish to maintain peace. As 
you know, the United States delegation has put 
in several proposals which are calculated to do 
just exactly that. 

MRS. ROOSEVELT: You have said, Mr. Secretary, 
that the Korean problem involves .several issues of im- 
portance before the United Nations. You had in mind, I 
suppose, also the problem of the reconstruction of Korea 
after the fighting has ended? 

Secretary Acheson: I had it very much in 
mind, Mrs. Roosevelt. The whole jaurpose of 
Imikling collective security is that behind the 
shield of that security we can go forward with the 
great constructive work of human life. And here 
is a place where we can begin. Korea has been 
devastated by war. The United Nations has 
stopped that aggression; has brought that war 
very close to an end. Now, the United Nations 

' Made over NBC television program on Oct. 1 and 
released to the press on the same date. 



can demonstrate to the world how, in one place, 
it can bring together all the knowledge and all 
the power of its members to really create a life 
for the people of Korea with their own efforts 
which will be an inspiration to everybody. 

We have learned a great deal in the last few 
years through the United Nations about working 
together on these common problems. In the field 
of health, in the field of agriculture, in industry, 
in building factories and schools, we have learned 
a vast amount as to how we can bring technical 
skill, through the United Nations, to the aid of 
individual peojjle. All this can be done in Korea 
and all of this will be constructive and positive. 

Of course, it doesn't make news. It makes more 
news for two delegates in the General Assembly to 
insult one another than it does for the Children's 
Emergency Fund to inoculate millions of children 
against tuberculosis. The latter is constructive — 
the former gets us nowhere. 

MRS. ROOSEVELT: These two problems brought out 
by the Korean question illustrate, do they not, the two 
lines of activity that, you said in your speech, the United 
Nations should be carrying out simultaneously? 

Secretary Acheson : They do very clearly, in- 
deed, Mrs. Roosevelt, and they bring out a third 
need — the reason why we are doing both of these 
things, the reason why we push forward with our 
collective security, the reason why we push forward 
with these constructive efforts, comes back to the 
importance of the individual human person. 

And that brings me to the great importance of 
the work that you are doing on the Human Rights 
Commission. We have learned, through all of 
these difficult years, that we can never ))ut off for 
the future the insistence upon the rights of the 
individual person, because it is the individual per- 
son that gives point and validity and worth to 
everything that we do. 



582 



Depatiment of State Bulletin 



Let Freedom Ring 



by PhiUp C. Jessitp 
Ambassador-at-large ■ 



The peril wliich confronts us is that we may 
lose the accuniiilated values of our civilization and 
the faith which is the product of that civiliza- 
tion. The source of the peril is a new fanaticism 
called communism. It is not communism as an 
economic dogma developed, with vast historical 
inaccuracy, by Carl Marx, which is a menace. 
Economic fallacies take care of themselves. But 
it is the perverted use of connnunism as a slogan 
for the police state which has made the term a 
label for the peril to free peoples everywhere. 
This fanaticism is devoid of moral values be- 
cause moral values appertain to the individual, 
and communism as a current political mechanism 
appei-tains to the state. Superficially, one might 
think that such a deification of the state as the 
symbol of the community is a more unselfish phi- 
losophy than our insistence upon the dignity of 
the individual. 

The Ruling Clique 

In terms of communism as it is practiced in 
the Soviet Union and promulgated from the 
Kremlin this is not tiaie. For in reality, under 
this system, the state is not the community 
but the ruling clique. And what is the ruling 
clique? It is a group of cruel and selfish men 
intent only upon the perpetuation of their own 
power. To achieve this end, they use the mecha- 
nism of the police state. They use it as Hitler 
used it with savage cruelty, with cunning, and 
with contempt for the welfare of the people en- 
slaved by their propaganda and their secret po- 
lice. It serves their purpose to promote a favored 
elite who live in comfort or even in luxury but 
always in fear. There is no trust; there is only 
suspicion, reliance on power, and again on fear. 

Wliat inhabitant of the Soviet Union could 
sing "sweet land of liberty" without even a con- 
scious sense of the falseness of the words? He 

' Excerpts from an address made at Middlebury College, 
Middlebury, Vt. on Sept. 30 and released to the press on 
the same date. 



may have drilled into his being the idea that it is 
well that he should subordinate himself to the all- 
powerful state, but he could never think of him- 
self as having "liberty." Is he a scientist? His 
conclusions, like his hypotheses, must conform to 
the state dogma. Is he a musician? His sym- 
phonies must conform not to his concepts of har- 
mony, beauty, or art but to the decision of an oli- 
garchy. Whatever his skill, his inspiration, or his 
desire, he must conform under the shadow of a 
great and omnipresent terror. 

They say it is a revolutionary society, but they 
will not tolerate the revolutionary heresy "Let 
freedom ring." Revolution itself must, in the 
Communist concept, deny its meaning and become 
arid conformity. lievolution is only the stepping 
stone to slavery. 

Revolution is a theme for export from the Soviet 
Union. It is a jiractice to be encouraged in other 
comitries as a j^art of the strategy for enslaving 
them. Its practice or advocacy in the homeland 
is punished with death, and bare nonconformity is 
considered revolutionary. The shades of Buk- 
liarin and his fellow defendants in the purge trials 
bear eloquent witness to that fact. It is a gro- 
tesque fantasy that the most reactionary ruling 
clique in the world, namely, the Politburo, is able 
by the cunning deception of its pi-oi^aganda to 
secure the momentary support of peoples inspired 
by the love of liberty. We who practice liberty 
have somehow failed to gain the victory which 
should come from standing on "the vantage- 
ground of truth." 

Communism in Practice 

In part, we are inhibited by a sophisticated re- 
luctance to state the obvious. Yet, there is no 
more potent weapon in the world than the state- 
ment of the obvious when the statements are true. 
We found, during the war, that the best propa- 
ganda was the truth proved by experience to be 
the truth. This was and is because the truth so 
overwhelmingly proves the advantage of our posi- 



Ocfofaer 9, 1950 



583 



tion. The Cominform pays tribute to this fact by 
denying their people access to the truth. Only 
the most deeply indoctrinated person is allowed 
contact with the outside world where truth is at 
large, and, even among this tested elite, there are 
constant defections. 

Unconsciously, many of our writers and speak- 
ers strengthen the Soviet cause by discussing their 
strength. Of course, they have elements of 
strength. Evil always has elements of strength, 
because it is unhampered by respect for any of the 
decencies which separate good from evil. 

Actually, all of the familiar patterns of Soviet 
action clearly reveal their weakness. They know 
their society is too weak to bear comparison with 
the free world. The iron curtain is a badge of 
weakness. The armies they build up behind it are 
vulnerable to the truth. The greatest hazard in 
the victorious advance of their armies in Western 
Europe at the end of the war was the exposure of 
the soldiers to the realities of Western living. 
Long and vigorous reindoctrination or purging 
was necessary to readjust them to living in their 
world of whips and promises. 

Yet, it is not enough to preach and practice 
liberty despite the great moral strength which 
that preachment and practice engenders. The 
struggle for men's minds is only part of the con- 
flict. The Kremlin seeks to control men's minds 
so they can control also their bodies. We must 
have physical strength as well. 



Early Twentieth Century 

I recall the surprise of the news of the summer 
of 1914 when the Kaiser (it is always personified 
in our minds) invaded Belgium. I was just about 
to enter college, and I had never had occasion to 
think much about war. It had an unreality for 
my generation until the Plattsburgh movement 
and the Mexican border incident combined with 
the headlmes of the news from Europe to rouse 
us from our lethargy. Nineteen hundi-ed and 
seventeen and our entry into the war came soon 
enough, and there has been no halcj'on day since 
then. We did not fully realize as a nation that 
this was so. There was the postwar period of pro- 
hibition and speakeasies; the fabulous twenties 
with their huge paper fortunes; then the crash, 
the New Deal, Hitler, and again war. Com- 
placency has not returned since V-J Day, but the 
cause of our uneasiness has been inadequately ap- 
preciated. Slowly, as is our national wont, we 
have begun to absorb into our being the reality 
with which other peoples, the French for instance, 
have long been familiar. 

The reality is that the world is confronted with 
reckless and savage men who have the power to 
move millions into war and who do not hesitate 
to do so if their own personal power will be en- 
hanced thereby. People who are permitted to 



know the truth and who think do not believe that 
the Kremlin is striving for peace. No irresponsi- 
ble bombast about our initiating war reflects the 
thought of the American people or of the Ameri- 
can Government. No responsible American be- 
lieves that we stand to gain from war. The anti- 
war statements of great military figures like Eisen- 
hower and Marshall do reflect our national spirit. 
We needed no proof that we would fight if neces- 
sary. If others needed it, they received it in June 
when wanton aggression was loosed by Commu- 
nist imperialism against the Republic of Korea. 

Doctrine of Freedom 

There was a new note in our response to that 
aggression. It was as if through our subcon- 
scious the refrain "Let freedom ring" applied 
not only to the mountain tops of Vermont and 
Tennessee and Colorado but also to those of Korea. 
Moreover, we did not silence the refrain as we 
thought to ourselves that there are other moun- 
tain tops in many other parts of the world. In 
Korea, we said "Let it ring" with a note of au- 
thority. It was an order. The order is being 
carried out by the unified command for the United 
Nations because .53 nations also wish freedom 
and not slavery under INIoscow. It is a pity that 
the United Nations is not universal in order that 
all free peoples might join in the chonis. 

For other mountain tops, whether in Asia, in 
South America, in Europe, in Africa, or in the 
islands of the sea, we sang "Let freedom ring" 
in notes of questioning, of warning, even if you 
like, of pleading. It was not the pleading of 
weakness, on bended knee, of subservience to a 
power which could dispose at will of our future. 
It was the pleading of a people who can see rea- 
son and wish that others could see it too. It was 
the pleading which the strong address to the weak 
that they may be spared the sufi'ering which would 
flow from their intransigence. 

There is a power in such pleading greater than 
the power of command, when it is backed as in 
our case by the greatest technological skill and 
productive capacity and moral stamina which the 
world has ever seen. It draws added strength 
from the truth that we seek no added power or 
dominion and that the world knows this to be true. 
It grows still stronger when, as now, it is coupled 
with the sound of bombs and gmis used at great 
personal sacrifice on behalf of the United Nations 
and of a small gallant, freedom-loving nation 
established under the aegis of the United Nations. 

We will not barter the freedom which rings on 
mountain tops or in the valleys or on the plains of 
any free people. Nor will we impose our ideas 
upon any other people. 

As a matter of fact, we in America hai-bor the 
most revolutionary doctrine of all time, the doc- 
trine of freedom or liberty. Only the staunchest 
and most vigorous community can retain the 
slogan after the first fine frenzy of the fighting 



584 



Department of State Bulletin 



days when the yoke is thrown off. The Russians 
sank into the reactionary pattern at once, making 
freedom (of thought, of speech, of religion, of 
aspiration, of activity) a capital crime once the 
old regime was overthrown. They were too weak 
to tolerate freedom. The glory of the American 
Revolution and indeed of the whole western revo- 
lution — which celebrated the rights of man as 
contrasted with the rights of the state, which 
means the ruling clique — is its ability to retain 
the revolutionary slogan of freedom throughout 
a century and a half. 

Freedom of the Press 

It is commonplace with us to groan over the 
petty trials and tribulations which result from 
freedom. Fortunately, we have so far generally 
secured the necessary delicate balance between 
license and liberty. Our measure of success is the 
product of a quality which is a national character- 
istic despite numerous individual deviations. 
That quality is a sense of responsibility — of proud 
responsibility. There is in the American spirit a 
realization that we are the inheritors of great tra- 
ditions. Something priceless has been passed on 
through generations into our hands and must be 
passed on by us, unblemished and intact. When- 
ever we exercise our freedoms without a sense of 
responsibility, damage is done to our great cause. 
The sometimes irresponsible exercise of the 
freedom of the press causes great damage to our 
hard-won friendship with other peoples. Not all 
editors scan their columns with the question in 
their minds, "Will this contribute to our friend- 
ship with the people of X country?" In terms of 
our international relations, our Government has 
dealt with this problem for many decades. We 
have pointed out, and properly, that because we 
have freedom of the press, no foreign government 
should impute to ours the frequently irresponsible 
statements of criticism or reproach. What is 
levelled at the heads of foreign governments is 
equally levelled at our own. Let the state which 
similarly permits free criticism of itself, cavil at 
our newspapers or magazines. Wherever there is 
also a free press, governments understand even 
though private reactions are extreme. We must 
always be alert to appreciate the reciprocal aspect 
of a free press. 

Far different is the situation where the press 
is allowed to print only what the government per- 
mits. When Pravda or Izvestia or Red Star speaks 
in their columns from Moscow, we know that gov- 
ernment has spoken. The Kremlin seeks to defend 
itself by quoting the New York Times or the 
Chicago Tribune^ but neither it, nor any informed 
source, believes for a minute that those, or any 
other American editorial columns, parrot the dic- 
tates of the White House as all Soviet papers 
parrot the dictates of the Kremlin. 

Anyone who has sat thi'ough endless sessions 
of the United Nations General Assembly and its 



committees has seen the contrast. The bloc of 
five — the U.S.S.R. and its four satellites — speak 
with the single voice of the Cominform. Repeti- 
tion is for them a virtue, and repetition covers 
not only ideas but even the verbiage. On the 
other side is the free world — 53 or 54 nations 
speaking on disparate notes which are at the same 
time not discordant because they compose a 
symphony of truth and of conviction that they 
believe what is called in the law "The truth of the 
matter asserted." 

Freedom in Historical Retrospect 

The freedom of the modern democratic society 
as an enduring phenomenon is new in history. 
There are the prototypes of the Greek City States 
and of Rome and even of some primitive societies, 
but, in historical retrospect, these examples stand 
out as islands in a great stormy ocean of dictator- 
ship and imperial rule. The free democratic Eng- 
lish spirit ploughed its way through the ancient 
bulwarks of the royal prerogative and privileged 
nobility for centuries, but the English democracy 
we know was not apparent to our forebears in 
1776. It was the spirit of the latter eighteenth 
century which drew on the deep wells of human 
aspiration and created an enduring free demo- 
cratic society. 

The Russian Revolution of 1917 seemed, for a 
brief historical moment, to be in this great tradi- 
tion. But the revolutionary principle of freedom 
was soon betrayed. It was replaced by a reaction- 
ary movement which has kept the various peoples 
of the Soviet Union in its grip for 30 years. The 
course of free democracy has gone on elsewhere 
and has grown in strength and in human appeal. 
In the Soviet Union, it has been beaten into sub- 
mission. Czarist Russia was symbolized by the 
whip, which kept the serfs in subjection, and by 
the bear, which kept stretching out greedy arms 
with claws, for more territory to satiate the im- 
perialist urge. Soviet Russia has in reality the 
same symbols. The whij), the symbol of fear and 
the police state, is identical. The claws of the 
bear are now the sickle, which circles the hammer, 
but there is the same imperialist drive. Poland 
was a victim to Czarist imperialism and is again 
a victim to Soviet imperialism. Czarist Russia 
stretched its greedy claws out to Port Arthur and 
Manchuria and rivalled Japan for control of 
Korea. Port Arthur is again a Russian base 
wrested from China. Manchuria, Mongolia, Sin- 
kiang are being hacked away from China by the 
Communist imperialist sickle. And, now again, 
Korea. 

The Revolution of Freedom 

But, in Korea, the true revolutionary spirit of 
freedom, which has been kept alive all these dec- 
ades in the free democratic world, has responded. 
In all Asia, the yearning for relief from misery 



October 9, 1950 



585 



and oppression can best be met by the spirit of 
freedom. Wliile the free spirit of BaUs and 
Czechs and Poles and Hunjiarians and others has 
been beaten into temporary bloody subjection by 
the hammer and sickle, the national freedom of 
the Filipinos, the Indians, the Pakistanis, the 
Ceylonese, the Burmese, the Indonesians, the In- 
dochinese, and at least some of the Koreans has 
been realized. It has been realized because the 
free world has set those peoples free. Freedom 
is budding too in Africa where, under the aegis 
of the United Nations and against Soviet oppo- 
sition, independence is already being prepared for 
Libya and Somaliland. 

We are still the revolutionaries, we of the free 
world in the Americas, in Europe, in Africa, Asia, 
ancl the islands of the sea. Within and among us, 
there still burgeon the concepts of social justice 
and of tolerance. Meanwhile, the modern tech- 
nological version of ancient tyranny still flour- 
ishes in the vast Russian domain. The revolu- 
tionary spirit of democracy first won its liberties 
by force of arms. It has had to turn from the 
plough and the machine time and again to keep 
its freedom from tyranny. But its greatest 
strength has been the universal appeal of its 
spirit. The revolutionary slogan of freedom still 
has the greatest power. The reactionaries, wheth- 
er in the Kremlin or elsewhere, try to ride the tide 
of freedom by pretending to accept it. Like prior 
tyrants, the Politburo "stnits and frets his hour 
upon the stage and then is heard no more.'' His 
propaganda "is a tale told by an idiot, full of 
sound and fury, signifying nothing." 

There are many parts of the Charter of the 
United Nations which the Soviet Union ignores. 
It can not ignore the opening words of the Char- 
ter's preamble which begins, "We the Peoples of 
the United Nations. ..." The peoples of the 
Soviet Union and of the states now satellites still 
have the longing for freedom and that longing 
will some day be satisfied. It will be satisfied be- 
cause the revolution of freedom still has the vital- 
ity of youth and is still on the march. 



General MacArthur 
Congratulated on Korean Victory 

Message From the President 

[Rdleased to the press by the White House September 29] 

I know that I speak for the entire American 
people when I send you my warmest congratula- 
tions on the victory which has been achieved under 
your leadership in Korea. Few operations in 
military histoi'y can match either the delaying 
action where you traded space for time in which 
to build up your forces or the brilliant maneuver 
which has now resulted in the liberation of Seoul. 



I am particularly impressed by the splendid co- 
operation of our Army, Navy, and Air Force, and 
I wish you would extend my thanks and congratu- 
lations to the commanders of those services — Lt. 
Gen. Walton H. Walker, Vice Admiral Charles T. 
Joy, and Lt. Gen. George E. Stratemeyer. The 
unification of our arms established by you and by 
them has set a shining example. My thanks and 
the thanks of the people of all the free nations go 
out to your gallant forces — soldiers, sailors, ma- 
rines, and air men — from the United States and 
the other countries fighting for freedom under the 
United Nations banner. I salute you all and say 
to all of you from all of us at home, "Well and 
nobly done." 

Reply From General Mac Arthur 

[Released to the press by the White House September 30] 

I am most grateful for your generous message 
which I shall transmit to the elements of this 
command. It will be a source of inspiration and 
strength to all concerned. 



Surrender Terms to North Korean Forces' 

To the Commander in Chief, North Korean Forces : 

The early and total defeat and complete destruc- 
tion of your armed forces and war making potential 
is now inevitable. In order that the decisions of 
the United Nations may be carried out with a mini- 
mum of further loss of life and destruction of 
property, I, as the United Nations Commander in 
Chief, call upon you and the forces under your 
command, in whatever part of Korea situated, forth- 
with to lay down your arms and cease hostilities 
under such military supervision as I may direct and 
I call upon you at once to liberate all United Nations 
prisoners of war and civilian internees under your 
control and to make adequate provision for their 
protection, care, maintenance and immediate trans- 
portation to such places as I indicate. North 
Korean forces, including prisoners of war in the 
hands of the United Nations Command, will con- 
tinue to be given the care dictated by civilized 
custom and practice and permitted to return to their 
homes as soon as practicable. I shall anticipate 
your early decision upon this opportunity to avoid 
the further useless shedding of blood and destruc- 
tion of property. 

DouOLAS MacAbthur 



'Contained in U.N. doc. S/1829, dated Oct. 1, 
1950 and transmitted to the Secretary-General by 
the U.S. representative to the United Nations on 
the same date. This surrender message was issued 
on Oct. 1 at 1200 Tokyo time ( 10 : (M) p.m. e.s.t. 
Sept. 30). 



586 



Department of State Bulletin 



The United Nations Flag 

[Released to the tyrcss hy the V.N. Department of Public 
Information September 5] 

The story of the United Nations fiag; begins with 
the emblem which was prepared by the Presenta- 
tion Branch of the United States Office of Stra- 
tegic Services in April ID-ta, in response to a 
request for a button design for the San Francisco 
Conference at which the United Xations Charter 
was drafted and approved. 

The San Francisco design was a circular repre- 
sentation of a map of the world, extending to the 
40th parallel south, and with the 100th meridian 
west of Greenwich in the lower vertical position. 

At the second part of the first session of the 
United Nations General Assembly, the Secretary- 
General urged that it was desirable for the Assem- 
bly to adopt a design to be the official seal and 
emblem of the United Nations. 

On December 7, 1946, the Assembly approved, 
with slight modifications, the San Francisco de- 
sign. The revised emblem was described as a map 
of the world, representing an azimuthal equidis- 
tant projection centered on the North Pole, in- 
scribed in a wreath consisting of crossed conven- 
tionalized branches of the olive tree. 

In the earlier design, the United States had been 
given the central position, chiefly because it was 
there that the 1945 conference had been held. On 
the revised emblem, the vertical meridian — the 
center of the line of vision — falls on the Interna- 
tional Date Line and the Meridian of Greenwich. 
The projection of the map previouslj^ extended 
only to the 40th degree South Latitude; the new 
design extends to the 60th degree South Latitude 
including all lands except the antarctic continent. 

At the second regidar session of the General 
Assembly, the Secretary-General submitted a 
memorandum stating that the need for a United 
Nations flag had already been felt, and would un- 
doubtedly be increasingly felt in the future, in 
connection with the work of the committees or 
commissions sent by organs of the United Nations 
to different parts of the world, as well as for use 
at Headquarters and at United Nations offices and 
Information Centers. 

The Secretary-General reported that the Com- 
mission of Investigation Concerning Greek Fron- 
tier Incidents had been using an unofficial flag 
designed by the Secretariat. This flag consisted 
of the official emblem, previously adopted by the 
General Assembly, centered on a ground of light 
blue and entitled: "United Nations: Nations 
Unies." The Commission had used the unofficial 
flag in order to enjoy the protection of and be 
identified by a neutral symbol while traveling 
through troubled areas or holding meetings under 
the jurisdiction of several comitries. 



The Secretary-General proposed that the design 
which had already been used unofficially, but with- 
out the entitling words, possessed the essential re- 
quirements of simplicity and dignity for an official 
United Nations flag. 

On October 20, 1947, the Assembly adojited, 
without objection, a resolution declaring: "That 
the flag of the United Nations shall be the official 
emblem adopted by the General Assembly . . . 
centered on a liglit blue gi-ound." 

The resolution directed the Secretary-General 
to draw up regulations concerning the dimensions 
and proportions of the flag and" authorized him 
to adopt a flag code "having in mind the desira- 
bility of a regulated use of the flag and the protec- 
tion of its dignity." 

A Flag Code was issued by the Secretary-Gen- 
eral on December 19, 1947, but the Code was re- 
vised on July 28, 1950, by the Secretary-General 
in order to permit display of the flag by organiza- 
tions and individuals desiring to demonstrate 
their support of the United Nations. 

The Code defines the design of the flag as fol- 
lows : 

The flag of the United Nations shall be the official 
emblem of the United Nations, centered on a United 
Nations' blue background. Such emblem shall appear 
in white on both sides of the flag except when otherwise 
prescribed by regulation. The flag shall be made in such 
sizes as may from time to time be prescribed by regu- 
lation. 

The text of the United Nations' Flag Code, as 
amended on July 28, 1950, has been issued in 
printed pamphlet form and is also given in press 
release M/665. 

One clause of the Flag Code provides that the 
United Nations flag may be manufactured for 
sale only upon written consent of the Secretary- 
General. This consent is subject to the follow- 
ing conditions : that the flag is sold at a price to be 
agreed upon with the Secretary-General and that 
it shall be the responsibility of the manufacturer 
to ensure that every jjurchaser of the flag is fur- 
nished with a copy of the Flag Code and regula- 
tions and that each purchaser is informed that use 
of the flag is subject to the conditions laid down 
by the Code and regulations. 

In the United States, eight flag manufacturing 
companies have received permission from the Sec- 
retai'y-General to manufacture for sale the United 
Nations flag. These companies are : 

Annin & Co., 8.5 Fifth Avenue, New York 

Dettra & Co., 35-37 West 23rd Street, New York 

Paramount Flag Co., 1189 Broadway, New York, and 

520 B^olsom Street, San Francisco 5 
Sherritt Flag Co., Richmond 20, Virginia 
New England Decorating Co., Lincoln Street, Boston 

11, Mass. 
The National Flag Co., 1012 Flint Street, Cincinnati 

14, Ohio 
Standard Flag & Manufacturing Co., 716 Chestnut 

Street, Philadelphia 
The Valley Forge Flag Co., 200 Fifth Avenue, New 

York 



October 9, 7950 



587 



Integrated Force Under Centralized Command 
To Defend Western Europe 

[Released to the press September 27] 



Following is the text of the communique issued on 
September 28 by the North Atlantic Council at New York: 

The North Atlantic Council reconvened today 
to resume discussions. Tlie Council has been in 
recess since Monday, September 18. During the 
interval of this recess, the Foreign Ministers have 
been in consultation with their Governments. 

The Council agreed upon the establishment, at 
the earliest possible date, of an integrated force 
under centralized command, which shall be ade- 
quate to deter aggression and to ensure the defense 
of Western Europe. 

The concept of the integrated force approved 
by the Council is based upon the following 
principles : 

1. The force will be organized under the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization and will be subject 
to political and strategic guidance exercised by 
the appropriate agencies of that organization. 

2. The force will be under a Supreme Com- 
mander who will have sufficient delegated author- 
ity to ensure that national units allocated to his 
command are organized and trained into an effec- 
tive integrated force in time of peace as well as in 
the event of war. 

3. The Supreme Commander will be supported 
by an international staff representing all nations 
contributing to the force. 

4. Pending the appointment of a Supreme Com- 
mander, there is to be appointed a Chief of Staif 
who will have responsibility for training and 
organization. 

5. The Standing Group of the Military Com- 
mittee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
will be responsible for higher strategic direction 
of the integrated force. 

The finalization by the Council of the arrange- 
ments for the integrated force must await the rec- 
ommendations of the Defense Committee on the 
following points: 

The Council has requested the Defense Commit- 



tee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to 
woi'k out the organization of the integrated force 
and to recommend the steps necessary to bring this 
force into being at the earliest possible time. The 
Council has also requested the Defense Committee 
to consider changes and simplifications requii'ed 
in the military structure of the North Atlantic 
Ti-eaty Organization and related military organ- 
izations and to consider how best to ensure the 
necessary close working relationship between the 
Standing Group and the member governments not 
represented on it. 

The Council agreed that, in order to bring the 
integrated foice into effective being, all available 
manpower and productive resources should be 
fully utilized for the defense of Western Europe. 
To this end, the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion will consider the precise character and com- 
position of the forces to be allocated to the inte- 
grated force by member Governments. Decisions 
regarding the allocation of such forces will be 
sought from member governments at an early 
date. 

The utilization of German manpower and re- 
sources was discussed in the light of views recently 
expressed by democratic leaders in Germany and 
elsewhere. The Council was in agreement that 
Germany should be enabled to contribute to the 
build-up of the defense of Western Europe and, 
noting that the occupying powers were studying 
the matter, requested the Defense Committee to 
make recommendations at the earliest possible date 
as to the methods by which Germany could most 
usefully make its contribution. 

In accordance with tlie policy of annual rota- 
tion of the chairmanship, the Foreign Minister 
of Belgium, Paul Van Zeeland, has assumed the 
chairmansliip of the Council for the coming year. 

In adjourning their meeting, the Ministers re- 
affirmed the unity of the free peoples which they 
represent in their common determination to pre- 
serve the peace, the security, and the freedom of 
the Atlantic community. 



588 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Inter-American Economic and Social Council's 
Program of Technical Assistance 



UNITED STATES CONTRIBUTION 

hy Edward G. Miller, Jr. 

Assistant Secretary for Inter-American Affairs ^ 

As Assistant Secretary of State for Inter- Amer- 
ican Affairs, I am, of course, deeply concerned with 
all matters that contribute to the economic develop- 
ment of the Hemisphere. Having had the privi- 
lege of serving at the first special meeting of the 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council as 
chairman of Committee C, it is pei'haps only natu- 
ral that I should have a special interest in the 
implementation of the technical assistance reso- 
lution adopted at the Special Meeting on April 10. 

I have followed developments since that date 
very closely, and I was happy to receive a few days 
ago a copy of the proposed technical assistance 
program formulated by the Coordinating Commit- 
tee. I have read this program with interest, and 
I am imjDressed with the very workmanlike job 
which the Coordinating Committee has done. I 
would like to extend my sincere congratulations 
to Dr. Lleras, the Chairman of that Committee, 
and to all those who collaborated with him for the 
way they have carried out this difficult assignment. 
I cannot, of course, foresee what action the Coun- 
cil will take, but I would like to express the ear- 
nest hope that, whatever jjrogram may finally be 
adopted, it will be possible for the Inter-American 
Economic and Social Council to begin its technical 
assistance activities on January 1, 1951. This 
means that we will all have to put our shoulders 
to the wheel and, as far as my Government is con- 
cerned, I can pledge its wholehearted collaboration 
toward that end. 

It is with this in mind that I would like to an- 
nounce at this time the amount and the nature 
of my Government's proposed contribution to the 
Inter- American Economic and Social Council 
Technical Assistance Program. It is my Govern- 
ment's intention to contribute 1 million dollars to 



that program during its first year, provided this 
amount does not exceed 70 percent of the contri- 
butions of all member governments. I am making 
this announcement at this time in the hope that it 
may prove helpful to the Council in its delibera- 
tions and that it may serve as an orientation to the 
other member governments. 

I would like to add that our contribution to the 
Technical Assistance Program of the Inter- Ameri- 
can Economic and Social Council represents only 
a part of the funds which my Government is devot- 
ing to technical assistance activities within the 
Hemisphere. 



TECHNICAL COOPERATION 

IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE 

iy Ambassador Capus M. WaynicJc 

Acting Administrator, Office of Technical Goofer- 

ation and Development^ 

I was most happy to receive an invitation to 
apjjear before members of the Council at their 
meeting today. 

I have been told that some of the activities of 
the Pan American Union represent the oldest, con- 
tinuous technical assistance program in the West- 
ern Hemisphere. Each of our Governments has 
learned much from this technical cooperation ef- 
fort, going back more than 40 years in the Hem- 
isphere. My own Government has patterned 
many of its activities after the original experi- 
ments conducted by the Pan American Union. 
We have a common interest in seeing that the 
Inter-American technical cooperation activities 
continue to grow. 

]\Iy own Government became active in technical 
coojieration woi-k about 1939, working directly 
with individual governments in the Hemisphere. 
This we call "bilateral"' jorograms, as distinct from 



^ Excerpts from remarks made at the plenary session 
of the Inter-American Economic and Social Council at 
Washington on Sept. 28 and released to the press on the 
same date. 



' Made before the plenary session of the Inter-American 
Economic and Social Council at Washington on Sept. 28 
and released to the press on the same date. 



Ocfober 9, 7950 



589 



the kind of "multilateral" activity conducted by 
the inter-American system. 

Last year, my Government expended approxi- 
mately 7 million dollars in the Western Hemi- 
sphere on technical assistance activities. These 
activities will now come under President Truman's 
Point 4 Program. All of you have heard of some 
of these activities, but I am not sure that the full 
scope of the program is generally known. Let me 
mention some examples. 



Institute of Inter-American Affairs 

The Institute of Inter-American Affairs is a 
United States Government corporation which 
enters into joint development activities with other 
governments. The Health Division of the Insti- 
tute is working in 14 countries. It drains swamps, 
builds city water systems and city sewage systems. 
It organizes health clinics. It trains nurses, and 
micl-wives, and sanitary technicians. This is an 
action program. 

The Food Supply Division of the Institute is 
organizing country-wide extension services to 
carry better agricultural practices to the individ- 
ual farmer. It has operated grain storage facil- 
ities. It has organized farm machinery pools. 

Tlie Education Division of tlie Institute is con- 
cerned with demonstrations in better rural schools 
and in vocational schools for the city. 

That has been tlie program of the Institute of 
Inter-American Affairs. 



Programs of Technical Agencies 

We also have had another program conducted 
by the technical agencies of the United States 
Government, working directly with other govern- 
ments in the Hemisphere. 

For example, the United States Department of 
Agriculture has conducted general agricultural 
stations in 8 countries, engaging in some research 
and some extension services. In every country, it 
also investigates the improvement of local food 
supply. 

Our Civil Aeronautics Administration has 
worked with a number of countries on improving 
air navigation facilities. 

Our Public Roads Administration is a familiar 
name to most of your governments. 

Our Geological Survey has been working in 
more than 10 coimtries to complete a geological 
survey of the Hemisphere with the immediate ob- 
jective of helping governments to find new sources 
of national income. 

Our Census Bureau has worked with all your 
governments with problems involved in the 1950 
census of the Americas which is now going on. 
The Census Bureau has been conducting consulta- 
tions and training courses for more than 5 years 
to prepare for this census. 



Our governments have worked in a variety of 
other fields — in fisheries, in child welfare, in social 
security, in labor standards. 

In all of these fields, my Government has been 
offering special training courses at Washington 
for technical employees of your governments. 
More than 400 training fellows are attending these 
courses each year. 

Most of these activities were first proposed by 
one or another of your governments, and, each 
year, the activities are renewed by a formal re- 
quest from your Foreign Offices, and your gov- 
ernments are expending, on the average, $2.00 for 
every one that is spent by the United States Gov- 
ernment on these projects. 

I said that my Government spent approxi- 
mately 7 million dollars on this type of activity 
in the Hemisphere last year. We are ])repared to 
spend roughly 11 million dollars for this same 
type of work during the present year. In other 
words, approximately one-third the appropria- 
tion by our Congress for the Point 4 Program is 
already earmarked for expenditure in the Ameri- 
can Republics. 



United Nations Program 

So far, I have said nothing of the United Na- 
tions program. The United Nations, under its 
expanded progi-am of technical assistance will be 
expending approximately 20 million dollars this 
year throughout the world on technical coopera- 
tion. A substantial part of that budget will doubt- 
less be spent in the American Republics, and a 
substantial part of that United Nations budget 
was contributed by the American Republics. 

In my Government, we like to feel that this 
growing interest in technical cooperation, whether 
directly between governments, or through the 
LTnited Nations, or through the inter-American 
system, is a growing force in world economic rela- 
tions which will continue until the economic and 
social problems of the world have been substan- 
tially resolved. The Inter-American Economic 
and Social Council has an important role to play 
in this world-wide movement. 

I am speaking not only of your counti-ies, but 
of mine. Our own development is more advanced 
than some others, but we remain underdeveloped. 
For instance, we have only begun to protect our 
land from erosion and to use our surface water 
intelligently and well. The point I seek to empha- 
size is that we Americans, North, Central, and 
South, have a common and joint responsibility for 
making the most of our inheritance of land and 
other natural resources. Working together as 
good neighbors, we can convert the Western Hemi- 
sphere into the kind of home for ourselves and 
our children that it ought to be. The Point 4 
F'rogram is intended to promote our cooperation 
for this purjDose. 



590 



Department of State Bulletin 



Color Cartoon Leaflet on Korea 
To Be Sent to Near and EViiddie East 

IReleased to the prrss September 25] 

One million copies of a 4-page, color cartoon 
leaflet on Korea will shortly be distributed in the 
Near and Middle East by the Department of State 
as part of its expanding campaign of truth to 
counteract Communist propaganda abroad. 

The project originated with an offer by Fred- 
erick W. Danner. president of Banner Press, Inc., 
an Akron, Ohio, printing firm, to contribute pro- 
duction of the leaflets to the Department's inter- 
national information and education program. M. 
Philip Copp of New York, publisher of Eight 
Great A?nerican.?, the initial venture of the De- 
partment of State in the use of the "comic book" as 
an overseas information medium, provided the art 
work and engravings for the leaflet. 

The Korea leaflet is being initially printed in 
four languages, Arabic, Persian, Burmese, and 
English. Later it may be printed in languages of 
the Far East. It will supplement a wide variety 
of pamphlets, photographs, posters, and press ma- 
terial which the Department and its overseas in- 
formation offices are distributing on this subject. 

The leaflet tells of United States and United 
Nations efforts after World War II to establish a 
free, independent, and united Korea. It empha- 
sizes in simple language that it was the Commu- 
nists of North Korea who launched the invasion on 
June 25 and that the United Nations condemned 
the North Koreans as aggressors and called for 
support of the Republic by United Nations mem- 
bers. It further records Soviet obstructionism in 
Korea prior to the invasion and the continuing 
efforts of the United Nations to insure a free elec- 
tion there. 

Opening with a picture of North Korean Com- 
munist tanks overrunning helpless civilians. The 
Korea Story pistorially recalls Stalin's signing of 
the Potsdam Agreement adhering to the Cairo 
Declaration guaranteeing freedom to Korea after 
the defeat of Japan. Subsequent pictures high- 
light Soviet refusal to honor her pleclges regarding 
Korea and the holding of free elections by the 
South Koreans despite Communist terrorism". As 
the peaceful Koreans work to build up their coun- 
try, after the elections, the northern Communists 
are pictured secretly armed for the coming in- 
vasion. Following the June 25 attack, the United 
Nations Security Council is shown condemning the 
aggression and ordering a cease-fire. A Commu- 
nist plane, strafing a South Korean village, sym- 
bolizes the Communist flaunting of the United 
Nations demand for peace. 

The booklet emphasizes statements by President 
Truman, Pandit Nehru of India, Gen. Romulo 
of the Philipiaines, and Liaquat Ali Khan of Pak- 
istan condemning the aggression. 



The earlier State Department "comic book," 
Eight Great Americans^ was a pictorial history of 
the lives of Washington, Jefferson, and others. 
The success of the booklet, which is being produced 
in nine languages, has. Department officials be- 
lieve, established the comic book technique as an 
effective method of telling the American story 
overseas. 



Pakistan Signs FuEbright Agreement 

[Rdciiscd to the press September SS] 

Pakistan and the United States signed, on Sep- 
tember 23, an agreement putting into operation the 
program of educational exchanges authorized by 
the Fulbright Act. 

The signing took place at Karachi, with Fazlur 
Rahman, Minister for Commerce and Education, 
representing the Government of Pakistan and 
Avra M. Warren, American Ambassador to Pakis- 
tan, representing the United States. 

This agreement was the twentieth signed under 
the act, previous agreements having been signed 
with the Governments of Austria, Australia, Bel- 
gium and Luxembourg, Burma, China, Egypt^ 
France, Greece, India, Iran, Italy, Korea, the 
Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, the Philip- 
pines, Thailand, Turkey, aiul the United Kingdom. 

The agreement provides for a United States 
Educational Foundation in Pakistan to assist in 
the administration of the educational program 
financed from certain funds resulting from the 
sale of United States surplus property to that 
country. It provides for an annual program of 
the equivalent of approximately 300,000 dollars 
in Pakistani rupees for certain educational pur- 
poses. These purposes include the financing of 
"studies, research, instruction and other educa- 
tional activities of or for citizens of the United 
States of America in schools and institutions of 
higher learning located in Pakistan or of Pakis- 
tanis in United States schools and institutions of 
higher learning located outside the continental 
United States . . . including payment for trans- 
portation, tuition, maintenance, and other ex- 
penses incident to scholastic activities; or furnish- 
ing transportation for Pakistanis who desire to 
attend United States schools and institutions of 
higher learning in the continental United States 
. . . whose attendance will not deprive citizens of 
the United States of America of an opportunity 
to attend such schools and institutions." 

All recipients of awards under this act are 
selected by the Board of Foreign Scholarships, 
appointed by the President of the United States. 

The Foundation in Pakistan will consist of eight 
members, the honorary chairman of which will be 
the United States Ambassador to Pakistan. The 
members of the Foundation will include four 
Pakistanis and four citizens of the United States. 



Ocfofaer 9, 1950 



591 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings' 



Adjourned During September 1950 

United Nations: 

Special Committee on Information Transmitted Under Article 73 (e) of Lake Success Aug. 18-Sept. 12 

the Charter. 
Economic and Social Council: 

Subcommission on Statistical Sampling: Fourth Session Lake Success Sept. 5- 

Eleventh International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art Venice Aug. 8-Sept. 10 

Edinburgh Film Festival Edinburgh Aug. 20-Sept. 10 

Izmir International Trade Fair Izmir, Turkey Aug. 20-Sept. 20 

Sixth International Congress on Vineyards and Wine Athens Aug. 23-Sept. 2 

International Law Association Copenhagen Aug. 27-Sept. 2 

International Federation for Housing and Town Planning: 20th Inter- Amsterdam Aug. 27-Sept. 2 

national Congress. 
Fag (Food and Agriculture Organization) : 

Forestry and Forest Products Commission: European Geneva Aug. 28-Sept. 1 

Meeting of Herring Technology Bergen, Norway .... Sept. 24-28 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and Interna- Paris Sept. 6-14 

tional Monetary Fund: Fifth Annual Meeting of the Boards of 
Governors. 

XXXIX General Assembly of the Interparliamentary Union Dublin Sept. 7-13 

Country Women of the World, Sixth Triennial Conference of the As- Copenhagen Sept. 9-16 

sociated. 

Levant Fair Bari, Italy Sept. 9- 26 

Vienna International Fall Fair Vienna Sept. 10-17 

European Tobacco Conference Rome Sept. 10-13 

International Scientific Radio Union: Ninth General Assembly . . . . ZUrich Sept. 11-23 

First Congress of the International Society of Internal Medicine . . . Paris Sept. 11-14 

Journ^es Rurales Internationales Brussels Sept. 14-16 

Tripartite Meeting of the Western Foreign Ministers New York City .... Sept. 12-18 

North Atlantic Council Deputies: 3rd Session New York City .... Sept. 13- 

North Atlantic Council: 5th Session New York City .... Sept. 15-16 

First International Exhibition of Applied Electricity (in connection with Bologna, Italy Sept. 17-30 

celebration of 100th Anniversity of the Birth of Augusta Righi). 

Pan American Sanitary Organization: Eleventh Meeting of the Exec- Ciudad Trujillo .... Sept. 20-23 
utive Committee. 

Fourth Session of the Directing Council Ciudad Trujillo .... Sept. 25-30 

Forensic and Social Medicine: Third International Conference of . . . Paris Sept. 23-28 

In Session as of September 30, 1950 

United Nations: 

Council on Libya Tripoli Apr. 25- 

General Assembly: Fifth Session Lake Success Sept. 19- 

Pakistan International Industries Fair Karachi Aug. 11- 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : 

Administrative Council: First Session Geneva Sept. 1- 

Broadcasting Conference, Third North American Regional : Second Washington Sept. 6- 

Session. 
IcAo (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

Special Meeting on Airworthiness and Operations — on Climb Re- Paris Sept. 14- 

quirements. 

Air Navigation Commission: Fifth Session Montreal Sept. 19- 

Council: Eleventh Session Montreal Sept. 27- 



' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. 
592 Department of State Bulletin 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 

In Session as of September 30, 1950 — Continued 

Marseille International Fair Marseille .... 

Biostatistics, Inter-American Seminar on Santiago .... 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organi- 
zation) : 

Inter-American Seminar on Elementary Education Montevideo . . . 

Gatt; (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade): 

Third Round of Tariff Negotiations of Contracting Parties .... Torquay, England 
Fao (Food and Agriculture Organization): 

Meeting of Fisheries Technologists Bergen, Norway . 

Pacific Conference (American Society of Travel Agents) Honolulu .... 



Scheduled October 1-December 30, 1950 

Sanitary Conference, Thirteenth Pan American Ciudad Trujillo .... 

Sanitary Organization, Pan American: Twelfth Meeting of Executive Ciudad Trujillo .... 
Committee. 

International Council for Exploration of the Sea Copenhagen 

Fourth Meeting of Wool Study Group London 

International Tin Study Group: Management Committee Brussels 

Iro (International Refugee Organization) : 

Executive Committee: Eighth Session Geneva 

General Council: Sixth Session Geneva 

Third Pan American Congress of Physical Education Montevideo 

Third Pan American Conference on Leprosy Buenos Aires 

Sixth Inter-American Press Congress New York City .... 

Fao (Food and Agriculture Organization) : 

Forestry and Forest Products Commission for Asia and the Pacific: Bangkok 

First Session. 

Latin American Meeting on Livestock Production Turrialba, Costa Rica . 

Council: Tenth Session Washington 

Special Session Washington 

Council: Eleventh Session Washington 

Latin American Forestry and Forest Products Commission: Third Santiago 

Session. 

International Conference on Ways and Means of Combating Plant Par- Rome 

asites. 

Seventh Pan American Railway Congress Mexico City 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain: Si.xth Congress Madrid 

Silk Congress, Second International New York City .... 

Canterbury Centennial Celebration Christchurch, New^ Zea- 
land 
Pan American Institute of Geography and History : 

Fifth General Assembly Santiago 

Fifth Consultation of Commission on Cartography Santiago 

Second Consultation of Commission on Geography Santiago 

Second Consultation of Commission on History Santiago 

Board of Governors of the League of Red Cross Societies Monte Carlo 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

Middle East Regional Air Navigation Meeting: Second Session . . . Istanbul 

Air Navigation Commission Division: Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Montreal 

Control: 4th Session. 

International Union for the Protection of Nature: Second General As- Brussels 

sembly. 

South Pacific Commission: Sixth Session Noumea, New Caledonia 

Ilo (Internationa) Labor Organization) : 

Petroleum Committee: Third Session Geneva 

Governing Body: 113th Session Brussels 

Textiles Committee: Third Session Lyon, France 

Committee on Work on Plantations : First Session Indonesia 

Asian Advisory Committee : Second Session Indonesia 

Asian Technical Conference on Cooperation Karachi 

International Wheat Council : Fourth Session of the Geneva 

United Nations: 

Economic and Social Council: 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: Meeting of Bangkok 

Transport Experts. 

Technical Conference on Flood Control Simla, India 

Subcommission on Iron and Steel: Third Meeting Undetermined 

Economic Commission for Europe: 

Timber Committee Geneva 

Committee on Industry and Materials Geneva 

Committee on Coal Geneva 

Committee on Industry and Materials Geneva 

Commission on Narcotic Drugs: 5th Session Lake Success 

* Tentative. 
Ocfober 9, 1950 593 



Sept 
Sept 


. 1&- 
. 25- 


Sept 


. 25- 


Sept 


. 28- 


Sept 
Sept 


. 30- 
. 30- 


Oct. 
Oct. 


2- 
11- 


Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 


2- 
2- 
4- 


Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 


5- 
9- 
6- 
8- 

8- 


Oct. 


9- 


Oct. 
Oct. 
Nov 
Nov 
Dec. 


9- 
25- 

3- 

13- 
11- 


Oct. 


3- 


Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 


10- 
12- 
14- 
16- 


Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 


16- 
16- 
16- 
16- 
16- 


Oct. 
Nov 


17- 
14- 


Oct. 


18- 


Oct. 


20- 


Oct. 
Nov 
Nov 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec 
Oct. 


23- 

15- 

28- 

4- 

17- 

26- 

24- 


Oct. 


24- 


Oct. 30- 
December* 


Oct. 
Nov 
Nov 
Dec. 

Nov 


30- 
. 13- 
21*- 
4*_ 

30- 



Calendar oj Meetings — Continued 

Scheduled October 1 - December 30, 1950 — Continued 

Intergovernmental Tin Conference 

Permanent Centra! Opium Board: 56th Session 

Central and South African Transport Conference 

International Rubber Conference 

Caribbean Trade Conference 

Fifth Session of the Contracting Parties to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade (Gatt). 

Third Inter-American Congress on Brucellosis 

Fag- Who Panel of Fjxperts on Brucellosis 

Survey Authorities, Conference on 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organi- 
zation) : 

Meeting on Improvement of Bibliographical Services 

Second International Conference of University Representatives . . . 
57th Convention of Association of United States Military Surgeons . . 
Caribbean Commission: Eleventh Meeting " 

West Indian Conference: Fourth Session 

International Sugar Council: Meeting of Special Committee 

Fourth Inter-American Conference on Agriculture — Fao Latin American 

Pre-Conference Regional Meeting. 
Mid-Century White House Conference on Children and Youth .... 
International Sugar Council 



Geneva Oct. 25- 

Geneva Oct. 31- 

Johannesburg Oct. 25- 

Cleveland October 

Port-of-Spain, Trinidad . October 

Torquay, England . . . Nov. 2- 

Washington Nov. 6- 

Washington Nov. 6- 

Wellington, New Zealand Nov. 6- 

Paris Nov. 7- 

Nice Dec. 4- 

New York City .... Nov. 9- 

Curagao, Netherland Nov. 24- 

West Indies. 

Curasao, Netherland Nov. 27- 

West Indies. 

London November 

Montevideo Dec. 1- 

Washington Dec. 3- 

London Dec. 11- 



RepubSic of Indonesia Appiies for U.N. R/iembership 

Statement hy Ernest A. Gross 

Deputy U.S. Representative in the Security Council'^ 



The application of the Republic of Indonesia f or 
admission to membership in the United Nations is 
made by a state, the backgi-ound and origins of 
which are familiar recent history marking a major 
success for the Security Council and for the com- 
munity of nations. 

I say that this is familiar history because the 
question of Indonesia has been before this Coimcil 
since the month of August 1947. There have been 
times when the complications of tliis case and hos- 
tilities made the solution of it a most serious and 
difficult problem. However, over and above the 
many difficulties, there prevailed the will of the 
parties, with the help of the United Nations, to 
settle the issues before them peacefully. Tlris 
settlement, as Ambassador Austin described it to 
the General Assembly at its last session, "will con- 
tinue to be a momnnent to the high statesmanship 
of the representatives of the Netherlands and Indo- 
nesia." He added, "I am confident tliat the ma- 
jority of the members of this Assembly are already 

' Slade before the Security Council on Sept. 26 and 
released to the press by the U.S. delegation to the General 
Assembly on the same date. 



in agreement that the basic principles on which 
our organization stands have been advanced by the 
determined efforts of all those whose labors wei"e 
recently concluded at The Hague." The settle- 
ment of these issues was worked out at the Round 
Table Conference at The Hague, to which Am- 
bassador Austin referred. One of the reasons that 
this settlement was possible was the will of the 
Indonesian leaders to seek the road of i)eaceful 
negotiation in their fight for freedom in order to 
spare their people the hardship and devastation 
of war and to give to the world earnest indication 
of their future conduct as a member of the com- 
munity of nations. The Netherlands has also 
shown its willingness to negotiate a settlement. 
The agreements reached at The Hague jn'ovided 
for the transfer of sovereignty by the Kingdom 
of the Netherlands and for the creation of the 
Netherlands-Indonesian Union which the Union 
Statute describes as effecting organized coopera- 
tion on the basis of free will and equality of status 
with equal rights without prejudice to the status of 
each of the two parties as independent and sov- 
ereign states. As part of the transfer agreement 
I'eached at The Hajnie, the Netherlands recognized 



594 



Department of State Bulletin 



tlie aspirations of Indonesia for membership in 
this body and agreed to promote its membersliip. 

Thus, the applicaticm of the Republic of Indo- 
nesia is that of a new state in Southeast Asia which 
lias often been heard at this table and whose aspira- 
tions have steadfastly pointed toward member- 
ship in this oi'ganization. At the last regular ses- 
sion of the (leneral Assembly, the Government of 
India was among the 14 nations sponsoring a reso- 
lution which placed on record the very wide sup- 
port of the General Assembly for the action taken 
by the parties at The Hague and which welcomed 
the forthcoming establishment of the Republic of 
the United States of Indonesia as an independent 
and sovereign state. It, therefore, seems to me 
singularly appropriate that, today, it is the repre- 
sentative of India who has suggested that the 
Security Council consider this application. 

My own Government has watched with interest 
and attempted to assist in a creative way the es- 
tablishment of a new and independent Indonesian 
Nation, and it has welcomed the formation of the 
voluntary Netherlands-Indonesian Union. The 
United States was the third member of the Good 
Offices Committee and is now a member of the 
United Nations Commission for Indonesia. Upon 
the transfer of sovereignty to which the Ambas- 
sador of Indonesia refers in his letter of Septem- 
ber 25, the President of the United States extended 
recognition to the Republic of the United States 
of Indonesia and welcomed it into the community 
of peace-loving iiations. In a statement to the 
people of Indonesia, President Truman said : 

The world has seen a nation grow in the vast archi- 
pelago of Indonesia. A new republic has now emerged 
from the chaos and destruction of war and a new state 
is demonstrating that it will follow the course of peace 
and order so that all men in Indonesia may work fruit- 
fully in your richly endowed area to fulfill the promise 
of a new era. 

The leaders of Indonesia have shown their statesman- 
ship in reaching with the Netherlands unanimity of 
agreement at The Hague Conference and in supporting 
that agreement in the halls of government in Indonesia. 
Through wholehearted cooperation in bringing about this 
agreement, the leaders of Indonesia and of the Dutch 
people have strengthened and contributed to the develop- 
ment of the United Nations. They have gained for the 
people of Indonesia sovereignty and for the people of the 
Netherlands good will and assurances of fair treatment. 

The United States will welcome the Republic of the 
United States of Indonesia Into the community of free 
nations and looks forward to Indonesia's admission to 
membership in the United Nations. 

In the light of this statement, it remains simply 
for me to say that, of course, the United States to- 
day welcomes this application of the Republic of 

" The application for membership of the Republic of 
Indonesia into the U.N. was approved by the Security 
Council on Sept. 26 by 10 affirmative votes and 1 ab.stention 
(China), see U.N. doc. A/1402 of Sept. 27; the General 
Assembly unanimously adopted by acclamation a joint 
Australian-Indian proposal admitting Indonesia into the 
U.N. on Sept. 28, see U.N. doc. A/1407 of Oct. 2. The 
Republic of Indonesia is the 60th nation to become a 
member of the U.N. 



Indonesia. It considers that the records show that 
it is a jteace-loving state, able and willing to carry 
out the obligations of the United Nations Charter. 
My Government will vote in favor of this appli- 
cation. In the light of the circumstances of this 
case and in view of the suggestion of the repre- 
sentative of India, I believe it entirely fitting to 
vote on this application forthwith without re- 
ferral to the Committee on Membership.- 



U.S. Delegation 

to International Conferences 

Inter-American Seminar on Education 

The Department of State announced on Septem- 
ber 25 that the United States delegation to the 
Inter-American Seminar on Elementary Educa- 
tion, which convened at Montevideo on September 
25 is as follows: 

Chairman 

Earl J. McGrath, United States Commissioner of Educa- 
tion 

Delegates 

Arnold Perry, Professor of Elementary Education, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina 

Francisco Collazo, Assistant Commissioner of Education 
of Puerto Rico 

Sally Marks, Education Division, Institute of Inter-Amer- 
ican Affairs 

The countries of the Americas are cooperating 
closely, both within their own regional organiza- 
tion and as members of the United Nations, in 
trying through such meastires as the establishment 
of elementary schools and the development of 
teaching to reduce illiteracy in the Americas. 

Illiteracy in the Americas was considered at the 
Seminar on Problems of Illiteracy and Education, 
held at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 27-September 
3, 1949. Pursuant to a recommendation of that 
group, the Organization of American States, the 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul- 
tural Organization, and the Government of 
Uruguaj'^ are jointly sponsoring the forthcoming 
Seminar which is expected to constitute an 
important initial step in a movement to insure for 
the present school-age generation the exercise of 
the right to an education. 

Ajnong the specific topics with which the Sem- 
inar will deal during the course of its deliberations 
are: organization of primary school systems and 
services ; plans, programs, and methods ; adminis- 
trative, technical, and financial problems involved 
in giving effect to the principle of universal, free, 
and compulsory education ; teacher training; basic 
rules for the organization of inter- American rural 
normal-school centers; and preparation of text- 
books and teaching materials. 



Oc/ober 9, 1950 



595 



The United States in the United Nations 



[September 30-October 6, 1950] 

General Assembly 

During the third week of the fifth session of tlie 
General Assembly, one plenary meeting was held 
for the purpose of elections ; Committees One, Two 
and Five, the Ad Hoc Committee, and the Joint 
Committee held their organizational meetings 
and then proceeded to their agenda, while Com- 
mittees Three and Six continued the substantive 
discussions begun the previous week. The General 
Committee, meeting on October 5, recommended 
adding five items to the Assembly's agenda. The 
new items include the question of the future of 
Formosa which was proposed by the United 
States ; a Soviet-sponsored protest against alleged 
bombings of Chinese territory by the United 
States; and a Philippine request for consideration 
of a United Nations military award for the Korean 
war. The other two items are the Yugoslav pro- 
posals entitled "Duties of States in the Event of 
Outbreak of Hostilities" and "Establishment of a 
Permanent Commission of Good Offices," which 
were outlined by Foreign Minister Kardelj. 

On September 29, the Assembly proceeded to 
the election of three nonpermanent members of the 
Security Council to replace Cuba, Egypt, and 
Norway. Brazil and the Netherlands were elected 
on the first ballot, but the Assembly was forced 
to postpone the election of the third nonpermanent 
member when 11 additional ballots failed to break 
the deadlock between Turkey and Lebanon. Elec- 
tions held the same day to the Economic and 
Social Council were decided on the first ballot. 
The United Kingdom, the U.S.S.R., and Poland 
were reelected, and Uruguay, the Philippines, and 
Sweden were chosen to replace Australia, Brazil, 
and Denmark. The Dominican Republic was re- 
elected to the Trusteeship Council on the first 
ballot, but two additional ballots were required 
before Thailand won over Burma for the seat being 
vacated by the Philippines. 

First C omonittee. — Meeting for the first time on 
September 30 under the chairmanship of Dr. 
Roberto Urdaneta Arbelaez (Colombia), Com- 
mittee I (Political and Security) declared Ambas- 
sador Fernand van Langenhove (Belgium) vice- 
chairman and Tlaor Thors (Iceland) rapporteur. 
Following a lengthy procedural discussion, the 
Committee adopted a Philippine proposal to make 
the Korean question its first order of business and 
to postpone decision on the order of the other 



items. A Soviet proposal to grant a hearing to 
both North and South Korean representatives was 
rejected, and the Committee decided instead to 
hear only the representatives of the Republic of 
Korea. 

Following the presentation to the Committee of 
the report of the United Nations Commission on 
Korea, which clearly placed the blame for the 
present Korean crisis on the North Korean au- 
tliorities and pointed to the progress being made 
by the Republic of Korea in the political and eco- 
nomic fields, the delegate of the United Kingdom, 
Kenneth Younger, introduced a resolution which 
was cosponsored by Australia, Brazil, Cuba, the 
Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, and the Philip- 
pines. This resolution contained the following 
recommendations: (1) that all appropriate steps 
be taken to ensure conditions of stability through- 
out Korea; (2) that elections, for the establish- 
ment of a unified, independent, and democratic 
government in the sovereign state of Korea, be 
held under United Nations auspices; (3) that 
United Nations armed forces should not remain 
in any part of Korea any longer than would be 
necessary to achieve the above objectives; and (4) 
that all necessary measures be taken to accomplish 
tlie economic rehabilitation of Korea. The eight- 
l)ower resolution also called for the creation of a 
commission to be known as the United Nations 
Commission for the Unification and Rehabilita- 
tion of Korea. Besides assuming the functions 
hitherto exercised by the present United Nations 
Commission on Korea, the new commission would 
represent the United Nations in bringing about 
the establishment of a unified, independent, and 
democratic government of all Korea and exercise 
such responsibility in connection with relief and 
rehabilitation as would be determined by the Gen- 
eral Assembly. Finally, the eight-power resolu- 
tion would request the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil to develop plans for Korean relief and reha- 
bilitation upon termination of hostilities. Ex- 
pressing support for this resolution, Ambassador 
Warren Austin (U. S.) urged that "a living politi- 
cal, social, and spiritual monument to the achieve- 
ment of the first enforcement of the United 
Nations peace-making function" be erected in 
Korea. He also urged that a pattern of coordi- 
nated economic and social action be developed for 
Korea which could be used in other places requir- 
ing development. 



596 



Department of State Bulletin 



Calling the eight-power resolution on Korea a 
plan to give United Nations legality to interven- 
ion and to perpetuate the occupation of Korea by 
foi-eign forces, the Soviet delegate, Mr. Vyshinsky, 
proposed to the Committee on October 2 that the 
United Nations Commission on Korea be dis- 
banded and that the General Assembly call a halt 
to the ''barbarous bombings of Koi'ean civilians by 
the United States." A third Soviet proposal, 
which was co-sponsored by Poland, Czechoslo- 
vakia, Byelorussia, and the Ukraine, called for: 
(1) an immediate cease-fire, and the withdrawal of 
United States and other foreign troops from 
Korea; (2) the election of a "parity commission" 
at a joint assembly of the deputies of both the 
North and South Korean Assemblies, to organize 
and conduct elections throughout Korea, and to 
establish an interim "all-Korean" government; 
(3) the formation of a United Nations committee 
that would include representatives of states 
"bordering on Korea" to observe elections; (4) 
urgent planning, with Korean participation, by 
the Economic and Social Council for United 
Nations aid to Korea; and (5) upon the establish- 
ment of an "all-Korean government", con- 
sideration by the Security Council of Korean 
membership in the United Nations. 

The following day, the delegate of India, Sir 
Benegal Rau, proposed the formation of a sub- 
committee in order to reconcile the differences 
between the eight-power and five-power resolu- 
tions. On October 4, the Committee voted on the 
various proposals and resolutions. The Indian 
proposal was rejected and all three of the Soviet 
resolutions were defeated by overwhelming 
majorities- The eight-power resolution, with 
some admendment, was approved by a vote of 47-5, 
with 7 abstentions. 

Before it adjourned until October 9, Committee 
I decided to consider as its next order of business 
the United States proposal on uniting for peace. 

Action in Other Committees. — The Ad Hoc 
Committee, meeting for the first time on Septem- 
ber 30, elected Dr. V. Belaunde (Peru) as chair- 
man, Alexis Kyrou (Greece) as vice-chairman, 
and Salvador Lopez (Philippines) as rapporteur. 
The first question considered was the agenda item 
on the alleged violations of human rights in Bul- 
garia, Hungary, and Rumania. After 4 days of 
debate, the Committee approved on October 5 the 
amended text of a resolution submitted by the 
Australian delegation. This resolution condemns 
the refusal of Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania 
to fulfill their treaty obligations which have been 
confirmed by the International Court of Justice ; 
notes "with anxiety" the continuance of serious ac- 
cusations against the three Governments ; and in- 
vites member nations to submit to the Secretary- 
General any evidence which they may have on the 
question. Committee Two ( Economic and Finan- 
cial) held its organizational meeting on October 2 
under the chairmanship of Ambassador Gustavo 



Gutierrez (Cuba) and elected V. Skorbogatoff 
(Byelorussia) as vice-chairman, and Dr. Jose Vil- 
fan (Yugoslavia) as rapporteur. The same day. 
Committee Three (Social, Humanitarian, and 
Cultural) approved the revision of an earlier Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution in order to expand the 
advisory social welfare services of the United 
Nations. On October 4 and 5, Joint Committee 
Two and Three meetings were held to organize 
and to study the report of the Economic and So- 
cial Council. Meeting on October 2, under the 
chairmanship of Prince Wan Waithayakon 
(Thailand), Committee Four (Trusteeship) 
elected Ahmed Farra^ (Egypt) as vice-chairman 
and Peter Anker (Norway) as rapporteur and 
began general debate on the report of the Trustee- 
ship Council. Committee Five (Budgetary and 
Administrative) also met on October 2, and after 
unanimously electing Aleksander Krajewski (Po- 
land) vice-chairman, and Bernadus Fourie (South 
Africa) rapi^orteur and completing two routine 
items on its agenda, turned to consideration of the 
estimates for the 1951 budget of the United Na- 
tions. On October 5, Committee Six (Legal) ap- 
proved a permanent invitation to the Secretary- 
General of the Arab League to attend the meetings 
of the General Assembly as an observer. 

Security Council 

At three meetings held during the week, the 
Security Council acted favorably on the Ecua- 
doran projjosal concerning Formosa, held that its 
decision on that resolution was procedural, and 
rejected the Soviet-sponsored resolution on bomb- 
ings in Korea. 

On September 29, by a vote of 7-3-1, the Secur- 
ity Council adopted the reintroduced Ecuadoran 
resolution to defer consideration of the complaint 
of armed invasion of Formosa until the first meet- 
ing after November 15 and, at that time, to invite 
a representative of the Peiping regime to attend 
Council meetings on this subject. The United 
States, China, and Cuba cast the 3 negative votes, 
while Egypt abstained. Following a paragi-aph- 
by-paragraph vote and approval of the resolution 
as a whole with one deletion, Council President 
Sir Gladwyn Jebb (U.K.) commented that in his 
opinion the resolution was carried. 

This action precipitated an involved discussion, 
which continued into the afternoon, on the appli- 
cability of the veto — whether the Ecuadoran reso- 
lution involved a procedural or a substantive 
decision by the Council. Over China's protest, the 
Security Council voted 9-1 (China), with Cuba 
abstaining, that the vote to invite a representative 
of the Peiping regime to attend Council meetings 
was procedural. Maintaining his right to veto, 
Dr. Tsiang (China) then declared that the propo- 
sition had not carried since he had opposed it. Dr. 
Tsiang contended that his negative vote consti- 
tuted a "doublt veto" and cited the statement by 



Oefober 9, 1950 



597 



the sponsoring powers at San Francisco in June 
1945 that a decision on the preliminary question of 
whether an issue was procedural or substantive 
required a majority of seven, including the con- 
curring votes of the five permanent members. 

Pointing out that nine Council members had 
indicated by vote that they considered the action 
to have been procedural, President Jebb held a 
grave precedent, not in the general interest of the 
Security Council, would be created by accepting 
the substantive interpretation held by only one 
permanent member. Accordingly, he ruled that, 
notwithstanding China's objection, the vote taken 
on the Ecuadoran resolution was procedural. De- 
claring the President's ruling %tlfra vires and 
arbitrary. Dr. Tsiang proposed informally that 
the question be sent to the International Court of 
Justice for an advisory opinion, which his delega- 
tion would agree in advance to accept. President 
Jebb, interpreting Dr. Tsiang's remarks as a 
challenge to his ruling, submitted it to a vote of 
the Council. No one voted, however, and Sir 
Gludwyn, therefore, declared that the ruling stood. 
For the record. Dr. Tsiang commented he dicl not 
take part in a vote that was in itself "illegal."' 

Earlier, Sir Benegal N. Ran (India) had stated 
that it was "quite clear'' from the jneamble of the 
Ecuadoran resolution that the invitation to repre- 
sentatives of the Peiping regime would be given 
under Rule 39 of the Council's Rules of Procedure. 
The Yugoslav representative, Dr. Ales Bebler, 
pointed out that the question of inviting parties 
to a dispute to be heard was one of those specifically 
enumerated in the San Francisco statement as 
procedural. 

In commenting on China's interpretation that 
the Ecuadoran proposal involved a matter of sub- 
stance. Ambassador Ernest A. Gross stated that, 
although the United States was strongly opposed 
to the resolution in question, his delegation be- 
lieved it would be a most undesirable precedent 
for the Security Council to accept the proposition 
that an invitation to an outside party to be heard 
was subject to the veto. The United Nations 
Charter, the San Francisco declaration, and Coun- 
cil precedents solidly supported that thesis, Am- 
bassador Gross held. Pointing out that the pro- 
posed action was being taken under Rule 39, he 
recalled other cases where the Council had invited 
and heard representatives over the negative votes 
of permanent members — the former Czechoslovak 
representative Papanek and the Cliilean represent- 
ative had been heard during discussion of the 
Czechoslovak case despite negative votes by the 
U.S.S.R., and the Indonesian Republic had been 
invited to Council meetings despite negative votes 
by the United Kingdom and France. Ambassa- 
dor Gross also mentioned China's co-sponsorship 
of the General Assembly resolution which recom- 
mended, inter aZia, that the Security Council re- 
gard decisions on rules as well as decisions under 
Rule 39 as procedural. 

598 



In order to explain further the United States 
position. Ambassador Gross discussed specific pro- 
visions of the General Assembly's resolution, the 
San Francisco statement, and the United States 
policy in general toward use of the veto. He first, 
however, reemphasized that his delegation con- 
sidered the action of the Security Council in de- 
ciding to invite Chinese Communist representa- 
tives "at this time"' neither appropriate nor desir- 
able. In spite of this conviction on the part of the 
United States delegation, Mr. Gross observed, the 
l^osition in supporting the procedural interpreta- 
tion was in accord with the Assembly's recommen- 
dation, based on a study by its Interim Committee, 
that certain decisions, including decisions under 
Rule 39, be considered procedural by the Security 
Council. It was United States policy. Ambassa- 
dor Gross continued, to restrict the use of the veto 
by extending wherever possible the area of Se- 
curity Council action to which the veto did not 
apply. This policy had been determined with 
the full knowledge that the United States was 
working to restrict its own veto right, but the 
opinion of the American delegation was that "in 
the long run" proper functioning of the United 
Nations was more important for the permanent 
members than their power to obstruct action. In 
this case, the result of applying "the law of the 
Charter which has developed"' was "against our 
own interest" and was "not pleasant"; however, 
unless the law were applied in these circumstances, 
the United States could not expect others to apply 
it when it was not in their interest. These were 
the considerations. Ambassador Gross concluded, 
that had led the United States to take its stand. 

Associating himself fully with the United 
States' position. Sir Gladwyn declared that the 
expressed willing;ness of a great power to accept 
a ruling of the President on a matter concerning 
the veto was an "augury" of better times. 

At a relatively brief meeting on September 30, 
\\\& Security Council rejected by a vote of 1 
{U.S.S.R.)-9-l (Yugoslavia) the Soviet-proposed 
resolution on bombings by United States air forces 
in Korea. Although this resolution was substan- 
tially the same as the resolution that had been sub- 
mitted on August 5 by the Soviet Union and re- 
jected by the Council on September 7 by an identi- 
cal vote, the Soviet representative claimed to have 
new "evidence" of "inhuman and barbarous" 
bombings of civilians. In the course of the dis- 
cussion. Ambassador Gross cited evidence that 
civilian dwellings had been used to house tanks 
and to store military equipment and that soldiers 
had been disguised as civilians. He again urged 
the Soviet delegate to appeal to his government 
to influence the North Korean authorities to permit 
the entry of an International Red Cross 
representative. 

When the Security Council next meets it will 
be under the presidency of Ambassador Austin. 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE CONGRESS 



Congress Urged Not To Adopt 
Legislation Controlling Exports 
of Other Nations to Soviet Union 

[Rclcascil to the [irrsx by the White House September 20] 

The President today sent the following letter to Clarence 
Cannon, Chairman, Committee on Appropriations, House 
of Representatives: 

"\Mien the Senate passed H. R. 9526, the Supple- 
mental Appropriation Bill for 1951, it added an 
amendment, ofl'ered by Senator Wherry, which 
would require the United States to cut off eco- 
nomic and financial assistance to all countries 
wliich expoi't to the Soviet Union or its satellites 
any articles which might be used for the produc- 
tion of military materiel. This amendment is of 
such grave importance, and is fraught with such 
clanger to the United States and to world peace, 
that I feel I must make a special request to the 
Congress to eliminate it in completing action upon 
this bill. 

Xo one can quarrel with the ostensible purpose 
of the amendment — to weaken the wai"-making po- 
tential of Communist-dominated countries — and 
on tlie surface the amendment may seem to be a 
plausible means for accomplishing that end. But 
the fact is that it would defeat its own purpose and 
accomplish substantially the opposite result from 
that intended — it would weaken the free nations 
more than it would weaken the Soviet bloc. 

The amendment applies not only to arms and 
armaments but to any articles that could be used 
for the production of military materiel. Since 
almost all goods and commodities can be used for 
the production of military materiel in one way or 
anothei-, the amendment, if effective, would re- 
quire a substantially complete embargo on trade 
between Western and Eastern Europe. The coun- 
tries participating in the European Recovei^y Pro- 
gram have embargoed the export of arms and 
armaments to Eastern Europe for some two years. 
But trade in other commodities has continued to 
some extent. This trade works both ways, of 
course. Countries of Western Europe obtain from 
it goods which are vital to their economic and 
military strengtli — the very sti'ength we are help- 
ing to build up. To cut this trade off suddenly, 
would bring about dislocations in the Western na- 
tions that would more than offset any advantages 
that might be gained. 

The appropriate agencies of the Government 
have been negotiating, and will continue to nego- 
tiate, with countries receiving aid from us in 
order to curb trade that would aid the war poten- 
tial of the Soviet bloc, and to do this in a way that 

October 9, 7950 



would protect the strength of friendly nations. 
Tliese negotiations have produced very substantial 
results and I am confident they will continue to 
do so. This method, which permits selective and 
cooperative treatment of the host of varying prob- 
lems in this field, is far superior to the arbitrary 
blanket approach prescribed in the amendment 
now in question. 

The amendment affects countries in the Near 
East and Far East as well as in Europe. Some of 
these countries do not have strong traditional ties 
with the Western World. It is important to us 
to develop and strengthen these ties, which is one 
of the aims of our assistance programs. AVhile 
they are friendly to the Unitecl States, the trade 
of those countries with the Soviet Union may be 
so important to them economically that they would 
have no alternative but to forego the limited eco- 
nomic aid which we now make available to them. 
The amendment leaves no room for negotiation, 
and, accordingly, would tend to force such coun- 
tries into the Soviet orbit, in spite of their friend- 
ship for the United States. The amendment 
would also have most unfortunate effects on our 
relations with the Latin American countries. I 
am sure these are results wanted by nobody who 
sujiports the amendment. 

Before legislation of this character is adopted, 
we ought to be sure that we would get more out 
of it than we would lose. I am convinced that this 
amendmeiat in its present form would not accom- 
plish the purpose intended but, on the contrary, 
would do much more harm than good. 

Consequently, I earnestly urge the Congress to 
leave the amendment out of the bill. 

I am sending a similar letter to Senator Mc- 
Kellar. 



Senate's Concern 

for Greek Children Praised 

The President, on September 29. sent the following let- 
ter to Viee President Alben W. Barkley, which was 
released to the press by the White House on the same 
da te. 

I know that all Americans share the Senate's 
humanitarian concern for the thousands of Greek 
children removed from Greece during the guer- 
rilla warfare and now being held in eastern Eu- 
rope. Freedom-loving people throughout the 
world are repelled by the inhumanity embodied 
in the unjustified retention of these innocent chil- 
dren far from their parents and their native land. 

The Executive Branch has exerted and will con- 
tinue to exert every feasible effort to encourage 
the repatriation of these children. I am certain 
that the I'nited Nations has been encouraged in 
its efforts to effect the children's return by the Sen- 
ate's deep and sympathetic concern as expressed in 
S. Res. 212 on September 13, 1950. 

599 




General Policy Page 

Reviewing American Foreign Policy Since 
1945. Statement by Senator Tom 

Connally 563 

Let Freedom Ring. By Philip C. Jessup . . 583 
General MacArthur Congratulated on Ko- 
rean Victory: 

Message From the President 586 

Reply From General MacArthur 586 

United Nations 

and Specialized Agencies 

Peace and Security for the Future of Korea. 

By Ambassador Warren R. Austin . . 579 
New General Assembly Agenda Items ... 581 
Korean Problem Illustrates Great Decisions 
To Be Made by United Nations. Inter- 
view of Secretary Acheson by Mrs. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 582 

Surrender Terms to North Korean Forces . 586 
General MacArthur Congratulated on Ko- 
rean Victory: 

Message From the President 586 

Reply From General MacArthur 586 

The United Nations Flag 587 

Republic Of Indonesia Applies for U.N. 
Membership. Statement by Ernest A. 

