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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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Given By 
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AN ANALYSIS OF THE SCHUMAN PLAN . . 

CONGRESSIONAL RESOLUTION URGING JUST 

AND LASTING PEACE ENDORSED 556 

1950 WORLD ECONOMIC SITUATION • by Isador 

Lubin 538 

INVESTIGATION OF FORCED LABOR CONDITIONS 
IN U.S.S.R. AND SATELLITES URGED • by 

Walter Kotschnig 544 



For index see back cover 




Vol. XXIV, No. 613 
April 2, 1951 





,jAe z/^efut/yt^ervt ^£ ^/laCe Yj W 1 1 \j L i 1 1 



Vol. XXIV, No. 613 • Publication 4170 



April 2, 1951 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Peice: 

62 Issues, domestic $7.60, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (July 29, 1949). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Depautment 
or State Bulletin as the source will bo 
appreciated* 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a iceekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the uork of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as tcell as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to uhich the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, a3 
tvellas legislative tnaterial in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

APR 11 1951 
AN ANALYSIS OF THE SCHUMAN PLAN 



Introduction 

On May 9, 1950 Eobert Schmnan, the French 
Foreign Minister, announced his Government's 
proposal to merge the coal and steel industries 
of France and Germany, together with those of 
any other European country, in a single market. 
His announcement was a major development in 
the political and economic life of Western Europe. 

Mr. Schuman's invitation to develop a treaty 
was extended to all European nations. Five na- 
tions accepted his invitation — Belgium, the Neth- 
erlands, Italy, Luxembourg, and Western Ger- 
many. These five nations, together witli France, 
have now developed a detailed treaty in imple- 
mentation of the original proposals; except for 
a few remaining issues which have been held in 
abeyance for negotiation among ministers of the 
six countries, the treaty is now ready for rati- 
fication by national parliaments. The treaty 
projjoses that any necessary governmental powers 
over these industries be vested in new institutions 
akin to those of a federal government. The key- 
note in the administration of these industries 
would be the elimination of national barriers to 
trade and of private restrictive agreements. The 
'(discriminatory devices heretofore frequently em- 
ployed in the sale of coal and steel in member 
country markets would be removed. Coal and 
steel products and coal and steel workers would 
move freely among the member countries. When 
critical shortages or other crises required gov- 
ernmental controls, these emergencies would be 
leveloped and administered by the new supra- 
lational institutions. 

I 

The single market, created by these provisions, 
vould not be isolated from the rest of the world, 
ffonmember producers would also have access to 
jhe market, without any increased trade barriers 
^eing interposed to the import of their products. 

pril 2, 7951 



Statement by Secretary Acheson 

[Released to the press March 2i] 

The United States Government welcomes the ac- 
tion taken by the six Western European countries 
in initialing the provisions of the Schuman Plan 
treaty last Monday in Paris. In developing this 
unprecedented agreement, the six countries liave 
provided dramatic evidence of their will to merge 
their national interests in order to contribute to 
the peace and well-being which are the objectives 
of the free nations of the Western World. The 
United States is confident that, in the same spirit, 
the six countries will be able to settle any remaining 
issues on which agreement must be reached before 
the Schuman Plan can be put into actual operation. 



Furthermore, countries which import from pro- 
ducers in the single market would be assured 
equitable treatment and reasonable prices. 

These revolutionary agreements and institutions 
deserve the most careful study. The summary 
which follows indicates the chief provisions of the 
plan and how it can be expected to operate. 

Historical Background 

Throughout the present century, the coal and 
steel industries of France and Germany have had 
an important effect on their political and economic 
relations. One reason why these two basic indus- 
tries have figured so prominently in French-Ger- 
man relations has been their location. The bulk 
of the coal and steel industry of France and Ger- 
many lies in a compact area close to the border 
dividing the two countries, an area which includes 
Lorraine, the Saar, and the Ruhr. 

Within this small area, divided by the French- 
German border, lie the raw materials essential 
for the development of a modern steel industry. 
The iron ore on which the French and German 
industries were originally built lies largely in 
Lorraine, an area which was a part of France 

523 



until the Franco-Prussian War of the 1870's, 
which Germany controlled until World War I, 
and which France thereafter regained. The coal 
deposits which initially led to the creation of the 
French and German steel industries lie largely in 
the Kuhr area, and to a lesser extent in the Saar 
region ; both of these areas are close by the western 
German border, and the status of the latter area 
has frequently been in dispute between the two 
countries. 

The explosive nature of French-German rela- 
tions in the past century led each of these countries 
to use her possession of raw materials, which the 
other needed, as a prime bargaining weapon and 
retaliatory device. 

From the end of World War I until the time of 
Mr. Schuman's proposals, the one development 
which might have been characterized as French- 
German cooperation in the field of steel produc- 
tion was the creation of the European Steel Cartel 
in the middle 1920's, an organization which en- 
joyed a checkered but increasingly significant role 
up to World War II. The European Steel Cartel, 
however, was basically a negotiated truce among 
the steel industries of the Western European coun- 
tries. Particularly in its later versions, it was an 
agreement among producers and sellers of steel on 
the terms under which each national group would 
sell in the markets of any other group and in the 
market of third countries. The emphasis was 
primarily on avoiding market situations that 
would cause a decline in the price of steel. Far 
from promoting increased efficiency and wiping 
out national barriers, the cartel froze Europe's 
steel industry and national markets into a rigid 
mold, which was a major reason for the inefficiency 
which has handicapped the industry since. After 
the initial enthusiastic reactions to the cartel, 
which were expressed in 1926 and 19'27, little was 
heard of its contribution to political harmony be- 
tween France and Germany. 

Schuman's proposals were broached at a time 
when, with a revival in her industrial capacity, 
Germany was seeking to be freed of any restraints 
imposed upon her freedom of action. Meanwhile, 
most of the Western World was becoming increas- 
ingly convinced that the long-run solution to the 
German problem lay in the closer integration of 
the German economy with the West, rather than in 
isolation and restraint. Accordingly, Schuman's 
proposals, which are based upon the principle of 
a pooling of German resources on a basis of equal- 



ity with other Western European countries, were 
greeted by large segments of the Western World 
as a welcome and courageous development in 
French national policy. 

Schuman Plan Principles 

The principles of the Schuman Plan, as enun- 
ciated in the French Foreign Minister's statement 
of May 9, 1950, were without precedent. A group 
of supranational institutions would be created and 
would be endowed with broad powers of a sov- 
ereign nature over the coal and steel industries of 
the member countries. The basic purpose of these 
institutions would be to achieve the elimination of 
all elements of nationalism in the conduct of the ' 
coal and steel industries of the member countries ; 
among other things, this arrangement would I 
mean the elimination of all barriers to trade i 
among the member countries. The new institu- < 
tions also would have the means of encouraging i 
the modernization and improvement of mine and J 
plant facilities. They would also be charged withi 
improving and equalizing the living standards of 1 
coal and steel workers. Finally, provision would 
have to be made for transitional measures to ease 
the shock of merging into a single market are 
the coal and steel economies of countries with 
widely varying cost structures. 

INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 

The constitution of the Schuman Plan reflect 
the delegation of sovereignty through a numbei 
of basic provisions. An executive body will bef ' 
created under the agreement with power to enforc 
most of the substantive provisions. The mem-^ 
bers of this executive body, known as the Higt 
Authority, will be elected for a 6-year tenure bj 
the member governments acting together, from si 
slate of nominees drawn up by them ; and no mem-f 
her of this Authority would report to or receive in 
structions from the national Government of an} 
participating country. 

The powers proposed for the High Authority 
are extensive. They include the right to tax th 
production of enterprises under their jurisdiction 
to issue directives relating to coal and steel whicl 
are binding on the individual enterprises an( 
states to wliich they are addressed ; to fine enter 
prises in violation of their ordere and to offset th 
effects of any illegal acts by member states by fine 
on the production of the enterprises in their area 



524 



Department of State Bulloti 



to borrow and to lend; and to make studies and 
suggestions to the enterprises and states under 
their jurisdiction. Member states are bound to 
use their respective police powers to enforce the 
directions of the High Authority. 

The High Authority will report periodically to 
a Common Assembly, made up of representatives 
drawn in agreed proportions from each of the 
member countries. The Assembly will review the 
Authority's work annually. By a two-thirds vote, 
the Assembly will be able to censure the Authority 
and compel its members to resign. The Assembly 
also will have the right to review and approve, as 
a whole, an annual budget proposed by the High 
Autliority. 

A third institution basic to the Plan is the spe- 
cial Council of Ministers. The concept of a Coun- 
cil arose out of a need to find some means whereby 
the work of the High Authority in the coal and 
steel sectors of the economies of the member coun- 
tries could be tied in closely with the measures 
being taken by these Governments in the rest of 
their economies. The impact of actions by the 
High Authority in coal and steel upon such na- 
tional problems as the maintenance of an adequate 
defense, the control of inflation, the balance of ex- 
ternal accounts, and similar problems, was recog- 
nized early in the negotiations. 

Accordingly, the Council of Ministers, which is 
to consist of ministers drawn from the Govern- 
ments of each of the signatory countries, will be 
endowed with the powers necessary to insure this 
coordination. For example, the Council will have 
the right to initiate proposals and will have a voice 
in the determinations of the High Authority when- 
ever the question of market control is involved, 
5uch as the possibility of the fixing of maximum 
prices or allocations to meet a shortage situation. 
The Council of Ministers also will be directly con- 
'erned in the process whereby the tariff rates of 
he six countries applicable to coal and steel 
shipped in from outside sources are set. 

Another element in the structure created by the 
Schuman Plan is the proposed Court of Justice, 
n most typical intergovernmental agreements, 
lifferences over interpretation ordinarily are set- 
led by agreement among the signatory Govern- 
nents, with pi-ovisions sometimes included for the 
ight of appeal by Governments to the Interna- 
ional Court. Tlie Schuman Plan provides for its 
wn Court to deal with the juridical problems 
rising out of the relations among the constituent 



organs created by the plan and arising out of 
complaints by aggrieved Governments, enter- 
prises, or individuals. The Court's membership 
will be determined by very much the same process 
as that provided for the membership of the High 
Authority. The Court's most important power is 
the right to nullify the decisions of the High 
Authority, in much the same way and on much 
the same grounds as the courts of the United 
States may declare laws of Congress imconstitu- 
tional or nullify the decisions of administrative 
bodies of the Government. In short, if the Au- 
thority were exceeding its powers under the treaty 
or were acting capriciously, the Court would have 
a basis for reversal. The Court could also nullify 
acts of the Council of Ministers or the Common 
Assembly, where these bodies were exceeding their 
powers. 

The system of institutions is completed with 
one final organ, the Consultative Committee. The 
Committee is to provide a direct link between the 
High Authority, on the one hand, and producer, 
labor, and consumer groups, on the other. It will 
consist of 30 to 50 representatives, drawn in equal 
numbers from the three groups, and will have 
advisory functions of a general character. 

ARRANGEMENTS FOR REMOVING TRADE BARRIERS 

The dominant principle of the Schuman Plan 
is that the coal and steel industries of the member 
countries are to be treated as if no national bound- 
aries existed among them. The countries of 
Western Europe are to abandon their efforts to be 
self-sufficient in coal and steel and are to allow 
these industries to develop in a common market 
embracing all the member countries. 

Accordingly, the principal operative provisions 
of the plan deal with the elimination of existing 
national barriers to trade. They call for the im- 
mediate suspension of virtually all tariffs applic- 
able by any member country to the coal and steel 
products of any other member country. The pro- 
visions also require the suspension of quantitative 
restrictions on imports and exports of coal and 
steel products among the member countries, and 
the elimination of various other restrictive or dis- 
criminatory devices. 

These proposals, which are not unlike those 
typically associated with a customs union, are sup- 
plemented by more revolutionary provisions with 
respect to restrictive arrangements among pro- 
ducers of coal and steel. Any agreements among 



pril 2, J 95 1 



525 



producers which restrict competition, whether by 
fixing prices, allocating customers, limiting the 
introduction of new technology, or other means, 
are outlawed. Joint selling agreements or agi-ee- 
ments among companies to promote specialization 
in the manufacture of particular products may 
be permitted in some circumstances; however, any 
such agreements would require the prior approval 
of the Authority, which is only to be granted if 
the Authority has found that the agreement would 
make a positive contribution to the efficiency of 
the enterprises in question and would not signifi- 
cantly affect the degree of competition in the mar- 
kets concerned. 

Additional provisions are aimed at reducing the 
possibility on the part of enterprises in the single 
market, through stock ownership, interlocking 
directorates, and similar devices, to circumvent 
the prohibition against restrictive business prac- 
tices. Transactions which, in effect, would merge 
or affiliate previously independent enterprises in 
the area under the Authority's jurisdiction, re- 
quire the prior approval of the High Authority, 
which must act under standards similar to those 
by whicli it judges joint selling and specialization 
agreements. 

Under the High Authority's general powers to 
prevent or offset governmental measures which 
have a discriminatory effect upon the coal and 
steel enterprises in its jurisdiction, the High 
Authority can bring about a change in discrimi- 
natory freight rate structures imposed by the pub- 
lic carriers operating in the area. The negotiat- 
ing countries intend that the High Authority 
would exercise this power early in its life, thereby 
ending a long-standing source of friction. 

Once the provisions were in force, it is expected 
that producers in the common market would be 
exposed to a considerable degree of price competi- 
tion. The expectation is that the long-run im- 
pact of this release of competitive forces would be 
to increase productivity, cut costs, and lower prices 
of coal and steel in the single market. Unless 
some safeguards were provided, however, the dan- 
ger would exist that producers might develop 
pricing practices which generally fall under the 
head of "unfair competition." They might, for 
example, seek to drive competition out of a local 
market by selling temporarily in that market alone 
at a greatly depressed price. Another possibil- 
ity is that producers might follow the practice of 
favoring customei-s of one nationality over those 



526 



of another. Possibilities such as these have led 
to provisions vesting in the Authority the power 
to impose rules which would govern the pricing 
practices (not the prices) of the producers in the 
area. The general objective of the Authority 
would be to enforce a nondiscriminatory pricing 
pattern without unnecessarily inhibiting price 
competition and price flexibility. 

The provisions of the agi'eement also allow for 
more direct intervention by the Authority in the 
market for coal and steel under certain special 
circumstances. Current European thinking on 
the subject of coal and steel is, of course, greatly 
influenced by the recurrent shortages of recent 
years and the strong inflationary pressures which 
such shortages have created. Accordingly, pro- 
vision has been made for dealing with such situa- 
tions ; the agreement would permit the High 
Authority, acting in concert with the Council of I 
Ministers, to impose price controls or to initiate a i 
system of allocations for coal and steel in periods ( 
of shortage. At the other extreme, the Authority, , 
acting together with the Council of Ministers, isi 
empowered to limit production and to introduce^ 
minimum prices in a jieriod of "manifest crisis." 

Relations With Outside Countries 

At present, each of the prospective members o: 
the pool has undertakings to many countries out- 
side the pool to grant the latter most-favored-na- 
tion treatment in trade matters ; that is to say, eac 
of the prosjiective participants is now bound b; 
agreements which require them, for example, ti 
apply the same tariff rate to coal or steel import© 
from the United Kingdom or the United States a 
is applied to coal or steel imported from othei 
countries participating in the Schuman Plan. 
The participating countries will have to negotiate] 
for the modification of these commitments in or 
der to be able to eliminate coal and steel tariffs! 
among themselves while continuing to apply theni l 
to imports from nonparticipating countries. Un-I 
til the negotiations associated with these waiver5| 
are completed and the terms of the waivers an' 
known, any discussion of the commercial relations' 
of the Schuman Plan countries with outside coun! 
tries is bound to be tentative in nature. Mean' 
while, the High Authority is not empowered t<i 
take any measures inconsistent with the intemaj kpi 
tional obligations of the participating countries. 

Despite the luiresolved state of the trade rela 



Sif 






Deporfmenf of State Bulleth 



.' 



tions between the six countries and the outside 
world, a few basic points are clear. Although the 
dominant theme of the Schuman Plan is the crea- 
tion of a single market ainong the participating 
countries, the agreement also stresses the principle 
that the single market should not be an area which 
enjoys heavy protection from the coal and steel 
exports of the rest of the world. This intention 
will be put to the test initially in connection with 
the process of harmonizing the tariff structures 
of the participating countries. This problem of 
harmonization is an unavoidable consequence of 
tlie agreement to suspend tariffs on coal and steel 
among the participating countries. If Germany 
iiiil^osed a very much higher tariff rate on imports 
of British steel tlian Belgium imposed on its im- 
ports of British steel, German importers of British 
s-teel would be likely to bring their products 
tlirough Belgium and thereby avoid the high Ger- 
man tariff. Similar problems would arise if the 
countries had very different policies regarding 
other types of import restrictions. To deal with 
these problems, therefore, member countries would 
have to develop arrangements whereby the import 
restrictions which each of them applied to outside 
countries were not sufficiently different to encour- 
age needless transshipments among them. 

The member countries would reserve one im- 
portant right to the High Authority, however, 
which might in some circumstances reduce the im- 
port of the products of other countries. In the 
event that a "manifest crisis" developed, justify- 
ing the imposition of production quotas on coal 
or steel in the single market area, and, in the event 
that imports were being effected in such relatively 
increased quantities and under such conditions as 
seriously to injure producers of competitive coal 
and steel products in the single market, the Au- 
thority would be authorized to impose import 
luotas. This power, it should be noted, is di- 
-ectly analogous to the so-called escape-clause 
"ights wliich participating countries reserve to 
hemselves under the General Agreement on Tar- 
ffs and Trade. 

The treaty says little regarding the treatment to 
)e accorded by the pool to outside countries which 
mport their coal and steel. Such provisions as 
^xist, however, are of a constructive nature. The 
ibjective of the group is to be the development of 
ales practices which would produce equitable 
)rices for exported coal and steel. Among other 
hings, the Authority will have the means of pre- 

\pnl 2, 1951 



I 



venting companies in its jurisdiction from "dump- 
ing" coal or steel abroad, that is, selling these 
products at a price below their sale price in the 
single market or below their cost of production. 

Influencing Coal and Steel Investment 

In general, competitive forces are expected to 
determine the location of coal and steel facilities 
in the single market and to encourage the expan- 
sion and modernization of these facilities. The 
High Authority will have no direct power to close 
down high-cost mines or steel plants, nor can it 
compel investments in added coal or steel facili- 
ties; in these fields, the Authority will have to 
rely upon market forces to bring about the results 
it desires. 

On the other hand, the Authority could influence 
the pattern of investment in several other ways. 
To begin with, the Authority could veto a pro- 
posed investment in coal or steel facilities which 
a company proposed to finance from funds other 
than its own reserves, if the Authority concluded 
that the proposed facilities could not be expected 
to survive without subsidies or other artificial 
means of support. In addition, the Authority 
could make loans to enterprises to help in the ex- 
pansion of their facilities. Finally, the Authority 
will have the obligation of making continuing 
studies of the coal and steel facilities of the com- 
plex, to point out the needs and opportunities for 
added investment in the area. 

Protecting Labor's Interests 

In the course of negotiating the provisions of 
the Schuman Plan, it became increasingly ap- 
parent that the project for a single market might 
well involve shifts in coal and steel facilities 
among the participating countries. These shifts, 
in turn, might require the migration or displace- 
ment of some workers engaged in those industries. 
Accordingly, the High Authority was given re- 
sponsibility for assisting workers in the readjust- 
ments which might be involved. This assistance 
may take any of several forms. It may include 
liberal separation pay, retraining courses, or pay- 
ment of resettlement expenses and similar pay- 
ments. It might also include the financing of 
new industries in the affected areas which could 
absorb the displaced workers. 

The High Authority's obligations with respect 
to labor also have certain more positive objectives. 



527 



One of the High Authority's major purposes is to 
eliminate the deliberate use of wage reductions as 
a technique of competition. One provision of the 
treaty prohibits any reduction in wages, except in 
certain defined circumstances, such as when living 
costs also had declined. In addition, the Au- 
thority may enter into consultation with Govern- 
ments with a view to correcting abnormally low 
wage situations already in existence. 

The treaty also contains other commitments 
which have few precedents in international labor 
history. The participating countries will be com- 
mitted to the development of a detailed agree- 
ment to eliminate virtually all restrictions in the 
hiring of experienced steel and coal workers who 
are nationals of any of the other countries. Par- 
ticular efforts are to be made to eliminate barriers 
to the reemployment of workers displaced in other 
countries. Any discriminations practiced against 
coal or steel workers of other member countries, 
whether they are experienced or not, also will have 
to be eliminated by the treaty. 

Transitional Measures 

From the first, the drafters of the plan consid- 
ered that certain special measures would have to be 
taken, during a relatively short period at the out- 
set of the plan's operation, in order to deal with 
the differences in costs which existed among the 
coal and steel industries of the various nations. 
It appeared that free trade among the coal and 
steel industries of the six countries might force 
shifts in production in the merged area on so 
large a scale as to be intolerable for some of the 
countries concerned. The most difficult prob- 
lems in this category are those presented by the 
relatively high cost Belgium coal industry and 
by the Italian steel industry. 

To deal with the Belgian coal problem, provi- 
sion is made for the operation of a so-called coal 
equalization fund which would operate during a 
transitional period of 5 years. The fund would 
be raised by levies on the coal and steel produc- 



tion of the low cost producers in the area and 
would be paid to the highest cost segment of the 
Belgian producers. These subsidies would taper 
off at a rapid rate, the exact pace depending on 
the speed with which Belgian industry can adjust 
itself to the situation. 

The solution for Italian steel takes a different 
form. The negotiators concluded that for tech- 
nical reasons it was not practicable to operate an 
equalization fund for the steel industry. Accord- 
ingly, if the High Authority considers it necessary, 
the Italian industry can be protected by tariffs 
during the transitional period. However, the 
duties involved cannot in any case be higher than 
those which prevailed at the beginning of the 
plan and would be reduced by some fixed per- 
centage in each of the transitional years, until the 
duty was eliminated. 

Next Steps 

Six countries have participated in the develop- 
ment of the Schuman Plan treaty — Belgium, 
France, Western Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, 
and Luxembourg. Ratification by the parlia- 
ments of the signatory Governments will put the 
plan in operation. The discussions on ratification 
will raise political issues of the first importance 
in most of the countries concerned. Each country 
is bound to test the plan for its impact on its do- 
mestic economy and to explore the effects of par- 
ticipation on other international issues. 

Ratification of the plan will be a tribute to their 
imagination and courage. It will represent an ex- 
periment in new concepts of sovereignty and of 
international organization, which will help to knit 
the free nations of the world with stronger and 
more enduring ties. 

Note. — TJie Schuman Plan Constituting a European 
Coal and Steel Communiti/: Draft Treaty Constituting the 
European Coal and Steel Communitu and Draft Conven- 
tion Containing the Tran»itional Provisions has been 
printed by the Department of State as publication 4173 
anfl is avaihible from the Suiterintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C, 
at 55i a copy. 



I 



528 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



L 



Report of the Air Coordinating Committee for 1950' 



I. INTRODUCTION 



History and Background 



The Air Coordinating Committee (ACC) is a 
Federal interdepartmental committee which was 
established by interdepartmental agreement in 

1945, and subsequently formalized by the Presi- 
dent under Executive Order 9781, September 19, 

1946, with responsibility for coordinating Federal 
policy in the field of aviation. The Committee is 
authorized to 

examine aviation problems and developments affecting 
more than one participating agency ; develop and recom- 
mend integrated policies to be carried out and actions to 
be taken by the participating agencies or by any other 
Government agency charged with responsibility in the 
aviation field ; and, to the extent permitted by law, coordi- 
nate the aviation activities of such agencies except activi- 
ties relating to the exercise of quasi-judicial function. 

It coordinates interdepartmental views and rec- 
ommends general policy directives and instruc- 
tions to the Department of State for the guidance 
of the United States representatives to the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization (IcAo). The 
ACC is also responsible for making recommenda- 
tions to the President concerning major aviation 
Solicy and for submitting to him for decision any 
isagreement on important aviation questions. 
The ACC is concerned with many aspects of 
aviation policy, including both highly technical 
policies and problems, such as involved in the all- 
weather-flying progi'am and the longer-range eco- 
nomic and industrial problems, such as are found 
in the mobilization of the Nation's air power. 
Major attention is given to civil-aviation matters 
with military or international implications, but 
the facilities of the Committee are available for 
the coordination of any aviation problem affecting 
more than one of its member agencies. Since rec- 
ommendations of the ACC can be made only by 
unanimous agreement, its member agencies are 
assured of an opportunity for full discussion and 
consideration of all aviation matters affecting 
them. The means is thereby provided for the 

' Message from the President of the United States trans- 
mitting the annual report of the Air Coordinating Com- 
mittee for the calendar year 1950. H. Doc. 55, 82d Cong. 
Feb. 8, 1951. 



achievement of an integrated and coordinated Fed- 
eral aviation policy. 

Aviation policy matters may be submitted to the 
ACC by individual Federal departments and 
agencies. States and other non-Federal jurisdic- 
tions, the aviation industry, and the United States 
representative to the International Civil Aviation 
Organization. These matters are then referred to 
an ACC committee or subcommittee or one of 
the member agencies for study and analysis and 
the preparation of a position which will be accept- 
able to the member agencies and carried out by 
them. The complete coordination of all inter- 
ested areas of the Government is in this fashion 
assured. 

The Air Coordinating Committee membership 
at present includes the Departments of State, 
Navy, Air Force, Treasury, Post Office, Commerce, 
the Civil Aeronautics Board, National Security 
Resources Board, and the Bureau of the Budget, 
a nonvoting member. The representatives of 
these departments are from the sub-Cabinet level. 
All major policy decisions are made by the mem- 
bers of the Committee (appendix A).^ On ques- 
tions affecting the interests of nonmember Federal 
agencies, their representatives are consulted and 
given full voting participation. The ACC em- 
ploys a system of standing committees (divisions), 
panels, subcommittees, ad hoc committees, and 
working groups, to perform its work, possessing 
varying degrees of responsibility. Technical, 
legal, economic, and other personnel in a wide 
variety of fields, drawn from the member agen- 
cies, make up the subcommittees which provide the 
basic study and coordination of a problem before 
it is referred to the Committee. In limited cases, 
however, where it is consistent with sound admin- 
istration, direct authority to take final ACC action 
has been conferred upon certain committees, 
panels, or subcommittees. There are approxi- 
mately 24 standing subcommittees and several 
special purpose committees. (See list, appendix 
B.)^ A permanent secretariat under the direc- 
tion of the Executive Secretary provides facilities 
and services necessary to the performance of the 
Committee's functions. 



' Not printed. 



April 2, 7 95 J 



529 



Organizational Changes in 1950 

A new Chairman was selected for the Air Coord- 
inating Committee on September 27, 1950, with the 
appointment of Mr. Delos W. Rentzel, Chairman 
of the Civil Aeronautics Board. Mr. Rentzel suc- 
ceeded Mr. Joseph J. O'Connell, Jr., former Chair- 
man of the CAB, who resigned July 8, 1950. 

Mr. E. H. Foley, Jr., Under Secretary of the 
Treasury, was appointed Vice Chairman on Au- 
gust 28, 1950, and presided at ACC meetings 
during the interval between the resignation of Mr. 
O'Connell and the appointment of Mr. Rentzel. 

Mr. Thomas W. S. Davis, Assistant Secretary 
of Commerce, was appointed as Commerce mem- 
ber to succeed Mr. C. V. Whitney, former Under 
Secretary of Commerce. 

The National Security Resources Board was 
added as a member of the ACC in recognition of 
the increased emphasis on air-mobilization plan- 
ning. Participation by the NSRB extends and 
strengthens coordination of aviation policy in the 
Government in accordance with the Executive 
oi'der. 



II. SUMMARY OF MAJOR ACTIVITIES OF 1950 

The year 1950 provided numerous opportunities 
for the coordination of Government-wide aviation 
policy and the development of agreements on both 
domestic and international matters by the mem- 
ber agencies of the ACC. 

The Committee considered various technical 
aspects of domestic air navigation. 

The all-weather-flying program conceived by 
the S031 Report of the Radio Technical Com- 
mission for Aeronautics can be realized and 
speeded up because of the establishment of opera- 
tional policies and detailed operational needs for 
the integi-ation of air-traffic-control operations 
within the United States, to permit a safe and 
orderly transition to the common system. 

The member agencies developed and recom- 
mended a national policy and program with re- 
gard to the selection and establishment of long- 
distance aids to air navigation. 

In response to a request from the President's 
Communications Policy Board, the Committee de- 
veloped a broad policy statement covering current 
United States aeronautical communications, in- 
cluding indications of unsolved problems in this 
field. 

A continuing large volume of decisions were 
reached with regard to air-s])ace utilization. 

Member agencies ajijiroveil and rerommended to 
Congress proposed legislation for security control 
of the air space by positive identification of all 
aircraft in certain zones, enacted in Public Law 
778, Eighly-first Congress. 

The Conunittee considered problems of aircraft 
production and aii- transport mobilization plan- 
ning. In an effort to promote United States 

530 



leadership in the production of new and improved 
turbine-powered aircraft, a program to provide 
Government assistance to aircraft manufacturers 
for the testing of certain prototypes was formu- 
lated and became Public Law 867, the Prototype 
Testing Act. 

To prevent impairment of the civil air transport 
industry as a result of expanding military aircraft 
production, a policy was recommended to the 
National Production Authority whereby spare 
parts and new equipment necessary for the proper 
functioning of civil air transport would be given 
equal priority with military production. 

The member agencies on the basis of a previous 
agreement between the ACC and the NSRB con- 
tinued working on mobilization plans and studies 
of the Nation's civil air resources to provide ade- 
quate aeronautical potential for an emergency. 
During the current year a series of detailed mobili- 
zation plans for the air transport industry were 
completed and transmitted to NSRB. 

In the field of international air policy the Com- 
mittee continued to perform the ground work for 
United States participation in the International 
Civil Aviation Organization and to develop 
answers for technical, economic, and legal policy 
problems. 

The Committee cleared United States positions 
of policy relative to the development, adoption, 
amendment, and implementation of the technical 
annexes ( Standards and Recommended Practices) 
to the Convention on International Civil Aviatioi 
in the following fields: personnel licensing; rul 
of the air; aeronautical charts; dimensional units 
to be used in air-ground communications; oper* 
tion of aircraft — scheduled international ai: 
services; airworthiness of aircraft; aeronautica 
telecommunications; air traffic services; searcl 
and rescue; aircraft accident investigation! 
(AIG) ; and aerodromes, air routes and groum 
aids (AGA). In addition. United States posi 
tions for the 1950 session of the Icao Assembly an 
for other Icao meetings were developed and c 
ordinated. At these meetings many matters o 
major importance to national and internationa. 
aviation were considered, the majority of whicl 
were technical in character. 

The Committee continued to work on the eCi 
nomic policy problems involved in internationa 
rights to fly under article 5 of the Chicago con 
vention, international air mail, burdensome taxa 
tion on international airlines, facilitation ol 
international air travel, and the i)rovision of in 
ternational air-navigation facilities. 

An inqiortant area in which the Committee wa; 
particularly active was the establishment of ;i 
policy to reduce deficiencies in international air 
navigation facilities. The Committee developet 
a current listing of important facility deficiencie.' 
and indicated possible nu^thods of implomentatioi 
requii-ed for Tnitod States flag carriers whose op 
erations along cert ilicated international routes arc 
vital to national interests. 

Deparfment of Sfate Bulletir 



The major endeavor in the legal field centered 
upon efforts to revise the Rome Convention on 
Damage Caused by Aircraft to Third Parties on 
the Surface. Other problems in international law- 
were considered, and positions were prepared on 
the Convention for the Unification of Certain 
Rules Relative to International Transportation by 
Air (AVarsaw convention) and the Draft Conven- 
tion on Aerial Collisions. 

A statement of policies to cover landing and 
parking fees at CAA-operated airports in the Pa- 
cific area was submitted by the CAA to the Com- 
mittee for coordination. The attention of the 
Committee centered primarily around the provi- 
sion of a standard landing charge. It was decided, 
that this charge sliould be fixed at 16 cents per 
thousand pounds of aircraft weight. 

The ACC continued its review of United States 
civil air policy for Germany and other occupied 
countries, deciding, among other things, that air 
service for Germany should be restricted to the 
minimum required for economic recovery. 



IV. INTERNATIONAL AIR POLICY 

The international air policies which are fol- 
lowed by the United States Government are an 
important phase of our foreign policy. For this 
reason the work of the Air Coordinating Commit- 
tee, which combines and reflects the views of the 
various governmental departments and agencies 
in assuring full support and coordination of the 
policy eventually advanced by the Department of 
State on behalf of this Government, continues to 
be one of its major assignments. 



A. International Civil Aviation Organization 

The United States is one of 58 states which are 
members of the International Civil Aviation Or- 
ganization, and one of the 20 states which sit on 
its Council. The Assembly of all member states 
of IcAO meets annually and is concerned with major 
policy matters. The Council, which is the Or- 
ganization's permanent executive body, is in ses- 
sion about 7 months of the year, and the three 
major committees of the Council — Air Navigation, 
Air Transport, and Joint (Financial) Support are 
in session concurrently with it. The Legal Com- 
mittee of IcAO meets twice a year, subject to ap- 
proval of the Council. There are 13 specialized 
divisions which are responsible to the Air Naviga- 
tion and Air Transport Committees, and there are 
meetings for 10 different air-navigation regions. 
The United States participates in the work of 
IcAO through its resident representatives and 
through special delegations. 

The part that ACC plays in United States par- 
ticipation in IcAO is twofold : first, developing the 
United States position on matters being considered 
by the Organization; and, second, coordinating 

April 2, 1951 



the development of an integrated program for the 
implementation by the agencies of this Govern- 
ment of decisions reached by Icao. 

In addition to formulating policies for the use 
of the United States representative on the Icao 
Council, the Committee during 1950 developed the 
United States positions to be presented at 16 Icao 
conferences. (A list of these conferences is at- 
tached to this report as appendix C.) The Com- 
mittee also made recommendations to the Depart- 
ment of State on the composition of the United 
States delegations to the Icao conferences. 

TECHNICAL POLICY DECISIONS 

The Convention on International Civil Aviation, 
under wluch Icao was organized and now operates, 
was ratified by the United States and has the effect 
of law. Under the convention each contracting 
state undertakes to promote the highest practicable 
degree of uniformity in technical standards and 
procedures. To this end, the convention provides 
that Icao shall adopt and amend from time to 
time international standards and recommended 
practices (technical annexes), and provides fur- 
ther that any state having standards or practices 
differing from those established under the con- 
vention shall so notify Icao. The position of the 
United States Government on cooperating with 
Icao in establishing uniform standards and prac- 
tices is reflected in the following memorandum 
which the ACC issued : 

The ACC favors and encourages compliance in all 
respects with the Convention on International Civil Avia- 
tion and recommends that Icao standards and recom- 
mended practices and other pertinent Icao decisions be 
applied to United States national aviation practices as 
soon as practicable after adoption, except when it is im- 
practicable to do so because of any of the following 
reasons : 

(a) Implementation would be detrimental to the na- 
tional interest; 

(6) Implementation cannot be effected without obtain- 
ing new or amended legislation ; 

(c) Necessary funds are not available; 

(d) Implementation would work a substantial hard- 
ship on the various aviation activities of the United States ; 

(e) Existing national practices provide a greater degree 
of safety. 

The ACC recommends that insofar as is compatible 
with the national interest, agencies exert every effort to 
remove obstructions to the application of any Icao stand- 
ard or recommended practice which cannot be applied 
immediately. 

During 1950 the ACC continued to perform a 
large volume of work in connection with the de- 
velopment of United States positions concerning 
the adoption, amendment, and implementation of 
the technical annexes to the Chicago convention. 
Positions regarding the amendment of existing 
annexes (international standards and recom- 
mended practices) were developed, as well as posi- 
tions with regard to the adoption of four new 
annexes. A large volume of work was also per- 
formed by the ACC in connection with United 
States preparation for Icao divisional, regional, 

531 



and otlier technical meetings and approval of their 
recommendations. Further technical policy coord- 
ination was accomplished in the preparation of 
replies to letters from Icao on many air-naviga- 
tion questions. 

FOURTH SESSION OF THE ASSEMBLY (JUNE 19S0) 

The fourth session of the Icao Assembly was 
held in an atmosphere of international good will 
and understanding. Several of the participating 
nations expressed the hope that Icao would serve 
as a much-needed example for international co- 
operation in other fields. 

Through its examination of the annual report 
of the Council and through its debate on specific 
technical, economic, legal, and administrative 
items appearing on its agenda, the Assembly re- 
viewed all phases of the Organization's work. 
Eesolutions adopted by this session of the Assem- 
bly provided policy guidance and directives to the 
Council on such matters as amendment of the 
Chicago convention, activities of Icao and obliga- 
tions of contracting states in the field of accident 
investigation, recognition of certificates of air- 
worthiness for the purpose of import and export, 
the Icao aviation training program, the role of 
Icao in the United Nations expanded technical 
assistance program, commercial rights in interna- 
tional air transport, and a new Draft Convention 
on Damage Caused by Aircraft to Third Parties 
on the Surface. 

As in the case of previous sessions of the 
Assembly, the position of the United States on all 
items appearing on the pi'ovisional agenda was 
drawn up and cleared with all United States Gov- 
ernment agencies concerned through the mecha- 
nism of the interdepartment.al Air Coordinating 
Committee. Definite instructions on all agenda 
items, either with or without latitude for the dele- 
gation to use its own discretion, were given to the 
chairman of the United States delegation prior to 
departure for Icao headquarters in Montreal, 
where the Assembly was held. Members of the 
United States delegation, with few exceptions, 
consisted of those who regularly represent their 
agencies in the various components of the Air 
Coordinating Committee. The United States 
position was completely or substantially sustained 
on most of the agenda items. 



RECOGNITION OF NATIONAL CERTIFICATES 
OF AIRWORTHINESS 

At the fourth session of the Assembly of Icao, 
the United States proposed that national certifi- 
cates of airworthiness conforming to Icao stand- 
ards should be recognized by all other member 
nations of the Organization as being valid for 
purposes of export and import of aircraft. This 
proposal is still under consideration by Icao, and 
the ACC is consequently still concerned with the 
problem. 



ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION 

Another proposal of significance was made by 
the United States at the fourth session of the Icao 
Assembly. This involved discussion of the inter- 
pretation of article 26 of the Chicago convention 
with relation to aircraft-accident investigations 
and the obligations of the member nations there- 
under. The ACC is still occupied with formula- 
tion of United States positions for international 
negotiations on this subject. 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION RIGHTS 

UNDER ARTICLE 5 OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTION 

Under the terms of the Chicago convention, 
rights of one country's scheduled international 
services to fly into another country are dependent 
upon special arrangements between the govern- 
ments concerned. In framing article 5, the 
Chicago Conference attempted to secure freedom 
of the air, subject only to limited restrictions, for 
the various types of aircraft engaged in other than 
scheduled services, including those engaged in both 
commercial and noncommercial operations. 

A major effort has been made by Icao during 
the past year to reach a basis for agreement on the 
meaning and application of article 5. In connec- 
tion with United States participation in this work 
in Icao, recommendations have been made by the 
Air Coordinating Committee toward defining 
"scheduled international air services" as well as 
formulating concepts thereof for use in the practi- 
cal application of the definition. It is hoped that 
a definition can be obtained which will neither 
open the door to destructive competition with 
scheduled services on the one hand nor undulj' re- 
strict the development of valuable types of aux-i 
iliary services on the other. 

INTERNATIONAL AIR MAIL 

For some time Icao has been studying various 
aspects of international air-mail service and has 
recently received a request fi'om the Universal 
Postal Union (Upu) to present views on the prin- 
ciples for setting international air-mail-transpor- 
tation charges. This matter is of great importance 
to international air carriers, to postal administra- 
tions, and to the users of air mail. A proposed 
reply to Upu was submitted to Icao member states 
for consideration and comment. Major topics of 
discussion involved separation of mail costs from 
other costs, principles of categorizing air-mail 
services, "all up" air-mail services (sending all 
first-class (LC) mail by air without surcharge up 
to some specified distance where an improvement 
in delivery time would thereby be effected), and i 
the resultant patterns of transportation charges. ' 

The Air Coordinating Committee has reviewed } 
the projioscd Icao communication to Uru and has i 
reconnnended among other things that the average ; 
level of Uru rates sliould be maintained at present i 
in view of the fact that practically without excep- 



532 



Department of State Bulletin 



tion international airlines are operating under 
deficit conditions which may well be intensified by 
the present trend of increasing costs. Under the 
circumstances there is no apparent justification for 
lowering foreign mail transportation charges. 
The United States, in accordance with a decision 
of the Air Coordinating Committee, has also sug- 
gested to IcAO that the existing category system be 
retained until definite substitute arrangements can 
be agreed upon. 

BURDENSOME TAXATION ON INTERNATIONAL AIRLINES 

During ID.^O a joint United Nations-IcAo Secre- 
tariat woi-king group undertoolc a study for the 
purpose of (1) expanding the factual and legal 
background material on multiple, discriminatory, 
and unduly burdensome taxes levied on interna- 
tional air carriers and (2) analyzing and inter- 
preting the material and problems presented 
from the point of view of international taxation 
theoi-y and practice. The United States along 
with other Icao member states, was requested to 
submit views on certain of the problems involved. 
These views and the results of the joint Secretariat 
study were the basis of final recommendations of 
the Icao Air Transport Committee to the Icao 
Council. 

Particular attention has been given by the Icao 
Council to three forms of taxation on which action 
by Icao appears justified : (a) Taxation of aircraft 
fuel, lubricants, and similar supplies; (b) taxes 
on income and property of airlines; and (c) taxes 
related to the sale or use of international air trans- 
portation. Recommendations formulated by the 
ACC were designed to remove the most onerous 
practices found to exist in these three forms of 
taxation. 

FACILITATION OF INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT 

The ACC has continued its efforts in connection 
with the removal of barriers, such as certain pro- 
cedures required by customs, immigration, public 
health, and quarantine authorities which were pre- 
venting full exi^loitation of international air 
transport. 

One of the most outstanding achievements of 
the ACC was its work in obtaining approval and 
implementation by the United States Government 
of practically all of the provisions of annex 9 
to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. 
The value of this annex in the facilitation of in- 
ternational air transportation is already reflected 
in the reduced cost of operating the United States 
airlines through savings in man-hours and reduc- 
tion in the number of forms used in connection 
with international flights. As member states in 
the International Civil Aviation Organization im- 
plement to a greater degree the provisions of an- 
nex 9, further savings to all carriers may be 
expected. 

To lend impetus to this effort, the United States 
is endeavoring, through Icao, to influence other 



states to take more expeditious action to remove 
obstacles which are preventing the elimination of 
deviations in the implementation of annex 9 in 
areas under their control. 

CHARGES FOR THE USE OF AIR NAVIGATION FACILITIES 

During 1950 the Air Coordinating Committee, 
after consultation with airlines, airport operators, 
and other interested parties, recommended that thft 
United States take an active and constructive role 
with other members of Icao in attempting to reach 
a satisfactory solution to the many outstanding 
issues involved in establishing a program of inter- 
national airway-user charges as a prelude to the 
formulation of an international policy. Many 
substantial pi-oblems remain to be solved before 
such a policy can be obtained or satisfactorily ad- 
ministered. The Icao Council is continuing its 
consideration of the principles underlying such 
charges. The United States does not favor adop- 
tion by Icao of an international policy until these 
many problems have been solved. 

A statement of policies to cover landing and 
parking fees at CAA-operated airports in the 
Pacific area was submitted by CAA to the Air 
Coordinating Committee for coordination. The 
attention of the Committee centered primarily 
around the provision of a standard landing charge. 
It was decided that this charge should be fixed at 
16 cents per thousand pounds of aircraft weight. 

PROVISION AND MANNING OF 
AIR-NAVIGATION FACILITIES 

The Icao Assembly in 1948 requested the Coun- 
cil to establish a program for providing and 
manning indispensable air-navigation facilities 
arranged in the order of their priority to interna- 
tional air transport. The various contracting 
states were requested to specify their own national 
programs for which they would individually as- 
sume the costs. During 1950 a review of the fa- 
cilities to be provided by and requirements of the 
United States has been made by the Air Coordi- 
nating Committee in 4 of the 10 Icao regions. This 
has involved a comprehensive study of all facili- 
ties in territory controlled by the United States 
that were recommended for installation, improve- 
ment, or retention as well as an indication of ap- 
parent deficiencies. Studies of other areas are 
presently under way. 

JOINT INTERNATIONAL FINANCING 
OF AIR-NAVIGATION FACILITIES 

The Convention on International Civil Aviation 
provides that member nations should insofar as 
practicable furnish facilities and services required 
in their territory for safe, regular, efficient, and 
economic international civil aviation. The con- 
vention further provides that when the individual 
nations are unable to furnish such facilities and 
services the Icao Council may arrange for their 



April 2, 1951 



533 



joint support (joint international financing) by 
the nations benefiting therefrom. 

Joint international operating or financing ar- 
rangements are now in effect for ( 1 ) North Atlan- 
tic Ocean stations, (2) air-navigation services in 
Iceland, and (3) air-navigation services in Green- 
land and the Faroes. Eecently considered was the 
removal of the main meteorological station from 
Keykjavik to Keflavik, Iceland. Necessary 
weather services at Keflavik have been provided 
by the United States Weather Bureau using its 
own fimds. The Air Coordinating Committee 
agreed that the Weather Bureau should phase out 
its activities at Keflavik and recommended that 
the United States representative to Icao advocate 
that Keflavik be designated the main meteorolog- 
ical ofhce, rather than Reykjavik; also that it be 
included in the joint-support project for Iceland. 

During 1950 Switzerland agreed to join the 
group of user nations contributing toward the cost 
of operating the North Atlantic air-safety services 
under Icao auspices. To the extent that these and 
similar projects can be made the subject of joint 
support the cost to the United States, as the prin- 
cipal user of the air routes of the world, will be 
reduced. 

A bilateral arrangement with Canada for the 
establishment and maintenance of a minimum 
number of ocean stations in the North Pacific has 
been agreed upon and the United States contribu- 
tion thereto is now being implemented within the 
limits of available funds. This network of ocean 
stations lias been and still is under constant re- 
vision in order to meet requirements in the area. 

INTERNATIONAL LEGAL CONVENTIONS 

During 1950 a substantial portion of the legal 
work of the Air Coordinating Committee was cen- 
tered upon the Draft Convention on Damage 
Caused by Aircraft to Third Parties on the Sur- 
face, the so-called Rome surface-damage conven- 
tion. It was the major legal item on the agenda 
of the fourth session of the Icao Assembly and the 
United States positions on the problems involved 
were prepared in the ACC. In preparing these 
and later positions, the assistance of various non- 
governmental experts and interested organizations 
was invited and received, and public meetings were 
held at which many helpful views were expressed. 
The convention was not finalized at the fourth 
session of the Assembly as had been hoped, but a 
new draft was adopted by the Legal Commission 
of the Assembly, and has been placed on the 
agenda of tiie seventli session of the Icao Legal 
Committee convening in Mexico City on January 
2, 1951. United States positions were prepared 
for the delegation to this session of the Legal Com- 
mittee and for the delegates to two subcommittees 
of the Icao I>egal (Committee which were created 
to work on the insurance and the jurisdictional 
problems of the convention. 

534 



United States positions were also prepared on 
revision of the Warsaw convention for the unifica- 
tion of certain rules relating to international trans- 
portation by air and the Draft Convention on 
Aerial Collisions for the fourth session of the 
Assembly, although work on the Rome convention 

6 laced these two conventions in the background, 
[owever, consideration of the Rome convention 
necessarily involved detailed analysis of the colli- 
sions convention in order to make the two consist- 
ent in their treatment of collisions situations 
involving damage to persons and property on the 
surface. 

PROBLEMS IN INTERNATIONAL LAW 

In addition to the private international air-law 
conventions mentioned above, the ACC took action 
on other problems in the international law field. 
In response to a request from the Shipping Coordi- 
nating Committee for advice concerning changes 
in the United States law which would be advisable 
if proposed international regulations for prevent- 
ing collisions at sea were adopted, a draft bill was 
forwarded to the Shipping Coordinating Com- 
mittee covering the aviation aspects of the prob- 
lem. Termination of the 1935 Air Navigation 
Agreement between the United States and Great 
Britain was approved after determination that all 
provisions of this agreement of any value to the 
United States were covered by the Chicago con- 
vention. Proposed Icao procedures for reporting 
of breaches of, or noncompliance with national 
laws and regulations were formulated for submis- 
sion to the Icao Council by the United States 
representative and are being coordinated for ACC 
approval. The United States position on a United 
Kingdom proposal for amendment of article 94 
of the Chicago convention was established, and 
alternative courses of action open to the Assembly 
in dealing with proposed amendments to the Chi- 
cago convention under the existing article 94 were 
presented. The legal implications of a 200-mile 
offshore zone of interception were investigated. 



B. Other International Air Policy 



( 



EXPORT-IMPORT BANK LOANS 

The Air Coordinating Committee has continued i 
to advise the Export-Import Bank regarding pro- 
posals for financing by the bank of foreign air 
services and the export of aeronautical equipment. 
This is in accordance with established policy where 
pertinent aviation problems have been involved. 

CIVIL AVIATION POLICY IN OCCUPIED COUNTRIES 

The Air Coordinating Committee early in 1947 : ] 
undertook the development of a civil-aviation [ 
policy for Germany, giving consideration to the I 
part civil aviation could have in the economic 
recovery of that country but keeping within the 

Department of State Bulletins 



dictates of security interest. In 1948 and 1949 
agreement was reached with the British and 
French, substantially in accord with earlier poli- 
cies developed by ACC, making the policy with 
respect to civil aviation in Western Germany uni- 
form. In 1950 the ACC reviewed a proposed law 
drafted by the Tripartite Civil Aviation Panel 
regarding participation of Germans in aviation 
activities. It was determined that the panel's 
proposal conformed with the United States policy 
with respect to aviation in Germany. 

In 1950 a United States policy with regard to 
civil aviation in Austria was formulated. 



1950IICAO Conference 

[APPENDIX C] 



Jan. 5 to Jan. 21 

Feb. 14 to Mar. 25— 

Mar. 21 to Apr. 7__. 

Mar. 21 to Apr. 11. 
Apr. 11 to Apr. 27_ 

Apr. 11 to May 2___ 
Apr. 18 to May 10— 
Apr. 24 to Apr. 28— 

May 30 to June 17- 

May 30 to June 20. 
June 6 to June 26 

Sept. 14 to Oct. 2_. 
Oct. 17 to Nov. 7___ 

Nov. 8 to Dec. 1 

Nov. 14 to Dec. 13— 

Dec. 4 to Dec. 8— 



Fifth Session, Legal Commit- 
tee — Taormina, Rome. 

Third Session of the Meteor- 
ological Division — Paris. 
[BLTLLEmN of Aug. 7, 1930, 
p. ZiG] 

Africa-Indian O c e a n/Mlddle 
East Frequency Assign- 
ment Planning Meeting — 
Paris. 

Afrita-Indian Ocean and Mid- 
dle East Special Meeting 
on Fixed Services — Paris. 

Caribbean/S o u t h American/ 
South Atlantic Regional 
Frequency Assignment 
Planning Meeting — Ha- 
bana. 

Second Caribbean Regional Air 
Navigation Meeting — Ha- 
bana. 

South East Asia Regional Fre- 
quency Assignment Plan- 
ning Meeting — New Delhi. 

Informal Altimeter Setting 
Meeting, European-Medi- 
terranean Region — Paris. 

Sixth Session, Legal Commit- 
tee — Montreal. 

Fourth Session of the Assem- 
bly — Montreal. 

European-Mediterranean Re- 
gional Frequency Assign- 
ment Planning Meeting — 
Paris. 

Air\vorthiness/0 perations 
Meeting on Performance — 
Paris. 

Second Middle East Regional 
Air Navigation Meeting — 
Istanbul. 

Special Met Meeting for Ari, 
EuMED, and Nat Regions — ' 
Paris. 

Fourth Session, Rules of the 
Air and Air Traffic Con- 
trol (Rag Division) — 
Montreal. 

Meeting of the Subcommittee 
on Insurance and Other 
Security — Paris. 



U.S. and France Agree 
on New Air Routes 

[Released to the press March 21] 

The Franco-American aeronautical negotiations 
which have been taking place in Paris since the 
fifth of February have been concluded today. 

The two delegations, after a carefid examina- 
tion of tlie results experienced by tiie carriers of 
the two countries in accordance with the Franco- 
American agreement of March 27, 1946, have ex- 
pressed tlie satisfaction of their respective Gov- 
ernments with the conduct of past operations. 

Looking to the future, the representatives of 
the two (iovernments expressed their conviction 
that the principles of the agreement will insure 
the continued orderly development of interna- 
tional air transport. They agreed that such prin- 
ciples, combined with the nuitual confidence of the 
two Governments, will effectively promote the best 
interests of the carriers of both countries in the 
spirit of the agreement. 

Since this objective can be obtained only 
through more frequent contacts, the American 
delegation and the French delegation have recog- 
nized the desirability of more frequent consulta- 
tions between the aeronautical authorities of the 
two countries. 

The routes, the commercial operations of which 
have been previously granted by one or the other 
of the two parties to the companies of the other 
party, have been subjected in the light of experi- 
ence to a new examination. 

The Government of the United States has au- 
thorized the inclusion of Houston as an inter- 
mediate point on the route between France and 
Mexico, via New York, as well as the establish- 
ment of a new route between Martinique and 
Guadeloupe and New York, a route which will 
permit French air services to connect metropolitan 
France with the French Department in the Carib- 
bean through New York. 

On its part, the French Government has author- 
ized the substitution of Rome for Milan on one of 
the authorized United States routes which will 
permit the operation of services from the United 
States across the North Atlantic and Spain, via 
Marseilles or Nice, and beyond, via Eome to 
Southern Europe, the Near and Far East. 



Alonzo G. Moron Named 
U.S. Caribbean Commissioner 

On March 19, President Truman appointed Alonzo G. 
Mor6n as a United States Commissioner on the Caribbean 
Commission for a period of 2 years. The Caribbean 
Commission is an advisory and consultative body on social 
and economic matters to the Governments of France, the 
Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, 
and their 15 non-self-governing territories in the 
Caribbean. 



E 



April 2, 1 95 1 



535 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ' 



Adjourned During March 1951 

United Nations: 

Trusteeship Council: Eighth Session Lake Success Jan. 29-Mar. 16 

Economic and Social Council: 

Twelfth Session Santiago Feb. 20-Mar. 21 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: Seventh Lahore Feb. 28-Mar. 7 

Session. 

Economic Commission for Europe: Transport Committee, Geneva Mar. 5-9 

Working Partv on Statistical Information. 

IcAO Council: Twelfth "Session Montreal Jan. SO-Mar. 22 

Motion Picture Festival Punta del Este, Uruguay . . Feb. 15-Mar. 15, 

*Nato (North Atlantic Treaty Organization): Working Group of Washington Mar. 12-16 

North Atlantic Planning Board for Ocean Shipping: Second 

Meeting. 

Ilo Governing Body: 114th Session Geneva Feb. 26-Mar. 10 

Agricultural Machinery Show Paris Feb. 27-Mar. 4 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union): Meetings of Inter- Geneva Mar. 6-22. 

national Telegraph Consultative Committee Study Groups. 

♦Third Inter-American Conference on Social Security Buenos Aires Mar. 12-31 

Imo (International Meteorological Organization): Extraordinary Paris Mar. 15-17 

Conference of Directors. 
Interparliamentary Union, Meeting of Council Monaco Mar. 7-30 

In Session as of March 31, 1951 

United Nations: 

General Asseml)ly: Fifth Session Lake Success Sept. 19- 

CoUeotive Measures Committee New York Mar. 5- 

Peace Observation Commission New York Mar. 16- 

Economic and Social Council: Social Commission Geneva Mar. 19- 

Gatt (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) : 

Third Set of Tariff Negotiations of the Contracting Parties . . . Torquay Sept. 28- 

Special Session of Contracting Parties Torquay Mar. 29- 

International Materials Conference Washington Feb. 26- 

Council of Foreign Ministers, Meeting of Deputies Paris Mar. 5- 

Four Power Conference on Swiss Allied Accord Bern Mar. 5- 

First Congress of the World Meteorological Organization Paris Mar. 19- 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

.\irworthiness Division: Fourth Session Montreal Mar. 20- 

Operations Division: Fourth Session Montreal Mar. 27- 

Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Washington Mar. 26- 

American States 

Lyon International Trade Fair, 33rd Lyon Mar. 31- 

Scheduled April 1-June 30, 1951 

Cannes Film Festival Cannes Apr. 2- 

First Meeting of the International Commission for Northwest Atlantic Washington Apr. 2- 

Fisheries. 

South Pacific Quarantine Conference Suva, Fiji Islands Apr. 2- 

' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. 
♦Tentative 

536 Department of State Bulletin 



i 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 
Scheduled April 1-June 30, 1951 — Continued 

United Nations: 

Economic and Social Council: 

Ad Hoc Committee on Slavery: Second Session New York Apr. 2- 

Economic Commission for Europe: 

Timber Committee Geneva Apr. 9- 

Sixth Session Geneva May 29- 

Commission on Narcotic Drugs: Sixth Session Lake Success Apr. 10- 

Human Rights Commission: Seventh Session Geneva Apr. 16- 

Population Commission: Sixth Session Lake Success Apr. 23- 

Commission on the Status of Women: Fifth Session Lake Success Apr. 30- 

Fiscal Commission: Third Session Geneva May 7- 

Statistical Commission: Sixth Session Lake Success May 7- 

Economic, Elmployment and Development Commission .... Lake Success May 14- 

Economic Commission for Latin America: Fourth Session . . . Mexico City May 28- 

Draft Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, Confer- Geneva May 28*- 

ence of Plenipotentiaries. 

Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection Geneva June 18*- 

of Minorities: Fourth Session. 

Council Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations . . . Lake Success June 19- 

Agenda Committee Geneva June 26- 

International Law Commission: Third Session Geneva May 15- 

Permanent Central Opium Board and Narcotic Drugs Super- Geneva June 5*- 

visory Body: Fifth Joint Session. 

Trusteeship Council: Ninth Session Lake Success June 11- 

Intergovernmental Study Group on Germany (Continuation of London Apr. 3- 

Fourth Phase). 
Ibo (International Refugee Organization): 

Executive Committee: Ninth Session Geneva Apr. 4- 

General Council: Seventh Session Geneva Apr. 9- 

Nato (North Atlantic Treaty Organization): Planning Board for London Apr. 23 

Ocean Shipping, Third Meeting. 
Ilo (International Labor Organization): 

Meeting of Experts on Payments by Results Geneva Apr. 10- 

Coal Mines: Fourth Session Geneva May 7- 

Joint Maritime Commission Geneva May 21- 

Governing Body: 115th Session Geneva May 28- 

Nutrition, Fag/Who Joint Expert Committee on: Second Session . . Rome Apr. 10- 

XXIX International Milan Fair Milan Apr. 12- 

Fao (Food and Agriculture Organization): 

Working Party on Fertilizers: First Meeting Bogor, Indonesia Apr. 14- 

Council: T%velfth Session Rome June 11- 

Rubber Study Group: Eighth Session Rome Apr. 16- 

Itd (International Telecommunication Union): 

Administrative Council: Sixth Session Geneva Apr. 16- 

International Radio Consultative Committee (Ccik) : Sixth Plenary Geneva June 5- 

Meeting. 

Pan American Sanitary Organization, Thirteenth Meeting of Execu- Washington Apr. 23- 

tive Committee. 
IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

Air Navigation Commission Communications Division: Fourth Montreal Apr. 24- 

Session. 

Fifth Assembly Montreal June 5- 

Unesco: 

International Committee of Bibliographic Experts London Apr. 24— 

General Conference: Sixth Session Paris June 18- 

South Pacific Commission: Seventh Session Noumea, New Caledonia . . Apr. 28- 

Textile Exposition, International Lille Apr. 28- 

Second Inter-American Indigenist Exposition Rio de Janeiro April 

Festival of Britain, 1951 England May 3- 

Arts and Modern Architecture, Ninth International Exhibition of Milan May 5- 

Decorative and Industrial. 
Who (World Health Organization) : 

Fourth World Health Assembly Geneva May 7- 

Executive Board: Eighth Session Geneva June 4- 

First Pan American Congress on Medical Education Lima May 14- 

Third Regional Seminar on Social Aifairs P6rto Alegre, Brazil .... May 14- 

First Pan American Congress on Veterinary Medicine Lima May 20- 

Upu (Universal Postal Union) : 

Meeting of the Executive and Liaison Committee St. Gallen, Switzerland . . . May 21- 

Teohnical Transit Committee: Second Meeting Pontresina, Switzerland . . June 6- 

Caribbean Commission: Twelfth Meeting Barbados May 

Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Law Brussels June 6- 

Military Medicine and Pharmacy, Thirteenth International Congress . Paris June 17- 

Fifth Session of the International Wheat Council London June 

*Tentative 
April 2, 1951 537 

937623—51 3 



m 



1950 World Economic Situation 



Statement hy Isador Lxibin 

U. S. Representative to ECOSOC ^ 



I. Introduction 

Since the Economic and Social Council made its 
review a year ago, major changes have taken place 
in the world economic situation.^ Today, one 
basic fact dominates the world economic situation. 
That fact is the world political situation. 

During World War II and the 51/2 years that 
have elapsed since that war ended, people every- 
where have hoped and prayed that all Govern- 
ments would cooperate, through the United Na- 
tions, in maintaining the peace of the world and 
in promoting economic and social progress. Thus 
far, these hopes and prayers liave been in vain. 

Why does the fear of war dominate the minds 
of people today ? The answer lies in the fact that 
people everywhere see aggression and threats of 
aggression — in Korea, in Tibet, in Malaya, in 
Yugoslavia. Only yesterday it was Berlin, 
Greece, Turkey, and Iran. In the face of these 
threats, what alternatives are there to the free 
peoples of the world? Are they to sit back su- 
pinely and accept aggression and the sacrifice of 
their freedom as inevitable? Or are they to as- 
sert their determination to remain free and be 
masters of their own destiny? 

They have chosen to be free. They have deter- 
mined to undertake once again the painful task 
of building up their military strength so that they 
can deter and, if necessary, resist and thwart fur- 
ther subversion and aggression. 

This is an unwelcome task. But it is a neces- 
sary one. 

The United Nations, in the face of Soviet ob- 
jections and despite the intervention of the Chinese 
Communist military forces, has acted to repel 
Commiuiist aggression in Korea. Free countries, 
acting under the United Nations Charter, are to- 
day cooperating in establishing mutual defense 

'Made before the Council at Santiago on Mar. 1 and 
released to the press by the U.S. mission to the U.N. In 
New York on Mar. 6. 

' For the 1049 review by Assistant Secretary Thorp, see 
Bulletin of Mar. 13, 1950, p. 407. 



arrangements through the Inter-American de- 
fense pact of 1948, the North Altantic Treaty of 
1949, and in many other ways. These free coun- 
tries are determined to preserve their national 
freedom. They know that their liberties and the 
liberties of their children are at stake. They 
know that if they are threatened by force they 
must be prepared to meet that threat. 

The free nations of the world know that their 
combined resources are greater than the sum of 
their individual resources. They know that, act- 
ing together, they have the moral, the economic, 
and the military resources to meet anj' threat of 
aggression. They know that a threat to one free 
country is a threat to all free countries. To para- 
phrase the great philosopher of the North Ameri- 
can Revolution, Benjamin Franklin, they know 
that to act separately is to hang separately. 

If those who seek by aggression to control and 
dominate the lives of free mankind are confronted 
with the combined and effective military and eco- 
nomic power of those whom they seek to dominate, 
there is hope that they will choose the course of 
wisdom and cease their aggression and sub- 
version. The way would then be open for all 
nations to join together in programs of dis- 
armament and peaceful economic cooperation 
within the spirit and framework of the United 
Nations. In these happy circumstances, the costs 
of defense mobilization that will have been borne 
by the peoples of the free world will indeed turn 
out to be small when compared with the infinite 
gains that will result from a world freed from the 
threat of slaverj' and war. But if, on the other 
hand, those who seek by aggression and sub- 
version to control and dominate the lives of free 
mankind should choose to continue their course. 
of imperialistic conquest and aggression, they 
should know from experience that the free world 
will resist. 

There is only one way by which the free nationsj 
can avoid the cost of war. That is by assuming,' 
the burden of rearmament. If there are anj' who 



538 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin i' 



„ liope tliat they can avoid this burden and at the 
same time be assured against aggression, one can 
only conckide that they are. ahis, being guided 
by wishful thinking. 



II. Economic Situation in United States 

Since the middle of 11)50, under the impact of 
Communist aggression in Korea and the threats 
of aggression elsewhere, there have been impor- 
tant changes both in the economic situation in the 
United States and in the economic program of 
the United States Government. These changes 
grow out of our policy of rebuilding our defenses. 

Let me make it clear that our program has only 
one purpose. That purpose is to prevent war. 
Our program is based on the premise that a rapid 
building of defenses by the free nations can act 
as an effective deterrent to aggressors; can serve 
as a basis for negotiation with those who respect 
only force; and, if necessary, can serve as a pro- 
tective shield against their possible further ag- 
gressions. 

We do not assume that war is inevitable, nor 
do we seek to develop a war economy. 

This fact governs our economic policies, both 
in the domestic and in the international fields. 
We are striving rather to create defensive strength 
for an uncertain but possibly long period ahead. 
We conceive of defensive strength in the very 
broadest sense. We conceive of it not only in 
terms of mobilized armed forces but also in terms 
of reserves of manpower and capacity to produce. 
We conceive of defensive strength in terms of an 
altert, productive citizenry, and an expanded eco- 
nomic plant in all the free nations. 

The long-range defense program, upon which 
the United States and other free nations have now 
embarked, necessarily changes the priority of 
many desirable programs and the pace at which 
they can be pursued. But because our progi-am 
is a defense progi-am and not a war mobilization 
program, it not only permits but calls for our 
continuing concern for long-range economic and 
social progress both at home and abroad. 

We are confident that we can continue to carry 
out such a long-range program of economic prog- 
ress. This confidence is based upon the recent 
record of our economic growth. Without going 
into too much detail, I should like, Mr. President, 
to sketch the magnitudes of growth recorded dur- 
ing the decade of the forties. 

GROWTH DURING THE 1940's 

During the decade from 1940 to 1950, a decade 
of both war and peace, the total output of the 
United States economy rose by more than 50 per- 
cent. Gross national production, measured in 1950 
prices, rose from 184 billion dollars in 1940, to 
280 billion in 1950. Civilian employment in- 
creased by over 12 million — from less than 48 mil- 
lion to 60 million — and our civilian workers had 



far better tools and equipment to work with. Oil- 
refining capacity increased by 40 percent. Elec- 
trical power capacity increased by C5 percent. 
Steel capacity rose by 20 percent — to over 100 
million tons. In 1950, United States farmers had 
two and a half times as many tractors and more 
than twice as many trucks as they had in 1940, 
and the proportion of farms that had electricity 
rose from 34 percent of the total to 86 percent. 

The gains registered during the second half of 
the 1940's, that is, in the 5 years from the Japanese 
surrender to the Communist aggression in Korea, 
were especially impressive particularly in view of 
the many forecasts of depression which all of you 
heard so much about. 

After the Japanese surrender, the United States 
demobilized with dramatic speed. In the space 
of 1 year, from 1945 to 1946, we cut our armed 
forces from a peak of over 12 million to 2i/2 mil- 
lion — a cut of 91/2 million. By 1947 our armed 
forces were down to 1.3 million. These millions 
of people were absorbed into peacetime jobs by 
a rapid expansion of civilian economic activity. 

Hand in hand with the absorption of these 
workers went tremendous investments in plant and 
equipment by private business. Between 1945 
and 1950, total manufacturing capacity increased 
by more than 25 percent. In some basic indus- 
tries, expansion far exceeded this rate. 

ECONOMIC SITUATION IN EARLY 1950 

The moderate recession in 1949, which some 
people feared — and, indeed, some even hoped — 
would become a major depression, was short-lived. 
The economy exhibited considerable resiliency and 
recovery was well under way when 1950 began. 

This recovery was partly a result of Govern- 
ment policies. As the Secretariat's report points 
out in discussing the economic situation in the 
United States during the second half of 1949, 

While the decline in business Investment in plant and 
equipment also continued, there was a sharp upturn in 
residential construction, owing in part to the reduction 
in costs of new housing, l)ut mainly to the easing of 
terms of down payments, the reduction in interest rates, 
and other credit policies which were furthered by the 
liberalization of the National Housing Act. (p. 15 of the 
Secretariat's report.) 

The Secretariat's report goes on to say that : 

In the first half of 1950, economic activity rose consid- 
erably over the level of the preceding half year and, in 
fact, reached a new postwar peak. 

The fact is that, in the second quarter of 1950, 
gross national production exceeded the level in the 
peak quarter of 1948 by about 4 percent, after ad- 
justment for price changes. 

Before midyear, industrial production had also 
surpassed the previous postwar record, established 
in the highest months of 1948. The index, which 
had reached 195 percent of the 1935-39 average 
in October and November of 1948, rose to 199 by 
June 1950. 



April 2, J 95 1 



539 



Civilian employment had also recovered from 
the reduced levels of 1949. By June 1950, it was 
more than 1% million above June of 1949. It was 
also above June of 1948. 

In short by June 1950, recovery was well on the 
way toward completion. 

It is worth emphasizing that this recovery was 
not built upon an expansion of exports. Indeed, 
as made evident by the Secretariat's report, tliis 
recovery took place in the face of a drop in ex- 
ports of goods and services. In the space of 1 
year, our exports fell by an annual rate of 5 bil- 
lion dollars — a cut of nearly 30 percent. 

Nor was it caused by an accelerated defense 
program. Before the aggression on South Korea 
by the North Korean forces, the economy had 
reached tlie highest levels in its peacetime history. 
Far from providing a support for our national 
economy, the new defense burdens subjected it to 
unwanted strains. 



ECONOMIC ACTIVITY SINCE MID-1950 

The North Korean aggression, then, found the 
United States in excellent economic health. The 
next 6 months was a period of rapid economic ad- 
justment to a grave international situation. The 
people of the United States were jolted into full 
comprehension of the dangers confronting both 
themselves and all other democratic peoples. In 
recognition of their responsibilities, they moved 
rapidly to play their part in the security program 
which the new circumstances demanded of the free 
world. 

The new international developments were 
quickly reflected in our economic activity. Al- 
though the money actually spent by the Federal 
Government on national security programs, both 
domestic and international, increased by an an- 
nual rate of only about 2 billion dollars from the 
whole fiscal year 1949-1950, to December 1950, the 
response of business and consumers was much 
greater than the increase in defense spending alone 
would account for. The reason for this response 
was that both sellers and buyers were anticipating 
scarcities and higher prices. 

There was a 6 percent rise in the physical quan- 
tity of total national output between the second 
and fourth quarter of 1950. Between June 1950 
and January 1951, industrial production rose by 
about 10 percent. Between the second and fourth 
quarters of 1950 private domestic investment in 
construction, equipment, and additions to inven- 
tory rose rapidly, reaching an all-time record of 
60 billion dollars at a seasonally adjusted annual 
rate. This level of new private investment was 
equal to one-fifth of our total national production. 

During this period, personal incomes also rose. 
Despite rises in retail prices and Federal taxes, 
there was a modest gain in consumer's real pur- 
chasing power. Wages and salaries and other 
labor income rose throughout 1950. In many 
cases, the gains achieved by organized labor 



tlirough collective bargaining considerably ex- 
ceeded the increase in the cost of living. From 
June to December, average weekly earnings for 
manufacturing industries as a whole, after adjust- 
ment for the rise in the cost of living, rose by 4 
percent. 

The spread of pension and other welfare plans 
through free collective bargaining, which had been 
particularly noteworthy in the first half of 1950, 
also continued during the second half. 

The improvement in welfare was further greatly 
reinforced by legislation liberalizing the Social Se- 
curity Act, enacted by an overwhelming vote of 
the United States Congress. Under this new legis- 
lation, benefit payments have been raised on the 
average by about 78 percent. The average hus- 
band-and-wife benefit for aged couples was raised 
from $41 to about $75 a month. The increases 
enacted by Congress range from a 50 percent rise 
for the groups that were getting the highest bene- 
fits to a 100 percent rise for those who were re- 
ceiving minimum benefits. In addition, 10 million 
more people were brought into the Old Age and 
Survivors Insurance system, raising the number 
covered from about 35 million workers to about 45 
million, that is, nearly three-quarters of the civil- 
ian labor force. Let me point out that there 
are also 7% million people, including railroad 
workers, employees of Federal, State, and local 
governments, and others, under other public re- 
tirement systems. 

The new amendments to the Social Security 
Act also increase the amount of Federal funds 
available for state and local maternal and child 
health services, for services to crippled children, 
for child welfare services, and for care of the dis- 
abled and blind. 

Let no one be deceived by the distorted charge 
that our rearmament program is undermining our 
Government social welfare services. 

III. The Task of Defense 

SIZE OF IMMEDIATE DEFENSE EXPANSION 

I have already pointed out that, at the end of 
1950, expenditures by the United States Govern- 
ment for defense and directly related purposes, 
both at home and abroad, were running at the rate 
of about 20 billion dollars annually. This rate 
represented about 7 percent of the total national 
output. By the end of the calendar year 1951, it 
is expected that such expenditures may be absorb- 
ing goods and services at a rate in excess of 45 
billion dollars a year, an amount eq>ial to about 
15 percent of our total national output; although, 
the authorit}' of the President to obligate funds for 
defense purposes will be nnicli larger. According 
to the President's Budget ^lessage, we expect to 
achieve a virtiuil doubling of our pre-Korea army, 
an increase of more than one-half in our active 
naval fleet, and an expansion in the air force from 
48 to 84 wings. 



540 



Department of State Bulletin 



I 



Despite the size of our present defense program, 
may I point out that we are in a position to expand 
it much more if total war should nuvke that neces- 
sary. The jiroportion of total output which we 
expect our defense profirani to absorb is consid- 
erably smaller than the proportion absorbed by 
our military effort durin<i World AVar II. Within 
a year after Pearl Harbor, we were devoting about 
38 percent of our national output to the war and, 
at the peak, 45 percent. This is in marked con- 
trast to the 15 percent which we expect defense 
to absorb by the end of this year. 

Even though the current defense program in the 
United States is far from what total mobilization 
would require, it will nevertheless have a great 
impact on our economy. During the next 2 or 3 
years, production for defense will have to be in- 
creased faster than we can expect to increase total 
production. As a result, substantial cuts will have 
to be made in certain goods and services available 
for nondefense uses. In short, our defense pro- 
gram will involve very substantial shifts in the 
use of many resources. It will involve strong in- 
flationary pressures. It will involve — as the peo- 
ple of the United States clearly recognize — sizable 
sacrifices throughout the economy. 

IMPLICATION OF LONG-RANGE SECURITY PROGRAM 

In addition to the immediate implications of 
our defense program, there are certain longer- 
range implications that must be considered. 

First, the free world must increase its power 
to deter or, if need be, to resist aggression until 
there is reasonable assurance of lasting security. 
If the threat of aggi-ession subsides, a larger pro- 
portion of the free world's growing resources can 
then be devoted to economic progress and develop- 
ment. 

Second, security over the years ahead implies 
not merely the maintenance of a given stock of 
weapons and of personnel capable of using them. 
It requires also a constant improvement in these 
weapons and a manpower reserve trained to use 
them. This in turn implies an economy with the 
utmost stamina, constantly renewing and expand- 
ing its productive plant and resources. 

Thus, the defense program requires not only 
growing and effective military forces in the free 
nations, for as long a period as they may be 
needed; it also requires the development of an 
industrial capacity which will permit the rapid 
enlargement of such forces, in the event that the 
would-be aggressors are not deterred and the 
world is again plunged into total war. Accord- 
ingly, we are placing great emphasis on invest- 
ment in an enlarged productive capacity — large 
enough for any eventuality. 

As a result, cuts will be required in nonessential 
civilian production during the period immedi- 
ately ahead. These cuts will be greater than 
would be necessary simply to build up the im- 
mediately planned defenses. 

April 2, 1 95 1 



Third, the basic purpose of any security pro- 
gram among free nations must be to protect their 
free institutions, to preserve their opportunity to 
develop these institutions, and, through them, to 
advance their social and economic well-being. At 
the same time, the constant improvement of these 
free institutions, and continued social and eco- 
nomic progress, are essential to long-run security. 
Thus, the development and strengthening of po- 
litical liberty and the widespread extension of 
education and improvements in health, have great 
security significance for all of us. And for ex- 
actly the same reasons, progi'ams to aid the im- 
provement of productive facilities and tech- 
niques — in both developed and underdeveloped 
countries — are fundamental elements of common 
strength, even where the fruits of such programs 
may not be expected to materialize immediately. 
Security is neither solely military nor solely short- 
range. 

Of course, this is not to say that all economic 
and social needs are equally important, nor does 
it imply that everything can be done at once nor 
that all peacetime social programs can go for- 
ward unimpeded. It is to say, however, that in 
assigning priorities among various needs, simple 
classifications into military and nonmilitary, or 
into short-range and long-range programs will 
not suffice. Military and nonmilitary programs 
are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and pro- 
grams serving social needs do not necessarily have 
to be shelved. To attain our objectives, the as- 
signment of priorities must be much more selective 
than any oversimplified distinction between de- 
fense and welfare. 

[Mr. Lubin continued with a discussion of the domestic 
economic program of the United States.] 

V. International Aspects of U.S. Economic Policies 

I turn now to the international aspects of our 
economic policies. In framing the economic pro- 
gram to build up our national strength, we are 
keenly aware that our own strength is bound up 
with the strength of the other free nations. This 
is true both for the immediate future and for the 
long run. Our economic program is being formu- 
lated in the light of the combined militaiy pro- 
grams of all the free nations and of their com- 
bined needs, productive resources, and 
potentialities. 

With our economic resources strained by the 
burden of defense, every use of these resources 
implies the sacrifice of some alternative use. We 
must be certain that our foreign aid program, like 
our democratic program, serves high-priority pur- 
poses. Accordingly, these programs must be kept 
under continuing review and adapted to changing 
conditions. We are fully aware that the joint 
strength of the free nations requires not only mili- 
tary strength but also moral strength, economic 
strength and above all, unity of ultimate purpose. 

541 



All of these factors must be taken into account 
in determining the priorities among various 
programs. 

The immediate need for stronger defenses, and 
the greatly increased strain on the resources of 
the free world, make it necessary to reappraise 
and, in some cases, to alter some of our assistance 
programs. In some respects, we shall not be able 
to go as fast as we should like in aiding others, 
just as we cannot make progi-ess as rapidly as 
we should like in certain domestic fields. I should 
be misleading you, if I failed to make this clear. 
It is the consequence of the fact and the threat 
of Communist aggression. 

Recent events have conclusively shown that this 
threat is a threat to all free nations. This is a 
hard fact. It must be recognized. Without mili- 
tary strength to resist this threat, there can be 
neither progress nor common security and free- 
dom. Wishful thinking that halfway defense 
measures are enough, will only make more diffi- 
cult the task of estaolishing real security. Honest 
differences of views in the free world on this 
subject must not blind us to these basic truths. 

EXPANDING PRODUCTION 

The first problem facing us is to expand the 
production of commodities which will be scarce 
in relation to vital demands. This means con- 
centrating on expansion programs which yield 
quick results in the form of many military itenis 
and raw materials. In some cases, it means proj- 
ects which will yield their results only after a 
few years. In still other cases, the expansion of 
production, even of goods unrelated to military 
strength can, by improving economic and social 
conditions, contribute to the common security. 

All free countries can make a substantial con- 
tribution to the common strength. The develop- 
ment of their productive capacity is a vital factor, 
both directly as a source of goods required for the 
defense effort and indirectly as a means of im- 
proving their economic strength and increasing 
their stake in maintaining the free way of life. 

In recognition of this fact, the United States 
Government is prepared to provide technical and 
financial assistance to help expand production in 
other countries. 

UTILIZING RESOURCES EFFICIENTLY 

The second problem facing us is to utilize exist- 
ing resources efficiently. Even with vigorous ef- 
forts to expand foreign and domestic production, 
there are certain to be some cases of severe short- 
ages, sharp price rises, and maldistribution of 
supplies. For some conunodities, these conditions 
are already with us. To improve the distribution 
of important products in short supply, so that 
nonessential uses in some countries do not inter- 
fere with essential uses in others, international 
collaboration is needed. 



For this purpose, we have joined in creating an 
International Materials Conference. It includes 
representatives of both producing and consuming 
countries most concerned with the particular com- 
modities in question. The first of these commit- 
tees, concerned with copper, lead, and zinc, is meet- 
ing in Washington. It includes Australia, Bel- 
gium (acting for herself, the Netherlands, and 
Luxembourg), Canada, Chile, the Federal Repub- 
lic of Germany, France, Italy, Mexico, Xorway, 
Peru, the United Kingdom, and the United States. 
A Sulphur Committee is also meeting to be fol- 
lowed by meetings of committees on cotton and 
cotton linters; tungsten and molybdenum; man- 
ganese, nickel, and cobalt ; and wool. 

Altogether, at least 23 countries will take part 
in putting the j^roduction and distribution of one 
or another of these important materials on an 
international cooperative basis. The creation of 
additional committees for other scarce materials 
is under consideration. 

We, in the United States, recognize that the com- 
modity requirements of other countries will have 
to be taken into account in the operation of our 
domestic controls. This is most clearly the case 
in connection with our export controls. Export 
controls are being used by the United States to 
protect the national security and to limit the in- 
flationary impact on the domestic economy of ex- 
ports of commodities in short supply. During 
World War II, it was the policy of the United 
States to help friendly countries maintain their 
economic stability by recognizing and providing 
for their essential needs, on the basis of equal and 
proportionate consideration with our own needs. 
In the present emergency, the needs of friendly 
and cooperating countries will again be given full 
consideration. Insofar as such nations are de- 
pendent on the United States for their supplies, 
every attempt will be made to assure that export 
licenses are available, to the extent permitted by 
the common defense and other security require- 
ments. 

At the same time, we shall continue our present 
policy of restricting exports in cases where the 
importing country is shipping identical or equiva- 
lent goods to aggressors and potential aggressors. 

Priorities and allocations within our domestic 
economy also will be coordinated with the com- 
modity requirements of friendly countries. We 
shall limit nonessential domestic use of some com- 
modities in the United States not only to meet 
high-priority requirements at home but also to 
give positive assistance in meet in"; the high-pri- 
ority needs of other countries. "\A e shall use do- 
mestic priority or allocation controls, wliere nec- 
essary, to avoid taking more than our fair share 
of world imports, and to make goods available for 
necessary exports. To the extent permitted by 
security and supply considerations, we shall make 
available those conunodities required by other 
friendly nations to help increase their productivity 
and help maintain their stability. 



542 



Department of State Bulletin 



PREVENTING INFLATION 

The international aspects of our economic pol- 
icy are also affected by the trend in the prices of 
the goods we import. The rise in these prices has 
been much greater than the rise in the prices of our 
exports. From the Korean outbreak to early Feb- 
ruary 1951, tin had risen 139 i)ercent, rubber 162 
percent, and wool tops 107 percent. Coffee had 
already approximately doubled in price during 
the year preceding the Korean outbreak. In 
terms of average unit values, which lag far behind 
current market prices, the average price of United 
States imports rose 23 percent between the first 
half of 1950 and last December. Unit values of 
exports had risen much less. The increase be- 
tween the first half of 1950 and December for all 
exports was only 11 percent, and, for finished 
manufactured goods alone, it was only 9 percent. 

The United States is prepared, through the in- 
ternational commodity control arrangements I 
mentioned earlier, to participate in negotiations 
with the producing and consuming countries, in 
order to limit the price increases for important 
scarce commodities during the present emergency. 

It is obvious that, if inflationary rises of goods 
moving into international trade are to be re- 
strained, action to restrain them must also be 
taken by individual national governments. The 
United States has recently undertaken to fulfill 
its obligations in this respect by establishing con- 
trol over the prices of most goods and services, in 
the form of a freeze, based upon prices prevailing 
in the period December 19, 1950, to January 26, 
1951. This freeze applies not only to domestic 
goods sold at home but also to goods that are 
exported and, to the domestic resale of goods that 
are imported. 

I should like to emphasize the levels at which 
export and import prices have been frozen in the 
United States. 

I have several times called attention to various 
respects in which the present defense program 
differs from a war program and have pointed out 
how misleading it would be to assume that the 
economic effects of the defense program will neces- 
sarily repeat those of World War II. The fact 
is, that when prices were frozen in the United 
States in 1942, the prices of raw materials impor- 
tant in world trade were at a relatively low level. 
When they were frozen 6 weeks ago, the level of 
most of these prices was at, or close to, their his- 
torical peaks. 

Moreover, the ratio between our average unit 
values of import and export prices, at the time of 
the recent price freeze in the United States, also 
appears to have been very favorable to foreign 
suppliers, judged by any past standard. For our 
foreign trade as a whole, the December 1950 ratio 
of import-to-export unit values was 46 percent 
more favorable to suppliers of our imports than in 
1943, the war year most favorable for them. It 

April 2, 1 95 1 



was 11 percent more favorable than in the first 
half of 1950. 

When the average unit values of our imports 
of crude materials and crude foodstuffs on the one 
hand are compared with the unit values of our 
exports of finished manufactures on the other 
hand, we find that their ratio in December 1950 
was nearly twice as favorable to foreign suppliers 
in such trade as in 1943, and 19 percent more 
favorable than it was in the first half of 1950. 

The present price ceilings in the United States 
will undergo changes, mostly in the form of refine- 
ments designed to meet the special problems of 
particular commodities. I can assure you that, 
whatever changes are made, we intend to control 
prices of exports as long as prices for domestic 
sales are controlled. 

It is to be hoped that other Governments will 
do the same. A factual study of export-price con- 
trol in the United States during World War II 
shows that much of the increase that consumers in 
other countries had to pay for goods imported 
from the United States resulted from increased 
margins charged on these goods after then had left 
our shores. 

The problem of the immediate future will not 
be merely one of prices. Equally important will 
be the availability of certain types of goods. Con- 
cern has already been expressed by representatives 
of underdeveloped countries concerning the ability 
of such countries to get capital goods. On this 
score, there are great differences between the out- 
look for the next few years and the situation in 
World War II. I have already indicated the atti- 
tude of the United States Government regarding 
exports of goods in short supply. But I should 
also like to question the assumption that shortages 
will be as acute as they were during the war period. 
Here, too, I am afraid we are likely to be misled 
if we simply assume that the conditions of World 
War II will be duplicated in the next few years. 
There are many important differences. To me, 
they suggest that the situation may be far less 
difficult. 

First, may I repeat that the proportion of 
United States resources which will be devoted 
to defense is expected to be far smaller, under 
present plans, than the proportion tlian devoted 
to war. Moreover, the aosolute level of the gross 
national product that we expect to attain in the 
next few years will exceed the absolute levels pre- 
vailing during World War II. 

Second, most of the countries of Western 
Europe are also in a better position to export 
capital goods than during World War II. Their 
resources were then fully devoted to war. In- 
dustrial plants were very severely damaged. 
Some countries were occupied by the enemy. 
Furthermore, during World War II, the indus- 
trial output of Germany and Japan was unavail- 
able to the underdeveloped countries. 

A third difference is in the shipping situation. 

543 



No difficulties comparable to those of World War 
II are expected. Ships themselves are not so 
scarce. Sea lanes are open. And, if we succeed 
in our eflForts to deter aggression, they will remain 
open. 

Fourth, some of the underdeveloped countries 
themselves have a greater industrial capacity 
than they had 10 years ago. This reduced their 
dependence on imports of some commodities. 

Taking these considerations into account, it 
seems doubtful that there will be as serious a 
decline of essential imports into the underde- 
veloped countries as might at first appear. So 
far as one can judge at the present time, the gen- 
eral availability of goods is likely to be much 
greater than it was in World War II. 

I do not want to leave the impression that these 
factors will make sacrifice unnecessary. They 
will not. There will inevitably be shortages. 
The common defense requires both common sac- 
rifice and common effort— getting along with less 
and contributing more. 

The costs of defense will be very great not only 
in terms of time and money but even more in the 
disruption of peaceful pursuits, and the slowing 
down of social progress. This disruption and 
slowing-down results soley from the Communist 
threat to peace. And let us, at this moment, re- 
member the sacrifices that the thousands of men, 
under the United Nations banner, are making in 
Korea. 

Security has the prime claim on our economic 
resources, and it will require more of these re- 
sources. 



We look forward to the time when it will be 
possible to devote a greater portion of our com- 
mon efforts to speeding up the process of economic 
development and raising standards of living. The 
sooner certain countries free the world from the 
fear of aggression, the sooner can we all take 
from our shoulders the heavy burdens of arma- 
ment. Then, we of the United States of America, 
feel that we and many other members of the 
United Nations will be in a position to join in a 
greatly expanded program of development. 

We think our economic and political system is 
well-suited to this purpose. Our system is called 
"capitalistic." It is. But, paraphrasing the 
words of a great American philosopher, our larand 
of capitalism is the servant of our democracy. 
To us, it means an abundance and wide distribu- 
tion of material goods. More important, it means 
individual opportunity and individual choice, for 
men at the bottom, as well as the top, of the 
economic and social scale. 



Our beliefs set us against authoritarianism. 
They are suited for men who have in some degree 
acquired tolerance, good will, and a sense of per- 
sonal responsibility to society. We may not al- 
ways live up to these beliefs. In fact, we know 
we do so imperfectly. But we aspire to our be- 
liefs, we criticize ourselves by them; we try to 
live up to them. And we will make whatever 
sacrifices are necessary — pay whatever price we 
must — to preserve our freedom to do so. 



Investigation of Forced Labor Conditions 
in U.S.S.R. and Satellites Urged 

Statement hy Walter Kotschnig 

Deputy V. S. Representative to ECOSOC ^ 



On August 15, 1950, 1 had the honor to address 
this Council on the subject of forced labor in 
certain parts of the world and to introduce, to- 

f ether with the distinguished representative of the 
Inited Kingdom, a resolution on that subject. 
This resolution provides for the establishment, 
jointly with the International Labor Organiza- 
tion, of an ad hoc Committee on Foi'ced Labor to 
undertake an impartial inquiry into the existence 
and extent of forced labor in the contemporary 
world. The resolution is now before the Council 
for action. In order not to abuse the time of the 



' Made before the Economic and Social Council at San- 
tiago, Chile, on Mar. 15 and released to the press by the 
U.S. Mission to the U.N. on the same date. 



Council by repeating earlier statements, I have 
taken the liberty of distributing to the members 
of the Council the text of my earlier remarks on 
this subject. 

I would greatly prefer to rest our case at this 
point and to let the Council reach its own deci- 
sion without any further debate. However, there 
are certain elements in the situation which make 
it necessary to enter once again upon the sub- 
stance of the matter before us. 

First, the Council has had no indication what- 
soever that the U.S.S.R. and the states within its 
orbit are willing to permit an impartial inquiry. 
This forces us to establish a prima facie case in 
this Council in the hope that the Soviet Union 
and its satellite states may yet be willing to de- 



544 



Department of State Bulletin 



fend themselves before the conscience of the world 
by more than denials or irrelevant and spurious 
counter accusations. In other words, we still hope 
that the Soviet Union and its followers will, in 
tlieir own interest, not refuse to participate in an 
impartial inquiry. 

Second, there is every evidence that the evil of 
forced labor, far from receding, is actually spread- 
ing to every new country in the Soviet orbit. 
Forced labor appears to follow wherever the Red 
flag is lioisted. 

Third, no time is to be lost if this Council is to 
do its share in saving from their own folly addi- 
tional potential victims of Communist propa- 
ganda. Speaking from personal experience, I re- 
member all too many men and women in various 
parts of the world, but particularly in Europe, 
who espoused the Fascist or Communist creed and 
who paid with their happiness, or even their lives, 
for the assistance which they lent to Fascist and 
Communist propagandists and leaders. Some of 
them may have had justifiable grievances Avhich 
made them vulnerable to Fascist or Communist 
blandishments. Others may have been prompted 
by idealistic and humanitarian motives only to 
discover that P^ascist or Communist reality is 
worlds apart from Fascist or Communist propa- 
ganda. We have to do everything possible to 
show those who at this time may be flirting with 
totalitarian disaster the ugly realities of Fascist 
or Communist rule — and there are few realities as 
ugly as the concentration camps which are the 
tools both of Fascist and Communist dictatorship. 

Fourth, by turning the searchlight of public 
discussion on prevailing conditions in the Soviet 
bloc we might, I say, we might help to alleviate 
the sorry plight of the victims of forced labor in 
those countries. 

Fifth, it is essential for all of us to recognize 
that we are dealing here with basic issues on which 
no compromise is possible. Here is an evil which 
cannot be overcome or bypassed by formulas or 
pious resolutions. We have to face it squarely and 
irankly, or we shall rightly be accused by suc- 
ceeding generations of having failed in upholding 
the great and sacred values on which our civiliza- 
tion is built. 

These are considerations which compel me to 
speak when I would much rather remain silent. 
It is out of deep compassion for all the peoples of 
the world who have gone through so much suffer- 
ing during the last 40 years that I am lifting my 
voice, that my Government is lifting its voice to 
challenge the present rulers of the U.S.S.R. for 
having instituted on their territories, and those of 
the countries under their control, an inhuman 
system of forced or corrective labor which is em- 
ployed as a means of political coercion or of pun- 
ishment for holding or expressing dissident politi- 
cal views and which is on such a scale as to consti- 
tute an important, nay, an essential element in 
their economy. These are grave charges to be 
leveled against any member of the United Nations, 

April 2, J 95 1 



and we are fully conscious of our responsibility 
in making them. 



Examples of Forced Labor in U. S. S. R. 

Let me first explain what we mean by forced 
labor in the U.S.S.R. In a totalitarian state like 
the Soviet Union, a considerable amount of co- 
ercion exists in the relationship between the state 
as the almighty employer and the individual 
worker. I will give but a few examples of such 
coercion for the purpose of demarcating the field 
of this investigation. 

First, compulsory inductions are made for the 
vocational training system. The decree of Oc- 
tober 2, 1940, establishing labor reserve schools 
specifically authorizes the use of the draft if the 
number of volunteers falls below the desired quota. 
To what extent compulsion is used to provide stu- 
dents for the factory-training schools is shown by 
the following quotation from the Moscow Bol- 
shevik (February 14, 1947) : 

There is an increasing desire among Soviet youth to 
enter these schools, as is proved by the fact that during 
the last call-up more than one-third of the trainees were 
volunteers. 

In other words, almost two-thirds were pressed 
into the system. However, this is not the forced 
labor we propose to study. 

Second, graduates of the labor reserve schools 
as well as of universities and other specialized 
schools are compelled to work for a specified num- 
ber of years — 3 or 4, as a rule — at whatever job 
is assigned to them by the authorities. Again, I 
exclude this type of involuntary work from our 
examination. 

Third, a Soviet worker may not leave his job 
without a specific authorization by his employer, in 
other words, the state. The decree of June 26, 
1940, which continued in force after the war and 
is still in force, forbids under threat of imprison- 
ment 

. . . the voluntary departure of wage earners and sal- 
aried workers from State, cooperative and communal en- 
terprises and institutions, and also voluntary transfer 
from one enterprise to another or from one institution 
to another. Only the director of an enterprise or the 
chief of an institution may permit departure from an en- 
terprise or institution, or transfer from one enterprise 
to another, or from one institution to another. 

But workers forced to stay on jobs they have rea- 
son to quit, are not included in any definition of 
forced laborers in the sense of this inquiry. 

Fourth, large numbers of peasants are con- 
scripted annually to do obligatory work in repair- 
ing roads and the like. This remnant of the Mid- 
dle Ages will be omitted from our inquiry. 

Fifth, punishment for absenteeism in factories 
may consist in compulsory work at a low wage in 
the same enterprise for up to 6 months. We ex- 
clude also this type of forced labor. 

Sixth, persons who, for some reason or other, 

545 



have incurred the wrath of the regime, may be 
exiled to some remote j)hice inside the U.S.S.R. 
Working opportunities in sucli a place may be 
limited to a single factory or mine; the exile be- 
comes automatically a forced laborer. Still, cases 
of this type are not being considered here. 

"When we speak of forced labor we have in mind 
only those unfortunates who, for political or eco- 
nomic reasons, are confined to prisons and concen- 
tration camps and who are compelled to work in 
or near their enclosures. They are the people 
who have fallen victims to the provisions of the 
coi'rective labor code of the Russian Federalist 
Socialist Soviet Republic as approved on August 
1, 1933, and to similar laws enacted before and 
since that date. 

Number of Forced Laborers in U.S.S.R. 

There are, of course, evildoers everywhere in 
the world, and society has to protect itself against 
them. My country, for instance, publishes exact 
statistics on the prison population which show 
that roughly one person out of 1000 or approxi- 
mately 150,000 people out of a total population of 
150 million are in jail. If we apply the same 
percentage to the U.S.S.R., we would arrive at 
a prison population of around 200,000 people. I 
am fully aware that in the eyes of every good 
Communist this calculation does injustice to the 
motherland of socialism. iVren't we told — and 
I am quoting an article which appeared some time 
ago in Bolshevik (No. 4, 1947, p. 54) that — 

Under conditions of bourgeois society crime is inevitable 
. . . The victory of socialism signifies the liquidation of 
the main source of crime, private capital ownership . . . 
The elimination of capitalism in our country has led to a 
sharp decline in the types of crime most typical of capital- 
istic .society, to the dying off of such "professions" wide- 
spread in bourgeois society as the card-sharper, gigolo, 
procurer, safebreaker, etc. . . . 

By now, Russia has been educated in the spirit 
of Marx, Lenin, and Stalin for fully a third of a 
century; as a result, we should expect a prison 
population of far less than 200,000. The Soviet 
Government, unfortunately, does not see fit to 
publish statistics on its prisoners, and so the out- 
side world has to rely on its own computations. 
These calculations differ among themselves, but 
they have one thing in common : not a single 
estimate places the number of Soviet prisoners at 
less than several million people. 

The most cautious observers, those who prefer 
to err on the lower side are of the opinion that 
there are at least 2-3 million forced laborers in 
the Soviet Union; 5 years ago, a generally con- 
servative student of the Soviet economy came out 
with an estimate of 5-7 million people ; one scholar 
thought tliat certain discrepancies in Soviet sta- 
tistics jiointed to a prison labor force of 13 mil- 
lion; others believe that there are more than 20 
million forced laborers. 

I do not pretend to know the exact figure; it 



must have varied over the years, and the diver- 
gence in estimates reflects to some degree the dif- 
ferent periods to which they refer. But I am 
impressed by the height of even the most cautious 
estimates. If the number of forced laborers were 
only 2 to 3 million, it still would be 10 to 15 times 
as much as can be found in what the Communists 
call a rotten bourgeois society. And, if the maxi- 
mum estimate were correct, the difference would 
be a hundredfold. 

CONTRAST WITH TSARIST REGIME 

Since we do not believe that the incidence of 
crime among the Russian people differs much from 
other nations, there are only two explanations for 
this unsavory Soviet world record. One is that 
the Soviet regime in its infinite bounty punishes 
with forced labor people who under cruel capital- 
ism would, at worst, be fined or called to order. 
The second explanation is that the Kremlin de- 
tains millions of people on purely political 
gi-ounds. Again, let us keep the magnitudes in 
mind. It is well known that under the Tsars 
political opponents were dealt with in a way that 
made the Western World shudder. According to 
a Soviet source, namely, the Small Soviet Encyclo- 
pedia^ published in 1936 (vol. 5, col. 361), Tsarist 
penal labor reached its highest point in 1913 with 
33,000, of which 5,000 were political prisoners. 
The number of people confined in regidar prisons 
reached a maximum, in 1912, with 184,000 on the 
authority of Andrei Vyshinsky (in his book 
Prisons in Capitalist Countries, ^Moscow, 1937, p. 
54). This figure includes common criminals and 
political prisoners. The highest number of po- 
litical exiles reached in prerevolutionarj' days was 
17,000 in 1907 (according to Soviet Penal Repres- 
sion, Moscow, 1934, p. 108). Please note that 
this is a Soviet publication. I am the last person 
to defend tsarism, but Tsarist Russia was a free 
country compared to what it is now. 

EVIDENCE CITED 

What evidence do we have of forced labor on 
a large scale in the U.S.S.R.? I will divide my 
materials into two parts. In the first part. I will 
rely entirely on printed Soviet sources; the sec- 
ond one will consist of statements by persons who 
escaped Soviet prisons and concentration camps. 
Before turning to the first part, I would like to 
direct a warning to my distinguished colleagues 
from the Soviet bloc. It has become routine with 
them to accuse me of "scandalous slander" and 
"malicious calumnies"; as long as I am quoting 
Soviet sources, their ]iotshots will fly past me at 
the heads of Soviet lawnuikers, writers, and states- 
men such as Andrei Vyshinsky. 

"F«r every outspoken and honest word in Rus- 
sia" and I am now quoting Lenin, "a person may 
be seized by a single edict of the police and thrown 
into prison, or deported to Siberia without court 



546 



Department of State Bulletin 



trial and investigation". Lenin's words refer to 
Tsarist Russia. But they are equally true of 
Soviet Russia. Fact is that the Soviet police is 
authorized by law to imprison individuals in so- 
called "camps of corrective labor," to exile them 
to a specific community somewhere in the U.S.S.R., 
or to bar them from residence in certain areas. 
These are facts which were brought out in earlier 
discussions of this Council and they have never 
been denied, let alone refuted. 

During the farm collectivization drive in the 
late twenties and early thirties and during the 
many purges that have characterized the Soviet 
political scene, there was ample opportunity to 
fill the prisons and the many concentration camps 
through administrative processes only and in cir- 
cumvention of the courts. Collectivization alone 
cost millions of persons liberty and life. In Rus- 
sia, you may recall, a well-to-do peasant had the 
derogatory name of kulak, or "fist," and the Gov- 
ernment's policy was the "liquidation of the kulak 
as class." In practice, everybody was considered 
a kulak who had antagonized the local Commu- 
nists. "V^^lat the elimination of the kulaks meant 
in terms of social disruption and human suffer- 
ing has been revealed by the great Andrei Vyshin- 
sky himself, who, in his book. The Law of the 
Soviet /State, has ]5ointed out that kulaks repre- 
sented not less than 12.3 percent of the Soviet 
population in 1913 (p. 117) and probably not 
fewer in 1928 when their "extinction" (p. 669) 
began. In the course of this drive for extermina- 
tion, says Vyshinsky "many kulak families dis- 
integrated. Some of the kulak children entered 
an honorable life of toil" (p. ()69). One cannot 
escape the horrifying significance of Vyshinsky's 
offliand observation that of the millions of kulak 
children only "some" were allowed to work their 
way back to "an honorable life." 

Soviet publications occasionally give a glimpse 
of what happened to those kulaks, who were not 
immediately killed during the collectivization 
drive, and to other political prisoners. On March 
8, 1931, Molotov tried to refute foreign charges 
of forced labor in the U.S.S.R. in a report to the 
All-Union Congress of Soviets; in his paper, he 
admitted, however, that there were "about 60,000 
persons" performing corrective labor on three 
highways, a railway, and the A^liite Sea-Baltic 
Canal. That this figure was too low was revealed 
in 1933 when, on completion of the "Wliite Sea- 
Baltic Canal, about 72,000 of the prisoners who 
had worked on the project were freed (12,484) or 
received shortened terms (59,516) by government- 
al decree (Pravda, August 5, 1933). Similar de- 
crees in 1937 released 55,000 prisoners who worked 
on the Moscow-Volga Canal and 10,000 who 

' Oosudarstrennyi plan razvUiya narodnoffo khozyaist 
va SSSR a 19.',1 god (State Plan for the Development of 
the National Economy of the U.S.S.R. in 1941), Supple- 
ment to Decree No. 127 of the Central Committee of the 
Communist Party and the U.S.S.R. Council of the People's 
Commissars, January 17, 1941. 



■worked on the double-tracking of the Karymskoye- 
Khabarovsk railwa}'. But those released were a 
fraction only of the corrective labor force, as evi- 
dencetl by the oflicial Soviet economic plan for 
1941. 



SOVIET ECONOMIC PLAN FOR 1941 REVEALED 

This 1941 plan,^ which the Soviet authorities 
mai'ked confidential, is a most revealing and in- 
criminating document and is in the hands of the 
United States Government at this moment. This 
plan presents official data on the contribution of 
forced labor to economic activities in the U. S. S. R. 
as planned for 1941. Let me limit myself here to 
a few significant statistics. According to this 
plan, the total volume of capital construction in 
the U. S. S. R. for that year is fixed at 46-47 billion 
rubles expressed in 1926-27 prices. The People's 
Commissariat of Internal Affairs, NKVD, now 
renamed Ministry, MVD, in other words the 
agency assigned to administer the prison camps, 
is responsible for 6.81 billion rubles' worth of 
capital construction. This means, more than 14 
percent of the capital construction planned for 
the U. S. S. R. in 1941 was to be the work of forced 
labor. No other Peoj)le's Commissariat listed in 
the plan, has such a high share. Of those 6.81 
billion rubles, the largest portion, namely 2,675 
millions, was assigned to the so-called Main Ad- 
ministration of Corrective Labor Camps, abbrevi- 
ated Gulag. Gulag constructed camp buildings, 
mining facilities, logging camps, military build- 
ings, and some housing. The Main Administra- 
tion of Railroad Construction, abbreviated 
Glavzheldorstroi, another part of the NKVD, had 
the responsibility for 1,350 million rubles' worth 
of capital construction. It built railroad lines 
through isolated regions of the Soviet LTnion. 
There are indications that the NKVD farmed out 
some of its forced labor to the construction organs 
of the Commissariat (and now Ministry) of 
Transport with the result that capital construction 
based on forced labor was financed by funds be- 
yond those allotted to the NKVD which means 
that the share of forced labor in total construction 
went beyond 14 percent. This remark applies 
also to a third Main Administration under the 
NKVD, namely the Main Administration of 
Paved Highways. Gushodor. Its plan for 1941 
provided .550 million rubles' worth of capital 
construction. 

It is, of course, impossible to give in this con- 
text more than a few highlights of the 1941 plan. 
Let me quote from the official Soviet document. 
The U.S.S.R. planned to produce 291 million 
cubic meters of industrial timber and firewood of 
which the NKVD share was 34.73 million or 12 
percent. The NKVD share of railroad ties to 
be produced was 22.5 percent. It is, of course, 
understandable that the NKVD plays a large role 
in timber production ; the timber is cut in remote 



April 2, 1957 



547 



regions with a harsh climate, and unskilled labor 
can be copiously used. For the same reasons, it 
is not surprising that NKVD laborers were sup- 
posed to launch 17 percent of all the timber floated 
in the U.S.S.R. and were planned to have a 25 
percent share in Arctic freight towing. These 
Arctic operations were under the direction of 
Dalstroi, a huge police administration in the Soviet 
Far East. Dalstroi workers are said to have pro- 
duced about three quarters of the Soviet gold ex- 
tracted in the last years before the war, but this 
figure is not based on official Soviet data ; in fact, 
the 1941 plan does not indicate the NKVD goals 
in the gold industry. Nor does it say much of the 
ore mining activities of the NKVD in general. 
It only states that Gulag, the aforementioned 
Main Administration of Corrective Labor Camps, 
was mining chrome ore and was expected to pro- 
vide 40.5 percent of the total Soviet output of 

that ore. 

