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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



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OCTOBER 2, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 223— Publication 2002 



ontents 




The War Page 

Lend-lease Aid to the United Nations 223 

Continuation of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation 

Operations 223 

The Mediterranean Commission 224 

Capture of Prizes on the High Seas 224 

Address by Joseph C. Grew at the Twenty-fifth Anni- 
versary Celebration of the 77th Division 225 

Exchange of American and Japanese Nationals .... 227 

Cultural Relations 

United States Information Libraries Abroad 228 

Appointment of Visiting United States Professor in 

China. 230 

American Republics 

Compensation for Petroleum Properties Expropriated 

in Mexico 230 

General 

Celebration of the Jewish New Year 231 

The Foreign Service 

Resignation of Admiral William H. Standley as Ameri- 
can Ambassador to the Soviet Union 231 

Death of Thormod O. Klath at Stockholm 232 

Treaty Information 

Commerce: Trade Agreement With Iceland 232 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

Inter-American Demographic Congress 232 

Legislation 232 

Publications 233 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF Ui 
OCT 21 194? 



The War 



LEND-LEASE AID TO THE UNITED NATIONS 



[Released to the press by the White House September 2S] 

Lend-lease aid to our fighting allies reached 
a new peak in August. The value of munitions 
transferred during the month for use against 
Germany and Japan amounted to $872,000,000. 
The expansion of munitions production by 
American industry has been so great that we 
have been able to increase our aid to the forces 
of the other United Nations while we have been 
arming our rapidly growing Army and Navy. 

There has been a particularly sharp increase 
in recent months in transfers of aircraft and 
parts. American planes are being flown in in- 
creasing numbers by Russian pilots on the East- 
ern Front and by British and other United Na- 
tions pilots in several theaters of war. The 
steadily growing strength of our own Air Force 
and of the air forces of our allies, which are 
pounding away at Germany and the occupied 
countries night and day, is continuous evidence 
of Hitler's inability to put a roof on Fortress 
Europe. 

In addition to aircraft and parts, the United 
S*^ates is transferring to its allies lai'ge amomits 



of ordnance and ammunition, watercraft, and 
combat and other vehicles, industrial materials, 
and foodstuffs. Total lend-lease aid rendered 
through August 31, 1943 amounted to $15,235,- 
000,000. The following table shows the value 
of goods transferred and services rendered in 
August 1943 compared with the preceding 
month and with August 1942. 



Lend-Lease Aid 
[In millions of dollars] 





Monthly 


Cumu- 
lative 




August 
1943 


July 
1943 


August 
1942 


to Au- 
gust 31, 
1943 


Goods transferred: 


872 
152 
90 


728 
158 
132 


256 
132 
68 


7,797 


Industrial items 


3,130 




2,089 






Tntftl trflnsfers 


1,114 


1,018 


446 


13,016 






Services rendered 


117 


32 


114 


2,219 






Total aid 


1,261 


1,050 


660 


16,235 







CONTINUATION OF FOREIGN RELIEF AND REHABILITATION OPERATIONS 



[Released to the press September 28] 

Mr. Herbert H. Lehman, who has been ap- 
pointed Special Assistant to the President, ad- 
dressed the following letter on September 27 to 
members of the staff of the Office of Foreign 



Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, of which 
he has been Director : 

"Members of the staff will undoubtedly have 
seen press statements or heard reports of the 
merging of the activities of this office with those 

223 



224 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETTN 



of other agencies of the Government concerned 
with economic activities abroad in the Foreign 
Economic Administration. The establisliment 
of this single agency to carry out United States 
economic operations throughout the world is a 
definite step toward more efficient administra- 
tion of our manifold economic activities and the 
more efficient prosecution of the war. 

"As you know, this Government has put for- 
ward a specific proposal to all of the United 
Nations looking toward the establishment of a 
United Nations Eelief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration in the very near future. The Office 
of Foreign Eelief and Rehabilitation Operations 
has to date been making plans and actually en- 
gaging in relief and rehabilitation operations on 
behalf of this Government pending the creation 
of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration. This work of planning and 
operation must continue within the Government 
of the United States until such time as the 
United Nations organization is established. 
This work will be carried on by the staff of 
OFRRO and the other interested civilian agencies 
as one part of the total economic job now merged 
in the Foreign Economic Administration. 
When the international organization is estab- 
lished the task of administering or arranging 
for the administration of relief and rehabilita- 
tion activities for victims of war will be assumed 
directly by the United Nations organization. 
It is only natural to assume that a substantial 
part of the staff presently carrying on this work 
for this Government will be wanted by the 
United Nations organization as a part of its 
international staff. 

"The success of the United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration is inevita- 
bly dependent upon the whole-hearted support 
and efficient organization of supply machinery 
in this country and other supplying nations 
which must make available the goods to relieve 
hunger and distress and assist in the rehabilita- 
tion of the victims of the war. For that reason 
the creation of the Foreign Economic Adminis- 



tration is a vital step in making ready the ma- 
chinery of this country to participate in a 
united effort to meet this problem. It will be 
my privilege and duty as Special Assistant to 
the President to lay the foundations for Ameri- 
can participation in the United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration and I have 
been assured by the new Director of the 
Foreign Economic Administration that I will 
have his complete cooperation and that of his 
staff in this undertaking. 

"I know that the Director of the Foreign 
Economic Administration and I will continue 
to receive the full cooperation of all the mem- 
bers of the OFRRO staff as we move forward in 
preparing for the tremendous job that lies 
ahead." 



THE MEDITERRANEAN COMMISSION 

[Released to the press September 28] 

Mr. Edwin C. Wilson ' has been appointed by 
the President as the representative of the United 
States Govenmient on the Mediterranean Com- 
mission. 



CAPTURE OF PRIZES ON THE 
HIGH SEAS 

By proclamation dated September 27, 1943 
(no. 2594) the President extended to the Gov- 
ernment of Canada "privileges with respect to 
prizes captured under authority of the said Gov- 
ernment and brought into the territorial waters 
of the United States or taken or appropriated 
in the territorial waters of the United States for 
the use of the said Government", Canada having 
already consented to like treatment for prizes of 
the United States. The full text of the procla- 
mation appears in the Federal Register of 
September 29, 1943, page 13217. 



' American Ambassador to Panama. 



OCTOBER 2, 1943 



225 



ADDRESS BY JOSEPH C. GREW AT THE TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION 

OF THE 77TH DIVISION^ 



[Released to the press September 26] 

"A nation is not worthy to be saved", said 
James A. Garfield in the House of Representa- 
tives in 1864, "if, in the hour of its fate, it will 
not gather up all its jewels of manhood and 
life, and go down into the conflict, however 
bloody and doubtful, resolved on measureless 
ruin or complete success." 

As a people, we hate war. But, thank God, 
there is one thing that we hate more than war — 
and that is slavery, in any form. And when 
war has been forced upon us, we have never 
lacked those "jewels of manhood" to go down 
into the conflict, resolved — not on ruin, but on 
victory. 

That was the magnificent spirit that in 1918 
inspired "New York's Own", the 77th Division ; 
that was the heroic gallantry and contempt of 
death that inflamed the "Lost Battalion" when 
it demonstrated to the world the kind of stuff 
of which American courage is made. When 
other deeds of man are forgotten in the mists of 
time, that epic will always live. 

You know why that Division was called "New 
York's Own". It was composed of men fi'om 
the sidewalks of New York — "East side, west 
side, all around the town" — Italians, Chinese, 
Greeks, Russians, Jews, Irish, and Armenians — 
all Americans. It was the first National Army 
division in France, and it served continuously 
in the front lines from May 1918 until Armistice 
Day, November 11. On the last day of the war 
the Division held the position just east of Sedan. 
The 77th Division advanced 71i/^ kilometers 
against the enemy, a far greater distance than 
that accomplished by any other division in the 
A. E. F. Ten thousand of its men were killed 
or wounded. 



'Delivered in New Torii, N. T., Sept. 26, 1943, over 
Station WOR of tlie Mutual Network. Mr. Grew, 
formerly American Ambassador to Japan, is now 
Special Assistant to tbe Secretary of State. 



Twenty-five years ago today, September 26, 
1918, the Division was assigned the very diflB- 
cult task of clearing the Argonne Forest in the 
final drive against the enemy. That was when 
the Lost Battalion entered "the pocket" with 
679 men ; and for six long days, completely sur- 
rounded by the enemy, these valiant Americans 
fought and resisted the enemy, refusing to sur- 
render when the demand was made to Colonel 
Whittlesey by a German officer. Of the 679 
men, 194 were alive when finally relieved. To- 
day, 147 of thejn are believed to be alive and 
residing in 24 States of our country. 

The annals of war have recorded many a terse 
i-emark by an American commanding officer on 
the field of battle that has lived in history, yet 
none can exceed in sheer simplicity those casual 
but utterly magnificent words of Colonel Whit- 
tlesey to Major McMurtry, who is with us 
today : "George, we will never be in better com- 
pany as long as we live." That was the Ameri- 
can way of saying it. But behind those modest' 
words we see exemplified that very same superb 
esprit de corps Avhich inspired the old 77th Divi- 
sion and will be carried on by its present name- 
sake. I don't like to be pedantic but no member 
of the 77th or of the Lost Battalion could re- 
proach me for expressing, through that noble 
passage in Shakespeare's King Henry the Fifth, 
the thoughts that by every right and reason 
should have lain behind those simple words of 
Colonel Wliittlesey: 

This story shall the good man teach his son . , . 

From this day to the ending of the world. 

But we in it shall be remembered ; 

We few, we happy few, we band of brothers ; 

For he today that sheds his blood with me 

Shall be my brother . . . 

And gentlemen in England now a-bed 

Shall think themselves accurs'd they were not here, 

And hold their manhoods cheap whiles any speaks 

That fought with us upon Saint Crispin's day. 



226 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETTN 



And now, a quarter of a century later, new 
bands of brothers, many of them not only of 
America but of the United Nations, ai-e once 
again carving their names on the deathless scroll 
of heroism. 

But heroism in war is not going to be 
enough — this time. We fought the last war "to 
end wars". We won and then, quite simply, 
went to sleep. I do not believe that this can 
happen again. I believe that while human na- 
ture through the centuries may not greatly 
change, human experience leaves its indelible 
mark. Today the best minds in the field of 
medicine are studying and working to eradicate 
disease from the world, from humanity. Is not 
the cult of militarism simply a disease, an epi- 
demic, that periodically breaks loose and over- 
runs the world ? Once started, any epidemic is 
hard to curb, but it can be curbed by prophy- 
lactic measures taken in time. Yellow fever 
and malaria in many lands have been forever 
blotted out. How? Simply by removing the 
conditions under which they existed. 

When this war is over and we have achieved 
total victory — as we assuredly will — we must 
get at the very root of the evil of the whole cult 
of militarism in Germany and Japan, stamp it 
out, and take effective measures to see that it 
stays stamped out. This time I believe that we 
shall do it. I believe that we shall erect ma- 
chinery which can and will do it, and that not 
only in our own countries but in the countries 
of our present enemies we shall find the common 
jDeople ready and eager to support that machin- 
ery and make it successful — provided that they 
are given hope for the future. We shall need 
the wisdom of Solomon to deal with those post- 
war problems. Pray God that we may find it 
and use it. I believe we shall. 

Reeducation will be essential. For listen to 
some of the past utterances of prominent Ger- 
mans. 

Wilhelm II of Germany: "Till the world 
comes to an end, the ultimate decision will rest 
with the sword." 

Friedrich von Bernhardi: "War is a bio- 
logical necessity of the first impoi'tance." 



Heinrich von Treitschke : "God will see to it 
that war shall always recur, as a drastic medi- 
cine for ailing humanit_y." 

F. W. Nietzsche: "Ye say a good cause will 
hallow even war ? I say unto you : a good war 
halloweth every cause." 

And again Nietzsche : "The man who has re- 
nounced war has renounced a grand life." 

Helmuth von Moltke: "Eternal peace is a 
dream, and not even a beautiful one. War is a 
part of God's world order. In it are developed 
the noblest virtues of man : courage and ab- 
negation, dutifulness and self-sacrifice. With- 
out war the world would sink into mate- 
rialism." 

And as for Hitler's Mein Kampf, I hardly 
need quote from that well-known volume. 

With such thinking by prominent German 
thinkers and writers, is it surprising that war in 
Europe has continued to recur throughout the 
centuries? I could quote to you many similar 
utterances by Japanese militarists. 

And now listen to the other side of the rec- 
ord : "I have seen war. I have seen war on 
land and sea. I have seen blood running from 
the wounded. I have seen men coughing out 
their gassed lungs. I have seen the dead in the 
mud. I have seen cities destroyed. I have seen 
200 limping, exhausted men come out of the 
line — the survivors of a regiment of 1,000 that 
went forward 48 hours before. I have seen 
children starving. I have seen the agony of 
mothers and wives. / hate loary — Franklin D. 
Roosevelt. 

Fellow Americans, let us get on with the war 
that is now about us. Let us get on, as we shall 
get on, until we have achieved complete victory 
and brought about the unconditional surrender 
of all our enemies. Let us not falter or allow 
our weariness of war to lure us into an incon- 
clusive peace. Let us continue with ever-in- 
creasing acceleration and grim determination, 
with ever-increasing willingness to work and 
sacrifice and fight, putting forth our individual 
and collective mnximum, efforts according to 
our several capacities in the circumstances in 
which we individually find ourselves. Nothing 
less than, maximum effort is enough. Nothing 



OCTOBER 2, 194 3 



227 



less than maximum effort can justify our en- 
joyment of the priceless heritage of our Ameri- 
can citizenship, our democracy, our way of life, 
our freedom. 

There are Gold Star Mothers here today. We 
salute them with sorrow and with pride. The 
memory of the heroic members of the 77th Divi- 
sion and of tlie Lost Battalion, who gave their 
lives that our way of life might live, will be with 
us always. Let us determine not only that their 
sacrifice shall not have been in vain but that such 
sacrifices shall never again be called for. Just 
as surely as the operation of the law of gravity, 
they will again be called for unless our country 
shoulders its full responsibilities in the post-war 
world. In our modern world, political isolation 
has become an anachronism, and upon those who 
may advocate our future detachment from those 
responsibilities will rest the onus of permitting 
the seeds of future wars to take root and to ripen 
in their time. Precisely as we have eradicated 
from our midst the conditions which gave rise 



to yellow fever, so we must do our part to remove 
for all time the conditions in wliich the seeds of 
future wars can grow. The seeds themselves 
cannot be destroyed, for they lie deep in human 
nature. But the conditions under which those 
seeds can germinate can and must be removed 
for all time to come. It will be a gradual proc- 
ess, calling for the highest degree of wisdom and 
perspective long-range thinking not only by 
those who may directly deal with post-war prob- 
lems but by every American. For the futuie 
welfare of our nation and our civilization will 
be at stake. 

But first, so that tiiis enlightened work may be 
achieved, on to victor}' — final victory for which 
the old 77th ajid the Lost Battalion paved the 
way and the new 77th is carrying on. 

Take up our quarrel with tlie foe! 
To you from failing liaiids, we throw 
The torch — Be yours to hold it high ! 
If ye break faith with us who die 
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow 
In Flanders fields. 



EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND JAPANESE NATIONALS 



(Released tb the press September 27] 

Telegrams and mail may be sent to persons 
returning from the Far East in the current 
exchange of American and Japanes'e nationals ' 
if they are addressed in the following manner : 

John Jones, 

Kepatriate on M.S. Gnpsholm, 

in care of the addresses indicated below for tele- 
grams and airmail letters : 

Telegrams — 

If sent on or before October 10: Care of 
American Consul General, Palace Hotel, Mor- 
mugao, Goa, Portuguese India. 

If sent on or before October 28: Care of 
American Consul, Port Elizabeth, Union of 
South Africa. 

If sent on or before November 10: Care of 
American Embas'sy, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

• Bulletin of Sept. 4, 1943, "p. 149. 



Airmail letters — 

If sent on or before November 1 : Care of 
American Embassy, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

While permission cannot be given to anyone 
to go onto the pier at New York to meet relatives 
when the vessel an-ives there, it is probable that 
the American Red Cross and unofficial organi- 
zations especially concerned with Philippine 
and Far Eastern matters' may set up offices near 
the pier to transmit messages from next-of-kin 
and friends to the repatriates as they leave the 
M.S. Gripsholm after its arrival. 

All persons to be included in the exchange 
will be embarked at the place of exchange upon 
t he signing of a promissory note agreeing to re- 
imburse the Government for the cost of their 
passage and incidental expenses. As public 
funds will be advanced for such purposes, it is 
expected that they will be repaid, for no appro- 



228 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BIILLETrN 



priated funds are "available from which Ameri- 
cans abroad may be provided transportation to 
the United States at Government expense. Per- 
sons desiring to furnish funds to cover the cost 
of passage of specific individuals may deposit 
the necessary funds with the American Export 
Lines, 25 Broadway, New York, N. Y. The fare 
for passage fi'om the exchange port has been 
fixed at $525 (United States currency) for each 
adult plus an additional deposit of $50 which 
will be required to cover incidental expenses 
including stewards' fees. Children under 10 
will be transported at half fare plus the addi- 
tional $50 for incidental expenses. Lifants un- 
der 5 will be charged one-quarter fare plus tin? 
$50 for incidental expenses. Any unexpended 
balance of the additional deposit will in due 
course be refunded. 



Provision is being made for distribution of 
relief and comfort supplies to the returning 
Americans aboard the vessel, and furthermore 
they will be provided against their promissory 
notes with funds for their minimum personal 
needs not to exceed $90 for each adult passen- 
ger. Interested persons may send the last-men- 
tioned amount to the Department in behalf of 
any individual known to be a passenger on the 
Gi'lpshohii. Such remittances will be used to 
offset notes of this character which the desig- 
nated person or persons may have signed dur- 
ing the voyage. Any unexpended balance will, 
of course, be returned at a later date. Remit- 
tances to the Department of State should be in 
the form of a postal money-order or a certified 
check payable to "The Secretary of State of the 
United States". 



Cultural Relations 



UNITED STATES INFORMATION LIBRARIES ABROAD 



In the fall of this year, five United States 
libraries will be established in other countries by 
the British Division of the Office of War Infor- 
mation in close cooperation with the Division of 
Cultural Relations of the Department of State 
and with the Library of Congress. Following 
the pattern of the American Library in the 
Embassy in London, the new libraries will be 
located at Sydney and Melbourne, Australia; 
Wellington, New Zealand; Johannesburg, 
Union of South Africa ; and Bombay, India. 

The American Library in London and the 
five new libraries are designed to serve writers, 
the press, radio, American missions, local gov- 
ernment agencies, and educational, scientific, 
and cultural institutions and organizations. 
They are not lending-libraries for casual read- 
ers, nor are they in any sense propaganda cen- 
ters or distributors of pamphlets. A small. 



highly selective library containing reference 
material produced in the United States pro- 
vides information which can best reach the 
masses of people in an allied country through 
the media of the press, the radio, and educa- 
tional institutions. Besides offering direct in- 
formation on many subjects, the libraries will 
consult with special libraries and will assist 
libraries and organizations within the respec- 
tive countries in securing for their own use ma- 
terials about the United States. Significant 
American books and reports will be brought to 
the attention of people likely to be interested in 
using them. 

As has been demonstrated in London, hun- 
dreds of people in educational and literary fields 
make use of the resources of the Library. Writ- 
ers, speakers, teachers, and scholars in the coun- 
tries of the British Commonwealth are eager to 



OCTOBER 2, 1943 



229 



find available information on the United States 
and to interpret the United States accurately. 
These libraries will present them -with authori- 
tative sources at a time when, owing to ship- 
ping restrictions, there is a great shortage of 
current material about America abroad. 

It is not sufficient, however, to provide libra- 
ries where books and other informational mate- 
rial are available to people interested enough to 
look for them. Skilled assistants, who are 
familiar with the institutions and resources of 
the United States and who know how to use 
efficiently documentary and source material to 
obtain desired information, are needed to aid 
people in those countries in their researches, to 
introduce them to the best sources, and generally 
to stimulate increased interest in the material on 
hand. 

Each library will be staffed by two librarians 
from the United States and three associates em- 
ployed locally. Miss Harriet Eoot, until re- 
cently Director of the United States Govern- 
ment Information Service, will be director of 
the library in Sydney, and will also supervise the 
libraries in Melbourne and Wellington. Sev- 
eral members of her staff with long experience 
in handling inquiries of the American public 
will work with professional reference librarians 
in those cities. Their familiarity with Govern- 
ment documents and studies, covering almost 
every field of knowledge and activity, will enable 
them to take care of hundreds of requests for 
information weekly. 

In each case the libraries have been stocked 
with a basic collection of about one thousand 
reference books and four thousand Government 
documents, pamphlets, and reports covering all 
aspects of American life and research. Five 
hundred pamphlets, maps, posters, and mono- 
graphs from private organizations and insti- 
tutions also have been assembled for each 
library. About fifty periodicals published by 
Government agencies, private organizations, and 
popular publishers will be sent to these libraries 
regularly. 

In addition to the basic collection of volumes 
for reference purposes, each library will be 



supplied with special collections for loan and 
exhibit purposes. For example, a collection of 
about 100 carefully selected schoolbooks exten- 
sively used in American schools was sent to 
London. Each book was labeled with infor- 
mation about its use in the educational system 
of this country. The United States Office of 
Education developed the list and annotated the 
books. This collection has' been loaned to the 
British Board of Education for display at edu- 
cational conferences. A smaller collection on 
school buildings was made available to the 
British authorities planning reconstruction. 
Similar special collections giving discriminat- 
ing surveys of American output in a specific 
field of activity will be assembled from time to 
time, usually in response to definite requests. 

The collections forming the nucleus of each 
library were gathered with the help and advice 
of scores of specialists representing many fields 
of knowledge. In the process of selection the 
object was to include books and reports which, 
in the judgment of experts in various fields, 
were representative and of high quality. Of- 
ficers of the Division of Cultural Relations of 
the Department of State, and of the Library of 
Congress, together with the British Division of 
the Office of War Information, perused lists of 
proposed materials for the libraries, making 
suggestions for selection or omission. The Di- 
vision of Cultural Relations has furnished and 
will continue to supply the libraries with cer- 
tain maps and pictures and material in the cul- 
tural relations field. A small staff of special- 
ists are collecting Government materials and 
selecting current books, pamphlets, and period- 
icals to keep these libraries and the American 
Library in London up-to-date. 

For the purpose of furthering the develop- 
ment of the library program, a Committee on 
Libraries Abroad is being formed. This Com- 
mittee will afford opportunities for consulta- 
tion among representatives of the Office of War 
Information, the Department of State, the Li- 
brary of Congress, the American Library As- 
sociation, and, as demands warrant, representa- 
tives of other professional organizations. 



230 DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

APPOINTMENT OF VISITING UNITED STATES PROFESSOR IN CHINA 



[Released to tbe press September 29] 

Dr. George B. Cressey has been appointed a 
visiting professor in China by the Department 
of State and concurrently will serve as repre- 
sentative in China of the National Academy of 
Sciences. He is leaving for Chungking in Oc- 
tober and will return to the United States next 
summer. 

The Department's appointment is a part of 
its program of cultural relations and is designed 
to strengthen the ties between the United States 
and China. Professor Cressey will visit and 
lecture at various Chinese universities and re- 
search centers. Most Chinese universities have 
been obliged to take refuge in the interior and 
are seriously in need of contact with the outside 
world. Although it is impossible to send books 



and apparatus, the Department of State has 
arranged to forward microfilm copies of pro- 
fessional publications from the United States. 
Professor Cressey has been chairman of the 
Department of Geology and Geogi-aphy at Syra- 
cuse University since 1931 and is on leave for 
(his assignment. Prior to 1931 he taught at the 
University of Shanghai. He is the author of 
China's Geogrxiphlc Foii/tidafions and a new 
volume entitled Asia's Lands and Peoples. 
Pi'ofessor Cressey is also chairman of the Na- 
tional Research Council's Conmiittee on Asiatic 
Geography and is one of the lecognized author- 
ities in his field. He served as consultant to 
the Chinese Government in 1934 and to the 
Soviet Government in 1937. 



American Republics 



COMPENSATION FOR PETROLEUM PROPERTIES EXPROPRIATED IN MEXICO 



(Released to the press September 30] 

The manner and conditions of payment of 
compensation to this Government for the bene- 
fit of certain American nationals who sustained 
losses as a consequence of the expropriation of 
petroleum properties in Mexico in March 1938 ^ 
were agreed upon through notes exchanged on 
September 29, 1943 by the Acting Secretary of 
State and the Mexican Charge in Washington. 
This exchange of notes is the second and final 
step taken by the two Governments to imple- 
ment the basic agreement of November 19, 1941,^ 
in which the two Governments agreed that each 
Government would appoint an expert to de- 
termine the just compensation to be paid 
Ajnerican nationals whose properties, rights, or 



^ Press Rele.\se8 of Apr. 2, 1938, p. 435. 
2 Bulletin of Nov. 22, 1043, p. 399; and Executive 
Agreement Series 234. 

= Bulletin of Apr. 18, 1942, p. 351. 



interests were affected to their detriment by 
acts of the Government of Mexico subsequent 
to March 17, 1938. At the time of the exchange 
of the basic notes of November 19, 1941, the 
Mexican Government made a deposit of 
$9,000,000 on account of the compensation to be 
paid. 