Gross 594 

The United States in the United Nations . . 596 



Treaty Information Fage 

Inter-American Economic and Social Coun- 
cil's Program of Technical Assistance: 
United States Contribution. By Edward 

G. Miller, Jr 589 

Technical Cooperation in the Western 
Hemisphere. By Ambassador Capus 

M. Waynick 589 

Pakistan Signs Fulbright Agreement .... 591 

National Security 

Geoffrey Parsons Named Nac Information 

Adviser 581 

Integrated Force Under Centralized Com- 
mand To Defend Western Europe. 
Communique of the North Atlantic 
Council 588 

International Information 
and Cultural Affairs 

Color Cartoon Leaflet on Korea To Be Sent 

to Near and Middle East 591 

Pakistan Signs Fulbright Agreement .... 591 

International Organizations 
and Conferences 

Calendar of Meetings 592 

U. S. Delegation: 

Inter-American Seminar on Education . . 595 

The Congress 

Legislation 578 

Congress Urged Not To Adopt Legislation 
Controlling Exports of Other Nations to 
Soviet Union 599 

Senate's Concern for Greek Children Praised 599 



^ 



I 



U. S. GOVERHHENT PRINTING OFFICE 1950 



V' 



tJri€/ z/)eh<z^t7nenl^ j(w tn€it& 




FIFTH REPORT OF U.N. COMMAND OPERATIONS 
IN KOREA, SEPTEMBER 1-14, 1950 603 

FULFILLMENT OF RESPONSIBILITY IN A WORLD 

IN PERIL • By Secretary Acheson 613 

FREEDOM AND RESPONSIBILITY • By Assistant 

Secretary Miller 617 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XXIII, No. 589 



October 16, 1950 



.^CNT o«> 





,JAe 



Qje/ia^^e^ A)/ S/iate J31111G11I1 



Vol. XXIII, No. 589 • Publication 3985 
Octdter 16, 1950 



OCT 2 6 1950 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.O. 

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or State Bulletin as the source will be 
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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
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U».S. SUPf'"^'T'^"""iT "•■ "'^"' 



FIFTH REPORT OF U.N. COMMAND OPERATIONS IN KOREA 



FOR THE PERI0D;SEPTEIVIBER 1-14, 1950' 



U.N. doc. S/1834 
Transmitted Oct. 5, 1950 

I herewith submit report number five of the 
United Nations Command Operations in Korea for 
the period 1 to 14 September, inclusive. Eighth 
Army communiques numbers 66 through 89 and 
Korean releases numbers 353 through 437 provide 
detailed accounts of these operations. 

Ground Operations 

On 1 September, the North Korean high com- 
mand, employing thirteen infantry divisions, tv70 
new tank regiments, and elements of a previously 
identified command division, launched their 
strongest offensive to date against the United 
Nations position in Korea. This comprehensive 
attack, which constituted one of the enemy's major 
efforts to date, initially struck hard at the United 
Nations positions south of Tuksong and, within 
two days, had extended over the entire United 
Nations perimeter. 

His initial effort, in the south, was unsuccessful. 
At the southern end of the front, the enemy 6th 
and 7th Divisions had been driven back 3,000 yards 
to their original positions by 3 September, through 
determined counterattacks of the U.S. 25th Divi- 
sion supported by other United Nations forces. 
Thereafter, despite constant attacks, north Korean 
forces made no advances in this sector. 

Farther north, in the Naktong River area 
between Hyonpung and the Nam River, the 10th, 
2nd, 4th, and 9th enemy Divisions, plus armored 



' Transmitted to the Security Council by Ambassador 
Warren R. Austin, U.S. repre.sentatlve in the Security 
Council, on Oct. 5. For texts of the first, second, third, 
and fourth reports to the Security Council on U.N. com- 
mand operations in Korea, see Bulletin, of Aug 7, 1950, 
p. 20.3 ; Aug. 28, 1950, p. 323 ; and Sept. 11, 1950, p. 403 ; 
and Oct. 2, 1950, p. 534, respectively. 

Ocfober 76, J 950 



elements, began a general offensive eastward over 
the Naktong which scored initial advances of 6,000 
to 8,000 yards against bitter resistance by the 
United Nations' forces. By 5 September, how- 
ever, the enemy had lost the initiative and was 
forced to give ground under heavy United Nations 
forces' pressure. By the end of the period, the 
enemy retained only a two to three mile strip east 
of the Naktong River. 

The enemy 3rd and 13th Divisions achieved 
gains of similar magnitude (6,000-8,000 yards) 
along the Taegu salient, from 4 to 11 September, 
in some of the heaviest fighting of the war. By 
that date. United Nations forces had absorbed the 
drive on Taegu and began to register slow progress 
against strong enemy resistance. In the Sinnyong 
sector, the Republic of Korea 8th Division had 
gained about 3,000 yards by 4 September. During 
the series of heavy, but indecisive, engagements 
which followed. United Nations Forces blocked 
further enemy advances. 

The British 27th Infantry Brigade joined the 
United Nations forces in the defense of the Nak- 
tong River line on 7 September. This unit has 
assumed its proportionate share of the United 
Nations operations in that sector and is engaged 
in defensive operations and systematic police 
action to eliminate small enemy parties in the rear 
areas. 

In the Haeson-Angang sector near the eastern 
flank of the United Nations perimeter, the north 
Korean 15th and 12th Divisions posed a most seri- 
ous threat temporarily. Initiating heavy attacks 
near Kigye on 3 September, enemy forces pene- 
trated to within four miles of Kyongju by 5 Sep- 
tember, though the threat to Kyongju was vitiated 
by United Nations counterattacks the next day. 
On 8 September, the enemy occupied the impor- 

603; 



tant town of Yongchon but was driven out almost 
immediately by prompt aggressive action of Re- 
public of Korea Army units. At his farthest ad- 
vance, the enemy had seized an area almost ten 
miles deep and fifteen miles wide in this sector, 
seriously threatening United Nations communica- 
tions. However, beginning on 11 September, Re- 
public of Korea and United States Army imits 
conducted vigorous counterattacks and advanced 
up to six miles on the west flank of the pocket, 
relieved pressure on Yongchon and Kyongju, and 
threatened the north Korean forces, in turn, with 
encirclement. 

On the east coast, the North Korean 5th Divi- 
sion, after yielding some ground to United Na- 
tions attacks, resumed the offensive on 4 Septem- 
ber. This offensive, coordinated with the North 
Korean 12th and 15th Divisions' penetration on 
the west of Pohang-dong, necessitated a with- 
drawal of the Republic of Korea Army units hold- 
ing Pohang-dong. Following their withdrawal, 
these same Republic of Korean Army units coun- 
terattacked and established a firm line two miles 
south of Pohang-dong. 

During the period, the most significant gains 
were made initially along the north and west flanks 
where enemy forces drove to within seven miles of 
Taegu, penetrated the lateral road net between 
Yongchon and Kyongju, and seized Pohang-dong. 
By 12 September, however, the momentum of the 
attacks was largely spent, and the enemy was 
forced to fall back in the face of counterattacking 
United Nations forces. This abortive effort had 
cost the enemy an estimated 10,000 casualties with- 
out any significant losses to the United Nations 
forces, either in territory or in combat effective- 
ness. At the end of the period, the United Nations 
perimeter ran northward from Yulchi on the south 
coast, to the confluence of the Nam and Naktong 
Rivers, thence north, parallel with, and two miles 
east of the Naktong River to Hyonpung, thence 
along the river for fifteen miles, thence, northeast 
through Sin-dong in a broad arc extending east- 
ward below Haeson and Angang to the east coast 
at a point two miles south of Pohang-dong. 

Naval Operations 

United Nations naval forces, during the period 
of this report, continued to demonstrate their ver- 
satility of application by sustaining with undi- 
minished intensity all operational tasks under- 



taken. During the enemy's major attack across the 
Naktong River, commencing early in the period, 
naval aircraft were almost entirely engaged in an 
all-out effort in close support of the gi'ound troops 
for several daj's until the attack was effectively re- 
duced. Thereafter, naval aircraft resumed their 
missions against North Korean targets, in addi- 
tion. A concentrated effort was made especially 
against transportation facilities, arsenals, military 
warehouses and supply dumps, and troop concen- 
trations wherever located. 

Naval surface forces continued coastal bombard- 
ment missions on an increasing scale until continu- 
ous day and night firing on the east coast military 
targets became habitual. 

At sea, along the Korean coasts, a very large 
number of enemy small craft have been destroyed, 
including small transports and freighters, trawl- 
ers, junks, and barges carrying North Korean mil- 
itary personnel and supplies. Difficulty of iden- 
tification of water-borne craft engaged in military 
operations continues to be a problem. In some 
cases, the enemy has forced native fishing opera- 
tions to his use, and it is reported crews are shot 
if seen conversing with United Nations ships con- 
ducting investigations. Nevertheless, every effort 
is being made to confine destruction of small craft 
to those conducting military operations. 

Enemy opposition to United Nations naval 
forces was insufficient to hamper United Nations 
naval operations. 

Air Operations 

Hostile aircraft have been observed on several 
occasions during the current period but have ex- 
erted no influence on the course of operations. It 
is a certainty that no difficulties will be experi- 
enced with the North Korean Air Force unless it 
procures planes from sources outside North Korea. 
Any future significant air action by North Korea 
will be a measure of the assistance given to her in 
open contravention of the actions and intent of 
the United Nations. Antiaircraft artillery fire is 
increasing somewhat both in volume and in ac- 
cui'acy. 

A review of the accomplishments of the United 
Nations air effort from 25 June through 15 Sep- 
tember reveals that, while sustaining losses of 
approximately 100 aircraft, over 28,000 combat 
missions have been flown. The greater part of 
these have been in direct support of United Nations 



604 



Department of State Bulletin 



ground forces. More than 10,000 non-combat 
missions have been flown in support of the United 
Nations effort. The bomb tonnage delivered to 
strategic and tactical military targets by the 
United States Far East Air Forces medium bomb- 
ers exceeds 17,000 tons. 

The previous report of the United Nations Com- 
mand emphasized the pronouncement made to the 
civilian communities that military targets would 
be attacked by air and the warning to civilians to 
vacate the immediate zone of such targets. There 
has been and there remains the capability of the 
United Nations air forces to completely devastate 
the urban areas of North Korea, but, with assidu- 
ous care, destruction of the civilian population has 
been avoided and only targets of military signifi- 
cance have been attacked. 

Among the targets are the following: Pyong- 
yang arsenal, the largest in North Korea, pro- 
ducing over half the arms and ammunition (ex- 
clusive of that from outside sources) employed by 
the enemy, is about seventy per cent destroyed. 
The ports and naval bases of Chinnampo and 
Wonsan have received attacks in force. The 
largest integrated chemical combine in the Far 
East, contributing explosives, aluminum, and 
magnesium has been reduced by eighty per cent. 
Specific targets in this combine have been the 
Hungnam nitrogen fertilizer plant, the Hungnam 
chemical plant, and the Hungnam explosive plant. 
The oil refinery at Wonsan is about ninety-five 
per cent destroyed. Iron works at Chongjin and 
steel plants at Song j in and Kyomipo have been 
attacked with percentage destruction, varying 
from thirty to ninety per cent. 

Operations of the Chinnampo smelter, largest 
producer in North Korea of copper, lead, and zinc, 
have been sharply curtailed. In addition, at 
Chinnampo, an aliuninum plant and one of the 
few North Korean magnesium producers have sus- 
tained fifty to eighty per cent destruction. Other 
similar targets have been and are being attacked. 

Along the highway and railroad nets, some 250 
bridges have been rendered unusable by the drop- 
ping of at least one span of each. Important 
marshalling yards and railroad repair facilities in 
North Korea are from twenty-five to eighty per 
cent destroyed. 

Total daily sorties have, at one time during this 
period, exceeded 700. The smooth coordination 
of the total United Nations air effort with the 
over-all ground effort continued exemplary. 



Prisoners of War 

Since my last report, many additional North 
Korean prisoners were captured by United Nations 
forces. This brings the total number of prisoners 
in United Nations custody to over 4,000. 

United Nations personnel in charge of prisoners 
of war camps continue to observe scrupulously all 
the provisions of the Geneva Convention of 12 
August 1949 relative to the treatment of prisoners 
of war. Prisoners of war are provided with the 
standard Republic of Korea Army ration and 
with a gratuitous tobacco issue. At each camp, 
there is a permanently assigned staff of United 
States and Republic of Korea medical officers, 
nurses, and medical attendants. More serious 
cases are treated in hospitals on the same basis 
as wounded United Nations troops. The geo- 
graphic coordinates of United Nations prisoner of 
war camps have been furnished to the United 
States Government for transmission to the Inter- 
national Committee of the Red Cross in accordance 
with Article 23, 1949 Geneva Convention. 

Atrocities 

It becomes necessary to report again continued 
inhumane acts on the part of North Koreans. 
These most recently reported atrocities follow the 
pattern of other North Korean killings. A strong 
enemy guerrilla force attacked and overpowered 
a group of seven Americans who were operating a 
signal relay station, tied their hands together, and 
shot the United Nations soldiers in the back. All 
were left for dead. However, although seriously 
wounded, two of the victims survived. 

Civilian Relief 

As a continuation of the survey of relief needs 
in Korea mentioned in my previous report, an 
estimate of civilian aid requirements for Korea 
for fiscal year 1951 has been forwarded. This re- 
port was prepared by the Economic Cooperation 
Administration in conjunction with the Govern- 
ment of the Republic of Korea and representatives 
of the United Nations and other interested civilian 
agencies. These estimates contain sound, concise 
over-all civilian relief requirements for Korea 
based on the best information available at this 
time. Further surveys will continue to be made 
and necessary additional requirements will be for- 
warded to the Joint Army, Economic Cooperation 
Administration, State Department Coordinating 



October 16, 1950 



605 



Committee for procurement in accordance with 
established procedures. 

Relief supplies continue to be delivered to Korea 
by military transportation for distribution 
through the Office of Supply of the Republic of 
Korea. As previously I'eported, arrangements 
were made as an emergency measure to supply the 
Republic of Korea with 15,000 metric tons of rice 
and 5,000 metric tons of barley in September and 
20,000 metric tons of rice and 10,000 metric tons 
of barley in October. Based on subsequent sur- 
veys, the amounts of barley have been increased to 
15,000 metric tons in September and 20,000 tons 
in October. 

In accordance with my request, United Nations 
personnel have been recruited to assist the Govern- 
ment of the Republic of Korea in the distribution 
and efficient utilization of relief supplies and to 
provide adequate liaison and coordination between 
the Republic of Korea and the military forces in 
relief matters. To coordinate efficiently the prob- 
lems of health and welfare in Korea, a Public 
Health and Welfare Section has been established 
as a Special Staff section of the United Nations 
Command. This section is presently staffed by 
available United States personnel who will be re- 
lieved progressively upon arrival of United 
Nations personnel recruited for these activities. 

Psychological Warfare 

United Nations radio broadcasts to the Korean 
people have been increased to a total of two and 



three quarters hours daily, consisting almost en- 
tirely of factual news reports with brief interpre- 
tative conunentary. More than 48,000,000 leaflets 
have been dropped by aircraft or fired from artil- 
lery howitzers. Twelve million of these were di- 
rected at enemy front line troops, informing them 
of the United Nations Command guarantee of good 
treatment for prisoners of war and providing them 
with safe conduct passes for use in surrendering. 
The mounting military strength of the United Na- 
tions forces has enhanced the credence which 
enemy soldiers place in these messages, and, in- 
creasingly, they are taking advantage of the safe 
conduct pass to lay down theiearms voluntarily. 

In Conclusion 

1. United Nations forces in the Pusan-Taegu 
base area lost some ground including the Pohang- 
dong port. The fighting determination and com- 
bat efficiency of the United Nations forces in this 
area have steadily improved, but more forces are 
required. 

2. There were further atrocities committed by 
North Koreans against United Nations captives. 

3. The offers of personnel and supplies for civil- 
ian relief are appreciated. Future events may in- 
crease the requirements. Prevention of wide- 
spread suffering amongst Korea's war-torn 
population will be an important United Nations 
task. 



Aid Offered Unified Command 

Colo7nbia 

[Released to the press October 4] 

The Department of State has informed the Co- 
lombian Embassy that the imified command estab- 
lished by the United Nations for repelling aggres- 
sion against the Republic of Korea has gratefully 
accepted Colombia's offer of the frigate Almirante 
Padilla., made on September 18 to the Security 
Council of the United Nations. 

Acting Secretary Webb expressed gratification 
for Colombia's support of United Nations action 
and indicated that united action of peace-loving 
countries under the aegis of the United Nations 
offers the best means available of insuring the 
security and freedom of the peoples of the world. 



Costa Rica 

[Released to the press Septembej- 15] 

The Department of State has informed the 
Costa Rican Embassy that the unified command 
for Korea has gratefully accepted for such use as 
may subsequently be determined feasible the gen- 
erous offer, which Costa Rica made on July 27 
through the Secretary-General of the United Na- 
tions, of adequate sites within that country for air 
and sea bases and troop quarters or stations. It 
has not, however, been possible to accept, at this 
time, the further offer of Costa Rica of volunteers 
for preliminary training in the United States, since 
the means for such training are not now available. 

The Costa Rican Government has been requested 
to keep this offer in an open status. 



606 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



U.S. Answers Peiping Regime's Charges on Formosa 



CABLEGRAM FROM PEIPING FOREIGN 
MINISTER TO SECRETARY-GENERAL LIE 



armed invading forces from Taiwan and other 
territories belonging to China. 



U.N. doc. S/1715 
Dated Aug. 24, 1950 

The followhig is a cablegram from Chou-En-Lai, Minis- 
ter for Foreign Affairs of the Central People's Oovernment 
of the People's Repuhlic of China, to the Secretary- 
Qeneral. 

On 37 June this year, President Truman of the 
United States of America announced the decision 
of the United States Government to prevent with 
armed forces the liberation of Taiwan by the 
Chinese People's Liberation Army. Meanwhile, 
the United States Seventh Fleet moved toward 
the straits of Taiwan, followed by the arrival in 
Taiwan of contingents of the United States Air 
Force, in an open encroachment on the territory 
of the People's Republic of China. This action 
on the part of the United States Government is a 
direct armed aggression on the territory of China 
and a total violation of the United Nations 
Charter. 

Taiwan is an integral part of China. This is 
not only a fact based on history, confirmed by the 
situation since the suri-ender of Japan, but it is 
also stipulated in the Cairo Declaration of 194-3 
and the Potsdam Communique of 1945 as binding 
international agreements which the United States 
Government has pledged itself to respect and 
observe. 

The people of China cannot tolerate this action 
of armed aggression by the United States Govern- 
ment on the territory of China and are determined 
to liberate from the tentacles of the United States 
aggressors Taiwan and all other territories belong- 
ing to China. On behalf of the Central People's 
Government of the People's Eepublic of China, I 
now raise to the United Nations Security Council 
the accusation and propose that for the mainte- 
nance of international peace and security and for 
the upholding of the dignity of the United Na- 
tions Charter, the United Nations Security Coun- 
cil is obliged by its inalienable duties to condemn 
the United States Government for its criminal act 
in the armed invasion of the territory of China and 
to take immediate measures to bring about the 
complete withdrawal of all the United States 



LETTER FROM SECRETARY ACHESON 
TO SECRETARY-GENERAL LIE 

C.N. doc. A/1381 
Dated Sept. 21, 19.50 

The following is a letter from Secretary Acheson, 
Chairman, United States delegation to the General As- 
sembly, to the Secretary-Oeneral. 

In accordance with Rule 20 of the Rules of 
Procedure of the General Assembly, the Delega- 
tion of the United States offers the following ob- 
servations in connection with and in support of 
its request that the "question of Formosa" be 
placed on the agenda of the Fifth Session of the 
General Assembly as an additional item of an im- 
portant and urgent character within the meaning 
of Rule 15. 

In the joint Declaration at Cairo of 1 December 
1943, the President of the United States, the 
British Prime Minister, and the President of 
China stated — 

It is their purjwse tliat . . . Manchuria, Formosa and 
the Pescadores shall be restored to the Republic of China. 
. . . The aforesaid three Great Powers, mindful of the 
enslavement of the people of Korea, are determined that 
in due course Korea shall become free and independent. 

In the Potsdam Proclamation of July 1945, de- 
fining the terms for Japanese surrender the three 
Allied leaders declared that the terms of the Cairo 
Declaration should be carried out. The provi- 
sions of this Proclamation were accepted by Japan 
at the time of its surrender. General Order No. 1 
of the Japanese Imperial Headquarters issued 
pursuant to the terms of surrender provided for 
the surrender of the Japanese Forces in China 
(excluding Manchuria) and Formosa to General- 
issimo Chiang Kai-shek. Formal transfer of 
Formosa to China was to await the conclusion of 
peace with Japan or some other appropriate for- 
mal act. For the past five years, Chinese author- 
ity has been exercised over the island. 

On 25 June 1950, a breach of the peace occurred 
in the Pacific area in the form of an armed attack 
against the Republic of Korea. In the resolution 



Ocfober 16, 1950 



607 



adopted on that day, the Security Council took the 
first step toward restoring the peace. On 27 June, 
the President of the United States stated that the 
North Korean forces had — 

. . . defied the orders of the Security Council of the United 
Nations issued to preserve international peace and 
security. In these circumstances, the occupation of For- 
mosa by Communist forces would be a direct threat to the 
security of the Pacific area and to United States forces 
performing their lawful and necessary functions in that 
area. 

Accordingly, I have ordered the Seventh Fleet to 
prevent any attack on Formosa. As a corollary of this 
action, I am calling ujwn the Chinese Government on 
Formosa to cease all air and sea operation against the 
mainland. The Seventh Fleet will see that this is done. 
The determination of the future status of Formosa must 
await the restoration of security in the Pacific, a peace 
settlement with Japan, or consideration by the United 
Nations. . . .' 

The Government of the United States has made 
it abundantly clear that the measures it has taken 
with respect to Formosa were without prejudice to 
the long-term political status of Formosa, and that 
the United States has no territorial ambitions and 
seeks no special position or privilege with respect 
to Formosa. The United States believes further 
that the future of Formosa and of the nearly 8 
million people inhabited there should be settled by 
peaceful means in accordance with the Charter of 
the United Nations. 

The limited question, that of charges of the 
Peiping Regime against the United States, as set 
forth in document S/171.5, remains before the Se- 
curity Council. The United States considers that 
the General Assembly could make an important 
contribution towards carrying out the purpose and 
principles of the United Nations in the Pacific 
Area if it should study the general situation with 
respect to Formosa with a view to formulating 
appropriate recommendations. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE ANSWERS 
SENATOR BRIDGES' ACCUSATIONS 

[Released to the press October 3] 

The "facts" set forth by Senator Bridges in his 
statement today have no relationship to the facts 
as they actually exist. If Senator Bridges will e.x- 
amine the facts, he must himself conclude that he 
was rash in his unfounded accusation. Here is 
what has happened : 

On August 24, a complaint was lodged by the 
Chinese Communists with the President of the Se- 
curity Council that the recent United States action 
neutralizing Formosa was an act of aggression. 
It was requested that this matter be investigated 

' BuiXETiN of July 3, 1950, p. 5. 



by the Security Council. The United States, 
speaking through Ambassador Austin, welcomed 
an investigation. Any examination of the facts 
would show that the action did not constitute ag- 
gression but, on the contrary, was action safe- 
guarding the peace. 

The resolution, actually presented to the Se- 
curity County by Ecuador, however, had the ef- 
fect of permitting the Chinese Communists to 
attend as witnesses and present their case to the 
Security Council. The United States proposal 
was that the Security Council should establish a 
Commission to investigate the charges on the spot 
in Formosa and that such a Commission could 
hear anyone who wished to be heard on this sub- 
ject. The United States was outvoted on the 
Ecuadoran resolution by a vote of 7-3, with 1 
abstention. 

Senator Bridges insinuates that tliis action 
changes the Chinese representation in the United 
Nations. This is not the case. The resolution 
merely permits spokesmen of the Chinese Commu- 
nists to appear before the Security Council as 
witnesses as has happened in other cases before. 
A proposal to seat the Chinese Communists had al- 
ready been defeated under the leadership of Sec- 
retary Acheson. 

Senator Bridges says that the action on the 
Ecuadoran resolution had the support of the State 
Department. This is also not the case. The 
United States representative in the Security Coun- 
cil stated our opposition to the resolution in clear 
and forceful terms, pointing out the danger that 
the Security Council would be subverted into a 
forum for propaganda purposes. 

We are committed to the building of a strong 
effective United Nations. Carping criticism any 
time one loses a vote or irresponsible allegations of 
bad faith can only weaken the United Nations and 
give aid and comfort to propagandists of the 
Soviet Union. 

Text of Resolution 

U.N. doc. S/1S36 
Adopted Sept. 29, 1950 

The folloicinfr is the text of the resolution submitted 
to the Security Council on September 29, and approved by 
a vote of 7 (Ecuador, France, India, Norway, United Kinn- 
dom, V.S.S.R., Yugoslavia), -3 (China, Cuba, United 
States), Kith 1 abstention (Egypt). 

The Security Council, 

CoNSiDEKiNQ that it is its duty to investigate any situa- 
tion likely to lead to international friction or to give rise 
to a dispute, in order to determine whether the continu- 
ance of such dispute or situation may endanger interna- 
tional peace and security, and likewise to determine the 
existence of any threat to peace ; 

Considering that, in the event of a complaint regarding 
situations or facts similar to tho.se mentioned above, the 
Council may hear the complainants ; 

Considering that, in view of the divergency of opinion in 



608 



Department of State Bulletin 



the Council regardius the representation of China and 
without prejudice to this question, it may in accordance 
with rule 39 of the rules of procedure, invite representa- 
tives of the Central People's Government of the People's 
Republic of China to provide it with information or assist 
it in the consideration of these matters ; 

Having noted the declaration of the People's Republic 
of China regarding the armed invasion of the Island of 
Taiwan (Formosa) ; [and] 

[Considering further that a complaint submitted by the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics regarding aggression 
against the territory of China by the United States of 
America has been placed on the agenda of the fifth session 
of the General Assembly and has been referred for con- 
sideration to the First Committee of the Assembly;] 

Decides 

(a) To defer consideration of this question until the 
first meeting of the Council held after 15 November 1950 ; 

(b) To invite a representative of the said Government 
to attend the meetings of the Security Council held after 
15 November 1950 during the discussion of that Govern- 
ment's declaration regarding an armed invasion of the 
Island of Taiwan (Formosa). 

Editor's Note: Bracketed material was contained in 
the Ecuadoran resolution (S/1823, Corr. 1), which was 
modified by the Security Council. 

Statement by Senator Styles Bridges^ 

Over the past weekend, I have come into posses- 
sion of certain information which indicates that 
American flesh and blood has been spent in vain 
and tliat an evil diplomatic brew is on the fire. 

It appears that a blueprint for Communist ap- 
peasement drafted 3 weeks ago is now being 
carried out. The first move was made on Friday. 
It is imperative that the warning be given because 
the truth belongs to the American people. 

Here are the facts : 

Secretary of State Dean Acheson is now obvi- 
ously opening the back door for the entrance of 
Communist China into the United Nations. 

I think the time has come for a housecleaning of 
the State Department, eliminating everyone from 
the Secretary down who has appeased the Com- 
munists in the Far East. 

I have been hopeful that a bipartisan foreign 
policy could be maintained. As the ranking Re- 
publican, I have attended President Truman's 
frequent meetings at the White House on the 
critical world situation in an attempt to play my 
part. 

But this great sell-out now under way will 
jeopardize a bipartisan foreign policy. The 
State Department is giving away everything won 
by the blood of our youths and marks a major 
step toward turning Asia over to the Communists. 

How does the Secretary of State explain these 
facts? 

In Malik's first statement to the United Nations 
Security Council, he made clear that a settlement 
of the Korean issue could be made without the loss 

' Issued to the press on Oct. 3, 1950. 



of a single American life if Communist China 
were admitted to the United Nations. That black- 
mail was rightly turned down. Now, in the hour 
of triumph — after the loss of thousands of Ameri- 
can lives and the payment in American blood of 
over 20,000 casualties — -a blueprint for a grand 
sell-out is being carried out. 

United States foreign policy failed last Friday, 
when the United Nations Security Council voted 
to invite the Communist Chinese delegates to 
come to the United Nations "in view of the di- 
vergency of opinion in the Council regarding the 
representatives of China." 

That is the exact wording of the first United 
Nations resolution adopted since Secretary Ache- 
son took personal charge of the United States 
delegation to the world body. 

This statement was so minimized that few 
Americans grasped the significance. If they be- 
come aware of it, will they not ask the question : 
"Is the State Department not selling out the 
American boys who fought and died so gallantly 
in Korea?" 

The Communists were invited here to discuss 
the invasion of Formosa. At the very moment, 
when we could have made our influence felt 
throughout the world, has our Secretary of State 
been able to block the policy on Formosa set by 
President Truman himself and which General 
MacArthur in his public statement says is essen- 
tial to the security of the United States? 

It is with great reluctance that I make this 
statement. But after deep consideration of the 
factors involved and the security of our nation, 
I am forced to the conclusion that our Secretary 
of State and his clique in their actions on Com- 
munist China are making a mockery of our bi- 
partisan policy. 

Even before the Communists invaded Korea, I 
was invited to the White House by the President 
for discussions on establishing a sound bipartisan 
policy in the interests of the national welfare. It 
was the hope that policy questions could be elimi- 
nated and that a strong effective bipartisan policy 
might be had. In the light of developments in the 
past several days, the American people must be 
alerted to the imminent dangers involved in the 
maneuvering in the United Nations. 

Three weeks ago, my office was informed of an 
understanding between our State Department and 
the British Foreign Office to arrange for the entry 
for Communist China into the United Nations. 

I was informed, coincidentally, that at the 
proper moment the Communist Chinese delegates, 
with the tacit approval of Dean Acheson, would 
be allowed to bring their charges before the Secu- 
rity Council. I made every effort to check the 
accuracy of these reports and was assured by 
officials contacted that this was a lie and an un- 
truth designed to upset bipartisan policy. I ac- 
cepted those assurances. 

It now seems very obvious that the United States 
delegation on instructions from the Secretary of 



Ocfofaer ?6, 7950 



609 



State last Friday made no real effort to block this 
move. In any case, the facts show that the invita- 
tion to the Communist Chinese is so worded as to 
raise the whole question as to who is to represent 
China and to permit propaganda against the Presi- 
dent's Formosa policy. 

This most certainly does not represent the wishes 
of the American {people. The group in the State 
Department that brought about the present situa- 
tion in Asia are selling down the river everyone 
who gave his life under the United Nations flag. 
We liave now impaired General MacArthur"s 
hard-won gains and our reestablished prestige in 
the Orient and the rest of the world. 

Aren't we at precisely the same point we were 
on the day that the Communists invaded Korea? 

Aren't we now accepting a proposal which was 
offered to us by Mr. Malik before our great 
sacrifice ? 

It is a bitter realization for those people who 
have lost dear ones to learn that it need not have 
been so. 

In the name of the Almighty, what is Mr. Ache- 
son trying to do? I ask here and now that the 
American foreign policy, and particularly, the 
jjolicy in the Pacific be defined clearly and finally 
for the American people. Tell us what we are 
fighting for — appeasement under Acheson's new 
school of diplomacy to serve British interests in 
the Far East or a set of principles to which our 
very Constitution is dedicated. 

This is a humiliating spectacle and a sad day 
for freedom-loving people. Let us have immediate 
action by cleaning out the State Department of 
this entire clique. 



Answer to Soviet Charge 
of Aggression in Korea 

Statement hy Ambassador Warren R. Austin'^ 

The issue in Committee I is largely depend- 
ent on what is truth. In this item on Korea's 
future, truth is on the side of life; falsehood on 
the side of death. Truth aims at peace ; falsehood 
aims at continuance of war. Truth here seeks 
United Nations constructive work. Falsehood 
continues the evil process of destruction. 

The Soviet denials of history and falsification 
of existing circumstances are not accepted. They 
have no color or credibility. "Rotten wood can- 
not be carved nor wall of sand be plastered." The 
record of United Nations successful aid to the 
Republic of Korea in establishing law and order 
through a democratic government pi-evails as 
truth over all Soviet denials. The record of 
United Nations assistance to the Republic of 

^ Made before Committee I (Political and Security) on 
Oct. 2 and released to the press by the U.S. Mission to 
the U.N. 



Korea to repel Communist-armed aggression is 
not shaken by the false Soviet accusations that the 
United States and the Republic of Korea were the 
aggressors. 

The progress of the United Nations power to 
enforce peace accelerates in spite of the Soviet 
attempt to defeat it. The case of truth against 
falsehood, of peace against war, has been made 
more convincing even than before, by today's 
debate. 

Repetition of the "big lie'" that United States 
aggression is the cause of the war points up the 
contrast. The Republic of Korea is barely 2 
years old and was making progress in social, eco- 
nomic, political, and cultural fields. Its citizens 
are today establishing the truth by glorious sac- 
rifice. Their self-help and collaboration with the 
United Nations for freedom, security, and well- 
being does, even now, increase the possibility of 
freedom security and well-being in the world. 



U.S. Acitnowledges Aircraft 
Fired on CFiinese Territory 

U.N. doc. S/1832 
Dated Oct. 2, 1950 

Following is the text of a letter transmitted 6j/ Aml)as- 
sador Warren R. Austin to Seeretary-Oeneral Trijgve Lie. 

I have the honor to bring to your attention the 
following matter: 

On August 28 and August 30, 1950, the Chinese 
Communist authorities sent cablegrams to the 
United Nations i-egarding alleged bombings upon 
Chinese territory by air forces of the United 
States. A detailed investigation undertaken at 
the request of the Commanding General of the 
United Nations Command of the incident alleged 
in these communications has now disclosed that in 
the late afternoon of August 27, 1950, two F-51 
fighter bombers, supplied by the United States to 
th& United Nations Command, by mistake flew 
over the territory of China and fired on an air- 
strip just southwest of Antung. 

The Mission involved was to destroy six barges 
near the mouth of the Chongchongang River in 
North Korea. The weather was not good, con- 
trary to forecasts, and the flight had to fly at 
14,000 feet, and came out of the clouds at a place 
the pilots thought was south of their target. In- 
stead, they were north of it and mistook the Yalu 
River for the Chongchongang River. Being fired 
upon, they turned and circled to their left to avoid 
the flak, turned south and passed over the airstrip 
involved. 

The investigation has disclosed nothing to cor- 
roborate the complaints of the Chinese Communist 
authorities set forth in their communications to 
the United Nations of August 28 and August 30, 
concerning further violations of Chinese territory. 



610 



Depariment of S/afe Bulletin 



Universal Security: Accomplishments of the United Nations 



Statement hy Secretary Acheson 

Chairmun, U.S. Delegation to the General Assembly ^ 



It is a great pleasure for nie to be with you this 
afternoon, and I would like to start out by telling 
you why that is so. That is not a mere formal 
observation. I think that the ladies and gentle- 
men in this room who are reporting the work of 
the United Nations are performing a very vast 
service to mankind. What is done here at Lake 
Success and at Flushing Meadow has importance 
in itself, but it has altogether much greater im- 
portance as you explain it to the hundreds of 
millions of people in the world whose lives are 
deeply affected by what goes on here. It must be 
j'our duty as you understand it and as you are 
performing it to see that what happens in the 
United Nations is interpreted and is carried to 
hundreds of millions of people throughout the 
world. You are doing a great service, and, inso- 
far as I can pay you some small tribute by being 
with you this afternoon, I am very glad to do 
that. 

When I had the pleasure of being with you a 
year ago, I pointed out that security was a uni- 
versal problem. I think it is more than ever a 
universal problem. In the year which has passed 
since I was with you before, events have happened 
which have made much more possible the universal 
accomplishment of this great task of security. 
These are several. 

In the first place, thi'ough the Economic Co- 
operation Administration in its work in Europe 
and other parts of the world, there has been a very 
great economic improvement. That has had its 
profomid effect. 

Significance of North Atlantic Treaty 

Since I was with you before, the North Atlantic 
Treaty has gone through a great development. I 
shall come back to that in a moment because it is 
a most significant development. 

' Made at press conference at Lake Success on Oct. 4 
and released to the press on Oct. 5. 



In the year which has passed, the Rio treaty has 
been ratified by almost all the nations of this hem- 
isphere, and, we hope, within a short time, the 
remaining House of the Ecuadoran Congress will 
have acted upon it. 

Also, within that year, there has happened 
Korea. Before speaking of Korea, may I go back 
to the North Atlantic Treaty. 

The first meeting of the Council was on Septem- 
ber 17, 1949. That is very little over a year ago. 
During that time, with almost astounding speed, 
there has developed the conception of the defense 
of the North Atlantic area as an integrated, unified, 
centralized, strong organization into which all 
the parties to that treaty will make their contri- 
butions and which will be centrally directed, cen- 
trally organized, and centrally operated. Now, 
that is a very great step ahead and the significance 
of that, I think, is not lost upon any of you. 

Decisions of United Nations on Korea 

Now, let us come to Korea. I do not need to 
state what has been said so many times to all of 
you that the effect of those decisions of June were 
a turning point in history. Not only did they 
electrify the world with the realization that the 
United Nations was stepping into a most difficult 
situation in a distant part of the world against 
odds which seemed very heavy, but the United 
Nations was doing this with a vast degree of 
unanimity. Then, the operations went forward, 
and we all had dark days and disappointments. 
No one wlio has a stout heart lost it during those 
dark days, and we saw that the tide turned and 
we are now coming to a new period in the develop- 
ment of Korea which, I think, is as full of sig- 
nificance as the decisions of June. 

Now, while we are talking here, Committee One 
is voting upon the resolution having to do with 
the unification of Korea. In voting upon that 
resolution they have before them, an action of this 
great United Nations organization which will put 



Ocfober 76, 1950 



611 



together, we hope and believe and trust, this small 
and gallant country which has been through so 
many vicissitudes. I hope it will be put together 
in ways which leave no rancor, or in which wounds 
can be bound up, in which those who fought on 
either side can reconcile their diflFerences if they 
are left free of foreign intervention. No one 
knows better than Americans that that can be done 
even though it takes time, even though bitternesses 
exist. If people are left alone to find in their own 
country a common destiny, free of foreign inter- 
ference, they can reconcile past differences and 
they can create a common future. That is what 
we hope will take place in the political unification 
of Korea. 

Then, there is the great possibility of the eco- 
nomic reconstruction of Korea. Here, as I said 
before the plenary session of the General Assem- 
bly, is an opportunity not merely to dramatize 
what the United Nations can do with its combined 
knowledge, technical skill, and assistance, finan- 
cial and otherwise, but to lay the United Nations 
foundations for economic organization and coop- 
eration starting with this one demonstration, 
going on into other parts of the world, doing 
similar cooperative and helpful tasks in other 
parts of the world also. 

That is a great inspiration, a great challenge, 
and a great opportunity, and, here, again, it is 
part of your task to make the world see that this 
is a real challenge and this is a real opportunity 
which all the nations of the world can grasp. 

Then, we come to another which is complemen- 
tary to the ones I have been talking about, the 
proposal which our delegation is making and 
which Mr. Dulles will have charge of in Commit- 
tee One — the uniting-for-peace resolution. Now, 
here is another matter of great significance. Its 
importance really is not the debate as to whether 
it detracts from the duties of the Security Council 
or not. That is not the point. It does not detract 
from the function of the Security Council. It is 
an opportunity for the United Nations within the 
Charter, within the clear provisions of the Char- 
ter, and within considerations which were brought 
forward and discussed and clearly understood in 
San Francisco, to have what the insurance people 
would call "reinsurance." So, if the Security 
Council finds that it can not perform its impor- 
tant function, there is a place in the United Na- 
tions where that function can, to a very large 
extent, be performed. It gives an opportunity 
not only to do that but also to do something even 
more vitally important and that is to subject to 
the judgment of the great body, the General As- 
sembly, questions of vital importance to the peace 
and security of the world. 



Decision for the General Assembly 

Now, there are many people who think that that 
is wrong. There are many people who have 
always thought that it is wrong, since the begin- 
ning of the world, to trust popular assemblies or 
large bodies of people with important decision. I 
don't share that view. Broadly speaking, my 
country does not share that view.. We have been 
willing to trust the people. We believe the people 
can be trusted and if they know what the situation 
is, and again it is your duty to see that they do, 
they can reach wise decisions. We do not believe 
that it is essential that a small group must make 
the decisions. We believe that they can be wisely 
and properly made by this General Assembly rep- 
resenting all the nations of the earth, and we think 
that that brings to our mind an important echo 
out of our own past. In submitting these great 
matters to the General Assembly, we think we are 
having that decent respect for the opinions of man- 
kind of which Thomas Jefferson wrote years ago. 
We also think that something else will flow from 
it and that is a sense of real responsibility and real 
participation. 

It is very important that all the nations of the 
earth should have an opportunity to express their 
views. It is also very important that they should 
have an opportunity to share tlie responsibility. It 
is not enough to express one's views, to make 
speeches, to have ideas. It is very important to 
share the burden of carrying out those ideas and 
those votes. And all of that we believe and hope 
will occur through this resolution that we are 
talking about. 

I think that this session of the General As- 
sembly is, as I said to the General Assembly in my 
speech, a session of decision. This is a time when 
we will decide that we are going forward, or we 
will decide that we are frustrated, and whatever 
decision we will make will have profound effects 
on the future of the world. I do not believe in 
doctrines of frustration. I believe that people can 
go forward, should go forward, and will go for- 
ward if they will shake themselves free of fears 
and doubts and hesitation and take the risks which 
are always involved in making any important de- 
cision in this life. I think it is also a session of 
the General Assembly in which this world organi- 
zation can move forward in the true spirit of 
democracy, in the true spirit of allowing a greater 
and greater participation in the making of all the 
great decisions that I talked about and in the 
sharing of the burdens of those decisions. There- 
fore, I believe that it will be many, many decades 
before you will see as decisive, as critical a meeting 
of the General Assembly as the one meeting at the 
present time. 



612 



Department of State Bulletin 



Fulfillment of Responsibility in a World in Peril 



ADDRESS BY SECRETARY ACHESON > 

Public life in America is a rough school. It is 
no place for anyone who is thin-skinned or who 
can work only in an atmosphere of appi'obation. 

Indeed, such is our public life that abuse is not 
hard to bear, but understanding and support is 
something of an unnerving experience. 

This evening, spent with friends who have come 
together to do me honor and give me heart, is a 
cool spring to a thirsty wayfarer. 

The Course of Peace and Dignity 

One cannot rest long in the pleasant shade, but, 
while we pause, we may consult the map and the 
compass and reflect for a moment over the course 
we are on before setting out once again. 

The direction in which we wish to go is plain 
and clear to all of us. We wish to move toward 
peace and security, toward a life of freedom and 
dignity for man, the individual, toward a better 
life for people everywhere. 

The course we take, in order to move in this di- 
rection, has two markers on it. 

One marker indicates what we must do in order 
to have peace and security. The other points to- 
ward the advancement of human well-being. Both 
are essential to our course. Both are vital aspects 
of the work of the United Nations. 

1950 Peril 

In the world in which we live, the best hope of 
peace and security can be found in the strength 
and unity of free nations. 

There are still some among us to whom it seems 
a paradox that free nations must arm themselves, 
with the utmost energy, m order to have peace. 

But surely one clear lesson of the thirties, and 
now again of the fifties, is that the will to peace is 

' Made on the occasion of receiving the Freedom House 
Award for 1950 in New York City on Oct. 8 and released 
to the press on the same date. 

Ocfober 16, 7950 



no guaranty of peace, unless those who hold it are 
both willing and able to stop aggression. 

It is with the world as it is — not as we might 
wish it to be — that we must begin. 

In the year of our Lord one thousand nine hun- 
dred and fifty, we find oureelves in a world of peril. 
The values we cherish and our right to fulfill them 
in peace are in grave jeopardy. 

The small group of men who hold the Russian 
people in an iron grip is not content to entrench 
the po%yer of its regime. These men seek to ex- 
pand their control over other peoples. Wlierever 
there is prospect of success, they have reached out 
for more territory, more people. They have mo- 
bilized arms and armies for this purpose. 

It takes more than bare hands and a desire for 
peace to turn back this threat. 

It takes very considerable military strength, or- 
ganization, and a strong will to insure that aggres- 
sion does not have further prospect of success and 
may therefore be discouraged. 

Great progress has been made in the forging of 
instruments of collective security. 

Korea is a milestone on the way to a collective 
security system. 

The delegates to the United Nations General 
Assembly will, tomorrow, consider a proposal for 
the maintenance of elements in their armed forces 
trained so as to be available for prompt service 
with the United Nations. 

The North Atlantic Treaty countries are now at 
work upon the creation of an integrated defense 
force under a unified command. 

But a vast amount still remains to be done, and 
there is not much time in which to do it. This 
period of gathering and organizing strength is a 
period of great peril. The job has to be done de- 
spite the danger. The alternative is not merely 
greater danger ; it is certain disaster. 

Adjustments in Diplomacy 

Now, it seems to me a waste of time to debate — 
as some do — whether the decision to meet this im- 
perative necessity is a positive or a negative policy. 

613 



The point is that it is an essential course of con- 
duct, without which the rest of what we do may 
be of no consequence. 

What is important, however, is never to lose 
sight of why we are embarked on tliis course. We 
are embarked on it because it is our best — indeed, 
our only way of preserving peace and freedom. 

Building the strength of free nations is not by 
itself a method of settling differences with the So- 
viet leaders. It is a way — and again, the only 
way — to prevent those differences from being 
settled by default. 

As the great military inequality is reduced nego- 
tiation becomes possible. 

The common objectives which make broad com- 
promise possible between the Soviet leaders and 
the rest of the world are now lacking. A compro- 
mise which moves one just a little closer to his own 
elimination is not a compromise. 

But as tlie strength and durability of the free 
nations bite into the consciousness of the Soviet 
leaders, some modification of their determination 
to achieve world domination could follow. This 
would open a door on many possibilities for the 
peaceful adjustment of differences. 

This process of adjustment is the purpose of our 
efforts. 

The problems we are dealing with are complex 
and difficult. They do not have neat and tidy 
answers. Tlioy are not problems that can be dis- 
posed of once and for all. 

Diplomacy in our world is like a housewife's 
job; it is never finished. It is a process of life — 
of growth — and we must be prepared to work 
away, seeking improvements and adjustments 
where we can. 

We can anticipate that our efforts may lead 
toward a long series of negotiations, deeply 
molded by time and by the recognition of realities. 

This task we are set upon is a difficult one — to 
build military strength with the hope that we 
shall never have to use it. 

Building for Democracy 

We do not have ambitions or designs that 
threaten any otlier people. We desire only a 
world in which we can live in peace. 

We must find ways of making this absolutely 
clear to the world. The word "peace" has been 
so much abused, propaganda has so perverted its 
meaning, that when we speak of our desire for 
peace, to some it seems the undeniable cloak of 
ulterior purposes. 

This is one of our constant preoccupations — 
liow to break through this barrier of tangled 
words and make it unmistakably clear to all people 
everywhere that the purpose of our effoi'ts is a 
peaceful world. 

The other marker on our course indicates the 
creative job before us. We must go forward with 
the creation of the life which we are defending at 



the very time that we are building the defense. 

In the early days of our history, the clearing 
and tilling of fields went on while the militia 
drilled and guards kept a lookout from the block- 
houses. 

There will come a time when we can devote 
more of our energies and resources to the con- 
structive work of building a better life for people, 
but we cannot postpone these efforts until that ' 
time. For millions of people, the immediate, 
urgent preoccupation is with the simple elements 
of survival — food, land, and human dignity. 

These wants can best be satisfied by democratic 
societies. Democracy as we know it is still a 
revolutionary idea in many large parts of the 
world. It is a young idea, a growing idea. It is 
a wellspring of hope. 

Behind the shields of our defenses, free socie- 
ties must demonstrate their vitality, their respon- 
sibility, their superior ability to respond to man's 
true needs and wishes. 

One of the tasks of the older democracies is to 
make their purposes meaningful in the lives of 
the peoples of the younger democracies. This 
means translating democracy into loaves of bread, 
as well as into the Bill of Rights. 

We must go about this task with vigor and de- 
termination and keep it before us as a symbol of 
our basic purposes. 

We have found it true in our national life that 
when, in times of peril, the values by which we 
live are challenged, we have become more keenly 
conscious of their preeminent importance and have 
spurred ourselves to great efforts in realizing some 
of their promise. 

It was during the days of revolutionary dangers 
that many of the great statements of American 
purposes were made and some of the great ad- 
vances in our political life were brought about. 
In the midst of the fearful trials of the Civil War, 
Lincoln enacted the Homestead Laws. 

Just as we have found, in our national expe- 
rience, that our great energies and resources have 
been equal to both of these tagks, so can the free 
nations of the world, even as they take measures 
to insure their security, move ahead to unfold the 
creative possibilities which lie within their power. 

Tlie combined efforts of the United Nations to 
rebuild Korea is an important step forward. It is 
not only as an earnest of our intentions but shall 
also be a practical example of what can now be 
done on a cooperative basis to help people raise 
themselves up from poverty, disease, and hunger. 
In this one place, ravaged by the consequences 
of a ruthless aggression, the United Nations can 
demonstrate all that it has learned about helping 
people to build better lives for themselves, to edu- 
cate their children and keep them well, to grow 
more food, to prosper, and enjoy the finiits of their 
efforts. 

What the United Nations will be able to do in 
helping the people of Korea to rebuild their coun- 



614 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



try will be watched with keen interest by the people 
of many other countries, whose need is for develop- 
ment aid. 

The Korea recovery effort can be an inspiring 
example. Othei-s may see what can be done and 
draw from this project the courage and the knowl- 
edge to make their own lives better. 

Discussion Demands Discipline 

Now this course we are on, which seeks to main- 
tain peace and security at the same time that it 
moves ahead toward a better life for people, takes 
maturity, steadiness, and restraint on our part. 

Tliis is not a job which can be handled by a few 
public officials. Our entire people are called upon 
to participate in the leadership which our nation 
must exercise in the world in which we live. The 
press, public leaders, the Congress, individuals 
share the responsibility of the role our country 
must perform. 

Restraint and self-discipline can help us to avoid 
some of the dangers which lie along our course. 

One of the dangers, in particular, is avoidable. 
If we keep always before us that our purpose in 
building military power is to enable us to settle 
our differences by peaceful means, then we shall 
avoid the terrible error of talking and acting as 
though the end of our effort is war. 

The purpose of our effort is the exact opposite. 
But foolish talk about preventive war, or the in- 
evitability of war, will help to make war inevitable. 
It does not need to be so at all. 

There is a very common tendency for people who 
are putting their whole hearts and souls into a 
great task to think in terms of logical absolutes. 
This leads some few people to forget why we are 
making this great effort and to proclaim that our 
object should be to bring about the very thing 
which we are trying so desperately to avoid— that 
is, war. 

Our friends can foresee, very well indeed, the 
terrible results to them — and to us — of another 
general war. They do not shrink from these dan- 
gers in doing what must be done to preserve their 
freedom. They are ready to join with us — indeed 
to accord us leadership— in the hard task of build- 
ing the military power essential to deter war. 

But they expect, and they have a right to ex- 
pect, a serious and responsible associate, and seri- 
ous and responsible leadership. 

The dangers about us are deadly dangers. 
Here, in all somber truth, is a situation where the 
consequences of error may be death. It is with 
these thoughts that our friends hear the irresponsi- 
ble statements I have mentioned and ponder the 
consequences of our mutual association. 

And upon those who are not friendly to us these 
statements have their effect also. To them, partly 
deceived by the excesses of their own propaganda, 
we seem to confirm their picture of us as the 
warmongers. 

October 16, 1950 



No one can tell the errors which such irresponsi- 
ble talk among us may bring into their calcula- 
tions. No one can believe that any good can come 
of it. It is not hard to imagine the vast evil which 
may result. 

Another danger, which restraint and self-disci- 
pline can help us to avoid, is division among us and 
our friends. There is no lack of eager hands to 
help this forward. 

The price of unity is to cling to the essentials 
and to find accommodations for all lesser problems. 
It is not to insist upon an American attitude upon 
every matter and to insist that our friends must 
adjust themselves to this. 

On foreign affairs, it is easy to become clearer 
than truth itself — in the press, on the radio, in our 
literature, in Congress. No one is ever so sure 
about domestic problems. 

The Example of American Freedom 

Let us apply some of the genius for accommoda- 
tion which has made our nation, to making the 
larger association with the free nations. For here, 
we are all seeking the same end in the light of the 
same values. 

If we do this, we can be as firm as the Rock of 
Gibraltar in insisting that all who wish to remain 
free do their full part in the organization of 
strength to defend that freedom. We can also 
find ways of reaching common views on lesser 
problems. 

The demands upon us are very gi-eat. To es- 
cape the avoidable dangers requires restraint of a 
high order. And self-discipline does not come 
easily to us. 

To escape the dangers which we cannot control 
will take coolness, steady nerves, and, above all, 
the greatest possible speed in the creation of our 
common military strength. 

Foreign policy is not a disembodied thing. The 
outward strength of a democracy can be no greater 
than its inward strength. As we at home make 
progress in achieving the promise of our society — 
as we encourage the individual's opportunities — 
as we strengthen the foundations of justice and 
freedom — so shall we demonstrate that democracy 
is a vital, a progressive, a hopeful way of life. 

The vitality of our free institutions at home, of 
our individual and community life, will determine 
the influence we can exert abroad in support of 
freedom. 

This, too, is part of the responsibility of each 
individual among us. The fulfillment of this re- 
sponsibility through such an organization as Free- 
dom House is one of the bedrocks of our foreign 
policy. 

The road to freedom and to peace which I have 
pictured is a hard one. 

The times in which we live must be painted in 
the somber values of Rembrandt. The back- 
ground is dark, the shadows deep. Outlines are 

615 



obscure. The central point, however, glows with 
light ; and, though it often brings out the glint of 
steel, it touches colors of unimaginable beauty. 
For us, that central point is the growing unity 
of free men the world over. This is our shaft of 
light, our hope, and our promise. 



REMARKS BY AMBASSADOR AUSTIN ^ 

I have tonight a most congenial task ; to present 
the Freedom Award, whose vei'y name makes it 
precious, to a man I am proud to call my friend. 

As the war came to an end, it was his job to work 
with the Congress as we considered together the 
wisest course for the United States to follow in 
the postwar world. The Bretton Woods monetary 
agreements, the United Nations Charter, the 
United Nations Participation Act all bear the 
mark of his widely ranging, analytical, and con- 
structive mind. These actions provided the grow- 
ing machinery of international organization on 
which so much depends today. 

There has never been a man who was more ac- 
cessible to the members of the Congress. He never 
made things appear easier than they were or fed us 
on false hopes. The American people are fortu- 
nate in being able to count on such honesty and 
courage in their Secretary of State. 

The Reciprocal Trade Agreements, Unrra, the 
World Bank and Fund, and above all the European 
Recovery Program owe much to his understanding 
of one elemental fact. This fact he, himself, 
described most succinctly at Cleveland, Missis- 
sippi, in 1947 as "the short distance which lies 
between food and fuel and peace or anarchy." 

No one has realized more clearly than the man 
we honor tonight the dangers the United States 
faces from the rampant imperialism of the Soviet 
Union. He has plainly chartered the hard courses 
this ambitious and irresponsible dictatorship 
imposes on the free world. 

He has continued to point out that the moral, 
economic, and military power of the United States 
is an essential factor in the organization of the 
peace. He has been an eloquent advocate of the 
strengthening of our military establislunent. Dur- 
ing his service as Secretary of State, we have seen 
the North Atlantic community developing into a 
fortress of freedom. In the past few months, he 
has taken the leadership in the North Atlantic 
Council in the creation of an integi'ated European 
army. 

Force must exist to resist force, but Dean Ache- 
son has always realized that force is not enough. 

Strength for the United States and the free 
world is the premise. Tlie projDOsition is freedom. 



' Made on the presentation of the Freedom House Award 
to the Secretary of State, Dean Acheson, on Oct. 8 and 
released to the press on the same date. 



political freedom and freedom from the terrible 
bonds of war and cold and hunger and disease. 

This devotion to the cause "of the larger free- 
dom'' of which the Charter speaks, is the key to 
his wholehearted support of the United Nations. 
During my service as the United States represen- 
tative, I have leaned heavily on his wise and vig- 
orous faith in the United Nations as the "keystone 
of our foreign policy." 

It was almost possible to feel physically the 
lift in spirit that greeted his recent speech before 
the General Assembly. These are days of danger 
and of opportunity. This speech shows how we 
may, through the United Nations, face the dangers 
and grasp the opportunities. This speech made it 
once more plain that we, the peoples of the United 
Nations, do not look in vain to the United States 
for the finest qualities of leadership. 

It is for all these reasons, old and new, that I 
take deep satisfaction in presenting this Freedom 
House Award which brings due honor to Dean 
Acheson. It reads: 

To Secretary of State Dean Acheson, valiant and con- 
structive voice, leading the democratic nations towards 
unity against tyranny. 



U.S. Endorses Austrian Action in 
Suppressing Communist Disturbances 

Statement hy James E. TFe&& 
Acting Secretary of State 

[Released to the press October 6] 

The firmness and determination with which the 
Austrian people have reacted to the recent Com- 
munist-inspired disturbances in Austria and the 
prompt and courageous action taken by the Aus- 
trian Government and police to maintain law and 
order are heartening, I am sure, to the American 
people as a whole. The actions of the Austrian 
Government in this respect have the full support 
of this Government. 

The agreement on control machinery, signed 
by the four occupying powers on June 28, 1946, 
provides that the Allied Commission shall assist 
the Austrian Government to recreate a sound and 
democratic national life based on respect for law 
and order. This agreement charges the Allied 
Commission with responsibility for maintaining 
law and order if the Austrian authorities are un- 
able to do so and authorizes the High Connnission- 
ers to act independently to maintain law and order 
in their respective zones in the absence of action by 
the Allied Commission. Needless to say, this Gov- 
ernment will take all proper action to fulfill its 
international commitments with respect to the 
maintenance of law and order in the areas of its 
responsibility in Austria. 



616 



Department of State Bulletin 



Freedom and Responsibility 



hy Edward G. Miller, Jr. 

Assistant Secretary for Inter- American Affairs ' 



I know, from the principles which you adopted 
in your Fourth Congress at Bogota, and reaffirmed 
last year in the Fifth Congress at Quito, that you 
regard freedom of the press as a basic necessity for 
democracy and independence. It is very fitting, 
therefore, that your first meeting in this country is 
being held at New York. In this city, the prin- 
ciple of the freedom of the press was established by 
law, a full generation before our Declaration of 
Independence was drawn up. Two hundred and 
seventeen years ago, in 1733, a printer named John 
Peter Zenger was brougiit to trial here. He was 
charged with publishing seditious statements be- 
cause his paper, the New York Weekly Jov/mal, 
had been criticizing the Governor of the Colony. 
In the name of a free press, Zenger's counsel made 
eloquent defense of a newspaper's right to publish 
the truth. The jury quickly brought in a verdict 
of "not guilty" which was cheered by crowds wait- 
ing in the street to hear it. 

However, not only past history, but present 
world problems give special relevance to your 
meeting here. The General Assembly of the 
United Nations has up for consideration, at the 
current session, certain resolutions adopted by 
Ecosoc on freedom of information and the press. 
These resolutions recommend that only in ex- 
tremely exceptional circumstances shall member 
states take measures to limit freedom of informa- 
tion, and they especially condemn jamming of 
radio broadcasts. Confiscatory and discrimina- 
tory governmental measures for limiting the sup- 
ply of newsprint were condemned by the Economic 
and Social Council in its recent session in Geneva. 

Basic to these resolutions are principles that 
you yourselves zealously defend. I recall that the 
Fourth Inter-American Press Congress at Bogota, 
in plenary session, adopted a declaration of prin- 
ciples exhorting the press of the Americas, among 

' An address made before the Sixth Inter-American 
Press Conference at New York, N.Y., on Oct. 9, and re- 
leased to the press on the same date. 

October 16, 1950 

909438 — 50 3 



other things "to maintain itself loyal to the high 
ideals of freedom, justice and independence which 
inspired the American liberators" ; and "to encour- 
age cooperation among the Great Powers on whose 
unity depends the peace of the world." The Con- 
gress at Bogota adopted also a resolution on free- 
dom of the press, declaring that "any attempt, 
official or from any other source, against a written 
or spoken periodical of the continent, will be 
deemed to be committed against all organs of the 
press in the hemisphere"; that "the press is not 
only an industry but also an institution that has a 
social mission which can admit neither direct 
nor indirect limitations or restrictions" ; that "the 
direct or indirect control of the press, the monop- 
oly of paper or its inequitable distribution, shall 
be considered an aggression against the freedom of 
the press"; and that "an excessive fiscal tax on 
periodical enterprises shall likewise be considered 
as restriction on freedom." 



Right of Democracy to a Free Press 

Freedom of the press has always been regarded 
as a basic right of democracy in the United States. 
Our separate State Constitutions have been guar- 
anteeing that freedom ever since 1776. It is guar- 
anteed likewise, very forcibly, by the Federal 
Government. The First Amendment to the Con- 
stitution of the United States — note that it is the 
first — declares that "Congi-ess shall make no 
law . . . abridging the freedom of speech, or of 
the press." Furthermore, freedom of speech and 
freedom of the press are among the fundamental 
rights and liberties which are protected from im- 
pairment by the several States, by the due process 
clause of the Fourteenth Amenclment to the na- 
tional Constitution. 

Although particular issues of information media 
may be suppressed as offensive to public decency or 
as subversive or anarchical, the constitutional 
guaranties of freedom of speech and of the press 



617 



constitute safeguards against enforced suspension 
of infoi-mation media by governmental authority, 
in the United States, in time of peace. 

Accordingly, although the postal authorities 
may suppress a particular issue of a newspaper or 
magazine by barring it from the mails on the 
ground that it is obscene or that it is seditious or 
fraudulent, the Supreme Court of the United 
States has held to be unconstitutional laws which 
punish, by enjoining future publication, the pub- 
lication of newspapers charging neglect of duty, 
or corruption, on the part of law-enforcing officers 
of a State. In so holding, the Supreme Court, 
speaking through the late Chief Justice Charles 
Evans Hughes, said : 

The fact, that for approximately one hundred and 
fifty years, there has been almost an entire asbence of 
attempts to impose previous restraints upon publications 
relating to the malfeasance of public ofiBcers is significant 
of the deep-seated conviction that such restraints would 
violate constitutional right. Public officers, whose char- 
acter and conduct remain open to debate and free discus- 
sion in the press, find their remedies for false accusations 
in actions under libel laws, providing for redress and 
punishment, and not in proceedings to restrain the publi- 
cation of newspapers and periodicals. The general prin- 
ciple, that the constitutional guaranty of the liberty of 
the press gives immunity from previous restraints, has 
been approved in many decisions under the provisions of 
State Constitutions. 

All the foregoing leads straight to the prob- 
lem of freedom and responsibility — which may 
and as you all know often does, become that of 
freedom versus responsibility. 

The question of responsibility in the exercise of 
freedom of speech and freedom of the press will 
always be an important issue before free peoples. 
It cannot be otherwise. It is an issue which is 
never finally settled, and the balance between re- 
sponsibility and freedom requires constant adjust- 
ment. 



Expression of Freedom of Speech 

Those peoples, in both hemispheres, who at great 
cost achieved democratic self-government, have 
always guarded jealously the right to freedom of 
expression. They have recognized and accepted 
the moral obligations which accompany this free- 
dom, but they have also recognized the danger of 
enforcing responsibility by law. The seriousness 
of that danger arises, of course, from the fact that 
any power, which is capable of enforcing respon- 
sibility, is also capable of destroying freedom. 
For this reason, the peoples who have achieved and 
value democratic self-government have set limits 
upon the power of their governments to regulate 
or control freedom of speech and freedom of the 
press. 



The people of the United States, as I pointed 
out, have rigidly limited our own Government in 
its ability to control freedom of information, and, 
as a corollary, have always resisted the imposition 
of legal measures to make the press "responsible." 
They have approved of certain legal remedies for 
libel, obscenity, misbranding, and direct incite- 
ment to riot or to the overthrow of the Govern- 
ment by force in cases of clear and present danger. 
Tlie citizens of this country believe, however, that 
redress for other forms of irresponsibility must 
depend on moral, social, and competitive pressures 
which are felt through the exercise of freedom 
of speech. 

On July 20 of the present year, Radio Moscow 
broadcast a fantastic statement. Some of you 
may have heard it. It said that because of a 
secret agreement between the United States Gov- 
ernment and what the Soviet broadcast described 
as "the radio monopolies," no commercial short- 
wave receivers had been produced in this country 
for more than 2 years. The reason, according 
to Moscow, was to keep United States citizens 
from learning the truth from the foreign, particu- 
larly the Soviet, radio. I believe that it is hardly 
necessary to assure you gentlemen of the press 
that there is not nor has there been any restriction 
on the manufacture, distribution, and sale of any 
type of radio or television receivers in the United 
States. Our citizens can buy any kind of radio 
they please and can afford : short-wave, standard 
brand, FM, or all three. They can tune in to any 
station in the world. They can be sure that their 
Government is not attempting, nor authorizing 
attempts, to jam any foreign broadcasts what- 
soever. 

The citizen of the United States is free to read 
whatever newspapers and magazines he wishes. 
He can listen to any radio program that interests 
him. In this country, we believe that it is not only 
permissible, but desirable, to hear all sides of a 
case, to become acquainted with different points of 
view. In the long run, the United States citizen 
will make up his own mind and come to his own 
conclusions. He will form his opinions on public 
matters and world affairs on the basis of facts and 
information to which he had completely free 
access. 

Our press is free to speak its mind. Our citi- 
zens are equally free to vote their will. A candi- 
date for public office is greatly handicapped if the 
majority of the press is against his candidacy; 
but the difficulty is not insurmountable. Recent 
instances in proof are the last two presidential 
elections, those of li>44 and of 1948. Our press 
has tremendous power, but obviously, it is not all- 
powerful. It does not necessarily make or break 
the leadership of the nation. Nevertheless, our 
press and radio always play a principal part; 
sometimes as a balance wheel, sometimes as a 
deterrent, sometimes as a driving force. 



618 



Department of State Bulletin 



The Press in Promotion of Friendly Relations 

There are, of course, risks involved in the 
proud and confident reliance upon freedom itself 
to correct the abuses of freedom; but we believe 
that the risks, arising from stringent govern- 
mental controls, are even greater. That is why 
the United States cannot accept the suggestions 
which are often made, that the press in this 
country must be coerced to promote friendly rela- 
tions between peoples, that it must be prevented 
from offending the pride or dignity of other gov- 
ernments or nations. We citizens of the United 
States believe that the press has one fundamental 
and overriding moral duty. That duty is to seek 
the truth, and to report all available facts as ob- 
jectively as possible, and in a context which makes 
them intelligible to the average reader. We are 
convinced that friendly relations between peoples 
will be promoted by the recognition and observ- 
ance of this moral duty. But we do not believe 
that it can be imposed as a legal obligation. The 
only waj' to impose it as a legal obligation would 
be to resort to censorship and to suppression. 
That means that the government would decide 
what promotes friendly relations, what offends the 
dignity of other nations, and so forth. And we 
all know how those governments which have ar- 
rogated this power to themselves have used it. 
Too often the effect has been not to promote 
friendly relations but to stifle legitimate criticism. 
In some cases the result has been to promote 
totalitarian objectives. 

A very important one of the fourteen points con- 
tained in the conclusions of the Inter-American 
Peace Committee, in September of last year, ex- 
pressed "the desirability that the American nations 
make every effort, within their constitutional 
powers, to avoid any systematic and hostile propa- 
ganda, whatever its medium of expression, against 
other countries of the continent or their respective 
Governments." In this affirmation of a condition 
which is obviously desirable among the friendly 
governments of the Americas and their peoples, 
however, as in subsequent reaffirmations of the con- 
cept, there has been general agreement that its 
achievement must not involve any abridgment of 
constitutionally guaranteed freedom of expression 
and the press. The United States has consistently 
maintained this position. It is doubtful, as has 
been so often pointed out, whether democratic gov- 
ernment can exist anywhere without freedom of 
the press and of speech. 

A^mrt from legislation, there are, of course, 
secondary ways to promote the responsibility con- 
comitant with these freedoms; ways which the 
United States strongly supports. These include 
nongovernmental organizations of journalists, 
whether national, or international like your own, 
with voluntary codes of ethics; the professional 
training of journalists; and, above all, that en- 
couragement of diverse and competing sources of 



information to wliicli I have already made 
reference. 

Sources of Information 

As you know, we are very proud of our free press 
in the United States. We keep it free, because we 
know that it has helped make and keep this country 
free. Let me describe briefly the processes for the 
flow of information in the United States today. 
We have according to this year's figures, 12,115 
newspapers. Of tiiese, 1,894 are dailies, 577 of 
which have a Sunday edition. No less than 97 
of these dailies, I might point out, are published 
in a foreign language. I know that you are 
familiar with the two large Spanish-language 
dailies here in New York, La Prensa and El Diano 
de Nueva York. Eight other daily newspapers 
ai'e published in Spanish in other cities, as well as 
some 35 Spanish-language weeklies, monthlies, 
and fortnightlies. These figures do not take into 
account the excellent, various, and well-established 
Spaiiish-language press of Puerto Rico. 

Twenty-six newspapers and magazines are pub- 
lished in French in the United States; and one 
daily and four weeklies in Portuguese. There are 
about 10,000 weekly newspapers in the United 
States. The overwhelming majority of all these 
papers — both weeklies and dailies — are individual 
units, locally owned. Each of them has its own 
editors, free to report world news and to comment 
on it as they like. 

A total of approximately 20,000 periodicals, 
other than newspapers, are published in this coun- 
try; including 3,69i monthly magazines, 1,443 
weekly magazines, 209 fortnightlies, and 604 quar- 
terlies. Scores of these magazines and periodicals, 
published in general by unrelated owners, supply 
news, information, and commentary on interna- 
tional affairs. 

In the field of broadcasting, there are in the 
United States some 3,100 radio stations of all types, 
including television. One hundred and twenty- 
six of these radio stations broadcast upwards of 
300 foreign-language programs. Almost with- 
out exception, they give considerable attention to 
the dissemination of news and information on pub- 
lic affairs, at home and abroad. And commenta- 
tors of both press and radio suggest to the public 
their various interpretations of the news. 

These news media — newspapers, periodicals, 
and broadcasting stations — are served by the three 
competing national wire services with world-wide 
coverage, which provide their services to media of 
all shades of opinion from right to left. In addi- 
tion, many of our newspaperSj periodicals, and 
radio networks maintain extensive supplementary 
foreign coverage through correspondents of their 
own. There are also a number of sizable feature 
services which supply materials to hundreds of 
newspapers. 

This extensive and diversified system of collec- 
(Continued on page 626) 



October 76, 1950 



619 



German Federal Republic's IVlonthly Economic Reviews^ 



JUNE 

The jDrogress of economic recovery in Western 
Germany, when viewed on a month to month 
basis, showed little more in June than a continua- 
tion of recent favorable trends. Foreign trade 
continued to expand and payments witli Oeec 
Europe again showed a favorable balance, al- 
though the deficit position in dollar trade was not 
materially improved The total industrial pro- 
duction index was unchanged from May, but 
investment goods output increased substantially. 
Crop prospects were as favorable as previously 
estimated and early yields were meeting their fore- 
casts. Unemployment continued to decline, and 
financial and price trends changed but little. The 
Berlin financial position was not basically im- 
proved, but arrangements for a more regularized 
aid program were nearing completion. 

An appraisal of progress during the first half 
of 1950, however, does afford sufficient compara- 
tive values. Since the end of 1949, the index of in- 
dustrial production has climbed from 96 percent 
to 107 percent of prewar production, exports have 
rapidly mounted, and imports have slowly de- 
clined; the number of employed increased four 
percent during the last quarter to 13,844,800, while 
the unemployed are now registered at 1,538,100, a 
decline of 19.1 percent since the high point of 
February 1950. 

While these changes are fundamental to firm 
economic progress, the extent of their influence 
is still not enough to warrant unqualified confi- 
dence in the early establishment of a sturdy busi- 
ness structure capable of incurring the risks and 
difficulties of competition and rapid expansion of 
output, and providing steady employment, a high 
standard of living and essential imports. Much 
still remains to be done. Productivity and em- 
ployment must inci'ease concurrently, costs must 
drop, and dollar exports must multiply. Practi- 
cal steps in these directions have been taken re- 
cently in the planning of future investment 
programs with money going to export-strong 



industries and reconstruction projects, while the 
dollar exports drive program has been launched, 
a productivity center established, and new employ- 
ment measures initiated. 

At the end of the first half of 1950, however, the 
German Federal Republic stands at the crossroads 
of recovery. Wliat role she will play in the Schu- 
man Plan and the economic integration of the 
Western European countries and their defense are 
{problems of first order magnified during the 
course of the last few months. The second half 
of 1950 should see a decisive loosening of these 
knotty questions. 

During June, however, developments in the 
separate fields of the economy were generally 
favorable. 



Industry 

The total index of industrial production in June 
remained at 107 percent of 1936 (excluding food 
processing, stimulants and building). However, 
several groups composing the index showed note- 
worthy changes. Investment goods production 
increased from 104 percent in May to 106 percent 
in June, production goods remained unchanged 
at 121 percent and consumer goods output dropped 
from 97 percent in May to 93 percent in June. 
Vehicle production, increasing from 156 percent 
in May to 166 percent in June, and optical and 
I^recision instruments output, rising from 118 per- 
cent to 130 percent, account largely for the in- 



' Reprinted from the September and October 1950 issues 
of the Information Bulletin; prepared by the Analytical 
Reports Branch of the Prosram Review Division of the 
Office of Economic Affairs, HICOG. 



INDEX OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

TOTAL ALL INDUSTRIES 19i9 1950 

(incl. electricity and -^"n' ^P"' M<^v 

gas) ' 87 104 ID?-- 

(excl. electricity and 

ga.s) 85 101 105' 

Investment goods (total) . 83 99' 104' 

Raw materials 76 83 89' 

Finished products ... 87 109 113' 
General production goods 
(incl. electricity and 

gas) 105 120 121' 

(excl. electricity and 

gas) 98 113' 114 

Consumer goods 79 96 ' 97 ' 

(1 = Excl. food processing, stimulants and buildings. 
T = Revised, 
p = Preliminary. 



June ' 
107 

105 

106 

92 

115 



121 

114 
93 



620 



Oepattmeni of Sfate Bullefin 



crease in the investment goods group. Produc- 
tion of machinery dropped one point to 116 per- 
cent. Output of the steel industry reached 82 per- 
cent of 1930), and steel ingots totaled 980,349 tons, 
well above the present permitted rate if prorated 
to a monthly basis. 

The index of building materials production rose 
six percent, to 108 percent in June. Building 
activity increased to 107 percent in June. How- 
ever, sawmill and flat glass production dropped. 

Consumer goods index fell about four percent 
from May to June and is at its lowest point since 
January 1950. Textile production, which de- 
creased to 94 percent, was chiefly responsible for 
the drop. Merchants may still be trying to move 
relatively high-priced stocks, and because of an 
extremely cautious inventory policy, are reluctant 
to order new merchandise until prices and quality 
are more attractive. 



Employ ment^andj Unemployment 

Employment conditions in the Federal Republic 
continued to improve during the first half of July. 
The number of registered unemployed fell by 
29,700 to another new low point this year of 
1,508,400. For the first time since last November 
the percentage of unemployed in the wage and 
salary earning labor force was below 10 percent, 
being estimated at 9.8 ijercent. 

Employed wage and salary earners at mid-July 
were estimated at an all-time record of 13,905,000, 
a rise of 60,000 in the fortnight. Employment 
rose particularly in the manufacturing industries 
working for export, in building and construction, 
food processing, trade, banking and insurance. 
About half of the rise in employment was due to 
school leavers and juveniles imder 18 obtaining 
apprenticeships or temporary jobs. 

By mid- July unemployment had declined in five 
consecutive months by a total of 510,000. The sea- 
sonal increase from the end of October 1949 to mid- 



February 1950 had added 702,000 persons to the 
unemployment rolls. Thus, in mid-July the num- 
ber of unemployed was still 192,000 or 15 percent 
higher than at the end of October. Employment 
was also 245,000 higher, but only about half of the 
437,000 increase in the wage and salary earning 
labor force was absorbed into employment. 

There are signs that the granting of credits for 
the Federal Republic's building program is being 
accelerated. However, implementation of the spe- 
cial employment program is still lagging. 

Price and Marketing Developments 

The consumer price index for June registered 
a two percent decrease, largely because of a seven 
percent decline in the food price index, brought 
on chiefly by seasonal declines in fruit and vege- 
table prices. 

The bizonal basic materials price index was vir- 
tually unchanged in June, possibly reflecting the 
continuation of conservative price policies of mer- 
chants in possession of high-priced stocks of some 
commodities, i. e., textiles. 

July price indexes are unavailable, but advance 
data suggest some rise in the food prices index. 
There was a 10-12 percent increase in the average 
price of some qualities of bread in several states 
(leaving the quality of one popular type un- 
changed), which generally reflected agreements 
among bakers' guilds in anticipation of final enact- 
ment by the Bundestag (federal parliament) of a 
20 percent increase in bread-grain prices. Also, 
the Korean situation apparently set off mild, spo- 
radic buying waves during July which had some 
small influence on the average price indexes. For 
example, sugar in some areas rose from DM 1.16 
to DM 1.30-1.50 per kilogram in July. Meat and 
canned edible oils also increased sporadically. 