The NKVD also had a production quota of cer- 
tain types of machinery, much of which was in- 
tended for its own activities. Gulag, for instance, 
was assigned production of auto-tractor trailers, 
and other organs of the NKVD were responsible 
for the manufacture of road equipment and metal 
testing machinery. The NKVD was, further- 
more, active in the fishing industry; it operated 
farms and food processing plants to supply many 
of its own consumption needs; and it had a con- 
siderable share in the production of certain con- 
sumers' items such as divans and mattresses, stoves 
and ovens, film cassettes, and spoons. When our 
distinguished colleague from the U.S.S.R. is home 
again and resting in his bed or eating his soup, 
well may he ponder as to who were the hapless 
wretches whose toil produced his mattress or his 
spoon. 

Mr. President, I could produce many more de- 
tails from this Soviet economic plan — the NKVD 
share in other fields of production, the distribution 
of its output by regions, etc. but our time is lim- 
ited. One final word only: let nobody call this 
statement calumny and slander. It is the Govern- 
ment of the U.S.S.R. itself which, in its official 
economic plan, has revealed the enormous extent 
to which police-controlled labor contributes to 
Soviet production. 

In the years after the war, NKVD, now MVD, 
has maintained its economic functions especially 
in the field of capital construction. It is no coin- 
cidence that the leading engineers of some of the 
most important power, railroad, and canal proj- 
ects of recent years are well-known forced labor 
specialists spawned by the OGPU, the NKVD, 
and the MVD. The whole Soviet economy is shot 
through with police activities. Projects, pro- 
claimed as evidence for the Kremlin's love for 
peace and progress, are actually directed by forced 
labor specialists, and slave labor has become part 
and parcel of the Soviet economic life. 

548 



Testimonies of Victims of Soviet Slave Labor 

"WTiat does all this mean in human terms — in 
terms of Pavel, Mikhail, Dimitry, and Igor, the 
inmates of the so-called corrective labor camps? 

A prisoner's lot is tragic, even under the most 
favorable conditions. Even a golden cage is a 
cage. But the Soviet concentration camps are not 
places where lawbreakers are given useful work 
to do under humane conditions until they are re- 
educated into useful citizens. A large number of 
former inmates of Soviet prisons and concentra- 
tion camps have testified about the harsh, the cruel 
conditions, the starvation, overwork, and misery 
that characterize these places. This type of edu- 
cation has an appalling death rate. I freely ad- 
mit that, among the thousands of witnesses against 
the Soviet forced labor systems, there may be some 
liars ; quite a few may have exaggerated their suf- 
fering and that of their fellow prisoners, some in- 
tentionally, some unconsciously. But there are 
enough honest men and women among these ex- 
prisoners ; there are enough eyewitnesses whose ac- 
counts have the ring of veracity. And their voices 
combine to a horrible chorus of accusation. 

I shall try not to take up too much of your time 
with the stories of these eyewitnesses. Their ac- 
counts are infinitely moving if you really try to 
understand what they went through, and, yet, if 
you listen to many of them, your feelings will be- 
come blunted because it is time and again the same 
story of people punished without having commit- 
ted a crime and without having been tried by a 
court, of people starved, sick, freezing to death, 
and, above all, mercilessly exploited. 

Listen, first, to some of the witnesses of the 
Rousset trial. It will be remembered that Rous- 
set, a French writer who had suffered for years in 
a German concentration camp, denounced the 
Soviet forced labor system out of compassion with 
concentration camp inmates anywhere. When a 
French Communist paper accused Rousset of hay- 
ing falsified his evidence, he brought a libel suit 
against it and vindicated his honor in a trial which 
took place in Paris in November and December 
of last year. 

It was the common experience of Rousset 's wit- 
nesses that they were either sentenced to forced 
labor without atrial and often without knowledge 
of their "offense" or that they were accorded only 
a most summary trial before judges without the 
benefit of defense. Let me give just a few ex- 
amples. 

Mrs. Buber-Neumann, M'ho with her husband 
had sought refuge in the U.S.S.R. in 1935, told 
of her experience with Soviet-style trials. Her 
husband was arrested in 1937 and — 

my turn came in 1938. I was condtnnned to serve five 
yours of forced Inbor. The whole trial — if one can speak 
of a trial when only jiulnes were present — lasted about 
two minutes. 

Valentin Gonzales, who, under the nickname 
El Campesino (The Peasant), was a general of 

Deparfmenf of Slate Bulletin 



the Spanish Republican Army during: the Civil 
War, added further evidence to the arbitrariness 
of the Soviet legal system when he testified that — 

I will not insist on my own personal case because It 
is only part of tile Krim story. Here, I am in France be- 
fore a tribunal, and I think back and realize that in the 
Soviet Union a piece of paper is enoush to condemn 
thousands and thousands in complete disregard of the 
existence of laws, of courts and judges. 

Wliat Rousset's witnesses tell about life in 
Soviet labor camps follows the familiar pattern 
of hunger, cold, and overwork. Elinor Lipper 
recalled conditions in the Kolyma gold fields in 
northeastern Siberia where she spent more than 
10 years although under sentence for only 5 : 

Up there they work twelve to fourteen hours a day in 
temjieratures of 15 degrees below zero . . . [Even] dur- 
ing the eight months of winter the men work and dig in 
the mines . . . [and] the women are also used as diggers 
or cut wood, up to tlie waist in snow, and the little piece 
of bread that you receive each day depends on the work 
that you have done. If you haven't completed a suffi- 
cient amount of work, you receive less bread ; when you 
receive less bread, you become weak and you do less work. 
Thus, you end up in one of the large hospitals where 
the majority of people die of starvation. 

During the hearing on December 16, Jerzy 
Gliksman. a former leader of the Jewish Socialist 
Bund in Poland, described his rude awakening to 
the realities of Soviet camp life. He mentioned 
that as a tourist in Moscow in 1936 he had been 
shown a model camp staged for naive persons 
like himself. He soon lost his naiveness after the 
Soviet authorities had arrested him in 1939 dur- 
ing the partition of Poland and sent him to a camp 
near the Arctic Circle. Thousands of Jews he 
testified, 

. . . were deported to the camps under terrible con- 
ditions in cattle cars during the winter under deplorable 
hygienic conditions. After several months in prisons, 
they sent us to the camps. What we got to eat depended 
on what we produced. Then, there were the barracks with 
swinging hammocks for beds, without covering, without 
cushions, without mattresses or pallets, you slept in your 
clothes . . . And then twelve hours in the forests and 
then sickness. 

Tikhon Charikov, a Ukrainian woodcutter, 
evoked the memory of similar experiences. He 
said tliat the food ration was 1,000 grams of bread 
and a little soup when the work quota was fulfilled 
by the prisoner, but only 600 grams of bread when 
the quota was not fulfilled. Clothes were a pair 
of pants, a light jacket, and shabby shoes. "Re- 
education," Charikov added, "was simply annihi- 
lation of prisoners." 

I now pass on to the case of the Rev. Julius 
Jihkental, former minister of St. Charles, Tallinn, 
Estonia. He made a solemnly sworn deposition 
on July 7, 1948, at the London Legation of the 
Republic of Estonia. Together with many of his 
countrymen and without being accused of any 
violation of Soviet laws, he was shipped to a lum- 
ber camp in northern Russia which his group 
reached after harrowing marches. I will now 



quote the Reverend Jihkental without any change 
of his somewhat awkward English : 

Finally we arrived in a remote lumber camp In the 
north. First of all we saw there a few rows of plain 
wooden crosses. We were told that these belonged to the 
Poles who had died while working there. It was late in 
the autumn and as on the last lap of our journey we had 
to move along a fire lane we were scarcely able to move 
on at all. The ground was so soft that it was .ilmo.st 
impassable. Then in a wet and muddy hollow we saw 
a small group of huts. Two of them were to accommodate 
our group of 250 men. The first day we spent in making 
bunks and settling down. Nest day the work began. As 
I have said before, we had no proper footwear. Only 
those who had nothing to put on were given flimsy sandals 
made of bark. They were not waterproof at all although 
we had to wade in water the whole day long. For food 
we got 800 grams of bread and 2 plates of soup i>er 
day — one in the morning and the other in the evening. 
One can be sure it was most insufficient for such a hard 
work we had to do there. I must add that the supiwsed 
to be soup was only two plates of boiled water. Our 
work was to fell trees, the hardest toil the majority 
of us had ever done under such poor conditions and 
under such an enormous pressure. As to sanitary ar- 
rangements and hygiene none whatsoever were made. 
No doctor was on the spot, only a female nurse who 
seemed to have no medical training. Medicines were 
missing. Even that poor arrangement that had been made 
was a matter of form as the.v had no intention and no 
interest in looking after our health and well-being. Their 
only interest was to get out of us the greatest possible 
amount of work. There was an incredibly high fixed 
standard of work for each of us to be done daily and if 
one failed to do it his food was cut accordingly. It was 
clear that in the long run we could not possibly put up 
with those inhuman conditions. Our health deteriorated 
day by day. Bodily strength and in connection with that 
our spiritual strength and willpower diminished to such 
an extent that in about 2 months' time we were looking 
like human wrecks and skeletons. Even those who had 
been doing physical work throughout their whole life 
could not stand it. As already said in 2 months' time 
we were so exhausted and our health was so much under- 
mined with insufficient food of the worst quality and 
unbelievably high pressure of work that death began his 
work. It was quite common that every day 4-6 of us 
died. The main diseases which ended with death were 
pneumonia and dysentery. We had to work 12 hours per 
day — from 6 o'clock in the morning until 6 o'clock in the 
evening. That winter was extraordinarily cold. It was 
not exceptional and happened often that the temperature 
was —50° C. There was an order that if the tempera- 
ture was — 30° C. there was no working in the forest, 
but that order, however, was not applicable to us. 

It is really difficult for me to describe the most pitiable 
sights I saw there how every morning persons who were 
seriously ill were forced to go to work being beaten and 
otherwise ill treated, how a row of tired and exhausted 
creatures was stumbling to their working places, how 
coming back from their work in the evening many of them 
fainted and collapsed on their way. 

You have heard before that the Soviet Govern- 
ment looks at such concentration camps as educa- 
tional institutions. This is what Juhkental has to 
say about their education, an education which, I 
hasten to add, was entirely free : 

It was a horrifying trial in what way they wanted to 
find out our political mentality and reeducate us to become 
loyal Soviet subjects. One political meeting followed 
another, ordinarily called at nights, at which we were 
threatened to be shot if the output of our work would 
not reach the target expected from us, or not to be al- 
lowed to return home if we would not change our political 
views regarding the Soviet Union and Communism. 



April 2, 1951 



549 



In concluding tliis part of nn* exposition, I shall 
add only one further testimony from a very differ- 
ent kind of source. It fully corroborates the earlier 
testimony which I have cited and eliminates all 
doubt that the cancerous evil of forced labor has 
become a basic element of Soviet economy. In De- 
cember of last year, 13 Japanese nationals who 
had only recently been repatriated from the Soviet 
Maritime Province or from newly acquired Soviet 
territories in the Far East made sworn deposi- 
tions before the Consul of the United States at 
Tokyo. 

These illustrate the reliance on forced labor in 
the U.S.S.R. to settle new areas and develop new 
industries. Not only did these Japanese citizens 
see hundreds of Soviet convicts doing heavy labor 
but they themselves were forced to remain in the 
Soviet Union and to perform designated work 
against their will. Some were prisoners of war 
captured during the last phases of the Second 
World War, others were fishermen and other types 
of workers living in Southern Sakhalin or the 
Kuriles and a few who had migrated to the Soviet 
Union under contract to work only a year. The 
delay in returning both the civilians and the pris- 
oners of war to Japan was not caused by a shortage 
of ships, as claimed, but by the shortage of labor 
in the Soviet Far East and by the desire of Soviet 
officials to indoctrinate these "foreigners with Com- 
munist ideology for transplantation to their 
homeland. 

I shall read to you as a sample only one of these 
13 Japanese affidavits : 

Affidavit 

JAPAN 

CITY OF TOKYO 

AMERICAN CONSULAR SERVICE 

Before me, James V. Martin, Jr., Consul of the United 
States of America in and for Tokyo, Japan, duly com- 
missioned and qualified, personally appeared Yoshiyuki 
Ikehara, who, being duly sworn, deposes and says : 

I, Yoshiyuki Ikehara, was a soldier In the Japanese 
Army. I was taken prisoner by the Russians at Komozan, 
Korea, on August 2(i, 1945, and was repatriated on August 
20, 1948. While a prisoner of war I was confined in 
Voroshilov from April 5, 1946, to March 14, 1948, and in 
Ohurkina (near Vladivostok) from March 14, 1948, to 
August 20, 1948. 

While at Voroshilov, I worked in a brick factory, along 
with some 400 other prisoners of war. This work was 
forced, as if we did not work we received no food. We 
were not paid for our work. Before the prisoners of war 
went to woi-k in the brick yards, the work was done by 
Russian convicts. We had a production norm liut I can- 
not romemlier the particulars except that we could not 
quit work until it was reached and that often we were 
r('(|Uired to work 12 hours to reach it. 

At ("hurkina, most of the i)risoners of war were em- 
ployed in or in connection with :\ cannery. This cannery 
handled various types of fish includiiif; crabmeat. I was 
employed In m;ikiiii,' barrels fur (be use of the cannery. 
There were allnLjetlier about 1,000 prisoners of war worjc- 
ing in or about the <'annery. .Ml these were working under 
comimlslon, as if they did not work they received no food. 
The )iro(luclion norm was said to be liased on Kusslan 
Standards, but It was very hard for tis to keep up with 
It. When we did not we got less food. We received no 

550 



pay for our work. We were supposed to have Sundays 
off, but actually only had every other Sunday as a holiday. 
If we were sick, we were examined by a Japanese doctor 
who decided if we were fit to work or not, but the finding 
of the Japanese doctor had to be approved by a Russian 
doctor, who often disagreed with the finding ; in this 
case no matter how sick the man was he had to work. 
When we tried to rest at work, we were often beaten by 
Russian guai-ds. 

In addition to the Japanese prisoners of war, there were 
about 200 Russian civilians employed in the cannery. 
I do not know their pay or condition of work. In busy 
.seasons, there were also employed gangs of 50 to 60 
Russian convicts, who worked temporarily. 

When I was repatriated there were still about 200 Japa- 
nese prisoners of war working in the cannery. 

(Yoshiyuki Ikehara) 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this fourteenth day 
of December, A.D. 1950. 



(Sl^L) 



James V. Martin, Jr. 
Consul of the Vnifed States of America 



Gentlemen, enough of this utterly depressing 
story, this chorus of Poles and Germans, Lithu- 
anians and Ukrainians and Japanese, who like 
actors in a Greek tragedy voice the anguish and 
the despair of the millions behind barbed wires in 
the Soviet Union whose voice is muted. 

Every nation has its prisons and prisoners; in 
a civilized country, they form an insignificant seg- 
ment at the periphery of society. But, in tliis 
particular case, we are faced with a dictatorship 
which has imprisoned an abnormally large por- 
tion of the population; we deal with a society 
which relies on forced labor for an important per- 
centage of the national product. Under such 
circumstances, we are inclined to ask : who are the 
real criminals, the innocent victims of the forced 
labor camps or the jailers themselves? Wlio is 
in need of a reeducation, tliose who are mercilessly 
starved and exploited or those who have invented i 
this system and are now spreading it all over their 
sphere of influence ? 

Forced Labor Conditions in Satellite Countries 

It is this latter aspect, the spreading of the' 
disease, which I have to dwell on shortly. It is 
well-known that the countries under Soviet con 
trol are being patterned after the Soviet model 
and that the Soviet forced labor system is one of 
the institutions which have been copied. In my 
remarks last summer, I specifically referred to 
Rumania, which according to tiie WFTU is a jiara^ 
dise of the people, to Czechoslovakia, ami the 
Eastern zone of Germany. Today, I shall limit 
myself to giving a few additional fact.s. 

Bulgaria introduced forcetl labor cainjis by two 
decree-laws of January 20, 194,5. These regula- 
tions, which underwent minor changes in later 
years, were finally rei)laced bv the law on the PeO' 
Isle's Militia (i. *e. police) dated March 25, 1948. 
In its section 69. it deals with what is eu]ihemis- 
t ically called "communities for educational labor." 
Subject to confinement in such camps are "politi- 
cally dangerous persons," namely people who have 

Department of State Bulletii 



inuiiifosted an "anti-populai-" attitude, and also 
blackmailers, defrauders, procurers, prostitutes, 
•gamblers, etc. It is one oi the characteristics of 
botli Fascist and Conununist legislation that politi- 
cal o]>poncnts are defamed and debased by lump- 
ing them together with connnon criminals. Un- 
der the law, the period of confinement in Bulgaria 
is at least 1 year, and it is the Minister of the 
Interior who is authorized to condemn a person 
to forced labor ; in political cases, he needs the con- 
currence of the chief prosecutor. The law of 
March 1*5, 1948, also introduced the "internment 
(of politically dangerous persons) in a new place 
of residence," i. e., banishment to a remote locality. 

There exists, incidentally, another Bulgarian 
law, dated April 30 ,1946, which establishes special 
labor camps for persons ''who have taken to loaf- 
ing and vagrancy and spend most of their time in 
saloons, coffee houses, bars, pastry shops, and the 
like." It was broadened on May 9, 1949, to in- 
clude men and women '"fit for work who do not per- 
form socially useful work." According to its 
section 9, "appropriate measures shall be taken 
for their systematic enlightenment and re-educa- 
tion." I need hardly point out that any person 
who, for some reason or another, has antagonized 
the Communist authorities can easily be accused 
of frequenting a coffee house and avoiding so- 
cially useful woi-k. Even members of this Coun- 
cil have frequently been seen in coffee houses. 
Again, it is the Ministry of Interior who is author- 
ized to condemn such a person to "systematic en- 
lightenment." 

Czechoslovakia has one distinction. The Czech- 
oslovaks are honest enough to speak of forced labor 
without throwing up a smoke screen about "re- 
education"' or "communities for educational labor." 
Their law of October 25, 1948, concerning forced 
labor places the camps under the Ministry of the 
Interior. Again, confinement takes place through 
administrative procedures. In each province, the 
so-called People's Committees, i.e.. Communist- 
controlled administrative authorities, appoint a 
special board which may condemn persons to 
forced labor from 3 months to 2 years. Liable to 
such confinement are. among others, persons who 
"threaten the establishment of the j)eople's demo- 
cratic order or economic life," a definition broad 
and vague enough to cover any possible political 
opponent. 

On July 12. 1950, a new criminal code and a 
new code of administrative criminal law and ad- 
ministrative criminal procedure were adopted in 
Czechoslovakia. They provide for forced labor, 
either as a result of the judgment of a court or 
of the decision of a People's Committee. It is a 
specialty of the new penal laws that they confer 
the authority to punish certain offenses entirely 
upon the Peoples Committees. These commit- 
tees have jurisdiction in cases of offenses against 
the present economic order, economic planning, 
economic operations, against health and social in- 
surance, price control regulations, against public 

April 2, J 95 J 



aulhoi-ities, offenses against culture and social life, 
and the general safety. In all such cases, the 
People's Committees may impose confinement in 
prison for (> months. If, however, the People's 
Committee finds that the offender manifested, or 
had the intention to manifest, his enmity against 
"the ])cople's democratic order or against the es- 
tablishment of socialism," it is authorized to con- 
fine him for a period up to 2 years in a forced 
labor camp — and I again emphasize that this is 
the term which the Czechoslovaks themselves are 
using. It is, as a rule, the Security Division of a 
County People's Committee which decides such 
cases, and it is worth while mentioning that a hear- 
ing is not mandatory before these purely political 
bodies. 

If you read the Czechoslovak press, you will 
find numberless reports of heavy sentences im- 
jjosed by courts and People's Committees on per- 
sons who objected to fann collectivization along 
the customai-y Soviet lines or who showed any 
lack of enthusiasm for similar Communist activ- 
ities. On a single day (September 30, 1950), it 
was reported that in Vlasim 24 persons were sen- 
tenced from 1 to 25 years of imprisonment be- 
cause they "obstructed rural development," while 
in Moravsky Krumlov 13 farmers were sentenced 
up to 7 years each for "agricultural sabotage." 

Points in U.S. -U.K. Draft Resolution Empliasized 

Mr. President: These quotations and citations 
could be continued ad nauseam. In deference to 
the heavy schedule of work still before the Coun- 
cil, I shall desist from introducing any additional 
data. Besides, and as stated earlier, my task at 
this point was only to establish a prima facie case. 
I feel certain that the Council will agree with me 
that such a case has been established. Conditions 
have been brought to light which constitute a 
blatant violation of the Charter of the United 
Nations and the moral and legal obligations sol- 
enmly assumed by all members states of the 
United Nations. We cannot become accessories 
to these alleged crimes against humanity by re- 
maining silent. 

This brings me to the resolution jointly spon- 
sored by the United Kingdom and the United 
States. This resolution was introduced last Au- 
gust, and, in order to save time, I take the liberty 
of referring the Council to the explanations which 
I offered at that time and which can be found in 
my mimeographed speech of August 15, 1950. I 
shall confine myself to a few major points which 
require emphasis and indicate our thinking as to 
the implementation of this resolution if it is 
passed — and, I am sure, that it will be passed. 

The rational approach to the solution of any 
problem is first to obtain the facts, all the facts. 
The resolution therefore proposes the establish- 
ment of a fact-finding committee in cooperation 
with the Ilo which has an obvious and direct 
interest in the struggle against forced labor. 

551 



A committee of not more than five independent 
members is proposed as allowing adequate repre- 
sentation of the type of professional experts — 
juridical, labor, social science — required. It 
would certainly be unwise to go beyond five mem- 
bers if the committee is to work effectively. As a 
matter of fact, it may well be found that a com- 
mittee of only three members would be more satis- 
factory for the simple reason that it may be 
difficult to secure the services of as many as five 
persons with outstanding personal qualifications 
who would be able and ready to give the major 
part of 1 year to their work. Miich of the ef- 
fectiveness of the committee will depend on the 
persons who compose it. They should be inter- 
nationally known for their concern with and de- 
votion to human welfare. Their reputations for 
expert knowledge, personal ability, and impartial- 
ity should be beyond the shadow of a doubt. We 
are thinking of such men as Mr. Spaak of Bel- 
gium, Judge Aung Khine of Burma or Sir 
Eanaswami Mudaliar of India, Justice Sund- 
strom of Sweden, Mr. Aranha of Brazil, or Dr. 
Ralph Bundle of the United States. I am not 
making any nominations, and I am afraid that 
several of the persons mentioned would not be 
available. I am simply citing the names of these 
men as illustrative of the high international stand- 
ing that the members of this committee must 
enjoy. 

The selection of the members of the committee 
is not a matter of election but of careful selection 
to secure persons possessing those high intellec- 
tual and moral qualifications required to examine 
the problem in complete objectivity. The best 
readily available method of selection is to leave 
the naming of the committee to the Secretary- 
General of the United Nations and the Director 
General of the International Labor Office, in whose 
experience and judgment the Council has com- 
plete confidence. To arrange for the joint election 
of the committee by the Council and the Govern- 
ing Body of the International Labor Organiza- 
tion would be a prolonged and difficult procedure. 

The resolution provides that the committee 
"survey the field of forced labor ... in any part 
of the world." There is, hence, no geographic 
limitation. The committee will be free to survey 
forced labor anywhere in the world. There are, 
however, certain restrictions. The resolution 
provides that the committee "assess the nature 
and extent of the problem at the present time." 
The survey is not to be concerned with historical 
developments but with the existence of forced 
labor "at the present time." 

Furthermore, the committee is asked to inquire, 
in particular, into systems of forced labor "which 
are on such a scale as to constitute an important 
element in the economy of a given country." This 
phrase coupled with the earlier phrase which 
speaks of "systems of forced or corrective labor 
which are employed as a means of political coer- 
cion or punishment for holding or expressing po- 



litical views" clearly indicates the intent of this 
resolution. While the inquiry envisaged is to 
extend to all parts of the world, it is evident that 
little useful purpose would be served if the com- 
mittee dissipated its efforts in tracking down iso- 
lated cases of forced labor which may be found 
here and there as remnants of earlier economic 
or social practices and mores. This is particu- 
larly important in view of the fact that the Coun- 
cil has already at work a committee which deals 
with the remnants of slavery. Any overlapping 
of functions of that committee with the function 
of the committee here contemplated should be 
avoided. 

It will be noted that the resolution does not 
provide specific instructions as to how the com- 
mittee should perform its work. Any such group 
of internationally distinguished persons, as pro- 
posed here, should be left to organize itself in a 
manner which it considers most appropriate for 
the task to be performed. The committee would 
decide for itself such matters as the place and time 
of its meetings ; the nature of its proceedings, pri- 
vate and public ; whether or not to establish panels ; 
the nature of the evidence to be examined, both 
written and oral ; which witnesses to be heard ; the 
on-the-spot investigations to be made by the com- 
mittee or its staff, and all other related matters. 
On-the-spot investigations would be made, of 
course, only with the consent of the Government 
concerned. 

In the opinion of my Government, the commit- 
tee might do well to begin its work by the collec- 
tion and a searching juridical scrutiny of all avail- 
able texts, laws, decrees, administrative orders, 
etc. in order to get a clear idea of the juridical 
basis, if any, on which the systems of forced labor 
are built. 

At the same time, it is evident that, as has been 
so forcibly brought out by the distinguished repre- 
sentative of India in an earlier discussion, consti- 
tutions and laws are frequently a very poor indi- 
cation of what actually exists in a country. Con- 
stitutional safeguards and laws frequently are not 
applied or blatantly violated. Any inquiry, 
therefore, which does not attempt to get at the 
application of laws and at prevailing administra- 
tive practices is bound to remain sterile or might 
even become misleading. Therefore, as a second 
step the committee, in the opinion of my delega- 
tion, would have to assemble and analyze all 
available data regarding prevailing practices. 

After the completion of these first two phasea 
of the inquiry, it will be up to the committee to 
decide to what extent it should obtain additional 
evidence by way of hearings or by other methods. 
AVe still hope t:hat the Communist countries will 
be willing to allow on-the-spot investigations. 
Any refusal to do so will, I am sure, be taken by 
world o]iinion as an obvious confession of guilt. 

Tlio committee will need an able and competent 
staff which could undertake mucli of the basic 



552 



Department of State Bulletin 



research needed for the work of the committee. 
We assume that this staff would be provided by 
the Secretary-General of the United Nations and 
the Director General of the International Labor 
Office, with the concurrence of the members of 
the committee. The expenses of the committee 
would also bo shared equally, I assume, by the 
United Nations and the International Labor Of- 
fice in a manner to be agi'eed by the Secretary- 
General and the Director General. In this con- 
nection, it appears to my delegation that the fi- 

I nancial estimates provided by the Secretary-Gen- 
eral in document E/L.104/Add.l are utterly in- 
adequate. They provide for a total expenditure 
of only $21,000 at the most, which would hardly 
be enough to investigate conditions in a county 
jail. If the committee is to accomplish its pur- 
pose, it must meet for more than 2 months. It 
might, in fact, have to meet for 6 to 8 months over 
a period of a full year. The $25.00 subsistence 
allowance proposed for members of the committee 
may have to be supplemented by consultants' fees. 
No provision is made in the estimates for the 
travel expense and subsistence allowance of pos- 
sible witnesses. A larger specialized staff than 
the two substantive staff members referred to in 

j the financial estimates will be required, with 
higher transportation and subsistence costs. This 
will be especially true if the committee decides to 
conduct hearings or investigations in the field. 
Provision should be made for wider distribution 
of the report or summaries thereof and in more 
languages than is contemplated in the Secretariat's 
estimates. Wlaile details of the organization and 
operations of the committee cannot be set forth at 

I this time, it is clear that, for the success of the 
committee's work, adequate funds are essential. 
The United States delegation therefore would be 
willing, in view of the transcending importance 
of the task of the committee, to support financial 
estimates for the calendar year 1951 of up to $150,- 
000 to be divided between the United Nations and 
the International Labor Office. We would hope 
that, with the help of such funds, the work of 

' the committee could be pushed sufficiently vig- 
orously as to allow the committee to submit at 
least an interim report by the time of the four- 
teenth session of the Council. 

There is just one further point to which I 
should like to draw the attention of the Council. 
In document E/188-1, the Secretary-General dis- 
tributed to the Council the text of a letter re- 
ceived from the Director General of the Interna- 
tional Labor Office. This letter shows that the 
Governing Body of the International Labor Of- 
fice has already decided by an overwhelming ma- 
jority to cooperate with the Council in imple- 
menting the arrangements envisaged in the 
joint United Kingdom-United States resolution. 

Mr. President: In conclusion, I should simply 
like to repeat what I said last August. I com- 



w 



April 2, 1951 



mend this draft resolution to you and to my dis- 
tinguished colleagues on this Council. I com- 
mend it for your careful consideration. 



Peace Observation Commission's Role 
in Universal Collective Security 

Statement by Ernest A. Gross 

U.S. Representative on Peace Commission ^ 

The creation of the Peace Observation Commis- 
sion is a step in the strengthening of the United 
Nations. It is an important part of the growth 
and development of the collective security system. 
The Commission should not be viewed merely as a 
thing in itself, but in conjunction with the other 
elements of the uniting-for-peace resolution. 

It is only by strengthening the United Nations 
collective security machinery that world peace 
can be assured. This is so because peace rests upon 
three things — agreement to refram from aggres- 
sion, the willingness to carry out that agreement, 
and the means to prevent violations of the agree- 
ment. The Charter embodies such an agreenient 
in its most solemn form. The free world is united 
in its determination to carry it out. We are today 
taking another step in the effort to develop means 
for preventing or deterring violation. 

The uniting-for-peace resolution contains three 
major elements: preparation, investigation, and 
action. These are the elements which should be 
found in an effective collective security system, as 
they must be found in an effective government or in 
any effective enterprise for the furtherance of the 
objectives of a community. 

The element of preparation is contained in two 
provisions of the uniting-for-peace resolution. 
The first of these is the invitation to member states 
to create and maintain armed forces so that they 
can promptly be made available for service as 
United Nations units. The second is the estab- 
lishment of the Collective Measures Committee, 
which has now started its study of methods which 
might be used to maintain and strengthen inter- 
national peace and security. 

The element of investigation in the uniting-for- 
peace resolution is, of coui-se, this Peace Observa- 
tion Commission. 

The element of action is the provision in the 
resolution that, if the Security Council fails to 
exercise its primary responsibility for the mainte- 
nance of international peace and security, the 
General Assembly can meet in emergency special 
session within 24 hours and make appropriate 
recommendations to the members for collective 
measures. 

These elements are part of the framework of the 
collective security system we are building in the 

' Made before the Peace Observation Commission on 
Mar. 16 and released to the press by the U.S. Mission to 
the U.N. on the same date. 

553 



United Nations. That system, my Government 
believes, should serve both as a deterrent to fur- 
ther acts of aggression and, should aggression 
unfortunately recur, as a means of meeting it. 
The elements serve different but related functions ; 
thus, the elements of preparation and investiga- 
tion are preventive medicine in the international 
society, while the element of action is the surgery 
■which becomes necessary if preventive medicine 
fails. 

Under its terms of reference, the Peace Ob- 
servation Commission is to be used by the Security 
Council, the General Assembly, or the Interim 
Committee to — 

observe and report on the situation in any area where 
there exists international tension tlie continuance of 
which is likely to endanger the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and security. 

Thus, its substantive activities are to be initiated 
by one of these principal organs. Because its 
function is preventive, its use would not neces- 
sarily imply any belief on the part of the members 
of the United Nations that aggression was immi- 
nent. International tension is widespread today. 
There are areas of tension where observation 
might prove to be useful. The decision to take 
preventive action is concerned as much with the 
needs and interest of the world community as it 
is with the individual area or problem concerned. 
The mere presence of United Nations observers 
can, in itself, help to make aggression unlikely. 
This Commission, we believe, should, therefore, 
be prepared to provide promptly for the dispatch 
of such observers at any time of need. 

Previous United Nations experience with ob- 
server groups shows how useful they can be. The 
decision by a United Nations body to send ob- 
servers to an area indicates at once the interest of 
the world community in that area. This was very 
much the case, for example, in Greece, where as- 
sistance was being given from neighboring coun- 
tries to the forces attempting to overthrow the 
Greek Government. The sending into the area 
of the United Nations Special Committee on the 
Balkans demonstrated that the United Nations 
was concerned about the tension in this area. The 
presence of the Committee, giving tangible evi- 
dence of this concern, was, in itself, a source of 
comfort and support to the Greek people. Its 
presence was, no doubt, a deterrent to aggi-ession 
from beyond the Greek borders. 

Our experience with the United Nations Com- 
mission on Korea provides another example of 
the usefulne.ss of observers. In this case, aggres- 
sion did occur. The United Nations Commission 
was on the spot and immediately reported the 
facts. On (he basis of these reports, the Security 
Council could and did act promptly in recom- 
mending to the members that they take steps to 
restore peace and security to the area. Without 
the prompt action which followed upon the receipt 
of this information from the observers on the spot, 



the Republic of Korea might have been overrun. 
Because of the prompt action and the prompt re- 
sponse of United Nations members, the attack was 
met and repulsed. 

These two examples, I think, show the poten- 
tialities of the Peace Observation Commission and 
suggest why the General Assembly voted to estab- 
lish on a permanent basis the observation fimc- 
tions of the United Nations. 

One final word. The Peace Oliservation Com- 
mission, like the other elements of the uniting- for- 
peace resolution, is a part of a universal collective 
security system. It is aimed against no power 
or group of powers. It is designed to guard 
against and report upon the outbreak of aggres- 
sion no matter what its source. 



Central Group of International 
Materials Conference Enlarged 

The International Materials Conference (Isic) 
announced on March 22 that the enlarged Central 
Group met on that date for the first time. The 
new, permanent Central Group now constituted 
is composed of the three Governments originating 
the temporary Group — France, the United King- 
dom, and the United States — plus the Governments 
of Australia, Brazil, Canada. India, and Italy and 
the Organization of American States and the 
Organization for European Economic Coopera- 
tion. 

The new members were welcomed by the United 
States representative, Edwin T. Gibson, who was 
asked to act as temporary chairman. He ex- 
pressed the appreciation of the three Govern- 
ments forming the temporary Group at having the 
cooperation of the five new countries and two 
large regional organizations. He referred to the 
valuable studies of the problems of scarce raw 
materials which have already been made by the 
Oeec and the Oas. Mr. Gibson cited the pur- 
poses and aims of this new international body, 
the Imc. and emphasized the urgency of the mat- 
ter. The Connnittee will meet again on Friday, 
March 30. 

The meeting was composed of the following: 

AUSTRALIA — F. A. Meere, First Assistant Comptroller 
General. Department of Trade and Customs 

BRAZIL — Walder L. Sarmanho, Minister, Brazilian Em- 
bassy 

CANADA — John H. English, Commercial Counselor, Em- 
bassy of Canada 

FRANCE — JI. J. Vaclu'r-Desvcrnais, Commercial Counselor, 
Ministry of Finance and E<'onomic Affairs 

INDIA — P. Vaidyanathan, Economic Attach^, Embassy of 
India 

ITALY — Erfdio Ortona, Chief, Italian Technical Delegation, 
Eml)assy of Italy 

UNITED KiNta)0M — Viscouiit Kuollys, Minister in Charge of 
IJaw Materials, Hritish Embassy 

unit™ st.\tes — Edwin 'I". (Jilison. Pefense Administrator, 
Defense Production .\dminisl ration 



554 



Department of State Bulletin 



oAS — Dr. Alberto I^leras. Secretary General 

(ir.ix- — P. Storrs, Administrator 

iMf — C. W. Jeffers, Kxecutive Secretary; Rcn^ Larre, As- 
sistant Executive Secretary ; J. Hubert Penson, 
Assistant Executive Secretary 



U.S. Delegations 

to International Meetings 

Fourth Airworthiness Session (ICAO) 

On March 'JO, the Departiiient of State an- 
nounced that tlie fourth session of the Airworthi- 
ness (Air) Division of the International Civil 
Aviation Organization (icao) convened on that 
date at Montreal, Canada. The United States 
delegation is as follows: 

Delegate and Chairman 

Georse W. Haldeman, Chief, Aircraft Division, Civil Aero- 
nautics Administration, Department of Commerce 

Advisers 

Joliu Bosliar, Structural Loads EtiRineer, Aircraft Divi- 
sion, Civil Aeronautics Administration, Department 
of Commerce 

John A. Carran, Chief, Aerodynamics Section, Aircraft 
Division, Civil Aeronautics Administration, Depart- 
ment of Commerce 

Philip Donely, National Advisory Committee for Aero- 
nautics, Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Langley, 
Va. 

Hu.i,'h B. Freeman, Aeronautical Engineer, Airworthiness 
Division, Civil Aeronautics Board 

Franklin W. Kolk, Manager, Aircraft Analysis Division, 
American Airlines 

W. Edmund Koneczny, Chief, Airworthiness Division, 
Civil Aeronautics Board 

Raymond B. JIaloy, Chief, Engineering Flight Test Branch, 
Civil Aeronautics Administration, Department of 
Commerce 

Josepli Matulaitis, International Airworthiness Adviser, 
Aircraft Division, Office of Aviation Safety, Civil 
Aeronautics Administration, Department of Com- 
merce 

David Posner, Chief, Installation Section, Civil Aeronau- 
tics Administration, Department of Commerce 

Harry Press, Aeronautical Research Scientist, Dynamic 
Loads Division, National Advisory Committee for 
Aeronautics, Langley, Va. 

Robert Rosenbaum, Chief, Dynamics Section, Civil Aero- 
nautics Administration, Department of Commerce. 

Stephen H. Rolle, Chief, Power Plant Engineering Branch, 
Aircraft Division, Civil Aeronautics Administration, 
Department of Commerce 

William T. Shuler, Chief, Structures Section, Civil Aero- 
nautics Administration, Department of Commerce. 

M. B. Spaulding, Jr., Assistant Director of the Engineer- 
ing Division, Air Transport Association 

Burdell L. Springer, Deputy Chief, Airframe and Equip- 
ment Engineering Branch. Civil Aeronautics Adminis- 
tration, Department of Commerce. 
I Omer Welling, Deputy Chief, Aircraft Division, Civil Aero- 
I nautics Administration, Department of Commerce 

The Airworthiness Division is one of ten tech- 
nical Divisions of the Air Navigation Commission, 
as established by the Icao Council. These Divi- 
sions are responsible for formulating for the Com- 
mission and eventual Council action recommenda- 



tions on standards, procedures, and facilities 
which api^ear to be necessary or desirable for the 
safety, regularity, or efficiency of international air 
navigation. The Divisions function in practice 
as teclniical or specialized conferences open to 
delegations from all Icao contracting states. The 
tliird session of the Airworthiness Division was 
held at Montreal from February 22-]March 29, 
1949. 

Tlie principal objectives of this meeting are the 
consideration of power plant items as proposed by 
the Am Division at its last session ; the exchange 
of views on structures and flight subjects related 
to the advent of high speed, high altitude air- 
planes equipped with reciprocating and turbine 
engines; and the preparation of proposals for 
waterload standards for seaplanes. In addition, 
discussions will be continued with respect to per- 
formance requirements for transport category type 
airplanes, a subject whicli has proved to be the 
most difficult of all items relating to the interna- 
tional airworthiness standards. 



United Nations Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography^ 

Economic and Social Council 

Directory of Building Research Organizations in Europe. 

E/ECE/121, lM/HOU/BR/3, September, 1950. 108 

pp. with annexes, mimeo. 
Trade Trends and Policies of Latin American Countries. 

E/CN.12/165, May 1, 1950. 133 pp. mimeo. 
United Nations Programme of Technical Assistance for 

Economic Development. Report by the Executive 

Secretary. E/CN.12/171, May 15, 1950. 33 pp. 

mimeo. 
Draft of Resolutions on Economic Development and Anti- 
Cyclical Policy. Approved by Committee I. E/CN.12/ 

194, June 18, 1950. 4 pp. mimeo. 
United Nations International CThildren's Emergency Fund. 

Approved Plans of Operations for Asia. E/ICEF/153, 

October 20, 19.50. 65 pp. mimeo. 
United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. 

Approved Plans of Operatinns for Latin America. 

E/ICEF/154, October 24, 1950. 44 pp. mimeo. 
Disposition of Agenda Items. Tenth Session, February 7- 

Marcb 6, 1950. E/INF/38, August 31, 1950. 147 pp. 

mimeo. 



^ Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

The United Nations Secretariat has established an Offi- 
cial Records series for the General Assembly, the Security 
Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship 
Council, and the Atomic Energy Commission which in- 
cludes summaries of proceedings, resolutions, and reports 
of the various commissions and committees. Publications 
in the Official Records series will not be listed in this 
department as heretofore, but information on securing 
subscriptions to the series may be obtained from the In- 
ternational Documents Service. 



April 2, 1951 



555 



Congressional Resolution Urging Just and Lasting Peace Endorsed 



The following is the text of a letter from Secretary 
Acheson to Senator Tom Connally, Chairman, Senate 
Committee on Foreign Relations, dated March 20, 1951. 

Your letter of February 9, 1951, gives me oppor- 
tunity to endorse explicitly and emphatically the 
McMahon-Ribicoflf resolution reaffirming the abid- 
ing friendsliip of the American people for all 
other peojjles, including the peoples of the Soviet 
Union. 

I wish to commend the legislative initiative in 
this vital matter. I hope that it will prove pos- 
sible to have favorable action completed by the 
Congress in the near future. I am sending a simi- 
lar letter to the Chairman of the Committee on 
Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives. 

Three aspects of the resolution impress me par- 
ticularly. 

The first is the voicing of the American people's 
fervent, profound desire for peace. The resolu- 
tion well expresses this as our goal now and ever. 
After taking note of the "terrible danger to all 
free peoples as the circumstance compelling us re- 
luctantly to rearm, the resolution affirms that we 
"desire neither war with the Soviet Union nor the 
terrible consequences of such a war." It notes our 
preference "to devote our energies to peaceful pur- 
suits." It finds cogent support of this in our will- 
ingness "to share all that is good in atomic en- 
ergy, asking in return only safeguards against 
the evil in the atom." 

I note that the resolution proclaims our aim not 
simply in the word "peace" but as "just and last- 
ing peace." It links this with "the dignity of 
man" and "the moral principles which alone lend 
meaning to his existence." This concept is echoed 
in a reference to our determination to defend 
freedom. 

It is well that the resolution makes clear that 
while we covet peace, we will not sell our souls for 
it. The peace we seek is not simply the absence of 
war but a sound and free collaboration among 
nations in a pattern of responsibility based on mu- 
tual respect. Peace in the first sense might be 
obtained by moral capitulation. Peace in the 
sense of our seeking can be achieved and held only 
by long, hard eil'ort. We and our allies with us 
are determined to create that kind of peace. The 
goal would be brought incalculably nearer with 



help rather than hindrance from the Soviet Union. 

That brings me to the second point of special 
significance. It is well that in affirming our 
friendship for all peoples the resolution specifies 
the peoples of the Soviet Union. That special 
concern to express our friendship extends, I am 
sure, to all other jieoples in Europe and Asia, in- 
cluding China, now suffering the tragedy of life 
behind the iron curtain. The gi'eat structure of 
peace which the United States and its allies are 
building will never be complete until all the 
peoples now under domination by the Kremlin 
participate in full partnership. Here, however, 
we speak specifically of the peoples within the 
Soviet Union proper. 

AVere the truth available to them and were they 
free to speak their minds and register their will, 
I am sure they would answer us in the same spirit. 

They are capable and hard-working peoples who 
love their homeland. "We recall with fresh ad- 
miration their sacrifice and courage under the 
ordeals of the Nazi invasion. We are in constant 
awareness of their gifts to civilization and of their 
potential for still further gifts to enrich other 
cultures. The wall which the Soviet rulers, im- 
pelled by inward fears, maintain around their 
dominion represents tragedy for those within it. 
To those outside it represents real and deep 
deprivation. 

It will be well if the peoples within can be 
caused to know that those beyond regard them, 
not with hostility as represented to them bv their 
rulers, but with an inherent friendliness. It will 
be well for them to know that we understand the 
heavy burdens they bear, particularly in the cir- 
cumstance that the course determined upon by the 
group in control bars them from the fruits of the 
secure and steady peace which they have so greatly 
earned. 

A.s the tliird point of special significance, I refer 
to the closing lines of the resolution expressing 
the idea — 

That the Congress request the President of the United 
States to call tipon the Government of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics to acquaint the p(^)ple of the Soviet 
Union with tlie contents of this resolution. 

These words point to the opportunity which the 
men of the Kremlin have for setting affairs on a 



556 



Department of State Bulletin 



I better course. No others are in such a position 
! to say the words and perform the acts whicli can 
either strengtlien or confound men's hopes. 

In a curious way they mirror themselves in tlieir 
interpretation of tlie outside workl. As monopo- 
lists of power, tliey profess to see in other govern- 
ments the evil of monopoly. Dominated by hos- 
tility toward all contrasting systems, they profess 
to see that characteristic reflected in the systems 
they fear and hate. Maintaining in readiness 
armaments of such excess as to be explained not 
(111 a basis of defense but only by the desire to 
intimidate othei-s, they pretend to regard other 
nations as bent upon aggression. 

If the men of the Kremlin could but conquer 
their inward fears and resolve their contradic- 
tions, if they could but bring themselves to the 
comity which is the foundation of peace, great bur- 
dens would be lifted from the shoulders of peoples 
everywliere. 

A start could be made by letting the truth flow 
freely into and within the Soviet Union. This 
would mean an end to the practice of systemati- 
cally distorting to the peoples of the Soviet Union 
the policies and intentions of governments free 
of its domination and the conditions of life beyond 
tlie Soviet orbit. It would reduce the dangerous 
disparity of public information now obtaining as 
within and beyond the span of Kremlin control. 

In our own country, for example, the press, radio 
and television are free to present all sides of every 
issue. The Soviet case is fully reported. Atti- 
tudes and pronouncements originating in the 
capitals of the Soviet system are made freely avail- 
able to our people, who are left free to resolve 
their wills on the basis of full possession of essen- 
tial facts. In contrast, the monopolistic system 
of information within the Soviet area makes avail- 
able only the ruling group's side of every issue. 
There, truth is made the servant of jjolicy rather 
than policy the servant of truth. 

It is significant, for illustration, that the plan 
for international control of atomic energy, ap- 
: proved in the United Nations General Assembly 
in the fall of 1948 by a vote of 40 to 6, was never 
imparted to the peoples who get their information 
through the Soviet monopoly. This plan for 
j)lacing atomic energy under international control, 
limiting its uses to peaceful purposes and estab- 
lishing an adequate system of inspection and con- 
trol to neutralize its destructive potential, was 
opposed by the governments of the Soviet system. 
This fact has been withheld from the peoples 
within that system. 

The same occurred with respect to the General 
Assembly Resolution on the Essentials of Peace, 
realBrming the principles of the Charter and en- 
dorsed in 1949 by a unanimous vote of all nations 
other than those within the Soviet orbit. Its prin- 
ciples and the implications of the clear division 



April 2, 1951 



on them have never been explained to the peoples 
behind the iron curtain. 

The same applies to the action of the General 
Assembly last fall in support of the Resolution 
on Uniting for Peace. This plan for strengthen- 
ing the General Assembly with respect to security 
matters, supported by 62 nations, drew implacable 
hostility from the Kremlin and the governments 
under its control. The facts and their enormous 
implications have not been imparted by the Krem- 
lin to the peoples whom it professes to represent. 

These three examples chosen from many in- 
stances illustrate that the walls impeding the flow 
of information are also obstacles of crucial im- 
portance in the course to a sound and lasting peace. 



A Declaration of Friendship From the Ameri- 
can People to all the Peoples of the World, 
Including the Peoples of the Soviet Union 

Whereas the goal of the American people is now, 
and ever has been a just and lasting peace ; and 

Whereas the deepest wish of our Nation is to 
join with all other nations in preserving the dignity 
of man, and in observing those moral principles 
which alone lend meaning to his existence ; and 

Whereas in proof of this, the United States has 
offered to share all that is good in atomic energy, 
asking in return only safeguards against the evil 
in the atom; and 

Whebeas this Nation has likewise given of its 
substance and resources to help those peoples 
ravaged by war and poverty ; and 

Whereas terrible danger to all free peoples com- 
pels the United States to undertake a vast program 
of armaments expenditures ; and 

Whereus we rearm only with reluctance and 
would prefer to devote our energies to peaceful 
pursuits : Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved by the Senate ( the House of Representa- 
tives concurring) , That the Members of this Con- 
gress reaffirm the historic and abiding friendship 
of the American people for all other peoples, in- 
cluding the peoples of the Soviet Union, by de- 
claring — 

That the American people deeply regret the arti- 
ficial barriers which separate them from the peo- 
ples of the U. S. S. R., and which keep the Soviet 
peoples from learning of America's desire to live 
in friendship with all other peoples, and to work 
with them in advancing the ideal of human brother- 
hood ; and 

That the American people desire neither war with 
the Soviet Union nor the terrible consequences of 
such a war; and 

That although they are firmly determined to de- 
fend their freedom and security, the American peo- 
ple welcome all honorable efforts to compose the 
differences standing between them and the Soviet 
Government ; be it further 

Resolved, That the Congress request the Presi- 
dent of the United States to call upon the Govern- 
ment of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics to 
acquaint the peoples of the Soviet Union with the 
contents of this resolution. 



557 



Expanded World Economy Urged in Report 
of International Development Advisory Board 

[Releaged to the press by the White Bouse March IZ] 



LETTER FROM PRESIDENT 

TO THE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD 

The following letter was sent hy the President from 
the Little White Hoxise, V. S. Naval Station, Key West, 
Florida, to Nelson Rockefeller, chairman of the Inter- 
national Development Advisory Board. 

I am impressed by the report of the Advisory 
Board on International Development. It demon- 
strates, clearly and forcefully, the reasons why a 
lasting peace can be attained only by a wise combi- 
nation of strong military defenses and an effective 
campaign of international economic development. 

A broad program of economic development is 
necessary, as I pointed out in my inaugural ad- 
dress, to cari-y out this country's international 
objectives of peace and freedom. Since that ad- 
dress, international problems have become critical 
and we are now engaged in a tremendous mobiliza- 
tion program. More than ever, greater produc- 
tion, particularly in the underdeveloped areas, is 
essential to the stability and freedom of those areas 
and to the peace of the whole world. Recent events 
in economically underdeveloped areas have dem- 
onstrated that men will defend the cause of free- 
dom when they know from experience that it is 
the true way to economic and social progress. 
Economic stagnation is the advance guard of 
Soviet conquest. 

The Point 4 concept, properly carried out, is 
essential to the successful defense of the free world. 
In the words of your report, "strengtheniijg the 
economies of the underdeveloped regions and an 
improvement in their living levels must be 
considered a vital part of our own defense 
mobilization." 

Moreover, economic development is the spear- 
head of the forces of freedom. The building of 
military strength is not enough to win the peace 
we seek. We must press the attack in tlie battle 
of raising the living standards and fullilling the 
hopes of mankind for a better future. 

The task, as you have pointetl out, is one that 
the United States cannot undertake alone. We 
depend, in many respects, on the otiier free nations, 
and they on us. International partnership is 

558 



necessary to build an expanding world economy in 
which all can have a fair share. 

It is a great satisfaction to me that a non- 
partisan group, such as your Board, representing 
labor, education, business, agriculture and other 
aspects of our national life, should reach unani- 
mous agreement on matters of such concern to the 
future of our country. I am sure that your report 
will do a great deal to put the problem of inter- 
national economic development in its proper 
perspective. 

In the near future, I shall send recommenda- 
tions to the Congress concerning the legislation 
required for foreign defense and economic assist- 
ance for 1952. I know that your report will be of 
great help in enabling the Congress and the Ex- 
ecutive Branch to develop the kind of program 
which is needed to carry out our national 
objectives. 

I am sending your report innnediately to the 
chairmen and the ranking minority members ol 
the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the 
House Foreign Affairs Committee, and I hope 
that you will be able to give them further infor- 
mation on this important subject, if they so desire' 
I am also directing the Government agencies con- 
cerned to give your report their immediat( 
consideration. 

Please accept my deepest personal appreciatior ot( 
for tlie task which your Board has accom]ilishe(: 
and the leadership which you have contributec|!rf; 
to it. You, your Board, and your staff can takt 
great pride in the contribution which you hav(| 
made toward a solution of some of the critical 
problems which this Nation faces. 



LETTER TO MEMBERS OF CONGRESS 



Copies of the report of the IntertKitional Developmen 'B 
Advisory Board, accompanied by letters from the PreM Jk 
dent, vrrc sent to Tom Connally, chairman, Senat< 
Forciyn Relations Committee : John Krr, chairman, //oiw< 
Forcifin Affairs Committee; Arthur II. Vaiidenbcry, Sen 
ate Foreiijn Relations Committee: Alexander Wilel "*■ 
Senate Foreiyn Retatitms Commillce ; James P. RichartU 
House Foreiyn Affairs Committee : and Charles A. EatO* ifj 
House Foreiyn Affairs Committee.' The text of tft (s* 
President's accompanying letter follows. m, 



Deparfmenf of Slate Bulletii ^| 



\ 



Yoli will reciill that on November twenty- 
fourth, I iijipointed the menibers of the Interna- 
ticinal Development Advisory Board established 
by tlie Con<iress under Section 40'J of the Act for 
International Develo])ment. I nominated Mr. 
Nelson Rockefeller as the Chairman of the Board. 

At that time I requested the Board to under- 
take as its first task a consideration of the pro- 
posals of the Gordon Gray Report concerning our 
policy toward the underdeveloped areas. The 
International Development Advisory Board has 
now completed that task and has submitted a 
report to me, a copy of which I am enclosing 
herewith. 

I am sure you will find, as I have, that this is a 
most thoughtful and stimulating report. In this 
report, the group of distinguished citizens who 
make up the Board has done us all a great service 
liy analyzing the ways and means of making the 
I'l onomic part of our foreign policy more effective 
in building the strength of the free world. I know 
this report will be most helpful in completing the 
legislative recommendations on foreign aid I shall 
shortly submit to the Congress. I am sure that 
you and tlie members of your Committee will find 
it valuable in your consideration of the economic 
aspects of our foreign policy. I have asked Mr. 
Rockefeller to supply you with any further infor- 
mation and backgi'ound about the work of his 
Board that you may desire. 



\etter to heads 

£0f governivsent agencies 

The following letter of transmittal accompanied copies 
(Ijlof the report sent to the Secretaries of State, Treasury, 
Defense, the Attorney Oenernl, and the Secretaries of In- 
erior, Ayriculture, Commerce, and Laior; to the Director, 
Bureau of the Budget ; the Administrator, Economic Coop- 
in eration Administration; the Director, Office of Defense 
Mobilization; and the Administrator, Defense Production 
Administration. 



I am sending you herewith the Report of the 
[nternational Development Advisory Board on 
lii Foreign Economic Policy for the Underdeveloped 
A.reas. You will recall that I asked this Board 
111 Dii November 24, 1950, to undertake as its first task 
la' I study of the recommendations on this subject 
if nade by Mr. Gordon Gray in his report on Foreign 
iconomic Policy. 

I am also sending you a copy of the letter I have 
ivritten to Mr. Nelson Rockefeller, Chairman of 
he Board. 
The recommendations made by the Board will, 
01' '. believe, prove of great value in the task of pre- 
'^■'l )aring the Foreign Aid Program. 



IF* , 

l,f| The report of the International Development Advisory 

fill Joard also was transmitted to Alben \V. Barkley, Vice 

'resident of the United States, and to Sam Ra.vburu, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 



IpW; 2, 1 95 1 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Charles E. Bohlen Confirmed 
as Counselor 

On March 12, 1951, the Senate confirmed the nomination 
of Charles E. Bohlen to be Counselor of the Department 
of State. 

Herschel D. Newsom Confirmed 
to Public Advisory Board 

On March 12, 1951, the Senate confirmed the nomination 
of Herschel D. Nevrsom as a member of the Public Ad- 
visory Board of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1948. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Confirmations 

On March 12, 1951, the Senate confirmed the nomination 
of EUsworlh Bunker to be American Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary to Argentina. 

On March 12, 1951, the Senate confirmed the nomination 
of Rudolf E. Schoefeld to be American Ambassador Ex- 
traordinary and Plenipotentiary to Guatemala. 

On .March 21, 1951, the Senate confirmed the nomination 
of Richard C. Patterson, Jr., to be American Envoy Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Switzerland. 



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Statements by Secretary of State Acheson, Secretary 
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of Staff Bradley before the Senate Foreign Relations 
and Anned Services Committee, February 15 and 16, 
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559 



April 2, 1951 



Index 



Vol. XXIV, No. 613 



Aid to Foreign Countries P^se 

Public Advisory Board (Newsom Appointed) . . 559 

American Republics 

Caribbean Commission: U.S. Commissioner Ap- 
pointed (Moron) 535 

Asia 

JAPAN: Forced Labor Conditions (Kotschnlg) . 544 
KOREA: Peace Observation Commission in Col- 
lective Security (Gross) 553 

Aviation 

Air Coordinating Committee Report, 1950 . . . 529 

ICAO: Fourth Airworthiness Session .... 555 

FRANCE: New Air Routes Agreement .... 535 

Communism 

World Economic Situation, 1950 (Lubln) . . . 538 

Congress 

Air Coordinating Committee Report, 1950 . . . 529 
International Development Advisory Board 
Urges Expanded World Economy (Letters, 
Truman to Rockefeller, Congress, etc.) . . 558 
McMahon-Riblcoff Resolution: 

Endorsement (Letter, Acheson to Connally) . 556 

Text of Resolution 657 

World Economic Situation, 1950 (Lubln) . . . 538 

Europe 

AUSTRIA: Air Coordinating Committee Report, 

1950 531 

FRANCE: New Air Routes Agreement, U.S. . . 535 
GB21MANT: Air Coordinating Committee Re- 
port, 1950 531 

GREECE: Peace Observation Commission In Col- 
lective Security (Gross) 553 

ICELAND: Air Coordinating Committee Report, 

1950 534 

Schuman Plan: 

Analysis 523 

Statement (Acheson) 523 

U.S.S.R.: 

Congressional Resolution Urging Peace: 

Endorsement (Letter, Acheson to Connally) . 556 

Text of Resolution 557 

U.S.S.R. and Satellites: Forced Labor Conditions 

(Kotschnlg) 544 

Foreign Service 

Ambassadors: Appointments Confirmed . . . 559 

Human Rights 

Violations: Forced Labor Conditions In U.S.S.R. 

(Kotschnlg) 544 

Industry 

Schuman Plan: 

Analysis 623 

Statement (Acheson) 523 

International Meetings 

Calendar of Meetings 536 

ICAO: 

Fourth Airworthiness Session 555 

1950 Conference 535 

International Materials Conference (IMC) : Cen- 
tral Group Enlarged 554 

Labor 

Schuman Plan: 

Analysis 523 

Statement (Acheson) 523 

U.S.S.R.: Forced Labor Conditions (Kotschnlg) . 544 



Mutual Aid and Defense Page 

World Economic Situation, 1950 (Lubln) . . . 538 

Prisoners of War 

JAPAN: Forced Labor Conditions (Kotschnlg) . 544 

Publications 

Recent Releases 569 

State, Department of 

Appointments: 

Bohlen as Counselor 559 

Newsom to Public Advisory Board 559 

Taxation 

Air Coordinating Committee Report, 1950 . . . 633 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

International Development Advisory Board Urges 
Expanded World Economy (Letters, Truman 
to Rockefeller, Congress, etc.) 558 

World Economic Situation, 1950 (Lubln) . . . 538 

Trade 

Schuman Plan: 

Analysis 523 

Statement (Acheson) 523 

Transportation 

Air Coordinating Committee Report, 1950 . . . 529 

Treaties and Other International Agree- 
ments 

Air Coordinating Committee Report, 1950 . . . 529 

EUROPE: Schuman Plan: 

Analysis 523 

Statement (Acheson) 523 

FRANCE: New Air Routes Agreement, U.S. . . . 535 

Trust Territories 

Caribbean Commission: U.S. Commissioner Ap- 
pointed (Moron) 535 

Strategic Materials 

International Materials Conference (IMC) : Cen- 
tral Group Enlarged 554 

Schuman Plan: 

Analysis 523 

Statement (Acheson) 523 

World Economic Situation, 1950 (Lubin) . . . 538 

United Nations 

Air Coordinating Committee Report, 1950 . . . 529 
Peace Observation Commission in Collective 

Security (Gross) 553 

D.N. Documents: Selected Bibliography .... 555 

U.S.S.R.: Forced Labor Conditions (Kotschnlg) . 544 

World Economic Situation, 1950 (Lubln) . . . 538 

Name Index 

Acheson, Secretary Dean 523, 556 

Bohlen, Charles E 559 

Bunker, Ellsworth 559 

Connally, Senator Tom 656 

Gibson, Edwin T 554 

Gross, Ernest A 553 

Haldeman, George W 555 

Kotschnlg, Walter 544 

Lubln, Isador 538 

Mor6n, Alonzo G 535 

Newsom, Herschel D 559 

Patterson, Richard C, Jr 559 

Rockefeller, Nelson 558 

Schoefeld, Rudolf E 569 

Schuman, Robert 523 

Truman, President Harry S 529, 658 



I 



U. S. OOVERNHENT PfllNTINa OFFlCCt 1911 



tJrie/ ^eha/^tme7i(/ ^ t/iaie^ 




ADDRESS BY PRESIDENT AURIOL OF FRANCE TO 

THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES ... 563 

FOURTH MEETING OF CONSULTATION OF MIN- 
ISTERS OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF AMERICAN 
STATES 566 

ESSENTIALS OF A PEACE WITH JAPAN • hy John 

Foster Dulles 576 

THE PROVISIONAL FREQUENCY BOARD IN RET- 

ROSPECT • article by Marie Louise Smith 593 



For index see back cover 



April 9, 1951 



-VVeN-r Ofr 





SI 



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Qje/ia^eme^ ^/ ^'ta^ JOUllGtiri 



Vol. XXIV, No. 614 • Publication 4174 
April 9, 1951 



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U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

APR 26 1951 
Address by President Auriol of France to the Congress of the United States 



The ^oUowing is the text of an address made on April 
2 by Vincent Auriol, President of the French Republic, 
to the Congress of the United States. The address was 
released to the press jointly by ttie Embassy of France 
and the Department of State on April 2. 
[Translation] 

I am deeply moved by the exceptional honor 
you are rendering me in allowing me to appear 
before this Assembly and to address you from this 
glorious rostrum. It will touch the heart of the 
jjeople of France to whom, through me, this 
homage and this warm welcome are directed. 

I am the more deeply moved that my visit is 
the first one made by a President of the French 
Republic, in tlie name of France to the Republic 
of the United States and that it recalls to me two 
historic visits to our country made by two of your 
illustrious statesmen : Benjamin Franklin in 1776, 
and, a century and a half later, after the First 
World War, President Wilson. 

It gives me an opportunity to pay tribute to 
your heroic young men who under the command 
of their glorious leaders twice rushed to our 
ravaged country to share with our own sons in the 
fight. 

These memories illustrate our common history, 
and this history already long and always friendly 
is a history of freedom. 

In recalling these memories in the presence of 
the Congress of the great American democracy, 
I want to express our constant and heartfelt sym- 
pathy to all the families whose sons have died 
for our common ideal and are resting forever in 
French soil, side by side with the sons of France 
and of the other Allied nations. Through you 
representing the 48 States of the Union, I wish 
to tell the American people of our grateful and 
loyal friendship and of our unshakable attach- 
ment to the great human principles France has 
always proclaimed — principles embodied both in 
your Declaration of Indej^endence and in our Dec- 
laration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, 
principles which, 3 years ago, after so many trials 
and contests, have received the unanimous conse- 
cration of the United Nations. 

These sacred achievements of man which are 
not only the most precious values in our civiliza- 
tion but also the conditions for all future improve- 
ment, for all individual and social progress, are 



today threatened — we are sorrowfully obliged to 
admit this — only 6 years after our two peoples 
made sacrifices never before equaled in history, 
for the attainment and organization of a just and 
tranquil i:)eace. 

Confronted with this situation, far different 
from what we had wanted and expected, with our 
security threatened, any nation worthy of her 
freedom must face reality and take stock of her 
own responsibilities. Today I have come to tell 
you what France thinks and what France seeks. 

Gentlemen, you ai-e the representatives of a 
people who insist upon truth. Your opinions are 
based on facts and your judgments on acts and not 
on words. 

This is why I will ask you this question : When 
in the defense of her independence and the sacred 
cause of liberty a nation has lost, 357,000 men from 
1914 to 1918, 575,000 dead from 1939 to 1945— 
(240,000 perished in uniform in the first and the 
last battles for freedom — 112,000 were shot or were 
killed by bombing — 182,000 died deported to Ger- 
many for belonging to the underground, and 
40,000 died in enemy labor camps) ; when, for the 
same cause, the same nation, fighting at the door to 
Southeastern Asia, in Indochina, a war which has 



[Released to the press by the White House 
March 29} 

The President of the French Republic outlined to 
the President of the United States conditions in 
France, the progress of the French rearmament pro- 
gram and the present situation in Indochina where 
French forces and the forces of the Associated States 
(of Indochina) are successfully opposing Com- 
munist aggression. 

The remarks of the President of the French Re- 
public included a statement that the French people 
were determined to defend themselves against for- 
eign aggression and that, in this spirit, they are 
giving all out support to the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization. He emphasized that all these efforts 
were directed toward the maintenance and strength- 
ening of peace. 

The President of the United States stated that he 
was encouraged by President Auriol's remarks and 
expressed his confidence that peace could and would 
be maintained and that the democratic peoples 
would preserve unshakable unity in pursuit of their 
great objective ; peace for all the world. 



April 9, 1 95 1 



563 



lasted more than 4 j'ears, does not hesitate to 
reaffirm lior faith in international law by sending 
to Korea officers and men whose heroism makes 
them the worthy comrades of your officers and 
men ; then I ask you, who could seriously question 
lier determination ? In fact, what nation has ever 
])roved better her love for independence and for 
peace and her will to defend both? 

The attitude which has been given the barbarous 
name of "neutralism" has always been foreign to 
the French soul, not only because it is a moral 
absurdity — can anyone be neutral between servi- 
tude and liberty, between good and evil ? — but be- 
cause it is geographical and historical nonsense. 
Our people have experienced the frailty of their 
exposed land and sea frontiers. Almost alone in 
1914 and again in 1939 they have met the first 
shock of armies so powerful that each time it has 
taken 4 years of ceaseless effort and a coalition of 
the world's forces to defeat them. Therefore they 
know that right without might is powerless. They 
know that isolation is death. They know that 
neutrality, whether declared, armed or disarmed, 
has protected neither Belgium, the Netherlands, 
Norway nor Denmark and that an aggressor would 
never stop at a frontier post, even should it be 
surmounted with a dove holding the branch of an 
olive tree ! 

P'inally, they know that France is not simply 
the western extremity of Europe in the Mediter- 
ranean and the Atlantic, but that the French 
Union extends its influence and civilization to all 
parts of the world and that in the common strategy 
for freedom and peace, France has courageously 
accepted the tasks and responsibilities of a great 
world power. They know also that once France 
has fallen, the whole of Europe will be in chains 
with all her potential strength in the service of the 
invader and that the whole world, indeed civiliza- 
tion itself, will be in mortal danger. 

I shall always remember the clear warning 
when, in 1919, as a young deputy, I heard it stated 
from the rostrum of our own Parliament by the 
President of the United States that France still 
stands at the frontier. 

. . . here is where the blow fell because the rulers of 
the world did not sooner see how to prevent it . . . they 
know that the only way to do this is to make it certain 
that the same thing will not always happen that has hap- 
pened this time, that there never shall be any doubt or 
waiting or surmise, but that whenever France or any free 
people is threatened, the whole world will be ready to 
vindicate its liberty . . . 

Because they did not establish this union in 
time, because they did not organize soon enough 
and at the most vulnerable points a collective de- 
fense prepared for instant action, the democratic 
nations with tiieir decisions delayed by the inter- 
play of their institutions or by the scruples and 
indiscipline of freedom were once more thrown 
into the most destructive of wai-s. One after the 
other, nations fell which would have been saved 
had they joined their forces. And France herself 



who entered the fight faithful to her word, was 
wounded on the ramparts, imprisoned for 4 years 
and almost destroyed. 

If our people had given up, if for a single mo- 
ment they had hesitated between resistance and 
collaboration with the enemy, if they had not 
been willing to subject themselves to an implaca- 
ble oppression, had not chosen to destroy, often 
with their own hands, their properties and their 
tools, rather than work for the enemy, if they had 
permitted him at times when the fortunes of war 
were in the balance to have a free disposition of 
their remaining resources and forces in Metropoli- 
tan France and in her overseas territories, what 
would Europe and the world be today? 

After such common fights and sacrifices, the 
acliievement of the final victory must not make us 
forget the perils to which we were led by an unco- 
ordinated diplomacy and strategy. It is the very 
old story of the Horatii and the Curiatii. For the 
goal t« be reached is not to liberate a Europe 
which may once more be occupied, enslaved, ex- 
ploited and ravaged and whose name, you may be 
sure, would only recall the final ruin of a civiliza- 
tion, but rather, by shielding her against aggres- 
sion, to protect the whole community of the free 
nations and in this way to save peace. 

In putting into practice an effective union, iu 
which risks as well as efforts must be shared, 
France has a clear understanding of her duties 
and of her rights. 

Her contribution to the defense of freedom and 
of peace is first of all her own recovei^y. 

Undoubtedly, Gentlemen, our people are some- 
times disparaged and they are sometimes guilty 
of self-disparagement. But those of you whom 
we have had the joy of welcoming in our country 
have been able to see the road covered since the 
liberation. 

In 1944, the country was bled white, the state 
disrupted, 90 percent of our departments were in 
ruins, our lands were laid fallow, our industrial 
equipment was pillaged or obsolete, our ports, our 
means of communication were in shambles, more 
than two million houses were destroyed or dam- 
aged, our economy and our finances were ruined. 

In 1951, there is an increased population, repub- 
lican institutions are reestablished, our production 
has been raised to the level of 133 as compared 
with a 100 in 1938, our commercial balance is in 
equilibrium and our currency stabilized before the 
rise in prices of raw materials could compromise 
the equilibrium thus gradually attained, our homes 
have been built again and the specter of social 
troubles and of despair has been pushed aside. 

Gentlemen, it is with pride that I speak of the 
accomplishments of our workers, of our engineers, 
of our leaders of enterprise, of our farmers, of 
our administrators, of all Frenrliinen and of their 
reitresentatives. The generous aid that you have 
given us through the Mar.^hall Plan, for which 
I am happy to thank you today publicly, has not 
been extended to us in vain. In giving a decisive 



564 



Department of State Bulletin 



impulse to our paralyzed economy, it has again 
opened for us the way to work and to hope, and 
by driving away the threat of unemployment and 
misery, it has preserved us from those social up- 
heavals which are the breeding ground for adven- 
ture and tyranny. 

Though a great deal remains to be done, this 
first balance sheet of our recovery testifies to the 
courage of our people, supported by your broth- 
erly assistance. 

Our next contribution to the cause of freedom 
and peace is our rearmament effort which our 
Parliament has voted by a huge majority without 
hesitation or reservations. This has been done 
in spite of the already enormous burden of our 
reconstruction and reequipment and of our mili- 
tary expenditures. It is certainly not the fault 
of our two nations if world collective security 
has not been organized, though we consider this 
failure as merely temporary. The spirit of ag- 
gression is foreign to both Americans and French- 
men. But in the face of threats of totalitarian 
expansion and the formation of cei'tain mighty 
groups of powers whose policies and armaments 
are not subject to the free control of the people, 
we have turned thoughtfully and inflexibly to 
regional pacts and especially to the regional pact 
of the North Atlantic which, conforming to the 
statutes of the United Nations, has but one aim — 
to deter aggression and to strengthen the peace. 
Thus, by our reciprocal undertakings that we shall 
from now on pool together our resources of arms 
and troops at all threatened and strategic points, 
we have made the Atlantic community a solid 
foundation of our common security and of peace. 

For us, indeed, the effort for peace and the effort 
for defense are not contradictory; they comple- 
ment each other. With the prudence and firm- 
ness dictated by our said experience, we shall 
never cease to answer negation, procedural ob- 
structionism and propaganda in the language of 
right, of truth and of sincerity. 

Let us not fail to speak clearly, frankly and 
firmly. Let us put at the service of peace and 
freedom, side by side with our material forces 
as long as those are needed, the invincible moral 
forces which always animate free people aware 
of the righteousness of their cause. 

"We shall not tire, on our part, of repeating the 
conditions that are necessary for the reestablish- 
ment of trust and cooperation among all peoples. 
Does everyone sincerely want peace ? In that case, 
everyone must respect the commitments subscribed 
to in the Charter of the United Nations by all the 
allies of yesterday ; in that case, certain countries 
must stop interfering in the internal affairs of 
others in an effort to weaken their freely chosen 
regimes, to provoke troubles, to paralyze produc- 
tion and to pour daily insults upon their Govern- 
ments. 

In that case, international and permanent con- 
trol by the United Nations Organization of arma- 
ments, of all armaments, in all countries, must be 

April 9, 7 95 J 



accepted, in order to limit fairly and later to 
destroy all classic or atomic weapons. 

In that case, the national armies must be pro- 
gressively replaced by a United Nations army as 
provided by the common Charter. 

In tliat case, every country must agree to the 
free movement of wealth, ideas, and persons as 
well as the free and sincere expression of view, 
under international control of peoples on whom 
regimes have been imposed by force. 

Here are, among so many others, the questions 
to which answers must be found. And so that 
they may be answered clearly, I am asking them 
here, clearly and publicly, before the Legislature 
of a great nation which is ridiculously accused 
every day, as is ours, of warmongering, and I am 
certain that I speak in the name of all the men 
who want peace with liberty, the only peace worth 
living for. 

Finally, our effort to unite and organize Europe 
must be considered a contribution to the defense 
of peace and liberty by all who believe that it is 
not sufficient to guarantee the security of nations 
and of individuals but that we must also, by 
assuring welfare and justice, enrich their existence 
and increase their attachment to society. 

France is working toward this goal by the crea- 
tion of communities of production of which the 
coal and steel pool, that bears the name of its 
moving spirit. President Schuman, is but a begin- 
ning and a preface for others that we are prepar- 
ing. France is working toward this goal through 
the Council of Europe and the Strasbourg As- 
sembly which she initiated. She is working to- 
ward it in seeking the formation of a European 
army — the nucleus of a future international 
army — to take its place, first of all, in the great 
Atlantic army whose illustrious leader General 
Eisenliower I wish to salute here today. 

Passionately devoted to the realization of a 
European federation which will put on end to 
secular antagonisms, France has put aside her 
legitimate resentment against the enemy of yester- 
day, demanding of it only that it bring to the 
cause of cooperation the admission of its responsi- 
bilities as well as the proof of its redemption 
through the repudiation of its old regime and the 
sincere attachment to the cause of democracy. 
Convinced of the need for supranational institu- 
tions, France has declared herself prepared to 
grant to those bodies, in conformity with her Con- 
stitution and under condition of reciprocity, part 
of her sovereignty. And she hopes to convince the 
still hesitant nations that they will not curtail 
their sovereignty but on the contrary strengthen 
it by associating it with others, by uniting their 
resources and labor to increase their forces, by 
developing and coordinating their industrial and 
agricultural economies, by widening their mar- 
kets, by raising the standard of living of their 
workers, in a word, by making of the old divided 
Europe, slow of decision, torn with antagonisms, 
(Continued on paye 575) 

565 



FOURTH MEETING OF CONSULTATION OF MINISTERS OF FOREIGN 

AFFAIRS OF AMERICAN STATES 



Cooperation in World Struggle for Freedom 



Address hy the President^ 



It is an honor to open this meeting of the Min- 
isters of Foreign Affairs of the American Repub- 
lics. I am happy to extend to you a wholehearted 
welcome to our country and to our capital city. 
On behalf of the United States, I hope that this 
will be a most satisfactory and successful meeting. 

This is the fourth meeting of the Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs of the American Republics. This 
meeting, like the earlier ones, is lield at a time of 
international danger. Wlien the first meeting was 
held, in 1939, war had just broken out in Europe. 
As that conflict spi'ead to nation after nation and 
threatened to extend to all parts of the world, the 
Foreign Ministers of the American Republics held 
two more meetings, in 1940 and in 1942, to plan a 
common coui-se of action against the common 
danger. 

As a result of our concerted efforts, our countries 
did not become a theater of war. The nations of 
this hemisphere succeeded in protecting the Ameri- 
can continents from invasion. And, as a result of 
our common efforts, the people of the Americas 
were able to contribute power and resources which 
turned the tide against aggression and brought 
victory to the forces of freedom. 

Today, we meet again to consider our common 
defense. We meet again to work out ways and 
means by whicli our united strength may be em- 
ployed in the struggle for freedom throughout the 
world. 



The Heritage of Common Principles 

The American republics all owe their national 
beginnings to (he same set of ideals — the same con- 
cepts of human and international freedom. AVe 



' Made before the opening session of the Fourth Con- 
sultative Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the Ameri- 
can Kepublics at Washington on Mar. 2() and released to 
the press hy tlie Wliite House on the same date. 



have all followed and we will continue to follow 
two basic principles. First, we believe that inter- 
national affairs should be based upon cooperation 
among free and independent nations, and not upon 
coercion or force. Second, we believe that the aim 
and purpose of government is to promote the wel- 
fare of all the people — not just the privileged few. 

These principles have long been tlie basis of rela- 
tions among the American Republics. The same 
principles are now embodied in the Charter of the 
United Nations, where they have become the 
foundation of a new society of nations. The 
statesmen of the American Republics have shown 
their continuing devotion to these principles by 
the great and constructive work they have done in 
creating and strengthening the United Nations. 

Today, these principles are under relentless at- 
tack from a center of power which denies the whole 
concept of human freedom — whether it be spirit- 
ual freedom, or economic freedom, or political 
freedom. 



World Threat of Soviet Expansion 

Communist imperialism attacks and undermines 
national independence and international coopera- 
tion. In their place, it substitutes the rule of force. 
Communist imperialism also seeks to destroy the 
system of government that serves the welfare of 
the people. Instead, it sets up a system mider 
which the people exist only to serve the purposes 
of the government. As a result, the Soviet system 
is one of unbridled power, imposing slavery at 
liome and aggression abroad. 

The aggressive expansion of Soviet power 
threatens the wliole world. In Europe, we see it 
trying to engulf the nations from which we have 
drawn our cultural heritage. If Soviet subversion 
and Soviet armed force were to overthrow these 
nations, the consequences for all of us in the West- 
ern Hemisphere would be disastrous. We would 



566 



OepaT\men\ of State Bulletin 



1 



lose those cultural and religious ties which mean so 
much to us. Tlie international trade on which 
we are so dependent would be violently disrupted. 
Worst of all, we would be confronted by a hostile 
power on the shores of the Atlantic, capable of 
using the great economic resources of our con- 
quered friends to strike across the ocean at our 
own independence. 

^Ye must not and will not let that happen. We 
in tlie Western Hemisphere must help the free 
men of Europe who are resisting Soviet expansion. 

In the Far East, Communist imperialism pre- 
sents us with another threat. There, we see many 
new nations emerging, as our own countries once 
did, from colonial status to full independence. 
For these new nations, we of the Western Hemi- 
sphere have the greatest feeling of fellowship. 
But Communist imperialism has fallen upon these 
new nations with its weapons of internal subver- 
sion and external attack. It seeks to overpower 
them before they are strong enough to stand alone. 

If Soviet communism were to be successful in 
this venture, it would be a terrible blow to the 
bright promise of the principles of freedom and 
peace which we uphold. The great manpower of 
Asia would become one of the instruments of the 
aggressive expansion of the Soviet system toward 
our own hemisphere. 

Both to the East, therefore, and to the West, we 
are confronted by great perils. Our future prog- 
ress, our very survival, lie in the defense of the 
•world order of free nations of which we are a part. 
Our very existence depends upon the success of 
those principles which our countries stand for, and 
■which we have supported in the United Nations. 
There is no safety for any of us in abandoning 
these principles. There will be no security in the 
■world without the United Nations. Powerful and 
productive as the Western Hemisphere is, we can- 
not make it safe by building a wall around it. 

Instead of withdrawing into our hemisphere in 
a hopeless attempt to find security through retreat, 
we must concert our defenses and combine our 
strength in order to support men in Europe and 
Asia who are battling for freedom. That is the 
only course that can lead to security or peace or 
freedom for us or for men anywhere in the world. 

Recognition of this fact lies behind the aid 
the United States has given to the rebuilding of 
Europe. It lies behind the struggle the free na- 
tions are now waging in the hills of Korea. The 
resistance of the United Nations to aggression in 
Korea — a resistance that has the firm approval of 
all the nations represented here — is of momentous 
importance. It has shown that the free nations 
are determined to defend their ideals of national 
independence and human welfare. 

The issue in Korea is the survival of the prin- 
ciples on which we have built our countries. The 
principle of national independence and self-gov- 
ernment is at stake there, as well as the principle 
that government shall be for the welfare of the 

April 9, 1 95 1 



people. If justice and order do not prevail in 
Korea, they will be in danger everywhere. 

Heroic sacrifices are being made in Korea to 
check the forces of aggression and protect us 
against the terrible destruction and vastly greater 
sacrifices of a world conflict. By standin<j firm in 
Korea and by preparing to meet aggression else- 
where, we are doing our best to prevent a third 
world war. 

Steps To Establish World Peace 

This meeting in Washington, therefore, must 
consider not only what should be done to improve 
the clefense of this hemisphere but also what meas- 
ures we can best undertake to support and 
strengthen the United Nations in its effort to estab- 
lish world peace. 

We meet here as a region which has already, in 
the solemn treaty of Rio de Janeiro, announced its 
intention to defend itself through cooperative 
action. We are pledged to resist the common foe. 

We must now plan as a primary task for the 
strengthening and the coordinated use of our de- 
fense forces in this hemisphere. We must also 
consider how we may best use our strength to 
support the cause of freedom against aggression 
throughout the world. 

The success of our defense program depends 
upon our economic strength. In these troubled 
times, defense production must have prior claim 
upon our economic resources. We shall have to 
increase the production of strategic materials. We 
shall have to divert manufacturing capacity to 
defense purposes. 

These necessities will create many diiUcult prac- 
tical problems for our countries to solve. There 
will be shortages of basic materials and other com- 
modities. There will be limitations on certain 
kinds of capital expansion. 

The first step in solving these problems is to face 
them in a spirit of cooperation. We must recog- 
nize that we are engaged, as good neighbors, in a 
common enterprise that is vital to our survival as 
free and democratic nations. We must establish 
the principle of sharing our burdens fairly. We 
must act together to meet essential civilian needs, 
and, at the same time, we must act together to be 
sure that scarce supplies are limited to essential 
uses. We must try to prevent wild and speculative 
price movements in our international trade, 
whether in raw materials or manufactured 
products. 

Our defense needs are not, of course, limited to 
the things that go into the making of weapons. 
We need to build up our economic strength in a 
much broader way. It is essential to our security 
that we constantly enlarge our economic capacity. 
Our defense needs include, in many areas, more 
food, better education, and better health services. 
They include, in certain cases, the building of 
roads, dams, or power plants. 

We must remember that the real strength of the 

567 



free nations lies in the will and determination of 
their peoples. The free nations stand for economic 
progress and social advancement. They grow in 
strength by going forward along the road of 
greater economic opportunity for all. 

Over the last 10 years, our countries have made 
great economic progress. In most of the countries 
represented here, national income is at least twice 
what it was in 19.39. 

An important factor in our advance is the pro- 
gram of teclinical cooperation which we have 
joined together to carry out. Joint projects for 
spreading technical knowledge have already made 
notable achievements in improving the health, 
education, and living standards of our people. 
We intend to press on with this kind of activity. 

The American Republics are full of breath- 
taking possibiliti&s for future economic develop- 
ment. These possibilities can be made realities 
only if we work and plan together for a long time 
ahead. I like to think, for example, of the possi- 
bility of developing vast areas of wilderness, such 
as the eastern slopes of the Andes, and turning 
them into new and fertile farm land. 

I like to think of a project about which I talked 
to the President of Chile, which contemplates the 
diversion of water from those high mountain lakes 
between Bolivia and Peru for making a garden 
on the coast of South America to the west for 
Chile and Peru, and in return, giving Bolivia a 
seaport on the Pacific. 

I had a very pleasant convei-sation with the 
President of Chile on that subject, and I like to 
think of the development of the Parana, Para- 
guay, and Uruguay rivers. Think that wonder- 
ful possibilities are in those great waterways for 
development, and those are only samples, for all 
over the continent of South America there are 
greater resources undeveloped than were ever in 
these United States of America. And I know 
that we can develop them for the welfare of the 
whole world, as well as for ourselves. 

I like to think of the possibilities of industrial 
development in your countries. I remember with 
pride the part which this country played, even dur- 
ing the troubled times of the last war, in helping 
to create a steel industry in Brazil. I think with 
satisfaction of the progress that has been nuide by 
Chile and other countries in setting up factories 
and hydroelectric projects in recent years. 

Our countries do not have unlimited resources 
to devote to creative developments such as these. 
We cannot do as much, in the midst of a defense 
emergency, as we could in normal times. But we 
must do all we can. 



Our Goal— A Better World 

It is the genius of our democratic type of society 
that we are constantly creative and constantly 
advancing. We hold out to all people the pros- 
pect of bettering their condition, not in the dim 

568 



Agenda 

[Approved by the Council of the Organization on February 
7 and 14, 1951] 

I. Political and military cooperation for the de- 
fense of the Americas, and to prevent and repel 
aggression, in accordance with inter-American 
agreements and with the Charter of the United Na- 
tions and the resolutions of that organization. 

II. Strengthening of the internal security of the 
American Republics. 

III. Emergency economic cooperation : 

a) Production and distribution for defense pur- 
poses. 

b) Production and distribution of products in 
.short supply and utilization of necessary services to 
meet the requirements of the internal economies of 
the American Republics ; and measures to facilitate 
in so far as possible the carrying out of programs 
of economic development. 



future, not after some terrible and bloody up- 
heaval, but steadily through the years, in the 
simple activities of their daily life. 

In our countries, we do not measure our pros- 
perity by the power of the state. We do not 
measure the progress of our society in terms of 
military might. We do not measure our advance- 
ment in terms of the profits or the luxuries of the 
few. Our yardstick is the welfare of the many. 
We think in terms of the average man — how he 
lives, what he can buy, and the freedom he enjoys. 
These are the standards by which we measure our 
development. 

And, by these standards, we are marching 
steadily forward. We shall continue that march ! 

Our vision of progress is not limited to our own 
countries. We extend it to all the peoples of the 
world. 

We know that people are very much alike in 
their basic aspirations, wherever they may be or 
whatever language they may speak. We recog- 
nize that the people of Russia, the people of the 
Soviet satellite states, are very much like us in 
what they want for themselves and their children. 
We hope that some day they will find it possible 
to turn their leaders from their present path of 
tyranny and aggression. 

Our goal is self-development, not imperialism. 

Our goal is peace, not war. 

Our goal, not only for ourselves but for all 
peoples, is a better world — materially, morally, 
and spiritually. 



Editor's Note : Joao Neves de Fontoura, Minister of 
Forei^rn Affairs of the United States of Brazil then re- 
plied to President Truman. For text of a translation of 
the Forei^'n Minister's ndilress. see news release 2, March 
2(), of the Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foieign Affairs of Amerie;in States. 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



Freedom— the Key to Hemisphere Solidarity and World Peace 



Address hy Secretary Acheson ^ 



I look forward with considerable pleasure to 
the prospect of working closely together with my 
colleagues of the Americas in this important 
meeting. 

Our distinguished Brazilian colleague, Minister 
Neves da Fontoura, has already eloquently set 
before us the significance of this meeting in terms 
of our long inter-American tradition. That tradi- 
tion dates back to the first International Con- 
ference of the American States to which this coun- 
try had the honor to be host 60 years ago. Since 
then we have managed, by our determination, to 
preserve and greatly strengthen our freedom in 
spite of all perils. 

More than that, we have built up a brotherhood 
of nations that time has tested. In the course of 
the decades, the foundations of our system have 
had time to set. Can anyone doubt that the men 
who worked to bring us together in the first Wash- 
ington Conference would find their vision more 
than vindicated by the great Organization of 
American States as it exists today? 

The significance of this meeting is appreciated, 
I believe, by free men all over the world. 

It rests not alone on the work we have come 
together to do, as important as that is to our 
future and to theirs. Even more important than 
this is the fraternal way in which the American 
Republics have grown accustomed to working 
together. 

We meet freely. We talk frankly, as people 
who understand each other and like each other. 
We have problems between us, and some of them 
are difficult. But there are no problems between 
us that will not yield to the good will and friend- 
ship we all bring to this meeting. 

It is our hope that our consultations here and 
our cooperative actions will have a dual effect. 

We hope that what we do here will produce 
sound and constructive results. We 'hope also — 

'Made before the opening regular session of the fourth 
meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs 
of the American States at Washington on Mar. 27 and 
released to the press on the same date. 



indeed we know — that this meeting, as a demon- 
stration of the kind of friendship among nations 
which may someday prevail universally, will con- 
vey inspiration ancl encouragement to men every- 
where. 

Partnership of the Free World 

The larger significance of our meeting arises 
from the fact that we are a part, inescapably, of 
the partnership of the free world. 

miat is the partnership of the free world? It 
is something new in the world, and its meaning 
should be made clear to all. 

Is it an alliance, like those which crisscrossed 
Europe in the last century? No, it is not like the 
old alliances, because it is not directed against 
anyone, nor does it aspire to rule or to conquest. 

is it a sphere of influence arrangement or a 
satellite system? No, it most assuredly is not, 
for no rulers in a master state dictate to the free 
nations. 

The partnership of the free world is something 
different from any of these. It is a spiritual con- 
federation of peoples as well as nations. It is a 
partnership which encompasses many differences. 
The states in it do not all have the same political 
or social institutions. They do not conform to 
any standard pattern. They do not have a single 
"way of life." 

Each has its own set of hopes and anxieties, 
its own domestic problems, its own national tra- 
ditions and desires. 

What binds the nations of the free world to- 
gether into a partnership is that they have a 
powerful interest in common : their concern for 
freedom. 

Freedom is the key. This is what free nations 
have, and other nations do not. This is the heart 
of the matter, for without freedom, neither real 
peace, nor real security, nor any real progress 
is possible. 

To the nation, freedom means national inde- 
pendence, freedom to work out its destinies in 
its own ways. 



April 9, ?95I 



569 



To the people, freedom is not only the very 
breath of life itself but it is also the gateway of 
opportunity. Free men have the opportunity to 
better their lives, to abolish poverty, and to live 
in human dignity. 

Freedom is the climate in which men can work to 
fulfill all the affirmative aspirations and values of 
their lives. 

When people ask us, "What is it you are for, 
you men of the free world ?" Then we say, "We're 
for freedom, because freedom is the key to every- 
thing else we want." 

Where there is freedom, we can make peace pre- 
vail, we can govern ourselves the way we want, 
we can improve our land and grow more food. 
We can live side by side with people who think 
differently, who worship differently, who talk a 
different language — so long as they and we are 
both free, we have that one important thing in 
common. 

This is not to say that any of us has fully 
realized our ideals of a free society. Our progress 
toward this goal is not always even, from week 
to week, or from month to month. But it is the 
ideal and the objective toward which, over the 
decades and the generations, we have been moving 
steadily forward. 

The Communist Threat to Freedom 

And now this freedom of ours is faced with a 
mortal threat. 

The small group of men who rule the Soviet 
Union and pull the strings of the international 
Communist movement have a doctrine which is 
opposed to freedom. 

Their doctrine is a blueprint for a Communist 
world, governed from the Kremlin. 

This is the new imperialism. Its instruments 
are a formidable machine of war and the inter- 
national Communist movement. With one or the 
other, and sometimes both, the new imperialism 
reaches out for more power and for rule over more 
people. 

Never before have we faced a menace of this 
magnitude. Never before has there been so great a 
challenge to our determination to preserve our 
independence as nations. 

But it is not only against the independence of 
governments tliat this new imperialism is directed. 
The freedom of people, of the individual man, is 
also its target. 

Although the Communists have played upon 
the hopes of people for a better life, they have in 
practice been the enemies of progress. The new 
imperialists have contributed nothing but propa- 
ganda to the great cooperative efforts to improve 
standards of living among the peoples of the 
world. Instead, tliey use human misery as a politi- 
cal tool, callous to the cost. 

This is tlie threat which jeopardizes freedom. 
It is a threat which has for us the greatest urgency, 
a threat which calls upon us as i)eople and as 
nations to defend our freedom. 

570 



It calls upon us for action now. 

No free man anywhere can safely disregard this 
threat. There is no free nation anywhere, large 
or small, whose freedom is secure. Freedom does 
not come in different sizes. Large states do not 
have more of it, nor small states less, according to 
their size. The defense of freedom is an obliga- 
tion which falls upon all who are worthy of it. 

And it is in this sense that the partnership of 
the free world is a spiritual confederation among 
those who value their freedom, and each, according 
to his capacity, will do his utmost to defend it. 

This is the meaning of the gi-eat effort which 
the free nations ai'e making. Its purpose is to 
assemble sufficient force to make it plain in ad- 
vance that further aggression will not succeed. 

In the face of the challenge of the new imperial- 
ism, the rapid increase of this deterrent force is 
the only real road to peace — the kind of peace in 
which the survival and growth of our free insti- 
tutions will be possible. 

The task is a great one. To perform it, each 
must do his full share. AVe are well begun, but the 
greater part lies still ahead of us. 

Progress in the Defense of Freedom 

In Korea, the principle of collective security has 
been put to the test. It has stood the test. Aggi-es- 
sion has not been allowed to succeed. This is a 
history-making battle, a landmark, we may hope, 
on the road to world peace. 

The forces of the United Nations are fighting 
a battle which is of vital significance to the secur- 
ity of all free nations. The cause of freedom owes 
a great debt to the men of many lands who are 
bearing arms in Korea and making heavy sacri- 
fices under the banner of the United Nations. And 
the lessons learned in the defense of Korea should 
enable the United Nations to develop a collective 
security system that will be better prepared to meet 
aggression in the future, if it occurs. 

Heartening progress is also being made in an- 
other sector in the defense of freedom : in recent 
months, major steps have been taken toward 
strengthening the defenses of free Europe. The 
M'ork that is now going forward to build an inte- 
grated and effective defense organization under 
General Eisenhower contributes to the security 
of this hemisphere. 

It is a happy and a significant coincidence that 
the visit of the President of France, M. Auriol, to 
this country comes while this meeting is in prog- 
ress and that we shall have the pleasure of hearing 
him address this assembly. This fortunate cir- 
cumstance symbolizes to the world the relation- 
sliiji between our efforts in this heinisjihere and 
those of our brothers in Europe, in behalf of our 
common aspirations for peace and freedom. 

Impact of Mobilization on Economy 

In this country, the mobilization of our strength i 
is beginning to have a substantial impact upon our : 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



I 



economy and upon the lives of our citizens. By 
last week, the size of our armed forces had been 
doubled over the level that prevailed before the 
attack upon Korea, and many more young men 
and women are being called into military service. 

Although total production is increasing, the re- 
quirements of defense are such that curtailment of 
many goods and sei"vices has been necessary. The 
burden of taxation is being heavily increased. We 
are seeking to hold in check the strong inflationary 
pressures which have been generated by the de- 
fense program. 

It is our intention to prepare an economic base 
that will have the stamina to sustain this substan- 
tial defense program over as long a period as may 
be necessary, and which would be capable of fur- 
ther rapid expansion if war should be forced upon 
us. 

The scale and complexity of this endeavor, sido- 
by-side with the changes wrought throughout the 
hemisphere by the defense mobilization, inevitably 
creates many difficulties for us all. 

We in the United States have been mindful of 
the many difficult questions raised for our neigh- 
bors of this hemisphere by our mobilization 
progi'am. 

Looking ahead to the intensification of this pro- 
gram in the future, it is evident that the closest 
working relationship must be established among 
all of us in the Americas in order that our common 
effort for our common defense may realize the best 
that is in all of us. Together, we must seek ways 
of avoiding any uncontrolled and unfair distribu- 
tion of the sacrifices that our peoples face. 

With this in mind, on the day that the United 
States entered upon its emergency program of 
economic and military preparedness, it made 
known its proposal that this emergency meeting 
of consultation be held. 

We have before us, at this meeting, a realistic 
agenda that sets forth the questions to which we, 
the American Republics, must jointly find the 
answers. 

We shall find these answers in the spirit of co- 
operation that is basic to our inter-American tradi- 
tion. We are cooperators. Our great tradition 
illustrates the principle that the spirit of coopera- 
tion and the spirit of bargaining are mutually in- 
compatible. They exclude each other. For in 
bargaining, each man tries to reap advantage for 
himself to the detriment of the man he deals with. 
It is the genius of our inter-American system — 
and the effectiveness of our defense rests on it — 
that mutual cooperation, instead, has been the 
means by which all have benefited. 

This is the spirit with which we address our- 
selves to the problems on our agenda. 

Measures Necessary for Defense 

One question which each of us faces, in the light 
of our hemispheric position, is : In what way can 
each of us best develop our military capabilities 



in order that we may have the most effective in- 
dividual and collective self-defense against armed 
attack? 

We may wish to consider measures which can be 
taken by our res]^ective Governments to enable the 
Inter-American Defense Board to carry on its 
functions most efficiently and to prepare, at the 
earliest possible time, a coordinated defense for 
this hemisphere. 

In considering the military defensive strength 
of the hemisphere, it is evident that any disturb- 
ances to the peaceful relations among the Ameri- 
can Republics can only have the effect of weaken- 
ing our total defensive capabilities. As part of the 
effort to bulwark our defenses against aggression, 
it may serve a useful purpose for us to strengthen 
our determination to make fullest use of available 
machinery for the peaceful settlement of disputes. 

In view of the effect upon our hemispheric secu- 
rity of the danger of aggression in other parts of 
the world, a related question requires our atten- 
tion. That is, how we, the American Republics, 
can best support the United Nations in strengthen- 
ing its capacity to deal with aggression. 

The interests of the Republics of this hemisphere 
in the building of a world of law and order are 
greatly served by the progress which the United 
Nations has been making in strengthening its col- 
lective security system. The success of this effort 
depends upon our willingness to back up the 
United Nations. 

Our deliberations here will measurably 
strengthen our common security if they lead to 
action on the part of the American Republics in 
helping to fulfill the purposes of the uniting-for- 
peace resolution of the United Nations. 

The use of subversion and other forms of in- 
direct aggression by the international Communist 
movement requires us, as a vital part of our de- 
fense program, to examine carefully our present 
internal security procedures and improve them 
where necessary. 

It is equally important that we should consult 
as to the practical steps we may take, together 
and individually, to insure the maximum protec- 
tion and strengthening of our basic democratic 
institutions. They are the heart of what we are 
seeking to defend against Communist undermin- 
ing, and to safeguard these institutions, while we 
prevent their abuse, requires our constant 
vigilance. 

These are some of the matters which are 
involved, either directly or indirectly, in strength- 
ening our militai"y security. 

Economic Problems 

The economic problems before us pervade our 
whole effort and touch upon the life of every in- 
dividual in the hemisphere. We must gather up 
our joint economic forces for the common defense, 
not only in one country or some countries but 
throughout our interlocking economic community. 



April 9, 1951 



571 



Tliis means vital adjustments for all of us. 
These would fall to us even though some among 
us did not participate in our endeavor. For the 
sacrifices that the United States and its people are 
now making inevitably have their effect upon all 
whose economies are related to our own. 

Are these effects, then, to fall indiscriminately 
and without control on peoples everywhere? Or 
are we going to provide, by cooperation, that the 
essential needs of all our peoples are met; that 
production for defense is pushed to a level which 
will serve to accomplish the purpose of averting 
a third world war; and that the sacrifice of un- 
essentials is fairly distributed? The Govern- 
ment of the United States hud this question very 
much in mind when it requested the convening of 
this meeting. 

In this country, we are ali'eady allocating ma- 
terials required for defense production so that 
they will be available only in limited quantities 
for normal civilian demands. 

Your countries, I know, are also facing the 
problems of increased production for the defense 
of our hemisphere, production on which the sur- 
vival of freedom for every one of us depends. In 
most cases, your chief problem is to effect emer- 
gency increases in the production of essential 
materials without, at the same time, inviting dis- 
aster when a more normal situation returns. The 
United States understands this problem. AVe do 
not underestimate it. Certainly, we must con- 
sider what practicable means there may be, within 
the terms of our great purpose, to deal with this 
risk together. 

The problem of curbing inflation is no less 
important to each of our countries and to our 
common purpose. The danger of uncontrolled 
inflation in any country threatens its people. It 
also weakens the economic stability of the hemi- 
sphere as a whole. We must make the most 
strenuous effort together to take the steps that are 
necessary to keep inflationary tendencies under 
control. This must be done not only by interna- 
tional action but by each of our Governments 
within its own jurisdiction. 

Undoubtedly, we shall not be able to foresee all 
the measures which our respective Governments 
will find it necessary to take in dealing with the 
economic defense program. As much as circum- 
stances permit, we should endeavor to consult 
with one another and act cooperatively in this 
field, particularly, to our mutual and our common 
benefit. 

In his address to the meeting yesterday, Presi- 
dent Truman spoke of the concern felt by this 
country for the need of carrying forward the pro- 
grams of economic cooperation. 

It is my hope that we shall all continue to give 
as much support as we can to these measures by 
which our ]ieo])]e are enabled to improve the con- 
ditions of their life. 

The programs of economic development and 



Pan American Day, 19S1 1 

A PROCLAMATION 

Whereas April 14, 1951, will marli the sixty-first 
anniversary of the founding of tlie Pan American 
Union, whlcli now serves as the General Secretariat 
of the Organization of American States; and 

Whereas the Organization of American States has 
demonstrated its effectiveness in the maintenance 
of peace in the Western Hemisphere; and 

Whereas the inter-American system may serve 
as an example of progress in the achievement of 
peace, .security, and cooperation ; and 

Whereas the Fourth Meeting of Consultation of 
tlie Ministers of Foreign Affairs of American States 
will convene at Washington on March 26, 1951, to 
consider action to be taken in the common defense 
of these republics and of the free world : 

Now, Theeeeore, I, Harry S. Truman, President of 
the United States of America, do hereby proclaim 
Saturday, April 14, 1951, as Pan American Day, and 
I direct the appropriate ofiBcials of the Government 
to arrange for the display of the flag of the United 
States on all public buildings on that day. 

I also invite the Governors of the States, Terri- 
tories, and possessions of the United States to issue 
similar proclamations for the observance of Pan 
American Day. And I urge all interested organiza- 
tions, and the people generally, to unite In suitable 
ceremonies commemorative of the founding of the 
Pan American Union, thereby testifying to the close 
bonds of friendship existing between the i)eopIe of 
the United States and those of the other American 
republics.* 

In Witness Whebi';of, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the Seal of the United States of 
America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this twenty-third 
day of March in the year of our Lord nineteen hun- 
dred and fifty-one, and of the Independ- 

[seal] ence of the United States of America the 
one hundred and seventy-fifth. 




By the President: 
De:an Achesox 

Secretary of State. 



' Proc. 2920, 16 Fed. Reg. 2697. 



technical cooperation, in many ways, effectively 
support the emergency defense proOTam. Such 
programs as tliose which increase food supply, 
conibat disease, increase the output of materials in 
short supply, and improve working conditions and 
labor standards are of double importance in this 
period. 



572 



DeparlmenI of Slafe Bulletin 



Insofar as we can, we must seek to fulfill both 
the immediate requirements of the defense pro- 
gram and our long-range objective of economic 
development and social progress. 

High Purpose of Meeting 

We must always keep our goals in mind. 'Wliile 
we work together here to find solutions for these 
difficult problems with which the rapid develop- 
ment of our political, economic, and military 
strength confronts us, we must never allow our- 
selves to forget the real nature of the endeavor 
which brings us together. 

Our cause is above all the cause of freedom, of 
international morality. It is, therefore, the cause 
of peace, and of the well-being of man himself. 

So that the world at large and our own peoples 
shall not mistake the greatness of our purpose, it 
is my hope that this historic meeting will ci'eate a 
declaration of the principles for which we stand 
and which we are determined to defend. 

May our meeting send forth a beacon of hope 
and inspiration from the New World to all man- 
kind. 



Draft Resolutions 

Project on Internal Security 

Doc. 35 

Submitted Mar. 27, 1951 

Submitted liy Bolivia, Ecuador, United States, and 
Uruguay 

The Fourth Meeting of Con.suItation of the Foreign Min- 
isters of the American Republics 

CONSIDEEINO : 

That the American Republics at the Ninth International 
Conference of American States with specific reference to 
"the preservation and defense of democracy in America" 
resolved to adopt, within their respective territories and 
in accordance with their respective constitutional .provi- 
sions, the measures necessary to eradicate and prevent 
activities directed, assisted or instigated by foreign gov- 
ernments, organizations or individuals tending to over- 
throw their institutions by violence, to foment disorder 
in their domestic political life, or to disturb, by means of 
pressure, subversive propaganda, threats or by any other 
means, the free and sovereign right of their peoples to 
govern themselves in accordance with their democratic 
aspirations; 

That, to complement measures of mutual cooperation 
which may as.sure the defense as well as the economic and 
social well-being of the people, it is necessary to adopt 
laws and regulations for internal security ; 

That in their concern to combat the action of interna- 
tional comunmist imperialist action, they are deeply con- 
scious of and desire to reaffirm their determination to 
preserve, strengthen and safeguard the basic democratic 
institutions of the peoples of the American Republics 
which the agents of international communist imperialism 
are attempting to abolish through the exploitation and 
abuse of the self same democratic freedoms which they 
seek to subvert ; 

That, within each of the American Republics there ex- 
ists a vast body of laws laboriously worked out over 
generations, designed to assure its political defense; 



That it is In accordance with the highest interests of 
the American Republics to assure that each of them may 
be able to meet the special and immediate threat of inter- 
national communist imperialism; 

That, since international communist imperialism 
recognizes no boundaries, the present emergency requires, 
in addition to strictly internal measures, a high degree 
of international cooperation among the American Re- 
publics, looking to the eradication of any threat of sub- 
versive activity menacing the free and democratic way 
of life of the American Republics ; 
Recommends: 

That, mindful of their unity of purpose, each of the 
American Republics examines its respective laws and 
regulations and puts into effect those modifications which 
it may consider necessary to assure that subversive activi- 
ties of the agents of international communist imperialism 
directed against each respective American Republic may 
be effectively prevented and appropriately punished ; and 
Resolves: 

a) To recommend that, in accordance with their re- 
spective constitutional provisions, they enact the neces- 
sjiry measures in the respective American countries to 
regulate transit across international boundaries of those 
aliens who there is reason to expect will attempt to carry 
out subversive acts against the defense of the American 
Continent ; and 

b) To bear in mind, in the application of this resolu- 
tion, the necessity of guaranteeing and defending by the 
most etficacious means the rights of the human person 
as well as their firm determination to preserve, defend 
and safeguard the basic democratic institutions of the 
people of the American Republics ; 

c) To request the Secretary General of the Organiza- 
tion of American States that, for the purjiose of facilitat- 
ing the fulfillment of the ends of this resolution and, in 
accordance with Articles 51, 83f and 84 of the Charter of 
the Organization of American States, be set up within 
the administrative framework of the Secretariat a tech- 
nical staff with the following duties : 

1. To make technical studies concerning the definition, 
prevention, and punishment as crimes, of sabotage and 
espionage with respect to acts against an American 
Republic and directed from abroad or against the defense 
of America ; 

2. To make technical studies of measures by means of 
which the respective American Republics may better pro- 
tect, maintain and defend their national security against 
treason, sedition and other subversive acts directed from 
abroad or against the defense of America ; 

3. To make technical studies concerning measures to 
prevent the abuse of freedom of transit within the hemi- 
sphere including clandestine and illicit travel and the 
misuse of travel documents, designed to weaken the 
defense of America. 