The first step in the implementation of the 
agreement of November 19, 1941 was the prepa- 
ration and submission of the joint report of 
April 17, 1942 by two experts — ^Morris L. Cooke, 
representing the United States, and Manuel J. 
Zevada, representing the Republic of Mexico.' 
This joint report placed an evaluation of 
$23,995,991 on the losses sustained by American 
nationals, including all elements of tangible 
and intangible value, and provided for interest 
at three percent per annum from March 18, 1938 
to the date of final settlement on all balances 
due; in conformity with the basic agreement, 
the evaluation was final. 



OCTOBER 2, 1943 



231 



The manner and conditions of payment by the 
Government of Mexico to this Government are 
provided tqv in the notes as follows': 

The amount due is $23,995,991 plus $5,141,- 
709.84 interest at three percent per annum on all 
unpaid balances from March 18, 1938 to Septem- 
ber 30, 1947, the date set for the final payment — 
a total of $29,137,700.84. 

After deducting the $9,000,000 deposited in 
cash by the Government of Mexico at the tijne 
of the signing of the agreement of November 
19, 1941, the balance due is $20,137,700.84. 

The balance is to be paid in the following in- 
stalments : $3,796,391.04 on September 30, 1943, 
and the balance in four equal annual instal- 
ments, each of $4,085,327.45. 

[Released to tbe press September 30] 

On September 30 tlie Ambassador of Mexico 
presented to the Acting Secretary of State the 
Mexican Government's check for $3,796,391.04 
representing the amount due at this time under 
the exchange of notes on September 29, 1943, 
implementing the agreement of November 19, 
1941, in relation to the claims of American na- 
tionals whose properties, rights, and interests 
in the petroleum industry in Mexico were 
affected by acts of the Government of Mexico 
subsequent to March 17, 1938. 

The Acting Secretary of State requested the 
Ambassador of Mexico to convey to his Govern- 
ment an expression of this Government's appre- 
ciation. 



General 



CELEBRATION OF THE JEWISH 
NEW YEAR 

[Released to the press September 29] 

The Secretary of State has issued the follow- 
ing message on the occasion of the celebration of 
the Jewish New Year : 

"On the occasion of the celebration of the 
Jewish New Year I desire to extend my greet- 



ings to all Americans of the Jewish faith. It 
seems appropriate at this season to express 
again my constant sympathy with them in their 
sorrow over those of their religion who still 
live and die in the deep shadow of persecution. 
It is also appropriate at this time for us to re- 
joice together over the world's quickening hope 
for the dawn of a new year in which we may 
realize peace at last for all the gi-eat brotherhood 
of mankind." 



The Foreign Service 



RESIGNATION OF ADMIRAL WILLIAM H. 
STANDLEY AS AMERICAN AMBASSA- 
DOR TO THE SOVIET UNION 

[Released to the press by the White House October 1] 

The President in accepting the resignation of 
Admiral William H. Standley, U.S.N. (Re- 
tired), as Ambassador to the Soviet Union, 
wrote to Admiral Standley October 1 as follows : 

"It is with real regret that I accept your resig- 
nation as Ambassador to the Soviet Union. 
During your term of office, as well as during 
your distinguished naval career, you have ren- 
dered valuable service to your country and I 
feel that you have greatly contributed to the 
cause for which we are fighting and also to the 
high purpose which led you to accept the posi- 
tion as Ambassador, namely, full and friendly 
cooperation and understanding between your 
country and the Soviet Union now and after the 
war. 

"I know that you are always ready to serve 
your country and to make any sacrifice for it. 
Your willingness to accept the post of Ambas- 
sador to the Soviet Union after having so loyally 
served your country for over half a century is 
witness to that. However, in view of the per- 
sonal considerations &"et forth in your letter of 
resignation ^ I do not feel that I can place any 
obstacle in the way of your wishes to retire. 



' Not printed. 



232 



DEPAHTMENT OF STATE BTTLLETm 



"In accepting your resignation, I want you to 
kno-w how deeply appreciative I am of the faith- 
ful and valued services you have rendered your 
country and of your personal loyalty to me." 

DEATH OF THORMOD O. KLATH 
AT STOCKHOLM 

[Released to the press October 2] 

It is with deep regret that the Department 
of State announces that, according to a telegram 
received from the American Minister at Stock- 
holm, Mr. Thormod O. Klath, Foreign Service 
officer, died on October 1, 1943, at his post in 
Stockholm, where he had been serving as com- 
mercial attache. 



Treaty Information 



COMMERCE 
Trade Agreement With Iceland 

[Released to the press October 2] 

On September 30, 1943, the President pro- 
claimed the trade agreement between the United 
States and Iceland, signed at Reykjavik on 
August 27, 1943. 

Article XVII of the agreement provides that 
it shall enter into force on the thirtieth day fol- 
lowing the exchange of the proclamation of the 
President of the United States for the instru- 
ment of ratification of the Regent of Iceland. 
Following the exchange of the proclamation 
and the instrument of ratification, the President 
will issue a supplementary proclamation set- 
ting forth the date of entry into force. 

The English text of the agi-eement was made 
public in the Department's press release 357 of 
August 27, 1943. An analysis of the agreement 
was printed in the Bull.etin of August 28, 1943, 
page 133. 



International Conferences, 
Commissions, Etc. 



INTER-AMERICAN DEMOGRAPHIC 
CONGRESS 

[Released to the press September 28] 

The President has approved the designation 
of the following delegation to represent the 
United States at the Inter-American Demogra- 
phic Congress to convene at Mexico City on 
October 12, 1943 : 

Delegates: 

Lowell J. Reed, Ph.D., Sc.D., Dean, School of Hygiene 

and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 

Baltimore, Md. ; Chairman of the Delegation 
Mr. Earl G. Harrison, Commissioner, Immigration 

and Naturalization Service, Department of 

Justice 

Adviser: 

Mr. Raleigh A. Gibson, First Secretary, American 
Embassy, Mexico City 

Secretary: 
Mr. Edward S. Maney, Second Secretary, American 
Embassy, Mexico City 

It is anticipated that the Congress will dis- 
cuss questions of ethnology as well as the tech- 
nical aspects of the status of foreign populations 
in the American republics, including a review of 
demographic policy. 



Legislation 



Supplemental Estimate of Appropriation, Foreign 
Service Pay Adjustment : Communication from the 
President of the United States transmitting supple- 
mental estimate for the appropriation "Foreign 
Service Pay Adjustment, Appreciation of Foreign 
Currency, 1944", amounting to $300,000. H. Doc. 
295, 78th Cong. 2 pp. 



OCTOBER 2, 1943 



233 



Supplemental Estimates of Appropriations for the 
Department of State: Communication from the 
President of the United States transmitting supple- 
mental estimates of appropriations for the fiscal year 
1944, amounting to $3,232,808 [for the Foreign 
Service; International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Com- 
mission ; United States contributions to international 
commissions, congresses, and bureaus; and United 
States participation in Emergency Advisory Com- 
mittee for Political Defense], and a draft of a pro- 
posed provision pertaining to an appropriation for 
the Department of State [Eighth Pan American 
Child Congress]. H. Doc. 290, 78th Cong. 4 pp. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Digest of International Law (by Green Haywood Hack- 
worth, Legal Adviser of the Department of State), 
vol. VI, chs. XIX— XXI [ch. XIX : Modes of Redress ; 
ch. XX: War; ch. XXI: Maritime War]. Publica- 
tion 1961. iv, 655 pp. $1.50. 

Consular Officers: Convention and Exchanges of Notes 
Between the United States of America and Mexico — 
Convention signed at Mexico City August 12, 1942; 
proclaimed by the President of the United States 
June 16, 1943. Treaty Series 985. 29 pp. 50. 



0. S. GOVERNMENT PR1NTIN0 OFFICEi l«4S 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, TJ. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - . . Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISEED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DISBCTOB OF THE BnaEAC OP THB BDDGET 



. ,' / 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



OCTOBER 9, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 224— Publication 2006 



C 



ontents 



The War Pago 
Issue of Documented Edition of Peace and War .... 237 
The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration 245 

Europe 

Presentation of Letters of Credence by the Soviet Am- 
bassador 245 

American Republics 

Return to Buenos Aires of American Ambassador to 

Argentina 247 

Visit to the United States of the President of Haiti . . . 247 
Visit to the United States of the Chilean Foreign 

Minister 247 

The Department 

Under Secretary of State 248 

Retirement of Charles M. Barnes 248 

The Foreign Service 

Confirmations 248 

Legislation 

United States Statutes at Large 248 

Publications 249 




The War 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT Of DOCUMENT!! 
NOV 5 1943 



ISSUE OF DOCUMENTED EDITION OF "PEACE AND WAR' 



[Released to the press October 7] 

The following documents, released October 
7 by the Department of State, will appear in 
the forthcoming documented edition of Peace 
and War: United States Foreign Policy, 1931- 
191,1 (see/Jos^, p. 243). 

The Secretary of State to the Ambassador Near 
the French Government at Bordeaux {Biddle) 

Washington, June 17, 191fi — 6 p.m. 
3. The President desires that you obtain im- 
mediately an interview with Admiral Darlan 
and subsequently, if possible, with the Minister 
for Foreign Affairs and state that the views of 
this Government with regard to the disposition 
of the French fleet have been made very clear to 
the French Government on previous occasions. 
The President desires you to say that in the 
opinion of this Government, should the French 
Government, before concluding any armistice 
with the Germans, fail to see that the fleet is 
kept out of the hands of her opponents, the 
French Government will be pursuing a policy 
which will fatally impair the preservation of 
the French Empii-e and the eventual restoration 
of French independence and autonomy. Fur- 
thermore, should the French Government fail to 
take these steps and permit the French fleet 
to be surrendered to Germany, the French Gov- 
ernment will permanently lose the friendship 
and good-will of the Government of the United 
States. 

Huii, 



The Ambassador Near the French Government 
at Bordeaux {Blddle) to the Secretary of 
State 

[Telegram] 

Bordeaux, June IS, 191,0 — noon. 

20. Your No. 3, June 17, 5 p.m. to Consul and 
my flash via Press Wireless that message had 
been delivered to Admiral Darlan. 

I called the Minister for Foreign Affairs from 
the Council of Ministers which is now meeting 
to consider tMs and other questions of grave 
importance. He said that Darlan had already 
placed your message before the government. 
He wished to assure me in the name of the gov- 
ernment in the most solemn manner that the 
French fleet would never (repeat never) be sur- 
rendered to the enemy : "La question ne se pose 
pas". He must tell me though that the last 
sentence of the message had "deeply pained" 
the French Government (I believe, however, 
that in spite of this natural feeling the effect 
thereof was highly salutary at this juncture). 

Baudoin added that he could not (repeat not) 
however, say that the French fleet would join 
the British fleet ; it might be sent overseas or it 
might be sunk. That question is now before the 
Council of Ministers. I urged with all possible 
emphasis that the fleet be moved to safety rather 
than destroyed. 

No reply has yet been received to the request 
for armistice terms. He said that he under- 
stood from the Spanish Government that the 
answer "might be forthcoming tomorrow'''. 

The Germans are now in the outskirts of 
Lyons. Herriot tells me the city was bombed 



237 



238 

last night. The atmosphere of tension and 
anxiety in Bordeaux is naturally increasing. 

BiDDLE 

The Secretary of State to the Charge in France 
{Matthews) 

Washington, October ^5, IBJfi — noon. 

636. For your information. 

The following personal message was deliv- 
ered yesterday to the French Ambassador from 
the President with the request that it be trans- 
mitted immediately to Marshal Petain : 

"In the opinion of the United States Govern- 
ment the fact that the French Government al- 
leges that it is under duress and consequently 
cannot act except to a very limited degree as a 
free agent is in no sense to be considered as 
justifying any course on the part of the French 
Government which would provide assistance to 
Germany and her allies in their war against 
the British Empire. The fact that a govern- 
ment is a prisoner of war of another power 
does not justify such a prisoner in serving its 
conqueror in operations against its former ally. 

The Government of the United States re- 
ceived from the Petain Government during the 
first days it held office the most solemn assur- 
ances that the French fleet would not be sur- 
rendered. If the French Government now 
permits the Germans to use the French fleet 
in hostile operations against the British fleet 
such action would constitute a flagrant and 
deliberate breach of faith with the United 
States Government. 

Any agreement entered into between France 
and Germany which partook of the character 
above-mentioned would most definitely wreck 
the traditional friendship between the French 
and American peoples, would permanently re- 
move any chance that this Government would 
be disposed to give any assistance to the French 
people in their distress, and would create a wave 
of bitter indignation against France on the part 
of American public opinion. 

If France pursued sucli a policy as that above 
outlined, the United States could make no 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BUUjETIN 

effort when the appropriate time came to exer- 
cise its influence to insure to France the reten- 
tion of her overseas possessions." 

Ht3LL 

The Charge in France {Matthews) to the 
Secretary of State 

[Telegram] 

(Paris) Vichy, 

November 1, Wlfi — 5 f.m. 
[Received November 2 — 6 :15 p.m.] 
8T2. My telegram No. 861, November 1, 11 
a.m. 

The Marshal's reply to the President's mes- 
sage was sent off late last night to Ambassador 
Henry Haye. ... I quote the text in 
translation as sent me with a covering Foreign 
Office note today: 

"Reply addressed on November 1, 1940 by 
Marshal Petain to the message of President 
Roosevelt. 

The Chief of the French State has received 
the message of President Roosevelt sent to him 
through the Charge d'Affaires of the United 
States. 

Animated by the desire to preserve the friend- 
ship which since tlie foundation of the United 
Slates has bound the French people to the 
American people, he will refrain from calling 
attention to what there is in that communication 
which might make him question the fair atti- 
tude (dispositions, equitables) of the American 
Government. To answer the anxiety of Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, he desires to state that the 
French Government has always preserved its 
liberty of action and that I knew that he might 
be surprised at an appraisement as inaccurate 
as it is unjust. The French Government has 
declared that the French fleet would never be 
surrendered and nothing can justify question- 
ing today that solemn undertaking. President 
Roosevelt speaks of operations directed against 
the British fleet. He doubtless forgets that as 
a matter of fact the operations at sea which 
have taken place as they did in the most unex- 
pected manner were undertaken by the British 



OCTOBER 9, 1943 



239 



fleet. Furthermore, England has taken a posi- 
tion against France and against her govern- 
ment which the French people cannot counte- 
nance. His Majesty's Government lends its 
support to Frenchmen, rebels against their coun- 
try, whose action, thanks to the aid of the Brit- 
ish fleet and air force, encourages the unity 
of her Empii-e. France — and her Government 
[having given?] such assurances — will not en- 
gage in any unjustified attack but conscious of 
her duty she will see that her essential interests 
are honorably respected. 

The French Government remains very de- 
sirous of maintaining the traditional friendship 
which unites our two countries and it will strive 
under all circumstances to avoid misunderstand- 
ings or interpretations such as those which 
doubtless led President Roosevelt to address 
us this message." 

Matthews 

Memorandum hy the Secretary of State Re- 
garding a Conversation With the French 
Ambassador {Henry-Haye) 

[Extract] 

[Washington,] November 4, WIfO. 
I spoke somewhat in general terms and re- 
peated our frequent statement about the tra- 
ditional friendship between France and the 
United States and our anxious desire to preserve 
in the most genuine manner that spirit of 
friendliness and of mutual cooperation in every 
way that might be at all practicable and mutu- 
ally desirable. I said that the chief trouble 
seems to be that high-ranking officials in the 
French Government seem disposed to keep en- 
tirely away from this Government in most ev- 
erything that relates to normal relations, and 
at the same time to keep extremely close to Hit- 
ler and to show every sympathetic interest in 
his plans and purposes, revealing all the while 
the utmost antipathy toward Great Britain 
and the cause for which she is fighting. I 
stated that this Government has the usual nor- 
mal relations with all other governments ex- 
cept those at Tokyo, Berlin, Rome and Vichy; 
that I can always understand readily the atti- 



tude of all the other governments and can get 
legitimate information promptly and volun- 
tarily from all of them with the exception of 
the four mentioned; that Vichy, along with 
Tokyo, Berlin and Rome, is just the opposite 
in its disposition to be frank and friendly. I 
said that I receive many rumors and reports 
about the attitude of the Vichy Government con- 
trary to the interests of this country, but noth- 
ing direct, and I am obliged to look to other 
rumors and reports, direct and indirect, com- 
ing through the press and through foreign of- 
fices in various parts of the world, in order 
to get any real grasp of what is actually taking 
place at Vichy that is calculated seriously to 
afi'ect this Government. I added that the 
French Government in adopting this sort of 
attitude and practice will not get two inches in 
carrying on its relations with the Government 
of the United States. The Ambassador said 
he supposed I referred to Mr. Laval in connec- 
tion with the foregoing. I remarked that, of 
course, the Ambassador knew that the definite 
impression created here and everywhere by Mr. 
Laval is that he is an extreme partisan of Hitler 
and Mussolini and very bitter toward Great 
Britain; that he is reported to favor strongly 
a permanent rejection of the so-called "old 
order" in Europe, and the embracing of Hitler's 
political, social and other policies with totali- 
tarian autarchy a basic part. I said that Mr. 
Laval had the privilege of becoming an ally 
and associate of Hitler and the monstrous things 
for which he stands, but that he must not im- 
agine that this Government does not know what 
his attitude and purpose are. I added that we 
propose to be on our guard with respect to acts 
of the Vichy Government, inspired by Mr. 
Laval, that are intended to aid by French con- 
nivance the military activities of Hitler, such 
as the supplying of naval and air bases, or other 
help given by the land, sea or air forces of 
France ; that in any event this Government has 
had nothing resembling satisfactory informa- 
tion from the French Government about what 
is really going on that would constitute legiti- 
mate information to us from any government 
at all disposed to be friendly. 



240 



DEPAETMENT OP STATE BXJIJL.ETrN 



I then said that otir Government thus far has 
retained its high regard for Marshal Petain and 
its anxious desire to be of help to the French 
people to the fullest practical extent ; that this 
Government recognizes the unfortunate situa- 
tion of France as a captive nation and it recog- 
nizes to the fullest extent the duty of the French 
Government to conform to the armistice terms 
along with other functions and requirements of 
a captive nation, but that in so doing this Gov- 
ernment maintains strongly its original position 
that the French Government has no justifica- 
tion of any sort to render the slightest military 
aid to Germany; that the French Government 
has no right in its acts and utterances to go be- 
yond and outside the armistice terms for the 
purpose of making itself a partisan of Hitler, 
as between Hitler and non-belligerent countries, 
such as the United States, unless the French 
Government intends to abandon its friendly re- 
lations with other nations which are antago- 
nistic to Hitler's movements of conquest. 

The Ambassador stoutly contended that they 
had no plan or purpose thus to go beyond their 
legitimate functions, as I had described them, 
and he reiterated fairly often the attitude of 
his Government to the effect that it would not 
in any circumstances lend aid to the military 
plans of Hitler. I said that Mr. Laval may 
think that he can appease Mr. Hitler just as 
others heretofore have imagined that they could 
appease him ; that that was his affair ; that this 
Government, however, recognizing the great 
misfortune of the French Government in not 
pursuing the long-view objectives within suffi- 
cient time for its safety, does not propose to 
trust Hitler for one split second to fall in with 
any government on a course of appeasement; 
that the French Government, therefore, should 
understand the position of this Government and 
its determination to take no chances. I went 
on to say that this Government is not remotely 
thinking about minor considerations between 
our two Governments, such as freeing some 
French assets, etc., etc., but that it had a su- 
preme and firm purpose to have no relations 
with any government, such as that of Vichy, 



which would give the slightest encouragement 
to Hitler, either directly or indirectly. It is 
manifest, therefore, tlxat, if Marshal Petain 
feels aggrieved at the President's recent mes- 
sage to him, he might well review and take 
cognizance of Mr. Laval's extreme pro-German 
plans and efforts, as reported in various ways 
to this Government, and which have been con- 
cealed in the main by the French Government, 
and only reached this Government to a limited 
extent, directly or indirectly. I said that there 
must be a spirit of candor and a willing disposi- 
tion to confer back and forthwith full exchanges 
of information in a thoroughly accurate and 
candid manner, so that this Government will 
know exactly what the Government of France 
is doing insofar as it relates to possible aid to 
Hitler over and above the terms of the armis- 
tice and the function and duty of a captive of 
war. I said it would be a mistake for Marshal 
Petain, knowing what is going on in his Gov- 
ernment at the instance of Mr. Laval, to expect 
good relations between our countries to continue 
to exist, while he takes exception to any act or 
utterance of this Government in its strong pro- 
test against the reported policies and purposes 
of Laval. 

The Ambassador said that Mr. Laval was 
merely attempting to procure the release of 
French prisoners and some other things that 
would be helpful to France. I said that again 
there comes up the matter of attempted ap- 
peasement of Hitler; that Hitler in the end 
would do what he pleased Avith all of his cap- 
tive nations regardless of whether they offered 
him gifts and other appeasement considera- 
tions; that he would take such nations and then 
at some future time retake them if his past acts 
are to be judged fairly; that this again brings 
back the question of rendering aid to Germany 
over and above the terms of the armistice, and 
that the Government of France must under- 
stand that this Government is too much con- 
cerned about possible future attacks by Hitler 
to acquiesce in the slightest with acts of the 
French Government that would aid or encour- 
age Hitler in still wider conquest, especially 



OCTOBER 9, 1943 



241 



in the direction of this hemisphere. It is on 
this broad position that our Government rests 
its attitude toward France. This applies to 
Martinique and other possessions. In the case 
of Martinique, for example, if the French Gov- 
ernment is in earnest about the absolute observ- 
ance of the temporary agreement between 
officials of this Government and those of the 
French Government in regard to the status quo 
of Martinique, there should not be the slightest 
hesitation on the part of the French Govern- 
ment to give to this Government such assurances 
as would leave no doubt or uneasiness on the 
part of this Government, such as removing some 
of the parts of the ships anchored there, or a 
large portion of the seamen from the vessels, or 
to permit American vessels to inspect the prop- 
erties at any reasonable time, such as the air- 
planes and the gold. The Ambassador pro- 
fessed to agree entirely and insisted that it 
should be done. I replied that we would see 
what happens with respect to all the matters 
mentioned in our conversation. 

CoRDELL Hull 

President Roosevelt to the Appointed Ambas- 
sador to France {Leahy) 

Washington, \^December 20, IQJfi.'^ 
Mt Dear Admiral Leahy : 

As Ambassador of the United States near 
the French Government, you will be serving 
the United States at a very critical time in the 
relations between the United States and France. 
I impose entire confidence in your ability and 
judgment to meet all situations which may 
arise. Nevertheless, for your general guidance 
I feel that I may properly outline some of the 
basic principles which at present govern the 
relations of the United States with France. 

(1) Marshal Petain occupies a unique posi- 
tion both in the hearts of the French people and 
in the Government. Under the existing Con- 
stitution his wokI is law and nothing can be 
done against his opposition unless it is accom-': 
plished without his knowledge. In his decrees 
he uses the royal "we" and I have gathered that 
he intends to rule. 



Accordingly, I desire that you endeavor to 
cultivate as close relations with Marshal Petain 
as may be possible. You should outline to him 
the position of the United States in the pres- 
ent conflict and you should stress our firm con- 
viction that only by defeat of the powers now 
controlling the destiny of Germany and Italy 
can the world live in liberty, peace and pros- 
perity ; that civilization cannot progress with a 
return to totalitarianism. 

I had reason to believe that Marshal Petain 
was not cognizant of all of the acts of his Vice 
Premier and Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
Monsieur Laval, in his relations with the Ger- 
mans. There can be no assurance that a similar 
situation will not exist with the new Foreign 
Minister. Accordingly, you should endeavor to 
bring to Marshal Petain's attention such acts 
done or contemplated in the name of France 
which you deem to be inimical to the interests 
of the United States. 

(2) I have made it abundantly clear that the 
policy of this administration is to support in 
every way practicable those coimtries which are 
defending themselves against aggression. In 
harmony with this principle this Government is 
affording and will continue to afford to the Gov- 
ernment of Great Britain all possible assistance 
short of war. You may wish from time to time 
to bring to the attention of Marshal Petain and 
members of the Government concrete informa- 
tion regarding the American program to this 
end. 

(3) I have been much perturbed by reports 
indicating that resources of France are being 
placed at the disposal of Germany in a measure 
beyond that positively required by the terms of 
the armistice agreement. I have reason to be- 
lieve that aside from the selfish interests of in- 
dividuals there is unrequired governmental 
cooperation with Germany motivated by a belief 
in the inevitableness of a German victory and 
ultimate benefit to France. I desire that you 
endeavor to inform yourself with relation to this 
question and report fully regarding it. 

You should endeavor to persuade Marshal 
Petain, the members of his Government, and 
high ranking officers in the military forces with 



242 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTTLLETIN 



whom you come into contact, of the conviction 
of this Government that a German victory 
would inevitably result in the dismemberment 
of the French Empire and the maintenance at 
most of France as a vassal state. 

(4) I believe that the maintenance of the 
French fleet free of German control is not only 
of prime importance to the defense of this 
hemisphere but is also vital to the preservation 
of the French Empire and the eventual restora- 
tion of French independence and autonomy. 

Accordingly, from the moment we were con- 
fronted with the imminent collapse of French 
resistance it has been a cardinal principle of this 
administration to assure that the French fleet 
did not fall into German hands and was not used 
in the furtherance of German aims. I immedi- 
ately informed the French Government, there- 
fore, that should that Government permit the 
French fleet to be surrendered to Germany the 
French Government would permanently lose 
the friendship and good will of the Government 
of the United States. 