In view of the government's promise to the trade 
unions that no rise in the price of bread would 
occur, protest demonstrations were held in many 
cities and towns. In several cities, including 



PRODUCTION OF MAJOR COMMODITIES 

COMMODITY Unit of Measure ' 

Hard coal (gross mined) thous. t. . . . 

Crude petroleum t 

Cement t 

Bricks (total) 1,000 

Pig iron t 

Steel ingots t 

Rolled steel finished products t 

Farm tractors (total) ' pieces .... 

Typewriters'* pieces ... 

Passenger cars (incl. chassis) pieces ... 

Cameras (total) pieces . . . 

Sulphuric acid (incl. oleum) ^ go ^ . . . , 

Calcium carbide t 

Soap (total) t 

Newsprint t 

Auto and truck tires pieces . . 

Shoes (total) 1,000 prs . 

II = All tons are metric tons. 

r/ = Revised. 

pt = Preliminary. 

// = Excludlne: accessories, parts and spare parts. 

d/ = Standard, long-carriage and portable typewriters. 



AprU ' 


May ' 


June 


8,363 


8,667 


8,978 


89, 524 


93, 844 


91, 540 


850, 722 


951,771 


1, 021, 244 


252, 646 


373, 336 


421, 552 


682, 629 


719, 770 


749, 631 


885, 666 


914, 258 


980, 349 


574, 526 


625, 228 


677, 866 


3,892 


3,964 


3,787 


14, 046 


15, 737 


17, 298 


14, 739 


16, 378 


18,711 


132, 046 


153, 300 


190, 343 


93, 396 


97, 575 


92, 300 


58, 456 


64, 220 


59, 703 


6,621 


8,548 


8,478 


12, 586 


14, 026 


14, 984 


164, 801 


189,216 


240, 278 


5,522 


6,460 


6,223 



October 16, 1950 



621 



Cologne, and in the state of South Baden the 
demonstrations took the form of general work 
stoppages of from one to three hours. 

The extent and economic seriousness of "scare" 
buying which began at the end of June cannot yet 
be accurately assessed. Purchases of some com- 
modities by the public increased sharply. Sugar 
l^urchases were estimated by the Food and Agri- 
culture Alinistry to have doubled, and most retail 
shops depleted their stocks soon after mid-July. 
Retail stocks of canned edible oils were just being 
sold out, although stocks of the main fats (butter, 
margarine, lard) were adequate. Scattered re- 
ports suggested buying flurries in other food and 
essential items. It is believed that "scare" buying 
will dwindle because of limited cash reserves in 
consumer hands, and the danger of a serious hoard- 
ing wave is not believed imminent. 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX— BIZONAL AREA 

[Wage/salary earner's family of four, with one child under 14] 
1938=100 

March April Man June 

1950 1950 1950 1950" 

Total 153 153 156 151 

Food 159 160 168 157 

Stimulants 285 285 285 284 

Clothing 191 189 188 185 

Rent 102 102 102 103 

Heat and Light 119 119 118 118 

Cleaning and Hygiene . . 148 148 147 147 
Education and Entertain- 
ment 141 141 140 141 

Household Goods .... 166 164 163 162 

Traveling 133 133 133 133 

Notes: 

^) The consumer price Index is not yet available on a Trizonal 
basis. 

2) Because of the seasonal increase in the prices of fruit and 
vegetables (substituting in May the vegetables of the new harvest 
for those of the old harvest) a consumer price index has also been 
calculated for the two months, May and June, excluding the prices 
of fruit and vegetables. 

p= Provisional. 



BASIC MATERIALS PRICE INDEX 

1938=100 

March April 

Food 169'- 168'- 

Industry 215 214 

Total 197'- 196'- 

p= Provisional. 
r= Revised. 

Finance 

Notes and coins in circulation in Western Ger- 
many and "West Berlin amounted to DM 8,160,000,- 
000 in June, the highest volume since currency 
reform and a sharp increase over the DM 7,937,- 
000,000 in circulation in May. Much of this in- 
crease is probably due to semi-annual business 
settlements, tax refunds and more than normal 
buying at the end of the month. Commercial 
deposits and business loans, particularly medium 
and long-term credits, continue to increase, reflect- 
ing a slowly expanding credit situation. 

Loans allocated by the Reconstruction Loan 



May 


June 


169 


168 


215 


218 


197 


igs" 



Corporation and funds actually paid out increased 
substantially in Jmie. 

A proposal regarding the future structure of 
the three principal German Grosshanken (big 
banks) has been submitted informally to the tri- 
partite Allied Bank Commission by the Bank 
Deutscher Laender. By the terms of Military 
Government law the banks had been decentralized 
in 1947 and permitted to maintain branches within 
a single state only. The current proposal advo- 
cates the establisliment of three banking districts 
within Western Germany in which each of the 
former Grosshanken would establish a regional 
bank and be permitted to maintain branches within 
the i-egion. The proposal is currently under study 
by the Finance Ministry and the Bank Deutscher 
Laender. 

Foreign Trade 

The volume of foreign trade increased substan- 
tially in June with exports reaching $154,000,000, 
and imports $188,000,000. Exports to the West- 
ern Hemisjjhere inci'eased to $15,000,000 in June, 
but continue to be far short of required taigets. 

For the second successive month. Western Ger- 
many had a favorable payments balance with the 
Oeec countries, exports amounting to $110,000,000 
and imports totaling $100,000,000. The payments 
position with the Oeec countries improved by 
$60,000,000 during the second quarter of 1950. 



WEST GERMAN FOREIGN COMMODITY TRADE— JUNE 1950 

[Thousand Dollars] 
CATEGORIES Imports Exports 

Food and Agriculture 71, 980 1, 995 

Industry 115, 888 151, 883 

Raw Materials 67, 964 25, 162 

Semi-finished Goods .... 25, 163 29, 766 

Finished Manufactures ... 22, 761 96, 955 

Total 187,868 153,878 

AREA 

Total Non-Participating Coun- Imparts Exports 

tries 87, 843 43, 139 

USA 34, 931 5, 360 

Canada 723 720 

Central America 1, 810 1, 222 

South America 14, 032 7, 204 

Non-Participating Sterling 

Countries 16, 951 5, 818 

Eastern Europe 9, 741 14, 654 

Other Countries 9, 655 8, 161 

Participating Countries .... 99,764 110,294 

Non-Sterling 83, 630 100, 055 

Sterling 16, 134 10, 239 

Unspecified 261 445 

Total 187, 868 153, 878 

import-surplus: $33,990,000. 

The end of June saw considerable development 
in the trade agreement program for the encour- 
agement of trade with the South American coun- 
tries. During the first six months of 1950 agree- 



622 



Department of State Bulletin 



ments were concluded with seven countries. An 
expansion of trade to this area is hoped for that 
will enable Western Germany to finance with her 
exports many import items for which she must 
now pay dollars. An examination of the com- 
modities scheduled for import from South Amer- 
ica during the next year indicates that an esti- 
mated $150,000,000 worth of goods formerly im- 
ported fi-om the United States and Canada will 
come instead from the South American continent. 
Agi'eements have been recently concluded with the 
following countries for the following total trade 
amounts: Argentina $123,900,000; Brazil $115,- 
000,000; Colombia $37,000,000; Ecuador $5,500,- 
000; Paraguay $5,200,000 and Uruguay $70,000,- 
000. In addition the Chilean agreement was auto- 
matically renewed, and negotiations are presently 
in progress with Mexico. 

The dollar export drive was given added impetus 
with the establislunent at the end of June of the 
Gei-man- American Trade Promotion Company, an 
organization of private German businessmen to 
promote dollar sales. It is intended to finance tliis 
non-profit venture with DM 120,000 from German 
industry, handicraft, export, tourist, and Chamber 
of Commerce organization members ; DM 2,300,000 
from ECA Counterpart funds; and DM 800,000 
from the German federal government. 

Agriculture 

Prospects of root crops, especially beets, con- 
tinue to be favorable. Grain harvesting continued 
under generally favorable conditions and results 
are bearing out previous forecasts of good yields. 

Although the Federal Republic had promised 
that fixed prices would not be established, unless 
specifically authorized by the Allied High Com- 
mission, during the July-September period while 
the food marketing laws were luider consideration, 
the Bundestag approved on July 21 a directive 
which would establish fixed prices during July- 
September. At the same plenary session the 
Bundestag approved a draft law which would 
authorize the Federal Government without prior 
parliamentary approval to fix prices for bread, 
flour and grain if such action is considered impera- 
tive for safeguarding the bread supply to the popu- 
lation or for establishing fair and equitable bread 
prices from the standpoint of the general economy. 

Economic Situation in Berlin 

The Berlin city assembly on July 6 approved 
the budget for 1950-51 and submitted it for final 
approval to the Allied Kommandatura. The 
budget, covering the 12-month period beginning 
April 1, 1950, provides for estimated expenditures 
of DM 1,575,000,000 and estimated revenues of 
DM 920,000,000, leaving an uncovered deficit of 
some DM 655,000,000. Estimated expenditures 
are at the approximate level of actual expendi- 
tures made last year. Discussions between the 
Federal Finance Minister, Berlin officials and 



Allied authorities have been in progress during a 
considerable period, for the purpose of creating a 
long range program which will provide sufficient 
direct aid to Berlin to permit the city to meet its 
essential expenditures. 

During July the West Berlin city council re- 
ceived from the federal government DM 30,000,- 
000 in two installments, to aid in the balancing of 
its budget, together with an additional DM 10,000,- 
000 to be used to reduce its indebtedness to the 
Berliner Zentralbank. Counterpart funds were 
also released to Berlin during the month for 
investment and work relief projects. 

The Federal Government has been informed that 
DM 160,000,000 out of counterpart funds will be 
made available upon request so as to assure the 
continuance of the Berlin work relief program 
during the last eight months of the fiscal year 
1950-51, beginning with August 1950. DM 80,- 
000,000 previously had been allotted to cover the 
first four months of the fiscal year. 

In recognition of the need to expand commercial 
bank loans to firms for use as working capital, the 
ECA Mission has assured the Magistral (city 
council) that losses from such loans up to DM 
10,000,000 may be covered by recourse to counter- 
part funds. The Magistrate in co-operation with 
ECA officials, is working out the practical ar- 
rangejnents required to put the plan into effect at 
the earliest possible date. It is hoped that the 
financial base of the program can be expanded by 
the issuance to the Magistral of a guarantee of 
similar description by the Federal Government. 

JULY 

The economy of Western Germany began to 
react in July to the influences set in motion by 
the Korean war, and early indications were that 
these reactions would become more pronounced in 
August. It is not possible to predict how far 
the present influences will extend, however. The 
July picture was somewhat anomalous in that the 
employment situation, foreign trade, agriculture 
and sales turnover continued to show the favorable 
movement of recent months; but industrial pro- 
duction was slightly less than in June, there was 
a certain amount of disturbance in retail markets 
from "scare" buying, the consumers goods price 
index declined while the basic materials price in- 
dex increased, and certain small industries with 
limited access to credit were forced to curtail 
operations and release employees while larger 
firms increased operations. This state of uncer- 
tainty may continue for a considerable period, and 
may require basic changes in economic and finan- 
cial policy. 

Foreign Trade 

For the third consecutive month, Western Ger- 
many's July exports reached a new postwar high. 
The figure of $172,200,000 represented an in- 



Oefober 16, 1950 



623 



crease of $18,300,000, or 11.9 percent over June. 
Imports climbed much more, to $225,400,000, the 
highest figure since January. July imports were 
20 percent higher than the June total of $187,- 
900,000. The July figure for total trade ($397,- 
600,000) topped the previous postwar record of 
December 1949 ($390,800,000) ; but with trade at 
this new high level, the trade deficit in July ($53,- 
200,000) was only one-third the size of that of 
last December ($160,600,000). 



WEST GERMAN FOREIGN COMMODITY TRADE-JULY 1950 

(Thousand Dollars] 

CATEGORIES Imports Exports 

Food and Agriculture 101, 567 2, 412 

Industry 123,841 169,755 

Raw Materials 74, 017 25, 751 

Semi-finished goods 25, 639 36, 042 

Finished Manufactures 24, 185 107, 962 

Total 225, 408 172, 167 

AREA 

Total Non-participating Countries . 104, 704 48, 310 

USA 55, 494 7, 034 

Canada 883 813 

Central America 12, 407 1, 928 

South America 10, 123 9, 220 

Non-participating Sterling Coun- 
tries 14, 906 6, 632 

Eastern Europe 6,711 11,502 

Other Countries 14,180 11,171 

Participating Countries 120,690 123,267 

Non-sterling 105, 327 110, 046 

Sterling 15, 363 13, 221 

Unspecified 14 590 

Total 225, 408 172, 167 

IMPORT surplus: jult $53,241,000. 

The continued rise in exports has been largely 
in the field of industrial manufactures. July im- 
ports reflected the large volume of EGA procure- 
ment authorizations issued in May and June. Of 
particular significance for the future was the pro- 
posal by the German Government in August of a 
large forward-buying jjrogram. The program 
stems from the desire to hedge against anticipated 
commodity price rises on the world markets as a 
result of the Korean War. HICOG is closely fol- 
lowing the effects of this program on the still weak 
foreign exchange position. 

The Westei'ii German July total trade deficit of 
$53,200,000 roughly coincided with the figure of 
$48,500,000, the amount of the deficit with the 
United States alone. Although July exports to 
the United States set a postwar monthly record of 
$7,000,000, imports from the United States climbed 
sharply over the June total of $34,900,000 to reach 
$55,500,000 in July, marking the highest figure 
since January 1950. This rise in deliveries from 
the United States largely was the result of the 
heavier volume of EGA procurement authoriza- 
tions issued in May and June, 1950. 

624 



Agriculture 

All gi-ains had been harvested by the end of 
August. According to preliminary estimates of 
the Ministry for Food and Agriculture, the 1950 
bread-grain harvest is expected to yield 5,790,000 
metric tons as compared with last year's bumper 
crop of 5,950,000. The total fodder grain produc- 
tion is estimated at 4,350,000 tons, compared to 
4,250,000 last year. Thus, the total grain hai-vest, 
based on these figures which are considered con- 
servative, would be only one-half of one percent 
under last year. Preliminary estimates on rape 
and rapeseed indicate that the total production 
will be 77,000 tons, compared to 140,000 for 1949, 
as a result of an approximate 18 percent reduction 
in the area planted and a 10 percent decrease in 
the yield per acre. Total production of early po- 
tatoes will be about 1,200,000 to 1,300,000 tons as 
compai'ed with 1,500,000 last year because of the 
reduced planting area. The second cutting of 
hay is proving sufficiently better than last year to 
more than offset the slight production drop of the 
first cutting. 

Adequate quantities of all classes of fertilizers 
were available, but farmers' shortage of money and 
credit continued to prevent maximum utilization 
of fertilizers on farms. Phosphate plants are 
rej^ortedly operating at only 50 percent of capac- 
ity, because of large stocks of superphosphate now 
on hand. 

The "scare" buying which began early in July 
appeared to subside during August. Sugar and 
canned edible oils continued to be the only two 
items in short supply. Ganned edible oils dis- 
appeared entirely from the regular market in 
most areas, and sugar was often difficult to obtain. 
August sugar releases to wholesalers totaled ap- 
proximately 100,000 tons (refined) which repre- 
sents normal requirements at this season. The 
major portion of the August supply was provided 
from EGA shipments. The Food Ministry esti- 
mated that effective demand during August, how- 
ever, totaled 130,000-140,000 tons. The sugar 
supply in September is expected to be slightly 
smaller than during August. 



Industry 

The index of industrial production (excluding 
food pi'ocessing, stimulants and building) for 
July was 107 percent of 1936, a decrease of one 
point from the revised June figure. This de- 
crease occurred, despite record output in many 
major industries, because of adjustments for num- 
ber of working days. Grude steel production was 
among the records established; output totaled 
1,035,000 tons, exceeding the previous postwar 
high in March by about 2 percent. July orders 
for crude steel totaled 1,500,000 tons, of which 
one-third was for export shipment. Total orders 
on hand were 3,100,000 tons. 

Department of State Bulletin 



INDEX OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

11936 = 100] 

May June July 
TOTAL ALL INDUSTRIES '**" ^^^^ '** 

(incl. electricity & gas)' . . . \QT' 108 107 

(excl. electricity & gas) .... 105' 105 105 

Investment goods (total) .... 104' 107 106 

Raw materials 89' 93 93 

Finished products 113' 117 114 

General production goods .... 

(incl. electricity & gas) .... 121' 121 123 

(excl. electricity & gas) .... 114 115 117 

Consumer goods 97' 94 90 

• Excl. food processing, stimulants and buildings. 
'=Revised. 

In view of the growing scarcity of non-ferrous 
metals, German authorities now require that metal 
purchases be paid in full upon placing the order. 
Only established and reputable firms will be 
granted import licenses. 

Approval has been given the federal minister 
for the Marshall Plan to release DM 20,000,000 
($4,760,000) of ERP counterpart funds to the 
Bundespost (German Postal System). These 
funds will be used to rehabilitate and expand its 
long-distance telephone trunk exchanges and 
facilities serving the European network, to re- 
habilitate and expand its local exchanges, and to 
expand its international radio telephone and tele- 
graph facilities. 

Housing construction in Germany is at the rate 
of 300,000 units per year as compared to 220,000 
for 1949 and less than 100,000 in 1948. The build- 
ing cost index has fallen from 217 percent of 1936 
in 1948 to 186 (estimated) in 1950, which trend, 
in spite of enormously increased demand, may be 
explained by the fact that materials and labor are 
not in short supply and that orders for higher 
priced houses are not readily obtainable. Also, 
the funds available are largely state-administered 
and are available only for low cost housing. 



Labor 

The employment situation showed further im- 
provement during August. The total number 
unemployed was 1,341,206, a decrease of 110,716 
from Jul}'. The total number of employed wage 
and salary earners was 14,160,000, an increase of 
170,000 over July. The unemployed thus were 
about 8.7 percent of the total wage and salary 
earning labor force. Scattered reports were noted 
indicating that small firms were finding it diffi- 
cult to maintain operations and in some cases 
actually released employees, whereas larger firms 
were expanding because of easier accessibility of 
credit. 



Prices and Turnover 

The consumer price index for July was 149 
(1938 = 100)— two points below Jime. The de- 
crease was due to the abundance of seasonal fruits 
and vegetables and to summer sales of clothinir 



and other items. These sales plus "scare" buying 
greatly increased turnover, and many lines, espe- 
cially textiles and shoes, sold virtually all avail- 
able stocks. If present tendencies continue, the 
decline in the consumer price index may be halted 
in August. 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

Bizonal Area 

[1938=100] 

[Wage/salary earner's family of four, with one child under fourteen] 

June July 

1950 1960 

Total 151 149 

Food 157 153 

Stimulants 284 284 

Clothing 185 183 

Rent 103 103 

Heat and Light 118 118 

Cleaning and Hygiene 147 147 

Education and Entertainment . . . . 141 141 

Household Goods 162 161 

Traveling 133 133 

Notes: The Consumer Price index is not yet available on a Trizonal 
Basis. 

The basic materials price index was 204 (1938= 
100) in July — an increase of 6 points over June. 

Both agricultural and industrial materials in- 
creased, and the probable cause is the general rise 
in world market prices. 

BASIC MATERIALS PRICE INDEX 

[1938 = 100] June July 

mo 1960 

Food 168 176 

Industry 218 222 

total 198 204 "» 

!■ = Provisional. 

Finance 

The enactment on August 10 of High Commis- 
sion La^s' No. 33 transferring to the federal minis- 
tries, the federal courts and the Bank Deutscher 
Laender (Bank of German States) responsibility 
for the implementation and enforcement of foreign 
exchange control, represents an important step in 
the systematic transfer of authority within this 
field. The law was issued by the Allied High 
Commission following a request submitted by 
German authorities and was based upon a draft 
law provided by them. 

The Federal Budget Law for 1950/51 was pre- 
sented for approval to the Cabinet on August 29. 
It consists of an ordinary budget with expendi- 
tures of DM 12,253,000,000 ($2,940,004,000) and an 
extraordinary budget with expenditures of DM 
720,000,000 ($171,360,000). The elimination of 
double counting between the two budgets gives 
revenues of DM 11,452,000,000 ($2,705,576,000) 
and expenditures of DM 12,672,000,000 ($3,016,- 
936,000). Thus, the Federal Finance Ministry 
expects ordinary revenues to fall sliort of budgeted 
expenditures by DM 1,220,000,000 ($290,360,000) 
which is to be financed by DM 500,000,000 



October 16, 1950 



625 



($119,000,000) from the issue of coins and by 
DM 720,000,000 ($171,360,000) in loans to cover 
the extraordinary budget. The loans, to be raised 
in cooperation with the Bank Deutscher Laender, 
are to be financed by a long term bond issue of 
large denomination, by a baby bond issue and by 
treasury bills caiTying a rediscount privilege at 
the Bank Deutscher Laender. 

The Federal Government has reduced its esti- 
mate of the Berlin budget deficit for which it is 
prepared to accept responsibility from DM 540,- 
000,000 ($128,520,000) to DM 500,000,000 ($119,- 
000,000) . The larger amount has been fixed dur- 
ing July by the auditing agency assigned by the 
Federal Finance Ministry to determine the amount 



of the Berlin deficit to be covered. The Federal 
Government has also agreed to be responsible for 
the payment of Berlin coal bills of DM 27,000,000 
($6,426,000) which was not included in the audit- 
ing estimate. 

To cover the Berlin deficit of DM 500,000,000, 
the Federal Government has allotted in its budget 
the sum of DM 300,000,000, and an additional 
DM 125,000,000 ($29,750,000) may become avail- 
able for this purpose out of counterpart funds. 
To obtain the remaining DM 75,000,000 ($17,850,- 
000) the Federal Finance Ministry is giving con- 
sideration to enacting increases in the special Ber- 
lin Aid tax, or as alternative measures, taxes on 
artificial beverages and paper production. 



PRODUCTION OF MAJOR COMMODITIES 

COMMODITY Unit of measure ' 

Hard coal (gross mined) thous. t . . . 

Crude petroleum t 

Cement t 

Bricks (total) 1,000 

Pig Iron t 

Steel Ingots t 

Rolled Steel Finished Products t 

Farm tractors (total)' pieces .... 

Typewriters •' pieces .... 

Passenger cars (incl. chassis) pieces .... 

Cameras (total) pieces .... 

Sulphuric acid (incl. oleum) t-SOa 

Calcium carbide t 

Soap (total) t 

Newsprint t 

Auto and truck tires pieces .... 

Shoes (total) 1,000 prs. . . . 

' = A11 tons are metric tons. 

'= Excluding accessories, parts and spare parts. 

i>=Standard, long-carriage and portable typewriters. 



May 


June 


Julv 


8,667 


8, 978 


9, 169 


93, S44 


91,540 


95, 874 


951,771 


1, 023, 352 


1, 087, 446 


373, 336 


440, 544 


454, 653 


710, 770 


750, 179 


818, 855 


914,258 


980, 383 


1, 024, 138 


625, 228 


683, 381 


690, 442 


3,964 


3,764 


4, 164 


15, 737 


17, 308 


14, 852 


16, 378 


18, 735 


15, 759 


153, 300 


197, 393 


201, 241 


97, 575 


91,261 


95, 769 


64. 220 


59, 702 


58, 142 


8,548 


8, 646 


10, 841 


14, 026 


14, 984 


14, 737 


189,216 


241. 886 


268, 951 


6, 450 


0, 208 


4,894 



Freedom and Responsibility— Cow^mwed from page 619 

tion and dissemination by many private agencies 
makes available to the people of the United States 
a great multiplicity of sources of news and 
information. 

In the five previous inter-American press con- 
ferences — at Mexico in 1942, at Habana, at Cara- 
cas, at Bogota, at Qnito — your proceedings, and 
the resolutions to which they led, have demon- 
strated the force and conviction with which you 
uphold the freedom of the press, as fundamental 
to a free world. The principles that you have 
enunciated to safeguard that freedom are an affir- 
mation of independence. A declaration of the 
Fifth Inter-American Congress last year should 
ring round the world ; that "the right to freedom 
of thought should be universal." Hemisphere 
solidarity is the stronger because of your forth- 
right declarations that an attack on any news- 
paper of the Americas constitutes an attack 
against the entire press of the Western Hemi- 
sphere; that the press of our countries is not just 
an industry but an institution with a social 
mission. 



You will have convincing proof very soon of 
how sincerely our Government cooperates with 
that mission of the press. An important innova- 
tion of modern journalism is the press conference 
as held by the President of the United States, the 
Secretary of State, and other public officials. You, 
yourselves, will have an opportunity of observing 
these conferences, which may be called collective 
press interviews, when you are in Washington next 
week. You will find representatives of the press, 
foreign as well as domestic, questioning the Presi- 
dent and the Secretary of State with perfect free- 
dom. The questioners will include representatives 
of the newspapers which attack the Administra- 
tion, of ideologies in violent opposition to our own 
democratic ideals. And you will hear the Presi- 
dent, and the Secretary, answering directly and 
frankly. The purpose of these interviews is to 
satisfy the legitimate curiosity of the citizens of 
the ITnited States, and of the rest of the world, as 
to the policies of our Government, and the motives 
and circumstances that have brought them into 
being. 



626 



Department of State BuUet'm 



Aid to Korean War Victims 

[Released to the pre»s September 28] 

In response to the request of Secretary-General 
Lie of the United Nations and the unified com- 
mand in Tokyo for aid to the Korean war victims, 
Charles P. Taft, Chairman of the Advisory Com- 
mittee on Voluntary Foreign Aid of the Depart- 
ment of State, announced today that his Commit- 
tee has accepted the responsibility for receiving 
and facilitating oifers of voluntary supplies from 
this country. 

Mr. Taft said that numerous offers are being 
received from various organizations, but he cau- 
tioned that advice should be obtained from the 
Committee before collections are undertaken. 
During the past week, voluntary supplies of cloth- 
ing, blankets, and soap to the value of a quarter 
of a million dollars have been made available 
through the Committee to General MacArthur 
from contributions of CARE, the Church World 
Service, and War Relief Services — National Cath- 
olic Welfare Conference. 



U.N. Publication on Human Riglits 

These Eights and Freedoms, a 214-page story of 
United Nations activities in the field of human 
rights during the past 4 years, was published Sep- 
tember 30 by the United Nations Department of 
Public Information.^ 

The book gives a full account of the preparation 
of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 
which was adopted by the General Assembly in 
1948, and surveys the work to date in drafting a 
first international covenant on human rights. 

In addition, the volume traces the development 
of the Convention on the Prevention and Punish- 
ment of the Crime of Genocide, adopted by the 
General Assembly in 1948. 

Other chapters tell what the United Nations has 
done regarding freedom of information; preven- 
tion of discrimination and protection of minori- 
ties ; equal rights for women ; refugees, displaced 
persons, and stateless persons; trade-union rights; 
forced labor; slavery; and protection of human 
rights in trust and non -self-governing territories. 

An introduction to These Rights and Freedoms 
points out that United Nations efforts in the field 
of human rights are part of a struggle "as old 
as humanity" and cites some of the major contri- 
butions of the past. A concluding chapter sum- 
marizes 4 years of United Nations achievements 
in human rights. 

Annexes give the texts of the Universal Decla- 

' Available from the International Documents Service, 
Columbia University Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, 
N.T., at $1.50 a copy. 



ration of Hunum Riglits, the Convention on the 
Prevention and Punisliment of the Crime of Geno- 
cide, the Convention on the International Trans- 
mission of News and the Right of Correction, the 
Convention concerning Freedom of Association 
and Protection of the Right to Organize, and the 
Convention concerning the Application of the 
Principles of the Right to Organize and to Bargain 
Collectively. 



Communiques Regarding Korea 
to tiie Security Council 

General Douglas MacArthur, Commander in 
Chief of United Nations command, has trans- 
mitted communiques regarding Korea to the Secre- 
tary-General of the United Nations under the fol- 
lowing United Nations document numbers: 
S/1723, August 28; S/1729, August 29; S/1738, 
August 30 ; S/1740, August 30 ; S/1748, September 
1; S/1750, September 1; S/1762, September 5 
S/1770, September 6; S/1773, September 7 
S/1777, September 11; S/1781, September 11 
S/1782, September 12; S/1786, September 13 
S/1788, September 14; S/1793, September 15 
S/1801, September 18; S/1804, September 20 
S/1805, September 21; S/1806, September 22 
S/1807, September 22 ; S/1810, September 26. 



Foreign Nationals Visiting U.S. 

The visits of the following persons have been 
made possible through grants-in-aid awarded by 
the Department of State under the program for 
the exchange of persons : 

Dr. Matti V. Sulamaa, head of the Surgical De- 
partment of the Children's Clinic, Helsinki Uni- 
versity, Finland, will observe pediatric surgery 
teclmiques in American hospitals. 

Harold Leslie White, Commonwealth national 
librarian of Canberra, Australia, will observe the 
work of the Library of Congress and study Ameri- 
can legislation and practice regarding United 
States Government archives. 

Dr. Sergio Pugliese, assistant director general 
of programs, RAI (Italian Radio) , Rome, is visit- 
ing various radio and television stations through- 
out the United States. 

Kaarle Stahlberb, chief professor of chemical 
engineering. Institute of Technology, Helsinki, 
Finland, will study the organization and teaching 
methods of departments of chemical engineering 
at various universities and industrial chemical 
plants. 

Olli Heikinheimo, technical manager at Repola- 
Viipuri Oy, Finland, will visit various centers of 
the American lumber industry to study techniques 
of timber shipping and plywood manufacture. 



Ocfofaer 76, 7950 



627 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Preparatory Work for a United Nations Conference 
on Control of Trade in Sugar 

iy Catherine Corson Little 



The meeting of the International Sugar Coun- 
cil held at London, June 26-July 20, 1950 ^ agreed 
to circulate to member governments the working 
draft of a new international sugar agreement. 
A resolution provided for another meeting in No- 
vember, after the draft will have been studied, to 
decide whether to request the Secretary-General 
of the United Nations to convene a conference for 
the purpose of negotiating an agreement through 
which intergovernmental control could be exer- 
cised over international trade in sugar. 

A new sugar agreement would supplant the 
"International Sugar Agreement Regarding the 
Regulation of Production and Marketing of 
Sugar" signed at London on May 6, 1937. This 
Agreement is still nominally in effect,^ although 
chapters III, IV, and V, which deal with the regu- 
lation of production, exports, and stocks, were in- 
operative during World War II. The Sugar 
Council, established under this agreement, has 
been maintained, however, and continues to keep 
the world sugar situation under review. 

Sugar appears to meet the provisions of the 
Habana charter for the International Trade Or- 
ganization regarding primary commodities for 
which international control of trade may, under 
exceptional circumstances, be justified. The price 
of sugar on the world market is subject to sudden 

' This meeting attended by representatives of the fol- 
lowing member governments : Australia, Belgium, Brazil, 
Cuba, Czechoslovaljia, Dominican Republic, Prance, Haiti, 
Indonesia, the Netherlands, Peru, Republic of the Philip- 
pines, Poland, Portugal, South Africa, United Kingdom, 
United States, and Yugoslavia. Observers were present 
from Canada, Colombia, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, 
Mexico, Pakistan, the Fao, and the U.N. 

' The Council adopted a protocol extending the agree- 
ment 1 year from Aug. 31, 1950. 



and extreme fluctuations, wliich have serious ad- 
verse effects on both producers and consumers. 
The chief suppliers of sugar to the world market 
are the tropical cane-growing areas, whose econo- 
mies are largely dependent for stability and im- 
provement on a stable and expanding world 
demand. 

Between World Wars I and II, these tropical 
areas suffered from increasingly severe competi- 
tion with each other and with the protected sugar 
industries of the sugar-importing countries. Dur- 
ing World War II, however, this situation was 
radically altered by the destruction of much of the 
sugar industry in the Eastern Hemisphere and in 
Europe. Favorable market conditions led to re- 
newed expansion of sugar production in such areas 
as the Caribbean. From the end of World War II 
to the outbreak of hostilities in Korea, the pros- 
pect of a burdensome surplus of sugar on the world 
market again appeared an imminent possibility 
as the sugar industries of the war-torn areas began 
to recover, and many countries undertook to re- 
strict sugar imports. The Korean crisis has tem- 
porarily, at least, injected new activity into the 
world sugar market. 

Most of the delegates to the International Sugar 
Council expressed the opinion that working out 
a new agreement would be advisable. Some pre- 
liminary work toward this end had already been 
done at the October 1949 meeting of the Council. 
The Cuban delegation at that meeting had pre- 
sented "Revised Draft Bases for a New Interna- 
tional Sugar Agreement." These bases did not 
represent any real departure from the principles 
set forth in the 1937 agreement, althougli they 
would provide for more effective implementation 
in some respects. The United States already ex- 



628 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



pressed general approval of the principles of the 
Cuban draft and carried them one step further. 
The sugar industry of the United States had also 
prepared a draft agreement incorporating most 
of the Cuban proposals. This industry draft, 
adopted by the United States Government after 
a few revisions, left those provisions of a substan- 
tive nature open for further discussion. 

Six fundamental bases were included in the 
Cuban draft and were studied by three subcom- 
mittees. The bases, and the general views ex- 
pressed on them, were as follows: 



REGULATION OF EXPORTS 

All of the delegations agreed that in a new 
International Sugar Agreement there should be 
regulation of exports to the world mai'ket by means 
of quotas adapted to market requirements. 

The delegations of four countries however, took 
the position that certain minimum exports were 
essential to them and that they could not agree to 
reductions in their quotas below those levels. 

STABILIZATION OF SUGAR PRICES ON THE WORLD MARKET 

There was general approval, in principle, of 
including a provision to stabilize world sugar 
prices within a zone of maximum and minimum 
prices (yet to be defined), though one delegation 
did not believe that a single sugar price could be 
fixed for the whole world market. 



A PROPER SOLUTION TO THE CURRENCY PROBLEM 

All delegations agreed that unavailability of 
dollar exchange might at times distort the balance 
between supply. and demand on the world sugar 
market. Most delegations approved including a 
provision to permit purchases above quotas from 
soft-currency areas, in certain cases of proved 
hardship. Although admitting that this action 
would not solve the problem of the dollar export- 
ing areas, most delegations believed the currency 
problem would not be an absolute bar to an effec- 
tive agreement. 



LIMITATION OF SUGAR PRODUCTION 
BY IMPORTING COUNTRIES 

There was no agreement among the importing 
countries concerning whether, or to what extent, 
they might obligate themselves to limit production 
in their own countries. Most delegations had not 
been given instructions by their Governments on 
this question. The United States delegation ex- 
pressed willingness to apply some restrictions to 
expansion of its domestic production above cur- 
rent levels if other countries would do the same. 
However, two countries, which historically have 
been sugar importers, stated that their pres- 
ent goal was self-sufficiency. The United King- 



dom delegation said it would consider a proposal 
that some percent of the increase in its consump- 
tion above present levels be supplied by exporters 
to the world market but pointed out that any such 
commitment must be consistent with the agree- 
ment recently concluded between the United King- 
dom and the sugar-exporting areas of the British 
Commonwealth. 



MEASURES TO INCREASE CONSUMPTION OF SUGAR 

There was agreement that, in the long-run, ex- 
pansion of sugar consumption offered the best 
means of overcoming disequilibrium in the world 
sugar market. Since price plays an important 
part in determining sugar consumption, it was 
considered that sugar be made available to the 
world at the lowest prices consistent with the 
legitimate interests of producers. Recognizing 
that the price of sugar to consumers is influenced 
by national policy, most delegations agreed that 
reductions of internal barriers to sugar consump- 
tion should be undertaken, insofar as feasible in 
the light of such considerations as currency avail- 
ability and the role of sugar in their internal 
economies. 



TREATMENT OF NONSIGNATORY COUNTRIES 

It was recognized that the problem of treat- 
ment of nonsignatory countries might not arise 
if all important exporters participated in an 
agreement. If such were not the case, however, 
it might become necessary to provide some means 
of preventing nonmembers from enjoying the 
benefits of an agreement while not undertaking 
any of its responsibilities. It was emphasized 
that no attempt should be made to compel par- 
ticipation. No specific recommendation for deal- 
ing with this problem was involved. The dele- 
gation of one country stated that it could not agree 
to any special treatment of nonsignatories. 

In attempting to promote a new international 
sugar agreement to stabilize the world sugar mar- 
ket, the United States delegation made clear that 
the objective should be to make adequate supplies 
of sugar available at all times at prices equitable 
both to producers and consumers. In addition to 
being consistent with general United States policy 
of encouraging world trade, a stabilized world 
market is of interest to the United States to the 
extent that it increases tlie stability of our own 
sugar-producing areas of the sugar-exporting 
countries upon which we depend for suijplies and 
of the world economy in general. 

The United States delegation agreed with the 
general position taken at the Council meeting that 
regulation of production and exports from export- 
ing areas would be necessary. But it emphasized 
that such regulation alone would be ineffective in 
solving the underlying problems. Any real in- 
crease in stability in the world market must come 



Ocfofaer 16, J 950 



629 



about through expanded world consumption and 
imports of sugar. In support of this position, the 
United States delegation urged the reduction of 
sugar prices paid by ultimate consumers, to a 



level more consistent with world sugar prices, the 
elimination of barriers to international trade in 
sugar, and some limitation on the expansion of 
sugar production in highly protected areas. 



Resolutions Adopted by Eleventh Session of ECOSOC 



U. N. doc. E/1848 
Dated Aug. 22, 1950 



Resolution 
No.> 



Title 



Item 



Documents 



290 (XI) Full employment 3 E/1840 

Resolution of 15 August 1950 

291 (XI) Technical assistance for economic development 5 (a) E/1845 

Resolutions of 15 August 1950 (b) 

292 (XI) Programme for training in public administration 10 E/1747 

Resolution of 5 July 1950 

293 (XI) Report of the International Labour Office on training for apprentices and 9 E/1787 

technical workers 
Resolution of 20 July 1950 

294 (XI) Methods of financing Economic Development of under-developed Countries, 6 E/1843 

including consideration of the Report of the Sub-Commission on Eco- 
nomic Development 
Resolution of 12 August 1950 

295 (XI) Organization of the Economic and Employment Commission and its two 4 E/1832 

Sub-Commissions 
Resolutions of 12 and 16 August 1950 

296 (XI) Interim Co-ordinating Committee for International Commodity Arrange- 17 E/1809 

ments: Inter-governmental conferences on primary commodity prob- 
lems 
Resolution of 2 August 1950 

297 (XI) Availability of insecticides for the control of malaria 11 E/1828 

Resolution of 8 August 1950 

298 (XI) Report of the Transport and Communications Commission (Fourth Session). 15 E/1773 

E/1773/ 
Resolutions of 12 July and 16 August 1950 Add. 1 

299 (XI) Report of the Statistical Commission (Fifth Session) 16 E/1772 

Resolution of 12 July 1950 

300 (XI) Annual Report of the Economic Commission for Europe 12 E/1805 

Resolution of 31 July 1950 

301 (XI) Annual Report of the Economic Commission for Latin America 14 E/1823 

Resolution of 7 August 1950 

302 (XI) Annual Report of the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East . . 13 E/1825 

Resolution of 8 August 1950 

303 (XI) Report of the Commission on Human Rights (Sixth Session) 19 E/1826 

Resolutions of 9 August 1950 

304 (XI) Report of the Commission on the Status of Women (Fourth Session) ... 20 E/1784 

Resolutions of 14 and 17 July 1950 

305 (XI) Plight of survivors of concentration camps 20 E/1784 

Resolution of 14 July 1950 

306 (XI) Report of the Sub-Commission on Freedom of Information and of the Press 21 E/1827 

(Fourth Session) to the Economic and Social Council 
Resolutions of 9 August 1950 

307 (XI) Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Slavery (First Session) 24 E/1837 

Resolution of 11 August 1950 

308 (XI) Report of the Population Commission (Fifth Session) 18 E/1783 

Resolutions of 14 and 17 Julv 1950 

309 (XI) Report of the Social Commission (Sixth Session) 25 E/1781 

Resolutions of 13 July 1950 

310 (XI) Long-range activities for children 26 E/1821 

Resolution of U August 1950 

311 (XI) Report of the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund . 34 E/1838 

Resolution of 11 August 1950 

'XI denotes the 11th sess. [July 3-Aug. 16]. 



630 



Department of State Bulletin 



Resolution 
No.' 



Title 



Item 



Documents 



312 (XI) Advisory social welfare services 27 E/1782 

Resolution of 14 July 1950 i:,„^no 

313 (XI) Social problems of the aboriginal populations and other under-developed 28 E/1798 

social groups of the American Continent 
Resolution of 24 July 1950 -ci-nr. 

314 (XI) Teaching of the purposes and principles, the structure and activities of the 33 E/1799 

United Nations and the speciahzed agencies in schools and other edu- 
cational institutions of Member States 
Resolution of 24 July 1950 

315 (XI) Procedure regarding draft single convention on Narcotic Drugs 29 E/1746 

Resolution of 4 July 1950 

316 (XI) Report of the Interim Committee on Programme of Meeting on the Ses- Suppl. E/1746 

sions of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs and related meetings Item 

Resolutions of 4 and 10 July 1950 No. 1 _„_.„ 

317 (XI) Invitation to the United States of Indonesia to become a Party to the 30 E/1746 

Protocol of 19 November 1948 relating to Narcotic Drugs 
Resolution of 4 July 1950 

318 ^XI) United Nations Research Laboratories 31 E/1839 

Resolution of 14 August 1950 t^,,ooc 

319 (XI) Refugees and Stateless Persons 32 (a) E/1835 

Resolutions of 11 and 16 August 1950 32 (B) E/1818 

A. General Assembly resolution 319 (IV) : Provision for the functioning of 

the High Commissioner's Office for Refugees 

B. Draft Convention relating to the status of refugees 

i. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Refugees and Stateless Persons 
ii. Draft Convention relating to the Status of Refugees 
iii. Provisions relating to the problem of Statelessness 

320 (XI) Trusteeship Council resolution 110 (V): "Higher Education in the Trust 8 E/1844 

Territories in Africa" 
Resolution of 15 August 1550 t^-ho^t 

321 rXI) General Assembly resolution 331 (IV): "International collaboration in re- 7 E/1847 

gard to economic, social and educational conditions in Non-Self-Gov- 
erning Territories" 
Resolution of 15 August 1950 -ciioAa 

322 (XI) General Assembly resolution 266 (III): "Problems of economic develop- 2 E/184b 

ment and social progress of the former Italian Colonies" 
Resolution of 15 August 1950 -c-nooa 

323 (XI) Assistance for the civil population of Korea buppl. E/18db 

Resolution of 14 August 1950 Item 

No. 2 

324 (XI) Relations with and co-ordination of specialized agencies 43 E/1841 

Resolutions of 9 August 1950 TMinnA 

325 <Xl) Report of the International Labour Organisation 35 E/1794 

Resolution of 20 July 1950 

326 (XI) Report of the Food and Agriculture Organization 36 E/179iS 

Resolution of 20 July 1950 

327 (XI) Report of the International Civil Aviation Organization 39 E/179rf 

Resolution of 20 July 1950 

328 (XI) Report of the International Telecommunication Union 40 E/1824 

Resolution of 8 August 1950 T^/iTnc 

329 (XI) Report of the Universal Postal Union 41 E/179b 

Resolution of 20 July 1950 T-,,-n, 

330 (XI) Report of the World Health Organization 38 1V1791 

Resolution of 20 Julv 1950 t7„ooo 

331 (XI) Report of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organiza- 37 E/18i2 

tion 
Resolutions of 9 August 1950 vn-jac 

332 (XI) Report of the International Refugee Organization 42 E/17J5 

Resolution of 20 July 1950 v;i7Q7 

333 (XI) Inter-governmental organizations 44 E/1797 

Resolutions of 20 July 1950 T^n7an 

334 (XI) Non-governmental organizations 45(b) h>/17yo 

Review of non-governmental organizations in consultative status .... (c) 

Resolutions of 20 July 1950 

Handbook of non-governmental organizations 

Resolution of 20 July 1950 

335 (XI) Draft rules for calling of non-governmental conferences 46 E/1788 

Resolution of 20 July 1950 _ t.„o^o 

336 (XI) Calendar of Conferences for 1951 47 E/1842 

Resolution of 16 August 1950 
Items 1, 22, 45 (a), 48, 49 and 50, were dealt with by the Council otherwise than by way of resolution. Ihe relevant 
decisions will be included in the printed volume of resolutions.' 

' XI denotes the Uth sess. [July 3-Aug. 16]. 

' See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 11th sess.. Resolutions. 

October J 6, J 950 631 



United Nations Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography ' 

Security Council 

Modus Vivendi to the Egyptian-Israeli General Armistice 
Agreement ( S./1264/Rev. 1) Signed at El Auja on 
22 February 1950. S/1471, March 17, 1950. 3 pp. 
mimeo. [With 2 maps] 

Communication Dated 24 March 1950 from the Permanent 
Representative of Sweden to the Secretary-General 
Transmitting a Memorandum Concerning the Report 
Submitted by the Israeli Government on the Assas- 
sination of Count Folke Bernadotte. S/1474, March 
27, 1950. ii, 62 pp. mimeo. 

General Assembly 

Report on Arbitration Procedure by Georges Scelle. 
A/CN.4/18, March 21, 1950, iv, 99 pp. mimeo. 

Replies from Governments to Questionnaires of the Inter- 
national Law Commission. A/CN.4/19, March 23, 
19.50. ii, 120 pp. mimeo. 

Formulation of the Niirnberg Principles. Report by 
J. Spiropoulos. A/CN.4/22, April 12, 1950. 41 pp. 
mimeo. 

Report on the Law of Treaties by J. L. Brierly. 
A/CN.4/23, April 14, 1950. ii, 70 pp. mimeo. 

Question of the Majority Required for the Adoption by 
the General Assembly of Amendments to and Parts 
of Proposals Relating to Important Questions. 
A/1356, September 11, 1950. 12 pp. mimeo. 

United Nations Concilliation Commission for Palestine. 
General Progress Report Dated September 2, 1950 to 
tlie Secretary-General. A/1367, September 22, 1950. 
70 pp. mimeo. 

Reservations to Multilateral. Report of the Secretary- 
General. A/1372, September 20, 1950. 40 pp. mimeo. 

Budget Estimates for the Financial Year 1951. Salary, 
Allowance and Leave Systems of the United Nations. 
A/1378, September 19, 1950. 39 pp. mimeo. 

Draft Convention on Freedom of Information. A/1380, 
September 21, 1950. 5 pp. mimeo. 

Refugees and Stateless Persons. A/1385, September 22, 
1950. 18 pp. mimeo. 

Adoption of the Agenda of the Fifth Regular Session and 
Allocation of Items to Committees. A/1386, Sep- 
tember 22, 1950. 16 pp. mimeo. 

Former Italian Colonies. Reports of the Administering 
Powers in Libya. A/1390, September 29, 1950. 15 
pp. memo. 

Registration and Publication of Treaties and International 
Agreements. A/1408, September 29, 1950. 8 pp. 
mimeo. 

Permanent Financial Regulations of the United Nations. 
A/1412, September 30, 1950. 14 pp. mimeo. 

Provisional List of Delegations to the Fifth Regular Ses- 
sion. A/INF. 38/Rev. 1, September 25, 1950. 90 pp. 
mimeo. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. Otlier 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

The United Nations Secretariat has established an Offi- 
cial Records series for the General Assembly, the Security 
Council, the Economic and Social Council, tiie Trusteeship 
Council, and the Atomic Energy Commission ; which in- 
cludes summaries of proceedings, resolutions, and reports 
of the various commissions and committees. Publications 
in the Official Records series will not be listed in this 
department as heretofore, but information on securing 
subscriptions to the series may be obtained from the 
International Documents Service. 



Economic and Social Council 

Report of the Universal Postal Union. E/1664, March 30, 
1950. 77 pp. mimeo. 

Survey of Forced Labour and Measures for Its Abolition. 
Communication Dated 11 April 19.50 from the Director- 
General of the International Labor Office to the Sec- 
retary-General. E/1671, April 24, 1950. 21 pp. 
mimeo. 

Report of the International Refugee Organization. 
E/1675, May 2, 1950. 71 pp. mimeo. 

Annual Report of the Food and Agriculture Organization 
of tlie United Nations. E/1676, May 5, 1950. 18 pp. 
mimeo. 

Report of the Social Commission (Sixth session). 
E/1678, May 8, 1950. 118 pp. mimeo. 

Annual Report of the International Telecommunication 
Union. E/1679, May 15, 1950. 11 p. mimeo. 

Relations with and Co-ordination of Specialized Agencies. 
Information on Regional Co-ordination of Pro- 
grammes of the United Nations and Specialized Agen- 
cies. E/1684, May 10, 1950. 48 pp. mimeo. 



North Atlantic Council Plans 
for Mediterranean Defense 

EXCHANGE OF NOTES WITH TURKEY 

[Released to the press October 4] 

Following is the text of two notes exchanged hetween 
Secretary Acheson, acting on behalf of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Council, and the Turkish Ambassador in the United 
States, Feridun C. Erkin, regarding the proposal of the 
Council that Turkey associate herself with such appro- 
priate phases of the military planning work of the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization as are concerned with the 
defense of the Mediterranean. 

Note Verbale of Septernber 19, 1950, to ATnbas- 
sador Erkin 

In connection with the examination of security 
problems confronting the Fifth Session of the 
North Atlantic Council, it was recognized that, in 
the case of the Mediterranean area, it would be 
desirable, if the Turkish Government so wished, 
to make arrangements which would permit Turkey 
to be associated with such appropriate phases of 
the military planning work of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization as are concerned with the 
defense of the Mediterranean. 

The Council is keenly aware of the active sup- 
port which Turkey, as a member of the United 
Nations, has accorded the principles of the United 
Nations and of the important role which Turkey 
is playing in the maintenance of the stability of 
the eastern Mediterranean area. 

It is the view of the Council that association of 
the Turkish Government with the appropriate 
phase of the planning work of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization with regard to the defense 
of the Mediterranean would contribute signifi- 
cantly to the defense of that area. 



632 



Department of State Bulletin 



Note Vcrhale of October 3, 1950, From Amhas- 
sado7' Erkin 

The Government of Turkey has examined with 
attention the desire of the North Atlantic Council 
concei'ning the association of Turkey with such 
appropriate phases of the military planning work 
of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as are 
concerned with the defense of the Mediterranean. 

The Council, considering the active support 
which Turkey as a member of the United Nations 
has accorded the principles of the United Nations 
and acknowledging the important role which 
Turkey is playing in the maintenance of the sta- 
bility of the eastern Mediterranean area, based 
its desire on the conviction that association of the 
Turkish Government with the appropriate phases 
of the planning work of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization with regard to the defense 
of the Mediterranean would contribute signifi- 
cantly to the defense of that area. 

The Government of Turkey, taking cognizance 
of the above-mentioned considerations, and in view 
of the fact that it has always concentrated its 
policy to the task of bringing the most effective 
contribution to the security and the preservation 
of peace, has decided to conform to the expressed 
desire of the Council and associate itself with the 
above indicated military planning work. 



Organization with regard to the defense of the 
Mediterranean would contribute significantly to 
the defense of that area. 

Note Verhale of October 4, 1950, From the Royal 
Greek Government ^ 

The Royal Greek Government has examined 
with attention the desire of the North Atlantic 
Council concerning the association of Greece with 
such appropriate phases of the military planning 
work of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
as are concerned with the defense of the Mediter- 
ranean. 

The Royal Greek Government, expressing its 
warm appreciation for the acknowledgment by 
the Council of the active support which Greece as 
a member of the United Nations has accorded the 
principles of the United Nations and of the role 
which Greece has played and will play in the main- 
tenance of stability and the defense of freedom in 
the Eastern Mediterranean area, readily accepts 
the invitation of the North Atlantic Council to 
associate itself with the above indicated military 
planning work. 



EXCHANGE OF NOTES WITH GREECE 

[Released to the press October 6] 

Folloii-ing is the text of two notes exchanged tetween 
Secretarii Acheson, acting on 1)ehalf of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Council, and the Orcck Government regarding the 
proposal of the Council that Greece associate itself with 
such appropriate phases of the military planning ivorlc of 
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as are concerned 
with the defense of the Mediterranean. 

Note Verhale of October 3, 1950, to Greek Ambas- 
sador Athanase Politis 

In connection with the examination of security 
problems confronting the Fifth Session of the 
North Atlantic Council, it was recognized that, in 
the case of the Mediterranean area, it would be 
desirable, if the Greek Government so wished, to 
make arrangements which would permit Greece to 
be associated with such appropriate phases of the 
militarj' planning work of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization as are concerned with the 
defense of the Mediterranean. 

The Council is keenly aware of the active sup- 
port which Greece, as a member of the United Na- 
tions, has accorded the principles of the United 
Nations and of the important role which Greece 
is playing in the maintenance of the stability of the 
eastern Mediterranean area. 

It is the view of the Council that association of 
the Greek Government with the appropriate phase 
of the planning work of the North Atlantic Treaty 



U.S. Delegations 

to International Conferences 

International Refugee Organization 

The Department of State announced on October 
2 that the President has designated George L. 
Warren, Adviser on Refugees and Displaced Per- 
sons, Department of State, as United States rep- 
resentative to the sixth session of the General 
Council of the International Refugee Organiza- 
tion (Iro) , which will convene at Geneva on Octo- 
ber 9, as well as to the meeting of the Executive 
Committee of the Iro, which will convene at 
Geneva on October 5. Alvin Roseman, United 
States representative for Specialized Agency Af- 
fairs at Geneva has been designated alternate 
United States representative for the coming ses- 
sion. Other members of the United States dele- 
gation to the two meetings are: 

Advisers 

Michael A. Farrell, chief, Internal Affairs, Displaced Per- 
sons Division, United States Forces, Austria, Vienna 

Guy J. Swope, chief. Office of Political Affairs, Displaced 
Populations Division, Office of United States High 
Commissioner for Germany, Frankfurt 

George Weiss, deputy chief, Ofiice of Political Affairs, 
Displaced Populations Division, Office of United 
States High Commissioner for Germany, Frankfurt 



' Transmitted on Oct. 5 by Ambassador Politis. 



Ocfober 76, J 950 



633 



Secretary 

John Jason, Office of the United States Representative 
for Specialized Agency Affairs, Geneva 

Since August 1948, the Iro has been the special- 
ized agency of the United Nations charged with 
the solution of the problem of refugees and dis- 
placed persons. The Organization is composed of 
the General Council, which is the ultimate policy- 
making body, and the Executive Committee, which 
performs interim functions between the semian- 
nual sessions of the General Council. Each of the 
eighteen member countries of the Organization is 
represented on the General Council and nine are 
represented on the Executive Committee. 

As of June 30, 1950, the Iro had reestablished 
approximately 800,000 refugees and displaced per- 
sons, and approximately 250,000 refugees and 
displaced persons — of whom 210,000 were in Ger- 
many, Austria, and Italy — were still being cared 
for by the Iro. In the United States, all of the 
48 States and the District of Columbia have re- 
ceived refugees. 

Tlie United Nations General Assembly has ar- 
ranged for the establishment by January 1, 1951, 
of the Office of the High Commissioner for Refu- 
gees to continue the functions presently performed 
by the Iro. At the sixth session of the General 
Council, one of the problems confronting it will 
be the termination of Iro services in 1951. 

Among other matters which the General Coun- 
cil and the Executive Committee are expected to 
consider at tlieir forthcoming sessions are: a re- 
port of the Director-General on assistance to the 
unified command in Korea; a report of the Di- 
rector-General on the accomplishments of the Iro 
in the past year; the budget for the remaining 
period of existence of the Iro; and the dates and 
sites of tlie next sessions of the General Council 
and the Executive Committee. 

Pan American Railway Congress 

The Department of State announced on October 
2 that the Seventh Pan American Railway Con- 
gress will be convened at Mexico City on October 
10 with the following United States delegation in 
attendance : 

Chairman 

William T. Faricy, president. Association of American 
Railroads, and chairman. United States National 
Commission, Pan American Railway Congress Asso- 
ciation, Washington, D.C. 

Delepates 

George P. Baker, Ph.D., Tnited States representative, 
Transport and Communications Commission of the 
United Nations and professor of tran.sportation. 
Graduate School of Business Administration, Har- 
vard University, Cambridge 

.Tames M. Hood, president, American Short Line Railroad 
Association, Washington, D.C. 

James G. Lyne, president, Simmons-Boardman Publishing 
Company, and editor. Railway Age, New York 

Arlon B. Lyon, executive secretary. Railway Labor Execu- 
tives Association, Washington, D.C. 



Advisers 

Walter S. Abernathy (secretary), executive secretary. 
United States National Commission, Pan American 
Railway Congre.ss Association, and transportation 
specialist. Office of Industry and Commerce, Depart- 
ment of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 

Albert R. Beatty, assistant vice president, Public Rela- 
tions Department, Association of .\merican Railroads, 
Washington, D.C. 

Kenneth N. Hynes, United States resident member. 
Permanent Commission, Pan American Railway Con- 
gress Association, and attach^, American Embassy, 
Buenos Aires, Argentina 

Henry H. Kelly, chief. Inland Transport Policy Staff, 
Office of Transport and Communications Policy, De- 
partment (if State, Washington, D.C. 

Gerald M. Magee, research engineer. Association of 
American Railroads, Chicago 

Pan American Railway Congresses are held 
approximately every 3 years by the Pan American 
Railway Congress Association, an organization of 
national governments, railway companies (both 
government and privately owned) , and individuals 
who contribute to the maintenance of the organi- 
zation. The First Congress was held at Buenos 
Aires in 1910 and the Sixth was held at Habana 
in 1948. Headquarters of the association are at 
Buenos Aires. 

The United States Government in 1948 became 
the seventeenth government member of the asso- 
ciation. A United States National Commission 
consisting of eight members, representing private 
as well as government interests, was appointed by 
the President in June 1949 to carry out the duties 
of membership for this country. 

The forthcoming Congress will be divided into 
six sections as follows : ways and works ; material 
and haulage, including material motors and roll- 
ing material; exploitation, including circulation 
and traffic; accountancy, statistics and tariffs; 
legislation, administration, and coordination; and 
personnel and miscellaneous matters. Reports 
will be presented on approximately ninety themes 
under these six main sections. 



Livestock Production 

The Department of State announced on October 
3 that Dr. Ollie E. Reed, Chief of the Bureau of 
Dairy Industry, Department of Agriculture, will 
represent the United States Government at the 
meeting on livestock production in American 
countries at Turrialba, Costa Rica, beginning 
October 9. The meeting is being organized by the 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations in cooperation with the Inter- American 
Institute of Agricultural Sciences. 

Livestock technicians from all the American 
Republics have been invited to attend this meet- 
ing for the purpose of trying to clarify the nature 
of the livestock problems faced in the various 
countries, of defining the methods which give 
greatest promise for livestock improvement. The 
three main topics of discussion will be breeding, 
nutrition, and disease control. 



634 



Department of State Bulletin 



Documents on Germany and Spanish Civil War, 1936-39 Released 



iReleascd to tlie press October 7] 



The Department of State released today volume 
III, series D, of Documents on German Foreign 
Potici/, 1918-19Jf5, revealing the role played by 
Germany in the Spanish Civil War. 

In providing a picture of how the events of the 
Spanish Civil War were viewed in Berlin, the new 
volume presents a dramatic chapter in the history 
of the events which led to the Second World War. 
The more than 800 documents now published re- 
veal a Nazi investment of 200 million dollars in 
Franco's victory, which was intended to insure 
control of the Western Mediterranean for the Axis 
in a showdown with the Western Powers as well as 
to give Germany economic predominance in Spain. 

The documents contained in this volume were 
selected from among hundreds of tons of official 
German papers captured by American and British 
forces in March-April 1945. 

The publication of these volumes, illustrative 
of German foreign policy prior to and during 
World War II, is being jointly undertaken by the 
British, French, and United States Governments. 

Directing the reseai'ch of the several national 
staffs at the present time are the following editors 
in chief : for the United Kingdom, Gen. Sir James 
Marshall-Cornwall, one-time British military at- 
tache in Berlin and author of Geographic Dis- 
armament; for France, Maurice Beaumont, pro- 
fessor of modern history at the Conservatoire 
Nationale des Arts et Metiers in Paris, and author 
of La Faillite de la Paix {1918-1939) ; and for 
the United States, Dr. Bernadotte E. Schniitt, 
formerly professor of modern history at the Uni- 
versitory of Chicago and winner of the Pulitzer 
prize in history in 1931 for his book The Com- 
ing of the War 19L'i. The United States denuty 
editor, and chief representative in Europe wnere 
the German archives are located, is Dr. Paul 
Sweet, formerly professor of history at Colby 
College and author of a biography of Friedrich 
von Gentz. 

Copies of this volume, Germany and the Spanish 
Civil War, may be purchased from the Super- 
intendent of Documents, Government Printing 
Office, Washington 25, D.C., at $3.25 each. 



Summary 

This volume of documents from the archives 
of tlie German Foreign Ministry tells the story 
of how that civil conflict of the years 1936-39, like 
similar struggles since 1945, drew battle lines 
among the great powers and set the scene for 
World War II. 

Unlike more recent civil conflicts. Franco's re- 
volt in 1936 does not appear from these documents 
to have been stage-managed in advance although 
German Nazis in unofficial capacities were close to 
Franco from the beginning of his action. (See 
editor's note, pp. 1-2; documents no. 2, 6, 16, 39.) 
Franco's appeal to Hitler for aid was promptly 
met, however, and German support for him con- 
tinued throughout the conflict despite public de- 
nials and the pretense of nonintervention. The 
documents make it clear that, without this aid, 
Franco's cause might on several occasions have 
been lost. (See documents 144, 148, 503, 672, 
684, 686.) 

As reported by German observers in these docu- 
ments, the military support given by the Soviet 
Union to the Spanish Republic was, likewise, on 
a large scale, though heavily camouflaged. It was 
also liidden from the Russian people, who were 
told that they were sending food ships to Spain, 
not planes, tanks, and combat personnel. (See 
documents 81, 89, 107, 112, 118, 120, 159.) Ger- 
man diplomats reported that the Kremlin was re- 
luctant to intervene in Spain because no immedi- 
ate Russian power interests were at stake but did 
so mainly in response to the appeals of Commu- 
nist Parties in Western Europe whose loyalty it 
feared would be lost. According to a report of 
the German Ambassador in the Soviet Union, the 
Kremlin decided almost a year before Franco's 
victory was finally won to withdraw its aid. ( See 
documents 615, 630.) 

In some respects, the Germans showed them- 
selves grateful for Russian intervention. The 
Soviet attempt to capture the Republican Govern- 
ment for communism made the struggle in Spain 
one between extremist factions, and undermined 



Oefober 76, 7950 



635 



efforts, particulai'ly by Britain, to restore peace 
under a moderate regime. ( See documents 19, 100, 
131, 141, 146, 177, 261.) At the same time, the 
Germans were always able to count on the in- 
transigence of the Soviet Union in the London 
Non-intervention Committee to prevent agreement 
on measures to end the Civil War by joint action 
of the powers. On more than one occasion, Ger- 
man representatives consented, "in principle," to 
compromise solutions in the certain expectation 
that Russian suspicion and unwillingness to com- 
promise would insure the failure which the Ger- 
mans themselves desired. "The Soviet Union in- 
voluntarily did us a good turn by its conduct," the 
German representative reported on one such oc- 
casion. (See documents 426, 449, 451, 452, 461, 
466, 506, G02.) 

The documents show that ttlie desire of the 
Western Powers to preserve peace was fully ex- 
ploited by the Germans. While the German dip- 
lomats prolonged discussions in the London 
Committee, their "volunteers" in Spain pressed for 
a Franco victorv. (See documents 212, 225, 226, 
387, 456, 511, 563, 701.) The evidence presented 
in these documents suggests that the Germans 
learned much during the Spanish Civil War about 
the opportunities which appeasement offered to 
aggression. The disimity of the Powers desiring 
peace and their unwillingness to take risks against 
aggression, as shown by the events in Spain, are 
seen to have encouraged' the Germans to their later 
adventures. (See documents 79, 126, 164, 174, 239, 
271, 275, 376, 437, 506, 572.) On the only occasion 
when vigorous Anglo-French countermeasures 
were taken, Berlin and Rome showed real alarm. 
That was when Eden announced that Britain 
would sink submerged submarines in the patrol 
zones around Spain. Mussolini, who had been 
reporting the successes of his submarines gleefully 
and regularly to the Germans made haste to join 
the search for "pirates." (See documents 408, 
409.410,417,418,530.) 

The documents reveal how much the joint action 
of Germany and Italy in Spain helped to forge 
the Axis partnership, which, at the outbreak of 
the Civil War, was only in its early stages. The 
Germans shrewdly allowed Italy to take the lead 
in Spain and in the Non-intervention Committee, 
knowing that a conflict of Italian interests in the 
Western Mediterranean with those of Britain and 
France would bind Mussolini more firmly to Ger- 
many. The German Ambassador in Italy wrote, 
in December 1936, that Germany had "every rea- 
son for being gratified" by the Italian interest in 
Spain, for, like the Abyssinian affair, the struggle 
in Spain was "preventing Italy from being drawn 
into the net of the Western Powers." (See docu- 
ments 157, 226, 272, 306, 319, 366, 438, 506.) 

For the first time full evidence is provided that 
German aid to Franco was given not only out of 
a feeling of ideological affinity but also with a 
view to concrete economic and strategic advan- 



tages which would assist Germany's larger politi- 
cal and military aims. (See documents 132, 301, 
391, 397, 440, 464, 471, 472, 475, 496, 507, 510, 577, 
591, 676.) The principal economic concession de- 
sired by the Germans was majority control of 
certain Spanish copper and iron mines to insure 
delivery of their products to Germany to meet her 
pressing raw material needs. In Jmie 1938, how- 
ever. Franco's Government, without consulting the 
enraged German Ambassador, issued a decree lim- 
iting foreign participation in the mines to a maxi- 
mum of 40 percent. But, a few months later, the 
Germans were able, in Goering's phrase, "to put 
a pistol to Franco's breast" when large Govern- 
ment counterattacks threatened to end in the de- 
terioration of Franco's military position. The 
Germans refused to reinforce their Condor Legion 
or to send the hard-pressed Franco additional arms 
until exceptions in the mining decree were ordered 
to permit German majority control of certain 
firms. (See documents 470, 596, 632, 682, 690, 
691, 692, 698, 700.) 

Both Germans and Italians often expressed im- 
patience because of Franco's military ineptitude 
(See Documents 128, 129, 135, 247, 255, 386, 390, 
444, 489, 494, 501, 502, 515, 537) and because of 
the difficulty with which economic concessions 
were wrung from him, but, at the end of the Civil 
War, in 1939, after a German expenditure of 200 
million dollars, they felt that a good foundation 
for German economic exploitation of Spain had 
been laid and that the Axis had acquired a valu- 
able if junior partner. (See documents 702, 773, 
783, 786.) Scarcely more than a year later, how- 
ever, in 1940, Franco set a price on his entry into 
the European war which Hitler found himself 
unable to pay. Hitler and Ciano, meeting in Ber- 
lin, commiserated bitterly together on Fraiaco's 
ingratitude. Hitler remarking that had it not been 
for Axis help, "there would be no Franco today." 
(See editor's note, pp. 932-3.) 

Goering's attempt to muscle in on Franco's vic- 
tory parade at the close of the Civil War, a social 
encounter for which the Spanish dictator had no 
appetite, provides comic relief in a heavy volume 
of diplomatic documents. The Nazi leader was 
obliged to cruise futilely off the Spanish coasts 
for several days while Franco successfully con- 
trived excuses for avoiding the visit. (See docu- 
ments 788, 789, 790, 793, 796, 798, 799, 800, 802.) 

Foreign Policy Pamphlet Released 

The Department of State released on Septem- 
ber 29 0\ir Foreign Policy^ a 100-page pamphlet, 
prepared at the President's suggestion, outlining 
American aims and policies in relation with other 
governments and their peoples. 

The pamphlet attempts to set down and sum 
up, as simply and clearly as possible, information 
which will contribute to a better understanding of 
American foreign policy. 



636 



Department of State Bulletin 



"At a time when the duties of citizenship fall 
heavily on thousands of young Americans," the 
President says in the foreword, "there is a duty 
that all of us caji and should impose on ourselves : 
to be well informed about the problems that face 
our country; to weigh the facts, to undei"stand 
the issues, and to form our own opinions and 
judgments." 

The pamphlet is divided into four chapters: 
Our Foreign Policy, Toward National Security, 
Toward Economic Well-being, and Toward Wider 
Freedom. 

Principal subjects discussed include: atomic- 
energy control, Berlin airlift, campaign of truth, 
China, Communist doctrine, Congress, foreign in- 
vestment, Formosa, human rights, hydrogen bomb, 
Korea, Marshall plan, military assistance, national 
interests, public opinion, security, situations of 
strength, Soviet expansion, technical cooperation, 
United Nations, and world trade. 

Copies of the pamphlet may be purchased from 
the Superintendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing OflBce, Washington 25, 
D.C., for 30 cents each. 



Recent Releases 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Oovemment 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
case of free pnblioations, which may be obtained from the 
Department of State. 

Mutual Defense Assistance. Treaties and Other In- 
ternational Acts Series 2071. Pub. 3793. 5 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Iran — 
Effet'ted by exchange of notes, signed at Washington 
May 23, 1950 ; entered into force May 23, 1950. 

Air Transport Services. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 2055. Pub. 3S44. 7 pp. 50. 

Provisional Agreement between the United States 
and Yugoslavia — Effected by exchange of notes, dated 
at Belgrade December 24, 1949; entered into force 
December 24, 1949. 

Fisheries: Establishment of an Inter-American Tropical 
Tuna Commission. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 2044. Pub. 3851. 18 pp. 100. 

Convention between the United States and Costa 
Rica — Signed at Washington May 31, 1949 ; entered 
into force March 3, 1950 ; and exchange of notes signed 
at Washington March 3, 1950. 

Strengthening the Forces of Freedom (Supplement, May- 
June 1950). General Foreign Policy Series 28. Pub. 
3852a. 57 pp. 200. 

Selected speeches and statements of Secretary of 
State Acheson. 

Aviation: Flights of Military Aircraft. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 2056. Pub. 3856. 9 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and Canada — 
Effected by exchange of notes, signed at Ottawa 
February 13, 1945; entered into force February 13, 
1945. 



Exchange of 0£Bcial Publications. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 2057. Pub. 3864. 5 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Honduras 
superseding agreement of December 2 and 12, 1940 — 
Eft'ected by exchange of notes, signed at Tegucigalpa 
March 1 and 24, 1950; entered into force March 24, 
1950. 

Foreign Service List, July 1, 1950. Pub. 3868. 160 pp. 
300 a copy ; $1.50 a year domestic, $2 a year foreign. 

Lists officers in the American Foreign Service, their 
posts of assignment, and 2 indexes ; geographic and 
personnel. 

Naval Vessels: Return to United States of Icebreakers 
and Frigates received by Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics under Lend-Lease Act. Treaties and Other Inter- 
national Acts Series 2060. Pub. 3869. 7 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics — Signed at Washington 
September 27, 1949 ; entered into force September 27, 
1949. 

Health and Sanitation: Cooperative Program in Mexico. 

Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2063. Pub. 
3877. 7 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Mexico 
modifying agreement of June 30 and July 1, 1943 — 
Eft'ected by exchange of notes, signed at Mexico De- 
cember 8, 1943 ; entered into force December 8, 1943, 
operative January 1, 1944. 

Waiver of Certain Claims — Arising out of the Conduct of 
the War. Treaties and Other International Acts Series 
2067. Pub. 3899. 2 pp. 5«(. 

Memorandum of Understanding between the United 
States and Luxembourg — Signed at Luxembourg Sep- 
tember 12, 1946 ; entered into force September 12, 
1946. 

Mutual Aid Settlement. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 2065. Pub. 3900. 3 pp. 5(J. 

Agreement between tlie United States and Luxem- 
bourg — Effected by exchange of memorandums, signed 
at Luxembourg August 29, 1946 ; entered into force 
August 29, 1946. 

U. S. National Commission UNESCO News, August 1950. 

Pub. 3924. 16 pp. 10!* a copy ; $1 a year domestic, $1.35 a 
year foreign. 

The monthly publication of the United States National 
Commission for UNESCO. 

Information and Cultural Cooperation Abroad. Interna- 
tional Information and Cultural Series 13. Pub. 3927. 
5 pp. Free. 

A fact sheet on the USIE program in all its phases. 

Facts and Figures about the United Nations — a new di- 
mension in world cooperation. International Organiza- 
tion and Conference Series III, 53. Pub. 3930. 16 pp. 5^. 

Summarizes the achievements and current activities 
of the United Nations. 

The United Nations Today. Foreign Affairs Outlines No. 
23, Summer 1950. International Organization and Con- 
ference Series III, 52. Pub. 3929. 4 pp. 5^. 

Foreign Affairs Outline on the United Nations today. 

Diplomatic List, August 1950. Pub. 3936. 159 pp. 30«f a 
copy ; $3.25 a year domestic ; $4.50 a year foreign. 

Monthly list of foreign diplomatic representatives in 
Washington, with their addresses. 



Ocfober 16, J 950 



637 



The United States in the United Nations 



[October 7-13] 

United Nations Action in Korea 

With the General Assembly's passage on Octo- 
ber 7 of the eight-power resolution on the problem 
of Korean independence, action on political and 
economic problems relating to Korea went forward 
in two other United Nations bodies. The interim 
committee of the new Commission for the Unifica- 
tion and Rehabilitation of Korea, created by the 
Assembly's resolution, met three times in closed 
session. On October 12, the Economic and Social 
Council resumed the eleventh session to develop 
plans for Korean relief and rehabilitation. 

General Assemhly. — After having heard the pre- 
vious day nine speakers, including the United 
States delegate, appeal for broad support of the 
proposal, the General Assembly in plenary session 
on October 7 approved the eight-power Korean 
resolution adopted earlier by Committee I, with 
the addition of Thailand as the seventh member of 
the new Korean Commission. The vote was 47-5 
(Soviet bloc), with 7 abstentions (India, Yugo- 
slavia, Lebanon, Indonesia, Egypt, Saudi Aribia, 
Yemen). Three Soviet-sponsored resolutions re- 
lating to Korea were rejected by the Assembly. 
The Secretary-General's report on the budgetary 
implications of the approved Korean resolution, 
including a detailed estimate of the costs of the 
new Korean Commission, was accepted without 
vote. 

Interim Corrvmittee on Korea. — The interim 
Committee on Korea on October 12 adopted an 
Australian resolution requesting the unified com- 
mand to assume responsibility for civil administra- 
tion north of the 38th parallel pending considera- 
tion by the new Commission of the administration 
of this territory. After all members had been 
informed of the concurrence of their goverimaents, 
the comnaittee's recommendations were cabled to 
the United Nations Commander, General Mac- 
Arthur, by Secretary-General Lie. 

This interim committee was established by the 
Assembly's October 7 resolution on the problem of 
Korean independence which provides that imme- 
diately upon arrival of the resolution and pending 
the arrival in Korea of the new United Nations 
Commission for the Unification and Rehabilita- 



tion of Korea, the Governments of the states rep- 
resented on that Commission — Australia, Chile, 
the Netherlands, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thai- 
land, and Turkey — are to form an interim com- 
mittee composed of representatives at the seat of 
the United Nations. The Committee's function is 
to "consult with and advise the United Nations 
Unified Command" in light of the recommenda- 
tions contained in the Assembly's resolution. 

At the first meeting, October 10, Gen. Carlos P. 
Romulo (Philippines), was elected chairman and 
Ambassador Hernan Santa Cruz (Chile) vice 
chairman. 

Economic and Social Gowieil. — In view of the 
Assembly's resolution of October 7 for developing 
plans for Korean relief and rehabilitation, the 
P^conomic and Social Council reconvened after a 
recess from last August and met on October 12. 
A two-item agenda — plans for Korean assistance 
and rehabilitation and long-range measures for 
Korean economic development — was accepted by 
tlie Council. The general consideration of the 
Korean relief and rehabilitation problem began 
by hearing a statement from Colonel Katzin, the 
personal rejiresentative of the Secretary-General 
in Korea, on his estimate of the current economic 
situation. 

Prior to initiation of the substantive discussion, 
a two-part Soviet proposal — to unseat the present 
Chinese delegation and to invite representatives 
of the Peiping regime, was rejected. 

Otiier General Assembly Action 

On October 7, the plenary session of the General 
Assembly turned once more to election of the third 
nonpermanent member of the Security Council, 
action on which had been postponed the previous 
week after 12 ballots had failed to break the dead- 
lock between Turkey and Lebanon. Following the 
thirteenth ballot, which was again inconclusive, 
Lebanon withdrew from the contest, and Turkey 
was elected by a vote of 53-4. The plenary session 
also approved the recommendation of the General 
Committee for the addition of five items to the 
Assembly's agenda. 