This technical staff will transmit the reports and con- 
clusions resulting from its studies to the Council of the 
Organization of American States, which in turn will 
transmit them to the respective American States ; if one of 
these States so requests and the Council by a simple 
majority of votes so decides, a specialized conference of 
the governments of the American Republics will be called 
on the matter in conformity with the terms of Article 
93 of the Charter of the Organization of American States. 

Examination of Defense Resources 

Doc. 42 

Submitted Mar. 27, 1951 

Submitted by Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Paraguay, United 
States, and Uruguay 

Whereas : 

The American Republics, as Members of the United 
Nations, have pledged themselves to unite their efforts 
with those of other States to maintain international peace 
and security and take effective collective measures for the 
suppression of acts of aggression ; 



April 9, 1951 



573 



International peace and security has been threatened 
by the acts of aggression in Korea, and the United Nations, 
pursuant to resolutions of the Security Council and the 
General Assembly, has taken action to restore peace in 
that area ; and 

In order to ensure that the United Nations has at its 
disposal means for maintaining international peace and 
security, the General Assembly on November 3, 1950, 
adopted the resolution entitled "Uniting for Peace", 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 

Foreign Affairs of American States 

D''chires: 

That the present world situation requires the positive 
supiwrt by the American Republics of: (1) The collective 
defense of the Western Hemisphere through the Organi- 
zation of American States. (2) The prevention and sup- 
pression of aggression in other parts of the v^orld through 
the United Nations; and 
Recommends : 

1. That each of the American Republics should imme- 
diately examine its resources and determine what steps 
it can take to contribute to the defense of the Western 
Hemisphere and to United Nations collective security 
efforts and to the accomplishment of the aims and pur- 
poses of the Uniting for Peace Resolution of the General 
Assembly. 

2. That each of the American Republics should give 
particular attention to the development and maintenance 
of elements within its national armed forces so trained, 
organized and equipped that they could, in accordance 
with its capabilities and constitutional processes, promptly 
be made available, for (1) the defense of the Western 
Hemisphere and (2) for service in support of action taken 
by the United Nations. 

Inter-American Military Cooperation 

Doc. 45 

Submitted Mar. 27, 1951 

Submitted by Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Paraguay, 
United States, and Uruguay 

Whereas : 

The American Republics have assumed obligations under 
the Charter of the Organization of American States and 
in the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance to 
assist any American State subjected to an armed attack 
and to act together for the common defense and for the 
maintenance of the peace and security of the Continent; 

The peace and security of all the American Republics 
are threatened by the expansionist designs of international 
communism ; and 

It is urgently necessary for the sovereign states of 
America to develop their military capabilities for individ- 
ual and collective self-defense against armed attack in 
order to be in a position to c-ontribute effectively to action 
by the Organization of American States against aggression. 
The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs of American States 

Resolves : 

That the American Republics, in accordance with their 
capabilities and constitutional processes, should so direct 
their national military policies that, through self-help and 
mutual aid : 

I. Each will strengthen those armed forces and re- 
sources best adapted to the collective defense and main- 
tain those armed forces in such status that they could bo 
deployed promptly in the defense of the hemisphere, and 

II. Kacli will cooperate with the otlicrs in military mat- 
ters to tlie end that the necessary collective strength of 
the hemisphere is developed to combat aggression. 

Re<iuCHts: 

Tlie Inter-American Defense I'.oard to present promptly 
to the (Jovernnients plans for the preparation of the armed 
forces of the American Republics for effective collective 
defense of the hemispliere, and 

574 



Agrees: 

That each American Government should support actively 
the work of the Iadb and should consider promptly all 
plans and other recommendations of that body, and 

That the respective Delegations of the American Repub- 
lics to the Iadb shall carry on such consultations as may 
be necessary to facilitate approval and implementation by 
the Governments of the Board's plans and other recom- 
mendations in the shortest possible time. 



Importance of Peaceful Relations Among 
American States 

Doc. 57 

Submitted Mar. 28, 1951 

Submitted by Mexico and United States 

Whereas : 

It is desirable that the energies of each American 
Republic be devoted to strengthening its ability to con- 
tribute to international peace and security in the Western 
Hemisphere and to the prevention and suppression of 
international communist aggression, and 

Any breach of friendly relations among the American 
Republics can only serve to provide aid and comfort to 
the leaders of such aggression as well as to weaken the 
peace and security of the Western Hemisphere, 
The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs of American States 
Reafflrms: 

The solemn obligations undertaken by all the Ameri- 
can Republics to refrain in their international relations 
from the threat or use of force in any manner incon- 
sistent with the Charter of the United Nations or the 
Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, and to 
settle their international disputes by peaceful means ; and 
Resolves: 

That the American Republics will make every effort to 
settle any disputes between them which threaten friendly 
relations, in the shortest possible time, by direct bilateral 
negotiations, and will promptly submit such disputes as 
they may he unable to settle by negotiation to other avail- 
able procedures for the peaceful settlement of disputes, 
and 
Declares: 

That the faithful observance by the American Republics 
of the commitments not to intervene in the internal or 
external affairs of other States and to settle any disputes 
among them by peaceful means makes it possible for 
each of the Republics to concentrate the development of 
its capabilities upon the tasks best adapted to the role 
each is most qualified to assume in the collective defense 
against aggression. 



U.S. Delegation 

On March 26, the Department of State an- 
nounced the United States delegation to the 
fourth meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs of the American States, which 
convened at Washington on that date, as follows : 

Member 

Dean Acheson, Secretary of State 

Princival Adviser 

Edward G. Miller, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Inter- 
American Affairs, Department of State 

Department of State Bvlletin 



Advisers 

Edward W. Barrett. Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs, 
Department of State 

Willard L. Rea lilac, United States Ambassador to Colombia 

Henry G. Bennett, Administrator, Technical Cooperation 
Administration, Department of State 

W. Taple.v Bennett, Jr., otticer in Charge, Central Amer- 
ican and Panama Affairs, Bureau of Inter-American 
Affairs, Department of State; ^crrctari/ Ocnrral 

Merwin L. Bohan, United States Representative on the 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council 

Lt. Gen. Charles L. Bolt(5, Chairman, Inter-American 
Defense Board 

Winthrop G. Brown, Director, Office of International 
Trade Policy, Department of State 

Paul C. Daniels, United States Ambassador to Ecuador 

John C. Dreier, United States Representative on the Coun- 
cil of the Organization of American States 

Ralph Hilton, Public Affairs Adviser, Bureau of Inter- 
American Affairs, Department of State 

Edward A. Jamison, Officer in Charge, Special Political 
Problems. Office of Regional American Affairs, Bureau 
of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State 

Richard N. Johnson, Foreign Trade Policy Adviser, OfBee 
of the Special Assistant to the President 

Philip M. Kaiser, Assistant Secretary, Department of 
Labor 

Charles F. Knox, Jr., Consul General, Curacao 

John M. Leddy, Deputy Director, Office of International 
Trade Policy, Department of State 

William McChesney Martin, Jr., Assistant Secretary of 
the Treasury 

Michael J. McDermott, Special Assistant for Press Rela- 
tions, Department of State: Press Relations Officer 

Rear Admiral Milton E. Miles, USN, United States Dele- 
gate to the Inter-American Defense Board 

Rafael Pico, Member, United States Section, Caribbean 
Commission 

Fred J. Rossiter, Associate IMrector, Office of Foreign 
Agricultural Relations, Department of Agriculture 

William Sanders, Special Assistant to the Assistant Sec- 
retary of State for United Nations Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State 

H. F. Arthur Schoenfeld, Office of International Security 
Affairs, Department of State 

Kenneth Iverson, President, Institute of Inter-American 
Affairs 

Hobart A. Spalding, Intelligence Adviser, Bureau of Inter- 
American Affairs, Department of State 

Lynn U. Stambaugh, Member, Board of Directors, Export- 
Import Bank 

Leroy D. Stinebower, Director, Office of Financial and 
Development Policy, Department of State 

Charles A. Sullivan, Office of International Programs, 
Munitions Board, Department of Defense 

Willard L. Thorp, Assistant Secretary for Economic 
Affairs, Department of State 

Francis A. Truslow, Consultant, Department of State 

Maj. Gen. Robert L. Walsh, USAP, United States Delegate 
to the Inter-American Defense Board 

Ivan B. White, Director, Office of Regional American 
Affairs, Department of State 

Marjorie M. Whiteman, Assistant Legal Adviser for Inter- 
American Affairs, Department of State 

Frederick Winant, Director. Foreign Coordination Divi- 
sion. Defense Production Administration 

Herbert A. Woolley, Chief, Trade Analysis Branch, Finan- 
cial Policy, Trade Development Division, Economic 
Cooperation Administration 

George Wythe, Director, American Republics Division, 
Office of International Trade, Department of Com- 
merce 
Thomas C. Baker, Chief, Foreign Branch, Supplies Divi- 
sion, Department of Interior 
WiUiam E. Foley, Chief, Internal Securities Section, 
Criminal Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation 



President Confers With Irisli 
Foreign Minister, Sean MacBride 

[Released to the press by the White House March 23] 

Scan MacBride, Minister for External Affairs 
for Ireland, today paid a courtesy call on the Presi- 
dent at the White House prior to his return to 
Ireland. President Truman and Mr. MacBride 
had a friendly discussion concerning the present 
state of relations between the United States and 
Ireland. The Secretary of State was present dur- 
ing the interview. 

Mr. MacBride has been on an unofficial visit to 
the United States since March 10. The primary 
purpose of his trip was to address the Friendly 
Sons of St. Patrick at Philadelphia on St. Pat- 
rick's Day. While in Washington, Mr. MacBride 
saw various Government officials and attended an 
official luncheon given in his honor at Prospect 
House. 



Letters of Credence 

Uruguay 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Uruguay, 
Jose A. Mora, presented his credentials to the 
President on March 26. For a translation of the 
Ambassador's remarks and the text of the Presi- 
dent's reply, see Department of State press release 
228 of March 26. 

Auriol — Continued from page 5G5 

distrustful of herself, a new and harmonious or- 
ganism animated by one soul and adapted to the 
needs and exigencies of the modern world. 

Patiently and untiringly, we shall pursue the 
realizatioia of these United States of a free 
Europe which, with full respect for the independ- 
ence and dignity of all nations, will join the 
United States of America to work still more 
effectively for the welfare and peace of the world. 
In this way, we shall translate into actuality the 
prophecy of Victor Hugo who said, 75 years ago, 
on the eve of the Philadelphia Exhibition : 

The Future is already foreseeable. It belongs to a 
united and peaceful democracy. And you, our delegates 
to the Philadelphia Exhibition, you are beginning under 
our eyes the superb realization which the Twentieth Cen- 
tury will witness : the union of the United States of 
America and of the United States of Europe . . . Go, 
workers of France, go, workers of Paris who know how 
to think, go, girl artisans of Paris who know how to fight, 
useful men, brave women, go and carry the good news, 
go and tell the New World that the Old World is young. 
You are the ambassadors of fraternity. The two con- 
tinents will exchange not only their products, their trade, 
their industries, but also their ideas and the progress 
they make in justice as well as in prosperity. 

Gentlemen, I would be happy if, today, I could 
have been one of those useful ambassadors of 
friendship and of peace. 



April 9, J 95 1 



575 



Essentials of a Peace With Japan 



hy John Foster Dulles ^ 



I AM GRATEFUL to Whittier College for giving me 
this opportunity to make a progress report on 
peace in the Pacific. That subject is, I sup- 
pose, of particular interest to Americans who live 
on our west coast. Actually peace in the Pacific 
is equally important to all of us, for danger and 
effort can no longer be localized. 

Two principal postwar goals of the Soviet Com- 
munists are Japan and Germany. If Russia's 
rulers could exploit the industrial and human po- 
tential of either Japan or Germany, it would be a 
sad day for peace. That would involve such a 
shift in the balance of world power that these new 
imperialists might calculate that they could start 
a general war with good prospect of success. They 
know that Japan, even alone, was able seriously 
to menace the free world in the Pacific and they 
imagine vast possibilities out of a combination, 
under their direction, of the Asiatic power of Rus- 
sia, China, and Japan. 

Fortunately the Japanese people do not want 
that combination, which would make them the 
front line of a new aggression which in the end 
would mean disaster far greater than that which 
they have already suffered. They are in a mood 
to reject militarism in all of its aspects, and tl\ey 
want fellowship with the nations which genuinely 
seek peace through collective security in accord- 
ance with the principles of the United Nations. 
Thus there is the opportunity to make a Japanese 
peace which will not only end the old war but 
give new strength and hope to those who strive 
to prevent another war. 

To achieve that kind of peace is the President's 
mandate to the mission which I have the honor 
to head, and President Truman, Secretary Ache- 
son, and Secretary Marshall are each of them giv- 
ing this effort their close personal attention, to the 
end that this great goal shall be achieved. 

Since our mission was established last January, 

'Addros.s made at Wliitficr Colloge, Whittipr, Calif, (in 
Mar. 31 and rolca.scd lo tln' i>i-i>ss (in tho same d.-itc. Also 
printed a.s Departnu'iit of State pulilicatioii 4171. 



we have had a busy time. All or some of us 
have been to Japan, the Philippines, Australia, 
New Zealand, and England. We have consulted 
in Washington with ambassadors of other na- 
tions and also with the many in the executive and 
legislative branches of our Government whose 
wisdom, judgment, and special knowledge can be 
helpful. The Foreign Relations Committee of 
the Senate, its Far Eastern subcommittee, and the 
Foreign Affairs Committee of the House have ex- 
tended the utmost cooperation. As a result of all 
this, we have seen the possibility of formulating 
peace terms which should command general sup- 
port here at home, which should involve no in- 
soluble differences with our allies, and which 
should be acceptable to Japan, which we consider 
has now earned the right to be consulted. 

So this week we have begun to discuss, with 
our allies principally concerned in the Pacific war, 
actual texts which might be incorporated in an 
eventual treaty. These texts are still "working 
papers," tentative and suggestive only. 

We contemplate a simple document, limited to 
the essentials of peace. 



PREAMBLE 

Our present thought is to have a preamble to 
the treaty which would afford the Japanese people 
the opportunity to express their intentions as to 
matters which are important but which for one 
reason or another do not lend themselves to abso- 
lute contractual undertakings. 

For example, Japan might indicate its inten- 
tion to apply for membership in the United Na- 
tions. There is no doubt about the reality of 
that intention, but we think that Japan's applica- 
tion for membership, when it comes, should bear 
the unmistakable imprint of Japan's own desire 
without the slightest taint of external compulsion. 
Similarly the Japanese may want to express their 



k 



576 



Department of State Bulletin 



intention to carry forward the new ideals as to 
human rights and like matters which are hirgely 
embodied in Japanese legislation under the occu- 
pation and which are the subject of the United 
Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 
They may want to declare their intention, in pub- 
lic and private tirade and connnerce, to conform to 
international accepted fair practices. 

Japan's intentions in these respects are vitally 
important and go to the heart of our future rela- 
tions. But except as these matters have already 
been spelled out in international conventions which 
Japan could and would adopt, they do not lend 
themselves to peace-treaty obligations, which 
should only be such as can be precisely formulated 
so that the parties will clearly know just what are 
their rights and duties. 



tempt to define what should be the future per- 
manent relations between the allies and Japan. 
These might better be left for subsequent negotia- 
tion between a free Japan and other friendly na- 
tions. However, to prevent confusion and to 
minimize discrimination immediately following 
tl>e coming into force of the treaty, Japan might, 
for such a period as 3 years, agree to accord most- 
favored-nation treatment to the Allied Powers, 
except that Japan would not, in any matter, be 
required to extend more favorable treatment than 
is accorded it. Similarly, as regards civil air- 
traffic rights, Japan might for 3 years, and pend- 
ing the conclusion of civil air-transport agree- 
ments, grant the Allied Powers not less favorable 
conditions than those prevailing at the time of the 
coming into force of the treaty. 



TERRITORY 



PROPERTY AND CLAIMS 



The treaty proper would prescibe the territory 
over which the Japanese will hereafter be sov- 
ereign. It is contemplated generally speaking 
that Japan's sovereignty should be limited in ac- 
cordance with the agreed surrender terms. That 
would mean sovereignty over the four home islands 
and minor adjacent islands. There would be a 
renunciation by Japan of all rights, titles, and 
claims to Korea, Formosa, the Pescadores, and the 
Antarctic area. Also the treaty might contem- 
plate that in the Ryukyu and Bonin islands there 
could be United Nations trusteesliip and continu- 
ing United States administrative responsibility. 

The South Saklialin and Kurile Islands were 
allotted to Russia at Yalta and are actually in 
Russian possession. Any peace-treaty validation 
of Russia's title should, we suggest, be dependent 
upon Russia's becoming a party to that treaty. 



SECURITY 

The security of Japan itself should, we think, 
be worked out through individual and collective 
self-defense arrangements authorized by the 
United Nations Charter. Thus the peace treaty 
itself need only affirm that, upon the coming into 
force of the peace, Japan would in fact possess 
what the Charter of the United Nations refers to 
as the "inherent right" of sovereign nations in 
these respects. 



COMMERCIAL 



As regards commercial arrangements, we do not 
think that the treaty of peace should itself at- 

April 9, J 95 7 

938741—51 3 



With respect to property and claims, the treaty 
of peace might give the Allied Powers the right 
generally to vest, retain, and dispose of Japanese 
property within their territory, while Japan 
should return prewar allied property in Japan 
and validate prewar claims belonging to Allied 
Powers and their nationals. 

The foregoing matters can, we believe, now be 
dealt with with considerable precision. There 
are others which are still subject to exploration 
and development. 



JAPAN'S SECURITY 

Since Japan is now thoroughly disarmed and 
materially and legally unable to maintain armed 
forces, there is need for provisional security meas- 
ures. Accordingly, with the authority of the 
President, and following conversations with com- 
mittees of Congress, I stated publicly in Japan 
that, if the Japanese wanted it, the United States 
would sympathetically consider the retention of 
United States armed forces in and about Japan, 
so that the coming into force of a treaty of peace 
would not leave Japan a vacuum of power and, as 
such, an easy prey to such aggression as has already 
shown itself in nearby Korea. This suggestion of 
mine was warmly welcomed by the Japanese Gov- 
ei'iunent and the people generally so that it is 
now in order to study the implementation of such 
an arrangement. 

Since Japan is an island, its security is strongly 
influenced by sea and air power — power which 
the United States is in a position to exercise in 
the Pacific. The defense of Japan need not re- 
quire, either now from the United States or ul- 
timately from Japan, as large ground forces as 

577 



might be thought to be necessary if Japan had 
common land boimdaries with militaristic powers. 



PACIFIC SECURITY 

Bound up with the problem of Japan's security 
is the broader problem of security in the Pacific. 
Japan should hereafter make some contribution 
of its own to security, but this should never be 
the pretext for militarism that could be an ag- 
gressive threat. Thus the problem has a dual 
aspect. 

No nation able to make a dependable contribu- 
tion to security should get a "free ride." In our 
Senate, the Vandenberg Resolution has laid down 
for the United States the basic proposition that 
collective-security arrangements should be based 
upon "continuous and effective self-help and mu- 
tual aid." The United Nations Charter also estab- 
lishes that all peace-loving states should stand 
ready to contribute armed forces, assistance, and 
facilities for the purpose of maintaining interna- 
tional peace and security. That is one aspect of 
the problem. The other side of the problem is 
that Japan should never again develop armament 
which could be an offensive threat or serve other 
than to promote peace and security in accordance 
with the purposes and principles of the United 
Nations Charter. The peace we seek is one which 
will for all time liberate Japan's neighbors and 
indeed the Japanese people from the nightmare 
of militarism. 

Wlien we were in Canberra, Australia, our mis- 
sion had significant discussions on this subject 
with the Governments of Australia and New Zea- 
land. They made convincingly clear the attitude 
of their peoples on this subject. Now we are work- 
ing actively to find the ways to secure the desired 
results. 

We believe that out of our discussions, which 
are now well advanced, there will emerge a series 
of arrangements which on the one hand will enable 
the Japanese to make their own indispensable 
contribution to preventing their nation's being 
forced into the service of the new imperialism 
that ominously threatens from the mainland and 
which on the other hand will effectively assure 
that there will be no unbridled rearmament which 
could become an offensive threat. 

The United States is able and daily growing 
more able to exert a mighty influence for peace 
and to make peace in the Pacific more secure than 
it has ever been before. We can see the way to 
remove the pall of fear which results from Japan's 
past conduct and from the present Communist 
menace. But that is not a task which we would 
or should undertake single-handed and alone. 
In the Pacific, as elsewhere, security is a coopera- 
tive enterprise. Those who wish to cooperate for 
security can share the protection of immense deter- 
rent power which, in the words of the United 

578 



Nations Charter, "shall not be used, save in the 
common interest." 

Since the arrangements for peace and security 
in the Pacific will in part be outside of the peace 
treaty and since the whole problem is not yet 
fully explored, we consider that any presently 
suggested treaty provisions are to be supplemented 
in the light of the outcome of the promising 
exchanges of views which are now taking place 
and to which we attach the utmost importance. No 
one should assume that the United States takes this 
problem lightly or that we shall accept a solution 
that will be illusory. 



REPARATIONS 

As regards reparations, the United States does 
not question the inherent justice of the proposi- 
tion that Japan should make good the damage done 
to others by its aggression. Reparation is, how- 
ever, not merely a matter of what is just but of 
what is economically practicable, without disas- 
trous consequences. We have closely examined 
this problem. Considerable industrial machinery 
has already been removed from Japan and given 
to countries having reparation claims. Also there 
is substantial Japanese property within allied 
countries which, as indicated, should be applicable 
to the satisfaction of claims. It is, however, not 
easy to see the possibility of Japan's providing 
future reparation out of her remaining capital as- 
sets or as a surplus from her current economic 
activity over coming years. 

One of the gravest problems which confront 
Japan, and it equally concerns the reparation 
creditors, is whether japan, deprived of its for- 
merly owned sources of raw material and with a 
population of 85 million on four relatively small 
and ban-en islands, can maintain the standard of 
living and employment necessary to prevent wide- 
spread social unrest. This, if it occurred, would 
inevitably give rise to dangerous expansionist and 
explosive tendencies, which Japan's Communist 
neighbors would joyously exploit. 

The United States, to prevent social and eco- 
nomic unrest within Japan since the occupation be- 
gan, has advanced about 2 billion dollars for re- 
lief and economic assistance. That is a realistic 
measure of how seriously the United States views 
this jiroblem and its responsibility as principal 
occuping power. However, the United States is 
not prepared after the occupation ends to continue 
indefintel_v such economic relief. Neither is it 
willing in effect to pay Japanese reparations by 
putting into Japan what reparation creditors 
would take out. The United States considers in- 
deed that its postwar advances have a certain pri- 
ority status. 

We doubt that it is practicable to get the es- 
sential over-all and long-range results which are 
sought, if the treaty also seeks to extract repara- 

Department of State Bulletin 



tion payments other than in terms of the Japa- 
nese assets ah-eady received from Japan or with- 
in the territory of the Allied Powers. However, 
the United States has not closed its mind on this 
subject, and it is, with an open mind, actively ex- 
chanfjing views with countries which were most 
gi-ievously damaged by Japanese aggression. 



ECONOMIC DISABILITIES 

Some suggestions have been made as to impos- 
ing upon the Japanese economic disabilities as, for 
example, requiring a dismantling of a part of 
Japan's industrial plants, particularly her ship- 
building capacity. As experience in Germany has 
shown, such provisions cannot be carried out with- 
out arousing great public bitterness. If the peace 
treaty required the first postwar Japanese Gov- 
ernment physically to decimate Japan's indus- 
trial equipment, it would impose an almost in- 
human burden, and the consequences would almost 
surely be against the best interests of the Allied 
Powers. 



FISHERIES 

It has been suggested, particularly along the 
Pacific coast, that the treaty of peace might itself 
attempt permanently to regulate the problem of 
Japanese participation in high-seas fisheries. To 
attempt that would almost surely postpone indefi- 
nitely both the conclusion of peace and the obtain- 
ing of the results which are desired. 

There is, I believe, a considerable possibility 
of agreement betw-een the United States and Jap- 
anese fishing interests. However, the treaty of 
peace is not a treaty merely between the United 
States and Japan; it is a treatj^ which we hope 
will be signed by all of the 53 allies. Most of these 
nations have their own fishing problems and their 
own theories of solution, which differ widely. No 
quick results can be won by attempting to make 
the peace treaty into a universal convention on 
high-seas fishing. 

'\^nien I was in Japan, the Prime Minister ad- 
vised me that the Japanese Government stood 
ready to negotiate fisheries agreements as soon as 
peace restores to Japan the possibility of inde- 
pendent sovereign action. He said that in the 
meantime the Japanese Government would pro- 
hibit Japanese nationals and Japanese vessels 
from going into conserved fisheries in all waters, 
and he mentioned specifically those off the coasts 
of the United States, Canada, and Alaska. 

The Japanese now see the importance of avoid- 
ing practices which in the past brought Japan 
much ill will, and, if we can hold to our tentative 
timetable, there can, I believe, be an early and 
equitable settlement of this thorny problem. 



A PEACE OF RECONCILIATION 

From the foregoing it can be seen that the Jap- 
anese peace settlement we seek, wliile it would 
confirm the cut-back of Japan's territory to her 
home islands, would contemplate that Japan 
would be a sovereign and sustaining member of 
the free world. She would contribute in clue 
course to collective security in accordance with 
her means but without developing armament 
which could bo an offensive threat. Also, from 
an economic standpoint, Japan would be expected 
to get along without such subsidies as the United 
States has been providing during the occupation. 
Un the other hand Japan would be i-estored to a po- 
sition of equality, free of burdensome and dis- 
criminatory conditions. In essence the peace 
would be one of reconciliation. 

That is not the kind of peace which victors 
usually grant to a vanquished nation which has 
committed armed aggression on a vast scale. It 
is not surprising that some, made bitter and dis- 
trusting by Jajoan's past conduct, would hke to 
impose upon Japan continuing burdens and re- 
strictions. Some of these taken separately seem 
to have justification, and perhaps no one of them 
alone would be of decisive historical significance. 
In the aggregate, however, they would fundamen- 
tally change the character of the peace settle- 
ment. 

The major objective of any Japanese peace 
treaty is to bring the Japanese people hereafter 
to live with others as good neighbors. That does 
not require that the Japanese people should be 
pampered. It does mean that the victors should 
not take advantage of Japan's present helpless 
state to impose for the future unequal conditions. 
It means that the peace settlement should restore 
the vanquished to a position of dignity and equal- 
ity among the nations. 

The peace would be a peace of trust, not because 
the past justifies trust but because the act of ex- 
tending trust usually evokes an effort to merit 
trust. It would be a peace of opportunity, in that 
it would afford the Japanese people the same op- 
portunity to develop peacefully their domestic 
economy and their international relations as are 
enjoyed by most of the other free nations of the 
world. 



UNITED STATES RESPONSIBILITY 

In proposing that kind of peace, the United 
States assumes a serious responsibility, for the re- 
sults cannot be guaranteed. We have, however, 
a duty to exercise our best judgment as to the kind 
of peace which will endure. Circumstances have 
made our duty inescapable. 

In the great war in the Pacific, we had valiant 
allies who, through long, hard years, poured out 



April 9, J 95 1 



579 



life and treasure according to their means. But 
the United States possessed most of the means 
required for victory in the Pacific. The United 
States has carried the responsibility of occupa- 
tion, and the accomplishments of General Mac- 
Arthur as Supreme Commander represent a 
moral investment to which his countrymen can- 
not honorably be indifferent. The United States 
has contributed the economic aid which has pre- 
vented the postwar misery which would have 
exposed Japan to capture by communism. The 
United States is the member of the free world 
which possesses large present and prospective 
military power in the western Pacific, and today 
we are the principal contributor to the United Na- 
tions effort in Korea, which fends off danger to 
Japan, to our Pacific allies, as well as to ourselves. 

These are some of the circumstances which re- 
quire the United States to exercise an initiative 
for peace; to do so while there is still time; and 
to shape that initiative with all of the wisdom and 
all of the vision that is available. For a misjudg- 
ment as to timing or as to substance can bring 
incalculable disaster to all mankind. 

The United States does not consider that it has 
any monopoly of responsibility nor any monopoly 
of experience, wisdom, and enlightenment that 
are required. We have no desire to "go it alone," 
nor have we the slightest thought of dictating. 
We continuously have sought and shall seek the 
views of others, and indeed our present sugges- 
tions are a composite, not deriving from any single 
source. They reflect the ideas of many, and the 
United Kingdom and Australia are two import- 
ant sources of actual language that we accept. 
However, iii the last analysis the United States 
cannot, in justice to our own people or indeed to 
others, become cosponsor of a peace settlement 
which in our judgment, made after ample consid- 
eration without arrogance and in humbleness of 
spirit, would throw unnecessary and intolerable 
burdens of a military or economic character upon 
the United States and jeopardize the lasting peace 
that the war was fought to win. 



NO VETO 

Happily the exchanges of views which have 
taken place have, with one exception, been alto- 
gether cordial, and no basic disagreements have 
developed. The Government of the Soviet Union 
IS i)erhaps an exception. For 3 months its repre- 
sentative joined with us in full and frank discus- 
sions. But now that a peace treaty with Japan 
seems actually to be in the offing, the Soviet lead- 
ers seem to have taken fright. The Soviet Gov- 
ernment has i)ub]ic]y announced that it will not 
resume discussions with us. 

Wlien peace is far off, the Russian leaders speak 
lovingly of peace. But when peace comes near, 
they shun peace like tlie plague. 



We continue to hope that the Soviet leaders will 
join in a treaty of peace which would cost them 
nothing and which would start a relaxing of 
tensions which would be felt all around the globe. 
We are ready to give scrupulously full considera- 
tion to any views they may express. We shall 
steadily urge that they join in the Japanese peace. 

Fortunately, however, Soviet participation is 
not indispensable. The Soviet Union has no legal 
power to veto. It has no moral due bills, for its 
vast takings in Manchuria, Port Arthur, Dairen, 
Sakhalin, and the Kuriles repay it a thousandfold 
for its 6 days of nominal belligerency. Japan, 
unlike Germany and Austria, is not divided by 
zones of occupation. 

In relation to Japan there is the opportunity to 
show which of the Allies of World War II now 
have the genuine will for peace. There is the 
opportunity for them to make peace so righteous 
that the example will hearten and uplift men 
everywhere. That is the opportunity ; and to its 
challenge we are determined worthily to respond. 



Procedure for Filing Claims 
Against Closed institutions in Japan 

[Released to the press March 27] 

The Closed Institutions Liquidation Commis- 
sion (CILC), an agency of the Japanese Govern- 
ment, has invited the filing of certain types of 
claims arising outside Japan against closed finan- 
cial institutions now being liquidated by the CILC. 
This invitation relates only to a limited class of 
claims against approximately 800 institutions 
which are undergoing liquidation, and claims re- 
ceived by the CILC no later than July 16, 1951, 
will be paid in yen to the extent permitted by 
available assets. The closed institutions are in 
general banks, development companies, and war- 
time financial institutions concerned with colonial 
or other overseas expansion or war production. 
The complete list of institutions against which 
claims may be filed appears in the Official Gazette 
of the Japanese Government for Januai-y 24, 1951, 
No. 1446, English language edition, which is avail- 
able in the United States in approximately 225 
college, university, and public libraries, and other 
public and semipublic institutions. In addition, 
tlie Department has available a limited number 
of copies of the January 24 issue of the Official 
Gazette. 

Depositors, debenture holders, and stockholders 
arc specifically requested by the CILC not to file, 
since their claims are known and will be paid in 
accordance with CILC procedures without the fil- 
ing of a claim. Unnecessary filing of known 
claims, it is felt by the Japanese agency, would 
merely serve to encumber its macliinery for 
processing claims. 



580 



Department of State Bulletin 



No information is available as to the extent to 
which realizable assets may permit the satisfac- 
tion of claims now to be received. It should be 
noted, however, that whereas this category of 
claims includes those originating outside Japan, 
the resources available to the CILC are necessarily 
limited to the assets in Japan of the financial 
institutions which it is liquidating. 

Neither the Department of State, the United 
States Political Adviser for Japan, nor the General 
Headquarters of the Supreme Commander for the 
Allied Powers is equipped to be of any assistance 
in the filing of claims. It should be clearly under- 
stood by persons having claims that any previous 
filinfr of papers with any United States, Allied, 
or Japanese agency does not constitute a proper 
filing for the purpose of obtaining payment under 
the CILC procedures. 

All communications regarding these claims 
should be sent directly to the Closed Institutions 
Liquidating Commission, Tokyo Office, Sanwa 
Building, No. 2, Marunouchi 1-chome, Chiyoda- 
ward, Tokj'o, Japan, or to the Osaka office of the 
Commission, Bank of Tokyo, Osaka Branch Build- 
ing, No. 5 Kitahama 5-chome, Higashi-ward, 
Osaka, except that claims against the Taihei 
Lumber Co., Ltd., should be sent to the C. I. Taihei 
Lumber Co., Ltd., Liquidation Office, No. 7 
Komagata 1-chome, Asakusa, Daito-ward, Tokyo, 
and claims against the Japan Publications Dis- 
tributing Co., Ltd., to the Liquidation Office of 
that company, at No. 9 Awaji-cho 2-chome, Kanda, 
Chiyoda-ward, Tokyo. 

The substance of the information made available 
by the CILC is summarized below : 

1. Pursuant to Imperial Ordinance 74 of 1947 
and implementing Ministerial Ordinances, the 
CILC has been ejecting liquidation of Japanese 
closed institutions. Such liquidation is limited to 
the realization of assets in Japan and the payment 
of the liabilities of offices of closed institutions in 
Japan. In these liquidations, provision is made 
for the payment of all known legitimate claims 
to the extent permitted by the realization of avail- 
able assets. Known claimants have not been re- 
quired to file their claims. Claimants other than 
depositors, debenture holders, or stockholders have 
been requested to file their claims with the CILC 
in a period of two months following public invita- 
tion by the CILC for such filing, in order to assure 
consideration of their claims in the event that they 
are not known claimants or if the amount of claim 
is in dispute. 

2. Prior to amendments to Imperial Ordinance 
74 and its implementing Ministerial Ordinances, 
issued and effective December 26, 1950, the ai'ea of 
recognized claims payable in the liquidation of 
closed institutions was limited to claims against 
the respective offices in Japan pursuant to trans- 
actions which had occurred in Japan and were 
payable in Japan in Japanese currency. Recent 
amendments have expanded the area of recog- 



nized claims payable in the liquidation of the 
Japanese closed institutions. This expansion has 
occasioned a renewed invitation by the CILC for 
the filing of claims in the expanded area. Claims 
are to be filed with the CILC no later than July 
16, 1951. 

3. It is emphasized that, although claims against 
ofliccH in Japan expressed in foreign currency will 
now be recognized, settlement of such claims can 
currently be made by the CILC only in yen. Re- 
cipients of such settlement who desire the conver- 
sion of yen into foreign exchange will be required 
to follow procedures established bv the Japanese 
Foreign Exchange Control and Foreign Trade 
Control Law. 

4. The newly recognized area of claims against 
Japanese closed institutions which will hereafter 
be paid to the extent permitted by realizable assets 
is as follows : 

A. Claims against offices in Japan which were 
payable abroad. 

B. Claims against offices in Japan which were 
expressed in foreign currency. 

C. Claims against offices in Japan which were 
payable in Japan, originating from transactions 
abroad. 

(1) Goods purchased abroad. 

(2) Services performed abroad. 

(3) Loans made abroad. 

D. Claims against overseas offices of closed 
institutions secured by assets in Japan. 

5. The treatment of claims in the newly recog- 
nized area will be similar to that accorded to pre- 
viously recognized claims. All known claims will 
receive consideration whether or not filing is made. 
Depositors, debenture holders, and stockholders 
are requested not to file, since their claims are 
known. Other claimants should file with the 
CILC no later than July 16, 1951, to insure con- 
sideration of their claims. Unknown claimants 
who file at a later date will receive consideration 
only after full payment has been made, to the 
extent permitted by realizable assets, to all other 
claimants whose priority in liquidation is higher 
than that of debenture holders and stockholders, 
namely, secured claims, preferred claims, claims 
originating from transactions subsequent to Au- 
gust 10, 1946, and general claims. 

6. The amount of compensation and the date 
of settlement which claimants in the newly recog- 
nized area of claims can anticipate cannot be pre- 
dicted at present. Newly recognized claims will 
have to be integrated subsequent to July 16, 1951, 
for each closed institution with previously recog- 
nized but as yet unsettled claims. Thereafter, 
the amount of compensation w^ill depend upon the 
ratio of the total valid claims to the total realiz- 
able assets. The date of settlement will depend 
upon the liquidity of assets. It is currently esti- 
nuited that most existing claims against closed 
institutions will have been settled by August 
1952. 



April 9, 7951 



581 



The nature of tlie claim statement desired by 
the CILC is as follows : 

1. Name of the closed institution against which 
claim is to be filed. 

2. Name and location of the oiSce against which 
claim originated. 

3. Date at which claim originated. 

4. Description of claim, with full particulars. 
Principal and interest should be clearly dis- 
tinguished, and the period for which interest is 
calculated should be stated. 

5. Description and present location of any pub- 
lic bonds, debentures, stocks, shares, or other items 
which were offered as security. 

6. Listing and description of any documentary 



evidence (deeds, passbooks, contracts, certificates, 
acknowledgement of claims, etc.) which claim- 
ant may wish to attach in verification of his claim. 

7. Amount of claim. If the claim is expressed 
in a foreign currency, it should be stated only in 
that particular foreign currency, without recalcu- 
lating to yen or other currencies. 

8. The claimant may submit any other infor- 
mation which he considers necessary. 

9. The claim should include the full name and 
address of the creditor, and a statement along the 
following lines: 

The undersigned hereby declares that the statement 
given above is true and correct, and acljiiowledges that no 
payment or settlement of the above-mentioned claims 
has been made up to the present. 



Communist ''Land Reform" in North Korea Brings Disillusionment 



[Released to the press March 28] 



A recently completed study has brought to light 
the workings of the North Korean "land reform" 
program, some details of which had long been 
known to the Department. The study involved 
an on-the-spot check of farm conditions in North 
Korea, interviews with farmers, and an analysis 
of a mass of decrees and land laws issued by Soviet 
and Pyongyang authorities from 1946 to 1950. 
Its objective was to discover just what the North 
Korean farmers got out of the land distribution 
plan, and what the average farmer thought of it. 

Effect of Totalitarian State on Land Reform 

The answer to both questions is summarized 
in a single statement: Landless farm laborers and 
poor tenant farmers, the chief beneficiaries of the 
program, found that land ownership in a totali- 
tarian police state was largely a delusion. There 
was no margin of profit and a heavy margin of 
compulsory unpaid labor by the farmer and his 
household for the benefit of the Communist 
regime. 

In place of the former landlords, mainly Jap- 
anese, who got rentals of 55 to 60 percent in kind 
annually, but paid for in cash, the Communist 
regime and its countless subsidiaries confiscated 
as much or more in various forms of tax-in-kind, 
assessments, and "voluntary" contributions. In 
addition, the farmer found that instead of one 
boss he had many — township and county and 
provincial petty officials, plus the ever-present 
police, who told him what to do, what to raise, 
and how much. At the end of the crop year, ex- 



cept for subsistence, the farmer and his household 
had worked harder than ever, with nothing to 
show for it, not even enough to purchase their 
quota of cotton goods from the Communist-run 
mills. 

Above all, the study reveals the unremitting 
efforts of the Conununist regime, in the course of 
5 years, to remove the last shreds of independence 
from the new class of farm "owners'' and ruth- 
lessly force them to become cogs in the lumbering 
machinery of the planned state economy. In 
1950, the last step — collectivization — appears to 
have been in the offing. Thus, in the long range, 
North Korean "land reform" would have been 
found to be a complete delusion, not only in that 
the farmers' economic condition had not improved 
but also in that even technical ownership of the 
land would have proved only a transitory phase. 
In the end, the whole of the farming class would 
have been made an agricultural proletariat. 

Soviet "Land Reform" Policies 

This is how "land reform" under Soviet occupa- 
tion and the Pyongyang regime worked: 

At the end of the war, in August 1945, when the 
Soviet authorities clamped down an iron curtain 
over North Korea, they began almost at once to 
consider the farm problem both for political and 
economic reasons. The problem of Korean farm 
tenants and farm workers, who under 35 years of 
Japanese rule had been reduced practically to 
peonage, was common to all Korea. 

In 1945, about one-half of the 3 million farm 



582 



Deparimenf of State Bulletin 



households in Korea owned no land at all and an 
additional one-third rented part of the land they 
tilled. Only 17.3 percent owned all the land they 
cultivated. Because of the exorbitant farm ren- 
tals, the average tenant, after expenses connected 
with cultivation, had left as little as 20 to 25 per- 
cent of his total crop for maintaining his house- 
Ihold until the next harvest. 
In North Korea, the proportion of tenancy 
was somewhat less than in the South, where the 
highly productive irrigated rice paddies offered 
more profitable returns to absentee landlords. But 
in the North, the bait of "land ownership" held 
out by the Communist authorities was a necessary 
I inoredient of the whole Soviet economic program. 

I By transforming landless farm workers and 
poor tenants into private landowners, in theory at 
least, the Soviet authorities expected to win the al- 
legiance of the largest "depressed" class. More 
important, farm production could be geared to the 
rest of the program, farm income would be tapped 
for a major part of government expenditures, and 
farm labor would offer a reservoir from which to 
draw labor for industry. 

The first Soviet land-reform decree, issued in 
March 1946, stated that the purpose of the pro- 
gram was to destroy the "feudalist land system of 
thousands of years standing" and replace it with 
one "based on individual management by in- 
dependent farmers." 

Under this decree, all Japanese land holdings 
were confiscated, as well as all the tenant-worked 
land of Korean landlords. Also confiscated were 
the land of farmers in excess of five chungho (12.3 
j acres) and the land of religious institutions ex- 
! Deeding the same amount of tillable land. Alto- 
gether, some 2,800,000 acres of land were confis- 
cated and distributed to almost 800,000 landless 
farm workers, tenant, and part-tenant farmers. 
The average size of the plots distributed was 
slightly more than three acres, but the grants 
varied according to a schedule based on the labor 
power and consumption of each household. 

Since the land redistribution brought "free" 
land to more than 70 percent of North Korea's 
farm population, half of the total population of 
the region at one stroke was given to believe that 
they had a stake in the regime. 
I Land ownership was the bait, but the real pur- 

I I pose of the reform was to lay the foundation for a 
' rigid system of controls over the farmer and his 

output. The first step was to secure control at the 
village level. In every village, a "people's com- 
mittee" was set up to work out a local land dis- 
tribution plan. These special committees were 
made up exclusively of former hired laborers and 
tenant farmers. The previous village headmen 
were kept out of the committees and prevented 
from exercising any further authority. Korean 
landlords were either removed to a different 
' county, where they were permitted to work a small 
plot of land under surveillance, or they were 
driven to day labor in the cities. 

I I April 9, J 95 J 



The new land proprietors were given certificates 
which stated that their parcels of land were per- 
manently given to the recipients, but the land 
could not be bought, sold, rented, or mortgaged. 
Their right to the land, therefore, was confined to 
its utilization, and, for this by the first decree, they 
paid a tax-in-kind of 25 percent. In 1947, the 
land tax was fixed at 27 percent on paddy land, 23 
percent on dry land, and 10 percent on "fire fields" 
or untilled land. 



Results of False Promises 

Tlie Soviet authorities made much of the low tax 
rate for propaganda purposes, but the effective 
rate was far higher than the book rate. This was 
because the total assessment for all farms was 
computed by the central authorities in order to 
determine the rural share in financing the whole 
economic plan. Starting from the top, the assess- 
ment was broken down by province, county, town- 
ship, and village, and at each level a "people's 
committee" set the amount to be collected by the 
units within its jurisdiction. 

By the time the assessment rate reached the 
village, it was already inflated — since it was based 
on unrealistic estimates of expected yields — and 
this inflation was passed on to the individual 
farmer. The farmer's rate of tax-in-kind was 
further inflated by the fact that he was required 
to deliver only the best quality grain or other pro- 
duce. In other words, in terms of value, he paid a 
higher rate. In addition^ the tax was collected on 
his entire output, including vegetables, livestock, 
and industrial crops, regardless of the small 
amount of any one product grown. 

An inflated land tax, however, was only part of 
what the farmer had to deliver. There were spe- 
cial taxes, assessments and "voluntary" contribu- 
tions ; his ox and cart were taxed, and he paid taxes 
for irrigation, schools, the army, local autonomy, 
and whatnot. Besides the increasing burden of 
grain collections, the Korean farmers in 1950 were 
compelled to purchase their allocated share of the 
national bond issue. 

Farmers in Noi'tli Korea consistently expressed 
the opinion that, contrary to official figures, the 
total agricultural production under the Commu- 
nist regime did not reach preliberation levels and 
fell far short of the ambitious goals set by the 
regime's central planning. Nevertheless, the pres- 
sure on the farmer was stepped up in every con- 
ceivable way. In the beginning, the farmer was 
free to dispose of his output in the free market, 
but as collections became more severe, his market- 
able surplus above consumption gradually disap- 
peared. In 1949-50, there was increasing pressure 
on the farmer to dispose of a lar^e share of mar- 
keted crops through government channels at prices 
lower than in the free market. 

Under the national economic plan, the individ- 
ual farmer became merely a producing unit subject 
to rigid state supervision. Farmers were told 

583 



what crops to plant, what the yields should be, 
how much fertilizer to use, and when to complete 
the planting and harvesting. Assessments kept 
pace with the growirig season, and the crop could 
not be harvested until the last of three assessments 
was completed. 

As assessments fell short of over-all goals, the 
crops were reassessed to the planned levels, re- 
gardless of the farmers' ability to meet them. In 
theory, a farmer could protest his assessment, but 
since the case was always decided against him and 
the result would be a higher assessment for the 
following year, protests ceased to be made. 

The Communist machinery of planned produc- 
tion and pressurized collections required a horde 
of officials for its operations. In addition to in- 
spectors from township, county, and provincial 
authorities, the police played an increasing role 
not only in enforcing the central government's 
decrees but also in cliecking on the loyalty of 
farmers to the regime. 

County police chiefs relayed to the township 
police stations under their jurisdiction instruc- 
tions regarding the assessment program and the 
ideological trend of the village committees. Local 
police conducted secret investigations of village 
assessments and collections, inquired what the 
farmers thought of the tax program, and looked 
for signs of sabotage or activities by unreliable 
elements. 

Demand on Farmers for Public Labor 

But grain was not all that the Communist 
regime extracted from the North Korean farm- 
ers; it also needed their labor on projects outside 
of farming. The farming community offered the 
largest pool of labor for executing the regime's 
economic plan. Each farm household, therefore, 
had to contribute 1 or 2 months of voluntary 
labor time for local construction projects, such 
as roads, bridges, and schools. In addition, the 
entire farm population, between the ages of 18 
and 55, excepting invalids and pregnant women, 
was subject to 20 days of compulsory, uncompen- 
sated labor service a year in national construction 
projects or nationalized mines and factories. 

So great was the regime's demand for free labor 
that compulsory devices increased as time went 
on. There were cases of farmers mobilized for 
20 days' labor in nearby mines who had to stay 
on the job for 6 months. 

Beginning in 1949, the regime launched an in- 
tensive campaign to induce members of farm 
households to migrate to industrial centers, espe- 
cially unmarried young women and widows. Spe- 
cial agents of the Ministry of Labor were sent on 
recruiting campaigns to the villages, where postere 
and radio broadcasts promised a "livelihood for 
two winters" to those who engaged in factory 
work. Under a directive issued in 1949, all free 
labor on farms and all farmers working dry land 
with an incline of 15 degrees were ordered to the 

584 



cities as pennanent factory workers. The farm- 
ers, however, clung to their dry, rolling acres and 
the order produced meager results. 



Five Years of Disillusionment 

Up to the opening of hostilities in 1950, the 
Communist regime approached the question of 
collectivization cautiously. It had created a new 
class of small land holders without great difficulty, 
but it would not be easy to force these yeomen 
into the collective pattern. There were a few state 
farms, three to six, derived from submarginal land 
formerly held by Japanese, but larger agricultural 
units called for mechanization and agricultural 
machinery was at a premium in North Korea. 

There is evidence that the Pyongyang regime 
planned to introduce collective farms on the heels 
of the projected conquest of the Republic of Korea. 
In 1950, professional writers in the Literary 
League were assigned to picture the advantages 
of collective farming, and lecturers on agriculture 
extolled the collectives and national farms of the 
U.S.S.R. as models for Korea. The Communist 
authorities believed that the new farming class, 
deprived of the "profit motive" by its inability to 
accumulate any margin over the barest subsistence, 
would voluntarily give up its shadowy claims on 
the land and surrender the last of its slender inde- 
pendence to collective dictation. The roar of 
United Nations guns halted this gi-andiose 
program. 

The testimony of the North Korean farmers in- 
terviewed was conclusive: None of them wanted 
to see the return of the outworn system of absentee 
landlordism with its usurious rentals. Their ex- 
perience with Communist "land reform," on the 
other hand, left them bitterly disillusioned. The 
new masters had inflicted unbearable burdens and 
had reduced them to slaves of the soil and vic- 
tims of a ruthless bureaucracy. Their promised 
"independence" had not materialized. They were 
herded into unpaid labor for the regime and their 
households threatened with dismemberment by 
conscription into industrial servitude. Five years 
of heartbreaking, unrewarded labor had taught 
them the true meaning of the Communist dictator- 
ship. 



Japanese Treaty Discussed 

With American Officials in London 

John M. Allison, deputy to John Foster Dulles 
for Japanese peace-treaty matters, departed on 
March 19 for a brief visit to the American Em- 
bassy, London. The purpose of Mr. Allison's trip 
was to bring the Ambassador and Embassy staff 
up to date on the exchanges of views which have 
been taking place with respect to a treaty of peace 
with Japan. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Workshops of Liberty 



Remarks iy Dr. Henry G. Bennett 
Technical Cooperation Administrator ^ 



It is a useful and comforting thing for us to 
remember that we are living in the stream of his- 
tory. The great issues of our time were handed 
down to us through many generations, and we, 
in turn, will hand them on. We cannot hope to 
decide these issues — I doubt if they will ever be 
finally decided. But we can make it our solemn 
duty to keep these issues alive and to throw our 
full weight to the side that we believe is right. 

The issue I have in mind to discuss with you 
today was probably best stated a hundred and 
twenty-five years ago. It concerns our place, as 
Americans, in the world community. And the 
remarkable thing, as I see it, is that as long ago 
as 1826, when this young Republic was faced with 
tremendous domestic problems, a leading Ameri- 
can was thinking of his country's obligation of 
leadership to the world's people. 

On January 23, 1826, James Madison wrote to 
a friend : 

Our country, if it does justice to itself, will be the 
Officina Liliertatis (workshop of liberty) to the Civil- 
ized World, and do more than any other for the un- 
civilized. 



Challenging Questions 

"The workshop of liberty": let's explore the 
meaning of those words. Most of us think of 
America as the home of liberty; we regard our- 
selves as the defenders of liberty. Madison de- 
liberately called upon our country to be a work- 
shop of liberty. Thus, he challenged Americans 
to become artisans, continuously experimenting 
and faithfully fashioning the great idea of human 
freedom into a reality. Have we accepted that 
challenge? Are we accepting it today? 

I do know that the opportunities for our coun- 
try to be a workshop of liberty are greater today 
than ever before. The people of other countries 

" Made liefore the Forum on "Great Issues," Tulane Uni- 
versity, New Orleans, La., on Mar. 28 and released to 
the press on the same date. 



are aware that we have something to offer the 
world — not just dollars or the products of our 
farms and factories — but something infinitely more 
valuable. We can extend a helping hand to those 
who want to help themselves — something they 
can accept with confidence and self-respect and 
friendship. And they are reaching out eagerly 
to clasp that helping hand. They are looking 
to America as a workshop of liberty. 

Desire for Technical Assistance in Africa 

A few days ago, I received an envelope contain- 
ing several letters, all of them from a place I had 
never heard of before — the town of Ogbomosho in 
Nigeria, West Africa. These letters are so ex- 
pressive of the hope with which people in far-off 
places look to the United States that I want to 
I'ead you excerpts from one of them : 

We the undersigned, representing the Baptist Pastors 
of Ogbomosho, Nigeria, West Africa, seize this opportunity 
to communicate you for the first time at the inception of 
this New Tear, 1951. 

Over a century ago, the Gospel message was brought to 
Nigeria from the Southern Baptist Convention of the 
United States of America. We are grateful unto God and 
our thanlis to the Missionaries who helped in the past, 
who help now, and who will help in the future. . . . 

For the past five years, the Baptist Churches of Ogbomo- 
sho, the Missionaries, and the town-people have been con- 
templating on improving the agricultural resources of the 
town. . . . Joy filled our hearts when we learned of the 
plan of the American Government as regards the develop- 
ment scheme for certain remote parts in the world, which 
is entrusted to your care. We hereby appeal to you to 
"Come over into Macedonia (Ogbomosho) and help us." 
We shall be grateful if Ogbomosho will be included in your 
programme in developing the agricultural resources of the 
town. 

This need is felt by all the populace of Ogbomosho. 
Here is our call from Ogbomosho to America through 
Dr. H. G. Bennett as we have been privileged to obtain 
spiritual security tlirough the Gospel of Christ brought 
from America to us in Africa, we earnestly crave for help 
for economic security. 

"Economic security." To most Americans, that 
means earning enough money to live comfortably, 
and saving enough to live on in our old age. To 



April 9, ?957 



585 



millions of people in other parts of the world, eco- 
nomic security means something much more imme- 
diate and urgent. It means their daily bread — 
where the next meal is coming from. They don't 
want charity from us — they want our help in 
learning how to produce more food and other 
necessities for themselves. Whether they are going 
to receive that kind of help — enough of it and in 
time — is one of the great issues of our day. 

And these people are concerned not only with 
improving their material welfare, with getting 
enough food to eat. They also feel a spiritual and 
intellectual hunger, and they are reaching out for 
help to satisfy those wants as well. 

Visit to Soutli American Training Scliooi 

I recently returned from a short trip to 10 of 
our neighboring countries to the south, in Latin 
America. I saw and learned many things of in- 
terest and value, but one of the things I will 
remember longest is an incident that occurred in a 
little village high in the Andes. 

There, I went to see a training school conducted 
by a few American educators for teachers who 
serve the schools in that area. The surrounding 
country is 2i/^ to 3 miles above sea level and, to all 
appearances, is a cold, bleak, hostile land. Yer, 
people live there by choice and endure hardships 
in order to make their home there. They are pure- 
blooded Indians and have lived in that environ- 
ment for generations and have adjusted to it. 

Near the building in which the training center 
was held was another building, about half com- 
pleted. That was a handsome new school, which 
the people of that community were building on 
their own initiative, with their own resources, so 
that their children could enjoy opportunities for 
a better education. Each of them contributed a 
peck of potatoes, a sheep, or something else from 
their scant production, from time to time, to the 
building fund. 

While we were there, a delegation of the village 
elders called on me — the chiefs, the leaders of their 
people. They were simply dressed in the costume 
of the country, and their faces showed the patience 
and stoicism of their race. But they were any- 
thing but stolid in arguing the case for their 
school. 

One of the older chiefs, speaking through an 
interpreter, said he had begun to work for the new 
school 38 years ago and foretold then that someday 
a sti'anger would appear and offer to help the com- 
munity with the project. Now, he felt that his 
prediction was coming true. He said he would die 
happy if he could see the roof put on the new 
school. 

It was a moving occasion, and I felt that the 
least I could do wiis to res])ond that, as a repre- 
sentative of President Truman and as an elected 
chief of the Comanche tribe, I had come to offer 
the cooperation of tlie United States in their effort 
to achieve a better life. 



Further Facts on American Aid 

A few miles from that school is an experiment 
station, where local technicians under the direc- 
tion of an American agi-icultural scientist are 
carrying on research on land provided by the Gov- 
ernment. The ])rogress that has been made there 
in only 2 years convinced me that this cooperative 
project, if continued and expanded, can revolu- 
tionize farm life in this region and make life better 
for the people even in that forbidding environ- 
ment. 

These were some of the things I saw and ex- 
perienced on my trip, the purpose of which was 
to get some first-hand knowledge of the work being 
done by about 175 American technicians in those 
10 Latin American countries under President Tru- 
man's Point 4 Program. 

We call this work "technical cooperation." Let 
me give you an idea of what those words mean. 
To understand them, we must remember, first, that 
these neighbors of ours to the south have for gen- 
erations been burdened with intense poverty, with 
epidemic disease, and with lack of educational op- 
portunities. There you have people living among 
rich mineral and agricultural resources. But those 
resources are still largely untapped and unused 
for their own benefit. 

There, you have people who are hungry living 
among fields that could yield abundant food. I 
am convinced that the food supplies of Peru, 
Bolivia, and other countries I visited could be 
doubled within 5 years — with the application of 
water, improved seed, and more modern methods 
of tilling and preserving the soil, and bringing 
more land under cultivation. 

There, you have people who are intelligent, 
alert, and thirsty for education. But, because they 
don't have adequate schools and teachers, the 
majority of them cannot read or write. 

Against this background, a handful of Ameri- 
can technicians are carrying on a work of technical 
cooperation. First of all, they are helping the 
people to stamp out disease. That is a basic need. 
Clean water is the first requisite, and it takes only 
the skill of a sanitary engineer and some simple, 
inexpensive equipment to show people how to 
build a safe water system. Once that is done, j'ou 
have practically wiped out typhoid and dysentery. 

It takes the same sort of sKill and a little more 
equipment to show people how to build modern 
sewage systems. A community in Chile recently 
celebrated the completion of a sewage system, 
built with the help of a young American sanitary 
engineer. The townfolk had a ceremony. They 
raised the American flag and unveiled a tablet 
commemorating what was for them a great event. 

American technicians are demonstrating other 
kinds of health practices. They are helping to 
set up clinics among people deep in the jungle 
who have never known medical care. They are 
training nurses and niidwivos, who, in turn, are 
teaching women how to bear and raise healthy 
children. 



586 



Department of State Bulletin 



Now, second, American agricultural specialists 
are helping these neighbors of ours to grow more 
food. They are showing them the advantages of 
improved seed, contour plowing, of crop rota- 
tion, and of growing legumes to enrich their soil. 
They are helping the people to organize farm ex- 
tension services and -i-H Clubs. I had the rare 
pleasure of meeting with a group of youngsters 
and their own 4-H leader — not an American — 
but one who had profited by the knowledge of an 
American extension man. 

Having been in the business of agricultural edu- 
cation most of my life, I got the greatest thrill 
out of this work of helping people fight hunger. 
And what I saw convinced me that these neighbors 
of ours to the south can not only feed themselves 
adequately and well within a very few years — 
they can help to feed the world. 

We hear a lot these days about the importance 
of strategic materials. Well, food is the most im- 
portant of all such materials. It is the key to 
individual productivity. It provides the energy 
to work, to get ahead, and to build a better life. 

Health, food, and education: these are three of 
the keys to economic development which is the 
aim of the Point 4 Program. As I watched this 
work of technical cooperation, which is nothing 
more or less than helping people to help them- 
selves, I realized that these Point 4 projects are 
really miniature workshops of liberty. They are 
helping people to free themselves from the bond- 
age of poverty, ignorance, and disease. 

Now you may say : "These are fine words." Let 
us explore exactly what they mean and do not 
mean. American technicians do not go out to 
other countries to preach democracy. They do not 
think of themselves as salesmen of the American 
way of life. Their job is to work with people who 
are ready and eager to profit by certain kinds of 
knowledge and certain skills which they have. 
Their job is to help people do the things they want 
to do. 



where a farm family cannot by its combined labors 
expect to feed itself decently. 

It is a good thing to have individual liberty 
written into a constitution. It is a necessary thing 
to have laws which safeguard the rights of the 
individual. 

But the practice of liberty begins with hope and 
a sense of growing independence. These are 
among tlie products of the workshops I have 
described. 

The Point 4 Program is not confined to Latin 
America. Today, there are American technicians 
at work in some 30 countries whose Governments 
and people have expressed a desire to cooperate 
with the United States. In Africa, the Middle 
East, and South Asia this growing cooperation 
acts as a kind of j'east, stimulating a new growth 
of economic and social progress. 

The ferment had already begvm when Point 4 
came along. The people were ready for change. 
They were ready to break out of the vicious circle 
of poverty, disease, and ignorance. This ferment 
was a good and healthy uiing, and we welcomed 
it. It took the form of a drive for national inde- 
pendence. We understood this drive, and we have 
given it a helping hand where we could. 

It is taking the form also of a search for new 
skills, new tools, and new ideas. We understand 
this search, and we welcome it too. The Point 4 
Program comes at a psychological moment. We 
Americans have no monopoly, but we are relatively 
well equipped with skills and tools. Moreover, we 
have had some experience in experimenting with 
ideas — most important of all, with the idea of 
liberty. 

So, I believe, we have an opportunity here to 
take up the challenge that Madison offered to our 
country. What we do now may not decide the 
issue in our generation. But we can, at least, make 
certain that workshops of liberty are kept in op- 
eration for generations to come. 



The Psychological Moment for Point 4 Program 

The method of the Point 4 Program is coopera- 
tion. The subject matter of this cooperation may 
be a problem in health, food supply, education or 
mineral development, or to survey the economic 
needs of a whole country. The immediate purpose 
of this cooperation is to enable people to become 
economically self-supporting and independent of 
outside help. 

Economic self-support and independence is a 
basic and essential ingredient of liberty. The 
sense of opportunity and hope that comes with 
economic independence is another essential ingre- 
dient of liberty. 

We speak of the free world. But those words 
have little reality where people are captives of 
habitual hunger, disease, and ignorance ; where a 
child cannot expect to live beyond the age of 30; 

April 9, J 951 



Civil Defense Mutual Aid Agreement 
With Canada 

The United States and Canada exchanged notes which 
constitute a Civil Defense Mutual Aid Agreement tetween 
the two countries. Simultaneous announcement of the 
agreement was made on March 21 in Washington and 
Ottawa by Millard Caldwell, Federal Civil Defense Admin- 
istrator of the United States, and by Paul Martin, Minister 
of National Health and Welfare of Canada. 

March 27, 1951 

Sir, I have the honour to refer to the conference 
held in Ottawa on February 21, 1951, of Civil 
Defence authorities of the Governments of the 
United States of America and Canada. 

Pursuant to the unanimous recommendation of 
that conference, I am instructed by the Canadian 

587 



Government to propose that an agreement in the 
following terms be concluded between our Govern- 
ments : 

As far as possible, Civil Defence activities in the United 
States and Canada should be co-ordinated for the protec- 
tion of persons and property from the result of enemy 
attack as if there were no border. The following arrange- 
ments are made to ensure such co-ordination in matters 
of Civil Defence. 

Except as regards matters of broad government policy, 
for which the diplomatic channels would be appropriate, 
the normal channel of communication between the two 
countries with regard to civil defence matters will be 
between the Co-ordinator of Civil Defence in Canada (or 
any successor authority) and the Administrator, Federal 
Civil Defence Administration in the United States (or 
any succe.ssor authority), referred to hereafter as the 
"Federal Civil Defence Authority" or "Authorities." This 
will not prevent the use of other channels where appro- 
priate, or as may be authorized by the Federal Civil De- 
fence Authorities, but in the event of other channels of 
communication or agencies of co-operation being used, 
the Federal Civil Defence Authority in each country will 
be informed immediately. 

The Federal Civil Defence Authority in each country 
will keep the other Informed about developments under 
consideratioto and action taken regarding: 

(a) Organization, legislation and regulations (includ- 
ing federal, state and provincial) for Civil Defence. 

(b) Material, equipment, supplies and facilities (re- 
search, development, standardization and availability). 

(c) Training (schools, courses, pamphlets, methods, 
etc.). 

(d) Arrangements with state, provincial and munic- 
ipal authorities and other agencies. 

(e) Public information and education. 

The Federal Civil Defence Authority of each country 
will: 

(a) Exchange personnel at a working level. 

(b) Offer training facilities to students designated 
by the other country. 

So that all civil defence supplies, equipment and facili- 
ties (including medical, hospital, fire-fighting, police, res- 
cue, evacuation, welfare, transportation, communication 
and other similar services) may be utilized to the fullest 
extent in connection with civil defence preparations, exer- 
cises and action, appropriate legislation will be sought, 
regulations made or instructions given in connection with 
customs, immigration, integration of services and facilities 
and other matters whether under federal, state, provincial 
or municipal jurisdiction. 

State and provincial Civil Defence authorities in adja- 
cent jurisdictions will be authorized by the Federal Civil 
Defence authorities to confer together to insure co-opera- 
tion between them on civil defence. Similarly, state and 
provincial authorities will be empowered by the Federal 
Civil Defence authorities to authorize co-operation be- 
tween border municipalities to co-ordinate planning and 
provide for immediate warning and action in the event of 
attack. Such co-operation will be in accordance with the 
policy laid down in each country by tlie Federal Civil 
Defence Authority. 

The cost of civil defence assistance furnished by one 
country in connection with an attack upon the other 
country shall be reimbursed by the country attacked. The 
Federal Civil Defence Authorities will co-operate in rec- 
ommending to their respective governments a detailed 
financial agreement to give effect to this policy. 

A Joint United States/Canadian Civil Defence Commit- 
tee is liereby established. The Committee will consist of 
the Federal Civil Defence Authorities and such other 
members as may be designated by them. The Committee 
may establish, from time to time, such working groups and 
sutvcommittei's as may be necessary. This Committee 
will recommend, jointly, to their resjiective governments 

588 



such action as is considered desirable to Insure the closest 
co-operation. 

If this proposal is acceptable to your Govern- 
ment, this Note and your reply will constitute an 
agreement between our two Governments on this 
subject which shall enter into force on the date 
of your note and which may be terminated on six 
months notice by either Government. 

Accept [etc.] 

H. Hume Wrong 



March £7, 1951 
Excellency : I have the honor to refer to your 
note No. 161 of March 27, 1951 containing recom- 
mendations for civil defense cooperation whichf 
have been agreed upon by the civil defense au- 
thorities of the Government of the United States 
of America and the Government of Canada. 

The proposals contained in your note are accept- 
able to the Government of the United States of 
America, and it is agreed that your note and this 
reply thereto shall constitute an agreement be- 
tween our two Governments on this subject which 
shall enter into force on the date of this note and 
which may be terminated on six months notice by 
either Government. 
Accept [etc.] 

Dean Aciieson 



U. S.-Liberian Agreement Provides 
Amateur Radio Communications 

[Released to the press March 20] 

By means of an exchange of notes between th«^ 
American Embassy in Liberia and the Liberiarl 
Department of State, dated November 9, 1950 
and January 8, 1951, a bilateral agreement be-^ 
tween the United States and the Republic oJ| 
Liberia directly affecting licensed amateurs of th«| 
two countries has been concluded. Under th( 
terms of this agreement, amateur radio stationsi 
of the Republic of Liberia and of the Uniteci 
States may exchange international messages oi| 
other communications from or to third partie." 
provided : 

1. No compensation may be directly or indi 
rectly paid on such messages or communications 

2. Such communications shall be limited to con 
versations or messages of a technical or persona 
nature for which, by reason of their unimportuiicc 
recourse to the public telecommunications servict 
is not justified. To the extent that in the event o1 
disaster, the public telecommunications service h 
not readily available for expeditious handlinj: 
of communications relating directly to safety ot 
life or property, such comnuinications may bt i 
handled by amateur stations of the respective I 

countries. jM 

(Continued on page 592) I 

Department of State Bulletin 



ECA and Schuman Plan Advance European Recovery 



THIRD ANNIVERSARY OF ECA 



Statement hy the President 

[Released to the press bij the White House April 2] 

On this third anniversary, it gives me great 
pleasure to congratulate you who have carried out 
so well the aims of the European Recovery Pro- 
gram. 

^Vhen General Marshall first made his pro- 
posal, tlie shadow of economic collapse, with its 
attendant evils of unemployment, of hunger and 
political unrest, liung over the countries of West- 
ern Europe. The great question in 1947 was 
whether free institutions could survive. 

Today, thanks primarily to their own efforts, 
the people of Western Europe, together with our 
help, have rebuilt the economies of their countries 
and have developed a new spirit of confidence in 
themselves and in their free institutions. To my 
mind, this spirit, this rising confidence in the 
hearts of the people, is one of the greatest sources 
of strength in the free world. 

By working together, economic recovery has 
been substantially achieved. However, with the 
present threat to world peace, new tasks have been 
imposed upon us. The free nations are now com- 
bining to convert their resources into military 
strength to preserve the peace and defend our 
freedoms. 

The splendid organization which has been de- 
veloped under the Economic Cooperation Admin- 
istration can make an important contribution in 
lelping develop this strength. Accordingly, I 
ntend to recommend to the Congress that ECA 
36 maintained on a continuing basis to help carry 
)ut the programs essential to the security of the 
free world. 

There is much to be done in Europe, in Asia, 
md in other parts of the world, to help the free 
;ountries build their military, economic and spir- 
tual defenses against aggression from without and 
subversion from within. One of our essential 
objectives is to develop, in cooperation with other 
Tee nations, an expanding world economy, the 
benefits of which can be shared by us all. 



On this anniversary, I extend to all of you my 
sincere thanks for what you have done. I am 
confident that in its new tasks the ECA will con- 
tinue to make a vital contribution in helping to 
build the strength of the free world upon which 
security and freedom rest. 



Remarhs hy Secretary Acheson ^ 

One of the most inspiring developments of our 
time is the phenomenal progress made by the 
people of Europe in recovering from the ravages 
of war. 

This recovery, although it may be measured or 
described in material terms, is above all a triumph 
of the spirit. The character and determination 
of the people, the courage and vision of their 
leaders — this is what the recovery of Europe is 
built on. 

The importance of this recovery to the rest of 
the world was foreseen and stated for us by Presi- 
dent Truman and General Marshall in 1947. They 
foresaw that it was not only the well-being of the 
people of Europe which was at stake but it was 
something even more. It was also world peace 
which was hanging in the balance, for the power 
of Europe is crucial to the peace of the world. 

The Economic Cooperation Administration, 
built upon this vision, today celebrates its third 
anniversary. It is a matter of pride to the people 
of America that we have been able, through the 
Economic Cooperation Administration, to play 
a role in supporting the great achievements of 
the people of Europe. By assisting in the return 
and further growth of economic vitality in 
Europe, we have measurably advanced our com- 
mon security. 

It is fitting, on the occasion of this anniversary, 
that we should honor the distinguished Foreign 
Minister of France, Robert Schuman. Truly a 

' Made at Washington at ceremonies commemorating 
the third anniversary of the European Cooperation Ad- 
ministration on Apr. 2 and released to the press on the 
same date. 



\pt\l 9, 7951 



589 



statesman, in the fullest sense of the word, M. 
Schuman stands at the forefront of the leaders of 
Europe whose creative imagination and coura- 
freous initiative helped to spark the miracle of 
European recovery. 

As the father of the plan for the pooling of coal 
and iron production in Europe, M. Schuman has 
pointed the way toward a solution of Europe's 
most grievous and most critical problem — the 
rivalry which has existed between his country 
and Germany.^ 

More than this, the Schuman Plan, when it has 
been converted into reality by the favorable action 
of the parliaments of the six participating coun- 
tries, will help to further the process whereby the 
people of Germany may be brought more closely 
within the European community as equal partners 
with the people of other nations. 

The plan of M. Schuman carries forward the 
fundamental concept of the European Recovery 
Program — a joint effort among the nations of 
Europe toward greater freedom of trade, leading 
to higher standards of living for their people. 

For this vision, and the leadership which has 
inspired the development of this plan, the name of 
Robert Schuman deserves and receives our pro- 
found respect. 

Address hy Robert Schuman 
French Foreign Minister ' 

A happy coincidence has afforded me the honor 
of attending this celebation of the third birthday 
anniversay of EGA. and of addressing this meet- 
ing in the name of the European countries which 
are the beneficiaries of this splendid American 
initiative. 

First, as Minister of Finances, and then as 
Prime Minister, I have taken part in the negotia- 
tion, later in the signature of the agi'eements and 
arrangements which were concluded on this sub- 
ject between the United States and France. 

Before going further, I wish to render grateful 
homage to the man whose name will be forever 
associated with the policy of international solid- 
arity. Having prepared the ground for economic 
cooperation between the nations of the two con- 
tinents, he is now again the leader of a military 
cooperation for Atlantic defense. General Mar- 
shall belongs to that line of American statesmen 
who never seek to avoid their country's call, nor to 
shirk difficult international duties even though it 
would seem that their past great accomplishments 
and personal considerations would entitle them to 
decline such an accumulation of responsibilities 
and sacrifices. 

The Marshall Plan has been more than a gesture 
of human brotherhood. It has been the expression 

' For an article on the Schuman Plan, see Bulletin of 
Apr. 2, 1951, p. 523. 

"Made on Apr. 2 upon the occasion of tlio third an- 
niversary of the Economic Cooperation Administration. 

590 



of a farsighted policy. You have never wanted 
the countries of Europe to sink in misery and in 
despair. Having saved them from Hitlerism, you 
have protected them from communism. You have 
clearly understood that should Western Europe he 
lost for our civilization, a sinister threat, perhaps g 
beyond remedy, would overwhelm all of humanity. 
Whoever rules Europe rules the world. Without 
a free Europe, there is no assurance of liberty for 
any other country. 

Our destinies are obviously bound together. 
We must, in the same way, be bound together in 
our efforts and sacrifices. No country can be 
saved in spite of itself. No country can be saved 
unless it cooperates, unless it participates in the 
struggle, unless it contributes all its resources 
and energies for its own salvation. 

In order to be effective, the American aid could 
not and should not have been merely a generous 
gift of alms. It was conceived as the initial en- 
dowment of a vast plan for European recovery. 

You did not bring us merely financial help, but 
also an idea, a program of which we were to be 
not only the beneficiaries but also the artisans. 
The aim was not only to help us through a criti- 
cal period but also to provide us with protection 
from further crises, to make us strong enough to 
face and overcome them by our own means. In 
a word, your aim was to provide again to our* 
ruined and devastated continent the possibility 
of living by its own labor, in free cooperation withi 
other Nations. 

After its political liberation, Europe was thus 
able to recover the freedom of its economic initia- 
tive. Here is the deep and durable meaning oj 
the Marshall Plan. The people of Europe havf 
understood it. 

Today, we are proud to say that not only havf 
you saved us from starvation and unemployment 
by sending us bread and raw materials, but that 
you have enabled us to rebuild a Europe fully 1 
capable of supporting itself by its work and its^ 
commerce. 

Indeed, other problems have meanwhile been 
added to the earlier ones. In 1948, our task was 
to adapt our activity to the normal needs of the 
country. The urgent requirements of security and 
the rise in the prices of raw materials are upsetting 
the equilibrium that we were on the point oi 
achieving. 

Furthermore, the future of underdeveloped 
countries for which we are responsible must mort' 
and more become the object of our concern and of 
our planning, as President Truman has stressed. 

Europe is not discoiu'aged by the new effort 
which has been asked of her. The restdts already 
achieved, thanks to tlie implementation of the 
Marshall Plan, in improving our economic situa- 
tion over the last 3 years permit Europe to envisage 
her futiu-e with confidence. 

Europe feels herself regenerated not only 
cause of the effort put forth by each individui 



;age , 
bJ 



Deparfmeni of Sfafe Bulletin 



country, but because the European nations are 
organizing and uniting among themselves. This 
is ii,sain a result of the Marshall Plan. 

The European Organization for Economic Co- 
operation was created in aid of the execution of 
this plan. It groups the 18 free countries of 
Western Europe in a common endeavor of re- 
construction, modernization, and expansion. It is 
the body M'hich most represents the whole of 
European production. 

In addition to this continental organization, re- 
gional initiatives remain possible and desirable, 
provided they are in accordance with a general 
coherent plan. In this framework appears the 
imminent creation by six European countries, com- 
prising 160 million inhabitants, of a single market 
for coal and steel, luider the control of an inde- 
pendent supranational authority. The objective 
is to increase production, to produce and to sell 
at the lowest possible prices, to improve at the 
same time the general welfare, especially that of 
the workers of every category. 

In place of a divided Europe, exhausting her- 
self in isolation and sterile rivalries, we are pro- 
gressively substituting a United Europe, animated 
with a European spirit. 

In the course of two centuries, you Americans 
have forged your own unity. Our wish is that, at 
the side of a strong America, the citadel of world 
freedom, and in a close friendship with her, a 
Europe conscious of her own destiny should arise, 
a Europe determined to develop fully, and to 
share, all its material and spiritual resources, in 
a freely organized European community. 

Together, we will thus pursue the work under- 
taken 3 years ago, faithful to the spirit of those 
■who have conceived and implemented it. This will 
be the best way in which we can express our grati- 
tude, this will be for them the supreme reward. 



Remar'ks hy A. Averell Uarriman 
Special Assistant to the President 

[Released to the press Ijii Ihc White House April 2] 

It is a great satisfaction for me to be here today 
with my old colleagues of the EGA. You men and 
women and your associates abroad have contrib- 
uted so greatly to the success of the Marshall Plan. 

It is good to have with us Paul Hoffman, who 
gave us all such inspired leadership. And we are 
especially fortunate in the presence of the Foreign 
Minister of France, Robert Schuman. With his 
broad vision and human understanding, he has 
given effective leadership to the cause of European 
unity. 

The Marshall Plan will go down in history as a 
great accomplishment in cooperation among free 
nations and free men. On the material side, there 
have been outstanding achievements. But of even 
greater importance has been the development of 
! the sense that men of many nations can work to- 



getlier for common purpose — for common welfare. 
I think it is no exaggeration to say that the strong 
bonds which today unite the nations of the North 
Atlantic community, would not exist had it not 
been for the successful experience of working to- 
gether during tliese last 3 years under the Euro- 
pean Recovery Program. This unity, this sense 
of interdependence in the North Atlantic com- 
munity, is one of the greatest assets of the free 
world as a whole in its present struggle. 

You men and women can take great satisfaction 
in the part tliat you have played in these events. 



Export- Import Bank Loan to Spain 
for Temporary Wheat Purchases 

[Released to the press by the Export-Import Bank 
March 16] 

Spain has been granted a credit of up to 5 mil- 
lion dollars by the Export-Import Bank with the 
approval of the Economic Cooperation Adminis- 
trator on the basis of an authorization in title 1, 
chapter XI of the General Appropriations Act 
of 1951. 

The present credit is to permit the purchase of 
wheat and, thereby, ameliorate the temporary 
shortage of wheat prevailing in Spain prior to 
the harvests. 

Of the four credits previously established by the 
Bank, three were for the purpose of assisting Spain 
to revive her agricultural output, thus enabling 
her to be less dependent on foreign sources for 
foodstuffs by providing her with an increased sup- 
ply of fertilizers, tractors, and spare parts; the 
fourth credit was" for raw cotton to be used in 
the major industry of the coiuitry for production 
both for the domestic market and for export.^ 



Food Situation in India Critical 

[Released to the press March SO] 

The Department has received a report from the 
American Embassy at New Delhi underscoring the 
critical food situation in the densely populated 
rural areas of northern Bihar Province in north- 
eastern India. 

According to this report, Clifford C. Taylor, 
Counselor of the Embassy at New Delhi, visited 
Bihar Province during the past week on a per- 
sonal tour of the area inspecting conditions there 
and discussing the situation with Indian officials 
in the province. Taylor personally inspected ra- 

"BtTLLETiN of Mar. 5, 1951, p. 380. 



April 9, J 95 J 



591 



tion shops, stocks of foodstuflfs in Indian Govern- 
ment warehouses, crop conditions, and privately 
owned stocks. 

In tlie noi-theastern district of the province, 
Taylor found that drought had reduced the rice 
crop by 50 j^erccnt. In the Purnea area, in the 
northeast corner of the province which is most 
acutely affected by the drought, Taylor found ex- 
tremely meager stocks of recently harvested rice. 
Barley and wheat were being harvested, but 
yields — due partially to unimportant acreage — but 
chiefly due to drought conditions, ranged between 
150 to 300 pounds to the acre. Farmers and offi- 
cials of the area pointed out that no important 
crop harvest was possible before December of this 
year. Moreover, the soil was found to be too dry 
to plant corn. 

Taylor observed that although an 8-ounce ration 
had been authorized for the most needy portion of 
the population in the Purnea district, stocks avail- 
able in ration shops were insufficient to meet half 
this meager ration. Supplies on hand, Taylor 
found, consisted mainly of grain sorghums, pur- 
chased and imported from the United States, and 
wheat imported from various sources. The Amer- 
ican grain sorghums, Taylor found, were very 
popular among the local population of the area. 

The seriousness of the situation, Taylor was 
informed, lay in the fact that this heavily popu- 
lated area, stricken by drought and with inade- 
quate reserve supplies of foodstuffs available, was 
becoming increasingly dependent upon imported 
supplies. Officials emphasized that this condition, 
already serious, might become critical unless suffi- 
cient supplies could be imported to tide over the 
population until the next harvest. And it was 
pointed out that the monsoon season with its tor- 
rential rains would begin in June when roads 
would become virtually impassable. Conse- 
quently, Taylor was informed, supplies must be 
imported and distributed before the monsoon 
season sets in. 



Immediate Legislation Urged 
To Provide Grain for India 

Statement by the President 

[Released to the press hy the White House March 20] 

India has an urgent need for grain to prevent 
suffering and starvation. This I pointed out in 
my message of February twelfth to the Congress.^ 
My views have not changed. We can, at some 
sacrifice, spare the grain. We should do so — firet, 
to save human lives and, secondly, to strengthen 
freedom and democracy in an important area of 



' BuLiJmN of Feb. 26, 1951, p. .'WO. 
592 



Asia. Moreover, we should provide the first mil- 
lion tons promptly as a grant. We can then ex- 
plore in greater detail the situation with respect 
to the remaining million tons. 

India must have 6 million tons of grain in order 
to meet the famine conditions caused by severe 
drought. India has made arrangements to buy 
4 million tons through ordinary sources including 
United States suppliers. To pay for the addi- 
tional 2 million tons of grain would place too 
great a strain on the financial resources of India 
and would prevent the carrying out of its essen- 
tial development program. In addition, with the 
provision of grain to India as a grant, the Indian 
Government will deposit the local currency com- 
ing from the distribution of the grain to the Indian 
people into a special account which can be used 
for agricultural development projects in India 
agreed to by us. These projects will help alleviate 
the recurrence of such conditions as the present. 

The House Foreign Affairs Committee care- 
fully investigated this matter and. on March fifth, 
favorably reported a bill to provide the grain to 
India. This bill has bipartisan support. It re- 
flects the desire of the American people to help 
the Indian people in their present emergency. 

Prompt action is vital. The monsoon season 
occurs in India during the summer. Many roads 
are then made impassable and gi'ain shipments to 
remote areas are greatly impaired. Each day's 
delay after April first in starting shipments will 
leave a serious gap in India's food supply later 
this summer and cause great suffering. I hope, 
therefore, that the Congress will enact the neces- 
sary legislation as soon as possible after its recess. 



U.S.-Liberia — Continued from pape 588 

3. This arrangement shall apply to all the con- 
tinental and insular territory of Liberia and to 
the United States and its territories and posses- 
sions, including Alaska, the Hawaiian Islands, 
Puerto Eico, and the Virgin Islands, and to the 
Panama Canal Zone. It shall also be applicable 
to the case of amateur stations licensed by the 
United States authorities to United States citi- 
zens in other areas of the world in which the 
United States exercises licensing authority. 

4. This arrangement shall be subject to termi- 
nation by either Government on 60 days notice to 
the other Government, by further arrangement 
between the two Governments dealing with the 
same subject, or by the enactment of legislation in 
either country inconsistent therewith. 

As a matter of related interest, amateur sta- 
tions licensed by the Federal Communications 
Commission hei-etofore have been able, under and 
in accordance with the terms of the previously 
effected arrangements, to exchange international 
messages or other communications from or to 
third parties with amateur stations of Canada, 
Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. 

Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



The Provisional Frequency Board in Retrospect 



AN EFFORT TO SATISFY MODERN NEEDS FOR RADIO FREQUENCIES 



iy Mane Louise Smith 



One of the most significant postwar efforts to 
satisfy equitably modern world needs for radio 
frequencies was that of the Provisional Frequency 
Board (Pfb). Little known outside technical 
circles, the activities of this Board constituted one 
of the quietest yet most important chapters in the 
continuing effort to finalize a new world-wide 
radio frequency list covei'ing that portion of the 
spectrum which has been opened for use to date. 
Although the Board did not fully achieve its 
objective of preparing a di"aft list, for reasons 
beyond the control of any international body in 
the present restive world, the concept embodied 
in its formation has special significance to inter- 
national relations in the telecommunication field. 
It represented a new approach to the baffling task 
of finding some means for a fair sharing by all 
countries of available radio frequencies — an item 
in scarce supply. Under this approach, nations 
would obligate themselves to the predetermined 
usage of every frequency in the radio spectrum. 

The Board's technical task was unprecedented, 
in view of the almost unbelievable advancement in 
the science of electronics during the last decade 
with resulting increased uses and corresponding 
claimants for space in the radio spectrum. These 
increased demand for frequencies could not be met 
under the outmoded system ^ for registration of 
frequency usage provided for at the Cairo Radio 



' Undt^r this system, rountrifs notifiecl the Bern Bureau 
of the Itu of frequency assignments to stations, relying 
upon a rather ill-tlefined priority system as the determin- 
ing factor in cases where more than one national adminis- 
tration claimed the same frequency. Also, there was no 
machinery to determine in advance whether a-ssifoiments 
registered were likely to create international interference. 



Conference in 1938. The limited achievements of 
the Pfb have been under study by member coun- 
tries of the International Telecommunication 
Union (Itu) during the last 9 months, and its 
findings and conclusions will largely determine 
the next step toward the finalization of a new 
international radio frequency list — for which a 
1951 tentative target date has been set. 

Background 

At the initiative of the United States, the Pfb 
was created by the Atlantic City Radio Conference 
in 1947 to continue the work commenced by one 
of the Conference committees." Comprised of the 
technical experts of the radio world, the Pfb 
was assigned the task of reengineering operating 
radio frequency assignments throughout the world 
to conform with the new table of allocations 
adopted at Atlantic City, thereby conserving spec- 
trum space and eliminating interference. The 
Atlantic City table allotted blocks of frequencies 
to each type of radio communication, including 
fixed services, aeronautical and maritime services, 
and amateur, standard band and high frequency 

^ Committee 6 of the International Radio Conference of 
Atlantic City in 1947 undertook to prepare plans based 
on engineering principles for use as a guide in making 
frequency assignments to the radio stations of the various 
services and, based upon these plans, to compile for the 
approval of the Conference the first edition of the Official 
International Frequency List. The List would cover fre- 
quencies up to .30,000 kc. Because of the delay in obtain- 
ing an accurate indication of each country's circuit and 
frequency requirements and the time required to complete 
necessary technical studies concerning the engineering 
phases of the project, it was necessary to establish a 
special Board to carry on the undertaking. 



Aprii 9, J 95 J 



593 



broadcasting. Tlie Pfb was to transfer existing 
and projected radio services of all countries to the 
bands of frequencies allotted for each service by 
the new table. In so doing, the Pfb was to try 
to make adequate provision for future develop- 
ment of new radio services and expansion of exist- 
ing services so that all countries might improve 
and increase their radio communications to the 
fullest extent practicable. Communication serv- 
ices interrupted by World War II were to be 
treated on the same basis as existing services. 
Special consideration was to be given to the needs 
of countries where natural development had been 
impeded, especially as a result of the war. 

The Pfb was to deal specifically with the assign- 
ment of frequencies to fixed, tropical broadcasting 
and land stations within the frequency band in- 
cluded between 10 kilocycles and 30 megacycles. 
Starting with requirements submitted by the vari- 
ous national administrations at Atlantic City, the 
Pfb had authority to request from any country 
additional information regarding the operation 
of any circuit, if deemed necessary in furtherance 
of its work. 

In cases which could not be resolved satisfac- 
torily on a sound engineering basis, the Pfb was to 
give consideration to the dates of notification to 
the Bern Bureau as well as to the priority of estab- 
lishment of the circuits under consideration. Any 
such frequency assignment, which the Pfb was 
unable to settle satisfactorily, was to be dealt with 
by the extraordinary conference. 

In order to relieve the Pfb of some of the work 
involved in this prodigious undertaking, the At- 
lantic City Conference assigned certain frequency 
bands to be dealt with by special conferences con- 
cerned with sta,ndard band broadcasting, high 
frequency broadcasting and tlie aeronautical serv- 
ices, and by Itu regional conferences to deal with 
the geographic apportionment of frequencies. 
Any assignment bands prepared by the service 
and regional conferences were to be turned over 
to the Pfb as a package for incorporation into the 
draft of the new international frequency list. 
Once a complete draft list was prepared, it would 
then be submitted to an extraordinary administra- 
tive radio conference, to be convened by the Ittj 
for the purpose of approving the new list and 
establishing appropriate machineiy for its imple- 
mentation. The Pfb was scheduled for dissolu- 
tion upon the dat« the new list was accepted. 

The Pfb convened on January 15, 1948. 
Originally scheduled to complete a draft list by 
November 15, 1948, the deadline was extended 
twice, and, after 25 months of continuous work, 
the Board ceased operations on February 28, 1950. 
Although the task was not entirely completed, the 
Pfb compiled frequency lists for certain bands.^ 
In other bands, wliere the requirements were so 
excessive as not to fit within the allotted space, the 
Pfb prepared for transmission to the extraordi- 

594 



nary radio conference a tabulation of channels and 
accompanying sharing plans. 

Obstacles 

From the outset, Pfb was beset by serious dif- 
ficulties in carrying out the Atlantic Cit}' direc- 
tives. As in the case of the Copenhagen, Mexico 
City, and other international conferences dealing 
with radio frequency matters, political considera- 
tions were interjected into an essentially technical 
undertaking; east-west differences arose to compli- 
cate relations among the delegations; unrealistic 
and padded requirements were submitted by par- 
ticipants; and there was no willingness to make 
the concessions necessary to reach agreement. 
Some of the countries whose services luad been 
impeded during the occupation and others where 
radio development was in its infancy seized upon 
the directives, which were designed to protect 
legitimate services and used them to submit in- 
flated requirements based upon national prestige 
interests and the pipe dreams of their technical 
administrations. Delegates lacked authority to 
reduce national statements of frequency require- 
ments and could not agree upon principles for 
their consolidation. Disgruntled and wearied by 
months of futile debate, delegates, at times, lost 
patience with efforts to reconcile stated require- 
ments within the confines of the allotted bands of 
the spectrum, and, on several occasions, moves 
were initiated by dissident groups to call for dis- 
solution of the Pfb. 

Wliile the Pfb was working on the new list, the 
Itu continued to register frequency assignments 
in conformity with the Cairo radio regulations. 
Parallel notices of these registrations were sent 
to the Pi'TJ. The extraordinary conference will 
have to determine the procedure for incorporating 
into the international list new assignments, which 
were activated during the period between the clos- 
ing date for submission of counti-y requirements 
and the convening of the extraordinary conference. 

The work of the Board was seriously handi- 
capi>ed by refusal of the Soviet Union to submit a 
statement of radio circuit requirements since the 
U.S.S.R. is a large user of the spectrum. In view 
of the absence of any Soviet report of require- 
ments, the Pfb considered no frequencies for the 
U.S.S.R. except those required to complete exist- 
ing international circuits with other countries ter- 



' World frequency lists suitable for study by the estra- 
onliiuuy conference were developed only for the portion 
of the .spectrum lyinR between 9 and 27..") Mc/s. Although ( 
a list was develoix-d fur the portion near 5 Mc/s, the value 
of this list is larsely nullified since no results were ob- 
tained in the resions immediately above and below. The 
I'Fii did not get around to preparing recommendations on 
the procedure to be followed in order to give effect to the 
new list nor the manner in which additional requirements 
submitted by administrations after the closing date of 
February 25, 1948, should be incorporated into the list. 

Department of State Bulletin 



minating in the U.S.S.R. and tliose which the 
Board had reason to believe were in operation do- 
mestically. The Soviet delegation walked out of 
tlie Pfb in October 1949 after protracted debate 
m every issue raised. Their formal break fol- 
lowed a decision by the Board to proceed with its 
frequency engineering task under the interna- 
ional radio regulations adopted at Atlantic City 
II 1947. Even though the U.S.S.R. participated 
n the adoption of these regulations, at Geneva 
hey advocated instead that the old priority sys- 
jem of operating assignment be retained, using 
;he 1939 Bern list wherein they have an excessive 
lumber of frequency registrations. 

The United Kingdom maintained a large and 
7ery active delegation at the Pfb from the begin- 
ling until about June 15, 1949, at which time the 
Jnited Kingdom delegation was temporarily with- 
Irawn. This action came during the most trying 
period of the Board's work. At this point, con- 
dderable sentiment developed that the final com- 
)ilation of an acceptable list was an impossible 
ask. There was substantial support for a pro- 
)osal calling for gradual shifting of all services 
ow operating outside the allotted bands to in-band 
"requencies, using the lists prepared as a guide 
vherever possible and notifying the Ittj. The Itu 
vould then study each shifted operation case by 
ase and accord registration status if it detennined 
hat no harmful interference would result. This 
ivolutionary procedure would take from 5 to 20 
?ears for completion. 

The United States, which was the leading advo- 
:ate for the Pfb concept of obtaining advance 
nternational agreement on frequency lists for all 
adio services, led the resistance to this line of 
hinking. After lengthy discussion, the Board 
lecided to continue work toward its objective of a 
[raft frequency list and to inform the Itu Admin- 
strative Council that, in those portions of the 
pectrum where the requirements exceed the al- 
otted space by a substantial amount, the Board 
ould not complete frequency assignment plans 
»ecause the reduction of requirements to the neces- 
ary amount was beyond its scope. 

cientific Value 

The work of the Pfb has made a substantial 
ontribution to the world's technical literature. 
TNot only will its studies contribute materially to 
he enlightenment of students in the field of radio 
ommunication but, until further contributions 
re made to man's technical knowledge, the reports 
'f the Pfb will also be used extensively by all na- 
ional administrations in the study of their com- 
aunication problems. The reports, partial plans, 
nd completed plans of the Pfb, which indicate the 
requency bands and areas of the world in which 
ongestion is most pronounced, have laid the 
■roundwork for future attempts to produce an 
intirely new list. Its experiences point up the 

\pril 9, 795? 



H 



difficulties which must be overcome before a new 
international frequency list can be evolved. 

The Pfb succeeded in concluding lists only in 
those instances in which there was less pretext for 
political manifestations. Where plans have not 
been finalized it has been duo in good part to the 
selfish national interests of participating coun- 
tries. It is unfortunate that these elements figure 
so prominently in an undertaking that has an 
immediate bearing upon the safety, welfare, and 
cultural benefits of man. The Pfb has left an in- 
delible impression — the recognition that a scien- 
tific approach is essential to achieve orderliness in 
the spectrum. Among those who are close to the 
problem, a grim realization exists that without 
such orderliness the only alternative is chaos in 
the radio spectrum. 

• Marie Louise Smithy author of the foregoing 
article, is Policy Reports officer, T elecomvvwrdca- 
tions Policy Staff, Department of State. 



United States Delegations 
to International Conferences 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries 

The Department of State announced on March 
29 that the first meeting of the International Com- 
mission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries will 
convene at Washington on April 2. The United 
States Government will be represented at the 
meeting by the following delegation: 

Commissioners 

Hilary J. Deason, Chief, Office of Foreign Activities, Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior 

Bernhard Knollenberg, Chester, Conn. 

Francis W. Sargent, Director, Division of Marine Fisher- 
ies, Department of Conservation, Commonwealth of 
Ma.ssachusetts, Boston 

Advisers 

Edwin H. Dahlgren, Chief, Section of Marine Fisheries, 
Branch of Fishery Biology, Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Department of the Interior 

Fred H. Taylor, Foreign Affairs Specialist, Fisheries and 
Wikllife, Department of State 

Mary B. Trenary, Division of International Administra- 
tion, Department of State 

Richard T. Whiteletter, Assistant Chief, Branch of Com- 
mercial Fisheries, Fish and Wildlife Service, Depart- 
ment of the Interior 

Adviser and Secretary 

Edward Castleman, Chief, Section of International Agree- 
ments Office of Foreign Activities, Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Department of the Interior 

The northwest Atlantic fisheries are the oldest 
in the AVestem Hemisphere, having been harvested 
for more than 300 years. They have, during that 
whole time, been especially important in the econ- 

595 



omy of New England and, recently, have shown 
increasing evidences of depletion, with especially 
acute declines in the banks off the New England 
shores. 

Recognition of the existing and potential de- 
pletion of fish, not only in the western Atlantic 
but also on the European side, prompted the con- 
vening of three conferences, held at London in 
1937, 1943, and 1946, to seek remedies for the 
problem. None of the agreements concluded at 
those conferences has as yet entered into force. 

The United States Government, which had 
taken the position that the northwest Atlantic 
should for conservation purposes be considered 
as separate from the northeast Atlantic, did not 
participate in the 1937 conference and was repre- 
sented simply by obsen^er delegations at the 1943 
and 1946 conferences. On its own initiative, the 
Senate of the United States voted $25,000 for the 
fiscal years 1948 and 1949 for the study by the 
Department of State of the desirability of a new 
fisheries convention. As a result of this study, a 
conference was held at Washington in Januaj"y 
1949 of those nations having an interest in the 
northwest Atlantic fisheri&s. That conference re- 
sulted in the opening for signature on February 
8, 1949, of the International Convention for the 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries and in the adoption 
of a final act wherein the United States Govern- 
ment was charged with the duty of convening, as 
soon as possible after the entry into force of the 
convention, of the first meeting of the International 
Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries. 

The Commission, in accordance with the terms 
of the convention, will provide the machinery for 
international cooperation in the scientific investi- 
gation and development of the fishery resources of 
the waters off the west coast of Greenland and the 
east coasts of Canada and New England. While 
the Commission is given no direct regulatory 
powers, it may make recommendations to the re- 
spective Governments regarding regulatory 
measures which it considers necessary for main- 
taining the stocks of fish which support the inter- 
national fisheries in the convention area. Upon 
a]iproval by the Governments directly concerned, 
regulations will become applicable to all member 
countries. 

The convention entered into force on July 3, 
1950, after the deposit of instruments of ratifica- 
tion by four signatory Governments (Canada, Ice- 
land, U. K., and the U. S.) . It entered in force on 
December 14, 1950, with respect to Denmark, on 
the date of deposit of its instrument of ratifica- 
tion. It has not yet entered into force with respect 
to tlic following other signatory countries : France, 
Italy, Norway, Portugal, and "Spain. 

Invitations have been extended, accordingly, by 
the United States Government to the parties to 
the convention and also to those countries which 
have signed but not yet ratified the convention to 
particij^ate in the first meeting of the International 
Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries. 

596 



Invitations have also been extended to the Food 
and Agriculture Organization of the United Na- 
tions and the International Council for the Ex- 
ploration of the Sea. 

The first meeting is expected to be primarily 
organizational in nature. Rules of procedure for 
the Commission will be adopted. Officers of the 
Commission will be elected. A headquarters site 
and an executive secretary for the Commission 
will be selected. A Panel will be organized foi 
each of the five subareas defined in the convention 
in order to keep under review the fisheries of that 
subarea and all scientific and other informatior 
relating thereto. In addition, since many fisher\ 
research biologists will be in attendance, it is pos 
sible that one or more infoi-mal technical seminar- 
will be scheduled apart from the formal session 
of the Commission in order to discuss such genera 
topics as "What scientific knowledge is lacking ii 
the fisheries of the Northwest Atlantic and ho? 
should such knowledge be acquired?" 



U.S. Contribution to U.N. Relief 
Works Agency for Palestine 

[Released to the press by the U.S. Mission to the I7J1 
March 20] 

Ambassador Ernest A. Gross, acting representa 
tive of the United States to the United Nations 
today announced the contribution to the Unitei 
Nations of a check for $5,250,000 representing 
further contribution to the United Nations Relii 
Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the N 
East. The contribution brings the total of Unit( 
States contributions to $24,450,000, out of $27 
450,000 pledged for the fiscal year ending Jun 
30, 1951. 

The contribution is separate and distinct frocj 
funds being sought for relief and integration o 
Palestine refugees in the Near East in negotiation! 
conducted by a special committee of the Genera 
Assembly. 



Communiques Regarding Korea 
to the Security Council 



General Douglas MacArthur, Commander ii 
Chief of United Nations command, has transmit 
ted communiques regarding Korea to the Sec: 
tary-General of the United Nations under tb 
following United Nations document numbers 

S/2010, February 14; S/2011, Fobruai-y I 
S/2014, February 16; S/2019, February 2. 
S/2020, Februai-V 21; S/2022, February " 
S/2023, Fehruar'v 27; S/2024, February 
S/2035, Marcli 13; 8/2036, March 13. 



■ 



1 



Department of Stale BuUelii 



The United States in tlie United Nations 



[March 23-Aprll 5, 1951] 



ieneral Assembly 

Committee of Twelve. — This Committee, which 
*as set up by the General Assembly to consider 
he advisability of merging the Atomic Energy 
I'onimission and the Commission for Conventional 
irmaments, held its third meeting on March 28. 
it the outset of the meeting, the chairman, Djura 
y'iiicic (Yugoslavia) paid tribute to the late R. G. 
liddell (Canada) who had been serving as 
■I'lnianent rapixirteur of the Committee. Dr. 
. .M. A. H. Luns (Netherlands) was unanimously 
U'.ted to replace Mr. Riddell. 

The United States representative, Frank C. 
,'ash, citing President Truman's statement on 
'iiited Nations Day, as evidence of United States 
illingness to persist in the effort to solve the 
roblem of armaments, stated that the United 
tates intended to submit proposals on coordina- 
on of the two Commissions in line with the Presi- 
ent"s views. These proposals would deal with 
le status, membership, terms of reference, and 
le program of work of such a new committee or 
ommission. He suggested that the Secretariat 
repare a summary of the experience of the League 
f Nations in the field of disarmament. However, 
ie Committee agreed to defer a decision on this 
iixgestion until the next meeting, which will be 
illed following the distribution of the United 
tates working paper. 

Collective Measures Commiftee. — The 14-mem- 
er Committee held its third meeting on March 30. 
.fter general debate, the chairman, Mr. Muniz 
Brazil) appointed a temporary 5-member sub- 
iimnittee (Brazil, France, U.K., U.S., and Yugo- 
avia) to draw up a concrete plan to submit to 
le full Committee within 10 days. It was also 
istructed to draft recommendations on the ques- 
on of addressing a communication to United Na- 
ons members to indicate what consideration they 
ave given toward implementing the collective 
•curity provisions under section C of the uniting- 
)r-peace resolution. These provisions recom- 
end : ( 1 ) That member nations survey their re- 
)urces to determine the nature and scope of aid 
ley can give the United Nations in maintaining 
bace and security ; (2) that member nations main- 
un special armed units for United Nations 
rvice. 



:onomic and Social Council 

[Transport and C om.munications Coynmisftion. — 
he Commission concluded its fifth session, March 
\ after adopting (10-0-3) its final report to the 



Economic and Social Council (Ecosoc). This re- 
port contains a summary of the discussion on the 
various agenda items covering international travel, 
road transport, and shipping matters; a review 
of the Commission's past activities and accom- 
plishments, and problems which are expected to 
continue in the future; and the following 11 reso- 
lutions: (1) Driver Licensing — Recommends to 
the Council that a small committee of experts be 
set up to advise the Commission whether the es- 
tablishment of uniform minimum proficiency re- 
quirements for the licensing of motor vehicle 
drivers is desirable and to what extent it is pos- 
sible. (2) Pollution of Sea Water — Recommends 
that the Governments possessing the necessary 
teclmical facilities be invited to undertake scien- 
tific studies on the subject and to communicate 
the results to the Secretary-General for appropri- 
ate handling^ (3) Discrimination in Transport 
Insurance — -Requests the Secretary-General to 
conduct a survey on the extent to which such 
restrictions are being applied and recommends 
that the Council ask the Governments to adopt 
"in so far as possible" a policy of nondiscrimina- 
tion. (4) Unification of Maritime Tonnage Meas- 
urement — Recommends that this should be among 
tlie first problems to be considered by the Inter- 
governmental Maritime Consultative Organiza- 
tion (Imco) when it has started to function. (5) 
Imco Convention — Notes "with satisfaction" that 
an inquiry would be made by the Secretary-Gen- 
eral among the Governments which had not so far 
ratified the Convention. (6) Transport Statis- 
tics — Recommends that a statistical series on ton- 
nage of goods loaded and net ton-kilometers per- 
formed by road motor vehicle transport be added 
to the existing statistical series. (7) Road acci- 
dent statistics — Requests the Secretary-General to 
coordinate the work done on road accident statis- 
tics by various United Nations bodies. (8) Cus- 
toms formalities for international road transport 
and touring — Recommends that the Secretary- 
General circulate to the Governments invited to 
the United Nations Conference on Road and Motor 
Transport held in Geneva in 1949 the draft Inter- 
national Customs Convention on Touring and re- 
quest them to submit their views at the Commis- 
sion's next session on the desirability of consid- 
ering the conclusion, on a world-wide basis, of 
two conventions relating to customs formalities. 
(9) Transport of Dangerous Goods — Requests 
the Secretary-General to consult with all the 
organizations, both national and international, 
which are concerned with the subject to examine 
the various aspects of the problem such as classi- 
fication, labeling, and packaging, with a view to 
making specific suggestions as to uniform regu- 



pt\\ 9, J 95? 



597 



lations in this matter covering the whole field of 
transport. (10) Coordination of Inland Trans- 
port — Requests the Secretary-General to make 
available to all regional bodies of the United Na- 
tions the results of the various studies made on 
this problem. (11) Passports and Frontier For- 
malities — Notes the report prepared by the Secre- 
tary-General and requests that he continue to 
follow the progress made in this field. In addition, 
that any general inquiry to the Governments on 
these matters should be postponed until after the 
Commission's sixth session. 

Ad Hoc Gomviittee on Slavery. — The special 
committee on slavery set up by the General Assem- 
bly in 1949, at the request of the Economic and 
Social Council, opened its second 4-week session 
on April 2. The four membei-s on the Committee 
are Prof. Moises Poblete Troncoso (Chile), chair- 
man; Senator Jane Vialle (France), Charles 
W. W. Greenidge (U.K.), and Bruno Lasker 
(U.S.). The following agenda was adopted: (1) 
Study and definition of slavery and other institu- 
tions or customs resembling slavery ; evaluation of 
the nature and extent of these problems at the 
present time; (2) suggestions as to methods of 
attacking and resolving these problems; (3) adop- 
tion of the Committee's report to be submitted for 
consideration of the Council at its thirteenth 
session. 

The Committee sent out a questionnaire on slav- 
ery to 83 nations and has received replies from 49 
countries, 33 of which are members of the United 
Nations. In addition, the Committee will have at 
its disposal extensive information supplied by non- 
governmental organizations and private individ- 
uals. The remainder of the session will be closed. 

Security Council 

At the meeting on March 30, the Security Coun- 
cil adopted, by a vote of 8-0-3 (India, U.S.S.R., 
Yugoslavia), the revised United Kingdom-United 
States resolution on Kashmir submitted on March 
21. Sir Benegal N. Rau (India) stated his Gov- 
ernment had no objection to a new United Nations 
representative visiting India and Pakistan "to 
make a fresh attempt to assist, by suggestion, 
advice and mediation, in determining how the 
proposals regarding demilitarization under the 
resolutions of 13 August 1948 and 5 January 1949 
should be implemented, with due regard to the 
assurances given to my Government in connection 
therewith." However, his Government could not 
accept the resolution as a whole. He particularly 
objected (a) to the Preamble statement that the 
projected Kashmir Constituent Assembly in the 
Indian-controlled area of the state, and any action 
by this Assembly to pass upon the question of 
Kashmir's affiliation wotild be in conflict with the 
parties' commitments; (b) to the arbitration para- 
gra[)li of tlie revised resolution, claiming it was a 
violation of the resolution of August 1948. 