Since that time I have received numerous 
assurances from those in control of the destiny 
of France that the French fleet would under no 
circumstances be surrendered. 

On June 18, 1940, Monsieur Paul Baudoin, 
then Minister for Foreign Affairs, assured 
Ambassador Biddle "in the name of the French 
Government in the most solemn manner that 
the French fleet would never be surrendered to 
the enemy". 

On July 1, 1940, President Le Brun, informed 
Ambassador Bullitt that "France would under 
no conditions deliver the fleet to Germany." On 
the same day Marshal Petain assured Ambas- 
sador Bullitt that orders had been issued to 
every Captain of the French fleet to sink his 
ship rather than to permit it to fall into Ger- 
man hands, and Admiral Darlan told Ambas- 
sador Bullitt that he had "given absolute orders 
to the officers of his fleet to sink immediately 
any ship that the Germans should attempt to 
seize." 



When Marshal Petain came into power as 
Chief of the French State I received renewed 
and most solemn assurance-s that the French 
fleet would not be surrendered to Germany. 
Vice Premier Laval reiterated these assur- 
ances to Mr. Matthews on November 14 when 
he said that "the French fleet will never fall 
into the hands of a hostile power." 

On November 16 Marshal Petain, when the 
subject was again raised, told Mr. Matthews: 
"I have given the most solemn assurances that 
the French fleet, including the Jean Bart and 
the Richelieu^ should never fall into Germany's 
hands. I have given these assurances to your 
Government. I have given them to the British 
Government, and even to Churchill personally. 
I reiterate them now. They will be used to de- 
fend French territory and possessions. They 
will never be used against the British unless we 
are attacked by them." And most recently Mar- 
shal Petain, in a conversation with the present 
Charge d'Affaires ad interim, Mr. Murphy, said 
on December 12: "I hope your President un- 
derstands that I have kept and will continue to 
keep the solemn promise I made that the French 
fleet will be scuttled before it is allowed to fall 
into German hands." 

I feel most strongly that if the French Gov- 
ernment after these repeated solemn assurances 
were to permit the use of the French fleet in 
hostile operations against the British, such 
action would constitute a flagrant and deliberate 
breach of faith to the Government of the United 
States. 

You will undoubtedly associate with high offi- 
cers of the French Navy. I desire, therefore, 
that in your relations with such oflScers, as well 
as in your conversations with French officials, 
you endeavor to convince them that to permit 
the use of the French fleet or naval bases by 
Germany or to attain German aims, would most 
certainlyi forfeit the friendship and good will of 
the United States and result in the destruction 
of the French fleet to the irreparable injury of 
France. 



OCTOBER 9, 1943 



243 



(5) You will undoubtedly be approached 
from numerous quarters regarding food for the 
French people. 

There is no people on earth who have done 
more than the American people in relieving 
the suffering of humanity. The hearts of the 
American people go out to the people of France 
in their distress. As you are aware we are 
continuing our efforts to arrange for the for- 
warding through the Red Cross of medical 
supplies and also tinned or powdered milk for 
children in the unoccupied regions of France. 
Nevertheless, the primary interest of the Amer- 
ican people, and an interest which overshadows 
all else at the moment, is to see a British 
victory. The American people are therefore 
unwilling to take any measure which in the 
slightest degree will prejudice such a victory. 
Before the American people would be willing 
to have influence exerted upon the British 
Government to permit the shipment of food 
through the British blockade to France, it would 
be necessary that the American people be con- 
vinced beyond peradventure that such action 
would not in the slightest assist Germany. 

(6) In your discussions regarding the Fi'ench 
West Indies and French Guiana you should 
point out that our sole desire in that region is to 
maintain the status quo and to be assured that 
neither those possessions nor their resources will 
ever be used to the detriment of the United 
States or the American republics. To accom- 
plish this we feel that it is essential that the 
naval vessels stationed in the ports of those 
islands or possessions be immobilized and that 
we have adequate guarantees that the gold 
which is at present stored in Martinique be not 
used in any manner which could conceivably 
benefit Germany in the present struggle. 

(7) I have noticed with sympathetic interest 
the efforts of France to maintain its authority 
in its North African possessions and to improve 
their economic status. In your discussions you 
may say that your Government is prepared to 
assist in this regard in any appropriate way. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 



[Released to the press for publication October 9, 8 p.m.] 

Early in 1943 the Department of State re- 
leased a publication entitled Peace and War: 
United States Foreign Policy, 1931-19^. This 
150-page volume contains references to a num- 
ber of documents concerning the conduct of the 
foreign relations of the United States during 
this 10-year period. When this volume was 
issued it was stated that the documents would 
be published later. They are accordingly re- 
leased in a documented edition of Peace a^vd 
War: United States Foreign Policy, 1931-1914. 

The present 850-page volume contains 274 
documents, which are presented in chronological 
order. Approximately half of them are here 
published for the first time. These documents, 
together with those which have been issued 
from time to time during this 10-year period, 
present a record of policies and acts by which 
the United States sought to promote conditions 
of peace and world order and to meet the world- 
wide dangers resulting from Japanese, German, 
and Italian aggression. 

The story contained in the volume is very 
briefly outlined in the first 3-page section en- 
titled "The Fateful Decade". It is there stated 
that the "pages which follow show the slow 
march of the United States from an attitude of 
illusory aloofness toward world-wide forces en- 
dangering America to a position in the fore- 
front of the United Nations that are making 
common cause against an attempt at world con- 
quest unparalleled alike in boldness of concep- 
tion and in brutality of operation." 

The earliest of the unpublished documents in 
this volume relate to Japanese inroads in Man- 
churia and in other parts of China from 1931 
to 1933 (nos. 1, 6, 8, 11). One of the significant 
documents of this period is the legislative pro- 
posal, advocated by Secretary Hull, to author- 
ize cooperation by the United States in an arms 
embargo against aggressor nations (no. 16). 

During 1933, 1934, and 1936 reports were re- 
ceived from American diplomatic and consular 
officers in Europe of the rising danger from the 
Nazis (nos. 18, 21, 27, 36, 41, 44, 59). The 
anxiety of President Roosevelt and Secretary 



244 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Hull over the international situation was re- 
vealed in the Secretai-y's conversation of No- 
vember 2, 1933 with the German Ambassador in 
which he said that a general war during the 
next two to ten years seemed more probable than 
peace (no. 20). 

During these years the Ambassador in Japan, 
Joseph C. Grew, reported on the dangers in the 
Far Eastern situation (nos. 10, 38). On May 
19, 1934 Secretary Hull discussed with the Jap- 
anese Ambassador the apparent intention on 
the part of Japan to exercise an "overlordship 
of the Orient" and reminded the Ambassador 
that Japan and Geimany were the two coun- 
tries considered chiefly responsible for the in- 
crease of armaments (no. 33). 

Beginning in the fall of 1934, Ambassador 
Breckinridge Long reported from Eome on the 
danger of Italian aggression in Ethiopia (nos. 
37, 42, 51, 53). In an extended conversation 
on November 22, 1935 with the Italian Ambas- 
sador, the Secretary of State dealt with the 
Italian complaint against our refusal to fur- 
nish war supplies to that country (no. 61). 
Other previously unpublished documents re- 
lating to the Italo-Ethiopian war are nos. 48, 
55, 56, and 59. 

Both before and after the Japanese attack on 
China in 1937 Secretary Hull had several gen- 
eral conversations with Japanese representa- 
tives in which he endeavored to convince the 
Japanese that their best interests lay in follow- 
ing policies of peace (nos. 72, 85, 87). Other 
unpublished documents concerning the policy 
of the United States during this period toward 
Japanese aggression in China are nos. 88, 90, 92, 
95, and 100. In a memorandum of a conversa- 
tion with the Canadian Minister, Secretary Hull 
recorded that since August 1937 he had been 
proceeding on the theory that Japan definitely 
contemplated securing domination over Eastern 
Asia and the South Seas and that Germany was 
equally bent on becoming the "dominating 
colossus of Continental Europe" (no. 111). 
Two significant conversations with the Japa- 
nese Ambassador just before the outbreak of the 
war in Europe in 1939 are recorded in the Sec- 



retary's memorandums of July 10 and August 
26 (nos. 132,140). 

Shortly after Munich the Secretary of State 
advocated the acquisition of stock-piles of 
strategic materials for use in case of national 
emergency (no. 118). In a memorandum of 
September 11, 1940 Secretary Hull recorded a 
statement made to the French Ambassador 
''that from the time Mr. Norman Davis came 
back from the Disarmament Conference and re- 
ported that the German and Italian Govern- 
ments could no longer be expected to deal se- 
riously with the question of disarmament, he, 
myself and others have been urging increased 
armaments here, and this goes back over a four 
to five-year period" (no. 181). 

When it became known in May and early 
June of 1940 that Italian entrance into the war 
was imminent, this Government made strenuous 
efforts to keep Italy out of the war. The story 
of this episode is recorded in documents 151, 
152, 153, 155, 158, 159, 160, 161, and 164. 

Diplomatic moves of the United States to 
prevent the Vichy Government from turning 
over the French fleet to Germany are set out in 
several 1940 documents, the last of which is 
President Koosevelt's instruction to Admiral 
Leahy on his appointment as Ambassador to 
France (nos. 170, 171, 187, 189, 190, 192). 

This Government received reports in the 
winter of 1940-41 that Germany intended to at- 
tack the Soviet Union. In accordance with in- 
structions from the Secretary of State, Under 
Secretary Welles conveyed this information to 
the Soviet Ambassador early in 1941 (no. 202). 

On February 9, 1941 Secretary Hull sent a 
message to our Minister to Yugoslavia in which 
he referred to the President's statement that 
"we are planning our own defense with the 
utmost urgency and in its vast scale we must 
integrate the war needs of Britain". This posi- 
tion, he said, continued to be the keystone of 
the national-defense policy of the United 
States; we were convinced that Great Britain 
would win (no. 197). In an instruction of 
April 10, 1941 to our diplomatic representa- 
tives in several neutral European countries, Sec- 



O'CTOBEiR 9, 194 3 



245 



retary Hull said it had been made abundantly 
clear by our people and government that we in- 
tended to play our part in resistance against 
the forces of aggression. Therefore, it was in- 
cumbent upon every representative of the 
United States and every United States citizen 
abroad to reflect the absolute determination of 
the United States to "see this thing through'' 
(no. 205). 

The majority of previously unpublished 1941 
documents relate to American-Japanese conver- 
sations. These reveal the consistent refusal of 
the United States to agree to any settlement 
which would be prejudicial to the interests of 
China. They also set forth the attitude of the 
United States toward a Japanese proposal for 
a meeting between President Roosevelt and the 
Japanese Prime Minister. In document 260 
is recorded a statement by Secretary Hull to the 
British Ambassador, November 29, 1941, that 
the diplomatic part of our relations with Jajjan 
was virtually over and that it would be a serious 
mistake for the United States and other coun- 
tries concerned to make plans of resistance with- 
out including the possibility that Japan might 
move suddenly and with every possible element 
of surprise and capture certain positions before 
the peaceful countries interested in the Pacific 
would have time to confer and formulate plans 
to meet these new conditions. 



THE UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND 
REHABILITATION ADMINISTRATION 

[Released to the press Octolier 4] 

On September 23, 1943 the press was informed 
by the Department that this Government was 
at that time placing the revised text of the draft 
agreement for a United Nations Relief and Re- 
habilitation Administration before all of the 
United Nations and the other nations associ- 
ated witli them in this war. At that time all 
of the other governments concerned were in- 
formed that the United States Government was 
ready to sign the agreement and suggested that 
the ceremony of signature be held in the Wliite 
House in Washington early in November and 
that the first session of the Council of the new 
organization, on which all member governments 
will be represented, be held immediately after 
signature in the United States. 

If this plan is acceptable to the other gov- 
ernments concerned it is expected that the cere- 
mony of signature will be held at the Wliite 
House on November 9, 1943. This Government 
has offered to act as host for the first meeting 
of the Council and has made arrangements to 
hold the Council meeting on November 10 at the 
Claridge Hotel in Atlantic City, N.J., which 
has been taken over for the exclusive use of the 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration Council meeting. 




PRESENTATION OF LETTERS OF CREDENCE BY THE SOVIET AMBASSADOR 



[Released to the press October 4] 

The remarks of the newly appointed Am- 
bassador of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, Mr. Andrei A. Gromyko, upon the occa- 
sion of the presentation of his letter of credence, 
October 4, 1943, follow : 

Mr. President : 

I have the honor to present to you the letter 
of credence by which the Presidium of the 



Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics accredits me to you as Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and also 
the letter of lecall of my predecessor. 

In presenting you with the letter of credence, 
I feel it my duty to state that the peoples of the 
Soviet Union entertain for the American people 
feelings of friendship and deep respect, and that 



246 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the maintenance and further development of 
friendly relations and closest collaboration with 
them constitute the unswerving desire and 
aspiration of my Government. 

The friendship of the peoples of our countries 
is not accidental. It is the expression of the 
basic interests of our peoples and our nations. 
This friendship has grown stronger under the 
grim trial of this war, in which the peoples of 
the Soviet Union and the United States fight 
against their common enemy — Hitlerite Ger- 
many and her allies in Europe. The bonds of 
friendship uniting our peoples are being still 
further strengthened by the blood which the 
best sons of our countries are shedding in the 
struggle against the German-fascist gangsters. 

During the entire two years of this stubborn 
struggle, in which the heaviest burden of effort 
and sacrifices has fallen upon the Soviet Union, 
the peoples of the Soviet Union received and 
are receiving from the friendly American people 
not only moral, but substantial material support 
as well, in the form of airplanes, tanks, guns, 
and other military material, and also foodstuffs. 
The Soviet people highly values this support, 
for which I express to you, Mr. President, and 
through you to the whole American people, the 
warm gratitude of my Government and the 
peoples of my country. 

The armed forces of the Allies, including 
those of the United States of America, are tak- 
ing an increasingly greater part in our common 
struggle against Hitlerite Germany, and have 
already inflicted a number of heavy defeats 
upon the cunning foe. The successes of the Red 
Army in its struggle against the Hitlerite hordes 
dui-ing more than two years, its present vic- 
torious advance on the Soviet-German front, the 
remarkable successes of Anglo-American arms 
in North Africa and Sicily, as well as the de- 
veloping military operations of the Anglo- 
American forces on the territory of Italy, have 
created a favorable military-political situation 
for inflicting decisive blows upon the hated 
enemy. 



It is now clear that the war is turning in favor 
of the United Nations. However, for delivery 
of the final blow upon the enemy, exertion of the 
total strength of our countries and also of all 
the United Nations, will be required. I firmly 
believe, Mr. President, that the present joint 
struggle against our common foe — Hitlerite 
Germany and her allies in Europe — will bring 
about closer collaboration of our countries in 
the post-war period, in the interests of general 
peace and security. . 

I believe that the mutual understanding and 
mutual confidence between our countries which 
are so necessary both during wartime and in the 
post-war period as well, will be forged to the 
maximum degree in the fire of our joint mili- 
tary efforts. I am prepared to devote all my 
endeavors to further the consolidation of this 
mutual understanding and confidence between 
our countries, certain of the success and fruit- 
fulness of our mutual efforts, directed to the 
achievement of this high purpose. I hope, Mr. 
President, that in executing my duties as the 
Ambassador accredited to you, I may rely upon 
your support and likewise that of the Govern- 
ment which you head. 

I beg you, Mr. President, to accept the assur- 
ance of the warm sympathy of the peoples of the 
Soviet Union for the American people, and the 
expression of full coiifidence in the further 
fruitful development and strengthening of the 
friendly relations between the Soviet Union and 
the United States of America, for the benefit 
and prosperity of our great peoples and of all 
friendly countries. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Mr. 
Gromyko follows: 

Mr. Ambassador: 

I am happy to receive from Your Excellency 
the letters by which the Presidium of the Su- 
pi-eme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics accredits you as Ambassador Ex- 
traordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics to the Government 



OCTOBE'E 9, 1943 



247 



of the United States, and I welcome you in that 
capacity. 

I am deeply gratified at the expression of 
your determination to develop further the 
friendly relations of understanding and confi- 
dence which so happily exist between our two 
countries and to continue thereby the work of 
your distinguished predecessor whose letters of 
recall you have handed to me. I can assure you, 
that in the performance of this high task with 
which your Government has entrusted you, 
Your Excellency may count upon receiving the 
full cooperation and support of the Govern- 
ment of the United States. 

The fortitude, courage, and self-sacrifice of 
the armed forces and people of the Soviet Union 
in their terrible hours of trial have aroused the 
undying admiration of the American people and 
we rejoice with the people of the Soviet Union 
in the ever-growing tide of success which is 
crowning Soviet arms. 

Since the day of the treacherous assault upon 
your country by Nazi Germany it has been and 
is the unswerving intention of this country to 
lend maximum assistance to your gallant 
armies. Our two countries are united against 
a common enemy. The Goverimient and people 
of the United States have bent every effort 
to bring to bear as speedily and as effec- 
tively as possible the might of our armed forces 
against that enemy. The enemy has felt, is 
feeling, and will to an ever-increasing degree 
feel the weight of the combined forces of the 
United Nations and when final and complete 
victory is achieved, as it will be, I know that 
every one of the United Nations will have made 
its full contribution towards that victory. 

O'ur countries are joined together in a high 
cause and I fully shai-e your confidence that the 
unity of purpose which binds our peoples and 
countries together in the prosecution of the 
war will be translated into a close and lasting 
collaboration together with other like-minded 
countries in the establislunent of a just and 
enduring peace. 



American Republics 



RETURN TO BUENOS AIRES OF AMERI- 
CAN AMBASSADOR TO ARGENTINA 

[Released to the press October 7] 

Ambassador Armour plans to return to his 
post at Buenos Aires in the near future. He has 
completed the consultations regarding all 
phases of the relations between Argentina and 
the United States with the President and the 
Secretary of State, for which he was instructed 
early last August to proceed to Washington. 
The position of the United States with regard 
to Argentina was fully stated recently by 
Secretary Hull. Ambassador Armour's return 
is not to be interpreted as suggesting any change 
in that position. 

VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE 
PRESIDENT OF HAITI 

[Released to the press October 5] 

His Excellency Elie Lescot, President of the 
Republic of Haiti, will visit the United States 
upon the invitation of President Roosevelt dur- 
ing the month of October. 

President Lescot is expected to arrive in 
Washington on October 14 and to remain in the 
Capital for four or five days as a guest of the 
Government. 

VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE 
CHILEAN FOREIGN MINISTER 

[Released to the press October 5] 

The Government of the United States has re- 
ceived with particular pleasure the visit of His 
Excellency Joaquin Fernandez Fernandez, For- 
eign Minister of Chile, who has lent such ef- 
fective support to the cause of inter-American 
solidarity. During his visit in Washington the 
Foreign Minister conversed with the President, 
the Vice President, the Secretary of State, the 
Chairman of the Foreign Relations Commit- 



248 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tee of the Senate, the Chairman of the Foreign 
Affairs Committee of the House of Representa- 
tives, and with other high officials of the legisla- 
tive, executive, and judicial branches of the 
Government. These conversations, which cov- 
ered a wide range of subjects of common inter- 
est, served to bring out the close, friendly, and 
mutually helpful relations between the two 
countries. 



The Department 



UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE 

On October 4, 1943, Mr. Edward R. Stet- 
tinius, Jr., took the oath of office as Under Sec- 
retary of State. 

RETIREMENT OF CHARLES M. BARNES 

[Released to tlie press October 6] 

Mr. Charles IM. Barnes of the Department 
of State retired from the Federal service on 
September 30, 1943. Mr. Barnes, who was 
appointed in the Department on January 5, 
1912, had served as Chief of the Treaty Division 
in the Department of State since April 21, 1928. 

The Secretary of State has sent to Mr. Barnes 
the following letter of appreciation : 

Mt Dear Mr. Barnes : 

On the occasion of your retirement, I want 
to extend to you on behalf of this Government 
my deepest ap^jreciation for *V. devoted and 
efficient service that you ha\'e rendered to your 
country during the 31 years you have been in 
the Department of State. Your retirement will 
give you leisure for the enjoyment of many 
things which your conscientious devotion to 
the public service has denied you. I know you 
are looking forward to this. Yet I am sure 
that you will not take your leave of active serv- 
ice in the Department of State without some 
of the regret which your long and happy asso- 



ciation with your colleagues in the Department 
will cause them to feel. I assure you that I 
share with them in this regret and with them 
offer you best wishes for the future. 
Sincerely yours, 

CoRDEix Hull 



The Foreign Service 



CONFIRMATIONS 

On October 7, 1943 the Senate confirmed the 
nomination of W. Averell Harriman as Am- 
bassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
the United States of America to the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, and Jolui K. Cald- 
well as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of the United States of 
America to Ethiopia. 



Legislation 



UNITED STATES STATUTES AT LARGE 

Part 2 of volume 56 of the United States 
Statutes at Large, compiled, edited, indexed, 
and published by the Laws Section of the Divi- 
sion of Research and Publication, Department 
of State, was issued last week. This part con- 
tains the laws and concurrent resolutions en- 
acted during the second session of the Seventy- 
seventh Congress, 1942, and also treaties and 
international agreements other than treaties to 
which the United States is a party and which 
have come into force since the date of the ad- 
journment of the first session of the Seventy- 
seventh Congress, including all proclamations 
issued since that date. The price of part 2 of 
volume 56 is $3 (buckram). It may be pur- 
chased from the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, Washington. 



OCTOBER 9, 1943 



249 



Publications 



Department of State 

Peace and War: United States Foreign Policy, 1931- 
1941 [documeuted edition]. Publication 1983. xxll, 
874 pp. $2 (cloth). 

Principles Applying to Mutual Aid in the Prosecution of 
the War Against Aggression : Preliminary Agreement 



and Exchange of Notes Between the United States of 
America and Ethiopia — Signed at Washington August 
9, 1943; effective August 9, 1943. Executive Agree- 
ment Series 334. Publication 1989. 6 pp. 50. 
Cooperative Rubber Investigations in Costa Rica: 
Agreement Between the United States of America 
and Costa Rica, Continuing in Force the Agreement 
of April 19 and June 16, 1941 as Amended by the 
Supplementary Agreement of April 3, 1943 — Effected 
by exchange of notes signed at San Jos6 June 21 and 
July 1, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 335. Pub- 
lication 1993. 4 pp. 5^. 



0. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1943 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PCBLISHEID WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIBECTOB OP THE BUBEAU OF THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BUL 



J 



c 



ontents 



H 



T 




OCTOBER 16, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 225— Publication 2011 



The War 

Declaration of War by Italy Against Germany: Page 
Message of Marshal Badoglio to General Eisen- 
hower 253 

Proclamation by Marshal Badoglio 253 

Joint Statement by the President of the United 
States, the Prime Minister of Great Britam, 

and the Premier of the Soviet Union 254 

Message of the President to the Congress Favoring 

Repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Laws .... 254 
Exchange of American and Japanese Nationals . . . 255 
Address by Assistant Secretary Berle before the Italian- 
American Labor Council 256 

Address by Francis B. Sayre before the Chicago Sun- 
day Evening Club 258 

Facilities in the Azores Made Available to Great Britain 

by Portugal 263 

Proclaimed List: Revision VI 263 

The Far East 

National Amiiversary of China and Inauguration of 

Chiang Kai-shek as President of China 263 

American Republics 

Suspension by Argentina of the Publication of Jewish 

Newspapers 264 

Visit to the United States of the President of Haiti . . 264 

[over] 








OinieAlfS-f^ONTINUED 



General Paw 
Development of International Air-Transportation Serv- 
ices 265 

The Foreign Service 

Death of Pierre Crabit&s 266 

Death of Robert Y. Jarvis 267 

Treaty Information 
Agriculture: Conventions With Canada and Alexico 

Regarding Migratory Birds 267 

Economics: Inter- American Coffee Agreement .... 267 

Legislation 267 

Publications 268 



U- 8. SUPERiNTfNDENT OF OOCOMFNT? 

NOV 5 1943 



The War 



DECLARATION OF WAR BY ITALY AGAINST GERMANY 

Message of Marshal Badoglio to General Eisenhower 



[Released to the press by the White House October 13] 

Marshal Badoglio communicated Italy's 
declaration of war against Germany to General 
Eisenhower in a message, the text of which 
follows : 

"I take great pleasure in informing you that 
His Majesty the King of Italy has declared war 
on Germany. The declaration will be handed 
by our Ambassador in Madrid to the German 
Ambassador, at 3 o'clock p.m. (Greenwich time) 



on October thirteenth. By this act all ties with 
the dreadful past are broken and my Govern- 
ment will be proud to be able to march with you 
on to the inevitable victory. Will you be good 
enough, my dear General, to communicate the 
foregoing to the Anglo-American, Russian and 
other United Nations Governments. I should 
also be grateful to you if you would be kind 
enough to inform the Italian Embassies in 
Ankara, in Buenos Aires, and the Legations in 
Bern, Stockholm, Dublin and Lisbon." 