First Committee. — Opening its debate on the 
item proposed by the United States and entitled 



638 



Department of State Bulletin 



"United Action for Peace,'' Committee I (Politi- 
cal and Security) on October 9 heard a statement 
by the United States delegate, John Foster Dulles, 
who introduced a resolution sponsored jointly by 
the United States, the United Kingdom, France, 
Canada, the Philippines, Turkey, and Uruguay. 
This resolution was based on the four-point pro- 
gram outlined by Secretary Acheson- in his gen- 
eral debate statement. Quoting Prime Minister 
Stalin's warning in March 1939 that a position of 
neutrality or nonintervention actually meant "con- 
niving at aggression," Mr. Dulles stated that there 
was now the same need for assured collective re- 
sistance as there had been in 1939. The action on 
Korea had shown that the United Nations had 
both the will and the capacity to repress aggres- 
sion, but 5 years of experience had demonstrated 
that the Security Council could not safely be left 
as the only instrument for action. The United 
States delegate emphasized that the seven-power 
resolution involved goals and means that were 
already in the Charter and declared that the reso- 
lution would breathe new life into a program 
which had so far existed largely on paper. Debate 
on this resolution continued throughout the week, 
with some 32 delegates expressing general support 
for it. Mr. Vyshinsky on October 10 declared that 
his delegation had no objection to the proposals 
for emergency sessions of the General Assembly 
if called by the Security Council rather than by 
any seven of its members and for a Peace Observa- 
tion Commission if the membership of this body 
were truly representative. The proposals relating 
to military units and to the Collective Measures 
Committee, however, were completely unaccepta- 
ble, he said, since any measure dealing with mili- 
tary matters were clearly the responsibility of the 
Security Council under the Charter. Subsequently 
the U.S.S.R. submitted two proposals calling for 
the implementation of articles 43, 45, 46, and 47 
of the Charter, which are concerned with armed 
forces to he made available to the Security Council, 
and of article 106. which provides for consulta- 
tions between the five permanent members of the 
Security Council for the purpose of maintaining 
international peace and security, pending the com- 
ing into force of article 43. On October 12, the 
United States delegate announced that the spon- 
sors of the joint resolution were willing to have 
incorporated in its text certain Chilean suggestions 
concerning observance of human rights and eco- 
nomic stability. 

Ad Hoc CoTnmittee. — In the opening debate on 
the question of the former Italian colonies, the 
Ad Hoc Committee on October 9 took up the re- 
ports of the United Nations Commissioner for 
Libya and of the administering powers. The 
United States representative commented on the 
noteworthy progress that has been made toward 
the establishment of a single, independent Libyan 
state and joined the British and French in con- 
gratulating the United Nations Commissioner. 



On October 12, a joint resolution was introduced 
by Greece, Ecuador, Canada, and Chile expressing 
confidence in the Commissioner and recommending 
to the administering powers that they press for- 
ward witli the establishment of governmental insti- 
tutions for Libya. The Committee also has before 
it a Soviet resolution recommending the establish- 
ment of legislative and executive organs for a sin- 
gle Libyan state, tlie withdrawal of all foreign 
troops from Libya within 3 months, and the dis- 
mantling of military bases in Libyan territory. 

Cormnittee III. — On October 6 Committee III 
(Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural) took up the 
question of long-range activities for children, and 
the proposal for the establishment of a United 
Nations International Children's Endowment 
Fund as a successor to the present United Nations 
International Children's Emergency Fund. Mrs. 
Franklin D. Roosevelt, United States delegate, de- 
clared that the draft resolution before the Com- 
mittee provided a sound and workable basis for 
continuing United Nations efforts on behalf of 
children. The Committee also has before it various 
amendments to the draft resolution and, on Octo- 
ber 9, appointed a subcommittee to endeavor to 
reconcile the divergent points of view. 

Work of Other Coimnittees. — Committee II 
(Economic and Financial) began its debate on the 
economic development of underdeveloped coun- 
tries on October 9, while Committee IV (Trustee- 
ship) continued consideration of the Trusteeship 
Council's report. Committee V (Administrative 
and Budgetary) began the first reading of the 
budget estimates, and Committee VI (Legal) con- 
tinued debate on reservations to multilateral 
conventions. 

Security Council 

In two closed meetings, held October 9 and 12, 
to discuss the appointment of a Secretary-General, 
the Security Council was unable to agree on a rec- 
ommendation and has so informed the General 
Assembly. The term of the incumbent, Trygve 
Lie. expires February 2. 1951. 

United Nations Oovimission for Indonesia.— hx 
a report, October 11, to the Security Council, the 
United Nations Commission for Indonesia re- 
viewed developments concerning the situation in 
the South Moluccas. The report noted that the 
Indonesian Govermnent had refused tlie Commis- 
sion's offer of good offices in peaceful settlement of 
the issue, and suggested that the Council reinforce 
the Commission's authority by calling upon Indo- 
nesia to utilize the existing machinery for peaceful 
solution, provided by the presence of the Com- 
mission in Indonesia. 

Correction : In the But.letin of October 2, page 
559, right-hand column, the last paragraph be- 
ginning, "Earlier, Ambassador Gross . . .", should 
appear as the second paragraph in that column. 



Ocfober 76, 1950 



639 




General Policy p^gg 

U.S. Answers Pciping Regime's Charges on 
Formosa: 
Cablegram From Peiping Foreign Minister 

to Secretary-General Lie 607 

Letter From Secretary Acheson to Secre- 
tary-General Lie 607 

Department of State Answers Senator 

Bridges' Accusations 608 

Fulfillment of Responsibility in a World in 
Peril: 

Address by Secretary Acheson 613 

Remarks by Ambassador Warren R. 

Austin 616 

U.S. Endorses Austrian Action in Suppressing 
Communist Disturbances. Statement 
by James E. Webb 616 

United Nations and 
Specialized Agencies 

Fifth Report of U.N. Command Operations in 
Korea — For the Period September 1-14, 
1950 603 

Aid Offered Unified Command: 

Colombia 606 

Costa Rica 606 

Answer to Soviet Charge of Aggression in 
Korea. Statement by Ambassador 
Warren R. Austin 610 

U.S. Acknowledges Aircraft Fired on Chinese 

Territory 610 

Universal Security: Accomplishments of the 
United Nations. Statement by Secre- 
tary Acheson 611 

Aid to Korean War Victims 627 

U.N. Publication on Human Rights .... 627 

Communiques Regarding Korea to the 

Security Council 627 

Resolutions Adopted by Eleventh Session of 

Ecosoc 630 



United Nations and page 
Specialized Agencies — Continued 

U.N. Documents: A Selected Bibliography . 632 

United States in the United Nations .... 638 

International Information and 
Cultural Affairs 

Freedom and Responsibility. By Edward G. 

Miller, Jr 617 

Foreign Nationals Visiting U.S 627 

Occupation Matters 

U.S. Endonses Austrian Action in Suppressing 
Communist Disturbances. Statement 

by James E. Webb 616 

German Federal Republic's Monthly Eco- 
nomic Reviews: 

June 620 

July 623 

National Security 

North Atlantic Council Plans for Mediter- 
ranean Defense: 
Exchange of Notes With Turkey .... 632 
Exchange of Notes With Greece .... 633 

International Organizations 
and Conferences 

Preparatory Work for a United Nations Con- 
ference on Control of Trade in Sugar. 

By Catherine Corson Little 628 

U.S. Delegations: 

International Refugee Organization . . . 633 
Pan American Railway Congress .... 634 
Livestock Production 634 

Publications 

Documents on Germany and Spanish Civil 

War, 1936-39 Released 635 

Foreign Policy Pamphlet Released .... 636 
Recent Releases . • 637 



U. 5. GOVERNMENT PRINTtNS OFFICE; 1950 



1 



iJ/i& zl)eha/^t7ne7i{/ xw t/taie/ 




THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL MacARTHUR 
CONFER ON KOREAN AND FAR EASTERN 
POLICIES 643 

UNITING FOR PEACE • By John Foster Dulles ... 651 
VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE BALKANS • 

By Benjamin V. Cohen 666 

FOURTH WORLD POWER CONFERENCE • By William 

E. Warne 660 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XXIII, No. 590 
October 23, 1950 




I' 8. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

NOV 7 1950 




%e Qje/ia^l^ent ^/ ^laCe L) 111161111 



Vol. XXIII, No. 590 • Publication 3992 
October 23, 1950 



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The President and General MacArthur 
Confer on Korean and Far Eastern Policies 



PRELIMINARY STATEMENT 
BY THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press hy the White Bouse October 10] 

General MacArthur and I are making a quick 
trip over the coming weekend to meet in the Pacific. 

When I see liim, I shall express to him the ap- 
preciation and gratitude of the people and Gov- 
ernment of the United States for the great service 
which he is rendering to world peace. As Com- 
mander in Chief of United Nations forces in 
Korea, he has been acting for the world organiza- 
tion as well as for us. His mission has been to 
repel aggression and to restore international peace 
and security in the area, as called for by the 
United Nations. He is carrying out his mission 
with the imagination, courage, and effectiveness 
which have marked his entire service as one of our 
greatest military leaders. 

I shall discuss with him the final phase of United 
Nations action in Korea. In this phase, the United 
Nations command will be working closely with the 
United Nations Commission which has just been 
created by the General Assembly and given heavy 
responsibilities for the establishment of a unified, 
independent, and democratic Korea. 

We must proceed rapidly with our part in the 
organization of the United Nations relief and re- 
construction program in order to give the Korean 
people a chance to live in peace. Secretary Ache- 
son, in his opening address to the General As- 
sembly, stressed the importance of this great op- 
portunity to demonstrate the capacity of the world 
organization to reestablish the economic and social 
life of Korea, which has suffered cruelly as a result 
of aggression. The successful accomplishment of 
this peaceful mission of reconstruction can serve 
as a pattern for other efforts to improve the lot 
of people all over the world. The task of recon- 
struction in Korea will be a heavy one and will 
require a major effort by the United Nations ; the 
United States will carry on its full share of this 
load. 

The only interest of the United States is to help 
carry out these great purposes of the United Na- 
tions in Korea. We have absolutely no interest 



in obtaining any special position for the United 
States in Korea, nor do we wish to retain bases 
or other military installations in that country. We 
should like to get our armed forces out and back 
to their other duties at the earliest moment con- 
sistent with the fulfillment of our obligations as 
a member of the United Nations. 

Naturally, I shall take advantage of this oppor- 
tunity to discuss with General IVfacArthur other 
matters within his i-esponsibility. 



TEXT OF STATEMENT ISSUED 

FROM WAKE ISLAND ON OCTOBER 15 

FolloiCring is the text of President Truman's statement 
follotoing his conference with General MacArthur which 
was released to the press at Wake Island on Octoher 15. 

I have met with General of the Army Douglas 
MacArthur for the purpose of getting first-hand 
information and ideas from him. I did not wish 
to take him away from the scene of action in Korea 
any longer than necessary, and, therefore, I came 
to meet him at Wake. Our conference has been 
higlily satisfactory. 

The very complete unanimity of view which 
prevailed enabled us to finish our discussions 
rapidly in order to meet General MacArthur's de- 
sire to return at the earliest possible moment. It 
was apparent that the excellent coordination 



Syngman Rhee Expresses 
Gratitude of Korean People 

On October 6, President Truman received the fol- 
lowing message from Syngman Rhee, President of 
the Republic of Korea. 

Please accept for yourself personally and, through 
you, for all the American people and United States 
Forces fighting in and near Korea, the deep gratitude 
of the Korean People for United States decisions 
and actions which now have led to the liberation of 
Seoul. The Korean people will always cherish the 
memory of your bold leadership in defense of liberty. 



October 23, 1950 



643 



which has existed between Washington and the 
field, to which General MacArthur paid tribute, 
greatly facilitated the discussion. 

After I had talked with General MacArthur 
privately, we met together with our advisers. 
These joint talks were then followed by technical 
consultations in which the following pai'ticipated : 

General MacArthur and Ambassador John 
Muccio ; Mr. Averell Harriman, Special Assistant 
to the President; Secretary of the Army Frank 
Pace; General of the Army Omar N. Bradley, 
Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff; Admiral Arthur 
W. Radford, Commander in Chief of the Pacific 
Fleet; Assistant Secretary of State Dean Kusk; 
and Ambassador-at-large Philip C. Jessup. 

Primarily, we talked about the problems in 
Korea which are General MacArthur's most press- 
ing responsibilities. I asked him for information 
on the military aspects. 

I got from him a clear picture of the heroism 
and high capacity of the United Nations forces 
under his command. We also discussed the steps 
necessary to bring peace and security to the area 
as rapidly as possible in accordance with the in- 
tent of the resolution of the United Nations Gen- 
eral Assembly and in order to get our armed forces 
out of Korea as soon as their United Nations mis- 
sion is completed. 

We devoted a good deal of time to the major 
problem of peaceful reconstruction of Korea 
which the United Nations is facing and to the 
solution of which we intend to make the best con- 
tribution of which the United States is capable. 

This is a challenging task which must be done 
properly if we are to achieve the peaceful goals 
for which the United Nations has been fighting. 

The success which has attended the combined 
military effort must be supplemented by both 
spiritual and material rehabilitation. It is essen- 
tially a task of helping the Koreans to do a job 
which they can do fm- theanselves better than any- 
one else can do it for them. 

The United Nations can, however, render es- 
sential help with supplies and technical advice as 
well as with the vital problem of rebuilding their 
educational system. 

Meanwhile, I can say I was greatly impressed 
with what General MacArthur and Ambassador 
Muccio told me about what has already been done 
and is now being done to bring order out of chaos 
and to restore to the Korean people the chance 
for a good life in peace. 

For example, the main rail line from Inchon 
to Suwon was opened to rail traffic in less than 10 



days after the Inchon landing. The rail line from 
Pusan to the west bank of the Han River opposite 
Seoul was open to one-way rail traffic about Octo- 
ber 8. Bridge and highway reconstruction is 
progressing rapidly. Power and the water supply 
in Seoul were reestablished within a week after 
the reentry into the capital. 

General MacArthur paid a particularly fine 
tribute to the service being rendered in Korea by 
Ambassador Muccio. 

I asked General MacArthur also to explain at 
first hand his views on the future of Japan with 
which I was already generally familiar through 
his written reports. As already announced, we 
are moving forward with preliminary negotiations 
for a peace treaty to which Japan is entitled. 

General MacArthur and I look forward with 
confidence to a new Japan which will be both 
peaceful and prosperous. 

I also asked General MacArthur to tell me his 
ideas on the ways in which the United States can 
most effectively promote its policies of assisting 
the United Nations to promote and maintain inter- 
national peace and security throughout the Pacific 
area. 

On all these matters, I have found our talks 
most helpful and I am very glad to have had this 
chance to talk them over with one of America's 
great soldier-statesmen, who is also now serving in 
the unique position of the first Commander in 
Chief of United Nations peace forces. 

We are fully aware of the dangers which lie 
ahead, but we are confident that we can surmount 
these dangers with three assets which we have: 

first, unqualified devotion to peace; 
second, unity with our fellow peace-loving 
members of the United Nations ; 

tliird, our determination and growing strength. 



Communiques Regarding Korea 
to tlie Security Council 

General Douglas MacArthur, Commander in 
Chief of United Nations command, has transmitted 
communiques regarding Korea to the Secretary- 
General of the United Nations under the following 
United Nations document numbers : S/1805, Sep- 
tember 21; S/1806, September 22; S/1807, Sep- 
tember 22; S/1820, September 27; S/1828, Sep- 
tember 29 ; S/1830, October 3 ; S/1833, October 3 ; 
S/1835, October 6. 



644 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



The Korean Case in the General Assembly 



U.S. SUPPORTS EIGHT-POWER RESOLUTION 
ON REHABILITATING A UNITED KOREA 



Statement hy Ambassador Warren R. Atcstin 
U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ' 



We are about to take a major decision. That 
decision will have a profound effect on the future 
of the 30 million people in Korea. It will also 
have a profound effect upon the people of the 
world. It will openly prove whether we who are 
members of this great organization mean what we 
say in our pledges that Korea shall be independent 
and free to work out its own destiny m the way 
that the Korean people decide. 

It has been 3 years since this Assembly put its 
hand to the task of creating a vmified Korea which 
could exist without coming under the domination 
of any other power or powers. The task is not yet 
accomplished. However, by our vote today and by 
our continued support hereafter of our decision 
of today, we can, I am sure, bring the Korean 
people nearer to the end of their present suffering 
and to a state of jjolitical independence and 
economic well-being. 

Since the beginning of the debate in the Polit- 
ical Committee last Saturday, we have heard a 
gi'eat many words uttered both for and against 
the resolution sponsored by Australia, Brazil, 
Cuba, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Philip- 
pines, and the United Kingdom. 

Of course, the United States delegation opposes 
the Soviet Union resolution which has been re- 
vived here from this rostrum. I need to use only 
one reason, though there are many which the 
United States presented in the Political Commit- 
tee. But there is one profound and broad reason 
for opposing it, namely, that it aims at the virtual 
surrender of the United Nations to the Soviet 
group, a surrender to all of the aggressive pur- 
poses expressed in that resolution.^ 

^ Made Ijefore the plenary session of the General Assem- 
bly on Oct. 6 and released to the press by the U. S. delega- 
tion to the General Assembly on Oct. 7. 



My Government believes that in supporting the 
eight-power resolution, it is supporting freedom, 
unity, the real independence of Korea and of all 
small countries on earth. My Government's pur- 
poses are clear, open, and unequivocal. 

First, I would recall very briefly the facts of the 
Korean situation since 1945. 

From 1945 to 1947, the United States tried again 
and again to come to some agreement with the 
Soviet Union on the unification of Korea. It soon 
became apparent that when the Soviets talked of 
a free Korea, they meant a Korea that was com- 
pletely under the thumb of the Soviet Union. If 
you need any additional proof of this, examine that 
draft resolution which was reintroduced here 
today and you will see the insistence in there upon 
that heavy hand of the neighbors of Korea. The 
Communist neighbors of Korea would supervise 
the establishment of that so-called free Govern- 
ment of Korea if that resolution were adopted. 

^ The following is the text of the draft resolution pre- 
sented to the General Assembly by the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Poland, and 
Czechoslovakia: (see U.N. doc. A/1426 of Oct. 5, 1950). 

Taking into consideration that the legitimate aspira- 
tions of the Korean people for the establishment of a 
unified, independent and democratic Korean State have 
not yet been fulfilled, 

Bearing in mind that the principal task of the United 
Nations Organization is to bring about by peaceful means, 
and in accordance with the principles of international 
law and justice, the settlement of disputes which might 
lead to a breach of universal peace, 

PuESuiNG the aim of settling peacefully the problem of 
Korea and re-establishing peace and security in the Far 
East, 

The General Assembly recommends: 

1. To the belligerents in Korea that they immediately 
cease hostilities ; 

2. To the Governments of the United States and the 



Ocfofaer 23, J 950 



645 



The political parties that represented most of 
the Korean people bitterly criticized the Moscow 
Foreign Minister's decision of December 1945 
which envisaged a temporary trusteeship. Trus- 
teeship is anathema to any freedom-loving people, 
of course. Only a tiny, well-trained minority of 
Korean Communist groups kept silent. Most 
Koreans did not like the idea of a big-power 
trusteeship for Korea. I do not blame them. One 
cannot blame a people for wanting to be free — free 
even to make their own mistakes. 

When the time came for consultation on the 
steps toward Korea's independence, the Soviet 
Union refused to listen to any person or any party 
that had even criticized the Moscow decisions. 
Even when the political parties pledged them- 
selves to a faithful observance of that decision, the 
Soviet Union refused to consult with some 24 
parties representing 15 million people, the vast 
majority of the adult electors of the country. 

Was that democracy ? It hardly seems so to us. 
When the United States suggested country-wide 
elections by secret ballot to select representatives 
to set up a government, the Soviet Union refused. 
All attemj^ts to unify the country broke down on 
the refusal of the Soviet Union to agree to any 
election, or electoral body, or governments that 
the Soviet Union did not completely dominate 
through its henchmen. 

In 1947 the United States placed the problem 
before the United Nations. 

Unfortunately, the Soviet Union opposed any 

Governments of other States that they immediately with- 
draw their troops from Korea and thereby establish con- 
ditions which would secure for the Korean people the 
possibility of enjoying the inalienable sovereign right to 
settle freely the internal affairs of their State ; 

3. That after the withdrawal of foreign troops and for 
the purpose of establisliing a Government of a unified 
and independent Korean State, all-Korean elections to 
a National Assembly be held as soon as possible on the 
basis of the free expression of the will of the population 
of all Korea ; 

4. A joint (parity) commission composed of the rep- 
resentatives of North and Smith Korea shall be elected at 
a joint assembly of the deputies of the Supreme People's 
Assembly of the Peoide's Democratic Republic of Korea 
and of the National Assembly of South Korea to organize 
and conduct free all-Korean elections to the National 
Assembly of all Korea ; 

The joint assembly shall also elect an interim all-Korean 
committee to carry out the functions of governing the 
country and to operate pending the election of the all- 
Korean National Assembly and the establishment of a 
permanent all-Korean Government ; 

5. That a United Nations Committee, with the indis- 
pensable participation in it of the representatives of States 
bordering on Korea, be established to observe the holding 
of free all-Korean elections to the National Assembly ; 

6. That for the purpose of rehabilitating Korean national 
economy wliich has suffered from the war the Economic 
and Social Council immediately draw up, with the partic- 
ipation of the representatives of Korea, plans for provid- 

• ing the necessary economic and technical aid to the Korean 
people through the United Nations Organization ; 

7. That after the establishment of the all-Korean Gov- 
ernment the Security Council consider the question of 
admitting Korea to memberslilp of the United Nations 
Organization. 



type of fair settlement for the area of Korea con- 
trolled by Kussian guns. The United Nations 
General Assembly voted overwhelmingly in 1947, 
1948, and 1949 for measures that nearly all mem- 
ber nations hoped would bring independence and 
unity to Korea. The General Assembly appointed 
a Commission on Korea which included Australia, 
China, El Salvador, France, India, Philippines, 
and Turkey. The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist 
Eepublic refused to appoint a member to serve on 
the United Nations Commission on Korea. 

The Eussian commander in North Korea refused 
to allow the Commission formed by this Assembly 
even to consult with him or with the Koreans in his 
area. In contrast, the Commission was free to do 
its work for the General Assembly in the area 
where the United States troops accepted surrender 
of the Japanese occupants. 

The Soviet Union and its associates refused to 
participate in the Interim Committee. That Com- 
mittee, you will remember, was created by the 
General Assembly and vested with special respon- 
sibility for Korea: Namely, to act in lieu of the 
General Assembly in advising and directing the 
United Nations Commission on Korea. Thus, the 
elections in the Eepublic of Korea were held pur- 
suant to the advice of the Interim Committee 
which the Soviets tried to sabotage. 

Successful Work of UNCOK 

At this time, I should like, in passing, to pay 
tribute to the members of the United Nations Com- 
mission on Korea (Uncok). They have borne 
many hardships. They have undergone many dis- 
appointments. They have risked their lives and 
cue of them, the Indian military observer, Colonel 
Nayar, lost his life in the performance of his duty. 
But they have been the eyes and ears of the United 
Nations, and we understand that, under the reso- 
lution, they will remain at their posts until the new 
commission that the resolution envisages will ar- 
rive in Korea. The members of the United Nations 
Commission on Korea have deserved well of the 
United Nations and when they clasp hands some- 
where in Korea with the men who are to succeed 
them in a broader activity, I know that they will 
realize that they have the heartfelt thanks of this 
General Assembly as expressed in this resolution 
before it. 

We ha^e had frank reports from the Commis- 
sion on both the shortcomings and the virtues of 
the Republic of Korea. The Commission members 
were able to tell us that the Government was repre- 
sentative and freely elected. They were able to tell 
us that that Government and the people of Korea 
were the victims of an unprovoked aggression on 
last June 25. 

It might have been amusing in the Political 
Committee — if it were not so tragic — to hear the 
kind of cracked victrola record of charges that 
the aggression came from South Korea. We 



646 



Department of State Bulletin 



know the facts because the Commission on the 
spot has friven them to us. 

We know who brought tlie horror of war upon 
Korea. We know where the blame for what has 
happened must lie and does lie. It is not with 
the South Koreans, nor with any of the countries 
that have contributed to the United Nations effort 
to restore peace in Korea. So much for the past. 

Task of Rehabilitating a Future Korea 

The time has come when the members of the 
United Nations must go forward with determina- 
tion. Let us not postpone, falter, or weaken. We 
must go forward with the strength that rises out 
of unity. Only by persistent, accelerating prog- 
ress can we reach the goal without further blood- 
shed. Abstaining from decision when aggression 
threatens will not help to preserve the peace of 
the world. Sometimes it only makes danger 
greater, and that is a lesson that many of us 
learned in the fire of the recent world war. 

The American people has firmly supported the 
United Nations because it believes that this great 
body can exert an influence for good, an influence 
for peace, by its determination in moments of 
crisis such as this one. Let us advance together 
with every nerve and muscle exerted to make this 
organization of the world a stronger support for 
those who are threatened by war or famine or dis- 
ease, as is little Korea today. 

We have heard talk by the Soviet spokesmen 
to the effect that the United States is using the 
United Nations only to secure the interests of 
American monopolies in Korea. I thought that 
that was an idea that was long ago exploded. In 
fact, I went into some detail in the Security Coun- 
cil showing that the United States had contributed 
far more to Korea than the worth of all the Ameri- 
can investments in that country. We want noth- 
ing from Korea. We want no bases in Koi-ea. We 
do not want to and will not threaten any other 
country through the temporary presence of the 
United States troops in Korea on a United Nations 
mission. 

The United States will cooperate in fulfilling the 
policy of this resolution that United Nations forces 
shall remain in Korea only as long as is necessary 
to achieve the essential objectives of the General 
Assembly — to wit, the establishment of a unified, 
independent, and democratic government of 
Korea. After the end of the fighting, the quicker 
Korea is permitted to live its own life without 
foreign interference, the better for the whole world 
and the better for us. 

My Government is willing to do its full part 
in the United Nations forces that will help Korea 
in the future in regaining its peace and stability, 
but we should be well-pleased if other countries 
were to feel that they were able to take a larger 
share in the arduous task that still confronts the 
United Nations. It will be an arduous task. I 

Ocfober 23, 1950 



have no doubt of that. We do not gain or hold 
the peace by taking our ease. The war that the 
aggressor brought to Korea has caused wide- 
spread and deep devastation. 

As if the damage of shell and bomb wei'e not 
enough, I am informed that the aggressor forces 
themselves set fire to and destroyed many of the 
big buildings in Seoul, the capital, before they fled 
northward. Amid all the devastation, the popu- 
lation of Seoul enthusiastically welcomed the re- 
turn of the United Nations forces to relieve it from 
an intolerable Communist dictatorship. 

Who can tell at this distance and at this time 
just what will need to be done to unify Korea 
politically and restore it economically ? Certainly 
we here cannot, but the Commission proposed in 
this resolution will be able to on the spot. It 
will be able to cope with conditions as it finds them, 
a task for selfless, able, strong, and resolute men. 
These men will be provided by Australia, Chile, 
the Netherlands, Pakistan, the Philippines, Tur- 
key, and Thailand. 

Under the authority of this Assembly, the Com- 
mission will have wide powers to go where it will. 
It will be able to get the views of everyone who is 
interested in the future and the well-being of the 
country. It should hold itself open and ready to 
talk with all who may approach it from whatever 
quarter. 

The Commission will, of course, be in consulta- 
tion with the Republic of Korea. In the confusion 
following the war, there will be many problems 
that can only be settled by cooperation between 
the United Nations Commission, the Republic of 
Korea, and the United Nations Commander in 
Chief. 

There has been criticism here of President Syng- 
man Rhee by the Soviet spokesmen. My Govern- 
ment certainly does not feel that it is the duty of 
the United Nations to impose President Rhee, or 
any other official, upon the Korean people in any 
area. Let them say what their appraisal of Presi- 
dent Rhee is, or of any other candidate in political 
contention. 

It is a fact, however, that Mr. Rhee was elected 
to his position as the result of an election certified 
as fair by the United Nations. It is also a fact 
that in the most recent election his supporters lost 
out and parties who oppose Mr. Rhee gained a 
majority. It has often been the case in my own 
country that the President belongs to one party 
and the Congressional majority to another. Such 
a possibility under the Korean constitution is not 
cause for surprise or dismay. If the Korean legis- 
lators wish to change their constitution, they can 
do so by a two-thirds vote as the constitution now 
stands. But the type of government the Korean 
people will have — what political arrangements will 
be made — is freelj' and entirely up to the Korean 
people so long as the methods they use are un- 
coerced, fair, and regular in the view of the United 
Nations Commission representing this General 
Assembly. 

647 



For this General Assembly, the resolution we 
are supporting is the keystone of the arch of United 
Nations action in Korea. This Assembly, as I have 
said, in 1947, 1948, and 1949 went as far as was 
then possible in unifying that country and pro- 
tecting its independence. 

In June and July of this year, the Security 
Council gave all the necessary military authority 
to the United Nations Commander to repel the 
aggressor army and restore peace in Korea. 

The United Nations forces have pursued that 
task with vigor and some success. 

Two things appear necessary to be done now: 
first, to carry out tlie objectives of the United 
Nations in the northern area where United Nations 
observers have never yet had opportunity to ascer- 
tain the political wishes of the people; second, to 
commence forthwith the task of rehabilitating the 
shattered Korean economy. 

Tliis resolution wil] give authority for both. In 
addition, it will announce to the men who are now 
fighting and dying for a United Nations ideal that 
this Assembly supports wholeheartedly the work 
they are carrying forward so effectively under 
Secuiity Council authority, under the banner of 
the United Nations. 

The vote on this draft resolution is the culmina- 
tion of all the work we have been doing over the 
years on behalf of Korea. With it, the arch will 
be complete and strong. 

"What the United Nations has worked for since 
1947 is stability in Korea — a unified, independent, 
and democratic government in a sovereign state. 

This has been our objective, and this is what 
we are voting for in approving this resolution. 

We propose by the action under this draft reso- 
lution to guarantee that no country shall tell the 
Korean people what they must do. The United 
Nations aims to keep people free, not bound in 
slavery to anyone. 

The United Nations will help people who are 
battered by war, not harm them. 

The United Nations will help rebuild, not 
destroy. 

Tlie United Nations will lift the shadow of fear 
from men. 

Tlie United Nations will liberate their minds 
from thought control and give their energies the 
opportunities of freedom and the blessings of 
libei-ty. 

I believe that in order to achieve these things, 
we all, every one of the GO nations of the world 
who are here represented, must be prepared to take 
some risks and endure some hardships. 

But I believe also that if the United Nations 
will keep firm and unified, advancing toward our 
great objective, we can assure a peace such as the 
world has never enjoyed before. 

It is for tliese reasons that my Government will 
gladly vote for the draft resolution sponsored by 
Australia, Brazil, Cuba, Netherlands, Norway, 
Pakistan, Philippines, and the United Kingdom. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION 

U.N. doc. A/1435 
Adopted Oct. 7, 1950 

The General Assembly, 

Having kegakd to its resolutions of 14 November 1947 
(112 (II)), of 12 December 1948 (195 (III)) and of 21 
October 1949 (293 (IV)), 

Having received and considered the Report of the 
United Nations Commission on Korea,' 

Mindful of the fact that the objectives set forth in the 
resolutions referred to above have not been fully accom- 
plished and, in particular, that the unification of Korea 
has not yet been achieved, and that an attempt has been 
made by an armed attack from North Korea to extinguish 
by force the Government of the Republic of Korea, 

Recalling the General Assembly declaration of 12 
December 1948 that there has been established a lawful 
Government (the Government of the Republic of Korea) 
having effective control and jurisdiction over that part 
of Korea where the United Nations Temporary Commis- 
sion on Korea was able to observe and consult and in 
which the great majority of the people of Korea reside ; 
that this Government is based on elections which were a 
valid expression of the free will of the electorate of that 
part of Korea and which were observed by the Temporary 
Commission ; and that this is the only such Government 
in Korea, 

Having in mind that United Nations armed forces are 
at present operating in Korea in accordance with the 
recommendations of the Security Council of 27 June 1950, 
subsequent to its resolution of 25 June 19.50, that Mem- 
bers of the United Nations furnish such assistance to the 
Republic of Korea as may be necessary to repel the 
armed attack and to restore international peace and 
security in the area. 

Recalling that the essential objective of the resolutions 
of the General Assembly referred to above was the estab- 
lishment of a unified, independent and democratic 
Government of Korea, 

1. Recommends that 

(a) All appropriate steps be taken to ensure conditions 
of stability throughout Korea ; 

(b) All constituent acts be taken, including the holding 
of elections, under the auspices of the United Nations, for 
the establishment of a unified, independent and democratic 
Government in the sovereign State of Korea ; 

(c) All sections and representative bodies of the popu- 
lation of Korea, South and North, be invited to co-operate 
with the organs of the United Nations in the restoration 
of peace, in the holding of elections and in the establish- 
ment of a unified Government; 

(d) United Nations forces should not remain in any 
part of Korea otherwise than so far as necessary for 
achieving the objectives specified in sub-paragraphs (a) 
and (b) above; 

(e) All necessary measures be taken to accomplish the 
economic rehabilitation of Korea ; 

2. Resolves that 

(a) A Commission consisting of Australia, Chile, Neth- 
erlands, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand and Turkey, to 



' U. N. doc. A/1350. 



648 



Department of State Bulletin 



be known as the United Nations Commission for the Unifi- 
cation am! Rehabilitation of Korea, be established to 
(i) assume the functions hitherto exercised by the present 
United Nations Commission in Korea; (ii) represent the 
United Nations in bringing about the establishment of a 
unified, independent and democratic government of all 
Korea; (ill) exercise such responsibilities in connexion 
with relief and rehabilitation in Korea as may be deter- 
mined by the General Assembly after receiving the recom- 
mendations of the Economic and Social Council. The 
United Nations Commission for the Unification and 
Rehabilitation of Korea should proceed to Korea and 
begin to carry out its functions as soon as possible ; 

(b) Pending the arrival in Korea of the United Na- 
tion Commission for the Unification and Behabilitation 
of Korea, the Governments of the States represented on 
the Commission should form an interim committee com- 
posed of representatives meeting at the seat of the United 
Nations to consult with and advise the United Nations 
Unified Command in the light of the above recommenda- 
tions; the interim committee should begin to function 
immediately upon the approval of the present resolution 
by the General Assembly ; 

(c) The Commission shall render a report to the next 
regular session of the General Assembly and to any prior 
special session which might be called to consider the sub- 
ject matter of the present resolution, and shall render 
such interim reports as it may deem appropriate to the 



Secretary-General for transmission to Members ; 

The General Assembly furthermore, 

Mindful of the fact that at the end of the present 
hostilities the task of rehabilitating the Korean economy 
will be of great magnitude, 

3. Requests the Economic and Social Council, in con- 
sultation with the specialized agencies, to develop plans 
for relief and rehabilitation on the termination of hos- 
tilities and to report to the General Assembly within 
three weeks of the adoption of the present resolution by 
the General Assembly ; 

4. Also recommends the Economic and Social Council 
to expedite the study of long-term measures to promote 
the economic development and social progress of Korea, 
and meanwhile to draw the attention of the authorities 
which decide requests for technical assistance to the 
urgent and special necessity of affording such assistance 
to Korea ; 

5. Expresses its appreciation of the services rendered 
by the members of the United Nations Commission on 
Korea in the performance of their important and diffi- 
cult task ; 

6. Requests the Secretary-General to provide the Com- 
mission with adequate staff and facilities, including tech- 
nical advisers as required; and authorizes the Secretary- 
General to pay the expenses and per diem of a represent- 
ative and alternate from each of the States members of 
the Commission. 



U.N. Commission on Korea Reports on Atrocities 



U.N. doe. A/1434 
Transmitted Oct. 6, 1950 

1. In view of its immediate importance, the Commission 
submits [to the Secretary -General] herewith the following 
detailed information in respect of the perpetration of 
atrocities by North Korean authorities in specified liber- 
ated areas. 

2. In submitting this information, the Commission 
wishes to point out that it is continuing to pursue its 
inquiries and that further information is being compiled. 
However, there is set forth below some preliminary de- 
tailed information obtained from two localities, namely, 
Taejon and the city of Seoul. 

I. TAEJON 

3. A field observer team of the Commission visited 
Taejon on Saturday, 30 September 1050 and Sunday 1, 
October 1050 and has submitted a preliminary report 
containing the following detailed information : 

Central Police Station, Taejon 

4. At the time the field observer team arrived, a total of 
11 bodies had been exhumed by United States Army Graves 
Eegistration personnel. While the total number remain- 



ing in the ground had not yet been determined, it was 
then estimated that a total of approximately 35 to 40 was 
involved. 

5. All the bodies seen on this site were tho.se of United 
States soldiers. The bodies had been partially buried in 
a make-shift trench around the inside wall of the court- 
yard. Of the 11 bodies then seen by the field observers, 
several were in an emaciated state indicating an ad- 
vanced stage of malnutrition. An examination of the 
bodies disclosed that, in some cases, the hands of the 
victims had been tied behind their backs. Several dis- 
played wounds which seemed to indicate that they had 
been severely beaten. The nature of the wounds would 
lead to the assumption that they had been caused by an 
axe or other heavy instrument. 

6. The remaining bodies in the trench had been heaped 
in a disorderly manner, which led the field observers to 
conclude that they had been shot and had then either 
fallen into or had been cast into the trench. Graves Reg- 
istration personnel expressed the opinion that some of the 
bodies exhumed had been buried for only a few days. 

7. The following day the field observer team, accom- 
panied by two members of the Secretariat, retm-ned to the 
Central Police Station. By 3 p.m., the bodies of 15 United 



October 23, J 950 



649 



states soldiers had been exhumed, and the disinterment 
was continuing. Several more bodies were being uncov- 
ered in the ditch while the team was present. 

8. A roster had been found in the Police Station after 
its occupation by the liberating forces. The name of one 
of the victims who had been positively identified by Graves 
Registration personnel appeared in this roster. 

9. Mr. Cho Pong Jo, a 33-year old wine merchant, in- 
formed the field observer team that, at 10 a.m. on 27 Sej)- 
tember 1950, he had passed by the empty Police Station 
and had seen several women carrying away clothes from 
the courtyard. On entering the courtyard, he had noticed 
a long ditch in which one United States soldier was em- 
bedded still alive, but buried waist-high in dead bodies. 
With the help of another Korean, he had endeavoured to 
extricate the soldier. The soldier had asl^ed for a knife. 
Mr. Cho had obtained a linife and had severed the thongs 
binding tlie soldier's wrists. After removing the sur- 
rounding bodies, he had managed to pull out the soldier. 
He had laid him on a mat and had massaged his legs, 
which were still (numb) as a result of restricted circu- 
lation. 

10. He had then heard another soldier shouting, and 
had returned to the ditch, where he found the man buried 
shoulder-high in dead bodies. He had extricated that 
soldier and had brought him to a near-by house. 

11. He had not seen gunshot wounds on the bodies of 
the soldiers ; both bodies had, however, been scarred and 
seemed to have been beaten by heavy instruments. The 
second soldier had a wound on the head which seemed to 
have been caused by an axe. 

12. Mr. Park Tong Kyu, 70 years of age, informed the 
field observer team that, at 10 a.m. on 27 September, he 
had seen three United States soldiers in the courtyard of 
the Police Station, guarded by North Korean security 
forces. The latter had pushed the soldiers over, and had 
shouted "shoot." 

13. He further informed the team that the two United 
States soldiers had been extricated between 11 and 12 a.m. 
on 27 September. 

14. Of the two prisoners who had survived, one has 
since died. The observer team was given a copy of a 
sworn statement concerning these atrocities from the sole 
survivor, United States Army Sergeant First Class Carey 
H. Weinel, serial number 38009311. 

Taejon Prison 

15. A total of at least 200 bodies was seen in the rear 
courtyard of Taejon Prison. Two trenches, approxi- 
mately 60 yards long, had been dug in what appeared to 
have been the vegetable garden of the prison courtyard. 
Most of the bodies were still lying in a confused mass in 
the trenches and, in addition, a large number lay on the 
edges of the trenches. 

16. Examination revealed that the victims were all 
adult male Koreans. In almost every case, the victims' 
hands had been tied behind their backs. The bodies bore 
evidence of very severe beatings, in addition to gunshot 
wounds. From the state of the bodies, it was concluded 
that death had occurred approximately 3 or 4 dayj pre- 
viously. Most bodies were clad in civilian clothes. 



650 



Roman Catholic Church at Taejon 

17. The bodies of approximately 10 or 12 adult male 
Koreans were seen by the field observer team at the en- 
trance to a crudely-constructed basement under the 
church hall. 

IS. The bodies all bore evidence of very severe beat- 
ings which, in the absence of visible gunshot wounds, led 
the team to conclude that the victims had been literally 
beaten to death. 

19. In addition to these bodies, a considerable number 
was piled in the entrance to tlie shelter. 

Hillside approximately JfOO yards north-west of the Roman 
Catholic Church 

20. Within a radius of about 200 yards, the bodies of 
approximately 400 adult male Koreans were seen. Sev- 
eral crudely-dug trenches were evident, each containing 
masses of bodies. In addition, a large number of bodies 
was observed lying scattered in a ravine. Several long 
mounds of earth had been erected, out of which protruded 
the limbs of further victims. 

21. It was observed that many of the Koreans had been 
buried in a standing or crouching position up to waist 
or shoulder level. The visible portions of the bodies bore 
evidence of beatings and mutilation in addition to gunshot 
wounds. 

22. Among the bodies were several wearing the uniform 
of the South Korean Police; the majority were, however, 
clad in civilian clothes. 

23. Several newly dug trenches were also seen, which 
did not contain bodies. 

24. Preliminary jx)lice investigation into the atrocities 
perpetrated on South Koreans was expected to be com- 
pleted in approximately three days. 

25. Local police stated that the people involved were 
probably important right-wingers and families of mem- 
bers of the National Police. Of 13 people in one family, 
8 had been killed. 

26. In the opinion of the police official in charge of the 
investigation, the atrocities had probably be perpetrated 
by members of the security forces rather than the North 
Korean Army. 

27. The field observer team is of the opinion that : 

(a) The atrocities in this area were perpetrated at 
some time between 22 and 29 September 1950. 

(b) There is a possibility that the number of victims 
will be increased. 

(c) Of the total number of victims, about 35 to 40 
were United States prisoners of war. 

(d) The blame for the atrocities can be largely at- 
tributed to the North Korean security forces. 



28. On 30 September 1050, an observer team, accom- 
panied by the Director of the Office of Public Information 
and the Vice-JIinister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic 
of Korea, visited a place of execution In Seoul. 

20. The team was guided into the heart of the resi- 
dential area of the city, where little or no damage to 
property had been done, into a narrow street on which 
opened a courtyard about 30 yards square. The double 

(Continued on page 673) 



Department of State Bulletin 



Uniting for Peace 



iy John Foster Dulles 

V.S. Representative to the General Assemily ^ 



The United Nations has taken historic action 
in relation to Korea. What has been done by the 
Security Council, by the General Assembly, and 
by the members, lias revived faith in the United 
Nations. It has brought new hope to many who, 
facing peril, had become fatalistic, doubting man's 
capacity to control the forces working for his de- 
struction. Now we know that the nations of the 
world possess both the will to repress aggression 
and the capacity to do so and that this organiza- 
tion can be the means of forging that will and 
capacity into an effective collective instrument. 

All of that is a reason for profound satisfaction. 
But also there is reason for grave concern. Korean 
events have dramatized organizational weaknesses 
which, in the future, could prevent the will and 
the capacitj' of the member states finding timely 
collective expression. If the United Nations is 
really to be formidable enough to deter those who 
plot aggression, these organizational weaknesses 
must be corrected. That is an urgent task of 
supreme importance. 

If you would see how precarious was the 
margin of safety in Korea, ask yourself these ques- 
tions : 

1. Would the Security Council have acted 
promptly, or indeed at all, except that, at the 
decisive moment, one of the permanent members 
of the Security Council happened, for other rea- 
sons, to be absent ? 

2. Would the Security Council have had the 
information needed to justify quick and decisive 
action except that, 3 years ago, this Assembly 
happened to send a Commission to Korea to super- 
vise elections there ? 

3. Would there have been United Nations 
forces to respond, in time to save the Republic of 
Korea, had it not been that 5 years ago, the United 

'Statement made before Committee I (Political and 
Security) on Oct. 9 and released to the press by the 
U.S. Mission to the U.N. on the same date. 



States stationed military forces in nearby Japan, 
in order to police the Japanese armistice? 

4. Might not the aggression in Korea have 
succeeded except for a series of accidents which, 
from the standpoint of the aggressor, amounted 
to extraordinai'ily bad luck? 

Unless the United Nations does something to- 
assure that the accidental, which served so well in 
Korea, will hereafter become dependable, poten- 
tial aggressors can continue to hope and potential 
victims must continue to fear. 

Need for Organizing Collective Resistance 

In the present state of international affairs, 
there is the same need for assured collective resist- 
ance to aggression that Marshal Stalin called for 
in March 1939. He then pointed out that^ — 

. . . The non-aggressive states, primarily England, 
France and the United States . . . have rejected the policy 
of collective security, the policy of collective resistance to 
the aggressors, and have talcen up a position of non- 
intervention, a position of "neutrality." 

Actually speaking, 

The policy of non-intervention means conniving at ag- 
gression, giving free reign to war, and, consequently, trans- 
forming the war into a world war. 

That warning went unheeded and that analysis 
proved correct. Six months later the series of little 
wars did in fact culminate in World War II. 

We do not want that to happen again, and there 
is no reason why it should happen again. The 
peoples of the world are clearly in a mood to de- 
velop "collective resistance to the aggressors." 
They wait only for us, their representatives in this 
organization, to define the way. 

Some may suggest that it is dangerous to 
respond, lest the building of bulwarks against 
aggression may annoy potential aggressors into 
aggressing more quickly. To such I say that inac- 
tion is no solution. It would confront each of our 



Ocfober 23, 1950 



651 



peoples and nations with three choices. Either 
(1) to accept, fatalistically, continuing exposure 
to piecemeal aggression which would presage gen- 
eral war; (2) to organize elsewhere and otherwise 
than within the framework of the present United 
Nations; (3) to revert to a condition of "each for 
himself and the devil take the hindmost." 

The United States, at least, will not choose any 
one of these three courses so long as the other 
members of the United Nations want actually to 
use the now unused possibilities that reside in the 
present United Nations Charter. 



The Three Goals 

Our Charter foresaw and provided for three 
basic security needs : (1) a central initiative which 
could be prompt and dependable; (2) means of 
information which would be reliable; and (3) a 
backing of power that would be ready. 

The Security Council was given, in these three 
respects, "primary responsibility" (art. 24). 

It was instructed to organize itself to insure 
"prompt action" by the United Nations to main- 
tain international peace and security (art. 24). 

It was authorized to investigate wherever there 
was "international friction" which was "likely 
to endanger the maintenance of international 
peace and security" (art. 34). 

It was instructed to negotiate "as soon as pos- 
sible" arrangements with the members for "armed 
forces," to be held in such "readiness and general 
location" as would be found appropriate (art. 43) . 

Five years have now gone by. We have seen that 
while the Security Council has in many respects 
served admirably the purposes for which it was 
set up, it cannot safely be left as our sole depend- 
ence in the three vital areas we have mentioned. 
There is always risk of veto, which already has 
been employed nearly 50 times. The Security 
Council has failed to establish any system of 
observation adequate to the needs of the present 
situation. And as regards armed forces, it has 
failed to take the initiative required of it under 
article 43 of the Charter. 



Responsibility of the General Assembly 

Tliese disappointments in the 5 years since the 
Charter came into force have been severe. But 
they are not the occasion for despair or resigna- 
tion. The same instrument which placed on the 
Security Council the "primary" responsibility for 
the maintenance of international peace and secu- 
rity, the same instrument which authorized the 
veto in the Security Council, also by articles 10, 11, 
and 14, gave the General Assembly power to rec- 
ommend even as to matters that might be vetoed. 
Take, for example, article 10. It gives the General 
Assembly power to make recommendations to 
the members on any matters "within the scope of 



the present Charter" except in relation to partic- 
ular disputes or situations then being dealt with 
by the Security Council. 

I recall to you the circumstances leading to the 
adoption, in this form, of article 10. At San 
Francisco, the so-called "Little 45" had stoutly 
opposed the "veto power" demanded by the so- 
called "Big Five." Finally, in the closing days of 
the Conference, they agreed to accept the veto in 
the Security Council if Assembly powers were such 
that, if the" Security Council were prevented from 
discharging its primary responsibility, the Gen- 
eral Assembly could step in and discuss and recom- 
mend regarding such subjects as pacific settlement 
of disputes, breaches of the peace, the establish- 
ment of militai-y contingents, etc. (chs. VI and 
VII). To insure that, they proposed to amend 
what is now article 10 by broadening the As- 
sembly's right to recommend so that it could 
recommend as to "any matters within the scope 
of the present Charter." 

The Soviet delegation at first declined to accept 
a broadening of article 10 which would prevent a 
veto in the Security Council from having finality. 
There was a resultant deadlock, while the day offi- 
cially set for signing drew near. Finally, on 
June 19, 1945, the United States Ambassador at 
Moscow advised the Soviet Foreign Office that the 
United States felt it could not wait longer and 
would proceed with other nations. The next day 
the chairman of the Soviet delegation informed 
our Secretary of State that his Government, too, 
accepted the proposed broadening of article 10. 
With that last obstacle cleared away, the Charter 
was signed on June 26. 

The powers of the General Assembly we now 
invoke were won that day in San Francisco. There 
is no occasion now to put them in question. 
Eather, now is the time to use the rights then so 
hard won. Tliat is the proposal before you. 

Emergency Special Sessions 

Part A would supply the possibility of prompt 
General Assembly recommendation if Security 
Council action is blocked. If peace is threatened, 
and if tlie Security Council, because of lack of 
unanimity of the permanent members, fails to exer- 
cise its primary responsibility for the maintenance 
of international peace and security, then the Gen- 
eral Assembly might, on 24-hour notice, be called 
into an emergency special session so that it could 
consider the situation and, if it deemed wise, 
recommend to the members that they take collec- 
tive action. 

Of course. Assembly "recommendations" are not 
the equivalent of "action" under chapter VII, 
which can be taken only by the Security Council. 
But recommendations, if made to a responsive 
membership, can be equally effective. The Secu- 
rity Council, in the Korea case, did not invoke its 
"action" powers. It gave no orders but only 



652 



Department of State Bulletin 



"recommended.'' The response was not, on that 
account, less effective. Indeed, the vohmtary 
response of 53 members was more impressive than 
a response that miglit have been ordered. 

The General Assembly clearly has the right to 
amend its rules of procedure to provide for emer- 
gency special sessions. A few may feel that it is 
unwise to do so because, it is said, the Assembly 
might not deal "responsibly" with an emergency 
and, therefore, if the Security Council cannot act, 
it is better to abandon any United Nations effort 
to meet the danger collectively. 

The United States delegation does not accept 
the view that "responsibility" is a monopoly of the 
few and of the great. We believe that an informed 
world opinion is the most responsible of all of the 
forces that influence the course of human events. 
The General Assembly more nearly reflects in- 
formed world opinion than any other body. The 
United States delegation has no fear that, at a 
moment of gravity, two-thirds of our members will 
act "irresponsibl3^" We believe they will reflect, 
better than any other body, the supremacy of "law" 
which in essence is the consensus of woi'ld opinion 
as to what is right. If the Assembly does that, then 
its recommendations will evoke a response. If 
not, they will automatically fail for, in these mat- 
ters, moral judgments are our only reliable de- 
pendency. 

The Security Council should, of course, have its 
chance to exercise its primary responsibility to 
maintain international peace and security. We 
hope it will perform. But if it fails, then the 
General Assembly has a duty promptly to consider 
the situation. The Charter expressly gives it that 
right and, if, having that right, the General As- 
sembly abdicates, it would, in essence, be a partner 
in a conspiracy to frustrate the Charter and the 
holies of mankind which reside in it. If, on the 
contrary, the General Assembly is prepared to 
function if the Security Council does not, that fact 
alone will induce the members of the Security 
Council to cooperate more fully to the end that the 
Security Council shall be the effective organ con- 
templated by the Charter. 

Peace Observation Patrol 

Part B would establish a more adequate system 
of observation. There would be a Peace Observa- 
tion Commission composed of such members as the 
Assembly would decide, not including, we suggest, 
any of the so-called "great" powers. The Commis- 
sion could draw on the panel of field observei^ 
already created by Assembly action. The Com- 
mission, which might act through regional sub- 
commissions, would go, or send field observers, to 
points of tension as indicated by the Assembly or 
the Interim Committee with, or course, the consent 
of the country concerned. They would be the eyes 
and ears of the United Nations. Their very pres- 

Ocfofaer 23, 7950 



ence would make aggression less likely. As Mar- 
shal Stalin said in 1939 of the League of Nations, 
it "might hinder the outbreak of war" if it could 
"serve as a place where aggressors can be exposed." 

If, despite the risk of exposure, aggression "did 
occur, and if the Security Council or, secondarily, 
this Assembly, had to deal witli a breach of the 
peace, then the Obsei-vation Commission could 
supply prompt and reliable information to serve 
as a basis for action or recommendation. 

Assembly commissions in Greece and Korea have 
already proved the immeasurable value of observa- 
tion, in the one case perhaps preventing open ag- 
gression and in the other case making it possible 
to take prompt action to repress aggression. At 
a time of mounting and widespread tension, we 
believe that all nonaggressive states will welcome a 
development of the United Nations system of 
observation. 



Force in Readiness 

Part C would seek to bring the armed forces 
of niembers into readiness for United Nations 
service. The Assembly would recommend to the 
niember states that each maintain within its na- 
tional armed forces elements so trained they could 
promptly be made available for service as United 
Nations units if, on some subsequent occasion, the 
member should so determine. Compliance with 
this recommendation would involve no binding 
commitment, no specific earmarking and would 
be without prejudice to the use by each member 
of all of its forces, if needed, for purposes of 
individual or collective self-defense recognized 
in article 51 of the Charter. 

In order that member states can, if they wish, 
obtain technical advice regarding the organiza- 
tion, training, and equipment of forces which 
could serve as United Nations units, it is proposed 
to establish, under the Secretary-General, a panel 
of military experts to be available to member states 
who wish to have such advice. 

Every member of the United Nations has already 
assumed the basic obligation to have armed forces 
available (art. 43). The obligation has not been 
implemented because the Security Council has 
been unable to exercise the initiative prescribed by 
that article and negotiate the agreements which it 
contemplates. We believe that pending the con- 
clusion of article 43 agreements, members should 
now be asked to take some first steps without await- 
ing further negotiation attempts in the Security 
Council. That there is both the need and the 
will has been demonstrated by Korea. There, a 
great weight of sacrifice had to be borne initially 
by a single member nation. Other members 
showed sincerely their regret at not having forces 
in a state of readiness. The lesson of that experi- 
ence needs now to be applied. The General As- 
sembly cannot order this. But it can recommend 
it to a membership which awaits that initiative. 

653 



Future Planning 

Part D would establish a Collective Measures 
Committee ■which would give further study to this 
whole problem of collective security and make a 
report, at least an interim report, to the Security 
Council and the General Assembly not later than 
next September. It would be instructed, in this 
connection, to take account of collective self-de- 
fense and regional arrangements under articles 51 
and 52 of the Charter. 

The details of these proposals are, of course, 
subject to collective judgments, which we invite. 
But we point out that, in their substance, they in- 
volve no goals which are not Charter goals. They 
invoke no means that are not Charter means. They 
would breathe life into a Charter program to which 
we are all committed but which, until now, has 
existed largely on paper. 

To turn words into deeds is immensely signifi- 
cant and the pending proposals, like all proposals 
which are really meaningful, may encounter 
doubts and hesitations. But if members of the 
United Nations i-eally want a stronger United 
Nations, now is the time to make it that. Later 
on may be too late. 

For five consecutive annual sessions this General 
Assembly has met in an atmosphere of steadily 
mounting tension. 

At first that tension found expression chiefly 
in verbal, ideological clashes. Then came threats 
of violence, then civil wars, then o^jen armed at- 
tack with tanks, planes, and all the paraphernalia 
of modern war. Many fear that general war is the 
next inevitable stage. 

The United States does not take that view. 
But we do recognize that the prevalent fear is a 
corroding and dangerous force. It diverts human 
effort from tasks that are curative and creative 
into efforts that, at best, are wasteful and, at worst, 
horribly destructive. It undermines the confi- 
dence wliich is essential to a healthy society. In- 
deed, fear of war, if it is not allayed, itself creates 
the conditions that make war more likely. 

The paramount task of this Fifth Assembly is to 
allay that fear by assuring that there will be what 
our Charter refers to as "effective collective meas- 
ures for the prevention and removal of threats to 
peace." 

On June 25, and again on June 27, the United 
Nations Security Council initiated action in rela- 
tion to Korea. ^ It recommended collective meas- 
ures to restore peace. Fifty-three members of the 
United Nations responded in varying degrees to 
that call, and, today, land, air, and sea forces of 
18 member nations are committed to serve under 
the United Nations flag, under United Nations 
command, to achieve United Nations goals. 

For the first time in the long history of the 
human race, a world organization marehaled 
enougli collective force to throw back an armed 



' Bulletin of July 3, 1950, pp. 5 and 7, respectively. 



aggression. It seemed that the dream of ages had 
at last come true and that the United Nations had 
become the effective instrument which was hoped 
for, and prayed f oi', by the war-tried peoples who 
5 years ago established this organization "to save 
succeeding generations from the scourge of war, 
which twice in our lifetime has brought untold 
sorrow to mankind." 

But now, there have come second thoughts and 
dire forebodings. Was the action in relation to 
Korea only an accident made possible by chance 
events unlikely to recur, so that the future remains 
one of opportunity to aggressors? Or has the 
action taken in Korea lit a flaming spirit within 
the body of the United Nations which will burn 
strong and steady to provide the vitality needed to 
make our organization an ever more powerful 
defender of the peace? 

A Last Chance? 

We who sit here will have to find the answer 
to those questions and we ought, I think, to find 
them quickly. If we move now to consolidate the 
new mood that prevails and the new strength that 
it offers, then we believe that local aggressions will 
be unlikely and that peace will be more secure. 
For history shows that a series of successful local 
aggressions to gain added resources and improved 
strategic positions is the ominous prelude to 
general war. 

If, however, we let slip this opportunity to 
organize the United Nations and its members' 
strength to deter local aggressions, if the popidar 
mood again becomes one of cynicism, then such 
aggi'essions may recur and lead to general war. 

Nothing that we can do will make peace certain. 
But we can make less likely that there will be little 
wars and big wars. That is worth doing. 

In conclusion, let me point out that the measures 
we suggest do not involve acceptance of any par- 
ticular theory as to the causes or nature of the 
present tension. Each, no doubt, has his own ideas 
about that. Also, no doubt, no one is wholly right 
or wholly wrong. The proposals before you do not 
rest ui^on any finding of guilt but rather on two 
general propositions, accepted since San Fran- 
cisco : first, there is always a danger of aggi'ession 
and of general war; second, a good preventive is 
the creation of effective collective resistance to 
agression. 

On these two propositions there is, I take it, 
general agreement. 

The representatives of the Soviet Union profess 
to believe that the United States now has aggres- 
sive and warlike intentions which frighten them. 
If they really believe that, then they will want the 
protection that these proposals will afford. The 
proposals would be implemented chiefly by nations 
which have a devotion to peace that cannot be 
questioned and which, by no conceivable stretch 
of the imagination, can be regarded as conspirators 
for war. It is those nations that will primarily 



654 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



exercise tlie new responsibilities which we pi'opose. 
It is from their ranks that will be chosen the Obser- 
vation Commission, and only their votes would 
make possible the two-thirds majority needed for 
General Assembly reconnnendations. 

JNIr. Chairman, the door to peace is before us. 
We hold in our hands the key. Let us open the 
door and enter. 



TEXT OF DRAFT RESOLUTION > 

D.N. doc. A/C.l/576/ReT. 1 
Dated Oct 14, 1950 

The General Assembly, 

Recoonizing that the first two stated Purposes of the 
United Nations are: 

"To maintain international peace and security, and 
to that end : to talie effective collective measures for the 
prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for 
the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches 
of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and 
in conformity with the principles of justice and interna- 
tional law, adjustment or settlement of international 
disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of 
the Peace", and 

"To develop friendly relations among nations based 
on respect for the principle of equal rights and self- 
determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate 
measures to strengthen universal peace". 

Finding that international tension exists on a danger- 
ous scale. 

Recalling its resolution 290 (IV) entitled "Essentials 
of Peace", which states that disregard of the Prin- 
ciples of the Charter of the United Nations is primarily 
responsible for the continuance of international tension, 
and desiring to contribute further to the objectives of that 
resolution, 

Reaffirming the importance of the exercise by the 
Security Council of its primary resiwnsibility for the 
maintenance of international peace and security, and the 
duty of the permanent members to seek unanimity and 
to exercise restraint in the use of the veto, 

Reaffirming that the initiative in negotiating the agree- 
ments for armed forces provided for in Article 43 of tlie 
Charter l)elongs to the Security Council and desiring to 
ensure that, pending the conclusion of such agreements, 
the United Nations have at its disposal means for main- 
taining international peace and security. 

Conscious that failure of the Security Council to dis- 
charge its responsibilities on behalf of all the Member 
States, particularly those referred to in the two pre- 
ceding paragraphs, doe.s not i-elieve Member States tif 
their obligations or the United Nations of its responsibility 
under the Charter to maintain international peace and 
security. 



'Presented to Committee I (Political and Security) by 
Canada, France, Philippines, Turkey, U.K., U.S., and 
Uruguay on Oct. 13, 1950. 



Recognizing in particular that such failure does not 
deprive the General Assembly of its rights or relieve it of 
its responsibilities under the Charter in regard to the 
maintenance of international peace and security. 

Recognizing that discharge by the General Assembly 
of its responsibilities in these resi)ects calls for ijossi- 
bilities of observation which would ascertain the facts 
and expose aggressors ; for the existence of armed forces 
which could be used collectively ; and for the possibility 
of timely recommendation by the General Assembly to 
United Nations Members for collective action which, to 
be effective, should be prompt, 

A. 

1. Resolves that if the Security Council, because of lack 
of unanimity of the i)ermanent members, fails to exercise 
its primary responsibility for the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and security in any case where there ap- 
pears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace, 
or act of aggression, the General Assembly shall con- 
sider the matter immediately with a view to making 
appropriate recommendations to Members for collective 
measures, including in the case of a breach of the peace 
or act of aggression the use of armed force when neces- 
sary, to maintain or restore international peace and 
security. If not in session at the time, the General 
Assembly may meet in emergency special session within 
twenty-four hours of the request therefor. Such emer- 
gency special session shall he called if requested by the 
Security Council on the vote of any seven members, or 
by a majority of the Members of the United Nations ; 

2. Adopts for this purpose the revisions in its rales of 
procedure set forth in the annex to this resolution ; 

B. 

3. Establishes a Peace Observation Commission, which 
for the calendar years 1951 and 1952 shall be composed 
of representatives of (9-14 Members), and which could 
observe and report on tlie situation in any area where 
tliere exists international tension the continuance of 
which is likely to endanger the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and security. Upon the invitation or with 
the consent of the state into whose territory the Com- 
mission would go, the General Assembly, or the Interim 
Committee when the A.ssembly is not in session, may 
utilize the Commission if the Security Council is not exer- 
cising the functions assigned to it by the Charter with 
respect to the matter in question. Decisions to utilize 
the Commission shall be made upon the affirmative vote 
of two-thirds of the members present and voting. The 
Security Council may also utilize the Commis,sion in ac- 
cordance with its authority under the Charter; 

4. The Commission shall have authority in its discre- 
tion to appoint subcommissions and to utilize the services 
of observers to assist it in the performance of its 
functions ; 

5. Recommends to all governments and authorities that 
tliey cooperate with the Commission and assist it in the 
performance of its functions ; 

6. Requests the Secretary-General to provide the neces- 
sary staff and facilities, utilizing where directed by the 
Commission the United Nations panel of field observers 
envisaged in resolution 297 (IV) B; 



Ocfober 23, 7950 



655 



7. Invites each Member of the United Nations to survey 
its resources in order to determine the nature and scope 
of the assistance it may be in a position to render in 
support of any recommendations of the Security Council 
or the General Assembly for the restoration of interna- 
tional peace and security ; 

8. Recommends to the Members of the United Nations 
that each Member maintain within its national armed 
forces elements so trained, organized, and equipped that 
they could promptly be made available, in accordance 
vs'ith their respective constitutional processes for service 
as a United Nations unit or units, upon recommendation 
by the Security Council or General Assembly, without 
prejudice to the use of such elements in exercise of the 
right of indivi(Uial or collective self-defense recognized 
in Article 51 of the Charter ; 

9. Invites the Members of the United Nations to inform 
the Collective Measures Committee as soon as possible of 
the measures taken in implementation of the preceding 
paragraph ; 

10. Requests the Secretary-General to appoint, with the 
approval of the Committee provided for in paragraph 11, 
a panel of military experts who could be made available 
upon request of Member States which wish to obtain 
technical advice regarding the organization, training, and 
equipment for prompt service as United Nations units of 
the elements referred to in paragraph 8; 

D. 

11. Establishes a Collective Measures Committee con- 
sisting of representatives of (10-14) Members and directs 
the Committee, in consultation with the Secretary-General 
and with Member States as the Committee finds appropri- 
ate, to study and make a report to the Security Council 
and the General Assembly, not later than 1 September 
1951, on methods, including those of part C of this resolu- 
tion, which might be used to maintain and strengthen 
international peace and security in accordance with the 
Purposes and Principles of the Charter, taking account of 
collective self-defense and regional arrangements (Articles 
51 and 52 of the Charter) ; 

12. Recommends to all Members that they cooperate 
with the Committee and assist it in the performance of 
its functions ; 

13. Requests the Secretary-General to furnish the staff 
and facilities necessary for the effective accomplishment 
of the purposes set forth in parts C and D of this 
resolution ; 

E. 

14. The General Assembly, in adopting the proposals 
set forth above, is fully conscious that enduring peace will 
not be secured solely by collective security arrangements 
against breaches of international peace and acts of aggres- 
sion, but that a genuine and lasting peace depends also 
upon the observance of all the principles and purposes 
established in the Charter of the United Nations, and 
especially upon respect for and observance of human 
rights and fundamental freedoms for all and on the 
establishment and maintenance of conditions of economic 
and social well-being in all countries ; and accordingly 

15. Urges Member States to respect fully, and to in- 



tensify joint action, in cooperation with the United Na- 
tions, to develop and stimulate universal respect for and 
observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms, 
and to intensify individual and collective efforts to achieve 
conditions of economic stability and social progress, par- 
ticularly through the development of underdeveloped 
countries and areas. 

ANNEX TO DRAFT RESOLUTION ON UNITING FOR PEACE 

The rules of procedure of the General Assembly are 
amended in the following respects : 

1. The present text of Rule 8 shall become paragraph 
a of that Rule, and a new paragraph b shall be added to 
read as follows: 

"Emergency special session pursuant to resolution — 
(V) shall be convened within twenty-four hours of the 
receipt by the Secretary-General of a request for such a 
session from the Security Council on the vote of any seven 
Members thereof, or of a request from a majority of the 
Members of the United Nations expressed by vote in the 
Interim Committee or otherwise, or of the concurrence of 
a majority of Members as provided in Rule 9." 

2. The present text of Rule 9 shall become paragraph a 
of that Rule and a new paragraph b shall be added to read 
as follows: 

"This Rule shall apply also to a request by any Mem- 
ber for an emergency special session pursuant to resolu- 
tion — (V). In such a case the Secretary-General shall 
communicate with other Members by the most expeditious 
means of communication available." 

3. Rule 10 is amended by adding at the end thereof the 
following : 

"In the case of an emergency special session convened 
pursuant to Rule 8-b, the Secretary-General shall notify 
the Members of the United Nations at least twelve hours 
in advance of the opening of the session." 

4. Rule 16 is amended by adding at the end thereof the 
following : 

"The provisional agenda of an emergency si)ecial ses- 
sion shall be communicated to the Members of the United 
Nations simultaneously with the communication summon- 
ing the session." 

5. Rule 19 is amended by adding at the end thereof the 
following : 

"During an emergency special session additional items 
concerning tlie matters dealt with in resolution — (V) 
may be added to the agenda by a two-thirds majority of the 
Members present and voting." 

6. There is added a new Rule to precede Rule 65 to read 
as follows: 

"Notwithstanding the provisions of any other Rule 
and unless the Assembly decides otherwise, in case of an 
emergency special session the Assembly shall convene in 
plenary scs.sion only and proceed directly to consider the 
item proposed for consideration in the request for the 
holding of the session, without previous reference to the 
General Committee or to any other Committee ; the Presi- 
dent and Vice Presidents for such emergency special 
session shall be, respectively, the chairmen of those Dele- 
gations from which were elected the President and Vice 
Presidents of the previous session." 



656 



Department of State Bulletin 



U.S. To Support Austria 

in Maintaining Law and Order 

[Released to the press October 7] 

Follovring is the text of a message, dated October 7, sent 
by Acting Sccrctarij Wehb to Chancellor Leopold Fige of 
Austria and the unofficial translation of a message, dated 
October 5, to Secretary Acheson from Foreign Minister 
Orubcr of Austria. 

I have just received your telegram of October 5 
addressed to Mr. Acheson in which you refer to 
the urgent request submitted by your Government 
to the Allied Council to take immediately appro- 
priate measures to enable the Federal Government 
to accomplish its constitutional duties and appeal 
to the U.S. Government as an occupying power 
to support 3'our Government in its efforts to 
maintain order. 

The actions taken by your Government to main- 
tain law and order in the face of recent Commu- 
nist-inspired and Soviet-supported disturbances 
have the full support of this Government. I am 
particularly gratified at the courageous and de- 
termined manner in wliich your Government and 
the Austrian people have met and are meeting their 
responsibilities in the face of these illegal acts. 
Please be assured that this Government will take 
all proper action to fulfill its international com- 
mitments with respect to Austria and in particular 
to assure the maintenance of law and order in the 
areas of its responsibilities in Austria. Appro- 
priate instructions are being issued to the United 
States High Commissioner. 

I issued a statement to the press along the fore- 
going lines shortly prior to the time your telegi'am 
came to my attention and I hope that my views, 
and I am sure I speak for the American people as 
a whole, will serve to assure your Government and 
people of our confidence in them and of our deep 
appreciation of the firmness of purpose which 
they have displayed in their efforts to maintain 
independence and freedom of action under these 
trying circumstances. 



As a result of a new wage-price agreement. 
Communist Trade Union men, called together dur- 
ing the past f ews days by the Austrian Communist 
Party, tried to incite the Austrian workers to a 
general strike. This attempt, however, had no 
repercussion among the Austrian workers. Never- 
theless, it soon became evident that in the Soviet 
occupation zone Communist elements, disap- 
pointed by this attitude of the working popula- 
tion, were proceeding to acts of violence and trying 
to disturb public order in various districts of the 
Soviet zone. Local police organs were not strong 
enough to expel the malefactors from certain Fed- 
eral buildings, which they had illegally occupied. 
In view of this situation, the Federal Government 

Ocfober 23, 7950 

910602—50 3 



decided to send from Vienna detachments of police 
and gendarmerie to the places threatened. These 
organs did succeed in repulsing the Communist 
strikes from the Federal buildings occupied, but 
later they received from the local Soviet Kom- 
mandatura the order to leave the buildings, to 
return to Vienna and, thus, to reestablish the status 
quo, that is to let the malefactors again occupy the 
buildings in question. In proceeding in this man- 
ner, the local Soviet Kommandatura prevents the 
Federal Government from safeguarding with its 
own security organs public Austrian institutions 
and from maintaining order and security against 
an illegal activity. Consequently, the Federal 
Government saw itself in the necessity of today 
addressing the urgent request to the Allied Council 
to take, immediately, the appropriate measures to 
enable the Federal Government to accomplish its 
constitutional duties. The Federal Government 
herewith addresses a fervent appeal to the United 
States Government, as an occupying power, to 
support it in its efforts to maintain order in the 
country. 



Visit of Liberian Commission 

On October 12, the Department of State an- 
nounced the following Liberian Commission ar- 
rived in Washington to discuss matters of mutual 
interest : 

Gabriel L. Dennis, Secretary of State for Liberia 
G. Abayomi Cassell, Attorney General for Liberia 
Charles B. Sherman, Liberian Government Economist 

The Liberian Ambassador, C. D. B. King, will 
accompany the group ; the Conmiission's tentative 
schedule includes : 

October 12 : Courtesy calls on Secretary Acheson ; Acting 
Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs 
John E. O'Gara ; and Acting Assistant Secre- 
tary for Near Eastern, South Asian, and Afri- 
can Affairs Burton Y. Berry 
Conference with State Department represent- 
atives from the Office of African Affairs and 
the Investment and Economic Development 
Staff 

October 13: Courtesy call on Ambassador Capus M. 
Waynicli and discussions on Point 4 Techni- 
cal Assistance iwssibilities in Liberia 
Courtesy call on Herbert E. Gaston, Chair- 
man of the Board of the Export-Import Bank 

October 16 : Discussions at the Export-Import Bank. 
Courtesy call on Elmer H. Bourgerie, Di- 
rector, Office of African Affairs 

October 17 : Luncheon at Prospect House as guests of 
Assistant Secretary George C. McGhee 



October 19: Courtesy call on the President (at noon) 



657 



study Concerning Niagara River 
Requested of Joint Commission 

[Released to the press October 10] 

Following is the text of a letter from Secretary Acheson 
to the United States Section of the International Joint 
Commission, Washington, D. C. The letter, dated October 
10, sets forth terms of reference respecting investigation 
and report concerning remedial works to be constructed in 
the Niagara River pursuant to the provisions of the treaty 
of February 27, 1950,^ regarding the uses of the waters of 
the Niagara River. 

I have the honor to inform you that the Govern- 
ments of Canada and the United States of America 
have agreed to request the International Joint 
Commission to investigate and make a report 
containing : 

(1) Recommendations concerning the nature 
and design of the remedial works necessary to 
enhance the beauty of the Falls in the Niagara 
River by distributing the waters so as to produce 
an unbroken crest-line on the Falls, in accordance 
with the objectives envisaged in the final report 
submitted to Canada and the United States of 
America on December 11, 1929, by the Special 
International Niagara Board and bearing in mind 
the provisions for the diversion of the waters of 
the Niagara River and the apportionment thereof, 
which have been agreed upon by the two Govern- 
ments in the Treaty of February 27, 1950, respect- 
ing the uses of the waters of the Niagara River. 

(2) Recommendations concerning the alloca- 
tion of the task of construction of the remedial 
works as between Canada and the United States of 
America, liaving regard to the recommendations 
made under paragraph (1). 

(3) An estimate of the costs of such remedial 
works. 

In the conduct of its investigations, and other- 
wise in the performance of its duties under this 
reference, the International Joint Commission 
may utilize the services of engineers and other 
specially qualified personnel of technical agencies 
of Canada and the United States and will, so far 
as possible, make use of information and technical 
data which has been acquired by such technical 
agencies or which may become available during 
the course of the investigation, thus avoiding 
duplication of effort and unnecessary expense. 

Treaty Enters Into Force 
[Released to the press October 10] 

The treaty regarding uses of the waters of the 
Niagara River, which was signed at Washington 
on February 27, 1950, came into force at 3 : 00 
p. m. today when the formal instiiiments of rati- 
fication were exchanged at Ottawa by the Prime 

' BtTLLETiN of Mar. 20, 1950, p. 448. For complete text 
of treat.v, see Department of State press release 177 of 
Feb. 27, 1950. 



Minister of Canada, L.S. St. Laurent, and the 
United States Ambassador, Stanley Woodward. 
The treaty contains provisions designed to protect 
and enhance the scenic beauty of the Falls by the 
construction of remedial works and provides for 
the more effective use of the waters of this river, 
thereby increasing the potential hydroelectric 
power available at Niagara Falls for use in both 
countries. It was approved by the Canadian Par- 
liament on June 19 and by the Senate of the United 
States on August 9, 1950, with a reservation con- 
cerning construction of the works in the United 
States which was accepted by the Canadian Gov- 
ernment. 