Statements strongly favoring the resolution 

598 



were made by the representatives of Brazil, Tur- 
key, the Netherlands, Ecuador, France, and China, 
all of whom supported the concept of arbitration 
as a logical step in order to settle unresolved issues i 
between the parties. 

Ambassador Ernest A. Gross stated that the 
August 1948 and January 1949 resolutions pro- 
vided a framework, not a complete plan, for ac- 
complishing demilitarization and a plebiscite. 
The parties still had to develop and consider with 
the United Nations representative the details in 
order to honor their commitment to settle the issue 
of Kashmir's accession to India or Pakistan by a i 
fair and impartial plebiscite under United Nations ) 
auspices. "If the parties do not agree upon these t 
details in filling out the framework established I 
by the two United Nations Commission resolu- \ 
tions," Mr. Gross said, "it will be because the 
parties give differing interpretations. In such a 
case, there must be some way of resolving the 
dilemma, and we have suggested arbitration as that 
way." The commitment of the parties and the 
legitimate interest of the Security Council in see- 
ing this dispute settled did not stop with the two 
Uncip resolutions, Mr. Gross declared. "They are 
not the end of the road." A procedure had to be 
found to enable "the parties to carry out their 
basic and ultimate commitment ... to create the 
conditions whereby the people of Kashmir cai 
vote without fear of intimidation upon the ques- 
tion of accession. If resort to arbitration of am 
matters which stand in the way of this result i; i 
objected to, how can the dangerous deadlock b» 
broken?" The resolution, he said, had been of- 
fered in the "sincere belief that the Security Coun- 
cil must aid the parties to advance toward a solu- 
tion of the dispute, by providing reasonable meai 
through which issues, which the parties cannot 
themselves resolve, may be brought to a speed] 
and mutually acceptable solution." 

Sir Gladwyn Jebb (U.K.) explained that hia 
Government's approach was to concentrate on tht 
principle that the future accession of the statt 
of Jammu and Kashmir should be settled by a 
United Nations plebiscite, held under condition? 
enabling a vote free from improper influence. He 
doubted that it would be fruitful for the Council 
to consider tlie Indian claim that legal accessioi 
had already taken place, since both parties haii 
agreed to settle the accession question by a plebis- 
cite. He urged that arbitration provides the onl\ 
suitable means of determining points of disagree 
ment between the parties. J 

Following the adoption of the resolution, Sirl 
Moliammed Zafrulla Khan (Pakistan) advised 
that he had been instructed to accept the resolu- 
tion on behalf of his Government and to voice it- 
determination to afford the fullest cooperation to,, 
the United Nations representative and, if diffeHI 
ences arose, to the arbitration formula. 

Ambassador Daniel J. von Balluseck (Nether 
lands) continues as President of the Council dur- 
ing the month of April. 

Department of Slate Bulletin 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Irregularities at Hong Kong Post — 
Four Foreign Service Dismissials 

[Released to the press March 27J 

Over a year ago, the Department of State re- 
ceived reports of irregularities in connection witli 
the issuance of visas and citizen certificates at 
Honp Kong. 

The then Deputy Under Secretary, Jolin Peuri- 
foy, sent inspectors to Hong Kong to look into the 
matter. Despite careful investigation, no evi- 
dences of irregularities were turned up. However, 
the post was kept under constant scrutiny by the 
Security Division and the Foreign Inspection 
Corps. Later, last summer, a second report came 
in to the Department from Consul General James 
K. Wilkinson, indicating that he felt that there 
were irregularities taking place and involving the 
office of Vice Consul John Wayne Williams but 
' that he had not been able to develop evidence to 
! substantiate his suspicions. The Consul General 
asked for help from the Department. 

Deputy Under Secretary, Carl Humelsine, 
deputized Julian F. Harrington, a veteran 
Foreign Service officer, who has had wide experi- 
ence in consular work, and sent him to Hong Kong 
to stay until the case was resolved one way or the 
other. As a result of Mr. Harrington's inspec- 
tion, an admission of bribery was obtained from 
John Wayne Williams in that he had accepted 
money in the form of gifts or presents from per- 
sons outside the consulate to expedite visas to 
Chinese to visit the United States or transit the 
United States enroute to some other country. Mr. 
Harrington obtained a full confession from Mr. 
Williams, including the fact that he had accepted 
bribes and that the presents he had accepted totaled 
in the neighborhood of $10,000. 

In the course of Mr. Harrington's investigation, 
it developed that there were homosexual aspects to 
this case. In addition to Mr. Williams, three 
other homosexual cases were uncovered in Hong 
Kong. None of these three persons were found to 
be involved in the visa irregularities. After the 
Department secured their confessions, they were 
discharged. 

Mr. Williams was immediately suspended in 
Hong Kong and ordered back to the Department. 
Upon his arrival in Washington, November 24, 
1950, he was met by agents of the Security Divi- 
sion of the Department of State and interrogated 
by them for several days. A fuller confession was 
obtained from him, after which his services as a 
Foreign Service officer was terminated December 
1, 1950. 



On November 28, 1950, Deputy Under Secretary 
Humelsine turned this matter over to the Depart- 
ment of Justice for action and possible prosecu- 
tion. The matter is under the jurisdiction of that 
Department and is being actively pursued. 

In addition, the details were reported by Mr. 
Humelsine to the Chairmen of the Senate and 
House Subcommittees on Appropriations, Sena- 
tor Pat McCarran and Representative John J. 
Eooney. Full details of the matter have been 
made a matter of record with the Subcommittee 
of the House Appropriations Committee during 
the recent hearings under the chairmanship of 
Representative John J. Rooney. 



United Nations Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography^ 

General Assembly 

Freedom of Information : Report of the Third Committee. 
A/1630, December 6, 1950. 12 pp. mimeo. 

Information From Non-Self-Governing Territories. Re- 
port of the Fourth Committee. A/163S, December 8, 
lO.'JO. 15 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the International Law Commission on the Work 
of Its Second Session. Report of the Sixth Committee. 
A/1639, December 8, 1950. 22 pp. mimeo. 

Question of South West Africa : Advisory Opinion of the 
International Court of Justice. Report of the Fourth 
Committee. A/1648. December 8, 1950. 23 pp. mimeo. 

Palestine: (c) Repatriation of Palestine Refugees and 
Payment of Compensation Due to Them ; Implementa- 
tion of General Assembly Resolutions Regarding This 
Question — (d) Report of the United Nations Concili- 
ation Commission for Palestine. Report of the Ad Hoc 
Political Committee. A/1646, December 9, 1950. 7 
pp. mimeo. 

Letter Dated 11 December 1950 Addressed to the Secretary- 
General by the Permanent Representative of Poland 
to the United Nations. A/1660, December 11, 1950. 
pp. mimeo. 

Scale of Assessments for the Apportionment of the Ex- 
penses of the United Nations : Report of the Com- 
mittee on Contributions. Report of the Fifth Com- 
mittee. A/1669, December 12, 1950. 9 pp. mimeo. 

Supplementary Estimates for the Financial Year 1950. 
Report of the Fifth Committee. A/1677, December 12, 
1950. 7 pp. mimeo. 

Refugees and Stateless Persons: Report of the Third 
Committee. A/1682, December 12, 1950. 17 pp. 
mimeo. 



I 



April 9, J 95 1 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

The United Nations Secretariat has established an Offl- 
cial Records series for the General Assembly, the Security 
Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship 
Council, and the Atomic Energy Commission; which in- 
cludes summaries of proceedings, resolutions, and reports 
of the various commisions and committees. Publications 
in the Official Records series will not be listed in this 
department as heretofore, but information on securing 
subscriptions to the series may be obtained from the In- 
ternational Documents Service. 

599 



April 9, 1951 



Index 



Vol. XXIV, No. 614 



Africa 

LIBERIA : Radio Communications Agreement . . 588 
Workshops of Liberty (Bennett. New Or- 
leans) 685 

Agriculture 

INDIA: Food Situation Critical 591 

KOREA : Communist "Land Reform" Program . 582 

Workshops of Liberty (Bennett, New Orleans) . 585 

Aid to Foreign Countries 

EUROPE: 

ECA and Schuman Plan Advance Recovery — 
Third ECA Anniversary: 

Address (Schuman) 590 

Remarks (Harrlman) 591 

Statements (Acheson, Truman) 589 

INDIA: 

Food Situation Critical 591 

Legislation Urged for Grain (Truman) . . 592 

SPAIN: Export-Import Bank Loan for Wheat . . 591 

American Republics 

4th Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs of American States: 

Agenda 568 

Cooperation In World Struggle for Freedom 

(Truman) 566 

Draft Resolutions 573 

Freedom — Key to Hemisphere Solidarity and 

World Peace (Acheson) 569 

U.S. Delegation 574 

Pan American Day (Pres. Proc. 2920) .... 572 
URUGUAY: Ambassador to U.S., credentials . . 575 
Workshops of Liberty (Bennett, New Orleans) . 585 

Asia 

CHINA: Foreign Service Dismissals at Hong 

Kong 599 

INDIA: 

Pood Situation Critical 591 

Legislation Urged for Grain (Truman) . . . 592 
JAPAN: 
Claims-Filing Procedure vs Closed Institu- 
tions 580 

Essentials of Peace Treaty (Dulles) .... 576 
Peace Treaty Discussed With U.S. Officials . . 584 
KOREA: 

Communiques to Security Council 596 

Communist "Land Reform" Program . . . 582 
PALESTINE: U.S. Contribution to U.N. Relief 

Works Agency 596 

Canada 

Civil Defense Mutual Aid Agreement. Exchange 

of Notes. (Acheson, Hume) 587 

Claims and Property 

JAPAN: 
Claims-Piling Procedure vs Closed Institu- 
tions 580 

Essentials of Peace Treaty (Dulles) . . . .577,578 

Communism 

American Republics: Foreign Ministers Meet. 

See American Republics 
KOREA : Communist "Land Reform" Program . 582 

Congress 

FRANCE: President Aurlol Addresses Congress . 563 
INDIA: Legislation Urged for Grain (Truman) . 592 

Europe 

ECA and Schuman Plan Advance Recovery — 3d 
ECA Anniversary: 

Address (Schuman) 590 

Remarks (Harrlman) 591 

Statements (Acheson, Truman) 589 

FRANCE: President Aurlol Addresses Congress . 563 

IRELAND: Foreign Minister Visits U.S 575 

Provisional Frequency Board (Smith) .... 593 

SPAIN: Export-Import Bank Loan for Wheat . . 591 
U.S.S.R. : Japan Peace Treaty, Noncooperatlon 

(Dulles) 576 

Finance 

INDIA: Legislation Urged for Grain (Truman) . 592 
JAPAN: Claims-Piling Procedure vs Closed In- 
stitutions 580 

SPAIN: Export-Import Bank Loan for Wheat . . 591 



Fisheries 

International Commission for the Northwest 

Atlantic Fisheries, First Meeting 595 

JAPAN: Essentials of Peace Treaty (Dulles) . . 579 

Foreign Service 

Dismissals : Officers at Hong Kong 599 

International Meetings 

Provisional Frequency Board (Smith) .... 693 

U.S. Delegations: 

Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs 

of American States, 4th Meeting 574 

International Commission for Northwest At- 
lantic Fisheries First Meeting 595 

^"Mutual Aid and Defense 

American Republics: Foreign Ministers Meet. 
See American Republics 

Civil Defense Mutual Aid Agreement with 
Canada. Exchange of Notes. (Acheson, 
Hume) 587 

FRANCE: President Aurlol Addresses Congress . 563 

JAPAN: Essentials of Peace Treaty (Dulles) . . 576 

Presidential Documents 

Proclamations: Pan American Day (No. 2920). . 572 

Refugees and Displaced Persons 

PALESTINE: U.S. Contribution to U.N. Relief 

Works Agency . 596 

Strategic Materials 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS: Foreign Ministers 
Meet. See American Republics 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS: Foreign Ministers 

Meet. See American Republics 
ECA and Schuman Plan Advance European Re- 
covery — 3d ECA Anniversary: 

Address (Schuman) 590 

Remarks (Harrlman) 591 

Statements (Acheson, Truman) 589 

POINT 4: Workshops of Liberty (Bennett, 

Tulane Univ., New Orleans) 585 

Telecommunications 

Provisional Frequency Board (Smith) .... 593 
Radio Communications Agreement, U.S.-Llberla . 588 

Treaties and Other International Agreements 
CANADA: Civil Defense Aid Agreement, Ex- 
change of Notes. (Acheson, Hume) . . . 587 
JAPAN: 

Essentials of Peace Treaty (Dulles) .... 576 
Peace Treaty, U.S. Officials Discussion . . . 584 
LIBERIA: Radio Communications Agreement, 

Provisions 588 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, 1st meeting of In- 
ternational Commission 595 

United Nations 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS: Foreign Ministers 

Meet. See American Republics 
Relief Works Agency for Palestine: U.S. Con- 
tribution 596 

Security Council : Communiques on Korea . . . 596 
U.N. Bibliography: Selected Documents . . . . 599 
U.S. in U.N. (Weekly Summary) 597 

Name Index 
Acheson, Secretary Dean .... 569, 574, 588, 589 

Allison, John M 584 

Aurlol. President 563 

Bennett. Henry G 584 

Dulles. John Poster 576 

Fontoura. Joao Neves da 568 

Gross. Ernest A 596 

Harrlman. W. Averell 591 

MacArthur, Gen. Douglas 596 

MacBrlde. Sean 575 

Miller. Edward G., Jr 574 

Mora, Jos6 A 575 

Schuman, Robert 590 

Smith. Marie Louise 593 

Taylor. Clifford 591 

Truman. President Harry S . 563. 566, 572, 575, 689, 592 

Williams. John Wayne 599 

Wrong, H. Hume 588 



^ne/ u)e^a/)it7nenl/ xw t/tate^ 




PREVENTING A NEW WORLD WAR • Address by the 

President 603 

FOURTH MEETING OF CONSULTATION OF MINIS- 
TERS OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF AMERICAN 
STATES: 

Final Act 606 

Outstanding Achievements • Informal Remarks by 

Secretary Acheson 616 

U.S. SOLICITS OPINIONS OF AMERICAN REPUB- 
LICS ON JAPANESE SETTLEMENT • By John 

Foster Dulles 617 

U.S.-U.K.-FRANCE ANNOUNCE AGREEMENT ON 
INDUSTRIAL CONTROLS IN ALLIED ZONES 
IN GERMANY 621 



For index see back cover 



Vol. XXIV, No. 615 
April 16, 1951 




•ates o* 




tJAe zlefia/ytment iC£^ C/tate Jky W 1 1 \J L J. 1 X 



Vol. XXIV, No. 615 • Publication 4185 
April 16, 1951 



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Note: Contents of this pulilication are not 
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I 



U. S. SUPERlNTfNOcNT OF DOCUMENTS 

MAY 1 1951 



Preventing a New World War 



Address by President Trwman ' 



I WANT to talk plainly to you tonight about 
what we are doing in Korea and about our 
policy in the Far East. 

In the simplest terms, what we are doing in 
Korea is this : AVe are trying to prevent a third 
world war. 

I think most people in this country recognized 
that fact last June. And they warmly supported 
he decision of the Government to help the Re- 
lublic of Korea against the Communist aggres- 
sors. Now, many persons, even some who ap- 
;)lauded our decision to defend Korea, have f orgot- 
en the basic reason for our action. 

It is right for us to be in Korea. It was right 
ast June. It is right today. 

I want to remind you why this is true. 

The Communist Threat to Freedom 

The Communists in the Kremlin are engaged 
n a monstrous conspiracy to stamp out freedom all 
)ver the world. If they were to succeed, the United 
kates would be numbered among their principal 
ictims. It must be clear to everyone that the 
Jnited States cannot — and will not — sit idly by 
nd await foreign conquest. The only question is : 
Vhen is the best time to meet the threat and how ? 

The best time to meet the threat is in the be- 
;irming. It is easier to put out a fire in the be- 
;inning when it is small than after it has become 

roaring blaze. 

And the best way to meet the threat of aggres- 
ion is for the peace-loving nations to act together, 
f they don't act together, they are likely to be 
icked off, one by one. 

If they had followed the right policies in the 
930's — if the free countries had acted together, to 
rush the aggression of the dictators, and if they 
ad acted in the beginning, when the aggression 

' BroiKlcast from the White House at 10 : 30 p.m., e. s. t., 
1 Apr. 11 and released to the press by the White House 
1 the same date. Also printed as Department of State 
ibhcation 4195. 

9t\\ 16, 1951 



was small — there probably would have been no 
World War II. 

If history has taught us anything, it is that 
aggression anywhere in the world is a threat to 
peace everywhere in the world. Wlien that ag- 
gression is supported by the cruel and selfish rulers 
of a powerful nation who are bent on conquest, it 
becomes a clear and present danger to the security 
and independence of every free nation. 

This is a lesson that most people in this country 
have learned thoroughly. This is the basic reason 
why we joined in creating the United Nations. 
And since the end of World War II we have been 
putting that lesson into practice — we have been 
working with other free nations to check the ag- 
gressive designs of the Soviet Union before they 
can result in a third world war. 

That is what we did in Greece, when that nation 
was threatened by the aggression of international 
communism. 

The attack against Greece could have led to gen- 
eral war. But this country came to the aid of 
Greece. The United Nations supported Greek 
resistance. With our help, the determination and 
efforts of the Greek people defeated the attack 
on the spot. 

Another big Communist threat to peace was the 
Berlin blockade. That too could have led to war. 
But again it was settled because free men would 
not back down in an emergency. 



The Communist Plan for Conquest 

The aggression against Korea is the boldest and 
most dangerous move the Communists have yet 
made. 

The attack on Korea was part of a greater plan 
for conquering all of Asia. 

I would like to read to you from a secret in- 
telligence report which came to us after the at- 
tack. It is a report of a speech a Communist army 
officer in North Korea gave to a group of spies 
and saboteurs last May, one month before South 

603 



Korea was invaded. The report shows in great 
detail how this invasion was part of a carefully 
prepared plot. Here is part of what the Com- 
munist officer, who had been trained in Moscow, 
told his men : "Our forces," he said, "are sched- 
uled to attack South Korean forces about the 
middle of June. . . . The coming attack on South 
Korea marks the first step toward the liberation 
of Asia." . 

Notice that he used the word "liberation." 
That is Communist double-talk meaning "con- 
quest." 

I have another secret intelligence report here. 
This one tells what another Communist officer 
in the Far East told his men several months be- 
fore the invasion of Korea. Here is what he 
said : "In order to successfully undertake the long 
awaited world revolution, we must first unify 
Asia. . . . Java, Indochina, Malaya, India, Tibet, 
Thailand, Philippines, and Japan are our ulti- 
mate targets. . . . The United States is the only 
obstacle on our road for the liberation of all coun- 
tries in southeast Asia. In other words, we niust 
unify the people of Asia and crush the United 
States." 

That is what the Communist leaders are tell- 
ing their people, and that is what they have been 
trying to do. 

They want to control all Asia from the Krem- 
lin. 

This plan of conquest is in flat contradiction to 
what we believe. We believe that Korea belongs 
to the Koreans, that India belongs to the Indians — 
that all the nations of Asia should be free to work 
out their affairs in their own way. This is the 
basis of peace in the Far East and everywhere 
else. 

The whole Communist imperialism is back of 
the attack on peace in the Far East. It was the 
Soviet Union that trained and equipped the North 
Koreans for aggression. The Chinese Commu- 
nists massed 44 well-trained and well-equipped 
divisions on the Korean frontier. These were the 
troops they threw into battle when the North Ko- 
rean Communists were beaten. 

Stopping Short of General War 

The question we have had to face is whether the 
Communist plan of conquest can be stopped with- 
out general war. Our Government and other 
countries associated with us in the United Na- 
tions believe that the best chance of stopping it 
without general war is to meet the attack in Korea 
and defeat it there. 

That is what we have been doing. It is a diffi- 
cult and bitter task. 

But so far it has been successful. 

So far, we have prevented World War III. 

So far, by fighting a limited war in Korea, we 
have prevented aggression from succeeding and 
bringing on a general war. And the ability of 

604 



the whole free world to resist Communist ag- 
gression has been greatly improved. 

We have taught the enemy a lesson. He ha3 
found out that aggression is not cheap or easy. 
Moreover, men all over the world who want to 
remain free have been given new courage and 
new hope. They know now that the champions 
of freedom can stand up and fight and that they 
will stand up and fight. 

Our resolute stand in Korea is helping the 
forces of freedom now fighting in Indochina and 
other countries in that part of the world. It has 
already slowed down the timetable of conquest. 

In Korea itself, there are signs that the enemy 
is building up his ground forces for a new mass 
offensive. We also know that there have been ' 
large increases in the enemy's available air forces. 

If a new attack comes, I feel confident it will 
be turned back. The United Nations fighting 
forces are tough and able and well equipped. 
They are fighting for a just cause. They are 
proving to all the world that the principle of col- 
lective security will work. We are proud of all 
these forces for the magnificent job they have done 
against heavy odds. We pray that their efforts 
may succeed, for upon their success may hinge 
the peace of the world. 

The Communist side must now choose its course 
of action. The Communist rulers may press the 
attack against us. Tliey may take further action 
which will spread the conflict. They have that 
choice, and with it the awful responsibility for 
what may follow. The Communists also have the 
choice of a peaceful settlement which could lead 
to a general relaxation of tensions in the Far East. 
The decision is theirs, because the forces of the 
United Nations will strive to limit the conflict 
if possible. 

We do not want to see the conflict in Korea ex- 
tended. We are trying to prevent a world war — 
not to start one. The best way to do that is to 
make it plain that we and the other free countries 
will continue to resist the attack. 



The Best Course to Follow 

But you may ask : Wliy can't we take other steps 
to punish the aggressor? Why don't we bomb 
Manchuria and China itself? \Vliy don't we as- 
sist Chinese Nationalist troops to land on the 
mainland of China? 

If we were to do these things we would be run- 
ning a very grave risk of starting a general war. 
If that were to happen, we would have brought 
about the exact situation we are trying to prevent. 

If we were to do these things, wo would become 
entangled in a vast conflict on the continent of 
Asia and our task would become immeasurably 
more difficult all over the world. 

Wliat would suit the ambitions of the Kremlin 
better than for our military forces to be committed 
to a full-scale war with Red China ? 



Department of State Bulletin 



It may well be that, in spite of our best efforts, 
the Communists may spread the war. But it 
would be wrong — tragically wrong — for us to take 
the initiative in extending the war. 

The dangers are great. Make no mistake about 
it. Behind the North Koreans and Chinese Com- 
munists in the front lines stand additional millions 
of Chinese soldiers. And behind the Chinese stand 
the tanks, the planes, the submarines, the soldiers, 
and the scheming rulers of the Soviet Union. 

Our aim is to avoid the spread of the conflict. 

The course we have been following is the one best 
calculated to avoid an all-out war. It is the course 
consistent with our obligation to do all we can to 
maintain international peace and security. Our 
experience in Greece and Berlin shows that it is 
the most effective coui-se of action we can fol- 
low. 

Fii-st of all, it is clear that our efforts in Korea 
can blunt the will of the Chinese Communists to 
continue the struggle. The United Nations forces 
have put up a tremendous fight in Korea and have 
inflicted very heavy casualties on the enemy. Our 
forces are stronger now than they have been before. 
These are plain facts which may discourage the 
Chinese Communists from continuing their at- 
tack. 

Second, the free world as a whole is growing 
in military strength every day. In the United 
States, in Western Europe, and throughout the 
world, free men are alert to the Soviet threat and 
are building their defenses. This may discourage 
the Communist rulers from continuing the war in 
Korea — and from undertaking new acts of aggres- 
sion elsewhere. 

If the Communist authorities realize that they 
cannot defeat us in Korea, if they realize it would 
be foolhardy to widen the hostilities beyond Korea, 
then they may recognize the folly of continuing 
their aggression. A peaceful settlement may then 
be possible. The door is always open. 

Then we may achieve a settlement in Korea 
which will not compromise the principles and pur- 
poses of the United Nations. 

I have thought long and hard about this ques- 
tion of extending the war in Asia. I have dis- 
cussed it many times with the ablest military 
advisers in the country. I believe with all my 
heart that the course we are following is the best 
course. 

I believe that we must try to limit the war to 
Korea for these vital reasons : to make sure that 
the precious lives of our fighting men are not 
wasted ; to see that the security of our country and 
the free world is not needlessly jeopardized; and 
to prevent a third world war. 

Avoiding Confusion Over U.S. Policy 

A number of events have made it evident that 
General MacArthur did not agree with that policy. 



I have therefore considered it essential to relieve 
General MacArthur so that there would be no 
doubt or confusion as to the real purpose and aim 
of our policy. 

It was with the deepest personal regret that I 
found myself compelled to take this action. Gen- 
eral MacArthur is one of our greatest military 
commanders. But the cause of world peace is 
more important than any individual. 

The change in commands in the Far East means 
no change whatever in the policy of the United 
States. We will carry on the fight in Korea with 
vigor and determination in an effort to bring the 
war to a speedy and successful conclusion. 

The new commander, Lt. Gen. Matthew Ridg- 
way, has already demonstrated that he has the 
great qualities of military leadership needed for 
this task. 

We are ready, at any time, to negotiate for a 
restoration of peace in the area. But we will not 
engage in appeasement. We are only interested 
in real peace. 

Real peace can be achieved through a settlement 
based on the following factors: 

One: the fighting must stop. 
Two: concrete steps must be taken to insure 
that the fighting will not break out again. 
Three : there must be an end to the aggression. 

A settlement founded upon these elements 
would open the way for the unification of Korea 
and the withdi"awal of all foreign forces. 

In the meantime, I want to be clear about our 
military objective. We are fightings to resist an 
outrageous aggression in Korea. We are trying 
to keep the Korean conflict from spreading to 
other areas. But at the same time we must con- 
duct our military activities so as to insure the 
security of our forces. This is essential if they are 
to continue the fight until the enemy abandons 
its ruthless attempt to destroy the Republic of 
Korea. 

That is our military objective — to repel attack 
and to restore peace. 

In the hard fighting in Korea, we are proving 
that collective action among nations is not only 
a high principle but a workable means of resisting 
aggression. Defeat of aggression in Korea may 
be the turning point in the world's search for a 
practical way of achieving peace and security. 

The struggle of the IJnited Nations in Korea 
is a struggle for peace. 

The free nations have united their strength in 
an effort to prevent a third world war. 

That war can come if the Communist rulers 
want it to come. But this Nation and its allies 
will not be responsible for its coming. 

We do not want to widen the conflict. We will 
use every effort to prevent that disaster. And in 
so doing we know that we are following the great 
principles of peace, freedom, and justice. 



April 16, 1951 



605 



FOURTH MEETING OF CONSULTATION OF MINISTERS OF FOREIGN 

AFFAIRS OF AMERICAN STATES 



Final Act: Signed at Washington on April 7, 1951' 



Excerpts from Doc. 145 
Dated Apr. 6, 1U51 

I. Declaration of Washington 

Whekeias : 

The pre.seut Meeting was called because of the need for 
prompt action by the Republics of this Hemisphere for 
common defen.se against the aggressive activities of in- 
ternational communism ; 

Such activities, in disregard of the principle of non- 
intervention, which is deeply rooted in the Americas, 
disturb tlie tranquility of the peoples of this Hemisishere 
and endanger the liberty and democracy on which their 
institutions are founded ; 

All the said Republics have stated, in formal acts and 
agreements, their will to cooperate against any threat 
to or aggression against the peace, security, and terri- 
torial integrity or independence of any one of them ; 

It will be impossible for such cooperation to be effective 
unless it is carried out in a true spirit of harmony and 
conciliation ; 

In view of the common danger, the present moment 
is propitious for a reaffirmation of inter-American 
solidarity ; 

That danger becomes more serious as a consequence of 
certain social and economic factors ; 

In this last connection there is now, more than ever, 
need for the adoption of measures designed to improve 
the living conditions of the peoples of this Hemisphere ; 
and. 

On the other hand, in any action for the defense of 
the Hemisphere and its institutions, the essential rights 
of man, solemnly proclaimed by the American Republics, 
should not be lost sight of, 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs 

Declares: 

1. The firm determination of the American Republics 
to renuiiu steadfastly united, both spiritually and ma- 
terially, in the present emergency or in the face of any 
aggression or threat against any one of them. 



' The first portion of the document contained list of 
representatives, officers, and agenda. The Secretary of 
State, Dean Ailieson, was elected permanent president of 
the meeting, and William Manger, Assistant Secretary 
General of the Oas, served as Secretary General. The 
following is the statement of reservation made by the 
United States: 

With regard to references in this Pinal Act to the Inter- 
American Charter of Social Guarantees, the United States 
wishes to call attention to its reservation to that Charter 
which was stated and explained at the time of the ailop- 
tion of that document at the Ninth Inlci-nalional Confer- 
ence of American States. 

606 



2. A reaffirmation of the faith of the American Re- 
publics in the efficacy of the principles set forth in the 
Charter of the Organization of American States and other 
inter-American agreements to maintain peace and security 
in the Hemisphere, to defend them.selves against any 
aggression, to settle their disputes by peaceful means, 
imijrove the living conditions of their peoples, promote 
their cultural and economic progress, and ensure respect 
for the fundamental freedoms of man and the principles 
of social justice as the bases of their democratic system. 

3. Its conviction that strong support of the action of 
the United Nations is the most effective means of main- 
taining the peace, security, and well-being of the peoples 
of the world under the rule of law, justice, and inter- 
national cooperation. 

II. Preparation of the Defense of the American 
Republics and Support of the Action 
of the United Nations 

Whereas : 

The American Republics, as Members of the United 
Nations, have pledged themselves to unite their efforts 
with those of other States to maintain international 
peace and security, to settle international disputes by 
peaceful means, and to take effective collective measures 
to ijrevent and suppress acts of aggression ; 

International peace and security have been breached 
by the acts of aggression in Korea, and the United Na- 
tions, despite its efforts to find a peaceful solution, was 
obliged, pursuant to resolutions of the Security Council 
and the General Assembly, to take action to restore peace 
in that area ; and 

In order to ensure that the United Nations has at its 
disposal means for maintaining international peace and 
security, the General Assembly, on November 3, 1950, 
adopted the resolution entitled "Uniting for Peace", 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 

Foreign Affairs of American States 

Declares: 

That the present world situation requires positive sup- 
port by the American Republics for: (1) achievement of 
the collective defense of the Continent through the Organ- 
ization of American States, and (2) cooiieration. within 
the United Nations Organization, to prevent and sup- 
press aggression in other parts of the world; and 
lieco))i)nc)uls: 

1. That each of the American Republics should immedi- 
ately e.Kamine its resources and determine what steps 
it can take to contribute to the defense of the Hemisphere 
and to United Nations collective security elTorts, in order 
to accomplish the aims and purposes of the "Uniting for i| 
Peace" resolution of the General Assembly. 

2. That each of the American Repulilics, without prej- 



Departmenl of Sfafe Bulletin 



"i 



udice to attending to national self-defense, should give 
particular attonti<in to tlie development and maintenance 
of elements williiii its national armed forces so trained, 
organized and ('(luipped tliat tliey could, in accordance 
witli its constituti(mal norms, and to the full extent that, 
in its judgment, its capabilities permit, promptly be made 
available, (1) for the defense of the Hemisphere, and (2) 
for service as I'nited Nations unit or units, in accordance 
with the "Uniting for Peace" resolution. 



III. Inter-American Military Cooperation 

WHEKI'iXS : 

The militiiry defense of the Continent is essential to 
the stability of its democratic institutions and the well- 
being of its peo])les ; 

The American Republics have assumed obligations un- 
der the Charter of the Organization of American States 
and the Inter-xVmerican Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance 
to assist any American States subjected to an armed 
attack, and to act together for the common defense and 
for the maintenance of the peace and security of the 
Continent ; 

The expansionist activities of international communism 
require the immediate adoption of measures to safe- 
guard the peace and the security of the Continent; 

The present grave international situation imposes on 
the American Republics the need to develop their mili- 
tary capabilities in order, in conformity with the Inter- 
American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance: 1) to assure 
their individual and collective self-defense against 
armed attaclss; 2) to contribute effectively to action by 
the Organization of American States against aggression 
directed against any of them; and, .3) to make provision, 
as quickly as possible, for the collective defense of the 
Continent ; and 

The Ninth International Conference of American 
States, in its Resolution XXXIV, charged the prepara- 
tion of collective self-defense against aggression to the 
Inter-American Defense Board, which, as the only inter- 
American technical-military organ functioning, is the 
suitable organ for the iireparation of military plans for 
collective self-defense against aggression, 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs 

Resoli-C'S: 

1. To reconuuend to the American Republics that they 
orient their military preparation in such a way that, 
through self-help and mutual aid, and in accordance with 
their capabilities and with their constitutional norms, 
and in conformity with the Inter-American Treaty of 
Reciprocal Assistance, they can, without prejudice to 
their individual self-defense and their internal security : 
a) increase those of their resources and strengthen those 
of their armed forces best adapted to the collective de- 
fense, and maintain those armed forces in such status 
that they can be immediately available for the defense 
of the Continent; and, b) cooperate with each other, in 
military matters, in order to develop the collective 
strength of the continent necessary to combat aggression 
against any of them. 

2. To charge the Inter-American Defense Board with 
preparing, ;is vigorously as possible, and keeping up-to- 
date, in close liaison with the Governments through their 
respective Delegations, the military planning of the 
common defense. 

3. That the plans formulated by the Inter-American 
Defense Board shall be submitted to the Governments for 
their consideration and decision. To the end of facilitat- 
ing such consideration and decision, the Delegations of 
the American Republics to the Inter-American Defense 
Board shall be in continuous consultation with their 
Governments on the projects, plans, and recommendations 
of the Board. 

4. To recommend to the Governments of the American 
Republics : a ) that they maintain adequate and continu- 
ous representation of their armed forces on the Council of 



Delegates, on the Staff of the Inter-American Defense 
Board, and on any other organ of that organization that 
may he established in the future; b) that they actively 
supp(U-t the work of the Board, and consider promptly 
all the projects, plans, and recommendations of that 
agency; and c) that they cooperate in the organization, 
within the Board, of a coordinated system of exchange of 
appropriate information. 

IV. Importance of Maintaining Peaceful Relations 
Among American States 

Whereas : 

It is desirable that the energies of each American R'e- 
pnl)lic be devoted to strengthening its ability to con- 
tribute to international peace and security in the Western 
Hemisphere and to the prevention and .suppression of 
international communist aggression ; and 

Any breach of friendly relations among the American 
Republics can only serve to provide aid and comfort to 
the leaders of such aggression as well as to weaken the 
peace and security of the Western Hemisphere, 
The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs 
Rrafflnns: 

The solemn obligations undertaken by all the American 
Republics to refrain in their international relations from 
the threat or use of fcvrce in any manner inconsistent with 
the Charter of the United Nations or the Inter- American 
Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, and to settle their in- 
ternational disputes by peaceful means; 
Recommends: 

That the American Republics will make every effort to 
settle any disputes between them which threaten friendly 
relation.?, in the shortest possible time, by direct bilateral 
negotiations, and will promptly submit such disputes as 
they may be unable to settle by negotiation to other avail- 
able procedures for the peaceful .settlement of disputes ; 
and 
Declares: 

That the faithful observance by the American Republics 
of the commitments not to intervene in the internal or 
external affairs of other States and to settle any disputes 
among them by peaceful means makes it possible for each 
of the Republics to concentrate the development of its 
capabilities upon the ta.sks best adapted to the role each 
is most qualified to assume in the collective defense 
against aggression. 



V. Provisions Concerning Mi 
of Students 



itary Conscription 



WHE2!EAS : 

The strengthening of the cultural ties between the 
American countries is one of the most effective means to 
promote their knowledge of one another, and therefore, 
sentiments of union and friendship among them ; 

Student exchange has proved to be a positive contribu- 
tion in the realization of this high purpose ; 

Likewise, the exchange of professional men and 
women, technical experts, and skilled workers who are 
to carry out advanced studies in scientific or industrial 
establishments, is equally desirable not only because of 
the cultural ties thus created, but al.so because of the 
benefits accruing therefrom to the development of pro- 
ductive activities in the various countries ; and 

In order to continue providing encouragement and 
facilities for this exchange, which is contemplated in 
various Pan American instruments and bilateral treaties, 
this exchange should be carried out under conditions 
which would make it more effectual and continuous rather 
than hindering it. 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs 

Recomtnends : 
1) That the Governments of the American Republics 



April 16, J 95 1 



607 



consider in connection with programs of military service 
the (lesiraliilitv of adopting or continuing measures to 
assure that students from other American Republics who 
have enrolled in duly recognized centers of education 
may be permitted to continue their programs of studies 
witliout interruption; 

2) That the Governments of the American Republics 
consult among themselves regarding their respective legal 
provisions concerning military conscription to assure, in- 
sofar as possible, that these provisions will not affect ad- 
vanced studies being carried out in scientific or industrial 
establislinients in one American country by students, 
trainees, teachers, guest instructors, professors and 
leaders in fields of specialized knowledge or skills of 
another, when their stay is temporary and has as its 
purpose the above-mentioned professional or technical 
training objectives : 

3) The recommendations contained in the two fore- 
going paragraphs in no way change the obligations 
arising under the Convention on the Status of Aliens, 
signed at the Sixth International Conference of American 
States. 

VI. Reaffirmation of Inter-American Principles 
Regarding European Colonies and Possessions 
in the Americas 

Whereas : 

The first Meeting of Consultation, held In Panama dur- 
ing October 1939, approved Resolution XVII, which con- 
tains provisions to be applied in case of a transfer of 
sovereignty in geographic regions of the Americas under 
the .iurisdiction of non-American States ; 

At the Second Meeting of Consultation, held in Habana 
during July 1940, the Governments of the American Re- 
publics signed the "Act of Habana", which provided 
emergency measures to determine the action those Repub- 
lics should take in the face of any situation that might, 
because of World War II, affect the status of non-Amer- 
ican possessions located in this Hemisphere; 

At that Second Meeting of Consultation the "Convention 
on the Provisional Administration of European Colonies 
and Possessions in the Americas" was also signed, which 
later entered into force as prescribed in the Convention ; 
and 

The American Republics declared, in Resolution 
XXXIII of the Ninth International Conference of Amer- 
ican States, the Continental aspiration that colonialism 
would be brought to an end in the Americas, 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs 

Declares: 

The firm adherence of the American Republics to the 
following principles adopted at the First and Second 
Meetings of Consultation : 

1. The non-recognition and non-acceptance of transfers 
or attempts at transferring or acquiring interest or right, 
directly or indirectly, in any territory of this Hemispliere 
held by non-American States, in favor of another State 
outside the Hemisphere, whatever the form used to ac- 
complish this purpose ; 

2. That in case it should be necessary to apply the 
measures prescribed in the "Convention on the Provisional 
Administration of European Colonies and Pos.sessions in 
the Americas", the interests of the inhabitants of those 
territories should be taken into account, so that the 
gradual development of their political, economic, social, 
and educational life may be promoted. 

Vil. The Strengthening and Effective 
Exercise of Democracy 

Wherf;as : 

Topic II of the program of the Meeting is "Strengthen- 
ing of llie internal security of the American Republics", 
and, for the achievement of tliat purpose and the appli- 

608 



cation of the proper measures, it is essential for each 
Government, as the mandatory of its people, to have 
their confidence and support; 

In order to achieve such identification of the people 
with their government, it is imperative that each country 
have an effective system of representative democracy that i 
will put into practice both the rights and duties of man 
and social justice ; and 

The American Republics and their origin and reason 
for being in the desire to attain lllierty and democracy, 
and their harmonious association is basetl primarily on 
these concepts, the effectiveness of which it is desirable 
to strengthen In the international field, without prejudice 
to the principle of nonintervention. 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs 

Declarea: 

That the solidarity of the American Republics requires 
the effective exercise of representative democracy, social 
justice, and respect for and the observance of the rights 
and duties of man, principles which must be increasingly 
strengthened in the international field and which are 
found in Article .5 (d) of the Charter of the Organization 
of American States and Resolutions XXXII (The Preser- 
vation and Defense of Democracy in America) and XXX '. 
(American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man) | 
adopted by the Ninth International Conference of Ameri- ' 
can States; and 

Resolves: \ 

1. To suggest that the Tenth Inter-American Confer- 
ence consider, within the framework of Articles 13 and 
15 of the Charter of the Organization of American States, 
the provisions necessary in order for the purposes stated 
in Resolutions XXX and XXXII of the Ninth Interna- 
tional Conference of American States to acquire full 
effectiveness in all the countries of America. 

2. To Instruct the Inter-American Council of Jurists to 
draw up, as a technical contribution to the ends contem- 
plated In the i)receding paragraph, draft Conventions 
and other Instruments; and. to that end, likewise to in- 
struct the Inter-American Juridical Committee to make 
the pertinent preliminary studies, which it will submit 
to the said Council at its next meeting. 

3. To urge the Governments of America, pending the 
adoption and entry into force of the aforementioned pro- 
visions, to maintain and apply. In accordance with their 
constitutional procedures, the precepts contained In the 
aforementioned Resolutions XXX and XXXII of the 
Ninth International Conference of American States. 



Vill. Strengthening of Internal Security 

Whereas : 

The American Republics at the Ninth International 
Conference of American States, with specific reference 
to "the preservation and defense of democracy in Amer- 
ica" and using as a basis Resolution VI of the Second 
Meeting of Consultation, resolved to condemn the meth- 
ods of every system tending to suppress political and 
civil rights and liberties, and in particular the action of 
international Communism or an.v other totalitarian doc- 
trine, and, consequently, to adojit, witliln their respective 
territories and in accordance with their respwtive con- 
stitutional provisions, the measures necessary to eradi- 
cate and ]irevent activities directed, assisted or insti- 
gated by foreign governments, organizations or indi- 
viduals tending to ovcrtlirow tlieir institutions by vio- 
lence, to foment disorder in their domestic polilical life, 
or to distuilt, by means of pressure, subversive propa- 
ganda, threats or by ottier means, the free and sovereign 
right of their peoples to govern themselves in accordance 
with their (Icmocratic aspirations; 

To supi)lenient those measures of mutual cooperation 
assuring cDllective defense as well as the economic and 
social well-being of the people, upon which the vitality 
of political institutions so nuuh depends, it is necessary 
to adopt laws and regulations for internal security; 



Department of State Bulletin 



In thpir concern to counteract the subversive activity 
of intpruational Communism, tliey are imbued with the 
desire to reaffirm their dptennination to preserve and 
strengthen the basic democratic institutions of the peo- 
ples of the American Heputilics, whicli tlie agents of 
interii:iti<iiial Comiunnisin are altcmiitin^' to al)olish 
through the exploitation and abuse of the democratic 
freedoms themselves ; 

Within each one of the American Republics there lias 
been and is being developed through democratic pro- 
cedures a body of laws designed to assure its political 
defense; 

It is in accordance with the high common and Indi- 
vidual Interests of the American Republics to ensure 
that each of them will be able to meet the special and 
immediate threat of the subversive activities of inter- 
national Communism; and 

Since the said subversive activities recognize no 
boundaries, the present situation requires, in addition 
to suitable internal measures, a higli degree of inter- 
national cooperation among the American Republics, 
looking to the eradication of any threat of subversive 
activity endangering democracy and the free way of life 
in the American Republics, 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Jlinisters of 
Foreign Affairs 

Resolves: 

1. To recommend to the Governments of the American 
States ; 

(a) That, mindful of their unity of purpose and 
taking account of the contents of Resolution VI of the 
Second Meeting of Consultation in Habana and Resolu- 
tion XXXII of the Ninth International Conference of 
American States in Bogota, eacli American Republic ex- 
amine its respective laws and regulations and adopt 
sucli changes as it considers necessary to ensure that 
subversive activities of the agents of international Com- 
munism, directed against any of them, may be ade- 
quately forestalled and penalized ; 

(b) That, in accordance with their respective con- 
stitutional provisions, they enact tliose measures nec- 
essary to regulate in the countries of the Americas the 
transit across international boundaries of those for- 
eigners who there is reason to expect will attempt to 
perform subversive acts against the defense of the 
American Hemisphere ; and 

(c) That, in the application of this resolution, they 
bear in mind the necessity of guaranteeing and defend- 
ing by the most efficacious means the rights of the indi- 
vidual as well as their firm determination to preserve 
and defend the basic democratic institutions of the 
peoples of the American Republics. 

2. To instruct tlie Pan American Union, for the purpose 
of facilitating the fulfillment of the objectives of this 
resolution, to assign to the proper Department, which 
might be the Department of International Law and Or- 
ganization, with the assistance, if deemed advisable, of 
experts on the subject, the following duties : 

(a) To make technical studies concerning the defi- 
nition, prevention, and punisliment, as crimes, of sabo- 
tage and espionage with respect to acts against the Amer- 
ican Republics and directed from abroad or against tlie 
defense of the Americas ; 

(b) To make technical studies of general measures 
by means of which the American Republics may better 
maintain the integrity and efficacy of the rights of the 
individual and of the democratic system of their institu- 
tions, protecting and defending them from treason and 
any other subversive acts instigated or directed by for- 
eign iwwers or against the defense of the Americas; 

(c) To make technical studies concerning measures 
to prevent the abuse of freedom of transit, within the 
Hemisphere, including clandestine and Illicit travel and 
the misuse of travel documents, aimed at weakening the 
defense of the Americas. 

The Pan American Union shall transmit the reports 
and conclusions resulting from its studies to the Ameri- 

April 16, 195? 



can Governments for their information, through their 
representatives on the Council of the Organization of 
American States, and should any of the said Governments 
so re<iupst and the Council Ijy a simple majority of votes 
so decide, a specialized conference on the matter shall 
l)e called pursuant to the terms of Article 93 of the Char- 
ter of the Organization of American States. 

IX. Improvement of; the Social, Economic, and 
Cultural Levels of the Peoples of the Americas 

Whereas : 

In the name of their peoples, the States represented 
at the Ninth International Conference of American States 
declared their conviction that the historic mission of 
America is to offer to man a land of liberty and a favor- 
able environment for the development of his personality 
and the realization of his just aspirations, and for that 
reason they set forth in the Charter of the Organization 
of American States as one of their basic principles that 
of promoting, through cooperative action, their economic, 
social, and cultural development ; 

The aforesaid Charter entrusts to the Inter-American 
Economic and Social Council and to the Inter-American 
Cultural Council the promotion of such well-being in 
their respective fields, and these Councils, in turn, should 
carry out the activities assigned to them by the Meeting 
of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs ; 

It is a right of man to obtain the satisfaction of the 
economic, social, and cultural needs essential to his dignity 
and to the free development of his personality ; 

Tlie failure to satisfy this right produces a discontent 
that may mistakenly lead men to accept doctrines in- 
compatible with their own interests and the rights of 
others, tlie security of all, the general well-being, and 
democratic ideals, 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs of American States 

Resolves: 

1. To recommend to the American Republics that, in 
order to strengthen their internal security, they act with 
due decision to forward the great undertaking of raising 
the social, economic, and cultural levels of their own 
peoples, taking care that, to the greate.st degree possible, 
they satisfy the rights set forth in this regard in the 
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, 
the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man, and the 
Inter-.\merican Charter of Social Guarantees. 

2. To recommend to the Inter-American Economic and 
Social Council and to the Inter-American Cultural Coun- 
cil that, within their respective spheres, they prepare as 
soon as possible plans and programs of action for pro- 
moting effective cooperation among the American Re- 
publics in order to raise the economic, social, and cul- 
tural levels of their peoples. These Councils shall 
present periodically to the General Secretariat of the 
Organization of American States, for the same ends, a 
report on the execution of the aforesaid plans and pro- 
grams, and their opinion regarding any changes that 
might be made in them. 

3. The aforesaid plans, programs, and reports shall 
also be transmitted to the American Governments through 
the Secretary General of the Organization of American 
States. 

X. Economic and Social Betterment 
of the Working Classes 

Whebej^s : 

The democratic institutions that have been inherent 
characteristics of the American Republics since the be- 
ginning of their life as free States are based upon the 
principles of human equality and solidarity and upon the 
principle of the welfare of their inhabitants; and 

The propagation of ideologies alien to the spirit of 
America and its civil liberties finds favorable develop- 
ment in materially and culturally underdeveloped coun- 

609 



tries, for which reason it is necessary to fight poverty and 
ifrnorance as an effective means of protecting Democracy 
and the Rights of Man, 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs 

Resolves: 

To repeat and broaden the resolutions adopted at 
previous inter-American meetings in such a way that in 
the measures introduced during the present international 
emergency, as well as in permanent peacetime economic 
programs, the ecr)noniic and social betterment of the 
working classes of America shall be a matter of constant 
concern, by securing for them a satisfactory wage level, 
protecting them from unemployment, and making every 
effort to assure the progressive improvement of their 
culture and the hygienic and sanitary conditions in their 
homes and places of work. 



XI. Betterment of the American Worker 

Whereas : 

Many Resolutions adopted by the American Republics 
in the Seventh, Eighth and Ninth International Confer- 
ences of American States as well as Resolution LVIII 
of the Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and 
Peace, have manifested the great concern of the Govern- 
ments to raise the standard of living of their peoples ; 

The objective proposed is of transcendental importance 
because the internal security of the American Republics, 
based on the proper functioning of a representative de- 
mocracy, cannot be permanently strengthened unless it 
is based on an increasing production, the yields from which 
are distributed equitably among the members of the com- 
munity ; and 

The Inter-American Charter of Social Guarantees, ap- 
proved at Bogota, establishes, in general terms, the mini- 
mum standards governing the conditions under which 
American workers shall carry out their work. 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs 

Recommends : 

1. That those American nations that have not already 
done so, and within the limitations imposed by their 
respective Constitutions, adopt in their respective legisla- 
tions appropriate measures to give effect within each such 
country to the principles contained in the Inter-American 
Charter of Social Guarantees approved at Bogota. 

2. That each American nation inform the Inter-Ameri- 
can Economic and Social Council annually of any legis- 
lative and administrative measures it has put into effect. 



XII. Economic Development 

Whereas : 

The present international state of emergency and the 
dangers it contains for all free countries demand effi- 
cacious cooiJeration among the American Republics for 
the effective defense of the Hemisphere ; 

One of the most serious factors in social decline, one 
that best suits the purposes of aggression, is the existence 
of low standards of living in many countries that have 
been unable to attain the benefits of modern techniques; 

It is therefore necessary to establish rational bases that 
will make it possible to maintain the equilibrium and, to 
the extent that the emergency permits, the development 
of the economies of the underdeveloped American Re- 
publics and to improve the standard of living of their 
peoples in order to increase their individual and collective 
capacities for the defense of the Hemisphere and con- 
triliute to the strengthening of their internal security ; and 

The programs of economic development and technical 
cooperation have proven to be the most successful in- 
struments for strengthening internal economies and im- 
proving living standards ; and the present emergency situa- 
tion and the greater needs for defense that it imposes are 



additional and urgent reasons for increasing international 
cooijeiation in this field of activity, 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs 

Declares: 

That the economic development of underdeveloped 
countries should be considered as an essential factor in 
the total concept of Hemisphere defense, without disre- 
garding the fact that it is the prime duty of the American 
States in the present emergency to strengthen their de- 
fenses and maintain their essential civilian activities ; and 

Resolves: 

1. That the American Republics should continue to 
collaborate actively and with even greater vigor in pro- 
grams of economic development and programs of technical 
cooperation with a view to building economic strength and 
well-being in the underdeveloped regions of the Americas 
and to improving the living levels of their inhabitants. 

2. To this end, the American Republics shall supply, 
sub.lect to the provisions of Resolution No. XVI, the ma- 
chinery, mechanical equipment, and other materials 
needed to increase their productive capacity, diversify 
their production and distribution, facilitating in appro- 
priate cases financial and technical cooperation for carry- 
ing out plans for economic development. 

3. Such financial and technical collaboration shall be 
carried forward with the purpose of modernizing agricul- 
ture, increasing food production, developing mineral and 
power resources, increasing industrialization, improving 
transportation facilities, raising standards of health and 
education, encouraging the investment of public and 
private capital, stimulating employment and raising 
managerial capacity and technical skills, and bettering 
the conditions of labor. 

4. During the present emergency period, preference 
among economic development pro.iects should be given in 
the following order : Projects useful for defense pui^poses 
and projects designed to satisfy the basic requirements of 
the civilian economy ; projects already begim, the interrup- 
tion of which would entail serious losses of materials, 
money, and effort; and other projects for economic 
development. 

.">. Each American state will take steps to coordinate 
its respective plans and programs for economic develop- 
ment with the emergency economic plans, bearing in mind 
its own tendencies and possibilities, for the continuity of 
its development. 



Xlli. Increase of Production and Processing 
of Basic and Strategic Materials 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs 

Rrsohyrs: 

That the American Republics should adopt in their 
respective countries practical and feasible measures for 
increasing the production and processing of basic and 
strategic materials required for the defense emergency, 
for the essential netxls of the civilian population, and for 
oi)eration of basic public services. To achieve this end 
they undertake : 

a) To accord one another, by means of administra- 
tive measures, the priorities and licenses required to ob- 
tain necessary machinery and material to increa.se the 
production, processing, and transportation of these 
neces.sary basic and strategic materials ; 

b) To render one another special and adequate tech- 
nical and financial assistance when necessary and appro- 
I)ri.ite, by means of bilateral negotiations or multilateral 
au'reements, when necessary, or through special joint 
organs, in order to increase the i>roduclion. processing, 
and transiKirtation of these basic and strategic materials; 

c) To be prepariHl to enter into long-term or medium- 
term purchase and sale contracts at reasonable prices for 
these basic and strategic materials, and in conformity 



610 



Department of State Bulletin 



with liny international agrocment of general scope in 
which they might have participated. 

XIV. Production, Utilization and Distribution 
of Scarce Essential Products 

Whereas : 

Some nations have sponsored the creation of intor- 
national orjranizations for the purpuse of obtaining the 
cooperation of the free countries, in order to increase the 
production of scarce essential products during the present 
emergency situation and to make the best distribution 
and use thereof ; and 

The activities of those organizations will of necessity 
affect the economy of the Western Hemisphere, for which 
reason the American Republics should have suitable and 
adequate representation therein. 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs 

Declares: 

Tliat the American States shall have suitable and ade- 
quate representation in any international organization 
created during the emergency to deal with the production, 
utilization and distribution of scarce essential products, 
it being necessary that the different geographical regions 
and the relative importance of their production and 
population be taken into account. 

XV. Defense and Security Controls 

Whereas : 

It is essential for the American Republics, as a part 
of the free world, to build up their economic strength 
relative to that of the forces supporting international 
aggression, 

' The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of For- 
I eign Affairs 

Declares: 

1. That the American Republics agree to cooperate fully 
with one another in the adoption of effective measures 
of economic defense and security controls in the field of 
their international economic relations, including measures 
to increase the availability of products in short supply 
to the countries of the free world. 

2. That where one country imposes security controls 
which affect activities of private entities located in an- 
other country, full opportunity for consultation shall be 
afforded between the two countries with the purpose of 
developing cooperative measures to attain the objective 
of the security controls with a minimum of economic dis- 
location in the country where the affected private activi- 
ties are carried on or the respective asset is located. 

3. During the emergency and the period of adjustment 
following it, the principle of relative equality of sacritice 
shall apply in the reduction or limitation of civilian needs, 
and an endeavor shall be made not to impair the living 
standards of the low-income population groups. Allo- 
cations and priorities for elements of production and 
consumption shall be established, in accordance with 
the principles contained in the General Statement of this 
Resolution, in such a manner as not to impair productive 
activity and economic development unnecessarily, or 
jeopardize political and social stability and effective 
collaboration among the American nations. 

4. When producer countries establish export allocations 
to meet essential foreign requirements, such countries 
should adopt effective administrative measures to facili- 
tate the fulfillment of such allocations for export. 

5. Once export quotas have been established, it .shall 
be the responsibility of the importing country to determine 
the essentiality of the use of the products and to control 
their distribution. It shall be the responsibility of the 
exporting country to distribute the quota among exporters 
from the exjwrting country. In case of conflicts or diffi- 



culties in the operation of the controls, there shall be 
consultation between the interested Governments. 

XVI. Allocations and Priorities 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs 

Resolves: 

General Statement 

That in order to meet the emergency situation and the 
subsequent period of adjustment, the American States 
shall do all in their power to provide one another with 
the products and services necessary to sustain the com- 
mon defense effort, and declare that the maintaining of 
essential civilian activities and public services and the 
economic development of underdeveloped countries are 
considered as an essential element in the total concept 
of defense of the American Hemisphere, without disre- 
garding the fact that the strengthening of their defenses 
is the principal duty of the American States in the present 
emergency. 

Specific Principles 

Whenever the emergency situation makes it imperative 
to apply the system of allocations and priorities, the 
American States will observe the following principles: 

1. The essential needs for the functioning of civilian 
economic activities should he met. 

2. In the case of products which are the subject of 
allocations, or priorities affecting their domestic con- 
sumption and export, priority be given to the utilization 
of such products for defense production in the common 
cause, including the maintenance of adequate stockpiles 
of strategic materials, pursuant to the principles of the 
General Statement. 

3. The Governments of the American Republics shall 
accord one another ample opportunity for consultation 
concerning the effect of the establishment of substantial 
revision of allocations and priorities on international 
trade. Whenever, owing to special circumstances caused 
by the emergency, it is impossible for an American Gov- 
ernment to hold a consultation before establishing allo- 
cations or priorities, such measures shall be discussed, 
after their adoption, immediately upon the request by any 
country for their reexamination on the ground that its 
interests are adversely affected, for the purpose of en- 
deavoring to make an adjustment by mutual agreement. 

XVII. Prices 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs 

Resolves: 

1. That the Governments of the American Republics 
should adopt adequate internal measures and controls, 
including reciprocal measures to make them more effec- 
tive, in order to prevent inflationary tendencies which 
would endanger the common defense progi'am and basic 
economic stability and which would be detrimental to 
mutual economic relations. In addition, they will con- 
sider those international actions or cooperative measures 
which may be necessary to mitigate inflationary pressures. 

2. That, with a view to assuring the proper administra- 
tion of price regulations in such a way as to provide 
equitable treatment for both imported and exported prod- 
ucts subject to controls, any American Republic which 
maintains a price control system will afford to any other 
member nation full opportunity to be heard with reference 
to any measures of price control affecting its products, 
and shall give consideration to such adjustments as may 
be pertinent, on the basis of data submitted by the mem- 
ber nation, but without being limited thereto. Such in- 
formation may include increases or decreases in the cost 
of production (including the cost of manufactured articles, 
raw materials, wages, and any other elements making up 
an integral part of the cost of production), in the cost of 



April 16, J 95 J 



611 



transportation, and in the margin of profit, and the effect 
of the price regulation on the supply available to the 
country of importation. 

Whenever, owing to special circumstances, it is not 
feasible for an American Government to hold consulta- 
tion iirior to the establishment of such price controls, 
such measures shall he the subject of consultation, after 
their adoption, immediately upon the request by any 
country for their re-examination on the ground that its 
interests have been prejudiced. 

3. When a Government adopts a general price control 
system, it should apply such controls to the prices of raw 
materials as well as to those of manufactured products, 
and if it applies them to imports, it should also apply them 
to exports. 

4. The establishment and administration of price con- 
trols, whether general or selective, shall conform to the 
principles of national and most-favored-nation treatment. 

5. With respect to policies governing price controls dur- 
ing the emergency period, there should be taken into 
account the desirability of establishing in international 
commerce an equitable relationship between the prices of 
raw materials, foodstuffs, strategic materials, and the 
price of manufactured products. It is understood that 
the obligations under this resolution are directed toward 
international consultation regarding appropriate means 
of solving such problems. As a result of such consulta- 
tion it may be agreed to take appropriate measures to 
solve those problems. 

6. That, having in view the maintenance of the pur- 
chasing power of the currencies of the American Repub- 
lics and the real incomes of their peoples, recognition 
should be accorded to the principle that price stabilization 
measures .should be continued so long as the threat of 
serious inflation persists. 

The Inter-American Economic and Social Council should 
convoke as soon as possible and ad hoc committee of 
technical experts from central banks, treasuries or similar 
fiscal agencies, which, in collaboration with the appro- 
priate organs and .specialized agencies of the United Na- 
tions, .should study, making pertinent recommendations 
to the Governments of the American States, the problem 
of maintaining the purchasing power of their currencies 
and monetary reserves. 

7. That the Inter-American Economic and Social Coun- 
cil, in collaboration with the appropriate organs and spe- 
cialized agencies of the United Nations, should study, 
making pertinent recommendations to the Governments 
of the American States, the continued operation and ad- 
ministration of systems of price control instituted by the 
American Republics, their effect on the economies of the 
American Republics, and the need for appropriate adjust- 
ments in the operation of such systems. 



XVIII. Study Groups on Scarce Raw Materials 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 

Foreign Affairs 

Resolves: 

1. To recommend to the Inter-American Economic and 
Social Council, which will hold an Extraordinary Meet- 
ing within two months following the closing of the 
Fourth Meeting of Consultation, the special considera- 
tion of the different basic aspects imposed by the present 
emergency situation on the future economy of the coun- 
tries of the Americas, and particularly the policy to be 
followed by the American countries with respect to the 
International Materials Conference. 

2. To instruct the Inter-American Economic and Social 
Council to make a preliminary study of the status of 
those raw materials that are of particular importance to 
the American Republics, in their capacity as exporters 
or importers, in order to determine whether it is 
desirable: 

(a) In the case of raw materials for which an in- 
ternational conimittet? already exists, to establish an 
Inter-American Study Group for each one, to draft 



recommendations whenever necessary for transmittal to 
the pertinent international committee; 

(b) In the case of raw materials for which there 
is no international committee, to establish Inter-Ameri- 
can Study Groups to decide whether the Central Group 
of the International Materials Conference should be sent 
a recommendation on the establishment of the pertinent 
international committees. 

3. To recommend that the Inter-American Economic 
and Social Council convoke the necessary Inter-American 
Study Groups, in accordance with the considerations of 
paragraph 2 above. 

4. To recommend that for this purpose the Inter- 
American Economic and Social Council decide that the 
members of the said Study Groups may be the members 
of the Organization of American States having a sub- 
stantial interest as producers of the corre.sponding scarce 
raw materials or indicating that they have a national 
interest in the consumption of those materials. 

5. To recommend that the Inter-American Economic 
and Social Council request the interested Governments 
to appoint technical representatives to the Inter-Ameri- 
can Study Groups on scarce raw materials that are 
organized pursuant to this resolution, so that the work 
of those Groups may be done on a sound technical level. 

(J. To suggest to the Inter-American Economic and 
Social Council that the recommendations made by the 
Study Groups referred to in this resolution be trans- 
mitted to the Central Group by the representative of 
the Organization of American States thereto, and in tlie 
case of recommendations to any Commodity Committee. 
that it be requested to call a Special Meeting or a series 
of meetings so that a representative of the appropriate 
Study Group may have an opportunity to present such 
recommendations personally and with all the necessary 
details. 



XIX. Transportation 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 

Foreign Affairs 

Resolves: 

1. That the American States shall collaborate to ensure 
the availability and most efficient utilization of inter- 
American transportation facilities and cooperate in their 
improvement when necessary. 

2. That the Inter-American Economic and Social Coun- 
cil be requested to undertake immediate studies in order 
to prepare and recommend to the Governments of the 
American Republics, for their adoption, in case of an 
emergency, measures leading to the most effective equi- 
table utilization of all transportation facilities of the 
America.s. In particular, such measures shall include 
Information as to the availabiltiy of transportation facil- 
ities, the minimum requirements for the defense jirogram 
and for the essential civilian needs of each Republic. 

3. With a view to maintaining the equilibrium neces- 
sary to the economy of the maritime transportation sys- 
tem, the Inter-American Economic and Social Council, 
through appropriate channels, shall study the system of 
freight aiui insurance rates applicable to inter-American 
trade, and make recommendations on the pertinent prob- 
lems and their solution. 

4. If the state of emergency causes difflcultit^ in the 
trade of the American States, bilateral and multilateral 
adjustments shall be made to assure as far as possible 
the flow of exports from the countries supplying raw 
materials and foodstuffs, and the correlative importation 
of essential materials. |l 

5. If the state of emergency should make it necessary fl 
to establish transportation quolas, not oidy shall the vol- 
ume of their trailt- be taken into account to assure such 
quotas, hut also the special characteristics of the prin- 
cipal export i>roducts used to uuiintaiu their trade and 
monetary equilibriiun, so that, in so far as possible, the 
means of transi>iprtati(Ui that may be counted on will be 
adequate to their i)articular national needs. 



612 



Department of State Bulletin 



XX. Gradual Absorption of Production Factors 
Applied to Activities of a Temporary Nature 

The Foiirtli M(>eting of Consultation of Ministers of 

Foreign Affairs 

Resolves: 

That the Inter-American Economic and Social Council 
stuily measures to assure that once the emergency is over, 
production factors applied to activities of a temporary 
nature will be gradually absorbed in permanent activities. 



XXI. Temporary Nature of Restriction and 
Control Measures 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 

Foreign Affairs 

Declares: 

Tliat the emergency restriction and control measures 
contemplated in various resolutions of this Fourth Meet- 
ing of Consultation should be considered as temixirary 
measures required because of the common defense effort, 
and therefore recognizes the advisability of tlieir being 
eliminated as soon as the circumstances that gave rise 
to their establishment no longer exist. 



XXII. Liquidation of Emergency Stocks 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 

Foreign Affairs 

Resolves: 

To establish a common policy so that the return to 
normalcy will not cause dangerous disturbances in the 
markets and prices of the products of American coun- 
tries accunuilated by the Governments during the emer- 
gency. The li(iuidation of the emergency stocks shall be 
carried out gradually and step by step, in consultation 
witli the producer countries, in order to avoid abnormal 
disturbances in the world markets of the aforesaid 
products. 



XXIII. Study on the Shortage and Distribution 
of Newsprint 

Whekeas : 

The scarcity of newsprint gravely affects the normal 
development of the organs of the press in the American 
countries, which is the foundation on which freedom of 
expression must rest ; 

It is neces.sary to join forces to give every possible 
facility to the newspapers of America, in order that they 
may participate in the struggle to perfect the democratic 
system in America ; 



The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs 

Recommends: 

1. That the Secretariat of the Organization of Ameri- 
can States prepare, with the advice of the newspaper 
organizations of the Western Hemispliere, a technical 
report containing recommendations for facilitating the 
access of newspaper publishers to the sources of produc- 
tion and distribution of newsprint under price conditions 
that are equitable for all the American countries, with 
no discrimination whatsoever. The conclusions of the 
said study shall be submitted to the American States for 
consideration. 

2. That governmental measures for the distribution 
and tran.sportation of newsprint must be applied with due 
regard for the social function of journalism and with the 
same fundamental sense of general sacrifice as that un- 
derlying the system of allocations and priorities, and 
without preference or limitation that would affect the 
freedom of the press. 



XXIV. Plants Producing Synthetics 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs 
Resolves: 

In disposing of Government-owned industrial plants 
for the production of substitute or synthetic products 
built for defense purposes, due consideration should be 
given to the effects of the terms of such disposal upon 
the countries producers of natural materials, in order to 
avoid unfair competition. 



XXV. Manufacturing Plants and Rubber 
Plantations 

The Fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs 
Recommends: 

That the Inter-American Economic and Social Council 
study and submit reports to the interested American 
Governments dealing with the increase of natural-rubber 
production in the Hemisphere and the encouragement of 
plantations of rubber-producing trees and plants ; and 
with economic and technical assistance for: (a) the 
establishment of plants manufacturing tires, inner tubes 
and other articles of rubber whether or not they have 
the raw material for meeting the needs for these prod- 
ucts ; (b) the expansion of manufacturing plants in 
tlie American countries that already possess such plants; 
and (c) the installation and extension of plants produc- 
ing natural-rubber goods. 



April 16, 7 95 J 



613 



Emergency Economic Cooperation 

Draft Resolutions Submitted iy the United States 

Doc. 8 

SuhmittPd Mar. 24, 1951 

EXPLANATORY STATEMENT 

The United States representative to the Fourth 
Meeting of Considtation of Ministers of Foreign 
Affairs of American States hereby submits for tTie 
consideration of his colleagues the following draft 
resolutions : 

1. Draft General Declaration 

2. Draft Resolution on Emergency Economic Coopera- 

tion 

3. Draft Resolution on Economic Development and 

Technical Cooperation Programs 

In presenting these documents, the United 
States representative makes the following explan- 
atory statement: 

During the period of more than 3 months since the 
United States took the initiative to convene the present 
Meeting of Consultation, and indeed prior to the taking 
of such initiative, the United States Government has 
consulted with a number of other Governments with re- 
gard to their aspirations and concerns in the economic 
field, with particular regard to preoccupations arising 
from the effect of the current rearmament program on 
the rate of economic activity and of economic develop- 
ment in the countries of this hemisphere. The Inter- 
American Economic and Social Council meeting in Wash- 
ington preparatory to the Meeting of Consultation, has 
made studies concerning the economic aspects of the 
Conference. 

In order to facilitate the undertaking of discussions 
of the economic items of the agenda, the United States 
Government, having in mind the points of view expressed 
to it by Governments of the other American nations, and 
the pre-Conference consultations above referred to, and 
In the work of the Inter-American Economic and Social 
Council, and having al.so in mind the substantial cur- 
tailment of civilian consumption in the United States 
as a result of the rearmament effort upon which the 
United States has been required to embark in defense of 
our mutual liberties, has prepared and transmits here- 
with the attached drafts of resolutions. In preparing 
these drafts, the United States has made a determined 
effort to reconcile the various points of view, harmoniz- 
ing them into a set of principles and policies which can 
serve as a basis for economic relationships during this 
emergency period. 

In a real sense, therefore, the United States representa- 
tive hopes that the attached drafts may be looked upon 
as reflecting in so far as possible the common view- 
points of the American Republics. 



3. That strengthening the defenses of the American 
Republics re(juires the maximum production, distribution, 
and utilization of defense materials, the maintenance 
and stabilization of the civilian economies, and the devel- 
opment of essential productive facilities ; 

The Fourth Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs 
of the American Republics 
Declares: 

That the American Republics solemnly pledge, each to 
tlie other, and in tlie interest of the free world, their 
mutual cooperation in strengthening their common de- 
fense by effective measures of economic cooperation. 



ECONOMIC RESOLUTION NO. II 

Draft Economic Resolutions 
CUnder Sub A and B) 

Considering : 

1. That the imperialistic design of the leaders of inter- 
national Communist aggression has as an objective the 
dislocation and subversion of the economic systems of 
the free world as a prelude to the imposition of political 
and military control ; 

2. That resistance to this inimical design is of vital 
concern to the American Republics ; 

3. That it is necessary for each American State to 
play its full part in contributing to the common defense 
and in sustaining the economic stability of the free world ; 

4. That the mutual effort in the common defense may 
occasion economic adjustments requiring appropriate 
measures and controls to prevent serious inflation ; 

5. That the mobilization of economic resources, goods, 
and services to assure their maximum production, distri- 
bution, and utilization, and the adoption of measures of 
economic defense, are essential to the common purpose of 
achieving security. 

The Fourth Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of 
the American Republics 
Agrees : 

INCREASED PRODUCTION 

1. That the Governments of the American Republics 
should facilitate in every practicable way, including the 
adoption of necessary and appropriate Internal measures, 
increased production of basic materials needed for defense 
programs and for essential civilian requirements. 

2. That special financial assistance should be provided 
on reasonable terms where such assistance is necessary 
to increase emergency production of basic materials in 
short supply which are needed in the common defense 
effort. 

3. That where it may be necessary to induce producers 
of basic materials in short supply to undertake an emer- 
gency expansion of jn'oduction. the tiovernments of the 
importing countries should be prepared to undertake 
medium or long-term commitments with producers for the 
purchase of such basic materials at reasonable prices and 
consistent with any broad international allocution 
agreements. 



ECONOMIC RESOLUTION NO. I 
Proposed General Declaration 

C<)NSII)EEINO : 

1. That the American Republics and oilier countries 
of the free world are confronted with the inunediate 
necessity of strengthening their defenses against the 
forces of International Conununist Imperialism; 

2. Tliat the conunon defense of their political sover- 
eignty, their territorial integrity, anil their human liber- 
ties is of vital concern to each, and all, of the American 
Republics; 



ALLOCATIONS AND PRIORITIES 

1. That the minimum requirements for the operation of 
essential civilian wonomic activities must be met. 

2. That in reducing or liniiting less essential civilian 
needs, the principle of relative equality of sacrifice among 
countries should prevail, and accordingly, each country 
sh<mld make its full contribution in reducing its demand 
for such products. 

3. That where producing countries establish export 
allocations to meet essential foreign requirenu^nts, such 
countries, should, if necessary, adopt positive administra- 
tive measures to facilitate the fulfillment of such alloca- 
tions tor export. 



614 



DepartmenI of State Bulletin 



4. That in the case of those products which aro made 
subject to allocations or priorities affecting tlieir domestic 
consumption and expoit, highest priority must be given 
to the utilization of such products for defense production 
in the common cause. Including the maintenance of ade- 
quate strategic stockpiles. 

5. That Governments should cooperate, through such 
international arrangements as may be established, in the 
adoption of measures looking toward the allocation of 
basic conunodities in order to assure their most effective 
distriliution and utilization. 

(>. That in the administration of allocations related to 
development programs, measures of special supply facilita- 
tion should be granted for materials and equipment re- 
quired to niainlain or increase the production of basic 
materials essential to the defense program. Other eco- 
nomic development programs should proceed to the extent 
that materials and equipment can be made available 
without reducing other more essential requirements. 



PRICE CONTROLS 

1. That the Governments of the American Republics 
should adopt appropriate internal measures and controls 
to prevent inflationary tendencies which would endanger 
the Common defen.se program and basic economic stability 
and which would be detrimental to mutual economic 
relations. 

2. That each Government should recognize the recipro- 
cal benefits deriving from controls designed to prevent 
inflation and be prepared to cooperate with other Gov- 
ernments which impose price controls on Imports or ex- 
ports with a view to the adoption of corollary measures 
designed to make such controls more effective. 

3. That each Government adopting a system of price 
control should apply controls both to the prices of raw 
materials and manufactured goods. If price controls are 
impo.sed on imported products they should also be im- 
posed on exported products. Price policies should be 
such as to accord to imported products treatment no less 
favorable than the treatment accorded like domestic 
commodities. 



INTERGOVERNtVIENTAL CONSULTATION 
AND COOPERATION 

1. That the Governments of the American Republics 
will provide each other with full opportunity to consult 
with regard to the effect of emergency controls on in- 
ternational trade. It is recognized that consultation in 
advance of the imposition of controls will not always be 
possible owing to circumstances arising out of the 
emergency. 

2. That the American Republics agree to cooperate fully 
with one another in the adoption of effective measures of 
economic defen.se and security controls in the field of 
their international economic relations, including measures 
to increase the availability of products in short supply 
to the countries of the free world. 

3. That the Inter-.\merican Economic and Social Coun- 
cil is requested t<i study, on a continuing basis, the resolu- 
tions of emergency economic cooperation approved by 
this Fourth Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of 
the American Republics in the interest of reviewing the 
cooperation achieved by the American Republics with 
regard to those resolutions. 



TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES 

1. That the American States should be prepared to take 
prompt action to insure the continued availability and 
most efficient utilization of Inter-American transportation 
facilities. 

2. That the Inter-American Economic and Social Coun- 
cil is retjuested to undertake immediate studies for the 
formulation, and recommendation to the Governments of 
the American Republics for their adoption, in case of 
emergency, of measures for the most effective equitable 
use of all Inter-American transportation facilities. In 
particular, these measures should include informatiim on 
the availability of transportation facilities, the minimum 
traffic requirements for the defense iirogram and for 
essential civilian needs of each of the Reimblics. 



ECONOMIC RESOLUTION NO. Ill 

Economic Development and Technical 
Cooperation Programs 

CONSIUEKINQ : 

1. That the true faith of the peoples of the free world 
in their future and in the democratic way of life re- 
quires evidence that steps are being taken to improve their 
economic and social welfare through concrete measures 
to help them help themselves. 

2. That programs of economic development and tech- 
nical cooperation have proven to be among the most 
successful instruments in providing the conditions and 
facilities which are necessary to expand production, raise 
living standards and fulfill the hopes of mankind for a 
better future. 

3. That the present emergency situation constitutes an 
additional and urgent reason for increasing international 
cooperation in these fields, within the limitations imposed 
by the defense responsibilities of the American Republics. 

The Fourth Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of 
the American Republics 

Recommends. 

1. That the American Republics, with increased vigor, 
should continue to collaborate actively in progratns of 
economic development and technical cooperation with a 
view to building economic strength and well-being in the 
economically underdeveloped regions of the Americas and 
to improving the living levels of the people therein. 

2. That such collaboration should be carried forward, 
through planned and integrated programs, including 
those having joint application to more than one country, 
which are designed to modernize agriculture and increase 
food production, raise standards of health and education, 
develop mineral and power resources, increase industrial- 
ization, improve transportation facilities, encourage the 
investment of private capital and the use of related man- 
agerial capacity and technical skills, and better the con- 
ditions of labor. 

3. That during the present emergency period, priority 
should be given, within the limitations imposed by the 
emergency, to the immediate execution of projects for 
expanding the production of food, for increasing the out- 
put of materials in short supply, for improving nutritional 
standards and reducing the incidence of communicable 
and infectious diseases, and for bettering working condi- 
tions and labor standards. 



April 16, 7957 



615 



Outstanding Achievements 



Informal Remarks hy Secreta/ry Acheson ^ 



Mr. President, Your Excellencies — we come to 
the end of our meeting. And it falls to my lot, 
as your President who has received such outstand- 
ing remarks of kindness at your hands, to utter the 
final words. 

I can do no better at this moment than to be 
inspired and guided by the four notable addresses 
which you have heard from our colleagues this 
morning. At the outset of this meeting, I ven- 
tured the hope, a hope in which I had a great 
confidence, unlimited confidence, that this meet- 
ing would have a dual success. That, in the first 
place, what we did here, our actual accomplish- 
ment, would make a great contribution to the 
peace and prosperity of the world. 

I also ventured the hope that the manner in 
which we conducted this meeting, the great demon- 
stration of democratic and brotherly approach to 
common problems and of the cooperation in solv- 
ing common problems, would be an inspiration in 
a world in which there is all too little of that. You 
have heard from the addresses this morning how 
gloriously our hopes have been achieved. So far 
as our work is concerned, our agi'eement, the con- 
clusions which are embodied in our final act, the 
judgment upon those will be made by our peoples 
and by the peoples of the world and by history. 
It is not for us to utter that final judgment, nor 
is it for us to overpraise what we have clone. I 
am happy to see already that the judgments, 
which are being reached about our work, are that 
it has been outstanding. I am sure that will be 
the continued judgment. But, I may perhaps say 
a little about the method in which our work has 
been conducted and the example which has come 
from our work to this troubled world. 

And I might pause at this moment, before our 
final farewell, to examine for a moment why it is 
that we have been able to work upon these prob- 
lems, difficult problems which have come before us, 
in such a cooperative and brotherly way. Wliy 

'Made before the closing session of the meeting on 
Apr. 7. 



is that? There are two great reasons. We meet 
here in a meeting of Consultation as Foreign 
Ministers. But Foreign Ministei's are also men. 
So let us examine for a moment our duties and 
our efforts as Foreign Minister and then our asso- 
ciation as men. As Foreign Ministers, every per- 
son at this table has come to this meeting and 
has acted throughout this meeting in devoted 
loyalty to the interests of his country. And, in 
examining the interests of his country, each one 
of these Foreign Ministers has found, as their 
predecessors have found and as their successors 
will find, that fundamental in the interests of each 
of our countries is devotion and loyalty to our 
common American system, to our common Amer- 
ican ideals, to our common American interests, 
and to our common American organization. 

Therefore, we find, as we work, that we are 
bound together with such bands of iron that no 
individual interests can ever tear us apart. And, 
therefore, as Foreign Ministers, we find ourselves 
inevitably colleagues, working as colleagues at 
common problems which are connnon to all of 
us, the solution of which is necessary to all of 
us. And, therefore, as we work, we have worked 
as colleagues. There has been no rivalry between 
us. In a gathering such as the one we have had 
there are no stars and no satellites. There have 
been no issues where there are victors and van- 
quished. There have been no points at which 
there are winners and losers. ^\ e have all won. 
We have all won through a great achievement be- 
cause we are colleagues and because our funda- 
mental interests are common interests. 

But, we are also men, as well as Foreign 
Ministers. And the relations between men are, 
in my judgment (and I am sure you will agree) fl 
foumled, if they are to be successful, u]K)n nuitual '| 
respect and mutual regard. Those emotions can- 
not be pretended. They must be founded on 
reality. 

During this past 2 weeks, our mutual respect 
has grown because of the performance of every 



616 



Department of State Bulletin 



single Minister at this table. Each of you, I 
know, could do what I could do. And that is to 
look around this table and point out instance 
after instance where every single one of Your 
Excellencies has contributed with great ability 
and with great skill to the solution of some thorny 
problem or to easing the way over sticky points. 

And so, as we have worked together, we have 
a solid foundation for respect. We have seen 
performances here by every one of you which in- 
spire respect, and our mutual respect has grown 
in these weeks to great lieight. But respect is not 
enough. In adclition to respect, to have the 
proper relationships between men, there must be 
regard. And during these 2 weeks that, in turn, 
has grown. 

Many of us here are old friends. Some of us 
here are new friends. But, in every case, during 
these weeks, we find that the warmth of our re- 
gard has gi-own. It has grown and it has flour- 
ished, so that as we return home and conununicate 
with one another, and as we come to the final 
formal closing words of diplomatic correspond- 
ence, and we read, each one to the other, those 



words "Accept Excellency, the renewed assurance 
of m_v highest regard" tliat will mean to us some- 
tliing real. 

It will mean that it is the communication from 
a friend wiio really has high regard and for whom 
we each have high regard, and we will know that 
we are communicating with friends. 

I said that we have come to the end of our 
meeting, but we have not come to tlie end of our 
work. Our work never ends. We turn now from 
our agreement upon future action, which we have 
reached so unanimously here in Washington, to 
the carrying out of that action each in his own 
country. And each of us will encounter difficul- 
ties — that is inevitable. But all of us, as a band 
of brothers, will have our hearts and minds going 
with each person here, sympathizing in his diffi- 
culties, anxious to be helpful for their solution, 
watching, always hopefully, for his greater and 
greater success. 

We have come to the final moment: Your Ex- 
cellencies — no, that word is too cold for this final 
moment. May I say to you, "my friends," I bid 
to each one of you a most affectionate farewell. 



U.S. Solicits Opinions of American Republics on Japanese Settlement 

by Ambassador John Foster Dulles 
Consultant to the Secretary ^ 



We are living in dangerous days. It is a time 
when each of us has the obligation to contribute 
to the preservation of peace with justice. The con- 
tributions to be made are not merely material — 
military and economic. There is a moral contri- 
bution to be made, because only as our cause is 
righteous will it prevail. 

It is in this respect that our sister Republics of 
the Americas can make a great and a distinctive 
contribution to the cause of the free world. The 
very fact that you have no selfish interest in Eu- 
rope, Asia, and Africa enables you to bring to bear 
a clarity and a purity of judgment which is wel- 
comed by a nation such as the United States which, 
as set out in the opening sentence of our Declara- 
tion of Independence, possesses "a decent respect 
to the opinions of mankind." 

The United States invites the opinion of all of 
the American Republics with respect to its inter- 
national policies, because we recognize that those 

' Summary of remarks made before the World Trade 
Committee of the Washington Board of Trade in honor of 
the Foreign Ministers and Ambassadors of the American 
Republics at the Fourth Consultative Meeting of the For- 
eign Ministers on Apr. 3 and released to the press on the 
same date. 

April 16, 1 95 J 

940013—51 3 



opinions reflect the type of public opinion by which 
international policies ought to be judged. 

You, your Governments, and your people, pre- 
dominantly accept a religious view of the world. 
You believe that there is a Divine Creator Who is 
the ruler of men and of nations and that He has 
established a moral order, disregard of which 
sooner or later, but inexorably, brings disaster. 
You believe tliat there are external verities of 
truth, mercy, and justice and that law, national 
and international, ought to reflect those verities 
rather than the self-will and self-seeking of man. 

It is in this matter that there exists the greatest 
gulf between the Cf^mmunist world and the free 
world of those who b lieve that man has his origin 
and destiny in God. The Communist world, fol- 
lowing the precept of Stalin, refuses to evaluate 
human and national conduct by standards of "eter- 
nal justice" and considers that law, national and 
international, is merely the means whereby those 
in power achieve their political ends and destroy 
their class enemies. 

The United States has, I repeat, a "decent re- 
spect" for the opinions of others, but it is not in- 
terested in opinions which derive from this athe- 

617 



istic view of our world. We are interested in 
opinions wliich reflect a moral judgment. 

That is why the United States welcomes the im- 
portant voice' which the American Republics have 
in the United Nations. That is why we always 
consciously try to make our policies such as wdl 
commend themselves to your opinion. 

The Soviet bloc constantly charges that there 
is unity between the United States and our sister 
Republics because you are "dominated" by our 
power. Only those who are fully blind to reality 
could make such a charge. If there is unity, and 
I am happy to say that there generally is, it is 
because the United States has a respect for your 
opinion and because we consciously seek to win 
its approbation. 

That is one of the reasons, in fact the principal 
reason, why I welcome this opportimity to talk 
with you about the possibilities of peace with 
JajDan. There are, of course, other reasons. All 
of you showed your solidarity with the United 
States by entering the war against Japan. All 
of you joined the economic effort that was required 
to win that war, and one of you made an appre- 
ciable military contribution in the Pacific. There- 
fore, in this matter you are more than an academic 
audience. You represent Governments which, I 
hope, will be parties to a peace. 

There is a group of nations which, by common 
consent, have a special interest in the Japanese 
peace settlement. Those are the nations repre- 
sented upon the Far Eastern Commission which 
was set up in 1945 and which has been responsible 
for the over-all occupation policies. Three other 
nations in the western Pacific area have come into 
being since 1945 and they have a similar concern. 
We are having preliminary talks with these Gov- 
ernments and with Japanese leaders. I assure you 
they are only preliminary. They are, however, 
not secret talks. The whole world knows what 
we are talking about, and we welcome and receive 
advice from all who are sincerely and legitimately 
concerned. 

Perhaps the most diflBcult single problem is that 
of security — security for Japan and security 
against a possible revival of militarism in Japan. 
We believe that that should be worked out as far 
as possible in accordance with the collective se- 
curity principles of the United Nations. The Jap- 
anese Government and people want that also. 
Japan, undoubtedly, will apply as promptly as 
possible for membei-ship in the United Nations. 
But their application may be vetoed, as has been 
the application of Italy and other peace-loving 
states. 

This is an aspect of the problem which I am 
sure you will want to consider, both as belligerents 
in the Jajjanese war and as members of the United 
Nations. It is becoming increasingly intolerable 
that the Soviet veto is preventing the realization 
of the United Nations Charter provision that mem- 
bership should be open to all peace-loving states 



which accept the obligations contained in the 
Charter and which are able and willing to carry 
out those obligations. Denial of membership to 
such nations makes it difficult to develop a genu- 
ine collective security system, such as is needed 
in the case of Japan. I believe that the United 
Nations Assembly should, at an early date, give 
consideration to how this problem can be prac- 
tically resolved. 



Erroneous Versions of Japanese 
Peace Treaty in Foreign Press 

[Released to the press April 6] 

It seems that there are appearing in the press 
abroad versions of a draft of Japanese peace 
treaty attributed to the United States. 

As previously announced, the United States 
some clays ago did hand confidentially to repre- 
sentatives of Allied Powers a tentative and sug- 
gestive dra,ft. of a peace treaty which it was 
understood M'as a working paper, subject to alter- 
ation and changes which the United States itself 
might want to propose and, of course, subject to 
considerations advanced by other Governments. 
Since this first tentative draft was circulated, the 
United States has itself decided to recommend 
certain changes and additions so that texts pres- 
ently circulated, although in general substance 
reflecting the type of treaty which Ambassador 
Dulles described in considerable detail in his Los 
Angeles address of March 31,^ do not in respect 
to details and concrete language necessarily re- 
flect the final views of the United States, much 
less those of other Governments whose comments 
are now being awaited. 



Philippine War Damage Commission 
Completes Task on War Claims 

[Released to tlie press hy the White House Mareh 29] 

The President today sent the following letter to each 
of the three members of the Philippine War Damage 
Commissian on the termination of the activities of the 
Commission. 

De.m{ : As the Philippine War 

Damage Commission terminates its work, I wish 
lo connnend you and the other membei-s of the 
Commission on the outstanding manner in which 
you have discharged your responsibilities. It is 
partii'ularly notewortiiy, and something all too 
rare in govermnent annals, that the Conunission, 
in advance of the time prescribed by Congress, has 
been able to complete the tremendous task of con- 

' Bulletin of Apr. 9. 1951, p. 577. 



618 



Department of State Bulletin 



sideriiiji; 1,248,901 claims and paying out more than 
$388 million at an administrative cost well below 
that provided by law. 

The program which yonr Connnission undertook 
following the passage of the act of Congress of 
April ;!(), 194() rejn-esented something new in the 
history of the United States because this Govern- 
ment had never before assumeil the responsibility 
of restoration of private property destroyed in 
time of war. The j^rogram was one, however, that 
the American people, wiio were themselves still 
mourning the loss of some 300,000 of their own sons 
and daughters and who then, as now, were con- 
fronted with staggering post-war problems, never 
questioned. In recognition of the loyalty and 
friendship of the people of the Philippines, all 
were agreed that we should assist them in getting 
a firm start on the road back toward the reestab- 
lishment of a normal economy. Your Commission 
has played a vital role in helping the people of 
the Philippines in this task. Your program has 
strengthened the Philippine ecouonn', it has helped 
restore many imjioi-tant buildings and facilities 
throughout the Islands, and it has enabled tho)i- 
sands of people to reestablish themselves in busi- 
ness, in agriculture, and in other pursuits. 

The Philippine and American people have been 
closely associated for more than fifty years and 
it is my earnest hope that the two nations will 
continue that close association and cooperation in 
meeting the great problems which confront all 
freedom-loving people today. I believe that the 
work of the Commission has contributed materially 
to the realization of that hope. 

In accepting your resignation on completion of 
a task well done, I wish to express my pereonal 
appreciation for your outstanding services as a 
member of the Phili])pine War Damage Commis- 
sion, and to conunend the Philippine and American 
membei-s of your staff for their splendid contri- 
bution. 

Very sincerely 3'ours, 

Harrt S. Truman 

FoUomng is the text of the letter to the President from 
the members of the Commission. 

March 26, 1961 
My Dear Mr. President : It is our privilege to 
transmit to you the Ninth Semiannual and Final 
Report of the Philippine War Damage Commis- 
sion.^ This report, as required by statute, has also 
been sent to the President of the Senate and 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. It con- 
tains an account of the activities of the Commis- 
sion since its inception. 

The Commission received 1,248,901 claims val- 
ued by the claimants at $1,225,()00,(X)0. All of 
these claiuLs have now been adjudicated, with an 
average rate of disallowance of 55.7 percent. To- 
tal payments have aggregated $388,150,000. As 
prescribed hy law, all claims approved for $500 or 

'Available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing OlHee, Washington 2.5, D. C. 



less were paid in full, and all claims approved in 
excess of $500 were paid that amount plus 52.5 per- 
cent of the remainder. Small claimants have re- 
stored their homes and equipment, thus becoming 
more productive and hence more useful citizens. 
Claimants witli claims apjiroved in excess of 
$25,000 received $100,000,000 from the Commis- 
sion, but invested $500,000,000 in the Philippine 
economy. 

The task of the Commission has been concluded 
in advance of April 30, 1951, the termination date 
fixed by Congress. Moreover, the Connnission is 
able to return to the United States Treasury 
$2,500,000, most of which represents administra- 
tive funds which were not required because of econ- 
omy in administration. The cost of administration 
was less than 2.5 percent of the total sum appro- 
priated. 

For the payment of war damage to public prop- 
erty, the Commission was allocated $56,800,000. 
Of this sum $55,250,000 has been distributed for 
reconstruction. The remainder was iised for ad- 
ministrative expense at a ration of 2.5 percent. 
Through this i^hase of the rehabilitation program, 
hospitals were provided for 3,200 bed patients, 
schools for 3,200,000 students, and waterworks for 
6,700,000 people. In addition, appropriate build- 
ings were reconstructed for the Philippine Con- 
gress, the Supreme Court, certain executive de- 
partments of the national Government and provin- 
cial and municipal Governments. The University 
of the Philippines was given substantial aid, as 
were the Culion Leper Sanitorium and the Quezon 
Institute for tuberculous patients. 

Although the funds authorized and appropri- 
ated were inadequate fully to repair the ravages of 
war in the Philippines, they were of tremendous 
assistance. Without them the very existence of 
the new ReiDublic would have been endangered. 
Yet, despite supplemental appropriations by the 
Philippine Government, much rehabilitation re- 
mains to be done. The Commission is pleased to 
report, however, the deep gratitude of the Philip- 
pine people for this unprecedented act of generos- 
ity by the people of the United States. 

Now that the work is concluded, we, the mem- 
bers of the Philippine AVar Damage Commission, 
offer to you our resignations, to become effective 
at the close of business March 31, 1951. In so do- 
ing, we wnsh to express our deep appreciation of 
the opportunity accorded us to serve the Philip- 
pine and American people, and to acknowledge 
our indebtedness for your able leadership and un- 
failing support. You have our best wishes for 
continued health, happiness, and success. 

Respectfully, 

Fr,\nk a. Waring 

Chairman 
Francisco A. Delgado 

Commissioner 
John A. O'Donnell 

C ommissioner 



April 76, J 95/ 



619 



Second Anniversary of NAT Marks Progress 



Statement by the President 



[Released to the press by the White House April S] 



On the second birthday of the North Athintic 
Treaty, it is appropriate that we take stock of our 
progress. 

The most encouraging fact which stands out 
today is that Europe is stronger and in a better 
position to defend itself than it was a year ago. 

This stems from the determination of the free 
peoples of Europe to help themselves. Their de- 
termination as well as their strength has been in- 
creased by the assistance which we have been able 
to give them. Even more important, our joint 
efforts have acquired greater effectiveness through 
the establishment of General Eisenhower's unified 
command. For the first time in history, there 
exists in peace an integrated international force 
whose object is to maintain peace through 
strength. Six years ago, General Eisenhower led 
such a force to victory, but we devoutly pray that 
our present course of action will succeed and main- 
tain peace without war. 

The armed forces of the North Atlantic Treaty 
countries will grow more rapidly in the future as 
stepped-up training and production programs 
begin to bear fruit. An enormous military pro- 
duction program is under way in the United 
States, and our allies, despite limited facilities and 
resources, have already more than doubled their 
rate of military production. 

Just as important as the forces which we are 
building together is the spirit of cooperation and 
joint effort which has been greatly strengthened. 
This is a solid achievement which will bring re- 
wards of happiness and prosperity to our peoples 
long after the passing of the present emergency. 

The events of the past 2 years have proved be- 
yond question the wisdom of the course we adopted 
in signing tJie North Atlantic Treaty. Develop- 
ments since the war have made it more clear than 
ever before that no nation can find safety behind 
its own frontiers — that the only security lies in 
collective security. 

While we have reason to take pride in our ac- 
complishments, we cannot forget that the road 
ahead is still long and hard. The people of the 



United States and the people of Europe must ac- 
cept heavy burdens with both determination and 
patience. I am confident that we will march for- 
ward together with speed and vigor. Above all, 
I feel certain that we will not relax the great effort, 
which is now under way. 

Message From Secretary Acheson 
to Chairman van Zeeland 

[Released to the press April 4] 

Folloirinff is the text of a niessnfie from Secretary 
Dean Acheson to Forci/in Minister Paul O. van Zeeland 
of Belyiuin, Chairman of the Council of Nato, on the oc- 
casion of the second annirersary of the signing of the 
North Atlantic Treaty. 

On this second anniversary of the signing of the 
North Atlantic Treaty, I wish to extend to you, as 
Chairman of the North Atlantic Council, the sin- 
cere greetings of the Government and people of 
the United States. 

Two j'ears ago, 12 nations of the North Atlantic 
community joined together in a great cause — the 
cause of peace and security. These nations have 
reason to take pride in the progress which has 
been made since that time. We are proving once 
again that free people possess the spirit, the cour- 
age, the skill, and the capacity for cooperation 
which, in the long run, will make them far 
stronger than any would-be aggi'essor. 

Today, the people of the United States have 
undertaken the greatest peacetime defense pro- 
gram in their history. In accepting the burdens 
and sacrifices which such a program inevitably 
requires the}' are comforted and insi)ire(l by the 
knowledge that 1 1 other free nations are also con- 
tributing their skills and resources to the connnon 
purpose. The future will demand continued ef- 
forts and sacrifices from all of us, but I am con- 
fident that we will succeed in meeting these de- 
mands. Upon our success dejicnds not only the 
peace and security of the iieoples of this genera- 
tion, but also the preservation of freedom, human 
dignity, and social justice for future generations. 



620 



Department of State Bulletin 



U.S.-U.K.-France Announce Agreement on Industrial Controls 
in Allied Zones of Germany 



[Releaaed to the press April 4] 



Attached is the text of an agreement concerning in- 
dustrial controls in the French, United Kingdom, and 
United States areas of occupation in Germany, which was 
announced April 3 in Frankfort by the three AUied> High 
Commissioners. 

This agreement replaces the agreement concerning pro- 
hibited and limited industries of lO^O.^ Also attached 
is the text of a letter from the High Commission to 
Chancellor Adenauer summarizing the provisions of the 
new agreement. 

These documents have 'been released in Germany and 
in Washington, Paris, and London. 



TEXT OF AGREEMENT 

CONCERNING INDUSTRIAL CONTROLS 

The High Commissioners of France, the United King- 
dom and the United States of America, duly authorised 
thereto by tlieir respective Governments, hereby con- 
clude on behalf of those Governments the following 
agreement concerning industrial controls in the French, 
United Kingdom, and United States Areas of Occupation 
in Germany. 

Article I 

1. The provisions of this Agreement shall be reviewed 
on the request of any two of the Governments parties to 
the Agreement and in any event not later than 31st 
December, 1951. 

2. Except as may be subsequently agreed among the 
Governments parties to this Agreement, the prohibitions 
laid down in this Agreement shall remain in force until 
the peace settlement. 

3. Except as may be subsequently agreed among the 
Governments parties to this Agreement, the limitations 
laid down in this Agreement shall remain in force until 
1st January, 19.53, or until the peace settlement, which- 
ever is the earlier, and thereafter as may be agreed. 

Article II 

Except with the authorisation of the Allied High 
Commission the manufacture, production, installation, 
import, export, transport, storage, possession, ownership 
or use of any of the following articles or products is 
prohibited : 

(a) items listed in Annex A to this Agreement; 

(b) primary magnesium. 

Article III 

Materials, products, facilities and etiuipment relating 
to atomic energy shall continue to be subject to Allied 
High Commission legislation. 



' Bulletin of Apr. 24, 1949, p. 526. 



Article IV 

1. The manufacture of electronic valves shall be un- 
restricted in respect of types included in a list of per- 
mitted types as established, and modified as required, 
liy the Allied High Commission. These permitted types 
shall not exceed .50 watts anode dissipation, or a fre- 
quency of 250 megacycles per second. 

2. The manufacture of electronic valves included in 
the categories listed in Annex B to this Agreement is 
prohibited. This Annex is sub.iect to review and revision 
by the Allied High Commission. 

3. The manufacture of all other categories or specific 
types of electronic valves is prohibited except under 
license from the Allied High Commission. 

Article V 

1. Control shall be maintained over capacity in the fol- 
lowing industries :- 

(a) Steel 

(b) Electric arc and high frequency furnace steel 

(c) Shipbuilding 

(d) Synthetic rubber 

(e) Synthetic petrol, oil and lubricants, produced 
directly or indirectly from coal or brown coal 

(f) Ball and roller bearings, except equipment only 
capable of producing non-precision bearings. 

2. No enterprise shall be permitted, except under 
license from the Allied High Commission, to increase the 
productive capacity of any of its ijlant or equipment that 
is engaged or partly engaged in the industries listed in 
this Article, or of the industry as a whole, whether it is 
proposed to effect the increase by extension of existing 
facilities, the construction of new facilities, or the addi- 
tion of new equipment. Such licenses shall not be granted 
unless the Allied High Commission are satisfied with the 
arrangements made for the disposal of the capacity 
replaced. 

Article VI 

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of this 
Article the production of crude steel shall be limited to 
11.1 million tons a year. 

2. The Allied High Commission will allow crude steel to 
he produced outside the foregoing limitation where this 
will facilitate the defence effort. 

Article VII 

1. The construction and acquisition of ships which in- 
clude the military features, characteristics and equipment 
listed in Annex C to this Agreement and the modification 
of ships to include such features, characteristics and 
e<iuipment shall be prohibited except under license from 
the Allied High Commission. 

2. The term "acquisition" as used in this Article in- 
cludes bare-boat chartering. 



April 16, 1 95 1 



621 



Article VIII 

Nothin>; in this Agreement sliall 1)8 interpreted as im- 
Iiairing or reducing tlie powers with which the Military 
Security Board is vested. 

Article IX 

This Agreement shall come into force from the date 
of signature and shall replace the Agreement concerning 
Prohibited and Limited Industries approved by the 
Foreiun Ministers of France, the United Kingdom and the 
United States and signed by the Military Governors of 
the French, United Kingdom and United States Zones of 
Occupation in Germany in April, 1&49. 

Annex A 

Group I 

(a) All weapons Including atomic means of warfare 
or apparatus of all calibres and natures capable of jiro- 
jecting lethal or destructive projectiles, liquids, gases or 
toxic substances, their carriages and mountings. 

(b) All projectiles for the above and their means of 
projection or propulsion. 

(c) All military means of destruction including but 
not limited to grenades, bombs, toriiedoes, mines, depth 
mines, depth and demolition charges and self-propelled 
charges, all types of fu.ses therefor and all apparatus for 
the guiding, control and operation thereof including tim- 
ing, sensing and homing devices. 

(d) All military cutting or piercing weapons. 

Group II 

(a) All vehicles specially equipped or designed for mili- 
tary purposes including but not limited to tanks, armoured 
cars, tank-carrying trailers and armoured railway rolling 
stock. 

(b) Armour of all types for military purposes. 

Group III 

(a) Instruments and devices of the following classes, 
de.signed for military purposes, irrespective of the form 
of energy or the part of the spectrum used : 

(i) Range-finding ai)paratus of all kinds; 
(ii) Aiming, guiding and computing devices for Are 
control ; 

(iii) Locating devices of all kinds; 

(iv) Instruments for observation of fire; 

(v) Instruments for the remote control of objects. 

(b) All signalling and inter-communication equipment 
and installations specially designed for military purjioses ; 
all apparatus intended specifically for the purpose of pro- 
ducing radio interference. 

Oroup IV 

(a) Warships of all classes. All ships and floating 
equipment specially designed for war purposes including 
the servicing of warships. All ships designed or con- 
structed for conversion into warships or for military use. 

(b) Special machinery, e<|uipnient and installations 
which in time of peace are normally used solely in 
warship.s. 

( c) Submersible craft of all kinds ; submersible devices 
of all kinds, designed for military puriK)ses. Special 
equipment i>crtaining to these craft and devices. 

(d) All military landing devices. 

(e) Material, equipment and installations for the 
military defense of coastal areas and harbours. 

Group V 

(a) Aircraft of all types, heavier or lighter than air: 
with or without means of pidinilsion, and all auxiliary 
equipment, including aircraft engines and component 

622 



parts, accessories and spare parts specifically designed for 
aircraft use. 

(b) Ground equipment and installations for servicing, 
testing or aiding the o[)eration of aircraft, including but 
not limited to catapults, winches and beacons. Material 
for the rapid construction or preparatiim of airfields. 

Group VI 

All drawing, specifications, designs, models and repro- 
duction directly relating to the development, manufacture, 
testing or inspection of the war material, or to experi- 
ments or research in connection with war material. 

Group VII 

(a) Machine tools or other manufacturing equipment 
specifically designed for the development, manufactui-e, 
testing and inspection of weapons, ammunition or other 
war materials listed in this Annex. 

(b) Attachments, devices, tools or other objects having 
no normal peacetime use and specifically designed to con- 
vert or adapt machine tools or other manufacturing equip- 
ment to the development, manufacture, testing and inspec- 
tion of weapons, ammunition or other war materials listed 
in this Annex. 

Oroup VIII 

(a) (i) Explosives and accessories. 

(ii) Double base propellants (i. e. nitrocellulose pro- 
pellants containing nitroglycerine, diethyleneglycol di- 
nitrate or analogous substances). 

(iii) Single base proijellants for any weapons. 

(iv) Nitroguanidine. 

(v) Chemicals particularly useful as poison war 
gasses (including liquids and solids customarily included 
In this term). 

(vi) Hydrogen peroxide of 37% concentration or 
higher. 

(vii) Hydrazine hydrate. 

(viii) Alkyl nitrates. 

(ix) Other chemicals particularly useful as rocket 
fuels. 

(x) Highly toxic products from bacteriological or 
plant sources, with the exception of those bacteriological 
and plant products which are used for therapeutic 
jjurposes. 

(xi) White phosphorous. 

(xii) Incendiaries and incendiary compositions, in- 
cluding but not limited to thermites and gell fuels. 

(b) All special means for individual and collective 
defence used in peace exclusively by Armed Forces. 

Group IX 

All apparatus, devices and material specially designed 
for training and instructing personnel in the use. handling, 
manufacture and maintenance of war material. 

Group X 

Spare parts, accessories and component parts of the 
articles and products listed in this annex. 

Annex B 

Cattyorics of Electronic Valves the Miinii fact lire uf ichieh | 
is Prohibited 

(i) Velocity modulated valves, e.g. Kylstrons. 

(ii) Magnetrons. 

(iii) Valves employing direct coupling of the electron 
stream to the output circuit. 

(iv) Valves designed uiechanieally to fit wave guide, 
cavity, coaxial or parallel wire line resonant circuits or 
having such circuits built into the valves. 

(v) Jlemor.v or storage valves. 

(vi) Triggered spark-gap valves. 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



(vii) Subminiature valves (i. e. valves capable of beinj; 
passed tlirou;;!! a hole one-half inch in diameter, or spe- 
cially designed to withstand Kreat acceleration or the 
shock of departnre of projectiles). 

(viii) t'uthode ray tubes, except those specifically de- 
sifined and produced for television receiver purposes. 

(ix) Germanium, silicon, and other semiconductor 
crystal rectifiers, or modifications tlieroof capable of opera- 
tion at radio frequencies. 

(X) Speci:il pui-pose valves having no known commer- 
cial application or valves designed for optimum perform- 
ance above 250 megacycles. 

Annex C 

Features, Characteristics and Equipment which may 
not be Constructed or Installed in any Ship except under 
Incense from the Allied High Commission 

(a) Any special features or characteristics which 
render it readily convertible :- 

(i) for amphibious assault operations; 

(ii) to an aircraft carrier or for operating aircraft; 

(iii) to a repair or depot ship for submarines, air- 
craft or coastal forces craft ; 

(iv) to a fl.s,'hter direction vessel; 

(V) to any other combatant or naval auxiliary type 
of vessel. 