Proclamation by Marshal Badoglio 



[Released to the press by the White House October 13] 

Immediately after Italy's declaration of war 
against Germany, Marshal Badoglio issued a 
proclamation, the text of which follows : 

"Italians, with the declaration made Septem- 
ber 8th, 1943, the Government headed by me, in 
announcing that the Commander in Chief of 
the Anglo-American Forces in the Mediterra- 
nean had accepted the Armistice requested by 
us, ordered the Italian troops to remain with 
their arms at rest but prepared to repel any act 
of violence directed at them from whatever 
other source it might come. With a synchro- 
nized action, which clearly reversed an order 
previously given by some high authority, Ger- 
man troops compelled some of our units to dis- 
arm, while, in most cases, they proceeded to a de- 
cisive attack against our troops. But German 



arrogance and ferocity did not stop here. We 
had already seen some examples of their be- 
havior in the abuses of power, robbery, and vio- 
lence of all kinds perpetrated in Catania while 
they were still our allies. Even more savage 
incidents against our unarmed populations took 
place in Calabria, in the Puglie and in the area 
of Salerno. But where the ferocity of the 
enemy surpassed every limit of the human im- 
agination was at Naples. The heroic popula- 
tion of that city, which for weeks suffered every 
form of torment, strongly cooperated with the 
Anglo-American troops in putting the hated 
Germans to flight. Italians! There will not 
be peace in Italy as long as a single German re- 
mains upon our soil. Shoulder to shoulder, we 
must march forward with our friends of the 
United States, of Great Britain, of Russia, and 

253 



S54 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJliETESt 



of all the other United Nations. Wherever 
Italian troops may be, in the Balkans, Yugo- 
slavia, Albania, and in Greece, they have wit- 
nessed similar acts of aggression and cruelty 
and they must fight against the Germans to the 
last man. The Government headed by me will 
shortly be completed. In order that it may 
constitute a true expression of democratic gov- 
ernment in Italy, the representatives of every 



political party will be asked to participate. 
The present arrangement will in no way impair 
the untrammelled right of the people of Italy to 
choose their own form of democratic govern- 
ment when peace is restored. Italians ! I in- 
form you that His Majesty the King has given 
me the task of announcing today, the thirteenth 
day of October, the Declaration of War against 
Germany." 



Joint Statement by the President of the United States, the Prime Minister of Great Britain, 

and the Premier of the Soviet Union 



[Released to the press by the White House October 13] 

The following joint statement has been issued 
by the President of the United States, the Prime 
Minister of Great Britain, and the Premier of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Eepublics, con- 
cerning the declaration of war by Italy against 
Germany : 

"The Governments of Great Britain, the 
United States and the Soviet Union acknowl- 
edge the position of the Royal Italian Govern- 
ment as stated by Marshal Badoglio and accept 
the active cooperation of the Italian nation 
and armed forces as a co-belligerent in the war 
against Germany. The military events since 
September eighth and the brutal maltreatment 
by the Germans of the Italian population, cul- 
minating in the Italian declaration of war 
against Germany have in fact made Italy a 
co-belligerent and the American, British and 



Soviet Governments will continue to work with 
the Italian Government on that basis. The three 
Goverimients acknowledge the Italian Govern- 
ment's pledge to submit to the will of the Italian 
people after the Germans have been driven 
from Italy, and it is understood that nothing 
can detract fi'om the absolute and untram- 
melled right of the people of Italy by consti- 
tutional means to decide on the democratic 
form of government they will eventually have. 
"The relationship of co-belligerency between 
the Government of Italy and the United Na- 
tions governments cannot of itself affect the 
terms recently signed, which retain their full 
force and can only be adjusted by agreement 
between the allied governments in the light of 
the assistance which the Italian Government 
may be able to affoi'd to the United Nations' 
cause." 



MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS FAVORING REPEAL 
OF THE CHINfESE EXCLUSION LAWS 



[Released to the press by the White House October 11] 

To THE Congress of the United States : 

There is now pending before the Congress 
legislation to permit the immigration of Chinese 
people into this country antl to allow Chinese 



residents here to become American citizens.^ I 
regard this legislation as important in the cause 
of winning the war and of establishing a secure 
peace. 

' H.R. 3070, 78tli Cong. See also under heading "Leg- 
islation", post p. 267. 



OCTOBER 16, 1943 



255 



China is our ally. For many long years she 
stood alone in the fight against aggression. To- 
day we fight at her side. She has continued her 
gallant struggle against very great odds. 

China has understood that the strategj' of vic- 
tory in this world war first required the concen- 
tration of the greater part of our strength upon 
the Euroi^ean front. She has understood that 
the amount of supplies we could make available 
to her has been limited by difficulties of trans- 
portation. She knows that substantial aid will 
be forthcoming as soon as possible — aid not only 
in the form of weapons and supplies, but also 
in carrying out plans already made for offen- 
sive, effective action. We and our allies will aim 
our forces at the heart of Japan — in ever-in- 
creasing strength until the common enemy is 
driven from China's soil. 

But China's resistance does not depend alone 
on guns and planes and on attacks on land, on 
the sea, and from the air. It is based as much 
in the spirit of her people and her faith in her 
allies. We owe it to the Chinese to strengthen 
that faith. One step in this direction is to wipe 
from the statute books those anachronisms in 
our law which forbid the immigration of Chi- 
nese people into this country and which bar 
Chinese residents from American citizenship. 

Nations like individuals make mistakes. We 
must be big enough to acknowledge our mistakes 
of the past and to correct them. 



By the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Laws, 
we can correct a historic mistake and silence the 
distorted Japanese propaganda. The enact- 
ment of legislation now pending before the Con- 
gress would put Chinese immigrants on a parity 
with those from other countries. The Chinese 
quota would, therefore, be onlj' about 100 immi- 
grants a year. There can be no reasonable ap- 
prehension that any such number of immigrants 
will cause unemployment or provide competi- 
tion in the search for jobs. 

The extension of the privileges of citizenship 
to the relatively few Chinese residents in our 
country would operate as another meaningful 
display of friendship. It would be additional 
proof that we regard China not only as a part- 
ner in waging war but that we shall regard her 
as a partner in days of peace. While it would 
give the Chinese a preferred status over certain 
other Oriental people, their great contribution 
to the cause of decency and freedom entitles 
them to such preference. 

I feel confident that the Congress is in full 
agreement that these measures — long overdue — 
should be taken to correct an injustice to our 
friends. Action by the Congress now will be an 
earnest of our purpose to apply the policy of the 
good neighbor to our relations with other 
peoples. 

Franklin D Koosevelt 



EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND JAPANESE NATIONALS 



On October 14, 1943 the Department of State 
released to the press (press release no. 431) a 
a list of 1,236 nationals of the United States 
whose names have been received through the 
Swiss authorities as having embarked on the 
Tc'm Maru in the Far East to proceed to Mor- 
mugao, Goa, Portuguese India, to be exchanged 
there during the period October 15-21 for Jap- 
anese nationals returning to Japan from the 
United States aboard the motor vessel Grips- 



holm} The Gripshohn left Jersey City for Mor- 
mugao on September 2, and upon completion of 
the exchange at Mormugao is scheduled to re- 
turn to New York. 

The text of the announcement granting safe 
conduct to the Gripsholm, the first document of 
this nature to be issued by this Government, 
follows : 



' BuxLBTiN of Sept. 4, 1943, p. 149, and Oct. 2, 1943, 
p. 227. 



256 



DEPARTl^IENT OF STATE BTJLLETrN 



To All to Whom These Presents Shau. Come, 
Greeting : 

I, the undersigned, Secretary of State of the 
United States of America, hereby inform all 
•whom it may concern that the Governments of 
the British Commonwealth of Nations, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Nether- 
lands, Yugoslavia, Norway, Belgium, Greece, 
Poland, Czechoslovakia, China, Brazil, Cuba, 
Dominican Republic, Haiti, Panama, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala 
and Mexico, as well as the Governments of 
Japan, Germany, and Italy, have conveyed to 
the Government of the United States of 
America their assurances of safe conduct for 
the Swedish motor vessel Gripsholm for the 
purpose of exchanging nationals of the United 
States, certain of the other American republics 
and Canada for nationals of Japan, on its voy- 
age from New York, New York, United States 
of America, to Mormugao, Goa, Portuguese 
India, by way of and stopping at the ports of 
Rio de Janeiro, Bi-azil, Montevideo, Uruguay, 



and Port Elizabeth, Union of South Africa, and 
return from Mormugao to New York by way 
of and stopping at Port Elizabeth, and Rio 
de Janeiro, the entire voyage to be accom- 
plished, in the absence of unfoi-eseen delays, 
between the first day of September, 1943, and 
the third day of December, 1943, over the fol- 
lowing course which was made known to and 
agreed upon by each of the governments 
granting safe conduct : 

[Here follows a list of directions outlining 
the ship's itinerary to and from Mormugao.] 

In behalf of the Government of the United 
States of America, I do hereby grant safe con- 
duct to the vessel. 

Given under my hand and the seal of the De- 
partment of State of the United States of 
America at Washington this thirty-first day of 
August in the year of Our Lord, Nineteen Hun- 
dred and Forty-three, and the Independence of 
the United States of America, the One Hundred 
and Sixty-eighth. 

[seal] Cordell Hull 



ADDRESS BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY BERLE BEFORE THE ITALIAN-AMERICAN 

LABOR COUNCIL' 



[Released to the press October 12] 

Friends of America and or Italy : 

For some years it has been your habit to take 
counsel from time to time concerning the af- 
fairs of Italy, a great nation, in deep misfor- 
tune, to which civilization owes so much. 

Your president, Mr. Antonini, informed the 
White House of this meeting tonight. Presi- 
dent Roosevelt authorizes me to give his greet- 
ings to this group, in which are included many 
of his oldest friends; to say that he maintained 
faith in the Italian people during the darkest 
days of their eclipse; to remind you of his 
pledge that Italy should be restored as a re- 
spected member of the family of nations; and 

• Delivered in New York, N.Y., Oct. 12, 194a 
" BtiiXETiN Of Sept. 18, 1943, p. 176. 



to say that, as to the reconstitution of Italy, no 
government will be imposed on Italy and that 
its government should be one acceptable to the 
Italian people, derived from and responsive to 
its free will. 

The relations between the United States and 
such an Italian government — as, indeed, with 
all countries — were clearly outlined only a 
month ago by Secretary Hull: "Cooperation 
between nations in the spirit of good neighbors, 
founded on the principles of liberty, equality, 
justice, morality, and law, is the most effective 
method of safeguarding and promoting the po- 
litical, the economic, the social, and the cultural 
well-being of our nation and of all nations."- 

Toward this goal we have already traveled a 
long, difficult, bloody road. We shall have 



OCTOBEH 16, 1943 



257 



tragic and anxious hours before it is achieved. 
But faith shall not waver, and courage shall 
not fail. 

Nearly a year ago we met together after thei 
armies of the United Nations, under American 
command, had entered the Mediterranean and 
liberated North Africa. This Government 
clearly stated, first, that the United Nations- 
proposed to restore to liberated Italy her essen- 
tial nationhood; but, second, that rebirth of 
Italian freedom could be won only if Italians 
themselves expelled the Fascist crew which had 
seized their Government, and, as Italians, joined 
the common fight against the Nazi oppressors, 
enemies of Italy and of mankind. 

In the months which followed, armies of the 
United Nations entered Sicily and Italy as lib- 
erators and as friends of the Italian people. 
The common and kindly folk of the streets, the 
villages, and the farms were swift to welcome 
them as friends. From Lombard and Piedmont 
cities to the Campania, old groups in Italy arose 
in wrath; labor unions, democratic organiza- 
tions, simple neighborhoods spoke with the new 
voice of popidar authority. A timid crew of 
Fascist leaders meeting in council knew at long 
last that their day was done. On July 25, under 
pressure from the people, they deposed the 
Duce. Immediately after, many of them fled 
to Germany. Marshal Badoglio, placing him- 
self in charge, promptly abolished the Fascist 
government, imprisoned Mussolini, dissolved 
the Fascist party, released the liolitical prison- 
ers of the Fascist regime, and opened negotia- 
tions with the American and British command- 
ers of the Allied forces. 

The Nazi generals realized little of the true 
significance of those flaming days. Hitler had 
forgotten that Italy was or could be an inde- 
pendent nation. But the little people of the 
streets who demanded peace with the Allies 
knew better. They knew that peace with the 
United Nations inevitably meant war with the 
Nazis. Actually, the putting into effect of Mar- 
shal Badoglio's' surrender was delayed for the 
sole purpose of giving him time to provide, as 
far as possible, against the German attack on 



Italian troops which was sure to follow, as it 
did. For the Italian people were not asking 
neutrality. They were asking freedom ; and no 
group could hope to lead Italy which did not at 
once make expulsion of the German invader its 
immediate task. 

What followed is part of the known history 
of these brave and passionate times. The Allied 
armies landed at Salerno with Italian help ; they 
beat off in mass attack the German divisions in 
the south. The American Fifth and the Brit- 
ish Eighth Armies established contact, moved 
northward, freed Naples. The Germans, retir- 
ing, sacked the city, killing hostages and mur- 
dering women and children in what seems to 
have been a sadistic lust for killing. 

Meanwhile, German S.S. irregulars claimed 
to have recaptured Mussolini. After some bick- 
ering, he was named as a Quisling. A handful 
of traitors, miscalled a "government", were set 
to dangle on the outskirts of the Nazi military 
headquartei-s. Frenzied appeals in the Italian 
language, written in Goebbels' best style, asking 
other Italians to turn Quisling, found little 
response. 

Badoglio, in command of the Italian forces, 
recognized the relentless logic of the situation. 
He called on all Italians to make common front 
against the Nazi tyranny. Many sincere anti- 
Fascists have differed with the Marshal during 
his long career. But their best thinking was 
siunmed up by Count Carlo Sforza, who 
promptly and f orthrightly declared that so long 
as Badoglio was fighting the common enemy, it 
would be criminal for any Italian to weaken his 
hand: politics and constitutional questions 
should be adjourned, to be dealt with after the 
liberation; all hands, now, must join the com- 
mon front against the common enemy. 

Clearly, Italian people can be trusted to deal 
with the reorganization of Italy when it is 
cleared of invading bayonets. Today the press- 
ing task is to mobilize every Italian from the 
Alps to the Ionian Sea as a mighty army to 
repel these modern barbarians who seek to make 
of Italy a Nazi gau. 



258 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLiETrN 



Properly, tonight, you are thinking of the 
reestabli&'hment of the institutions on which 
free Italy was based. Particularly you are in- 
terested in the re-creation of the free trades 
unions. This is right. Any informed student of 
Europe knows that no rebuilding is possible 
which does not include recognition of the far 
greater place of labor in the world to come. 
Plainly this must mean reconstituting labor or- 
ganizations as free and self-governing bodies 
capable of speaking once more for the workers, 
by whom the brunt of this fearful struggle has 
been borne and for whom the peace must be 
made. God speed you all. 

In frankness you should be told that this 
work has of necessity to abide military possi- 
bilities. Tonight, the great industrial centers 
are within German lines. The men who seek 
to reconstitute free trades unions must do so 
at fearful risk of life, family, reputation, even 
memory. Already many have died unknown, 
unsung, in this terrible task of bringing dy- 
namic freedom back to their people. Before 
free trades unions can be constituted, all of us, 
and all of Italy, will have to fight—to fight 
side by side with all who likewise risk their 
lives in common cause to make an Italy capable 
of restoring to every Italian his rightful part 
in free institutions of labor and in politics. Let 



us leave aside political quarrels, stand fast in 
the mighty and growing work of liberation, 
salute the struggle — and salute the men. 

Happily the barriers which Mussolini and 
the Nazis built between Italy and the world of 
freedom are gradually being broken down. I 
believe the time will not be long when it will be 
possible for Americans to have limited com- 
munication by mail with their friends and rela- 
tives in Sicily and on the liberated mainland. 
Provision for supplies for the peoples of the 
liberated areas was included in the allied mili- 
tary plan, and allied civilian agencies have been 
preparing such other economic support as may 
be needed. The elimination of Fascists in these 
liberated areas, according to our reports, is now 
being taken care of quite thoroughly by the 
Italian people. As the military lines move 
northward, the frontier of freedom moves with 
them. 

Tonight we meet once more in the presence of 
the problems which were faced by Garibaldi, 
by Cavour, and by Mazzini, greatest of them 
all. They are the blinding and glorious issues 
of life and of liberty. She has made her mis- 
takes, but in great hours Italy has given only 
one answer. Life without liberty is worthless: 
liberty, even at the cost of death, is an eternal 
city for endless ages. 



ADDRESS BY FRANCIS B. SAYRE BEFORE THE CHICAGO SUNDAY 

EVENING CLUB^ 



[Released to the press October 11] 

You and I are living through one of the really 
great periods of world history. In these 
crowded, tense, portentous years of feverish 
activity and struggle, the future destiny of our 
children and of our children's children is in the 
making. And we are given a vital part to play 
in that great drama. 

We have witnessed the ending of an era. 
The great, comfortable, easy world in which we 
lived prior to 1914 has been cracking up before 

' Delivered in Chicago, 111., Oct. 10, 1943. Mr. Sayre 
is Special Assistant to the Secretary of State. 



our eyes. Many of the fundamental assump- 
tions of our capitalistic system have been chal- 
lenged and some of them have been upset. 
Kingdoms and governments have been over- 
turned. Fundamental beliefs and underlying 
philosophies in large areas of the world have 
been shattered and displaced. We have been 
living through 30 years of break-down and con- 
flict and tragedy. And now, weary of turmoil, 
heartsick of the welter of suffering all around 
us, we are turning our faces to the future, as is 
just and right, and wondering how to build a 
better world. 



OCTOBER 16, 194 3 



259 



Men everywhere ^vant to build a better world. 
The problem is hov,-. We cannot see a clear 
jiathway ahead. Discordant counsels confuse 
us. Many people are growing discouraged and 
wondering which way to turn. 

At such a time the great fundamentals of the 
Christian faith stand out like beacon-lights to 
guide humanity forward. If we truly believe 
in those fundamentals we cannot lose our sense 
of direction or miss the way forward. The 
details are still indistinct, but the general direc- 
tion is unmistakable. 

The central and fundamental teaching of 
Jesus Christ is human brotherhood. Translated 
into concrete application in the international 
world today the meaning of brotherhood is 
clear. The nineteenth-century notion of a 
world of isolated, self-seeking, sovereign na- 
tions, each bent on gaining political and eco- 
nomic mastery over its rivals and competitors, 
killing and robbing whenever expedient in or- 
der to gain selfish power, is not compatible with 
the Christian conception of world brotherhood. 
It led to the Triple Alliance and the Triple 
Entente, each struggling to out-arm and out- 
strip the other, and to the explosion of 1914. 
It led to the first World War, and from that 
into the second World War. It has led to break- 
down, frustration, and utter disaster. If we 
are to build a civilization that will survive, 
there is only one foundation possible — and that 
is the Christian way of brotherhood. 

What does that mean in terms of present-day 
realities? In a world as closely knit together 
as ours has become, it means men and women 
of diilerent races and different nationalities 
learning to work together shoulder-to-shoulder 
for the common ends of humanity. Peoples 
will begin thinking, not in terms of a master 
race or the protection of national sovereignty, 
but of how to gain for all mankind security and 
lasting peace. There is only one practical way 
to achieve this. That lies through the building- 
up of adequate international machinery and the 
closest kind of international cooperation. In 
no other way can lasting peace be won today. 

5555S6 — 43 2 



In no other way can we achieve a world econ- 
omy leading to heightened ratlier than lowered 
standards of living. 



Tonight I want to speak about one of the 
particular and more immediate tasks which will 
confront us as the Axis soldiers are driven out 
of occupied territory. If we are in earnest 
about applying our Christianity to present-day 
world needs, here, it seems to me, is a job which 
Christians must back to the limit. 

At the conclusion of the war, ravaged Europe 
and Asia will be faced with dire need and grip- 
ping distress unprecedented in all history. In 
four years of fighting in Eur(;pe and six years 
of fighting in Asia, the Axis has overrun 35 
nations in which were living over 500 millions 
of people. Battle, murder, nnd criminal vio- 
lence have blackened most of Europe and much 
of Asia. Men and women have been maimed 
and killed. Others have been carried off into 
slavery. Homes have been destroyed. Cities 
have been pillaged. Whole nations have been 
looted and plundered of their resources; the 
economies of entire peoples have been dis- 
rupted and exploited; whole races have been 
driven into exile and despair. The Four Horse- 
men of the Apocalypse are riding furiously 
through Europe and Asia today. 

If the new world for which we have been 
fighting is to be made a living reality, we must 
go forward boldly and without fear. We are 
fighting to make secure for ourselves and for 
our children a way of life which is very pre- 
cious to us — one based upon individual freedom 
and equality of opportunity and equal justice 
to the weak as to the strong. To maintain this 
way of life there is only one practicable way. 
Pious hopes and Fourth of July oratory will 
not be sufficient. 

We must get down to realities. We must learn 
to realize that the entire world has' become so 
closely bound together by trade, by modern tech- 
nological development, by economic intermesh- 
ing between country and country, that it is quite 
impossible for half of the world to remain free 



260 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJUjETIN 



while the other half is enslaved by ruthless force 
and oppression. It is imi:)ossible to secure a last- 
ing peace for ourselves as long as tyranny and 
injustice and inhuman living conditions con- 
tinue in other important parts of the world to 
breed unrest and rebellion and conflict. It is 
impossible to recapture economic health and 
prosperity for ourselves as long as Europe and 
Asia are prostrate and unable to make their 
contribution to the industry and the commerce 
of the world. 

The only way to win the objectives for which 
we are fighting is first to help liberate the na- 
tions and peoples now overrun and enslaved by 
Axis ai-mies and then to help them rebuild their 
social and economic and industrial life. We 
must assist in a world offensive against saift'er- 
ing and need. 

Democracy and human freedom cannot con- 
tinue to exist in a world constantly upset by the 
recurrent threat of war. Economic progress 
cannot be built upon social unrest and political 
tension. Poverty and ojipression in any part 
of the world, with i-esidting political instability, 
are direct menaces to the economic well-being 
and progress of the United States and of every 
other industrial country. Twice within a gen- 
eration has the economy of the United States 
been disrupted and our standard of living com- 
promised by war, even though originating on 
another continent. Surely it must be manifest 
to all that the United States has a tremendous 
stake in the building of the kind of peace that 
will last. One of the foundation-stones for such 
a peace is the relief and rehabilitation of the 
peoples of Europe and Asia. 

II 

Concretely, what is the nature of the initial 
job which we must perform to get Europe back 
on its feet again ? In the ring of countries sur- 
rounding Germany, which have been invaded 
and looted by Nazi armies, the population living 
west of Soviet Russia (excluding Germany it- 
self, the United Kingdom, and the neutrals) is 
about 250 million people. No one can say when 
the armies of the United Nations will be able to 



free those peoples. At least we, in concert with 
the other United Nations, must be prepared to 
afford relief to as many as 150 to 160 million 
people between now and the end of 1944. 
Among these the need will be pitiful, immedi- 
ate, and great beyond anything in the history 
of war. 

When United Nations forces march into the 
ruins of Europe, first things must come first. As 
long as people are disorganized and starving 
and desperate they will be unable to help effec- 
tively in the building of a constructive peace. 
We must begin by feeding the starving and 
and binding up the wounds of the stricken, 
by checking the ravages of epidemics and dis- 
ease, by helping liberated peoples to replace 
anarchy by law and organized government. 

All this we must do with an immediacy and 
on a scale never before attempted. It will be a 
monumental task. But it cannot be shirked. It 
will be an absolutely necessary prerequisite to 
the larger and the more difficult task of starting 
the wheels of industry and commerce turning 
again in liberated areas. 

The task of distributing relief at the out- 
set rests with the military. Indeed, as need 
scarcely be pointed out, the initial work of 
relief and rehabilitation is an inseparable part 
of the work of the Army. Military operations 
may be seriously jeopardized if food riots break 
out behind the lines, if transport services are 
interrupted by civil disturbances, or if epidem- 
ics begin to ravage the civilian population. 

The work of emergency civil relief at the 
outset, therefore, is undertaken by Army per- 
sonnel with Army supplies and under Army 
direction. As the enemy is driven out the mili- 
tary must be prepared to operate mobile soup 
kitchens to keep liomeless and penniless people 
alive and to organize public-health services to 
prevent the spread of epidemics and to insure 
all, adequate water supply. Shelter and cloth- 
ing are secondary needs which must be supplied 
insofar as transport and other arrangements 
allow. 

As the active front moves forward and order 
begins to emerge from chaos, the nature of the 



OCTOBER 16, 1943 



261 



relief problem changes. The responsibility for 
administering civilian relief will naturally pass 
fi'om the military to civilian authorities. The 
civilian population repair and rebuild their 
homes as rapidly as possible and return to live 
in them. Soup kitchens are replaced by ra- 
tioned supplies, issued in various centers to the 
needy, to be taken home and there consumed by 
the reassembled families. Many of the popula- 
tion will be able to procure and prepare their 
own food. But there will still for a time be 
large numbers of needy men, women, and 
children to whom standard rations must be sup- 
plied to keep them alive until the wheels of 
normal food production can be set in motion. 

During this period the articles of diet will 
be somewhat more varied than during the initial 
emergency period. Nevertheless, because of 
shortage of world supplies, of ships, and of 
transport facilities, the standard of relief set 
will have to be quite modest. There will jsrob- 
ably not be enough food left at the end of the 
war to give everyone the ration that he or she 
should have. If we are to judge of practical 
possibilities by the amount available, it seems 
doubtful whether at the beginning it will be pos- 
sible to imjjort more food than sufficient to 
afford a general average of 2,000 calories a day. 
This is less than two thirds of an average 
American, Norwegian, or Italian pre-war diet. 
But at least it is better than the diet to which 
the Germans have condemned most of the peo- 
ple now under German domination and, if 
wisely i^lanned, will maintain the people of 
Europe during the early stages of rehabili- 
tation. 