Studies To Be Made 

of St. John River System 

[Released to the press September 29] 

Following is the text of a letter from Acting Secretary 
Webb, dated September 28, 1950, addressed to the United 
States section of the International Joint Commission, 
Washington, D.C. The letter sets forth terms of refer- 
ence respecting investigation and report pursuant to arti- 
cle IX of the Treaty Concerning Boundary Waters Between 
the United States and Canada, signed January 11, 1909, 
respecting the tcaters of the St. John River system. 

1. In order to determine whether waters of the 
Saint John River system could be more beneficially 
conserved and regulated, the Governments of the 
United States and Canada have agreed to refer 
the matter to the International Joint Commission 
for investigation and report pursuant to Article 
IX of the Treaty Concerning Boundary Waters 
Between the United States and Canada, signed 
January 11, 1909. 

2. It is desired that the Commission shall deter- 
mine and recommend, in its judgment, what proj- 
ects for the conservation and regulation of the 
waters in the Saint John River system above 
Grand Falls, New Brunswick, would be practical 
in the public interest. 

3. In making its recommendations, the Commis- 
sion should indicate how the interests on either 
side of the boundary would be benefited or 
adversely affected thereby and should estimate the 
costs of such works or projects, including remedial 
works that may be found to be necessary as well 
as indemnification for damage to public and pri- 
vate property, and should indicate how these costs 
should be apportioned between the two Govern- 
ments. 

4. In the conduct of its investigation and other- 
wise in the performance of its duties under tliis 
reference, the Commission may utilize the services 
of engineers and other specially qualified personnel 
of the technical agencies of Canada and the United 
States and will so far as possible make use of infor- 
mation and technical data heretofore acquired or 
which may become available during the course of 
the investigation, thus avoiding duplication of 
efforts and unnecessary expense. 



658 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



Executive Order 10170 
Amends Trade Agreements ^ 

Amendment of Executive Order No. 10082 of Octo- 
ber 5, IQJfi^ Prescribing Procedures for the Ad- 
ministration of the Reciprocal Trade- Agreements 
Program 

Wheeeas Executive Order No. 10082 of October 5, 1949 
(14 Fed. Reg. 6105) establishes the Interdepartmental 
Committee on Trade Agreements and the Committee for 
Reciprocity Information, each to consist of persons desig- 
nated from their respective agencies by the Chairman 
of the United States Tariff Commission, the Secretary of 
State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of De- 
fense, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of 
Commerce, the Secretary of Labor and the Administrator 
for Economic Cooperation ; and 

Whereas it would be in the public interest to provide 
for the representation on said committees of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior : 

Now, Therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me 
by the Constitution and statutes, including section 332 of 
the Tariff Act of 1930 (46 Stat. 698) and the Trade Agree- 
ments Act approved June 12, 1934, as amended (48 Stat. 
943; 57 Stat. 125; 59 Stat. 410; Public Law 30V, 81st 
Congress), the said Executive Order No. 100S2 of October 
5, 1949 is hereby amended by adding after the comma 
following the word "Defense", in the second sentence of 
the paragraph numbered 1 thereof, the words "the Secre- 
tary of the Interior,". 

Harry S. Truman 
The White Housb, 
October 12, 1950. 



"Escape Clause" To Be Included 
in Swiss Trade Agreement 

[Released to the press October 13] 

The Department of State announced today that 
the Governments of the United States and of 
Switzerland had agreed upon an escape clause 
which will apply to the concessions in the United 
States-Swiss trade agreement of 1936, similar to 
the escape clause contained in the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade concluded at Geneva in 
1947. Under this clause, either party to the agree- 
ment may modify or withdraw an agreement con- 
cession if it finds that as a result of the concession 
and of unforeseen developments the product in 
question is being imported in such increased quan- 
tities and under such conditions as to cause or 
threaten serious injury to a domestic industry. 

Inclusion of the escape clause in the agreement 
was accepted by the Government of Switzerland 
in a note of October 13 replying to a United States 
note of August 10. 

• 15 Fed. Reg. 6901. 

" BtnXETiN of Oct. 17, 1949, p. 593. 

Ocfober 23, 7950 



On August 17, 1950,' the Department of State 
announced that the 6-month notice of termination 
provided for in the agreement had been given to 
the Swiss Government. At the same time, how- 
ever, it was announced that if the Swiss Govern- 
ment would agree, by October 15, 1950, to the in- 
clusion of an escape clause in the agreement, the 
notice of termination would be withdrawn. 



President's Proclamation Terminates 
Certain GATT Concessions to China 

[Released to the press October 13] 

The President, on October 12, 1950, signed a 
proclamation terminating certain United States 
tariff concessions initially negotiated with China 
in the General Agi-eement on Tariffs and Trade 
concluded at Geneva in 1947.= This action was 
taken because of the withdrawal of China from 
the agreement effective May 6, 1950. Intention 
to withdraw some of the concessions was an- 
nounced by the State Department on August 31 ' 
and a list of the concessions to be terminated was 
made public on September 13.* 

Changes in the United States tariff rates result- 
ing from termination of the concessions listed, 
will be effective on December 11, 1950, the sixtieth 
day following the issuance of the proclamation. 

Not all concessions initially negotiated with 
China at Geneva are being terminated at this 
time. In certain cases, concessions initially nego- 
tiated with China are not being terminated 
because contracting parties to the General Agree- 
ment, other than China, have a substantial interest 
in the concessions in question. Under the General 
Agreement, parties having or claiming a substan- 
tial interest in items initially negotiated with 
China may request consultation with the United 
States before the concessions are terminated. A 
number of countries have requested such consul- 
tation on certain items. No action will be taken 
on those items on which consultation has been 
requested until the consultations are completed. 

An exclusive trade agreement between the 
United States and Cuba, concluded at the same 
time as the General Agreement, provides that, un- 
der certain circumstances. United States tariff 
preferences on products of Cuba not included 
in the General Agreement shall be maintained at 
the margins that were in effect on April 10, 1947. 
Termination of the concessions to China will, in 
some cases, by removing the items concerned from 
the General Agi-eement, result in adding them to 
the list of Cuban products entitled to preferential 
treatment. 



' Bulletin of Aug. 28, 1950, p. 346. 

' Proc. 2908 ; 15 Fed. Reg. 6981. 

' Bulletin of Oct. 2, 1950, p. 551. 

• Department of State press release 942 of Sept. 13, 1950. 

659 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Fourth World Power Conference, London, July 1950 



iy William E. Warne 

Assistant Secretary for Water and Power Development, Department of the Interior 



The World Power Conference (Wpc) is a per- 
manent international organization which was 
founded in 1924, with headquarters at London, 
England. Its objective is to achieve the most effi- 
cient use of the world's resources of fuel and 
power. The Conference brings together pro- 
ducers and consumers of power and fuel, scientists, 
engineers, economists, and administrators who are 
primarily concerned with the development and 
utilization of the world's power resources. The 
Conference has no individual members but is com- 
posed of national committees. At the present 
time, 41 countries are members. The national 
committees normally include representatives of 
government departments, of learned and technical 
societies and institutions, of public utilities, of 
manufacturers associations, and of other interests 
concerned with the production or use of fuel and 
power. 

Plenary meetings are normally held at intervals 
of 6 years. Following the first London Conference 
of 1924, the second plenary meeting was held at 
Berlin in 1930, and the third meeting was at Wash- 
ington in 1936. The war interrupted successive 
meetings, and the fourth plenary meeting was held 
at London in July 1950. The program of the 
First World Power Conference centered around 
the problems of estimating the world's resources of 
fuel and power and the use of resources to the best 
advantage. The second Conference dealt with 
power problems from every angle, and the third 
Conference discussed the national power economy 
with 54 countries represented. 

The constitution provides for sectional meet- 
ings designed to discuss limited aspects of the 
general program of the Conference. The Con- 



ference has an affiliated organization, "The Inter- 
national Commission on Large Dams," created in 
1929, under the initiative of the French Govern- 
ment. The Fourth Congress on Large Dams will 
meet at New Delhi, India, in January 1951, con- 
currently with a sectional meeting of the World 
Power Conference. 

During the war, the work of the Conference was 
in abeyance, but, since that time, national com- 
mittees have been set up in Egypt, Israel, Iceland, 
Pakistan, and Turkey. 

The Fourth World Power Conference was held 
at London on July 10-15, 1950.^ The theme was 
"World Energy Resources and the Production of 
Power." 

The technical sessions, which were held July 
11 through 14, considered 150 papers submitted by 
27 countries under three major headings, as 
follows : 

1. Energy Eesources and Power Develop- 
ments 

2. Preparation of Fuels 

3. Production of Power 

Division (1) considered of reports from the 
national committees of 26 countries on their 
energy resources and development since 1924. Di- 
vision (2) consisted of a group of papers on the 
preparation of liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels. 
Division (3) included a wide range of papers 
covering the latest developments in the production 
of power and associated problems, also pi'oduction 
of steam power, gas turbines and jet engines, 

' For members of the U.S. delegation, see Buixbtin of 
Aug. 7, 1950, p. 228. 



660 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



water power, atomic energy, and other sources of 
energy, such as use of wind power, the heat pump, 
and utilization of the differences of the tempera- 
tures between the deep and surface waters of tlie 
seas. 

The technical sessions were followed by a series 
of study tours to engineering developments. 
Thirteen alternate tours, lasting approximately a 
week, were made to the several industrial centers 
of England, Scotland, Wales, and to the power 
developments in northwest Scotland. 

Delegates from 44 countries participated in the 
Fourth World Power Conference, and the follow- 
ing international organizations were represented: 
United Nations — Natural Sciences Department; 
International Electro-Technical Commission; 
International Gas Union ; International Organiza- 
tion for Standardization; United Nations — Eco- 
nomic Commission for Europe; Union Interna- 
tionale des Producteurs et Distributeurs d'finergie 
filectrique; Conference Internationale des 
Grandes Reseaux Electriques ; International Com- 
mission on Large Dams of the Wpc. 

The meetings of the World Power Conference 
are organized by the host national committees 
in cooperation with the central office at London. 
The papers are not read at the meetings but are 
circulated in full, in advance, as preprints grouped 
in sections and summarized in a general report 
which also suggests topics for discussion. This 
procedure enables the entire session to be spent 
in discussion based on previous consideration of 
the papers. The Conference has no official lan- 
guages, the host national committees deciding on 
the languages to be used. Before the war, English, 
French, and German were usually chosen, and 
Spanish was added at the Washington Conference. 
At the Fourth World Power Conference, English 
and French were the official languages. The Con- 
ference used concurrent interpretation of discus- 
sions. The papers, discussions, and reports are 
published in the form of transactions of each 
meeting. These transactions are a valuable 
source of information on almost every aspect of 
the utilization of energy in all parts of the world. 

Energy Resources and Power Developments 

The general subjects of the papers at the Fourth 
World Power Conference are reviewed below : 

The 26 papers presented and discussed under 
this subject at the opening session covered an 
informative factual background of the world's 
energy resources. These papers were presented by 
countries covering almost 30 percent of the world's 
area and 40 percent of its population. The world 
picture, as a whole, is one of rapid exploitation 
of resources. 

Development since 1924 has been faster than 
ever before, with the main world power resources 
so far exploited being coal, oil and attendant natu- 
ral gas, and water power. Only the latter is per- 



ennial, and although some countries are more 
fortunately situated than others, the rate of ex- 
traction of coal and oil gives rise to anxiety as 
to the future sources of energy for power produc- 
tion. Interesting to note was the fact that other 
perennial sources of energy, such as wind and tidal 
power, solar radiation, and atomic energy, are 
now the subject of scientific research and experi- 
ment. Future progress of these developments will 
undoubtedly be of more and more interest in the 
fuel economy of the world. 

The development of high voltage transmission 
of electrical energy has advanced rapidly and has 
led to the interchange of energy across interna- 
tional boundaries to relieve the unequal natural dis- 
tribution and requirements of the world's popu- 
lation and power resources. The question of 
foreseeable limits of economic transmission of elec- 
trical energy is one of continuing interest because 
upon this question depends the possibility of effec- 
tive development of many of the energy resources 
located remote from consuming centers. 

The energy resources of northern Europe are 
largely hydroelectric and these resources are being 
developed as rapidly as possible, while the energy 
resources of the British Isles are principally coal, 
which, at the present rate of consumption, will 
be exhausted in 100 to 200 years with only an in- 
significant amount of hydroelectric power. The 
relatively small water-power potentialities of the 
west coast of Europe and the dependence of that 
region primarily upon coal were discussed. Usable 
coal reserves of France are sufficient for about 100 
years at the present rates of extraction. 

In central Europe, the principal source of energy 
is water power with only a relatively small part 
of the potential development now being utilized. 
Farther to the east, Hungary has important coal 
and oil resources, sufficient to meet home demand 
and leave a surplus for export; she also possesses 
certain undeveloped hydroelectric potentialities. 

In southern Europe, Italy's deficiency in power 
resources was brought out and it was estimated 
that, on the basis of the present construction pro- 
gram, approximately 82 percent of the economi- 
cally useful resources will have been developed. 

Africa appears to be largely in the exploratory 
stage with prospecting for oil and explorations 
for hydroelectric sites now under way. 

India's liquid fuel resources are negligible and 
apparently no concern exists regarding her coal 
reserves. Only a fraction of her enormous water 
potentialities has, thus far, been developed. 

In North America, coal continues to be the great- 
est source of energy and ample reserves are avail- 
able for many hundred years. Annual oil produc- 
tion has trebled between 1924 and 1929, and, for- 
tunately, the estimates of proved reserves have 
increased year by year to a greater extent than 
the output. Only about 20 percent of the present 
estimated potential water resources has, so far, 
been developed. 



October 23, 1950 



661 



Preparation of Fuels 

The papers in this group reviewed the necessity 
for coal preparation as required by the various 
techniques of utilization. The range of coals avail- 
able to industry is very wide in respect to size, 
type, and quality, and the main problem of the 
user is to select the alternate fuels which are 
available. 

In the preparation of liquid fuels, papers were 
presented covering trends in quality and consump- 
tion of petroleum fuels. The high cost of increased 
octane antiknock quality of gasolines is prohibitive 
and attention should therefore be given to modi- 
fication in design of automobile equipment. De- 
spite the demand for kerosene and fuel oil, little 
development has occurred in these products, com- 
pared directly to the production. In the field of 
lubricating oils, the use of synthetic additives has 
been much developed and the basic process has also 
been improved. 

Eight papers were presented discussing tech- 
niques of the manufacture of liquid fuels from 
coal or shale. These fuels are in either experi- 
mental or limited use but may be widely used if 
petroleum reserves diminish. The United States 
Bureau of Mines is making a widespread investi- 
gation on the problem of production of synthetic 
liquid fuels from shale oil in order to insure a 
supply of liquid fuels in the future. 

Natural gas is making an increased contribu- 
tion to the world's fuel supplies, not only in the 
United States but also in European countries. In 
the United States, this development is largely 
motivated by the desire to use economically a con- 
venient and abundant fuel ; in Europe by the de- 
sire to supplement other supplies of fuel and to 
replace imported fuels. 

A final group of papers under the "Preparation 
of Fuels" discussed the production of gas from 
solid fuels. Of pai'ticular interest in this gi-oup of 
papers was the emergency production of gas from 
wood for vehicles designed to use gasoline during 
the Second World War. This development 
reached a high state of perfection and application 
in Sweden, and a vast fund of knowledge exists on 
the substitution of wood or charcoal for petroleum. 

Production of Power 

The first group of papers under this division 
deals with production of steam power and the 
problems arising out of the tendency to use more 
low-grade and low-volatile fuel ; problems in pro- 
viding adequate supplies of cooling waters; de- 
termination of optimum size and grouping of 
turbo alternators and boilers; the choice of steam 
conditions with regard to advances in techniques, 
capital costs, operating costs and difficulties; and 
also the possibility of commercial use of gas tur- 
bines for the production of power. 

One of the most outstanding developments in 
steam generation is the extent to which the fuel 



economy has been assisted in many countries by 
burning with surprisingly high efficiency the fuels 
that would be of little use for other purposes. 
This development has not been achieved, how- 
ever, without more liberally designed and there- 
fore larger and more exj^ensive boilers as well as 
more expensive dust extraction. Operation has 
been simplified by greater use of automatic and 
centralized controls, and better efficiency has fol- 
lowed the use of higher temperatures and pres- 
sures permitted by newer steels and by the greater 
use of reheat. 

Nine papers were presented dealing with tur- 
bines and auxiliaries and outlining the present 
trends in the design of large steam turbines. The 
smaller dimensions of high speed, 3,600-revolu- 
tions-per-minute turbines are more suitable for 
high temperatures than 1,800-revolutions-per- 
minute machines, and the maximum size turbine at 
present, a tandem-compound treble-flow machine, 
is 153 megawatts at 3,600 revolutions per minute 
built in the United States. Swiss engineers dis- 
cussed a 110 megawatt unit at 3,000 revolutions 
per minute intended for a French power station. 
This machine is of 3-cylinder, quadinple-flow type, 
whereas American practice would use only three 
exhausts up to 150 megawatts, 3,600 revolutions 
per minute and two exhausts for 100 megawatts. 
The United States has plants ruiming with steam 
at pressures of 1,800 and 2,000 pounds per square 
inch and a large number of plants designed and 
some working at a steam temperature of 1,050 
degrees Fahrenlieit. 

Slodern trends in internal combustion engines 
were presented in six papers, and an important 
point was the emphasis on low fuel consumption 
in Great Britain as contrasted with the emphasis 
on performance in the United States. 

Developments in gas turbines and jet engines 
were described in a group of papers which em- 
phasized that the applications for the gas turbine 
are practically unlimited. The gas turbine was 
discussed in relation to use for power generation, 
aircraft propulsion, land and marine propulsion, 
and as an auxiliary to other forms of heat engines 
as well as a component in chemical and industrial 
processes. Apparently, the remaining major 
problem in the utilization of the gas turbine is 
cleaning the gas not only of solid matter but also 
of deleterious gaseous matter. 

In connection with the production of water 
power, 13 papers were presented covering hydro- 
electric developments in many countries. In Can- 
ada, it was noted that ice conditions largely 
influenced designs, and a general trend in design 
is the increasing use of earth dams. Swedish 
power developments and features of design have 
been largely dictated by economic considerations 
and made possible by the excellent geological con- 
ditions. Notable is the replacement of steel pipe 
lines by downtake shafts and the extended adop- 
tion of underground stations. Some emphasis is 



662 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



laid on the uneconomical features of the concrete 

fravity dam and its replacement in new schemes 
y other types, such as the concrete buttress dam 
and the rock-filled dam. Underground power sta- 
tions are also used in Norway, the first one having 
been completed in 1921. 

The paper by de Luccia and Eaber of the United 
States describes the designs that have been partic- 
ularly influenced by the economic factor of rising 
costs of labor and materials and points out that, 
with more interconnections of power systems, 
larger size units are being used. Also, Francis and 
Kaplan turbines are being applied to higher heads 
than heretofore, with installations of 925 and 100 
feet respectively now in operation. High-head 
Kaplan turbines have been in satisfactory opera- 
tion for many years in European countries with 
heads up to 164 feet, and it is believed that a Kap- 
lan runner can be designed with favorable cavita- 
tion characteristics up to a 200-foot head. 

Two other papers were presented which re- 
viewed American design and operation of hydro- 
electric power plants since 1936. Outdoor and 
semioutdoor installations continue to be used in 
an effort to reduce capital costs. To reduce oper- 
ating costs many plants are being designed for 
nonattendant operation. One paper pointed out 
the operational advantages of a Pelton wheel 
which were obtained in the case of the Bridge 
Eiver development in British Columbia by adopt- 
ing a vertical arrangement and by using six jets to 
develop a total of 62,000 horsepower for each ma- 
chine at a net head of 1,118 feet. 

In the design and operation of powerhouse 
equipment, increased efficiency is the keynote to- 
gether with simplification, standardization, and 
where possible, duplication. 

Special trends are peak-load operation of hydro- 
electric plants in combination with steam, develop- 
ment of a large magnitude providing for high 
dams and large storage reservoirs for seasonal 
stream regulation, and diversion of flow from one 
watershed to another by tunneling or by pumping 
and extension of multipurpose river programs. 

As an indication of revived interest in pumped- 
storage plants in the United States brought about 
by increased demand for peak load, reference was 
made to the intention to include, in the redevelop- 
ment of Niagara on the American side, a pumped- 
storage scheme. Recent experiments on a model 
pump-turbine reversible unit indicate that an ef- 
ficiency of 88 percent can be obtained operating 
in either direction at the same speed. An Italian 
paper also described notable pumping plants for 
hydraulic storage schemes together with special 
features for these plants. The evolution of stor- 
age pumping sets on a grand scale, described by 
the Italian paper, is an outstanding achievement, 
reflecting the exceptional combination of natural 
conditions in Italy. Pumps absorbing 61,000 and 
40,000 horsepower against heads of 940 and 1,960 
feet, respectively, are remarkable quite apart from 

October 23, 7950 



their incorporation in hydroelectric storage 
schemes with attendant special problems. The 
introduction of an axial-flow-feeder pump to over- 
come suction difficulties and of an automatic by- 
pass to simplify regulation are ingenious solutions 
by Italian engineers to two such problems. 

An interesting Norwegian development was the 
design, production, and use of extra-high-head 
Francis turbines. The relative spheres of impulse 
reaction of the Kaplan turbines were cliscussed. 
1,640 feet is given as a present upper limit for the 
reaction-type turbine, which has inherently higher 
efficiency, with the advantage of a larger capacity, 
higher speed alternator with smaller physical di- 
mensions and corresponding reduction of installa- 
tion costs. The paper points out that high-head 
reaction turbines are not suitable for running at 
low loads and recommends a minimum of 0.4 gate 
opening for turbines operating at 820 feet or more. 
The importance of fine clearances and the special 
precautions necessary to insure maintenance of 
them was emj)hasized. 

Other sources of energy, such as recent develop- 
ments in large-scale wind power generation in 
Great Britain, the possibility of developing tidal 
power, the application of natural steam to j^ro- 
duction of electrical energy in Italy, the industrial 
utilization of the differences of temperature 
between the deep and surface waters of the seas, 
at Abidjan on the Ivory Coast, and heat pump 
progress in the United States, were all discussed 
in four papers during one technical session. 
Although all of these sources of energy are still 
in the experimental or investigational stage, their 
continued development is of world importance. 

Atomic energy for the production of power was 
discussed, and the many physical problems of 
radioactivity which must be overcome before an 
engineering evaluation of the possibilities of 
power from nuclear energy can be effectively at- 
tempted were pointed out. The forecasts for pro- 
duction of power from atomic energy presented 
at the Fourth World Power Conference were de- 
cidedly more conservative than some in the past. 

The Fourth World Power Conference presented 
an opportunity for exchange of views between en- 
gineers and scientists on an international level. 
This Conference will do much to advance the tech- 
nique of the production of power which is needed 
throughout the world to increase the standards 
of our civilization. Certainly, such interchange 
at the technical and industrial level will broaden 
international concord and will form a common 
basis for better international understanding. 

The next sectional meeting of the World Power 
Conference at New Delhi will be devoted to dis- 
cussions in fields which are of special importance 
to India and other Eastern countries. The gen- 
eral subject will be the "Use of Electricity in Ag- 
riculture" and "Coordination of the Development 
of Industries and Power Resources." 

663 



Exercise of Criminal and Civil Jurisdiction 

Over Nationals of IVIembers of the United Nations ^ 

FAR EASTERN COMMISSION POLICY DECISION 



1. Japanese courts may, in the discretion of 
the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, 
and subject to the progressive relaxation of con- 
trol of criminal jurisdiction by him, exercise ci'imi- 
nal jurisdiction over all nationals of members of 
the United Nations (hereinafter referred to as 
United Nations nationals) in Japan with the 
following exceptions : 

a. Members of the armed forces of any mem- 
ber of the United Nations ; 

h. United Nations nationals oiBcially attached 
to or accompanying and in the service of the oc- 
cupation forces ; 

c. United Nations nationals on official busi- 
ness in Japan ; 

d. members of the immediate families and 
dependents accompanying the above. 

2. The jurisdiction of the Japanese courts in 
civil matters should extend to civil actions in 
which United Nations nationals are parties plain- 
tiff or defendant, except that no civil jurisdiction 
of any sort should be exercised by the Japanese 
courts in cases in which any of the parties is within 
the purview of paragraph 1 above. 

3. Persons falling in the excepted categories 
listed in paragraph 1 should only be subject to 
arrest by the Japanese police if Allied police are 
not present to perform the arrest, and if the of- 
fense, or threatened offense, involves bodily harm 
or serious damage to property. Persons arrested 
in such circumstances should be handed over 
forthwith to the occupation authorities. 

4. When any United Nations national is con- 
fined to prison, is awaiting trial, or is otherwise 
detained in custody in Japan : 

a. The Head of the Mission charged with the 
protection of his interests should be informed 
immediately. 

h. The United Nations national concerned 



' Policy decision approved by the Fec, Sept. 21, 1950, 
and released to the press on Oct. 3, lO.'iO ; a directive based 
upon this decision has been forwarded to the Supreme 
Commander for the Allied Powers for implementation. 

664 



should be made aware immediately of his right to 
inform the Mission charged with the protection of 
his interests of his circumstances and should be 
given the facilities to communicate with that Mis- 
sion. Any such communication should be for- 
warded without delay. 

c. A representative of the Mission charged 
with the protection of his interests should be per- 
mitted to visit without delay, to converse privately 
with, and to arrange legal representation for, the 
United Nations national concerned. 

5. "Wliere a United Nations national has been 
convicted and is serving a sentence of imprison- 
ment, a representative of the Mission charged with 
the protection of his interests should, without limit 
to the number of visits, have the right to visit him 
in prison upon giving notice, tliat need not exceed 
24 hours, to the appropriate authority, and to con- 
verse with him privately. The representative 
should also be allowed, subject to the prison regula- 
tions, to transmit communications between the 
prisoner and other persons. 

6. a. Any sentence imposed by a Japanese court 
on a United Nations national should be brought 
immediately to the attention of the Head of the 
Mission charged with the protection of the in- 
terests of the United Nations national concerned. 

6. The Supreme Commander for the Allied 
Powers should undertake tlie review of any capital 
or life sentence imposed by a Japanese court with 
respect to a United Nations national. 

c. ScAP may, on his own authority or upon 
the request of the Head of the Mission charged 
with the protection of the interests of the United 
Nations national concerned, review any other de- 
cision of a Japanese court with respect to a United 
Nations national and take further action in respect 
thereto. Scap should consult regarding any par- 
ticular case with the Head of the Mission charged 
with the protection of the interests of the United 
Nations national concerned if so requested by the 
Head of the Mission. 

Department of State Bulletin 



7. The Supreme Commander should take such 
steps as he deems necessary to ensure that the 
rights of United Nations nationals subject to 
Japanese jurisdiction are protected. 

8. The term, "United Nations nationals," as 
used in this document includes, wherever appli- 
cable, organizations and corporations of present 
or future members of the United Nations as well 
as natural persons. 

9. This policy decision shall supersede the Far 
Eastern Commission policj' decision of August 15, 
1946, Exercise of Cri?ninal and Civil Jurisdiction 
over Nationals of Members of the United Nations. 

[Released to the press hy FEC Oetoher 3] 

The Far Eastern Commission, at its 200th meet- 
ing on 21 September, adopted a policy decision 
authorizing an extension of the jurisdiction of 
Japanese courts over nationals of members of the 
United Nations. 

This decision — the 64th policy approved by the 
Far Eastern Commission since its first meeting on 
26 February 1946 — has been commimicated to the 
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, Gen- 
eral MacArthur, in a directive issued in the usual 
manner through the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 

This policy decision supersedes a previous policy 
adopted by the Commission on August 15, 1946.^ 
This earlier policy decision provided that". . . no 
criminal jurisdiction of any sort will be exercised 
by the Japanese courts with respect to nationals of 
members of the United Nations." Such criminal 
jurisdiction was, instead, to be exercised by mili- 
tary courts of members of the United Nations. 
Civil jurisdiction of Japanese courts extended only 
over United Nations nationals who were not at- 
tached to or accompanying the Armed Forces. 

The new policy decision leaves unchanged the 
scope of civil jurisdiction over United Nations na- 
tionals but extends criminal jurisdiction by Jap- 
anese courts over United Nations nationals, with 
the exceptions of those who are membei-s of armed 
forces of any member of the United Nations, those 
officially attached to or accompanying and in the 
service of the Occupation Forces, those on official 
business in Japan, and members of the immediate 
families and dependents of these excepted cate- 
gories. This liberalization of the area of criminal 
jurisdiction of Japanese courts is to take place 
"in the discretion of the Supreme Commander for 
the Allied Powers and subject to the progressive 
relaxation of control ... by him." 

The rights of any United Nations national de- 
tained by Japanese authorities are strictly safe- 
guarded by provisions in the new policy decision to 
the effect that the Head of the Mission charged 
with the protection of his interests should be in- 



formed immediately; that the detained person 
should be made aware of his right to inform the 
Mission charged with the protection of his inter- 
ests of his circumstances, and that he should be 
afforded facilities to communicate with the Mis- 
sion; and that a representative of his Mission 
should be permitted to visit him without delay and 
to arrange for legal representation on his behalf. 
If sentence should be imposed by a Japanese court 
on a United Nations national, provision is made 
that the Head of the Mission charged with the pro- 
tection of his interests should be inf onned thereof. 
Eeview by Scap of any capital or life sentence 
imposed on a United Nations national is manda- 
tory, and any other decision with respect to a 
United Nations national may be reviewed by Scap 
on his own authority or upon the request of the 
Head of the Mission representing the convicted 
person. 

Approval of this policy decision not only re- 
lieves Scap of the burden of maintaining judicial 
and penal facilities for the administration of 
justice in cases involving criminal offenses by 
United Nations nationals but also restores to 
Japan greater responsibilities in her internal 
administration. 



Americans Visiting Abroad 

The Department of State announced on October 
3 that 53 American scholars have received awards 
under the Fulbright Act to teach or conduct re- 
search abroad during the next academic year. 
This number is in addition to awards announced 
previously.^ 

The countries to which the scholars are assigned, 
together with the number participating, are : 

Belgium and Luxembourg 4, Burma 4, France 
15, Greece 2, Italy 1, the Netherlands 12, New 
Zealand 1, Norway 4, and the United Kingdom 10.= 

Included in the above number are teacher ex- 
changes arranged with Belgium and Luxemlaourg 
(4), France (11), and the Netherlands (9). In 
addition, one teacher will come to the United 
States from Belgium for whom there will be no 
replacement. 

Agreements have been signed with the follow- 
ing countries which are now participating in the 
Fulbright program : Austria, Australia, Belgium 
and Luxembourg, Burma, China (suspended), 
Egypt, France, Greece, India, Iran, Italy, Korea 
(susi^ended), the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nor- 
way, the Philippines, Pakistan, Thailand, Turkey, 
and the United Kingdom. 



^Activities of the Far Eastern Commission, report by 
the Secretary General, Department of State publication 
2888, appendix 43, p. 106; see also Bulletin of Sept. 8, 
1946, p. 455. 



' Bulletin of Oct. 2, 1950, p. .549. 

^ For names and addresses of award recipients, see De- 
partment of State press release 1020 of Oct. 3, 1950. 



Ocfober 23, 1950 



665 



Violations of Human Rights in the Balkans 



hy Benjamin V. Cohen 

U.S. Alternate Representative to the General Assembly ' 



For the third successive session the General As- 
sembly and this Committee have on their agenda 
the item regarding the observance of human rights 
in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania. In its 
resolutions of April 30 and October 22, 1949,- the 
General Assembly expressed its deep concern re- 
garding the status of human rights in these 
countries. 

The importance of this question to the General 
Assembly has not diminished in any respect. 
Three fundamental objectives of the United Na- 
tions are now clearly involved : fii'st, the peaceful 
adjustment of international disputes; second, the 
observance of treaty obligations ; and third, inter- 
national cooperation in promoting universal re- 
spect for, and observance of, human rights and 
fundamental freedoms for all. 

By ignoring the General Assembly's resolutions 
and the opinion of the International Court of 
Justice, the Governments of Bulgaria, Hungary, 
and Rumania have shown their disregard for the 
wishes of the United Nations and their unwilling- 
ness to seek the peaceful settlement of their dis- 
putes with other states through accepted inter- 
national procedures. In fact, in clear violation 
of their peace treaty obligations, they have refused 
to cooperate in the procedures which the treaties 
explicitly laid down for the settlement of any dis- 
pute concerning their interpretation and execu- 
tion. 

Finally, it is a fact that the denial of human 
rights and fundamental freedoms in Bulgaria, 
Hungary, and Rumania has continued with no 
sign of a change for the better. We are concerned 
not only in what has happened but more particu- 
larly and importantly in what is happening in 
these countries. The three Governments have not 
only continued to tolerate this situation but have 



' Statement made before the Ad Hoc Political Committee 
on observance of human rights in Hungary, Bulgaria, and 
Rumania on Oct. 2, 19.'^)0, and leleased to the press by 
the U.S. Mission to the U.N. on the same date. 

' BuixETiN of Nov. 7, 1949, p. 692. 



themselves continued to direct and carry out the 
campaign which has deprived their citizens of the 
elementary civil and religious freedoms in fla- 
grant contradiction of their solemn undertakings 
in the peace treaties to respect and guarantee these 
freedoms. 

Background Information on Human Rights 

In its previous consideration of this item, the 
Assembly has proceeded in the spirit of article 33 
of the Charter, under which the parties to a dis- 
pute should, first of all, seek a solution by peaceful 
means of their own choice such as negotiation, con- 
ciliation, or arbitration. The peace treaties, in 
this case, actually provided procedures for peace- 
ful settlement agreed upon by the parties them- 
selves. The General Assembly acted wisely and 
temperately in encouraging the parties to apply 
these procedures of their own choice as the best 
means to obtain a peaceful settlement. But the 
melancholy record is that, while the United States 
and other states which had brought the charges 
took all the steps called for by the treaties to 
eifectuate their peaceful settlement, the Govern- 
ments of Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania have 
from the very start refused and continue to refuse 
to take a single step to bring about a peaceful 
settlement of these disputes between the parties. 

The original formal charges that the three Gov- 
ernments were violating the human-rights clauses 
of the treaties were made by the Governments of 
the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, 
Australia, and New Zealand on April 2, 1949. The 
accused Governments denied the charges; but as 
a result of the world-wide indignation caused by 
the trial and imprisonment of Cardinal Mind- 
szenty of Hungary and the Protestant churchmen 
in Bulgaria, the problem M-as brought before the 
General Assembly in the spring of 1949. The Gen- 
eral A.ssembly on April 30, 1949, expressed the 
hope that the settlement procedures laid down in 
the treaties would be diligently applied in order 



666 



Department of State Bulletin 



to secure human rights and fundamental free- 
doms in these countries. The step-by-step account 
of the efforts of my Government and other govern- 
ments associated with it in these charges is known 
to the members of the General Assembly from the 
record of diplomatic correspondence submitted 1 
year ago.^ 

TREATY COMMISSION TO CONSIDER DISPUTES 

Owing to the uncooperative attitude of the Bul- 
garian. Hungarian, and Rumanian Governments, 
and of the Soviet Union Government, it proved 
impossible to make any progress toward a settle- 
ment by direct negotiation or through the three 
heads of mission in each of the three countries, in 
accordance with the treaties. Consequently, the 
Governments of the United States, the United 
Kingdom, and other interested governments pro- 
ceeded to the next stage envisaged by the peace 
treaties — the appointment of Treaty Commissions 
empowered to consider the disputes and to reach 
definitive and binding decisions in regard to them. 

At tlie time the General Assembly met last au- 
tumn, the Bulgarian, Hungarian, and Rumanian 
Governments had already refused to join in es- 
tablishing the Treaty Commissions. They re- 
fused even to send representatives, when invited, 
to sit with this Committee and explain their posi- 
tion. They gave every indication that they were 
unwilling to carry out their treaty obligations 
or to cooperate in any way to adjust the disputes 
which had arisen. 

The General Assembly, however, with the full 
concurrence of the governments which had 
brought the original charges, wished to explore 
every avenue which might lead to an orderly solu- 
tion under the treaties. The three accused Gov- 
ernments raised certain legal objections to the 
applicability of the treaty procedures. They had 
contended that no disputes existed and that they 
were under no obligation to appoint their repre- 
sentatives on the Treaty Commissions. To re- 
move any doubt as to the validity of these 
objections, the General Assembly referred these 
issues to the International Court of Justice for 
an advisory opinion. 

The three Governments, however, did not ap- 
pear before the Court, but they did question the 
jurisdiction of the Court to render an advisory 
opinion touching upon the rights and duties of 
nonmembers of the United Nations. And, per- 
haps, the most important part of the Court's 
advisory opinion was its affirmation of its juris- 
diction to answer the questions submitted by the 
General Assembly. 

INTERNATIONAL COURT'S OPINION 

The Court in its opinion, rendered in response 
to tlie first and second questions submitted by the 

' U.N. docs. A/985, A/990. 
October 23, 7950 



General Assembly,* held that the diplomatic ex- 
changes disclose disputes subject to the provisions 
of the peace treaties for the settlement of disputes 
and that the Governments of Bulgaria, Hungary, 
and Rumania are legally obligated to carry out 
those provisions of the treaties, including the pro- 
visions for the appointment of their representa- 
tives to the Treaty Commissions. Thus, the 
principal judicial organ of the United Nations 
clearly and unmistakably rejected the objections 
to the applicability of the treaties. 

On one point, then, we can be certain. The 
Governments of Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania 
have willfully violated their obligation to settle 
disputes arising out of the peace treaties by the 
procedures provided in the treaties. 

Under the Assembly resolution, the three Gov- 
ernments were then given 30 days from the date 
of the opinion of the Court to notify the Secretary- 
General of the United Nations that they had 
appointed their representatives to the Treaty 
Commissions. However, when they persisted in 
their refusal to do so even in the light of the find- 
ings of the Court, the advisory proceeding was 
resumed in accordance with the Assembly resolu- 
tion, and the Coiu't rendered an advisory opinion 
on July 18 of this year, in response to the third 
and fourth questions submitted by the Assembly. 

In this second advisory opinion, the Court an- 
swered the third question submitted by the As- 
sembly in the negative. It gave the advice that 
the Secretary-General, who had been authorized 
by the treaties to appoint the third member of a 
Treaty Commission in the event of the failure of 
the parties themselves to agree on the third mem- 
ber, was not authorized, however, to make such an 
appointment if one of the parties refused, even 
unlawfully, to appoint its representative to the 
Treaty Commission. Having answered the third 
question in the negative, the Court did not find it 
necessary to answer the fourth question involving 
the authority of two members of a Treaty Com- 
mission to proceed to a decision if one of the parties 
to the dispute refused to appoint its representa- 
tive on the Commission. Obviously, if there is 
only one member on the Treaty Commission, there 
could arise no questions as to the authority of two 
members to proceed. 



U.S. POLICY TOWARD COURT'S OPINION 

The United States was one of the cosponsors of 
the Assembly resolution referring these questions 
to the Court. The United States will, of course, 
abide — as it indicated its prior intention to abide — 
by the letter and spirit of the opinion of the Court. 
The Court was asked to sjieak on these legal ques- 
tions and it has spoken. Its word is the law for 
the United States in this matter. 

It is no less the law of the case for the United 



' Bulletin of Apr. 10, 1950, p. 573. 



667 



States because the United States argued against 
the position taken by the Court in its second ad- 
visory opinion. It is no less tlie law of the case 
for the United States because the United States 
still hopes that the enlightened and well-reasoned 
position taken by the dissenting judges in the 
second advisory opinion may some day be accepted 
as the law of nations. The international law of 
the future, we hope, will not recognize the right of 
any state simply by reason of its own default to 
nullify obligatory procedures for the settlement 
of treaty disputes. No state should have the right 
to nullify treaty provisions by its own wrongful 
default. Treaties should be construed to give 
effect to their objectives, and treaty obligations 
should not be susceptible to easy escape or evasion. 
We should like to see rejected the "facade" theory 
of treaties, whereby treaties commit states only so 
long as it is pleasing to states to honor their 
commitments. 

Evasion and default certainly have character- 
ized the conduct of the three accused Governments 
from the very inception of the effort to have the 
charges against them fairly and objectively ex- 
amined and settled. The three Governments have, 
from the start, attempted desperately to avoid all 
discussion and consideration of the question, either 
in negotiation or in conciliation procedures, either 
by the General Assembly or by the Treaty Com- 
missions. This conduct has created, to say the 
very least, a very strong presumption of guilt. 
The three Governments have defended themselves 
only in propaganda statements. They are un- 
willing to defend their record before any tribunal, 
or any international body, and to be judged accord- 
ing to the evidence. The only conclusion is, I am 
sorry to say, that they have no serious defense. 
They are afraid of an impartial judgment. 

This Committee, at earlier sessions, has heard 
a good deal of information on the violation of 
human rights in these countries. But the United 
States delegation has not attempted any system- 
atic presentation of the evidence as it hoped to 
present such evidence to the Treaty Commissions. 
We have believed that a tribunal or commission 
such as the peace treaties envisaged, not this Com- 
mittee, was the proper place for a hearing and 
weighing of the evidence. We supported the reso- 
lutions of April 30 and October 22 of last year, 
which carefully avoided conclusions as to the va- 
lidity of the charges and urged that the peace 
treaty procedures be first diligently applied. 
Nevertheless, the United States has been ready 
to offer detailed and concrete evidence in support 
of these charges and to submit to a decision ar- 
rived at through legal, orderly, and objective 
rocesses. Otherwise, we should never have 
rought formal charges against the Governments 
of these three countries. 

We still stand ready to cooperate with Bulgaria, 
Hungary, and Rumania to carry out the agreed 
treaty provisions for the settlement of disputes so 
that there may still be an objective inquiry into 

668 



I 



the facts and an impartial examination and de- 
termination of the validity of our charges. The 
charges made in good faith and accompanied by 
our willingness to submit evidence to the Treaty 
Commissions, or to any other impartial tribunal, 
cannot be met, I submit, or answered by general 
denials impugning the good faith of the treaty 
powers or the nations represented in this General 
Assembly. 

Were there any real indication of change of 
heart, a desire to return to the people of these 
counti'ies their human rights and basic freedoms, 
there might be little need to review the acts of 
the past. But, unfortunately, the systematic and 
cynical disregard for human rights has continued 
to mark the course of these totalitarian regimes, 
as it had ever since they seized power. 

YALTA DECLARATION ON FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS 

The Yalta Declaration on liberated Europe, n 
which pledged to the peoples formerly enslaved by 
the Nazis free elections and governments of their 
own choice, was not carried out in Bulgaria, Hun- 
gary, and Rumania owing to the attitude of the 
Government of the Soviet Union and of the Com- 
munist governments which it supported in those 
states. Similarly, the pledge of those three Gov- 
ernments, embodied in the peace treaties, to guar- 
antee freedom of political opinion and other fun- 
damental freedoms and basic human rights has 
never been fulfilled. 

In all three countries, no man is permitted in 
the national assemblies, at public meetings, or in 
the press to voice his disagreement with the cur- 
rent line of the ruling group. In elections, he may, 
at great personal risk to himself, cast a ballot 
against a single list of government candidates; 
they give no real choice. Not once in Bulgaria, 
Hungary, or Rumania have the people, since the 
entry into force of the peace treaties, been allowed 
to express themselves in a free election. 

Current Violations of Human Rights 

We have been particularly concerned by what 
appears to be the steady deterioration in the ad- 
ministration of justice in these countries. The 
fundamental freedoms of individuals cannot be 
(maintained without a system of justice which 
guarantees those fi-eedoms in practice. But the 
judicial systems in those three countries have been 
"reorganized" — with the result that the individual 
has no protection whatever. 

In the "reorganized" systems of justice, judges 
and lawyers, as well as the public, serve the po- 
litical objectives of the ruling groups by strictly 
carrying out orders. The law and the courts have, 
in truth, been made instruments of political power 
and oppression. | 

In these countries, the world has been treated to f 
a series of spectacles— miscalled "trials"— in which 

Department of State Bulletin 



all the actors (judges, prosecutors, defense law- 
yers, spectators— and even the accused, except oc- 
casionally when the plan went wrong) played 
their parts according to the script written by the 
political leaders of the regimes. Sudden and arbi- 
trary arrest without cause; long detention incom- 
municado; confession induced by incessant 
interrogation, privation, and torture ; staged trial, 
in which guilt is assumed and proclaimed from the 
start, and a heavy sentence : that has been the usual 
method by which a former leader of an opposition 
party, or a school teacher, or a priest, or any ordi- 
nary citizen, or a citizen of another state — or even 
an "unmasked" official of the Communist Party 
itself — is subjected to Cominform "justice." 

SHIPKOV CASE 

Let me refer briefly, as an example, to one re- 
cent case in which the signed statement of the 
victim revealed to the world the methods of pres- 
sure and terror used against him. The man was 
Michael Shipkov, a law-abiding Bulgarian citizen 
whom the Bulgarian Communist leaders chose to 
seize, to terrorize, to torture, to degrade, to subject 
to a staged trial for political and propaganda pur- 
poses; and to sentence to 10 years at hard labor. 
His only "crime" — so far as we have been able to 
discover — was that he was employed by the Ameri- 
can Legation as a clerk and translator. It suited 
the regime to deprive him of his liberty, to deny 
him all means of defending himself, and to wreck 
his life. Shipkov, the man, was bi'oken. He has 
disajjpeared into the anonymous mass which jjopu- 
lates the prisons and concentration camps of the 
totalitarian dictatorships of Eastern Europe. But 
his statement, a devastating factual exposure of 
the methods employed by those dictatorships, bears 
witness to the courage and spirit which inspires 
those thousands of ordinary men and women whose 
rights and whose freedoms the present rulers of 
these counti'ies are determined to crush. 

Shipkov's statement, which the United States 
Government made public last March,^ exposes the 
falsity of the charges against him and reveals the 
brutal methods of pressure and torture by which 
men of character and integrity can be completely 
broken down and forced to describe in their own 
words imaginary crimes and to make false accusa- 
tions against other innocent persons. 

The Bulgarian Government has called this state- 
ment false. It points to Shipkov's "confession" 
at his trial. 

If the Bulgarian Government wishes to prove its 
case, let it do so before the Treaty Commission or 
some other impartial tribunal. Let it permit 
Shipkov himself to testify before such a tribunal. 
The world cannot credit the "confessions" of those 
whose wills have been broken, who have been de- 
prived of all legal rights of defense, and who have 



° BtTLLETiN of Mar. 13, 1950, p. 389. 
October 23, 1950 



no hope of escaping from the grasp of the police, 
regardless of their innocence or guilt. 

It is perhaps ironic, but extremely significant, 
that the roster of the victims of this systematic 
terror includes not only the names of Cardinal 
Mindszenty and of Shipkov but also those of Rajk 
and Kostov. These two Communist stalwai'ts held 
high office in their respective countries at the time 
when the United States and other governments 
first brought formal charges of human rights vio- 
lations. Together with their erstwhile colleagues, 
they summarily rejected the charges, denounced 
all attempts to have this question given appro- 
23riate international consideration, and themselves 
defended the persecution of those who disagreed 
with them as necessary action against spies and 
saboteurs. 

Later, through the inexorable working of this 
system of terror — which seems to demand an end- 
less stream of victims — these very men found 
themselves deprived not only of office and power 
but also of liberty : they were themselves placed 
in the dock as spies and saboteurs. They became 
the victims of the terror which they helped to 
create. 

Their fate should cause Communists, as well as 
non-Communists, to realize that every human 
being has an interest and a stake in the universal 
observance of human rights. 

The steadily lengthening series of political 
trials is damning proof of the complete moral 
corruption of the police and courts for purely 
political ends. As the love of freedom inherent 
in all people is not easily repressed, the regimes 
under the high command of the Cominform find 
their task of enchaining the minds and controlling 
the actions of others an unending one. For this 
reason, the terror to which totalitarian rule in- 
evitably gives rise has spread and deepened and 
touches the lives of all persons within these coun- 
tries — whatever their station or activity, or even 
ideology. 

The charges which were made against the three 
Governments cannot be answered by general de- 
nials here from the few delegations which may 
defend the Governments of Bulgaria, Hungary, 
and Rumania. They can be met only by a wil- 
lingness to answer the charges before an impartial 
tribunal such as the peace treaties provided. We 
seek the test of truth, but the test of oratoi'y or the 
test of politics. 

But the International Court of Justice had told 
us that, owing to the refusal of Bulgaria, Hung- 
ary, and Rumania to cooperate, the Peace Treaty 
Commissions cannot be established. So far as the 
settlement procedures of the peace treaties ai"e con- 
cerned, a dead end has been reached ; and we must 
face that fact. 



General Assembly's Responsibility 

What is the responsibility of the General As- 
sembly in this situation ? The Assembly decided, 

669 



when the first item appeared on the agenda of the 
third session, that this was a proper subject for its 
consideration. It has twice declared its serious 
concern over the charges of violation of human 
rights. It cannot, in tlie face of mounting evidence 
that the systematic violation of human rights is 
continuing, cease to concern itself with this ques- 
tion merely because the accused parties have been 
able, by their own default, to frustrate the agreed 
arbitration procedures. 

The Assembly has the right and the duty to 
condemn in no uncertain terms this default of 
the Bulgarian, Hungarian, and Rumanian Gov- 
ernments and to expose their bad faith before 
world public opinion. The refusal to cooperate 
in peaceful settlement procedures in violation of 
treaty obligations constitutes a defiance of the in- 
ternational community. In addition to exposing 
and condemning this defiance, the General As- 
sembly should, at the very least, in the view of 
the United States delegation, provide some means 
whereby the facts regarding the substance of the 
charges can be made known to the world. The 
United States Government has in its possession 
a great deal of evidence which it is prepared to 
submit to any appropriate body named by the 
General Assembly or to the members of the ifnitecl 
Nations in order that the United Nations may see 
the full record of deliberate disregard for human 
liberties and for treaty obligations. 

To the members of the United Nations, which 
voted by impressive majorities for the two As- 
sembly resolutions on this subject, fundamental 
issues are involved in this case. If the provisions 
of the Charter concerning human rights and 
fundamental freedoms are to be taken seriously, 
if explicit treaty obligations have any meaning, 
then, we cannot ignore what has been taking place 
in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania. 

The rights and freedoms of individuals, as the 
world has learned by bitter experience, have a 
direct bearing on the freedom and independence 
of nations and on the maintenance of peace. Gov- 
ernments which do not respect the rights of their 
own citizens are not likely to respect the rights of 
other nations. 

It is not an accident that the same three Govern- 
ments — and in- particular the Bulgarian Govern- 
ment — have consistently disregarded accepted 
diplomatic practices which characterize the rela- 
tions among civilized states members of the inter- 
national community. It is no accident that these 
three Governments join with other governments 
i-esponsive to Cominform dictates in supporting 
the aggression against the Republic of Korea. It 
is no accident that these same governments are 
presently engaged in provocative campaigns 
against the neighboring states which do not con- 
form their policies to those proclaimed by the 
Cominform. 

The suppression of fundamental rights has 
stifled the voice of the people" in Bulgaria, Hun- 
gary, and Rumania. Through the instrumental- 



ity of an imposed minority regime, each of these 
countries now speaks with a single voice, and it is 
the voice of a foreign power, the foreign power 
which controls the Cominform. These regimes 
have been as contemptuous of the General Assem- 
bly and of what its members have been striving 
to do in support of the principles of the Charter 
as they have been of the elementary principles of 
freedom of their own people. 

The Assembly, if it is to heed the conscience of 
mankind, must concern itself with the situation 
which these open violations of human rights and 
of treaty obligations have j^resented. It must, at 
the very least, see that all the pertinent facts are 
made available. The world should be left in no 
doubt as to the facts in this case. And, if the 
facts are known, my Government feels confident 
that the world will not be left in doubt as to the 
fundamental issues. If the facts are known, the 
governments responsible for them cannot eternally 
disregard the acknowledged rights of man. 

We persist in our efforts to secure treaty observ- 
ance of human rights and fundamental freedoms 
in these countries. We do this not to annoy or 
embarrass their Governments but to seek a basis 
of peaceful understanding with them. If ever we 
are to lay the basis of peace and understanding, 
we nuist all strive to agree upon the basic human 
rights and freedoms which all governments — 
whatever be their ideologj' — will observe and re- 
spect. We must never forget that internal terror 
and aggression have, in the past, led to external 
aggression and war, and that must not happen 
again. 

Editor's Note: For additional data concerning human 
rights, see Bulletin of Dee. 19, 1948, p. 7r)2 ; Mar. 27, 
1949, p. 391 ; Apr. 10, 1949, p. 4.50 ; Aug. 15, 1949, p. 238 ; 
Jan. IG, 1950, pp. 91, 97; Mar. 20, 1950, p. 444; Mav 8, 
19.50, p. 737; June 12, 1950, pp. 945, 949; July 31, 19.50, 
p. 190 ; Aug. 7, 1950, p. 233 ; and Sept. 25, 1950, pp. 483, 490. 



New General Assembly Agenda Items 

The following additional items were adopted 
by the fifth regular session of the General As- 
sembly on October 7, according to United Nations 
document A/1400/Add.l : the question of For- 
mosa ; duties of states in the event of the outbreak 
of hostilities ; establishment of a permanent com- 
mission of good offices; provision of a United 
Nations distinguishing ribbon or other insignia 
for personnel participating in Korea in the de- 
fense of the principles of the Charter of the United 
Nations; and complaint by the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics regarding the violation of 
Chinese air space by the air force of the United 
States of America and the machine gimiiing and 
bombing of Chinese territory by that air force, 
and against the bombardment and illegal insjiec- 
tion of a merchant ship of the People's Republic 
of China by a military vessel of the United States. 



670 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Resolutions on Freedom of Information and of the Press^ 



Sub-Commission on 
the Press (Fourth 



U.N. doc. B/1S27 
Adopted Aug. 9, 1950 



The Economic and Social Council, 

Takes note of the report of the 
Freedom of Information and of 
Session).' 

Requests the Secretary-General to transmit to the Sub- 
Commission the records of the relevant discussion at the 
eleventh session of the Council.' 

B 

Whekeas the General Assembly in its resolution 50 (I) 
authorizing the holding of the United Nations Conference 
on Freedom of Information declared that freedom of in- 
formation is a fundamental human right and is the touch- 
stone of all the freedoms to which the United Nations is 
consecrated, 

Wheeeas freedom to listen to radio broadcasts regard- 
less of source is embodied iu article 19 of the Universal 
Declaration of Human Eights, which reads "Everyone 
has the right to freedom of opinion and expression" and 
this right includes freedom to hold opinions without inter- 
ference and to seek, receive and impart information and 
ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers, 

Wheeeas article 44 of the International Telecommuni- 
cation Convention, Atlantic City, 1947, provides that "All 
stations whatever their purpose, must be established and 
operated in such a manner as not to result in harmful 
interference to the radio service or communications of 
other Members or Associate Members . . . Each Member 
or Associate Member undertakes to require the private 
operating agencies which it recognizes, and the other 
operating agencies duly authorized for this purpose, to 
observe the provisions of the preceding paragraph", and 

Considering that the duly authorized radio operating 
agencies in some countries are deliberately interfering 
with the reception by the people of those countries of cer- 
tain radio signals originating beyond their territories, 

The Economic and Social Council : 

Declares, this type of interference to be a violation of 
the accepted principles of freedom of information ; con- 
demns all measures of this nature as a denial of the right 
of all persons to be fully informed concerning news, 
opinions and ideas regardless of frontiers; 



" See U.N. doc. E/SR.405. 

' See U.N. doc. E/1672. 

' See U.N. docs. E/AC.7/SR.135-139 and E/SR.405. 



Transmits to the General Assembly the records of the 
discussion on this subject in the Council ; and 

Recommends to the General Assembly that it call on 
all Member Governments to refrain from such interfer- 
ence with the right of their peoples to freedom of 
information, 

O 

The Economic and Social Council 

Recommends to the General Assembly that it adopt the 
following resolution : 

"Considering that freedom of information and of the 
Press is a fundamental human right and should be ad- 
vanced and safeguarded in all circumstances, and, 

"Considering that limitations have been placed on this 
right in emergencies or the pretext of emergencies, 

"The General Assembly, 

"Recommends to all Member States that when they 
are compelled to declare a state of emergency, measures 
to limit freedom of Information and of the Press shall 
be taken only in the most exceptional circumstances and 
then only to the extent strictly required by the situation". 

D 

The Economic and Social Council 

Considering that for economic reasons serious problems 
have arisen in various countries of the world with regard 
to the supply of newsprint, 

CoNsinERiNG that this situation has caused certain Gov- 
ernments to intervene oflScially in the sale and purchase 
of newsprint, either by restricting the amount of foreign 
currency allocated for its importation or by rationing it 
among the various organs of the Press, or by regulating 
the use by press enterprises of the newsprint placed at 
their disposal. 

Considering that governmental interference in these 
matters has led in certain cases to confiscation or other 
forms of arbitrary and discriminatory action, which it is 
desirable to avoid. 

Invites the Member States concerned to put an end to 
such confiscatory measures and discriminatory actions as 
being contrary to freedom of the Press. 

E 

The Economic and Social Council, 
Requests the Secretary-General : 

1. To communicate to information enterprises and na- 



October 23, 1950 



671 



tional and international professional associations, for 
comment and suggestions (including comment on tlie use- 
fulness of such a code) to be returned to tlie Secretary- 
General, ttie draft international code of ethics formulated 
by the Sub-Commission on Freedom of Information and 
of the Press at its fourth session, together with the rele- 
vant section of its report ; 

2. To analyze the comments received and submit them 
to the Sub-Commission on Freedom of Information and 
of the Press at its fifth session in order that it may re- 
examine the draft in the liglit of these comments and 
recommend any further action it may deem desirable, 
including the possibility of convening an international 
professional conference. 

F 

The Economic and Social Council, 
Requests the Secretary-General : 

1. To continue to approach Governments with a view to 
obtaining regularly from them the new legislative and 
administrative measures which they may deem it neces- 
sary to take with regard to freedom of information and 
of the press ; 

2. To obtain from the enterprises or associations men- 
tioned therein, in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 3 of 
resolution 240 B (IX) of the Council, any reports or 
surveys that they may compile concerning the current 
status of freedom of information in any part of the 
world; and 

3. To compile all pertinent data, analyze all information 
received, conduct appropriate research and prepare 
studies thereon for submission to the Sub-Commission on 
Freedom of Information and of the Press at each session. 



U.S. Delegations 

to International Conferences 

Eleventh Session of ECOSOC 

On October 11, the Department of State an- 
nounced that the eleventh session of the United 
Nations Economic and Social Council (Ecosoc) 
will reconvene at Lake Success on October 12 with 
the following United States delegation in attend- 
ance: 

United States Representative 

Isador Lubin 

Deputy United States Representative 

Walter Kotschnig, director, OflSce of United Nations Econ- 
omic and Social Affairs, Department of State 

Advisers 

Philander P. Claxton, special assistant. Congressional Re- 
lations, De])artment of State 

Edward W. Dohcrty, officer in charge, Economic Affairs, 
Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs, Department of State 

Dallas W. Dort, special assistant, Economic affairs. De- 
partment of State 

George M. Ingram, chief. Division of International Admin- 
istration, Department of State 

Otis E. MuUiken, officer in charge. United Nations Social 



Affairs, Office of United Nations Economic and Social 
Affairs, Department of State 

The eleventh session is reconvening to carry out 
the responsibilities assigned to Ecosoc in a reso- 
lution adopted by the fifth session of the General 
Assembly of the United Nations on October 7. 
That resolution requested that Ecosoc, in consul- 
tation with the specialized agencies of the United 
Nations, develop plans for the relief and rehabili- 
tation of the civilian population of Korea after the 
termination of hostilities. The resolution also 
recommended that Ecosoc expedite the study of 
long-term measures to promote the economic de- 
velopment and social progress of Korea and take 
immediate steps to bring to the attention of the 
authorities concerned with technical assistance the 
urgent and special necessity of affording such 
assistance to Korea. 

ICAO: Middle East Regional Meeting 

On October 12, the Department of State an- 
nounced the following United States delegation 
will attend the second Middle East Regional Air 
Navigation Meeting of the International Civil 
Aviation Organization (Icao) to be convened at 
Istanbul on October 17: 

Delegate 

Robert W. Craig, Chairman, acting air route organization 
officer. Program Planning Staff, Civil Aeronautics Ad- 
ministration, Department of Commerce 

Alternate Delegates 

James F. Angier, Establishment Engineering Division, 
Office of Federal Airways, Civil Aeronautics Adminis- 
tration, Department of Commerce 

James D. Durkee, chief of the International Branch, Avia- 
tion Division, Federal Communications Commission 

Norman R. Hagen, meteorological attache (U. S. Weather 
Bureau), American Embassy, London 

James L. Kinney, Icao representative. Flight Operations 
Division, Office of Aviation Safety, Civil Aeronautics 
Administration, Department of Commerce 

Clement Vaughn, Commander, USCG, Search and Rescue 
Agency, Headquarters, United States Coast Guard 

Edward A. Westlake, air traffic control specialist, Air 
Traffic Control Division, Office of Federal Airways, 
Civil Aeronautics Administration, Department of 
Commerce 

Advisers 

William A. Breniman, deputy chief. Communications Di- 
vision, Office of Federal Airways, Civil Aeronautics 
Administration, Department of Commerce 

E. Thomas Burnard, assistant to vice president. Opera- 
tions and Engineering, Air Transport Association of 
America 

Reuben H. Clinkscales, flight operations specialist. Inter- 
national Standards Division, Civil Aeronautics Board 

Commander W. F. Dawson, USN, head. Air Space Sec- 
tion, Civil Aviation Liaison Branch, Office of Naval 
Operations 

llaj. Paul M. Huber, USAF, chief. International Advisory 
Office, 2105th Air Weather Group, Wiesbaden, 
Germany 

Maj. Grove C. Johnson, USAF, assistant chief, Icao 
Branch, Civil Air Division, Headquarters MATS 

Arthur L. Lebel, assistant chief. Telecommunications 
Policy Staff, Office of Transport and Communications 
Policy, Department of State 



672 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Capt. William N. Manley, USAP, AACS liaison officer, 

1S07 AACS Wing, USAFE, Wiesbaden, Germany 
William C. Peck, civilian chief. Installations Planning 

Division, Headquarters, United Sates Air Force 
Arthur C. Peterson, assistant chief, Domestic Aviation 

Section, United States Weather Bureau, Department 

of Commerce 
Lt. Vernon D. Stanford, USN, stationed : U. S. Naval Air 

Activities, Port Lyautey, French Morocco 

Secretary 

John Frazer, Jr., Division of International Conferences, 
Department of State 

In 1946, IcAO initiated a series of regional meet- 
ings, the major purpose of which is to survey exist- 
ing air navigation facilities and to make 
recommendations for necessary improvements. 
The meetings also consider the application of the 
international standards to the requirements of 
particular regions in the following fields: aero- 
dromes, air routes and ground aids; air traffic 
control ; communications ; meteorology ; operating 
standards: and search and rescue. The purpose 
of the forthcoming meeting is to review the status 
of implementation of recommendations of the first 
Middle East Regional Meeting, held at Cairo in 
October 1946, and to revise, on the basis of present 
operational requirements, the regional plan pre- 
pared at that meeting. 

Participation in this meeting is open to Icao 
member states of the Middle East region and tc 
those IcAO member states whose airlines operate 
in or through the region. Invitations are also 
extended to selected nonmember states when they 
appear to have an interest in the affairs of the 
region. 



THE CONGRESS 



UNCOK- 



-Conlinued from page 650 



doors of this courtyard were opened and the observer 
team saw that it was covered with corpses, possibly 40 or 
50, obviously lying where they had been killed. The 
observer team saw that the bodies were those not only 
of men, but of women, and in some cases with infants on 
their backs. The corpses were scattered over the whole 
courtyard and up the walls of the house beyond. It 
was not physically possible to walk into the yard or 
to see what further evidence lay inside the house. 

30. According to information received these bodies were 
those of persons loyal to, or related to persons loyal to, 
the Republic of Korea. When it was certain that the 
fall of the city was imminent they were herded together 
in this courtyard and shot without any trial or other pro- 
ceedings by the North Korean soldiers. 

31. The observer team was not able, on this occasion, 
to establish the identity of any of the bodies. They 
appeared to be all civilians. 

32. In conclusion, additional information will be re- 
ceived from the localities mentioned above. Owing to 
communication difficulties, further information has not 
yet been communicated to the Commission in full from 
other areas where atrocities have been committed and 
where the Commission's field observers are pursuing their 
inquiries. 



Legislation 

Convention With Canada Modifying and Supplementing 
the Convention Relating to Estate Taxes and Succession 
Duties. Message from the President of the United States 
transmitting the convention between the United States 
and Canada, signed at Ottawa on June 12, 1950, modifying 
and supplementing in certain respects the convention for 
the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of 
fiscal evasion in the case of estate taxes and succession 
duties, signed at Ottawa on June 8, 1944. S. Ex. S, 81st 
Cong., 2d sess., 8 pp. 

Permitting the Admission of Alien Spouses and Minor 
Children of Citizen Members of the United States Armed 
Forces. S. Rept. 187S, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accom- 
pany S. 1858] 2 pp. 

Foreign Agents Registration Act. S. Rept. 1900, 81st 
Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany H. R. 4386] 4 pp. 

Protection of Fur Seals in Pribilof Islands. S. Rept. 
1924, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany S. 3123] 2 pp. 

Expressing Praise of the SenMces of the Late Ambassa- 
dor to Canada, Hon. Laurence A. Steinhardt. S. Rept. 
1926, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany S. Res. 276] 1 p. 

General Appropriations Bill, 1951. (Department of 
State, pp. 23-30.) S. Rept. 1941, 81st Cong., 2d sess. 
[To accompany H. R. 7786] 303 pp. 

Preventing Unauthorized Acceptance or Wearing of For- 
eign Decorations by Officers of the United States. S. Rept. 
2008, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany S. 1171] 5 pp. 

Providing for the Expeditious Naturalization of Former 
Citizens of the United States Who Have Lost United 
States Citizenship Through Voting in a Political Election 
or in a Plebiscite Held in Italy. S. Rept. 2019, 81st Cong., 
2d sess. [To accompany H. R. 6616] 4 pp. 

Certain Cases in Which the Attorney General Had Sus- 
pended Deportation. S. Rept. 2033, 81st Cong., 2d sess. 
[To accompany S. Con. Res. 97] 2 pp. 

Amending Section 34 of the Trading With the Enemy 
Act. S. Rept. 2051, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany 
S. 3901] 6 pp. 

Granting of Permanent Residence to Certain Aliens. 
S. Rept. 2081, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany H. Con. 
Res. 187] 2 pp. 

Granting of Permanent Residence to Certain Aliens. 
S. Rept. 2091, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany H. Con. 
Res. 181] 2 pp. 

Implementation of the Tuna Conventions. S. Rept. 
2094, Slst Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany S. 2633] 6 pp. 

International Boundary and Water Commission, United 
States and Mexico. S. Rept. 2095, Slst Cong., 2d sess. 
[To accompany S. 3934] 10 pp. 

Amending Section 32 (A) (2) of the Trading With the 
Enemy Act. S. Rept. 2097, Slst Cong., 2d sess. [To 
accompany S. 1292] 5 pp. 

State Department Employee Loyalty Investigation. 
Report of the Committee on Foreign Relations pursuant 
to S. Res. 231. A resolution to investigate whether there 
are employees in the State Department disloyal to the 
United States. S. Rept. 2108, Slst Cong., 2d sess., 313 pp. 
State Department Employee Loyalty Investigation. 
Hearings before a subcommittee of the Committee on 
Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Slst Cong., 2d 
sess., pursuant to S. Res. 231. A resolution to investigate 
whether there are employees in the State Department 
disloyal to the United States. Part I, March S, 9, 13, 14, 
20, 21, 27, 28, April 5, 6, 20, 25, 27, 28, May 1, 2, 3, 4, 26, 31, 
June 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 21, 22, 23, 26, 28, 1950. 1484 pp. 
[Indexed]. 

Amending Sections 32 and 33 of the Trading With the 
Enemy Act. H. Rept. 2338, Slst Cong., 2d sess. [To 
accompany S. 603] 11 pp. 



Ocfober 23, J 950 



673 



The United States in the United Nations 



[October 12-19] 
General Assembly 

After 10 days of discussion, the General Assem- 
bly's Committee I (Political and Security) ap- 
proved, by an overwhelming vote, on October 19 a 
revised text of the seven-power Unitinor for Peace 
resolution originally presented by United States 
representative, John Foster Dulles. On October 
13, the cosponsors submitted a modified text which 
took into account certain views expressed by other 
delegations but involved no departure from the 
essentials of their first proposal. As finally 
approved by a vote of 50-5, with 3 abstentions, the 
draft resolution also names the members of the 
Peace Observation Commission and the Collective 
Measures Committee, on both of which the United 
States is included. 

Following its adoption of the seven-power reso- 
lution. Committee I approved, with the U. S. S. R. 
abstaining, a Soviet draft resolution recommend- 
ing to the Security Council that it take steps to 
insure the effectiveness of chapter VII of tlie 
Charter concerned with threats to the peace, 
breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression after 
the original text had been amended to provide that 
nothing in it should jn-event the General Assembly 
from fulfilling its functions under the Uniting for 
Peace resolution. A second Soviet resolution rec- 
ommending five-power consultations under article 
lOG of the Charter was defeated. 

Ad Hoc Committee. — On October 19, the Ad Hoc 
Committee adopted by a vote of 53-1, with the 
Soviet bloc abstaining, a compromise draft, resolu- 
tion on Libya, which had been cosponsored by 13 
members. The approved resolution, which only 
France opposed, recommends (1) that a Libyan 
National Assembly be convened before January 1, 
1951; (2) that this Assembly establish a provi- 
sional Libyan Government as soon as possible; 
and (3) that a progi-essive transfer of jjowers to 
this government take place, under the guidance of 
the ITnited Nations Commissioner and Libyan 
Council, to insure that by January 1, 1952, all the 
powers at present exercised by the administering 
powers will have been transferred to the Libyan 
Government. The resolution further urges the 
Economic and Social Council, the specialized 
agencies, and the United Nations Secretary-Gen- 
eral to extend such technical and financial assist- 
ance as Libya may request, and reaiHrms an earlier 
General Assembly recommendation that Libya be 
admitted to the United Nations upon its establish- 
ment as an independent state. 



Committee II. — The general debate on economic 
development was concluded in Committee II 
(Economic and Financial) on October 19 with 
a statement by Senator John J. Sparkman. The 
United States, he said, would endeavor to further 
economic development through private investment, 
the Export-Import Bank, the International Bank, 
the technical assistance program, and the special- 
ized agencies until such time as assurance of last- 
ing peace made it possible to "beat our tanks into 
dynamos and our guns into machines and factories 
for industrial and economic development through- 
out the world." The Committee then began dis- 
cussion of seven draft resolutions and four amend- 
ments relating to economic development. 

Com/mittee III. — By a vote of 43-8, with one 
abstention. Committee III (Social Humanitarian 
and Cultural) approved on October 18 an amended 
resolution, originally introduced by Australia, 
under which the United Nations International 
Childi-ens' Emergency Fund would be continued 
on its present basis for a 3-year period, after which 
its future would be reviewed "with the object of 
continuing the fund on a permanent basis." The 
United States delegate, Mrs. Franklin D. Roose- 
velt, prior to the vote on the draft as a whole, stated 
that the United States would vote against the reso- 
lution because it failed to take into account the 
recommendations of the Economic and Social 
Council and to recognize tlie effort of several 
United Nations bodies to place continuing work 
on behalf of children on a sound footing in the 
LTnited Nations structure. 

Committee IV. — On October 19, Committee IV 
(Trusteeship) approved without a negative vote 
but witli 17 abstentions an amended Canadian 
resolution, noting the report of the Trusteeship 
Council and expressing confidence that the Coun- 
cil "will continue to contribute effectively to 
achieving; the high objectives of the Trusteeship 
System.' During the Committee's general debate 
on this report. United States representative, John 
Sherman Cooper, on October 13, stated that the 
United States believes that the Council's work over 
the past 3'ear demonstrates its recognition of "the 
responsibilities imposed upon it by tlie Charter to 
promote the advancement of the inhabitants of 
Trust Territories toward self-government and in- 
dependence" and that the Council "has made prog- 
ress toward its objectives." Concerning Soviet 
criticisms of the Council, Senator Cooper said that 
the LT. S. S. R."s concern for the dependent peoples 
of the world "could be demonstrated by attendance 



674 



Department of State Bulletin 



at meetings of the Council and by niakinp; efforts 
to correct defects there rather than by mere denun- 
ciation and wonis" in Committee IV. The Com- 
mittee now has under consideration 11 specific pro- 
posals relating to the Trusteeship Council's report. 

Committee V. — In the course of its first reading 
of the 1951 budget estimates, Committee V (Ad- 
ministrative and Budgetary) on October 13 
adopted an Australian resolution requesting a re- 
view of United Nations information activities 
with a view to seeing whether there were an opjjor- 
tunity for economies. In opposing the drastic 
cuts for informational activities advocated by the 
U. S. S. R., Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr', the 
U. S. representative, pointed out the need for dis- 
semination of information on Korean develop- 
ments if the United Nations was to make of Korea 
a "symbol." 

Committee VI. — The general debate on the 
question of reservations to multilateral conven- 
tions has been concluded in Committee VI (Legal) , 
and on October 18 the Committee began consider- 
ation of a joint resolution sponsored by 13 mem- 
bers, including the United States. This resolu- 
tion would refer certain specific questions relating 
to the Genocide Convention to the International 
Court of Justice for an advisory opinion and re- 

3uest the International Law Commission to con- 
uct a general study of the question of reservations. 
Interim Committee of the United Nations Com- 
mission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of 
Korea. — During its three closed meetings, October 
13, 17, and 19, the interim committee of the new 
Korean Commission heard statements by repre- 
sentatives of the unified command and the Repub- 
lic of Korea and continued to discuss Korean mat- 
ters pertinent to its functions. In addition, the 
committee adopted a resolution, requesting mem- 
bers of the former United Nations Commission for 
Korea to remain in Korea until the arrival of the 
new Korean Commission, and to observe and re- 
port to the Committee on developments relating 
to the Assembly's objective of restoring peace and 
stability throughout Korea. 

Economic and Social Council 

Continuing its development of plans for Korean 
relief and rehabilitation, the Economic and Social 
Council at the October 16 meeting adopted by a 
vote of 15-0-3 (Soviet bloc) the first of three 
Australian resolutions on Korean relief. This 
resolution provides for the ajwointment of a 
temporary committee of seven Council members 
to make a preliminary estimate of the size of the 
program required for Korean relief and rehabili- 
tation, and authorizes the committee "to obtain 
the advice and assistance of such other persons and 
authorities as it considers desirable." 

The following day, the Council completed the 
appointment of its temporary committee, after a 



Soviet refusal to serve, and agreed that at its next 
meeting on October 20 it would begin to formulate 
basic policy toward Korean relief and rehabilita- 
tion. In this connection, the Council has before 
it two specific proposals — a United States draft 
resolution for the establishment of a United Na- 
tions Korean Reconstruction Agency and an Aus- 
tralian resolution concerning administrative 
arrangements and general policy. 

Temporary Committee on Korean Relief 
Needs. — Holding its opening meeting October 18^ 
the Economic and Social Councirs temporary 
Committee on Korean Relief Needs decided that 
its future recommendations to the Council would 
cover the period ending December 31, 1951. 
United States representative, Isador Lubin, 
offered a rough estimate of 200 million dollars for 
Korean relief needs until June 1951, but he cau- 
tioned that this total had been prepared on the 
basis of tentative data from South Korea only. 

Committee on Non-Governmental Organisa- 
tions. — The Council's Committee on Non-Govern- 
mental Organizations met on October 13 to hear 
the representatives of five organizations relate how, 
in compliance with the Council's resolution of last 
August, their groups might assist in the rehabili- 
tation program for Korea. 

Security Council 

Having' been unable to agree at two earlier meet- 
ings, the Security Council this week on October 18 
again met in private to consider the question of its 
recommendation to the General Assembly regard- 
ing the appointment of a Secretary-General. 
After an exchange of views among the members, 
the Council decided to continue its discussion of 
this question on October 20. 

At its other meeting this week, October 16, the 
Security Council had before it six specific com- 
plaints relating to the Palestine question: an 
Egyptian charge that Israel has expelled "thou- 
sands of Palestinian Arabs into Egyptian terri- 
tory," and has violated the Egyptian-Israel 
general armistice agreement ; four Israeli charges 
of violation or nonobservance by Egypt and Jor- 
dan of the terms of the armistice agreements ; and 
a Jordanian charge alleging violation by Israel of 
the armistice agreement through occupation of 
territory belonging to Jordan. 