(b) Any of the following weapons, equipment and 
material :- 

(i) all items listed in Annex A of this Agreement 
(except radio direction and position finders and radar 
equipment of normal commercial marine type) ; 

(ii) paravanes; 

(iii) minesweeping gear of any description; 

(iv) catapults for aircraft launching; 

(v) rocket or missile launching devices, except such 
as may be in normal commercial usage for emergency 
signallins; and rescue purposes ; 

(vi) smoke-making equipment or apparatus of spe- 
cial devices for concealment purposes ; 

(vii) high concentration hydrogen peroxide or spe- 
cial submarine fuels or supplies; 

(viii) depth sounding gear and radio and gyrocom- 
pass «iuipment which do not conform to normal commer- 
cial marine tyi^es. 

(c) Any special titting-s or special structures readily 
adaptable for mounting, carrying or storing any of the 
items listed in paragraph (b) above. 

(d) Any of the following machinery or features of ship 
design, and provisions therefor, which in relation to the 
type of vessel in which they are installed, do not conform 
to normal commercial marine practice, or which in time 
of peace are normally used solely in warships, and which 
in the opinion of the Military Security Board also con- 
stitute a security threat :- 

(i) main and auxiliary machinery, notably that with 
characteristics such as would give abnormally long range 
in miles at speeds other than service speed or that which 
would result in speed substantially greater than that 
normal to the type of vessel and for the services intended ; 

(ii) gas jet propulsion or atomic propulsion; 

(iii) auxiliary electrical generating machinery and 
equipment of capacity in excess of that normal to the 
type of vessel ; 

(iv) cargo lifting gear in excess of that normal to 
the type of vessel ; 

(V) subdivision significantly different from that 
normal to the type of vessel ; 

(vi) evaporators of capacity in excess of that normal 
to the type of ves.sel and for the services intended ; 

(vii) fuel and fresh water capacity in excess of that 
normal to the type of vessel and for the services in- 
tended ; 

(viii) hull and deck openings in excess of those 
normal to the type of vessel ; 

(ix) unobstructed deck space in excess of that nor- 
mal to the type of vessel. 



TEXT OF LETTER FROM 
ALLIED HIGH COMMISSION 
TO CHANCELLOR ADENAUER 



I have the honor ot inform Your Excellency that, fol- 
lowing upon the decision taken by the three I<\)reign Min- 
isters in September, VXiU to institute a review of the Pro- 
liiliited and Limited Industries Agreement, my colleagues 
and I liave today signed an Agreement on Industrial Con- 
trols. I enclose a copy of this document which shall, 
!is from today, replace the Agreement concluded be- 
tween tlie three Military Governors in April, 1949. 

-. You will observe that the new agreement, which is 
subject to review at the request of any two of the sig- 
natory Governments, and in any event, not later than 
r>ecemlier .'U. 1951, relaxes a number of limitations 
hitherto imposed on industry in the Federal territory and 
will facilitate production in Germany of items and ma- 
terials for common defense by the West. 

3. By the terms of the Agreement, limitations and 
restrictions hitherto in force upon the size and speed or 
tonnage of merchant ships built or otherwise acquired 
by Germany, primary aluminum, syntlietic ammonia, 
chlorine, styrene, and upon machine tools of types listed 
in annex "B" to the former Agreement are removed. In 
addition, the High Commission will be willing to author- 
ize the production of crude steel outside the limit of 11.1 
million tons per annum where such production will facili- 
tate steel being provided for the conunon defense effort. 
The prohibition on the production of synthetic oil and 
rubber is removed, and restrictions upon the capacity of 
the.se and of the ball and roller bearing industries are 
now modified. Control is retained, but in modified form, 
over the production of electronic valves. 

4. The three Governments do not desire to hamper 
technological progress or to prevent the modernization 
of production leading to the reduction of costs and econo- 
mies in raw materials, power and fuel. Consequently, in 
those few industries where tlie limitation of capacity is 
maintained the High Commission will be prepared to au- 
thorize the substitution of more efficient equipment, the 
rearrangement of machinery and the introduction of new 
processes or other technical changes even though this 
may involve a minor increase in the capacity of the fac- 
tory or the equipment in question. 

5. In authorizing the rehabilitation of plants (includ- 
ing the installation of new equipment) and the utiliza- 
tion of new processes for the production of synthetic 
rubber and synthetic oil the High Commission will, as 
long as solid fuels are in short supply, grant licenses only 
to the extent that additional consumption of coal and 
coke necessary for the production contemplated does not 
affect the satisfaction of the needs of solid fuel import- 
ing countries. Nevertheless, applications outstanding for 
use of the plants at Bergkamen, Viktor, Scholven and 
Ruhroel will be granted forthwith. 

(j. Whilst the necessity for obtaining license to manu- 
facture machine tools listed in schedule "B" of the old 
Prohibited and Limited Industries Agreement is not main- 
tained, my colleagues and I require that a sy.stem of 
declaration of manufacture by the producer (indicating 
the intended destination of each machine) and of report- 
ing on the quantities of such machines in Germany shall 
be put into operation. 

7. The coming into force of the Agreement on Industrial 
Controls will entail certain amendments to High Commis- 
sion Law 24 and to ordinances which your Government 
has issued in respect of the various items concerned. It 
is not intended that the coming into effect of the new 
Agreement shall await completion of all administrative 
proee-s-tes involved in these amendments, and instructions 
have been issued to the Military Security Board to treat 
applications from industry in the spirit of the new Agree- 
ment pending the issue of the necessary amendments. 



April 76, 1951 



623 



U.S.-Sweden Discuss Financial 
Policies on Transfer of Dollars 

[Released to the press April 5] 

During the years 1947, 1948, and 1949 the 
United States Government and the Government 
of Sweden concluded a series of understandings 
■nhicli temporarily modified the quantitative and 
nondiscriminatory commitments of the trade 
agreement of 1935 between the two countries. 
These modifications were necessitated by the 
drain on Sweden's gold and foreign-exchange 
holdings which became apparent in 1946 and 
threatened to reduce these holdings below the 
minimum levels required to carry on international 
trade. Because of this situation, and on the basis 
of the relevant understandings, the Swedish Gov- 
ernment instituted temporary controls over trade 
and payments with a view particularly to limit- 
ing uses of Swedish-held dollar exchange to pur- 
poses considered essential to that nation's 
economy. 

The understandings modifying the 1935 trade 
agreement were last renewed on June 27, 1949, 
for a period ending June 30, 1950, or on the date 
Sweden became a contracting party of the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, whichever 
was earlier. As a result of Sweden's accession 
to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 
an agreement was signed May 25, 1950, by which 
the 1935 trade agreement was terminated effec- 
tive June 30, 1950. Therefore, from that date, 
commodity trade between Sweden and the United 
States has been subject only to the provisions of 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 
although Sweden actually became a contracting 
party to the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade on April 30, 1950. 

The modifications contained in the 1949 under- 
standing expired on April 30, 1950, and with 
respect to payments ("invisible" transactions), 
there existed after June 30, 1950, no general 
financial arrangements comparable to those in the 
1935 trade agreement. This situation will con- 
tinue presumably until Sweden becomes a mem- 
ber of the International Monetary Fund or enters 
into an alternative financial agi'eement as pro- 
vided in the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade for contracting parties not members of the 
International Monetary Fund. At the same time, 
there remain certain funds whose transfer into 
dollars was deferred by the Swedish Government 
on the basis of the luiderstandings which have 
expired. 

The United States Government has discussed 
these circumstances with the Swedish Govern- 
ment in the light of the improvement which has 
been noted in the Swedish balance of payments 
and the Swedish gold and foreigu-cxchange hold- 
ings during the past IS months. As a result of 
these discussions, it has been learned that the 



Swedish Government is prepared to liberalize re- 
strictions on the transfer of current dollar pay- 
ments accruing in the future and to undertake 
the early reduction of blocked funds which have 
accumulated as a result of the deferral of dollar 
payments by Sweden following the 1948 and 1949 
understanding mentioned above. The United 
States Government will continue to discuss with 
the Swedish Government, on the basis of equity 
or the anticipated membership of Sweden in the 
International Monetary Fund, the policies govern- 
ing the transfer of payments between the two 
countries. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography' 

General Assembly 

Palestine : Question of an International Regime for the 
Jerusalem Area and Protection of the Holy Places : 
Special Report of the Trusteeship Council. Report 
of the Ad Boo Political Committee. A/1724, Decem- 
ber 14, 1950. 5 pp. mimeo. 

Budget Estimates for the Financial Tear 1951: Salary, 
Allowance and Leave System of the United Nations. 
Report of the Fifth Committee. A/1732, December 
14, 1950. 14 pp. mimeo. 

Budget Estimates for the Financial Year 1951 : Report 
of the Fifth Committee. A/1734, December 14, 1950. 
70 pp. mimeo. 

Department of Public Information : Research Section : 
The General Assembly, Fourth Regular Session. 
Background paper no. 46, supplement no. 2, April 15, 
1950. 2S pp. mimeo. 

Economic and Social Council 

Relations With and Co-Ordination of Specialized Agencies. 
Eighth Report of the Administrative Committee on 
Co-Ordination to the Economic and Social Council. 
E/1865, November 7, 1950. 11 pp. mimeo. 

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. 
General Progress Report of Executive Director. 
E/ICEF/163, January 27, 1951. 22 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (Fifth Ses- 
sion). E/1SS9, December 29, 1950. 84 pp. mimeo. 

United Nations Programme of Technical Assistance. 
Under General Assembly Resolutions 58 (1), 200 
(111) and 246 (111). E/1893, January 0, 19."il. 
99 pp. mimeo. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N.Y. Other 
materials (mimeographetl or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libi'aries in the United 
States. 

The United Nations Secretariat has established an 0/P- 
cial Rrrords .series for the General Assembly, the Security 
Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship 
Council, and the Atomic Energy Commission: which in- 
cludes summaries of proceedings, resolutions, and rejwrts 
of the various commissions and committees. Publications 
in the Official Records series will not be listed in this 
department as heretofore, but information on securing 
sul)scriptions to the series may be obtained from the 
International Documents Service. 



624 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Reports of U.N. Command Operations in Korea 



FIFTEENTH REPORT: 

FOR THE PERIOD FEBRUARY 1-15, 1951 > 

U.N. doc. S/2053 
Dated M.ir. 26, 1951 

I herewith submit report number 15 of the 
United Nations Command Operations in Korea for 
the period 1-15 February, inclusive. 

General. — During this period our strategic plans 
to cope with the new situation created by Com- 
munist China's entry into the war have continued 
to produce the desired resuks. By breaking con- 
tact with the enemy and rapidly withdrawing to 
the south when our advance of 24 November ex- 
posed the secret build up of Communist Chinese 
forces in the forward battle area south of the Yahi 
River, the enemy, following in pursuit, was forced 
to extend his lines of supply over 300 miles. Each 
mile of this forward extension rendered him in- 
creasingly vulnerable to air attack, expanded cor- 
respondingly our power by maneuver to overcome 
the handicap of numerically superior ground 
forces and terrain favorable to the enemy tactic of 
infiltration, and reduced proportionately our own 
logistical difficulties. Resulting from this more 
favorable balance, our air and ground forces have 
inflicted losses upon the enemy reaching major pro- 
portions, kept him off balance and denied him any 
extended enjoyment of the tactical initiative. Of 
possibly greater significance during this period has 
been the exploding of the myth, built up by enemy 

' Transmitted to the Security Council by Ambassador 
Warren R. Austin, U.S. representative in the Security 
Council, on March 23. For texts of the first, second, third, 
fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and 
eleventh reports to the Security Council on U.N. command 
operations in Korea, see Bulletin, of Aug. 7, 19.50, p. 20.3 ; 
Aug. 28, 1950, p. 32.3 ; and Sept. 11, 1950, p. 403 ; Oct. 2, 
1950, p. 534 ; Oct. 16, 1950, p. 603 ; Nov. 6, 1950, p. 729 ; 
Nov. 13, 1950, p. 759 ; Jan. 8, 1951, p. 43, and Feb. 19, 11)51, 
p. 304, respectively. The reports vrhich have been pub- 
lished separately as Department of State publications 3935, 
3955, 3962, 3978, 3986, 4006, 4015, and 4108 respectively will 
appear hereafter only in the Bulletin. The twelfth, thir- 
teenth, and fourteenth reports appear in the Bulletin of 
Mar. 19, 1951, p. 470. 



propaganda, of the invincibility of Communist 
military power and the clear demonstration that 
the allied soldier crusading for freedom is more 
than a match for the Communist soldier fighting 
to serve neither ideal nor spiritual purpose. 

Our operations have been characterized by a 
most complete and effective co-ordination of the 
combined arm.s — land, sea and air — and an inte- 
gration of the units of the several nationalities 
involved, spiritually and physically, with few par- 
allels in military history. It is in every respect a 
unified command of high morale and marked bat- 
tle efficiency, with every unit and individual in- 
vincibly bound together by a singleness of high 
purpose. 

On 13 February after visiting the western sector 
of the Korean battle front, I issued the following 
public statement on the military situation : "AVhat 
the future has in store in Korea continues to be 
largely dependent upon international considera- 
tions and decisions not yet known here. Mean- 
while, the command is doing everything that could 
reasonably be expected of it. Our field strategy, 
initiated upon Communist China's entry into the 
war, involving a rapid withdrawal to weaken the 
enemy's supply lines with resultant pyramiding of 
his logistical difficulties and an almost astronomi- 
cal increase in the destructiveness of our air power, 
has worked well. In the development of this 
strategy the Eighth Army has achieved local tacti- 
cal successes through maximum exploitation of the 
air's massive blows on extended enemy concentra- 
tions and supplies, but in the evaluation of these 
successes sight must not be lost of the enemy's re- 
maining potential for reinforcement and resupply. 
We must not fall into the error of evaluating such 
tactical successes as decisively leading to the 
enemy's defeat just as many erred in assessing our 
strategic withdrawals in the face of Communist 
China's commitment to war as a decisive defeat 
inflicted upon us. 

"We are still engaged in a war of maneuver 
with the object of inflicting as heavy a punish- 



ApW; 76, 195? 



625 



ment upon the enemy as possible, striving con- 
stiintly to keep him off bahmce to prevent his ob- 
tainin<^ and hohlinji the tactical initiative while at 
the same time avoiding the hazards inherent in his 
numerical superiority. The concept advanced by 
some that we should establish a line across Korea 
and enter into positional warfare is wholly un- 
realistic and illusory. It fails completely to take 
into account the length of such a line at the nar- 
rowest lateral, the rugged terrain which is in- 
volved, and the relatively small force which could 
be committed to the purpose. The attempt to en- 
gage in such strategy would insure destruction of 
our forces piecemeal. Talk of crossing 3Sth Par- 
allel at the present stage of the campaign except 
by scattered patrol action incidental to the tactical 
situation is purely academic. From a military 
standpoint we must materially reduce the existing 
superiority of our Chinese Communist enemy en- 
gaging with impunity in undeclared war against 
us, with the unprecedented military advantage of 
sanctuary protection upon Chinese soil for his 
military potential against our counter attack be- 
fore we can seriously consider condiicting major 
operations north of that geographic line. 

"Meanwhile, however, the complete coordination 
of our land, sea and air forces and the consequent 
smooth synchi-onization of their combined opera- 
tions, with each arm contributing its full part, 
continues to inflict terrific losses upon the enemy. 
General Ridgway is proving himself a brilliant 
and worthy successor to General Walker in com- 
mand of the Eighth Army, and with Admiral 
Strulile in command of the Fleet, and General 
Partridge in command of the Air comprise an 
ideal trio of field commanders." 

Summary of Operations — Hard-driving United 
Nations forces scored advances of twelve to twenty- 
five miles along the entire front against stubbornly 
i-esisting enemy forces. Some of the most inten- 
sive fighting of the war took place in the Anyang 
and Yangpyong areas south and east of Seoul. Chi- 
nese Conmumist and north Korean forces, com- 
prising the North Korean I Corps and the Chinese 
Communist 50th and 38th Armies, in an aggregate 
of eight divisions, fought tenaciously in the An- 
yang, Kyongan, Yangpyong areas to protect the 
main route of approach to Seoul, but United Na- 
tions forces took Anyang on 7 February and ad- 
vanced thi-ee miles north of the town on the 
following day. By 10 February the battered en- 
emy in this area had been driven north across the 
Han River, and United Nations forces had taken 
possession of the Port of Inchon, Kimpo Airfield, 
and the south bank of the Han, to the south and 
west of Seoul. Enemy attempts to recross the 
river were repelled on 12 February. 

Heavy fighting continued throughout the period 
in the area south of Yangpyong. The Chinese 
Communist foi'ccs of the .'iSth Army were forced 
back five to six miles on both sides of the Yoju- 
Yangi)yong axis, and sustained heavy casualties. 



However, enemy resistance remains firm to the 
south and east of Yangpyong, and intensive action 
continues. Meanwhile, the enemy is maintaining 
his Han River bridgehead between Seoul and 
Yangpyong. 

In the central portion of the front against light 
to moderate resistance United Nations forces took 
Hoengsong on 2 February and advanced nine miles 
to the north by 11 February. On the night of 
11-12 February the enemy launched a heavy 
counter-offensive north of Hoengsong with two 
Chinese Communist armies on a ten mile front, 
the 40th and Gfith Armies in conjunction with the 
north Korean V Corps in an aggregate of five to 
eight divisions. In this effort, the enemy pene- 
trated our positions in several places, principally 
against the Republic of Korea 3d and 8th Divi- 
sions, achieved extensive infiltrations, and forced 
United Nations units to withdraw several thousand 
yards to a new defensive line south of the town. 
Our forces evacuated Hoengsong on 13 February 
and withdrew to the vicinity of Wonju for further 
operations. 

In eastern Korea, enemy resistance was spotty 
as United Nations forces advanced up to twenty- 
five miles. By 7 February Kangnung on the east 
coast was taken, and Chumunjin fell on the follow- 
ing day. By 10 February, United Nations forces 
had advanced several miles northward toward the 
38th parallel. 

In the Uihung area, almost 100 miles south of 
the main front. United Nations forces continued 
vigorous action to suppress relatively strong north 
Korean remnants and guerrilla forces. In re- 
peated engagements of battalion and regimental 
size, the enemy forces invariably withdrew after a 
few hours of fighting. Guerrilla forces in this area 
are now almost constantly on the defensive and 
have lost the initiative. 

Front lines at the end of the period ran generally 
from Inchon on the west coast to Seoul, southeast 
to Kwanju, east to the Han River below Yang- 
pyong, east to Wonju or north thereof, northeast 
to Kanpyong, and thence to Chumunjin on the 
east coast. 

United Nations Naval Forces conducted patrol 
and reconnaissance operations which continue to 
deny to the enemy the waters surrountling Korea. 
Air and gunfire support were furnished by naval 
units which maintained station in extremely se- 
vere winter weather condit ions. Heavy naval gun- 
fire support missions along both coasts blasted the 
enemy ahead of the United Nations ground forces 
as they advanced while United Nations Naval and 
Marine air units contributed to the close air sup- 
port effort and to strike against the enemy in the 
rear areas. The bombardment of the Kangnung 
area on the east coast and of the Inchon area on 
the west coast were particularly effective. 

Check minesweeping operations ;ind destruction 
of mines were continued aU)ng the coasts of Korea 
to clear the waters used by gunfire support ships 



626 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



and transport. Drifting mines constitute a con- 
stant menace to shipping in Korean waters and 
in the Japan Sea. This mine menace was high- 
lighted by the sinking of a sweeper engaged in 
check sweeping operations. 

x\.ir operations have followed the pattern of 
previous periods with the close integration of the 
air and ground efforts enjoying marked tactical 
success. Both on the main battle position and in 
United Xations rear areas where guerrilla activi- 
ties have been a source of annoyance, the offensive 
ground action has served to increase the number 
of suitable air targets by forcing the enemy to 
concentrate and to reveal his location as he is 
driven from one area to another. Air drops of 
hundred of tons of ammunition and other combat 
equipment, by removing the requirement for sur- 
face resupjily, have granted to many army units 
a flexibility contributing materiallj' to tactical 
successes. 

Armed reconnaissance aircraft continue sweep- 
ing the North Korean roads and railroads of ve- 
hicles and rolling stock while destruction of 
bridges, marshalling yards and tunnels render the 
enemy resujiply problem a gigantic one. Rela- 
tively heavy southbound traffic through Hamhung 
in the northeastern sector received the brunt of 
attacks during several days early in February and 
later the traffic in the western areas received the 
heavier effort. 

Improved equipment and procedures have in- 
creased substantially the effectiveness of not only 
the night sweeps along lines of communications, 
hut also the close support effort where the battle 
area can be brilliantly lighted by high candle 
power flares. 

Air engagements have been few, the enemy re- 
fusing to operate except by sneak attack in areas 
otlier than those immediately adjacent to his 
Manchurian Sanctuary. 

In addition to the prisoner of war enclosures in 
the vicinity of Pusan, an additional enclosure of 
Camp No. 1 has been opened on nearby Koje-Do 
Island at a site selected with due regard to the 
health and welfare of the prisoners. In accord- 
ance with Article 23 of the 1949 Geneva Prisoner 
of War Convention, the coordinates of the new 
enclosure have been transmitted to the enemy 
through the international committee of the Red 
Cross, Geneva, Switzerland. 

During this period, the United Nations Com- 
mand has made still further improvements at all 
enclosures of Camp No. 1 furnishing United States 
Army immersion type heaters for sterilizing mess 
gear, installing new oil-fed ranges and continuing 
the issuance of large additional quantities of warm 
clothing, bedding, and mess gear. 

Since the submission of my last report the flow 
of refugees in the forward areas has been negli- 
gible. Controlled movement of refugees has been 
negligible. Controlled movement of refugees has 
been permitted but in general regulations issued 



by (he United Nations Command have held the 
local ])opulation in their home conununities. The 
redistribution of refugees away from Key Korean 
conununication centers such as Pusan continues 
for humanitarian reasons and of military neces- 
sity. Every effort is being made by the United 
Nations Command to provide food, clothing, 
shelter, and medical assistance for these unfortu- 
nate people. 

Although some cases of sickness have been re- 
ported, it is noteworthy that there has been no 
general outbreak of disease of e])idemic propor- 
tion in the areas under control of the United 
Nations forces. Active measures are being taken 
to prevent such an occurrence, including continua- 
tion of the DDT dusting program, expansion of 
the inununization program to include typhus, 
sinallpox, and typhoid immimizations for the en- 
tire South Korean population estimated at 20 mil- 
lion persons and improvement and reestablishment 
of medical facilities. For example, since my last 
report four hospitals have been placed in opera- 
tion on Cheju-Do. 

To date, I have knowledge of sixteen United 
Nations member nations whose generous contribu- 
tions with those of United Nations organizations 
and voluntary relief agencies total over $14,.500,- 
000. Of this total, approximately $8,500,000 has 
lieen delivered in Korea. These contributions are 
of immeasurable assistance in alleviating the suf- 
fering of the war-ridden Korean civilian popula- 
tion and in the attainment of the United Nations 
objectives in Korea. 

Through combined use of the media of radio 
broadcast, loudspeaker transmissions and air 
dropped leaflets, United Nations forces are en- 
deavoring to control the movement of civilian 
refugees in Korea in order to prevent needless loss 
of life. Broadcasts from airborne loudspeakers, 
accompanied by air drop of special leaflets, have 
been used to channel refugee groups along roads 
that will take them out of the immediate combat 
zone. Radio broadcasts have instructed civilians 
to stay out of the city of Seoul during the current 
operations in that area. Simultaneously, intensive 
dissemination of leaflets to enemy soldiers con- 
tinues at a high level, with primary emphasis on 
instructions concerning methods of surrender, and 
on reassurance of their good treatment as prison- 
ers of war in United Nations camps. More than 
230 million United Nations leaflets have been dis- 
seminated. Daily United Nations radio broad- 
casts are now reaching a larger audience through 
the installation of mobile and stationary loud- 
speaker relay systems in several Korean cities. 



SIXTEENTH REPORT: 

FOR THE PERIOD FEBRUARY 16-28, 1951 

U.N. doc. S/2053 
Dated Mar. 26, 1951 

I herewith submit report number 16 of the 
United Nations Command Operations in Korea for 



April 16, 1957 



627 



the period 16 to 28 February, inclusive. United 
Nations Command communiqufe, nnmbers 802 
through 808, provide detailed accounts of these 
operations. 

Stubbornly resisting a vigorous United Nations 
offensive, enemy forces during this period were 
pushed northward seven to sixteen miles on a 
ninety-mile front extending from Seoul to Chong- 
son. The enemy employed large numbers of his 
tactical reserves, particularly in the Seoul-Hoeng- 
song area. However, this move was not only un- 
successful but resulted in tremendous losses both 
in men and materiel. In this action the enemy's 
Han Kiver bridgehead between Seoul and Yang- 
pyong was elmininated. and he had been forced to 
relinquish his deep salient between Wonju and 
Chongson by 25 February._ As a result, United 
Nations lines are now relatively straight and un- 
broken over the entire front. 

United Nations forces had driven the enemy 
north of the Han River at Yangpyong by 19 Feb- 
ruary, but met heavy resistance immediately north 
of this town. Heavy fighting continued in the 
Chipyong area to the end of the period, as United 
Nations forces advanced about ten miles and drove 
a shallow salient into enemy lines four to six miles 
north and northeast'of Chipyong. Strong enemy 
forces were driven out of Hoengsong by 24 Febru- 
ary, but continued stubborn resistance to the north 
and west of the town. 

In the Pyongchang area, enemy forces held the 
initiative until 20 February, and forced United 
Nations imits to make limited withdrawals from 
16 to 19 February. During this period heavy fight- 
ing took place seven to ten miles north of Chechon, 
twelve miles east of Wonju, and in the area south 
of Chongson. Having overcome these strong local 
attacks. United Nations units began vigorous of- 
fensive action, and by February 24 the enemy had 
been forced to retreat ten to seventeen miles. 
Minor clashes took j^lace in the Kangnung area, 
near the east coast. 

Front lines at the end of the period ran north- 
east from Inchon to the Han River, along the Han 
to Yangpyong, east to Hoengsong and Chongson, 
and thence northeast to Kangnung. 

Guerrilla forces in the Andong-Uihung area 
have been considerably less active during the pe- 
riod 16-28 February and have dispersed after short 
skirmishes with United Nations policing forces. 
It is estimated that United Nations action has now 
reduced the over-all strength of guerrilla forces in 
South Korea to about 30,000, representing a decline 
of about 15 percent during the past two months. 

Constant patrol and daily reconnaissance oper- 
ations by United Nations Naval Forces continued 
to deny to the enemy tlie use of Korean waters. 
Surface units provided effective gunfire support to 
United Nations ground units on both coasts of 
Korea, particularly in tlie Inclion-Seoul area. 
Other surface units carried out a devastating pro- 
gram of interdiction by naval gunfire of the east 



coast railroads and highways, concentrating the 
main efforts on bridges and tunnels near Wonsan, 
Tachon and Sono^jin. Republic of Korea Marines, 
supported by United Nations surface forces, occu- 
pied the islands of Ung-Do, Yo-Do and Sin-Do in 
the approaches to Wonsan to facilitate naval bom- 
bardment operations in the vicinity of that port. 
Amphibious elements of United Nations Naval 
Forces assisted in the reopening of the port of 
Inchon. 

Drifting mines continued to menace shipping in 
Korean waters. Check minesweeping operations 
were continued along the east coast of Korea in 
waters used by the gunfire support ships. 

Intermittently poor weather with low clouds, 
rain, sleet and snow hindered air operations, but 
good days saw the United Nations Air Forces 
mounting their gi-eatest efforts of the Korean con- 
flict. Generally rising temperatures and rain over 
South Korea have made the thawing ground a 
quagmire severely restricting normal resupply to 
front line units. Under this condition the capa- 
bilities of United Nations cargo aircraft on air 
landing and air-di-opping supplies have been fully 
realized, contributing greatly to the success of cur- 
rent operations. 

Enemy lines of supply were repeatedly attacked 
between the Manchurian border and the front lines. 
The numerical advantage of the enemy has been ^ 

considei-ably offset by the constant choking of his i 

lengthy supply channels. Bridges and marehall- 
ing yards continue to be the focal points of the 
strangulation attacks though dumps, tunnels, 
warehouses, and barracks are attacked whenever 
a degree of importance to the enemy is indicated. 
An increased niunber of vehicles and trains have 
provided remunerative targets. 

Several multi-plane attacks by MIG-15s upon 
small formation of bombers and upon single planes 
have resulted in negligible damage. 

The close support rendered to ground forces by 
all elements of United Nations tactic aircraft 
continues to be a decisive factor in each day's 
operations. 

Since the submission of my last report, the lib- 
eration of additional areas of South Korea has 
necessitated an increase in the number of civil 
assistance teams and the availability of local gov- 
ernmental ofKcials to reinstitute civil government 
in these liberated areas. Action currently is being ■ 
taken to dispatch a newly formed civil assistance |J 
team to the province of Cholla Namdo and to aug- i 
ment teams whose area of responsibility has in- 
creased. Government officials and police of 
northern areas of South Korea have been alerted 
for re-entry into their respective areas when the 
military situation will ])ermit. i 

It has been necessary to continue the control of 
movement of refugees, and to hold the local ]iopu- 
lation in home comnuinities. Return of refugees 
to their home conunnnities is permitted whenever 
practicable, however, military operations and con- 
{Continucd on page 63S) 



628 



Department of State Bulletin 



Further Efforts To Solve the India-Pakistan Dispute 



Statement iy Ernest A. Gross 

Deputy V. S. Representative to the United Nations ^ 



When I last spoke in the Security Council con- 
cerning tlie India-Pakistan question, on February 
21, 1 said that the United States believes the Coun- 
cil should exercise its responsibility to narrow 
further the area of disagreement between the 
parties.^ We think this responsibility can best be 

J)erformed by eifecting the demilitarization of 
vaslimir in order that a plebiscite can be held 
under United Nations auspices. The draft resolu- 
tion, introduced by the United Kingdom and the 
United States, proposed to deal with the principal 
issues arising in this area of disagi'eement by estab- 
lishing machinery which we believed would capi- 
talize on the experience of the past 2 years of 
repeated attempts to implement the August 13, 
1948 and January 5, 1949 resolutions of the United 
Nations Commission for India and Pakistan. 
The United States, in acting with the Grovernment 
of the United Kingdom to offer this draft resolu- 
tion last month, did not believe that the machinery 
provided by the resolution was the only means of 
helping the parties advance toward settlement of 
this dispute. However, we thought it was a rea- 
sonable proposal, and, like any suggested device 
for helping solve a complex issue, it was always 
open to amendment designed to improve the sug- 
gestion M'hile retaining the essential minimum 
necessary, in our belief, to help advance the dispute 
toward a reasonable solution acceptable to both 
parties. 

The Governments of both Pakistan and India 
have voiced objections to the resolution as sub- 
mitted. The Government of Pakistan would pre- 
fer a resolution by which the Security Council 
would order the United Nations representative to 
implement the provisions of the United Nations 
Conmiission for India and Pakistan resolutions of 
August 1948 and January 1949 and would give the 
Council's representative the power to remove or 

' Made before the Security Council on Mar. 21 and re- 
leased to the press by the U.S. Mission to the United 
Nations on the same date. 

' Bulletin of Mar. 5, 1951, p. 394. 



disband all military forces, to exercise effective 
supervision over the state authorities in assuring 
a fair and free plebiscite, and to arbitrate all points 
of difference between the parties arising from im- 
plementation of these two resolutions. 

The Government of India declared they were 
wholly unable to accept the draft resolution be- 
cause they conceived the resolution, in many re- 
spects, went beyond the terms of the August 13, 
1948, and January 5, 1949 United Nations Com- 
mission resolutions. The representative of India 
mentioned particularly the reference to Sir Owen 
Dixon's demilitarization proposals and the possi- 
bility that United Nations troops might be used to 
facilitate demilitarization and the holding of a 
plebiscite. 

Amendments to the Resolution 

In accordance with our concept that the draft 
resolution submitted last February 21, might be 
improved by revision — as long as the objective re- 
mained of providing machinery to help the par- 
ties advance toward a reasonable and mutually 
acceptable solution of the dispute — the United 
States has joined with the United Kingdom in 
sponsoring amendments to the February 21 draft 
resolution. These amendments take into account 
objections made by both parties, the most impor- 
tant of these being the insistence by the Govern- 
ments of both India and Pakistan on holding firm 
to the August 1948 and January 1949 resolutions 
of the United Nations Commission for India and 
Pakistan. The amended text is, in my opinion, 
the irreducible minimum in this case, if the Coun- 
cil is to provide machinery which will aid the 
parties to carry out their connuitments as mem- 
bers of the United Nations to settle their disputes 
by peaceful means. 

These amendments have four principal effects : 
First, the United Nations representative would 
now be charged with the duty of effecting demili- 
tarization of the state of Jammu and Kashmir on 



April 16, 1951 



629 



the basis of the two United Nations Commission 
resolutions of August 13, 1948 and January 5, 
11)49. This does not mean that we believe the 
United Nations representative should disregard 
the efforts of more than 2 years in attempting to 
implement these two resolutions, as experienced 
liy General McNaughton and Sir Owen Dixon. 
This experience forms a part of the Security Coun- 
cil record, and neither can nor should be ignored. 

In this connection, we believe that both parties 
should be led, by virtue of their attitude toward 
the two resolutions of the United Nations Com- 
mission, to give the United Nations representative 
their detailed plans for implementing these reso- 
lutions. We are most pleased to note the reaffir- 
mation by the representative of India of his Gov- 
ernment's firm adherence to these two resolutions 
iind his statement that they contain adequate pro- 
visions for a free and impartial plebiscite 
under United Nations auspices. We cannot, how- 
ever, agree with Sir Benegal Rau's emphasis that 
the Government of India cannot make any further 
"concessions." This is not a matter of making 
concessions but of giving effect to a commitment. 
The responsibility of the Government of India 
and of the Government of Pakistan, under their 
international commitment in accepting these two 
resolutions, is to cooperate in settling the ques- 
tion of accession to India or Pakistan by a free 
and impartial plebiscite under United Nations 
auspices. The United Nations Commission's reso- 
lutions provide merely a framework which must 
be filled in; these resolutions do not set forth a 
complete plan for accomplishing demilitarization 
and a plebiscite. The parties will have to develop 
and consider with the United Nations representa- 
tive the details which fill out the framework in im- 
plementing their commitment — details over which 
the Governments of India and Pakistan have dis- 
agreed for more than 2 years. Neither party can 
stop short, merely reaffirm the two resolutions of 
August 1948 anci January 1949, and say that it 
cannot make further "concessions," therelDy block- 
ing further progress. 

The parties, moreover, are committed to permit 
the people of Kashmir to decide the question of 
accession of the state of Jannnu and Kashmir to 
India or Pakistan. That commitment is not, as 
the distinguished representative of India has said, 
"To give the people the right to decide whether 
they would remain in India or not." To phrase 
the plebiscite question in this latter formulation 
would be to disregard the binding agreement ac- 
cepted by both parties. The Security Council has, 
from the beginning, held that the issue of accession 
is one which is to be settled by a fair and impartial 
plebiscite under United Nations auspices, and both 
parties, in tlio language of (heir connnitments, have 
accepted this view. I am confident that Sir 
Benegal Eau did not inteiul to suggest a contrary 
interpretation. 

I emphasize this now to make clear the position 

630 



of the United States Government in this vital 
matter. It is a position which rests upon the belief 
that the most fruitful approach, which the Secu- 
rity Council can take at this stage in this dispute, 
is to provide the parties with machinery for its 
.solution. 

The second of the four principal effects of the 
amendments is the complete elimination of para- 
graph 4 of the February 21, 1951 draft resolution. 
This change results from the thesis that the Au- 
gust 1948 and January 1949 resolutions should be 
set forth clearly as the basis upon which the United 
Nations representative is to effect demilitarization. 
The suggestions offered in paragraph 4 of the 
original draft were intended only to provide help- 
ful guideposts to the United Nations representa- 
tive in his efforts to work out a reasonable and 
mutually satisfactory solution of the Kashmir 
dispute. However, in view of the objections of 
both parties, they have been excised from the text. 

Thirdly, if he has not effected demilitarization 
or, at least obtained agreement to a demilitariza- 
tion plan, the United Nations representative is to 
report to the Council, within 3 months from the 
date of his arrival on the subcontinent, those points 
of difference between the parties, in regard to both 
interpretation and execution of the agreed August 
1948 and January 1949 resolutions, which he con- 
siders must be resolved in order to enable demili- 
tarization to be carried out. This formulation by 
the Council's representative of these essential 
points of difference is important not only in focus- 
ing the attention of the Security Council on the 
principal issues between the parties but also be- 
cause of the revised paragraph 6 and its arbitra- 
tion proposal. 

Paragraph 6 contains the fourth principal 
change proposed by these amendments. While, 
as previously, it calls upon both parties to accept 
arbitration upon such outstanding points of dif- 
ference as may remain after concluding discus- 
sions with the' United Nations representative, it 
is now changed to declare that arbitration should 
be accejited upon those points as they are reported 
to the Council by the United Nations repi'esenta- 
tive. Furthermore, the arbitration projiosal now 
provides that the arbitrator, or panel of arbitra- 
tors, is to be appointed by the President of the 
International Court of Justice after consultation 
witli the ])art ies, instead of by the Court as a whole. 
This latter change, which is more in accordance 
with the international practice, will serve to expe- 
dite the arbitration process if resort to it should 
become necessary. 

The Government of the United States regards 
this arbitration proposal as one of the key elements 
of this resolution. The representative of India 
has not rejected the concept of arbitration but has 
said that under the guise of arbitration issues can- 
not be reopened which have already been closed by 
the resolutions of August 1948 and .lanuary 1949 
and by the assurances given to India by the United 

Departmenf of Sfofe Bulletin 



Nations Commission. I trust that, if it becomes 
necessary to give effect to tliis arbitration provi- 
sion, the Government of India will find itself able 
to accept the arbitration jirovisions of this resolu- 
tion. Tlie commitment of botli parties in this dis- 
])ute is to settle the (piestion of accession by a fair 
and impartial jjlebiscite under United Nations su- 
])ervisioii. It is the parties commitment, under 
the Charter of the United Nations, to seek a solu- 
tion by all manner of peaceful means of their own 
choice. AVhen other jjeaceful means have been ex- 
hausied and interpretation must be made of the 
commitments entered into by both ]>arties under 
the two resolutions of August 1948 and January 
194!), then arbitration is logical in order to settle 
the issues preliminary to actually holding the 
plebiscite. 

Legal Jurisdiction of Indian Government 

The members of the Security Council will note 
that the February 21 resolution submitted by the 
ITnited Kingdom and the United States remains 
the same in an important respect: the language in 
tlie preamble concerning the Kashmir National 
Conference has not been changed. In my speech 
on February 21 in support of the draft resolution, 
I expressed my Government's concern about the 
action which the authorities in the Indian-con- 
trolled area of Kashmir are undertaking to deter- 
mine the future shape and affiliation of the state. 
I wondered whether it might interfere with a fair 
and impartial plebiscite under United Nations 
auspices in the entire state. I associated myself 
with the anxiety expressed by Sir Gladwyn Jebb 
in this regard and hoped that, if the Security 
Council received an explanation, we would find 
ourselves reassured that the action of the Kashmir 
National Conference would not prejudice the jirior 
commitments of the parties. 

The representative of India, in adverting to this 
problem, declared that, so far as the Government 
of India is concerned, the Constituent Assembly 
is not intended to prejudice the issues before the 
Security Council or to come in the Council's way. 
He subsequently stated that, while the Constituent 
Assembly may if it so desires express an opinion 
on the question of accession, it can make no deci- 
sion on the question. However, the representative 
of India also said that the Kashmir State Gov- 
ernment is a unit of the Indian Federation, sub- 
ject to federal jurisdiction in regard to defense, 
external affairs, and communications, but com- 
pletely autonomous in almost all other matters. 
Sir Benegal Rau emphasized the autonomous na- 
ture of the Kashmir State Government, affirming 
that the state is entitled to frame its own constitu- 
tion and to convene a Constituent Assembly for 
this purpose. In discussing the question of su- 
pervising the activities of the Kashmir State Gov- 
ernment for purposes of a plebiscite, the repre- 
sentative of India emphasized that the authority 



of the Government of India over the Government 
of Kashmir is limited to certain subjects; outside 
that sj^here it can only advise and cannot impose 
any decision. 

In addition to this careful statement of the Gov- 
ernment of India's limited control over the Gov- 
ernment of the state of Kaslmiir, tliei'e have been 
a mnnber of statements recently wjiich bear di- 
rectly on the problem before the Security Council 
made by ranking leaders of the Governments of 
India and Kashmir concerning the Constituent 
Assembly and its purpose. One of such statements 
was niatle by Sheikh Abdullah, as recently as 
February 25, when he said that the Constituent 
Assembly would decide tlie question of accession 
of the state as well as its form of government. 
The Government of the United States, therefore, 
believes the situation requires that the Security 
Council place on the record its attitude toward 
the Constituent Assembly and toward any at- 
tempts that the Constituent Assembly might make 
to cletermine the future shape and affiliation of 
Kashmir. 

Settlement Necessary to Peace in South Asia 

The United States believes that the Security 
Council can and should affirm what the parties 
have agreed upon — that final disposition of the 
state of Jammu and Kashmir will be made by the 
will of the people as expressed through a fair and 
impartial plebiscite conducted under United Na- 
tions auspices. We believe that it is important 
that the Security Council hold firm to this lan- 
guage as a minimum statement of its attitude to- 
ward the proposed Constituent Assembly and 
toward the obligations of the Government of India 
in respect to this Constituent Assembly. The 
nuitter of the final disposition of the state of Jam- 
mu and Kashmir is an international question, a 
matter which this Council has had within its pur- 
view for over 3 years. It clearly falls within the 
field of external affairs, and Sir Benegal Eau has 
told the Council that the external affairs of the 
Government of Kashmir are within the contiol of 
the Indian Government. The Security Council, 
therefore, should be entitled to assume that the 
Government of India will prevent the Government 
of Kashmir from taking action which would inter- 
fere with the responsibility of this Council. 

Members of the Council will note that para- 
graph 8 of the amended draft resolution calls upon 
the parties to take all possible measures to insure 
the creation and maintenance of an atmosphere 
favorable to the promotion of further negotiations 
and to refrain from any action likely to prejudice 
a just and peaceful settlement. This language is 
similar to that used in previous Security Council 
resolutions in the course of this dispute. The 
Government of Pakistan and the Government of 
India have both condemned appeals to force to 
settle the Kaslmiir dispute which have been made 



April 16, J 95 J 



631 



by irresponsible and intemperate elements. Con- 
tinued efforts by the parties to discourage such 
appeals to force will help insure and maintain an 
atmosphere which is favorable to pi-omoting fur- 
ther negotiations and to refrain from action likely 
to prejudice a peaceful settlement. 

Let me close my remarks by repeating the deep 
concern of my Government that the Security 
Council should give serious and prompt considera- 
tion to the amended draft resolution. The pro- 
ceedings before the Security Council since Feb- 
ruary 21, 1951, have indicated clearly the degree 
to which the Kashmir dispute continues to be an 
irritant prejudicing friendly relations between the 
Governments of these two great powers, India and 
Pakistan, and the extent to which this dispute 
blocks the restoration of the friendship and 
mutual esteem which is necessary for the peace 
and security of South Asia. I believe that the 
Security Council must assist the parties to reach 
a peaceful and mutually acceptable solution of 
this long-lasting dispute. The resolution, as it 
is proposed to be amended, offers a reasonable de- 
vice to help the parties solve a complex issue. It 
is offered in the sincere belief that the present 
frame of mind of both parties requires that the 
Security Council aid them in attempting to ad- 
vance toward a solution, rather than leave them 
to their own devices. As I said last February, the 
time and the situation demand that the Council 
give the parties practical aid and give this aid with 
the earnest hope that it may, in those old and 
meaningful words, "speak to their condition." 



Paris Selected as Site for Sixtii Session 
of General Assembly 

Statement hy Ernest A. Gross 

Deputy U.S. Representative to United Nations''- 

Wlien the question came up in December of the 
selection of a site for the sixth session of the 
General Assembly, my Government abstained in 
the vote. We dicl so because we felt that as host 
government and as the country having the honor 
of furnishing the site for the United Nations 
headquarters an abstention on our part seemed to 
be the proper course to take. 

We did not wish to appear to avoid the respon- 
sibilities resting upon the liost government nor 
to take advantage of the obvious economies, effi- 
ciency and general convenience which would flow 
to us as well as a number of other countries, by 
reason of having the sixth session take place in 
New York. 1 stress those three factors of con- 
siderations of economy, etliciency, and conven- 
ience. It seems to us wholly appropriate to 

' Mailo Ix'fore pliMiary session of the General Assembly 
on Miir. 120 aiul releused to tlie press by the U.S. Mission 
to the United Nations on the same date. 

632 



consider the question of economies, not merely as 
loyal members of the organization, but as one of 
the large contributors to its budget. 

We agree with the comments that have been 
made by some of the preceding speakers that, in 
a sense, tlie general policy question was put at 
rest by the decision which was taken by the Gen- 
eral Assembly on December 14. And it is not my 
purpose now to reopen that decision nor to ques- 
tion the policies which underlay it, particularly, 
because of the factors which lead us to abstain 
and which I have just outlined. 

The matter of financial implications of the pro- 
posal embodied in the resolution before us is one 
which I am sure will cause concern to all of us 
and which for a variety of reasons causes partic- 
ular concern to my Government as well as to some 
of the others around this table. 

We also are very much concerned, as I imagine 
all members are, with the administrative problems 
which have been mentioned in very clear terms 
by some of the preceding speakers. 

Wliat in fact would be the effect upon the work 
of the United Nations organs and specialized 
agencies by reason of this new element which has 
come into the situation, which is the element of 
the rather late date which the Government of 
France suggests or advises us is the earliest date 
upon which it can conveniently make the neces- 
sary arrangements ? 

"\Aniile I am sure that this is not the time or 
place to engage in general political ijolemics. it 
does seem to me that there may be varying inter- 
ests in the work of these specialized agencies. 
Some of us participate in the work of those agen- 
cies wholeheartedly. Others, at this table, see fit 
not to participate in that work and, therefore, 
perhaps they might be excused if they do not take 
into account the necessity for efHciency and orderly 
operations which those very constructive agencies 
perform. 

Therefore, I think it is relevant and indeed 
rather important for the Assemblj' to be advised 
by the Secretary-General, if he would be gracious 
enough to do so, what in his opinion the effect 
upon the work of the other agencies and other 
organs of the United Nations would be, by reason 
of the date problem presented to us by the note, 
which we have received from the Government of 
France. 

Finally, I think there also arises the question 
of general convenience, efficiency of operations as 
to which the viewpoint of the Secretary-General, 
as the responsible executive of the organization, 
would also be most welcome to my Government, 
and I imagine to other Goverinnonts around the 
table as well. Therefore, before my delegation 
would feel in a position to act upon (his matter, 
wo would be most obliged if the distiitguished 
representative of France would find it possible to 
indicate to the Assembly whether it is within the 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Text of Resolution 

U.N. doc. A/1792 
Adopted Mar. 21, 1951 

Tlie General AssetnWy, 

Havino dken informed that the French Govern- 
ment, desirous of respondin;; to the wish that has 
been expressed to it on several occasions, has de- 
cided to welcome the General Assembly to Paris for 
the duration of its sixth session. 

1. Drcitlcs, in pursuance of its resolution 497 (V) 
of 14 December 1950, to hold its sixth regular session 
in Paris ; 

2. Decides that, notwithstanding the provisions of 
rule 1 of its rules of procedure, the sixth session 
shall commence not later than 6 November 1951 ; 

3. Authnrizcs the Secretary-General to conclude 
with the French Government the necessary agi-ee- 
ments for holding the sixth session of the General 
Assembly in Paris, provided that the total estimated 
cost of holding the sixth session in I'aris (including 
such meetings as may be arranged after 1 .January 
1952) shall not exceed the amount of $2,350,400 pro- 
vided in the 1951 budget, plus such additional 
amounts as may be authorized by transfer from 
other sections of the 1951 budget by the Secretary- 
General with the prior concurrence of the Advisory 
Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Ques- 
tions. 



concept or plan of the Government oi France to 
provide tlie necessary facilities in siicL form and 
in such manner as would leave the United Nations 
■without the necessity for incurring any expense 
additional to that amount which appears in the 
approved budget for 19.51, perhaps with some 
small addition that might be decided upon by 
the Secretary-General in consultation with the 
Budget Advisory Committee — by that I would 
assume a small amount on fact upon which we 
would all agree would be a small amount— 
whether that would fit within the general ap- 
pi'oach of the Government of France as it has 
surveyed the problem. Then, also, as I have said 
before, if the Secretary-General would be kind 
enough to give us an appraisal of the administra- 
tive implications both with i-egard to the efficiency 
of operations and the impact upon the work of the 
other organs of the United Nations and of the 
specialized agencies. 

U.N. Command Operations — Continued from ipage 628 

ditions of liberated areas have precluded mass 
movement of i-efugees to the north. 

The program of extensive DDT dusting and im- 
munization referred to in my last report is being 
prosecuted vigorously in order to prevent an out- 
break or spread of communicable diseases. Al- 
though scattered cases of smallpox and typhus 
continue to be reported, there has been no general 
outbreak of diseases of epidemic proportions in 
the areas under control of United Nations forces. 
With continued military progress, it is anticipated 
that there will be an increasing demand for medi- 
cal supplies in the war-damaged areas to care for 



tlie wounded and to prevent the spread of disease. 

Contributions to date by United Nations mem- 
ber nations are valued at approximately 1.5 million 
dollars. Since it is of vital impoilance that relief 
supplies continue to flow into Korea in order to 
prevent disease, starvation and unrest, member 
nations are urged to continue their contributions 
in order that the humanitarian responsibilities 
imposed upon the United Nations may be accom- 
plished. 

In the dissemination of United Nations leaflets 
to enemy troops in Korea, increased emphasis is 
being placed on safe conduct passes, which explain 
to the soldier the humane treatment guaranteed 
him by the United Nations in accordance with the 
Geneva Convention, and urge him to cease resist- 
ance. In addition to a message to the enemy 
soldier in either Chinese or Korean, these leaflets 
contain English and Korean instructions to 
United Nations soldiers, directing them to treat 
the bearer as an honorable Prisoner of War, and 
take him to the nearest officer. Prisoner interroga- 
tion reports show that such leaflets are influencing 
many enemy soldiers despite Communist efforts 
to intimidate them with false allegations concern- 
ing United Nations treatment of prisoners. Ap- 
proximately 250 million copies of some 1.3.3 dif- 
ferent leaflets have now been used in Korea. 
The schedule of United Nations radio broadcasts 
to Korea has been augmented M'ith the addition of 
three new informational programs designed to 
stimulate li.stener interest and bolster Korean 
morale. 

Conclusion. As I pointed out on my last inspec- 
tion of the Korean battle front, I am entirely 
satisfied with the situation at the front where the 
enemy has suffered a tactical reverse of measurable 
proportion. His losses have been among the 
bloodiest of modern times. As these are from 
Communist China's finest troops, it will be dif- 
ficult to adequately replace them. The enemy is 
finding it an entirely different problem fighting 
350 miles from his base than when he had this 
"sanctuary" in his immediate rear, with our air 
and naval forces practically zeroed out. He is 
paying now for the illusion, so falsely but effec- 
tively propagandized when Communist China 
initiated undeclared war that he had decisively de- 
feated these same forces. Our strategic plan, not- 
withstanding the enemy's great numerical superi- 
ority, is indeed working well and I have just 
directed a resumption of the initiative by our 
forces. All ranks of this international force are 
covering themselves with distinction and I again 
wish to especially commend the outstanding team- 
work of the three Services under the skillful direc- 
tion of their able field commanders, General Eidg- 
way. Admiral Struble and General Partridge. 
Our successes are in great part due to the smooth 
synchronization of the power of the three arms. 
This, indeed, is the most vital factor in modern 
war. 



kptW 16, 1951 



633 



International Materials Conference 

RULES OF PROCEDURE ADOPTED 

[Released to the press by Imo April 2] 

At the second meeting on March 30, the perma- 
nent Central Group of the International Materials 
Conference (Imc) decided upon its rules of 
procedure. 

This enlarged, permanent Group is composed 
of the Governments of the three originating cotin- 
tries — France, the United Kingdom, and the 
United States — plus those of Australia, Brazil, 
Canada, India, and Italy and the Organization of 
American States and the Organization for Euro- 
pean Economic Cooperation. Six earlier meet- 
ings liave been held by the temporary Group, 
making tliis the eighth meeting of the Group since 
its formation. 

The chief function of this new international 
body, tlie International Materials Conference, 
will be to formulate and coordinate international 
policy relating to the production, allocation, con- 
servation, distribution, and utilization of certain 
strategic raw materials. The solution of com- 
modity shortages, whicli will be world-wide in 
scope and effect, is one of the most important and 
critical problems facing the free world today. 

The Centra] Group in its rules, adopted on 
March 30, allowed for the establishment of addi- 
tional commodity committees as situation and 
circumstances warrant. Meetings of the Central 
Group will be held at regular intervals as is de- 
cided by the Central Group or at the call of the 
chairman or at the request of any two members to 
the secretary. 

Although the seven commodity conmiittees thus 
far established by the Central Group have com- 
plete autonomy in conducting their work, the Cen- 
tral Group will work out with the chairman of 
individual committees any procedures which will 
facilitate the coordination of those committees in 
their approach toward common problems. 

The Group elected for its permanent chairman, 
Edwin T. Gibson of the United States. Two vice 
chairmen also have been provided for, but they 
have not yet been selected. The chairman and 
vice chairmen will be allowed when in the chair 
to continue to represent their respective Govern- 
ments. Their terms of office will be for a period 
of G months. The executive secretary of the Imc, 
Charles W. Jeffers, will be the secretary of the 
Central Group. 



COMPOSITION OF THE WOOL COMMITTEE 

Tlie Inlernalional Materials Conference (Imo) 
announced on April 2 that the Wool Committee 
met for the first time on that date. Ten nations 
were represented. Of the seven commodity com- 

634 



mittees which have thus far been established, six 
are now holding sessions. Yet to convene is the 
Pulp and Paper Committee. The date of its con- 
vening will be announced later. Composition of 
the Wool Committee is as follows: 



AUSTRALIA 

Representative: 



J. 



Alternates: 



R. 



V. Jloroney, Assistant Secretary, 
Department of Agriculture and 
Commerce 

E. Campbell, Assistant Secretary, 
Australian Wool Realization Com- 
mission ; Eric P. McCIintoek, Assist- 
ant Government Trade Commis- 
sioner, Australian Trade Commis- 
sion, New York City; R. B. 
McMillan, Wool Economist, Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Agriculture 
BELGIUM (Representing Benelux: Belgium, Netherlands, 
Luxembourg) 

Pierre Jaspar, Economic Counselor, 
Belgian Embassy 

L^andre Mari^chal, Commercial Attach^, 
Belgian Embassy ; J. Teppema, 
Commercial Secretary, Netherlands 
Embassy 



Representative 
Alternates: 



FRANCE 

Representative: 
Alternates: 



GERMANY 

Representative: 



Alternate: 



IT ALT 

Representative : 



Alternate: 



NEW ZHULAND 

Representatire 



Robert Kalm-Scriber, Managing Di- 
rector, Mooch and Odelin, Paris 

Eugene Dyant, Vice-Chairman of the 
French Central Wool Committee; 
Raymond Forestier, French Supply 
Office, Embassy of French Republic ; 
L6on Laroy, Manager, French 
Groupement of Wool Importation 

Nickolaus H. Schilling, Managing Di- 
rector, Bremer WoUkaemmerei, 
Bremen 

Alexander von ImhofE, Corporation 
Lawyer, Verein Deutcher Kamm- 
garnopinner, Frankfort 

Renato Lombardi, President, Associa- 

zione dell 'Industria Laniera Itali- 

ana, Milan 
Dr. Roberto Dodi, Consultant, Associa- 

zione dell 'Industria Laniera Itali- 

ana, Rome 



E. 



J. Fawcett, Director-General of Agri- 
culture, Department of Agriculture 
Alternate: Not yet designated 

UNION OP SOUTH AFRICA 

Rcpresciitalive: W. A. Horrocks, Commercial Secretary, 
South African Emba.ssy 

AUerTMte: Rees Davies, Agricultural Attach^, 

South African Embassy 

UNITED KINGDOM 

Representative: J. L. May, -Assistant Secretary, Board 

of Trade 
Alternates: E. Atherton, Assistant Economic 

Attach^, British Embassy 
H. O. Hooper 

G. E. M. McDougall, Counselor, British 
Emba.ssy 

Richard H. Roberts, Deputy Director, 
Office of Ki'QUirenieiits and Alloca- 
tions, I'roduction and Marketing 
Administration, Department of 
Agriculture 

Washington P. Bermudez, Commercial 

Attache, Embassy of Uruginiy 
Not yet designated 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



UNITED STATES 

Rciircscntative: 



URUGUAY 

Representative: 



Alternate: 



The United States in the United Nations 



[April G-12, 1951] 

General Assembly 

Collective Measures Committee. — At the Com- 
mittee's fourth meeting, on April 12, the Chair- 
man, Joa Carlos Muniz (Brazil), presented the 
subcommittee's suggested program of work, and 
a (haft communication to be sent to all United 
Nations members requesting information on ac- 
tion taken, or contemplated, by them under sec- 
tion C. of the uniting-for-peace resolution. 

The program of work was approved and the 
Chairman appointed, without objection, the fol- 
lowing three study groups: Military Experts 
Panel — Canada. France, and Turkey; Economic 
and Financial Measures — Australia, Egypt, Phil- 
ippines, United States, and Venezuela; Political 
Measures — Belgium, Burma, Mexico, United 
Kingdom, and Yugoslavia. 

The draft letter was approved with the revision 
stressing the urgency of receiving the data re- 
quested, even if on a preliminary and tentative 
basis, in view of the need for the Committee to 
report to the General Assembly by September 1, 
1951. 

The Chairman, Mr. Muniz (Brazil), in answer 
to points raised by Ambassador Mahmoud Fawzi 
Bey (Egypt) with regard to the economic aspects, 
stated that while he agreed on the need for eco- 
nomic and financial security, he thought the cre- 
ation of such strength was the work of other 
United Nations organs. The Collective Measures 
Committee was charged with the responsibility 
for organizing collective security. The United 
States deputy representative, Howard F. Ban- 
croft, stressed that time was short and that the 
momentum generated by the adoption of the 
uniting-for-peace resolution should be main- 
tained. 



ECOSOC 

World riealth Organization (Who) . — The Spe- 
cial Committee on International Sanitary Regu- 
lations began a 4-week Conference at Geneva on 
April 9. All Who member states, as well as ob- 
servers from nonmember states such as Germany 
and Spain and observers from international or- 
ganizations including maritime and aircraft 
groups, have been invited to attend the Con- 
ference. The purpose of the Conference is to 
revise and consolidate several international sani- 
tai-y conventions now in force and to prepare for 
their replacement by a single code of procedure 
applicable on a world-wide basis to all means of 
international transport. 

The Committee will make a detailed technical 



and legal analysis of the proposed international 
sanitary regulations prepared by the Wiio Expert 
Committee on international epidemiology and 
quarantine and will revise them, giving full con- 
sideration to the recommendations submitted by 
meuiber governments. The final draft will be 
submitted for adoption by the Fourth World 
Health Assembly (legislative body) which will 
convene in Geneva on May 7. The new regula- 
tions will come into force 15 months after their 
acceptance by the Assembly. 

The United States delegation comprises: Chair- 
man, Dr. Joseph A. Bell, Chief, Section of Epi- 
demiology, National Institutes of Health, Public 
Health Service; Charles I. Bevans, Assistant for 
Treaty Aifairs, Department of State; Howard B. 
Calderwood, Office of United Nations Economic 
and Social Affairs, Department of State ; Lt. Col. 
Louis G. Kossuth, USAF, Chief, Preventive Med- 
icine Division, Office of the Air Force, Europe; 
Paid Reiber, Assistant General Counsel, Air 
Transport Association; Knud Stowman, Ph.D., 
Division of International Health, Public Health 
Service, and Mrs. Jeanne Ende, Technical Assist- 
ant, Office of United Nations Economic and Social 
Affairs, Department of State. 

Dr. Pierre Dorolle, Who Deputy Director- 
General, who addressed the opening session, said 
he hoped that "without aiming at unattainable 
perfection the delegates would be able to achieve 
a just and reasonable balance between the teclini- 
cal minimum necessary to avoid the spread of 
disease and the administrative maximum which it 
is possible to impose without unnecessary hamper- 
ing of international traffic, an essential element in 
the economic and social life of the world today." 

In the general debate on April 10, Dr. J. A. 
Bell (U.S.) stated that the draft Who regula- 
tions should take more fully into account the 
present world situation and be more flexible to 
meet changing conditions. In view of the re- 
duction of the number and size of centers of epi- 
demic diseases as well as new discoveries against 
such diseases, he advocated limitations and con- 
trol measures primarily in ports which were 
sources of world infection. He thought that sim- 
ple precautionary measures, if effectively applied, 
should enormously reduce the need for quaran- 
tine procedures in the rest of the world. 

United Natioihs Commission on Narcotic 
Drugs. — The 15-mcmber Commission opened its 
sixth session which is expected to last about 2 
months at United Nations Headquarters on April 
10. The following officers were unanimously re- 
elected: A. N. Sattanathan (India), Chairman; 
Oscar Rabasa (Mexico), Vice Chairman; and 
Samuel Hoare (U.K.), Rapporteur. The Com- 



AprW 16, ?95? 



635 



mission adopted (10-3 (U.S.S.R., Poland, Yugo- 
slavia)-! (India)) the proposal made by the 
United States representative, James N. Hyde, 
to postpone debate on the U.S.S.R. draft reso- 
lution to invite a representative of the People's 
Republic of China to be seated as the Chinese 
member until the next regular session of the Com- 
mission. In this connection, he drew attention to 
the General Assembly resolution of December 14. 
1950, and stated that it would be "unwise and 
unsound" to attempt to decide the issue inde- 
pendently of the Assembly and the Economic and 
Social Council (Ecosoc). 

The two major questions that will be given con- 
sideration are (1) steps for bringing into force 
an interim agreement to limit the pi'oduction 
of opium to medical and scientific needs, and (2) 
a single convention to replace existing interna- 
tional instruments for the control of narcotics. 
The proposal for an interim agreement aims at 
limiting the production of opium to the amount 
required to meet the world's medical and scien- 
tific needs. For this purpose, there would be 
established an international monopoly through 
which the trade in opium would be conducted. 
The draft convention on international narcotics 
regulations is designed to incorporate the pro- 
visions of several older conventions, agreements, 
and protocols, as well as existing practices, into 
one legal instrument in order to simplify and 
strengthen international control of narcotics. 

The Council, at its recent twelfth session at San- 
tiago, adopted two resolutions which "approved 
the plans prepared by the Commission on Nar- 
cotic Drugs for the further elaboration during 
1951 and the early part of 1952 of the Single Con- 
vention on Narcotic Drugs," and "urged the Com- 
mission to make every possible effort during its 
sixth session to find a basis acceptable to the gov- 
ernments principally concerned on which an in- 
ternational agreement to limit the production of 
opivun to medical and scientific needs could be 
formulated." 

Ad Hoc Comrrdttee on Reorganization of the 
Council and ita Fimcfional Comm/issions. — This 
Committee, which was authorized under the reso- 
lution adopted August 16, 1950, at the eleventh 
session of the Economic and Social Council, be- 
gan its second meeting on April 10 at Lake Suc- 
cess. It will review the organization and opera- 
tion of the Council and its Commissions and sub- 
mit a report and recommendations thereon to the 
thirteenth session of the Council. The Commit- 
tee will consider the replies received to the inquiry 
jireyiously sent out to all member governments 
asking for their observations on the functioning 
of the Council. 

The Committee membership consists of Aus- 
tralia, Brazil, Cliina. France, India, U.S.S.R., 
United Kingdom, and the United States. Hernan 
Santa Cruz (Chile) was elected Chairman. 



Security Council 

United Nations Commission for Indonesia. — 
The Commission, on April 6, submitted its report 
to the Security Council covering its activities from 
the date of the transfer of sovereignty, December 
27, 1949, from the Netherlands to the Republic of 
the United States of Indonesia, to the present. 
In the conclusion of its report, the Commission in- 
formed the Coiuicil that since the problems aris- 
ing from the military agi'eements reached at the 
Round Table Conference held at The Hague, 
August 23, 1949 to November 2, 1949, are now vir- 
tually solved, the Commission has decided that, 
while continuing to hold itself at the disposal of 
the parties, it will adjourn sine die. 

United Nations Cemetery 
Dedicated at Pusan 

The first permanent United Nations cemetery, 
where soldiers killed in United Nations action 
against aggression in Korea lie buried, was for- 
mally dedicated in a ceremony held on April 6 at 
Pusan. Lt. Gen. Matthew Ridgway, Commander 
in Chief of the United Nations Command, un- 
furled a large United Nations banner at the mast 
in front of poles bearing flags of all the IG coun- 
tries which have military units in action in Korea 
— Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Greece, 
India, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zea- 
land, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, the Union of 
South Africa, United Kingdom, United States, 
and the Republic of Korea. 

General Ridgway paid tribute to the heroic 
dead who gave their lives in freedom's fight. He 
said, "Fearlessly they died, defending to the last 
the dignity of the individual, the rock on which 
our fight for freedom rests. We seek today to 
express the honor in which they are held. We 
shall seek through all the future to keep the state 
they so fully kept, and having kept passed on to 
us in trust." 



Correction 

Tlie February 26, 1951, issuo of the F.n,i.ETiN con- 
tained a statement that Aniliassador Franci.s B. 
Sa.vre, United States representative in the Trustee- 
ship Council, advised the Trusteeship Ctunicil that 
respousiliility for tlie civilian administration of the 
trust territory of the Pacific Islands had been trans- 
ferred as of .January 8, 1951, from the Navy De- 
partment to tlie Department of the Interior. This 
account of Ambassador Sayre's statement was incor- 
rect. Ambassador Sayre informed the Trusteosliip 
Council that Elbert 1 >. Thomas assumed tlu' office 
of Hijih Commissioner of the trust territory of the 
Pacific Islands on .lanuary S of this year. Itespon- 
sibility for the administration of the trust territory 
remains with the Department of the Navy, but plans 
are l>eimr made for the transfer of this responsi- 
bility to the Department of the Interior on .Inly 
1, 1951. 



636 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE CONGRESS 



Senate Passes Resolution 
Authorizing U.S. Troops in Europe 

STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the itrcss by the White House April 5] 

The adoption by the Senate of Senate Resolu- 
tion 99 is further evidence that the country stands 
tirm in its support of the North Athmtic Treaty. 
It reaffirms the basic principle of our foreign 
policy — that the security of the United States is 
lutiniately bound up with the security of other 
free nations. 

The clear endorsement of the appointment of 
General Eisenhower and the plans to assign troops 
to liis command shows that there has never been 
any real question but that this country would do 
its part in helping to create an integi'ated Euro- 
pean defense force. 

Our main task now is to get on with the job 
of building our own strength and help to build 
the strength of the free world — a job which we all 
agree should continue to be carried out through 
collaboration by the executive and the legislative 
branches of the Government. 



TEXT OF SENATE RESOLUTION 99 i 

Resolved, That — 

1. the Senate approved the action of the President of 
the United States in cooperating in the common defensive 
effort of the North Atlantic Treaty nations by designating, 
at their unanimous request, General of the Army Dwight 
D. Eisenhower as Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, 
and in placing Armed Forces of the United States in 
Europe under his command ; 

2. it is the belief of the Senate that the threat to the 
security of the United States and our North Atlantic 
Treaty partners makes it necessary for the United States 
to station abroad such units of our Armed Forces as may 
be necessary and appropriate to contribute our fair share 
of the forces needed for the joint defense of the North 
Atlantic area ; 

3. it is the sense of the Senate that the President of the 
United States as Commander in Chief of the Armed 
Forces, before taking action to send units of ground troops 
to Euroije under article 3 of the North Atlantic Treaty, 
should consult the Secretary of Defense and the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff, the Committee on Foreign Relations of 
the Senate, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House 
of Representatives, and the Armed Services Committees 
of the Senate and the House of Representatives, and that 
he should likewise consult the Supreme Allied Commander, 
Europe; 



4. it is the sense of the Senate that before sending units 
of ground trooi)S to Europe under article 3 of the North 
Atlantic Treaty, the Joint CJhiefs of Staff shall certify 
to the Secretary of Defense that in their opinion the 
jiarties to the North Atlantic Treaty are giving, and have 
agreed to give full, realistic force and elTeit to the require- 
Mieiit of article 3 of said tre;ity that "by means of con- 
tinuous and effective self-help and mutual aid" they will 
"maintain and develoj) their individual and collective 
capM<-ity to resist armed attack," specifically insofar as 
the creation of combat imits is concerned; 

5. the Senate herewith apiiroves the understanding that 
the major contribution to the ground forces under General 
Eisenhower's command should be made by the European 
members of the North Atlantic Treaty, and that such units 
of United States ground forces as may be assigned to the 
above command shall be so assigned only after the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff certify to the Secretary of Defense that in 
their opinion such assignment is a necessary step in 
strengthening the security of the United States; and the 
certified opinions referred to in paragraph 4 and 5 shall 
be transmitted by the Secretary of Defense to the Presi- 
dent of the United States, and to the Senate Committees 
on Foreign Relations and Armed Services, and to the 
House Committees on Foreign Affairs and Armed Services 
as soon as they are received ; 

6. it is the sense of the Senate that, in the interests of 
sound constitutional processes, and of national unity and 
understanding, congressional approval should be obtained 
of any policy requiring the assignment of American troops 
abroad when such assignment is in implementation of 
article 3 of the North Atlantic Treaty ; and the Senate 
hereby approves the present plans of the President and 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff to send four additional divisions 
of ground forces to Western Europe, but it is the sense of 
the Senate that no ground troops in addition to such four 
divisions should be sent to Western Europe in implementa- 
tion of article 3 of the North Atlantic Treaty without 
fui'ther congressional approval ; 

7. it is the sense of the Senate that the President should 
submit to the Congress at intervals of not more than 6 
months reports on the implementation of the North 
Atlantic Treaty, including such information as may be 
made available for this purpose by the Supreme Allied 
Commander, Europe ; 

8. it is the sense of the Senate that the United States 
should seek to eliminate all provisions of the existing 
treaty with Italy which impose limitations upon the 
military strength of Italy and prevent the performance by 
Italy of her obligations under the North Atlantic Treaty 
to contribute to the full extent of her capacity to the 
defense of Western Europe; 

!). it is the sense of the Senate that consideration should 
be given to the I'evision of plans for the defense of Europe 
as soon as possible so as to provide for utilization on a 
voluntary basis of the military and other resources of 
Western Germany and Spain, but not exclusive of the 
military and other resources of other nations. 



Legislation 



' Adopted by a vote of 69 yeas, 21 nays, and 6 not voting. 
The Senate also adopted S. Con. Res. 18 which Is similar 
to S. Res. 99, except for last part of par. 9 which reads : 
". . . and other resources of Western Germany, Spain, 
Turkey, and Greece, . . ." 



Cultural Convention With Brazil. S. Doc, Executive X, 
81st Cong, 2d sess. Message from The President of 
tbe United States transmitting the Cultural Conven- 
tion between the United States of America and the 
United States of Brazil, signed at Washington on 
October 17, 1950, 6 pp. 

Emergency Relief Assistance to Yugoslavia. H. Bept. 
3204, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany S. 4234] 
5 pp. 

Suspension of Deportation of Certain Aliens. H. Kept. 
3224, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany S. Con. Res. 
108] 2 pp 

Extension of the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act. H. 
Rept. 14, 82d Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany H. R. 
1612] 30 pp. 



April 16, 1951 



637 



America's Campaign of Truth Goes Forward 



INFORMATION ADVISORY COMMISSION 
SUBMITS REPORT 

[Released to the press April 7] 

The United States Advisory Commission on In- 
formation today praised the effectiveness of a 
world-wide Campaign of Trutli being waged by 
tlie Department of State. 

In its fourth semiannual report^ to Congress, 
the Commission stated that the international infor- 
mation program is being efficiently and skillfully 
guided by Assistant Secretary Edward W. Barrett 
and his staff. 

Agreeing with Secretary of Defense George 
]\Iarshall that the present world situation is more 
dangerous than it was 6 months ago, the Commis- 
sion urged Congress — 

to keep right on pioviding enough ammunition and 
manpower with which to wage the war of ideas. 

The Commission, which is headed by Erwin D. 
Canham, editor of the Christian Science Monitor, 
expressed satisfaction that its major recommenda- 
tions to the State Department and Congress have 
been largely carried out. 

The Commission gave these as its basic con- 
clusions : 

That the program is being efficiently administered. 

That its personnel has been greatly improved, and is 
being steadily enriched by specialists of larger experience 
and talent. 

That the expansion authorized by the 81st Congress as 
the Campaign of Truth is being effectively carried forward. 

That most of the recommendations made by this Com- 
mission have been put into effect. 

That a great deal more can be done, and must be done, 
before the United States will be adequately waging the 
war of ideas. 

Thai the evaluation techniques through which the De- 
partment tests its programs need further strengthening, 
as mucli as possilile through iiuii'iiendont sources. 

That grave doubts exist whether major structural 
changes, such as taking the program outside the State 
Department, will be an improvement. We are aware of 
the advantages of a separate agency, but we are more 
impressed by the disadvantages of divorcing policy-making 
from operation, and of setting up almost inevitably con- 
flicting representation in foreign coiuUries. 

That channels wliicli jiave been ojiencd up to 
bring Ainericiin ))riva(e expertiiess into the pro- 



' Publications Division, Department of Slate. 



gi'am in advisory and consultative capacities 
show great promise of effective results. 

In expressing doubt as to the removal of the 
information program from the Department of 
State, the Commission pointed out that the mem- 
bers felt that it was important that the "United 
States should speak with a single voice"' abroad. 
If the program were divorced from the State De- 
partment, the report said, 

there would seem to be two policies, the official State 
Department one and the one promulgated by the informa- 
tion people. 

However, the Commission recommended that 
the subject be investigated. 

In addition to Mr. Canham, the report was 
signed by Philip D. Reed, chairman of the Board 
of the General Electric Company ; Mark A. May, 
director of the Institute of Human Relations at 
Yale University ; and Justin Miller, president of 
the National Association of Broadcasters. The 
newest member of the Commission, Ben Hibbs, 
editor of the Saturday Evening Post, did not sign 
the report since he was not officially' confirmed by 
the Senate as a member of the Commission at the 
time the report was issued. 



PRESIDENT TRUMAN URGES RADIO FUNDS 

Statement hy the President 

[Released to the press hij the White House April 5] 

Tliere is now pending before the Congress a 
request for fluids to build a world-wide network 
of radio broadcasting facilities. These facilities 
are needed to help us win the battle for the minds 
and hearts of men. They would help us holil our 
own in the vital coniiiuniications field in the event 
of war. I understand tlnit some Menibei"s of Con- 
gress advocate sharply reducing funds needed for 
these facilities. I find it hard to believe that this 
report could be true since it would constitute a 
complete reverstil of the House Aiii)roi-)riation 
subcommittee's action last summer when (he en- 
tire broadcasting-facilities plan was put before the 
Committee. In approving the first segment of 



638 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



the total plan at that time, the Committee stated 
that : 

The Committee is firmly convinced of the absolute anil 
immediate necessity of these appropriations which are so 
closely connected with our national defense and security. 

These facilities would help us hold our own in 
the vital communications field in the event of war. 

AVliile it had been expected to request funds for 
the world-wide network of radio facilities over a 
period of three fiscal years, I directed the State 
Department that it should request funds for the 
entire project immediately in order that it might 
be completed as soon as possible in the interest of 
national security. The completion of this radio- 
facilities expansion program is necessary to in- 
sure the delivery by radio of our campaign of 
truth to the people behind the iron curtain. The 
facilities program has been developed since the 
initiation of Soviet radio jamming which seriously 
interfered with American and other free-world 
broadcasts; the program was worked out with 
leading electronics scientists in Universities and 
private industries as well as in Government. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Merwin L. Bohan Named 

to Inter- American Economic Council 

aierwiu L. Bohan took the oath as United States repre- 
sentative to the lA-Ecosoc on aiarch 20, 1951, and was 
Kiven the personal rank of Ambassador by the President. 

Consular Offices 

The American consulate at Geneva, Switzerland, has 
been designated a consulate general, effective April 2, 1951. 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Charles A. Coolidge as Deputy Director of International 
Security Affairs, effective March 22, 1951. 

John H. Ferguson as Deputy Director of the Policy 
Planning Staff, effective April 2, 1951. 



PUBLICATIONS 



SOVIET BIG LIE vs THE CAMPAIGN OF TRUTH Appointment of Officers 

[Released to tlie press April 3] 

Moscow propaganda long has applied the big- 
lie technique, developed by Adolf Hitler, in its 
attacks upon the free nations of the world. The 
United States Government, in its information 
output, has sought to counter the big lie by stick- 
ing to factual reporting. This policy is based on 
the conviction that, in the long run, the truth will 
prevail. 

A recent telegram from the United States Em- 
bassy in Ankara, Turkey, is indicative of the 
success of this policy. The telegram reported 
that the cultural attache of the Embassy, in a 
recent visit to the town of Bolu, in northwest 
Turkey, asked Presat Aker, former mayor and a 
respected elder of the community, whether the 
villagers listened to the Voice of America. 

He replied : 

Yes, indeed. We advise those among us who have 
radios to listen to the Voice of America if they would 
hear the truth. Some of us listen to Moscow radio too, 
so we can tell our people how the Russians are lying. 
The people have been aware of Radio Moscow's tactics 
ever since it reported the entire Turkish brigade in Korea 
had been wiped out, including General Yazici. When 
letters kept coming from friends in Korea, our people 
knew the Russians were lying. We tell them the Voice 
of America tells the truth about the Korean war, in- 
cluding accurate casualty figures, and that they can 
believe it. 



Recent Releases 

For sale 16;/ the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
case of free publications, ichich may be obtained from the 
Department of State. 

Diplomatic List, March 195L Pub. 4145. 1C6 pp. 30?f. 
a copy. Subscription price, $3.25 a year domestic; $4.50 
foreign. 

Monthly list of foreign diplomatic representatives in 
Wa.shington, with their addresses. 

The Washington Meeting of Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics. International Organization and 
Conference Series II, American Republics 7. Pub. 4149. 
8 pp., map. Free. 

A background summary. 



April ?6, 195? 



639 



April 16, 1951 



Ind 



American Republics 

Inter-American Ecosoc, Appointment (Bohan) . 639 
4th Meeting ol Consultation of Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs of American States: 
Economic Cooperation (U.S. Draft Res.) . . bl* 
Final Act (Signed, Washington) ..... 60b 
Outstanding Achievements (Acheson) . . 
VS Solicits Opinions on Japan Treaty (Dulles) 



616 
617 



Arms and Armed Forces 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS : 



Ministers 



Foreign 
Meet. See American Republics. 

VS. Troops in Europe: Statement (Truman); 
S. Res. 99 ,■ ; ■ ' 

U S -U K_France : Industrial Controls Agree- 
ment In Allied Zones of Germany . . . 



637 
621 



New World War 



Asia 

FAR EAST: Preventing a 

(Truman) 

INDIA-PAKISTAN: Solution Sought (Gross) . 
KOREA: U.N. Command Operations: 

Fifteenth Report (Feb. 1-15, 1951) .... 
Sixteenth Report (Feb. 16-28, 1951) .... 
JAPAN: Peace Treaty: 

Erroneous Versions In Foreign Press .... 
U.S. Solicits Latin American Opinion 

(Dulles) 

PHILIPPINES: War Damage Commission Com- 
pletes Task on Claims 618 

Claims 

Philippine War Damage Commission Completes 
Task 



603 
629 



625 
627 



618 



617 



618 



Communism 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS: Foreign Ministers 
Meet. See American Republics. 

Campaign of Truth Goes Forward: 

Radio Funds Urged (Truman) .... 
Information Advisory Commission Report 
Soviet Big Lie vs. Campaign of Truth . . 

KOREA: U.N. Command Operations .... 625, 

Preventing a New World War (Truman) . 

Congress 

Campaign of Truth Goes Forward: 

Radio Funds Urged (Truman) .... 

Information Advisory Commission Report 

Legislation Listed 

Senate Authorizes Troops In Europe: 

S. Res. 99, Text 

Statement (Truman) 



638 

638 
639 
627 
603 



638 
638 
637 

637 
637 



Europe 

FRANCE: 

Industrial Controls Agreement In Germany . 

Site for 6th General Assembly 

GERMANY: Industrial Controls in Allied Zones: 

Agreement, Text 

Letter (Allied High Commission to Ade- 
nauer) 

Preventing a New World War (Truman) . . . 
NAT: 2d Anniversary Marks Progress .... 
SWEDEN : Financial Policies Discussed .... 
SWITZERLAND: Consulate (Geneva), Status 

Changed 

U.K.: Industrial Controls Agreement In Ger- 
many 

U.S. Troops: 

S. Res. 99, Text 

Statement (Truman) 

Finance 

Appropriations for VOA Urged (Truman) . . . 
Financial Policies, U.S.-Sweden, Discussed . . 

Foreign Service 

Consulate (Geneva), Status Changed .... 
Inter-American Council, Appointment (Bohan) . 

Industry 

AMERICAN REPiraLICS: Foreign Ministers 

Meet. See American Republics. 
Industrial Controls In Allied Zones of Germany: 

Agreement (U.S.-U.K.-France) , Text . . . 

Letter (Allied High Commission to Adenauer) . 



621 
632 

621 

623 
603 
620 
624 

639 

621 

637 
637 



638 
624 



639 
639 



621 
623 



g X Vol. XXIV, No. 615 

Information and Educational Exchange Program 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS: Foreign Ministers 

Meet. See American Republics. 
Campaign of Truth Goes Forward 638 

International Meetings 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS: Foreign Ministers 

Meet. See American Republics. 
International Materials Conference (livic) Rules 

of Procedure; Wool Committee 634 

Labor 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS: Foreign Ministers 
Meet. See American Republics. 

Mutual Aid and Defense 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS: Foreign Ministers 

Meet. See American Republics. 
Preventing a New World War (Truman) . . . 603 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization 

NAT: 2d Anniversary: Message (Acheson to van 

Zeeland); Statement (Trtmian) .... 620 

Publications 

Recent Releases 639 

State, Department of 

Appointment of OfiScers 639 

Strategic Materials 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS: Foreign Ministers 

Meet. See American Republics. 
Industrial Controls Agreement in Germany: 

Agreement (U.S.-U.K.-France), Text .... 621 
Letter (Allied High Commission to Adenauer) . 623 
International Materials Conference (IMC) : Wool 

Committee; Rules of Procedure 634 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS: Foreign Ministers 
Meet. See American Republics. 

Telecommunications 

VOA: Radio-Facilities Expansion Urged (Tru- 
man) 638 

Treaties and Other International Agreements 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS: Foreign Ministers 
Meet. See American Republics. 

GERMANY: Industrial Controls Agreement: 

Agreement (U.S.-U.K.-France), Text .... 621 
Letter (Allied High Commission to Adenauer) . 623 

JAPAN: Peace Treaty: 

Erroneous Versions in Foreign Press . . . 618 
U.S. Solicits Latin American Opinion (Dulles) . 617 

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY: 2d Anniversary . 620 

SWEDEN: Financial Policies Discussed .... 624 

United Nations 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS: Foreign Ministers 
Meet. See American Republics. 

INDIA-PAKISTAN: Solution Sought (Gross) . . 629 

General Assembly: Site of 6th Session: 

Resolution, Text 633 

Statement (Gross) 632 

Preventing a New World War (Truman radio 

address) 603 

U.N. Command Operations In Korea: 

Fifteenth Report (Feb. 1-15, 1951) .... 625 
Sixteenth Report (Feb. 16-28, 1951) .... 627 

U.N. Documents: A Selected Bibliography . . . 624 

U.S. in U.N. (Weekly Summary) 635 

U.S. Solicits Latin American Opinions on Jap- 
anese Treaty (Dulles) 617 

Name Index 

Acheson, Secretary Dean 606, 616. 620 

Adenauer, Chancellor 621,623 

Austin, Warren R 625 

Bohan, Merwln L 639 

Coolldge, Charles A 639 

Dulles, John F 617 

Ferguson, John H 639 

Gibson. Edwin T 634 

Gross, Ernest A 629, 632 

Roberts, Richard H 634 

Truman, President Harry S. . . 603. 618. 620, 637. 638 

van Zeehmd, Paul G 620 

Waring, Frank A 619 

U. S. GOVERNHEKT PR1NTIN6 orriCli Ifil 



J/ve/ ^ehw)(tmeni/ ^ t/taie^ 



^.iXuJr 




LffiYA— SYMBOL OF HOPE FOR A NEW ERA IN 

NORTH AFRICA • Exchange of Remarks Between 
Ambassador Clark and Prime Minister Shaqishli .... 643 



THE CHOICES CONFRONTING US IN KOREA • 

Remarks by Assistant Secretary Rusk 655 

COMPULSORY JURISDICTION OF THE INTERNA- 
TIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE • ^otes by Denys P. 
Myers 664 



For index see back cover 



Vol. XXIV, No. 616 
April 23, 1951 





3le Qle/ia^^e^ ^/ y^ate DUllGlin 



Vol. XXIV, No. 616 • Publication 4193 



April 23, 1951 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.O. 

Price: 

B2 issues, domestic $7.60, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (July 29, 1949). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
ov Stats BtrtLETiN as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides tlie 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government utith information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the icork of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
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wellas legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



o.s.suPERlNT£^u-^7c.-Docua:^,■^Ts 
MAY i- 195] 



Libya — Symbol of Hope for a New Era in North Africa 

EXCHANGE OF REMARKS BETWEEN AMBASSADOR CLARK 
AND PRIME MINISTER SHAQISHLI 

[i?ctea«ed to the press April i2] 



Follovying is the exchwnge of remarks betireen Am- 
bassador Leicis Clark, United States representative on 
the United Nations Coxincil for Libya, and Muhammad 
Bhaqixhti, the Prime Minister of Cyrenaica, on the oc- 
casion of Ambassador Clark's presentation to the King 
Designate of Libya, Amir aUSayyid Idris al Sanusi, on 
April 10 at ISenghazi, Cyrenaica. 



TEXT OF AMBASSADOR CLARK'S REMARKS 

Mr. Prime Minister, Gentlemen : First I should 
like to express my appreciation of the kind re- 
marks that have just been made by His Excellency 
the Prime Minister. The words of friendship 
and of welcome he has voiced I take to be a token 
of the sentiments of the Cyrenaican Government 
and people for the Government and people of my 
country.' I should like to reciprocate, if I may, 
and express at the outset to you and through you 
to the Libyan people the strong sentiments of 
friendship and affection which I and my Govern- 
ment feel toward the Libyan people. It has been 
a real privilege to work in Tripoli with such 
outstanding Cyrenaicans as Ali Bey Jerbi, my col- 
league on the United Nations Council, Omar Bey 
Shanib, Vice President of the National Assembly 
and Minister of Defense of the Libyan Govern- 
ment and Khalil Bey Galal, and others, to name 
only a few. I am glad, therefore, of the oppor- 
tunity once again to have the privilege of visiting 
Cyrenaica itself and of seeing for myself that you 
have many more sons of capabilities and chann 
equal to those you have sent to Tripoli. 

I have looked forward to this visit because I 
know from experience that the traditional hos- 
pitality of the East has never been more clearly 
exemplified than here in Cyrenaica. Wlien I was 
here before I felt that I was one of you. I sin- 

' Cyrenaica is one of the parts of the proposed Liljyan 
federation. Under United Nations aegis, a provisional 
Government of Libya has been established in anticipation 
of Libya's independence by January 1, 1952. 

April 23, 7 95 J 



cerely hope that my assumption is justified. I 
find your people sympathetic. You laugh at the 
same things at which I laugh and weep on similar 
occasions. I have looked forward also to this 
opportunity to tell Your Excellency and the peo- 
ple of Cyrenaica that the Government and the 
people of the United States are deeply interested 
in the future of the Libyan state. 

We are all keenly aware that in Libya today 
we are participating in developments of supreme 
significance not only to Libya but to the world at 
large. A gi-eat experiment is being conducted 
here. You gentlemen are more fully aware than 
most that the LTnited Nations was founded only 
5 yeai-s ago. That historic organization was ded- 
icated, among other things, to an abiding prin- 
ciple — respect for the dignity of the human being. 
In that principle lies the fundamental difference 
between Soviet communism and civilization as we 
know it in my country and, for that matter, in 
all countries outside the Soviet Union and its 
satellites. It is the principle on which both Chris- 
tianity and Islam are founded. All of us are 
privileged to share the conviction — ingrained in 
our minds through centuries of religious develop- 
ment — that the individual is not destined to serve 
the state but that the state is created to serve the 
individuals. It is respect for the dignity of the 
individual that distinguishes us from those who 
have come under Soviet dominance. It was that 
community of conviction which found us fighting 
together in the recent war against the similarly 
alien Fascist and Nazi philosophies and now that 
our convictions with the help of God have tri- 
umphed, it is only fitting that the United Nations 
should in every way possible help the people of 
Libya to establish a sovereign and democratic 
nation. 

It is also fitting that my country, the United 
States of America, should play a leading part in 
assisting the Libyan people to achieve a stable and 
lasting independence. I should like to repeat that 

643 



the founding of a Libyan state is a liistoric experi- 
ment. Already in tlie five short years since the 
United Nations Organization was founded, at least 
nine new independent states have come into being. 
We all hope and we believe that Libya will very 
soon take her rightful place in their midst. Libya 
is unique, however, in that it is the first country for 
which the United Nations has declared itself speci- 
fically responsible. Libyan independence has been 
earned by the efforts of Libyan patriots, but in the 
preservation of that independence and in the 
steady elevation of Libya's standard of life the 
United Nations has assumed special responsibili- 
ties and has sent, and will continue to send, men 
highly qualified in all fields to carry out those 
responsibilities. 

No one can fail to recognize that Libya will be 
faced with more problems than most countries. 
There are few known natural resources and dis- 
tances between its centers of population are great — 
great even as they were in my country in its early 
days of independence. I should like to digress 
here for a moment, if I may, to say that in the 
early days of my country the framers of our Con- 
stitution found it necessary to require a lapse of 
4 months' time between the election of our 
President and his assumption of office solely to 
permit him to travel from his home to the seat of 
government. 

There are many other similarities between the 
problems which confront the framers of your con- 
stitution today and those which confronted the 
fathers of my country. But I shall not go into 
those today. Our task and your task will not be 
easy. Nevertheless, the goal of my country, and 
I am sure the goal of the United Nations is the 
same, is to see growing up in Libya a stable and 
peace-loving nation where there will be steadily 
increasing economic well-being and where every 
citizen can be sure that his hopes and his holy 
prerogatives are recognized. 

Since I last came to Cyrenaica, much has hap- 
pened. The National Assembly has met and made 
great progress with its tasks. His Highness the 
Amir has been acclaimed King of the future state. 
A provisional federal government has been named, 
and, already, the powers of state are being trans- 
ferred to the Libyans themselves in accordance 
with the resolutions of the United Nations Gen- 
eral Assembly. Much credit in this, it seems to 
me, is due to the spirit of friendly cooperation 
that has so happily been demonstrated by our 
mutual friends in the United Kingdom, in France, 
and in Italy. The readiness of the administering 
powers, both the United Kingdom and France, 
to facilitate in every appropriate way the transfer 
of powers to the provisional government that has 
been established and the visits here to Benghazi 
of the representatives on our council of France and 
of Italy have given, it seems to me, evidence on 
the part of those jiowers not only of good Mill 
■^a. toward the Libyan state but also of friendship for 



His Highness the Amir and of confidence in the 
ability of His Highness to conduct the affairs of 
an independent Libya wisely, efficiently and in a 
manner best serving the interests of all of the 
people of Libya. I 

I shall look forward, therefore, to the final steps 
in the constitutional development program, to the 
drawing up of the constitution, the declaration of 
independence, and the assumption of the throne 
by His Higlmess the Amir as King of the Libyan 
nation. 

For its part, the United States is eager to wit- 
ness that great event and to welcome a new friend 
into the family of nations. Libya was 2,000 years ' 
ago the site of a great culture and 1,200 years the 
site of another. Let us hope that we are on the 
threshold of a new era in North Africa. It is 
fitting at this time to pay tribute to the Libyan 
patriots who did not live to see their country take 
its place as an independent nation. Were they 
alive today, I am sure they would be proud of the 
nation which is being born and of the man who 
has been selected by the Libyans to be their rulei". 
I should like once again, therefore, to express to 
you and through you to His Highness the Amir 
the sincere friendship of the Government and 
people of the United States for the Government 
and people of Libya and our most sincere hope 
and anticipation that the future will, mider the 
wise guidance of His Highness, witness a steady 
improvement in the well-being and happiness of 
the Libyan people. 



TEXT OF PRIME MINISTER SHAQISHLI'S 
REMARKS 

Your Excellency and Gentlemen : It is a great 
honour and pleasure to have Mr. Clark, ^Vmbas- 
sador of the United States of America, amongst us || 
as guest of His Majesty the King in the capital of 
Cyrenaica. 

The people of Cj'renaica have been eagerly 
awaiting this auspicious visit in order to welcome 
one who is liked and admired all over Libya, one 
of our closest friends and one wlio has devoted 
his energies honestly and sincerely in serving the 
cause of our country and in helping oiu- peojile to 
move forward toward constitutional reform, a 
matter the people themselves chose and planned 
of their own free will according to the decision of 
the United Nations Organization. 

The time spent by you in Libya, during which 
you were the interjireter of friendly feelings of 
the American ])eople, a fact proved on many an 
occasion by different asjiects of kindness and 
friendliness toward the Libyan people, must have 
given you a true impression of feelings of our 
])eople to your own people and of our people's 
aspirations toward a free, democratic and in- 
dependent life, a life of dignity and self-respect, 
a life in which a nation I'an plan its own futin-e 



644 



Department of State Bulletin 



for itself under tlie aegis of our beloved King, the 
symbol of our aspirations and protector of our 
Fatlierland. 

Your Excellency will no doubt have noticed how 
a young Libyan peoj^le is slri\ing to awake from 
its slumber and is shaking off tiie dust of a hated 
past. Your Kxccllency will also have admired this 
people's longing to achieve their objective and 
their devotion to their King, and their sacrilices 
to achieve their national aims, with a view to en- 
joyment of freedom and independence, and in 
order to play their part with free nations in the 
establishment of world peace. 

Your Excellency, the Libyan people, being 
guardians of a great legacy of extreme spiritual 
value, believe it to be a heresy to deny the truth 
of such a spiritual legacy, a heresy which must 
be fought. Witli such a belief it finds itself near- 
est to the free democratic nations and is proud 
of their close friendship, first among which is 
its friendship with the generous American nation. 
This friendship has emerged as a result of hon- 
ourably defending a sacred cause, a responsibility 
which the gallant American nation has now as- 
sumed witli all their tremendous potentialities in 
the vanguard of all free nations in the defence of 
the free world and of the true democratic prin- 
ciples which are now endangered by the greatest 
menace history ever knew. 

Your Excellency, we appreciate the noble feel- 
ings of the American people and admire their de- 
votion to their humanitarian duty. Despite their 
safety at home and the fact that they need not 
fear others, since of their own ample strength they 
can defend themselves against any attack, this 
noble and humanitarian feeling caused them to 
adopt an active role in combatting this danger 
which is threatening world peace, and induced 
them to leave their homeland and their security, 
so as to take the responsibility of fulfilling a sub- 
lime historical mission. A mission, the banner of 
which is being carried by most of the free nations, 
including especially the people of the United 
Kingdom, wlio are also defending this sublime 
principle. 

What causes rejoicing, however, is that the 
world is witnessing today signs of joint coopera- 
tion between the American nation and the rest of 
the free nations of the world to cope with the 
present critical situation which requires an im- 
mense effort on the part of the big democratic 
powers so as to prevent a third world war which 
may shake the foundations of our present civiliza- 
tion. And what brings confidence is the prevail- 
ing belief that the establishment of a spirit of 
cooperation and the strenghtening of such a spirit 
between the great democratic powers and the rest 
of the free nations is the best guarantee for the 
safety of the free world and the preservation of 
the principles for which they stand from the 
threat of any danger, especially at this critical 
period, in which the forces of the free nations come 
under the banner of the United Nations organiza- 



tion, are waging a fierce struggle in support of a 
free life: Free from fear, and free from humilia- 
tion for the coming generations. We also firmly 
believe that as long as the free nations entertain 
such a belief, and are confident of the energies 
and potentialities of the big democratic powers, 
then no danger whatsoever can thi'eaten inde- 
pendence and freedom and the ways of life and 
thinking of the free world. We are full of hope 
that the sun of that day, in which the United Na- 
tions forces will be able to restore peace, will shine 
in the very near future. 

Your Excellency, may I, in my capacity as Prime 
Minister of the Cyrenaican Government, and with 
this true faith and this shining hope, welcome you 
heartily as a guest of our King, and extend to 
you on behalf of the Cyrenaican people, a sincere 
and friendly greeting, trusting that Your Ex- 
cellency may have a happy sojourn amongst us. 
For my part, I extend to the generous American 
people my best wishes and regards. 

And lastly, may I conclude this speech by wish- 
ing a long life to our King Idris the Great and to 
President Truman, the honourable President of 
a friendly state, and may long friendship reign 
between our two peoples. 

May peace and mercy of God be upon you. 



THE CONGRESS 



Legislation 

Amending the Tariff Act of 1930 so as To Extend to Flax- 
seed and Linseed and Flaxseed and Linseed Oil the 
Privilege of Substitution for Drawbacli of Duties. H. 
Rept. 27, S2d Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany H. K. 
2192] 2 pp. 

Granting of Permanent Residence to Certain Aliens. H. 
Rept. 91, 82d Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany H. Con. 
Kes. 49] 57 pp. 

Providing for the Expeditious Naturalization of Former 
Citizens <if the United States Who Have Lost United 
States Citizenship Through Voting in a Political Elec- 
tion or in a Plebiscite Held in Italy. H. Rept. 92, 82d 
Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany H. R. 400] 8 pp. 

Providing the Privilege of Becoming a Naturalized Citizen 
of the United States to All Aliens Having a Legal 
Riglit to Permanent Residence. H. Rept. 93, 82d Cong. 
1st sess. [To accompany H. R. 403] 4 pp. 

Clarifying the Immigration Status of Certain Aliens. H. 
Rept. 118, 82d Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany H. R. 
2.339] 6 pp. 

BacIiKround Information on the Use of United States 
Armed Forces in Foreign Countries. Report of the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs pursuant to H. Res. 28, 
a resolution authorizing the Committee on Foreign 
Affairs to conduct thorough studies and investigations 
of all matters coming within the jurisdiction of such 
committee. H. Rept. 127, 82d Cong. 1st sess. vii, 
77 pp. 

Suspension of Deportation of Certain Aliens. H. Rept. 158, 
82d Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany S. Con. Res. 6] 
2 pp. Also, H. Rept. 159, 82d Cong. 1st sess. [To 
accompany S. Con. Res. 7] 2 pp. 

{Continued on page 663) 



April 23, J 95 7 



645 



U.S. Reiterates Demand to U.S.S.R. on Lend-Lease Settlement 



Folloiniit/ is an exchange of notes bctirem the Sec- 
retary of State and the Soviet Ambassador to Washing- 
ton concerning the request of the United States Ooveriv- 
ment of Fet)ruarii 7, 1951, that the Gmyernment of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics promptly return to 
the United States all vessels loaned to the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics under the terms of the master 
lend-lease agreement of June 11, 19^2. 



UNITED STATES NOTE OF APRIL 6 

ExcELLENCT : I liave the honor to refer to your 
note No. 22 of March 21, 1951 concerning this 
Government's request of February 7, 1951 that 
the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics promptly return to the United States 
all vessels loaned to the Soviet Union under the 
terms of the Master Lend-Lease Agreement of 
June 11, 1942. 

In your note you declare that agreement had 
already been reached between our two Govern- 
ments for the sale to the Soviet Union of all the 
merchant sliips and part of the naval ships re- 
ceived under Lend-Lease and that this Govern- 
ment's note of February 7, 1951 "violates" this 
agreement. 

By "agi'eement" it is presumed that you have 
reference to this Government's notes of February 
27, 1948, September 3, 1948 and August 8, 1949 
which dealt with the disposition of lend-lease 
vessels.^ 

With respect to the thirty-six war-built mer- 
chant vessels this Government's note of February 
27, 1948 stated : 

The agreement of your Government concerning these 
vessels resolves tentatively one of the several points 
necessary to a satisfactory comprehensive settlement of 
the oliligations under the agreement between our two 
Governments of .Tune 11, 1942. 

. . . Your attention is invited to the fact that at the 
first meeting of the Working (iroups on May 3, 1!U7, 
United States Kepreseiitatives stated that since the object 
of tlie negotiations was to acliicve a satisfactory com- 
prehensive settlement, agreement reached on any par- 
ticular subject was tentative and subject to agreement 
on all issues necessary (o a general settlement. The 
Soviet representatives indicated their concurrence. Ac- 
cordingly, the first paragraph of the Outline of Main 



' Not printed. 
646 



Points of Settlement Proposed by the United States Bide 
in keeping with the above-mentioned understandings 
reached by the representatives of our two Governments on 
May 3, 1947 reads in part as follows : "As both sides have 
understood from the outset, the reaching of agreement 
upon any one issue is tentative and subject to the con- 
clusion of a satisfactory comprehensive settlement." 

With respect to pre-war-built merchant vessels 
and tugs, this Government's note of August 8, 1949 
stated in part : 

The Government of the United States considers this 
amount (.$13,000,000) satisfactory as the cash price for 
the sale of the vessels, effective as of September 2, 1945, 
it being understood that the sale will be consummated 
only upon conclusion of the over-all Lend-Lease settle- 
ment. Agreement on this point resolves satisfactorily 
another of the several points of a comprehensive settle- 
ment, but the Government of the United States will con- 
tinue to reserve its rights imder Article V of the agreement 
of June 11, 1942, to require the return to the United States 
of the pre-war-built merchant vessels and the tugs as 
well as other Lend-Lease articles until such time as a 
mutually satisfactory over-all settlement agreement is 
reached. 

With respect to naval vessels, this Government's 
note of September 3, 1948 stated in part : 

Provided a mutually satisfactory Lend-Lease settle- 
ment is promptly agreed upon by our two Governments, 
the Government of the United States is willing, at agreed 
prices, to sell to the Soviet Government as a part of such 
settlement and in accordance with the surplus property 
procedures outlined to representatives of your Govern- 
ment on June 2.5, 1947, the following naval craft . . . 

Moreover, on other occasions this Government 
has made perfectly clear to the Soviet Govern- 
ment its position concerning the disposition of 
lend-lease vessels. In this Government's note of 
May 7. 1948 which referred to the conditional na- 
ture of the agreement concerning war-built mer- 
chant ships as set forth in this Government's note 
of February 27, 1948, it was stated : 

. . . the position of the Government of the United 
States is that, if a comprehensive lend-lease settlement 
is not concluded promptly, the Government of the TInited 
St.'ites under .\rticle V of the Agreement of .lune 11, 1942, 
will reijuire tlu' return to the United States of the lend- 
lease iiiercliaiit vessels now remaining in tlie possession 
of your government. 

In this Government's note of September 3, 1948 
in connection with the need for a prompt and sat- 
isfactory settlement, it was stated: 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Therefore, notwithstanding certain offers which this 
Government lias made in connection with its settlement 
proposals, unless a mutually satisfactory settlement is 
promptly agreed upon by our two Governments, this Gov- 
ernment will have no alternative but to withdraw its 
offers to transfer full title to certain lend-lease articles 
to the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics and will be obliged to exercise its rights under 
Article V of the Agreement of June 11, 1942 by requiring 
the return of such articles to the United States. This is 
particularly applicable to all merchant and naval vessels. 
It applies also to military vessels and to certain other 
lend-lease articles which would be of use to the United 
States. 

From the above it is clear that the agreement 
referred to in your note of March 21, 1951 consists 
of a series of tentative offers by the Government 
of tlie United States which have been explicitly 
conditioned upon the conclusion of a prompt and 
satisfactory lend-lease settlement. In the current 
conversations on the subject of a lend-lease settle- 
ment, Ambassador John C. Wiley has repeatedly 
I called to your attention the fact that the Soviet 
Government by avoiding the reaching of a prompt 
and satisfactory over-all settlement clearly has 
failed to meet the conditions for the sale of any 
of these vessels. Therefore, this Government is 
free to withdraw its conditional offer to sell such 
vessels and this was done in this Government's 
note of February 7, 1951. 

Your note of March 21, 1951 advances as a sec- 
ond reason for not returning lend-lease vessels the 
argimient that the vessels are not needed by the 
United States. Article V of the Master Lend- 
Lease Agreement of June 11, 1942 is clear and 
specific on this point, reading as follows : 

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics will return to the United States of America at 
the end of the present emergency, as determined by the 
President of the United States of America, such defense 
articles transferred under this agreement as shall not 
have been destroyed, lost or consumed and as shall be 
determined by the President to be useful in the defense 
of the United States of America or of the Western Hemi- 
sphere or to be otherwise of use to the United States of 
America. 

This article places upon the President of the 
United States alone the responsibility for the 
determination of tlie usefulness of lend-lease 
articles to the United States. The point raised in 
your note of March 21, 1951 that certain vessels of 
the United States may have been disposed of to 
third countries bears no relationship to the obliga- 
tions of your Government under Article V and is 
not subject to discussion between our two Govern- 
ments. 

On July 7, 1948 the President of the United 
States of America determined that the emergency 
relative to the lend-lease program had been termi- 
nated and the Goverimaent of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics was so notified on October 7, 
1948. On this date the Soviet Government was 
also notified of the determination by the President 
of the United States that 3 icebreakers, 28 frigates 
and 186 other naval craft were of use to the United 



States and their return was demanded. The Soviet 
Government has returned only the frigates and one 
icebreaker. On February 7, 1951 the Government 
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was 
informed that the President of the United States 
of America had determined that all merchant, 
military and naval lend-lease vessels remaining in 
Soviet custody are of use to the United States and 
the prompt return of these vessels was duly de- 
manded. Therefore, the obligation of the Soviet 
Government to return the vessels listed in this 
Government's note of February 7, 1951 is clear 
and unequivocal. 

With reference to the statement in your note of 
March 21, 1951 that United States naval vessels 
in Soviet custody are "badly worn out and for the 
most part unfit for navigation in the open sea," 
I wish to emphasize that title to these vessels re- 
mains in the Government of the United States 
regardless of their condition. I therefore repeat 
the request made in this Government's note of Feb- 
ruary 7, 1951 that representatives of the Govern- 
ment of the United States be permitted to examine 
all unserviceable vessels in order to determine their 
ultimate disposition. 

The demand presented in this Government's 
note of February 7, 1951, that the Government of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics immedi- 
ately return to the Government of the United 
States all the naval and merchant vessels as well 
as military watercraft which were transferred to 
it under the Master Lend-Lease Agreement of 
June 11, 1942 is hereby reiterated. 

A prompt reply is requested in order that the 
necessary arrangements for return may be 
promptly agreed upon with the Soviet naval ex- 
pert now in Washington. 

Accept [etc.] 