It is obvious that the furnishing of relief 
cannot be continued indefinitely. In fact, one 
of our primary purposes will be to eliminate the* 
need for relief at the earliest possible moment. 
Our objective is to help those who have been 
prostrated by Axis tyranny and oppression to 
get on their own feet — to help people to help 
themselves. Until the first crop can be planted 
and tended and reaped, help from the outside 
may be necessary on an extended scale ; after the 
first harvest the problem of relief will be less 



acute. From the very outset, therefore, if we are 
to avoid the necessity of administering relief 
indefinitely, we must plan and provide the means 
for helping people to get their crops planted and 
tended and their factory wheels turning again. 
This means providing seeds and fertilizers and 
where necessary a limited amount of agricul- 
tural tools. It may also mean providing a 
modest quantity of industrial machinery in some 
cases where factories can be put into the speedy 
production of relief .supplies. Rehabilitation is 
thus a necessary and essential part of relief. 
Seeds for an ensuing year's crop may save more 
lives than an equal quantity of food. 

It is clear that if relief supplies are to be on 
hand when the need presents itself they must 
be planned and procured considerably in ad- 
vance. In view of the present short supply of 
most foodstuffs they cannot be had by a simple 
purchase and sale over the counter. In many 
case!? the needed foodstuffs today are not in 
existence. 

To feed Dakota wheat or New Jersey soup to 
a starving child in Greece or Norway or Poland 
or France requires many months of preparation. 
The food must first be allocated by the appro- 
priate control agencies; then it must be pro- 
cured for relief purposes ; next it must be ware- 
housed and means must be found for shipping it 
overseas. All these steps entail baffling prob- 
lems involving considerable time and delay. 

Ill 

In a task as gigantic and world-wide as meet- 
ing the relief needs of the liberated areas in 
tlie coming months it is roapifest that neither 
the United States nor any one of its allies could 
possibly do the job unassisted. The amount 
of food and other relief supplies necessary to 
meet urgent demands will be beyond the pro- 
ductive resources of any single nation. Fur- 
thermore, the furnishing of nation-wide relief 
is too delicate a task, too fraught with explo- 
sive issues, to be undertaken wisely by any 
nation acting alone. The relief and rehabilita- 
tion of the continents of Europe and Asia in- 
volve the building of foundations which will 



262 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



have much to do with the shaping of tlie future 
peace and economic activity of the peoples of 
those areas. In a task as v;ist as this, all the 
peace-loving nations should participate. 

Our own country has therefore taken the lead 
in placing before the governments of the United 
Nations and of the other nations associated with 
them in this war a plan for the creation of a 
United Nations Belief and Eehabilitation Ad- 
ministration. Under the proposed agreement 
an international administration is to be set up, 
headed by a Director General and a Council of 
representatives of all the member nations. This 
Administration is to plan, coordinate, and ad- 
minister measures for the relief of victims of 
war through the provision of food, fuel, cloth- 
ing and shelter, and other basic necessities, 
medical and other essential services, and to 
facilitate in areas receiving relief, so far as nec- 
essary to the adequate provision of relief, the 
production and transportation of these articles 
and the furnishing of these services. This will 
involve international cooperation in the plan- 
ning of relief activities, the purchasing of sup- 
jilies, the equitable allocation of available sup- 
plies among competing countries, the use of 
ships and other methods of transportation, and 
the distribution of relief in the various localities. 

This plan has already been agreed to by Great 
Britain, the Soviet Union, and China. All the 
United Nations and the other nations associated 
with them have been invited to join in signing 
the agreement at the White House on November 
9. If the plan succeeds it will form a new 
chapter in practical international cooperation 
on a world-wide scale for human welfare. 

I need scarcely add that in this joint under- 
taking all member-states will be asked to con- 
tribute relief supplies, services, and money ac- 
cording to their ability. The beneficiary coun- 
tries as well as all others will be expected to 
pull their weight in the boat to the utmost of 
their capacity. 

For months we have been talking about post- 
war planning and international collaboration. 
We have been discussing how to build sound 



foundations for a stable peace. Now we are 
facing the realities. Here is the acid test of 
whether we can or whether we cannot forget 
our selfish differences and work together whole- 
heartedly for common objectives which must 
be achieved if we are to go forward and attain 
humanity's place in the sun. 

True, it is only part of the task which awaits 
us. Other more difficult parts of the work 
remain — the achievement of some form of in- 
ternational organization for the keeping of the 
peace, the effective limitation and control of 
armament production, the inauguration of 
practicable means for the peaceful settlement 
of international disputes, the reduction of trade 
barriers throughout the world, the elimination 
of unfair trade practices and discriminations, 
the development of international responsibility 
with respect to certain backward areas. What 
we must remember is that these tasks cannot 
all be accomplished at once. Months and years 
of devoted study and consecrated effort will be 
necessary for the building of the international 
peace structure. Here, in this comparatively 
less difficult part of the task, we begin. 

All forward-looking nations are in agreement 
in desiring to find practicable ways for bringing 
relief to stricken Europe and Asia at the end 
of the war. For agricultural nations eager to 
sell their surpluses it is manifestly to their in- 
terest to do so. For predominantly industrial 
nations eager to avoid mass unemployment fol- 
lowing the sudden curtailment of wartime pro- 
duction, it is manifestly to their interest to do 
so. In bringing relief to stricken Euroi^e and 
Asia in the months immediately following the 
armistice, all nations will be serving the cause 
of humanity. 

In supporting such a work we can make our 
Christianity vital and telling. 

Christianity is- not merely a dream or a beau- 
tiful mirage. It is a practical way of life. 
But unless it is given concrete and continuing 
realization in deeds and in action it will wither. 
In this time of break-down and change when 
new alinements are forming and new concep- 



OCTOBER 16, 194 3 

tions are developing as the controlling forces 
of the coming years, it is of transcendent im- 
portance that Christians take a hand in shap- 
ing events. 

Christ is walking by the lake again. He is 
calling to you and to me, as He did to Peter 
and Andrew and His other disciples by the lake- 
side — "Follow me." Now in these great days 
of change and struggle and suffering, Christi- 
anity has a rare chance of coming into its own 
again. But its power will depend very largely 
on what you and I and people like us make of 
it. Nineteen hundred years ago the fate of 
Christianity hung upon 11 disciples, their 
leader crucified like a common thief. But, 
through their magnificent courage and dauntless 
activity in the j'ears that followed, Christianity 
was saved to the world. Today the fate of 
Christianity hangs upon us. Are we prepared 
to back up our professions and our words with 
deeds ? 



FACILITIES IN THE AZORES MADE 
AVAILABLE TO GREAT BRITAIN BY 
PORTUGAL 

[Released to the press October 12] 

With reference to the statement made by 
Prime Minister Churchill concerning the use of 
facilities in the Azores, the agreement on which 
the statement is based was concluded by virtue 
of the ancient Anglo-Portuguese Alliance. 
The United States Government has been in- 
formed and has approved the arrangements 
made. 



PROCLAIMED LIST: REVISION VI 

[Released to tbe press October 12] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Attorney General, the Secretary of Commerce, 
the Director of the Office of Economic Warfare, 
and the Coordinator of Inter- American Affairs, 
pursuant to the proclamation by the President 



263 

of July 17, 1941 providing for the Proclaimed 
List of Certain Blocked Nationals, on October 7, 
1943 issued Revision VI of the Proclaimed List. 
Revision VI supersedes Revision V, dated April 
23, 1943, and consolidates Revision V with its 
six supplements. 

No new additions to or deletions from the 
Proclaimed List are made in this revision. 
Certain minor changes in the spelling of names 
listed are made. 

Revision VI follows the listing arrangement 
used in Revision V. The list is divided into two 
parts : Part I relates to listings in the American 
republics and part II to listings in countries 
other than the American republics. Revision 
VI contains a total of 14,746 listings, of which 
10,117 are in part I and 4,629 in part II. 




NATIONAL ANNIVERSARY OF CHINA 
AND INAUGURATION OF CHIANG 
KAI-SHEK AS PRESIDENT OF CHINA 

[Released to the press October 10] 

The President's message of October 10 to 
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, President of 
the National Government of the Republic of 
China, follows: 

"I am happy to convey to you and to the peo- 
ple of China on the anniversary of your na- 
tional revolution for freedom the greetings and 
congratulations of the people of the United 
States. I take this opportunity to give expres- 
sion to our warm regard for Your Excellency 
and the Chinese people who have persevered so 
long and courageously in the struggle against 
aggression and who continue the struggle, 
joined by the peoples of other United Nations, 
confident of achieving victory through whole- 
hearted and cooperative action." 

The President has also sent the following 
message to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek 



264 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



upon the occasion of his inauguration on Octo- 
ber 10 as President of the Republic of China : 

"On the occasion of your inauguration as 
President of the Eepublic of China, I gladly 
convey to you my congratulations and best 
wishes for your success and personal well- 
being. Your elevation to the highest oflSce in 
the Government of the Republic of China is 
recognition of the inestimable service you have 
rendered the Chinese people in the past and of 
the services j'ou are to render in the future in 
leading them to victoiy, peace and freedom." 



American Republics 



SUSPENSION BY ARGENTINA OF THE 
PUBLICATION OF JEWISH NEWSPAPERS 

[Released to tbe press by the White House October 15] 

A statement by President Roosevelt follows : 

"I have been informed that the Argentine 
Government has suspended the publication of 
Jewish newspapers some of which have been 
in existence for many years. While this mat- 
ter is of course one which concerns primarily 
the Argentine Government and people, I cannot 
forbear to give expression to my own feeling 
of apprehension at the taking in this hemi- 
sphere of action obviously anti-Semitic in na- 
ture and of a character so closely identified 
with the most repugnant features of Nazi doc- 
trine. I believe that this feeling is shared by 
the people of the United States and by the 
people of the other American republics. In 
this connection I recall that one of the reso- 
lutions adopted at the Eighth International 
Conference of American States at Lima in 1938 
set forth that 'any persecution on account of 
racial or religious motives which makes it im- 



possible for a group of human beings to live 
decently, is contrary to the political and juridi- 
cal systems of America.' " 

VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF 
THE PRESIDENT OF HAITI 

The President of the Republic of Haiti, His 
Excellency Elie Lescot, arrived in Washington 
October 14, accompanied by an official party 
comprised of the following persons: Mr. Abel 
Lacroix, Secretary of State for Finance, Com- 
mei'ce, and National Economy; Mr. Maurice 
Dartigue, Secretary of State for Public Instruc- 
tion, Agi-iculture, and Labor; Mr. Gontran 
Rouzier, Under Secretary of State for Informa- 
tion and General Police; Col. Durce Armand, 
Commander of the Military Department of the 
National Palace ; Mr. Daniel Heurtelou, Private 
Secretary to the President; Capt. Chai'les 
Lochard, Chief of the Militai-y Household of the 
President; Lt. Roger Lescot, Special Adjutant 
to the President; His Excellency Andre Liau- 
taud, Ambassador of Haiti; the Honorable 
John C. Wliite, American Ambassador to Haiti ; 
Brig. Gen. Eric S. Molitor, U.S.A., Military 
Aide; Capt. Andrew S. Hickey, U.S.N. (Ret.), 
Naval Aide; and Mr. Stanley Woodward, 
Department of State. 

The President was honored at a dinner at the 
White House on the night of his arrival. His 
program while in Washington will include a 
visit to the Capitol, a reception at Blair House 
for the chiefs of diplomatic missions, a dinner 
to be given by the Secretary of State, a special 
meeting and luncheon at the Pan American 
Union, a visit to Arlington National Cemetery, 
a dinner to be given by the Assistant Secretary 
of State and Mrs. Berle, and luncheons to be 
given by the Haitian Ambassador and the Co- 
ordinator of Inter-American Affairs. The 
President will leave Washington on October 18 
for a stay of several days in Baltimore and New 
York before returning to his own country. 



General 



DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL AIR-TRANSPORTATION SERVICES 



[Eeleased to the press October 15] 

The following joint statement has been issued 
by the Department of State and the Civil Aero- 
nautics Board concerning their respective inter- 
ests in the development of international air- 
transportation services : 

"In order to eliminate any possible confusion 
m the minds of the aviation industry and the 
public generally, the Department of State and 
the Civil Aeronautics Board have felt it desir- 
able to clarify their respective interests in the 
development of international air-transportation 
services. 

"The Department of State has a primary in- 
terest in the subject from the standpoint of 
foreign policy and international relations, in- 
cluding the broad economic effects of aviation 
in foreign countries. 

"The Civil Aeronautics Board is charged with 
the responsibility, within the framework and 
guided by the policies of applicable legislation, 
of developing policy with respect to the organ- 
ization and functioning of civil air transporta- 
tion. The Board is required by law to study all 
of the economic and other factors which go to 
make up a finding of convenience and necessity 
for specific routes. In addition, the Board must 
investigate the applicant or applicants to make 
a determination of fitness, willingness, and abil- 
ity. Findings of fact made pursuant to statu- 
tory authority in the technical fields of aviation 
operation, transportation economics and organ- 
ization, determination of route, and the like are 
matters for decision by the Board, though the 
Department of State may bring to the attention 
of the Board considerations and facts relating 
to foreign policy which may be relevant to the 
subject-matter of any determination in respect 



of which the Department is consulted or may 
have an interest based on considerations of 
foreign relations. 

"The policy of both the Department of State 
and the Civil Aeronautics Board is that of the 
clos-est collaboration in order that the Board 
may be fully apprized of the Department's 
views on any international problems which 
might be involved in matters under considera- 
tion by that agency, and in oi'der that the De- 
partment of State may be fully apprized of the 
views of the Board in respect of civil-aviation 
problems as they may affect foreign relations. 

"The facilities of the Department of State are 
fi-eely available to the Civil Aeronautics Board 
for procuring from the Department or through 
its missions abroad such information as it may 
be able to secure for the use of the Board ; the 
facilities of the Civil Aeronautics Boai'd are 
freely available to the Depax-tment of State for 
procuring such engineering, technical, or trans- 
portation data as may be of assistance to the 
Department in handling its problems. 

"With specific reference to the development 
of new international air services, it is believed 
desirable to outline for the benefit of interested 
parties the procedure being followed. 

"Applications for certificates of public con- 
venience and necessity, and amendments there- 
of, are filed with the Civil Aeronautics Board 
pursuant to section 401 of the Civil Aeronautics 
Act of 1938, as amended. Thereafter the car- 
rier need only prepare for the hearing before 
the Board at which it will endeavor to prove 
that public convenience and necessity require 
the granting of its application. 

"The Board forwards copies of such applica- 
tions to the Department of State for informa- 

265 



266 



DEPAJRTMENT OF STATE BXJLIiETIN 



tion and such comment as it may wish to make 
to the Board. Questions of landing rights and 
other matters affecting foreign policy will be 
dealt with through close consultation between 
the Department of State and the Civil Aero- 
nautics Board. The Department of State, as 
provided in section 802 of the Civil Aeronautics 
Act of 1938, as amended, will conduct with for- 
eign governments such negotiations for new or 
additional rights as may be determined to be 
desirable as a result of collaboration between 
the Department of State and the Civil Aero- 
nautics Board. 

"Foreign air carriers who wish to apply to 
the Civil Aeronautics Board under section 402 
of the Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938, as 
amended, for jiermits to operate into United 
States territory, should request their govern- 
ments to forward such applications through 
diplomatic channels. When these applications 
are received in the Department of State they 
will be immediately transmitted to the Civil 
Aeronautics Board. Thereafter, pending a de- 
cision on the application, technical or other 
details are handled directly with the Board, 
and the applicant prosecutes his application 
directly before the Board." 

As a further clarification of existing proce- 
dure, there is also made public the following 
letter dated September 25, 1943 from Assistant 
Secretary of State Adolf A. Berle, Jr., to Mr. 
John W. Cross, representing the Alaska Star 
Airlines : 

"The Department refers to your recent oral 
inquiry regarding the status of landing rights 
for American commercial aircraft which may 
be obtained through negotiation by the Gov- 
ernment of the United States. Specifically you 
ask whether, when such landing rights may be 
secured, your company will have an opportunity 
to be heard on the question of whether it may 
be permitted to exercise or share in such com- 
mercial landing rights. 

"In reply, you are advised that it is the policy 
of the Department of State, when it secures 



commercial landing rights in foreign countries 
for American aircraft, to secure such rights in 
general terms so that they may be assigned to 
or allocated among American carriers in ac- 
cordance with the determination of the com- 
petent authorities of this Government under 
the provisions of law. The competent author- 
ity for that purpose is the Civil Aeronautics 
Board which has authority under its certificat- 
ing power to determine, with the approval of 
the President, what American carrier or car- 
riers may engage in international civil avia- 
tion and what route or routes they may be 
permitted to fly. It is the policy of the De- 
partment of State so far as practicable when 
it secures commercial landing rights in foreign 
countries to do so in a manner which shall make 
them subject to the authority of the Civil Aero- 
nautics Board. Should special circumstances 
exist making this impossible, it is the policy 
of the Department to act in consultation with 
the Civil Aeronautics Board." 



The Foreign Service 



DEATH OF PIERRE CRABITJiS 

[Released to tbe press October 11] 

The Department announces with sincere re- 
gret the death in Baghdad, Iraq, on October 10, 
1943 of Judge Pierre Crabites, an officer in the 
Foreign Service Auxiliary. 

Judge Crabites was born in New Orleans, La., 
on February 17, 1877 and received his educa- 
tion and legal training at the College of Im- 
maculate Conception of New Orleans, Tulane 
University, Loyola University of New Orleans, 
and the University of Paris. After practising 
law in New Orleans for 11 years. Judge Crabites 
served as an American judge on the Mixed 
Court of First Instance at Cairo, Egypt, from 
1911 to 1936, M^hen he retired after a distin- 
guished career as a jurist and became a lec- 
turer at Louisiana State University. Judge 



OCTOBER 16, 1943 



267 



Crabites was the author of a number of books 
and articles on international affairs. He was 
appointed to the Foreign Service Auxiliary on 
May 14, 1943. 



(Treaty Series 912) . The amendment relates to 
the open seasons on mourning or turtle dove 
and is printed in the Federal Register for Octo- 
ber 13, 1943, page 13965. 



DEATH OF ROBERT Y. JARVIS 

[Released to the press October IG] 

It is with deep regret that the Department of 
State announces the death of Mr. Eobert Yel- 
verton Jarvis, Second Secretary of Legation 
and Consul at Lisbon, early in the morning of 
October 16 at tTTe University Hospital in Phila- 
delphia. Mr. Jarvis had recently served as Con- 
sul at Vancouver and was proceeding to his 
new post at Lisbon when stricken with pneu- 
monia. 



Treaty Information 



AGRICULTURE 

Conventions With Canada and Mexico 
Regarding Migratory Birds 

On October 9, 1943 the President, under au- 
thority granted in the Migratory Bird Treaty 
Act, approved and proclaimed an amendment, 
submitted to him by the Acting Secretary of 
the Interior, of the regulations approved by 
Proclamation 2345 of August 11, 1939, as last 
amended by Proclamation 2589 of July 16, 1943, 
permitting and governing the hunting, tak- 
ing, capture, killing, possession, sale, purchase, 
shipment, transportation, carriage, exportation, 
and importation of migratory birds and parts, 
nests, and eggs thereof, included in the terms 
of the Convention for the Protection of Mi- 
gratory Birds between the United States and 
Great Britain, in respect of Canada, signed on 
August 16, 1916 (Treaty Series 628), and the 
Convention for the Protection of Migratory 
Birds and Game Mairmials between the United 
States and Mexico, signed February 7, 1936 



ECONOMICS 

Inter-American Coffee Agreement 

The Inter- American Coffee Agreement signed 
at Washington on November 28, 1940 (Treaty 
Series 970 and 979) has been continued in ef- 
fect without any change for a period of one year 
from October 1, 1943 as the result of a declara- 
tion made by the Inter-American Coffee Board 
on May 12, 1943. Pursuant to the provisions 
of article XXIV of the agreement, the Inter- 
American Coffee Board, in its resolution 
adopted September 2, 1942, recommended to 
the participating governments the continua- 
tion without any change of the agreement for 
a period of one year fi'om October 1, 1943. Ac- 
cording to the declaration, acceptance of the 
aforesaid resolution was expressed by all the 
paiticipating governments, namely, the Gov- 
ernments of Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, 
the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salva- 
dor, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nica- 
ragua, Peru, the United States of America, and 
Venezuela. 



Legislation 



Repealing the Chinese Exclusion Laws. H. Kept. 732, 
78th Coug., on H.R. 3070. [Part 1: Favorable re- 
port ; Part 2 ; Minority views]. 7 pp. ; 2 pp. 

Independence for the Philippine Islands : Message from 
the President of the United States relative to the 
independence of the Philippine Islands and protection 
in the future and to give them the opportunity of 
economic rehabilitation [recommendation for enact- 
ment of legislation by Congress]. S. Doc. 101, 78th 
Cong, [also printed as H. Doc. 332, 78th Cong.]. 2 pp. 

Giving Effect to the Provisional Fur-Seal Agreement of 
1042 Between the United States and Canada. H. 
Rept. 746, 78th Cong., on H.R. 2924. 30 pp. 



268 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIK 



Belief of Certain Officers and Employees of the Foreign 
Service of the United States Who, While in the Course 
of Their Respective Duties, Suffered Losses of Per- 
sonal Property by Reason of War Conditions. S. 
Rept. 448, 78th Cong., on S. 1382. 24 pp. 

Schedule of Claims Allowed by the General Accounting 
Office: Communication from the President of the 
United States [Department of State, p. 21]. H. Doc. 
322, 78th Cong. 25 pp. 

Extraterritoriality in China : Article prepared by Hon. 
Elbert D. Thomas, a Senator from the State of Utali. 
S. Doc. 102, 78th Cong. 12 pp. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Detail of Military Officer To Serve as Director of the 
Military School and of the Military Academy of El 
Salvador : Agreement Between the United States of 
America and El Salvador — Signed at San Salvador 
May 21, 1943; effective May 21, 1943. Executive 
Agreement Series 328. Publication 1907. 13 pp. 50. 

Principles Applying to Mutual Aid in the Prosecution of 
the War Against Aggression : Preliminary Agreement 
and Exchange of Notes Between the United States of 
America and Ethiopia — Signed at Washington August 
9, 1943; effective August 9, 1943. Executive Agree- 
ment Series 334. Publication 1989. 6 pp. 50. 

Cooperative Rubber Investigations in Costa Rica : Agree- 
ment Between the United States of America and 
Costa Rica Continuing in Force the Agreement of 
April 19 and June 16, 1941 as Amended by the 
Supplementary Agreement of April 3, 1943 — Effected 
by exchange of notes signed at San Jos6 June 21 and 
July 1, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 335. Pub- 
lication 1993. 4 pp. 50. 



Detail of Military Officer To Serve as Adviser to the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Panama : Agreement 
Between the United States of America and Panama 
Continuing in Effect the Agreement of July 7, 1942 — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Washington 
July 6 and August 5, 1943; effective July 7, 1943. 
Executive Agreement Series 336. Publication 1996. 
2 pp. 50. 

Naval Mission : Agreement Between the United States 
of America and Colombia Continuing in Effect the 
Agreement of November 23, 1938 as Modified by the 
Supplementary Agreement of August 30, 1941, and 
Extended by the Agreement of September 22 and 
November 5, 1942 — Effected by exchange of notes 
signed at Washington July 23 and August 7, 1943; 
effective November 23, 1943. Executive Agreement 
Series 337. Publication 1992. 3 pp. 50. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals : 
Revision VI, October 7, 1943, Promulgated Pursuant 
to Proclamation 2497 of the President of July 17, 
1941. Publication 2000. 362 pp. Free. 

Diplomatic List, October 194.3. Publication 2003. II, 
119 pp. Subscription, $1 a year ; single copy 100. 

Mailing List of Diplomatic and Consular Offices of the 
Foreign Service of the United States (Including 
Supplemental List of Field Offices in the United States 
of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
Department of Commerce). September 1, 1943. 
Publication 2004. 11 pp. Free. 

Other Government Agencies 

Handbook of Federal World War Agencies and Their 
Records, 1917-21 [with general bibliography]. (The 
National Archives.) 1943. xiii, 666 pp. $1.25 
(cloth) ; for sale by Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office. 

Soviet Russia : Selected List of Recent References. 
(Bibliography Division, Library of Congress.) 1943. 
91 pp., processed. Available from Library of Con- 
gress (free to institutions only). 



0. 8. 60VERNMENT PRtNTlNC OFFICEi 1943 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPKOVAL OF THE DiaECTOS OP THE BDREAD OF THP BUDOKT 



=f5S^,| f^50 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




u 



J 



J 



H 



■^ r 



1 




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OCTOBER 23, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 226— Publication 2013 



ontents 



The War 

The Tripartite Conference in Moscow 

Food Shipments to North Africa for Military Pur- 
poses 

Third Protocol Regardmg MiHtary Supplies to the 
Soviet Union 

Exchange of American and Japanese Nationals .... 