Before the substantive discussion was begun, the 
Council's President, United States Ambassador 
Warren R. Austin, invited representatives of Israel 
and Jordan, as interested non-Council members, to 
the Council table, noting that Jordan, as a non- 
United Nations member, had accepted the Charter 
obligations relating to peaceful settlement. The 
Council then heard statements by the Egyptian 
and Israeli representatives before adjourning until 
October 20. 



Ocfober 23, 1950 



675 



Instructions Issued on Internal Security Act of 1950 



[Released to the press October 13] 



Following are the texts of a circular telegram and a 
circular airmail instruction, tioth dated Octoher 11, 1950, 
sent to American diplomatic and consular offices through- 
out the world outlining provisions of the Internal Security 
Act of 1950 and its effect upon visa work. 

Attorney General requests that persons holding 
visas granted jJrior date receipt this circular tele- 
gram be stopped abroad until each case re-ex- 
amined and visa revalidated under 1950 act. 
Alternative is possible detention Ellis Island. 

Validity all visas issued prior receipt this circu- 
lar telegram except to displaced persons under 
Displaced Persons Act hereby suspended until re- 
validated. Notify all transportation lines accord- 
ingly, mentioning possible liability heavy fines and 
penalties if they bring aliens ports entry United 
States without revalidated visas and such aliens 
are found to be excludable. 

Revalidation shall consist following dated en- 
dorsement on each visa "Revalidated Internal Se- 
curity Act 1950," over signature Diplomatic or- 
Consular officer and office seal. No fee, no finger- 
printing. 

Except as otherwise provided in this circular 
telegram nonimmigrant visas should not bo re- 
validated if bearer is or was member of, or affil- 
iated with. Communist, Nazi, or Fascist Party, 
or any section, branch, subsidiary, affiliate, or sub- 
division of such party in any country. Advance 
ninth proviso action Attorney General required 
before revalidations can be granted such cases, 
which should be reported fully Department if 
revalidation deemed desirable or necessary con- 
duct foreign relations. Attorney General must 
report Congress each case in which ninth proviso 
action approved. 

Bearers 3(1) and 3(7) visas may be granted re- 
validations without ninth proviso action, if no 
security basis exclusion exists beyond present or 
former membership or affiliation specified under 
paragraph 5. If any other security ground ex- 
clusion exists beyond such membership report 
fully and request instructions. 

Aliens now or hereafter applying under 3(1), 
3(7), or Diplomatic or Official 3(3) may be 
gi-anted such visas without ninth proviso action if 
only security ground exclusion in present or 



former membership or affiliation specified under 
I^aragraph 5. If any other security ground 
beyond mere membership specified paragraph 5, 
report fully for instructions. 

Immigration visas held by aliens not excludable 
may be revalidated. Immigration visas held by 
excludable aliens can not be revalidated even if 
bearers excludable only in membership class speci- 
fied paragraph 5. Ninth proviso not applicable. 

Revalidation procedure herein authorized may 
begin at once under this circular telegram. 

Further instructions will be issued soonest re- 
garding meaning "section, branch, subsidiary, affil- 
iate, or subdivision" mentioned paragraph 5. 

Advisory opinions may be requested doubtful 
cases. 

Circular Airgram 

Congress enacted on September 23 the Internal 
Security Act of 1950, which contains certain new 
provisions concerning the issuance of visas : 

1. No visa or other documentation as an immi- 
grant or nonimmigrant shall be issued if the con- 
sular officer knows or has reason to believe that 
the applicant is inadmissible to the United States 
under the Act, which contains, ijifer alia, the fol- 
lowing excludable classes of aliens some of which 
are new : 

(a) Aliens who seek to enter the United States 
solely, principally, or incidentally to engage in 
activities which (1) would be prejudicial to the 
public interest, or (2) would endanger the wel- 
fare or safety of the United States. 

(b) Aliens who, before the enactment of the 
Internal Security Act on September 23, 1950, were 
ineligible to receive visas because of excludability 
under the Act of October 16, 1918, as amended, are 
still ineligible, as Congress revised and reenacted 
that Act and added the following new excludable 
classes : 

(1) Aliens who are, or at any time shall be or 
shall have been, members of or affiliated with 

(A) the Communist Party of the United 
States ; 



676 



Department of State Bulletin 



(B) any other totalitarian party of the 
United States; 

(C) the Communist Political Association; 

(D) the Communist or other totalitarian 
party of any State of the United States, of any 
foreign state, or of any political or geographical 
subdivision of any foreign state ; 

(E) any section, subsidiary, branch, affili- 
ate, or subdivision of any such association or 
party ; or 

(F) the direct predecessors or successors of 
any sucli association or party, regardless of what 
name such group or organization may have used, 
may now bear, or may hereafter adopt. 

(G) Aliens not within any of the other pro- 
visions of tliis section, (b), who advocate the eco- 
nomic, international, and governmental doctrines 
of world communism or the economic and govern- 
mental doctrines of any other form of totalitarian- 
ism, or who are members of or affiliated with any 
organization that advocates the economic, interna- 
tional, and governmental doctrines of world com- 
munism, or tlie economic and governmental 
doctrines of any other fonn of totalitarianism, 
either through its own utterances or through any 
written or printed publications issued or pub- 
lished by or with tlie permission or consent, or 
under the authority, of such organization, or paid 
for by the funds of such organization. 

(H) Aliens not within any of the other 
provisions of this section, (b), who are members 
of or affiliated with any organization which is 
registered or required to be registered under the 
Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, which 
requires the registration with the Attorney Gen- 
eral of Communist-action or Communist-front 
organizations, unless such aliens establish that 
they did not know or have reason to believe at the 
time they became members of or affiliated with 
such an organization (and did not thereafter and 
prior to the date upon which such organization 
was so registered or so required to be registered 
acquire such knowledge or belief) that such or- 
ganization was a Communist organization. 

(I) Aliens who advocate or teach or who 
are members of or affiliated with any organization 
that advocates or teaches the overthrow by uncon- 
stitutional means of the Government of the United 
States or of all forms of law. 

(J) Aliens who write or publish, or cause 
to be written or published, or who knowingly cir- 
culate, distribute, print, or display, or knowingly 
cause to be circulated, distributed, printed, pub- 
lished, or displayed, or who knowingly have in 
their possession for the purpose of circulation, 
publication, or display, any written or printed 
matter, advocating or teaching opposition to all 
organized government, or advocating (A) the 
overthrow by force or violence or other unconsti- 
tutional means of the Government of the United 
States or of all forms of law ; or (B) the economic, 
international, and governmental doctrines of 
world communism or the economic and govern- 



mental doctrines of any other form of totalitari- 
anism. 

(K) Aliens who are, or were formerly, 
members of, or affiliated with, the Nazi or Fascist 
Party, or any section , subsidiary, branch, affiliate, 
or subdivision thereof. 

(c) Aliens with respect to whom there is reason 
to believe that such aliens would, after entry, be 
likely to 

( 1 ) Engage in activities which would be pro- 
hibited by the laws of the United States relating 
to espionage, sabotage, public disorder, or in other 
activity subversive to the national security; 

(2) Engage in any activity a purpose of 
which is the opposition to, or the control or over- 
throw of, the Govei-nment of the United States by 
force, violence, or other unconstitutional means ; or 

(3) Organize, join, affiliate with, or partici- 
pate in the activities of any organization which 
is registered or required to be registered with the 
Attorney General under the Subversive Activities 
Control Act of 1950. 

2. The ninth proviso to section 3 of the 1917 Act 
may not be exercised in the cases of aliens falling 
under 1(a) and 1(c) above, and every case of 
an alien under 1(b), to which the ninth proviso 
is applied must be reported in detail to Congress 
by the Attorney General. 

3. Aliens who are classifiable as nonimmigrants 
under Section 3(1) of the Immigration Act of 
1924, as amended, could be ineligible under 1(a) 
or 1(c) to receive such visas, or any other visas, 
unless they are accredited as ambassadors, public 
ministers, or career diplomatic officers (which in- 
cludes career diplomatic couriers) and career con- 
sular officers, of a foreign government recognized 
de jure by the United States, and the members of 
their immediate families. 

4. All aliens applying for visas as nonimmi- 
grants under Section 3(7) of the 1924 Act are 
subject to refusal if found to be excludable under 
1(a) above. 

5. Aliens applying for 3(7) visas, except (a) 
the designated principal resident representative 
of a foreign government member of an interna- 
tional organization entitled to enjoy privileges, 
exemptions, and immunities as an international 
organization under the International Organiza- 
tions Immunities Act, (b) the members of the im- 
mediate family of such representative, and (c) the 
accredited resident members of the staff of such 
representative, are subject to refusal if found to 
be excludable under 1(c) above. 

6. In granting 3(7) visas to aliens who are 
classifiable under 5(a), (b), or (c) of the preced- 
ing paragraph, the letter E should be added to 
the visa number, as 367E. In granting 3(7) visas 
to other aliens the letter X should be added to the 
visa number, as 367X. 

7. No alien classifiable as a nonimmigrant under 
Section 3(1) or 3(7) of the 1924 Act is ineligible 
under 1(b) above to receive such a visa. 



Ocfofaer 23, 7950 



677 



8. The tenth proviso exemption enjoyed by ac- 
credited officials of foreign governments, their 
families, suites, and guests, is not modified by the 
new law when such persons are travelling to the 
United States in a nonimmigrant status under 
Section 3(3) of the Immigration Act of 1924. 
The tenth proviso does not apply to any person 
travelling to the United States in a nonimmigrant 
status under Section 3(2) of the 1924 Act. 

9. The Internal Security Act of 1950 amended 
the Act of October 16, 1918, as amended, by adding 
a new section number 7, which provides that upon 
notification by the Attorney General that any coun- 
try upon request denies or unduly delays accept- 
ance of the return of any alien who is a national, 
citizen, subject, or resident thereof, the Secretary 
of State shall instruct consular officers performing 
their duties in the territory of such country to 
discontinue the issuance of immigration visas to 
nationals, citizens, subjects, or residents of such 
country, until such time as the Attorney General 
shall inform the Secretary of State that such 
country has accepted such alien. 

10. The cases of aliens coming to the United 
Nations headquarters under section 11(1) or (2) 
of the headquarters site agreement will usually 
be documented as 3(7) cases. The cases of aliens 
coming under sections 11(3), (4), and (5) of the 
headquarters site agreement will usually be docu- 
mented as 3(2) cases. The 11(3), (4), and (5) 
aliens are not exempt from refusal of visas if 
found to be excludable under the provisions of 
paragraphs 1(a), (b) and (c) above. The cases 
of 11(3), (4), and (5) aliens falling within 1(a) 
and (c) are not eligible to receive visas under the 
Internal Security Act of 1950. The cases of 11 
(3), (4), and (5) aliens excludable only under 
1 (b) may be granted limited and restricted visas 
and admitted under the ninth proviso, but a report 
of each such case must be submitted to Congress 
by the Attorney General. Such visas shall be 
granted gratis for a single entry under Section 
3(3) and shall be made "Valid only for transit to 
and from U.N." However, in the case of each 
such visa applicant a full report shall be submitted 
to the Department in order that the Attorney Gen- 
eral may be requested to authorize temporary 
admission before the visa is granted. The pro- 
visions of this paragraph are subject to the provi- 
sions of paragraph 13 infra. 

11. Tlie act contains the following pertinent 
definitions : 

(a) "(8) The term 'publication' means any cir- 
cular, newspaper, periodical, pamphlet, book, 
letter, post card, leaflet, or other publication." 

(b) "(13) The term 'advocates' includes ad- 
vises, recommends, furthers by overt act, and ad- 



mits belief in; and the giving, loaning, or ! 
promising of support or of money or anything of 
value to be used for advocating any doctrine shall 
be deemed to constitute the advocating of such 
doctrine." 

(c) "(14) The term 'world communism' means 
a revolutionary movement, the purpose of which 
is to establish eventually a Communist totalitarian 
dictatorship in any or all the countries of the 
world through the medium of an internationally 
coordinated Connnunist movement." 

(d) "(15) The terms 'totalitarian dictatorship' 
and 'totalitarianism' mean and refer to systems of 
government not representative in fact, character- 
ized by (A) the existence of a single political 
party, oi'ganized on a dictatorial basis, with so 
close an identity between such party and its poli- 
cies and the governmental policies of the country 
in which it exists, that the party and the govern- 
ment constitute an indistinguishable unit, and (B) 
the forcible suppression of opposition to such 
party." 

(e) "(16) The term 'doctrine' includes, but is 
not limited to, policies, practices, purposes, aims 
or procedures." 

(f) "(17) The giving, loaning, or promising of 
support or of money or any other thing of value 
for any purpose to any organization shall be con- 
clusively pi'esumed to constitute affiliation there- 
with ; but nothing in this paragi-aph shall be con- 
strued as an exclusive definition of affiliation." 

(g) "(18) 'Advocating the economic, interna- 
tional, and governmental doctrines of world com- 
munism' means advocating the establishment of 
a totalitarian Communist dictatorship in any or 
all of the countries of the world through the me- 
dium of an internationally coordinated Commu- 
nist movement." 

(h) "(19) 'Advocating the economic and gov- 
ernmental doctrines of any other form of totali- 
tarianism' means advocating the establishment of 
totalitarianism (other than world communism) 
and includes, but is not limited to, advocating the 
economic and governmental doctrines of fascism 
and nazism." 

12. Doubtful cases should be referred to the 
Department with full reports for advisory 
opinions. 

13. All cases, in which it appears that due to 
the Internal Security Act of 1950, the alien is 
ineligible to receive a visa as a nonimmigrant 
under Section 3(1) or 3(7) of the 1924 Act or 
when the case involves a person coming under the 
headquarters site agreement with the United 
Nations, action should be suspended and a full 
report submitted to the Department. No deci- 
sion has yet been reached as to the effect of the 
Act on the Headquarters Agi'eement. 



678 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Appointment of Officers 



Jiihii I;. DiHinins as chief, Division of International 
Press and Pul)lications, effective October 1, 11)50. 

The following designations, effective September 1, in 
the Office of Middle American Affairs : 

Thomas C. Mann, as director; Roy R. Rubottom, Jr., 
as oHicer in charge, Mexican Affairs ; W. Tapley Bennett, 
Jr., as officer in charge, Central American and Panama 
Affairs. 



Transferring Occupation Functions in Austria 
to tlie Department of State ^ 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Con- 
stitution and the Statutes, including Title II of Chapter 
XI of the General Appropriation Act, 1951 (Public Law 
759, 81st Congress), and as President of the United States 
and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the 
United States, it is hereby ordered as follows : 

1. There are hereby vested in the Department of State, 
except as hereinafter provided, the responsibilities and 
obligations of tlie United States in connection with the 
occupation of Austria, including the controls defined in 
the Agreement on the Machinery of Control in Austria 
dated June 28, 1946. There are transferred to the De- 
partment of State such unobligated balances of the ap- 
propriation for Government and Relief in Occupied Areas 
for the Fiscal Year ending June 30, 1951 and such prop- 
erty, including records, as the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget shall determine to relate primarily to the 
functions herein transferred. 

2. The United States High Commissioner for Austria 
shall continue to be the supreme United States authority 
in Austria, shall be the Chief of the United States diplo- 
matic mission, and shall be responsible, under the im- 
mediate supervision of the Secretary of State, for the 
total governmental program of the United States in 
Austria, including representation of the United States in 
the Allied Commission for Austria: Provided, That (1) 
with respect to military matters as mutually defined by 
the Department of State and the Department of Defense 
the Commanding General, United States Forces In Austria, 
shall continue to receive instructions directly from the 
Joint Chiefs of Staff, and (2) the chief of the special 
mission of the Economic Cooperation Administration and 
his staff .shall function in relation to the High Commis- 
sioner as described in section 109(b) of the Economic 
Cooperation Act of 1948 (Public Law 472, 80th Congi-ess), 
as amended. 



3. On request of the High Commissioner, or in accord- 
ance with Iiis instructions from the Joint Cliiefs of Staff 
in respect of military matters, the Commanding General 
shall take all necessary measures to protect United States 
interests in Austria and whatever action may be con- 
sidered essential to preserve law and order and safeguard 
the security of United States troops and personnel. 

4. Except as stated above, all representatives of the 
United States Government in Austria are under the au- 
thority of the High Commissioner, who will facilitate the 
work of United States agencies in Austria and will assist 
them in their relations with representatives of the 
Austrian Government, all such relations being subject to 
Ills jurisdiction and discretion. 

5. This order shall become effective on October 16, 1950. 



Haret S. Truman 



The White House, 
October 12, 1950. 



PUBLICATIONS 



' Ex. O. 10171, 15 Fed. Reg. 6901. 



Recent Releases 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Oovern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address re- 
quests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except 
ill the case of free publications, which may be obtained 
from the Department of tSate. 

Action in Korea Under Unified Command: First Report 
to the Security Council by the United States Govern- 
ment, July 25, 1950. International Organization and Con- 
ference Series III, 54. Pub. 3935. 7 pp. 5^. 

Report of Korean events in accordance with the Secur- 
ity Council resolution of July 7, 1950. 

Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949 for the Protection 
of War Victims. General Foreign Policy series 34. Pub. 
3938. 255 pp. $1.00. 

Final act, resolutions, Geneva Conventions for the 
Amelioration of the Wounded and Sick in Armed 
Forces in the Field . . . for the Amelioration of the 
Condition of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked 
Members of Armed Forces at Sea . . . Relative to the 
Treatment of Prisoners of War . . . Relative to the 
Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, and 
Reservations. 

U. S. National Commission UNESCO News, September 
1950. Pub. 3946. 16 pp. 100 a copy ; $1 a year domestic, 
$1.35 a year foreign. 

The monthly publication of the United States Na- 
tional Commission for UNESCO. 

Thailand: Its People and Economy. Far Eastern Series 
36. Pub. 3958. 8 pp. Free. 

A fact sheet on Thailand's background, government, 
general economic situation, transportation and com- 
munications, and international relations. 



October 23, J 950 



679 




General Policy Page 

The President and General MacArthur Con- 
fer on Korean and Far Eastern Policies: 
Preliminary Statement by the President . 643 
Text of Statement Issued From Wake 

Island on October 15 643 

Syngman Rhee Expresses Gratitude of 

Korean People 643 

Communiques Regarding Korea to the Secu- 
rity Council 644 

The Korean Case in the General Assembly — 
U.S. Supports Eight-Power Resolution 
on Rehabilitating a United Korea. 
Statement by Ambassador Warren R. 
Austin 645 

U.N. Commission on Korea Reports on 

Atrocities 649 

Uniting for Peace. By John Foster Dulles . 651 
Text of Draft Resolution 655 

Visit of Liberian Commission 657 

Violations of Human Rights in the Balkans. 

By Benjamin V. Cohen 666 

New General Assembly Agenda Items. . . . 670 

Resolutions on Freedom of Information and 

of the Press 671 

The United States in the United Nations . . 674 

Treaty Information 

Studies To Be Made of St. John River Sys- 
tem 658 

Study Concerning Niagara River Requested 

of Joint Commission 658 

Executive Order 10170 Amends Trade Agree- 
ment 659 

"Escape Clause" To Be Included in Swiss 

Trade Agreements] 659 

President's Proclamation Terminates Certain 

Gatt Concessions to China 659 



International information Page 

and Cultural Affairs 

Americans Visiting Abroad 665 

Occupation Matters 

U.S. To Support Austria in Maintaining Law 

and Order 657 

Exercise of Criminal and Civil Jurisdiction 
Over Nationals of Members of the United 
Nations — Far Eastern Commission Pol- 
icy Decision 664 

Transferring Occupation Functions in Austria 

to the Department of State 679 

International Organizations 
and Conferences 

Fourth World Power Conference, London, 

July 1950. By William E. Warne . . . 660 
Exercise of Criminal and Civil Jurisdiction 
Over Nationals of Members of United 
Nations — Far Eastern Commission Policy 

Decision 664 

U.S. Delegations: 

Eleventh Session of Ecosoc 672 

IcAo: Middle East Regional Meeting . . 672 

The Congress 

Legislation 673 

Instructions Issued on Internal Security Act 

of 1950 676 

The Department 

Appointment of Officers 679 

Transferring Occupation Functions in Aus- 
tria to the Department of State .... 679 

Publications 

Recent Releases 679 



U. 5. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICEi I9B0 



Une' ^eho/ytmen^ xi^ tytcii& 



* -1 ^ 



n 



i 






PARTNERSHIP OF WORLD PEACE • Address by the 

President 683 



SEVEN NATIONS PROPOSE MEANS TO UNITE AND 

KEEP THE PEACE • By John Foster Dulles .... 687 

ECONOMIC OUTLOOK IN INDIA AND PAKISTAN • 

By Assistant Secretary McGhee 698 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XXIII, No. 591 



October 30, 1950 



^vi^N-r Oe, 




U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

NOV 7 1950 



^/l 



'le 



z^e^iaiftme^t ,€£^ t/iaCe 




bulletin 

Vol. XXIII. No. 591 • Publication 3996 
October 30, 1950 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Qovernment Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

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The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (July 29, 1948). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
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ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
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Publications of the Department, as 
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currently. 



Partnership of World Peace 



Address hy the President ' 



I have just returned from Wake Island, where I 
had a very satisfactory conference with General 
Douglas MacArthur.^ 

I understand that there has been speculation 
about why I made this trip. There is really no 
mystery about it. I went because I wanted to talk 
to General MacArthur. 

There is no substitute for personal conversation 
with the commander in the field who knows the 
problems there from first-hand experience. He 
has information at his fingertips which can be of 
help to all of us in deciding upon the right policies 
in tliese critical times. 

I went out to Wake Island to see General INIac- 
Arthur because I did not want to take him far 
away from Korea, where he is conducting very 
important operations with great success. Events 
are moving swiftly over there now, and I did not 
feel he should be away from his post too long. 

I have come back from this conference with in- 
creased confidence in our long-range ability to 
maintain world peace. 

At Wake Island, we talked over the Far Eastern 
situation and its relationship to the problem of 
world peace. I asked General MacArthur for Ms 
ideas on the ways in which the United States can 
most effectively assist the United Nations in pro- 
moting and maintaining peace and security 
throughout the Pacific area. 

We discussed Japan and the need for an early 
Japanese peace treaty. Both of us look forward 
with confidence to a new Japan which will be 
peaceful and prosperous. 

United Nations Action in Korea 

General MacArthur told me about the fighting 
in Korea. He described the magnificent achieve- 
ments of all the United Nations forces serving 
under his command. Along with the soldiers of 



'Delivered at San Francisco, Calif, on Oct. 17 and re- 
leased to the press by the White House on the same date. 

^For statement by the President at Wake Island, see 
Bulletin of Oct. 23, 1950, p. 643. 



the Republic of Korea, these forces have now 
turned back the tide of aggression. More fighting 
men are coming from free nations all over the 
world. I am confident that these forces will soon 
restore peace to the whole of Korea. 

We Americans naturally take special pride in 
the superb achievements of our own soldiers, 
sailors, marines, and airmen. They have written 
a glorious new page in military history. We can. 
all be proud of them. 

It is also a source of pride to us that our country 
was asked to furnish the first commander of 
United Nations' troops. It is fortunate for the 
world that we had the right man for this purpose — 
a man who is a very great soldier — General Doug- 
las MacArthur. 

The United Nations action in Korea is of 
sui^reme importance for all the peoples of the 
world. 

For the first time in history, the nations who 
want peace have taken up arms under the banner 
of an international organization to put down 
aggression. Under that banner, the banner of the 
United Nations, they are succeeding. This is a 
tremendous step forward in the age-old struggle 
to establish the rule of law in the world. 

The people of San Francisco have shown that 
they appreciate the importance of the United 
Nations as a vital force in world affairs. I am 
told that in this area alone 71 organizations are 
celebrating United Nations Week. 

The United Nations was established here in this 
very building 5 years ago. It was founded in the 
hope and in the belief that mankind could have 
just and lasting peace. 

Today, as a result of the Korean struggle, the 
United Nations is stronger than it has ever been. 
We know now that the United Nations can create 
a system of international order with the authority 
to maintain peace. 

When I met with General MacArthur, we dis- 
cussed plans for completing the task of bringing 
peace to Korea. We talked about the plans for 
establishing a "unified, independent, and demo- 



Ocfober 30, 1950 



68a 



cratic" government in that country in accordance 
with the resohition of the General Assembly of the 
United Nations. 

It lias been our policy, ever since World War 
II, to achieve these results for Korea. 

Our sole purpose in Korea is to establish peace 
and independence. Our troops will stay there 
only so long as they are needed by the United 
Nations for that purpose. We seek no territoi'y or 
special privilege. Let this be crystal clear to all — 
we have no aggressive designs in Korea or in any 
other place in the Far East or elsewhere. 

No country in the world which really wants 
peace has any reason to fear the United States. 

The only victory we seek is the victory of peace. 

The United Nations forces in Korea are making 
spectacular progress. But the fighting there is 
not yet over. The North Korean Communists still 
refuse to acknowledge the authority of the United 
Nations. They continue to put up stubborn, but 
futile, resistance. 

The United Nations forces are growing in 
strength and are now far superior to the forces 
which still oppose them. The power of the Korean 
Communists to resist effectively will soon be at an 
end. 

Rehabilitation for Korea 

However, the job of the United Nations in Korea 
will not end when the fighting stops. There is a 
big task of rehabilitation to be done. As a result 
of the Communist aggression, Korea has suffered 
terrible destruction. Thousands upon thousands 
of people are homeless, and there is serious danger 
of famine and disease in the coming winter 
months. 

The United Nations is already extending relief 
to ease the suffering which the Communist inva- 
sion lias brought about and it is preparing to help 
the Koreans rebuild their homes and restore their 
factories. 

General MacArthur and Ambassador Muccio 
gave me a vivid picture of the way in which the 

Erocess of reconstruction has already begun. 
Railroads are being restored, bridges are being 
rebuilt, and public utilities are beginning to 
function. 

We will use the resources of our anny and our 
Economic Cooperation Administration to meet 
the immediate emergency. We will give our 
strong support to the United Nations program of 
relief and reconstruction that will soon be started. 
The United States will do its full part to help 
build a free, united, and self-supporting Korean 
Republic. 

In a very real sense, the unity of the free nations 
in meeting the aggression in Korea is the result of 
a firmly held purpose to support peace and free- 
dom — a piu-pose which the free nations have pur- 
sued together over the years. 

The name "United Nations" was first used in 
the dark days of the Second World War by the 



countries then allied to put down another 
aggression. 

From that day until this, the cause of peace has 
been strengthened by an active policy of cooper- 
ation among the free nations. It is not by chance, 
but as a result of tliat steady policy, that 53 mem- 
bers of the United Nations rallied immediately to 
meet the unprovoked aggression against the 
Eepublic of Korea. 

It has been as a part of that same policy and 
common purpose that we have joined during the 
past 5 years in building up the strength of the 
peace-loving forces of the world. We have con- 
tributed to this end through the Marshall Plan 
in Europe and through economic assistance in 
many other parts of the world. We have also 
contributed to this end through military aid to 
countries threatened by aggression. All around 
the world, the free nations have been gaining 
strength. 

We have to recognize that, as we have moved 
steadily along in the postwar years, our policy 
of building a peaceful world has met constant 
opi^osition from the Soviet Union. 

Soviet Obstructionism 

Here, in San Francisco 5 years ago, we hoped 
that the Soviet Union would cooperate in this 
effort to build a lasting peace. 

But Communist imperialism would not have it 
so. Instead of working with other governments 
in mutual respect and cooperation, the Soviet 
Union attempted to extend its control over other 
peoples. It embarked upon a new colonialism — 
Soviet style. This new colonialism has already 
brought under its complete control and exploita- 
tion many countries which used to be free. More- 
over, tlie Soviet Union has refused to cooperate 
and has not allowed its satellites to cooperate with 
those nations it could not control. 

In the United Nations, the Soviet Union has 
persisted in obstruction. It has refused to share 
in activities devoted to the great economic, social, 
and spiritual causes recognized in the United Na- 
tions Charter. For months on end, it even boy- 
cotted the Security Council. 

These tactics of the Soviet Union have imposed 
an increasingly greater strain upon the fabric of 
world peace. Aggression and threats of aggres- 
sion, aided and abetted by obstructionism in the 
United Nations, have caused grave concern among 
tlie nations which are honestly seeking peace. The 
response of the free world to the aggression in 
Korea has given those nations new confidence. 
But events in Korea liave also made it more ap- 
parent than ever that the evil spirit of aggression 
is still abroad in the world. So long as this is 
true, we are all faced with a clear and present 
danger. 

Today, we face a violent and cynical attack upon 
our democratic faith, upon every hope of a decent 
and free life — indeed, upon every concept of 



684 



Deparfmenf of Stale Bu//efi'n 



human dignitj'. Those who support this evil pur- 
pose are prepared to back it to the limit with 
everj' device, including militarj' force. 

The Soviet Union and its colonial satellites are 
maintaining armed forces of great size and 
strength. In both Europe and Asia, their vast 
armies pose a constant threat to world peace. So 
long as they persist in maintaining these forces 
and in using them to intimidate other countries, 
the free men of the world have but one choice if 
they are to remain free. They must oppose 
strength with strength. 

The Task To Maintain Peace 

This is not a task for the United States alone. 
It is a task for the free nations to undertake 
together. And the free nations are undertaking 
it together. 

In the United Nations, Secretary of State Ache- 
son has proposed a plan for "Uniting For Peace," 
to make it possible for the General Assembly to 
act quickly and effectively in case of any further 
outbreak of aggression.^ 

In our own country, and in cooperation with 
other countries, we are continuing to build armed 
forces strong enough to make it clear that aggres- 
sion will not pay. 

Our military establishment moved the necessary 
men and supplies into Korea, 5,000 miles away, 
in an amazingly brief period of time. This re- 
markable accomplishment should not delude us 
into any false sense of security. We must be bet- 
ter armed and equipped than we are today if we 
are to be protected from the dangers which still 
face us. 

We must continue to increase our production 
for military purposes. We must continue to in- 
crease the strength of our armed forces — Army, 
Navy, and Air Force. We must devote more of 
our resources to military purposes, and less to 
civilian consumption. 

All this will be difficult, and it will exact many 
sacrifices. But we are aware of the dangers we 
face. We are going to be prepared to meet them. 
Let no aggressor make any mistake about that. 
We value our independence and our free way of 
life in this country and we will give all that we 
have to preserve them. We are going ahead in 
dead earnest to build up our defenses. There will 
be no let-down because of the successes achieved 
in Korea. 

As we go forward, let us remember that we are 
not increasing our armed strength because we 
want to. We are increasing our armed strength 
because Soviet policies leave us no other choice. 
The Soviet Union can change this situation. It 
has only to give concrete and positive proof of its 
intention to woi'k for peace. If the Soviet Union 
really wants peace, it must prove it — not by glit- 
tej-ing promises and false propaganda,, but by 

' Bulletin of Oct. 23, 1950, p. 655. 



living up to the principles of the United Nations 
Charter. 

If the Soviet Union really wants peace, it can 
prove it — and could have proved it on any day 
since last June 25th — by joining the rest of the 
United Nations, in calling upon the North Koreans 
to lay down their arms at once. 

If the Soviet Union really wants peace, it can 
prove it by lifting the iron curtain and pennitting 
the free exchange of information and ideas. If 
the Soviet Union really wants peace, it can prove 
it by joining in the efforts of the United Nations 
to establish a workable system of collective secu- 
rity — a system which will permit the elimination of 
the atomic bomb and the drastic reduction and 
regulation of all other arms and armed forces. 

But until the Soviet Union does these things, 
until it gives real proof of peaceful intentions, we 
are determined to build up the common defensive 
strength of the free world. This is the choice we 
have made. We have made it fii-mly and reso- 
lutely. But it is not a choice we have made 
gladly. We are not a militaristic nation. We 
have no desire for conquest or military glory. 

Economic Progress for Asia 

Our national histoiy began with a revolutionary 
idea — the idea of human freedom and political 
equality. W^e have been guided by the light of 
that idea down to this day. The forces of Commu- 
nist imperialism dread this revolutionary idea be- 
cause it produces an intolerable contrast to their 
own system. They know that our strength comes 
from the freedom and the well-being of our citi- 
zens. We are strong because we never stop work- 
ing for better education for all our people, for 
fair wages and better living conditions, for more 
opportunities for business, and better lives for our 
farmers. We are strong because of our social se- 
curity system, because of our labor unions, because 
of our agricultural program. We are strong be- 
cause we use our democratic institutions contin- 
ually to achieve a better life for all the people of 
our country. 

This is the source of our strength. And this 
idea — this endlessly revolutionary idea of human 
freedom and political equality — is what we held 
out to all nations as the answer to the tyranny of 
international communism. We have seen this idea 
work in our own country. We know that it 
acknowledges no barriers of race, or nation, or 
creed. We know that it means progress for all 
men. 

The international Communist movement, far 
from being revolutionary, is the most reactionary 
movement in the world today. It is violently op- 
posed to the freedom of the individual because, 
in that Communist system, the state is supreme. 
It is equally opposed to the freedom of other na- 
tions because, in that Communist system, it is 
Soviet Eussia which must be supreme. 



Ocfofaer 30, 1950 



685 



When General MacArthur and I discussed the 
whole problem of peace in the Far East, we recog- 
nized that this is far more than a military problem. 

Today, the peoples of the Far East, as well as 
peoples in other parts of the world, are struggling 
with the false revolution of communism. Soviet 
communism makes the false claim to these peoples 
that it stands for progress and human advance- 
ment. Actually, it seeks to turn them into the 
colonial slaves of a new imperialism. In this time 
of crisis, we ask the peoples of the Far East to 
understand us as we ti'y to understand them. We 
are not trying to push blueprints upon them as 
ready-made answers for all their complicated 
problems. Evei-y people must develop according 
to its own particular genius and must express its 
own moral and cultural values in its own way. 

We believe that we have much in common with 
the peoples of the Far East. Their older civiliza- 
tions have much to teach us. We hope our new 
developments may be helpful to them. 

We know that the peoples of Asia cherish their 
freedom and independence. We sympathize with 
that desire and will help them to attain and defend 
their independence. Our entire history proclaims 
our policy on that point. Our men are fighting 
now in Asia to help secure the freedom and inde- 
pendence of a small nation which was brutally 
att-acked. 

We know that the peoples of Asia have problems 
of social injustice to solve. They want their farm- 
ers to own their land and to enjoy the fruits of 
their toil. That is one of our great national prin- 
ciples also. We believe in the family-size farm. 
That is the basis of our agriculture and has 
strongly influenced our form of governm£nt. 

We know that the peoples of Asia want their 
industrial workers to have their full measure of 
freedom and rising standards of living. So do we. 
That is the basis of our industrial society in this 
country. 

We know that the peoples of Asia have prob- 
lems of production ; they need to produce more 
food and clothing and shelter. It is in this field 
that we can make a special contribution by shar- 
ing with others the productive techniques which 
we have discovered in our own experience. 

We are not strangers to the Far East. For more 
than a century, our missionaries, doctors, teachers, 
traders, and businessmen have knit many ties of 
friendship between us. If we can be of help, we 
are ready to offer it — but only to those who want it. 
Through the Economic Cooperation Administra- 
tion, Point 4, and in many other ways, we are 
trying to help the peoples of other countries to 
improve their living standards. We will continue 
these programs in cooperation with the United 
Nations. Even as we undertake the necessary 
burdens of defense against aggression, we will 
help to expand the work of aiding human prog- 
ress. Otherwise, measures of defense alone will 
have little value. 



We seek full partnership with the peoples of 
Asia, as with all other peojnes, in the defense and 
support of the ideals which we and they have writ- 
ten into the Charter of the United Nations. This 
is the partnership of peace. 

I have spoken to you tonight about some of the 
things which all of us are thinking about as we 
press ahead to finish our job in Korea. At a time 
when our forces under General MacArthur are 
locked in combat with a stubborn enemy, it is es- 
sential for us to understand what our broad pur- 
poses are and see clearly the kind of world we 
seek to build. As your President, I realize what 
it means to the homes of America to have the 
youth of our land called to meet aggi'ession. These 
are the most solemn decisions and impose the 
heaviest responsibility upon those who must make 
them. I have told you tonight why we must do 
what we are doing. We hate war, but we love 
our liberties. We will not see them destroyed. We 
want peace, but it must be a peace founded upon 
justice. That American policy is as old as our 
Republic, and it is stronger today than ever be- 
fore in our history. We intend to keep it that 
way. 



THE CONGRESS 



Legislation 

American-Flag Shipping on the Great Lakes. Hear- 
ings before the Subcommittee on Maritime Affairs of the 
Committee on Merchant Marine and Fislieries H. R. 7474, 
7503-21, 7527-29, 7531, 7532, 7536, 7551, 7556, 7581, 
7582, 7620, 7639, 7692. Bills to aid the development and 
maintenance of American-flag shipping on the Great Lakes, 
and for other purposes. Mar. 29, 30, 31, Apr. 4, 5, May 
18,23,19.50. (Department of State, p. 279.) 81st Cong., 
2d sess. 281 pp. 

Civil Government for Guam. Hearing before a Sub- 
committee of the Committee on Interior and Insular Af- 
fairs. S. 185 — A hill to provide a civil government for the 
island of Guam, and for other purposes. S. 1892 — A bill 
to provide a civil government for Guam, and for other pur- 
poses and H. R. 7273 — .\n act to provide a civil govern- 
ment for Guam, and for other purposes. Apr. 19, 1950. 
81st Cong., 2d sess. 69 pp. 

State Department Employee Loyalty Investigation : In- 
dividual Views. S. Rept. 2108 Part 2, Slst Cong., 2d sess. 
[Pursuant to S. Res. 231, a resolution to investigate 
whether there are employees in the State Department dis- 
loyal to the United States] 34 pp. 

Authorizing the President To Control the Anchorage 
and Movement of Foreign-Flag Vessels in Waters of the 
United States When the National Security of the United 
States Is Endangered. S. Rept. 2118, Slst Cong., 2d sess. 
[To accompany S. 3859] 3 pp. 

General Provisions General Appropriations Act, 1951. 
Hearings before the Committee on Appropriations, United 
States Senate, Slst Cong., 2d sess., on H. R. 7786. An act 
making appropriations for the support of the Government 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1951, and for other 
purposes. 177 pp. (Indexed) 

(Continued on page 704) 



686 



Dsparlment of State Bulletin 



Seven Nations Propose Means To Unite and Keep the Peace 



by John Foster Dulles 

U.S. Refresentative to the General Assembly^ 



I know that I speak for all of the sponsors of 
the seven-power draft resolution when I express 
gratification at the response to our proposals. 
Wlien we introduced that proposal, we had hoped 
and tliought that our resolutioia had expressed the 
manifest desire of all the peoples that we should 
really do something to create what our Charter 
refers to as "effective collective measures." We 
now feel that the hope with respect to the strong 
world-wide demand is realized because the general 
debate, which is now drawing to a close, shows 
that, with very few exceptions, all the representa- 
tives want the peace to be protected by something 
which is more solid than pious words. 

The general debate here has indeed, to a vei-y 
large extent, taken for granted the desirability of 
the goals that we seek through the seven-power 
draft resolution and, to a considerable extent, has 
revolved around the question of whether this Gen- 
eral Assembly has the power, consistent with the 
Charter, to recommend the creation and, if need 
be, the use of armed forces as United Nations units. 

I will not go into the legal questions which in- 
volve an interpretation of the language of the 
Charter, not because that is not important, but 
because it has already been dealt with so thor- 
oughly by many able analysts. They have shown 
conclusively the constitutionality of what we pro- 
pose. They showed that, while obviously the Se- 
curity Council has the j^rimary responsibility and 
alone has the power to act in an authoritative way, 
to impose economic, military, and diplomatic sanc- 
tions as contemplated by chapter VII, the General 
Assembly, nevertheless, has broad residual power 
under article 10 and other articles to recommend, 
either to the members, or to tlie Security Council 
with respect to "any matters within the scope of 
the present Charter" subject only to the one quali- 
fication that the Security Council is not dealing 

' Statement made before Committee I (Political and 
Security ) , on Oct. 13 and released to the press by the U.S. 
Mission to the U.N. on the same date. 



with the matter at the moment. That, of course, 
is a qualification which the General Assembly has 
always respected and which I am sure it will 
always respect. 

Review of San Francisco Article 10 

The legal arguments have been developed so 
fully that I shall not repeat them. I shall, how- 
ever, attempt to reinforce them by a few rather 
practical observations. In my opening remarks, 
I recalled that at San Francisco there was a bitter 
and final controversy with reference to the au- 
thority of the General Assembly. It revolved 
around this article 10. The result, as represented 
by the present language, was until the last moment, 
desperately resisted by the Soviet Union. As I 
think back to that time, I wonder why it was that 
the Soviet Union delegation held out until the last 
moment and indeed threatened not to sign the 
Charter at all because article 10 was so broad. If, 
in fact, article 10 only means what Mr. Vyshinsky 
says it means, if it means that this General Assem- 
bly cannot really do anything of any consequence, 
if it means that all it can do is to utter fine words 
and, that it cannot do anything with regard to 
action of consequence, why did we have tliis great 
struggle at San Francisco ? 

I know why we had that struggle at San Fran- 
cisco because I was there and took part in the nego- 
tiations, and I know that struggle took place be- 
cause the Soviet Union then realized that the broad 
scope, given to the Assembly by article 10, meant 
that in reality their veto in the Security Council 
would not necessarily be the final word in behalf 
of this organization. That is the explanation, and 
the only reasonable and intelligent explanation, 
that can be given regarding the debate that then 
took place on article 10. I know, of my own 
knowledge, that that was the reason for it. 

I recall that at San Francisco on June 21, 1945, 
the day following the final concession by the Soviet 



Ocfober 30, 1950 



687 



Union with reference to the drafting of article 10, 
tlie chairman of the Australian delegation, speak- 
ing before the Second Commission of the Con- 
ference, said of the then finally agreed language of 
article 10: 

There is no limit on the power of recommendations save 
the one mentioned in the text, and the Assembly may 
malie recommendations on these matters to the United 
Nations. Of course those recommendations will have no 
operative effect in any country and questions of procedure 
will have subsequently to be determined. . . . Mr. Presi- 
dent, I am not going to attempt any definition of so wide 
a Charter as this Assembly will possess. In fact, Mr. 
President, in my opinion, it is so wide that if I state how 
wide it is, there may be some attempt to re-open the 
question. 

The Soviet Union representatives, then sitting 
in that Commission, heard those words and they 
then made no attempt to reopen tlie question, but 
they do so now, after 5 j'ears. Well, they are 5 
years too late. For the clear and then agreed 
wording of article 10 has been accepted and has 
been reflected in many acts of the Assembly. 

On more than one occasion, we have here recom- 
mended the taking by the members of measures 
which the Security Council alone had the power to 
command under article 7. A number of these cases 
have already been referred to in the course of the 
general debate, and I shall refer only to one of 
those which has been mentioned before, namely, 
the case of Franco Spain. 



The Question of Spain 

I recall, that in April 1946, the Polish delegation 
brought to the Security Council a complaint 
against the activities of Franco Spain on the 
ground that the regime endangered international 
peace and security. The Polish delegation then 
demanded that the Security Council vote to re- 
quire the members of the United Nations to invoke 
one of the sanctions mentioned in chapter VII, 
namely, "the severance of diplomatic relations." 
That proposal failed in the Security Council, and 
then what happened. Immediately the Polish 
delegation brought its proposal to the General As- 
sembly, and asked the Assembly to recommend the 
imposition of the sanctions that the Security Coun- 
cil had refused to command. It introduced the 
proposal that the General Assembly should recom- 
mend to the members that they should break off 
diplomatic relations with the Spanish Govern- 
ment. The delegation of the Byelorussian S.S.R. 
went a step further, and urged tliat the Assembly 
should recommend to its members that they im- 
pose economic sanctions upon the Franco regime. 

Both of those proposals were supported whole- 
heartedly and vigorously by the representative of 
the Soviet Union. I recall that Mr. Gromyko 
then said to us in reference to these proposals, 
particularly the Polish proposal : 

It had been claimed in the .Security Council that the 
General Assembly should take action, but now it was being 



stated in the General Assembly that the matter was within 
the competence of the Security Council. 

Then Mr. Gromyko went on to say : 

The General Assembly had the power and the right to 
consider and take a decision on this problem, and a policy 
of inaction would have grave consequences. 



Soviet Attitude on Unanimity 

Only a few days ago, the Soviet Union brought 
to this Assembly, although the Security Council 
is concurrently sitting riglit across the hall, an 
agenda item entitled "American aggression against 
China." The explanatory memorandum, docu- 
ment A/1382, refers to a series of alleged acts 
which it said constitute a serious threat to inter- 
national peace and security and call for immediate 
action by the United Nations. 

That is, as I say, a proposal brought by the 
Soviet Union to the General Assembly when the 
Security Council is sitting a few feet away across 
the hall. Apparently, it is the view of the Soviet 
Union delegation that the General Assembly does 
have power to recommend action by member states 
when that action is in the interests of the Soviet 
Union. But, no, the Council cannot recommend 
action which, as is the case with the action now 
under discussion, might be inconvenient to the 
Soviet Union. If we accepted such an interpre- 
tation of the Charter, I think that we should, in- 
deed, go back to kindergarten. 

Mr. vyshinsky went on to say that our proposals 
were dangerous because they did not reflect the 
necessity for unanimity between the permanent 
members of the Security Council. That unanim- 
ity, he said, is the "cornerstone," the "founda- 
tion," of the United Nations. Well, really ! Is 
it the cornerstone, the foundation of this United 
Nations that there shall be unanimity among the 
permanent members of the Security (jouncil ? Of 
course, it is one of the things we want and one of 
the things that we hope for, but to say that it is 
the foundation of this organization is, indeed, an 
extraordinary statement, and it means that if that 
is the foundation of this organization, then, un- 
happily, the United Nations has no foundation at 
all, because, regrettably, there is not today that 
unanimity. 

Foundation of the United Nations 

I do not know how they do things in the Soviet 
Union. Sometimes it seems that things are some- 
what inside-out there. I know that with us the 
practice is to start with the foundation and then 
build on it. And where do I find in the Charter 
this rule, this foundation of the United Nations ? 
I look to the Charter. I begin at the preamble, I 
read on through articles, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, 
and finally I reach the middle and come to article 
27. Where is it in article 27 ^ Is it in paragraph 
li No. Is it in paragraph 2? No. Tucked 



688 



Department of State Bulletin 



away in paragraph 3 of article 27 is a provision 
■which says that on substantive matters action of 
the Security Council requires the concurring votes 
of the five permanent members. There, tucked 
away in the middle of tlie Charter, is what, to the 
Soviet Union, is the foundation of the United Na- 
tions. As I say, I do not understand this inside- 
out, upside-down process. I find the foundation 
of the United Nations in its opening paragraph, in 
its beginning, and in its pi'eamble wliich expresses 
the determination of the peoples of the world — 

to mite our strength to m.iintain international peace 
and security, and 

to ensure . . . that armed forces shall not be used, save 
in the common interest. . . . 

I say that the foundation of this United Nations 
is not found in tlie rule of the big five but in the 
determination of the peoples of the world ex- 
pressed — and so eloquently expressed — in the pre- 
amble to the Charter of our organization. That 
determination of the peoples is our foundation. 
It is the determination that still persists, and the 
determination which the members of the United 
Nations have the duty to implement through the 
Charter, which gives them the right to supplement 
it through recommendations which, although not 
self -operating as are those taken by the Security 
Council, are nevertheless effective if, as we do not 
for a moment doubt, they respond to the will of 
the peoples whose determination is expressed here 
and is the true foundation of this organization. 

Mr. Vyshinsky says that our proposals "would 
explode and crush the Charter." I say that the 
views expressed by him "would explode and crush 
the peace." They would be notice to every poten- 
tial aggressor that this organization is impotent 
to create a collective resistance to aggression, even 
by suggesting a voluntary creation and coordina- 
tion of armed forces which is obviously desired 
by the peoples of the world. 

I do not doubt that there are those among us 
and elsewhere who will be struck by the fact that 
the only strong opponent of our proposals for 
collective resistance to aggression is the great 
power which in recent years has been largely ag- 
grandizing the area of its domain. And some will 
at least wonder if that coincidence is purely 
coincidental. 

A second and relatively minor legal argument 
relates to the question of whether this Assembly 
can decide now to meet in emergency session in 
the event of a future contingency that we defined, 
namely, failure of the Security Council to deal 
with a breach of the peace, coupled with the judg- 
ment of seven members of the Security Council 
that such an emergency meeting is desirable. 

It is said that the suggestion that we should 
agree now, if that contingency happens, is illegal 
because it is said in article 20 that there shall be 
special sessions — 

... at the request of the Security Council or of a ma- 
jority of the Members .of the United Nations. 



And it is said that as far as the Security Council 
is concerned that that requires not just the vote, 
the action of seven members, but the concurring 
vote of the five permanent members so that such a 
call is subject to veto. 

That is again an illustration of how tightly some 
of the permanent members would pull the noose 
of the veto that would strangle us. Article 27, 
which treats of the veto, says that : 

Decisions of the Security Council on procedural mat- 
ters shall be made by an aflSrmatlve vote of seven members. 

That is, it means any seven members. And 
what are procedural matters? I would assume 
that the Charter was a guide to that. 



Procedural Matters 

What is the caption in the Charter before arti- 
cle 20 ? This word is "Procedure." It is indeed 
strange, concerning the veto, to contend that al- 
though article 27 says that any seven members can 
act on procedural matters, and although the 
Charter itself labels article 20, dealing with the 
calling of special sessions of the General Assem- 
bly, as procedural, that, nevertheless, is again 
vetoable. 

Most of us here recall that in the spring of 1949 
the General Assembly, by a vote of 43-6, with 2 
abstentions, expressed, at least as far as we were 
concerned, that decisions in this respect should 
be deemed procedural matters. I refer to resolu- 
tion 267 (III). 

I think that this whole line of argunientation 
misses the point and is perhaps only significant as 
indicating the extremes to which the veto would 
be pushed. 

The point, as I see it, is that the General Assem- 
bly can decide for itself when it will meet. It is 
the master of its own procedure and if we want, 
by an appropriate vote, we can decide and decide 
now to meet on any future contingency we name. 
Article 20. to be sure, states certain cases where we 
can be compelled by the Security Council to meet 
whether we want to or not. Tlie Security Council 
by a vote of seven members can compel us to meet. 
But we are not talking about meeting under com- 
pulsion. We are talking about meeting when we 
want to meet, and surely we have the right to de- 
cide when we want to meet, and surely the Security 
Council has no right to veto us. If we decide now 
that it is important that the General Assembly 
should meet in special emergency session, in the 
event of a breach of the peace, as found by certain 
persons, surely it is right for us now and lawful 
for us now to decide to meet then. We would be 
meeting pursuant to our own volition and pursu- 
ant to our own vote, in the event of a contingency, 
which may come about and which we foresee if it 
does happen, will be grave enough so that there 
will be held instantly a special emergency meeting 
of the General Assembly. 



October 30, 1950 



689 



Clarifying Legal Aspects 

Those ai-e legal questions that have been argued, 
the question of whether article 10 means what it 
says and, the question of whether we have the right 
to determine for ourselves if we will meet in the 
event of a defined future contingency. 

I turn now to matters of substance, not dealing 
with them in detail, because the occasion for that 
will come later. I merely say now that a number 
of amendments have been proposed and consider- 
able elements of those amendments are looked upon 
by the sponsors as constructive, helpful, and with- 
in the spirit of what we have in mind, and are 
acceptable to us. We hope to prepare promptly 
and to submit to the First Committee a revised 
draft resolution which will incorporate certain of 
the proposals that have been made here. I hope 
that they will, among other things, satisfy certain 
doubts that have been raised with reference to the 
precise role of the collective measures committee 
which is dealt with in part D of our proposal. 

I should say here, in case there is any doubt, 
that, of course, it was never at all in the minds 
of the sponsors that this Committee would have 
the task either of surveying natural resources, 
prying into military secrets, or engaging in secret 
military planning. If we failed in our drafting 
to make that point clear, we welcome the oppor- 
tunity to clarify our views in that respect and to 
remove any doubts that may exist in the minds of 
any. 

Our revised draft resolution will also take ac- 
count of what, 1 think, is a very legitimate point 
made here with regard to safeguarding the con- 
stitutional procedures of some of the member 
states. That concern was safeguarded by article 
48 of the Charter, which dealt with action, and we 
agree that it should also be safeguarded by our 
draft resolution. 

As I said yesterday, the sponsors are in the proc- 
ess of agreeing with the delegation of Chile, so 
that there will be no competition, but rather co- 
operation between the two resolutions. 

There are other amendments which, after care- 
ful study, the sponsors do not feel that they can 
accept, and these will no doubt have to be sub- 
mitted to the vote of this Committee, which is the 
way in which differences of opinion can be and 
ought to be resolved. 

One of the proposals submitted during the 
course of the general debate is the Soviet proposal, 
document A/C. 1/579, which, I gather, is a substi- 
tute for the portions of the seven-power i"esolu- 
tion which the Soviet Union rejects. It calls for 
the— 

rapid application of articles 43, 45, 46, and 47 of the 
Charter of the United Nations relating to the placing 
of armed forces at the disposal of the Security Council 
by the States Members of the United Nations and the 
effective operation of the Military Staff Committee. 

Mr. Vyshinsky, in his address introducing those 
proposals said : 

690 



We have to Implement Chapter VII of the Charter and 
we have to see to it that the Military Staff Committee 
shall finally buckle down to work and tackle this question 
which will' determine the broad lines of the special mili- 
tary agreements to be concluded under Article 43. 

Well, when Mr. Vyshinsky demanded that the 
Military Staff Committee should buckle down to 
this problem, there had then been 17 consecutive 
meetings of the Military Staff Committee, all of 
which were conspicuous by the absence of the rep- 
resentative of the Soviet Union. The next day, 
after this new Soviet Union proposal was intro- 
duced, another meeting of the Military Staff Com- 
mittee was held. Then, at least, we thought there 
would be a representative of the Soviet Union 
present. It was, however, the same story. For 
the eighteenth consecutive time, following the elo- 
quent appeal of Mr. Vyshinsky, following the in- 
troduction of his draft resolution that tne Mili- 
tary Staff Committee should buckle down to work, 
the seat of the Soviet Union remained vacant. 
Well, of course, if we want satisfaction, we can go 
back, no doubt, to those words which still resound 
in our ears, the eloquent words of Mr. Vyshinsky, 
"let the Military Staff Committee buckle down 
to this task," which words will resound and re- 
sound and may satisfy us. But really, are we 
bobby-soxers who swoon when our modern Frank 
Sinatra croons? 



Pending Seven-Power Resolution ^ 

As we pass from this general debate to a de- 
tailed section-by-section study of the proposals, 
I hope we will not, in discussing the details, lose 
sight of the great purpose that underlies the pend- 
ing seven-power resolution, a purpose which has 
so often been so eloquently expressed in the course 
of the general debate. The action which is con- 
templated is indeed momentous. It may deter- 
mine, perhaps decisively and finally for our 
generation, whether or not the nations of the world 
really want an effective, as against a paper, system 
of collective resistance to aggression. Much, in- 
deed, will depend upon what we do here. 

We are indeed engaged in a serious affair. I am 
confident that the detailed discussion will con- 
firm what the general debate has so clearly shown, 
namely, that the overwhelming majority of our 
members do want to unite their strength in a 
common defense which can, however, be brought 
into operation only as the Security Council or, if 
it fails, as this body, reflecting world opinion, 
judges to be right. The goal is security based on 
collective strength and subject to law. The pro- 
posals before the Committee, while not perfect, 
nevertheless, do seem to the sponsors to be the 
closest thing we can realistically get at the pres- 
ent time to achieve the result of collective strength 
under law. 

I hope that the representatives will never forget 



' BULUETIN of Oct. 23, 1950, p. 655. 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



in the course of this discussion the tremendous 
significance of creating a collective force, drawn 
not ju^t from the great powers but also from the 
small powers, so that it represents all of our mem- 
bership, and subjecting that force, which is drawn 
from the great, as well as the small, to the com- 
mon, representative, moral judgments that are 
reflected by the United Nations. Never before, in 
the history of the world, has there been anything 
like that. 

We have seen, over the past, a succession of mili- 
tary alliances primai'ily made by the great powers, 
and in every case the use of that strength was 
directed primarily by the self-interest of the great 
powers who made the greater contribution. But 
never have we had in history what is proposed 
here: a collective force in which some may con- 
tribute more than others but where the use of that 
force is determined not by individual states or by 
individual powers but by the collective judgment 
of mankind as represented by the appropriate or- 
gans of this organization. 

There are some who profess to fear the power 
of the United States. We remind any such rep- 
resentatives that the United States placed its 
power in Korea at the service and subject to the 
will of the United Nations, and the purpose of 
this draft resolution is to assure, even more fully 
for the future, that armed force will be available 



for the common interest, but, in the words of our 
Charter, 

shall not be used, save in the common interest. 

Two other so-called great powers, the United 
Kingdom, and France, are among the cosponsors 
of this historic proposal to put the strength, even 
of the great, under the collective judgment of the 
United Nations. What are the alternatives before 
us? If, at this time of admitted peril, the United 
Nations in this General Assembly hesitates to rec- 
ommend ways whereby its members can unite their 
strength to maintain international peace and se- 
curity, what will happen ? We all know what will 
happen. There will inevitably be increased de- 
pendence on military alliances, the strength of 
which will not be subject to law or to any such 
representative universal body as this United Na- 
tions. There can, under those circumstances, be 
no comparable assurance that aggregations of 
power outside this organization will be as re- 
sponsive to the over-all welfare of the peoples of 
the world as can be assured by this organization. 
That is why the rejection of these proposals would, 
in my opinion, have grave consequences, and, in 
dealing with them, we assume a grave responsi- 
bility. If, as I confidently believe, we accept these 
proposals, we shall be opening to all mankind a 
new vista of hope. 



Current United Nations Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography^ 

Security Council 

Cablegram dated 22 August 1950 From the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs of the People's Democratic liepublic 
of Korea Addressed to the President of the Security 
Council and to the Secretary-General transmitting 
Report No. 1 of the "Commission of the United Demo- 
cratic Fatlierland Front for the Investigation of 
Crimes of the United States Interventionists and the 
Syngman Rhee Clique". S/1719/Rev. 1. 15 pp. mimeo. 

Letter dated 15 September 1950 From the United Nations 
Representative for India and Pakistan to the Presi- 
dent of the Security Council Transmitting His Report. 
S/1791, September 15, 1950 ; [Also, Rev. 1 of Septem- 
ber 26.] 37 pp. mimeo. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

The United Nations Secretariat has established an Offi- 
cial Records series for the General Assembly, the Security 
Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trustee- 
ship Council, and the Atomic Energy Commission ; which 
includes summaries of proceedings, resolutions, and re- 
ports of the various commissions and committees. Pub- 
lications in the Official Records series will not be listed in 
this department as heretofore, but information on se- 
curing subscriptions to the series may be obtained from 
the International Documents Service. 



Letter dated 21 September 1950 From the Jlinister of For- 
eign Affairs of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to 
the Secretary-General Concerning the Palestine Ques- 
tion. S/1824, September 29, 1950. 7 pp. mimeo. 



General Assembly 

Question of the Majority Required for the Adoption by 
the General Assembly of Amendments to and Parts of 
Proposals Relating to Important Questions. A/1356, 
September 11, 19.50. 12 pp. mimeo. 

United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine. 
General Progress Report Dated 2 September 1950 
to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. 
A/1367, September 22, 1950. 70 pp. mimeo. 

Reservations to Multilateral Conventions. Report of the 
Secretary-General. A/1372, September 20, 1950. 40 
pp. mimeo. 

Budget Estimates for the Financial Year 1951. Salary, 
Allowance and Leave Systems of the United Nations. 
A/1378, September 19, 1950. 39 pp. mimeo. 

Draft Convention on Freedom of Information. Note by 
the Secretary-General. A/1380, September 21, 1950. 
5 pp. mimeo. 

Registration and Publication of Treaties and International 
Agreements. Report of the Secretary - General. 
a7140S, September 29, 1950. 8 pp. mimeo. 

Permanent Financial Regulations of the United Nations. 
Third report of 1950 of the Advisory Committee on 
Administrative and Budgetary Questions. A/1412, 
September 30, 1950. 14 pp. mimeo. 

Expenses of the Permanent Central Opium Board : Assess- 
ment of Non-Members of the United Nations, Signa- 
tories of tlie Convention of 19 February 1925 Relating 
to Narcotic Drugs. A/1418, October 6, 1950. 12 pp. 
mimeo. 



Ocfofaer 30, 1950 



691 



Public Notices Affecting 
U.S. Property in Germany ' 

Regulation No. 3 Concerning Certain Liabilities 
of the Iron and Steel Undertakings 

Pursuant to the provisions of United States/United 
Kingdom Military Government Laws No. 75 "Reorgan- 
ization of German Coal and Iron and Steel industries," 
the Council of the Allied High Commission issues the fol- 
lowing regulations : 

Article I 

Indebtedness incurred on and after the effective date of 
this regulation by any iron and steel undertaking subject 
to the provisions of said laws No. 75, and which shall have 
been approved by the Combined Steel Group of the Allied 
High Commission, for the purpose of financing the acquisi- 
tion, renewal, replacement, repair or improvement of any 
fixed assets which shall subsequently be transferred to a 
company formed in accordance with the provision of 
Article 3 of said laws shall be assumed by the company 
to which such assets shall be so transferred to the extent 
that the moneys provided from the indebtedness so in- 
curred shall have been expended for said approved 
purpose. 

Article II 

Indebtedness incurred on and after the 10 November 
1948, in the normal course of business of any iron and 
steel undertaking which shall be sub.iect to the provisions 
of said laws No. 75 for the purpose of financing current op- 
erations of such undertaking and not in excess of such 
aggregate amount as shall from time to time be specified by 
said Combined Steel Group shall be assumed by the com- 
pany or companies formed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Article 3 of said Laws to which the current assets 
of such undertaking shall be transferred in such amounts 
not in excess of the then current market value of the 
current assets so transferred as shall be determined in 
the plan of reorganisation approved by said Combined 
Steel Group and under which such assets shall be so 
transferred. 

Article III 

For the purposes of this regulation, the term "current 
assets" means "Umlaufvermoegen" as defined in section 
131 of the German Aktionsgesetz of January 30, 1937, and 
the term "current market value" means the fair selling 
price of the particular assets at the time of their transfer 
as aforesaid. 

Article IV 

This regulation shall apply in the U. K. and U. S. Zones 
of Occupation and shall become effective on 1 January 
1950. 



Designation of the Implementing Agency 
for Decartelization and Deconcentration 

The Council of the Allied High Commission decides as 
follows : 

Article I 

The Decartelization and Industrial Deconcentration 
Group of the Allied High Commission shall be the agency 
responsible for the implementation of British Military 
Government Ordinance No. 78, United States Military Gov- 

'15 Fed. Reg. 1052 fC., 156 ff. For other notices, see 
Bulletin of Aug. 21, 1950, p. 314, and Aug. 28, 1950, p. 350. 

692 



ernment Law No. 56, and French Military Government 
Ordinance No. 96, in place of the Bipartite Decartelization 
Commission of the Bipartite Control Office and the Com- 
mission for Deconcentration of Gennan Economy of the 
French High Command in Germany. 

Article II 

Order No. 2 of the British Military Government issued 
pursuant to Military Government Ordinance No. 78, Order 
No. 2 of the United States Military Government issued 
pursuant to Military Government Law No. 50, and Decree 
No. 40 of the French commander-in-chief in Germany, as 
amended by Decree 69 — creation of a Commission for 
Deconcentration of German Economy — are hereby can- 
celled. 

Article III 

This decision shall be deemed to have become effective 
on 21 September, 1949. 

Done at Bonn, Petersberg — Allied High Commission 
for Germany. 



Judicial Powers in the Reserved Fields, Law No.l3 

Article 1 

The Council of the Allied High Commission enacts os 
follows : 

Except when expressly authorized, either generally or 
in specific cases, by the High Commissioner of the Zone 
in which the Court is located, German Courts shall not 
exercise criminal jurisdiction : 

(a) (i) Over the Allied Forces: 

(ii) Over persons accredited to the Allied High Com- 
mission, a High Commissioner or a Commander of any 
of the Occupation Forces and the members of their 
families : 

(b) In respect of any offence alleged: 

(i) To have been committed against the person or the 
property of any person or organization included in sub- 
paragraph (a) hereof; 

(ii) To have been committed against enactments of the 
Occupation Authorities ; 

(ill) To have arisen out of or in the course of per- 
formance of duties or services with the Allied Forces. 

Article 2 

Except when expressly authorized, either generally or 
in specific cases, by the High Commissioner of the Zone 
in which the Court is located, German Courts shall not 
exercise jurisidiction in any non-criminal case : 

(a) In which any of the parties is within the purview 
of Article 1 (a) ; 

(b) In which the issues to be decided include any 
matter arising out of or in the course of performance of 
duties or services with the Allied Forces. 

Article 3 

1. No German Courts shall render a decision which 
impeaches the validity or legality of any legislation, 
regulation, directive, decision or order published by the 
Occupation Authorities or any Authority to which they 
have succeeded. 

2. Whenever any question as to existence, terms, valid- 
ity or intent of any order of the Occupation Authorities 
or Forces or of any Authority to which they have suc- 
ceeded or as to the applicability of Articles 1 or 2 of 
this Law to any person or property must be decided, the 
German Authorities concerned shall forthwith suspend 
further action and refer such question to the Occupation 
Authorities. The appropriate Occupation Authorities or 
any Occupation Court to which they may refer such 
question shall issue a certificate determining it. Such 
certificate shall be binding on the German Authorities. 



Department of State Bvlletin 



Article 4 

1. All proceedings and every decision taken by a 
German Court on any matter excluded from its juris- 
diction shall be null and void. 

2. A High Commissioner may validate retroactively any 
judicial or extrajudicial act taken in his Zone in contra- 
vention of the provisions of Article V of Military Govern- 
ment Law No. 2 or of Article 2 of Ordinance No. 173 of 
the French Commander-in-Chief in Germany. 

Article 5 

Where the German Authorities require the production 
of any document in the possession or under the control 
of any person or organization within the purview of 
Article 1 (a) or the presence of any such person as a 
witness, they shall make application to the Authority 
designated for this purpose by the Council of the Allied 
High Commission. 

Article 6 

The Occupation Authorities may require the production 
of any German Court records, files and other documents 
and attend the hearing of any case in any German 
Court, whether or not heard in public, whenever such 
Authorities consider the interests of the Occupation to be 
involved. 

Article 7 

1. The Occupation Authorities may, either generally or 
in specific cases, withdraw from a German Court, any 
proceeding directly affecting any of the persons or 
matters with the purview of paragraph 2 of the Occupa- 
tion Statute. 

2. The Occupation Authorities may suspend any deci- 
sion of a German Court directly affecting any of the 
persons or matters within the purview of paragraph 2 
of the Occupation Statute or of Article 1 (a) of this Law. 

3. The Occupation Authorities may take such measures 
as they may deem necessary for the determination of 
cases withdrawn from the jurisdiction of German Courts 
pursuant to paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article. In par- 
ticular, they may transfer such cases to Occupation 
Courts. 

4. An Occupation Court exercising jurisdiction under 
this Article shall have the power : 

(a) To confirm, nullify or modify any proceeding, deci- 
sion, judgment, sentence or execution order of a German 
Court ; 

(b) To direct a trial or retrial of the case in a German 
Court. 

5. Every judgment or decision of an Occupation Court 
In any case withdrawn from a German Court shall be 
binding on all German Courts and Authorities shall not 
be subject to review by German Courts. 

Article 8 

In cases outside the jurisdiction of German Courts 
under this Law, no German Authority may, except when 
expressly authorized either generally or in specific cases 
by the Occupation Authorities, impose any penalty or 
coercive measure of any description. 

Article 9 

1. The powers vested in the Occupation Authorities by 
Article 3, paragraph 2, and Articles 6, 7, and 8 of this 
Law will be exercised : 

(a) By the Allied High Commission in cases coming 
before a Federal Court or Authority ; 

(b) By the High Commissioner in cases coming before 
any other Court or Authority in his Zone. 

2. The Allied High Commission and each High Com- 
missioner may delegate the exercise of their respective 
powers under this Law to any person or authority desig- 
nated for such purpose. 

Ocfober 30, 1950 



Article 10 

In every case, both criminal and noncriminal, the period 
during which the German Courts have been deprived of 
jurisdiction by reason of the provisions of any legislation 
of the Occupation Authorities or of any Authority to 
which they have succeeded shall not be included in cal- 
culating any legal time limit. 

Article 11 

Each High Commissioner may take such measures as 
he may deem necessary to provide for the determination 
of cases which under this Law will not be within the 
jurisdiction of the German Courts. 

Article 12 

The Allied High Commission or the Authority desig- 
nated by it shall exercise the powers of a High Commis- 
sioner under this Law with respect to the special area 
directly under the Allied High Commission at the seat of 
the German Federal Government. 

Article 13 

The Occupation Authorities may issue regulations Im- 
plementing this Law. 

Article I4 

1. The provisions of Control Council Law No. 4 (Re- 
organization of the German Judicial System) are hereby 
deprived of effect in the territory of the Federal Republic. 

2. The following Legislation is hereby repealed : 
British Military Government Law No. 2 (German 

Courts). 

British Military Government Ordinance No. 20 (Juris- 
diction of German Courts in respect of Offenses against 
Military Government Enactments) and Regulations 
thereunder. 

British Military Government Ordinance No. 29 (Limita- 
tions upon the Jurisdiction of German Courts). 

British Military Government Ordinance No. 104 (Ad- 
visory Opinions of Control Commission Courts of Appeal). 

British Military Government Ordinance No. 174 (Inter- 
pretation of Military Government Orders). 

Article 119 of British Military Government Ordinance 
No. 165 and the Schedule to the Ordinance (Jurisdiction 
of Administrative Courts in the British Zone). 

Article XXVIII of British Military Government Otdl- 
nance No. 175 and the Schedule to the Ordinance (Re- 
establishment of Finance Courts). 

Ordnance No. 173 of the French Commander-in-Chief 
in Germany (Distribution of Jurisdiction between Occu- 
pation Courts and German Courts and Regulations of the 
Control of German Justice). 

■United States Military Government Law No. 2, as 
amended, and all Regulations and Authorizations issued 
thereunder (German Courts). 

3. Cases in which action has been taken by the Occu- 
pation Authorities prior to the effective date of this Law 
pursuant to any of the legislation repealed thereunder may 
be disposed of in accordance with such legislation. 

Article 15 

This law shall come into force on 1 January 1950. 
Done at Bonn, Petersburg, on 25 November 1949. 

B. H. Robertson, 
U.K. High Commissioner for Germany. 
A. Francois-Poncet, 
French High Commissioner for Germany. 
George P. Hats 
for John J. McClot, 
U.S. High Commissioner for Germany. 

[The foregoing notices were deposited for the Secretary 
of State by Geoffrey W. Lewis, Acting Deputy Director, 
Bureau of German Affairs, on February n, 1950. \ 

693 



Interim Directive Under Allied 
High Commission Law No. 13, 
"Judicial Powers in the Reserved Fields" 

The following; directive, subject as above, was approved 
by the Deputy High Commissioner on .January 24, 1950. 

Pursuant to the authority conferred by Allied High Com- 
mission Lave No. 13 "Judicial Pov^ers in the Reserved 
Fields," and pending further action thereunder by the 
Allied High Commission or the United States High Com- 
mission for Germany, it is directed as follows : 

1. Except as provided in Article 1 (a) of Allied High 
Commission Law No. 13 German courts are hereby ex- 
pressly authorized to exercise criminal jurisdiction in the 
following cases : 

a. Any case involving an offense against the Allied 
Torces and in which the maximum penalty that may be 
imposed by fine does not exceed 150 Deutsche Marks and 
the maximum penalty that may be imposed by detention 
does not exceed six weeks ; and 

b. Any case involving an offense against the property 
of the Allied Forces, if the value of the property stolen or 
unlawfully possessed, or the amount of damage or injury 
to the property, does not exceed $100.00. 

2. German courts shall not be debarred from exercising 
criminal jurisdiction in any case merely because the al- 
leged offense is a violation of any enactment of the Occu- 
pation Authorities. 

3. German Courts may, in accordance with applicable 
German law, issue penal orders (Strafbefehle) against 
persons other tlian those referred to in Article 1 (a) of 
Allied High Commission Law No. 13 : Provided, That in 
cases where the accused is a national of the United States 
of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland or the Eepublic of France or a Displaced 
Person or a person with a status assimilated to that of a 
Displaced Person, the case will be transferred for trial to 
a United States Court of the Allied High Commission for 
Germany if the accused .shall file a petition for such trans- 
fer at or before the stage of the proceedings at which, 
under German law, objections to such penal order may 
be made. 

4. The exercise of the powers of the United States High 
Commissioner to authorize the exercise of jurisdiction by 
German Courts in specific cases pursuant to Articles 1 
and 2 and of the powers of withdrawal of German Court 
proceedings and suspension of German court decisions 
pursuant to Article 7, paragraphs 1 and 2, of Allied High 
Commission Law No. 13, is hereby delegated to the Land 
Commissioners: Pi-ovided, That such powers may be ex- 
ercised only within the framework of policies established 
before January 1, 1950, by the OfDce of Military Govern- 
ment for Germany (US) or by the Office of the United 
States High Commissioner for Germany or of instructions 
to he communicated to the Land Commissioners. 

This directive shall take effect as of 1 January 1950 
within the Laender Bavaria, Bremen, Hesse and Wuert- 
temberg-Baden. 

Done at Frankfurt on Main, on 24th January 1950. 

(S) George P. Hays, 

(T) George P. Hays, 

Major General, V. S. Army, Deputy 

V. S. High Commissioner for Germany. 

(S) A. G. Sims, 

Aeting Director, Office of Administration. 

Directive Under Allied High Commission 
Law No. 13 

Pursuant to authority conferred by Allied High Com- 
mission Law No. 13, "Judicial Powers in the Reserved 
Fields", and pending further action thereunder by the 
Allied High Commission or the United States High Com- 
missioner for Germany, it is hereby directed that, except as 
they may be expressly authorized to do so by the appro- 
priate United States Land Commissioner, German courts 
shall not exercise criminal jurisdiction over any national 



of the United States of America, or the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland or the Republic 
of France or over any displaced person or person having 
a status assimilated to that of a displaced person. 

This directive shall become effective on 1 January 1950 
within the Laender of Bavaria, Bremen, Hesse and Wuert- 
temberg-Baden. 
Done at Frankfurt on Main, on 28 December 1949. 

John J. McCloy, 

United States High Commissioner 

for Germany. 

[The foregoing notices were deposited for the Secretary 
of State by Geoffrey W. Lewis, Acting Deputy Director, 
Bureau of German Affairs, on March 10, 1950.\ 



Freedom Ceremony at Berlin 

The following press release tvas received on October 17 
from the United States Information Service at Berlin. 

INIillions of radio listeners tliroughout the world 
will hear the chimes of the freedom bell ring out a 
message of hope at the conclusion of a historic 
ceremony before Berlin's city hall at noon, October 
24, in the climax to the Crusade for Freedom to 
strengthen the faith of democratic citizens in all 
countries. 

The broadcast from Berlin will touch off the 
most widespread and dramatic bell-ringing in 
history, for church and school bells will sound 
throughout Western Europe and the outside world. 

The ceremonies in Berlin, where the giant 
bronze bell will be permanently enshrined in the 
city hall's tower — the citizens of Berlin will be 
entrusted with its custodianship — will be attended 
by a galaxy of leading diplomatic and political 
personalities of Europe and the United States. 
Gen. Lucius D. Clay, the organizer of the Berlin 
airlift which defeated the Soviet blockade, and 
national chairman of the Crusade for Freedom, 
will participate in the ceremony. The bell is pres- 
ently en route to Bremerhaven aboard the U.S!N.S. 
General Blafchford, Freedom Ship which has 
brought 13,833 displaced persons and refugees 
from East European terror to safety and sanctu- 
ary in the United States. General Clay, accom- 
panied by a delegation of members of the Crusade 
for Freedom National Committee, will arrive at 
Berlin on the morning of October 24. The cere- 
mony, which will begin at 11 : 00 a. m. before the 
city hall, will include addresses by John J. Mc- 
Cloy, United States High Commissioner for Ger- 
many; Maj. Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, United 
States Commander, Berlin ; and Prof. Ernst Reu- 
ter. Lord Mayor of Berlin. At the conclusion of 
the ceremony, at 12 o'clock sharp, the bell will be 
rung; its chimes to be carried to all parts of the 
world by radio. 