Dean Acheson 



SOVIET NOTE OF MARCH 21 

Washington, March 21, 1951 

Sir : In connection with your note delivered to 
me on February 7, 1951 by Mr. Wiley during the 
negotiations on the question of a Lend-Lease set- 
tlement, I have the honor to state the following: 

As you know, by agreement between the Govern- 
ments of the IJ.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. negotia- 
tions were renewed in Washington on January 15 
this year between representatives of both Govern- 
ments for settling all Lend-Lease accounts. Prior 
to that time agreement had already been reached 
between the Governments of the U.S.S.R. and the 
U.S.A. on several specific questions of the Lend- 
Lease settlement, and several other specific ques- 
tions remained to be agreed upon in order to 
complete the negotiations and to conclude an 
agreement for a final and total settlement. In 
particular, an agreement was reached concerning 



April 23, 7 95 J 



647 



the sale to the Soviet Union of all the merchant 
ships and part of the naval ships received nnder 
Lend-Lease. With regard to merchant ships, an 
agreement was also reached about sale prices and 
tliat the value of all merchant ships of pre-war 
construction would be paid for in cash. It is 
important to note that the agreement concerning 
the sale of merchant ships to the Soviet Union was 
reached long before the expiration of the Act of 
1946 concerning the sale of merchant ships. As 
concerns the naval vessels, it is well known that 
the Government of the U.S.S.R., in view of the 
agreement which had been reached earlier, sent a 
naval expert to Washington at the suggestion of 
the Government of the U.S.A., proceeding on the 
basis that the American and Soviet experts would 
discuss the conditions of the sale of naval vessels 
to the Soviet Union. 

The proposal for the immediate return of all 
merchant and naval vessels, made by the Govern- 
ment of the U.S.A. in your note of February 7 of 
this year, violates the agreement ali'eady reached 
between the Governments of the U.S.S.R. and the 
U.S.A. during the negotiations on Lend-Lease. 

The United States Government attempts to jus- 
tify its violation of the agreement concerning the 
sale to the Soviet Union of all merchant vessels and 
part of the naval vessels by referring to Article 5 
of the Lend-Lease Agreement of June 11, 1942, 
which stipulates the possibility of the return of 
Lend-Lease residue at the determination of the 
President of the United States. However, in this 
case the question concerns solely the fulfillment by 
the Government of the LT.S.A. of an agreement 
which had been reached after the conclusion of 
the Agreement of June 11, 1942 and which fully 
corresponds to the principles and tasks of this 
agreement, which pi-ovides for the necessity of 
guaranteeing the interests of both sides in the final 
Lend-Lease settlement. 

It is necessary to note that the Government of 
the U.S.A. motivates its proposal, concerning the 
return of the merchant and naval vessels received 
by the Soviet Union under Lend-Lease, by the fact 
that the United States has need of these vessels at 
the present time. This motivation cannot but 
cause surprise. 

The United States demands the return by the 
Soviet Union of an insignificant number of mer- 
chant vessels while according to the report of the 
Senate Commission of August 30, 1950, No. 2494, 
three-fifths of all tonnage or more than 1.5 million 
gross tons of the United States merchant fleet are 
not Ix'ing used and are moored inactive at piers. 

The United States also demands the return by 
the Soviet Union of an insignificant number of 
small naval vessels badly worn out and for the most 
part unlit for navigation in the open sea. Mean- 
while it is well known that the United States has 
sold and transferred several naval vessels to other 
countries. Thus, according to data of the U.S. 



Department of Defense published in a press re- 
lease of January 9, 1951, two light cruisers were 
sold to Brazil and Chile; according to reports in 
the American press, destroyer escorts, submarines 
and other naval vessels were sold to Turkey, 
Greece, France and other countries. Altogether 
according to data published in the United States 
twenty-six large naval vessels were sold to other 
countries in 1950 and 1951, not to mention a con- 
siderable number of small naval vessels. With re- 
gard to the sale of merchant vessels, as can be seen 
from data published on January IS of this year 
in the American press the United States has sold 
1,113 American vessels of war-time construction 
to foreign purchasers. 

It is also known that during the Lend-Lease set- 
tlement with Great Britain, the Government of the 
U.S.A. sold vessels, along with other Lend-Lease 
residual items, to the Government of Great Britain, 
as is witnessed by the report of the Senate Com- 
mission of March 22, 194G, No. 110, section V. 

Thus the reference in your note to the fact that 
the United States needs merchant and naval vessels 
appears to have an artificial character and there- 
fore cannot serve as a basis for presenting the So- 
viet Union with a demand to return all Lend-Lease 
vessels. Such a demand does not conform to the 
principles of the Lend-Lease Agreement, which 
pi'ovides, as is well known, an obligation to con- 
sider the interests of both sides and not to act uni- 
laterally and to the harm of these interests. 

The Soviet Government also considers it neces- 
sary to draw the attention of the Government of 
the U.S.A. to the fact that the number of Lend- 
Lease naval vessels indicated in the supplement to 
your note of February 7 does not correspond to ( 
the actual number of such vessels in the possession I 
of the Soviet Union. The total number of avail- 
able Lend-Lease naval vessels in the U.S.S.R. is 
498, not counting two icebreakers. The remaining 
56 vessels were lost during military operations and 
for other reasons. On June 25, 1948 the Soviet 
Government, as is known, reported the existence 
in the U.S.S.R. of 518 naval vessels, consisting 
mainly of cutters, minesweepers and other small 
vessels, without mentioning the remaining vessels 
which were lost during the war. 

In its note of reply of Sejitember 3, 1948, the 
Government of the U.S.A. correctly listed 36 vcs- 
.sels as lost or destroyed. As concerns 20 vessels, 
I reported their loss to Mr. Wiley during the nego- 
tiations on January 27 of this year. During the 
negotiations on February 7, additional informa- 
tion concerning Lend-Lease naval vessels now in 
the U.S.S.R. was given to Mr. Wiley. 

The Soviet Government expresses confidence 
that the Government of the U.S.A. will adhere to 
the agreement previously reached concerning mer- 
chant autl naval vessels, which is an important 
condition in reaching a Lend-Lease settlement. 

Accejit fi'tc] 

A. Panyusiikin 



648 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Analysis of Official Personnel Stationed in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. 



Text of Letter from Assistant Secretary McFall 
to Representative Thomas J. Lane 

March 20, 1951 

My Dear Mr. Lane : Reference is made to your 
letter of March 1, 1951, acknowledged by tele- 
phone on March 9, 1951, forwarding lor the De- 
partment's comment a copy of the remarks which 
you made in the House of Representatives on 
March 1. In these remarks you recommend that 
the official personnel which the Soviet Government 
sends to the United States and the travel of this 
personnel in the United States be placed on a 
reciprocal basis with regard to the number of 
official personnel of the United States in the Soviet 
Union and the travel privileges of American offi- 
cial personnel in that country. 

Your remarks refer to two important questions 
concerning United States-Soviet relations which 
are under continual consideration in the Depart- 
ment. The comments of the Department with 
regard to tliese matters are presented in the fol- 
lowing paragraphs. 

The exchange of official representatives between 
two governments is rarely susceptible to treatment 
on a numerical parity basis. In almost every in- 
stance one country or the other will require a 
larger official establishment. Actually the va- 
riety of functions which the American Foreign 
Service is expected to perform, including complex 
visa and passport services and a wide range of 
reporting on political and economic subjects, is so 
great that the diijlomatic and consular offices of 
the United States in any foreign country tend to 
be larger than that country's official representa- 
tion in the United States. 

An analysis of the number of Soviet officials in 
the United States reported to the Department of 
State by the Soviet Embassy up to March 5, 1951, 
and comparable American personnel in the Soviet 
Union as of the same date indicates that Soviet 
and United States official representation is prac- 
tically on a parity basis. This analysis includes 
Embassy officials, correspondents, and commeixial 
representatives of the two countries. It excludes 
Soviet representation to international organiza- 
tions in the United States which have no counter- 
part in the Soviet Union. 



There are enclosed two sheets which present 
United States official personnel in the Soviet 
Union and Soviet personnel in the United States 
as of March 5, 1951. You will note that the Soviet 
list carries a comparative list of Soviet personnel 
in the United States as of July 1, 1950. While 
on the face of these lists there appears to be a 
numerical disparity in representation in favor of 
the Soviet Union, an analysis of the figures gives 
a different picture. On March 5 the United States 
Government had official personnel numbering 101 
with 16 dependents assigned to the American Em- 
bassy in Moscow. The Soviet counterpart of this 
figure is official Soviet personnel numbering 88, 
with 125 dependents (70 wives and 55 children) 
assigned to the Soviet Embassy in Washington. 
Thus, the United States has 115 more official em- 
ployees in the American Embassy in Moscow than 
the Soviet Government has in the Soviet Embassy 
in Washington. Since no international organiza- 
tion of which the United States is a member has 
its headquarters in the Soviet Union, there can be 
no United States personnel in the Soviet Union 
comparable to the Soviet personnel assigned to the 
United Nations; namely, 121 (52 official employ- 
ees, 38 wives, 31 children). If from the 381 total 
Soviet official personnel in the United States, there 
is subtracted 121, which is the Soviet representa- 
tion, including dependents, to the United Nations, 
and 153 which represents Soviet dependents in the 
United States other than dependents of Soviet 
United Nations employees, the total Soviet official 
employees in the United States would amount to 
107, 6 more than the 101 United States official 
employees in the Soviet Union, minus dependents. 

With regard to Soviet restrictions on the travel 
of foreigners, the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics is divided into "free" and prohibited areas 
for diplomatic and consular personnel of foreign 
nations in the Soviet Union. Foreign officials on 
duty in Moscow may not travel more than 50 
kilometers from the city limits with the exception 
of three points of historic interest to which for- 
eigners may travel after appropriate notification 
to the foreign office. In general, all border areas 
and all of the central Asian republics, the Cau- 
casus with the exception of Tbilisi, the Baltic 
States, and the western areas of the Ukraine and 



April 23, J 95 1 



649 



Belorussia includino; the capital cities of Kiev and 
Minsi< are within the zones proliibited to foreign 
officials. Although most of the Siberian areas is 
technically "free," in practice it is greatly re- 
stricted owing to the fact that the important cities 
are forbidden areas. In order to travel to "free" 
areas foreign missions must notify the foreign 
office in advance of the name and the itinerary 
of the traveler. Under this procedure, members 
of the Embassy's staff in Moscow have been able 
to make frequent trij^s to "free" areas during the 
past 2 years. 

The question of applying travel control meas- 
ures to Soviet official personnel in the United 
States is under constant review by the United 
States Government agencies concerned. Restric- 
tions upon the travel of Soviet officials will be 
imposed whenever it is evident that such action 
is in the over-all interest of the United States. 

Sincerely yours, 

Jack K. McFall, 
Assistant Secretary. 

Enclosures: (1) Total UnitPd StatPS oflJrial pprsonnel in the 
Soviet Union as of March 5, 1951 : (2) total Soviet officials in 
the United States as of March 5, 1951. 



Total United States Official Personnel 
in the Soviet Union, March 5, 1951 

Embassy : 

State Department ftt 

Navy attach^ staff IH 

Army attach^ staff 18 

Air Force attach^ staff 6 

Dependents 16 

Total 117 

UNITED STATES NONOFFICIAL PERSONNEL IN THE 
SOVIET UNION 

Clerfjymen 1 

Newspaper correspondents 6 

Businessmen (composed at present of fur buyers — 

an approximation) 2 

Total 9 

Grand total 126 

Hreakdown of figures used in tlie compilation "Total 
TTnitod States official personnel in the Soviet Union 
March 5, 19.^)1," attached hereto : 
State Department : 

Male employees including; Ambassador: 

Foreign Service officer 15 

Foreign Service Reserve officer 1 

Foreign service staff perscmnel 25 

Female employees, unmarried (Foreign Serv- 
ice staff) 8 

Working wives (Foreign Service staff) 15 

Total working personnel 64 

Dependents (nonworking — includes 2 wives and 
9 children) 11 

Total State Department 75 



Navy Department: 

Naval officers 5 

Enlisted men 8 

Total 13 

Dependents (2 wives Included in "working wives" 
above and 1 daughter included in "female em- 
ployees, unmarried" above — 1 dependent 

child) 4 

Total Navy Department 14 

Department of the Army: 

Officers ."> 

Warrant officers 1 

Enlisted men 12 

Total 1« 

Dependents (2 wives included in "working wives" 

above; 2 dependent wives) 4 

Total Army 20 

Air Force: 

Officers 3 

Enlisted men 3 

Total 6 

Dependents (1 wife included in "working wives" 

above; 1 wife and 1 dependent child) 3 

Total for Air Force 8 

Grand total 117 



Soviet Officials in United States ' 



I 







Comparativ 
figures 


•e 




Mar. 5, 
1951" 


Julv 1, 
1950 


SUMMARY 

Embassy personnel 

International organizations 

Purchasing Commission 


88 
52 
2 
7 
2 
7 

1 

124 

98 






»86 
59 

7. 


Tass 


7 


Pravda correspondents 


? 




17 


Correspondents of AU-Union 
Committee of U.S.S.R. . . 


Radio 


1 


Wives 


1371 


Children 


103 


Dependent relative - 


1 








Grand total ^ . . . . 


381 




410 




assy. . 

ees . . 




BREAKDOWN 

Embassy of the U.S.S.R.: 

Accredited officers of Emb 
Employees of Embassy . 


40 

48 


39 
47 


Subtotal 


88 


86 


Wives of Embassy officers 
Wives of Embassy employ 


32 

38 


31 
38 


Subtotal 


70 


69 



650 



Department of State Bulletin 





Comparative 
figures 




Mar. 5, 
19511 


Jiilv 1, 
1950 


Embassy of the U. S. S. R.— Con. 

Children of Krnbassy officers . . 
Children of Embassy employees . 


23 
32 


24 

28 


Subtotal 


55 


52 






Dependent relative of Embassy 
personnel 





1 






Total Embassy 


213 


208 


United Nations: 

U.S.S.R. representation to U.N. . 
Wives of U.S.S.R. representa- 
tives 


49 

35 
30 


55 
39 


Children 


37 






Subtotal 


114 


131 


U.S.S.R. members Military Staff 
Committee 


3 

3 

1 


4 


Wives of members of Military 

Staff Committee 

Children 


4 
2 






Subtotal 


7 


10 






Total United Nations 


121 


141 


Government organizations: 

Purchasing Commission .... 

Wives of members 

Children 


2 
2 
2 


2 
2 
2 






Subtotal 


6 


6 






Tass employees 

Wives 


7 
6 
5 


7 
6 


Children 


3 






Subtotal 


18 


16 






Pravda correspondents 

Wives 


2 
2 

1 


2 
1 


Children 









Subtotal 


5 


3 


All-Union Radio Committee Cor- 
respondents 

Wives 


1 
1 
2 


1 
1 


Children 


1 






Subtotal 


4 


3 


Amtorg employees 

Wives 


7 
5 
2 


17 
10 


Children 


6 


Subtotal 


14 


33 


Total governmental organiza- 
tions 


47 


61 


Grand total 


3 381 


410 




1 





' Figures based on note 8 of Jan. 27, 1951, from Soviet 
Embassy reporting Soviet citizens, employees of Soviet 
State institutions, Soviet mi.ssions, and other organiza- 
tions to be found in the United States as of Jan. 1, 1951, 
and note 7 of Jan. 24, 1951, and note 11 of Feb. 7, 1951, 
which showed further personnel changes. 

2 Soviet officials in United States as of Julv 1, 1950. 
Figures based on note 113 of July 13, 1950. Soviet Em- 
bassy reporting Soviet citizens, employees, and other 
organizations in the United States as of July 1, 1950. 

' In addition to this total, there are 12 Soviet citizens 
employed by the Secretariat of the United Nations who 
are accompanied by 12 wives and 6 chidren (total 30). 



Deadline for Filing War Claims 
With Italy 

[Released to the press April 12} 

The importance of completino; the consideration 
and adjndication of claims on behalf of American 
nationals nnder provisions of the peace treaty with 
Italy with the least possible delay makes it im- 
perative that a time limit be fixed for the filing? 
of such claims. 

Considering^ that a period of more than 3 years 
has already elapsed within which such claims 
could be filed, it has been determined that the date 
of September 15, 1951, be fixed as the final date for 
the filing of claims either directly with the Ameri- 
can Embassy at Rome or with the Department of 
State, Legal Adviser's Office, Washington, D.C., 
for presentation to the Government of the Eepub- 
lic of Italy. 

The claims involved are those based upon loss 
or damage, as a result of the war, to property in 
Italy which was owned by American nationals. 

Since no assurance can be given that it will be 
possible for claims not filed on or before Septem- 
ber 15, 1951, to receive proper consideration, 
claimants desiring to file claims of the character 
referred to, but who have not yet done so, are 
urged to present them as far in advance of the 
above-mentioned date as possible. 



Effect of Revised German Monetary 
Reform Law on U.N. Nationals 

[Released to the press April 12] 

The Department of State wishes to direct the 
attention of United States citizens to an amend- 
ment of the monetary reform legislation enacted 
in Western Germany in June 1948. This amend- 
ment is Allied High Connnission Law No. 46 and 
enables United Nations nationals to accept, at the 
rate of 1 deutschemark for every 10 reichsmarks 
previously due, payments in deutschemarks of 
reichsmarks debts owed them by German nationals 
without waiving their rights to secure whatever 
future payments there may be to United Nations 
nationals in the final settlement of such debts. 
Under the provisions of this law, a United Na- 
tions creditor, if he has objected against con- 
version at the rate stipulated in the currency 
reform law or has refused a previous tender of 
deutschemarks, must notify his debtor on or before 
December 31, 1951, that his refusal of payment 
is withdrawn. 

Under the terms of the 1948 monetary reform 
legi-slation in Germany, in general all debts and 
claims expressed in former reichsmarks were con- 
verted into new deutschemark obligations at the 
rate of 1 deutschemark for every 10 reichsmarks 



April 23, 1951 



651 



previously due. Article XV of United States- 
United Kingdom Military Government Laws Nos. 
63 and section XV of French Military Govern- 
ment Ordinance No. 100 provided, however, that 
United Nations nationals owinfj claims for the 
payment of a sum of money arising out of debts 
expressed in reichsmarks, other than credit bal- 
ances in financial institutions, could make to their 
debtors before October 20, 1948, a declaration 
against conversion of the debt into deutschemarks 
at the above-mentioned rate of exchange. 

Apart from this option of making immediate 
declaration to their debtors, article XV and sec- 
tion XV also permitted United Nations nationals 
to refuse a tender of deutschemarks at any time 
prior to a peace treaty or other agreed settlement 
of this problem. If a United Nations creditor 
either objected to the conversion by notification 
to his debtor or refused to accept a payment when 
tendered, his rights remain unaffected by the laws 
and ordinance. 

As stated above, the revision of article XV and 
section XV now permits a United Nations creditor 
to accept payment of the debt in deutschemarks at 
the 10 to 1 rate without waiving his right to se- 
cure whatever future payments there may be to 
United Nations nationals under a final settlement 
of the problem. Such revision further provides 
that a United Nations creditor, who has objected 
against conversion at the stipulated rate by a 
declaration to his debtor or refused a tender of 
deutschemarks, must notify his debtor on or before 
December 31, 1951, that his refusal of payment 
is withdrawn. 



Panel of U.S. Women Visit Germany 

On April 10, the Department of State and the 
Office of the United States High Commissioner 
for Germany announced that a panel of 11 women 
delegates from national nongovernmental organ- 
izations will leave the United States for Germany 
on April 19 for 6 weeks' work and consultation 
with German women's organizations. Their 
travel to and from Germany is being financed by 
their respective organizations, representing ap- 
proximately 15,000,000 American women. The 
Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor has 
acted as liaison between the Department of State 
and the various national organizations in plan- 
ning this joint panel, the first of its kind to repi-e- 
sent the United States in Germany. The names 
of the or<ranizations and their representatives 
follow : 



Organization 



Name 



Iveagaie of Women Voters Mrs. TI. R. Dyke 

Congre.ss of Industrial Organi- Mrs. Marie Mengerseu 

zations 
Associated Country Women of Mrs. Philip Jones 

tiie World 
Young Women's Christian Asso- Mrs. Arthur Anderson 

elation 



Organization 

United Council 

Women 
National Council 

Women 

American Federation of Labor 
National Federation of Business 

and Professional Women's 

Clubs, Inc. 
American Association of Uni- 
versity Women 
National Council of 

Women 
National Council of Catholic 

Women 



Name 
of Church Miss Luella Reckmeyer 
of Negro Dr. Dorothy Ferebee 



Mrs. Edna Rose 
Dr. Minnie MafEett 



Mrs. Frederick Gilstrap 
Jewish Jlrs. Joseph WlUen 

Mrs. Anthony J. Seholter 



The delegates will spend from 5 to 7 days re- 
spectively in the vicinity of Frankfort, Stuttgart, 
Munich, Berlin, Hamburjr, Bonn, and in rural 
areas of the Federal Kepublic. At each stopover, 
the jjanel will meet with German women's groups 
and then divide to pursue special interests, such 
as labor affairs, religious activities, and civic af- 
fairs, by working individuallj' with women's or- 
ganizations and leaders in smaller towns. 

The American and German women will ex- 
change ideas concerning mutual problems, the par- 
ticipation of women in civic affairs, and the 
objectives and functions of national and interna- 
tional women's organizations. The American 
women will be especially concerned with investi- 
gating methods of aiding German-affiliated or- 
ganizations and other women's groups. They 
will also visit many of the educational, welfare, 
and civic projects sponsored by German women's 
organizations. 

The 6-week program is being arranged jointly 
by the Women's Affairs representatives of the 
Allied High Commissioners and a committee 
of representatives of major German women's, 
organizations. 



U.S.-Germany Discuss Agreement 
for VOA German Language Programs 

[Relciiscd to the press April 12] 

The Department of State in a statement re- 
leased simultaneously today in Washington and 
Frankfort announced the openin<i of negotiations 
in Germany between the (general managers of four 
German radio stations and the Voice of America 
for an agreement on the relaj' of Voice of America 
German-language programs. 

The negotiations are the culmination of requests 
made several months ago by the German broad- 
casters for discussions with representatives of the 
Voice of America on tlie present Voice German- 
lane;uap:e programs relayed by the stations in the 
Amei'ican zone of Germany. 'I'hese ])rograms have 
been rebroadcast as an occupation requirement by 
the stations Radio Bremen in Bremen. Hessian 
radios in Frankfort, South German Radio in 
Stuttgart, and tiie Bavarian Radio in Munich. 



652 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



The Depaitment of Stale lias received, and is 
considering, proposals made by Eberhard Beek- 
mann, general niansiger of the Hessian Eadio; 
Fritz Eberhardt, general manager of the South 
German Radio; Rudoli)h von Scholz, general man- 
ager of tlie Bavarian Radio; and Walter Geerdes, 
general manager of Radio Bremen. 

Statement hy HowJand II. Sargeant 

Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs 

The negotiations now going on between the 
German stations and the Voice of America are an 
eloquent example of free people cooperating 
wholeheartedly in the international struggle for 
truthful infonnation. We are happy that through 
the cooperation of the German broadcasters con- 
tinued relays of the Voice of America will be pos- 
sible in a mutually acceptable and beneficial 
manner. We are particularly happy that through 
the medium of the Voice of America the German 
people will continue to receive a complete picture 
of American thought, action, and culture. The 
amazing and rapid development of German radio 
during the occupation into a vital instrument of 
free expression and thouglit for all the jjeople of 
Germany has indeed been gratifying. This latest 
step in cooperation marks an important milestone 
in the wholesome relationships between the Ger- 
man and American people. It is a high sign of 
good will and mutual cooperation in these difficult 
times. We welcome it as the expression of a free 
people banded together with us in the Campaign 
of Truth so necessary in the world today. 



VOA To Broadcast in Hebrew 

[Released to the press April 10] 

The Voice of America will begin a daily 30- 
minnte broadcast in HebreM' on Sunday, April 15, 
the Department of State announced today. 

The initial program will include messages from 
President Truman; George C. McGhee, Assistant 
Secretary for Near Eastern, South Asian, and 
African Affairs; Senator Herbert Lehman; and 
Abba Eban, Israeli Ambassador to the United 
States. Subsequent broadcasts will contain news, 
analysis, features, and music. The features will 
consist of interviews with Israelis in America, 
Americana, talks by well-known Israelis and eco- 
nomic, agricidtural, labor, scientific, cultui'al, and 
dramatic programs. 

The new Voice of America program will be 
broadcast short wave from the United States on 
four frequencies from 1 : 00 to 1 : 30 p.m. e.s.t. 
(8 : 00-8 : 30 p.m. in Israel) and will be relayed by 
the Voice of America i-elay base at Tangier. 

Sidney Glazer, who has been with the Near East 
section of the Voice of America and was formerly 
with the Library of Congress, has been designated 
chief of the Hebrew unit. 



The addition of Hebrew will increase to 30 the 
number of languages and dialects utilized by the 
Voice of America in its world-wide broadcasting 
service. 

Al.so, on April 15, the Voice of America will 
increase its transmissions in Persian, Spanish to 
Spain, German to Germany and Portuguese to 
Brazil, which will increase the total Voice of 
America service to more than 42 program hours 
daily. 



Point 4 Agreement Signed With Iraq 

[Released to the press April 10] 

The United States and Iraq today signed a Point 
4 general agreement in Baghdad. Acting Minister 
of Foreign Affairs, Tewfiq Suweidi, signed for 
Iraq and American Ambassador Edward S. 
Crocker, for the United States. With the addi- 
tion of Iraq today, there are now 22 countries 
which have signed technical cooperation agree- 
ments with the United States under the Act for 
International Development, which authorized 
President Truman's Point 4 Program. 

A request has been approved for the services of 
an American engineer on the Iraq Development 
Boaid, which will study the country's most im- 
mediate economic problems and make recom- 
mendations for a development program. Requests 
also have been I'eceived for technical assistance in 
the fields of agricultural education, vocational 
education, and home economics. 

The legendary site of the Garden of Eden, Iraq, 
is taking action to control the flood waters of the 
Euphrates and Tigris Rivers to bring the country 
back to its historic productivity. Irrigation and 
proper control of these two great rivers can double 
the area of about 12,500 square miles now under 
cultivation and make the land now in use more 
productive. 

A 12.8 million dollar loan was negotiated in June 
1950 by Iraq from the International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development for a flood con- 
trol project on the Tigris River, and bids have been 
asked for the work. A project already is under 
way in the valley of the Euphrates. It is called 
the Habbaniyah water storage scheme. Each of 
these projects, when completed, should provide 
water to irrigate up to a million acres. 

About 80 percent of Iraq's 4,800,000 people are 
farmeis. Two crops, barley and dates, contribute 
78.4 percent of Iraq's exports, exclusive of oil, and 
other agricultural products contribute another 16 
percent. The principal food imports are tea, 
coffee, and sugar, none of which can be grown 
locally in quantity. Aside from these and other 
minor items, Iraq's people can produce enough to 
feed themselves. Industrial and agricultural ma- 
chinery are important items of importation. 



April 23, 7957 



653 



Secretary-General Lie Advised 
off Change in U. N. Command 

Letter From Ambassador Austin 
to Secretary-General Lie 

U.N. doc. S/2082 
Dated Apr. 11, I'.tSl 

11 April 1951 

Excellency: Acting under instructions from 
my Government, I have the honor to inform the 
Security Council that the President of the United 
States has today relieved General Douglas Mac- 
Arthur as the Commanding General of the mili- 
tary forces which the members of the United Na- 
tions have made available to the Unitied Com- 
mand under the United States, pursuant to the 
Security Council resolution of July 7, 1950, and 
has designated Lieutenant General Matthew B. 
Ridgway as his successor. 

Request is made that this report be provided to 
the Security Council. 

Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of 
my highest consideration. 

Warren R. Austin 



ship to strengthen peace and the defense of free- 
dom in the Pacific. That is a result which the 
American people ai'e unitedly determined to 
achieve, and I shall contribute to it to the best of 
my ability. 

I am glad to be accompanied by the Assistant 
Secretary of the Army, Earl D. Johnson and Col. 
C. Stanton Babcock and Robert A. Fearey, who 
were part of the earlier mission to Jai)an. My 
deputy, John M. Allison, is remaining in Wash- 
ington to carry on the current discussions with 
I'epresentatives of Allied Powers. 

We expect to return from our present mission to 
Tokyo in about 10 days. 

Statement hy Under Secretary Wehh 
[Released to the press April 13] 

The President has asked me to wish Mr. Dulles 
a safe and successful trip and to reaffirm the deter- 
mination of the United States to work earnestly 
for a prompt conclusion of a Japanese peace set- 
tlement. This policy is strongly supported on a 
bipartisan basis — a fact which Mr. Dulles is emi- 
nently qualified to take to tiie Japanese people. 



Ambassador Dulles Returns to Japan 
for Peace Treaty Consultation 

Statement by the Ambassador 
[Released to the press April 13] 

I am flying to Japan to discuss with General 
Ridgway and Japanese leaders the present state 
of the Japanese peace treaty. Since our mission 
left Japan on February 11, good progress has been 
made, and the President has made abundantly 
clear his determination that this work shall move 
forward steadily. That makes it important at 
this juncture to acquaint General Ridgway with 
all phases of the matter so that, as Supreme Com- 
mander for the Allied Powers in Japan, he can 
assist in conqjleting the peace which was contem- 
plated by the surrender terms and which is now 
due. It will also be useful, at this juncture, to 
advise the Japanese leaders as to the pending state 
of the negotiations with other Allied Powers. 
There will be some differences to be ironed out, but 
nothing that has transpired leads us to doubt the 
practicability of an early agreement by most of 
the Allied Powers upon a peace treaty which will, 
in general, follow the lines indicated in my Los 
Angeles address of March 31. 

Wliatever may be (he differences of opinion here 
at home as to other matters, I have found agree- 
ment by the leaders of both our political parties 
that we must proceed without regard to partisan- 



• Bulletin of Apr. 9, 1051, p. 576. 
654 



Purpose of the Ambassador''s Trip 

[Released to the press hy the White House April 11] 

In view of the importance of concluding a Japa- 
nese peace settlement, as recognized by the leaders 
of both political parties, at the request of the Presi- 
dent, Jolm Foster Dulles, who is acting as the 
special representative of the President in this mat- 
ter, will return to Tokyo over the coming week end 
for the dual purpose of consulting with General 
Ridgway and Japanese leaders. 

The President has made clear that it is the firm 
policy of tlie United States Government to press 
forward to conclude a peace settlement with Japan 
as soon as possible. The principles underlying the 
treaty were set out by Mr. Dulles in liis Los Angeles 
address of March 31, 1951.^ They have been de- 
veloped with the closest consultation with leaders 
of both parties in both houses of Congress and with 
General MacArthur and have the full approval of 
the President. 

Ambassador Dulles'' Departure 

Ambassador John Foster Dulles, sjiecial repre- 
sentative of the President, left at 4 : 00 p.m. April 
13 by special plane for Tokyo. As announced 
by the White House on April 11, the ])urpose of 
Mr. Dulles" trip is to confer with General Ridgway 
and Jajianese leaders regarding nuitters connected 
witli bringing about the early conclusion of a peace 
settlement with ,lapan. 

Mrs. Dulles will also accompany him as will 
Mrs. Burnita O'Day, his private secretary. 

Department of State Bulletin 



The Choices Confronting Us in Korea 



Remarks by Demi Rusk 

Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs ^ 



Today I should like to talk for a few minutes 
about where we come out in Korea. How does the 
fighting end? 

Let's look first at the choices which are easy to 
think about. We could turn the fighting into a 
much bigger war by attacking those who are di- 
rectly involved in the aggression in Korea. The 
action of Red China and tlie Soviet Union in 
Korea has been criminal and unconscionable. But 
we would not solve the Korean problem that way. 
We miglit be able to forget it, but only because 
we would have far more serious things to worry 
about. Our jjurpose must be to defend our secu- 
rity and liberties without a world war if we can ; 
but defend them we must. 

Perhaps you are one of those who say, "We don't 
want a general war ; we only want to bomb Man- 
churia and attack China." But there are others in 
this struggle, who have great power available to 
them not yet committed to the aggression in Korea. 
They, too, can make decisions. It may be that 
your guess is that the Communists won't wage a 
general war at this time. Your guess might be 
right. But it might be wrong. Those who make 
the decision to extend hostilities beyond Korea 
would be completely irresponsible if they did not 
take into full account the element of general war, 
with all the destruction and loss of life which 
would be involved. 

A second easy thing to think about is an imme- 
diate withdrawal from Korea. That, too, would 
lead to disaster. Korea is not the only object of 
the appetites and ambitions of Communist con- 
spiracy. We could not solve anything by abandon- 
ing Korea. Wlio would be the next victim ? And 
the next? And the next? Have we so soon for- 
gotten Adolph Hitler? Each bite was to be t\\Q 
last. Do you remember the trail which led from 
Manchuria and Ethiopia to Pearl Harbor? To 

' Made over NBC television on Apr. \'> and released to 
the press on the same date. 



abandon Korea would be to abandon the United 
States. 

Some are now saying, "Either extend the war 
or get out of Korea." They are asking us to choose 
which of two roads to disaster we should take. 
Our choice must be to take neither, if we can avoid 
it. At this point, the job gets tough and compli- 
cated. 

Wliat we are trying to do is to maintain peace 
and security without a general war. We are say- 
ing to the aggressors, "You will not be allowed to 
get away with your crime ; you must stop it." At 
the same time, we are trying to prevent a general 
conflagration which would consume the very things 
we are now trying to defend. 

Let's admit that this effort is extremely difficult. 
There is no more complicated problem than to 
bring an end to fighting which involves the world's 
great powers witliout unconditional surrender of 
one side or the other — an unconditional surrender 
which will not come except in general war. It is 
hard to understand and hard to explain. It means 
a condition of half-war, half-peace. 

Peace will come in Korea when the aggressors 
decide to give up their purpose. There is no pres- 
ent sign that they intend to do so. But if we count 
their casualties and the forces they now have in 
Korea, the aggi'essors have committed at least 
1,250,000 troops to their criminal effort and are 
riglit where they were when the first attack was 
launched. In Red China itself, people are in- 
creasingly worried about sending waves of Chinese 
manpower into the fiery furnace of modern fire 
power in a foreign land, in a war hatched up by 
someone else. 

The President reminded us last Wednesday 
evening that Communist aggression was repelled 
in Greece and in Berlin without a general war. 
Tliis came about because situations were created 
by vigorous action on the part of the free world 
which made it necessary for the aggressors, for 



April 23, T95J 



655 



reasons fully known only to them, to clmng-e their 
course of action. Both in Greece and in Bei'lin, 
the result fully protected the essential interests of 
the free world and the failure of purpose and loss 
of prestige went to those who had flagrantly chal- 
lenged the peace of the world. 

Apart from Korea itself, the free peoples of the 
world are increasing their strength rapidly; their 
armed forces and their industrial production are 
being readied to defend themselves against the 
threat which has been raised against them. This 
very fact produces peril. For a course of events 
has been set in motion by the free world which 
will shortly place us in position to be secure and 
to get on with the great peaceful purposes which 
are our true aims. This prospect may be intolera- 
ble to the Kremlin — hence, the danger. But, we 
must pass through this valley of danger if we are 
to maintain our liberties. 

No one can surely promise that we can avoid 
general war, because conspirators elsewhere can 
jiroduce one. But, if one should come, it is im- 
portant that we be in the strongest possible posi- 
tion to meet it. At the moment of greatest danger, 
strength will come from clear conscience — from 
the knowledge that we have done everything 
humanly possible to prevent it. Strength will 



come from the solid alliance of all free men; 
welded together by their common understanding 
of the stakes and of the nature of the attack. 
Strength will come from our industrial strength 
as it is geared to support our armed power. 
Strength will come from within the iron curtain 
itself as men revolt against the tyranny and the 
aggression. All these we must not confuse by ill- 
considered action on our own part now. 

In closing, I should like to add a word about 
the quality of our world leadership in the period 
ahead. We Americans know that our politics 
get boisterous at times. It is noi-mal to our tra- 
ditions and our history. But, we have vital re- 
sponsibilities of woi-ld leadership; we live in a 
great goldfish bowl where all the world may 
see us. What we do here at home has endless 
eifects abroad. It may well be that the most im- 
portant single fact of the twentieth century is 
that the energy, wealth, power, and imagiin^tion 
of the American people are devoted to the peace, 
liberty, and economic well-being of ourselves and 
others. We do not serve our cause if, in this 
great democracy, we destroy our unity and under- 
mine our strength, or if we lack the patience and 
the maturity we shall need, as we move to meet 
the tests ahead. 



I 



Casualties of U.N. Forces in Korea 

[Released to the press by the U.N. Department of Public Informatimi March SI] 



The following are the most recent figures show- senting Governments which have contributed 
ing casualties suffered by the forces operating forces to sujaport the United Nations action in 
under the United Nations Command in Korea. Korea. 

These figures are based on an informal survey Except where otherwise indicated the figures 
conducted by the United Nations Secretariat given below are as of March 9. 
among delegations to the United Nations repre- 

Killed in Wounded in Missing in 

Country Action Action Action Total 

Republic of Korea 16,182 88,511 63,959 168,652 

United States as of 23 March 8,511 37,918 10,691 57,120 

Turkey as of 1 March 298 672 199 1,169 

United Kingdom as of 21 February 145 442 i 305 892 

Franco 84 309 3 396 

Australia 62 196 7 265 

Philipi)ines as of 2 March 6 49 None 55 

Netherlands 28 82 2 112 

Greece as of 15 March 28 60 1 89 

Canada as of 12 March 17 51 None 68 

New Zealand 4 ^5 None 9 

South Africa '6 6 

Belgium and l/uxembourg (These troops were not in action before 9 March) 

Thailand as of 7 February 9 "99 None 108 

Total 25,374 128,394 75,173 228,941 

' Inclufiing 61 prisoners. 

2 Iiichidiiig sick and injured. 

' Presumed dead. 



656 



Department of State Bulletin 



Assisting Iran To Unite With the Free World' 



Remarks hy George C. McGJiee 
Assistant Secretary for Near Eastern, 
South Asian and African Affairs 

MR. MC GHEE : Mr. Cronkite, I am not going to 
try to minimize the dangers inherent in such a 
strategically located and oil-rich country as Iran. 
Martial law, which at tirst was enforced only in 
Tehran, is now in effect in the oil fields in the 
southwestern part of the country. The Iranian 
legislature has voted for nationalization of the 
country's great oil industry. About 12,000 work- 
ers in the oil fields are on strike. The local Com- 
munist Party is fanning the flames of dissension. 

Yet, if we take a balanced, long-range look at 
the situation, there is no reason to be pessimistic. 
To date, there is no indication that the Kremlin 
engineered the present crisis in Iran, much as they 
are delighted with it. The Shah and Prime Min- 
ister Hussein Ala, both of whom I saw during my 
recent visit in Iran, have shown cool judgment 
' in meeting emergency situations. The Iranian 
army is behind them. This army is capable of 
maintaining order. There has been almost no vio- 
lence in the area of the strike. 

I had the opportunity for a long discussion with 
the Shah in Tehran on the day of the second tragic 
assassination, that of the Minister of Education. 
I was tremendously impressed with his coolness 
and courage, his determination to take whatever 
steps are required to maintain Iran's integrity. 
He has a keen interest in the welfare of his people 
and his deep desire to continue the distribution of 
his land and to get on with the 7-year develop- 
ment program in which he has played such an im- 
portant role. I conveyed to him the confidence 
which our Government has in him, and the fact 
that we are fully behind Iran and want to do what 
we can to assist Iran. 

The point I want to make is that you do not 
succeed in any endeavor by exaggerating the dif- 
ficulties that lie ahead. You capitalize on what 
you have and drive ahead with a will to win. If 
we had concentrated on dangers of past crises in- 
stead of exploiting the strong points, Greece might 
have fallen to the Communists. There would have 



' A CBS television program broadcast on Apr. 8 and 
released to the press on the same date. 

AptW 23, 1 95 1 

941240—51 3 



been no Berlin airlift, no intervention by the 
United Nations in Korea, no North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization, and General Eisenhower 
would never have undertaken his difficult assign- 
ment in Europe. 

commentator: Well, Mr. McGhee, just what is 
our goal in Iran? Wliat is it that we're trying 
to do in that country, some 7,000 miles from our 
firesides here in the United States? 

mcgiiee: Wliat we are trying to do, Mr. Cron- 
kite, as a friend of Iran and without in any way 
interfering in Iranian internal affairs, is to help 
Iran solve its problems and strengthen its economy 
and its military forces. The first Point 4 Program 
in the world was established in Iran. We hope this 
program can be continued next year and increased. 
In 1948, we extended a 26 million dollar loan to 
Iran to buy military equipment. Substantial 
quantities of military supplies are now being 
shipped to Iran on a grant basis under the ISIutual 
Defense Assistance Program. Next year, we ex- 
pect this assistance to be increased. Iran has been 
offered a 25 million dollar Export-Import Bank 
Loan which will take effect as soon as the Iranian 
Govei'nment concludes the agreement. We are pre- 
pared to consider other needs as they arise. 

commentator: Have we done enough, Mr. 
McGhee? 

mcghee: We are doing what we can. In the 
present world crisis with such great demands being 
made on us all over the world, we must distribute 
our aid as the needs arise and on the basis of the 
urgency of each situation involved. We must seek 
to provide what the Secretary recently called the 
"missing component" where other components al- 
ready exist. Some people have asked why has the 
United States given Iran no more dollar assist- 
ance. The answer is that, until recently, Iran's 
problem did not appear to be a deficiency of 
dollars. 

commentator : I can see that we have to ration 
our help, Mr. McGhee. But when an economic sit- 
uation does develop which justifies our help, can 
we move fast enough to meet it effectively? 

mcghee: We certainly can. We did this in 
Greece. We did it in Turkey. We are very hope- 
ful that Congress will give us the support to meet 
the famine situation in India. Here is an example 

657 



of how we can help the Iranians with our techni- 
cal assistance if we move quickly. Almost the en- 
tire area of Iran, south of the 30th parallel, is in 
danger of being ravaged by one of the great 
plagues of locusts which have periodically infested 
these ancient lands since Biblical times. Accord- 
ing to the latest reports, the egg fields of these 
locusts already cover an area of 2,000 square miles. 
Unless the locusts are killed off now they will 
destroy the crops in southern Iran. Even more 
serious, the locusts will sweep northward over the 
entire country, eventually ravaging the northern 
provinces, which are the real breadbaskets of 
Iran. The Premier of Iran has appealed to the 
United States, Great Britain, and the United Na- 
tions for help. To be effective, spraying of the 
infested area must begin in the next 3 weeks. 
Within a matter of days, we have formulated an 
effective program for American assistance in the 
problem, and, by the end of this week, technicians, 
material, and equipment will be flown to Iran and 
put in operation. 

commentator: Wliat do you think the future 
holds for Iran ? 

MC GHEE : I am optimistic for the reasons that I 
have mentioned, and, especially, because of the 
Iranian people themselves. Iran, as you know, is 
the modern name for Persia. The Persians built 
up one of the greatest empires the world has ever 
known centuries before the new world was discov- 
ered. Only about three million of the IGi/o mil- 
lion people of Iran live in cities. The rest are 
hardy farmers or migratory tribesmen of great 
physical strength and intelligence. They have 
been fighting the Russians off and on for several 
hundred years. They have been conquered, but 
they have never been subjugated. They under- 
stand the Russians better than we do. United 
under their Shah, they are determined to preserve 
their independence. I feel confident that they 
will do so. 

Remarks by Elbert G. Mathews 

COMMENTATOR : Thank you, Mr. McGhee. And 
now to tell us about some of the political facts 
we face in the area south of the Communist em- 
pire, here is Bert Mathews, Director of the State 
Department's Office of South Asian Affairs. 

MATHEWS : Let's amend that "some" to "a very 
few" of the political facts we face in the vast 
area from Greece to India. The countries of this 
area are separated by important differences of 
language, religion, cultui'e, and living standards. 
Most of them do, however, have two things in 
common. First, having achieved independence, 
after many years as colonies under one foreign 
empire or another, they are determined to preserve 
their new sovereignty and freedom at all costs. 
Second, they are determined to speed the develop- 
ment of their natural resources and the inijirove- 
ment of the living stnndards of their people. 

Both of these characteristics are present in a 



very high degree in India, the largest and most 
heavily populated country in this area. They 
underlie India's political outlook, which has 
puzzled many Americans in recent months. Yet 
Americans, more than any other people, should 
be able to understand the problems and hopes of 
new countries. 

We should, for example, understand that India 
will seize every opportunity to demonstrate and 
defend its newly won independence of judgment 
and action. The Indian people will be quick to 
resent any evidence of an attitude of superiority 
or casualness on the part of other nations. 

When George Washington was President, he 
expressed the sentiments of the new United States 
in advising against becoming embroiled in the 
world's troubles outside our own borders. Today, 
Prime Minister Nehru voices the hopes of his 
people when he says that India does not wish to 
become involved in the strains and tensions of the 
present world. The difference between India's 
position today and ours at the end of the 
eighteenth century is that the airplane, fast ships, 
and quick communications have left the globn 
much smaller, and no nation, however much it 
may wish to do so, can now divorce itself from 
the world's troubles. 

We were fortunate when we proclaimed our in- 
dependence in that we inherited a land rich in 
untapped natural resources. But the Indians are! 
crowded into an old country which is striving 
to produce enough food for more than 350,000,000 
people. Last year, natural disasters— droughts, 
floods, earthquakes, and plagues of locust — fell on 
the people and the land with unusual severity. 
Famine is imminent in the provinces of Madras, 
Bihar, and Assam. To avert starvation, India 
must import 6 million tons of grain. India is 
paying for 4 million tons. It is asking the United 
States to assist by providing the remaining 2 mil- 
lion tons. India" could pay for this 2 million tons 
only by harmfully delaying the economic develop- 
ment programs which are essential for the coun- 
try's security. If we do not give the grain, or if 
we sencl it with strings attached, we will strike a 
serious blow at a new growth of democracy which 
is taking root in Asia. 

commentator: Thank you, Mr. Mathews. It 
seems to me that the American people would be 
more willing to send grain to India if India, in 
return, would smiport our stand in the Ignited Na- 
tions against Communist aggi-ession in Korea. 
Would you care to comment on this ? 

MATHEWS : Yes, Mr. Cronkite. I have lived 
closely with this problem. It is part of niv job 
to try to understand why India takes a different 
position on the Far Eastern problem than we do. 
The basic reason is our different estimates of 
the two strong forces in Asia today. Prime forces 
are nationalism and communism. Prime Minister 
Nehru of India and his Government believe that 
nationalism — the drive of the Asian people for 



658 



Department of State Bulletin 



complete independence — is so strong that it can 
and will defeat coniniunisni. We agree that na- 
tionalism is a tremendous force. We doubt that 
nationalism can -withstand aggressive interna- 
tional communism, aided and directed by power 
grasping regimes in Moscow and Peiping, unless 
all free nations, including the newly independent 
nations of Asia, stand together against the threat. 
Let me make one last thing clear. The Indian 
Government has taken severe and effective meas- 
ures against Communists within its borders. And 
India will fight if invaded. You can be sure of 
that. 

Remarks hy John Loftus 

coMBrENTATou : Of all the economic problems of 
the Middle East and South Asian area, none is 
more important than oil. To answer our ques- 
tions about the vital oil fields of the Middle East, 
here is John Loftus, economic adviser to Mr. 
McGhee. 

Mr. Loftus, most Americans think we have all 
the oil we need. Is this true? 

LOFTUS : In normal times we can almost make 
out with what we have. But, the last war was a 
drain on our oil resources. We have changed 
from a large exporter of oil to an even larger 
importer of oil. Western Europe, for all practi- 
cal purposes, has no oil supply of its own. I3efore 
the war, Europe imported oil, mostly from the 
United States and Venezuela. Now, Western 
Europe depends on the oil fields of the Middle 
East for three-fourths of its needs. 

Production-wise, Middle East oil did not count 
for much until after the last w\ar. In 1939, the 
oil fields of the Middle East were producing only 
one-tenth of the volume which was then being 
produced in the United States. However, in 
about 10 years, production in the Middle East 
has risen from about 300,000 to nearly 2,000,000 
ban-els per day. Nearly 80 percent of the oil 
needed to turn the wheels of Europe's industries 
come from the Middle East. 

The most important oil fields are in Saudi 
Arabia, Southern Iran, the Sheikdom of Kuwait, 
Bahrein Island, and the Kirkuk area in Iraq. 
None of the oil goes to Eussia. Russia and her 
satellites produce only about one-half as much 
oil as is produced in the Middle East. All of the 
concessions in these Middle Eastern fields are 
controlled by the free nations of the world. 

COMMENTATOR : I think this problem of conces- 
sions confuses some of us, Mr. Loftus. We read 
about the activities of American oil companies in 
Saudi Arabia, and British oil companies in Iran, 
and French oil companies in Iraq. Wliy can't 
these countries develop their own oil fields? 

LOFTUS : Well, it's like this. On the one hand, a 
large part of the oil resources of the world is 
located in areas where there has not been much 
economic and technical progress. On the other 



hand, finding, producing, transporting, and refin- 
ing oil is a verj' complicated technical business. 
It requires a great deal of know-how and ca]iital. 
Generally speaking, the Middle liastern countries 
do not have that know-how and capital. So, in 
effect, they sign contracts with outside companies 
to do the job for them. The Government of the 
country which has the oil and the oil company 
which has the know-how and equipment to develop 
it sign a concession contract. The company agrees 
to pay the Government so nmch royalty on every 
barrel of oil produced. The Government agrees 
that the company shall have the right to sell the 
oil in world markets. The Government, in return, 
receives a large annual payment as its share of the 
proceeds. Of course, the contracts cover many 
other points in great detail, such as taxes, dead 
I'ents, and so on. 

COMMENTATOR : But, if all details are covered in 
the concession contracts, why does so much tension 
develop between the Governments and the oil 
companies ? 

i,orTus : Tension does not always develop, Mr. 
Cronkite. For example, relations between the 
Arabian American Oil Company and the Govern- 
ment of Arabia have been quite satisfactory. In 
Iran, obviously, the tension is very great right 
now. 

There are many reasons for the tensions which 
do develop. First, the concession contracts are 
drawn up at a time when no one knows for sure 
that there is oil in the country. Almost any con- 
tract looks good to the Government at the start. 
But, if the fields turn out to be productive, the 
picture changes. The company begins to produce 
and sell great quantities of oil and apparently is 
making a lot of money. On the other hand, the 
oil company assumed heavy risks and invested a 
great deal of money. But the Governments start 
asking themselves why they shouldn't get a larger 
share of the benefits. 

Second, the Government may feel that the com- 
pany is not producing as much oil as it could pro- 
duce. And each country would like to have its 
own refinery, like the one in Abadan, in Iran, 
larf^cst in the world. 

And so oil, which is initially an economic prob- 
lem, becomes involved in the great surge of na- 
tionalism which is sweeping through the Middle 
East. There is no easy solution to this problem. 
We need the oil. These countries need the reve- 
nues from oil to finance their economic develop- 
ment programs and they need the companies if 
they are to realize these revenues. To achieve an 
equitable solution. Governments and oil companies 
alike must display statesmanship of the highest 
order. 

Remarks hy Norman Burns 

commentator: Thankyou, Mr. Loftus. Oil lies 
under only a small fraction of the great area of 
the Middle East and South Asia. And now to tell 



April 23, J 95 1 



659 



us something more about the land of this vast area, 
here is Norman Burns, agricultural and economic 
specialist on Mr. McGhee's staff. 

BURNS : As Mr. Loftus pointed out, many of the 
world's richest oil fields have been found in the 
so-called underdeveloped areas where, today, 
there is great poverty and privation. These areas 
were not always underdeveloped. Several months 
ago, I visited the cradle of our Western civiliza- 
tion — the ancient valley of the Tigris and 
Euphrates rivers in Iraq, formerly Mesopotamia. 
Today, much of this valley is a desert — flat, sandy, 
parched by relentless sun. Yet, in the days of 
Nebuchadnezzar almost 3 thousand years ago, this 
same area, known as the Garden of Eden, sup- 
ported millions of people. 

With patience, hard work, and modern scientific 
methods, this land can again support a prosperous 
and progressive civilization. 

Under the present system in the Middle East, 
most of the land is owned by a small minority and 
the mass of people are tenant serfs. They have no 
interest in improving land which is not their own. 
In Lebanon, two-tenths of 1 percent of the land- 
owners own half of the cultivable land. In Egypt, 
3 million of the 4 million families living on the 
land own less than 1 acre, or else do not own 
any land at all. 

Eecently, the Shah of Iran made the farsighted 
decision to divide part of his immense land hold- 
ings among his people. 

And now, let's see what the Government of Iraq 
did with 163,000 acres of state-owned land which 
the Iraq Government irrigated with a 30-mile canal 
between the Tigris and Euphrates. It divided the 
land, known as the Dujeila project, into tracts of 
621/2 acres each. It chose 1200 peasant families 
from the estates of neighboring sheikhs and leased 
a tract to each family. The head of the family 
signed a contract with the Government (putting 
his fingerprint on the paper, since he could neither 
read nor write) . The tenant agreed to cultivate the 
land for 10 years. He agreed to build a home, a 
stable for his animals, and storage bins for his 
crops. Schools, clinics, agricultural machine 
shops, experimental gardens, and a nursery are 
within walking distance of his home. After 10 
years, if he has tilled the land successfully, the 
tenant is given title to his tract. His future is then 
in his own hands. Communism holds little or no 
appeal for him. 

Revitalizing these lands of the Middle East and 
South Asia is a challenge to fire the imagination 
of American scientists and the people of the coun- 
tries themselves. On a recent trip to the Near 
East, I saw efforts being made to graft an olive 
tree to an ash tree, so that it could ";row in marshy 
lands. In Lebanon, I saw fields of elephant grass 
imported from Brazil to provide cheap forage for 



cattle. I saw a new variety of grass, known as 
kudzu, which stores nitrogen in the soil. In Syria, 
I saw evergreen trees being tested for reforestation. 
I saw irrigation projects, macadamized roads, ex- 
perimental farms, a new port at Latakia. In 
Transjordan, I saw sheep drinking from an an- 
cient Roman cistern which engineers plan to clean 
out and rebuild as part of a modern water supply. 

Americans are eager to offer their technical as- 
sistance for these development projects. How- 
ever, the initiative and the elbow grease to get 
these projects started must come from the people 
who will use and benefit from them. The initia- 
tive is there. But, in many countries, it is held 
back by suspicions of our motives, by local red tape 
and by inertia. The lowest classes of people live 
in such poverty that, for them, almost any change 
would be an improvement of their present situa- 
tion. 

Above all, there is the element of time. We must 
speed up the process of helping these people to im- 
prove their lot. If we fail in this efl'ort, many of 
them will turn in despair to communism. 

Summary iy Assistant Secretary McGhee 

commentator: Thank you, Mr. Burns. And 
now to summarize the facts we face in this vital 
area south of the Communist empire, here, again, 
is Assistant Secretary of State McGhee. 

mcghee: There is not the least doubt in my 
mind that the strategists in the Kremlin are seeking 
to gain control of this area as quickly as they can. 
In their hands, these lands would provide them 
with great manpower resources, with the oil, man- 
ganese, and the many other strategic materials 
which they need to fight a global war. •■ 

In my judgment, they cannot succeed for the fol- il 
lowing reasons. Without exception, the vast ma- 
jority of the people in the Near East and South 
Asia abhor the Communist doctrine. They are re- 
ligious, they are individualistic, they have old and 
honored cultures which they are determined to pre- 
serve. Most of them are new nations. They have 
won their independence after centuries of struggle 
under colonial yoke. 

They will not surrender it easily now. They 
are suspicious of influences from the West, but they 
are more suspicious of the new Communist imperi- 
alism. They are determined to succeed in the hard 
task of raising their standards of living so that 
they may share the advantages of free government. 

Many of these nations have shown their deter- 
mination to resist Communist aggression by their 
stand in the United Nations with respect to Korea. 
Some have sent troops to fight for the cause of 
the United Nations in Korea. We, in turn, nuist 
continue to take all practical steps to hel]i thoni 
realize their asjnrations so that they can unite with 
the rest of the free world for nuitual security. 



660 



DeparlmenI of Slate Bulletin 



U.S. Aid to Iran 

in Fight Against Locust Plague 

[Released to the press April 10] 

Two DC-4 Skyinaster planes, carrying six dis- 
assembled single-engine planes and over six tons 
of insecticide to fight the locust plague in Iran, 
are sciieduled to leave Idlewild International Air- 
port, New York, within the next 24 hours. A 
third plane, carrying two nioi-e small planes and 
additional supplies, is scheduled to take oil for 
Tehran, April 13. 

This emergency action, taken at the request of 
the Iranian Government, is being carried out as 
part of the Point 4 Program of technical coopera- 
tion, administered by the Department of State. 
A Point 4 project is already in operation in Iran 
for the purpose of increasing food production and 
improving living conditions in rural areas. 

The flights and spraying operations are being 
carried out under contract by the United States 
Overseas Airlines, a private charter service. The 
Iranian Government will provide fuel for the 
spraying planes and will house and feed the pilots 
and mechanics who are making the trip. About 
20 of the group will remain in Iran to spray the 
fields. 

A Department of Agriculture entomologist, 
"William K. Mabee, will fly to Iran to direct the 
technical phases of the project and will remain in 
Iran as one of the group of American technicians 
engaged in the long-range technical cooperation 
project. Mr. Mabee has been stationed at Elko, 
Nevada, as a supervisor of grasshopper control in 
the Western States. He is one of the pioneers in 
the use of airplanes for applying insecticides to 
field crops to control insects. Another Depart- 
ment of Agriculture entomologist, Edson J. Ham- 
bleton, also will make the trip to Iran, but he will 
stay there only a short time. 

Reports from Iran indicate that over 130,000 
square miles of cultivated land are threatened by 
the plague of locusts. At present, the egg fields 
of the insects actually cover about 2,000 square 
miles in southern Iran below the 30th parallel, an 
area where wheat, barley, pistachio nuts, almonds, 
and other foods are grown. However, Iranian 
authorities advise that unless the insects are killed 
off within the next 3 weeks, the locusts will swarm 
northward, eventually reaching the northern prov- 
inces of Iran which are the real breadbaskets 
of the country. 

. After the transport planes arrive in Iran, only 
6 hours will be needed to assemble the spraying 
planes. They will carry a new insecticide — al- 
drin, 2 ounces of which, mixed in solvent, are 
enough to kill locusts covering an acre of ground. 
The material to be used in Iran was flown from 
Denver to Idlewild yesterday. 

Preparations for the emergency action have been 
completed in record time by State Department and 



aviation officials. Passports, visas, and inocula- 
tions for personnel making the trip have been ob- 
tained on 24-hour notice. 

The small planes will be ready to begin spray- 
ing operations within 10 days after the Iranian 
officials made their appeal to the United States 
Government. 



Joint Communique on U.S.-U.K. 
Iranian Talks 

[Released to the press April 9] 

The opening exchange of views between the Brit- 
ish Ambassador and the State Department has 
taken place in a cordial atmosphere. These talks 
were informal and exploratory and dealt in a posi- 
tive and constructive way with matters of mutual 
interest between the British and United States 
Governments relating to Iran. 

The British and United States Governments 
have many times demonstrated their concern with 
the stability of Iran and the well-being of the 
Iranian people. Both Governments, for instance, 
in May 1950, declared their interest in the con- 
tinued political independence and territorial in- 
tegrity of Iran, and they have both given proof 
of their willingness to provide Iran with technical 
and material assistance. It is the earnest hope of 
the British and United States Governments that 
this mutual cooperation will be maintained and 
developed with advantage to the peoples of all 
three countries. 

Iranian oil has played a vital part in world trade 
and in meeting the requirements of many coun- 
tries of the free world. Its importance to Iran, 
to the United Kingdom, and to the economy of the 
free world generally is, of course, great. Hence, 
the two Governments, while recognizing that ques- 
tions relating to Iranian oil must be settled else- 
where, have deemed it advisable to exchange views 
informally. 

Further exchanges of views will take place. 



Admiral Robert B. Carney 
To Visit Jordan 

[Released to the press April 10] 

On the invitation of the Government of the 
Hashemite Kingdom of the Jordan, Admiral 
Robert B. Carney, USN, Commander in Chief, 
United States Naval Forces in the Eastern Atlan- 
tic and Mediterranean, is scheduled to arrive today 
at Amman, the capital of Jordan. Admiral Car- 
ney's visit is in connection with the celebration on 
April 11 of Arab Legion Day. 



April 23, 1 95 1 



661 



Trade Agreement With Costa Rica Terminated 



[Released! to the press April 4] 



Representatives of the Oovernment of the United States 
and the Oovernment of Costa Rica exchanged notes on 
April 3 providing for termination of the trade agreement 
between the two Governments signed November 28, 1936. 
The trade agreement will cease to be in force on and after 
June 1, 1951. 

In the trade agreement, Costa Rica in 1937 
gi-anted reductions and bindings on a wide range 
of agricultural and industrial products. The 
Costa Rican customs duties, which will be applied 
to these items after termination of the trade agree- 
ment, have not been announced. The United 
States bound or reduced its duties on four tropical 
fruit products (dried bananas, pineapples, pre- 
served guavas, mango and guava pastes) and 
bound on the free list bananas and plantains, 
coffee, cocoa beans, deer and reptile skins, turtles, 
balsa, and cabinet woods. The tjnited States tariff 
status of these items will be unchanged since the 
dutiable items are included at the same or lower 
levels in other trade agi-eements, and the free list 
articles are also bound free in other agreements. 

In 1948, the Costa Rican Government, impelled 
by a large imbalance in its trade with the United 
States and in order to increase its revenues, took 
steps to restrict imports of nonessential goods and 
applied exchange surcharges to certain categories 
of imports, including some items covered by the 
trade agreement. New legislation in Costa Rica, 
effective April 1, 1950, provided for increased ex- 
change surcharges. In order to permit Costa Rica 
to seek a solution of its emergency financial diffi- 
culties which would not be in conflict with the 
trade agreement, the United States agreed to a 
waiver of article I of the agreement for a year 
ending March 31, 1951.' 

In the meantime, during the course of conversa- 
tions between representatives of the two Govern- 
ments, it became evident that because of special 
conditions Costa Rica would be unable to apply 
the terms of the trade agreement in the foreseeaole 
future. After a full exploration of various alter- 
natives, the two Governments therefore agreed to 
joint termination of the trade agreement effective 
June 1, 1951. The waiver of article I of the agree- 
ment has been extended to that termination date. 

' Bulletin of May 1, 1950, p. 694. 



TEXT OF COSTA RICAN NOTE 



April 3, 1951 



Excellency: I have the honor to refer to your Excel- 
lency's note dated April 3, 1951, relating to the termina- 
tion by mutual consent of the trade agreement signed 
November 28, 1936, and relating to the extension of the 
agreement effected by exchange of notes on April 4, 1950. 

I have the honor to confirm the agreement arrived at in 
the course of conversations between representatives of 
our two Governments, which agreement is set forth in 
your note of April 3, 1951, atjove mentioned. 

As proposed in that note, it is agreed that your note 
and this reply shall constitute an agreement between our 
two Governments which shall enter into force today. 

Accept [etc.] 

J. Rafael Oeeamuno 



TEXT OF UNITED STATES NOTE 

April 3, 1951 

ExcEiXENCY : I have the honor to refer to conversa- 
tions between representatives of the Government of the 
United States of America and the Government of the 
Republic of Costa Rica regarding the termination by 
mutual consent of the trade agreement signed November 
28, 1936. I also have the honor to refer to the agreement 
effected by an excliange of notes on April 4, 1950 whereby 
the Government of the United States, at the request of 
the Government of Costa Rica, agreed to waive, for a 
period of one year, beginning April 1, 1950, the provisions 
of Article I of the above-mentioned trade agreement to 
permit the application of multiple excliange surcliarges 
to impcn-ts from the United States of America of articles 
listed in Schedule I of the trade agreement. 

The Government of Costa Kica has made it dear that 
special conditions exist, and will continue to exist for 
the foreseeable future, which will nial<e it impossible for 
Costa Rica to apply tlie terms of the trade agreement. 
tn view of these conditions, and in accordance witli the 
conversations to which I have referred. 1 have the honor 
to coutirm the agreement reached tculay in a friendly 
and understanding spirit that the Trade Agreement be- 
tween tlie United States of America and the Republic of 
Costa Rica, signed at San Jos6 on November 28, 1936, 
shall cease to be in force on and after June 1, 1951. 

Pursuant to the request of the Government of Costa 
Rica during the cour.se of the above-mentioned conver- 
sations and recognizing the prolilems confronting the 
Government of Costa Rica, I further contlrni tliat tlie 
Government of tlie United States of America agriH.'s to 
extend from April 1, 1951 through May 31, 1951 the 
waiver of Article I of the trade agreement as granted 



662 



Department of State Bulletin 



In the agreement efiected by the exchange of notes 
dated April 4, 1950. 

If the Government of Costa Rica concurs in the fore- 
going, this note and Your Excellency's reply thereto 
will constitute an a;;reement between our two Govern- 
ments, which shall enter into force on the date of Your 
Excellency's note. 

It is understood that the Government of Costa Rica 
Is desirous of exploring the possibility of negotiating a 
comprehensive treaty of friendship, conunene and navi- 
gation between our two countries. My Government is 
equally desirous of undertaliing diseus.sions concerning 
such a treaty and is prepared to begin them at an early 
date. 

Accept [etc.]. 

For the Secretary of State: 
Thomas C. Mann 



Death of Ernest Bevin, Former 
British Foreign Minister 

Statement by Secretary Acheson 
[Released to the press April 14] 

Ernest Bevin's death brings to me deep sorrow 
from the loss of a friend and trusted colleague. 
We have worked together for two and one half 
years in a critical and troubled time, sharing com- 
mon problems and determined in the interests of 
our countries to find solutions in common. To 
work with him inevitably evoked deep affection, 
respect, and trust. It could not be otherwise, be- 
cause his indomitable courage, his simplicity and 
directness, his love of his country and his under- 
standing of the grandeur of its contribution to the 
cause of human liberty, his humanity and knowl- 
edge of the struggles and aspirations of his fellow- 
men, his own warm affectionate good humor made 
him both loved and trusted. 

We have sat together in many international 
conferences and personal meetings. We have ex- 
changed innumerable messages on the problems 
confronting us. He fought hard for views which 
were always founded on a remarkable knowledge 
of history, an apprehension — deeper than knowl- 
edge — that he was acting in the moving stream of 
history, and an understanding of present facts. 
But his mind was not closed. It was tough, and 
often stubborn, but always open to arguments 
strongly and honestly pushed. 

Not only his own coimtrymen but all of us to 
whom freedom and liberty are the foundation of 
our lives will stand in spirit beside his grave in 
sorrow and gratitude and joy that in these times 
such a man has lived. 

Ernest Bevin was a gallant gentleman, a great 
Englishman, a fighter for the freedom of all men. 



'-s^ 



Legislation Continued from page 645 

Clarifying the Immigration Status of Certain Aliens. S. 
Kept. Ill, 82d Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany S. 
728] 4 pp. 

Authorizing Vessels of Canadian Registry To Transport 
Iron Ore Between United States Ports on the Great 
Lakes During 1951. S. Kept. 119, 82d Cong. 1st sess. 
[To accompany S. 683] 4 pp. 

Assignment of Ground Forces of the United States to Duty 
in the European Area. Report of the Committee on 
Foreign Relations and the Committee on Armed Serv- 
ices on S. Res. 99 and S. Con. Res. 18. S. Bept. 175, 
82d Cong. 1st sess. lil, Rlap, 23 pp. 

Ninth Semiannual Report of the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion. S. Doc. 6, 82d Cong. 1st sess. vii, 158 pp. 

Basic Data Relating to Energy Resources. Study Made by 
the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, pursu- 
ant to S. Res. 239 (81st Cong.) to investigate available 
fuel reserves and formulate a national fuel policy of 
the United States. S. Doc. 8, 82d Cong. 1st sess. xxi, 
226 pp. 

Investigation of the Preparedness Program. Fifth Report 
of the preparedness subcommittee of the Committee 
on Armed Services, United States Senate, under the 
authority of S. Res. 18 (82d Cong.). Interim Report 
on Lackland Air Force Base. S. Doc. 9, S2d Cong. 1st 
sess. v, 22 pp. Also, Sixth Report . . . Tin, 1951. S. 
Doc. 13, 82d Cong. 1st sess. vil, 56 pp. 

North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement and 
Final Protocol Thereto. Message from the President 
of the United States transmitting the North American 
Regional Broadcasting Agreement and the final proto- 
col thereto, which were signed in the English, Spani.sh, 
and French languages at Washington on November 15, 
1950, by the respective plenijwtentiaries of the United 
States of America, the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland for the territories in the 
North American Region (Baliamas and Jamaica), 
Canada, Cuba, and the Dominican Kepublle. Senate 
Ex. A, 82d Cong. 1st sess. 100 pp. 

1951 Extension of the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act. 
Hearing before the Committee on Ways and Means, 
House of Representatives, Eighty-second Congress, 
first session, on H. R. 1612, a bill to extend the au- 
thority of the President to enter into trade agree- 
ments under section 3.50 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as 
amended, and for other purposes. January 22, 24, 
25, and 26, 1951. [Department of State, pp. 1-104.] 
vi, 625 pp. 

India Emergency Assistance Act of 1951. Hearings before 
the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Repre- 
sentatives, Eighty-second Congress, first session, on 
H. R. 2692, H. R. 2693, H. R. 2694, H. R. 2695, H. R. 
2696, H. R. 2698, H. R. 2699, H. R. 2700, H. R. 2702, 
H. R. 2705, H. R. 2706, and H. R. 3017, bills to furnish 
emergency food relief A.ssistance to India. February 
20, 21, 22, 23, 1951. [Department of State, pp. 5-38, 
45-103, 204-206, 217-225.] iv, 233 pp. 

Imports Controls on Fats, Oils, Rice, and Rice Products. 
Hearings before the Committee on Banking and Cur- 
rency, House of Representatives, Eighty-first Con- 
gress, first session, on H. R. 5240, a bill to continue 
for a temporary period certain powers, authority, 
and discretion for the purpose of exercising, admin- 
istering, and enforcing import controls with respect 
to fats and oils, and rice and rice products. June 21, 
1949. iii, 5 pp. 

The Effect of Imports on Employment. Hearings before 
a special subcommittee of the Committee on Education 
and Labor, House of Representatives, Eighty-first 
Congress, second session, pursuant to H. Res. 75, a 
resolution authorizing the committee on education 
and labor to conduct studies and investigations re- 
lating to matters within its jurisdiction. Hearings 
held at Washington, D. C, May 2, 6, 15, 16, June 1, 
2, 12, 26, and 27, 1950. vil, 430 pp. 



Aprii 23, 1 95 1 



663 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Compulsory Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice 



ADDITIONS UP THROUGH MARCH 31, 1951 



Notes hy Denys P. Myers 



Compulsory jurisdiction of the International 
Court of Justice is a continuation of the compul- 
sory jurisdiction established by article 36 of the 
Statute of the Permanent Court of International 
Justice. Article 36 of the Statute of the Interna- 
tional Court of Justice, therefore, provides for dec- 
larations of states parties to the Statute to be ef- 
fective either — 

{a) under the present Statute in virtue of ar- 
ticle 36, paragraph 2 ; or 

{h) under the terms of declarations made with 
respect to the Permanent Court of International 
Justice and carried over by application of article 
36, paragraph 5, of the present Statute. 

Compulsory jurisdiction of the Permanent 
Court of International Justice was effected by 
signing a declaration setting forth the terms and 
conditions reciprocally accepted by the respective 
party to the Statute. That Statute was brought 
into force by ratification of a covering protocol of 
signature dated December 16, 1920, to which was 
annexed an optional clause providing a medium by 
which parties to the Statute accepted the compul- 
sory jurisdiction of article 36 in affixing to it the 
declaration above-mentioned. Ratification of dec- 
larations was not expressly required, but ratifica- 
tion was frequently a condition of a declaration. 

Compulsory jurisdiction of the International 
Court of Justice is effected by depositing with the 
Secretary-General of the United Nations a dec- 
laration stating the terms and conditions of 
acceptance. Since the Statute of the Interna- 
tional Court of Justice is an annex and an integral 
part of the Charter of the United Nations, no 
special protocol of the type of the former optional 

664 



clause was set up. Declarations of acceptance 
may be made subject to ratification. Declarations 
made under the Statute of the International Court 
of Justice are separately registered in accordance 
with article 102 of the Charter of the United Na- 
tions and published in the United Nations Treaty 
Series. They are communicated to the registrar 
of the International Court of Justice and pub- 
lished in chapter X of the Yearbook issued by him 
for successive years beginning July 15, 19i6. 

The pertinent provisions of the Statute of the 
International Court of Justice, in force since Octo- 
ber 24, 1945, are : 

Article S6 

1. The jurisdiction of the Court comprises all cases 
which tlie parties refer to it and all matters specially 
provided for in the Charter of the United Nations or in 
treaties and conventions in force. 

2. The states parties to the present Statute may at any 
time declare that they recognize as compulsory ii>so facto 
and without special agreement, in relation to any other 
state accepting the same obligation, the jurisdiction of 
the Court in all legal disputes concerning: 

(a) the interpretation of a treaty; 

(b) any question of international law; 

(c) the existence of any fact which, if established, 
would constitute a breach of an international obligation ; 

(d) the nature or extent of the reparation to be made 
for the breach of an international obligation. 

3. The declarations referred to above may be made 
unconditionally or on condition of reciprocity on the 
part of several or certain states, or for a certain time. 

4. Such declarations shall be deposited with the .'^ecre- 
tary-Oeneral of the United Nations, who shall transmit 
<'()pies thereof to the parties to the Statute and to the 
Registrar of tlie Court. 

■'). Declarations made under Article :W of the Statute of 
the Permanent Court of International Justice and wliich 

Department of Slate Bulletin 



are still in force shall be deemed, as between tbe parties 
to the present Statute, to be acceptances of the compul- 
sory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice 
for the period which they still have to run and in accord- 
ance with their terms. 

(>. In the event of a dispute as to whetlier the Court 
has jurisdiction, tlie matter shall he settled by the deci- 
sion of the Court. 



Declarations were first compiled and published 
in the June 1948 issue of Docimients and State 
Papers and reprinted with revisions as Depart- 
ment of State publication 3540, International Or- 
ganization and Conference Series, III, 31, under 
the title of Comfulsory Jurisdiction of the Inter- 



Status of Declarations Accepting Compulsory Jurisdiction 

(Asterisks (*) indicate declarations made before October 24, 1945, which continue in force.) 



State 



♦Australia 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

♦Canada 

China 

♦Colombia 

Denniarlv 

♦Dominican Republic 
♦El Salvador . . . . 

France 

Guatemala . . . . 
♦Haiti 

Honduras 

♦India 

♦Iran 

Israel 

Liechtenstein. . . . 

♦Luxembourg . . . . 

Mexico 

Netherlands . . . . 

♦New Zealand . . . 

♦Nicaragua 

Norway 

Pakistan 

♦Panama 

♦Paraguay 

Philippines 

Sweden 

Switzerland . . . . 
♦Thailand 

Turkey 

♦Union of South Afri- 
ca. 
♦United Kingdom . . 

British Honduras . 

United States . . . 
♦Uruguay 



Date of signature 



Aug. 21, 1940 

June 10, 1948. 
July 5, 1948 . 
Feb. 12, 1948. 
Sept. 20, 1929. 

Oct. 26, 1946. 

Oct. 30, 1937. 
Dec. 10, 1946. 
Sept. 30, 1924. 
Before Jan. 28, 

1921. 
Feb. 18, 1947. 

Jan. 27, 1947 . 
[1921] .... 
Feb. 2, 1948 . 
Feb. 28, 1940 . 

Oct. 2, 1930 . 

Sept. 4, 1950 . 
Mar. 10, 1950. 

Sept. 15, 1930. 

Oct. 23, 1947. 

Aug. 5, 1946 . 

Apr. 1, 1940 . 

Sept. 24, 1929. 
Nov. 16, 1946. 
June 22, 1948. 

Oct. 25, 1921 . 
May 11, 1933. 
July 12, 1947 . 



Apr. 5, 1947 . 
Julv 6, 1948 . 
Sept. 20, 1929. 
May 3, 1940 . 
Mav 20, 1950. 
May 22, 1947. 
Apr. 7, 1940 . 

Feb. 28, 1940. 

Feb. 13, 1946. 
Feb. 12, 1951 . 
Aug. 14, 1946. 



Before Jan. 
1921. 



28, 



Currently 
effective from 



Sept. 2, 1940 . 

Julv 13, 1948. 
July 5, 1948 . 
Mar. 12, 1948. 
July 28, 1930 . 

Oct. 26, 1946 . 

Oct. 30, 1937 . 
Dec. 11, 1946. 
Fob. 4, 1933 . 
Aug. 19, 1930. 

Mar. 1, 1949 . 

Jan. 27, 1947 . 
Sept. 7, 1921 . 
Feb. 10, 1948. 
Mar. 7, 1940 . 

Sept. 19, 1932. 



Mar. 29, 1950. 

Sept. 15, 1930. 

Mar. 1, 1947 . 

Aug. 6, 1946 . 

Apr. 8, 1940 . 

Nov. 29, 1939. 
Oct. 3, 1946 . 
July 9, 1948 . 

June 14, 1929. 
May 11, 1933. 
July 4, 1946 . 



Apr. 6, 1947 . 
Julv 28, 1948. 
May 7, 1930 . 
May 7, 1940 . 
Mav 3, 1950 . 
June 6, 1947 . 
Apr. 20, 1940 . 

Mar. 7, 1940 . 

Feb. 13, 1946. 
Feb. 12, 1951 . 
Aug. 14, 1946. 

Sept. 27, 1921. 



Duration 



5 years, and until notice 

to terminate. 

5 years 

5 years 

5 years 

10 years, and until notice 

to terminate. 
5 years, tlien 6 months' 

notice. 

Indefinite 

10 years 

Indefinite 

Indefinite 



5 years, and until notice 
to terminate. 

5 years 

Indefinite 

6 years 

5 years, and until notice 
"to terminate. 

6 years, and until notice 
of abrogation. 

5 years, from ratification 

Until revocation on 1 
year's notice. 

Renewable for 5-year 
periods. 

5 years, then 6 months' 
notice. 

10 years, and until notice 
of abrogation. 

5 years, and until notice 
to terminate. 

Indefinite 

10 years 

5 years, and until notice 
to terminate. 

Indefinite 

Indefinite 

For 10 years, from July 
4, 1946, and until no- 
tice of abrogation. 

10 years 

Indefinite 

10-year period 

10-year period 

lO-.vear period 

5 years 

Indefinite 



5 years, and until notice 

to terminate. 

5 years 

5 years 

5 years, then 6 months' 

notice. 
Indefinite 



References 
UN Treaty Series Yearbook 



16:203; no. 260 
16:207; no. 261 
15:221; no. 237 



1:35; no. 5 



1:45; no. 10 



26:91; no. 378 
1:49; no. 12 . . 
15: 21 7; no." 236' 



no. 759 



9:97; no. 127 
1:7; no. 2 . . 



1:37; no. 6 . . 
16:197; no. 259 



7:229; no. 101 



2:3; no. 16 . . 
17:115; no. 272 



no. 844 .. . 
4:265; no. 50 



1:3; no. 1 . . 
annex no. 1 
1:9; no. 3 . . 



'46:216 

'47:130 
'47:131 
'47:130 
'46:208 

'46:218 

'46:212 
'46:219 
'46:208 
'46:210 

'46:220 

'46:219 
'46:207 
'47:129 
'46:213 

'46:211 



'49:165 
'46:210 
'47:129 
'46:217 
'46:214 

'46:210 

'46:219 
'47:131 

'46:207 
'46:211 

'47:128 



'46:220 
'47:132 
'46:208 
'46:208 



'47:127 
'46:215 

'46:212 

'46:217 

'46:217 

'46:207 



April 23, ?95I 



665 



national Court of Justice. The table here pre- 
sented shows the status of declarations currently 
in force or made. 

All declarations are by the Statute reciprocal 
"in relation to any other state accepting the same 
obligation" and are also made "on condition of 
reciprocity" with regard to terms expressed in 
them. 

Declarations made or renewed since June 1949, 
when publication 3540 was issued, follow : 

Israel 

[Translated from French by the Government of Irsael] 

On behalf of the Government of Israel, and subject to 
ratification, I declare that Israel recognizes as compulsory 
irpso facto and without special agreement, in relation to 
all other Members of the United Nations and to any non- 
member State which becomes a party to the Statute of 
the International Court of Justice pursuant to Article 93, 
paragraph 2 of the Charter and which accepts the same 
obligation (that is, subject to reciprocity) the jurisdiction 
of the International Court of Justice in conformity witli 
Article 3G, paragraph 2 of the Statute of the said Court 
in all legal disputes concerning situations or facts which 
may arise after the date of deiwsit of the instrument of 
ratification of this declaration ' and, in particular, which 
do not involve a legal title created or conferred by a Gov- 
ernment or authority other than the Government of the 
State of Israel or an authority under the jurisdiction of 
that Government. 

This declaration does not apply : 

(a) to any dispute in respect of which the parties have 
agreed or shall agree to have recourse to another means 
of peaceful settlement; 

(b) to any dispute relating to matters which are es- 
sentially within the domestic jurisdiction of the State of 
Israel ; ^ 

(e) to any dispute between the State of Israel and 
another State which refuses to establish or maintain nor- 
mal relations with it. 

The present declaration has been made for five years 
as from the date of deposit of the instrument of ratifi- 
cation.' 

Hakirya, the twenty-second of Elul five thousand seven 
hundred and ten. 

(the fourth of September 1950)" 

M. Sharett 
Minister of Foreign Affairs 

CEETIFIED TRUE COPT 

Assistant Secretary-Oeneral 
Legal Department 



I'rince Frangois Joseph II, in accordance with the Order 
of the Diet of the Principality of Liechtenstein dated 9 
March 1950, which came into force on 10 March 1950, 

declares by these presents that the Principality of 
Liechtenstein recognizes as compulsory ipso facto and 
witliout special agreement, in relation to any other State 
accepting the same obligation, the jurisdiction of the In- 
ternational Court of Justice in all legal disputes con- 
cerning : 

(a) the interpretation of a treaty; 

(b) any question of international law ; 

(c) the existence of any fact which, if established, 
would constitute a breach of an international obligation; 

(d) the nature or extent of the reparation to be made 
for the breach of an international obligation. 

The present Declaration, which is made under Article 
3(5 of the .Statute of the International Court of Justice, 
shall take effect from the date ° on which the Principality 
becomes a party to the Statute and shall have effect as 
long as the Declaration has not been revoked subject to 
one year's notice. 

Done at Vaduz, 10 March 1950 

On behalf of the Government of the Principality of 
Liechtenstein 

Head of Government 

[se.\l] a. Fmck 



Thailand (Siam)° 

On behalf of the Siamese Government, I recognize, sub- 
ject to ratification, in relation to any other Member or 
State which accepts the same obligation, that is to say, on 
the condition of reciprocity, the jurisdiction of the Court 
as compulsory ipso facto and without any special conven- 
tion, in conformity with Article 36, paragraph 2, of the 
Statute of the Court for a period of ten years in all dis- 
putes, as to which no other means of pacific settlement is 
agreed upon between the parties. 

Geneva, September 20, 1929: 

Vabnvaidta 



RENEWAL 

On behalf of the Thai Government, I hereby renew for 
a period of 10 years, from May 7th, 1940, the declaration 
of September 20th, 1929, accepting the compulsory juris- 
diction of the Permanent Court of International Justice 
in conformity with Article 3ii, paragraph 2, of the Statute 
of the Court witliin the limits of and subject to the c-ondi- 
tions and reservations set forth in the said declaration. 

Banokok, May Srd, 191,0. 

PiBULASONGOBAN. 

MiNiSTBY OP Foreign Affaius. 

Bangkok, [May 20, 1950].' 



Liechtenstein^ 

The Government of the Principality of Liechtenstein, 
duly .luthorized by His Serene Highness, the Reigning 

' Uatification by the Cabinet under Israeli law had not 
been given by Mar. 31, 1051. 

"An oflicial press release of Nov. 29, 1950 pointed out 
that this condition would apply specifically to all matters 
arising out of the Mandate for Palestine of July 24, 1922, 
or which took place during the time the mandate was in 
force, i.e., until Aug. 1, 1948 (stipulated by the Plan of 
Partition with Economic Union approved by res. 181 (HI) 
of the General Assembly of the United Nations, Nov. 29, 
1947). 

'Deposited with the Secretary-General of the United 
Nations Oct. 11, 1950. 

* Translated from the French ; registration no. 759. 



666 



RENEWAL 



No. 9083/2493 

Sir, I have the lionour to inform you that by a declara- 
tion dated September 20, 1920 [i. e., 1929] His Majesty's 



''The declaration in virtue of which Liechtenstein be- 
came a partv to Statute was deposited witli the Secre- 
tariat and effective on Mar. 29, 19.50: registration no. 758. 

" The name of Kingdom of Siam was dianged to Thailand 
on June •24. 1939; back to Siani on Sept. 7, 1945; and to 
'I'liailand again on May 11, 1949 (BtTLLETiN of June 12, 
1949. p. 705). 

'Ralilication deposited with the Secretariat of the 
League of Nations, May 7, 19;?0. 

'ivepositod and registered in tlie Secretariat, June 13, 
19.50 ; registration no. 844. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Govt'i-nment liad accepted the coinimlsory jurisiliction of 
the Feriiianent Court of Iiiterii:iti<inal Justice iu con- 
formity witli Article 3(5, para^raidi 2 of the Statute for 
a period of ten years aud on condition of reciprocity. 
That declaration has been renewed on May 3, 1040 for 
another i)eriod of ten years. 

In accordance with the provisions of Article 30, para- 
graph 4 of the Statute of the International Court of Jus- 
tice, I have now the lionour to inform you that His 
Majesty's Government hereby renew the declaration above 
mentioned for a furtlier period of ten years as from May 
3, 1950 with the limits and subject to the same conditions 
and reservations as set forth iu the first declaration of 
September 20, 1020 (i. e., 1020], 

I have the honour to he. Sir, your obedient servant, 

(signed) Illegible 
[WoKAKAN Ranch A] 
MiniHtrr of Foreiyn Affairs of Thailand 
The Secretary-General of the United Nations, 
Lake Success, New York. 



DECLARATION WITH RESPECT TO ALL (LEGAL DISPUTES 
CONCERNING THE INTERPRETATION, APPLICATION OR VA- 
LIDITY OF ANY TREATY RELATING TO THE BOUNDARIES 
OF BRITISH HONDURAS '» 

I, Ernest Bevin, His Majesty's Principal Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs, declare ou behalf of His Ma- 
jesty's Government in the United Kingdom in accordance 
with paragraph 2 of Article 36 of the Statute of the 
International Court of Justice that for a period of five 
years from the date of this declaration they accept as 
compulsory i/j.so facto and without special agreement, in 
relation to any other State accepting the same obligation, 
the jurisdiction of the Court in all legal disputes con- 
cerning the interpretation, application or validity of any 
treaty relating to the boundaries of British Honduras, 
and over any questions arising out of any conclusion 
which the Court may reach with regard to such treaty. 

Given under my hand and seal, at the Foreign Ollice, 
London, this Thirteentli day of February, One Thousand 
Nine Hundred and Forty-six. 

Ernest Bevin. 



United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland 

On l)eluUf of His Majesty's Government in the United 
Kingdom, I now declare that they accept as compulsory 
iliHo facto and without special convention, on condition 
of reciprocity, the jiu'isdiction of the Court, in conform- 
ity with paragraph 2 of Article 36 of the Statute of the 
Court, for a period of five years from today's date and 
thereafter until such time as notice may be given to 
terminate the acceptance, over all disputes arising after 
February 5th, 1930, with regard to situations or facts sub- 
sequent to the same date, other than : 

disputes in regard to which the Parties to the dispute 
have agreed or shall agree to have recourse to some other 
method of peaceful settlement ; 

disputes with the government of any other Member of 
the League which is a Member of the British Common- 
wealth of Nations, all of which disputes shall be settled 
in such manner as the Parties have agreed or shall agree ; 

disputes with regard to questions which by interna- 
tional law fall exclusively within the jurisdiction of the 
United Kingdom ; and 

disputes arising out of events occurring at a time when 
His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom were 
involved in hostilities ; 

and subject to the condition that His Majesty's Gov- 
ernment reserve the right to require that proceedings in 
the Court shall be suspended in respect of any dispute 
which has been submitted to and is under consideration 
by the Council of the League of Nations, ijrovided that 
notice to suspend is given after the dispute has been sub- 
mitted to the Council and is given within ten days of the 
notification of the initiation of the proceedings in the 
Court, and provided also that .such suspension shall be 
limited to a period of twelve mouths or such longer 
l)eriod as may be agreed by the Parties to the dispute or 
determined by a decision of all the Members of the Coun- 
cil other than the Parties to the dispute. 

London, February 2S, 19!,0.' 

Halifax. 



DECLARATION " 

I, Kenneth Gilmour Younger, Minister of State, on be- 
half of His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs, declare on behalf of His Majesty's Gov- 
ernment in the United Kingdom and in accordance with 
paragraph 2 of Article 36 of the Statute of the Inter- 
national Court of Justice that the Declaration of the 13th 
February 1916, concerning any treaty relating to the 
boundaries of British Honduras, is renewed for a further 
lieriod of five years beginning on the 12th February 1951, 
the date of the expiry of the Declaration of 1946. 

Given under my hand aud seal at the Foreign Office, 
London, this twelfth day of February, One thousand, nine 
hundred aud fifty-one. 

K. G. YOUNGEB 



APPENDIX 1— REVISED GENERAL ACT 

FOR THE PACIFIC SETTLEMENT 

OF INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES 

Adopted by General Assembly of United Nations, Apr. 28, 1949 " 

In force for 5-year periods from Sept. 20, 1950 ^ 

[Excerpts] 



' Received in the Secretariat of the League of Nations 
Mar. 7, 1940. For the circumstances under which this 
declaration was substituted for the previous declaration 
of Sept. 19, 1929, in force on Feb. 5, 1930 (as stated in 
this declaration), see Department of State publication 
3540, p. 16. 



"1 United Nations Treaty Series, p. 3; registration 
no. 1. 

" Circular note of the Assistant Secretary-General, 
Legal Department, Mar. 2, 1951. 

"Res. 268 (III) of the General Assembly, 3d sess., 2d 
part. The Revised General Act was registered ex oflBcio 
Sept. 20, 1950 ; registration no. 912. 

" The instrument entered into force 90 days after de- 
posit of the second accession. Belgium's accession, Dec. 
23, 1949, extended to all provisions. Sweden's accession, 
June 22, 19.50, extends to chaps. I (conciliation), II (judi- 
cial settlement), and IV (procedure) ; its accession to 
the General Act of Sept. 26, 1928, extended to chaps. I 
and IV. 

The revised text of article 43 provides : 

"1. The present General Act shall be open to accession 
by the Members of the United Nations, by the non-member 
States which shall have become parties to the Statute of 
the International Court of Justice or to which the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the United Nations shall have communi- 
cated a copy for this purpose." 

The General Assembly by resolutions 372 (IV), Decem- 
ber 3, 1949, and 480 (V), December 12, 19.50, deferred until 
the sixth session the designation of nonmember states to 
which certified copies should be communicated for the 
purpose of accession. 



Apu] 23, 1957 



667 



\ 



Chapter II: Judicial Settlement 

Article 17 

All disputes with regard to which the parties 
are in conflict as to their respective rights shall, 
subject to any reservations which may be made 
under Article 39, be submitted for decision to the 
International Court of Justice, unless the parties 
agree, in the manner hereinafter provided, to have 
resort to an arbitral tribunal. 

It is understood that the disputes referred to 
above include in particular those mentioned in 
Article 36 of the Statute of the International 
Court of Justice. 



Chapter IV: General Provisions 

Article 39 

1. In addition to the power given in the preced- 
ing article," a Party, in acceding to the present 
General Act, may make his acceptance conditional 
upon the reservations exhaustively enumerated in 
the following paragraph. These reservations 
must be indicated at the time of accession. 

2. These reservations m.ay be such as to exclude 
from the procedure described in the present Act : 

(a) Disputes arising out of facts prior to the 
accession either of the Party making the reserva- 
tion or of any other Party v>-ith whom the said 
Party may have a dispute; 

(b) Disputes concerning questions which by 
international law are solely within the domestic 
jurisdiction of States; 

(c) Disputes concerning particular cases or 
clearly specified subject-matters, such as terri- 
torial status, or disputes falling within clearly 
defined categories. 

3. If one of the parties to a dispute has made a 
reservation, the other parties may enforce the 
same reservation in regard to that party. 

4. In the case of Parties, who have acceded to 
the provisions of the present General Act relating 
to judicial settlement or to arbitration, such resei'- 
vations as they may have made shall, unless other- 
wise expressly stated, be deemed not to apply to 
the procedure of conciliation. 

NOTE 

The General Act for the Pacific Settlement of 
International Disputes was opened for accession 
by the Assembly of the League of Nations Septem- 
ber 26, 1928 " and entered into force for successive 
5-year periods from August 16, 1929. The Ke- 
vised General Act adopted by the General Assem- 
bly of the United Nations on April 28, 1949 pro- 

" Art. 38 permits accession to all or only certain chap- 
ters of thp Gcnoral Act, which are: I, (conciliation) ; II, 
(judicial settlement); III, (arl)itration) ; IV, (general 
provisions). 

"!):{ League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 343; registra- 
tion no. 2123. 



vides for the "restoration to the General Act of 
26 September 1928 of its original efiicacy" by 
amending the text so that assignments to the 
League of Nations and the Permanent Court of 
International Justice ai'e replaced by references 
to the United Nations and the International Court 
of Justice. The resolution of the General As- 
sembly of the United Nations was a specific appli- 
cation of the principles established by resolution 
24 (I) of February 12, 1946 relating to the trans- 
fer of functions and powers belonging to the 
League of Nations under international agreements. 
The General Act of September 26, 1928 remains 
in force, the current 5-year period beginning 
August 16, 1949. An acce.ssion is subject to de- 
nunciation for the period beginning August 16, 
1954 on 6-months' notice befoi'e that date. Acces- 
sions in force are as follows : 



State 



Australia 

Belgium 

Canada 

Denmark* 

Estonia 

Ethiopia* 

Finland* 

France 

Greece 

India 

Ireland* 

Italy 

Latvia* 

Lnxembovirg* 

Netherlands (including Netherlands In- 
dies, Surinam, and Curagao) .... 

New Zealand 

Norway* 

Peru 

Sweden 

Switzerland* 

Turkey 

United Kingdom of 
Northern Ireland . 



Great Britain and 



Date 



Mav 
Mav 
July 

Apr. 
Sept. 
Mar. 



Sept. 
Mav 
Sept. 
Mav 

Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 



21, 1931 

18, 1929 

1, 1931 

14, 1930 
3, 1931 

15, 1935 

6, 1930 
21, 1931 

14, 1931 
21, 1931 
26, 1931 

7, 1931 
17, 1935 

15, 1930 



Aug. 8, 1930 
Mav 21, 1931 
June 11, 1930 
Nov. 21, 1931 
Mav 13, 1929 
Dec. 7, 1934 
June 26, 1934 

May 21, 1931 



♦Acceded without reservations. For the text of the 
reservations made by other states see United Nations, 
Signatures, Ratifications, Acceptances, Accessions, etc., con- 
cerning the MidtHateral Conventions and Agreements in 
respect of ichich the Secretary-General acts as Depository, 
p. 25-30 (1949, V. 9). 

The Netherlands and Sweden acceded only to chaps. I 
(conciliation), II (judicial settlement), and IV (general 
provisions). 



APPENDIX 2— BELGIUM, FRANCE, 
LUXEMBOURG, NETHERLANDS, 
UNITED KINGDOM 

The treaty of collaboration and collective self- 
defense signed by plenipotentiaries of Belgium, 
France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern 



668 



Department of State Bulletin 



Ireland at Brussels on March 17, 1948, and in 
force for 50 years from August 25, 1948,^^ contains 
the following provisions: 

Article VIIl 

In pursuance of their determination to settle 
disputes only by peaceful means, the High Con- 
tracting Parties will apply to disputes between 
themselves the following provisions: 

The High Contracting Parties will, while tlio 
present Treaty remains in force, settle all disjjutes 
falling within the scope of Article 36, paragraph 
2, of the Statute of the International Court of 
Justice by referring them to the Court, subject 
only, in the case of each of them, to any reserva- 
tion already made by that Party when accepting 
this clause for compulsory jurisdiction to the ex- 
tent that that Party may maintain the reservation. 

In addition, the High Contracting Parties will 
submit to conciliation all disputes outside the 
scope of Article 36, paragraph 2, of the Statute 
of the International Court of Justice. In the case 
of a mixed dispute involving both questions for 
which conciliation is appropriate and other ques- 
tions for which judicial settlement is appropriate, 
any Party to the dispute shall have the right to 
insist that the judicial settlement of the legal 
questions shall precede conciliation. 

The preceding provisions of this Article in no 
way affect the application of relevant provisions 
of agreements prescribing some other method of 
pacific settlement. 



the juiisdiction of the Court as compulsory ipso 
farto, without the necessity of any special agree- 
ment so long as the present Treaty is in force, in 
all disputes of a juridical nature that arise among 
them concerning : 

a) The interpretation of a treaty ; 

b) Any question of international law; 

c) The existence of any fact which, if estab- 
lished, would constitute the breach of an inter- 
national obligation; 

d) The nature or extent of the reparation to be 
made for (he breach of an international obligation. 

Article 32 

When the conciliation procedure previously es- 
tablished in tlie present Treaty or by agreement of 
the parties does not lead to a solution, and the said 
parties have not agreed ujjon an arbitral proce- 
dure, either of them shall be entitled to have re- 
course to the International Court of Justice in the 
manner prescribed in Article 40 of the Statute 
thereof. The Court shall have compulsory juris- 
diction in accordance with Article 36, paragraph 
1, of the said Statute. 

Article 34 

If the Court, for the reasons set forth in Articles 
5, 6 and 7 of this Treaty [domestic jurisdic- 
tion, matters settled or governed by instruments in 
force April 30, 1948, exhaustion of local remedies], 
declares itself to be without jurisdiction to hear 
the controversy, such controversy shall be de- 
clared ended. 



APPENDIX 3— AMERICAN TREATY 
ON PACIFIC SETTLEMENT: 
"PACT OF BOGOTA" 

Signed at Bogota, April 30, 1948 ; in force May 6, 1949 " 

Chapter IV: Judicial Procedure 

Article 31 

In conformity with Article 36, paragraph 2, of 
the Statute of the International Court of Justice, 
the High Contracting Parties declare that they 
recognize, in relation to any other American State, 

"Kegistered with the Secretariat Nov. 2, 1948; 19 
United Nations Treat.v Series, p. !il : registration no. 304. 

•\rt. IX of the treaty provides that the parties "may, 
by agreement, invite any other state to accede to the 
present treaty on conditions to be agreed to between them 
and the state so invited." 

"30 United Nations Treaty Series, p. 55; registration 
no. 440. 

Itatifications have been deposited witli the Pan Ameri- 
can Union as follows : Costa Rica, May 6, 1949 ; Dominican 
Republic, Sept. 12, 19.")0; El Salvador, Sept. 11, 1950; Haiti, 
Mar. 28. 1951 : Honduras, Feb. 7, 1950 ; Mexico, Nov. 23, 
1948; Nicaragua, Julv 26, 1950. 



NOTE 



This treaty, which comes into force for the 
parties "in the order in which they deposit their 
respective ratifications" with the Pan American 
Union, would make article 31 applicable between 
Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru and Vene- 
zuela, which have not separately accepted the 
compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court 
of Justice." xirgentina by an express reservation 
did not adhere to chapter IV. 

The United States at signing made certain res- 
ervations. It did not "undertake as the complain- 
ant State to submit to the International Court of 
Justice any controversy which is not considered to 
be properly within the jurisdiction of the Court." 
It noted that its acceptance of compulsory 
jurisdiction under the treaty "is limited by any 
jurisdictional or other limitations contained in any 
Declaration deposited by the United States under 
Article 36, paragraph 4, of the Statute of the 
Court, and in force at the time of the submission of 
any case." 

• This compilation was assembled by Denys P. 
Myers, specialist in international organization, 
Oifice of the Legal Adviser, Department of State. 



April 23, 795T 



669 



U.S. Delegation 

to International Meetings 

Seventh Session Human Rights 

On April 5, the Department of State announced 
that Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, the United 
States representative on the United Nations Com- 
mission on Human Rights, will attend the sev- 
enth session of the Commission, wliich is sched- 
uled to convene at Geneva, on April 16, 1951. The 
other members of the United States delegation to 
the seventh session of the Commission are as 
follo\TS : 

Advisers 

Herbert Eeaser, Office of the General Counsel Federal 
Security Agency 

John M. Gates, .Jr., Office of United Nations Economic 
and Social Affairs, Department of State 

Frieda S. Miller, Director, Women's Bureau, Depart- 
ment of Labor 

Herzel Plaine, Special Assistant to the Attorney General, 
Department of Justice 

James Simsariau, Office of United Nations Economic and 
Social Affairs, Department of State 

Marjorie Whiteman, Office of the Legal Adviser, Depart- 
ment of State 

Special Assistant to United States Representative 

Malvina Thompson, Assistant to Mrs. Boosevelt 

The Commission on Human Rights will give 
priority at its sesventh session to tlie revision of 
the draft International Covenant on Human 
Rights. In resolutions on the subject adopted at 
its 1950 session, the General Assembly of the 
United Nations requested, among other things, 
that: the list of rights in the first 18 articles of 
the Covenant be reexamined in order to insure the 
adequacy of that list and to define the rights and 
limitations with the greatest possible precision; 
the desirability be studied of including a special 
article on the application of the Covenant to fed- 
eral states; provision be made for the inclusion in 
the Covenant of economic, social, and cultural 
rights, and an explicit recognition of the equality 
of men and women ; consideration be given to 
provisions, to be inserted in the Covenant or in 
separate protocols, for the receipt and examina- 
tion of petitions from individuals and organiza- 
tions on alleged Covenant violations; and an 
article be included in the Covenant to make its 
terms applicable equally to a signatory metropoli- 
tan state and to all territories, be they non-self- 
governing, trust, or colonial, which are being ad- 
ministered or governed by such a state. The Com- 
mission was also asked in a General Assembly 
resolution to study and i)repai'e recommendation's 
on ways and means of insuring the right of 
peoples and nations to self-determination. 
• Other subjects on the provisional agenda of the 
next session of the Commission "include (1) the 
development of (he woi'k of (he United Nations 
for wider observance and respect for human rights 



and fundamental freedoms throughout the world, 
(2) annual reports on human rights, (3) the Draft 
Declaration on the Rights of the Child, (4) an 
International Court of Human Rights, (5) the 
continuing validity of minorities treaties and 
declarations, and (6) the Yearbook on Human 
Rights. 

The Commission on Human Rights, which is one 
of the nine permanent functional commissions of 
the United Nations Economic and Social Council, 
advises and assists the Council on all matters re- 
lating to the obligation assumed by the members 
of the United Nations to promote universal respect 
for, and observance of, human i-ights and funda- 
mental freedoms for all, without distinction as to 
race, sex, language, or religion. Eighteen Gov- 
ernments, elected by the Council, comprise the 
membersliii) of the Commission. Its sixth session 
was held at Lake Success from March 27-Mav 19 
1950. 



Plight of Survivors of 
Concentration Camps 

U.N. doc. E/1974 
Adopted Mar. 19, 1951 

The Economic and Social Council, 

Taking note of the report received from the Secretary- 
General in pursuance of Council resolution 305 (XI) 
adopted on 14 July 1950, on the subject of survivors of 
concentration camps who, under the Nazi regime, were 
the victims of so-called scientific experiments, 

1. Appeals to the competent German autliorities to con- 
sider making the fullest possible reparation for the in- 
juries suffered, under the Nazi regime, by jiersons sub- 
jected to so-called scientitic experiments in concentration 
camps ; 

2. Ini-ites the International Refugee Organization and 
any authority which may succeed it in the administra- 
tion of the Reparations Funds, and voluntary agencies 
distributing these funds, to alleviate the plight of these 
victims as far as possible; 

3. Invites the World Health Organization to assist in the 
health aspects of the problem ; 

4. Requests the Secretary-General to study tlie possibility 
of securing such voluntary sujjport and coiitribuiinns 
as may appear necessary to supplement the reparation 
measures proposed above, if the latter prove inadequate; 
and 

5. Further requests the Secretary-General to keep in- 
formed of all the measures whicli may lie taken, to seek 
to ensure that they provide full reparalioii. and to report 
to the thirteenth .session of the C'ouiuil on the results 
of the present resolution. 



Forced Labor and 
for Its Abolition 



U.N. doc. E/19fiO 
Adopted Mar. 10, 1951 



Measures 



The Economic and Social Council, 
Rkc.vi.i.ino its previous resolutions on tlie subject of 
forced labour and measures for its abolition. 

CONSiUEiUNo the reiilies furnished by Member States to 



670 



Department of State Bulletin 



the communications adilressed to tliem liy the Secretary- 
General in accordance with resolutions lt».j (VIII) ami 
237 (IX), 

Taking note of the communications from the Interna- 
tional Labour Organization setting; forth the discus- 
sions on I he (luestiou of forced labour at the 111th and 
I 113th sessions of the Governinf; Body, 

Considering the rules and principles laid down in In- 
ternationa) Labour Convention No. 29, 

ItECALLiNo the principles of the Cliarter relating to 
respect for huniau rights and fundamental freedoms, 
and the principles of the Universal Declaration of Hu- 
man Rights, 

Dekpi.y moved liy the documents and evidence brouffht 
to its knowle<lKe and revealing in law and in fact the 
existence in the world of systems of forced labour under 
which a large proportion of the populations of certain 
States are subjected to a penitentiary regime, 

1. Decides to invite the International Labour Organi- 
zation to co-operate with the Council in the earliest 
possible establishment of an ad Itoc committee on forced 
labour of not more than five independent members, quali- 
fied by their competence and impartiality, to be appointed 
jointly by the Secretary-General of the United Nations 
and the Director-General of the International Labour 
Office with the following terms of reference : 

(a) To study the nature and extent of the problem 
raised by the existence in the world of systems of forced 
or ■■corrective" labour, which are employed as a means 
of political coercion or punishment for holding or ex- 
pressing political views, and which are on such a scale 
as to constitute an important element in the economy 
of a given country, by examining the texts of laws and 
regulations and their application in the light of the prin- 
ciples referred to above, and, if the Committee thinks 
fit, by taking additional evidence into consideration; 

(b) To report the results of its studies and progress 
thereon to the Council and to the Governing Body of 
the International Labour Office; and 

2. Requests the Secretary-General and the Director- 
General to supply the professional and clerical assistance 
necessary to ensure the earliest initiation and effective 
discharge of the ad hoc committee's work. 



Water Control and Utilization 
for Arid Areas 

tJ.N. doc E/1945 
Adopted Mar. 9, 1951 

The Economio and Social Council, 

Considering the desirability that measures being taken 
internationally in the general field of water control and 
utilization should be co-ordinated, and that such co- 
ordination should be undertaken within the United 
Nations system, and 

Considering that the General Assembly, in resolution 
402 (V), has recommended that the Secretary-General 
prepare for the examination of the Council at its four- 
teenth session a report on the practical measures adopted 
for the study of the problems of arid zones and on the 
technical and financial means employed by the specialized 
agencies for this purpose, 

1. Requests the Secretary-General to take into con- 
sideration, in preparing this report, the entire field of 
water control and utilization as it is related to the prob- 
lems of arid zones ; and 

2. Further requests the Secretary-General, in consulta- 
tion with the specialized agencies, to submit a rei>ort to 
the Council on the work being done by the specialized 
agencies and other international organizations, whether 
governmental, semi-governmental or non-governmental, 
engaged in the broad field of water control and utilization. 