Appointment of Chief of Mission for Economic Affau's 
in London 

Statement by President Roosevelt Regarding the 
Puppet Government in the Philippines 

Address by Francis B. Sayre Before the Cotton Te.xtile 
Institute 

Proclaimed List: Cumulative Supplement 1 to Re- 
vision VI 

American Republics 

Development of the Good-Neighbor Policy 

Visit to the United States of Argentine Chamber of 
Commerce Official 

Commercial Policy 

Supplemental Trade-Agreement Negotiations With 
Cuba 

The Department 

Resignation of Herbert Feis as Adviser on International 

Economic Affairs 

[over] 



Paga 

271 

271 

272 
273 

273 

274 
274 
280 

280 
280 

281 

283 




U. S. SUPfRINTENOENT OF n'^^nf^rMr- 
NOV 5 \oHo 







ontents-coNTiNVED 

Treaty Information Paeo 

. Commerce:Trade Agreement With Iceland 283 

General 

Issuance of Identification Certificates to Americans 

Crossing the Mexican Border 284 

Legislation 284 

Publications 284 



Q, S. OOVERNUENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1941 



For sale by the Superintendent ol Documents, U. S. Government Printing Offlee, Wasliington, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - . . Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPBOVAL OF THE DIBECTOB OF THE BDBEAU OF THE BUDOBT 



The War 



THE TRIPARTITE CONFERENCE IN MOSCOW 



[Released to the press October 18] 

The following statement was issued by the 
Acting Secretary of State at his press and 
radio news conference October 18 : 

"The Secretary of State and the other mem- 
bers of the United States delegation to the forth- 
coming Tripartite Conference have arrived in 
Moscow. 

"The opportunity offered by the convening of 
this Conference to bring into even closer har- 
mony the cooperation already existing between 
the United States, British, and Soviet Govern- 
ments is most welcome. 

"I am certain that the frank and friendly dis- 
cussions which will take place during the 
Conference will enable the three powers further 



to coordinate their efforts to attain the goal we 
are all striving for — the complete defeat of the 
ruthless Nazis and the establishment of a just 
and lasting peace under which all nations will 
prosper in a world free from the threat of 
aggression. 

"The Secretarj^ is accompanied by W. Averell 
Harriman, Appointed Ambassador to the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics; Maj. Gen. John 
R. Deane, United States Army ; and the follow- 
ing officials of the Department of State : Green 
H. Hackworth, Legal Adviser ; James C. Dunn, 
Political Adviser; Michael J. McDermott, 
Chief, Division of Current Information; and 
Charles E. Bohlen, Assistant Chief, Division of 
European Affairs, as well as other assistants." 



FOOD SfflPMENTS TO NORTH AFRICA FOR MILITARY PURPOSES 



[Released to the press by the White House October 19] 

A comparison of food shipments to North 
Africa for military purposes for the two periods 
before and after the end of the Tunisian cam- 
paign in May of 1943 shows striking differences. 

In the earlier phase, it was necessary for us 
not only to meet part of North Africa's normal 
and continuing need for imported sugar, tea, 
and evaporated milk; it was also necessary 
from a military standpoint to ship in large 
quantities of other foodstuffs normally pro- 
duced in North Africa, because of poor crops 
resulting in part from a lack of sufficient ferti- 

556493—43 S 



lizers, sprays, binder twine, agricultural machin- 
ery spare parts, and tractor fuel, and because of 
huge exports to metropolitan France after the 
harvest in June 1942 and before our arrival in 
November. During this early period, the 
United States and Great Britain shipped 80,- 
000 tons of flour, 6,500 tons of wheat, 2,800 tons 
of potatoes, 1,800 tons of dried beans and peas, 
1,000 tons of edible oil, and smaller quantities 
of cheese, dried eggs, margarine, rice, and 
vegetables. 

These supplies were requested and allotted 
shipping space by General Eisenhower for spe- 

271 



^n 



bEPARTlIENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



cific military purposes: To obtain labor suf- 
ficiently well fed to work in the docks, roads, 
and railroads; to minimize the danger of 
famine and food riots that would require the 
assignment of troops to maintain order ; to pre- 
vent the spread of disease which might menace 
the health of our troops ; and to feed the large 
army that was then being mobilized by the 
French authorities and has since distinguished 
itself in Tunisia, Sicily, and Corsica. These 
supplies were made available under lend-lease, 
but because of their present financial position 
the French have repaid us in dollars for these 
supplies. 

Meanwhile, American agricultural experts 
attached to Allied Force Headquarters worked 
out the details of an import program designed 
to expand local agricultural production. On 
the basis of their recommendations, carefully 
budgeted shipments of seeds, agricultural ma- 
chinery and equipment, spare parts, fuel oil, 
binder twine, bags, fertilizers, and sprays were 
then requested by General Eisenhower. Some 
of these materials were procured and shipped 
as early as March and arrived in time for tlie 
1943 harvest in June. The remainder will ar- 
rive in time for the fall planting season and the 
harvests of 1944. 

These shipments have produced and will in 
the future produce many times their own weight 
in foodstuifs. Even with the limited quantities 
of materials delivered before the 1943 harvest 
in June — less than 15,000 tons of all the items 
listed above — it has been possible to effect great 



savings. Food imports other than sugar, tea, 
and milk, which amounted to approximately 
100,000 tons through the end of June, have been 
stopped comjDletely for the second half of the 
year. The new French Army and essential 
civilian workers have been able to feed them- 
selves. Several thousand tons of local fruits, 
vegetables, and meats have been delivered to 
British and American forces for local consump- 
tion, on a reverse lend-lease basis and without 
payment. In addition, the French are provid- 
ing the Allied forces with 30,000 tons of North 
African flour for use in the Italian campaign to 
feed essential civilian labor required by the 
Army and to minimize the possibility of civil 
disorder. Agreements are now being negotiated 
to provide our forces with moi-e than 60,000 
tons of fruit and vegetable produce. These 
supplies are being furnished as reverse lend- 
lease in partial return for the munitions with 
which we are equipping the French Army. 

Beyond these immediate military objectives, 
the French authorities in close collaboration 
with the Combined Food Board have also begun 
to accumulate food supplies for use during and 
after the liberation of France. The success of 
this program will reduce the future needs of 
France for American food and shipping re- 
sources. 

The 1944 harvests in North Africa, aided by 
mounting American agricultural equipment and 
a year of peaceful cultivation, should ease the 
strain on the United States still further. 



TfflRD PROTOCOL REGARDING MILITARY SUPPLIES TO THE SOVIET UNION 



[Released to the press October 19] 

A third agreement for the provision of sup- 
plies to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
was signed in London on October 19, 1943, by 
the United States, United Kingdom, Canadian, 
and Soviet Governments by which the first three 
Governments undertake to supply armaments, 
equipment, materials, and foodstuffs to the 
Union of Sor^'iet Socialist Republics. Two 



former agreements of this kind were signed — 
the first in Moscow in October 1941 and the 
second in Washington in October 1942 \ the 
present agreement repi'esents a continuation of 
existing arrangements. This is the first time, 
however, that Canada has taken part as a signa- 
tory, though supplies from Canada have previ- 

' See the Bulletin of Nov. 8, 1941, p. 3(34, and Oct. 10, 
1942, p. 805. 



OCTOBER 2 3, 1943 



273 



oiisly formed part of the commitment of the 
United Kingdom and in some cases of that of 
the United States. The period covered by the 
second agreement ended on June 30, but, al- 
though the third agi'eement has only now been 
signed, its provisions have been effective for the 
past three months and the flow of supplies of 
all kinds to the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics has continued without interruption. The 
present agreement was signed by Ambassador 
Jolm G. Winant on behalf of the United States, 
by Mr. Oliver Lyttelton and Sir Alexander 
Cadogan on behalf of the United Kingdom, by 
Mr. Vincent Massey on behalf of Canada, and 
by Ambassador Feodor Gusev and Mr. Dmitri 
Borisenko on behalf of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist RepubUcs. 

EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND 
JAPANESE NATIONALS 

[Released to the press October 22] 

The motorship Gripsholm, carrying persons 
returning from the Far East in the current 
exchange of American and Japanese nationals, 
departed from the exchange port at Mormugao, 
Goa, Portuguese India, on October 22 and ac- 
cording to the terms of its safe conduct is 
scheduled to call on the dates indicated at the 
following ports on its return journey to the 
United States : Port Elizabeth, Union of South 
Africa — arrive November 2 and depart Novem- 
ber 4 ; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil — arrive November 
14 and depart November 16; and New York, 
N. Y. — arrive December 2. 

A few cases of ilhiess have been reported 
among the repatriates from the Far East, and 
the next-of-kin in tlie United States have been 
informed by the Department of State. The in- 
terested relatives in this country will be 
promptly notified if further reports pertaining 
to illness among the passengers are received be- 
fore the Gripsholm returns to New York. The 
Gripshohn has a complete medical department 
fully equipped to care for all actual and pos- 
sible needs of the passengers. 

The Japanese exchange vessel Teiu Mant', 



carrying Japanese repatriates from the Western 
Hemisphere, departed from Mormugao on 
October 21 and is scheduled to arrive at Yoko- 
hama on November 14, calling en route at Singa- 
pore from November 1 to 3 and at Manila from 
November 7 to 8. The full quantity of mail 
and of relief supplies, provided by the Ameri- 
can and Canadian Red Cross and other organ- 
izations and intended for Americans and other 
nationals of the United Nations under detention 
in Japan and Japanese-occupied territory, 
which was taken from the United States on the 
Gripshohn, was transferred to the Teia Maru at 
Mormugao. Arrangements have been made for 
the distribution of this relief cargo under the 
auspices of the International Red Cross Com- 
mittee to prisoners of war and civilian internees 
in Japanese hands throughout the Far East. 
There have also been placed on board the Teia 
Maru at Mormugao some relief supplies pro- 
vided by the Indian Red Cross. 

APPOINTMENT OF CHIEF OF MISSION 
FOR ECONOMIC AFFAIRS IN LONDON 

[Released to the press by the White House October 19] 

The President made the following statement : 

"I have today appointed ISIr. Philip D. Reed, 
formerly Chairman of the Board of General 
Electric Corporation, Chief of Mission for Eco- 
noniic Affairs in London with the rank of 
Minister. Mr. Reed succeeds Mr. W. Averell 
Harriman, recently appointed as Ambassador 
to Russia. He has been associated with Mr. 
Harriman on our Economic Mission in London 
for the past 15 months. 

"Subject to the general control and super- 
vision of Ambassador Winant, Mr. Reed is 
responsible for handling the economic affairs of 
this Government in the United Kingdom, repre- 
senting the Foreign Economic Administration, 
the War Shipping Administration, the War 
Food Administration, the War Production 
Board, the Petroleum Administration for War, 
and other interested agencies. He will also be 
our representative on the London parts of the 
several combined boards." 



274 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJLLETrN 



STATEMENT BY PRESIDENT ROOSEVEIT REGARDING THE PUPPET GOVERN- 
MENT IN THE PHILIPPINES 



[Released to the press by the White House October 22] 

On the fourteenth of this month a puppet gov- 
ernment was set up in the Philippine Islands 
with Jose P. Laurel, formerly a justice of the 
Philippine Supreme Court, as "president". 
Jorge Vargas, formerly a member of the Philip- 
pine Commonwealth Cabinet, and Benigno 
Aquino, also formerly a member of that Cabi- 
net, were closely associated with Laurel in this 
movement. The first act of the new puppet 
regime was to sign a military alliance with 
Japan. The second act was a hypocritical ap- 
peal for American sympathy which was made 
in fraud and deceit and was designed to confuse 
and mislead the Filipino people. 

I wish to make it clear that neither the 
former collaborationist "Philippine Executive 
Commission" nor the present "Philippine Re- 
public" has the recognition or sympathy of the 
Government of the United States. No act of 
either body is now or ever will be considered 
lawful or binding by this Government. 

The only Philippine government is that 



established by the people of the Philippines 
under the authorization of the Congress of the 
United States — the Government of the Com- 
monwealth of the Philippine Islands. At my 
request, the principal executive officers of the 
Commonwealth were transferred in 1942 from 
Corregidor to Washington. 

Further, it is our expressed policy that all 
the resources of the United States, both of men 
and materials, shall be employed to drive the 
treacherous, invading Japanese from the 
Philippine Islands, to restore as quickly as pos- 
sible orderly and free democratic processes of 
government in the islands, and to establish 
there a truly independent Philippine nation. 

Our sympathy goes out to those who remain 
loyal to the United States and the Common- 
wealth — to that great majority of the Filipino 
people who have not been deceived by the prom- 
ises of the enemy and who look forward to the 
day when the scheming, perfidious Japanese 
shall have been driven from the Philippines. 
That day will come. 



ADDRESS BY FRANCIS B. SAYRE BEFORE THE COTTON TEXTILE INSTITUTE 



[Released to the press October 20] 

I am delighted to have this chance of meet- 
ing with you this afternoon to discuss one of the 
urgent and profound issues growing out of the 
war — the problem of relief and rehabilitation in 
the battle-smashed areas liberated from Ger- 
man and Japanese domination. It is a problem 
already staring us in the face. Our Govern- 
ment in Washington has long been giving it 
study and is now initiating definite steps to 
meet it in concert with the other United Nations 
and the nations associated with them in this 
war. 

In fact, my coming to New York today was 
made difficult by the rush of work preliminary 



to a momentous meeting to which the United 
States Government has invited the representa- 
tives of 43 other nations for the purpose of 
framing a common plan of action to meet this 
problem.^ In three weeks that meeting will 
convene. I am glad of this chance of explain- 
ing our plans to you because the American peo- 
ple — you and the wider groups of people from 
whom you come — need to know what their pub- 
lic servants are proposing. In a democracy the 
peojDle need to know the crucial issues which 



'Delivered In New Yorli;, N.T., Oct. 20, 1943. Mr. 
Sayre is Special Assistant to the Secretary of State. 
' BuixETiN Of Oct. 9, 1943, p. 245. 



OCTOBER 23, 1943 



275 



they are facing. The government officials, on 
the other hand, need to feel the support and the 
backing of the people in those measures which 
are sound and reasonable and which as a result 
of thorough discussion the people understand. 
Already voices have been heard insinuating 
that our Government may be preparing to put 
dozens of nations on the dole, to play fast and 
loose with America's money as a sort of world 
Santa Claus, or, it may be, to institute some 
kind of permanent international WPA. The 
exact opposite is the truth. The whole aim 
and object of the policy which I have come to 
explain to you today is to insure that victims of 
war shall become not indigent, but producing, 
active supporters of the United Nations until 
victory is achieved and that thereafter they 
shall be self-sustaining, creative participants 
in a more stable world order. Our Govern- 
ment believes that constructive steps should be 
taken now to see that every nation which can 
shall contribute in proportion to its ability to 
the relief of victims of war; that funds and 
supplies shall not be squandered but be made 
to go as far as possible by an efficiently organ- 
ized and carefully supervised process of distri- 
bution; and that the most practical way to 
achieve these objectives is to set up a Belief and 
Rehabilitation Administration, responsible to 
and supported by the United Nations acting 
cooperatively together. This, in a nutshell, is 
what I want to lay before you this afternoon. 



The shadow of human distress which hangs 
over great areas of the world today is dark in- 
deed. Never before in all history has hu- 
manity faced on a world-wide scale such stark 
need and gripping destitution. In four yeai-s 
of fighting in Europe and six years of fighting 
in Asia, the Axis has overrun 35 nations in 
which were living over 500 millions of people. 
Battle, murder, and criminal violence have 
blackened most of Europe and much of Asia. 
Homes have been destroyed. Cities have been 
pillaged. Once-prosperous nations have been 
looted and plundered of their resources; the 



economies of whole peoples have been disrupted 
and exploited. Entire races have been driven 
into exile and despair. The recuperative 
powers of men are astounding, but this war has 
so shattered and undermined productive capac- 
ities in many areas as to make a quick convales- 
cence impossible without organized assistance 
from the outside. Machines and equipment 
have deteriorated. Many factories are in ruins. 
Commerce is paralyzed. Railways and trans- 
port facilities have broken down. Fishing 
boats have been destroyed. Lack of fertilizer 
has impaired the fertility of the soil. In Nazi- 
occupied Europe farmers have lost about one 
fourth of their cattle and a third of their draft 
animals — that is, their motive power. We hear 
through reliable channels that one of the dis- 
tressing shortages in the households of north- 
western France is the lack of ordinary house- 
hold needles. Clothes wear out or get torn; 
simple repairs are difficult; and there is no 
chance at all to replace old garments with good, 
new textiles such as you gentlemen know how 
to produce. 

n 

Confi'onted by this appalling situation three 
possible courses lay open to us, the people of the 
United States. The first is to close our eyes 
to the problem and do nothing. The second is 
to attempt to do the entire job ourselves more 
or less upon our own terms, and thus preserve 
our complete independence of action. The 
third is to lead in setting up a carefully planned, 
cooperative international organization, asking 
all of the United Nations to contribute to the 
task and recognizing the right of all contribu- 
tors to have a voice in decisions. 

There are those who will argue that the first 
course is the wisest one to follow. Li view of 
the limitless magnitude of the world need, some 
will claim that we should fence America in from 
the starvation, the demoralization, and the gen- 
eral break-down in Europe and Asia and main- 
tain intact the wealth and prosperity at least 
of our own country. If Europe and Asia per- 
sist in recurrent struggle and war, let them go 
their own way and accept the consequences, and 



276 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE' BULLETIN 



let America go her own independent way and 
enjoy her blessings. 

But the difficulty with such a course is its utter 
impracticability. Americans are a warm- 
hearted and generous people and simply would 
not consent to refusing to share at least a por- 
tion of our relative abundance with suffering 
men and women and little children in Europe 
and Asia who have been resisting shoulder to 
shoulder with us against a common enemy and 
for a common cause. Even if we would, our 
own enlightened self-interest would not per- 
mit us to do so. "We are engaged in a lif e-and- 
death military struggle. Military necessity re- 
quires protection and stability in the rear and 
in the "zone of communications" of our armies. 
We must preserve the loyalty of liberated popu- 
lations so that supply lines will be safe from 
interruption and may be lightly guarded. We 
must prevent the outbreak of disease or epi- 
demics behind the lines for the protection of 
our own troops. We must get liberated areas 
at the earliest possible moment back onto their 
feet and stimulate local production so as to 
lessen the strain on militai-y supply lines and 
provide supplies and transport for further 
military advance. During the initial period 
after occupation civilian relief is recognized as 
a necessary military function, to be carried out 
by the Army. 

Beyond this military , period we have an 
equally large and important interest at stake. 
At the conclusion of the war American soldiers 
will be returning home by the hundreds of 
thousands looking for jobs. We shall have to 
shift from war production to a peace economy. 
But the full-time operation of our mills and our 
farms depends unavoidably upon available 
foreign and domestic markets in which to sell 
our goods. And if Europe and Asia are bank- 
rupt and prostrate they cannot buy American 
products. 

Furthermore, if we do not succeed in getting 
the wheels of business and industry turning 
again in Europe and Asia as quickly as possible 
after each area is liberated, we will weaken our 
resources, protract the war longer than neces- 



sary, and increase the losses of our fighting men. 
After the war, hunger and disease and suffer- 
ing, if unrelieved, will lead to black despair; 
chaos and rebellion and renewed fighting will 
inevitably follow. We shall reap the whirl- 
wind. If a third world war arises, can America 
escape disaster? 

Surely it is clear beyond argiunent that 
America in her own interest cannot afford to 
shut her eyes to the problem of relief and re- 
habilitation and do nothing. 

The second course is for America to try to 
do the job alone. But it is fantastic to talk 
in terms of America alone undertaking to feed 
and clothe and rehabilitate the victims of war. 
We must look facts in the face. There is not 
enough surplus food in all America to provide 
the amounts necessary to bring the victims of 
war up even to a minimum level of, say, 2,000 
calories a person. America, single-handed, 
cannot possibly meet the need. Granted that 
we must lend a helping hand, it would serve 
the best interests neither of ourselves nor of the 
liberated peoples, should America, acting inde- 
pendently, undertake to pour out her wealth 
and resources in a great surge of compassionate 
charity and lavish giving. We cannot buy 
Europe or Asia back to prosperity. We can- 
not even give prosperity away to passive peo- 
ples. Kecovery can come only as the result of 
their own effort — as a result of back-breaking 
work of rebuilding and restoring and remaking. 
No one can do that but themselves. Our part 
must be to help those people to help themselves 
through organized cooperative effort and thus 
to build up, rather than to destroy, their self- 
respect and their economic independence. 

So far as I can see, the third course is the 
only way that is practical if we really mean 
to achieve our objectives. Our way must lie 
through carefully planned and organized inter- 
national action, because, first, no nation has suf- 
ficient wealth and resources to do the job alone, 
and because, second, the acute shortage of world 
supplies and world shipping makes vitally 
necessary the pooling of available world sup- 
plies, the common and careful planning in ad- 



OCTOBER 23, 1943 



277 



vance for the most rewarding use of these sup- 
plies, and finally international control over their 
allocation and distribution. It is this third 
course, therefore, which the United States is 
proposing to the other United Nations in the 
gathering which is to take place at the White 
House on November ninth. It is proposing the 
organization of a United Nations Relief and 
Rehabilitation Administration, designed and 
equipped to focus the efforts of all peoples of 
good-will. It is the first concrete step toward 
world cooperation — the eyes of the world will be 
upon it. 

Under the proposed agreement an interna- 
tional Administration is to be set up, headed 
by a Director General and a Council of rep- 
resentatives of all the member nations. This 
Administration is to plan, coordinate, and ad- 
minister measures for the relief of victims of 
war through the provision of food, fuel, cloth- 
ing, shelter, and other basic necessities, medical 
and other essential services, and, so far as is 
necessary to the adequate provision of relief, to 
facilitate in liberated areas the production and 
transportation of these articles and the furnish- 
ing of these services. This will involve inter- 
national cooperation in the planning of relief 
activities, the purchasing of supplies, the 
equitable allocation of available supplies among 
the competing claims of needy countries, the use 
of ships and other methods of transportation, 
and assistance in the distribution of relief in the 
various localities. 

This plan has already been laid before the 
United Nations and there is every indication of 
substantial agreement bj^ all. I believe that the 
United Nations and the other nations associated 
with them in the war will sign the agreement 
within three weeks. If the plan succeeds it will 
form a new chapter in practical international 
cooperation in the carrying-on of active opera- 
tions on a world-wide scale for human welfare. 

Ill 

Concretely, what will be the practical job of 
the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration ? It might be regarded as hav- 



ing a three-fold task. First, to build up ade- 
quate reservoirs of foodstuffs and other relief 
and rehabilitation supplies which it can tap as 
needs arise ; second, to assure an equitable and 
efficient distribution among all the liberated 
populations of such supplies as are available; 
third, to carry on its operations in such a man- 
ner as to stimulate and assist local self-help 
and the speedy revival of production in war- 
stricken areas, thus ending as quickly as possible 
the need and the expense of relief. 

First, as to the reservoir. There are acute 
world shortages today of supplies and of ship- 
ping. Neither food nor clothing nor many 
other necessities can now be bought over the 
counter in sufficient quantity to meet post- 
liberation needs. It is necessary in every coun- 
try to control and allocate, ns among the various 
war needs and civilian net ds, goods that are in 
short supply. The United Nations Relief and 
Rehabilitation Administration must work out 
arrangements with national sujjply agencies in 
the various countries and with such interna- 
tional control agencies as have been developed 
to coordinate the supply programs of anti- 
Axis nations in the war, so that the Relief and 
Rehabilitation Administration can have avail- 
able, as the need arises, specified quantities of 
stocks and stores. 

Every country must make its contribution. 
Some countries may be unable to contribute 
much in money, but they can contribute of their 
own special goods — cocoa, or sugar, or coffee, or 
cheese, or wool, or cotton, or wheat, or shipping 
services, or medicines and surgical supplies. 
After these contributions have been decided 
upon, the international Administration will 
then work out careful plans to arrange for the 
acquisition or production of relief and rehabili- 
tation goods within the various member states 
or elsewhere at such times and in such quantities 
as might prove necessary. It will, so to speak, 
maintain drawing accounts in forty or fifty dif- 
ferent countries, drawing upon each of these 
accounts as the need may arise. 

Second, there is the task of working out ar- 
rangements to assure an equitable distribution 



278 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



among all the liberated populations of such sup- 
plies as are available. If, for instance, country 
A is liberated in advance of country B, strong 
pressures will naturally be exerted to insure a 
plentiful supply of relief goods going into 
country A. But the world shortage may be so 
acute that providing for the needs of country 
A in anything like full measure would make it 
impossible later to satisfy the direst needs of 
country B, and still less of other countries to be 
liberated thereafter. In other words, the re- 
lief needs of the later liberated countries im- 
peratively demand an effective international 
control over all shipments to liberated areas. 

In like manner, as between rich and poor 
areas of need, if country C, perhaps possessing 
ample foreign exchange, is permitted freely to 
buy in world markets and import articles in 
short supply so as to feed its people on a level, 
for instance, of 3,000 calories a person a day, 
available world stocks may thereby become so 
depleted that it will be impossible to feed the 
people of other countries lacking foreign ex- 
change even at a minimum level of 2,000 cal- 
ories. In other words, if actual starvation is 
to be prevented in countries lacking supplies 
and foreign exchange, an uncontrolled scramble 
in world markets for scarce supplies must be 
prevented until conditions of production and 
consumption and trade have become more 
normal. 