Oppressed citizens behind the iron curtain are 
expected to draw the outline of a bell on walls, 
much as the "V" sign which was scrawled across 
Europe during the last war, while their more for- 
tunate neighbors will join in bell-tolling cere- 
monies throuffhout the outside world. 



694 



Department of State Bulletin 



U.S. Attaches Detained 
by Rumanian Militia 

[Released to the press October Wi 

An example of the petty harassment to which 
American oiticials are subjected by public authori- 
ties in countries of the Soviet orbit is provided 
by an incident which recently took place in 
Rumania. 

In the course of an automobile drive, Lt. Col. 
Franklin G. Rothwell, United States military at- 
tache, and Gordon Mason, attache of Legation, 
were detained by the Rumanian militia in Urzi- 
ceni and held under armed guard for 6 hours, 
during which time they were not allowed to com- 
municate with the Legation. 

Urziceni is a small town 50 kilometers from 
Bucharest and does not come within areas de- 
scribed by the Rumanian Ministry of Foreign Af- 
fairs as prohibited. The local militia agreed that 
the officers were not traveling in a restricted area 
and refused to give reasons for the arrest other 
than to say that they were acting under orders 
from the Director General of the Rumanian 
militia. 

The Legation immediately communicated with 
the Rumanian Ministry of Foreign AflFairs, 
strongly protesting the detention of United States 
officials and requesting that appropriate measures 
be taken to prevent any recurrence of such action 
against members of the Legation. 

In a later note, dated October 12, 1950, the 
Legation refuted the Rumanian Government's al- 
legations that the two officers had violated minor 
traffic regulations and pointed out that the Ruman- 
ian authorities had absolutely no right, in any 
circumstances, to arrest and detain them. 

The United States, like any other nation, has 
the right to expect that its representatives abroad 
will be granted courteous treatment in accordance 
with long-recognized diplomatic practice. The 
Rumanian Government, like any other govern- 
ment, has the duty to accord such treatment and 
to maintain in its conduct of relations with other 
countries at least the minimum standards of inter- 
national comity. The present incident is one of 
many which illustrate the deliberate policy of the 
existing Rumanian regime to insult and harass 
American official representatives in that country. 



East German Elections 
Denounced as Fraud 

[Released to the press October 13] 

The American Government has taken cogni- 
zance of the resolution adopted by the Parliament 
of the German Federal Republic denouncing the 



fraudulent nature of the sham elections to be con- 
ducted by the East German puppet government 
next Sunday and renewing the call for free all- 
German elections. The High Commissioners of 
the three Western Allied nations, acting on behalf 
of their Governments, have given their full en- 
dorsement to this resolution and have forwarded 
it to the highest Soviet representative in Germany, 
General Chuikov. 

The American Government and the American 
people sympathize with the demand of the Ger- 
man people for the miification of Germany 
through democratic processes. The resolution of 
the German Federal Parliament at Bonn calls 
for free elections in all parts of Germany for a 
national constituent assembly which, in turn, 
would give rise to an all-German government. 

The Soviet-installed East German government, 
afraid to face the will of the people in an honest 
election, has felt it necessary to stage some sort 
of show of balloting. But it is obvious that the 
October 15 performance lacks any characteristic 
of a free election. It will simply amount to a 
forced show of hands for the government in power 
and, by its very nature, wiU fail to indicate the 
true opinions of any of the participants. The 
real feelings of the people of East Germany are 
better expressed by the recent unofficial ration- 
card poll in which nearly half of the registered 
voters of East Berlin risked Communist reprisals 
to register their opposition to the Communist 
regime and to the sham elections. 

The American Govermnent and people will con- 
tinue to give their sympathetic support to the 
people of East Germany in their unrelenting de- 
mand for a free and honest election. 



Statement by Secretary Acheson 
[Released to the press October 20] 

The world has just witnessed the spectacle of 
the election fraud staged in the Soviet zone of 
Germany. Our sympathy goes out to the East 
German people who have been treated in such a 
contemptuous and humiliating fashion by their 
oppressors. 



Resignations of Ambassadors 
Douglas and Thurston 

On September 23, 1950, the President accepted the resig- 
nation of Walter Thurston as American Ambassador 
to Mexico. For texts of Ambassador Thurston's letter of 
resignation and the President's reply, see White House 
press release of that date. 

On September 26, 1950, the President accepted the resig- 
nation of Lewis W. Douglas as American Ambassador to 
the Court of St. James. For texts of Ambassador Doug- 
las' letter of resignation and the President's reply, see 
White House press release of that date. 



Ocfober 30, ?950 



695 



U.S. and Brazil Enter Cultural Agreement 



CEREMONY OF SIGNING AND 
SUMMARY OF AGREEMENT 

[Released to the press October 17] 

A bilateral convention, formalizing and 
strengthening cultural relations between the 
United States and Brazil, was signed today at 
11 : 00 a.m. by Secretary Acheson and the Brazilian 
Ambassador to the United States, Mauricio 
Nabuco. 

The convention is the first bilateral cultural 
agreement to be entered into by the United States. 
It originated from a joint statement issued on May 
21, 1949, by President Truman and President 
Dutra of Brazil, during the latter's visit to the 
United States, expressing their desire for a treaty 
to "encourage and further stimulate" the present 
cultural exchange between their countries.^ 

State Department officials pointed out that the 
working intent of tlie convention is exemplified in 
the Luso-Brazilian Colloquium, which will open 
Wednesday at the Library of Congress. The Con- 
ference will bring together Brazilian, Portuguese, 
and American scholare to discuss research prob- 
lems in various fields of the Portuguese-speaking 
world. 

The bilateral convention is motivated by the two 
countries' acceptance of the constitution of the 
United Nations Scientific, Educational and Cul- 
tural Organization and of the Charter of the Or- 
ganization of Amei-ican States, expressing aims to 
"facilitate free cultural interchange by every 
medium of expression." The United States and 
Brazil are also signatories to the convention for 
the promotion of Inter- American cultural rela- 
tions, signed in 1936 at Buenos Aires and provid- 
ing for multilateral cultural exchange between the 
United States and IG of the other American 
Republics. 

The convention signed today stresses the "bonds 
of friendship and understandmg existing between 
the people of the United States of Brazil and of 
the United States of America." Its 13 articles 
cover Brazilian-United States relations in the 
fields of art, education, travel, the exchange of 
books, and visual aids. 



' Bulletin of May 29, 1949, p. 695. 
696 



Both countries are given the right to establish 
and maintain in each other's territory such cul- 
tural agencies as institutes, information offices, 
libraries, and film centers. Each is urged to en- 
courage in its educational institutions, lectures on 
the other's language, literature, history and civi- 
lization and to make available qualified lecturers 
for such purposes. 

Increased interchange of United States and 
Brazilian students, professors, and specialists and 
the promotion of scholarships, fellowships, and 
travel grants are also proposed. 

Under the convention, each country undertakes 
to aid, so far as feasible, music festivals, art and 
scientific exhibits, theatrical and other events, re- 
flecting the arts, crafts, and cultural achievements 
of both nations. The agreement also seeks the 
"closest collaboi'ation" for the purposes of bring- 
ing together the peoples of the United States and 
Brazil and of fostering a mutual understanding of 
their intellectual, artistic, scientific, civic, and 
social lives. 



STATEMENT BY SECRETARY ACHESON 

[Released to the press October 17] 

It is gratifying for me to sign the document 
which gives form to the desires expressed by the 
Presidents of the United States of America and 
of the United States of Brazil for an instrument 
to broaden the long-existing cordial relations be- 
tween our countries. 

We might say that this first bilateral cultural 
convention of our Government is already bearing 
fruit. As an immediate example of the kind of 
activities it is to foster, we can cite the Luso- 
Brazilian Colloquium, beginning in Washington 
tomorrow. The Conference will bring together 
distinguished scholars from several countries for 
mutual discussion of cultural affairs in Portu- 
guese-speaking nations of both hemispheres. 

I feel confident that the cultural convention be- 
tween the United States and Brazil will extend 
and strengthen our historic friendship and 
cooperation. 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



STATEMENT BY MAURICIO NABUCO 

[Released to the press October 17] 

It is highly gi'atifying to me to sign with Mr. 
Acheson, on behalf of the Brazilian Government, 
the cultural agreement between the United States 
of Brazil and the United States of America. 

This cultural convention — the first bilateral cul- 
tural agreement, I believe, to be concluded by the 
United States of America — will certainly con- 
tribute in an objective way to a better and mutual 
knowledge of the values inherently attached to the 
traditions of Brazilians and Americans. 

I am convinced that it will promote a closer 
understanding between our two countries, since 
its purposes are highly constructive and since it 
will be implemented in the atmosphere of tradi- 
tional cordiality which has always presided over 
the relations between our peoples. 



TEXT OF CONVENTION 

[Released to the press October 17] 

The President of the United States of America and the 
President of the United States of Brazil : 

In consideration of tlie bonds of friendship and under- 
standing existing between the peoples of the United States 
of America and of the United States of Brazil ; 

In view of the Jomt Statement issued on May 21, 1949, 
by the President of the United States of America and 
the President of the United States of Brazil, expressing 
their desire for a treaty which would encourage and 
further stimulate the present cultural exchange between 
the two countries ; 

Inspired by the determination, demonstrated by accept- 
ance of the Constitution of the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization, to "develop 
and Increase the means of communication between their 
peoples and to employ these means for the pui-pose of 
mutual understanding and a truer and more perfect knowl- 
edge of each other's lives" ; 

And in fulfillment of the undertaking, set forth In the 
Charter of the Organization of American States, to "facili- 
tate free cultural interchange by evei-y medium of 
expression" ; 

Have decided to conclude a Cultural Convention and 
have designated for that purpose as their respective 
Plenipotentiaries : 

For the President of the United States of America : 

Dean Acheson, Secretary of State, and 
For the President of the United States of Brazil : 

Maurlclo Nabuco, Ambassador of Brazil, 

who, having exchanged their respective powers, found in 
good and due form have agreed as follows : 

Article I 

Each High Contracting Party shall foster, within its 
territory, such institutions as already exist or may be 



October 30, 1950 



created for the attainment of tlie objectives of this Con- 
vention, and will permit other organizations or private 
individuals to assist them voluntarily by means of financial 
or other aid. 

Each High Contracting Party shall have the right to 
establish and maintain In the territory of the other High 
Contracting party such institutions and agencies, includ- 
ing institutes, information offices, libraries and film cen- 
ters, as it may deem necessary or advisable to carry out 
the purpose of this Convention or of any agi'eement 
related or supplemental thereof. 

Article II 

Each High Contracting Party shall use Its best efforts 
to extend to citizens of the other High Contracting Party 
engaged in activities pursuant to this Convention such 
favorable treatment with respect to entry, travel, resi- 
dence and exit as is consistent with its national laws. 

Article III 

Each High Contracting Party shall encourage the giv- 
ing, in the schools, universities and other educational 
or cultural establishments within its territory, of courses 
or lectures pertaining to the language, literature, his- 
tory, civilization, institutions and cultural accomplish- 
ments of the people of the other High Contracting Party, 
in compliance with the local laws on education. 

Each of the High Contracting Parties shall endeavor 
through its educational exchange services to make quali- 
fied lecturers and instructors available to institutions of 
the other High Contracting Party for the purposes of 
such courses of lectures. 

Article IV 

Each High Contracting Party shall encourage and fa- 
cilitate the distribution and exchange of books, periodi- 
cals and other publications, including government pub- 
lications, translations of such publications, musical com- 
positions, works of art, reproductions of works of art, 
and other educational materials, including film and rec- 
ord collections, which will promote the purpose of this 
Convention. 

Article V 

Each High Contracting Party shall promote and facili- 
tate the interchange between the United States of Amer- 
ica and the United States of Brazil of students, trainees, 
professors, specialists and other qualified Individuals, 
whether upon invitation or not. 

Article VI 

Each High Contracting Party shall, for the purpose 
of promoting to the fullest extent possible the interchange 
of persons referred to in Article V, encourage the estab- 
lishment of scholarships, fellowships, travel grants and 
other forms of assistance In the academic and cultural 
institutions within its territory, and shall, insofar as 
feasible, make available to the other High Contracting 
Party information with regard to such assistance. Each 
High Contracting Party shall also endeavor to supply 
the other vrith information with regard to facilities, 
courses or other opportunities which might be of partic- 

697 



911674—50- 



ular interest to nationals of the other High Contracting 
Party. 

Article VII 

Each High Contracting Party shall, within the limit 
of available funds and to the extent authorized by exist- 
ing law, provide orientation courses and other appro- 
priate services within its territory for nationals of the 
other state undertaking teaching, study or research, and 
shall encourage the institution of vacation courses for 
nationals of the other High Contracting Party. 

Article VIII 

Each High Contracting Party shall encourage the clos- 
est collaboration for the purpose of bringing together the 
peoples of the United States of America and the United 
States of Brazil and fostering a mutual understanding 
of the intellectual, artistic, scientific and social lives of 
the people of the two countries. 

Article IX 

Each High Contracting Party shall, to the extent feas- 
ible, take part and encourage its respective ofilcial and 
private Institutions and nationals to take part in con- 
ferences, fairs, music festivals, art and scientific exhibits, 
theatrical events and similar activities held in the terri- 
tory of the other High Contracting Party. 



Article X 

Each High Contracting Party shall undertake to facili- 
tate and encourage the offering of prizes, honors or 
awards for literary and other artistic works on any aspect 
of its culture by nationals of the other High Contracting 
Party. 

Article XI 

The cooperation provided for in this Convention shall 
not prejudice in any way the work of any international 
agency for cultural cooperation of which either High 
Contracting Party may be a member, nor the develop- 
ment of cultural relationships between either High Con- 
tracting Party and any third state. 

Article XII 

The present Convention shall be ratified by the High 
Contracting Parties in accordance with their respective 
constitutional requirements and shall come into force 
upon the exchange of the instruments of ratification, 
which shall take place in Rio de Janeiro. 

Article XIII 

The present Convention shall remain in force Indefi- 
nitely, but may be terminated by one year's notice from 
either High Contracting Party to the other High Con- 
tracting Party. 



Economic Outlook in India and Pakistan 

by George C. McGhee 

Assistant Secretary for Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs ■ 



India and Pakistan are frequently thought of in 
conjunction with one another, not only because 
they share a subcontinent but because they emerged 
so recently into separate independence. Although 
the Indians and Pakistanis do share a great deal 
of history, there are important differences in their 
social and economic circumstances. It is well, 
therefore, to be careful before making generaliza- 
tions which cover both countries. 

First, I should like to say that the long-range 
prospects for India and Pakistan are distinctly 
favorable. In all the 5,000 years of civilization on 
this subcontinent, there have been few times when 
their outlook has been so dynamic. The people 
are on the move. They are determined to better 
their social and economic conditions. They in- 
tend to make their recently won independence a 
means to that goal. Their centuries-old feudal 
structure has been almost completely swejit away. 

'Excerpts from an address made before the Far East 
America Council of Commerce and Industry at New York, 
N. Y., on Oct. 20 and released to the press on the same date. 



Their land tenure system, built up over two cen- 
turies, is being revised. Both countries are for- 
tunate in having able leaders, who are energetically 
seeking to improve conditions of life for their 
peoples. 

The population of the subcontinent is intelli- 
gent, capable, and industrious. It includes Nobel 
Prize winners and outstanding leaders in science, 
literature, and the professions. Many have al- 
ready proved to be excellent industrial workers 
when given adequate training. Although the 
population is very great, enormous natural re- 
sources remain unsurveyed or undeveloped. "With 
these human and natural potentialities, and with 
the application of modern scientific techniques, 
the impetus which nationalism provides should 
result in the creation of an economy of mass pro- 
duction on a scale hitherto unknown. 

Industrial and Natural Resources 

India's mineral wealth is greater than most 
people realize. It includes reserves of "workable 



698 



Department of State Bulletin 



coal" estimated at 16 billion tons. Kelatively 
close to many of these rich coalfields, are iron ore 
deposits of excellent quality, estimated at 3 billion 
tons, or three-fourths those in the United States. 
Manganese reserves are estimated at 100 million 
tons, far more than the reserves of any country 
except the U.S.S.R. Three-quarters of the 
■world's mica is produced in India, and that coun- 
try also leads in production of kyanite, ilmenite, 
and monazite. 

Indian munitions and textile factories played a 
significant role in the supply of Allied armies 
fighting in North Africa and Southeast Asia dur- 
ing the Second World War. Most of the factories 
of the subcontinent were located in the area which 
fell to India after partition in 1947. India's mills 
consume more cotton than those of the United 
Kingdom, and India normally exports about 10 
percent of the cotton textiles entering world trade. 
In other words, India has an important industrial 
foundation on which to build. 

Pakistan has a small oilfield in production, and 
there is hope that another field will be opened soon. 
Moreover, it is possible that further exploration 
will discover other important mineral resources. 
Pakistan's transport system is adequate, but it 
must build its industry almost fi-om scratch. 
Pakistan has great agricultural resources, includ- 
ing an excellent irrigation system serving 20 mil- 
lion acres. 

Economic Problems 

These, in brief, are the industrial and natural 
resources on which India and Pakistan can build. 
I shall now turn to some of the immediate economic 
problems which these nations are attacking with 
energy and confidence. 

One of India's principal problems is that of 
food production. India's agriculture yields from 
one-third to one-half as much per acre as that of 
the Western countries and Japan. In 1933, Sir 
John Megaw pul)lished the results of a medical 
survey into the dietary conditions of 600 typical 
agricultural villages in, what was then, British 
India. Serious undernourishment was reported 
from all provinces. Yet, in the period from 1934 
to 1938, per capita food consumption was only 5 
percent below the minimum target subsequently 
set by the Food and Agriculture Organization for 
tropical areas. Since that time, average consump- 
tion in India has fallen considerably and is now 
18 percent below Fag standards. Unless improve- 
ments are made in Indian agriculture, there will 
be a continued fall in diet as the country increases 
in population by an estimated 5 million annually. 

MANPOWER SHORTAGE 

Another serious problem for both countries is 
that of finding managers, foremen, and even ad- 
ministrators for the many development projects 
which both have planned. Though the two Gov- 

Ocfober 30, 1950 



ernments have mobilized their trained manpower, 
they are well aware that even more Indians and 
Pakistanis with the requisite technical education 
are needed in order, adequately, to manage the 
industries, mines, hydroelectric projects, and other 
enterprises which they hope to undertake or com- 
plete in the next few years. 

The low living standards in South Asia — as in 
many other parts of the world — are primarily the 
result of low productivity, which, in turn, is a con- 
sequence of inadequate education and training and 
of undernourishment and ill health. The average 
lifespan in India and Pakistan is less than half that 
of most Western countries, and disease is corre- 
spondingly more prevalent. These factors sug- 
gest the necessity of a simultaneous attack on 
inadequate food production, illiteracy, and disease. 

FOOD SUPPLY 

The trade dispute between the two countries 
poses additional problems. Traditionally, India 
has been a natural market for most of Pakistan's 
raw jute and cotton, as well as for its wheat sur- 
l^luses. Althougli Pakistan has succeeded in dis- 
posing of last year's cotton crop without sale to 
India, her jute and wheat have not been sold so 
satisfactorily. Similarly, jute and cotton mills in 
India have had to operate at less than full capacity 
because supplies of these fibers, including those 
produced in India, were not adequate to keep the 
mills busy. Pakistan has been selling wheat to 
Germany, while India imports foodstuffs from 
countries thousands of miles away, including Aus- 
tralia, Canada, and the United States. Pakistan 
has imported coal from Poland, the United King- 
dom, France, and South Afi'ica, even though her 
needs could be supplied from India's rich coal- 
fields only a few hundred miles away. Each coun- 
try seems to be attempting to prove that she can 
exist without trading with the other, but the cost, 
in both cases, is very great. 

LACK OF FOREIGN INVESTMENTS 

Perhaps the most difficult problem facing South 
Asian development is shortage of capital. Al- 
though there are a few vei-y wealthy Indians and 
Pakistanis^ they are exceptions, and the aggregate 
of domestic capital available for investment is 
small. Accordingly, foreign investments have 
always been important to the economy of the sub- 
continent. Naturally enough, most of these in- 
vestments were British. However, a fairly large 
proportion of British capital was repatriated dur- 
ing and after the war, a net outflow of foreign 
capital of 5 billion rupees in the decade 1939-1949. 
Foreign investment remaining in India alone was 
estimated in 1948 as 5.96 billion rupees, of which 
72 percent was British and only 5.7 percent Amer- 
ican. Although both India and Pakistan have 
given repeated assurances since their independ- 
ence that foreign capital would be welcomed and 

699 



treated fairly, only a trickle of foreign private 
capital has gone into these two countries. Foreign 
investments, since independence 3 years ago, have 
totaled less than 20 million dollars, of which only 
a small fraction came from the United States. 

Although India had a favorable balance of pay- 
ments with the dollar area, as well as with the 
world as a whole, for part of 1949 and for the 
early part of 1950, this resulted from a strict im- 
port-licensing policy and from devaluation. 
Since that time, India's balance of trade has be- 
come unfavorable once more. Pakistan's highly 
favorable balance of payments in 1947 and 1948 
has since become distinctly unfavorable. Al- 
though the release of sterling balances in the 
United Kingdom has, until now, cushioned the 
shortage of foreign exchange, both countries have 
spent a substantial portion of their balances. Both 
India and Pakistan have a real need for capital ; 
and, while there are, of course, differences in in- 
ternal policies, both Governments would welcome 
private capital from external sources for a wide 
range of enterprises. However, where private 
capital is not forthcoming, both Governments are 
determined to carry on their development with 
public capital, if necessary, by government loans 
from the International Bank or other foreign 
sources. 

As I have said, leaders in this area are fully 
aware of their immediate problems. Social re- 
forms of outstanding importance are taking place 
in both countries. Technical institutes are being 
established, to train engineers for new factories 
and other development projects. Teams from the 
World Health Organization are now working in 
both countries to improve the health of the people. 
Far-reaching land reforms are being implemented 
gradually in both countries. Although at present 
there are no provisions for the repatriation of 
American investments, profits can be taken out 
without great difSculty. Discussions have been 
held with India with respect to a treaty of friend- 
ship, commerce, and navigation, and a draft has 
also been given the Government of Pakistan for 
its consideration. We would like to complete ne- 
gotiations as soon as possible on a basis satisfac- 
tory to the United States and to the Governments 
of these countries. 

PLANS FOR EXTENSIVE DEVELOPMENTS 

In other fields of development, planning is go- 
ing forward. India plans to increase food pro- 
duction by several million tons by 1952. The 
detailed plans call for extension of irrigation, 
improved use of fertilizers, increased clearing or 
cultivable jungle, and the reclamation of large 
areas which have been taken over by kans grass. 
A start was made in 1947 on the latter project by 
setting up a Central Tractor Organization and 
by the purchase of 222 American war-surpkis 
tractors. New tractors have been added since. 

The river valley schemes for the subcontinent 



are broad in scope although they cannot yield re- 
sults as quickly as the Indian projects which I 
have just mentioned. India alone plans to spend 
an estimated $3,878,800,000 in the next two decades 
on these plans, beginning with an expenditure for 
the first year of nearly 200 million dollars. These 
great projects, perhaps partially inspired by our 
own Tennessee Valley Authority, are eventually 
expected to increase the cultivated area by 25 mil- 
lion acres and to generate 10 million kilowatts of 
power. The outstanding river development 
scheme is the Damodar Valley project, with an 
estimated total cost of 110 million dollars. This 
project alone is expected to add a power potential 
of 400,000 kilowatts. 

With the rich iron and coal deposits, which I 
have noted, it is natural that India should plan to 
erect additional steel mills with a total capacity 
of a million tons. Machine tools, telephone equip- 
ment, locomotives, fertilizers, and penicillin are 
among the other principal products of factories 
covered by existing plans. The Indian Govern- 
ment has decided to undertake many of its indus- 
trial enterprises, chiefly, it appears, because pri- 
vate initiative has been lacking. Most observers 
agree, however, that the pace of industrialization 
and other development will be very slow if left 
entirely to Indian jjublic or private capital re- 
sources. 

Pakistan has correspondingly extensive develop- 
ment plans. The Government has wisely chosen 
to emphasize improvement in agriculture, trans- 
port, communications, and electric power, along 
with further processing facilities for Pakistan's 
raw materials such as cotton, jute, hides and skins, 
and cottonseed. According to a 1949 estimate by 
the Minister of Commerce, approximately 750 mil- 
lion dollars will be spent on development in the 
next 10 years. One outstanding project calls for 
the irrigation of 5 million acres in the Thai area, 
a semidesert in the western part of the Punjab. 
Two million acres will be given constant irriga- 
tion, enabling two crops per year to be grown, 
while 3 million acres will be irrigated at certain 
times of the year. The great Lower Sind Bar- 
rage scheme is expected, eventually, to transform 
another 2 million acres from desert to rich farm- 
ing land. 

Pakistan's plans also call for the erection of 
numerous dams for the production of increased 
hydroelectric power, some of which may be used 
for tubewells in the fight against waterlogging and 
salt encrustation in the irrigated portion of the 
Punjab and some which may be used for a paper 
mill in East Bengal. Considerable attention is 
also being devoted to improvement of ports, bet- 
ter communications, and more educational facili- 
ties, particularly training centers for teclinicians. 

Private Pakistani enterprise has constructed 
several cotton mills and is now cooperating with 
the Government in erecting three jute mills in East 
Bengal. A sugar mill, with a capacity of 50,000 



700 



Department of State Bulletin 



tons annually, has recently commenced operations, 
and anotlier large vegetable oil mill is nearing 
completion, under joint ownership of local capital- 
ists and a world-famous British firm. However, 
since private foreign and domestic capital has not 
yet come forward in Pakistan on an adequate 
scale, an Industrial Development Corporation has 
been set up by the Government to promote in- 
dependent companies. This Corporation will sub- 
scribe sucli of the capital as the public does not 
talie up, with the intention of disposing of the 
government interest in due course. 

Program of Technical Assistance 

The importance to the free nations of the world 
of the economic well-being of so vast and important 
an area as the subcontinent is luiiversally recog- 
nized. One important means of enhancing the 
well-being of this area lies in the importation of 
technical assistance. Such technical assistance is 
being rendered by the World Health Organiza- 
tion, the Food and Agi'iculture Organization, the 
International Labor Organization, and other 
United Nations agencies. This program will be 
coordinated with the Commonwealth Technical 
Cooperation scheme and with our own Fulbright, 
Smitli-Mundt, and Point 4 programs. American 
private foundations and missionary societies have 
helped and are helping greatly in the field of 
education. Foreign business interests which have 
established offices in India and Pakistan offer 
specialized training to local employees and busi- 
ness associates. It is to be hoped that many of 
the more progressive companies will share their 
modern techniques of production and marketing 
with businessmen and industrial engineers of the 
region. 

In addition to the importation of technical as- 
sistance, action is being taken on a cooperative 
international basis to attack the basic economic 
difficulties wliich confront this area. Representa- 
tives of the Commonwealth countries, including 

'India and Pakistan, have recently discussed in 
London far-reaching development programs for 
South and Southeast Asia, including plans for 
Conamonwealth teclinical aid and for a consider- 
able measure of capital investment. The Com- 
monwealth representatives have a wealth of 
experience in South Asia, and their developing 
plans appear to be statesmanlike in character and 
realistically related both to the needs and the re- 
sources of this area. It does, moreover, provide 
an impetus for planning and a basis for coordina- 
tion among the states of South and Southeast 
Asia which has not hitherto existed. 

The region clearly must receive an increased in- 
flow of foreign capital if development plans are 
to be carried out. The International Bank for 
Keconstruction and Development has already 

""made three loans to India, and a group of experts 
from the Bank has recently left for Pakistan. 
There will remain, however, a considerable gap 



between the capital needs of the subcontinent and 
the present availabilities. It would accord with 
our principles of free enterprise for private capital 
to fill this gap. Unhappily, private capital has 
only partially met the challenge thus far, and, 
in view of world conditions, it is not likely that a 
large volume of private capital will flow from the 
United States or other developed countries into 
South Asia in the near future. 

It is in the interest of the United States and of 
the free world that the resources of this area be de- 
veloped for the people so that they can make eco- 
nomic progress, preserving and strengthening their 
democratic governments and their orientation to- 
ward the United Nations and the free peace-lov- 
ing nations of the world. Although the magnitude 
of the capital needed in South Asia is much less 
than in more developed areas, the need is no less 
urgent. If, as is presently indicated, sufficient 
capital from foreseeable sources is not forthcom- 
ing to carry out the modest plans developed by 
these countries to meet their own needs, their prob- 
lems will become more serious. This is not only 
vitally important for tlie nations directly con- 
cerned, but is of far-reaching international sig- 
nificance. The basic problem — that of the 
continuance of democratic institutions in South 
Asia — cannot fail to challenge the resourcefulness 
and initiative of the American Government and its 
people. 



Military Assistance Agreement 
Concluded With Thailand 

Statement iy Ambassador Edwin F. Stanton 
[Released to the press October 18] 

United States Ambassador to Thailand, Edwin F. Stan- 
ton, on the occasion of the signing of a military assistance 
agreement betiveen the United States and Thailand, on 
October 17, made the following statement at Bangkok. 

As stated in the preamble of the military assist- 
ance agreement concluded this day between the 
Government of the United States and the Govern- 
ment of Thailand, it is the desire of both Govern- 
ments to foster international peace and security 
within the framework of the Charter of the United 
Nations through measures which will further the 
ability of nations dedicated to the purposes and 
principles of the Charter to develop effective meas- 
ures for self defense in support of those purposes 
and principles. Furthermore, the signing of this 
agreement is a practical expression of the willing- 
ness of the American people to help Thailand's 
people when they need help to maintain their 
traditional rights, liberty, and independence. By 
assisting them in the preservation of these rights, 
we shall advance a cause in which our two coun- 
tries have a common stake — the cause of peace, and 



October 30, 1950 



701 



fi-eedom. This agreement is not a military alliance 
nor is it a defense pact. This agreement contains 
no provisions for military, naval, or air bases. 
The Government of Thailand has not offered such 
bases, nor has the Goverament of the United States 
ever requested such bases or any special concession. 

This agreement follows the request by the Gov- 
ernment of Thailand for arms and equipment to 
strengthen Thailand's forces with a view to en- 
abling them better to defend Thailand and Thai- 
land's people from any aggression which may 
threaten the peace and tranquility of this country. 
This request was made in the knowledge that ag- 
gressive forces are rampant in the Far East today 
and appear to be looking hungrily toward Thai- 
land and her neighbors. 

Both the people of Thailand and the American 
people have known what it means to struggle to 
achieve freedom and liberty — these supreme rights 
of man we are detennined to defend and to pre- 
serve at all costs. It is in this spirit that the 
Government of the United States has responded 
to the appeal from the Government of Thailand 
and has decided to give army and military equip- 
ment which will replace old equipment now being 
used by tlie armed forces of Thailand and to supply 
a number of American officers and technicians for 
demonstration training purposes. It is my sincere 
hope that the assistance being extended by the 
Government of the United States will give the 
armed forces and people of Thailand a feeling of 
greater security and will engender unity of pur- 
pose between the army, the navy, and the air force 
for the greater good of Thailand. By preserving 
peace, Thailand's armed forces will not only insure 
progress and prosperity for the people of Thailand 
but will also be making a definite contribution to 
world peace. 



Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the 
Government of the United States will take in order 
to promote sound economic conditions and stable 
international relationships. It outlines under- 
standings under which technical and economic as- 
sistance requested by Indonesia will be furnished. 
These provisions are designed to assure maximum 
benefits to the people of the Eepublic of Indonesia 
from assistance provided under the agreement. 

As a result of discussions with Indonesian offi- 
cials at the time of the Griffin Mission's visit to 
Indonesia, it was decided that assistance could 
advantageously be made available in the form of 
supplies and technical advice in fields of public 
health, agriculture, fisheries, industi-y, and educa- 
tion. The United States Government will fur- 
nish such assistance in these fields as may be de- 
sired by the Indonesian Government. 

An initial request for urgently needed supplies 
lias been prepared by the Indonesian Government. 
These supplies will include, for example, mate- 
rials for small-holder rubber producers; agricul- 
tural tools, such as hoes and small plows ; medical 
supplies, and motorized fishing vessels. These 
supplies will be obtained not only in the United 
States but also in such coimtries where they may be 
readily available. 

The agreement will take effect upon approval 
of the Parliament of the Republic of Indonesia 
for ratification, which the Department has been 
assured will be expedited. 



Lewis H. Van Dusen Named 
to NAC Staff 



U.S.-lndonesia Sign 

Economic Cooperation Agreement 

[Released to the press October 1T\ 

Dr. Mohammed Roem, Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs of the Eepublic of Indonesia, and H. Merle 
Cochran, American Ambassador to Indonesia, on 
October 16 signed an agreement providing for eco- 
nomic cooperation between their two Governments. 
The agreement arises from recommendations made 
by the Economic Survey Mission led by R. Allen 
Griffin who visited Indonesia in April this year. 

Indonesia is the third Asian state to enter into 
an economic cooperation agreement with the 
United States. The Govermnent of the Union of 
Burma on September 13, and the Govermnent of 
Tlxailand on September 19, this year, signed sim- 
ilar agreements. 

The agreement sets forth measures which the 



The Department of State announced on October 
20 the appointment of Lewis H. Van Dusen, as 
Executive Director of the staff of the United States 
Deputy Representative to the North Atlantic 
Council, Charles M. Spofford. In this capacity, 
Mr. Van Dusen will be assigned to London and 
will perform such duties as may be assigned from 
time to time by the deputy representative. 



Letters of Credence 

Burma 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Burma, 
James Barrington, presented his credentials to the 
President on October 11, 1950. For texts of the 
Ambassador's remarks and the President's reply, 
see Department of State press release 1044 of 
October 11. 



702 



Department of State Bulletin 



Point 4 Project in Iran Announced 

[Released to the press October 19] 

The first comprehensive tecluiical cooperation 
project under the new Point 4 Program — an in- 
tegrated health, agriculture, and education proj- 
ect for improving living conditions in i-ural vil- 
lages in Iran — was announced today by the Gov- 
ernments of Iran and the United States. 

The project, to be undertaken at the request of 
the Government of Iran, will be carried out un- 
der authority of the Act for International De- 
velopment (i'ublic Law 535) recently enacted by 
the Eighty-first Congi-ess. 

Supervision of the cooperative program will be 
exercised by an Iranian-U. S. Joint Commission 
for Rural Improvement, composed of four repre- 
sentatives of the Government of Iran and three 
representatives of the Government of the United 
States, with an Iranian member as chairman. 
The Commission will designate a technical direc- 
tor for the project and will determine what 
personnel and facilities are required for each 
country. 

The United States has allocated $500,000 for 
technical cooperation in Iran from the Point 4 
appropriation for the current fiscal year. It is 
expected that the rural improvement program will 
require $300,000 between now and June 30, 1951, 
with the remaining $200,000 being available for 
expansion of this program or for undertaking 
other technical cooperation projects in Iran. 

The Iranian Government will contribute per- 
somiel, land, buildings, and locally produced 
equipment to the cooperation program, in addi- 
tion to funds for operating expenses. The United 
States will provide the services of agricultural, 
health, and educational experts and equipment not 
produced in Iran. 

An integrated program with major emphasis 
on health, agriculture, and education will be car- 
ried out by American and Iranian personnel work- 
ing together in rural villages near the principal 
centers of population. These centers will serve 
as demonstration and training areas, in which ac- 
tion programs will be carried out both to improve 
the living conditions and productivity of the in- 
habitants and to train Iranian teachers and dem- 
onstration agents who can apply the same methods 
in other villages. 

Each demonstration area will be a nucleus from 
which the techniques for increasing food produc- 
tion, reducing disease, raising the education level, 
and otherwise improving the living conditions of 
the people will be gradually extended to other 
villages throughout Iran. These activities are es- 
sential to the general economic development of the 
country. 

The first demonstration center will be established 
immediately and three more are expected to be in 
operation by next June 30. It is expected that 10 



such centers will be in operation by June 30, 1952. 

In addition to the new Iranian project an- 
nounced today and other proposals under consid- 
eration by Ambassador Capus M. Waynick, acting 
administrator. Office of Technical Cooperation and 
Administration, Department of State, there are 
approximately 100 technical cooperation projects 
in operation under the Point 4 Program. Nearly 
all of these were begun under authority of prior 
legislation and were incorporated in the Point 4 
Program under the terms of Public Law 535. 

The Institute of Inter-American Affairs is con- 
ducting 25 of these projects in the other American 
Eepublics, and other agencies of the United States 
Government are conducting 72 projects. In con- 
nection with these programs, 412 American tech- 
nicians were at work in technical cooperation 
projects in other countries during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1950. During the same period, 
597 nationals of other countries were brought to 
the United States for technical training. In addi- 
tion, hundreds of technical and semiprofessional 
people were trained locally on cooperative projects 
in their own countries. The numoer of American 
technicians abroad and trainees in this country will 
increase substantially during this first year of the 
Point 4 Program. 

The heads of United States diplomatic missions 
in about 60 countries have been authorized to re- 
ceive requests from other governments for tech- 
nical assistance from the United States under the 
Point 4 Program. These requests are discussed 
with the other government and transmitted to the 
Department of State with the recommendation of 
the United States chief of mission. 

Each request is carefully studied by the Depart- 
ment of State and the appropriate technical agency 
in the United States Government. When a project 
has been approved by the Point 4 Administrator, 
an agreement is made between the two govern- 
ments specifying the terms under which the work 
is to be carried out. These terms include the 
amount of money to be contributed by each govern- 
ment and the personnel, facilities, materials, and 
equipment each is to supply to the joint enterprise. 

Upon conclusion of the agreement, technicians 
are assigned to the project by the appropriate 
technical agency of the United States Government, 
which provides technical guidance for the tech- 
nicians while they are in the field. Selection of 
the technicians must be approved by the Depart- 
ment of State, which provides policy guidance and 
general direction to such personnel. 

When the technicians report for work in the 
counto' to which they are assigned, they are re- 
sponsible to the head of the United States diplo- 
matic mission. It is expected that a technical 
cooperation officer will be designated in each em- 
bassy or mission where several projects are in 
operation to provide general supervision on the 
scene on behalf of the chief of mission. 



Ocfober 30, 1950 



703 



Tax Treaty Negotiations With Finland 

[Released to the press October 20] 

United States and Finnish tax officials are ex- 
pected to meet at an early date for technical dis- 
cussions of possibilities for improving tax relations 
between the two counti-ies and to consider whether 
a basis exists for conventions for the avoidance of 
double taxation with respect to taxes on income 
and to taxes on the estates of deceased persons. 

If a basis for conventions is found, drafts of the 
proposed terms will be prepared by the partici- 
pants and submitted to their respective govern- 
ments for consideration with a view to signing. 

In preparation for the discussions, interested 
persons are invited to submit information and sug- 
gestions to Eldon P. King, Special Deputy Com- 
missioner of Internal Revenue, Bureau of Internal 
Eevenue, Washington, D.C. 



U.S. Speeds Shipment of Arms Aid 
to France and Indochina 

[Released to the press October 11} 

In the course of conversations which have taken 
place during the last few days between Dean G. 
Acheson, Secretary of State; John W. Snyder, 
Secretary of the Treasury; George C. Marshall, 
Secretary of Defense; and William C. Foster, 
Economic Cooperation Administrator, on behalf 
of the United States, and Jules Moch, Minister 
of Defense, and Maurice Petsche, Minister of 
Finance, on behalf of France, a review has been 
made of the United States contribution to the 
implementation of the French rearmament pro- 
gram within the framework of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization. This review has included 
the question of additional United States military 
aid to Indochina. 

The United States Government has expressed 
the view that a military effort of the general 
magnitude and character planned by the French 
Government would be a vital contribution to the 
defensive strength of the North Atlantic area. 
Out of the sums appropriated by the United 
States Congress under the Mutual Defense As- 
sistance Act, for fiscal yeare 1950 and 1951, about 
5 billion dollars have been earmarked for military 
equipment to be delivered to the European mem- 
bers of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 
France has been assigned by far the largest single 
part of these amounts. 

In addition, the United States Congress has 
appropriated for military assistance in the Far 
East approximately one-half billion dollars. In 
view of the importance of the operations in Indo- 
china, the major part of this sum is being used to 



provide military equipment, including light 
bombers, for the armed forces both of France and 
of the Associated States of Indochina. 

This assistance will provide a very important 
part of the equipment required by the forces con- 
templated for activation in 1951 in France and 
for current operations in Indochina. Deliveries 
of equipment are being expedited and, with re- 
spect to Indochina, a particularly high priority 
has been assigned. 

Moreover, the following agreement has been 
reached during the talks with respect to produc- 
tion assistance: 

(a) On an interim basis, and within the funds already 
appropriated under the Mutual Defense Assistance Act 
by the Congress for the fiscal year 1951, the Government 
of the United States will make available in support of 
the French Government's increased military production 
program assistance in the amount of 200 million dollars, 
these funds to be obligated prior to June 30, 1951. 

(b) The final amount of American assistance to sup- 
port the expanded French defense effort will, subject to 
future provision of funds by the Congress, be determined 
on the basis of multilateral discussions within the frame- 
worlj of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization directed 
toward an equitable distribution among all the North 
Atlantic Treaty members of the economic burdens of the 
common rearmament effort. 



Legislation — Continued from page 6S6 

Independent Offices Appropriations, 1951. Hearings 
before the subcommittee of the Committee on Appropria- 
tions, United States Senate, 81st Cong., 2d sess., making 
appropriations for the Executive Office and sundry inde- 
pendent executive bureaus, boards, commissions, corpora- 
tions, agencies, and offices, for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1951, and for other purposes. 1136 pp. 
(Indexed) 

Foreign Aid Appropriations for 1951. Hearings before 
the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, 
81st Cong., 2d sess., making appropriations for foreign 
aid for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1951, and for other 
purposes. (Department of State, indexed) 647 pp. 

Mutual Defense Assistance Program, 1950. Hearings 
before the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Com- 
mittee on Armed Services, United States Senate 81st 
Cong., 2d sess., on the Mutual Defense Assistance Pro- 
gram, 19!>0; June 2, 5, 6, and 15, 1950. (Department of 
State, pp. 1, 49, 74, 77-80) S., 81st Cong., 2d sess., 113 pp. 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Convention. Hearings be- 
fore a subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and 
Foreign Commerce, United States Senate, 81st Cong., 2d 
sess., on S. 2801. A bill to give effect to the International 
Convention for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, signed 
at Washington under date of February 8, 1949, and for 
other purposes. April 4 and 5, 1950. (Department of 
State, pp. 21, 44, 66) 120 pp. 

Revision of the United Nations Charter. Hearings be- 
fore a subcommittee of the Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions, United States Senate, 81st Cong., 2d sess., on resolu- 
tions relative to revision of tlie United Nations Charter, 
Atlantic Union, World Federation, etc., February 2, 3, 6, 
8, 9, 13, 15, 17, and 20, 1950. (Department of State, 
Indexed) S., 81st Cong., 2d sess., 808 pp. 

Authorizing Aid to Needy American Nationals in Con- 
nection With Their Repatriation From Foreign Coun- 
tries. H. Rept. 2341, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany 
H. R. 8927] 14 pp. 

Authorizing the President To Invite the States of the 
Union and Foreign Countries To Participate in the First 
United States International Trade Fair. H. Rept. 2343, 
Slst Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany H. J. Res. 453] 4 pp. 



704 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Advancement Toward Self- Government of Trust Territories 



hy John Sherman Cooper 

Alternate U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ^ 



The United States, as a member of the Trustee- 
ship Council, has had the opportunity of express- 
ing its views upon substantive matters in the de- 
liberation of the Council and in the report which 
is before us. The United States delegate in the 
Trusteeship Council approved the adoption of the 
Council report to the Assembly. 

Accordingly, we will not comment at great 
length, at this time, upon the report, and our com- 
ments will be of a general nature. 

The distinguished president of the Council and 
other delegates have drawn attention to the wide 
scope and intensity of the Trusteeship Council's 
activities during the year covered by its report. 
The special tasks assigned to the Council by the 
Assembly, such as those relating to Jerusalem, the 
Italian colonies, and the question of administrative 
unions, required extensive consideration. These 
assignments were carried out in addition to the 
performance by the Council of its supervisory role 
in the trusteeship system. This supervisory work, 
which may be characterized as the "normal" 
activity of the Trusteeship Council, involves the 
examination of the detailed reports of the admin- 
istering authorities on the trust territories, the 
examination of a great volume of petitions, the 
organization of visiting missions and the examina- 
tion of tlieir rei^orts. We would not contend that 
the work of the Trusteeship Council is to be eval- 
uated alone by the volume of documentation or 
investigative activities. But it is essential that we 
take note of the exacting detail with which the 
members of the Council must inquire into every 
aspect of the administration of the territories 

'Statement made before Committee IV (Trusteeship), 
on Oct. 13 and released to the press by the U.S. Mission 
to the U.N. on the same date. 



which come under their supervision, if a reasonable 
and fair judgment is to be made of its work. 

My Government believes that the work of the 
Council during the past year has demonstrated 
that it is recognizing the responsibilities imposed 
upon it by the Charter to promote the advancement 
of the inhabitants of the trust territories toward 
self-government and independence and that it has 
made progress toward its objectives. 

We have listened with interest to the discussion 
of various aspects of the Trusteeship Council re- 
port by the representatives who have spoken in 
this debate. The United States delegation, as a 
member of the Trusteeship Council, welcomes the 
comments made with constructive purpose and in- 
tent during the course of this debate, and particu- 
larly on the part of members who are not seated 
in the Trusteeship Council and who, therefore, 
must utilize this forum as a means of expressing 
their views on this important aspect of the work 
of the United Nations. I should like to take this 
opportunity to comment on a few of the points 
raised by preceding speakers. 

Problems Concerning the Trusteeship Council 

Among the questions raised, a number of dele- 
gates have referred to the problem of the relation- 
ship between the Trusteeship Council and the 
General Assembly. My delegation does not con- 
sider that it was intended by the creatoi's of the 
Charter that the Trusteeship Council should be- 
come a sort of "rubber stamp" body with the 
function of merely adding its imprimatur to reso- 
lutions passed by the General Assembly. Article 
7 of the Charter created the Trusteeship Council 
as one of the principal organs of the United Na- 



Ocfober 30, J 950 



705 



tions along with the Security Council, the General 
Assembly, and others. It was undoubtedly con- 
templated that the Council would provide a special 
knowledge and experience which would be exer- 
cised objectively and continuously. It is obvious 
that the Assembly and this Committee cannot ex- 
amine in detail every specific situation which may 
arise. It is, therefore, the view of my Government 
that the Assembly should, in general, make broad 
recommendations of policy to' the Council rather 
than upon matters of specific detail. Specific mat- 
ters should be referred to the Council for study and 
with the request that the Council make appropriate 
recommendations to the administering countries 
based upon these studies. 

A suggestion has been advanced that the Trus- 
teeship Council should be requested to establish a 
standing committee to deal with petitions, admin- 
istrative unions, and the reports of the administer- 
ing authorities. As I have already stated, my 
Government believes that the Trusteeship Council, 
as presently organized, is an effective and efficient 
body which is steadily advancing in the perfor- 
mance of functions which are entrusted to it by the 
Charter. Article 9 of the Charter empowers the 
Trusteeship Council to adopt its own rules of 
procedure. The United States delegation believes, 
therefore, that the adoption of such a procedure 
would be inappropriate. 

COUNCIL'S REPORTS 

The rapporteur of the Committee, the represent- 
ative of Norway, in his statement to this Com- 
mittee, made a number of suggestions with respect 
to the work of the Council. My delegation was 
impressed by his observations regarding the desir- 
ability of closing the time gap between the period 
covered by the reports of the administering au- 
thorities and the examination of these reports by 
the Trusteesliip Council. The members of the 
Committee will wish to know that at the seventh 
session of the Trusteeship Council it was unani- 
mously agreed to consider this whole question dur- 
ing the Council's next session. My delegation is 
also prepared to give careful consideration to vari- 
ous suggestions, particularly the valuable sugges- 
tions of the representative of Denmark, which 
have been advanced with a view to the simplifica- 
tion and rationalization of the Council's report to 
the Assembly. 

The distinguished delegate of India recom- 
mended certain changes in the consideration of 
reports of the Council that would result in exten- 
sive changes in the procedure heretofore followed 
by this Committee m its work. We consider his 
proposals important and upon his further elabora- 
tion expect to set forth our view on this proposal at 
a later date. 

I have said earlier that the United States as a 
member of the Council welcomes the constructive 
comments which have been made during the course 
of this debate. It is true that uncritical praise is 



not very helpful. We believe as strongly that the 
selection and denunciation of every defect, with- 
out any reference to the circumstances in which 
they are found, and without reference to any move- 
ment of progress and improvement, is unfair and 
cannot be called constructive criticism. 

I must say frankly to the delegate of the 
U.S.S.R. that it would have been proper for his 
country to have made its criticisms in the Trustee- 
ship Council. I say further that the expressed 
concern of his delegation and country for the non- 
self-governing peoples of the world would be better 
demonstrated by fulfilling the obligations it as- 
sumed as a member of the Trusteeship Council, 
which it has not discharged. This concern could 
be demonstrated by attendance at meetings of the 
Council and by making efforts to correct defects 
there rather than by mere denunciation and words 
in this body. 

Certain of the observations of the Soviet repre- 
sentative were directed toward the administration 
by the United States of the trust territory for 
which it is responsible — the trust territory of the 
Pacific Islands. Since, as the report of the Trus- 
teeship Council clearly points out, the work of the 
Trusteeship Council regarding the trust territory 
of the Pacific Islands is the subject of a separate 
report by the Trusteeshi]i Council to the Security 
Council, my delegation has no intention of elab- 
orating in this iDody its administration of the 
Pacific Islands. But in order that the record may 
be set straight and to give point to my statement 
that mere denunciation is valueless and inaccurate, 
I will state briefly the facts on the several points 
raised by the Soviet representative. 

U.S. Administration of Trust Territories 

The Soviet representative stated, as I understood 
it, that the indigenous inhabitants of the trust ter- 
ritory of the Pacific Islands have "no part at all" 
in the management of their own affairs. What is 
the true situation in this respect ? The true situ- 
ation is that the United States has already taken 
steps to promote the political advancement of the 
inhabitants in accordance with the Charter and 
the trusteeship agreements and that substantial 
steps have been taken in this direction on the local, 
regional, and territoiy-wide levels. In this terri- 
tory of some 54,000 indigenous inhabitants re- 
siding on 96 distinct island groups, we have 
organized what our administrators call "munic- 
ipalities" as basic units of local government. Over 
100 such municipalities have already been estab- 
lished. Our objective is to organize at least one 
of these units of local goveniment on each in- 
habited atoll or separate island. As the Trustee- 
ship Council was informed, when the most recent 
report of the trust territory was examined, 135 of 
the principal officials then holding office in the 
municipalities had been selected by popular elec- 
tion. On the regional level, the Palau Congress 
has been functioning since July 4, 1947. The Mar- 



706 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



shall Islands Congress has also been established. 
Steps have been taken in the direction of a Con- 
gress for the Ponape District and for the Northern 
Marianas. It is the intention of the administering 
authority to stimulate the organization of these 
and other regional bodies and to facilitate the es- 
tablislunent of a territorial council. The tech- 
niques of democracy, including the process of 
voting, are thus being utilized on an increasingly 
wider scale. 

The Soviet representative stated that a "pre- 
liminary report" indicated that 90 percent of the 
inhabitants of the trust territory suffer from the 
disease of yaws. It is a fact that the figure of 
90 percent was the estimate of the American medi- 
cal authorities of the incidence of yaws at the time 
the United States undertook the administration of 
the trust territory. This situation has been amel- 
iorated since that time due to the efforts of the 
United States. Now an open lesion of yaws is 
seen infrequently, probably in less than 1 percent 
of patients presenting themselves for treatment. 
The Soviet representative referred to the fact that 
only 90 subdispensaries had been established in the 
trust territory. This is certainly a creditable 
number in relation to the population of the terri- 
tory, which amounts to approximately 54,000. In 
other words, there is one subdispensary for each 
600 inhabitants. In addition to the subdispen- 
saries, there are five main dispensaries and a mobile 
hospital ship, speciallj' fitted out as a floating 
clinic and laboratory with the most modern equip- 
ment and staff of medical and dental officers and 
technicians. All of these facilities serve a popu- 
lation of only 54,000 scattered over 3 million square 
miles of the Pacific Ocean. 

May I repeat that the foregoing facts are set 
forth in the report which the United States Gov- 
ernment has submitted to tlie United Nations and 
which have been made available to the Soviet 
delegation. 

Traditional U.S. Policy 

Finally, Mr. President, I would like to reassert 
that the well-established policy of the United 
States is to support to the fullest extent the Char- 
ter of the United Nations, including those chapters 
relating to the non-self-governing peoples of the 
world. It is in accord with the deep aspirations 
of dependent peoples toward self-government or 
independence and believes that these aspirations 
must be realized within the framework of the 
Charter. At the same time, my Government will 
exercise constant vigilance to iAsure that the non- 
self-governing peoples do not fall prey to the new 
imperialism, which is unceasingly attempting to 
extend its tentacles over the free world. 

This policy has been one which has been asserted 
and practiced by my country since its independ- 
ence, and it will not depart from that policy. 

All of us know that there are diverse views as 



to the methods, the means, and the time necessary 
for the attainment of these objectives. The prob- 
lem is complicated further by the undertones of 
deep emotions which must attach to the considera- 
tion of the fundamental hopes and aspirations of 
mankind and which spring naturally from our 
national histories and backgrounds. 

Whatever our views may be as to the means by 
which our objectives may be attained, we are faced 
with the fact that all of these views were consid- 
ered in the preparation of the Charter and that 
the plan which is available to us was adopted as 
we thought best to attain the aspirations of the 
non-self-governing people of the world. 

It is the view of my delegation that emotion, 
bitter denunciation, or propaganda will not meet 
the issues with which we are concerned and, in 
fact, are a disservice to the people with whose wel- 
fare we are concerned. I emphasize that it is 
their welfare, their aims which are important and 
not the propagation of our views or interests. I 
was impressed by the honesty with which the dis- 
tinguished delegate of Cliile drew attention to the 
central interest. It is certain that in the course of 
the work of this Committee the positions that will 
be taken by various members and by the United 
States may not always be approved if viewed 
emotionally or upon a short-term basis. 

I can only say that the United States will con- 
tinue to attempt to discharge its obligations ob- 
jectively, to fulfill its obligations to the non-self- 
governing peoples of the world, and to accelerate 
their advancement as rapidly as possible, in ac- 
cordance with the provisions and spirit of the 
Charter. 



U.S. Delegations 

to International Conferences 

Intergovernmental Tin Conference 

The Department of State announced on October 
16 that the President has designated Clarence W. 
Nichols, adviser. Economic Resources and Secu- 
rity Staff, Department of State, as United States 
delegate to the United Nations Intergovernmental 
Tin Conference to be convened at Geneva, October 
25, 1950. Other members of the United States 
delegation are : 

Advisers 

W. P. McKinnon, associate director, OflSce of Metals Re- 
serve, Reconstruction Finance Corporation 

Stanley D. Metzger, assistant to the legal adviser (Eco- 
nomic Affairs), OflBee of the Legal Adviser, Depart- 
ment of State 

William W. Tamplin, international trade economist. For- 
eign Minerals Region, Bureau of Mines, Depaitment 
of the Interior 

Erwin Vogelsang, Industry Operations Bureau, National 
Production Authority, Department of Commerce 



Ocfober 30, 1950 



707 



Industry Advisers 

Morris Foodim, Federated Metals Division, American 
Smelting and Refining Company, New York City 

Anthony Siragusa, assistant to the vice-president, United 
States Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh 

Secretarp 

Robert Read, attach^, American consulate, Geneva 

The Secretary-General of the United Nations is 
convening this Conference "to discuss measures 
designed to meet the special difficulties which exist 
or are expected to arise concerning tin and, if con- 
sidered desirable, to conclude an international com- 
modity agreement." A draft international agree- 
ment on tin prepared by the International Tin 
Study Group will serve as a basis for the discus- 
sion. Although the United States has questioned 
the necessity of negotiating an agreement at this 
time, this Government has decided, because of its 
interest in the world tin position, to participate 
in the forthcoming Conference. 

At the fifth meeting of the International Tin 
Study Grotip, held at Paris, March 20-29, 1950, 
representatives of the major tin-exporting coun- 
tries expressed great concern over the fact that 
the world production of tin was substantially in 
excess of commercial consumption, that commer- 
cial stocks of tin were already unusually large, 
and that the future continuity and duration of 
the noncommercial demand for tin were subject 
to considerable uncertainty. After extensive dis- 
cussion of these conditions, the International Tin 
Study Group adopted, by a vote in which only the 
United States was opposed, a resolution in which 
the Secretary-General of the United Nations 
was requested to convene a conference to discuss 
an agreement through which intergovernmental 
control would be exercised over international trade 
in tin. 



Petroleum Committee <ILO) 

The Department of State announced on October 
19 that the following have been designated dele- 
gates to the third session of the Petroleum Com- 
mittee of the International Labor Organization 
(Ilo) , which is to open at Geneva on October 24 : 

Oovernmeiit Representatives 

Hersey E. Riley, chief. Division of Construction Statistics, 
Bureau of r^abor Statistics, Department of Labor 

John L. Thurston, assistant administrator for program, 
Federal Security Agency 

Employers' Representatives 

0. Francis Beatty, director, Socony-Vacuum Oil Com- 
pany, Inc. 

John C. Quilty, Industrial Relations Department, Shell 
Oil Company 

Workers' Representatives 

Taylor Elliott, member of the International Union of 

Operating Engineers 
George T. Sinn, Federal Labor Union No. 19199 

At its third session, the Petroleum Industry 



Committee will consider a general report on the 
action taken in various countries in the light of the 
conclusions of its first two sessions, on studies and 
inquiries carried out by the International Labor 
Office with respect to the petroleum industry, and 
on recent events and developments in the industry. 
The Committee will also discuss a special report 
on social conditions in the petroleum industry. 

The Petroleum Committee is one of eight in- 
dustrial committees established by the Governing 
Body of the International Labor Office. The 
other industrial committees are concerned with 
building, civil engineering, and public works; 
chemicals; coal mines; inland transport; iron and 
steel; metal trades; and textiles. Through the 
meetings of these committees, in which govern- 
ment, employer, and labor representatives from 
various countries participate, the International 
Labor Organization is able to give close attention 
to tlie economic and social problems of the respec- 
tive industries. Delegates from the United States 
jDarticipated in the first session of the Petroleum 
Committee, held at Los Angeles, February 3-12, 
1947, and also in the second session, held at Geneva 
November 10-19, 1948. 



International Wheat Council 

The Department of State announced on October 
20 that the fourth session of the International 
Wlieat Council will convene at Geneva on October 
24, 1950, with the following United States delega- 
tion in attendance : 

United States Delegate 

Elmer F. Kruse, assistant administrator for commodity 
operations. Production and aiarketing Administration, 
Department of Agriculture 

Advisers 

Gordon P. Boals, head. Grain Division, International 

Commodities Branch, Office of Foreign Agi'icultural 

Relations, Department of Agriculture 
James C. Foster. Food Division, National Production 

Authority, Department of Commerce 
L. Ingemann Highby, Economic Resources and Security 

Staff, Department of State 
Paul O. Nyhus, agricultural attaoliS, American Embassy, 

London 

Adviser and Secretary 

Robert E. Menze, assistant chief. Wheat Agreement Staff, 
Production and JIarketing Administration, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture 

The agenda for this session of the International 
Wheat Council provides for (1) readjustment of 
the quotas of exporting countries because of quan- 
tities added to the quotas of importing countries; 
(2) consideration of possible changes in the rules 
of procedure of the Council; (3) consideration of 
ojierational procedures in the administration of the 
International Wheat Agreement in the light of 
the first year's experience ; (4) review of the report 
of the Executive Committee and consideration of 
the contents of the annual report of the Council ; 



708 



Department of State Bulletin 



and (5) action on an application from Iceland for 
permission to accede to the agreement as an import- 
ing country. 

The International Wheat Council was estab- 
lislied in 1949 pursuant to the terms of the Interna- 
tional Wheat Agreement of March 23, 19'19, an 
instrument designed to assure supplies of wheat to 
importing countries and markets for wheat to ex- 
porting countries at equitable and stable prices. 
Administration of the provisions of the agreement 
is the primary function of the Council which is 
composed of 42 exporting and importing countries 
parties to the agreement. Each country may be 
represented on the Council by a delegate, an alter- 
nate, and such technical advisers as are necessary. 

Geography, History, and Cartography 

The Department of State announced on October 
16 that there will be convened at Santiago, Chile, 
the fifth General Assembly of the Pan American 
Institute of Geography and History, and, concur- 
rently, the fifth consultation on eartogi-aphy, the 
second consultation of geography, and the second 
consultation on history of the Institute's three sub- 
sidiary Commissions. 

The Institute is an intergovernmental body 
which has as its purpose the development, coordi- 
nation, and dissemination of geogi-aphical, his- 
torical, and related scientific studies and the initia- 
tion of investigations and activities pertaining 
thereto. It was established in 1929 pursuant to a 
resolution of the Sixth International Conference 
of American States and has become one of the 
specialized organizations of the Organization of 
American States. Previous assemblies of the In- 
stitute have been held in 1929, 1932, 1935, 1941, 
and 1946. 

All 21 American Republics are members of the 
Institute, and since 1942, Canada has been repre- 
sented at its meetings by observers. The United 
States became a member in 1935. 

The Institute carries out its scientific activities 
through Commissions on Cartography, Geogra- 
phy, and History, each of which is composed of 
one representative from each of the American 
Republics. 

The fifth General Assembly has on its agenda 
subjects of an administrative and fiscal nature, 
while the meetings of the Commissions will con- 
sider technical matters and future programs in 
each of the three substantive fields. The Com- 
mission on Cartography will consider such sub- 
jects as geodetic operations, gravity and geomag- 
netism, seismology, topographic maps and 
aerophotogrammetry, aeronautical charts, hydrog- 
raphy, tides, special maps, and urban surveys. 
Meetings of the Geography Conmiission will be 
divided into five sections on physical geography 
and biography, human geography, regional geog- 
raphy, methodology and teaching, and geography 
of tlie Americas. The meetings of the Commis- 
sion on History will include sessions for the 



discussion of historical topics, sessions of the 
committees on archives, folklore, the emancipation 
movement, and the revision of history texts, and 
sessions for the formulation of the Commission's 
program of studies and publications. 

The United States Government will be repre- 
sented at the meeting by the following delegation : 

Chairman 

Claude G. Bowers, United States Ambassador to Chile, 

Santiago 

Vice Chairman 

Robert H. Randall, Bureau of the Budget, Washington, 
D. C, United States Representative on and Chair- 
man of Commission on Cartography, Pan American 
Institute of Geography and History 

Members 

William Applebaum, Boston, Mass., Member, Panel on 
Geographic Research Techniques, Research and De- 
velopment Board, Department of Defense 

Dr. RoUin S. Atwood, 0£Bcer-lu-Charge, Office of North 
and West Coast Affairs, Bureau of Inter-American 
Affairs, Department of State 

Dr. Wallace W. Atwood, Jr., Acting Executive Director, 
Committee on Geophysics and Geography, Research 
and Development Board, Department of Defense 

Arthur P. Biggs, Attache (Geographer), United States 
Embassy, Santiago 

Samuel W. Boggs, Special Adviser on Geography, Office 
of Intelligence Research, Department of State 

Warren C. Crump, Assistant Chief Engineer, Hydro- 
graphic Office, Department of the Navy 

Dr. Charles C. Griffin, Professor of Latin .American His- 
tory and Editor, Hispanic- American Historical Re- 
view, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Dr. Otto E. Guthe, Special Assistant to the Director, 
Office of Libraries and Intelligence-Acquisition, De- 
partment of State 

Dr. Claretice F. Jones, Professor of Geography, North- 
western University, Evanston, 111., Substitute United 
States Representative on the Commission on Geog- 
raphy, Pan American Institute of Geography and 
History 

Col. Herbert Milwit, United States Anny Representative, 
Joint Intelligence Group, Joint Chiefs of Staff, De- 
partment of Defense 

Col. Prank A. Pettit, Director, Inter-American Geodetic 
Survey, Caribbean Command, Balboa, Canal Zone 

Dr. Rafael Pico, Chairman, Puerto Rico Planning, Urban- 
izing, and Zoning Board, San Juan, Puerto Rico 

Murray Y. Poling, Chief, International Technical Co- 
operation Section, Coast and Geodetic Survey, De- 
partment of Commerce 

Capt. Elliott B. Roberts, Chief, Division of Geomagnetism 
and Seismology, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Depart- 
ment of Commerce 

Lt. Col. Charles V. Ruzek, Executive Officer, Army Map 
Service, Coi^ps of Entriners, Department of the Army 

Col. Paul C. Schauer, Commanding Officer, Aeronautical 
Chart Service, Department of the Air Force 

Dr. Andr§ C. Simonpietri, Special Adviser on Cartogra- 
phy, Office of Intelligence Research, Department of 
State 

Dr. Arthur P. Whitaker, Professor of Latin-American His- 
tory, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., 
United States Representative on the Commission on 
History, Pan American Institute of Geography and 
History 

George D. Whitmore, Chief, Research and Technical Con- 
trol, Topographic Branch, Geological Survey, Depart- 
ment of the Interior 

Charles B. Hitchcock, Assistant Director, American Geo- 
graphical Society, New York City 



Ocfofaer 30, 7950 



709 



U.S. To Invoke ''Escape Clause" Under GATT 



{Released to the press Octoter iS] 



A Presidential proclamation will shortly be 
issued withdrawing, as of December 1, 1950, 
certain United States tariff concessions on 
women's fur felt hats and hat bodies, made in 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 
concluded at Geneva in 1947. This action will 
be taken under the "escape clause" (art. XIX) of 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and 
will be the first case in which the United States 
has invoked this clause. 

The action applies to women's fur felt hats 
and hat bodies valued at more than $9 and not 
more than $24 per dozen. It will restore, on these 
items, the tariff rates provided for in the Tariff 
Act of 1930, which range from 25 to 40 percent 
higher than the rates provided for in the General 
Agreement. A schedule of the categories affected, 
showing the present rates and those which will 
apply upon withdrawal of the concessions, is 
given below. 

In recent years, imports of these products have 
come principally from Czechoslovakia, Italy, 
France, and the United Kingdom. 

The proclamation will be issued in accordance 
with recommendations of the Tariff Commission, 
made after an investigation of the trade in 
women's fur felt hats and hat bodies. This 
investigation was conducted in response to an 
application by domestic producers of these arti- 
cles for invocation of the escape clause, which 
provides that any party to the agreement may 
modify or withdraw a particular concession if it 
finds that, as a result of the concession and of 
unforseen developments, imports of the product 
in question are occurring in such increased quan- 
tities and under such circumstances as to cause 
or threaten serious injury to a domestic industry. 

The report of the Tariff Commission to the 
President states, among other things, that, since 
the reduction of the duties in 1948, imports of 
women's fur felt hat bodies have supplied a 



progressively larger share of the domestic con- 
sumption and that domestic production has been 
materially smaller than before the war. Wliereas 
imports throughout the 1930's and the immediate 
postwar years were equivalent to less than 5 per- 
cent of domestic production, they were equivalent 
to 7.2 percent in 1948 (the first year following the 
reduction in duty), 21.4 percent in 1949, and 30.5 
percent in the first 6 months of 1950. 

The escape clause in the General Agreement 
requires that any party invoking it shall notify 
the other parties of its action and shall consult 
with other contracting parties interested in the 
product. If the contracting parties affected do 
not agree upon the action as a result of such 
consultation, they may suspend substantially 
equivalent concessions which they have granted to 
the party involring the escape clause, unless such 
suspension is disapproved by the contracting 
parties as a group. 

The required notice in this case has been given 
to the other contracting parties, and the necessary 
consultations have been begun in Torquay. 

Although the United States has negotiated 
tariff concessions on several thousand items that 
are subject to the escape clause, only 20 applica- 
tions for its invocation have been received by the 
Tariff Commission. Eleven of these have been 
dismissed. Decision on six is pending. One has 
been postponed. Two investigations have been 
ordered. One investigation — with regard to 
spring clothespins — resulted in the recommenda- 
tion that no action be taken. 

Copies of the findings of the Tariff Commission, 
facts bearing on the findings, and the Commis- 
sion's recommendations to the President are avail- 
able. A limited number of copies of the report, 
together with additional data developed during 
the investigation, are available from the Tariff 
Commission. 



710 



Department of Stale bulletin 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale by Hie Superintevdent of Documents, Govem- 
^mmt Printing Office, Washiiifftun 25, B.C. Address re- 
quests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except 
in the case of free publications, which may be obtained 
from the Department of State. 

The General Agreement on Twiffs and Trade (Second 
Supplementary Announcement). Commercial Policj' 
Series 131. Pub. 3944. 16 pp. 15!*. 

Negotiations beginning September 19.50 under the 
Trade Agreement Act of 1934 as amended and ex- 
tended. Second supplementary notice of United 
States intention to negotiate; second supplementary 
list of products to be considered; notice of second 
supplementary public hearings. 

United Nations Action in Korea Under Unified Com- 
mand : Second Report to the Security Council, August 16, 

1950. International Organization and Conference Series 
111,55. Pub. 3955. 5 pp. 5t'. 

Second report of the United Nations Command opera- 
tions In Korea for the i)eriod July 20-31, 1950. 

World Meteorological Organization. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 2052. Pub. 3834. 79 pp. 250. 

Convention and Related Protocol between the United 
States and Other Governments — Opened for signa- 
ture at Washington October 11, 1947 ; entered into 
force March 23, 1950. 

Food Production: Cooperative Program in Haiti. 

Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2075. Pub. 
3875. 4 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and Haiti modi- 
fying and extending agreement of August 2S, 1944, as 
modified and extended — Effected by exchange of notes, 
signed at Port-au-Prince June 25 and 29, 1948 ; entered 
Into force June 30, 1948. 

Germany: Basic Principles for Merger of the Three 
Western German Zones of Occupation, and Other Mat- 
ters. Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2066. 
Pub. 3880. 29 pp. 15«(. 

Agreements between the United States, France, and 
the United Kingdom — Signed at Washington April 
8, 1949, entered into force April S, 1949, except tiie 
Occupation Statute which entered into force Septem- 
ber 21, 1949. 

Mutual Aid Settlement. Treaties and Other Interna- 
tional Acts Series 2064. Pub. 3SS5. 23 pp. 10^. 

Agreements and exchanges of letters between the 
United States and Belgium — Signed at Washington 
September 24, 1946 ; entered into force September 24, 
1946, and exchange of memorandums — Signed at 
Washington July 23 and September 24, 1946 ; entered 
into force September 24, 1946. 

Surplus Property Settlement. Treaties and Other Inter- 
national Acts Series 2070. Pub. 3886. 1 p. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Belgium 
amending agreement of September 24, 1946 — Signed 
at Paris May 12, 1949; entered Into force May 12, 
1949. 



Surplus Property Settlement: Joint Undertakings Under 
Agreement of September 24, 1946, as amended. Relating 
to Transfer of United States Surplus Property in Bel- 
gium, and Certain Other Agreements. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 2074. Pub. 3887. 3 pp. 
5<*. 

Agreement between the United States and Belgium — 
Signed at Washington April 20, 1950; entered into 
force April 20, 1950. 

Economic Cooperation With Austria Under Public Law 
472_80th Congress, as amended. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 2020. Pub. 3890. 9 pp. 50. 

Agreement between tJie United States and Austria 
amending agreement of July 2, 1948 — Effected by 
exchange of notes, signed at Washington October 21 
and November 30, 1949, and February 20, 1950; 
entered Into force February 20, 1950. 

Economic Cooperation With the British/United States 
Zone, Free Territory of Trieste Under Public Law 472 — 
80th Congress, as amended. Treaties and Other Inter- 
national Acts Series 2035. Pub. 3892. 9 pp. 5(f. 

Agreement between the United States and the 
British/United States Zone, Free Territory of 
Trieste amending agreement of October 15, 1948— 
Effected by exchange of letters signed at Trieste De- 
cember 27 and 28, 1949; entered into force Decem- 
ber 28, 1949. 

Colon Corridor. Treaties and Other International Acts 
Series 2029. Pub. 3896. 9 pp. 5«J 

Agreement between the United States and Panama — 
Effected by exchange of notes, signed at Panamd May 
26, 1947 ; entered into force May 26, 1947. 

United States Educational Commission in Austria. 

Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2072. Pub. 
3897. 12 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Austria — 
Signed at Washington June 6, 1950; entered into 
force June 6, 1950. 

Military Mission to Costa Rica. Treaties and Other In- 
ternational Acts Series 2079. Pub. 3903. 3 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Costa Rica 
amending and extending agreement of December 10, 
1045 — Effected by exchange of notes signed at Wash- 
ington February 3 and 15, 1950; entered into force 
February 15, 1950, operative retroactively from De- 
cember iO, 1949. 

Military Assistance to the Philippines. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 2080. Pub. 3904. 
7 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and the Re- 
public of the Philippines supplementing and extend- 
ing agreement of March 21, 1947 — Effected by ex- 
change of notes signed at Manila February 24 and 
March 11 and 13, 1950 ; entered into force March 13, 
1950. 



Correction 

In the Bulletin of October 16, 1950, page 628, 
there appeared an article by Catherine Corson Little 
entitled, "Preparatory Work for a United Nations 
Conference on the Control of Trade in Sugar." 
Mrs. Little served as adviser and secretary to tiie 
U.S. delegation to the International Sugar Council 
meeting in London and is in the Sugar Branch of 
the Production and Marlieting Administration, De- 
partment of Agriculture. 



Ocfober 30, 1950 



711 



The United States in the United Nations 



Review, September 15 to October 27 



Although United Nations activities have for the 
most part centered about the General Assembly 
since the fifth session convened September 19, 
two of the other principal organs of the United 
Nations — the Security Council and the Economic 
and Social Council — have also been active during 
the past 6 weeks. The Councils of three special- 
ized agencies have met, and two conferences are 
currently being held under United Nations 
auspices. In addition, this same period has seen 
certain milestones reached in the development of 
the United Nations. 

Ambassador Warren R. Austin announced in an 
address on September 17 that the following day 
he would turn over to Secretary-General Lie a 
check for 4 million dollars — the first installment 
on the United States contribution to tlie United 
Nations Technical Assistance Fund. 

Membership in the United Nations rose to 60 
with the admission of the Republic of Indonesia on 
September 28. A sufficient number of ratifications 
or accessions to the Convention on the Prevention 
and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide had been 
received by October 14 to bring the Convention 
into force on January 12, 1951. 

Fifth Anniversary Heralded 

The fifth anniversary of the coming into force 
of the United Nations Charter was celebrated 
throughout the world on October 24, United Na- 
tions Day. President Truman, addressing the 
General Assembly on this occasion, declared that 
"the people of the world rely on the United Nations 
to help them achieve two great purposes. They 
look to it to help them improve the conditions 
under which they live. And they rely on it to 
fulfill their profound longing for peace. He also 
recognized that the United Nations work for 
human advancement can never be fully effective 
until we can achieve a just and lasting peace, and 
he voiced his faith in the United Nations' ability 
to bring us nearer to that peace. When this goal 
has been achieved, he said, 



man can turn his great inventiveness, his tremendous 
energies, and the resources with which he has been blessed 
to creative effort. 

The President outlined the essentials of an 
effective system of disarmament and stated that 
until such a system is established the "only course 
the peace-loving nations can take in the present 
situation is to create the armaments needed to make 
the world secure against aggression." The United 
States in embarking on such a course, he said, has 
only "the purpose of helping to keep the peace" 
and pledges its growing armed strength "to uphold 
the principles of the Charter." 

General Assembly 

During the first 6 weeks of the fifth session, the 
General Assembly completed action on such reg- 
.ular agenda items as the elections to the Security, 
Economic and Social, and Trusteeship Councils as 
well as on one of the principal problems before 
it — the independence of Korea. The eight-power 
resolution adopted on October 7 recommended that 
a unified, independent, and democratic govermnent 
be established in Korea and that all necessary 
measures for the economic rehabilitation of Korea 
be undertaken; that a United Nations Commission 
for the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea 
be set up ; and that the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil be requested to develop plans for Korean relief 
and rehabilitation. That resolution laid the basis 
for future United Nations action in Korea. An 
interim committee of the new commission has since 
been meeting at the seat of the United Nations, 
while the old United Nations Commission on Ko- 
rea continues to function in Seoul, pending the 
arrival of the new commission. 