United Nations Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography > 

Security Council 

Letter dated 12 March 1951 from the Chief of Staff of 
the Truce Supervision Organization to the Secretary- 
General transmitting a report on the activities of the 
Special Committee provided for in the Egyptian- 
Israeli General Armistice Agreement. S/2047, March 
21, 1951. 4 pp. mimeo. 

Letter dated 12 March 1951 from the Chief of Staff of 
the Truce Supervision Organization to the Secretary- 
General transmitting a report on decisions taken by 
the Hashemite Jordan Kingdom-Israel Mixed Armis- 
tice Commission. S/2048, March 21, 1951. 15 pp. 
mimeo. 

Letter dated 12 March 1051 from the Chief of Staff of 
the Truce Supervision Organization to the Secretary- 
General transmitting a report on the status of the 
operations of the Mixed Armistice Commissions. 
S/2049, March 21, 1951. i;{ pp. mimeo. 

Economic and Social Council 

Plight of Survivors of Concentration Camps. Progress Re- 
port by the Secretary-General. E/1915, February 6, 
1951. 50 pp. mimeo. 

Recommendations Regarding the Agenda of the Twelfth 
Session of the Council. E/1919, February 17, 1951. 
9 pp. mimeo. 

Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance; Second Re- 
port of the Technical Assistance Committee (First 
Part). E/1920, February 17, 1951. 7 pp. mimeo. 

Letter dated 27 March 1951 from the Secretary-General 
to the President of the Security Council transmitting 
the Ninth Progress Report of the United Conciliation 
Commission for Palestine [ A1793] . S/2057, March 27, 
1951. 1 p. mimeo. 

Methods of Social Welfare Administration. E/ON.5/224, 
October 25, 1950. 299 pp. printed, $2.50. 

Economic and Social Council ; Eleventh Session, 3 July to 
16 August 1950 (Geneva) and 12 October to 13 Decem- 
ber 1950 (Lake Success). Disposition of Agenda 
Items. E/INF/40, January 2, 1951. 236 pp. mimeo. 



Trusteeship Council 

Report [The Ewe Problem] by Mr. Paulin Baptiste, Pro- 
curator-General. T/846, February 26, 1951. 28 pp. 
mimeo. 



Department of Public Information 
Research Section 

United Nations Headquarters. Background Paper No. 63. 
44 pp. mimeo. 



April 23, 1951 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

The United Nations Secretariat has established an Otfir 
rial Records series for the General Assembly, the Securit.v 
Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship 
Council, and the Atomic Energy Commission which in- 
cludes summaries of proceedings, resolutions, and reports 
of the various commissions and committees. Publications 
in the Official Records series will not be listed in this 
department as heretofore, but information on securing 
subscriptions to the series may be obtained from the In- 
ternational Documents Service. 

671 



The United States in the United Nations 



[April 13-19, 1951] 

General Assembly 

Additional Mea-nires Committee. — At a meet- 
ing on April 18, the subcommittee approved for- 
wardin<? the following report to the Additional 
Measures Committee (Amc) : 

The Additional Measures Committee, at Its second 
meeting of March 8, appointed this sub-committee to con- 
sider practical measures and to study priorities. The 
sub-committee has carefully considered these subjects. 
Tiiere have been numerous consultations and exchanijes 
of views on the general approach which the Auc might 
use in Its studies. 

The sub-committee unanimously recommends that, when 
the Additional Measures Committee pursues the exami- 
nation of additional measures against the Central Peo- 
ple's Government of the People's Republic of China, it 
should give priority to the study of economic measures. 



Economic and Social Council 

C ommission on Human Riahts. — The IS-mem- 
ber Commission began its seventh session at 
Geneva on April 16, which will last approximately 
6 weeks. The countries represented on the Com- 
mission are: Australia, Chile, China, Denmark, 
Egypt, France, Greece, Guatemala, India, Leb- 
anon, Pakistan, Sweden, Ukrainian, S.S.K., 
U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, United States, Uru- 
guay, and Yugoslavia. 

At the first meeting, Mrs. Franklin D. Roose- 
velt, the United States representative, who has 
been chairman since the inception of the Commis- 
sion in 1946, announced that she would not seek 
reelection as she considered it desirable that no 
one person and no representative of one state — 
particularly one of the larger states — should con- 
tinue too long to preside over international work 
of the type done by the Commission. She stated 
she would continue her deep interest in the Com- 
mission's work and would continue as the United 
States member of it. Several members praised 
Mrs. Roosevelt's work and her contribution to the 
cause of human rights both within the United 
Nations and in private life. 

Dr. Charles ^lalik (Lebanon) was nominated 
by Mrs. Roosevelt to succeed her as chairman. 
This motion was seconded and he was unanimously 
elected. The other officers elected were : Prof. 
Rene Cassin (France), first vice chairman; Mrs. 
Hansa Mehta (India) second vice chairman; and 
H. F. W. Wliitlam (Australia) rapporteur. 

As early as 1!)1(>, the Commission considered as 
its main task the formulation of an International 
Bill of Human Kights to be composed of three 
parts. The first of these is the Universal Declara- 



tion of Human Rights, which was adopted by the 
General Assembly in Paris on December 10, 1948. 
The second part will be a covenant on such specific 
rights as lend themselves to bindint^ legal obliga- 
tions. The third, which will set forth measures 
of implementation, will relate to machinerj- that 
might be set up by the United Nations to enforce 
the provisions of the covenant. 

At this session, the Commission will give pri- 
ority to the completion of the draft International 
Covenant on Human Rights and Measures of Im- 
plementation. In this connection, it will give at- 
tention to the resolutions adopted by the fifth 
session of the General Assembly on December 4, 
1950, and, at the twelfth session of the Economic 
and Social Council on February 23, 1951, which 
request: (1) that the list of rights in the first 18 
articles of the covenant be reexamined to insure 
the adequacy of that list and to define the rights 
and limitations; (2) that study be given to the 
inclusion of a special article to apply the Covenant 
to federal states; (3) that provision be made to 
include in the covenant economic, social, and cul- 
tural rights and an explicit recognition of the 
equality of men and women; (4) that separate 
protocols or covenant provisions be considered for 
the receipt and study of petitions from individuals 
and organizations on alleged covenant violations; 
(5) that an article be included to make the terms 
of the covenant applicable to all signatory states 
and their territories, colonies, or dependencies. 
The Commission was also asked in a General As- 
sembly resolution to study and recommend ways 
and means of insuring the rights of peoples and 
nations to self-determination. 

Among the other subjects on the agenda are 
(1) the development of the work of the United 
Nations for wider observance and respect for hu- 
man rights and fundamental freedoms throughout 
the world; (2) annual reports on human rights; 

(3) draft, declaration on the rights of the cliild; 

(4) old-age rights; (5) an international court of 
human rights; (6) the continuing validity of 
minorities treaties and declarations; and (7) the 
Yearbook on Human Rights. 

At the end of its session, the Conunission will 
adopt a report on its work to be submitted to the 
next session of the Economic and Social Council. 

Security Council 

The Council met on April IT to consider again 
the I'alestine question since the adoi)tion of the 
resolution on November 17, 19,')(1, wjiich "expressed 
the hoi)e that the governments and autiioritiescon- 



672 



Department of State Bulletin 



ceriiod would at an early date achieve acreeiiiont 
on linal settlement of all questions outstanding 
between them." 

In aceordance with several communications re- 
ceived by the President of the Security Council 
from Faris El-Khouri Bey, chairman of the Syr- 
ian delegation to the United Nations and Ambas- 
sador Abba Eban, permanent delegate of Israel to 
the United Nations, regarding complaints of vio- 
lations of the general armistice agreement the 
following items had been placed on the provisional 
agenda : 

1. Violations of the armistice agreement. 
(Starting and continuing operations for drain- 
ing the Huleh swamps witlain the demilitarized 
zone against the wishes of Syria, Arab landowners, 
and United Nations supervisors, thus violating, 
repeatedly the terms of the armistice agreement 
and defying the recommendation and advice of the 
United Nations supervisors.) 

2. Military Occupation by Israel of demilitar- 
ized zones. 

3. Firing on Syrian posts. (Firing of auto- 
matic weapons and mortars on Syrian military 
posts.) 

4. Evacuation of Arab inhabitants. (Evacua- 
tion of the Arab inhabitants by force within the 
demilitarized zones.) 

5. B o m b i n g and demolishing incidents. 
(Bombing of Syrian military posts and demolish- 
ing of Arab villages on Syrian territory on April 
5, 1961.) 

6. Complaint of Syrian violation of general 
armistice agreement between Israel and Syria by 
persistent firing on civilian workers in the demili- 
tarized zone in Israel territory near Banat Yakub 
on March 15, 1951, and between March 25 and 28, 
1951. 

7. Complaints of Syrian violation of general 
armistice agreement between Israel and Syria by 
the entry of Sj'rian armed forces into the demili- 
tarized zone in Israel territory between El Hamma 
and Khirbeth Tewfig on April 3, 1951. 

8. Complaint of Syrian violation of general 
armistice agreement between Israel and Syria by 
the action of Syrian armed forces in opening fire on 
Israel civilian policemen near El Hamma in Israel 
territory on April 4, 1951, killing seven Israel 
civilian policemen and wounding tliree. 

Prior to adoption of the agenda, the President 
stated "there is no prima facie value in any item 
appearing on the provisional agenda. The items 
are intended only to identify the subject matter." 
He also called attention to press reports received 
from the United Nations public information officer 
with the Palestine Conciliation Commission, 
Jerusalem, that both Syria and Israel had agreed, 
April 16 and 12. respectively, on the following 
four points as a basis for resumption of normal 
meetings of the Mixed Armistice Commission : 
"(1) All military and para-military forces of both 
sides to be withdrawn from the demilitarized zone. 



(2) No further fighting within the zone or across 
demarcation lines. (3) United Nations observere 
to be afforded every facility for carrying out their 
duties. (4) The responsibility of the Mixed 
Armistice Commission Chairman to implement 
Article 5 of the Armistice Agreement, on the re- 
sumption of normal life in the zone, to be reaf- 
firmed." 

Mr. El-Khouri stated that Israel had ignored 
Syria's protests and the warnings of the Mixed 
Armistice Commission and had entered the mili- 
tarized zone to begin large-scale drainage works. 
He cited a series of requests from the Mixed 
Armistice Commission Chairman to the Israelis 
to suspend the drainage work, pending an inquiry. 
Such requests were ignored while Israel moved in 
armed forces and began mass deportations of Arab 
inhabitants in the demilitarized zone. As for the 
legal issues, he declared there was no law of ex- 
propriation for the demilitarized zone. Further- 
more, the mass deportations of the Arab inhabit- 
ants was in open contravention of international 
law and justice. 

The zone was not Israeli territory, nor did either 
party have sovereignty there. The draining of the 
Huleh swamp, in itself, was a useful project, Mr. 
El-Khouri admitted, but his Government opposed 
the drainage for a variety of reasons, as explained. 
He stated further that Syrian forces had never 
fired on United Nations observers as Israel al- 
leged, and the observers themselves had never 
made such a complaint. In conclusion, he said, it 
was obvious that the Syrian Government could not 
remain unconcerned regarding the Huleh drain- 
age project. In addition, the bombing of Syria 
by the Israeli Government had to be considered 
ail international crime condemned by the Charter 
and international law. 

In a brief reply, Mr. Eban stated that the Israeli 
complaints had been submitted for two reasons: 
the circumstances showed a clear breach of the 
peace by Syrian armed violence; also, the Mixed 
Armistice Commission (Mac) had been in a state 
of paralysis and inertia at the time the complaints 
were filed because of the relationship among its 
members. He referred to the agreement i-eached 
on April 12 between Col. Bennett L. de Bidder, 
Acting Chief of Staff of the United Nations Truce 
Supervision Organization, and Israel, and stated, 
now that the Mac had been reconstituted, it was 
the proper place for discussion. There could be 
recourse to the Council from the Mixed Armistice 
Commission, if needed. 

Ambassador Sir Gladwyn Jebb (U.K.), the 
only other member to speak at this meeting, be- 
lieved the Council should do its best to establish 
the facts. For that purpose, it would be advisable 
to hear evidence from Maj. Gen. AV. Riley, Chief 
of Staff of the Truce Supervision Organization. 

The President agreed with this suggestion and 
stated he would invite General Riley to attend the 
next meeting of the Council. 



April 23, 1957 



673 



CONGRESS 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Threat of Famine in India Immediate 

Statement by Secretary Acheson ^ 

I shall not impose on the patience of this Com- 
mittee by repeating the statement in support of 
food assistance to India which I made before the 
House Foreign Affairs Committee on February 
20.^ I should like, however, to make one or two 
comments to bring tliat statement up to date. 

I discussed with the House Committee the ques- 
tion of the acquisition by India of food gi'ains 
which might be available in Pakistan. I was hope- 
ful at the time that India and Pakistan would 
answer this question themselves. They have done 
so. On February 25, the two countries signed a 
trade agreement which provides, among other 
things, for the delivery to India in 1951 of 300,000 
tons of Pakistan rice and 25,000 tons of wheat and 
flour. This acquisition will be included in India's 
1951 purchase program of some 4 million tons of 
food grains and does not affect the need for the 
additional 2 million tons specially requested from 
the United States. 

I urged before the Foreign Affairs Committee 
that the grain specially requested from this coun- 
try should begin to move no later than April 1. 
The studies of the executive branch of the Govern- 
ment had led us to believe that the Indian food 
situation would become dangerously critical by 
midsummer. Events since January 20 have shown 
that our estimate was overly optimistic. The In- 
dian Government is already finding it exceedingly 
difficult to maintain the flow of gi'ain to its ration 
outlets in such disaster-stricken areas as Bihar. 
The Indian people are becoming increasingly fear- 
ful of the threat of famine. The threat is immedi- 
ate. The first million tons of gi-ain specially re- 
quested from us, if it is to arrive in time, should 
be loaded on ships for India as soon as is humanly 
possible, and I strongly urge that the Congress 
enact the necessary legislation. 

As the President said on March 29, 

. . . we should provide the first million tons promptly 
as a grant. We can then explore in greater detail the 
situation with respect to the remaining million tons. 

I am heartened by the fact that the bill before 
tliis Committee, S. 872, is sponsored by a bipartisan 
group of ;50 Senators. I am sure that this Com- 
mittee and the Senate as a whole are aware of the 
urgency of the Indian need and will act as quickly 
as possible. 

'Made before the Senate Foreign Kelalions Committee 
on Apr. IG, and released to the press on the same date. 
' Bulletin of Mar. 12, VXA, p. 424. 



Reorganization in Bureau 
of Economic Affairs 

[Released to the press April 10} 

To meet the new requirements in the field of 
international economic policy raised by this 
country's large-scale defense program, the De- 
partment of State today announced a reorganiza- 
tion in the Bureau of Economic Affairs. 

Effective immediately, the Office of Inter- 
national Trade Policy is abolished. 

There is established an Office of International 
Materials Policy and an Office of Economic De- 
fense and Trade Policy. 

The Office of International Materials Policy 
will take over the functions, personnel, and equip- 
ment of the Petroleum Policy Staff, the Food and 
Agriculture Branch, and the Industrial Materials 
Branch of the Economic Resources and Security 
Staff. 

It will be the purpose of the Office of Inter- j 
national Materials Policy, in cooperation with \\ 
other agencies of the Government; (1) to develop 
programs and policies which will insure the har- 
monization of domestic and foreign emergency 
economic controls designed to stimulate the pro- 
duction of basic materials in short supply; (2) 
to assure the widest degree of parallel action in 
the adoption of conservation measures; (3) to 
provide for the contiiiued export of goods essen- 
tial to meet the minimum civilian requirements 
of other parts of the free world ; (4) to assure the 
availability to the United States adequate sup- 
plies of basic materials, and (5) to promote the 
allocation where necessary of materials in short 
supply. 

The Office of Economic Defense and Trade 
Policy will take over the functions, personnel, and 
equipment of the Commercial Policy Staff, the 
International Business Practices Policy Staff, and 
the Economic Security Branch of the Economic 
Resources and Security Staff. 

It will be the purpose of the Office of Economic 
Defense and Trade Policy to promote the strength 
of the free world through economic ties to jiievcnt 
inflation and to increase the flow of essential trade. 
The Office will cooperate with other Government 
agencies to consolidate and strengthen the frame- 
work of international cooperation in the field of 
trade policy and economic treaty relationships to 
develop greater political unity and to assure long- 
run economic stability on whicli a sustained de- 
fense program must rest. The Office also will have 
authority in the Department's jurisdiction over 
controls of exports to the Soviet bloc. 



674 



Deparlmeni of State Bulletin 



Principal Officers 

The principal officers in the new units are as 
follows : 

a. Office of International Materials (OMP) 

Winthi'iip G. Brown, actint? director 
John W. Evans, acting deptity director 
Willis C. Armstrong, acting special assistant 
Clarence W. Nichols, acting special assistant 

(1) Petroleum Policy Staff (PED) 
Edwin G. Moline, acting chief 

(2) Manufactured Products Staff (MPS) 

(3) Agricultural Products Staff (APS) 
Francis A. Linville. acting chief 

(-1) Industrial Raw Materials Staff (lUM) 
(5) Metals and Minerals Staff (MMS) 
Harlan 1'. Bramble, acting chief 

b. Office of Economic Defense and Trade Policy (E3DT) 

John M. Leddy, acting director 
Joseph D. Coppock, acting adviser 

(1) Economic Defense Staff (EDS) 

(2) Commercial Policy Staff (CP) 
Carl D. Corse, acting chief 

(3) Business Practices and Technology Staff (BPT) 
Roger 0. Dixon, acting chief 



Mrs. Esther Caukin Brunauer Suspended 

[Released to the press April 10] 

Deputy Under Secretary Carlisle H. Humelsine 
armounced today that he has ordered the suspen- 
sion of Mrs. Esther Caukin Brunauer because of 
information received that the Department of the 
Navy had suspended her husband, Stephen Bru- 
nauer, under Navy Department loyalty and secur- 
ity procedures. Mrs. Brunauer's suspension was 
taken automatically pending the outcome of the 
Department of the Navy action concerning Mr. 
Brunauer. Mrs. Brunauer has been employed by 
the Unesco relations staff of the Department of 
State as a liaison officer. 

In announcing this action, Mr. Humelsine made 
it clear that Mrs. Brunauer's suspension results 
from action taken by the Navy in regard to her 
husband and not from any information which 
has been received concerning her. 



Fifth Semiannual Report 

of Educational Exchange issue 

[Released to the press April 12] 

A sharpening of the Department of State's Ed- 
ucational Exchange Program to fulfill the objec- 
tives of the Campaign of Truth is reported in the 
fifth semianiuuxl report of the United States Ad- 
visory Commission on Educational Exchange.^ 

The report, made public today following its sub- 
mission to Congress, was presented by the Com- 
mission Chairman Harvie Branscomb, chancellor 
of Vaiulerbilt University. It contains an attach- 

• H. Doe. 108, 82d Cong. 1st sess. 



ment on the cultural penetration of northern Ko- 
rea by Soviet Kussia as an example of the need 
for sliifting the emphasis in the operation of the 
exchange program in many paits of the world. 
The report comments, 

This provides a vivid illustration of a S<iviet program 
to nnsguide and seduce a wliole population for violent 
ends. 

The Commission recommends increased activi- 
ties in the international exchange of labor lead- 
ers — more scholarships at workers' education 
centers, more study tours of trade unionists, and 
special summer classes to study social problems 
in various countries. 

The report further comments, 

Communist propaganda is aimed at workers who con- 
stitute a large and important part of the world's popula- 
tion. Tlie United States must combat this intluence to 
win the workers' support. 

Our task must be to depict the true status of workers 
in the U.S.S.R. and in Soviet satellite ccnmtries in con- 
trast to the position of labor in the United States where 
workers have economic security, dignity, self-respect, and 
recognition without recourse to class warfare and dicta- 
torship which the Communist doctrine holds to be neces- 
sary before workers can attain their rights. 

The report notes that organized American labor 
has developed a technical assistance program 
through the International Confederation of Free 
Trade Unions [Icftu]. Among the many proj- 
ects initiated by the Icfttj, the report notes, is 
the establishment of training schools in Asia to 
develop leaders for free trade unions. 

Reviewing Soviet activities in North Korea, the 
report detailed widespread cultural penetration 
during the 5 years preceding the outbreak of hos- 
tilities. This included the enrollment of over 
1,300,000 North Koreans in Soviet-oriented cul- 
tural societies, the translation and publication of 
over 500 Russian books, the organization of Rus- 
sian-language courses, and thousands of lectures 
and concerts. Hundreds of intellectual, indus- 
trial, and political leaders were taken to Moscow 
for indoctrination. 

The report said, in commenting on the ex- 
pansion of the program : 

While the Communist educational and cultural pro- 
gram in north Korea was exceptional in its intensity, 
similar efforts in other countries called for a re-thinking 
and re-direction of United States educational exchange 
objectives during the last year. 

Major steps considered by the Commission were 
listed as (1) shaping the program to fit each coun- 
try, and (2) sharpening the objectives of the pro- 
gram. Under tlie second point, the Commission 
cited the following three specific objectives to be 
carried out in collaboration with the international 
information program : 

a. To keep alive the spirit of cooperation among the 
free nations of the world for the purpose of self-protec- 
tion and progress for all. 

b. To strengthen resistance to Communism in countries 
immediately threatened with infiltration or aggression. 



April 23, 1951 



675 



c. To weaken the forces of Communism and diminish 
its power in areas now under tlie domination of the 
U.S.S.R. 

Tlie Commission noted a growth in the number 
of exchange grants from 450 in 1948 to an esti- 
mated 6,500 for 1951. With 30,000 foreign stu- 
dents now studying at a thousand American 
campuses, it was pointed out that the Government 
program is relatively small compared to the ex- 
change activities carried out under private 
auspices. 

In a summary appraisal, the Commission 
stated : 

The expansion of the educational exchange program 
to many new countries, its rapid increase in volume, and 
its redirection to meet the challenge of Communist propa- 
ganda and subversion have placed heavy burdens upon 
the administrators of the program throughout this three- 
year period. The responsil)ilities have been particularly 
great this past year when, with the initiation of the 
President's Campaign of Truth, most of the expansion 
and change has taken place. It is the opinion of this 
Commission that, on the whole, the job has been well done. 

The Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, 
Edward W. Barrett, has given the program vigorous and 
forward-looliing leadership. Obviously, we cannot pass 
judgment on the capabilities of all the officers he has 
selected to carry on the work of the program liere and 
overseas. The progress of the program, however, con- 
vinces us that he has brought together an excellent staff 
and, in our various contacts with the program officers 
here and overseas, we have noted their devotion and 
enthusiasm for their jobs. 

Noting recent proposals to remove the informa- 
tion and educational exchange program from the 
Department of State, the majority of the Com- 
mission expressed its belief that the educational 
exchange program should remain in the Depart- 
ment of State. 

The membership of the Commission, in addi- 
tion to Dr. Branscomb, includes : 

Vice Chairman — Mark Starr, educational director of the 

International Ladies Garment Workers Union 
Harold Willis Dodds, president, Princeton University 
Edwin B. Fred, president. University of Wisconsin 
Martin R. P. McGuire, professor, Catholic University 



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Instructions Issued to Foreign Service 
Posts on the Internal Security Act 

[Released to the press April J.'i] 

FoUoiring are the operating instructions sent to all 
American diplomatic and consular officers re the act of 
October 16, 1918, as amended by the Internal Seciiriti/ Act 
of 11)50 and the Clarification Act of March 28, 1951, pend- 
ing the issuance of formal regulations. 

1. The President approved on March 28, 1951 
an Act of Congress (Piiblic Law 14, 82d Congress) 
which requires a change in the interpretation of 
the provisions of the Act of October IG, 1918, as 
amended by the Internal Security Act of 1950. 

2. Section 1 of the Act of March 28, 1951 reads : 

That the Attorney General is hereby authorized and 
directed to provide by regulations that the terms "mem- 
bers of" and "affiliated with" where used in the Act of 
October 16, 191S, as amended, shall include only member- 
ship or affiliation which is or was voluntary, and shall not 
include membership or affiliation which is or was solely 
(a) when under sixteen years of age, (b) by operation of 
law, or (c) for purposes of obtaining employment, food 
rations, or other essentials of living, and where necessary 
for such purposes. 

677 



3. The committee report in connection with the 
legislation contains the following statements : 

The reason most frequently given for the denial of visas 
or the denial of admission appears to be the applicants 
past membership of, or affiliation with, certain totalitarian 
youth, national labor, or professional, student, or similar 
organizations, or the alien's service in the German or 
Italian Armies, or his involuntary membership in totali- 
tarian parties or their affiliates and auxiliaries. Including 
those cases where it was shown that such membership or 
affiliation occurred by operation of law or edict, or for 
purposes of obtaining or preserving employment, food 
rations, or other essentials of living. 

The bill makes clear the intent of Congress that aliens 
who are, or were, voluntary members of the Nazi, Fascist, 
or other totalitarian parties or organizations are to be 
excluded, but aliens who were involuntary members of 
Nazi, Fascist, or other totalitarian youth, national labor, 
student, or similar organizations, are not to be considered 
ipso facto as members of, or affiliated with, the Nazi, 
Fascist, or other totalitarian parties or organizations 
within 'the meaning of the act of October 16, 191S, as 
amended. Furthermore, aliens who served in the German, 
Italian or other armed forces are not to be considered 
Ipso facto as members of, or affiliated with, the Nazi, 
Fascist, or other totalitarian parties or subsidiary organi- 
zations. 

4. All cases of visa applicants in which ad- 
verse action was taken nnder the Act of October 
16, 1918, as amended by the Internal Security Act 
of 1950, shoidd be reviewed in the light of the Act 
of March 28, 1951. Visas may now be issued :n 
such cases if they were previously withheld solely 
on one or more of the grounds which no longer 
exist, as provided in the Act of March 28, 1951. 

5. Visas may now be granted in all bona fide 
nonimmigrant cases now pending before the De- 
partment, or the Department of Justice, for ninth 
proviso action which was deemed to be necessary 
under the Attorney General's construction of the 
law, but which now clearly do not fall within the 
intent of Congress as stated in the Act of March 
28, 1951, and in all such cases arising henceforth. 
The Department should be promptly informed of 
any pending cases which are still considered to re- 
quire ninth proviso action. 

6. Immigration visas may be issued to aliens 
whose cases had been suspended solely upon the 
basis of former involuntary membership in the 
Nazi, Fascist, Falangist or Communist party or 
an affiliate, subsidiary, section, branch, or subdi- 
vision of those parties, and in all such cases aris- 
ing henceforth. 

7. The admission of aliens who are, or were, 
Nazis or Fascists at heart, or who advocate the 
Falangist system for the United States, is to be 
considered prejudicial to the interests of the 
United States within the meaning of the war-time 
visa regidations contained in Supjilement D to the 
Foreign Service Regulations (22 CFR 53.1-53.41) . 

8. Aliens who are, or were, voluntary members 
of, or voluntarily affiliated with, the parties or or- 
ganizations proscribed by the Act of October 16, 
1918, as amended, are still excludable. 

9. The princii)al parties proscribed by the Act 
of October 16, 1918, as amended by the Internal 
Security Act of 1950, are: 

678 



(a) Every Communist party in the world, which in- 
cludes every party that has ever been a part of the world 
Communist movement directed from the U. S. S. R., re- 
gardless of the name by which it may be, or have been, 
known ; the Nazi Party (N. S. D. A. I'.) of Germany; the 
Fascist Party (P. N. F.) of Italy; and the Falange 
(F. E. T.) of Spain. The proscription of the statute 
also applies to any other party which is or was a "totali- 
tarian dictatorship" as defined in Section 3 (15) of the 
Internal Security Act of 1950. No party other than those 
specifically designated has been so designated up to the 
present time. 

(b) Every section, subsidiary, branch, or sub-division 
(which are to be regarded as synonymous terms) of such a 
parties is also within the statutory pro.scription. Every I 
direct predecessor or successor party or organization, hav- * 
ing the same general ideological objectives or purposes, 

of such parties is also within the statutory proscription. 

(c) Every "affiliate" (affiliated organization) of such 
parties is also within the statutory proscription. The 
term "affiliate" as here used means an organization sub- 
stantially directed, dominated, or controlled by one of the 
parties within the statutory proscription, which is or was 
used or operated by such party primarily to help maintain 
its totalitarian control over the country, or to help dis- 
seminate its totalitarian economic and governmental doc- 
trines or ideology. 

(d) Considering the Nazi Party of Germany as an ex- 
ample, the (SS) SchutzstafCeln (Protective Squad — Elite 
Guard), the (SA) Sturniabteilung (Storm Detachment), 
the (NSKK) NS Kraftfahrerkorps (Motor Corps), the 
(NSFK) NS Fliegerkorps (Flying Corps), the (HJ) Hit- 
ler Jugend (Hitler Youth), and the (BDM) Bund 
Deutscher (League of German Girls) may be regarded as 
sections, subsidiaries, branches, or subdivisions of the 
Party. The (DAF) Deutsche Arbeitsfront (German La- 
bor Front), the (NSV) NS Volkswohlfahrt (Peoples Wel- 
fare Service), and the (RAD) Reichsarbeitsdienst 
(Compulsory National Labor Service) were "affiliates" of 
the Party. 

(e) Where used in this circular airgram, the term 
"proscribed party or organization" means all of the afore- 
mentioned Communist and other totalitarian parties, their 
sections, subsidiaries, branches and subdivisions, their 
direct predecessor and successor parties or organizations, 
and their "affiliates". Where "affiliates" are separately 
treated it is intended to cover only affiliated organizations 
which are or were not .sections, subsidiaries, branches, or 
subdivisions of such proscribed parties. 

10. (a) Service, whether voluntary or not, in 
the armed forces of any country shall not be re- 
garded, of itself, as membership in, or affiliation 
with, any proscribed party or organization, and 
shall not, of itself, constitute a ground for exclu- 
sion. This, however, in no way affects the pro- 
hibition contained in Section 13 of the Displaced 
Persons Act of 1948, as amended, against the issu- 
ance of a visa under that Act to any person who has 
voluntarily borne arms against the United States 
on the western front during World War II except 
that the construction of the word ''voluntary" as 
used in this circular airgram shall be applied to 
the construction of the word "voluntarily " ajipear- 
ing in Section 13 of the Displaced Persons Act of 
1948, as amended, in relation to bearing arms, but 
only by other than German nationals. 

(b) Voluntary service in a political capac- 
ity (such as a political commissar) with the armed 
forces of any country shall constitute affiliation 
with a proscribed party or organization. 

11. Membership or affiliation, whether voluntary 
or not, which ended before an alien readied liis , 

Department of State Bulletin ' 



sixteenth birthday shall not constitute a ground 
for exclusion. If an alien continues or continued 
his membership or affiliation beyond his sixteenth 
birthday, the question whether his membership or 

I affiliation after his sixteenth birthday is or was 
voluntary shall be determined as in the case of any 
other alien. In that connection, the facts relating 
to his activities only after his sixteenth birthday 
may be considered in determining whetlier the con- 
tinual ion of his membei'ship or affiliation is or was 

, voluntary. 

12. Membership or affiliation solely by operation 
of law shall not constitute a ground for exclusion. 
This "operation of law" exception includes any 
case wherein the alien automatically becomes or 
became a member or affiliate of a proscribed party 
or organization by official act, proclamation, order 
or decree. 

13. The term "voluntary" when used in relation 
to membership in, or affiliation with, a proscribed 
party or organization shall be construed to mean 
membership or affiliation which is or was know- 
ingly created by the alien's act of joining or affiliat- 
ing, upon his own volition, with such proscribed 
party or organization. It does not include : 

(a) Alembership or affiliation which is or was 
solely the result of duress or coercion ; 

(b) Membership or affiliation which is or was 
solely, and necessary, for the purpose of obtaining 
or keeping employment, food rations, housing, or 
other essentials of living, such as general educa- 
tion; 

(c) Membership or affiliation in a non-pro- 
scribed party or organization, which membership 
or affiliation continues or continued after such 
party or organization becomes or became pro- 
scribed, or comes or came under the domination 
or control of a proscribed party or organization, 
provided that the alien estaolishes that he cannot 
or could not have terminated his membership or 
affiliation without suffering loss of employment, 
housing, food rations, or other essentials of living, 
such as general education. However, a person 
who terminates or terminated his membership or 
affiliation in a party or organization prior to the 
date it becomes or became proscribed, or comes or 
came under the domination or control of a pro- 
scribed party or organization, shall not be con- 
sidered to be or to have been a member or affidiate 
of a proscribed party or organization ; 

(d) Membership in or affiliation with an "af- 
filiate", where the alien establishes that at the time 
he voluntarily joined the "affiliate", it professed a 
purpose neither Communist nor totalitarian in 
character, provided the alien establishes that at the 
time of joining he did not know, and did not have 
reasonable means of ascertaining, that the "affili- 
ate" had any purpose Communist or totalitarian 
in character, and that he continues or continued 
to have no knowledge of. and no reasonable means 
of ascertaining, the proscribed purpose of the "af- 
filiate", up until the time his membership or affilia- 



tion ceases or ceased, or that after he ascertains 
or ascertained the proscribed purpose of the 
"affiliate", he is or was not able to terminate his 
membership or affiliation without suffering loss of 
employment, housing, food rations, or other essen- 
tials of living, such as general education. 

14. In all cases under paragraphs 12 and 13 
above, the responsible consular officer must be sat- 
isfied that the alien did not, in whole or in part, 
join or remain a member or affiliate because of ide- 
ological conviction or belief in the doctrines of 
Communism or other form of totalitarianism, and 
that he has never intentionally been active in the 
promotion of such doctrines. 

15. (a) Membership in, or direct (i. e., not 
through any intermediary "affiliate") affiliation 
with, any Communist Party, the Nazi Party, the 
Fascist Party, the Spanish Falange, or other total- 
itarian party, or any section, subsidiary, branch, 
or subdivision thereof, including the youth groups 
under any Communist Party (where the member- 
ship or affiliation is or was after the alien's six- 
teenth birthday) — as distinguished from an "af- 
filiate" or youth group comprehended within (b), 
below — shall be considered prima facie to be or 
to have been voluntary, and the burden shall be on 
the alien to prove by clear and convincing evi- 
dence, which shall be made a matter of record in 
the case, that such membership or direct affiliation 
is or was involuntary. 

(b) Membership in, or affiliation with, an "af- 
filiate" of any Communist Party, the Nazi Party, 
the Fascist Party, the Spanish Falange, or other 
totalitarian party, or membership in, or affiliation 
with, the youth sections of the Nazi Party, the 
Fascist Party, the Spanish Falange, or other total- 
itarian party (where the membership or affiliation 
is or was after the alien's sixteenth birthday), 
except youth groups under any Communist party, 
shall be regarded as raising an inference that such 
membership or affiliation is or was voluntary, but 
this inference may be overcome by the alien's sworn 
statement that his membership or affiliation is or 
was involuntary, provided that, after appropriate 
security clearances, there is no evidence or reliable 
information to the contrary. If any such evidence 
or information to the contrary is obtained, the 
burden shall continue to be on such alien to estab- 
lish by clear and convincing evidence, which shall 
be made a matter of record in the case, that his 
membership or affiliation is or was involuntary. 
Officers of the "affiliates" and youth sections re- 
ferred to in this subsection shall be considered 
under (a) above. 

16. Doubtful cases of immigrants and nonim- 
migrants should be submitted to the Department 
for advisory opinions. All cases of members or 
former members of the Communist Party or any 
of its sections, branches, subdivisions or sub- 
sidiaries as distinguished from nonofficer mem- 
bers of an affiliate thereof, shall be considered to 
be doubtful for this purpose. 



April 23, 1 951 



679 



April 23, 1951 Index 

Africa ^"^' 

Libya — Symbol of Hope for a New Era (Clark, 

Sbaqishli) 643 

Agriculture 

U.S. Aid to Iran In Fight Against Locusts . . 661 

Aid to Foreign Countries 

U.S.S.R. : U.S. Reiterates Demand on I,end-Lease 

Settlement 646 

Asia 

INDIA: Threat of Famine Immediate (Acheson, 

Cong, testimony) 674 

IRAN: 

Assisting Iran To Unite With the Free World 

McGhee, Mathews, Loftus, Burns) . . 657 

Joint Communique on U.S.-U.K. Talks ... 661 

U.S. Aid to Iran in Fight Against Locusts . . 661 

IRAQ: Point 4 Agreement Signed 653 

ISRAEL: VOA Programs Inaugurated .... 653 
JAPAN: Ambassador Dulles Returns for Peace 

Treaty Consultation 654 

JORDAN: Admiral Robert B. Carney Visits . . 661 

KOREA: 

Croices Confronting Us In Korea (Rusk over 

NBC) 655 

U.N. Casualties 656 

American Republics 

COSTA RICA: Trade Agreement Terminated . 662 

Arms and Armed Forces 

U.N. Casualties in Korea 656 

Claims 

Deadline for Filing War Claims With Italy . . 651 

Communism 

Choices Confronting Us in Korea (Rusk over 

NBC) 655 

Educational Exchange Program, 5th Semiannual 

Report Issued 675 

Congress 

Analysis of Official Personnel Stationed in the 
U.S. and U.S.S.R.: Text of Letter (McFall 
to Lane) 649 

INDIA: Threat of Famine Immediate (Acheson, 

Cong, testimony) 674 

Instructions Issued to Foreign Service on In- 

teri^al Security Act 677 

Legislation Listed 645 

Europe 

Instructions Issued to Foreign Service on In- 
ternal Security Act 677 

GERMANY: 

Discussion of Agreement for VOA Language 

Programs (Sargeant) 652 

Effect of Revised Monetary Reform Law on 

U.N. Nationals 651 

U.S. Women To Visit 652 

ITALY: Deadline for Filing War Claims ... 651 
U.K.: 

Death of Ernest Bevin (Acheson) 663 

Joint Communique on U.S.-U.K. Iranian 

Talks 661 

U.S.S.R.: 

Analysis of Official Personnel: Text of Letter 

(McFall to Lane) 649 

U.S. Reiterates Demand on Lend-Lease Settle- 
ment: Exchange of Notes, Texts . . . 646 

Finance 

Effect of Revised German Monetary Reform Law 

on U.N. Nationals 651 



Vol. XXIV No. 616 



649 
677 



670 



Foreign Service 

Analysis of Official Personnel Stationed in the 
U.S. and the U.S.S.R 

Instructions Issued on Internal Security Act . . 

Libya — Symbol of Hope for a New Era in North 

Africa. Exchange of Remarks 643 

Human Rights 

Seventh Session, U.S. Delegation 

Forced Labor and Measure for Abolition, Text 

of Resolution 670 

Information and Educational Exchange Program 

Educational Exchange Program, 5th Semian- 
nual Report Issued 676 

VOA: 

German Language Programs (Sargeant) . . 662 
Israeli Programs Inaugurated 653 

International Meetings 

U.S. Delegation: 7th Session Hirnian Rights . . 670 
U.S. Women To Visit Germany 652 



Mutual Aid and Defense 

Assisting Iran To Unite With the Free World . . 

Publications 

5th Semiannual Report of U.S. Advisory Com- 
mission on Educational Exchange Issued . 
Recent Releases 



Page 
657 



675 
676 



Refugees and Displaced Persons 

Instructions to Foreign Service on the Internal 

Security Act 677 

Plight of Survivors of Concentration Camps, 

Text of Resolution 670 

State, Department of 

Reorganization: Bureau of Economic Affairs . 
Suspension: Mrs. Esther Caukin Brunauer . 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

Assisting Iran To Unite With the Free World . 

Agreement With Iraq 653 

U.S. Aid to Iran in Fight Against Locxists . . 661 

Water Control and Utilization of Arid Areas, 
Text of Resolution 



674 
675 



657 



671 



Telecommunications 

U.S.-Germany Discuss Agreement for VOA Ger- 
man Language Programs (Sargeant) . . . 652 

Trade 

Costa Rica-U.S. Agreement Terminated . . . 662 

Treaties and Other International Agreements 

Compulsory Jurisdiction of the International 

Court of Justice (Myers) 664 

COSTA RICA: Trade Agreement (1936) Termi- 
nated. Exchange of Notes, Texts .... 662 

IRAQ: Point 4 Agreement Signed 653 

JAPAN: Ambassador Dulles Returns for Peace 

Treaty Consultation 654 

LEND-LEASE (1942): U.S. Reiterates Demand 

to U.S.S.R. Exchange of Notes, Texts . . 646 

VOA: U.S.-Germany Discuss Programs (Sar- 
geant) 652 

United Nations 

Casualties of U.N. Forces in Korea 656 

Compulsory Jurisdiction of the International 
Court of Justice — Additions Through March 

31 (Myers) 664 

Effect of Revised Monetary Law on U.N. Na- 
tionals 651 

Libya — Symbol of Hope for a New Era. (Clark, 

Shaqishli) 643 

Resolutions : 

Forced Labor and Measures for Abolition 

(Mar. 19), Text 670 

Plight of Survivors of Concentration Camps 

(Mar. 19), Text 670 

Water Control and Utilization for Arid Areas 

(Mar. 9), Text 671 

Secretary-General Advised of Change in U.N. 

Command 654 

U.N. Bibliography: Selected Documents . . . 671 

U.S. in U.N. (Weekly Summary) 672 

A'a»ie Index 

Acheson, Secretary Dean 647,663,674 

Austin, Warren R 654 

Bevin, Etnest 663 

Branscomb, Harvie 675 

Brown, Winthrop G 675 

Brunauer, Esther C 675 

Burns, Norman 659 

Carney, Robert B 661 

Clark, Lewis 643 

Crocker, Edward S 653 

Dulles, John F 664 

Lane, Thomas J 649 

Leddy, John M 675 

Lie, Trygvie 664 

Loftus, John 659 

Maiui, Thomas C 663 

Mathews, Elbert G 658 

McFall, Jack K 649 

McGhee, George C 657, 660 

Myers, Denys P 664 

Oreamuno, J. Rafael 662 

Panyushkin, A 648 

Roosevelt, Mrs. Franklin D 670 

Rusk, Dean 655 

Sargeant, Howland H 653 

Shaqishli, Muhammad 643 

Suwcldl, Tewflq 663 

Webb, James E 664 

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTINQ OFFICII l>ll 



tJrie/ ^eha/^tTitent/ aw t/tafe^ 




OUR FAR EASTERN POLICY: DEBATE, DECISION, 

AND ACTION • by Secretary Acheson 683 

TAKING STOCK OF INTER-AMERICAN RELA- 
TIONS • fry Ambassador John C. Dreier 688 

HOW SHOULD THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS FACE 
THE ECONOMIC PROBLEINIS IN THE PRESENT 

DANGER! 9 by Assistant Secretary Thorp 693 

THE UNESCO CONFERENCE ON THE IMPROVE- 
MENT OF BIBLIOGRAPHIC SERVICES • by Jesse 
H. Shera 707 



For index see back cover 



Vol. XXIV, No. 61't 
April 30, 1951 





%yAe zi^e/ia/r^menC 4)^ C/ldle yj W 1 1 \j L 1 1 1 



Vol. XXIV, No. 617 • Publication 4200 
April 30, 1951 



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U. S. SUPERINTEMDFNT OF DOCUMENTS 

MAY 14 laol 



Our Far Eastern Policy 



DEBATE, DECISION, AND ACTION 



Address hy Secretary Achcson^ 



1*#E HAVE just emerged from a great de- 
■■ bate upon one aspect of our foreign policy. 
I think it is a safe prediction to say that we are 
about to start upon another. The one just con- 
ckided dealt with the defense of the North At- 
lantic area, the part that we and our European 
allies would play in it, the need for mutual help 
and individual effort, the need for unity of com- 
mand and for direction of effort. The debate 
brought out our primary purpose and object of 
maintaining peace and preventing war. It made 

Slain that if peace were broken by aggression, the 
orth Atlantic nations must be able to meet the 
attack successfully and without sacrificing the 
freedom of one of them in the initial shock. 

The forthcoming debate will deal with the se- 
curity of the Far East ; with the interest that our 
country has and the part that it should play in 
maintaining that security; with the part that 
others can and should play ; with the nature of the 
dangers to be faced and with the steps which are 
being taken and which should be taken to achieve 
the same two purposes — the prevention of war 
and the successful meeting of war should it be 
forced upon us. 

Now the fact that our Far Eastern policy and 
our European policy have been separately de- 
bated should not lead us to make the fatal error 
of regarding these policies as being divorced 
from one another. 

We are dealing with a global problem which 
does not correspond to the artificiiil divisions 
which sometimes claim our attention. 

The present dramatic realities of the Korean 
conflict may blind us to the less obvious but no 
less critical realities of the Near Eastern and the 
Western portions of our global problems. 



' Made before the Women's National Press Club at Wash- 
ington on Apr. 18 and released to the press on the same 
date. Also printed as Department of State publication 
4201. 



But if we do not allow this to happen, and if we 
discuss the problems of each area in the context of 
the whole, the debate can clarify issues and can 
help us get ahead. 

It is not my purpose tonight to attempt a dis- 
course on all Far Eastern problems in one speech. 
But it may be useful to make some observations 
which will indicate lines along which debate can 
be constructive and perhaps narrow the issues. 

At the outset, we should remind ourselves and 
we should remind our friends abroad of the in- 
valuable part which public debate of public is- 
sues has played in the life of our country since 
its earliest days. In our debates everyone is en- 
titled to his say, and I may add that almost every- 
one avails himself of this right. It is good that 
this is so, because with us these periods of national 
discussion perform many useful purposes. They 
provide an opportunity for letting off steam, and 
the importance of letting off steam was known to 
the framers of our Constitution. They perform 
the function of public analysis of issues and argu- 
ments and public evaluation of the issues and argu- 
ments. They are a national "thinking aloud." 
They make up the national mind and they focus 
the national will. 

Sometimes our friends abroad look with dismay 
on the divergence of views which are expressed. 
They fail to remember that out of this divergence, 
out of hard-fought discussions there comes a na- 
tional agreement upon conclusions, conclusions 
produced by the innate common sense of the 
American people when they have heard all sides 
and come to the point of decision. 

No one expects in these debates that all the state- 
ments made are going to be logical or that they 
are going to be based on proved facts or that they 
are going to be good tempered. In the heat of 
debate many things are said which would have 
been better left unsaid. But we expect this. We 
understand this. Wliat is essential, if the debate 
is going to accomplish its important purpose, is 



AprW 30, 7951 



683 



that we all try to make our contributions construc- 
tive and to keep them directed toward the issues 
as we see tliose issues. The greatest disservice that 
can be done to this institution of the national de- 
bate is consciously to confuse it, to obscure it, to 
frustrate it. 

It is well to remember also that this debate will 
be conducted in the full hearing of that propa- 
ganda organization, the Cominform, which is 
making a ceaseless effort to confuse, to divide^ to 
weaken people in our own and other countries; 
to divide us from our allies; and to weaken our 
collective strength. 

Points of View on Foreign Policy 

Now in the debate which is about to open, it is 
safe to say that three fairly distinguishable points 
of view will emerge. These all came out in the 
prior debate. Two are extreme points of view 
which are held by small numbers but are vocifer- 
ously expressed, and sometimes they affect the 
thinking of the great majority. 

One extreme point of view is held by impatient 
or discouraged people who believe that war is in- 
evitable, that it is futile to attempt to prevent it, 
and that all our effort should be directed toward 
fighting it. 

Tlie other extreme view is also held by discour- 
aged people who believe that there is no real 
strength in the non-Communist world except our 
own, and that we should limit our main effort to 
holding a defensive circle, and that the help we 
give to others should be limited to what will sup- 
port our thrusts by sea and air against the enemy 
in the event of war. 

Sometimes advocates of these respective points 
of view join forces, and then they recommend 
withdrawal from one area and involvement in an- 
other. But in the main these views are distinct 
and recognizable. 

But the great body of opinion does not hold 
either of these views. It believes that war is not 
inevitable, that the great object of policy should 
be to prevent war, that to do this it is essential to 
build, as quickly as possible and as effectively as 
possible, the collective strength of ourselves and 
our allies. It believes that aggression is an evil 
which has to be met; that surrender to the threat 
of force is appeasement; that negotiation and 
peaceful settlement is not appeasement. Those 
who hold this point of view do not expect that 
difficult questions are susceptible of easy and pain- 
less answers. They want to be sure that the course 
chosen is sensible and is the best course among 
those open to us. 

The real debate will occur within this section of 
American opinion. It will concern itself with 
knowing the facts, with appraising results, with 
evaluating, the advantages and the risks of various 
courses and settling upon those courses wliich are 
best calculated to preserve peace, to prevent war, 

684 



to limit and to end the conflict in which we are now 
engaged. Above all, it will concern itself with 
those courses which will best protect the security 
of our country. 

Now with these preliminary observations, we 
come to what in my judgment are the main ques- 
tions on Far Eastern policy which will be affected 
by the coming debate. 

Far Eastern Policy For Peace 

Let us start with the great constructive tasks on 
which we have been engaged, the steps that we 
have been taking to move out of the period of 
war and to establish a new basis for a stable and 
constructive structure of peace in the Pacific. 

These steps, essential to our security, are not 
within what seems to be that area of bitter dis- 
agreement which may be expected among us. 

We are moving rapidly ahead to make a prompt 
and enduring peace with the Japanese and to join 
with them as well as with other nations in the 
Pacific in creating the essentials of security in 
that area. 

We believe that, on these matters, we shall find a 
large, if not a complete, range of agreement and 
a minimum of divergence on basic points of view. 

The outlines of a treaty of peace with Japan 
have already been discussed with their own leaders 
and with other governments concerned and have 
been made public. Ambassador John Foster 
Dulles reviewed these in some detail in his Los 
Angeles speech of March 31. May I put them as 
concisely as possible. The Japanese peace settle- 
ment which we have in mind has these basic 
elements : 

The peace should be, as Mr. Dulles said, "a peace 
of reconciliation." 

The peace should restore Japan as an equal in 
the world community. 

The peace should afford Japan a chance to earn 
her own way in the world and to become self- 
sustaining. 

The peace should encourage close cultural rela- 
tions between Japan and the West. 

The peace should enable Japan to obtain a rea- 
sonable degree of security. 

We want tliis kind of peace because the great 
energy and abilities of the Japanese people can 
make a major contribution to the peace and well- 
being not only of the Pacific but of the entire 
world. We know that Japan can make this con- 
tribution only as a full and free member of the 
family of nations. We know that the Japanese 
themselves are anxious to assume their proper in- 
ternational role; that they are in a mood to reject 
militarism in all its aspects and to seek fellowship 
with peace-loving nations through collective se- 
curity and the cooperative activity of the United 
Nations. 

So far as our own country is concerned, these 
principles of policy have been worked out under 

Department of State Bulletin 



the direction and with the approval of the Presi- 
dent. They have been fully discussed by Mr. 
Dulles with the Japanese and with other govern- 
ments who are as ready as we to make an early 
peace. They reflect the views of General Mac- 
Arthur and have had his full support. They have 
had detailed consideration in both Senate and 
House Committees and with the leadership of both 
of our political parties. I believe that our citizens 
at home and our friends abroad are entitled to 
reassurance from the fact that Mr. Dulles, with the 
strong support of the leaders of both political 
parties, left for Japan last week for the purpose 
of going ahead with our plans for a Japanese 
treaty as a determined national policy. 

Tliis afternoon the President announced an- 
other important forward step in the great con- 
structive task of building security in the Pacific. 
This has to do with security arrangements which 
we already have or which we expect to have with 
Japan, the Philippines, Australia, and with New 
Zealand. 

The United States has been chiefly responsible 
for the security of Japan since the autumn of 
1945, by reason of our role as the principal oc- 
cupying power. Neither we nor the Japanese de- 
sire that a vacuum of power should suddenly be 
created by a peace settlement with an exposed and 
unarmed Japan, which would tempt the appetites 
and ambitions of any with aggressive designs. So 
it is anticipated that the United States and Japan 
will by mutual agreement arrange for the contin- 
ued security of that country, whose safety is vital 
to both of us. 

As for the Philippines, no one can be under the 
slightest misapprehension about our concern for 
the security of that nation. Existing agreements 
register our partnership and the practical means 
for giving effect to it. But apart from formal re- 
lations and formal agreements, the United States 
would not tolerate any aggi'ession against the 
Philippines from any quarter. Our history, our 
mutual esteem, and our practical interests pow- 
erfully reinforce our agreements. 

In the case of Australia and New Zealand, we 
recall with regard and affection our association in 
World War II. Without formal agreements, it 
has been clear that our fates have been joined. 
Discussion of a Japanese peace settlement has 
raised the desirability of saying more formally 
what had become an underlying fact. Hence our 
desire to proceed with more specific plans of this 
sort mentioned by the President. 

These plans constitute a threat to no one. They 
are an expression of our desire to build another 
portion of the edifice of peace and will enlist the 
practical principles of self-help and mutual aid 
which were set forth in the Vandenberg Resolu- 
tion. They will operate fully within the spirit 
and principles of the Charter of the United 
Nations. 



I call your attention to the President's use of 
the words "initial steps" in describing these plans. 
They are not a final answer to the organization of 
security in the Pacific. They will not interfere 
in any way with such broader agreements as the 
nations in that area may wish to develop — agree- 
ments which we have said would receive the sym- 
pathetic interest of the United States. 

These prospective plans announced by the Pres- 
ident today have had the fullest consideration and 
approval by the military and civilian departments 
of government and have had full discussion by ap- 
propriate committees of the Congress and by re- 
sponsible leaders of both political parties. The 
President has announced our determination to 
push ahead with bringing these agreements, as 
well as a Japanese peace settlement, into effect as 
early as possible. And so nothing done or said 
in the great Far Eastern debate should hinder 
this effort, because it is central to the security of 
the Pacific and to the maintenance of peace in that 
part of the world. 



Far Eastern Policy for Relief 

There is a second great constructive effort of 
immense long-range practical importance which 
we have been making in the Pacific — again di- 
rected toward the purposes of security and peace. 
This is the work which we have been doing jointly 
with the nations of Asia to strengthen their newly 
found freedom and to achieve a measure of relief 
from the poverty and misery which have been 
their lot. 

Here again there may be a little difference of 
opinion, but we hope not much. Some may wish 
to do more, some less — some may wish to do it 
differently. But these are minor questions. The 
important point is the basic policy — the unmis- 
takable evidence of the friendship of the United 
States for these people of Asia, its unquestioned 
determination to help them in achieving their own 
purposes in their own way. 

In some cases, our assistance takes the form of 
technical help. In others, we have added direct 
help with consumers' goods and capital plant. In 
others we have tried to meet a need for military 
assistance. Today we have Eca missions in the 
Philippines, Indochina, Thailand, Burma, Indo- 
nesia, and Formosa; we have military-assistance 
programs in the Philippines, Indochina, Thailand, 
and Formosa. At this particular moment we are 
also much preoccupied with our effort to provide 
a substantial quantity of wheat for India as soon 
as possible to help that great nation get over the 
desperate food situation which now confronts it. 

Time does not permit me to go on to discuss 
these programs which will shortly be laid before 
the Congress. They are a part of the battle for 
peace. They are building strength to maintain 
peace. They are an essential counterpart to our 
policy of stopping aggression. 



April 30, 1 95 J 



685 



Action Against Aggression in Korea 

We now come to the third area in this field of 
debate. This will revolve around the action which 
we and other members of the United Nations have 
taken and are now taking to oppose the aggression 
in Korea and around what should be done in the 
future. 

Now here again, I believe that the divergence 
of views will not be as great as might appear at 
first glance. 

So far as what has been done is concerned, I 
believe that the great body of opinion in this 
country stands solidly behind the prompt and 
courageous action which was taken last June. I 
believe that our countrymen recognized then, and 
have increasingly come to understand, the aggres- 
sion in Korea for what it truly was — war by satel- 
lite — the first step in a larger plan which, if not 
checked, would have engulfed all of Asia. 

I do not think that there is likely to be much 
disagreement about the OTeat accomplishments 
which that action has achieved in the months 
which followed. The aggressors have thrown 
into the battle a million and a quarter troops and 
a vast amount of resources. But they are no 
nearer to achieving their goal than they were when 
they started. That goal was a quick and easy con- 
quest in their program of aggression. 

The plan of aggression has been thrown badly 
out of gear. The immediate purposes of the ag- 
gression have been thwarted. Our country and 
the nations associated with it, which have the 
great preponderance of potential power in the 
world, have been awakened and stimulated to 
transform that potential power into power in be- 
ing — and to do this on a scale never before under- 
taken in peacetime. This in itself will have a 
profound effect upon redressing the inequality of 
power which had arisen and which gravely 
threatened the peace of the world. 

Furthermore, what we call collective security, 
which is the willingness of nations to fight side by 
side, if necessary, for the safety of any of them be- 
cause their common safety is involved, has re- 
ceived a new vitality from this action in Korea 
which reaches far beyond the immediate problems 
of Korea. 

And tliis isn't all. Not only the physical strug- 
gle in Korea, with the obvious evidence of the 
sources of its support and direction, but the expo- 
sures at Lake Success have torn the veil from the 
shabby pretense of aggression by satellite. If this 
device has not already run its course and lost its 
usefulness, it has become a most dangerous 
metliod for those who use it. 

No, I do not believe that there will be much 
difTereiK'c of opinion that wliat has been done was 
wel 1 and rightly done. The debate is likely to turn 
upon wliat is being done and upon what should 
be done to end the aggression. 

Earlier in these remarks I suggested that the 
debate was likely to bring out three general points 



of view. I think it is here that we shall see these 
emerge. Again it seems likely to me that the two 
extreme views will be held by small but articulate 
groups. The main discussion will center in the 
larger group. 

One extreme view will be the impatient one, that 
the struggle in Korea can be ended only by widen- 
ing the hostilities, with the attendant risks, and 
that any willingness to settle the problems of 
Korea by peaceful means is tantamount to 
ajipeasement. 

Another extreme view is likely to be that the 
best thing to do is to pull out of Korea and aban- 
don the effort. These views run counter to two 
purposes deeply held by the American people — 
to prevent the outbreak of world war and to pre- 
vent aggression which may lead to world war. 
They are not likely to hold the center of the dis- 
cussion. That discussion, I believe, will seek what 
our people seek, and that is, the best course open to 
us among difficult courses — the best course which 
will end the aggression, which will prevent its 
extension into a world war, and which will best 
protect the security of our country. Every bit of 
light and help which the discussion can give to- 
ward reaching agreement on this course is good 
and necessary. 

Propositions for Consideration 

I shan't attempt to anticipate the discussion, 
but I offer some propositions in an effort to ana- 
lyze the problem and forward the discussion of 
it. These propositions, I believe, stand out : 

First: Peace can come to Korea if the aggres- 
sors cease their aggression. It is they who pro- 
long the fighting. To end the fighting by giving 
the aggressor what he seeks would be appease- 
ment in the true sense of that word. 

Second : All the nations who are supporting the 
United Nations military action in Korea are and 
always have been desirous of solving the problems 
of Korea by peaceful means. They are not and 
never have been attempting to solve political 
problems by force. Their military object is to 
end the aggression and restore peace. Force was 
resorted to by the Communist aggi-essors. 

Third: The aggressors continue to suffer heavy 
losses in the field. The Chinese people ai-e being 
made to pay an additional price in hardships at 
home. Those responsible are their own rulers. 
This cannot be concealed, especially in (liina. 

Fourth: The effective fight in Korea and the 
growing strength of the countries who are op- 
posed to aggression are upsetting the calculations 
upon which the attack against Korea was based 
anil upon which, no douht, other reckless adven- 
tures had been ])lunnetl. 

P''ifth: Under present circumstances, an exten- 
sion of hostilities would not aid the T'nited Na- 
tions troops in their mission. It would gravely 
imperil world peace. General Bradley discussed 



686 



Department of Stafe Bulletin 



the military aspects of this fight in his speech yes- 
terday. His conchision was, and I quote his 
words: "If at all possible, Korea should be set- 
tled on the present battlefrround." 

Sixth : The responsibility for action which 
would result in extending hostilities and imperil- 
ing world peace rests squarely on the aggressors. 

Seventh : The aggression in Korea can end by 
the aggressors' determining from bitter experience 
in the field and by the growing strength of the 
nations opposing them that the attempt has failed 
and is too dangerous to continue ; or those respon- 
sible for it can deliberately choose to widen hos- 
tilities and risk a world war. 

It will be clear to the world that if there is an 
extension of the conflict in Korea, or if a world 
conflict should result from it, the responsibility 
will rest squarely on the Kremlin and its agents 
in Peiping. 

The American people will never choose this 
course. They will not fall into the trap of seeming 
to choose it. 

It is plain that our common safety and our com- 
mon hopes for the future depend on steadiness and 
cool heads and unflinching determination to hold 
a steadfast course in Korea. 

Aggi-ession cannot be allowed to succeed ; it can- 
not be appeased, rewarded, or ignored. To meet 
it squarely is the price of peace. 

Now, earlier I suggested that it is well for us 
to remember that our debates are not conducted 
in private but are followed in the greatest detail 
by people all over the world. In one way, this is 
a good thing. The fact that the process by which 
our foreign policy is made is open to observation 
for all the world should make it evident that we 
conceal no secret purposes and that our real inten- 
tions are better known and understood. 

But it is well for us all to bear in mind that the 
vast Soviet propaganda machine is also listening 
in, ready to make use of what we say here to 
advance its own purposes. 

It is useful, I think, to remind ourselves that 
the major purpose of Soviet strategy in regard to 
the United States appears to be to isolate us, to 
■weaken the moral strength of our position, to 
break apart our ties with our allies, and to prevent 
us from moving together to build the strength 
upon which our safety depends. 

A fundamental part of the Cominform strategy 
is to contrive, through political maneuver, to iso- 
late the opponent and make it appear that he is 
the one who is committing the aggression. 

Now this involves the use of a lot of upside- 
down language: they wage war, for instance, in 
the name of peace, and they acquire an empire in 
the name of anti-imperialism. 

They hide their intentions in deceptive talk 
and when the nations ask, like Little Red Riding 
Hood, "What big armies you have !", they reply : 
"All the better to protect you with, from those 
aggressive capitalists." 



Now, as preposterous as these deceptions ap- 
pear to us, we cannot let ourselves lose sight of 
this constant effort on the part of the whole Soviet 
apparatus to tear down our moral position in the 
world, to create misunderstandings as to our mo- 
tives and to magnify differences between ourselves 
and our allies, and to put us in the position of 
seeming to be against peace. 

To frustrate this strategy is not only a matter 
for our Government, but is a matter for all of us. 
Our Government seeks to make our position clear 
before the world and to maintain with our allies 
the closest association which grows out of our com- 
mon interests in peace and progress. But it is also 
the obligation of all of us who participate in these 
public discussions to speak responsibly and soberly 
in order that we may not unwittingly further the 
Soviet purpose of isolating us. 

And there is another point which we need to take 
into account in thinking about the Soviet rulers. 

We usually talk about the rulers of the Soviet 
Union as though they were always well infonned, 
always cool-headed, always calculating. 

But this may not always be the case. Soviet 
agents may report back what thej^ think their su- 
periors would like to hear. Soviet leaders may 
deceive not only their people but themselves by 
the very intensity of their propaganda. They 
may be blinded to actual conditions in the outside 
world by the rigidity of their theory. 

And, what is even more dangerous, as men who 
are playing a desperate game of power and of fear, 
they are subject to being rattled. 

This injects an element which we must also have 
in mind. It requires us to make our meaning and 
our peaceful purposes plain and to talk, to act 
seriously and deliberately. 

I firmly believe that the program of action in 
the Far East which I have discussed with you to- 
night, together with the tremendous effort which 
is being made to build up strength in Europe and 
in other parts of the world, will overcome the ob- 
stacles created by Soviet policy and will carry us 
forward toward the kind of world in which we can 
live in peace. 

But to steer a course through these tense and 
dangerous times requires, more than any other 
kind of strength, the strength of character of the 
American people. 

New and heavy responsibilities have fallen to 
our nation in this century. We are a young coun- 
try, but the responsibilities that go with tremen- 
dous power now rest in our hands. The people 
of the world look to us for cooperative leadership. 

The act of leadership is shared by every citizen 
of this nation. To perform it in a way which will 
lift from our shoulders the threat of war and 
establish the conditions of peace will require the 
support of a steadfast, of a mature, and of a 
responsible public opinion. 

This is the task before us in the days ahead. 



April 30, 1957 



687 



Taking Stock of Inter-American Relations 



hy Ambassador John C. Dreier 

U.S. Representative on the Council 

of the Organization of American States ^ 



There is a distinct value to the custom of desig- 
nating a special day and week of the year for 
the holding of Pan American celebrations. I do 
not have in mind merely the opportunity which 
this occasion affords to engage in a little well- 
intentioned propaganda to increase the interest 
in and knowledge of inter- American affairs. 
This is indeed of real importance. However, I 
have in mind also the value on the occasion, which 
is afforded, to pause and take stock of inter- Amer- 
ican relations at least once each year. 

Like many other things that are an essential 
part of our life but that do not happen to occupy 
the center of the stage during this particular 
scene in the drama of history, it is easy to take 
inter-American relations for granted. This an- 
nual holding of Pan American celebrations gives 
us an ojiportunity to take stock of the facts of 
the case. 

Due in large measure to the fact that inter- 
American relations are established on a pretty 
sound basis as the result of decades of experience, 
they do not basically change from year to year. 
Startling innovations or world-shaking crises, to 
which our jaded appetites have become accus- 
tomed in the world-wide scene, are not apt to 
originate in Latin America. Inter-American re- 
lations are, however, vitally affected by the con- 
stantly changing context of world affairs. 
Although I^atin America is geographically some- 
what remote from the main theatere of activity in 
world events today, it would be a mistake to as- 
sume that that area is effectively isolated. Re- 
gional isolation is no more possible for Latin 
America than it is for the United States. Inter- 
Americanism nmst, therefore, at any given time, 
be understood in the light of the world situation 
of which it is a part- 
Conditions in other areas of the world have a 
powerful effect upon Latin America. Trade be- 
tween Latin America and other areas, particu- 

'An address made before tlie Pan American ScK'ioty of 
Mass. and N. New England at Boston, Mass., on Apr. 18. 



larly Europe, is of vital importance to both par- 
ties. Ideas, too, overcome the barriers of geogra- 
I)hy with sometimes alarming effectiveness. 
Latin America, therefore, can never be considered 
as effectively isolated against the spread of either 
good or bad ideas. 



World Events and U.S.-Latin American Relations 

However, the world situation also exerts a strong 
impact on Latin America through the influence 
which it has upon the policy of the United States. 
A brief look at histoi-y will indicate, for example, 
the powerful influence of world events on United 
States relations with Latin America. 

AVlien, in the early days of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, the young Republic of the United States of 
America felt itself vulnerable to aggressive Euro- 
pean designs, we paid especial attention to the 
possibility of encouraging partners in independ- 
ence among the Latin American colonies. When 
tliose colonies threw off the bonds of Spanish im- 
perialism, the United States was quick to recog- 
nize their independence. Support of the political 
independence of the new world states found its 
culmination in the Monroe Doctrine in 1823. This 
doctrine — in the formulation of which a great New 
Englander, John Quincy Adams, played so im- 
portant a role — constitutes a foundation stone 
upon which much of our foreign policy has been 
developed. 

Again, in the 1930's, when the independence of 
the new world was threatened by the expansion 
of Nazi imperialism, a new era in inter- American 
relations develoyied. The good-neighbor policy, 
which was adopted by all the American Republics, 
reaped its harvest in the cooperation of these 
countries in World War II. One outstanding re- 
sult of this cooperation was the development of 
two great inter-American treaties which now form 
the cornerstone of our Organization of American 
States. I refer to the Inter-American Treaty of 



688 



Department of State Bulletin 



Reciprocal Assistance, which was signed at Rio de 
Janeiro in 1947 and the Charter of the Organiza- 
tion of American States, signed at Bogota, Colom- 
bia, in 1948. 

Because tlie intensity of interest on the part of 
the United States in Latin America has varied in 
the light of the world situation and its demands 
ujjon us, Latin Americans have sometimes criti- 
cized the United States. It has been said that we 
forget our friends when we no longer need them. 
I would sa}', however, that by and large the re- 
ports of this dearth of affection have been greatly 
exaggerated. If M'e take an historical perspec- 
tive, it will be clear, I believe, that the net gain 
in the positive interest of the Government of the 
United States in Latin America has been great, 
particularly over the past two decades. 

The change in the nature of United States in- 
terest in Latin America, moreover, has been un- 
questionably for the better. This, in turn, has 
been in some measure due to the changing role of 
the United States in the world at large. 

At the end of the nineteenth century, the United 
States emerged from the Spanish-American War 
as a world power. There followed an era in 
which the United States at times assumed the role 
of a policeman in the Western Hemisphere. 



Principles for Uniting Western Hemisphere 

Today, as a result of experiences in the Western 
Hemisphere and during two world wars, our ap- 
proach to international relations presents a great 
contrast. The United States now finds itself a 
leader in a system of collective security in which 
all states share the responsibility for the establish- 
ment and maintenance of law among nations. 
Committed to a policy of international coopera- 
tion under the United Nations, the United States 
has confirmed, in its world policy, principles 
which were first developed with the other Ameri- 
can Republics for the Western Hemisphere. 

It is worthwhile to pause for a moment and 
review some of these principles. They constitute 
the very essence of inter- Americanism. 

First is the recognition of the sovereign equality 
of nations regardless of size and strength. All 
nations in our inter-American system are equal 
before the law. 

Accordingly, we believe in the principle of non- 
intervention which means that the strong have no 
right to inflict their will upon the weak. The doc- 
trine of nonintervention can be, and sometimes ap- 
parently is, pushed to an unrealistic extreme in 
inter-American debates. The validity of its fun- 
damental thesis, however, cannot be questioned: 
the supremacy of law over the unsanctioned use 
of force. 

Nonintervention requires for its effectiveness the 
establishment of an adequate system of law to 
which all nations can resort. Wlien the United 
States felt impelled to appoint itself policeman 



of the Caribbean 50 years ago, there appeared to 
be no effective alternative. Today, there is in the 
treaty of Rio de Janeiro and in the Charter of 
the Organization of American States an effective 
regional alternative whereby the community of 
American states assumes, within the framework 
of the United Nations, joint and common respon- 
sibility for the maintenance of peace and security. 
A fundamental principle of our inter-American 
relations today is, therefore, the sharing of re- 
sponsibility for the enforcement of law m order 
that peace and justice may be maintained. 

Finally, we have in inter-American relations 
recognized the basic importance of cooperation in 
the constructive phase of our common interests. 
Mechanisms for the enforcement of peace and se- 
curity among the American Republics are impor- 
tant. Also of great significance, however, has been 
the development of mechanisms of cooperation 
whereby our American nations can help each other 
tackle basic problems such as ignorance, disease, 
and economic backwardness. In this area, too, 
the sharing of responsibility is essential. 

Although these ideas are not new, they are vital 
and creative ideas. They are deeply imbedded in 
our inter- American relations. They require con- 
tinual reapplication in the light of the changing 
world picture. 

Let us stop a moment to take a brief look at the 
situation in which we and our Latin American 
neighbors find ourselves today. Certainly, the 
dominating feature of the position of the United 
States in the world today is our struggle with 
Soviet communism. The issue is whether our in- 
dependence and our way of life can be defended. 
The Soviet machine has demonstrated its readiness 
to use force to gain its will whenever that is deemed 
necessary. So we, in turn, have had to marshal 
resources of men and of things, both at home and 
abroad, in a gigantic defense effort. 

Wliat is the role and position of Latin America 
in this situation? On the one hand, does Latin 
America constitute an increased problem with re- 
spect to Soviet imperialism ? On the other hand, 
what does Latin America represent in the way of 
a source of strength to the rest of the free world 
in this critical hour? 

First, from the military or strategic viewpoint : 
In World War II, it was feared that an actual 
invasion of South America by Nazi forces might 
take place if the German and Italian armies were 
able to occupy the western coast of Africa. Today 
the danger of a large-scale military invasij^i of 
South America by any potential foe seems rela- 
tively small. In this one sense the geographical 
remoteness of Latin America is a real advantage. 

However, our foe in the present world struggle 
does not rely upon the movement of military forces 
alone. The ground is first made ready by ideologi- 
cal penetration. To what extent, therefore, does 
Latm America offer a fertile field for that type 
of enemy invasion? 



April 30, J 95 1 



689 



It would be impossible to give a categorical 
answer. It is possible, however, to point out cer- 
tain factors which weigh on each side of this 
question. 

On the one hand, the large majority of Latin 
American Governments have taken a firm stand 
against communism. By and large, the people of 
Latin America went through much the same 
process as people elsewhere during the postwar 
period. Communist movements grew immediately 
after the war. When, however, it became apparent 
that Communist Parties were actually serving as 
the weapons of a foreign power, opposing the 
national interests of independent countries, popu- 
lar support of communism declined markedly. 
All but six countries have outlawed Communist 
Parties, and those six, like the United States, have 
chosen other means of combating the danger of 
subversion. Established institutions in Latin 
America are as a whole firmly opposed to Com- 
munist influence. 

On the other hand, one must not overlook the 
fact that in many countries there are determined 
groups of Communist followers, some of whom 
have managed to work their way into positions of 
influence on public affairs all out of proportion 
to their numbers. Moreover, there exist in Latin 
America conditions which require correction in 
order to prevent the growth of communism. I 
refer to the poverty among the working people ; to 
the problems of poor housing, ill health, under- 
nourishment, and ignorance with which progi-es- 
sive forces in Latin America are wrestling. Unless 
democracy as we understand it can demonstrate its 
capacity to improve the lot of these millions, we 
cannot rest assured that an alien philosophy, how- 
ever false may be its promises, will not spread. 
The translation of democratic principles into bet- 
ter conditions of life in Latin America remains 
a tremendous task of which those Governments 
are acutely conscious. We may well bear this fact 
in mind as we appraise inter- Americanism today. 

There is, however, little doubt that Latin 
America constitutes a great reservoir of support 
for the rest of Western civilization. As our de- 
fense program gets under way, in order to develop 
both here and in other friendly countries a power 
capable of resisting further aggression, we become 
acutely aware of Latin America as an important 
source of raw materials. Copper, tin, petroleum, 
wool, hides, foodstuffs, and a host of other prod- 
ucts are supplied in important measure by our 
good neighbors to the south. A few weeks ago, 
there arrived at Sparrow Point, near Baltimore, 
Maryland, the first shipment of iron ore from 
Venezuela, marking the beginning of what 
promises to be a significant new import trade for 
American industry. 

Latin America therefore again looms as a major 
source of strategic materials needed in increasing 
amounts during the present world crisis by the 
United States and otiier friendly countries. 



Political cooperation among the American Re- 
publics is also of great significance at this time. 
In the United Nations the 20 votes of Latin 
American countries have frequently exercised an 
important influence on the decisions of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. The interests of these 20 countries 
in regard to economic and social affairs in the 
United Nations often differ from those of the 
United States. However, in the main political 
and security issues involving resistance to Soviet- 
inspired aggression, an identity of interest with 
the United States is apparent. 

Thirdly, we come to the question of manpower 
and possible military assistance from Latin 
America. The other day, announcement was made 
of the fact that, for the first time in history, the 
25opulation of Latin America appears to have ex- 
ceeded that of the United States. Population ex- 
peits tell us that this numerical superiority will 
grow. The manpower in Latin America, there- 
fore, can have an increasingly important bearing 
on both economic and military affairs. 

Although the financial burden of maintaining 
large armies has been beyond the capacity of most 
of the Latin American countries, the possibility 
of working out arrangements wliei'eby the more 
than 150 million people of Latin America can 
assume a share of the military burden of defend- 
ing the free world should be possible. The mili- 
tary responsibilities which Latin America might 
assume are particularly important with reference 
to the defense of the continent, its productive en- 
terprises, and transportation routes in case of an 
attack on America. During World War II, ap- 
l)roximately 75,000 United States troops were 
required for those purposes in the Latin American 
area. 

The job of inter-American relations today is to 
make effective arrangements whereby the human 
and economic resources of all 21 Republics can 
be utilized better for two specific ends : Fii"st, 
to i-ealize the potential strength of the American 
nations in the common effort to protect their peace 
and security; and, second, to overcome the weak- 
nesses and deficiencies which the American Re- 
publics present today. 

Collective Efforts Through the OAS 

Fortunately, in the Organization of American 
States, we have the machinery tlirough which we 
can formulate common policies and e.xecute those 
measures whicl\ require a collective effort. 

The Organization of American States recently 
look a major step in facing the world situation. 
At the request ot the (iovernment of the I'nited 
States there was convened at Washington on 
Marcli 26 a meeting of Consultation of Ministers 
of Foreign Affairs of the 21 American Republics. 
Tlie statement issued by Secretary Acheson in re- 
questing tliis meeting indicated its purpose. Scc- 
retai'V Acheson said. 



690 



Department of State BuHet'in 



The aggressive policy of international communism, 
carried out tiirough its satellites, lias brought about a 
situation in which the entire free world is threatened 
. . . The United States, having embarked on urgent 
mobilization for the common defense, wishes to consult 
Its fellow members in the inter-Auierican community with 
respect to the situation which we all face and on the 
coordination of the common effort required to meet it. 

Tlie Government of the United States, in ac- 
cordance witli established procedure, also proposed 
subjects for discussion at the meeting of consulta- 
tion. The proposals of the United States were 
reviewed by the Council of the Organization of 
American States meeting in Washington, and all 
of the member governments had an opportunity 
to make suggestions regarding the agenda. The 
program which emerged from this procedure cov- 
ered three main topics: Political and military 
cooperation; the problem of internal security of 
the American states against subversive activities ; 
and third, emergency economic cooperation. The 
results of the meeting of Foreign Ministers, which 
came to a close on April 7, indicate the answer 
of inter-Americanism to the present world 
situation. 

The interest in the meeting of Foreign Min- 
isters throughout Latin America was intense. 
Twenty of the Foreign Ministers, including Sec- 
retary Acheson, attended in person, the otheiHaeing 
represented by his Ambassador in Washington. 
Judging from news articles and editorials appear- 
ing in newspapers of Latin America, public opin- 
ion followed the discussion in Washington witli 
constant interest. 

Although differences in some areas of discus- 
sions appeared at first to be large, as the meeting 
got under way, the Foreign Ministers rapidly 
found a common ground in all subjects. In the 
final count, the 31 resolutions were approved with 
no contrary votes, only a few abstentions being 
recorded on relatively unimportant matters. The 
meeting ended with a very genuine feeling of 
satisfaction on all sides that the principles of 
cooperation and of inter-American solidarity had 
again demonstrated their ability to cope success- 
fully with differences of national interest. 

In the political and military field, the meeting 
of Foreign Ministers first made clear its general 
approach to the problems with which it dealt. 
Resolution No. I, called the Declaration of Wash- 
ington, declared the firm determination of the 
American Republics to remain steadfastly united, 
both spiritually and materially, in the present 
emergency or in the face of any aggression or 
threat against any one of them. The Foreign 
Ministers reaffirmed the faith of their countries 
in the principles set forth in the Charter of the 
Organization of American States and expressed 
their conviction of the necessity for strong support 
of the action of the United Nations as the most 
effective means of maintaining the peace, security 
and well-being of the peoples of the world. 

The Foreign Ministers gave specific endorse- 
ment to the resolution adopted by the General 



Assembly of the United Nations last fall called 
Uniting for Peace and recommended that each 
American Republic should review its resources and 
give particular attention to the development of 
necessary armed forces which could promptly be 
made available for the defense of the hemisphere 
and for service as United Nations units. 

On the question of continental defense with 
which it was more directly concerned, the meeting 
built upon the treaty of Rio de Janeiro. The For- 
eign Ministers recommended that the American 
Republics orient their military preparation in such 
a way as to give increased emphasis to the prin- 
ciple of collective defense. They instructed the 
Inter-American Defense Board to prepare, on this 
basis, the necessary military defense plans for re- 
view by the Governments. 

In order to emphasize the peaceful purposes of 
their cooperation, the Foreign Ministers reaffirmed 
the obligations of their respective countries to set- 
tle disputes by peaceful means. They pointed out 
that the faithful observance by their countries of 
these commitments would make it possible for each 
of them to concentrate its defensive preparations 
upon tasks required for a collective system of com- 
mon defense. 

The subject of internal security against sub- 
versive activities posed a dual problem for the 
American Foreign Ministers. On the one hand, 
it was recognized that measures of control must 
be studied and prepared in order to prevent the 
abuse of freedom by individuals and groups work- 
ing on behalf of the Soviet-controlled Communist 
movement. On the other hand, it must be made 
clear that democracy could not be made effective 
by police measures alone but that it required a 
revitalization of the faith of the American peoples 
in democracy and an assurance that controls were 
not directed against any political minorities other 
than those working in the service of an external 
power threatening the security of the Americas. 

Under this item of the agenda, therefore, the 
Foreign, Ministers adopted resolutions calling for 
a more effective exercise of representative democ- 
racy, social justice, and observance of the rights 
of men. They called for renewed efforts nation- 
ally and internationally not only to realize more 
effectively the political rights which we hold im- 
portant but also to improve the social and eco- 
nomic conditions of life throughout the Americas. 

In the sphere of controlling subversive activi- 
ties themselves, the Foreign Ministers gave special 
attention to the need for each country to review 
its laws and regulations, with particular reference 
to the agents of international communism and their 
travel and communication across national bound- 
aries. They also directed that a careful study be 
made by technical experts of possible means for 
more effective prevention of sabotage and other 
subversive acts. These studies will be made availa- 
ble to the individual Governments for their assist- 
ance in developing their respective systems of 
control. 



April 30, 1 95 1 



691 



The largest number of resolutions were sub- 
mitted under the economic topics on the agenda. 
It was indicative of the spirit of cooperation and 
constructire effort displayed by the members of 
the meeting that the economic group worked until 
3 o'clock one morning and until 6 o'clock another 
morning in order to complete its task by the sched- 
uled date of adjournment. 

Many of the issues discussed in the economic 
field arose from fears on the part of some of the 
other countries that their requirements and inter- 
ests would be overlooked in the large-scale de- 
fense program which the United States and its 
other allies were undertaking. Some were con- 
cerned lest their efforts at economic development 
and the improvement of living standards be 
stranded for lack of materials from our defense 
economy. They sought some guaranty against 
unilateral action by the United States in matters 
which were of vital import to their economic wel- 
fare and even to their political stability. United 
States representatives, of course, urged that top 
priority be accorded to the requirements of the 
defense program and that production of strategic 
materials be expanded. By the constant exercise 
of good will, fairness, and mutual understanding, 
these problems were dealt with to the satisfaction 
of all parties. 

The Foreign Ministers recommended that the 
American Republics should adopt measures for 
increasing the production and processing of basic 
and strategic materials required for the defense 
emergency and for the essential civilian needs and 
public services. They suggested certain arrange- 
ments to be agreed upon as needed by the various 
Governments to facilitate the achievement of this 
objective. 

The Foreign Ministers resolved that the essen- 
tial needs for the operation of civilian economic 
activities should be met and that, when shortages 
of goods required the adoption of a system of 
allocation, the principle of relative equality of 
sacrifice should apply. The imposition of con- 
trols should be coupled with an ample opportunity 
for consultative arrangements among interested 
Governments concerning the effect of allocations, 
priorities, and price controls on international 
trade. 

In the area of price controls, the Foreign Min- 
isters emphasized the necessity for controlling 
inflation and advocated an opportunity for 
intergovernmental discussion of price-control 
measures. They urged that price-control systems 
should apply equally to imports and exports, to 
the prices of raw materials as well as to those of 
manufactured products. With respect to policies 
governing price controls during tlie emergency 
period, they agreed that there should be taken into 
account the desirability of establishing in inter- 
national commerce an equitable relationship be- 
tween the price of raw materials and manufac- 
tured goods. 

692 



. Considerable attention was given to the eco- 
nomic development of underdeveloped countries j 
which the Ministers declared to be an essential fac- 
tor in the total concept of hemisphere defense. 
They resolved that programs for economic develop- 
ment should be pursued with even greater vigor, 
giving special priority to projects which would 
contribute to defense purposes, or satisfy basic 
civilian requirements. 

In summary, I would be inclined to point to the 
following main factors : 

First, the meeting set forth basic policies in all 
of the most important areas of the problem which 
the present world situation poses for the inter- 
American system. These main policias are em- 
bodied in the final act containing more than 30 
resolutions.^ 

Second, the meetmg proved the value of the ± 
procedure of consultation. So long as people in ^ 
responsible positions of different Governments 
can deal only separately and at long distance with 
each other, they can gain only a limited under- 
standing of the over-all problem in which each 
one plays but a single part. Questions are bound 
to be clarified when representatives of all Gov- 
ernments meet together for a frank discussion. 
The Foreign Ministers of the Americas may now 
feel that they have had a far greater opportunity 
to understand the situation facing their countries. 
This increasing measure of certainty is in itself 
an advantage. 

Third, the meeting of consultation gave renewed 
faith in the principles of the inter- American sys- 
tem. At various times during the discussions, it 
was obvious that a force greater than the purely 
national interest of each country was at work. 
That force was the tradition of inter-American 
cooperation which led individual Governments to 
subordinate their national interests to the achieve- 
ment of a common goal. 

At the same time, it was clearly understood by 
all those attending the meeting that the adoption 
of resolutions was, as Secretary Acheson said in 
his closing remarks, not the end of the task but 
the beginning. The test of the meeting of For- 
eign Ministers and the system of inter-American 
cooperation wliich it typifies will be in the effec- 
tiveness with which the recommendations of the 
Foreign Ministers are carried out. This will re- 
quire, of course, an even greater degi'ee of good 
will, of determination, and of a sense of common 
purpose. 

Aluch will depend also upon the degree to which, 
as time go on, the peoples of the Americas increase 
their understanding of the world situation with 
which they are faced. On the part of the people 
of the United States, there is need for a greater 
comprehension of the problems and of the aspira- 
tions of the Latin American people. Living under 
a different set of circumstances, far less favored 



' For text, see Bulletin of Apr. IG, 1951, p. 606. 

Department of State Bulletin 



with the material benefits which we enjoy, the 
people of Latin America naturally view the future 
in somewhat different terms. They see as an over- 
whelming need the improvement of living condi- 
tions for their people. They aspire to a greater 
economic independence in the woi'ld, and, to this 
end, they seek greater industrialization. 

In the face of their own pressing tasks, prob- 
lems of Asia and Europe seem remote indeed to 
many Latin Americans. Yet, in order to fulfill 
their share in the cooperative enterprise on which 
they and we have embarked in the Organization 
of American States and tlie United Nations, Latin 
Americans must also gain a greater understanding 
of tlie problems which we in tlie United States face. 
They must appreciate the significance of American 
lives being sacrificed in foreign lands to keep the 



Americas free. As their minds bridge the geo- 
graphical distance between their shores and the 
areas where aggression is taking place against the 
free world, tliey will realize more clearly that 
no part of America — North, Central, or South — 
can live in cloistered separation from world events. 
Progress toward this greater understanding was 
certainly made on both sides at the meeting of 
Foreign Ministers. It is now up to those who have 
the interests of inter-American cooperation at 
heart to see that this understanding grows among 
the peoples of all the American Republ ics. Inter- 
American cooperation requires at all times a gen- 
uine identity of interest among the peoples of our 
21 Republics. And for inter- Americanism to live, 
it must continue to bear a living and conscious 
relationship to the world to which it is a part. 



How Should the American Republics Face the Economic Problems of Today? 

Statement hy WiUard L. Thorp, Assistant Secretary for lEconomdc A fairs ^ 



We are faced with a clear and present danger, 
and we have no choice except to build our defenses. 
This means simply that we must devote whatever 
energy and resources are required to the task of 
rearmament. Unhappily, once again we in the 
free world must look to our military strength to 
insure the preservation of our fundamental 
institutions. 

But, building military sti'ength is not our only 
goal. Even more basic is the objective that the 
civilization which we seek to preserve should be- 
come more and more responsive to the needs and 
aspirations of mankind. We must make ever more 
worthy that which we undertake to defend. 

These are great and difficult tasks. No one of 
our countries alone can protect itself nor can it 
build its future by itself. We must put our ener- 
gies, our abilities, and our economic resources into 
the common effort in order that each of us may 
continue to develop and grow in ways of life con- 
forming to our ideals. Tlie strength of the whole 
is much greater than the strength of its parts. 
We can meet the challenge if we meet it together. 

In no area does the emergency raise as many 
difficult questions as in the economic field. The 
vast new military production effort necessitates 
many readjustments, and perhaps the most diffi- 

' Made on Mar. 27 in Committee III of the Fourth Meet- 
ing of Consultation of Ministers of Foreigu Affairs of 
American States. The U.S. draft resolutions were printed 
in the Buixetin of Apr. 16, 1951, p. 614 ; however, space did 
not permit including Mr. Thorp's statement in that issue. 



cult part of our task lies in the working out of 
appropriate economic arrangements and policies 
both within and among our countries, and also 
with other countries of the free world. 

The Questions Before Us 

The specific questions we are called upon to deal 
with in this Committee can, I think, be summed 
up about as follows: What common steps are re- 
quired for us to build up most rapidly and effec- 
tively our defensive military strength? How, 
while doing so, can we best meet the requirements 
of our civilian populations for goods and services? 
How can we maintain our economies on an even 
keel ? How can we reconcile the requirements of 
the defense program with the aspirations of all 
our countries for improved standards of living and 
for further economic development? 

These are the questions to which we must find 
the answers. They are more than questions. They 
are challenges. By accepting them as such, we 
will go a long way toward meeting them. 

In thinking about these problems, I am sure 
that many of us are tempted to recall the ex- 
periences we all went through during World War 
II and to seek solutions from the history of the 
war years. The lessons of wartime can certainly 
be of use to us, but I am sure that we will be mak- 
ing a serious mistake if we try to apply them too 
closely to our present situation. For there is an 
important difference between the objectives we 



April 30, 1 95 1 



693 



now seek ami the objectives we saii^rht then, and 
there are marked clianges between tne world eco- 
nomic situation as it was then and the economio 
conditions which exist today. 

I should like to discuss these points a bit further. 

Our Objective 

First, it is clearly not the objective of the free 
world to enter upon that full-scale economic mo- 
bilization which is necessary for the actual carry- 
ing on of war. It is true that this may be foi'ced 
upon us if the Kremlin persists in a course of ag- 
gression. But our purpose now is to discourage 
the aggressor. Our purpose is to prevent war. We 
in the free world hope to do this by building 
around oui-selves a military shield of sufficient 
toughness to deter aggression and to create behind 
that shield an expanding and dynamic economy 
which can serve both the purposes of peace and 
the purposes of war if war should be forced 
upon us. 

This is a goal that is both easier and more diffi- 
cult than we faced before. It is easier because it 
will not require that we devote as much of our 
total energies to military production as we did in 
wartime. It is more difficult because it depends 
upon maintaining in peacetime a resolute and un- 
wavering determination that the defensive shield 
be forged quickly and that, once it is forged, it 
be kept strong over as many years as may be neces- 
sary, perhaps for an indefinite period. 

Our Capacity 

If the task be less today because it is not the 
task of full war mobilization, it is also easier be- 
cause of our present economic potential. We in 
the free world have much greater economic ca- 
pacity today than we had before the last war. 

In the United States, the total output of the 
economy — that is, the gross national product — for 
the last quarter of 1950 ran at the rate of 300 bil- 
lion dollars per year. We are achieving this out- 
put on the basis of an average work week of less 
than 42 hours. If we adjust this figure for 
changes in the price level, such an annual rate of 
the gross national product of the United States 
is about 60 percent greater than in 1940. The in- 
dex of our industrial production is more than 70 
percent above the 1940 average. Our civilian la- 
bor force has grown by more than 7,000,000 
workers in the last 10 years, from 55,000,000 in 
1940 to r).'5,000,000 in 1950. We are today produc- 
ing, without substantial strain, somewhat more 
than we were producing, under the greatest strain, 
during tlie wartime years of peak production. 

In the other American Republics, we also see 
great economic advances. In the last 10 years, it 
is estimated that the national income in various 
Latin American countries has increased by per- 
centages rangii\g fi'oni 'JH percent to more than 



60 percent. Industrial output for the region as 
a whole has doubled in this period. 

In Canada, our neighbor to the north, output 
has grown by almost one-third during the last 
decade, from 13.6 billion to 17.7 billion dollars, 
Canadian dollars, in current prices. 

In Western Europe, economic recovery from the 
devastation of war is all but complete. Real 
output, even on a per capita basis, is substantially 
higher than it was at the beginning of World War 
II. By the end of 1950, the countries of Western 
Europe had increased the physical volume of their 
industrial production by 42 percent above the 
level achieved in 1938. 

So that today, we in the free world can begin 
the hard and disagreeable, but necessary, task of 
rebuilding our military defenses with the knowl- 
edge that we start from a stronger economic base, 
with greater productive capacity, greater man- 
power, and enhanced skills to carry us forward. 

In part, because we have a greater capacity to 
produce, we will need to devote less of it to build 
our defensive military shield than we spent for 
military purposes during World AVar II. Again 
turning to statistics for the United States, during 
the wartime years of peak production, 45 percent 
of our gross national product went for military 
purposes, whereas by the end of 1951 we expect ,■ 
that about 18 percent of our gross national prod- 11 
net will go for the purpose of security. Assum- 
ing that we are successful in our objective of 
preventing war and barring a further serious de- 
terioration in the international situation, the per- 
centage of output going into military production 
is not likely to become greatly higher than this 
figure. In spite of the burden of armament pro- 
duction, the production for civilian consumption 
at home and abroad should, therefore, be at a sub- 
stantially higher level than that of the wartime 
years. It must be recognized, however, that un- 
less and >uitil new capacity becomes available, 
certain segments of industry, where the impact of 
military production is felt most directly, will of 
necessity have to curtail their output for civilian 
consumption. 

There are other differences between today's eco- 
nomic situation and that prevailing during the 
war period, which will necessarily affect our in- 
ternational economic relationships. 

During the war, the countries of Latin America 
were almost whollj' cut off from sources of supply 
in Western P^urope. The continent of Europe 
after 1940 was in enemy hands. The export trade 
of the United Kingdom was drastically curtailed. 
The United States, which had supplied about one- 
third of Latin America's im])orts before the war, 
and Canada, became virtually the sole suppliers 
of the goods required to maintain the economies 
of the other American Republics. 

Today, Western Europe has again become an 
important source for the industrial and other 
commodities nuiking up the im[)ort trade of the 



694 



Department of State Bulletin 



Latin American countries. In 1947, the export 
trade of the countries participating in the Organi- 
zation for European Economic Cooperation, ex- 
chiding intra-European trade, amounted to only 
75 percent of their exports during the prewar year 
1938. During 1948, trie prewar level was reached 
and, in 1949, was slightly exceeded. By the end 
of 1950, Western European exports had increased 
to 60 percent above the 1938 level. 

Again, there is more shipping available today 
to carry the connnerce of the free world and the 
trade routes are free of the submarine menace. 
During World War II, shipping space was the 
scarcest commodity on the market and, even when 
goods were available, they could not always be 
moved. 

All of these are comforting comparisons to 
make. They are mainly useful because they help 
us to set our sights and steer our course with 
confidence. 

The Task Ahead 

The facts about our increased capacity do not 
mean that we can preserve our liberties without 
economic sacrifice. Our levels of consumption 
have greatly increased since the end of the war. 
Our civilian populations cannot continue to con- 
sume all they produce and still build tanks, planes, 
and guns. There is no way in which we in the free 
world can build our military defenses without 
economic pain. We must bear the costs as tax- 
payers and as consumers. All of us will have to 
do with less than we would like. But, if we are 
successful in deterring aggression and avoiding 
war, we will be substantially better off, even with 
these cuts, than we were during World War II. 
Many of our luxuries and some of our comforts 
and conveniences may have to go, but we should 
have more of the essentials which we need than 
we had before. 

This, then, is not the mobilization for war of 
1943-44. But neither is it "business as usual." It 
is a time for soberness and sacrifice, as well as a 
time for keeping our progressive goals steadily 
before us and alive in our minds. It is a time for 
sharpening our ^words to defend our homes as we 
go about the task of making those homes better 
places to live in. 

We can view the period ahead of us with con- 
fidence, if we also approach it with determination. 
We have the productive powers, the skills, and 
the economic resources. We must develop the 
economic programs and policies which are neces- 
sary to deploy our total resources so as to build 
our military defenses, sustain our essential civilian 
economic activities, and move forward as circum- 
stances permit toward further economic growth 
and social progress. These policies and programs 
should be designed to encourage a greater output 
of basic materials and foods ; provide for the effec- 
tive and equitable international distribution of 
scarce goods in support of the defense effort and 

April 30, 1 95 1 



of civilian economies; hold in check the inflation- 
ary pressures which threaten our economic sta- 
bility ; and press forward with programs of tech- 
nical cooperation and economic development 
within the limitations imposed by the emergency. 

Again, these are common tasks, to which all of 
us must make our full contribution, each according 
to his abilities and circumstances. A major pur- 
pose of this meeting of our Foreign Ministers 
nuist be to forge our wills to these ends and make 
known to the world our joint purpose and 
determination. 

I should like to turn now to a number of specific 
economic problems which we face. These are all 
problems which have been in the minds of many 
of us for a long time. They have been discussed 
in international meetings and in single speeches. 
They have been discussed in aide-memoires and in 
the communications of diplomats. Many of the 
things which I shall say have been said before by 
many of you or by your representatives. I have 
tried to approach these problems not from the 
point of view of a single country but as a consensus 
of the thinking, so far as I know it, of all the coun- 
tries here represented. 

Requirements and Supplies 

First, I must speak about the problem of phys- 
ical commodities— copper and cotton, coffee and 
automobiles, manganese and machine tools — the 
raw materials and the manufactured goods which 
are the lifeblood of any economy. 

One of the most serious limiting factors affect- 
ing the ability of the free world to build its de- 
fenses and supply its civilian populations is the 
shortage of basic materials. The availability of 
materials, more than any other single thing, will 
determine how quickly we can strengthen our mili- 
tary defense and how well we can supply the man- 
ufactured goods, both durable and nondurable, 
upon which our civilian populations depend. All 
of us, I am sure, are aware of the recent spectacular 
increases in the prices of many of these materials 
which are so vitally important to the economies 
of all of us. No one is to blame for these price 
increases. They are simply the result which one 
gets when demand outruns supply. They are a 
measure of the fact of shortage. We, the Govern- 
ments of the American Republics, and the Govern- 
ments of other free world countries, will be at fault 
if we do not cooperate to bring this situation under 
control. 

It is essential that we do our utmost to increase 
production. The American Republics are among 
the world's most important producers of the basic 
materials which supply the factories of the free 
world. It is appropriate, therefore, that they 
should take the lead in this effort. We are aware 
that the stimulation of production of basic mate- 
rials for emergency purposes may encounter dif- 
ficulties unless the producei-s of these materials 
can look forward to adequate and fair compensa- 

695 



tion for their efforts and can be assured of a mar- 
ket for their increased output over a reasonable 
period in the future. One approach which the 
Government of the United States is prepared to 
follow is to cooperate with the other American 
Eepublics in providing financial assistance, on 
reasonable terms, where such assistance is neces- 
sary to increase output needed in the common 
defense. It is also prepared, where necessary, to 
cooperate in the conclusion of medium or long- 
term undertakings for the purchase of basic ma- 
terials at reasonable prices. 

Unfortunatey, it is clear that, despite efforts to 
increase production, there will still be shortages. 
At the manufacturing level, the immediate require- 
ments of military production will necessitate the 
curtailment of civilian production. The curtail- 
ment may be severe in some particular items. None 
of us, during this period of building up our com- 
mon defenses, will be able to have everything we 
want to satisfy the needs and desires of our civilian 
populations. It will often be necessary for our 
Governments to place limits on various forms of 
civilian production and consumption and, to a 
substantial degree, to direct and channel the flow 
of goods in international trade. 

How, then, shall we go about determining the 
best way in which to share the limited supply of 
goods that is available ? 

Two points, I think, are clear. First, we must 
give highest priority to the requirements for mili- 
tary production in our common defense. Second, 
we must stand ready to meet the minimum require- 
ments for the maintenance of essential civilian 
supply in our respective countries and in the free 
world. Military strength can be effective only if 
it is firmly and squarely based on strong and 
healthy economies. 

Military production and essential civilian 
needs — these are the twin urgencies which must 
have a prior claim on our economic resources. 
With respect to less essential civilian requirements, 
each country should make its full contribution in 
reducing consumption, and the principle of rela- 
tive equality of sacrifice among countries should 
prevail. 

We must also take steps to see that we do not 
strengthen the hand of aggressors or potential ag- 
gressors by making available to them goods of 
strategic significance or by depriving the coun- 
tries of the free world of the goods which they 
need. 

Many of these matters, which I have been dis- 
cussing, will appear in the form of individual 
actions by one country or another. But that is not 
enough. In the case of key commodities, we have 
already begun the development of international 
machinery througli the establishment in Washing- 
ton of the Interiuitional Materials Conference. 
'Jlie International Materials Conference, consist- 
ing of a series of International Materials Commit- 
tees and a Central Group, is designed to provide 
an organization through which all of the coun- 

696 



tries of the free world having an interest in certain 
commodities, whether as producer or consumer, 
can cooperate in bringing about a sensible dis- 
tribution of materials in short supply, in stimulat- 
ing their production, and in agreeing to reduce 
their consumption for nonessential or less essen- 
tial purposes. The Organization of American 
States is a member of the permanent Central 
Group and, as such, plays an important role in its 
deliberations. The Governments of Brazil and of 
the United States are also members of the Central |i 
Group. Other Governments of the American Ee- " 
publics are represented on the several committees 
relating to specific commodities. Countries which 
are not members of particular committees will be 
afforded a full opportunity to present their views 
to the committees and will be kept informed as 
to the work of the committees as it proceeds. 

The commodity problems of which I have been 
speaking are interrelated. Obviously, there will 
be situations in which some one country will be 
tempted to seek its own advantage at the expense 
of the common effort. However, cooperation can- 
not be turned on and off in accordance with short- 
run gain or loss. Our cooperation should be built 
solidly upon a continuing spirit of common pur- 
pose, common need, and common sacrifice. Our 
aim should be to conserve and develop the economic 
strength of all of us. 

Control of Inflation 

One of the greatest economic dangers we face is 
the threat of inflation. If we place unlimited and 
uncontrolled demands upon our economic re- 
sources, we shall multiply manifold the costs of 
our defense program and imdermine our basic 
economic stability. 

Here again cooperation and concerted action 
among the American Eepublics is called for. 
Each of us must be willing to adopt and enforce, 
both within our own countries and internationally, 
the stern measures which may be necessary if run- 
away inflationary tendencies are to be kept under _ 
control. For all of our countries, this will mean || 
appropriate internal fiscal, credit and tax policies 
to recluce excessive requirements for goods of 
which there is no longer an abundance. For others 
of us, it will also mean some form of direct control 
over the prices of goods. 

As you know, the United States has already 
adopted controls over prices, both for goods en- 
tering into international trade and for goods con- 
sumed domestically. Our price controls have been 
introduced at a time which, when comparetl with 
])ast periods, is highly favorable to countries which 
trade with the United States. In other words, the 
base period selected for the price control is one in 
which the prices of goods which the United States 
imports are high in relation to the prices of goods 
which the United States sells abroad. The index 
of unit values in the foreign trade of the United 
States (1936-38 equals 100) shows that, during 

Department of State Bvlletin 



December 1950, the unit value of our imports stood 
at 276, whereas the unit vahie of our exports was 
195. This is certainly a wide price diti'erential. 

The price controls which now exist over exports 
fi-om the United States can be of substantial bene- 
fit to the other American Republics in the fight 
against inflation. But this benefit can easily be 
wasted and dissipated if parallel measures are not 
taken in tiie importing countries to prevent specu- 
lative price rises for tliese same conunodities after 
they liave left our shores. We sec in this one il- 
lustration, therefore, an important opportunity for 
the American Republics to concert their eftorts 
against inflation, so that the actions of each of 
them will supplement and reenforce the actions 
of the others. 

Price controls necessarily have an impact on in- 
ternational trade flows, on income from goods pro- 
duced and sold, and on competitive relationships. 
Certain basic principles seem to be the subject of 
general agreement. It should be tlie aim to man- 
age such price controls as are adopted so as to 
achieve their central purpose of stabilization while 
stimulating the production and flow of goods into 
desirable channels. Price control systems should 
apply equally to raw materials and manufactui-ed 
goods. If imposed on imports, they should also 
be extended to exports. They should not be de- 
signed to favor domestic producers or to discrimi- 
nate against producers in other countries. These 
are principles by which we can be sure that price 
controls will be just and equitable in our inter- 
national dealings with each other. 

international Consultation 

The emergency economic controls which we 
must adopt in defense of our liberties will, of 
course, give rise to many knotty problems and diffi- 
culties among our countries on which there will 
frequently be differences of view. The only true 
solvent for these problems is full and frank con- 
sultation among us. I am sure that the Govern- 
ment of the United States is no different from the 
other countries represented here when I say that 
we are prepared at all times to consult fully with 
each and all of the other American Republics in 
seeking the right answers to tliese problems in the 
light of our common purposes and our historical 
relationship of mutual friendship. The urgen- 
cies of the defense program and the large num- 
ber of countries involved will not always permit 
international consultation to go forward before it 
becomes necessary for a particular government to 
impose emergency controls. Even in such cases, 
however, consultation can often lead to appropri- 
ate adjustments so that hardships can be lightened 
and inequities removed. 

Economic Development and Technical Cooperation 

These, then, are the emergency problems we 
face — how to increase the production of basic 

April 30, 195? 

942358 — 51 3 



materials and use them best in the common de- 
fense ; how to go about the allocation of goods in 
short supply ; how to avoid giving strengtlr to ag- 
gressors and potential aggressors; how to keep 
down inflation and maintain our economic sta- 
bility; and how to resolve the differences which 
may arise among us. 

But what about the role of economic develop- 
ment during this emergency period? Do the 
urgencies of defense mean that we must forego 
all progress toward a better life — that we must 
shelve for the time being all our plans for im- 
proving our health, our education, our industrial 
and agricultural organizations, our working con- 
ditions, our standards of living? 

The answer, I think, is clearly, "No." Eco- 
nomic development of the underdeveloped regions 
of the free world is not a luxury. It cannot be 
made a casualty of the defense program. Like 
our other free institutions, it is part and parcel of 
the way of life in the free worm which we are de- 
termined to defend. 

But neither can we, in this critical time, have 
all of the economic development that we would 
wish to have. Like the other aspects of our eco- 
nomic life, it too must be made subject to neces- 
sary limitations and priorities. 

Let us, then, press forward with our programs 
of economic development and technical coopera- 
tion, advancing them as best we can, subject only 
to the higher priorities which we must give to the 
needs of military production and the essential re- 
quirements of our civilian economies. In this 
effort, we should give emphasis to those programs 
which will stimulate the production of food and 
of basic materials, raise nutritional standards, re- 
duce the incidence of disease, and improve labor 
standards and working conditions. 

There is, I think, one thing that all of us can 
do immediately which would stand both as a 
symbol and as a concrete demonstration of our 
intention to move forward in the field of economic 
development. I refer to the need for supporting 
the Technical Cooperation Program for 1951, 
which has already been approved by the Council 
of the Oi'ganization of American States. This 
program, even though of moderate proportions, 
is being held up for lack of national contributions 
from the various American Republics. I hope 
that all our Governments will find it possible to 
contribute their funds promptly so that this 
worthwhile program will not be delayed. 

Draft Resolutions 

In my remarks today, I have, I believe, touched 
on each of the main economic problems with which 
we have been called upon to deal. The United 
States delegation has prepared and distributed to 
the Conference a series of draft resolutions on 
these various points. These resolutions are the 
product of many consultations between my Gov- 
ernment and other Governments here represented. 