Some of the important practical tasks of the 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration thus become clear. It must plan 
well in advance the probable requirements of 
the liberated areas, country by country, and 
constantly keep correcting and checking these 
figures. At the same time it must be studying 
all available and potential sources of supply, 
keeping in constant touch and close communi- 
cation with each of the member states, making 
known to them the needs so far as these can be 
estimated, asking for the kinds of supplies most 
needed, and arranging for their procurement 
both within the member states and elsewhere. 

Thus, the Relief and Rehabilitation Admin- 
istration must assume the task of allocating as 



among the various liberated countries all relief 
and rehabilitation goods which are in short 
supply and, indeed, of all imports as long as 
there is an acute shortage of shipping. This 
part of its task, manifestly, is in no way depend- 
ent upon whether relief goods are sold or given 
away gratuitously. If adequate protection is 
to be given to all liberated peoples, manifestly 
the Administration during periods of acute 
shortages must be able to veto all imports in 
excess of those necessary to bring any particular 
group of people up to the standard agreed upon 
as equitable under the circumstances. 

A third part of the task of the United Nations 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration will 
be to assist the peoples of liberated areas in 
reviving as rapidly as possible the production of 
their own essential goods and services, so that 
as soon as possible they may become able to 
sustain themselves and even, perhaps, to help 
others in turn. This is rehabilitation. It 
means meeting relief needs not simply by send- 
ing in food and clothing and medicines from 
outside — which might be called straight re- 
lief — but by helping to resume local production 
of these and other essentials. Rehabilitation 
is not merely helping people. It is better than 
that. It is helping people to help themselves. 
It is" a constructive means of relieving human 
misery, a means of shortening the relief period 
and economizing on scarce supplies, of ending 
the necessity for emergency rationing, and of 
keeping the money costs of relief within reason- 
able limits. No one wants to keep bailing out 
a leaky boat without plugging the leak. The 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration will 
prefer to send in seed potatoes in time for plant- 
ing rather than to ship potatoes for distribution 
all the next year. A shipload of fertilizer for 
impoverished soil may make half a dozen ship- 
loads of food unnecessary a few months later. 
A few mobile repair units, some replacement 
parts for machines, and a bit of expert advice 
may help to get a power plant or a gas works 
into operation and thus enable a whole com- 
munity of workers to get back into production 
and become self-supporting. 



OCTOBEE 2 3, 1943 



279 



IV 

What will a program of relief and rehabil- 
itation mean for the textile industry? No one 
can forecast very far aliead in these times. We 
who have been trying to locate some textiles for 
use in meeting the essential clotliing needs of 
homeless, bombed-out people and refugees have 
found the supply situation very tight. This 
may change as the huge job of clothing our 
Army and building up its stocks gives place to 
straight maintenance demands. Some people 
fear the effect at the end of the war of huge 
military stocks overhanging the market. I read 
the following in the New York Times last 
month : 

"War stocks loom as retail headache. Mer- 
chants map stejis to bar postwar dumping of 
huge government surpluses. May total 20-50 
billion . . . Among the merchandise items ex- 
pected to loom particularly large in the surplus 
stocks are blankets, woolen fabrics, particularly 
overcoating; towels, cooking utensils, shoes, 
heavy woolen underwear, rayon materials, light- 
weight underwear, raincoats and raincoat mate- 
rials, shirts, socks, bedding and cots." 

Notice how many of these are textile items. If 
you, too, are concerned lest the dumping of 
military stocks after the war demoralize the 
market and prevent the quick resumption of 
regular production, the need for relief and re- 
habilitation offers a way out. Why not turn 
over some of these surjolus stocks to a good 
cause and put them to a constructive use ? 

Clothing, let me remark, is more than a con- 
ventional necessity and a means of keeping 
warm. Clothing supplies are an important 
means of preventing disease and checking epi- 
demics. Men in our Office of Foreign Relief 
and Eehabilitation Operations who worked in 
Poland after the first World War will tell you 
emphatically that the possession of an extra 
pair of underwear so that each can be washed 
periodically is a valuable aid in protection 
against typhus. 

Although the Relief and Eehabilitation Ad- 
ministration will, of course, center its work up- 



on the more immediate task of relieving acute 
distress in the liberated territories and cannot 
undertake the task of long-range economic re- 
construction, nevertheless some people will fear 
particularly that helping other people to get 
back onto their feet again will have the ultimate 
effect of increasing competition for our own 
producers and consequent interference with our 
own efforts to achieve higher living standards 
after the war. These fears are real, even if 
mistaken, and must be frankly faced. 

People keep forgetting that the more you help 
others to produce the more you enable them to 
consume. We here in the United States need 
not worry about being cut out from markets by 
foreign competition after the war if the world 
markets are large and prosperous. Our indus- 
tries are amply able to take care of themselves 
in a world where there is a lively demand for 
all kinds of products. The real danger against 
which we have to guard is a return to the world 
situation of the thirties where even the most 
efficient business had a hard struggle to show 
a profit because people were not able to buy. 



Before concluding may I add one further 
thought? The hope of future peace depends 
upon how far the nations of the world can learn 
to work cooperatively for common ends — can 
learn the give-and-take which all genuine co- 
operation involves for the sake of gaining larger, 
more far-reaching objectives. Lasting peace 
cannot be won through military strength alone. 
It can come only through such international 
cooperation. 

In this forward-looking, constructive attempt 
to solve the problem of relief and rehabilitation 
we face an issue more crucial even than relief. 
Here we face the acid test of whether the United 
Nations can or cannot learn to work whole- 
heartedly together for the great objective of 
future security and lasting peace. Failure in 
this first practical step forward would spell 
disaster to our hopes for lasting peace. But we 
shall not fail. Wliere there is the determined 
will to solve all difficulties and to overcome 



280 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



seemingly insuperable obstacles, nothing can 
stop human progress. We have that will. 
Backed by the solid support of the peoples of 
the world, we shall go forward, God willing, 
and build for a peace that will endure. 

PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE SUP- 
PLEMENT 1 TO REVISION VI 

[Released to the press for publication October 23, 9 p.m.] 

The Acting Secretary of State, acting in 
conjunction with the Acting Secretary of the 
Treasury, the Attorney General, the Secretary 
of Commerce, the Director of the OiEce of Eco- 
nomic Warfare, and the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs, on October 23 issued 
Cumulative Supplement 1 to Revision VI of the 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals, 
promulgated October 7, 1943. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 1 contains 
132 additional listings in the other American 
republics and 75 deletions. Part II contains 
129 additional listings outside the American 
republics and 31 deletions. 



American Republics 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE GOOD- 
NEIGHBOR POLICY 

At his press and radio news conference Oc- 
tober 19, the Acting Secretary of State, Mr. 
Stettinius, made the following statement in 
response to a correspondent's request for com- 
ment about the future of the good-neighbor 
policy under Mr. Stettinius' guidance : 

"One of the aspects of my new post which 
most appeals to me is the opportunity of carry- 
ing forward the development of the good-neigh- 
bor policy. 



"I have always strongly believed that one of 
the cornerstones of our foreign policy was firm 
friendship with the other American republics. 
The good-neighbor policy provided the base 
upon which all of the American republics could 
cooperate together for their mutual benefit. 
Their collaboration to secure the defense of the 
hemisphere has been one of the outstanding 
examples of international cooperation of all 
time. Through a continuance of this coopera- 
tion the American republics can make an 
enormous contribution to the settlement of the 
problems of the post-war period. 

"For many years I have been keenly interested 
in the affairs of our southern neighbors. I have 
followed with sympathy and admiration the 
manner in which, over the past 10 years, the 
statesmen of the American republics have devel- 
oped the inter- American system. It will be my 
purpose to cooperate in the carrying forward of 
the good-neighbor policy along the lines already 
marked so clearly and with such broad vision 
by Secretary Hull." 



VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF AR- 
GENTINE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 
OFFICL4L 

[Released to the press October 18] 

Dr. Abraham Scheps, of Buenos Aires, as- 
sistant manager of the Argentine Chamber of 
Commerce and director of that organization's 
Department of Economic Studies, has arrived in 
this country as a guest of the Department of 
State. He will spend three months in this 
country doing research on various phases of 
commercial policy and related problems and 
studying the organization of chambers of com- 
merce. Dr. Scheps expects to spend much of 
the time in Washington and New York, but will 
also make a trip to the Middle West and West 
Coast. 



Commercial Policy 



SUPPLEMENTAL TR ADEAGREEMEiYT NEGOTIATIONS WITH CUBA 



[Released to the press October 19] 

The Acting Secretary of State on October 19 
issued formal notice of intention to negotiate a 
eupplemental trade agreement with the Gov- 
ernment of Cuba. 

The Committee for Reciprocity Information 
also oh the same date issued a notice setting 
November 17, 1943 as the closing date for sub- 
mission to it of information and views in writ- 
ing and of applications to appear at public 
hearings to be held by the Committee, and fix- 
ing 10 a.m., November 24, 1943 as the time for 
the opening of the hearings, in the hearing room 
of the United States Tariff Conunission. 

The only concession that will come under 
consideration on the part of the United States 
is the temijorary revision or suspension, until 
December 31, 1944, of the tariff quota applicable 
to imports of cigar-filler and scrap tobacco of 
Cuban origin. This tariff quota, which is in- 
cluded in the existing trade agreement with 
Cuba, permits the importation during a calen- 
dar year of 22 million pounds of such tobacco 
at rates of duty 50 percent less than those which 
are imposed on imports in excess of the quota 
amount. During 1940 and 1941 imports were 
less than the quota. In 1942, however, the quota 
was filled in September, and this year it was 
filled in May because of various wartime cir- 
cumstances, including increased cigar consump- 
tion and decreased supplies of cigar tobacco 
from other normal pre-war sources. 

No product other than cigar-filler and scrap 
tobacco of Cuban origin will come under con- 
sideration for the possible granting of conces- 
sions by the Government of the United States. 
Possible concessions on the part of the Govern- 
ment of Cuba will likewise be temporary, for a 
period ending on December 31, 1944. 



Department or State 

SUPPLEMENTAL TRADE-AGREEMENT NEGOTIATIONS 
WITH CUBA 

Public Notice 

Pursuant to section 4 of an act of Congress 
approved June 12, 1934, entitled "An Act to 
Amend the Tariff Act of 1930", as extended by 
Public Law 66, approved June 7, 1943, and to 
Executive Order 6750, of June 27, 1934, 1 hereby 
give notice of intention to negotiate a supple- 
mental trade agreement with the Government 
of Cuba. 

All presentations of information and views 
in writing and applications for supplemental 
oral presentation of views with respect to the 
negotiation of such supplemental agreement 
should be submitted to the Committee for Re- 
ciprocity Information in accordance with the 
announcement of this date issued by that Com- 
mittee concerning the manner and dates for the 
submission of briefs and applications and the 
time set for public hearing. 

E. R. Stettinius, Jr. 
Acting Secretary of State 

Washington, D. C, 
OctoUr 19, 19.^3. 



Committee fob Reciprocity Information 
supplemental trade- agreement negotiations 

with CUBA 

Pvblic Notice 

Closing date for submission of briefs, Novem- 
ber 17, 1943; closing date for application 
to be heard, November 17, 1943; public 
hearings open, November 24, 1943. 



281 



282 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETDST 



The Committee for Keciprocity Information 
hereby gives notice that all information and 
views in writing, and all applications for sup- 
plemental oral presentation of views, in regard 
to the negotiation of a supplemental trade 
agreement with the Government of Cuba, of 
which notice of intention to negotiate has been 
issued by the Acting Secretary of State on this 
date, shall be submitted to the Committee for 
Reciprocity Information not later than 12 
o'clock noon, November 17, 1943. Such com- 
munications should be addressed to "The Chair- 
man, Committee for Reciprocity Information, 
Tariff Commission Building, Eighth and E 
Streets NW., Washington 26, D.C." 

A public hearing will be held, beginning at 
10 a.m. on November 24, 1943, before the Com- 
mittee for Reciprocity Information, in the hear- 
ing room of the Tariff Commission in the Tariff 
Commission Building, where supplemental oral 
statements will be heard. 

Six copies of written statements, either type- 
written or printed, shall be submitted, of which 
one copy shall be sworn to. Appearance at 
hearings before the Committee may be made 
only by those persons who have filed written 
statements and who have within the time pre- 
scribed made written application for a hearing, 
and statements made at such hearmgs shall be 
under oath. 

By direction of the Committee for Reci- 
procity Information this 19th day of October 
1943. 

Edward Yaedlet 

Secretary 

Washington, D. C, 
October 19, 191,3. 

List of Prodttcts on Which the United States 
Will Consider Granting Concessions to 
Cuba 

Note: The rates of duty indicated are those now 
applicable to products of Cuba. For the purpose of 
facilitating identification of the articles listed, reference 
is made in the list to the paragraph numbers of the 
tariff schedules iu the Tariff Act of 1930. 



In the event that articles which are at present re- 
garded as classifiable under the descriptions included in 
the list are excluded therefrom by judicial decision or 
otherwise prior to the conclusion of the agreement, the 
list will nevertheless be considered as including such 
articles. 



United States 

Tariff Act of 

1930 

Paragraph 


Description of article 


Present rate 
of duty ap- 
plicable to 
Cuban 
products 


601 


Filler tobacco, not specially provided for, 
other than cigarette leaf tobacco: 
If unstemmed . 






$0.14 per lb. 1 




If stemmed 


0.20 per Ib.i 


603 


Scrap tobacco - 


0.14 per Ib.i 









' The rates of duty indicated, which have been reduced by the maxi- 
mum amounts permitted under the Trade Agreements Act, are applicable 
to a total quantity of imports of Cuban cigar-flller and scrap tobacco not 
exceeding 22,000,000 pounds (unstemmed equivalent) in any calendar 
year, in accordance with the following note which appears in the original 
trade agreement with Cuba, as amended: 

"Note : Filler tobacco, not specially provided for, nn- 
stemmed or stemmed (other than cigarette leaf tobacco), and 
scrap tobacco, the growth, produce or manufacture of the 
Republic of Cuba, entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, 
for consumption in excess of a total quantity (unstemmed 
equivalent) of 22,000,000 pounds in any calendar year after 
1939, shall be subject to duty as though such articles were 
not enumerated and described in this Schedule, but the rates 
of duty thereon shall not exceed those in effect on Aug. 24, 
19.34. For the purposes of this note, the quantity of un- 
stemmed filler tobacco shall be the actual net weight, and the 
(Quantity (unstemmed equivalent) of stemmed filler and scrap 
tobacco shall be 133 per centum of the actual net weight, as 
determined, respectively, for the assessment of duties or 
taxes in the United States." 

Imports from Cuba of the products men- 
tioned, in excess of the tariff quota in any 
calendar year, are subject to rates of duty 
double those applicable to imports within the 
tariff quota. 



TRADE AGREEMENT WITH ICELAND 

Announcements regarding the exchange on 
October 20, 1943 of the President's proclama- 
tion and the instrument of ratification of Ice- 
land, and a supplementary proclamation of the 
President issued October 22, 1943, regarding 
the trade agreement between the United States 
and Iceland, signed at Reykjavik August 27, 
1943, appear in this Bulletin under the head- 
ing ''Treaty Information." 



OCTOBER 2 3, 1943 



283 



The Department 



RESIGNATION OF HERBERT FEIS AS AD- 
VISER ON EVTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC 
AFFAIRS 

[Released to the press October 22] 

For some time Dr. Herbert Feis has desired 
to resign as Adviser on International Economic 
Affairs, a post which he has filled with great dis- 
tinction since 1931. He was prevailed upon to 
remain in office until certain important work 
had been completed. His resignation has now 
been accepted with sincere regret in view of the 
many important services which he has rendered 
during the past 12 years. 



Treaty Information 



COMMERCE 
Trade Agreement With Iceland 

[Released to the press October 20] 

The President's proclamation of the recipro- 
cal trade agreement between the United States 
and Iceland, which was signed at Reykjavik on 
August 27, 1943, and the instrument of ratifi- 
cation of the Regent of Iceland of that agi'ee- 
ment were exchanged in Washington on 
October 20, 1943 by the Honorable Edward E. 
Stettinius, Jr., Acting Secretary of State of the 
United States, and the Honorable Thor Thors, 
Minister of Iceland in Washington. 

Article XVII of the agi'eement provides that 
it shall enter into force on the thirtieth day 
following the exchange of the proclamation of 
the President of the United States for the in- 



strument of ratification of the Regent of Ice- 
land. Accordingly, the agreement will enter 
into force on November 19, 1943. 

The English text of the agreement was made 
public in the Department's press release 357 of 
August 27, 1943. An analysis of the agree- 
ment was printed in the Bulletin of August 
28, 1943, page 133. 

[Released to the press October 23] 

On October 22, 1943 the President issued a 
suppleme.ntai'y proclamation relating to the 
trade agreement between the United States and 
Iceland signed at Reykjavik on August 27, 1943, 
which was proclaimed by the President on Sep- 
tember 30, 1943. 

The supplementary proclamation recites that 
the proclamation of the agreement by the Presi- 
dent and the instrument of ratification of the 
Government of Iceland were duly exchanged on 
October 20, 1943 and proclaims that the agree- 
ment will enter into force on November 19, 1943, 
the thirtieth day following October 20, 1943. 

Supplemental Trade-Agreement Negotiations 
With Cuba 

An announcement regarding intention to 
negotiate a supplemental trade agreement with 
Cuba appears in this Bulletin under the head- 
ing "Commercial Policy". 

MILITARY ASSISTANCE 

Protocol Regarding Military Supplies to the 
Soviet Union 

An announcement of the signature at Lon- 
don on October 19, 1943 of a protocol regarding 
the supply of armaments, equipment, materials, 
and foodstuffs to the Union of Soviet Socialist 
ReiDublics by the United States, Great Britain, 
and Canada appears in this Bulletin under the 
heading "The War". 



284 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



General 



ISSUANCE OF IDENTIFICATION CERTIFI- 
CATES TO AMERICANS CROSSING THE 
MEXICAN BORDER 

I Released to the press October 23] 

A\TiiIe passports are not required of American 
citizens when traveling between points in the 
continental United States and points in Mexico, 
the Department has been urged for some time 
past by American citizens who reside on both 
sides of the border between the United States 
and Mexico and who cross the border daily or 
frequently to adopt some form of certificate of 
identification in order to obviate the delay and 
inconvenience sometimes encountered in estab- 
lishing identity when crossing the border. The 
Department also has been urged in this regard 
by a number of chambers of commerce in border 
cities. American consular officers and Ameri- 
can immigration officials along the Mexican 
border have likewise urged the adoption of such 
a certificate, pointing out that it would serve 
the convenience both of the citizens who cross 
the border and the American officials with 
whom they come in contact when departing or 
entering the United States or while in Mexico. 

The Department has, therefore, modified the 
passport-control regulations issued on Novem- 
ber 25, 1941 ^ in such a manner as to permit the 
issuance of a certificate of identification to an 
American citizen for use when departing fi'om 
or entering into the United States. These cer- 
tificates may be issued in appropriate cases upon 
application to the Department of State, passport 
agents in the United States, immigration offi- 
cials in the United States within 175 miles of the 
Mexican border, the Emba&sy at Mexico City, 
and all American consulates in Mexico. No 
fee will be required for the execution of the ap- 
plication for such a certificate or for the issue 
of the certificate itself. The certificate will be 
valid for a period of two years unless restricted 
to a shorter period. The certificate will be 
revocable at any time without prior notice. 
Wlien revoked it must be surrendered forthwith 
to the authority revoking it. 

' BtnxETiH of Nov. 29, 1941, p. 431. 



The use of the certificate of identification will 
begin at 6 a.m., November 15, 1943. The 
certificate is not a passport. Its use is intended 
merely as a convenience when crossing the 
border between the United States and Mexico. 
It does not obviate in any manner the necessity 
of fulfilling the requirements of any Mexican 
law or regulations with respect to the residence 
or travel of American citizens in Mexico, 



Legislation 



Foreign War Relief Operations: Message from the 
President of the United States transmitting a cu- 
mulative report of the American Red Cross of refugee 
and foreign war relief operations from July 1, 1940, 
through April 30, 1943. S. Doc. 99, 78th Cong, 
viii, 69 pp. 

Post-War Economic Policy and Planning: Report of 
Hon. Joseph C. O'Mahoney, United States Senator 
from W.voming, to the Special Committee on Post- 
war Economic Policy and Planning pursuant to 
S. Res. 102, a resolution creating a special committee 
on post-war economic policy and planning. S. Doc. 
106, 78th Cong. 144 pp. 

Prohibiting Proof of Acts Done by an Inventor in For- 
eign Countries. H. Rept. 778, 78th Cong., on H.R. 
3130. 2 pp. 

Study of International Communications. S. Rept. 472, 
78th Cong., on S. Res. 187. 3 pp. 

Declaratory of War and Peace Aims of the United 
States. S. Rept. 478, 78th Cong., on S. Re,s. 192. 
2 pp. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Extradition: Supplementary Convention Between the 
United States of America and Colombia — Signed at 
Bogota September 9, 1940; proclaimed by the Presi- 
dent of the United States June 26, 1943. Treaty 
Series 986. 10 pp. 50. 

Development of Foodstuffs Production in Venezuela : 
Agreement Between the United States of America and 
Venezuela— Effected by exchange of notes signed at 
Caracas May 14, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 
333. Publication 2001. 13 pp. 50. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals: 
Cumulative Supplement No. 1, October 22, 1943, to 
Revision VI of October 7, 1943. Publication 2010. 20 
pp. Free. 



i^S'^. ' At s'' 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



c 



OCTOBER 30, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 227— Publication 2017 



ontents 




The War Page 

The State Department and Its Foreign Service in 

Wartime: Address by Assistant Secretary Shaw . 287 
The Combined Food Board: 

Canadian Representation 292 

Designation of the War Food Admmistrator as 

United States Member 293 

Address by Joseph C. Grew on Navy Day 294 

Third Anniversary of the Itahan Attack on Greece . . 295 
Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of the Independence of 

Czechoslovakia 295 

General 

Address by Joseph C. Grew on the Birthday Anni- 
versary of Theodore Roosevelt 296 

Selective Service Registration of American Citizens in 

Foreign Countries 300 

The Department 

Liaison Between the Department of State and the For- 
eign Economic Administration 302 

Commercial Policy 

Supplemental Trade-Agreement Negotiations With 

Cuba 302 

Publications 

Foreign Relations of the United States: The Paris Peace 

Conference, 1919, Volumes III and IV 303 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission . . 304 

Treaty Information 

Military Missions: Agreement With Paraguay .... 304 



i .„.u*tHl(^T£NOENTOf DOCUMENT*' 

NOV 26 1943 



The War 



THE STATE DEPARTMENT AND ITS FOREIGN SERVICE IN WARTIME 

Address by Assistant Secretary Shaw ^ 



[Released to the press October 27] 

We live in a democracy. We are not the 
passive victims of any totalitarian system. Our 
foreign policj^, therefore, like our domestic pol- 
icy, is not the pronouncement or the plan of any 
small and esoteric group in the Department of 
State or anywhere else but is the result of the 
day-by-day interaction of government in both 
its legislative and executive branches and of the 
citizens who control that government and to 
whom it belongs. Public discussion of our for- 
eign policy and of our foreign relations is al- 
ways a sign of the health and vigor of de- 
mocracy, on condition, of course, that that dis- 
cussion rests on a reasonably accurate founda- 
tion of information and rises to a national as 
distinguished from a local or partisan point of 
view. Giving the facts to democratic peoples 
is essential to the formulation of foreign policy. 
That is one of the responsibilities of govern- 
ment. It is also the responsibility of govern- 
ment to focus public attention upon the sig- 
nificance of these facts, to synthesize and articu- 
late the permanent elements in the public re- 
action thereto, and to carry out the resulting 
foreign policy with the maximum of skill and 
efficiency. But the responsibilities of govern- 
ment, however effectively carried out, can never 
be a substitute for the exercise of the responsi- 
bilities of the citizen, and any effort to avoid 
those responsibilities by ascribing to govern- 
ment functions which do not and must not 
belong to it if our democratic system is to be 



preserved can only be described as a symptom 
of totalitarianism, a flight from the obligations 
imposed upon all of us by our liberties. 

The reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934 
is well, and, I believe, favorably, known to this 
audience. That act and its interdepartmental 
administration over the past nine years is one 
of the soundest and most significant develop- 
ments in establishing a working procedure for 
the democratic formulation and implementa- 
tion of foreign policy. The trade-agreements 
program involves both foreign and domestic 
considerations of the highest order. It touches 
the immediate interests of foreign traders and 
domestic producers; it affects the general wel- 
fare of nations. In such an undertaking it 
would be unwise, in fact it would be impossible, 
for any one branch or agency of the Govern- 
ment to do the job alone. 

The basic policy underlying the trade-agree- 
ments program of securing the mutual reduc- 
tion of excessive trade barriers on a non-dis- 
criminatory basis is laid down by the Con- 
gress in the act itself. This policy has now 
been three times reaffirmed by the Congress 
after a searching review of the operations. 
Few, if any, aspects of our foreign policy have 
had such a critical appraisal by the democracy 
as has been given the trade-agreements program 
in the course of these periodic congressional 

' Delivered at the World Trade dinner, Thirtieth Na- 
tional Foreign Trade Convention, New York, N.T., 
Oct. 28, 1943. 

287 



288 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



reviews in 1937, 1940, and again this past 
spring. 