At the committee level, action has been com- 
l^leted on a second major proposal jalaced before 
this Assembly — the seven-power Uniting for Peace 
resolution introduced by the United States — and 
also on a number of other important agenda items, 
but final api^roval on these committee decisions by 
the Assembly meeting in plenary session is 
pending. 



712 



Department of State Bulletin 



Following approval on October 19 by an over- 
whelming vote on the seven-power resolution 
which provides for special emergency sessions of 
the General Assembly and which establishes a 
Peace Observation Commission and a Collective 
Measures Committee, and also recommends that 
members maintain elements within their national 
ai'med forces for use on behalf of the United Na- 
tions, Committee I (Political and Security) the 
same day adopted a Soviet resolution recommend- 
ing that the Security Council proceed with the 
implementation of articles 43, 45, 46, and 47 of the 
Charter regarding the placing of armed forces at 
the Council's disposal and the effective functioning 
of the Military Staff Committee. Two days later 
it adopted unanimously a revised Iraq-Syrian res- 
olution recommending that the permanent mem- 
bers of the Security Council meet and discuss all 
problems likely to threaten international peace. 
With this decision, the committee completed its 
work on the second item on its agenda — United Ac- 
tion for Peace. 

Decisions reached in other Assembly Committees 
to date cover a wide range of problems. The Ad 
Hoc Political Committee has approved a resolution 
condemning Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania for 
failing to fulfill their treaty obligations in con- 
nection with their alleged violations of human 
rights and a resolution looking toward establish- 
ing Libya as an independent state by January 1, 
1952, in accordance with the resolution passed by 
the Assembly's fourth session. A resolution ap- 
proved by the Joint Committee (II and III) and 
Committee V expresses the hope that all member 
states not taking part in the work of the specialized 
agencies will "assume or resume" their full partic- 
ipation. Two resolutions have been approved by 
the Social Committee (III) — one expanding the 
United Nations Advisory Social Welfare Services 
and another continuing the United Nations Chil- 
dren's Emergency Fund on its present basis for 
another 3 years. Committee VI (Legal) has ap- 
proved a permanent invitation to the Arab League 
to be represented by an observer at the General 
Assembly. Other committee decisions relate to 
varied problems, such as the equitable distribution 
and proper utilization of land in trust territories, 
the administrative budgets of specialized agencies, 
and the question of reservations to multilateral 
conventions. 

Committee I is currently considering the agenda 
item. Declaration of the Removal of the Threat 
of a New War and the Strengthening of Peace and 
Security among Nations, proposed by the U.S.S.R. 
Discussion has centered about a Soviet "Peace" 
declaration and a counterproposal introduced 
jointly by Netherlands, France, Lebanon, Mexico, 
the United States, and the United Kingdom. 

Under the Soviet proposal, the General Assem- 
bly would condemn warmongering, prohibit the 
use of atomic weapons, brand the first government 
using such weapons a war criminal, and recom- 

Ocfofaer 30, 1950 



mend to the five permanent membere of the Se- 
curity Council that they conclude a peace pact and 
reduce their present armed forces by one-third 
during the next year. The joint proposal of which 
the United States is a cosponsor would, on the 
other hand, have the Assembly determine that 
"for the realization of lasting peace and security 
it is indispensable : 1. That prompt united action 
be taken against aggression ; 2. that every nation 
agree (a) to accept effective international control 
of atomic energy under the United Nations on the 
basis already approved by the General Assembly 
in order to make effective the prohibition of atomic 
weapons, and (b) to regulate all armaments and 
armed forces under a United Nations system of 
control and inspection, with a view to their gradual 
reduction." 

The Ad Hoc Political Committee on October 20 
opened debate on the agenda item proposed by 
Cuba concerning recognition by the United Na- 
tions of the representation of a member state. The 
Committee has before it a Cuban draft resolution 
which sets up four criteria for an Assembly deci- 
sion on this matter, a British proposal under which 
the right of a government in control of a territory 
and having the obedience of the population to 
represent the member state would be recog- 
nized, and a Dominican draft referring the ques- 
tion of representation to the International Law 
Commission, together with numerous proposed 
amendments. 

In the general debate on this question, Ernest A. 
Gross (U.S.) took the position that "no list of 
standards can be prepared which is exclusively 
or automatically applicable to a particular situa- 
tion." He declared that the "most that can be 
hoped for is a broad statement of criteria which 
among others is of universal application" and 
urged prelhninary consideration of the question 
by a representative subcommittee. On October 26, 
a 15-member subconunittee, on which the United 
States is represented, was appointed to examine 
this question in the light of the proposals made and 
the views expressed in the course of the preceding 
debate. 

Two sessions of the Joint Committee (II and 
III), meeting with Committee V, have been held 
during the past week to consider problems of co- 
ordination between the United Nations and the 
specialized agencies. Committee III is now dis- 
cussing the draft Covenant on Human Rights on 
the basis of four questions referred to the Assem- 
bly by the Economic and Social Council: (1) the 
adequacy of the first 18 articles of the draft, setting 
down specific rights, (2) the desirability of in- 
cluding .special articles on the application of the 
Covenant to federal states and to dependent terri- 
tories, (3) the desirability of including articles on 
economic, social, and cultural rights, and (4) the 
adequacy of the articles relating to implementa- 
tion. Committee IV on October 26 adopted a 
Cuban-Mexican resolution, opposed by the United 

713 



States, designed to obtain information on the im- 
plementation of previous Trusteeship Council and 
General Assembly resolutions concerning trust 
territories. The same day, Committee VI con- 
cluded its general debate on part I of the rej^ort 
of the International Law Commission. In Com- 
mittee V, the first reading of the 1951 budget 
estimates continues. 



Security Council 

In the past 6 weeks, the Security Council has 
held 14 meetings at which it considered certain 
phases of the Korean situation, the Soviet-pro- 
posed agenda item concerning Formosa, a series of 
complaints involving Egypt, Israel, and Jordan, 
and the question of the appointment of the United 
Nations Secretary-General. 

The unified command's fourth report on opera- 
tions in Korea, August 16-31, was presented for 
the Council's "cognizance" by United States Am- 
bassador Warren R. Austin at its September 18 
meeting. This report, recalling the Soviet claim 
that all materials being used by the North Koreans 
had been provided prior to Soviet withdrawal 
from North Korea, stated that North Korean 
equipment of Soviet origin had been captured 
bearing the dates of 1949 and 1950, and Ambas- 
sador Austin introduced "physical proof" of these 
findings at the Council meeting. The report also 
stated that every precaution was being taken to 
avoid the bombing of Korean civilians by ITnited 
Nations aircraft, and at a subsequent meeting on 
September 30, the Council overwhelmingly re- 
jected a Soviet resolution condemning bombings 
by the United States air forces in Korea. 

On September 26, the Council began an involved 
debate on the "Complaint of Armed Invasion of 
Taiwan (Formosa)" and, more particularly, on 
the question of extending an invitation to Chinese 
Communist representatives to participate in 
Council discussions of this matter. The debate, 
which continued through the Council's September 
27 and 28 meetings, resulted in the adoption on 
September 29, by a vote of 7 to 3, (United States, 
China, Cuba) with 1 abstention, (Egypt), of an 
Ecuadoran resolution deferring Council consid- 
eration of the Formosa item until its first meeting 
after November 15, and at that time extending an 
invitation to a representative of the People's 
Republic of China to attend Council meetings on 
this subject. Tlie Council later upheld its presi- 
dent's ruling that this vote was procedural when 
the ruling was challenged by the Chinese repre- 
sentative. In commenting on the Chinese position. 
Ambassador Ernest A. Gross stated that, although 
the United States strongly opposed inviting Chi- 
nese Communist representatives at this time, his 
delegation believed it would be most undesirable 
for the Security Council to accept the proposition 
that an invitation to an outside party to be heard 
was subject to the veto. 



Examines Palestine Complaints 

On October 16, the Council, under the presidency 
of Ambassador Austin, began examination of six 
specific complaints relating to the Palestine ques- 
tion — an Egyptian and a Jordanian complaint 
against Israel and four complaints by Israel 
against Egypt and Jordan. After hearing repre- 
sentatives of the parties present their views, the 
Council on October 20 agi-eed without objection to 
the suggestion of its president that Maj. Gen. Wil- 
liam E. Riley, Chief of Staff of the United Nations 
Truce Supervisory Organization in Palestine, be 
invited to its next meeting on this subject to pre- 
sent information on "questions of fact" that had 
arisen. 

After two closed meetings on October 9 and 12 
to discuss the appointment of the United Nations 
Secretary-General, the Security Council informed 
the General Assembly that it was unable to agree 
on a reconmiendation. Three additional closed 
meetings have since been held on this same subject, 
October 18, 20-21, and 25, without agreement being 
reached. Ambassador Austin has stated that the 
United States believes so strongly that Mr. Lie, 
whose term expires February 2, 1951, should be 
continued in office that the United States repre- 
sentative on the Council has made it clear that 
"he would strongly oppose any other candidate for 
the office." Pointing out that Mr. Lie had "re- 
ceived nine votes in the Security Council, a ma- 
jority sufficient to elect him if it had not been for 
the veto of tlie Soviet Union," Ambassador Austin 
said that it was the settled purpose of his delega- 
tion "to use all its resources to j^revent an attempt 
to punish and repudiate Mr. Lie" for his stand 
in the Korean crisis. 

United Nations Commission for I-ndonesia. — In 
a report, October 11, to the Security Council the 
United Nations Commission for Indonesia noted 
that the Indonesian Government had refused the 
Commission's offer of good offices in settlement of 
the disturbed situation in the South Moluccas. 
The report suggested that the Security Council 
reinforce the Commission's authority by calling 
upon Indonesia to utilize existing machinery for 
peaceful solution provided by the Commission's 
presence in Indonesia. 



Economic and Social Council 

In compliance with the General Assembly's re- 
quest of October 7 that it develop plans in consul- 
tation with the specialized agencies for Korean 
relief and rehabilitation, the Economic and Social 
Council reconvened its eleventh session at Lake 
Success on October 12. A temporary committee 
of seven Council members, on which the United 
States is represented, has been established to make 
a preliminary estimate of the size of the program 
reqiiired for Korean relief and rehabilitation. 
This Committee, meeting in closed session, has 
heard a statement by the representative of Korea 



714 



Oepar/men/ of Sfafe Bulletin 



on liis country's relief needs and resources and has 
before it figures presented by the Secretariat and 
the unified command. On October 25, the Coinicil 
completed its consideration, on the basis of an 
Australian draft resolution and various amend- 
ments proposed by the United States and other 
delegations, of the principles to govern United 
Nations relief and rehabilitation activities in Ko- 
rea. The Council then turned to examination of 
a joint resolution in which the separate proposals 
of the United States and of Australia for the or- 
ganization of relief and rehabilitation activities in 
Korea have been merged. This draft resolution 

Eroposes the establishment of a United Nations 
Korean Reconstruction Agency under the direc- 
tion of an agent general and responsible to the 
General Assembly, which would function in close 
relationship with the new United Nations Com- 
mission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of 
Korea. 

On October 26, the Council, on the recommenda- 
tion of its Conunittee on Non-Governmental Or- 
ganizations, heard a representative of the Interna- 
tional Confederation of Free Trade Unions present 
the views of that organization on the question of 
"assistance for the civil population of Korea." 
This hearing, which the U.S.S.R. had opposed, 
caused the Soviet representative to raise again the 
question of alleged difiiculties that the World Fed- 
eration of Trade Unions representative is having 
in entering the United States. The Committee on 
Non-Governmental Organizations recently held 
two meetings, pursuant to the Council's resolution 
of last August, when the representatives of some 
11 non-governmental organizations presented their 
views on the general problem of Korean relief and 
reconstruction. 

Specialized Agencies 

The Council of the International Civil Aviation 
Organization (Icao), under the presidency of Dr. 
Edward Warner of the United States, reconvened 
for the second part of its eleventh session on Sep- 
tember 27 at Montreal. In addition to various 
administrative matters, questions for discussion 
include the possibility of establishing in the north 
Pacific a network of ocean-weather stations, simi- 
lar to those maintained in tlie north Atlantic under 
an IcAO agreement, and the need for jointly sup- 
ported air-navigation services in such regions as 



the African-Indian Ocean area, the Middle East, 
and the European-Mediterranean and South 
American areas. The Council also will consider 
requests of members for technical assistance. 

The General Council of the Intemational Ref- 
ugee Organization (Iro) , meeting in Geneva, Octo- 
ber 9-13, for its sixth session, voted unanimously 
to extend resettlement services to those refugees 
who had arrived in areas where Iro is operating 
between October 15, 1949, and October 1, 1950. 
In light of this decision, the Council voted to ex- 
tend the period of Iro operations from March 31- 
October 1, 1951. This group, which was ineligible 
to receive such services under a previous Council 
resolution, constitutes approximately 55,000 addi- 
tional refugees to be resettled by the Iro. The 
organization plans to resettle some 200,000 refu- 
gees during this fiscal year. 

On October 25, the Council of the Food and 
Agriculture Organization (Fao) convened in 
Washington for its tenth session. The Council 
will review plans for the special session of the 
Fao Conference to be held in Washington, Novem- 
ber 3-11, and for the removal of the Organization's 
headquartei-s to Rome early next year. The Coun- 
cil also has before it, in addition to various admin- 
istrative and budgetary questions, the task of 
reviewing the world food situation, a report on 
commodity problems, developments, since its last 
session, on technical assistance, and plans for a 
study of Fao long-term trends and objectives. 

Two international conferences are currently in 
session. At Geneva the United Nations Intergov- 
ernmental Tin Conference convened on October 25 
"to discuss measures designed to meet the special 
difficulties which exist or are expected to arise 
concerning tin and, if considered desirable, to con- 
clude an international commodity agreement." A 
draft agreement prepared by the International Tin 
Study Group will serve as a basis for discussion 
at this Conference, and although the United States 
is participating, it has questioned the necessity of 
such an agreement at this time. 

At Torquay, England, the third of a series of 
conferences, sponsored by the United Nations, to 
negotiate tariff reductions, has been in session since 
September 28. Tlie United States, as one of the 
contractmg parties to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade signed at Geneva in 1947, is 
taking part in this Conference. 



Ocfober 30, 7950 



715 




General Policy 

Page 

Partnership of World Peace. Address by 

the President 683 

U.S. Attaches Detained by Rumanian 

Militia 695 

Letters of Credence: Burma 702 

United Nations 

and Specialized Agencies 

Seven Nations Propose Means To Unite and 
Keep the Peace. By John Foster 
Dulles 687 

United Nations Documents: A Selected 

Bibliography 691 

Advancement Toward Self-Government of 
Trust Territories. By John Sherman 
Cooper 705 

The United States in the United Nations . . 712 

Economic Affairs 

Economic Outlook in India and Pakistan. 

By George C. McGhee 698 

Treaty Information 

U.S. and Brazil Enter Cultural Agreement: 
Ceremony of Signing and Summary of 

Agreement 696 

Statement by Secretary Acheson .... 696 

Statement by Mauricio Nabuco 697 

Te.xt of Convention 697 

Military Assistance Agreement Concluded 
With Thailand. Statement by Ambas- 
sador Edwin F. Stanton 701 

Tax Treaty Negotiations With Finland . . 704 
U.S. To Invoke "Escape Clause" Under 

Gatt 710 



Occupation Matters Paee 

Public Notices Affecting U.S. Property in 

Germany 692 

Freedom Ceremony at Berlin 694 

East German Elections Denounced as Fraud: 

Statement by Secretary Acheson .... 695 

Technical Assistance 

Point 4 Project in Iran Announced .... 703 
National Security 

Military Assistance Agreement Concluded 
With Thailand. Statement by Am- 
bassador Edwin F. Stanton 701 

U.S. Speeds Shipment of Arms Aid to France 

and Indochina 704 

International Organizations 
and Conferences 

U.S.-Indonesia Sign Economic Cooperation 

Agreement 702 

Lewis H. Van Dusen Named to Nac Staff . 702 

U.S. Delegations: 

Intergovernmental Tin Conference . . . 707 

Petroleum Committee (Ilo) 708 

International Wheat Council 708 

Geography, History, and Cartography . . 709 

The Congress 

Legislation 686 

The Foreign Service 

U.S. Attaches Detained by Rumanian 

Militia 695 

Resignations of Ambassadors Douglas and 

Thurston 695 

Publications 

Recent Releases 711 

Correction 711 



U S GOVEHNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1950 



JAe/ z!^eha/yimeni/ ^(w C/twCe^ 



1 




A NEW PAGE IN HISTORY • Address by the President . 719 
U.S. ECONOMIC SURVEY MISSION REPORT ON 

THE PHILIPPINES • Submitted by Daniel W. Bell, 

Chief of Mission 723 

SIXTH REPORT OF U.N. COMMAND OPERATIONS 

IN KOREA 729 

MOBILIZATION OF AMERICAN STRENGTH FOR 

WORLD SECURITY • Address by Assistant Secretary 
Barrett and W. Averell Harriman, Special Assistant to the 
President 735 

v 



For complete contents see back cover 




Vol. XXIII, No. 592 
November 6, 1950 




D. S. SUPERIWTFNOFNT OF DOCUMENTS 

NOV 2019oO' 



tJ/ie zlJefia/iti^e^ £iL^ t/iaCe 




bulletin 

Vol. XXIII, No, 592 • Publication 4007 
November 6, 1950 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

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Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (July 29, 1949). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OT State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department, Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, aa 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



A New Page in History 



Address by President Truman ' 



J/ive years ago today, the Charter of the United 
Nations came into force. By virtue of that event, 
October 24, 1945, became a great day in the history 
of the world. 

Long before that day, the idea of an association 
of nations able to keep the peace had lived as a 
dream in the hearts and minds of men. Woodrow 
Wilson was the author of that idea in our time. 
The organization that was brought into being on 
October 24, 1945, represents our greatest advance 
toward making the dream a reality. 

The United Nations was born out of the agony 
of war — the most terrible war in history. Those 
who drew up the Charter really had less to do 
with the creation of the United Nations than the 
millions who fought and died in that war. We 
who work to carry out its great principles should 
always remember that this organization owes its 
existence to the blood and sacrifice of millions of 
men and women. It is built out of their hopes for 
peace and justice. 

The United Nations represents the idea of a 
universal morality, superior to the interests of 
individual nations. Its foundations do not rest 
upon power or privilege but upon faith. They 
rest upon the faith of men in human values — upon 
the belief that men in every land hold the same 
high ideals and strive toward the same goals of 
peace and justice. 

This faith is deeply held by the people of the 
United States of America and, I believe, by the 
peoples of all other countries. Governments may 
sometimes falter in their support of the United 
Nations, but the peoples of the world do not falter. 
The demand of men and women throughout the 

'Delivered before United Nations General Assembly 
on Oct. 24 and released to the press by the White House 
on the same date. Also printed as Department of State 
publication 4000. 



world for international order and justice is one 
of the strongest forces in these troubled times. 

Meeting the Challenge in Korea 

We have just had a vivid demonstration of that 
fact in Korea. The invasion of the Republic of 
Korea was a direct challenge to the principles of 
the United Nations. That challenge was met by 
an overwhelming response. The people of almost 
every member country supported the decision of 
the Security Council to meet this aggression with 
force. Few acts in our time have met with such 
widespread approval. 

In uniting to crush the aggression in Korea, 
these member nations have done no more than the 
Charter calls for. But the important thing is 
that they have done it and have done it success- 
fully. They have given dramatic evidence that 
the Charter works. They have proved that the 
Charter is a living instrument backed by the mate- 
rial and moral strength of members, large and 
small. 

The men who laid down their lives for the 
United Nations in Korea will have a place in our 
memory, and in the memory of the world, forever. 
They died in order that the United Nations might 
live. As a result of their sacrifices, the United 
Nations today is stronger than it has ever been. 
Today it is better able than ever before to fulfill 
the hopes that men have placed in it. 

Toward Human Advancement 

I believe the people of the world rely on the 
United Nations to help them achieve two great 
purposes. They look to it to help them improve 
the conditions under which they live. And they 



November 6, 7950 



719 



rely on it to fulfill their profound longing for 
peace. 

These two purposes are closely interwoven. 
Without peace, it is impossible to make lasting 
progress toward a better life for all. Without 
progress in human welfare, the foundations of 
peace will be insecure. That is why we can never 
afford to neglect one of these purposes at the ex- 
pense of the other. 

Throughout the M'orld today, men are seeking 
a better life. They want to be freed from the 
bondage and the injustice of the past. They want 
to work out their own destinies. These aspirations 
of mankind can be met — met without conflict and 
bloodshed — by international cooperation through 
the United Nations. 

To us in this assembly hall the United Nations 
that we see and hear is made up of speeches, de- 
bates, and resolutions. But to millions of people 
the United Nations is a source of direct help in 
their everyday lives. To them it is a case of food 
or a box of schoolbooks; it is a doctor who vac- 
cinates their children; it is an expert who shows 
them how to raise more rice, or more wheat, on 
their land ; it is the flag which marks a safe haven 
to the refugee, or an extra meal a day to a nursing 
mother. 

These are not the only ways in which the United 
Nations helps people to help themselves. It goes 
beyond these material things and gives support to 
the spiritual values of men's lives. The United 
Nations can and does assist people who want to 
be free. It helps dependent peoples in their prog- 
ress toward self-government. And when new na- 
tions have achieved independence, it helps them to 
preserve and develop their freedom. 

Furthermore, the United Nations is strengthen- 
ing the concept of the dignity and worth of human 
beings. The protection of human rights is es- 
sential if we are to achieve a better life for people. 
The effort of the United Nations to push ahead 
toward an ever broader realization of these rights 
is one of its most important tasks. 

So far, this work of the United Nations for 
human advancement is only a beginning of what 
it can be and will be in the future. The United 
Nations is learning through experience. It is 
growing in prestige among the peoples of the 
world. The increasing effectiveness of its efforts 
to improve the welfare of human beings is open- 
ing up a new page in history. 

The skills and experience of the United Nations 



in this field will be put to the test now that the 
fighting in Korea is nearly ended. The reconstruc- 
tion of Korea as a free, united, and self-supporting 
nation is an opportunity to show how interna- 
tional cooperation can lead to gains in human free- 
dom and welfare. 

War Is Not Inevitable 

The work of the United Nations for human ad- 
vancement, important as it is, can be fully effective 
only if we can achieve the other great objective 
of the United Nations, a just and lasting peace. 
At the present time the fear of another great 
international war overshadows all the hopes of 
mankind. This fear arises from the tensions be- 
tween nations and from the recent outbreak of 
open aggression in Korea. We in the United 
States believe that such a war can be prevented. 
We do not believe that war is inevitable. One of 
the strongest reasons for this belief is our faith 
in the United Nations. 

The United Nations has three great roles to play 
in preventing wars. 

First: it provides a way for negotiation and the 
settlement of disputes among nations by peaceful 
means. 

Second: it provides a way of utilizing the col- 
lective strength of member nations, under the 
Charter, to prevent aggression. 

Third: it provides a way through which, once 
the danger of aggression is reduced, the nations 
can be relieved of the burden of armaments. 

All of us must help the United Nations to be 
effective in performing these functions. 

The Charter obligates all of us to settle our dis- 
putes peacefully. Today is an appropriate occa- 
sion for us solemnly to reaffirm our obligations un- 
der the Charter. 

Within the spirit and even the letter of the 
Charter we should go even further. We must 
attempt to find peaceful adjustments of under- 
lying situations or tensions before they harden into 
actual disjiutes. 

The basic issues in the world today affect the fate 
of millions. Here, in the United Nations, there is 
an opportunity for the large and the small alike to 
have their voices heard on these issues. Here the 
interests of every country can be considered in the 
settlement of problems which are of common con- 
cern. 



720 



Department of State BuUetin 



We believe that negotiation is an essential part 
of this peaceful process. The United States, as 
one of the members of the United Nations, is pre- 
pared now, as always, to enter into negotiations. 
We insist only that negotiations must be entered 
into in good faith and be governed throughout by 
a spirit of willingness to reach proper solutions. 

While we will continue to take advantage of 
every opportunity — here in the United Nations 
and elsewhere — to settle differences by peaceful 
means, we have learned from hard experience that 
we cannot rely upon negotiation alone to preserve 
the peace. 

Five years ago, after the bloodshed and destruc- 
tion of World War II, many of us hoped that all 
nations would work together to make sure that 
war could never happen again. We hoped that 
international cooperation, supported by the 
strength and moral authority of the United 
Nations, would be sufficient to prevent aggression. 

But this was not to be the case. 

Although many countries promptly disbanded 
their wartime armies, other countries continued to 
maintain forces so large that they posed a constant 
threat of aggression. And this year the invasion 
of Korea has shown that there are some who will 
resort to outright war, contrary to the principles 
of the Charter, if it suits their ends. 

In these circumstances the United Nations, if it 
is to be an effective instrument for keeping the 
peace, has no choice except to use the collective 
strength of its members to curb aggi-ession. 

To do so, the United Nations must be prepared 
to use force. The United Nations did use force 
to curb aggression in Korea and by so doing has 
greatly strengthened the cause of peace. I am glad 
that additional steps are being taken at this session 
to prepare for quick and effective action in any 
future case of aggression. 

The Resolution on United Action for Peace 
which is now being considered by the General 
Assembly recognizes three important principles: 

To maintain the peace, the United Nations must 
be able to learn the facts about any threat of 
aggression. Next, it must be able to call quickly 
upon the member nations to act if the threat be- 
comes serious. 

Above all, the peace-loving nations must have 
the military strength available, when called upon, 
to act decisively to put down aggression. 

The peace-loving nations are building that 
strength. 



However much they may regret the necessity, 
they will continue to build up their strength until 
they have created forces strong enough to preserve 
peace under the United Nations. They will do all 
that is required to provide a defense against ag- 
gression. They will do that because, under the 
conditions which now exist in the world, it is the 
only way to maintain peace. 

Cooperative Disarmament 

We intend to build up strength for peace as 
long as that is necessary. But at the same time 
we must continue to strive, through the United 
Nations, to achieve international control of atomic 
energy and the reduction of armaments and armed 
forces. Cooperative and effective disarmament 
would make the danger of war remote. It would 
be a way of achieving the high purposes of the 
United Nations without the tremendous expendi- 
tures for arm.fments which conditions in the world 
today make imperative. 

Disarmament is the course which the United 
States would prefer to take. It is the course which 
most nations would like to adopt. It is the course 
which the United Nations from its earliest begin- 
nings has been seeking to follow. 

For nearly five years, two commissions of the 
United Nations have been working on the prob- 
lem of disarmament. One commission has been 
concerned with the elimination of atomic weapons 
and the other with the reduction of other types 
of ai'maments and of armed forces. Thus far, 
these commissions have not been successful in ob- 
taining agreement among all the major powers. 
Nevertheless, these years of effort have served to 
bring to the attention of all nations the three 
basic principles upon which any successful plan 
of disarmament must rest. 

First, the plan must include all kinds of weap- 
ons. Outlawing any particular kind of weapon 
is not enough. The conflict in Korea bears tragic 
witness to the fact that aggression, whatever the 
weapons used, brings frightful destruction. 

Second, the plan must be based on unanimous 
agreement. A majority of nations is not enough. 
No plan of disarmament can work unless it in- 
cludes every nation having substantial armed 
forces. One-sided disarmament is a sure invita- 
tion to aggression. 

Third, the plan must be foolproof. Paper 
promises are not enough. Disarmament must be 



November 6, J 950 



721 



based on safeguards which will insure the com- 
pliance of all nations. The safeguards must be 
adequate to give immediate warning of any 
threatened violation. Disarmament must be po- 
liced continuously and thoroughly. It must be 
founded upon free and open interchange of in- 
formation across national borders. 

These are simple, practical principles. If they 
were accepted and carried out, genuine disarma- 
ment would be possible. 

It is true that, even if initial agreement were 
reached, tremendous difficulties would remain. 
The task of working out the successive steps would 
still be a complex one and would take a long time 
and much effort. But the fact that this process 
is so complex and so difficult is no reason for us to 
give up hope of ultimate success. 

The will of the world for peace is too strong 
to allow us to give up in this effoi-t. We cannot 
permit the history of our times to record that we 
failed by default. We must explore every avenue 
which offers any chance of bringing success to 
the activities of the United Nations in this vital 
area. 

Much valuable work has already been done by 
the two disarmament commissions on the different 
technical problems confronting them. I believe it 
would be useful to explore ways in which the 
work of these commissions could now be more 
closely brought together. One possibility to be 
considered is whether their work might be re- 
vitalized if carried forward in the future through 
a new and consolidated disarmament commission. 

The Present Task 

But, until an effective system of disarmament 
is established, let us be clear about the task ahead. 
The only course the peace-loving nations can take 
in the present situation is to create the armaments 
needed to make the world secure against aggres- 
sion. 

That is the course to which the United States 
is now firmly committed. That is the course we 
will continue to follow as long as it is necessary. 

The United States has embarked upon the 
course of increasing its armed strength only for 
the purpose of helping to keep the peace. We 
pledge that strength to uphold the principles of 
the Charter of the United Nations. We believe 



that the peace-loving members of the United 
Nations join us in that pledge. 

I believe that the United Nations, strengthened 
by these pledges, will bring us nearer to the peace 
we seek. We know that the difficulties ahead are 
great. We have learned from hard experience 
that there is no easy road to peace. 

We have a solemn obligation to the peoples we 
represent to continue our combined efforts to 
achieve the strength that will prevent aggression. 
At the same time, we have an equally solemn obli- 
gation to continue our efforts to find solutions to 
the major problems and issues that divide the na- 
tions. The settlement of these differences would 
make possible a truly dependable and effective 
system for the reduction and control of armaments. 

Although the possibility of attaining that goal 
appears distant today, we must never stop trying. 
For its attainment would release immense re- 
sources for the good of all mankind. It would 
free the nations to devote more of their energies 
to wiping out poverty, hunger, and injustice. 

If real disarmament were achieved, the nations 
of the world, acting through the United Nations, 
could join in a gi'eatly enlarged program of mu- 
tual aid. As the cost of maintaining armaments 
decreased, every nation could greatly increase its 
contributions to advancing human welfare. All 
of us could then pool even greater resources to 
support the United Nations in its war against 
want. 

In this way, our armaments would be trans- 
formed into foods, medicine, tools for use in un- 
derdeveloped areas, and into other aids for human 
advancement. The latest discoveries of science 
could be made available to men all over the globe. 
Thus we could give real meaning to the old 
promise that swords shall be beaten into plow- 
shares and that the nations shall not learn war 
any more. 

Then man can turn his great inventiveness, his 
tremendous energies, and the resources with which 
he has been blessed to creative efforts. Then we 
shall be able to realize the kind of world which has 
been the vision of man for centuries. 

This is the goal which we must keep before us — 
and the vision in which we must never lose faith. 
This will be our inspiration, and, with God's help, 
we shall attain our goal. 



722 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



ii 



United States Economic Survey Mission Report on tlie Piiiiippines 



[Released to the press October 28] 



Ambassador Myron M. Cowen has today deliv- 
ered to President Elpidio Quirino the report of the 
United States Economic Survey Mission to the 
Philippines. The Department of State today 
made this report public' 

The Mission was sent to the Philippines last 
July at the request of President Quirino to con- 
sider the economic and financial problems of the 
country and to make recommendations that would 
"enable the Philippines to become and to remain 
self-supporting." 

The Mission remained in the Philippines for 2 
months during which time it examined "all 
aspects of the Philippine economy including agri- 
culture, industry, internal and external finances, 
domestic and foreign trade, public administra- 
tion." After its return to the United States in 
September, the Mission spent further time prepar- 
ing its recommendations. 

Tlie report contains an analysis of the present 
economic difficulties facing the Philippines and 
recommendations for measures which, in the opin- 
ion of the Mission, the Philippine Government 
must take to prepare a sound foundation for eco- 
nomic stability. The report recommends that, if 
the Philippine Government undertakes steps to 
carry out the essential economic, financial, and so- 
cial reforms, a quarter of a billion dollar assistance 
program over a period of 5 years be extended by 
the United States Government with expenditure of 
funds to be subject to the supervision and control 
of a technical mission to be sent to the Philippines. 



LETTER FROM PRESIDENT TRUMAN 
TO PRESIDENT QUIRINO 

Through Ambassador Cowen at Manila I am 
sending you the report of the United States Eco- 
nomic Survey Mission to the Philippines. At 

' The report was submitted to President Truman on 
Oct. 9, 1950, by the following members of the survey 
mission : D. W. Bell, chief of Mission ; Richard J. Mar- 
shall, deputy chief of Mission ; Edward M. Bernstein, 
chief economist ; August L. Strand, agricultural survey ; 
and Francis McQuillin, industry and power. 



your request, the Mission, under the leadership of 
Mr. Daniel W. Bell, made as thorough a study as 
possible in the short time permitted of economic 
conditions in the Philippines and gave its recom- 
mendations for a general course of action which, 
I believe, will make possible a stable and pros- 
perous Philippine economy. 

The report is in exactly the same form it was 
presented!^ to me on October 9. Unfortunately 
other commitments and particularly my confer- 
ence with General MacArthur on Wake Island 
delayed my giving this matter my personal at- 
tention. 

My Government is now carefully studying the 
report in order to arrive at an official position on 
the recommendations contained therein, and I am 
sending it to you for your Government's consider- 
ation and study. The report is not a blueprint 
containing all answers to the complicated prob- 
lems of the Philippines. It does, however, pro- 
vide our Governments with a basis on which to 
work. After you and your Government have had 
an opportunity to consider the report, I trust there 
may be discussions between representatives of our 
two Governments. From these discussions, I 
would hope that there could be an understanding 
as to measures which the Philippines would be 
prepared to undertake. I would regard such an 
understanding as requisite to the formulation of 
recommendations to the United States Congress. 

Our two nations have been the closest of friends 
over a period of more than half a century. Our 
relations have been marked by a spirit of straight- 
forwardness and candor in our dealings with each 
other. I earnestly hope that we can continue in 
this same spirit. 

Since the economic well-being of the Philippines 
is of great importance to the American people as 
well as to the Philippine people, I believe that the 
facts of this report should be freely communicated 
to both. Until the facts are so communicated, 
rumors and speculation will only confuse our joint 
efforts. I am convinced that the report should be 
released promptly after its presentation to you. 
Full public discussion in the democratic tradition 
will contribute to our joint efforts to find the best 
solutions to the problems that confront us. 



November 6, J 950 



723 



SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

At the I'equest of the President of the Philippine 
Republic, President Truman appointed a United 
States Economic Survey Mission to consider the 
economic and financial problems of that country 
and to recommend measures that will enable the 
Philippines to become and to remain self-support- 
ing. The Mission was instructed to survey all as- 
pects of the Philippine economy, including agri- 
culture, industry, internal and external finances, 
domestic and foreign trade, and public adminis- 
tration. The Mission was asked to give special 
consideration to immediate measures to help raise 
production and living standards in the Philip- 
pines. The Mission has had the full cooperation 
of the Philippine Government and of many indi- 
viduals and organizations outside the Government. 
Their help has been invaluable in providing the 
Mission with the data necessary for its work. 

Economic conditions in the Philippines are vin- 
satisfactory. The economic situation has been de- 
teriorating in the past 2 years and the factors that 
have brought this about cannot be expected to rem- 
edy themselves. Unless positive measures are 
taken to deal with the fundamental causes of these 
difficulties, it must be expected that the economic 
situation will deteriorate further and political dis- 
order will inevitably result. Wliatever is to be 
done to improve economic conditions in the Philip- 
pines must be done promptly, for if the situation 
is allowed to drift there is no certainty that mod- 
erate remedies will suffice. 

The findings and recommendations of the Mis- 
sion are summarized below and are presented more 
fully in the body of the report. Technical mem- 
oranda for the guidance of the Philippine Gov- 
ernment in determining policy on agriculture, 
industrial development, taxation, and public ad- 
ministration have also been prepared by the staff 
of the Mission. 



Urgent Economic Problems 

The basic economic problem in the Philippines 
is inefficient production and very low incomes. 
Wliile a substantial recovery was made in produc- 
tion after the liberation, agricultural and indus- 
trial output is still below the prewar level. In 
the past 10 years, however, the population has in- 
creased by 25 percent. Although home produc- 
tion has been supplemented by large imports, the 
standard of living of most people is lower than 
before the war. In Manila, real wages of indus- 
trial workers are about the same or slightly higher 
than in 1941 ; but in the provinces, real wages in 
agriculture are lower than before the war. For 
many agricultural workers, wages are wholly in- 
adequate, in some instances less than one peso 
(50^4) a day. 



The finances of the Government have become 
steadily worse and are now critical. The Treas- 
ury has a lai'ge and mounting deficit, with taxes 
covering little more than 60 percent of the expend- 
itures. Obligations have been allowed to accu- 
mulate, warrants have been issued for which funds 
are not available, and school teachers have not 
been paid in some provincial areas. The new taxes 
voted by the special session of Congress cannot 
meet the budget needs and the cash position of the 
Treasury is becoming steadily worse. If the Cen- 
tral Bank is used to cover the large deficit of the 
Government it may lead to a new outburst of in- 
flation, the burden of which will fall on those 
struggling for a living in a land of very high 
prices and very low incomes. 

The international payments position of the 
country is seriously distorted and a balance has 
been maintained in recent months only by im- 
posing strict import and exchange controls. The 
country has had an excessive volume of imports, 
which hitherto could be paid for out of very large 
dollar receipts from United States Government 
disbursements and accumulated dollar balances. 
These balances have been drawn down and receipts 
from the United States Government has been de- 
clining sharply. Greater difficulty will probably 
be experienced in the future in paying for imports. 
In the meantime, the volume of exports is less 
than before the war and can be expected to grow 
only gradually. Unless foreign exchange receipts 
are increased or excessive dependence on imports 
decreased, import and exchange controls will have 
to become even more restrictive. 

Causes of the Difficulties 

Wliile production in general has been restored 
to almost the prewar level, little of fundamental 
importance was done to increase productive effi- 
ciency and to diversify the economy. In agi'icul- 
ture, the area under cultivation was brought to 
the prewar level, and the livestock population 
partially restored. But almost nothing was done 
to open new lands for the increased population, 
to improve the methods of cultivation, or to better 
the position of farm workers and tenants. In 
industry, production was restored very much in 
the prewar pattern. While some new enterprises 
have been started, particularly in the past year, 
there has been little real progress in opening new 
work opportunities and in strengthening the 
economy. The country still relies too heavily on 
the export of a few basic agi"icultural crops — coco- 
nut, sugar and hemp — which provide a meager 
livelihood to most of the people engaged in their 
production. 

The failure to expand production and to in- 
crease productive efficiency is j^articularly dis- 



724 



Department of State Bulletin 



appointing because investment was exceptionally 
high and foreign exchange receipts were excep- 
tionally large during most of the postliberation 
period. Too much of the investment went into 
commerce and real estate instead of the develop- 
ment of agriculture and industry; investment 
undertaken by Government corporations has un- 
fortunately been ineffective. A considerable part 
of the large foreign exchange receipts were dis- 
sipated in imports of luxury and nonessential 
goods, in the remittance of high profits, and in 
the transfer of Philippine capital abroad. The 
opportunity to increase productive efficiency and 
to raise the standard of living in the Philippines 
in the postwar period has thus been wasted because 
of misdirected investment and excessive imports 
for consumption. 

The inequalities in income in the Philippines, 
always large, have become even greater during the 
past few years. While the standard of living of 
the mass of people has not reached the prewar 
level, the profits of businessmen and the incomes 
of large landowners have risen very considerably- 
Wages and farm income remain lower than the 
economy can afford because of the unequal bar- 
gaining power of workers and tenants on the one 
hand, and employers and landowners on the other. 
Under such conditions any policy that keeps 
prices high has the effect of transferring real in- 
come from the poor to the rich. This is what has 
happened in the Philippines, where prices on the 
average are three and a half times as high as pre- 
war. The inflationary conditions which have 
made this possible were caused by large budgetary 
deficits and an excessive creation of credit, much 
of it for the Government and Government 
corporations. 

As a consequence of the inflationary conditions, 
along with insufficient production, the demand for 
foreign exchange to pay for imports, and to remit 
profits and transfer funds abroad has exceeded the 
current foreign-exchange receipts from exports 
and United States Government disbursements. 
The foreign-exchange reserves of the country, 
although still considerable, have been greatly 
reduced, confidence in the currency has been 
shaken, and a breakdown in international pay- 
ments has been averted only by stringent import 
and exchange controls. The generally unfavor- 
able economic and political environment and the 
fear of discrimination in the administration of 
import and exchange controls have the effect of 
discouraging foreign investment in the Philip- 
pines. 

The high hopes of the Philippine people that 
with peace and independence, they could look for- 
ward to economic progress and a rising standard 
of living have not been realized. Because of the 
deteriorating economic situation, there is a wide- 
spread feeling of disillusion. Most agricultural 
and industrial workers have no faith that their 



economic position can or will be improved. Busi- 
nessmen fear a collapse of the peso. The uncer- 
tainties created by these doubts are strengthened 
by the recent tendency toward unemployment re- 
sulting from the slowing up of construction and 
the sharp curtailment of imports. The economy 
shows little inherent capacity to overcome the diffi- 
culties with which it is faced. 

There are officials in the Philippine Government 
who are aware of the dangers in this pervading 
economic unbalance between production and needs, 
between prices and wages, between Government ex- 
penditures and taxes, between foreign exchange 
payments and receipts. Some of them understand 
the reasons why these difficulties arose; but the 
measures that could halt the deterioration have not 
been put into effect. Inefficiency and even corrup- 
tion in the Government service are widespread. 
Leaders in agriculture and in business have not 
been sufficiently aware of their responsibility to 
improve the economic position of the lower income 
groups. The public lacks confidence in the ca- 
pacity of the Government to act firmly to protect 
the interests of all the people. The situation is 
being exploited by the Communist-led Hukbala- 
hap movement to incite lawlessness and disorder. 

The Government has thus far attempted to deal 
with some of these emerging problems through im- 
port and exchange controls and through price con- 
trols. Such measures are directed to the symptoms 
rather than the causes of economic disorder. At 
best, they are measures that can only delay a break- 
down in the economy; they cannot remedy the 
fundamental ills from which the country suffers. 
A permanent solution to these problems will be 
found only through a determined effort on the part 
of the people and the Government of the Philip- 
pines, with the aid and encouragement of the 
United States, to increase production and improve 
productive efficiency, to raise the level of wages 
and farm income, and to open new opportunities 
for work and for acquiring land. 

Recommendations 

The mission recommends that the following 
measures be taken: 

1. That the finances of the Government be 
placed on a soimd basis in order to avoid further 
inflation; that additional tax revenues be raised 
immediately in as equitable a manner as possible 
to meet the expenditures of the Government; that 
the tax structure be revised to increase the propor- 
tion of taxes collected from high incomes and large 
property holdings; that the tax collecting ma- 
chinery be overhauled to secure greater efficiency 
in tax collection ; that a credit policy be adopted 
which will encourage investment in productive 
enterprises ; and that fiscal, credit and investment 
policy be better coordinated to prevent inflation. 



November 6, 1950 



725 



2. That agricultural production be improved by 
applying known methods of increasing the yield 
from all basic crops ; that the Department of Agri- 
culture and Natural Resources be adequately sup- 
plied with funds and the agricultural extension 
service expanded ; that the agricultural college at 
Los Banos be rehabilitated and the central experi- 
ment station located there, with other stations at 
appropriate places throughout the country; that 
rural banks be established to provide production 
credit for small farmers ; that the opening of new 
lands for settlement in homesteads be expedited 
and the clearance of land titles promptly assured; 
that a program of land redistribution be under- 
taken through the purchase of large estates for 
resale to small farmers ; and that measures be un- 
dertaken to provide tenants with reasonable se- 
curity on their land and an equitable share of the 
crops they produce. 

3. That steps be taken to diversify the economy 
of tlie country by encouraging new industries; 
that adequate power and transportation facilities 
be provided as needed for further economic de- 
velopment; that a Philippine Development Cor- 
poration be established to co-ordinate all govern- 
ment corporations and enterprises and liquidate 
those that are ineffective; that financial assistance 
be made available to productive enterprises by the 
Corporation acting in cooperation with private 
banks; that the natural resources of the country 
be systematically explored to determine their 
potentialities for economic development; and that 
the present laws and practices with respect to the 
use of the public domain be re-examined. 

4. That to avoid a further deterioration in the 
international paj^ments position and to reduce the 
excessive demand for imports, a special emergency 
tax of 25 percent be levied for a period not to ex- 
ceed two years on imports of all goods other than 
rice, corn, flour, canned fish, canned milk and fer- 
tilizer; that if such an emergency import levy is 
not possible under the Trade Agreement with the 
United States, either very heavy excise taxes 
should be imposed or a tax of 2.5 percent should be 
levied on all sales of exchange; that, as a safety 
measure, tlie present exchange and import con- 
trols be retained but their administration be sim- 
plified and liberalized and the full remittance of 
current earnings be permitted; that a Treaty of 
Friendship, Commerce and Navigation be con- 
cluded between the Pliilippines and the United 
States and the present Trade Agreement reexam- 
ined in the light of the new conditions. 

5. That an adequate program of public health 
and improved education be undertaken, and better 
facilities for urban housing be provided ; that the 
right of workers to organize free trade unions to 
protect their economic interests be established 
through appropriate legislation; that abuses in 
present employment practices depriving the work- 
ers of their just earnings be eliminated by legis- 



lation making mandatory direct payment of 
wages and i-etroactive monetary awards to work- 
ers; that a minimum wage for agricultural and 
other workers be established to provide subsistence 
standards of living. 

6. That public administration be improved and 
reorganized so as to insure honesty and eflGiciency 
in Government; that the civil service be placed 
on a merit basis and civil service salaries raised to 
provide a decent standard of living; that the 
Philippine Government remove barriers to the em- 
ployment of foreign technicians and take steps 
to improve training facilities for technicians in 
the Philippines; and that in accordance with the 
request of the Philippine Government, the United 
States send a Technical Mission to assist the 
Philippine Government in carrying out its agri- 
cultural and industrial development, fiscal con- 
trols, public administration, and labor and social 
welfare program. 

7. Tliat the United States Government provide 
financial assistance of 250 million doUai-s through 
loans and grants, to help in carrying out a 5-year 
program of economic development and technical 
assistance; that this aid be strictly conditioned on 
steps being taken by the Philippine Government 
to carry out the recommendations outlined above, 
including the immediate enactment of tax legisla- 
tion and other urgent reforms; that expenditure 
of United States funds under this recommenda- 
tion, including pesos derived from United States 
loans and gi-ants, be subject to continued super- 
vision and control of the Technical Mission ; that 
the use of funds provided by the Philippine Gov- 
ernment for economic and social development be 
coordinated with the expenditure of the United 
States funds made available for this purpose; and 
that an agreement be made for final settlement of 
outstanding financial claims between the United 
States and the Philii^pines, including funding of 
the Reconstruction Finance Corporation loan of 
60 million dollai-s. 



No one must expect that even so comprehensive 
a program as this will quickly or automatically 
remove all the ills of the Philippine economy. 
What it can do is to pi-ovide an environment in 
which the people of the Philippines can work out 
a reasonable solution of their problems. What 
they ultimately achieve will be determination pri- 
marily by their own efforts and by the devotion 
of the Philippine Government to the interests of 
all the people. The nation has the physical and 
human resources to accomplish this task with help 
from the United States. In the few years since 
independence, the Pliilippines has taken a leading 
position in world affairs and in the United Na- 
tions. With thorough measures to deal with its 
economic problems, it can take its rightful place 
as a prosperous and stable nation. 



726 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Communist Communique Abuses World's Hope for Peace 



Statement hy Secretary Acheson 



[Released to the press Octoher 251 



I should like to anticipate your questions and 
make a few observations on the communique issued 
at Praha after the meeting of the Eastern Euro- 
pean Communist Foreign Ministers. It is designed 
to give the impression that a new approach is 
being made to the German problem. I cannot find 
anything new in it; in fact, it is a return to old 
and unworkable proposals. 

The record shows that we have always been 
eager to cooperate in the search for a plan which 
would relieve tensions, restore German unity, and 
liquidate the tragic heritage of the last war. But 
the time has long since passed when the world can 
be stirred to hope by general phrases from the 
Soviet Union about disarmament and peace and 
German unity. We, who have striven so hard for 
these things, want actions — we want the threaten- 
ing East German army disbanded, the capricious 
restraints on internal German trade removed, and 
free democratic elections held in all of Germany. 
We want an end to threats such as that uttered by 
the Communist Ulbricht, deputy head of the East 
German regime, on August 3 when he declared 
that the Government of the Federal Republic 
would share what he hoped was going to be the 
fate of the Republic of Korea. 

The Praha statement makes four proposals in 
an attempt to deflect us from our resolve to pro- 
ceed to build real strength in a free world as the 
best means of safeguarding the peace. 

First, it is proposed that the United States, 
British, French, and Soviet Governments should 
publish a declaration that they will not permit the 
remilitarization of Germany or its inclusion in any 
sort of aggressive plans. Why is this necessary ? 
We solemnly agreed at Potsdam in 1945 to bring 
about the complete disarmament and demilitariza- 
tion of Germany. As a result. Western Germany 
lies disarmed today. The Praha communique 
should be directed to the Govermnent of the Soviet 



Union, which could make the implementation of 
the Potsdam Agreement 100 percent complete in 
Germany by taking the required steps in the Soviet 
zone. The only remilitarization in Germany has 
occurred in the Soviet zone where factories are 
producing armament for Eastern European use 
and where 50,000 soldiers have been organized, 
trained, and equipped with tanks and artillery. 
And against whom are all these and similar prepa- 
rations being made ? The United States and the 
free world which have seen these developments 
with increasing anxiety would be a thousand times 
more reassured by Soviet action to implement pre- 
vious declarations than by new declarations, how- 
ever high-sounding. The West can find no reassur- 
ance of peace in Soviet actions whether these be the 
rearming of East Germany, the maintenance of so 
many mobilized Soviet divisions, or the hostile 
Soviet propaganda with which the world is con- 
stantly bludgeoned. These are the reasons why 
proposals are made today which would permit the 
Germans to join their own defensive efforts with 
the common efforts being made to strengthen the 
defense of the West, while preventing the rebirth 
of a German national army. 

Second, the Praha communique urges the re- 
moval of restrictions that are obstructing the de- 
velopment of German peacetime economy. If this 
demand is addressed to Moscow, we will heartily 
support it. We have spent billions in an effort 
to develop the German economy on a sound and 
self-supporting basis. We made innumerable at- 
tempts — fruitless because of Soviet opposition — 
to bring about the creation of central German eco- 
nomic agencies and with hopeful, if misplaced, 
tolerance we long left the Eastern borders of our 
zones open to the free exchange of goods and per- 
sons. If the German economy, as a national 
whole, is to be restored on a sound basis, what we 
need is action from the country which blockaded 



November 6, 1950 



727 



Berlin, which imposes the most arbitrary and er- 
ratic restrictions on commerce entering or leaving 
its zone of occupation, and wliich lias destroyed 
all economic initiative in its zone by the system of 
Communist monopoly of enterprise and industry. 

The Praha communique demands, in the third 
place, that a peace treaty with Germany be con- 
cluded forthwith. We state, as we have so many 
times in the past, that this cannot be done in the 
absence of a unified democi'atic national govern- 
ment in Germany. The peace treaty cake looks 
very delicious, but to whom is it to be served? 
There must be a German government with whom a 
treaty can be concluded. Let the German people 
freely elect a national government, as we have pro- 
posed again and again, and we can then move to- 
ward a peace treaty. 

As for the fourth proposal, it is even more in- 
substantial than the rest. It suggests that an 
all-German constitutional convention composed of 
equal numbers of representatives from Eastern 
and Western Germany should prepare the way for 
the formation of a provisional all-German govern- 
ment. Would the East German representatives be 



Tribute to U. S. Armed Forces in Korea 

Statement hy John Foster Dulles 

U.S. Representative to the General AssenMy ^ 

The United Nations owes much to the armed 
forces of the United States. Indeed, it owes life 
itself, for, without your action in Korea, the 
United Nations today would be as dead as the 
League of Nations. 

The League of Nations started to die in 1931 
when it failed to stop Japanese aggression in Man- 
churia. That failure encouraged aggressors every- 
where. Mussolini moved into Africa to conquer 
Ethiopia. Then, Hitler took over Austria and 
Czechoslovakia. Then, Germany and Russia, in 
partnership, took Poland and divided it between 
them. Then, came World War II. 

This time the United Nations moved fast to 
strike down hard the first open aggression it had 
to face. But the United Nations could do so only 
because the armed forces of the United States in- 
stantly, heroically, and sacrificially responded to 
its call. The terrible first burden fell on the land, 
sea, and air forces of the United States, and they, 
and they alone, saved the day. Now, others are 
helping and the armed forces of 18 member states 



appointed by the Communist Party regime or 
would they perhaps have the added cover of a fake 
election of the type held in Eastern Germany on 
October 15 ? And why should the 18 million cap- 
tive Germans of the East have equal representa- 
tion with the 47 million free Germans of the West? 
This violates the most elementary ideas of democ- 
racy. We strongly support the views which have 
been expressed by Chancellor Adenauer and the 
Government of the Federal Republic. We have 
repeatedly urged upon the Soviet Union a plan for 
free, open, supervised democratic elections all over 
Germany for a new constitutional convention. 
Only in this way, can a German Government re- 
sponsive to the will of the majority be obtained, 
and only then can we talk sensibly of a peace 
treaty. 

We will always hope for and welcome tangible 
proof that Soviet intentions have changed. The 
Praha statement gives us no such proof. Instead, 
it abuses, by its perversion of language, the world's 
hope for peace and understanding, for an end to 
fear and threats. Against that abuse, I raise a 
solemn protest. 



'Broadcast to the U.S. Armed Forces on Oct. 23 and 
released to the press by the U.S. delegation to the General 
Assembly on the same date. 



are committed to serve in Korea under United 
Nations command. But still the great burden 
rests on the armed forces of the United States. 
We who are working at the United Nations head- 
quarters do not forget that even as we speak these 
words many are laying down their lives so that 
the United Nations and its ideals may survive. 

For the first time in history, a world organiza- 
tion has shown the will and the power to stop 
aggressors. It is terribly costly to have taught 
that lesson. But if it stops such a chain of events 
as led to World War 11. then, indeed, those who 
died will not have died in vain. 

Of course, it is not right that the whole burden 
of meeting aggression should be born by a single 
power — the United States. That is why, at this 
session of the United Nations Assembly, the United 
States asked the United Nations to call on all the 
member states to have armed forces in a state of 
readiness to serve as United Nations units. If the 
members resijond to that appeal, then, the burden 
of policing the world would be more fairly di- 
vided. 

But always both our national safety and world 
safety will require that the United States should be 
strong, materially and morally. Never in history 
have we faced a menace as formidable as that 
which threatens. We need strength dedicated to 
righteousness, a strength which none need fear so 
long as they mind their own business. 



\ 



{ 



728 



Department of State Bulletin 



SIXTH REPORT OF U.N. COMMAND OPERATIONS IN KOREA 



For the Period September 15-30, 1950^ 



tl.N. doc. S/1860 
Transmitted Oct. 21, 



1950 



I herewith submit report number six of the 
United Nations Command operations in Korea for 
the period 15 to 30 September, inclusive. Eighth 
Army communiques numbers 90 through 117, X 
Corps communiques numbers 1 through 9, Korean 
releases numbers 438 through 509, and United Na- 
tions Command communiques numbers 6 through 
10 provide detailed accounts of these operations. 

Introduction 

Events of the past two weeks have been de- 
cisive. The strategic concepts designed to win 
the war are rapidly proving their soundness 
through aggressive application by our ground, sea 
and air forces. 

The seizure of the heart of the enemy's dis- 
tributing system in the Seoul area has completely 
dislocated his logistical supply to his forces in 
South Korea and has quickly resulted in their dis- 
integration. Caught between our northern and 
our southern forces, both of which were completely 
self-sustaining because of our absolute air and 
naval supremacy, the enemy is thoroughly shat- 
tered through disruption of his logistical support 
and our combined combat activities. 

The prompt junction of our two forces is 
dramatically symbolic of this collapse. 

Continuing operations will take full advantage 
of our initiative and unified strength to provide 
for the complete destruction of the enemy and his 
early capitulation. 

Ground Operations 

The envelopment : At dawn 15 September, the 
United States X Corps made an amphibious as- 
sault on the Inchon area. The first phase in this 



wide envelopment was seizure of Wolmi-do, a 
small island which dominates Inchon harbor. 
The 3rd Battalion of the 5th United States Marine 
Division surprised the North Koreans with a per- 
fectly co-ordinated attack that secured the island 
in two hours fighting. 

The second phase of this operation involved the 
securing of the Inchon peninsula. The 1st United 
States Marine Division and four Kepublic of 
Korea Marine battalions accomplished this feat 
with lightning-like blows that kept the North 
Korean 18th Division and garrison units off- 
balance and unable to collect their forces for co- 
ordinated action. Kimpo airfield, the largest in 
Korea, was cleared on 17 September and opened 
for United Nations operations on 18 September. 
Elements of the 7th United States Division aug- 
mented by Republic of Korea Army forces were 
next brought into Inchon and rapidly took over 
the southern flank advancing speedily ten miles 
to the south and securing Suwon. 

The liberation of Seoul and the denying to the 
North Koreans of road and rail lines in this com- 
munication hub comprised the third phase of this 
operation. On 19 September, the 1st United 
States Marine Division and two Republic of Korea 
Marine battalions crossed the Han River and 
started the attack on Seoul from the north. The 
remainder of the 1st United States Marine Divi- 
sion and the United States 7th Division enveloped 
Seoul from the south and west. The 17th Re- 



' Transmitted to the Security Council by Ambassador 
Warren R. Austin, U.S. representative in the Security 
Council on Oct. 21. For texts of the first, second, third, 
fourth, and fifth reports to the Security Council on U.N. 
command operations in Korea, see Bulletin, of Aug. 7, 
10.50, p. 203; Aug. 28, 1950, p. 323; Sept. 11, 1950, p. 
403 ; Oct. 2, 1950, p. 534 ; and Oct. 16, 1950, p. 603, respec- 
tively. 



November 6, 7950 



729 



public of Korea Kegiment attacked through the 
center. By this time the North Korean forces 
had been able to bring in reinforcements from the 
9th North Korean Division that was on the Eighth 
Army front and from scattered garrison and 
training units. The North Korean defense of 
Seoul was co-ordinated and fanatic, requiring the 
X Corps Commander to direct actual fighting 
with its hardships on civilian life and property. 
The liberation of the city was conducted in such a 
manner as to cause the least possible damage to 
civil installations. The third phase was com- 
pleted on 28 September with only mop-up fighting 
continuing in the area. The President of Korea 
moved the Government of the Republic of Korea 
into Seoul on 29 September. 

The obstacles to this wide envelopment were not 
only the enemy opposition, but also the natural 
obstacles of poor beaches fronted by miles of mud 
flats, a narrow channel, and an extraordinary tidal 
range of over twenty-nine feet. The success dem- 
onstrated a complete mastery of the technique of 
amphibious warfare, clockwork co-ordination and 
co-operation between the units and services par- 
ticipating. There was nothing noteworthy about 
the North Korean opposition, but there could have 
been. The potential was there. The North Ko- 
reans were proceeding with the construction of 
coastal fortifications, dug-in tanks and guns of all 
calibers, beach defenses and mining operations. 
Had this development been delayed for as much 
as a month, the enemy would have been ready and 
the assault, if possible, would have been more 
costly to United Nations assault forces. 

The Main Attack 

In co-ordination with the landing of X corps at 
Inchon on 15 September, the Eighth Army 
launched its main attack on 16 September. After 
reports of the successful landings at Inchon, the 
forces of Korean, British, and United States Army 
troops attacked along their actual front against 
strong enemy resistance. Some of the most severe 
fighting of the entire war resulted. The North 
Korean forces had a tight ring aroiuid the United 
Nations forces in the Eighth Army area and were 
pressing their attacks. United Nations forces had 
inflicted severe punishment to the attacking enemy. 
This ring around the United Nations forces, 
though strong, was by this time lacking in depth. 
The first few days of the main attack were replete 
with attacks and counterattacks meeting head on. 



By 18 September, the North Koreans began to 
give ground slowly around the entire Eighth Army 
front. By the 20th of September, the United Na- 
tions forces were punching holes in the North 
Korean ring. The port of Pohang-dong on the 
east coast was retaken by the 3rd Republic of 
Korea Division on the 20th of September. 

The IX Corps in the south with the United 
States 2nd Infantry Division, United States 25th 
Division and attached Republic of Korea units 
got its attack rolling rapidly. In the Masan area, 
on the south coast, the enemy 6th and 7th Divisions 
had begun to yield ground by 19 September. 
Within four days our forces had driven westward 
almost to Chinju, and during the next week, enemy 
forces had been displaced almost to Hadong, a 
distance of thirty-five miles. 

The I United States Corps to the north with 
the 1st United States Cavalry Division, 24th 
United States Infantry Division, the 1st Republic 
of Korea Division and the 27th British Brigade 
crossed the Naktong River on the 19th, built up a 
firm bridgehead on the 20th, and then sprang from 
this bridgehead in a furious driving attack up the 
main Kumchon-Taejon axis pushing back the 
North Korean 1st, 3rd, 10th, and 13th Divisions 
about thirty-five miles west of their 15 September 
line. 

On the northern and western fronts, the enemy 
8th, 12th and 5th, 15th Divisions resisted fiercely 
until 22 September, when a series of precipitous 
withdrawals carried them more than seventy miles 
northward within six days. 

The I and II Republic of Korea Corps on this 
front are responsible for this rapid progress. To 
keep the enemy continually on the move, these Re- 
public of Korea units developed a leap-frog system 
with one regiment resting while one was driving. 
The enemy losses in personnel and equipment in 
this area were particulai'ly heavy. At Uisong, 
over one hundred tons of rice and supplies and 
most of the equipment of a diAision were captured. 

In large, the enemy has relinquished effective 
tactical control of nearly all Republic of Korea 
territory south of the 37th parallel, while United 
Nations forces now control a territory four times 
greater than at the commencement of the Inchon 
landings. In his general retreat, the enemy has 
suffered thousands of casualties and was forced to 
abandon large quantities of arms, ammunition, 
and equipment on all parts of the front. The loss 
of this material which includes field ginis, tanks, 



730 



Department of State Bulletin 



trucks, and aircraft, will further reduce the North 
Korean fighting potential. 

United Nations advanced positions on the north 
mark a general line from Nakp'ung on the east 
coast, westward through Panwanggok, and 
Chungju, and north through Ansong, to the east 
of Seoul, and west to Kump'o on the coast. On 
the southwest, United Nations advanced positions 
follow a line from the vicinity of Hadong north- 
west through Tamyang, Kumje, to Iri and north 
through Nonsan and Chochiwon to Paranjang, on 
the west coast. 

The 12th Philippine Battalion Combat Team 
arrived on 24 September in the Eighth Army area 
and has joined the United Nations forces. This 
contribution consists of infantry, artillery, engi- 
neer, and supporting units. On 25 Septembei", a 
Swedish evacuation hospital arrived in Korea and 
is now furnishing medical aid to United Nations 
forces. On 28 September, the 3rd Battalion Aus- 
tralian Regiment arrived in Korea and joined 
United Nations forces. 

The Juncture 

On the 26th of September, the 1st United States 
Cavalry Division in the Eighth Army main attack 
made a lightning thrust from the vicinity of 
Chonju and completed a juncture with the 7th 
United States Infantry Division of the X Corps, 
in the vicinity of the Suwon airfield. This bril- 
liant cavalry advance of approximately fifty-five 
miles closed the trap on the North Korean forces 
that were occupying the southwest corner of 
Korea. 

While mopping up fighting is still in progress in 
this area, all effective escape routes are closed and 
the fate of the North Korean forces caught in the 
pocket is sealed. 

Navy Operations 

Despite the seasonal typhoon winds and swollen 
seas encountered during the period of this report, 
United Nations naval forces continued to apply 
their versatile land, sea, and air elements with in- 
creasing tempo. The most outstanding of their 
achievements against the enemy was the amphibi- 
ous landing at Inchon, port of Seoul. The initial 
landings, made by United States Marines were 
supported directly by Naval and Marine aircraft 
in co-ordination with gunfire support from cruis- 
ers and destroyers, followed by bombarding rocket 
ships. The Marines aggressively seized their ini- 



tial objectives and led the advance beyond Inchon. 
Succeeding troop units were immediately applied 
to the task of developing and expanding the poor 
unloading facilities of the port. Naval surface 
units remained on the scene of the landing to ren- 
der gunfire support as needed and to give anti- 
aircraft protection to the unloading and harbor 
activities. The United States battleship Missouri 
had just arrived in Korean waters in time for this 
operation after a spectacularly long trip, and in- 
stantly proved of enormous value with her great 
sixteen-inch guns. Noteworthy features of this 
amphibious operation were the Navy's clockwork 
co-ordination, strict adherence to schedule, and the 
overcoming of natural obstacles, especially in the 
extraordinary tidal conditions and limited ma- 
neuvering room for large vessels. 

Also especially noteworthy of the varied naval 
operations and tasks is the "naval artillery" sup- 
port given ground troops on the east coast. On 
repeated occasions, this heavy fire, directed from 
the air or by ground controllers, has taken such a 
toll of enemy troops and equipment as to inspire 
the hearty enthusiasm of our ground troops, and 
according to prisoner reports, substantially dimin- 
ished the enemy's will to fight. The end of this 
reporting period finds these east coast bombarding 
elements engaged in such thorough interdiction 
fire as to allow the enemy to escape northward over 
coastal routes only with heavy casualties and with- 
out organization. 

Naval air units in the Seoul area of operations, 
based both abroad ship and ashore, concentrated 
on close support of the ground advance and upon 
interdiction of enemy troops approaching Seoul 
from the north. Problems of identification re- 
mained difficult, since many North Korean troops 
disguise themselves with white clothes over their 
uniforms, taking advantage of our continued 
efforts to protect the innocent refugees along the 
highways. Such troops while marching south 
toward Seoul, turned and walked north upon 
sighting United Nations aircraft. 

A protected South Korean fishing sanctuary has 
been established, and additional sanctuaries will be 
provided wherever practicable, and where North 
Korean water movement can be identified and 
then absolutely prevented. 

An effective patrol and close watch for shipping 
in and out of North Korean ports continues. 

Of particular interest is the introduction of 
enemy sea mines into the areas of naval operations. 



November 6, 1950 



731 



Many free-drifting, apparently Soviet-made, 
mines have been sighted at sea; a large number 
of which have been exploded or sunk. 

Air Operations 

The greater jjart of the offensive power of all 
the United Nations air forces during this period 
has been devoted to attacks which are of immediate 
assistance to the rapidly advancing ground forces. 
Air assault at Inchon and on the battle front of 
the Eighth Army successfully softened up enemy 
resistance just prior to the launching of the am- 
phibious and main attacks. Advancing United 
Nations forces in all sectors were preceded by air 
attacks which materially reduced the enemy's de- 
fensive capabilities. Medium bomber aircraft 
for the second time joined the lighter aircraft in 
close support of ground forces when over forty 
B-29's struck enemy held areas in front of the 
Eighth Army in the vicinity of Waegwan. 

The interdiction program inaugurated in the 
early stages of the Korean campaign to inhibit 
reinforcement and resupply of the North Korean 
Army was intensified. The disrupted communi- 
cation system now serves to retard the withdrawal 
of the fleeing enemy and to prevent his removal 
of any heavy equipment. Attacks continue upon 
bridges and marshalling yards placed in partial 
operation by the North Koreans following their 
initial destruction. In order to effect the maxi- 
mum delay to movements between bridges and 
marshalling yards, road and railroad beds have 
been bombed between the critical points. Aban- 
doned vehicles and artillery attest to the inability 
of the enemy to move his equipment. 

Several attacks have been made upon military 
barracks and training areas in North Korea. A 
few additional industrial targets of military signi- 
ficance in North Korea have been bombed and 
operations have been repeated against installa- 
tions of this nature previously bombed when 
photographs have indicated the possibility of their 
renewed functioning on a reduced scale. 

Airfields available to the North Koreans remain 
under constant surveillance and though improve- 
ments are continually being made to the fields, 
enemy air activity remains negligible. Two air- 
craft, one of which was destroyed, made an abor- 
tive attack over the invasion fleet off Inchon. 

Airlift operations into Korea are providing 
ground forces with an increasing daily resupply 
of critical equipment and personnel and rapid 



evacuation of United Nations wounded personnel. 
One recent day's airlift totaled over 1,100 tons, 
including 2,000 passengers. 

Total daily sorties of United Nations aircraft 
of all types now occasionally exceeds 1,000. 

As in all air operations conducted under combat 
conditions, an ever-present danger of errors in 
navigation and target identification exists. The 
war in Korea is no exception. Recognizing from 
World War II experience that errors of this nature 
are a distinct possibility, Cincfe first directed his 
Air Commander on 30 June that all aircraft opera- 
ting in North Korea would stay well clear of the 
frontiers of Manchuria and the Soviet Union. This 
directive has since been reiterated by the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, United Nations Command in 
operations orders and in messages to subordinate 
commands. Similar directives to United Nations 
Air Commanders were issued on 3 July, 14 August 
and 2 September. He re-emphasized to his com- 
manders the seriousness of violating the Manchu- 
rian border and again directed that the point be 
specifically and emphatically covered at all air 
crew briefings. 

Prisoners of War 

Subsequent to the X Corps landings at Inchon 
and the Eighth Army's vigorous offensive in the 
Pusan perimeter area large masses of North 
Korean Reds have surrendered; on one day the 
number exceeded 6,000. Since my last report more 
than 19,000 North Korean prisoners have been 
captured by United Nations forces. This brings 
the total number of prisoners of war to over 
23,000. 

A request by Mr. Frederick Bieri, the accredited 
delegate of the International Committee of the 
Red Cross, that he be permitted to purchase, on 
behalf of his organization, books, pamphlets and 
other reading material for the benefit of prisoners 
of war, has been granted. In accordance with the 
terms of the Geneva Convention, the material pro- 
vided is not censored by the United Nations 
Commander. Furthermore, Mr. Bieri has been 
informed that prisoners of war are permitted to 
receive individual parcels or collective shipments 
containing foodstuffs, clothing, medical supplies 
and articles of a religious educational or recrea- 
tional character which will enable them to pursue 
studies or cultural activities. The only limitations 
placed on such shipments are those deemed neces- 
sary by the International Committee of the Red 
Cross. 



732 



Department of State Bulletin 



Atrocities 

"Violations of the Laws of "War continue to be 
reported by our forces in Korea. Two incidents 
recently reported are typical in this respect. The 
first incident concerns an unai-med American sol- 
dier who surrendered to the enemy on 14 Septem- 
ber 1950. According to the story of an eyewitness 
to the event, this soldier was held with his arms 
extended by enemy troops and then shot in the 
face a niunber of times with an automatic weapon. 
In the Chinju area, troops of the 25th Division 
discovered on 26 September 1950 the bodies of 
twelve American prisoners of war who had their 
hands tied behind their backs and then were ma- 
chine-gunned by North Koreans. Two other 
badly wounded American prisoners of war, being 
left for dead, survived this machine-gunning and 
are now in friendly hands. Both of these inci- 
dents are now being investigated by our field 
forces. 

Civilian Reiief 

"With the rapid advance of the United Nations 
forces, more and more emphasis has been focused 
on assisting the Republic of Korea in returning 
to normal government activities. The United Na- 
tions Command Public Health and "Welfare Sec- 
tion has continued to assist in maintaining liaison 
with the Republic of Korea government agencies 
in planning for continued relief, health and wel- 
fare activities. Republic of Korea civil officials 
and police are following closely the advance of the 
United Nations forces to expedite the return to 
normal living conditions and re-establish govern- 
mental functions throughout the liberated areas. 
Movement of refugees to their homes in liberated 
areas has begun. 

The Republic of Korea Government officials 
have organized government teams to include local 
and provincial civil administration, social welfare, 
public health, public utilities, police activities in 
major cities and areas liberated by United Nations 
forces including Seoul and Inchon. 

Conservative estimates of refugees within the 
perimeter of the United Nations forces at the 
time the offensive began were approximately 
306,000. Korean medical teams are stationed in 
all the major refugee camps or centered within 
clusters of smaller camps. Other isolated refugee 
camps are visited periodically by itinerant or tem- 
porary teams. 

November 6, J 950 

912674—50 S 



Medical supplies for care of refugees had been 
almost completely exhausted prior to the arrival 
of personnel from the Public Health and Welfare 
Section of the United Nations Command. Re- 
public of Korea civil agencies with assistance from 
the Public Health and Welfare Section have in- 
augurated immunization and environmental sani- 
tation programs. Medical supplies have been pro- 
cured on an emergency basis and have been dis- 
tributed to assist in the health and welfare of 
refugees of Korea. 

By Cabinet order, the Central Relief Committee 
has been reconstituted as the Central Joint Com- 
mittee for Relief consisting of the Ministers of 
Health, Social Affairs, Home Affairs, National 
Defense and Director of the Office of Supply sit- 
ting for the Republic of Korea, and health welfare 
and supply Officers of the Public Health and 
Welfare field organization in Korea. The func- 
tions of the Joint Committee are to establish re- 
quirement for direct relief supplies, allocate these 
supplies and formulate policy concerning distribu- 
tion of these supplies. 

Reports indicate stocks of medical supplies im- 
ported prior to the outbreak of hostilities and 
warehoused in the Seoul-Inchon area for thft 
civilian population have been seized by the Com- 
munist military forces and utilized for their own 
purposes thereby creating additional supply prob- 
lems in the Seoul-Inchon area. 

Blankets and clothing remain critical relief 
items. Charcoal, lumber and building require- 
ments for the Pusan-Taegu area can be evaluated 
shortly and will be called forward. Five Re- 
public of Korea officials, including vice Ministers 
of Health and Social Affairs Ministeries, have 
been dispatched 22 September 1950 to the Inchon- 
Seoul area to evaluate needs and report to the 
central goverimient of Korea. 

The self-reliance of the refugees and the spirit 
evidenced by them which indicates their ability 
to meet and overcome housing and other problems 
they find in the devastated areas are commend- 
able. There is a strong desire among Koreans to 
measure up to the responsibilities insofar as their 
capabilities in manpower and other resources will 
permit. 

Financial Agreement 

An agreement was executed by the United States 
and the Republic of Korea on 28 July 1950 regard- 

733 



ing expenditures in Korea by the forces under the 
United Nations Command. The text of the agree- 
ment is attached hereto as Appendix "A". 

Psychological Warfare 

Within a few hours after the United Nations 
landing at Inchon, radio broadcasts and leaflets 
were transmitting the news throughout Korea. 
The liberation of Seoul was reported with equal 
celerity. More than 74,000 leaflets have now been 
airdropped by United Nations forces. Soldiers 
and civilians of North Korea have received 5,- 
000,000 leaflets showing the military significance 
of the fall of Seoul, and calling upon them to 
abandon futile resistance and prevent further 
bloodshed. Nearly 28,000,000 surrender leaflets 
have been dropped on enemy troops, calling upon 
them to surrender and guaranteeing them humane 
treatment. Eight and four-tenths percent of the 
1,013 prisoners interrogated stated that they were 
influenced by surrender leaflets to surrender. The 
percentage of the total number prisoners interro- 
gated to date who were influenced by psychological 
warfare is over sixteen per cent; however forty- 
one per cent of the last 339 prisoners stated that 
they were so influenced. 

In Conclusion 

1. A successful frontal attack and envelopment 
has completely changed the tide of battle in South 
Korea. The backbone of the North Korean Army 
has been broken and their scattered forces are 
being liquidated or driven north with material 
losses in equipment and men captured. 

2. Tlie United Nations Command now com- 
prises naval forces from eight nations; ground 
forces from five nations and air forces from two 
nations with advance elements of the third already 
arrived. This global support and willingness to 
fight for United Nations principles must be heart- 
ening to free meii everywhere. 

3. Reports continue on North Korean atrocities. 

4. The offers of assistance by members of the 
United Nations in personnel and relief supplies 
have been noted with deep appreciation by myself 
and people of Korea. Continuing assistance by 
members of the United Nations during the coming 
winter months will immeasurably assist the Gov- 
ernment of Korea in the prevention of wide-spread 
suffering of the war-victimized people of the 
Republic. 



AGREEMENT WITH KOREA 

ON EXPENDITURES BY U.N. FORCES 

Preainble 

OBJECT. 

This Agreement between the Govei'nment of the United 
States and the Government of the Republic of Korea shall 
govern the relationships with respect to provision and 
use of currency and credits between the Government and 
people of the Republic of Korea and forces operating in 
Korea under the Unified Command of the Commanding 
General of the Armed Forces of Member States of the 
United Nati