697 



They also reflect much of the work and discussion 
which have gone into the excellent technical report 
prepared for us by the Inter-American Economic 
and Social Council. In drawing up these resolu- 
tions, the United States delegation has sought to 
put forward a set of principles and policies which 
would reflect our common aspirations and meet 
our common problems. It is our hope, therefore, 
that they will facilitate the work of the Conference 
in expressing the agreement of all of us as to the 
economic policies which should guide us in the 
difficult, yet hopeful, years ahead. 



not specifically authorized by him to go or to remain 
thereon. 

§ 19.13 Possession and control of vessels. The Gov- 
ernor may supervise and control the movement of any 
vessel and shall lake full or partial possession or control 
of any vessel or any part thereof, within the Canal Z<me 
whenever it apears to him that such action is necessary 
in order to secure such vessel from damage or injury, or 
to prevent damage or injui'y to any vessel or waterfront 
facility or waters of the Canal Zone, or to secure the 
observance of rights and obligations of the United ,1 
States. II 

§ 19.16 Assistance of other agencies. The Governor 
may enlist the aid and cooperation of Federal and private 
agencies to assist In the enforcement of regulations issued 
pursuant to this part. 



Regulations Relating to the 
Safeguarding of Vessels, Harbors, 
Ports, and Waterfront Facilities in 
the Canal Zone^ 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by Public Law 
679, 81st Congress, 2d Session, approved August 9, 1950, 
which amended section 1, Title II of the act of June 15, 
1917, 40 Stat. 220 (50 U.S.C. 191), and as President of 
tlie United States, I hereby find that the security of the 
United States is endangered by reason of subversive ac- 
tivity, and I hereby prescribe the following regulations 
relating to the safeguarding against destruction, loss, or 
Injury from sabotage or other subversive acts, accidents, 
or other causes of similar nature, of vessels, harbors, 
ports, and waterfront facilities in the Canal Zone, and 
all territory and water in the Canal Zone, and the said 
regulations shall constitute Part 19, Title 35 of the Code 
of Federal Regulations ; and all agencies and authorities 
of the Government of the United States shall, and all 
persons are urged to, support, conform to, and assist in 
the enforcement of these regulations and all supplemental 
regulations issued pursuant thereto : 

DEFINITIONS 

§ 19.1 Governor. "Governor" as used in this part, 
means the Governor of The Panama Canal. 

§ 19.2 Wateriront facility. "Waterfront facility" as 
used in this part, means all piers, wharves, docks. Canal 
locks, and similar structures to which vessels may be 
secured, buildings on such structures or contiguous to 
them, and equipment and materials on such structures or 
in such buildings. 

GENERAI, PE0VISI0N8 

§ 19.5 Enforcement. The rules and regulations in this 
part shall be enforced by the Governor through such 
officers, employees, or agencies as he may designate. 

§ 19.10 Preventing access of persons, articles or things 
to vessels or waterfront facilities. The Governor may 
prevent any person, article or thing from boarding or 
being taken on board any vessel or entering or being taken 
into any waterfront facility when he deems that the 
presence of such person, article or thing would be inimi- 
cal to the purposes set forth in § 19.13. 

§ 19.12 Visitation and search. The Governor may 
cause to be inspected and searched at any time any 
vessel or waterfront facility or any person, article or 
thing thereon, within the Canal Zone, may place guards 
upon any such vessel and waterfront facility and may 
remove therefrom any or all persons, articles or things 



' Ex. Or. 10226, Fed. Reg. 2683. 



IDENTIFICATION AND EXCLUSION OF PERSONS FEOM VESSELS 
AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES 

§ 19.20 Access to vessels and waterfront facilities. 
Any person on board any vessel or any person seeking 
access to any vessel or any waterfront facility within the 
Canal Zone may be required to carry identification cre- 
dentials issued by or otherwise satisfactory to the Gov- 
ernor. The Governor may define and designate those 
categories of vessels and areas of the waterfront wherein 
such credentials are required. 

§19.22 Identification credentials. The identification 
credential to be used by the Governor shall be known as 
the Canal Zone Port Security Card, and the form of such 
credential, and the conditions and the manner of its 
issuance shall be as prescribed by the Governor. The 
Governor shall not issue a Canal Zone Port Security Card 
if he is satisfied that the character and habits of life of 
the applicant therefor are such as to authorize the belief 
that the presence of such individual on board a vessel or 
within a waterfront facility would be inimical to the 
security of the United States. The Governor shall revoke 
and require the surrender of a Canal Zone Port Security 
Card when he is no longer satisfied that tlie holder is 
entitled thereto. The Governor may recognize for the 
same purpose such other credentials as he may desig- 
nate in lieu of the Canal Zone Port Security Card. 

§ 19.24 Appeals. Persons who are refused employment 
or who are refused the issuance of documents or who are 
required to surrender such documents, under this part, 
shall have the right of appeal, and the Governor shall 
appoint a Board for acting on such appeals. Such Board 
sliall, so far as practicable, include one member drawn 
from management, and one member drawn from labor. 
The Board shall consider each appeal brought before It 
and, in recommending final action to the Governor, shall 
insure the appellant all fairness consistent with the 
safeguarding of the national security. 

SUPEEVISION AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES 
OB OTHER DANGEROUS CARGO 

§ 19.26 General supervision and control. The Gov- 
ernor may supervise and control the transportation, 
handling, loading, discharging, stowage, or storage of 
explosives, inflammable or combustible liquids in bulk, 
or other dangerous articles or cargo covered by the regu- 
lations entitled "Regulations for the Transportation of 
Hazardous Cargoes in Canal Zone Waters" (35 CFR 
sections 4.106-4.127). 

§ 19.28 Approval of facility for dangerous cargo. The 
Governor may designate waterfront facilities for the han- 
dling and storage of, and for vessel loading and discharg- 
ing, explosives, inflammable or combustible li(iuids in 
bulk, or other dangerous articles or cargo covered by 
the regulations referred to in § 19.26, and may require 
the owners, operators, masters, and others concerned to 
secure permits for handling, storage, loading, and unload- 
ing from the Governor, conditioned upon the fulfillment 
of such requirements for the safeguarding of such water- 
front facilities and vessels as the Governor may prescribe. 



698 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



SABOTAGE AND SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITY 

§ 19.32 Reporting of sabotage and suhversive activity. 
Evidence of sabotage or subversive activity involvinf? or 
endangering any vessel, harbor, port, or waterfront facility 
shall be reported immediately to the Governor or his 
representatives. 

§ 10.34 Precautions against sahotagc. The master, 
owner, agent, or operator of a vessel or waterfront fncilily 
shall take all necessary precautious to protect the vessel, 
waterfront facility, and cargo from sabotage. 

PENALTIES 

§ 19.36 Violations. Section 2, Title II of the act of 
June 15, 1917, as amended, 50 U. S. C. 192, provides as 
follows : 

If any owner, agent, master, officer, or person in 
charge, or any member of the crew of any such vessel 
falls to comply with any regulation or rule issued or order 
given under the provisions of this title, or obstructs or 
Interferes with the exercise of any power conferred by 
this title, the vessel, together with her tackle, apparel, 
furniture, and equipment, shall be subject to seizure and 
forfeiture to the United States in the same manner as 
merchandise is forfeited for violation of the customs reve- 
nue laws ; and the person guilty of such failure, obstruc- 
tion, or interference shall be punished by imprisonment for 
not more than ten years and may, in the discretion of the 
court, be fined not more than $10,000. 

(a) If any other person knowingly fails to comply 
with any regulation of rule issued or order given under the 
provisions of this title, or knowingly obstructs or inter- 
feres with the exercise of any power conferred by this 
title, he shall be punished by imprisonment for not more 
than ten years and may, at the discretion of the court, be 
fined not more than $10,000. 




The White House, 
March 2S, 1951. 



Strengthening Position of Free World 
in Pacific Ocean Area 



of the Philippines, and the whole world knows 
(hat the United States recognizes that an armed 
attack on the Philippines would be looked upon 
by the United States as dangerous to its own 
peace and safety and that it would act accordingly. 

The Governments of Australia and New Zea- 
land, in connection with the reestablishment of 
peace with Japan, have suggested an arrange- 
ment between them and the United States, pur- 
suant to articles 51 and 52 of the United Nations 
Charter which would make clear that in the event 
of an armed attack upon any one of them in the 
Pacific, each of the three would act to meet the 
common danger in accordance with its constitu- 
tional processes; and which would establish con- 
sultation to strengthen security on the basis of 
continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid. 

The possibilities of such an arrangement were 
fully explored by Mr. Dulles at Canberra, Aus- 
tralia, and Wellington, New Zealand, and have 
since been informally discussed with the appro- 
priate subcommittee of the Senate Foreign Rela- 
tions Committee and the Foreign Affairs Com- 
mittee of the House. 

I have now asked the Secretary of State, the 
Secretary of Defense, and Mr. Dulles, as my 
special representative in relation to the Japanese 
peace settlement and related matters, to pursue 
this matter further concurrently with the prose- 
cution of the other negotiations necessary to bring 
the Japanese peace settlement to an early and 
satisfactory conclusion. 

The series of arrangements and dispositions out- 
lined above will strengthen the fabric of peace in 
the whole Pacific Ocean area, where security is 
strongly influenced by sea and air power. They 
constitute natural initial steps in the consolida- 
tion of peace in that area and also will contribute 
to the building of universal peace as sought by 
the United Nations and under which great goal 
the efforts of our nation are now being largely 
dedicated. 



Statement hy the President 

[Released to the press ty the White House April 181 

The United States is moving steadily forward 
in concert with other countries of the Pacific in 
its determination to make ever stronger the posi- 
tion of the free world in the Pacific Ocean area. 

In connection with the reestablishment of peace 
with Japan, we are discussing with the Japanese 
Government the implementation of its expressed 
desire for a posttreaty security arrangement pur- 
suant to which United States Armed Forces might 
on a provisional basis remain in and about Japan. 

The United States maintains and expects to con- 
tinue to maintain its Armed Forces in tlie 
Ryukjois, particularly at Okinawa. 

In the Philippines, the United States is accorded 
certain military operating rights and facilities 
pursuant to an agreement with the Government 



Progress on the Point 4 Program 

Statement by the President 

[Released to the press hy the White House April 18] 

Dr. Henry G. Bennett, Administrator of the 
Point 4 Program, has given me an informal report 
on the progress of the program to date. I am 
pleased with what he has told me. 

The Point 4 Progi-ara is more necessary today 
than ever. The threat of Communist aggression 
compels the free world to build strong military de- 
fenses. But communism cannot be stopped by 
arms alone. One of its most dangerous weapons 
is its false appeal to people who are burdened 
with hunger, disease, poverty, and ignorance. 



April 30, 1 95 J 



699 



The Point 4 Program is part of the defense of 
the free world. It is the best answer to the false 
promises of communism. It offers the plain people 
of the world a way to do what they want most to 
do — improve their conditions of life by their own 
efforts. 

The Point 4 Program is being welcomed in that 
spirit by the free countries of Asia, Africa, the 
Middle East, and Latin America. Point 4 general 
agreements have been signed with 22 Governments. 
About 360 American technicians are at work on 
Point 4 projects in 28 countries. More than 240 
technicians from 34 countries are being trained 
in the United States. 

But this is only the beginning. Dr. Bennett 
tells me that, with relatively small appropriations, 
Point 4 can help some 50 countries with a popula- 
tion of almost a billion people double their food 
production in 5 to 10 years. Comparable advances 
can be made by these countries m public health 
and education, as well as in other aspects of eco- 
nomic development. 



Mass Transmission of Drama 
"Darkness at Noon" Over VOA 

[Released to the press April 17] 

The Voice of America cleared its broadcast 
decks on April 14 for a mass transmission of an 
original 1-hour radio version of the prize-winning 
Broadway play, Darknesi^ at Noon., the Depart- 
ment of State announced today. 

The program was beamed to Europe and the 
Near East from 2 to 3 p.m., e. s. t., on 14 fre- 
quencies from the United States and relayed on 
five short-wave and one medium-wave frequencies 
from Munich, six short-wave frequencies from 
Tangier, five short-wave frequencies from Eng- 
land and one medium-wave frequency from 
Greece. Broadcasts ordinarily scheduled during 
that period in Serbo-Croat, Hungarian, Arabic, 
Bulgarian and Rumanian were canceled in order 
to utilize all available transmitting facilities for 
the antitotalitarian play. 

The program was beamed to Latin America 
from 8 to 9 p.m., e.s.t., on 16 frequencies and 
to the Far East from 8 to 9 a.m., e.s.t., Sunday 
on six frequencies with relays on two frequencies 
frona Honolulu and three short-wave and one 
medium-wave frequency from Manila. The pro- 
gram was also repeated twice Sunday from relay 
bases at Tangier, Munich, and Salonika. 

The English radio version was adapted from 
the Sidney Kingsley play which recently won 
the New York Drama Critics Award. Claude 
Rains, star of the Broadway cast and other mem- 
bers of the cast, played their original roles in the 
Voice of America production. 



The play was based on Arthur Koestler's novel 
on the 1937 Moscow purge trials and the radio 
condensation of the play was written by Gladys 
Conry of the Voice of America staff. Frank 
Papp directed the radio version and Vladimir 
Selinsky composed the original musical score. 

Later the Voice of America plans to broadcast 
a score of foreign-language transmissions of 
Darkness at Noon, either in 1-hour or in a series 
of shorter versions. 



U.S. and U.K. Discuss Mutual 
Interests in Iran 

[Releaied to the press April i9] 

The series of talks between the British Ambas- 
sador and the Department of State on mutual 
interests in Iran in the light of recent develop- 
ments have been concluded, and the British offi- 
cials who came to assist the Ambassador have re- 
turned to London. 

The conversations were satisfactory to both 
Governments and comprised an informal ex- 
change of views on matters pertaining to their 
broad policies in the area whose general objectives 
are similar. Among other matters, the Iranian 
oil question was discussed in general terms only 
since it was fully recognized that the problem 
must be worked out elsewhere by the parties di- 
rectly concerned. 



American National Ballet Theatre 
To Tour South America 

The Department of State received word on 
April 20 that contracts have been signed at Paris 
for a 3-month tour of South America by the 
American National Ballet Theatre. Lucia Chase, 
founder and director of the Ballet Theatre, and 
Blevins Davis, president of the Ballet Theatre 
Foundation, have announced that negotiations for 
the tour were completed by Dante \ ittani, noted 
South American impresario, and Anatole Heller, 
European manager of Ballet Theatre. 

The company of 60 or more dancers and tech- 
nicians will begin their tour on May 21 at Rio 
de Janeiro, officially opening the season at the 
Teatro Municipal Opera. After playing at Rio 
for 3 weeks, the Ballet Theatre will appear at 
Sao Paulo for another week. The option also 
calls for a 4-weck stay at Montevideo and Buenos 
Aires. The Department of State is cooperating 
with Ballet Theatre in arrangements for its tour 
as a means of demonstrating American cultural 
achievements to other countries. 



700 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



I Conclusion of Torquay Tariff Conference 



STATEMENT ISSUED BY PARTICIPATING GOVERNMENTS 



[Released to the press April 21} 



The signing of the final act at Torquay on April 
21, 1951, marks the conclusion of the tariff nego- 
tiations which began on September 28, 1950. 

The purpose of this release is to provide gen- 
eral guidance on the concluding stages of the 
Conference and the arrangements for giving effect 
to its results. 



General Review of the Conference 

The Torquay Conference has been the third of 
a series of international tariff conferences which 
have been held since the end of the Second World 
"War. The first was held in Geneva in 1947, when 
23 countries entered into tariff negotiations among 
themselves and drew up the General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade to put into effect the results 
of these negotiations and provide rules governing 
other aspects of their trade relations. The Gen- 
eral Agreement — a multilateral trade agreement 
which comprises the schedules of tariff concessions 
and, inter alia, various provisions designed to 
protect the concessions against nullification or im- 
pairment — became operative in 1948. It was 
always intended that further countries which 
were prepared to enter into negotiations should 
be enabled to join the Agreement and so enjoy 
its benefits and should have the opportunity of 
acceding to it throuo;h negotiating concessions in 
their own tariffs. Thus, a second tariff conference 
on a smaller scale was held at Annecy, France, in 

1949, which resulted in the accession of a further 
group of countries to the Agreement. The pro- 
posal to hold a third tariff conference was made 
in the summer of 1949 ; invitations to attend were 
extended in November 1949, and the offer by His 
Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom 
of Torquay as the site was accepted in March 

1950. The Torquay negotiations followed the 
same pattern as these held at Geneva and Annecy, 



except that, in addition to negotiations between 
contracting parties and the acceding Govern- 
ments; there were also further negotiations be- 
tween contracting parties themselves for 
additional concessions. 

The tecluiique of multilateral tariff bargaining 
through the holding of simultaneous bilateral ne- 
gotiations between paire of countries followed by 
the generalization of the resulting concessions 
which was put into practice at Geneva and An- 
necy was continued at Torquay. It has again 
been demonstrated that despite some growing 
difticulties, which are I'eferred to below, this tech- 
nique offers marked advantages over older methods 
of negotiating tariff reductions. A large number 
of negotiations has been completed, and a sub- 
stantial list of concessions has been achieved 
which will be applied over a very extensive area 
of world trade before the end of 1951. 

The scope and complexity of the Torquay Con- 
ference were enhanced by the fact that the nego- 
tiations were also related to the renewal of the 
firm validity of the concessions exchanged at 
Geneva and Annecy. The reductions and bind- 
ings in the rates of tariff duties which were nego- 
tiated in 1947 and 1949 had an assured life only 
to January 1, 1951. Thereafter, it was open to 
any contracting party to give notice, under article 
XXVIII of the General Agreement, of its inten- 
tion to withdraw or modify any of the conces- 
sions which it had made in its tariff. If the Geneva 
and Annecy concessions had remained liable to 
widespread modification or withdrawal, the sta- 
bility of world tariff levels — one of the main bene- 
fits afforded by the Agreement — would have been 
imperiled. To avoid this danger, it was decided 
that any renegotiation of the 1947 and 1949 con- 
cessions which countries felt obliged to undertake 
should be carried out at Torquay and that the 
assured life of the resulting schedules should be 



Aprii 30, J 95? 



701 



extended for another 3 years. The life of the 
Geneva and Annecy concessions will be prolonged 
by an amendment included in the Torquay proto- 
col and by the declaration on the continued appli- 
cation of the present schedules, which is described 
later in this release. This rebinding of the Geneva 
and Annecy concessions, added to the new con- 
cessions negotiated at Torquay, will give stability 
to tariff rates covering a very large part of world 
trade, until 1954. This element of stability in- 
sures a set of tariff schedules for some 38 countries 
all of which will be bound against increase for 
3 years and is in effect a new factor in the picture 
of world commerce which has been introduced 
through the operation of the Gatt. 

The Torquay Conference has also provided for 
the accession of new Governments to the General 
Agreement. Through the signing of appropriate 
legal in.struments — the decisions on the accession 
of the acceding Governments are described later 
in this release — a further group of countries will 
be enabled to adhere to the Agreement. Each of 
these countries will have agreed to reduce its 
tariffs through negotiations with the contracting 
parties and with each other, when a basis for such 
negotiations existed. To a large extent, their 
tariffs will be stabilized. When they have acceded, 
the countries adhering to the General Agreement 
will comprise a group whose trade accounts for 
over 80 percent of world imports and over 85 
percent of world exports. 
_ Against the background of achievement — the 
significant reductions and bindings of tariff duties 
resulting from the Torquay negotiations, the pro- 
longing of the assured life of the whole body of 
tariff concessions for a further 3 years, and the 
expected accession of a group of important coun- 
tries — some reference to the clifficulties which have 
been encountered may be permitted. In the first 
place, many of the countries had to a large extent 
used up their bargaining power in 1947 and 1949 
and were not in a position at Torquay to reduce 
their tariffs much further. 

In the second place, with the steady increase in 
the volume of trade which has been liberalized 
from quotas during 1950 — particularly in 
Europe — tariffs are reverting to their traditional 
role as instruments for protection for domestic 
industries and agriculture. Generally speaking, 
the significance of tariffs as instruments of na- 
tional economic policy is increasing, and the diffi- 
culties encountered in lowering rates of duty are 
probably greater today than at any time since 
the end of the war. 

Organization of the Negotiations 

A Tariff Negotiations Committee (Chairman, 
L. D. Wilgress, Canada), representing all the 
participating Governments, was appointed as the 
managing body of the Conference. Day-to-day 
administrative coordination was undertaken by 
a smaller group, the Tariff Negotiations Working 



Party (Chairman, H. van Blankenstein, Nether- 
lands). 

Governments Participating in 
Tariff Negotiations 

The countries and territories which took part 
in the Torquay Tariff Conference as contracting 
parties ^ to the General Agreement were : 



Au.stralin 




Haiti 


Benelux Union 




India 


Brazil 




Indonesia 


Canada 




Italy 


Ceylon 




New Zealand 


Chile 




Norway 


Cuba 




Pakistan 


Czechoslovakia 




South Africa 


Denmark 




Southern Rhodesia 


Dominican Republic 




Sweden 


Finland' 




United Kingdom 


France 




United States 


Greece 






The countries 


which 


negotiated at Torquay 


with a view to acceding ^ 


to the Agreement were : 


Austria 




Peru 


Federal Republic of Ger- 


Republic of the PhUipplnes 


many 




Turkey 


Korea 




Uruguay 



At the opening of the tariff negotiations, the 
delegation of Czechoslovakia stated that the par- 
ticipation of Western Germany was not in accord- 
ance with the terms of the Potsdam Agreement 
under which Germany was to be treated as a 
single economic unit. They also denied that 
Western Germany had any legal capacity to be- 
come a contracting party. 

The delegation of Czechoslovakia also stated 
that they did not recognize the Government of 
South Korea. 



Legal Instruments Open for Signature 

Today, the closing date of the Conference, four 
legal instruments were opened for signature at 
Torquay : 

1. The final act, which authenticates the texts of 
the instruments described below. 

2. Decisions on the accession of the acceding Gov- 
ernments. 

There is a separate decision for each of the six 
acceding Governments. Under the terms of the 
Gatt, a majority of two-thirds of the contracting 
parties is needed to take a decision to admit each 
acceding country. The six decisions will be 
opened for signature at Torquay and will later be 
deposited at the headquarters of the United Na- 

' Four contracting parties did not xmdertake tariff nego- 
tiations at Torquay : Burma, Liberia, Nicaragua, and 
Syria. The Nationalist Government of the Republic of 
China notified its withdrawal from the General Agree- 
ment with effect from May 5, 1950; the Central Peoples 
Government of China has not yet defined its position in 
regard to the General Agreement. 

" Uruguay also took part in the Annecy Conference but 
did not subsequently become a contracting party. 



702 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



tions and will be open there for further signa- 
tures. (The seventh of the accedinfj Govern- 
ments, namely Uruguay, negotiated initially at 
Annecy in 19-19 and is expected to accede under 
the terms of the Annecy protocol.) The last day 
for signature of the decisions will be June 20, 
1951. 

3. The Torquay protocol to the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade embodies the results 
of the tariff negotiations undertaken at Torquay 
and the terms on which the new Governments 
will be able to accede. This will be open for 
signature by the participating Governments and 
will later be deposited at the headquarters of the 
United Nations and will be open there for further 
signatures. The results of the negotiations may 
be brought into force by the contracting parties 
and the acceding Governments (as and when they 
become contracting parties) at various dates be- 
tween May and November 1951, depending on the 
dates of their signatures or notifications regai'd- 
ing article XXVIII negotiations. October 20 
will be the last day for signature of the Torquay 
protocol. 

4. The declaration on the continued application of 
the present schedules, taken in conjunction with 
the relevant provisons of the Torquay protocol, 
is the instrument through which the contracting 
parties will prolong the assured life of the Geneva 
and Annecy schedules, as modified in accordance 
with such renegotiations as were undertaken at 
Torquay, until January 1, 1954. 

It is expected that, at Torquay, all delegations 
will sign the final act and most will also sign the 
declaration. 

Announcement of Results; Publication of the 
Schedules 

On May 9, 1951, the Governments which took 
part in the Torquay negotiations will be at lib- 
erty to announce the results of their negotiations." 

On May 12, the schedules of tariff concessions 
as a whole and the text of the Torquay protocol 
will be published by the Secretariat at Geneva 
and will be placed on sale through United Na- 
tions sales agents. 



Negotiations Completed 

A. Countries participating in the negotiations and 
the number of bilateral negotiations completed 
hy each : 

Australia 6 

Austria 23 

Benelux Union 9 

(Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxemburg) 

Brazil 2 

Canada 16 

Ceylon 2 



' An analysis, in detail, of the results of the nego- 
tiations on the part of the United States will be made 
public by the Department of State on May 9, 1951. 

Apr/; 30, ?95I 



Chile 4 

Czechoslovakia 7 

Denmark 18 

Dominican Republic 3 

Finland 5 

France 17 

Germany 23 

Greece 4 

Haiti 2 

India 8 

Indonesia 8 

Italy 16 

Korea 5 

New Zealand 3 

Norway 16 

Pakistan 5 

Peru 15 

Philippines 16 

Southern Rhodesia 4 

Sweden 16 

Turkey 20 

Union of South Africa 10 

United Kingdom 9 

United States 17 

Uruguay 4 

B. Bilateral negotiations which each participating 
contracting party completed with other contract- 
ing parties: 

Australia Denmark, Sweden 

Benelux Union .... Denmark, Italy, South Africa, 
United States 

Brazil United States 

Canada Denmark, Dominican Republic, 

France, Haiti, India, Indonesia, 
Italy, Norway, Sweden, United 
States 

Ceylon South Africa 

Czechoslovakia .... Denmark, France, Indonesia 

Denmark Australia, Benelux Union, 

Canada, Czechoslovakia, 
Greece, India, Italy, Norway, 
United Kingdom, United States 

Dominican Republic . Canada, France, United States 

Finland France, Norway, South Africa 

France Canada, Czechoslovakia, Domin- 
ican Republic, Finland, Indo- 
nesia, Pakistan, Southern Rho- 
desia, Sweden, South Africa, 
United Kingdom, United States 

Greece Denmark 

Haiti Canada, Norway 

India Canada, Denmark, Indonesia 

Indonesia Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, 

India, Sweden, United States 

Italy Benelux Union, Canada, Den- 
mark, Norway, Pakistan, 
Southern Rhodesia, Sweden, 
United States, Uruguay 

Norway Canada, Denmark, Finland, 

Haiti, Italy, Southern Rhodesia, 
Sweden, South Africa, United 
Kingdom, United States 

Pakistan France, Italy 

South Africa Benelux Union, Ceylon, Finland, 

France, Norway, Sweden 

Southern Rhodesia . . France, Italy, Norway, Sweden 

Sweden Australia, Canada, France, Indo- 
nesia, Italy, Norway, Southern 
Rhodesia, South Africa, United 
Kingdom, United States 

United Kingdom . . . Denmark, France, Norway, Swe- 
den 

United States Benelux Union, Brazil, Canada, 

Denmark, Dominican Repub- 
lic, France, Indonesia, Italy, 
Norway, Sweden 

703 



C. Bilateral negotiations ivhich contracting 
parties completed with acceding Governments: 

Australia. Austria, Germany, Philippines, 

Turkey 

Benelux Union .... Austria, Germany, Peru, Philip- 
pines, Turkey 

Brazil Austria 

Canada Austria, Germany, Korea, Peru, 

Philippines, Turkey 

Ceylon Germany 

Chile Austria, Germany, Peru, Philip- 
pines 

Czechoslovakia .... Austria, Peru, Philippines, Turkey 

Denmark Austria, Germany, Korea, Peru, 

Philippines, Turkey 

Finland Austria, Germany 

France Austria, Germany, Korea, Peru, 

Philippines, Turkey 

Greece Austria, Germany, Turkey 

India Austria, Germany, Peru, Philip- 
pines, Turkey 

Indonesia Austria, Germany 

Italy Austria, Germany, Peru, Philip- 
pines, Turkey 



New Zealand .... Germany, Philippines^ Turkey 

Norway Austria, Germany, Korea, Peru, 

Philippines, Turkey 

Pakistan Austria, Germany, Turkey 

South Africa Austria, Turkey 

Sweden Austria, Germany, Korea, Peru, 

Philippines, Turkey 

United Kingdom . . . Austria, Germany, Peru, Philip- 
pines, Turkey 

United States .... Austria, Germany, Korea, Peru, 
Turkey 

D. Bilateral negotiations completed among the 
acceding Governments : 

Austria Germany, Turkey 

Germany Austria, Philippines 

Philippines Germany 

Turkey Austria 

Note: Bilateral negotiations completed by 
Uruguay with certain contracting parties and 
acceding Governments : 

Uruguay Italy, Germany, Peru, Turkey 



International Materials Conference 



PROGRESS REPORT 

[Released to the press by IMC April S] 

Supplemental to the announcements previously 
made by the International Materials Conference 
concerning the preliminary, organizational work 
done by its commodity committees, is the follow- 
ing report on the progress of the committees. 

Questionnaires to be filled out by member and 
nonmember interested countries have been pre- 
pared and issued. Some of the committees have 
examined the available statistics in oixler to ob- 
tain a first estimate of the size of the anticipated 
deficit, and, at least for certain materials, pre- 
liminary discussions have been initiated on 
measures to be taken to meet the present situation. 

Copper, Zinc and Lead Committee 

The Copper, Zinc and Lead Committee has 
agreed upon the questionnaire to be used to secure 
requirements and production estimates for 1951 
and 1952. Copies nave been furnished to all mem- 
bers of the Committee for transmittal to their 
Governments, and letters to all nonmember (lOV- 
ernments which have a significant interest either 
as producei*s or consumers were dispatched on 
March 28, requesting that they supply the data 
covered by the questionnaire. The questionnaire 
asks for import and export figures, as well as 
statements of restrictive controls in effect or con- 
templated and statements of the possibilities and 



requirements for increasing production. Replies 
to the questionnaire are being requested by not 
later than April 23. The Committee hopes to 
have them assembled, tabulated and reviewed by 
early May. 

The Committee met April 16 to complete a pre- 
liminary review of the 1951 estimate of require- 
ments based upon information furnished by its 
members during the week of April 2. Such a 
preliminary review will indicate the probable size 
and nature of the anticipated deficit in supplies. 
However, no formal recommendation will be de- 
veloped by the Committee until it has examined 
the replies to the questionnaire. The Conmiittee 
is limiting its current analysis to primary metals 
but has agreed to examine requirements for 
semifabricated products later. It recognizes the 
importance of this aspect of the problem to the 
countries that import such products and the need 
to develop such methods for insuring equitable 
treatment to consuming countries as well as 
producing countries in the event of a deficit in 
supplies. 

Sulphur Committee 

The Sulphur t'ommittee has discussed state- 
ments submitted by representatives regarding re- 
quirements and the steps taken or contemplated 
to expand production, conserve sulphur, and sub- 
stitute other materials. A subconunittee is now 
in the process of preparing a first report to ac- 
company preliminary tables of statistics. This 



704 



Department of State Bulletin 



report will cover methods of expanding produc- 
tion of sulphur and sulpluir-bearino; materials, 
conservation of sulphur and substitution of sul- 
phur, and controls regarding the utilization of sul- 
phur. Also, the Committee is studying drafts of 
letters and questionnaires prepared by the sub- 
coiiiHiittei' on statistii-s whicli call for statistical 
data and information relating to sulphur and sul- 
phur-bearing materials from member and non- 
member countries. 

Cotton and Cotton Linters Committee 

This Committee recessed on March 15, pending 
the preparation of certain statistical tables re- 
quired to assess the world situation and to permit 
the formulation of recommendations. Drafting 
of a cotton questionnaire designed to develop the 
information requested by the Committee was com- 
pleted during the week of March 18. In the past 
week, forms have been processed for distribution 
to Governments. Preparation of forms for a 
linters questionnaire will follow promptly. The 
Committee has tentatively set June 11 as the date 
for reconvening. 

Tungsten and Molybdenum Committee 

The Tungsten and Molybdenum Committee has 
been occupied with the gathering of statistics of 
production and consumption. Questionnaires 
have been issued to member governments and cer- 
tain nonmember governments, requesting them to 
furnish particulars both on production and con- 
sumption in past years and on the estimates for 
1951 and 1952. \Vhen the full committee again 
meets, it will give consideration to information 
assembled by its subcommittee on statistics. It 
will consider the problem as a whole with special 
reference to the supply position of 1951. 

Manganese, Nicl«el and Cobalt Committee 

Subcommittees on statistics have compiled avail- 
able data on production, movements, and consump- 
tion of manganese, nickel, and cobalt in the calen- 
dar years 1948, 1949. and 1950, also in 1938 for the 
first material, and 1943 for the latter ones. The 
subcommittees have drafted a letter to be sent to 
Governments indicating what additional informa- 
tion is desired from them concerning estimates for 
1951 and 1952, and the measures taken or con- 
templated to increase production, restrict con- 
sumption and economize in the use of the ma- 
terials. The full Committee met last Friday to 
adopt its permanent rules of procedure and 
examine the reports of the statistical subcom- 
mittees. 

Wool Committee 

The Wool Committee convened for the first 
time on April 2. The heads of the delegation have 



met several times since to set up their order of 
business. A subcommittee on statistics is also 
meeting. This Committee has developed its work 
rapidly, largely due to the work which has already 
been done by other international conferences 
covering this field. 

Pulp and Paper Committee 

All replies to invitations sent out have not yet 
been received. Announcement as to the composi- 
tion and date of initial meeting of this Committee 
will be announced in the very near future. 



COMPOSITION OF MANGANESE, 
NICKEL AND COBALT COMMITTEE 

BELGIUM ( Representing Benelux : Belgium, Netherlands, 
Luxembourg) 

Representative: Pierre Jaspar, Economic Counselor, Bel- 
gium Embassy 

Alternates: Henri Wenniaekers, Attach^, Belgium 

Embassy 
M. H. Moerel, Adviser, Netherlands Em- 
bassy 

BEAZIL 

Representative: Joao Baptista Pinheiro, Second Secre- 
tary, Brazilian Embassy 

Alternate: Armindo Branco Mendes Cadaxa, Second 

Secretary, Brazilian Embassy 

CANADA 

Representative: S. V. Allen, Special Assistant to Deputy 
Minister, Department of Trade and 
Commerce, Ottawa 

Alternate: M. P. Carson, Assistant Commercial Sec- 

retary, Canadian Embassy 

CUBA 

Representative: 
Alternate: 



Enrique Perez-Cisneros 
Kamoii G. Osuna, Attach^, Cuban Em- 
bassy 

Rent? Samuel Lajeunesse, Mining Engi- 
neer, Paris 

Pierre Braye, Importation and Allocation 
Group for Tungsten, Molybdenum 
and Chrome, Corporation of Minerals 
and Metals, Paris 

Jean- Yves Gautier, Electro-Chemical and 
Electro-Metallurgical Engineer, Paris 

Rudolf Afflerbach, Representative, Minis- 
try of Economics, Bonn 

Clemens Schueller, Representative, Min- 
istry of Economics, Bonn 

H. A. Sujon, Director, Indian Supply Mis- 
sion, Washington, D. C. 

M. B. Shankar, Deputy Director, Indian 
Supply Mission, Washington, D. C. 

Thoralf Svendsen, Commercial Counselor, 

Norwegian Embassy 
Gunnar Kjolstad, Economic Counselor, 

Norwegian Embassy 

TTNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 

Representative: W. A. Horrocks, Commercial Secretary, 
South African Embassy 

Alternate: J. H. Schutte, Assistant Commercial Sec- 

retary, South African Embassy 



FRANCE 

Representative: 
Alternates: 



GERMANY 

Representative: 
Alternate: 

INDIA 

Representative: 
Alternate: 

NOEWAT 

Representative: 
Alternate: 



April 30, 1 95 J 



705 



UNITED KINGDOM 

Representative: V. P. Harries, Under Secretary, Ministry 

of Supply, London 
Alternate: Dr. W. E. Berry, Principal, Ministry of 

Supply, London 

UNITED STATES 

Representative: John W. Evans, Chief, Economic and Re- 
sources Staff, Department of State 

Alternate: Edwin J. Lintner, Chief, Additive-Alloys 

Branch, Munitions Board 



COMPOSITION OF TUNGSTEN AND 
MOLYBDENUM COMMITTEE 



AUSTRALIA 

Representative: 
Alternate: 



F. A. Meere, First Assistant Comptroller 
General, Department of Trade and 
Customs, Canberra 

Dr. H. G. Raggatt, Director, Bureau of 
Mineral Resources, Ministry of Na- 
tional Development, Melbourne 



Representative: 
Alternate: 

BRAZIL 

Representative: 



Alternate: 

CHILE 

Repiesentative: 
Alternate: 

FRANCE 

Repi'esentative : 
Alternates: 



Juan Poiiaranda 

Germfin Rovira, Commercial Counselor, 
Bolivian Embassy 

Col. Jos6 Filho Kahl, Chief of Brazilian 
Aeronautical Commission, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Lt. Col. Paulo E. da Camara Ortegal, 
Assistant Air Attach^, Brazilian 
Embassy 

Roberto Vergara, General Manager, 

Pacific Steel Company, Santiago 
Not yet designated. 

Ren6 Samuel Lajeunesse, Mining Engi- 
neer, Paris 

Pierre Braye, Director, Importation and 
Allocation Group for Tungsten, 
Molybdenum and Chrome, Corpora- 
tion of Minerals and Metals, Paris 



Jean-Yves Gautier, Electro-Chemical and 
Electro-Metallurgical Engineer, 
Paris 



Representative: Dr. Arno Ristow, Chief, Department for 
Ferro-AUoys, Ministry of Economies, 

Alternate: Joachim Hoppe, Official, Ministry of B]co- 

nomics, Bonn 

POETUGAL 

Representative: Antonio de Lncena, Second Secretary, 
Portuguese Embassy 

Alternate: Joao Guimaraes dos Santos, Mining En- 

gineer, Government of Portugal, 

SPAIN 

Representative: Juan Lizaur, Mining Engineer, Govern- 
ment of Spain, Madrid 

Alternate: Jos^ Aragones, Commercial Attach^, Gov- 

ernment of Spain, Madrid 

SWEDEN 

Representative: Olaf Drakenberg, Managing Director, 
Swedish Ferro-AUoys, Inc., Stock- 
holm 
Alternates: Hubert de Besche, Economic Counselor, 

Swedish Embassy 
Torsten Hylander 
Stig Nyblad 
C. H. von Platen 



UNITED) KINGDOM 

Representative. 



Alternates: 



UNITED STATES 



V. P. Harries, Under Secretary, Ministry 

of Supply, London 
Dr. W. E. Berry, Principal, Ministry of 

Supply, London 
H. O. Hooper 
G. E. M. McDougall, Counselor, British 

Embassy 



Representative: J. H. Critchett, Chief, Ferro-Alloys and 
Metals Section, Iron and Steel Di- 
vision, Department of Commerce 

Alternate: Robert Bridgman 



U.S. Delegations to International Conferences 



Population Commission (ECOSOC) 



The Department of State announced on April 20 
tliat I'hilip M. Hauser, Unit«d States representa- 
tive on the Population Commission of the United 
Nations Economic and Social Council (Ecosoc) 
will attend the sixth session of the Commission, 
which will convene at Lake Success on April 23, 
19,51. Dr. Hauser is professor of sociology at the 
University of Chicago and was formerly deputy 
director and acting director of the Bureau of the 
Census. He will be assisted by the following 
advisers : 



Dudley Kirk, Division of International and Functional 
Intelligence, Department of State 

Conrad Taeuber, consultant, Bureau of the Census, Depart- 
ment of Commerce 

Established in 1946, the Population Commis- 
sion, which is one of the nine permanent func- 
tional commissions of the United Nations Eco- 
nomic and Social Coimcil, advises the Council on 
all demographic matters falling within the pur- 
view of the United Nations. Twelve Govern- 
ments, elected by the Council, comprise the mem- 
bership of this Commission. The last session of 
the Population Commission was held at Lake Suc- 
cess from May 22 to June 2, 1950. 



706 



Oeparfmenf of Stafe Bulletin 



Among the agenda items to be considered by the 
sixth session are studies of interrelationships of 
demographic, economic, and social factors in par- 
ticular areas, demographic aspects of migration, 
and mortality and mortality rates; a revision of 
"Findings of studies on the interrelationships be- 
tween population trends and economic and social 
factors , problems related to the 1950 and 1951 
censuses of population; demographic aspects of 
the problem of retired persons and the aged ; re- 
gional seminars on population problems; analysis 
of vital, demographic, and migi'ation statistics; 
and future work and priorities of the Commission. 

South Pacific Commission, Seventh Session 

On April 16, the Department of State an- 
nounced that the seventh session of the South 
Pacific Commission will convene at Noumea, New 
Caledonia, on April 28, 1951. The United States 
Government will be represented at the session by 
the following delegation : 

Senior I'nitcd States Coniiitissioner 

Dr. Felix M. Keesing, professor of anthropology, Stanford 
University, Calif. 

United States Commissioner 

Milton Shalleck, attorney. New York 



Advisers 

Robert R. Robbins, Office of Dependent Area Affairs, De- 
partment of State. 
Claude U. Ross, American Consul, Noumea 

The major items on the provisional agenda for 
this session include implementation of the recom- 
mendations of the first South Pacific Conference 
held at Suva, Fiji Islands, from April 25 to May 
5, 1950; review of projects undertaken in the 1949- 
1950 work program; appointments of secretary 
general and deputy secretary of the Commission 
and deputy chairman of the research council; in- 
formation program and jjublications; and various 
other administrative and financial matters. 

The South Pacific Commission is a considtative 
and advisory body to the member governments 
(Australia, France, the Netherlands, New Zea- 
land, United Kingdom, and United States) in 
matters affecting the economic and social develop- 
ment of the 15 non-self-governing territories in 
the South Pacific under the scope of the Commis- 
sion. American Samoa is the one United States 
Pacific territory within the purview of the Com- 
mission. The biannual meetings of the Commis- 
sion are provided for in the agreement establishing 
the Commission. The last session of the South 
Pacific Commission was held at Noumea, New 
Caledonia, in October 1950. 



The UNESCO Conference on the Improvement of Bibliographic Services 



hy Jesse H. Shera, U.S. Delegate 



The Unesco Conference on the Improvement of 
Bibliographic Services, held at Paris from No- 
vember 7-10, 1950, represents the culmination 
of efforts begun as early as 1946 to develop coordi- 
nation of international interest in the improve- 
ment of national and international bibliographical 
services. The problems of bibliographic organiza- 
tion have loomed importantly in Unesco's pro- 
gram from its inception, and, even before the es- 
tablishment of Unesco, the views of those who 
were consulted regarding its activities insisted 
upon its responsibilities in this field. Beginning 
with the second session, in 1947, and annually since 
that time, the General Conference of Unesco has 
instructed the Director General to conduct the nec- 
essary surveys and make other preliminary prepa- 
rations for a conference such as this. 

In fulfillment of these instructions, Unesco en- 
tered into a 2-year contract with the Library of 
Congress for the preparation of a report on the 
present state of bibliographic services and the pos- 
sibilities for their improvement. The results of 



this study appeared in published form as the now 
well-known Unesco and Library of Congress 
Bibliographical Survey, of which the first part, 
the general report, was prepared by Verner W. 
Clapp, Chief Assistant Librarian of Congress, and 
the second part, an historical appendix, was the 
work of Mrs. Katherine O. Murra, General Kef- 
erence and Bibliography, Library of Congress. 

This survey, which was designed to be the basis 
of the work of the present Conference, became 
available early in 1950 and was given careful study 
by working groups in some 40 countries. National 
reports, stimulated by the general survey, were 
prepared by these working groups and were sub- 
mitted to Unesco by the summer of 1950. Most 
of these reports were abstracted by the Secretariat 
and are now available as vohune II of the Unesco 
and Library of Congress Bibliographical Survey 
under the title National Development and Inter- 
national Planning of Bihliogra'phical Services. 
In general, each of the national reports divides 
into three major sections: a more or less detailed 



April 30, 1 95 1 



707 



survey of existing bibliographic services; recom- 
mendations for the improvement of bibliographic 
services within the country for which the report is 
submitted ; and proposals for the improvement of 
international bibliographic coordination. 

The national report for the United States was 
prepared for the Committee on Bibliography of 
the American Library Association by Miss Mar- 
garet E. Egan, assistant professor of the graduate 
library school of the University of Chicago and 
the author. The report could not be prepared in 
time for inclusion in the second volume of the 
Bibliographical Survey but was presented to the 
Conference, and its full text will appear in the 
pages of American Documentation. 

Thus, the Conference had, as a basis for its dis- 
cussions, three important documents: (1) the basic 
survey prepared by Mr. Clapp and Mrs. Murra, 
(2) the series of national reports, and (3) a syn- 
thesis of the reports prepared as a working paper 
for the Conference by Mme. Denise Ravage of the 
staff of the Unesco Secretariat. With this docu- 
mentation before it, the Conference convened on 
November 7. Here were assembled 81 persons 
representing 31 countries, 16 international organi- 
zations concerned with bibliography, and 4 who 
were invited by Unesco as independent experts. 
As chairman of the Committee on Bibliography of 
the American Library Association and as joint 
author of the United States National Report, the 
author was chosen as the United States delegate 
to this Conference. Mr. Clapp was also present 
as one of the four experts invited by the Unesco 
Secretariat. 

The proceedings began with an opening address 
by Jaime Torres Bodet, the Director General of 
Unesco, who displayed a remarkable grasp of the 
relation of bibliographic organization to interna- 
tional intellectual cooperation and of the problems 
implicit in any effective program of action. Dr. 
L. Brummel, Director of the Royal Library at The 
Hague, was unanimously elected President of the 
Conference, and the group consumed the re- 
mainder of the first day in considering certain 
necessary problems of organization and other es- 
sential preliminary matters, including a working 
definition of bibliography (a term which, inci- 
dentally, it ultimately refused to define). 

On the second and third days, the Conference 
divided into two more or less equal working 
groups, or committees: the one, under the chair- 
manship of Lionel McColvin, Librarian of the 
Westminster Public Library, to consider biblio- 
graphic organization at the national level, and 
the other, under Emile Vauthier of the Royal Li- 
brary of Bruxolles, to deal with problems of inter- 
national bibliographic organization. From the 
first group came recommendations for the creation 
of permanent national bodies designed to repre- 
sent the several bibliograi)hic interests of tlicir 
respective countries charged with the task of pro- 
moting and coordinating a rational pattern of 
national bibliographic services and empowered to 

708 



deal with such international bibliographic bodies 
as might be created. Other recommendations had 
to do with encouraging the preparation and pub- 
lication of national bibliographies, the establish- 
ment of national bibliographic information 
centers, and bureaus of specialized information. 
Other recommendations had to do with encourag- 
ing the publication of : 

a. A general national bibliography of all books 
published and on sale within the country 

b. A similar bibliography of all books and pam- 
phlets published but not on sale 

c. An index to periodical literature 

d. A bibliography of maps and atlases 

e. A bibliography of musical works 

f. A bibliography of unpublished theses and ' 
other academic publications 

g. A bibliography of local government publi- 
cations 

h. A directory of periodicals and newspapers 
currently published 

i. A clirectory of publishers and booksellers 
j. An indexed directory of learned societies, in- 
stitutes, libraries, and other related organizations. 

Mr. Vauthier's committee concerned itself with 
the general problem of international coordination 
of bibliographic activity, particularly as related 
to the objectives of Unesco, and the role that 
Unesco might play in the promotion of such co- 
ordination. The program recommended by this 
group was divided into three parts: (1) a list of 
long-range tasks which eventually must be under- 
taken to coordinate bibliographic activity at the 
international level ; (2) specific recommendations 
to the Director General of Unesco for the estab- 
lishment of a permanent Advisory Committee on 
Bibliography to assist in the formulation and exe- 
cution of UNESCO's bibliographic program, espe- 
cially with reference to certain immediate opera- 
tions such as a pilot bibliogra]ihic center, the prep- 
aration of a series of handbooks or manuals on the 
creation and operation of national bibliographic 
services, and the publication of other bibliographic 
information of international importance; and (3) 
recommendations to the constituent countries con- 
cerning the improvement of bibliographic services 
at the national level. 

On the fourth and final day, the Conference 
again convened in plenary session and with rela- 
tively little debate, disagreement, or alteration of 
the text approved the work of the committees, and 
the whole was authorized as approved to appear 
as the final act of the Conference. This final act 
contains a preamble, 14 resolutions, one annex of j 
long-term tasks in international bibliograpliic co- j 
ordination (prepared by Mr. Clapp), and four 
sui)])lementary resolutions. In general, the major 
provisions and recommendations of the final act 
coincide in principle, and even to a large extent in 
detail, with those contained in the United States 
National Report. 

Department of State Bulletin 



The real success of the Conference can be ]'iul<i:ed 
only in terms of the future achievement of the 
machinery which has been set in motion. At the 
national level, there is already ample evidence that 
the special conunittees, created in response to the 
initiative of Unesco, are beginning to assume per- 
manent status and to exercise important leader- 
ship in the development of bibliogi-aphic services 
within their own jurisdictions. In Canada, for 
example, work on the initiation of a much-needed 
national bibliography, both current and retrospec- 
tive, is going forward in a manner that follows 
closely tlie i)lans proposed in the Canadian na- 
tional report. Other countries are displaying an 
equally intensive interest. 

In the United States, the preliminary work of 
UNESCO has been brought to a focus by the Paris 
Conference. Librarians and others concerned 
with the development and coordination of our 
bibliographic resources have been made increas- 
ingly aware of the need for a central bibliographic 
agency that will serve as a planning group, a clear- 
inghouse of information, and eventually, a produc- 
tion center for bibliographic services. The initial 
enthusiasm with which the United States National 
Report was received encourages one to believe that 
the creation of such an agency is a very real and 
immediate possibility. The most pressing de- 
mand is for the establishment of such an agency, 
either through the reconstitution of an existing 
organization, such as the American Documentation 
Institute, or by the creation of a new corporate 
body designed especially to meet these needs. It 
is not within the province of the present report to 
set forth the merits and defects of the alternatives, 
but it can be reported that preliminary discussions 
of this problem are already well under way among 
interested groups. 

On the plane of international activity, the re- 
sults of the Paris Conference are already becom- 
ing immediately apparent. Shortly after the Con- 
ference adjourned, the Secretariat of Unesco an- 
nounced the intentiton to proceed with the crea- 
tion of the Permanent Advisory Committee on 
International Bibliographic Organization as rec- 
ommended by the assembled Paris delegates. To 
this end, the Unesco Secretariat is calling a meet- 
ing in London on April 2-!r-27, 1951, of a Commit- 
tee of Experts to decide how the Permanent 
Committee can best be provided with a constitu- 
tion, a program of work, and personnel consonant 
with the responsibilities of such an important 
body. One may, therefore, view with considerable 
optimism the prospects for future success in this 
imjiortant field. 

The accomplishments of the Conference may be : 

1. A foundation has been laid for international 
understanding and cooperation in promoting 
bibliographic organization among some 40 coun- 
tries of the world. 

2. The administrative framework for an agency 

April 30, 1957 



to continue such intellectual cooperation in the 
future has been designed. 

3. An opportunity has been given for the free 
exchange of ideas, opinions, and problems of 
bibliographic organization on the part of repre- 
sentative national leaders in bibliography. 

4. The cooperation and assistance of certain 
international organizations dependent upon or 
concerned in bibliography has been solicited and 
achieved. 

5. Policies and procedures have been established 
for the much-needed improvement of biblio- 
graphic services within the jurisdiction of the par- 
ticipating countries. 

6. Within the United States, great impetus has 
been given to a coordinated and systematic ap- 
proach to the problems of etfective bibliographic 
coverage at the national level. 

The significance of these achievements is not to 
be minimized. The writer is convinced that, in 
bringing together a group of international special- 
ists who are deeply concerned about the present 
state of bibliography and the improvement of 
bibliogi-aphical organization, Unesco has taken an 
important forward step toward the solution of the 
numy complex problems by which librarians and 
documentalists are confronted. In these 4 days, 
a real international understanding of the ob- 
jectives of bibliographic organization was at- 
tained, and a practical groundwork was laid for 
effective and permanent action. Throughout the 
meetings, it was constantly evident that the other 
countries expected the United States to exert a 
certain amount of leadership, or at least to carry 
its full share of the responsibility for implement- 
ing the program. This responsibility the United 
States must prepare itself to meet. 



Ethiopia Sends Troops to Korea 

[Released to the press by the U.N. Department of Public 
Information April 12] 

The Secretary-General has been advised by the 
unified command that an Ethiopian expeditionary 
force will leave Djibouti for Korea on April 15. 

In November 1950, the Ethiopian Government, 
in response to the appeal for offers of assistance 
which the Secretary-General sent to all member 
states supporting the Security Council decisions 
on Korea, replied that — 

. . . The Imperial Ethiopian Government are prepared 
specifically to olTer a contingent of 1,069 officers and 
men. . . . 

Countries which already have combat forces 
serving in Korea under the United Nations Com- 
mand are: Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, 
Greece, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, 
Philippines, Eepublic of Korea, Thailand, Tur- 
key, Union of South Africa, United Kingdom, 
and United States. 

709 



Seventeenth Report of U.N. Command Operations in Korea 



FOR THE PERIOD MARCH 1-15, 1951 > 



I lierewith submit report mimber 17 of the 
United Nations Command operations in Korea for 
the period 1-15 March inclusive. United Nations 
Command communiques numbers 809-823 provide 
detailed accounts of these operations. 

Progress of the campaign continues to be satis- 
factory, with all three Services — Army, Navy and 
Air — performing well their completely coordi- 
nated tactical missions. Designed to meet abnor- 
mal military inhibitions, our sti-ategic plan, 
involving constant movement to keep the enemy 
off balance with a corresponding limitation upon 
his initiative, remains unaltered. Our selection of 
the battle area furthermore has forced him into 
the military disadvantage of fighting far from his 
base and jaermitted greater employment of our 
air and sea arms against which he has little de- 
fense. There has been a resultant continuing and 
exhausting attrition ui)on both his manpower and 
supplies. There should be no illusions in this 
matter, however. In such a campaign of maneu- 
ver, as our battle lines shift north the supply 
position of the enemy will progressively improve, 
just as inversely the effectiveness of our air po- 
tential will progressively diminish, thus in turn 
causing his numerical ground superiority to be- 
come of increasing battle field significance. As- 
suming no diminution of the enemy's flow of 
gi'ound forces and material to the Korean battle 
area, a continuation of the existing limitation upon 
our freedom of counter offensive action, and no 
major additions to our organizational strength, 

' Transmitted to the Security Council l)y Amli.issador 
Warren K. Austin, U.S. representative in tlie Security 
Council, on April 19. For texts of the first, second, third, 
fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eiglith, ninth, tenth, and 
eleventh reports to the Security Council on U.N. command 
oixrations in Korea, see P.tti.i.eti.v, of Aug. 7, 19.50, p. 203 ; 
Aug. 28, IftoO, p. 32;!; and Sept. 11, 1050, p. 403; Oct. 2, 
10,JO, p. .534; Oct. IG, I'.I.-.O, p. 003; Nov. 6, 10.50, p. 720; 
Nov. 13, 19.50, p. 7.50; .Tan. S, 10.51, p. 43, and Fell. 10, 1051, 
p. .304, rcsi)ectively. The reports which have liccn pub- 
lished separately as I>eparlmeut of State publications 
393.5, 30.5.5, .39(i2, ;!07S, :!0,S(!, 400(i, 4015, and 41(),S respec- 
tively will appear hereafter only in the Buli.ktin. The 
twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth rejxirts appear in the 
Buli.ktin of Mar. 19, 1051, p. 470; and the lifteentli and 
Sixteenth reports in the Biii.i.ktin of Apr. l(i, 1051, p. 
625. 



the battle lines cannot fail in time to reach a point 
of theoretical military stalemate. Thereafter our 
further advance would militarily benefit the enemy 
more than it would ourselves. The exact place of 
stabilization is of necessity a fluctuating variable 
dependent upon the shifting relative strengths of 
the forces committed and will constantly move up 
or down. Even now there are indications that the 
enemy is attempting to build up from China a new 
and massive offensive for the spring. These are 
the salient factors which must continue to delimit 
strategical thinking and planning as the campaign 
proceeds. 

Suffering heavy casualties the enemy conducted 
vigorous delaying actions as steady United Na- 
tions pressure forced him northward six to eight 
miles on the central front extending about seventy 
miles from the Pukhan River area east of Seoul to 
Hajinbu, near the East Coast. Concomitantly 
United Nations have observed extensive troop and 
vehicular movement to the hostile rear, disclosing 
the enemy's efforts to augment and redeploy his 
reserve forces in the vicinity of the Hongchon 
River, and in the areas north of Hongchon and 
Seoul. Additional Chinese Communist and north 
Korean imits are steadily displacing southward, 
principally along the eastern axis into the Kuin- 
hwa-Hwachon-Chunchon-Cliorwon area, and de- 
pleted front-line units are receiving large num- 
bers of badly needed replacements. Enemy re- 
serve forces available for immediate employment 
on the front include at least four Cliinese Commu- 
nist Armies and at least one north Korean Corps. 

Enemy forces offered strong resistance through 
10 March. Fighting was particularly heavy on 
both sides of the Pukhan River, near its conflu- 
ence with the Han. After three days of heavy 
fighting, hostile elements we.st of the Pukhan re- 
tired in disorder on D March, abandoning much 
of their equipment. Heavy fighting also raged in 
the vicinity of Yongdu, Hoengsong, Sanrgo 
[Samgo-ri]' and Changdong, but by 1'2 March 
resistance liad diminislied and became generally 
light over the entire front. 

Vigorous United Nations operations have sub- 
stantially reduced the strength of organized Com- 



710 



Departmenf of Sfofe Bulletin 



munist guerrilla elements operating in United 
Nations rear areas in the past four weeks. In par- 
ticular, the large guerrilla force built around the 
10th north Korean Division suffered severe losses 
between 4 and 7 March, in the area fifteen miles 
west of Ulchin, near tlie East Coast. Remnants 
of this force have moved northward toward Sam- 
chok, their offensive capacity, for the present, 
drastically reduced. Guerrilla forces elsewhere 
have been relatively inactive and are believed to 
be breaking up into smaller bands in order to elude 
United Nations forces. However, in the event of 
a renewed enemy offensive, guerrilla forces will 
undoubtedly regroup and renew their attacks on 
United Nations rear-area installations. 

Front lines at the close of the period ran along 
the Han River from the West Coast to point twelve 
miles east of Seoul, thence generally eastward to 
Yangdogwon, east-southeast to Maam-Ni, east- 
northeast to Hajinbu, and thence northeast to 
Chumunjin. 

United Nations Naval Forces continued to deny 
to the enemy the use of Korean coastal waters 
while assuring the unrestricted movement of 
United Nations shipping to and from Korea. As 
part of coordinated interdiction operations di- 
rected against enemy lines of communication in 
northeastern Korea, United Nations carrier-based 
aircraft, in daylight and nigJit attacks, destroyed 
scores of bridges, attacked tunnels and constantly 
harassed moving transport. At the same time, 
United Nations surface units conducted around- 
the-clock Naval gunfire operations against key 
highway and railroad junction points, confining 
their efforts mainly to the Wonsan, Songjin and 
Cliongjin areas. Similar coordinated operations 
were conducted in the Chinnampo-Chungsan Got 
area on the West Coast. 

Check-minesweeping operations were continued 
along the Korean East Coast, particularly in those 
areas used by United Nations gunfire-support 
ships. Substantial numbers of drifting mines con- 
tinue to menace shipping in Korean waters. 

The hospital ship Jutlandia, contributed by 
Denmark, reported for operations during the 
period of this report and constitutes a most valua- 
ble and welcome addition to the United Nations 
Naval forces combatting aggression in Korea. 

Enemy jet fightei's in flights of 15 to 25 in- 
effectively challenged United Nations air suprem- 
acy several times over north Korea during this 
period. United Nations medium bombers sus- 
tained slight damage but the bombers and fighters 
maintained the score of downed and damaged air- 
craft well in the favor of United Nations forces. 
The enemy jets restrict their operations to the 
northern part of Korea within easy access to the 
Manchurian border and to their Antung base visi- 
ble to United Nations aircraft flying interdiction 
and counterair operations south of the Yalu River. 

Indicative of the relentless pressure being ap- 
plied by the air echelon is the new high total of 



about 1,250 sorties flown on one day of this period. 
The B-29's have again joined the fighters and 
light bombers in attacks immediately in rear of 
the Communist lines. The close integration of 
the air and ground efforts is most connuendable. 

Night operations supplementing the daylight 
attacks continue the destruction and harassment 
of enemy resupply activities. Considerable in- 
creased motor traffic has been subjected to twenty- 
four hour attack complementing the repeated 
attacks on supply dumps, bridges and tunnels in 
the interdiction program. 

Transport aircraft repeated their major contri- 
bution to the United Nations effort, their efforts 
being marked by the lift of nearly 5,000 passengers 
on one day and the airdrop of" 1,000 five-gallon 
drums of motor gas to front line units on another. 

There has been no significant change in civil 
assistance activities during the period. Displaced 
persons, particularly farmers, are being encour- 
aged to return to tlieir homes and farms in non- 
combat zones and resume as far as possible their 
contributions to the normal economy of Korea. 

Miniature weekly newspapers in Chinese and 
Korean are now being disseminated regularly to 
Communist soldiers in the front lines in Korea. 
These newspapers are part of a steadily expand- 
ing program to provide enemy troops with accu- 
rate information concerning the Korean conflict 
and their position in it. and to expose the false 
indoctrination of their Communist political offi- 
cei-s. This program is being prosecuted vigorously 
both by United Nations Command Headquarters 
and by the Eighth Army. More than 280 million 
copies of some 154 different leaflets have now been 
disseminated in Korea. These are complemented 
by front line broadcasts from ground and air- 
borne loudspeakers. Special radio broadcasts on 
1 March commemorated the 32nd anniversary of 
the Korean Declaration of Independence, and 
regular daily Unit«d Nations broadcasts continue 
to provide reliable news reports to Korean 
civilians. 

The void of reliable information concerning 
United Nations soldiere who have fallen into the 
hands of the enemy is another manifestation of 
the contempt in which the Communists apparently 
hold the international laws of war. In spite of 
their statements to the United Nations, we have 
no information indicating any compliance with 
tlie provisions of the Geneva Convention which 
require that a civilized nation render certain mini- 
mum reports on prisoners of war. The enemy 
have consistently pursued a viciously misleading 
pr-ogram wherein lughly colored propaganda has 
been substituted for the official, confirmed data 
required by the Geneva Convention. The Interna- 
tional Red Cross has not yet been permitted to 
establish liaison with United Nations prisoners 
held by the Communists nor to carry out other 
services usually provided by the Red Cross 
organization. 



April 30, 1957 



711 



Communiques Regarding Korea 
to tlie Security Council 

General Douglas MacArthur, Commander in 
Chief of United Nations Command, has transmit- 
ted communiques regarding Korea to the Secre- 
tary-General of the United Nations under the 
following United Nations document numbers: 
8/2039, March 14; S/2040, March 15; S/2042, 
March 16; S/2043, March 16; S/2045, March 20; 
S/2046, March 20; S/2051, March 21; S/2052, 
March 23; S/2054, March 26; S/2055, March 27; 
S/2066, April 3 ; S/2068, April 4 ; S/2073, April 6 ; 
S/2080, April 11 ; S/2081, April 11 ; S/2083, April 
11; S/2086, April 16. 



« 



ECOSOC Resolution on World 
Economic Situation 

U.N. doc. E/1977 
Adoptea Mar. 20, 1951 

The Economic and Social Council, 

Noting with interest the World Economic Report, 191i9- 
1950, prepared by the Secretariat, 

Taking into account General Assembly resolution 406 
(V) and 



Considering that: 

(a) The maintenance of international peace and 
security, the creation of conditions of economic stability, 
and the improvement of the standards of living of the 
world's population are permanent objectives of interna- 
tional economic and social co-operation among the United 
Nations ; 

(b) Continued progress in creating conditions of 
economic stability and in improving standards of living 
requires Increases in the production of food, raw mate- 
rials and manufactured goods ; 

(e) In the under-developed countries, progress to- 
ward the objectives enumerated in paragraph (b) is lim- 
ited by the characteristics of their pre.spnt economic 
structures, which are reflected in the nature of their for- 
eign trade, in the vulnerability of their terms of foreign 
trade, in their dependence on foreign countries for capital 
goods, in low levels of investment and in other factors 
both external and internal which contribute to their low 
living standards ; 

(d) Some of the adverse factors enumerated in para- 
graph (c) are being aggravated by new inflationary pres- 
sures, shortages of goods, regulation of prices at different 
relative levels for different products, and re-allocation of 
prodnctive factors, which are likely to affect unfavourably 
the rate or pattern of economic development of some 
countries ; 

(e) In the industrialized countries, particularly tho.se 
which are faced with the task of reconstruction and re- 
equipment as the result of war damage, the additional 
tasks assumed as a result of the international sitiintion 
are likely to cause inflationary pressures; 

(f ) Instability of jirices in international markets also 
affects indnsti'ialized countries ;inil. in many of them, ag- 
gravates internal disequilibrium and makes more difficult 
the necessary increase of tlieir production; 

(g) If appropriate measures are not taken, difficul- 
ties may arise in trade between the industrialized countries 



and the under-developed countries when present inflation- 
ary pressures subside and when reconversion of defence 
industries occurs ; and some of these difficulties would tend 
to increase the difference between the levels of their re- 
spective productive capacities and also to increase the 
vulnerability of their economies to a decline in the demand li 
for their products and to a fall in the prices of these prod- I ■ 
ucts in world markets, with consequent unfavourable eco- 
nomic and social effects ; 

1. RecommeniJs that all Members of the United Nations, 
during the period of general shortage of goods, take spe- 
cial measures to bring about adequate production and 
equitable international distribution of capital goods, es- 
sential consumers' goods and raw materials especially 
needed for the maintenance of the international peace 
and security, the preservation of standards of living and 
the furthering of economic development ; 

2. Recommends that all Members of the United Nations, 
during the period of general inflationary pressure, take 
measures, direct or indirect, to regulate at equitable levels 
and relationships, the prices of essential goods moving in 
international trade, including capital goods, essential con- 
sumers' goods and raw materials ; 

3. Recommends that the equitable regulation of distri- 
bution and prices referred to in recommendations 1 and 
2 above be maintained as long as strong inflationary 
pressures persist, in order to minimize changes in the 
purchasing power, in terms of imports, of current earn- 
ings from exports as well as of monetary assets ; 

4. Recommends further that all Members of the 
United Nations take all steps in their power to prevent 
the development of inflationary pressures, thereby pre- 
venting speculative profits and maintaining the purchas- 
ing power of the poorer sections of the population ; 

5. Amends paragraph 19 of resolution 290 (XI) to 
request that tlie group of experts to be appointed under 
that paragraph include in its report recommendations 
concerning the appropriate national and international 
measures required to mitigate the vulnerability of the 
economies of underdeveloped countries to fluctuations in 
international markets, including measures to adjust, 
establish and maintain appropriate relations between 
prices of raw materials, on the one hand, and essential 
manufactured goods on the other, and thus to insure 
greater economic stability ; and 

0. Rcqnrxts all Memliers of the United Nations to re- 
port to the thirteenth session of the Council on such 
action as they have taken under the present resolution; 
and 



B 



Having regard to the fact that various Governments 
have not bad sufficient time to study the ^Vorld Economic 
Report, 19'i9-lS50, particularly the sections on the eco- 
nomic conditions in the Middle East and in Africa ; 

Having keqard further to the radically changed eco- 
nomic conditions in the world since the ixTind covered 
by the Report, and liearing in mind that Members of 
the United Nations have not had sufficient time to re- 
spond to tlie invitation contained in General Assembly 
resolution 4(Xi (V) to submit tlieir views concerning the 
way in which the world situation lias affected their 
economic i)rogress and the prospects of continuing world 
economic expansion. 

Having regard finally to the request contained in 
the above resolution of the General Assenihly that the 
Council recommend to governments and to the General 
Assembly measures designed to make possible tlie un- 
interrupted progress of programmes of economic sta- 
bility and development, 

Dccidrn to consider further at its thirteentli session, 
tlie wiu'id economic situation in 1949-19ri0, and jMir- 
tieularly tlie sections of the report relating to the eco- 
nomic conditions in the Middle lOast and Africa, and the 
views submitted liy Members of the Unititl Nations in 
response to General Asseiiilily resolution 4(H) (V), with 
a view to making appropriate reconinicndations. 



712 



DepartmeM of State Bulletin 



U.S. Answers U.N. Questionnaire on Slavery and Servitude 



IT.N. doc. E/Ar.SS/Add.sn 
Transmitted Mar. 13. I'JDl 

8 U.S.C. 56, abolishing and proliibiting the 
holding of any person to service of labor under 
the system known as peonage ; 

18 U.S.C. 1581, providing criminal penalties for 
holding or returning any person to a condition of 
peonage or arresting him with the intent of plac- 
mghim in peonage; and 

18 U.S.C. 1582-1588, inclusive, prescribing 
criminal punishments for providing vessels for 
slave trade, kidnaping or enticing anyone into 
slavery or involuntary servitude, holding another 
in or selling him into involuntary servitude, en- 
gaging in the transportation or sale of slaves, 
serving on board a vessel engaged in the slave 
itrade, keeping slaves on board ship for the pur- 
pose of sale, or transporting anyone from any 
place in the United States to any other place to 
be held or sold as a slave. 

There are also related statutes which may have 
a bearing on enforcing the general prohibition 
against slavery and involuntary servitude, such 
as 18 U.S.C. 241 punishing conspiracy to injure 
any citizen in the free exercise or enjoyment of any 
right or privilege secured to him by the Constitu- 
tion or laws of the United States; 

18 U.S.C. 242, providing punishment of anyone 

who under color of law wilfully subjects any in- 

.; habitant of the United States to the deprivation of 

,'any rights, privileges or immunities secured or 

protected by the Constitution or laws of the 

United States ; 



Answer of United States to United Nations 
Questionnaire on Slavery and Servitude 

Question 1. Does slavery as deflned in Article 1 of the 
International Slavery (Convention of 1926 exist in any 
territory subject to the control of your Government? 

Ansive)'. No. The Thirteenth Amendment to 
the United States Constitution, adopted in 1865, 
abolished slavery and involuntary servitude. The 
first section of that amendment provides : 

I Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been 
duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or 
any place subject to their jurisdiction. 



Under the second section of the amendment, 
which confers upon the Congress of the United 
States power to enforce the amendment by appro- 
priate legislation, the Congress has enacted 
statutes, such as 

8 U.S.C. 56, abolishing and prohibiting the 
holding of any person to sei-vice of labor under 
the system known as peonage; 

18 U.S.C. 1581, providing criminal penalties 
for holding or retui-ning any person to a condition 
of peonage or arresting him with the intent of 
placing him in peonage ; and 

18 U.S.C. 1582-1588, inclusive, prescribing 
criminal punishments for providing vessels for 
slave trade, kidnaping or enticing anyone into 
slavery or involuntary servitude, holding another 
in or selling him into involuntary servitude, en- 
gaging in the transportation or sale of slaves, 
serving on board a vessel engaged in the slave 
trade, keeping slaves on board ship for the pur- 
pose of sale, or transporting anyone from any 
place in the United States to any other place to 
be held or sold as a slave. 

There are also related statutes which may have 
a bearing on enforcing the general prohibition 
against slavery and involuntary servitude, such 
as 18 U.S.C. 241 punishing conspiracy to injure 
any citizen in the free exercise or enjoyment of 
any right or privilege secured to him by the Con- 
stitution or laws of the United States; 

18 U.S.C. 242, providing punishment of any- 
one who under color of law wilfully subjects any 
inhabitant of the United States to the deprivation 
of any rights, privileges or immunities secured 
or protected by the Constitution or laws of the 
United States; 

8 U.S.C. 43 and 47, providing civil remedies for 
persons injured by violations more or less co-ex- 
tensive with the violations of 18 U.S.C. 241 and 
242; 

18 U.S.C. 1201, providing punishment for trans- 
portation in interstate or foreign commerce of 
kidnaped persons; and 

18 U.S.C. 2421-2424, dealing with white-slave 
traffic, and making punishable the transportation, 
coercion or enticement of any woman or girl in 
interstate or foreign commerce for the purpose of 
prostitution. 



April 30, 7957 



713 



ff 



Question 2. Does the slave trade, as defined in Article I 
of the International Slavery Convention of 1926, exist in 
any of the territories subject to the control of your 
Government? 

Answer. No. The slave trade has been particu- 
larly singled out for prohibition and punishment 
in the sections of law, 18 U.S.C. 1582-1588, sum- 
marized in the answer to Question 1 above. 

Question 3. Do any practices exist in any territory sub- 
ject to the control of your Government which are restric- 
tive of the liberty of the person and which tend to subject 
that person to a state of servitude, as for instance: 

(a) Serfdom (compulsory and hereditary attach- 
ment to land accompanied by obligations to render serv- 
ice to the landlord) ; 

(b) Traditional forms of involuntary unpaid service 
exacted by land owners and other employers of labour 
[Such as concertaje, servicio personal, pongaje or pon- 
gueajo, yanaconazgo, and others] ; 

(c) Debt bondage [Such as siringalcs or cauchales'] ; 

(d) Pledging and pawning of third persons as security 
for debt [Such as ixvofa\ ; 

(e) Exploitation of children under the form of 
adoption ; 

(f ) Purchase of wives and inheritance of widows by 
the heir of the deceased husband involving involuntary 
subjection of a woman to a man not of her choice ; 

(g) Forms of prostitution of women and children in- 
volving exercise of ownership over them? 

Please describe in detail such institutions or practices 
which may exist. 

Answer. No. However, while slavery has dis- 
appeared in the United States, federal authori- 
ties do receive complaints concerninp; possible 
violations by individuals of the laws forbiddino; 
involuntary servitude. Upon investigation, some 
of the complaints have resulted in the bringing 
of indictments, and in convictions, e.g.. United 
States V. Bumette (U.S.D.C, S.D. Miss., 1945), 
plea of guilty on a charge of holding a Negro 
woman and her son in involuntary servitude; 
Pierce v. United States, 146 F. (2d) 84 (CCA. 
5, 1944), affinning a peonage conviction based 
u]wn forced prostitution; United States v. I?i- 
ffalls, 73 F. Supp. 76 (U.S.D.C, S.D. Cal., 1947), 
conviction for inducing a personal servant to be 
held as a slave. 

Question J/. What legislation has been passed, and what 
adniiiiLstrative methods have been applied, since 1926, to 
checli slavery, the slave trade, or any practices which are 
restrictive of tlie liberty of the person and which tend 
to subject that person to a state of servitude? 

Answer. All of the significant legislation, cited 
in the answer to Question 1 above was enacted 
prior to 1926 with tlie following two exceptions. 
The revision of Title IS, U.S.C, effective Sep- 
tember 1, 1948, made clear by a technical altera- 
tion effected in 18 U.S.C. 1584 that the holding to 
or selling into any kind of involuntary servitude 
M-as a punisiiable offense. The i<i(lnapuig statute, 
18 U.S.C. 1201, wliich is sometimes referred to 
as the Lindbergh kidnaping law, became law on 
Juno 22, 1932. 

Regarding administrative metliods to check 
practices wliich tend to subject any person to a 



state of servitude, the investigations and prosecu- 
cutions upon individual complaints have been re- 
ferred to in the answer to Question 3 above. In 
this connection, in 1939, there was established in 
the federal Department of Justice a Civil Rights 
Section to give special attention to the enforce- 
ment of federal civil rights statutes. Moreover, 
the executive branch of the Government has re- 
quested from the legislative branch a general over- 
hauling of the federal civil rights statutes in 
order to improve the means of investigating and 
prosecuting alleged offenses. 

Question 5. What have been the results of the applica- 
tion of these measures and activities? 

A^hswer. Slavery, the slave trade and practices 
which are restrictions of liberty of person and 
which tend to subject a person to a state of servi- 
tude have disappeared. However, as pointed out 
in answer to Question 3 above, complaints are re- 
ceived from time to time concerning possible vio- 
lations by individuals of laws forbidding 
involuntary servitude, and upon investigation 
some of these complaints have resulted in the 
bringing of indictments and in convictions. 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Religious Advisory Panel Named 

[Released to the press April 2i] 

Representatives of the Catholic, Jewish, and 
Protestant faiths have been invited to become the 
members of a religious advisory panel to meet 
regularly with Edward W. Barrett, Assistant 
Secretary for Public Affairs to consider the pres- 
ent religious content of Voice of America pro- 
grams and other output of the United States 
International Information and Educational 
Exchange Program. 

The panel, which held its first meeting with 
Mr. Barrett at th&^Department of State today, 
consists of Monsig. Thomas J. McCarthy of the ' 
National Catholic Welfare Conference, Isaac 
Franck, of the Jewish Community Council of 
Greater Washington, and Rev. Edward Hughes 
Prudcn, President of the American Baptist Con- 
vention, all residing in Waslungton. 

"We are convinced that our Campaign of Truth 
can be matlo tremendously more effective through 
increasing tlie projiortion of religious materials 
in the radio programs, pamphlets, and motion 
pictures that we are sending to people of all 
religious faiths the world over," Mr. Barrett said. 
"We will of course continue to adhere strictly to 
the princi]ile of absolute impartiality in dealing 
with tlie various religious sects." 



714 



Department of State Bulletin 



Personnel Improvement Plans Announced 

The Secretary of State made public on April 16 
a report prepared by a special Advisory Commit- 
tee on Personnel outlining an improved personnel 
system for the conduct of foreign affairs. At the 
same time, the Secretary disclosed that a number 
of the Advisory Committee's recommendations 
have been included in a State Department direc- 
tive to improve the personnel program of the De- 
partment and the unified Foreign Service. 

Purpose of Advisory Committee 

Members of the Advisory Committee included 
James H. Rowe, Jr., attorney engaged in private 
practice in Washington; Robert Ramspeck, for- 
mer Congi-essman and more recently Executive 
Vice President of the Air Transport Association 
of America prior to his appointment as Chairman 
of the United States Civil Service Commission; 
and William E. DeCourcy, Foreign Service officer 
and Ambassador to Haiti. 

The Rowe-Ramspeck-DeCourcy Committee had 
been set up to advise the Secretary whether any 
fundamental changes were required in the person- 
nel systems and relationships of the Department 
of State and the Foreign Service of the United 
States, including steps that would bring about a 
closer integration of the two services. At present, 
pei-sonnel of the Department of State proper are 
administered under the general Civil Service per- 
sonnel system, whereas employees of the Foreign 
Service are administered under a separate statute 
not under the Civil Service. Proposals have been 
made, from time to time, to place these two groups 
of employees under a single personnel system. 
This course of action was recommended by the 
Commission on Organization of the Executive 
Branch of the Government (The Hoover Com- 
mission). 

Recommendations 

Basically, the Rowe-Ramspeck-DeCourcy Com- 
mittee, after careful study and inquiry including 
an intensive appraisal of employee attitudes, made 
the following recommendations: 

A. ESTABLISHMENT OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS SERVICE 

1. The personnel of the Department and of 
the Foreign Service should be placed in one serv- 
ice under a single, but flexible, personnel system. 

2. This system should be established initially 
outside the Civil Sei'vice. 

3. It should adequately meet the needs of 
other agencies of Government concerned with 
foreign affairs. 

B. CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPROVED PERSONNEL SYSTEM 

1. The framework of the new service should 
provide for a single Foreign Affairs Officer cate- 



gory to include general and specialized officers 
concerned with the substantive aspects of foreign 
affairs. 

2. The i^ersonnel system for the new service 
should be based on maintaining the career prin- 
ciple with entry governed by a strict qualifying 
process ; advancement on the basis of merit ; care- 
fully controlled use of lateral appointments at 
higher grades ; and separation of those whose per- 
formance unduly inhibits the advancement of 
more able employees. 

3. At the same time, the personnel system 
should be sufficiently flexible to permit rapid ex- 
pansion and contraction j to assure a proper blend- 
ing of generalists, specialists, and career execu- 
tives; to enable those with specialized training 
and interests to enter the service and advance in 
their respective fields; to make lateral appoint- 
ments from the outside whenever the service can- 
not itself supply enough qualified staff; and to 
enable outstanding officers to receive adequate 
recognition in promotion. 

4. The personnel system should eliminate 
certain inequities which now exist with respect to 
pay, retirement, and leave benefits. 

5. Personnel should be administered under a 
common set of policies which adequately recog- 
nize the conditions of overseas service, and they 
should serve at home or abroad as the needs of 
the service might require. 

C. TRANSITION TO NEW SERVICE 

1. Studies should be started without delay 
to prepare the statutory basis for the integrated 
personnel system. 

2. Pending the enactment of legislation, all 
possible steps should be taken administratively 
to work toward an integrated service. 

Objectives 

Tlie principal objectives as outlined in the di- 
rective issued by Mr. Humelsine are as follows : 

1. To obtain, develop, and maintain an expe- 
rienced and versatile career service capable of 
meeting present and future needs of the Depart- 
ment and Foreign Service in the conduct of foreign 
affairs and to provide means for quickly supple- 
menting this staff whenever conditions require 
temporary or permanent expansion of personnel. 

2. To make maximum use of skills and abilities 
of Departmental and Foreign Service personnel 
and broaden the range of their usefulness through 
training and other developmental programs. 

3. To eliminate inequities in the treatment of 
certain categories of Foreign Service personnel. 

4. To increase through voluntary means the 
flexible use of Departmental and Foreign Service 
personnel interchangeably between overseas and 
domestic assignments. 

These objectives, the Secretary stated, are in 
line with the Committee's recommendations and 



April 30, 1 95 J 



715 



will lay the groundwork for undertaking possible 
further integration of the two services at some 
time in the future. 

Text of Secretary AchesorCs Letter to Members of 
the Advisory Committee, 

I wish to express my appreciation for your ex- 
cellent report on "An Improved Personnel System 
for the Conduct of Foreign Affairs." I have read 
it with interest and you may be sure that the De- 
partment will put as many of your recommenda- 
tions into effect as practicable under present day 
conditions. 

In essence you have recommended that the per- 
sonnel of the Department and of the Foreign Serv- 
ice be placed under a single personnel system 
initially outside the Civil Service. You have pro- 
posed that this system be based on the career prin- 
ciple and made sufficiently flexible to meet the 
needs of the Government for the conduct of for- 
eign affairs. 

I have accepted your basic recommendations 
regarding the characteristics of an improved per- 
sonnel system and program. The Department will 
therefore endeavor to adjust the present Foreign 
Service personnel system through administrative 
and legislative means to closely parallel in char- 
acter the system which you have recommended. 
Concurrently, we will make corollary administra- 
tive improvements within the framework of the 
Departmental Civil Service system. 

However, I believe the emphasis on integration 
of the two Services should be placed on the Foreign 
Service and those positions in the Department for 
which continuing overseas experience is essential 
or desirable. Common conditions of employment 
can reasonably be applied to the personnel used to 
staff these positions, whereas this is not practicable 
for a large segment of the Departmental Service. 

Secondly, I feel it is essential that Departmental 
employees not be penalized for failure to accept the 
conditions of employment implicit in an inte- 
gi-ated Service. Eather, their availability for con- 
tinuing service at home and abroad should be 
accomplished on a voluntary basis. Accordingly, 
the Department favors and will promote the en- 
trance into an improved Foreign Service personnel 
system of Departmental employees who are quali- 
fied and willing to accept dual service at home and 
abroad. Above and beyond this, the Department 
will endeavor to increase substantially the number 
of Departmental employees possessing overseas ex- 
perience but who are unable to assume the obliga- 
tion of dual service for a protracted period. 

This approach is consistent with the ultimate 
objective of a fully integrated Service. Once we 
have attained the more immediate goal of an im- 
])roved personnel system coupled with partial steps 
toward integration, the Department will liave a 
more informed basis for deciding whether to un- 
dertake additional steps toward further integra- 
tion. 

716 



Mr. Humelsine, Deputy Under Secretary for 
Administration, has been directed and authorized 
to carry out this program without delay. I have 
asked him to bear constantly in mind your wise 
caution, concerning a gradual and considered ap- 
plication of basic changes in the present personnel 
systems of the Department and the Foreign 
Service. 

I inclose a copy of the Directive which Mr. 
Humelsine has been authorized to issue. You will 
note that it embodies a considerable number of 
your basic recommendations. The Board of For- 
eign Service, which includes advisers from other iJ 
Federal agencies with an interest in foreign affairs, '■ 
has concurred in this Directive. In this connection 
we propose to extend the scope of the home assign- 
ment program considerably to permit Foreign 
Service personnel to be assigned to other Federal 
agencies in the United States on a reimbursable 
exchange basis. 

Mr. Humelsine is also planning to circulate your 
report within the Department of State and the 
Foreign Service, as well as making it available to 
the press and to interested outside groups. We 
want everyone concerned to have an opportunity 
to read your recommendations directly at the same 
time that we annoimce the Department's proposed 
course of action. 

Mr. Humelsine and I will be glad to meet with 
you and with the Committee's Staff Director, Mr. 
William Howell, to elaborate on tlie Department's 
intended course of action. I am inclosing a copy 
of a letter to Mr. Howell. 



Ben Hibbs Confirmed as Member 
of Information Advisory Commission 

On April 18, the Senate confirmed the nomination of 
Ben Hibbs as a member of the United States Advisory 
Commission on Information, term expiring January 
27, 1954. 



FOREIGN SERVICE 



Confirmations 

On April 17, tlie Sen.nte conflrmod the nomination of 
Philip H. Floming as American Amliassador Extrsiordl- 
nary and Plenipotentiary to Costa Rica. 

On April IS, the Senate confirmed the following 
nominations : 

Georgo K. Morrell as American .\mbassador Extraordi- 
nary and Plenipotentiary to .\fj;hanistan ; 

Paul C. Daniels as American Ambas.sador Extraordi- 
nary and Plenipotentiary to Kcuador : 

J. Ri\es t'liilds lis American Ambassador Extraordi- 
nary and Plenipotentiary to Ethiopia. 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Proposals Set Forth for Emergency Assistance to Yugoslavia 



TEXT OF U. S. NOTE TO YUGOSLAVIA 



[Released to the press April 18] 

The State Department today made puilio the text of 
a note to the Yugoslav Oovernment dated April 17, 1951, 
in connection with the President's announcement of April 
16 that Military Defense Assistance funds not to exceed 
29 million dollars will be made arailahle to Yugoslavia. 
The note, signed hy United States Ambassador to 
Yugoslavia Oeorge V. Allen, is as follows. 

I have the honor to refer to the request sub- 
mitted to the Secretary of State of the United 
States of America, by the Ambassador of the 
Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia for 
further assistance to meet the emergency in 
Yugoslavia resulting from the recent drought. 

Particular reference is made to that part of 
your country's shortage of raw materifjs and 
other supplies which affects the continued ability 
of the Government of the Federal People's Repub- 
lic of Yugoslavia to support the materiel require- 
ments of its military forces. It is understood 
that the shortage of such raw materials and sup- 
plies results from the recent drought that depleted 
Yugoslavia of those agricultural commodities by 
export of which Yugoslavia normally acquires 
these raw materials and supplies, and that such 
shortage is now, in consequence, so drastic as 
seriously to impair the ability of the Government 
of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia 
to defend itself against aggi'ession. 

Our two Governments are both desirous of fos- 
tering international peace and security within the 
framework of the Charter of the United Nations 
through measures which will further the ability 
of nations dedicated to the purposes and principles 
of the Charter to participate effectively in arrange- 
ments for individual and collective self-defense 
in support of these purposes and principles. 

Accordingly, I am pleased to inform you that 
the Government of the United States of America 
is prepared, pursuant to the provisions of Public 
Law 329, 81st Congress, as amended, to extend 
immediate assistance in the form of raw materials 
and other supplies in amounts and kinds equiva- 
lent to certain consumption needs for supporting 
the armed forces of the Federal People's Republic 



of Yugoslavia on the following mutually agreed 
basis : 

1. The Government of the Federal People's 
Republic of Yugoslavia will use the assistance ex- 
clusively for the purpose for which it is fur- 
nished, namely in furtherance of the purposes of 
the Charter of the United Nations and to 
strengthen the defense of the Federal People's 
Republic of Yugoslavia against aggression; 

2. The Government of the Federal People's 
Republic of Yugoslavia agi-ees not to transfer to 
any other Nation the assistance furnished pursu- 
ant to this agreement without the prior consent of 
the Government of the United States of America ; 

3. The Government of the Federal People's 
Republic of Yugoslavia will provide the United 
States of America with reciprocal assistance by 
continuing to facilitate the production and trans- 
fer to the United States of America in such quan- 
tities and upon such terms and conditions as may 
be agi'eed on, of raw and semiprocessed materials 
required by the United States of America as a 
result of deficiencies or potential deficiencies in its 
own resources, and which may be available in 
Yugoslavia. Arrangements for such transfers 
shall give due regard to requirements of Yugo- 
slavia for domestic use and commercial export; 

4. The Government of the Federal People's 
Republic of Yugoslavia will permit and facilitate 
in every way the freedom of the Representatives of 
the Government of the United States of America, 
duly designated for this purpose by the United 
States Ambassador to Yugoslavia, without restric- 
tion, to observe, supervise and report on the receipt 
and distribution in Yugoslavia of commodities and 
other assistance made available pursuant to this 
agreement, and to cooperate fully with them by 
permitting them to have full access to communi- 
cation and information facilities. The Govern- 
ment of the Federal People's Republic of Yugo- 
slavia will afford to such representatives of the 
Government of the United States of America op- 
portunity to make their observations known to, 
and to discuss the necessary supply and transpor- 
tation arrangements with, the appropriate officials 
of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. 
The Government of the Federal People's Republic 
of Yugoslavia is prepared to provide periodical 



April 30, J 95 J 



717 



reports concerning the use made of this assistance: 

5. The Government of the United States of 
America and the Government of the Federal Peo- 
ple's Republic of Yugoslavia recognize that it is 
in their mutual interest that consistent with the 
requirements of security, full publicity be given 
to the objectives and progress of the assistance 
being rendered pursuant to this agreement and 
that all pertinent information be made available 
to the people of Yugoslavia ; 

6. The Government of the Federal People's 
Republic of Yugoslavia will take appropriate 
measures to enable it to become independent of 
extraordinary outside assistance ; 

7. The Government of the Federal People's 
Republic of Yugoslavia will establish a special 
account in the Central Bank of Yugoslavia in the 
name of the Government of the Federal People's 
Republic of Yugoslavia (hereinafter called the 
Special Account) and will make deposits in dinars 
to this account in amounts commensurate with 
the indicated dollar cost to the Government of the 
United States of America of commodities and 
services (including any cost of processing, storing, 
transporting, repairing, or other services incident 
thereto) made available to the Federal People's 
Republic of Yugoslavia pursuant to this agree- 
ment. The Government of the United States shall 
from time to time notify the Government of the 
Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia of the 
indicated dollar cost of any such commodities and 
services, and the Government of the Federal 
People's Republic of Yugoslavia will thereupon 
deposit in the Special Account a commensurate 
amount of dinars computed at a rate of exchange 
which shall be the par value agreed at such time 
with the International Monetary Fund. The Gov- 
ernment of the Federal People's Republic of Yugo- 
slavia may at any time make advance deposits in 
the Special Account which shall be credited 
against subsequent notifications pursuant to this 
paragraph ; 

b. The Government of the United States 
will from time to time notify the Government of 
the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia of 
its requirements for administrative and operating 
expenditures in dinars within Yugoslavia incident 
to the assistance herein, and the Government of 
the Federal People's Republic will thereupon 
make such sums available out of any balances in 
the Special Account in the manner requested by 
the Government of the United States in the noti- 
fication ; 

c. Five per cent of each deposit made pur- 
suant to this paragraph in respect of the assist- 
ance herein shall be allocated to the use of the 
Government of the United States for its expendi- 
tures in Yugoslavia and sums made available pur- 
suant to part b. of this paragraph shall first be 
charged to the amounts allocated under this 5 
per cent ; 

d. The Government of the Federal People's 

718 



Republic may draw upon any remaining balance 
in the Special Account for such purposes as may 
be agreed from time to time with the Government 
of the United States of America consistent with 
tlie objectives of this agreement ; 

8. The Government of the United States of 
America reserves the right at any time to termi- 
nate its assistance to Yugoslavia made available 
pursuant to this agreement, including termination 
of deliveries of all supplies scheduled but not yet 
delivered. 

Your Excellency will note that with the excep- 
tion of paragraph 7 above the foregoing consti- 
tutes a reiteration, appropriate changes having 
been made, of the assurances contained in the ex- 
changes of notes on November 17, 20 and 21, 1950, 
regarding supplies furnished to Yugoslavia under 
the MDAA and of the agreement signed on Janu- 
ary 6, 1951, regarding the provision of foodstuflFs 
by the United States Government in accordance 
witli the provisions of the Yugoslav Emergency 
Relief Assistance Act of 1950. 

If the Yugoslav Government after considering 
the foregoing proposals is in accord with them, I 
have the honor to propose that this note, together 
with the reply of the Government of the Federal 
People's Republic of Yugoslavia so indicating, 
constitute an agreement, effective on the date of 
your reply.^ 



LETTER FROM PRESIDENT 

TO SENATE AND HOUSE COMMITTEES 

[Released to the press hy the White House April 16] 

The President today sent the follomng identical letters 
to the Chairmen of the Senate and House AmKd SenHces 
and Foreign Affairs Committees. 

My dear Mr. Chairman: As you know, the 
United States has provided emergency food assis- 
tance to Yugoslavia during the past months to 
meet the threat to the security of that country 
caused by the recent drought : initially, under the 
provisions of the Mutual Defense Assistance Act, 
the Economic Cooperation Act, and through loans 
made by the Export-Import Bank ; and then under 
tile provisions of the Yugoslav Emergency Relief 
Assistance Act. The drought which gave rise to 
the need for assistance, however, not only caused 
a shortage in the availability of food for consump- 
tion in Yugoslavia, but also has made it impossible 
for Yugoslavia to export the agricultural products 
with which Yugoslavia normally obtains the re- 
sources to pay for imports of critically needed 
raw materials. The consequent shortage of raw 
materials, which includes those basic to tlie needs 



' The YuKoslav note, signed by the Deputy Minister of 
Foreign Affairs of the Yugoslav Governmont, states that 
the Yugoslav Government is In accoril with the U.S. 
note. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Df the Yugoslav armed forces, is so acute as to 
jeopardize the combat effectiveness of the Yugo- 
■ilav armed forces and to weaken the ability of 
Jugoslavia to defend itself against aggression. 
This development seriousl}' affects the security of 
:he North Atlantic area. 

As I explained to you in my letter of November 
24, 1950, and for the reasons stated therein, I have 
found that Yugoslavia is a nation whose strategic 
location makes it of direct importance to the de- 
fense of the North Atlantic area, and that an 
immediate increase in its ability to defend itself 
)ver that which exists if no assistance is supplied 
(vill contribute to the preservation of the peace 
ind security of the North Atlantic area. 

I have determined, therefore, after consultation 



with the Governments of the other nations which 
are parties to the North Atlantic Treaty, that in 
order effectively to carry out the purposes of 
the Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949, as 
amended, it is essential as an immediate measure 
to use not to exceed $29 million of the funds 
appropriated for the purposes of Title I of that 
Act to provide raw materials and similar supplies 
for Yugoslavia in amounts and kinds equivalent 
to certain consumption needs for supporting its 
armed forces. I am, under the authority of that 
Act, approving the procurement and shipment 
of such materials and supplies. 

This letter constitutes the notification required 
by Section 408 (c) of the Mutual Defense Assist- 
ance Act, as amended. 



.egislation 

Jnivpisal Military Training and Service Act of 1951. 
Hearings before the prepare<lness subcommittee of the 
Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, 
Eighty-second Congress, first session, on S. 1, a bill 
to provide for the common defense and security of the 
United States and to permit the more effective utiliza- 
tion of manpower resources of the United States by 
authorizing universal military service and training, 
and for other purposes. January 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 
17, 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, and February 2, 1951. 
[Contents lists statements, dates, and charts.] six, 
1243 pp. 

Emergency Powers of the President. Hearings before the 
Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Depart- 
ments, United States Senate, Eighty-first Congress, 
second session, on S. 4264, to amend and extend cer- 
tain provisions of the First War Powers Act, 1941, S. 
4266, to amend and extend title II of the First War 
Powers Act, 1941, December 20, 1950, and S. 101 (82d 
Cong., 1st sess. ) to amend the Reorganization Act 
of 1949, January 23, 1951. iii, 79 pp. 

\^ssignment of Ground Forces of the United States to Duty 
in the European Area. Hearings before the Commit- 
tee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Armed 
Services, United States Senate, Eighty-second Con- 
gress, first session, on S. Con. Res. 8, a concurrent 
resolution relative to the assignment of ground forces 
of the United States to duty In the European area. 
February 1, 15. 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, and 28, 
1951. iv, 819 pp. [Department of State, pp. 77-125.] 

' iv, 819 pp. 

nvestigation of Shipments to Communist China. Hear- 
ings before a subcommittee of the Committee on 
Interstate and Foreign Commerce, . . . October 17, 
19, 30, November 21 and 22, 1950. [Department of 
State, pp. 88-96.] iii, 199 pp. 

development of a Twenty-Year Programme for Achieving 
i'eace Tlirough the United Nations. E/1900, February 
12, 1951. 18 pp. mimeo. 

Vorld Economic Report 1949-50, Preliminary edition. 
E/1910, January 29, 1951. 392 pp. mimeo. 

lelief and Rehabilitation of Korea. E/1913, February 12, 
1951. 35 pp. mimeo. 

Jranting of Permanent Residence to Certain Aliens. H. 
Kept. 181, 82d Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany H. 
Con. Res. 62] 2 pp. 

Uien Property Claims. S. Rept. 59, 82d Cong. 1st sess. 
(To accomi)any S. 28] 6 pp. 



^pril 30, 1951 



India Emergency Assistance Act of 1951. Report of the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs on H. R. 3017, a bill 
to furnish emergency food relief assistance to India. 
H. Rept. 185, 82d Cong. 1st sess. iii, 37 pp. 

Extending the Time for the Filing of Certain Claims Un- 
der the War Claims Act of 1948. H. Rept. 217, 82d 
Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany S. J. Res. 40] 4 pp. 

Study of the Health of World War II Prisoners of War. 
H. Rept. 228, 82d Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany 
H. R. 304] 8 pp. 

Ninth Report to Congress of the B3conomic Cooperation 
Administration. Supplement. EJoonomic Coopera- 
tion Agreements and Other Documents, July 1, 1950- 
December 31, 1050. H. Doc. 713, Part 2, 81st Cong. 
2d sess. V. 100 pp. 

Reports To Be Made To Congress. Letter From the Clerk 
of the House of Representatives transmitting a list 
of reports which it is the duty of any officer of de- 
partment to make to Congress. H. Doc. 27, 82d 
Cong. 1st sess. 39 pp. 

Tenth Report to Congress of the Economic Cooperation 
Administration. For the Quarter Ended September 
30, 1950. H. Doc. 52, 82d Cong. 1st sess. xi, 147 pp. 

Assistance to the Republic of India. Message from the 
President of the United States transmitting a recom- 
mendation . . . H. Doc. 56, 82d Cong. 1st sess. 4 pp. 

Proposed Supplemental Appropriations, Involving an In- 
crease, for Various Agencies in the Executive Branch. 
Communication from the President of the United 
States ... an Increase of $36,694,250 . . . H. Doc. 66, 
S2d Cong. 1st sess. 10 pp. 

Proposed Supplemental Appropriations Together with 
Proposed Provisions and Increases in Limitations 
Pertaining to Existing Appropriations. Communica- 
tion from the President of the United States . . . 
In the amount of $242,165,024 . . . . H. Doc. 67, 82d 
Cong. 1st sess. 18 pp. 

Proposed Supplemental Appropriation for the Department 
of State. Communication from the President of the 
United States ... in the amount of $97,.500,00. . . . 
H. Doc. 74, 82d Cong. 1st sess. 2 pp. 

Amending the Reorganization Act of 1949. S. Rept. 45, 
82d Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany S. 101] 12 pp. 

Certain Cases in Which the Attorney General Had Sus- 
pended Deportation. S. Rept. 69, 82d Cong. 1st sess. 
[To accompany S. Con. Res. 9] 2 pp. Also, S. Rept. 
70, 82d Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany S. Con. Res. 
10] 2 pp. Also, S. Rept. 137, 82d Cong. 1st sess. 
[To accompany S. Con. Res. 15] 2 pp. 

719 



II 



April 30, 1951 



Ind 



e X 



Vol. XXIV, No. 617 



Africa ^"^^ 

ETHIOPIA: Troops Join U.N. Forces In Korea . 709 

Aid to Foreign Countries 

Par East: Policy and Action (Acheson before 

Women's Natl. Press Club) 685 

YUGOSLAVIA: Emergency Aid: 

Letter, Text (Truman to Cong. Cttees.) . . 718 
VB. Note, Text (Allen) 717 

American Republics 

American National Ballet Theatre on Tour . . 700 
CANAL ZONE: Regulations re Safeguarding of 

Vessels Ports, and Waterfront Facilities In 

Canal Zone (Ex. Or. 10226) 698 

Economic Problems in the Present Danger 

(Thorp in OAS Cttee.) 693 

Inter-American Relations Reviewed (Dreler 

before Pan Am. Soc. of New Eng.) .... 688 

Arms and Armed Forces 

Economic Problems Facing American Republics 

(Thorp In OAS Cttee.) 693 

Inter-American Relations Reviewed (Dreler 

before Pan Am. Soc. of New Etog.) . . . 688 

Par Eastern Policy: Debate, Decision, and 
Action (Acheson before Women's Natl. Press 

Club) 683 

IRAN: U.S.-U.K. Discuss Mutual Interests . . 700 
JAPAN: Peace Treaty: 

Far Eastern Policy and Action VK-Cheson be- 
fore Women's Natl. Press Club) 684 

Negotiations With Pacific Ocean Countries 

(Truman) 699 

KOREA: 

Communiques to Security Council .... 712 
Ethiopian Troops Join U.N. Forces .... 709 
Far Eastern Policy and Action (Acheson 

before Women's Natl. Press Club) .... 686 
TT.N. Command Operations, 17th Report 

(Mar. 1-15. 1951) 710 

South Pacific Commission, 7th Session . . . 707 

Communism 

Inter-American Relations Reviewed (Dreler 

before Pan Am. Soc. of New Eng.) . . . 688 

Our Far Eastern Policy: Debate, Decision, and 
Action (Acheson before Women's Natl. Press 
Club) 683 

Progress on Point 4 Program (Truman) . . . 699 

VOA Transmission of Darkness at Noon . . . 700 

Congress 

Confirmations 716 

Legislation Listed 719 

YUGOSLAVIA: Emergency Aid: 

Letter, Text (Truman to Cong. Cttees.) . . 718 

U.S. Note, Text (Allen) 717 

Europe 

U.K.: U.S.-U.K. Discuss Mutual Interests In 

Iran 700 

YUGOSLAVIA: Emergency Aid: 

Letter, Text (Truman to Cong. Cttees.) . . 718 
U.S. Note, Text (Allen) 717 

Foreign Service 

Confirmations 716 

Personel Improvement Plans Announced . . . 715 

Human Rights 

UjS. Answers U.N. Slavery-Servitude Question- 
naire 713 

Informational and Educational Exchange Program 

American Ballet Theatre on South American 

Tour 700 

Ben Hibbs Confirmed to Information Advisory 

Commission 716 

Religious Advisory Panel Named 714 

VOA : Transmission of Darkness at Noon . . . 700 

International Meetings 

GAIT: Torquay Conference Ended 701 

International Materials Conference (IMC) : 

Progress Report of Committees 704 

Composition of Committees: 

Manganese, Nickel, and Cobalt 705 

Tungsten and Molybdenum 706 

UNESCO: Conference on Improvement of Biblio- 
graphic Services (Shera) 707 



U.S. Delegations: Page 

Population Commission (ECOSOC) .... 706 
South Pacific Commission, 7th Session . . . 707 

Mutual Aid and Defense 

Economic Problems Facing American Republics 

(Thorp in OAS Cttee.) 693 

Emergency Aid to Yugoslavia: 

Letter, Text (Truman to Cong. Cttees.) . . 718 

U.S. Note, Text (Allen) 717 

Inter-American Relations Reviewed (Dreler 

before Pan Am. Soc. of New Eng.) . . . 688 
Strengthening Position of Free World In Pacific 

Ocean Area (Truman) 699 

Presidential Documents 

CORRESPONDENCE: Congressional Committees 

on Emergency Aid to Yugoslavia .... 718 

EX. OR. 10226: Regulations re Safeguarding of 
Vessels, Ports, and Waterfront Facilities In 
Canal Zone 698 

State, Department of 

Personnel Improvement Plans Announced . . 715 
Religious Advisory Panel Named 714 

Strategic Materials 

Economic Problems Facing American Republics 

(Thorp In OAS Cttee.) 693 

Inter-American Relations Reviewed (Dreler 

before Pan Am. Soc. of New Eng.) . . . 688 
International Materials Conference (IMC): 

Progress Report of Committees 704 

Composition of Committees: 

Manganese, Nickel, and Cobalt 705 

Tungsten and Molybdenum 706 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

Economic Problems Facing American Republics 

(Thorp In OAS Cttee.) 693 

POINT 4: Progress (Truman) 699 

Trade 

Economic Problems Facing American Republics 

(Thorp in OAS Cttee.) 693 

GATT: Torquay Conference. Statement by 

Participating Governments 701 

Transportation 

Regulations re Safeguarding of Vessels, Ports, 
and Waterfront Facilities In Canal Zone 
(Ex. Or. 10226) 698 

Treaties and Other International Agreements 
GATT: Torquay Conference. Statement by 

Participating Governments 701 

JAPAN: Peace Treaty: 

Far East Policy and Action (Acheson before 

Women's Natl. Press Club) 684 

Negotiations With Pacific Ocean Coxintrles 

(Truman) 699 

United Nations 

Communiques Regarding Korea 712 

ECOSOC Resolution on World Economic Situ- 
ation 712 

Ethiopian Troops Join U.N. Forces In Korea . . 709 
UNESCO: Conference on Improvement of Biblio- 
graphic Services (Shera) 707 

U.N. Command Operations in Korea, 17th Report 

(Mar. 1-15. 1951) 710 

U.S. Answers Slavery-Servitude Questionnaire . 713 

Name Index 

Acheson, Secretary Dean 683, 716 

Allen, George V 717 

Austin, Warren R 710 

Childs, J. Rives 716 

Critchett, J. H 706 

Daniels, Paul C 716 

Dreler. John C 688 

Evans, John W 706 

Fleming, Philip B 716 

Hauser, Dr. Philip M 706 

Hibbs, Ben 716 

Keesing. Dr. Felix M 707 

MacArthur, Gen. Douglas 712 

Merrell, George R 716 

Shera, Jesse H 707 

Thorp, Willard L 693 

Truman, President Harry S 698, 699, 718 

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICEi 1911 



tJ/ie/ u)eha/)(£7nenl/ xw trtaCe/ 




RELEASE OF ROBERT A. VOGELER BY THE 

HUNGARIAN GOVERNMENT 723 

PEACE WITHOUT FEAR • hy Ambassador John Foster 

Dulles 726 

OUTLOOK AND TASKS AHEAD FOR GERMANY: 
OUTLINE OF UNITED STATES POLICIES • by 

John J. McCloy, U.S. High Commissioner ...... 736 

THE PHONY "PEACE" OFFENSIVE • by Assistant 

Secretary Hickerson 731 



For index see back cover 



Vol. XXI F, No. 618 
May 7, 1951 




U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 



%//ie 



MAY 18 1951 




bulletin 

Vol. XXrV, No. 618 • Publication 4211 
May 7, 1951 



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