Not only is the trade-agreements policy it- 
self grounded in the bedrock of democratic 
processes M'hereby evei'y individual and every 
interest is given a voice in the matter through 
the duly constituted representatives of the peo- 
ple in the Congress, but the act, and the ad- 
ministrative procedures which have been estab- 
lished, provide for the full and continuous op- 
eration of these democratic processes in carry- 
ing out the prescribed legislative policy. The 
act provides that before any trade agreement 
can be entered into, the President must seek 
information and advice from the United States 
Tariff Commission and the Departments of 
State, Agriculture, and Commerce. Further- 
more, in each case public notice of the inten- 
tion to negotiate an agreement must be given 
so that, in the words of the act, "any interested 
person may have an opportunity to present 
liis views." 

The Department of State therefore is far 
from autoiiomous in the administration of the 
trade-agreements program. The administra- 
tive procedures which have been established to 
carry out these provisions make this fact abun- 
dantly clear. Rather than set up a special 
new agency to administer the act, the course 
was followed of establishing an interdepart- 
mental organization which makes possible the 
pooling of all the existing resources of the Gov- 
ernment in a cooperative effort. This inter- 
departmental organization has the responsibil- 
ity for marshaling all available information, 
both within and outside the Government, 
which may be pertinent to any action under 
the act. It is appropriate that we as individ- 
ual citizens should be fully aware that in the 
important field of international commercial 
policy we have been able to develop an efficient 
procedure within our democratic form of gov- 
ernment for bringing the strength of united 
governmental and private effort to serve the 
best national interest. 

Our trade-agreements program is but one 
of a great variety of complex and interrelated 



activities carried on by a Department of State 
which today is composed of 60 offices and divi- 
sions and a staff of 3,000. With many of these 
activities you are familiar, but I want to give 
you some idea of the expansion which the fig- 
ures I have given lepresent and comment briefly 
upon certain of the Department's activities 
which bear particularly upon the present and 
the future. 

I have spoken of a State Department per- 
sonnel in Washington of 3,000. That personnel 
costs the American people $7,500,000 a year. 
Just 30 years ago in 1913, 209 persons comprised 
the entire staff of the Department, at a cost of 
$318,000. Even at the peak of the first World 
AVar the figure had only increased to 537, and 
as late as 1937 our staff numbered 816. 

Most of the raw material which is processed 
in what I may call the Department's assembly 
line reaches us in the form of telegrams, in code, 
and the finished product is often a telegram in 
the drafting of which a number of offices and 
divisions have collaborated. In 1939 the 24- 
hour service which we have maintained in both 
telegraph and code rooms since 1917 handled 
65,554 messages; in the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1943, the total had risen to 220,557 messages. 
Today we are sending and receiving about 800 
messages a day, and within the next two months 
we shall have passed one thousand. That is 
not the whole story. During the fiscal year 
1943 we handled almost 21/2 million pieces of 
correspondence as compared with some 350 
thousand pieces in 1918. Not all of the ma- 
terial we receive is for the exclusive or even 
the primary use of the Department of State. 
We are now distributing to some 54 depart- 
ments and agencies of the Government approx- 
imately 28,000 documents every month, and 
there is every reason to believe that the peak 
of that particular activity has not been reached. 

So much for the Department's expansion. 
The variety of its activities is the next point 
to which I wish to call your attention. I pass 
over activities of which you are aware or the 
nature of which is clear, such as those of the 
Legal Adviser, the Political Advisers, the Pass- 



OCTOBER 30, 1943 



289 



port and Visa Divisions, and a good many 
others. 

It is not generally known, perhaps, but it is 
a fact that the Department of State is in the 
business of editing and publishing. That busi- 
ness is carried on by our Division of Research 
and Publication. Since the days of Secretary 
Seward we have gotten out every year any- 
where from one to six volumes in the series 
entitled Foreign Relations of the Zhiited States. 
That is a record which cannot be paralleled by 
any other Foreign Office. We are now en- 
gaged in publishing the records of our partici- 
pation in the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. 
Two volumes have appeared and twenty more 
will follow. Material of current interest is pub- 
lished in the Department's weekly Bulletin. 
The Department's spot news and the back- 
ground material needed by newspaper corre- 
spondents who handle that news are taken care 
of by the Division of Current Information. 
That is the Department's point of contact with 
the press. Recently we have set up a small 
office the purpose of which is to maintain and 
develop a two-way relationship between the 
Department and important groups of American 
citizens interested in the field of international 
affairs. And finally there is an activity — a 
most important activity — which is not confined 
to any one division but in which the whole De- 
partment from the Secretary down to the last 
divisional assistant shares: receiving all kinds 
of information — good, bad, and indifferent — 
from all sorts of visitors. We recognize fully 
that accessibility to the public is a fundamental 
duty of any official in a democracy, and I should 
like to take this opportunity to say with all 
possible emphasis that visitors are welcome at 
the Department of State. 

As you are well aware, the Department of 
State, under the direction of the President, is 
responsible for the conduct of our foreign re- 
lations. That is a simple statement behind 
which lurks an exceedingly complex reality — 
just as complex a reality as is the modern world 
of commerce, industry, and rapid communica- 
tions. To have absorbed into the Department 



of State all of the activities which affect our 
international relations in this complex world, 
particularly at a time when most of that world 
is at war, would have been an impossible task or, 
if attempted, would have led to administrative 
chaos. The problem has been to recruit com- 
petent individuals and to establish units in the 
Department of State to maintain an effective, 
two-way relationship with those other depart- 
ments and agencies which represent a more 
technical and a more strictly operational in- 
terest in the foreign field. New units created 
in the Department within the past two years 
and a large part of the increase in personnel 
represent the Department's solution of that 
problem, not to mention liaison officers attached 
to the Department by 10 other departments and 
agencies. 

If I should intimate to you that our post- 
war work is so organized that all that we have to 
do is to push a button and out would come a 
solution of any one of the many intricate prob- 
lems that will arise once the war is over, I 
should thoroughly and justly discredit myself 
in your estimation. But I will make this state- 
ment to you and I make it without any qualifi- 
cation : Thanks to the organization which the 
President set up in the Department of State in 
February 1942, post-war problems— political, 
economic, territorial, and legal — have been 
classified, material has been assembled concern- 
ing them, and, what is more important, those 
problems have been analyzed by 136 specialists 
in the Department's employ and thoroughly 
discussed on a non-partisan basis with many 
members of Congress and with many persons 
representative of the constituent elements of 
American public opinion : labor, industry, and 
agi-iculture. 

The technique of international relations is no 
static affair. There was a time when interna- 
tional relations were personal relations between 
sovereigns and their personal representatives: 
ambassadors. That conception was long ago 
broadened to include relations between govern- 
ments and now in our day is being still further 
broadened so that interpatipnal relations are 



290 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



coming to be thought of more and more as re- 
lations between peoples. We have become con- 
vinced that official relations, relations between 
governments, are not sufficient. Relations be- 
tM'een peoples must be strengthened, and those 
relations must be based on mutual knowledge, 
mutual understanding, and mutual respect. 
That conviction finds expression in our cul- 
tural-relations program. 

Our Division of Cultural Relations was or- 
ganized in 1938 and now has a staff of some 70 
persons. It is concerned with the American 
republics and, since 1942, with the Far East 
and the Near East. Its activities involve the 
exchange of visitors, of students and experts, 
and the exchange of ideas and of information 
in the fields of education, the radio, motion pic- 
tures, art, literature and music, and public 
health and public welfare. Abroad, our em- 
bassies, legations, and consulates play an im- 
portant part in the promotion of cultural rela- 
tions. 

We have come to realize that international 
problems and policies arise from national 
ideals, customs, traditions, and philosophies of 
life, and that there can be no hope of reaching 
our goal except through knowledge and ap- 
preciation of these fundamental factors. We 
seek to know and understand the peoples of the 
world and their differing points of view and 
to have them learn more about us, not by tell- 
ing them what they ought to be or do — still less 
by interference in their affairs — but rather 
through working cooperatively with them in 
the execution of specific undertakings in the 
economic, social, scientific, and intellectual 
fields and through the resulting personal as- 
sociations. 

The development of the Foreign Service, the 
personnel which represents our Government 
abroad, also reflects the development of our 
foreign relations. There was a time when we 
could afford the O. Henry type of consul or the 
young secretary who dipped into diplomacy as 
an interesting and broadening educational ex- 
perience, before settling down to something 
more serious. That time has long since passed 



as our foreign trade has grown in importance 
and as we have taken our place as one of the 
great world powei-s, with all the obligations and 
complexities which such a position involves. 
Those are the reasons why since 1924 the Con- 
gress has made it possible for us to build up a 
professional Foreign Service, democratically 
recruited, genuinely representative of the 
American people and pi-omoted on merit. We 
have recognized that remuneration must be suf- 
ficient to attract on a professional basis young 
men of talent and ability, and our salary and 
allowance scales are now therefore such that 
young men entering the Service can expect rea- 
sonable financial security and do not need any 
private income. 

I want to emphasize particularly the type of 
young man who now comes into the Service 
for the reason that that type is so completely 
different from the type which still lingers in 
the public mind. Take, for example, the group 
of candidates who presented themselves for 
examination in September 1940. At that time 
483 candidates from 168 different universities 
and colleges were designated to take the exami- 
nations ; 45 from 26 univei'sities were successful. 
These 45 successful candidates came from 19 
different States, of which 4 were in the Far 
West, 6 in the Middle West, 4 in the South, 1 
in New England, and 4 in the Middle Atlantic 
region. Not only do our junior Foreign Serv- 
ice officers come from every part of the country : 
they come from every walk of life. We esti- 
mate that about half of the candidates recently 
entering the Foreign Service have worked their 
way through college in whole or in part, and in 
our judgment of their qualifications that fact 
counts definitely in their favor as an indica- 
tion that they possess the stamina and the 
maturity which we are looking for. You will be 
interested by the following list of the occupa- 
tions followed by the fathers of the successful 
candidates in one of our recent examinations: 
income-tax assessor, colonel in the Army, rail- 
road conductor, carpenter, minister of religion, 
headmaster of a boys school, banker, auditor, 
jeweler, laborer, lawyer, sales manager, clerk, 
and physician. 



OCTOBER 30, 1943 

That the Service has its rewards in terms of 
interesting work is obvious. Many people for- 
get, however, the darker side of the picture. 
For instance, the Foreign Service in some parts 
of the world — China, Ethiopia, and Spain — 
was under fire and working under war condi- 
tions for a period antedating by several years 
the outbreak of war in Europe. With the out- 
break of that war I need only mention the ex- 
periences of our Foreign Service establishments 
at Warsaw, Rotterdam, London, and at prac- 
tically all of the cities in Great Britain in which 
we maintained consulates during the period of 
1940^1. Subsequently, one Foreign Service 
post after another in Europe came under fire, 
to be followed by similar occurrences in the 
Far East, as in the cases of Shanghai, Hong 
Kong, Singapore, and our posts in the East 
Indies. 

We have another type of post, the mainte- 
nance of which has been necessitated by war 
needs, where danger from military operations 
is not present, but where the mere adjustment 
to climate, living conditions, and isolation is a 
constant challenge to the morale of the men 
involved. As an example I have in mind a 
young officer who was sent to open an office at a 
small post in the tropics. The climate was dan- 
gerously unhealthy ; there was little more than 
a main street lined with unprepossessing build- 
ings to enliven his life; and the amenities upon 
which you and I rely and which we take for 
granted were non-existent. That officer could 
not find living quarters and finally established 
his home in a room in the local hospital. Our 
personnel assigned to Iceland and Greenland 
cannot but suffer from the extreme isolation in- 
evitable in those northerly areas; and, similarly, 
officers and clerks who must work in the far in- 
teriors of some of the South American coun- 
tries, where their presence is necessary in con- 
nection with rubber-procurement projects or for 
other war purposes, must meet the burden of 
continual discomfort. There are even those who 
would place Washington in this category of 
posts. 



291 

The Foreign Service has been represented 
as a tea-drinking group of individuals. To 
some extent that is quite true. We do drink 
tea, but we do so as a rule because in certain 
areas to which we are assigned the water sup- 
ply is polluted and we want to avoid typhoid 
fever, amoebic dysentery, and other water- 
borne diseases. 

The war has made heavy demands upon the 
Service, of an ever-changing nature. While 
our Foreign Service establishments have been 
reduced in number from 300 to 267 (the latter 
figui'e including a number of new offices opened 
to meet war needs), personnel has had to be 
greatly increased. In London our Embassy, 
with a normal peacetime staff of about 135, 
now employs 273 persons; in Rio de Janeiro 
the staff has grown from 41 to 210; and in 
Stockholm from 24 to 113. I need not add 
that anything approaching normal office 
hours has been all but forgotten. 

Our need for additional field personnel arose 
at a time when, because of the war and the 
increasing manpower shortage, we were se- 
riously hampered in recruiting, and because no 
examinations for the permanent Service have 
been held since September 1941. To meet this 
situation, we have set up the so-called Foreign 
Service Auxiliary. The need for personnel 
was anticipated well in advance of our entry 
into the war, so that by December 7, 1941, we 
had the nucleus of a group of specialists to 
serve for the duration of the emergency who 
were rapidly acquiring a grasp of the practical 
problems with which they would have to deal. 
Today we have 438 Auxiliary officers and 493 
Auxiliary clerks to supplement the regular 
Foreign Service organization of 839 officers 
and 2,870 clerks, making a total field force of 
1,277 officers and 3,363 clerks. 

It is certain that the tasks which the Foreign 
Service will face at the close of the war will 
involve collaboration with other agencies of the 
Government dealing with such specialized prob- 
lems as relief in various forms, the rehabilita- 
tion of industries, the rebuilding of bombed 



292 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



areas, and the restoration of normal trade, and 
economic reconstruction generally. We shall 
find, therefore, that in addition to the trained 
Foreign Service officers whicli we now have — 
men with a general background of govern- 
ment, political science, administration, interna- 
tional relations, languages, et cetera — we shall 
have an immediate need for specialized person- 
nel — men to serve as attaches with technical 
training in agriculture; commercial, industrial, 
and financial matters; mining; transportation; 
and, at least for a time, in the field of social 
security and related matters. We shall have 
to attach to our offices abroad experienced tech- 
nical men from the Departments of Commerce, 
Agriculture, and Labor; the Bureau of Mines; 
and other departments and agencies. Such 
officers may well be integrated into the Foreign 
Service for stated periods and provision made 
for their return to their own departments in 
Washington when their services abroad are 
terminated. In addition to these, we must have 
permanent special, technical, and scientific 
personnel and a permanent skilled administra- 



tive group, which will have a recognized status 
in the Service, occupying an intermediate posi- 
tion between the clerks of lesser responsibility 
and the chief of mission or principal Foreign 
Service officer. Many of our experienced 
clerks, who have spent their lives in the Foreign 
Service, are qualified to fit into this group. It 
is probable that instead of one type of examina- 
tion for entrance to the Service we shall have 
several different types to enable an even broader 
recruiting than at present. 

Of course the Department of State and the 
Foreign Service are not perfect organizations. 
There is nothing perfect in a democracy ex- 
cept the democratic ideal and occasionally the 
quality of some of the efforts which are made 
to achieve that ideal. I want to leave with you, 
however, the picture of a group of officials, alert 
to their responsibilities to the public and keenly 
aware that we live in an age of rapid change. 
We shall do our part to the very best of our abil- 
ity. We hope and we believe that you will do 
yours, so that together we may fashion a foreign 
policy worthy of our democracy. 



THE COMBINED FOOD BOARD 
Canadian Representation 



[Released to the press October 29] 

Canada has been invited by the United States 
and the United Kingdom to become a full mem- 
ber of the Combined Food Board. 

In June 1942 the Combined Food Board was 
set up by the President and Prime Minister 
Churchill "in order to coordinate further the 
prosecution of the war effort by obtaining a 
planned and expeditious utilization of the food 
resources of the United Nations".' The Board 
has now been operating for more than fifteen 
months and has made a valuable contribution 
to this most important sector of the total war 
effort. 

In order to insure that the valuable work 
which has been done can be continued and ex- 



' BcXLETiN of June 13, 1942, p. 535. 



tended, the combined food-planning organiza- 
tion has recently been re-examined. 

Canada is a major supplier of foodstuffs to 
the United Nations and has, since the estab- 
lishment of the Combined Food Board, been 
represented upon its various committees. On 
October 25 President Roosevelt and Prime Min- 
ister Churchill sent the following message to 
Prime Minister Mackenzie King, of Canada : 

"Canada's contribution to the war effort in 
the whole field of production and the strength 
which she has thus lent to the cause of the 
United Nations is a source of admiration to us 
all. The importance of Canadian food supplies 
and the close interconnection of all North Ameri- 
can food problems makes it appropriate and 
desirable that she should be directly represented 
as a member of the Combined Food Board sitting 



OCTOBER 30, 1943 



293 



in Washington. Mr. Churchill and I would ac- 
cordingly be gratified if you would name a rep- 
resentative to the Combined Food Board." 

The following reply has been received from 
Mr. Mackenzie King : 

"The Government of Canada is very pleased 
to accept the invitation extended by Mr. 
Churchill and yourself to name a representa- 
tive to the Combined Food Board. I fully 
agree that the importance of Canadian food 
supplies and the close interconnection of all 
North American food problems make it appro- 
priate and desirable that Canada should be di- 
rectly represented on the Board. I am accord- 
ingly asking the Hon. J. G. Gardiner, Minister 
of Agriculture, to represent Canada in this 
important capacity." 



The membership of the Board will be as 
follows : 

United States: The Honorable Marvin Jones, War Food 
Administrator. 

United Kingdom: The Honorable R. H. Brand, repre- 
senting the Minister of Food. 

Canada: The Honorable J. G. Gardiner, Minister of 
Agriculture. 

It has also been agreed that the Honorable 
Claude R. Wickard, Secretary of Agriculture, 
shall act as Chairman of the Board. 

The London Food Committee, which was es- 
tablished at the same time as the Combined Food 
Board to insure adequate consideration in Lon- 
don of matters coming before the Board, is 
being reconstituted as the London Food Coun- 
cil. Its functions remain unchanged. 



Designation of the War Pood Administrator as United States Member 



[Released to the press by the White House October 29] 

Simultaneously with the announcement by the 
President and the Prime Minister of a re-ar- 
rangement of the Combined Food Board where- 
by Claude E. Wickard, Secretary of Agricul- 
ture, has been named neutral Chairman, and 
Canada has been invited to appoint a member, 
the President has signed an Executive order 
(No. 9392) strengthening the War Food Ad- 
ministration by designating the War Food Ad- 
ministrator, Marvin Jones, Chairman of the 
Interdepartmental Committee and United 
States member of the Combined Food Board. 
The War Food Administrator and the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture will continue as members 
of the War Production Board. 

This represents an important step in the sim- 
plification of the food-allocations process. 
Under the terms of the order, the Food Advi- 
sory Committee and the Inter- Agency Commit- 
tee are abolished, and the War Food Adminis- 
trator has created by administrative order a 
Food Requirements and Allocations Commit- 



tee to pass on all domestic and foreign claims 
for food from United States sources. 

A strong food-requirements and allocations 
mechanism in the War Food Administration 
will expedite food allocations. Under this ar- 
rangement the food-requirements branch of the 
War Food Administration will present United 
States domestic claims for food, and the newly 
created Office of Foreign Economic Administra- 
tion will act as claimant agency for food for 
foreign account. In this way, the machinery 
for food allocation will be similar to the Re- 
quirements Committee of the War Production 
Board which makes allocations on the industrial 
side. The Food Requii'ements and Allocations 
Committee should prove to be a time-saver in 
that there will be but one such committee on 
which claimants for food are represented. It 
will in this way simplify inter-agency relations. 

Having the War Food Administrator as 
United States member of the Combined Food 
Board will facilitate the work of that Board 
in dealing with international food problems. 



557379 — 43- 



294 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETm 



In as much as his deputy has been named Chair- 
man of the Food Requirements and Allocations 
Committee, the War Food Administrator will 
be in a position to state the American point of 
view on the Combined Food Board, and any 
possibility of conflicting American points of 



view in food-allocation matters will be elimi- 
nated. 

The text of the above-mentioned Executive 
order appears in the Federal Register of No- 
vember 2, 1943, page 14783. 



ADDRESS BY JOSEPH C. GREW ON NAVY DAY^ 



[Released to the press October 27] 

"That the persons of our citizens shall be 
safe in freely traversing the ocean, that the 
transportation of our own produce, in our own 
vessels, to the markets of our own choice, and 
the return to us of the articles we want for our 
own use, shall be unmolested, I hold to be fun- 
damental, and the gauntlet that must be for- 
ever hurled at him who questions it." 

Thus Thomas Jefferson. 

Today is Navy Day, a day on which we 
Americans may well pause in the maelstrom of 
war to give profound thanks for the determina- 
tion and ability of our Nation and its citizens 
to build a navy second in strength to no other 
navy or combination of enemy navies in the 
world, for the planning of our leaders and the 
industry of our workers that render this great 
achievement possible, and for the proud coop- 
eration of our people iii supporting the accom- 
plishment of this Herculean task. We may 
register, too, our sense of thankfulness to the 
Navy League of the United States for its en- 
lightened and public-spirited work over many 
years in bringing home to our country the axio- 
matic import of those flaming words of Thomas 
Jefferson. But above all today let us without 
stint or qualification express in our minds and 
hearts and utterances our boundless pride in 
the oflicers and men of the Navy who, like the 
officers and men of the Army, are gallantly and 
gloriously fighting or dying for the safety of 
our country, for our democracy, our freedom, 
our civilization, and our way of life, hurling 
that unanswerable gauntlet of Thomas Jeffer- 
son at our enemies who questioned not only 



our right fi'eely to traverse the oceans but our 
right, as a nation, to live. 

And now, in the brief time allotted me, a 
word of caution. Although our Navy and our 
NaA'al Air Force are today the most powerful 
in the world, and although their power is stead- 
ily growing from month to month, from day 
to day, and from hour to hour, the greatest dis- 
service we can do them and the greatest dis- 
service we can do our country is to allow our 
recent and cumulative successes to lead us into 
the unfovmded optimism and the dangerous 
complacency of believing that the war is al- 
ready won. We still face powerful, resource- 
ful, and dangerous enemies. I know our Jap- 
anese enemy pretty well, from 10 years of 
intimate experience and observation. He is a 
fanatic, a last-ditch, no-surrender fighter. He 
will, on occasion, withdraw from untenable po- 
sitions to conserve manpower, but that does not 
for one moment mean that his morale is break- 
ing. Let us not be misled by any such moves. 
They are purely strategic. His Navy, in spite 
of heavy losses, is still powerful. At any mo- 
ment it may come out in force to fight. We 
still have a long, hard road to go, beset, I fear, 
with blood, sweat, and tears, before we bring 
that enemy to unconditional surrender — and 
we can be satisfied with nothing less. Other- 
wise our sons or grandsons or their sons would 
have to fight this whole dreadful war over again 



' Delivered at the meeting of the Navy League of 
the United States and of the New York Chapter of the 
Military Order of the World War, on the steps of the 
Sub-Treasury Building, New York, N.Y., Oct. 27, 1943. 
Mr. Grew, former American Ambassador to Japan, Is 
now Special Assistant to the Secretary of State. 



OCTOBER 30, 1943 



295 



in another generation. Once again we would 
have to throw down that gauntlet of Thomas 
Jefferson in order to preserve our right freely 
to traverse the oceans, in order to maintain for 
our beloved country perpetual freedom from 
slavery. Our Army and Navy will do the job 
and do it now, but they deserve and need — 
and they shall have — the unqualified, the proud, 
the wholly devoted support of every loyal 
American all the way through to -final victory. 



THIRD ANNIVERSARY OF THE ITALIAN 
ATTACK ON GREECE 

[Released to the press October 28] 

The texts of messages exchanged between 
the President of the United States and the 
King of Greece on the occasion of the third 
anniversai'y of the Italian attack on Greece 
follow : 

October 27, 1943. 

On the eve of so fateful an anniversary for 
my people, who three years ago at dawn on the 
28th of October, unanimously rejected the in- 
solent ultimatum of Fascist Italy and upheld 
the honor of Greece, I feel it my duty, Mr. 
President, to pledge once more the unflinching 
resolution of my country to fight to the end for 
Allied victory. 

The Greeks, who faced bravely all the ter- 
rible consequences of their stand for freedom, 
fully appreciate the moral support and many- 
sided assistance given by the United States, 
and I am glad on such a propitious occasion to 
voice, in their behalf, their deep gratitude to 
the American people and to you personally, Mr. 
President. 

On the approach of victory, the Greek peo- 
ple are looking forward with confidence to the 
establishment of a new world in which the 
rights of all nations wiU be safeguarded in a 
lasting and just peace. 

George II, R. 



OcTOBEB 28, 1943. 

Three years ago today a resolute Greek 
people hurled back a defiant "No" to the arro- 
gant demands of the Fascist dictator that they 
supinely surrender their lands, their liberty 
and their sacred honor. Greece was eventual- 
ly overrun only after the combined forces of 
the Axis had been hurled against her. The 
heroic and successful resistance of Greece dur- 
ing six long months aroused the admiration 
of the world, upset the Axis timetable and de- 
stroyed forever the myth of Axis invincibility. 

Despite the unparalleled suffering of the 
Greek people under the cruel oppression of 
Axis occupation, the Greeks fight on, both in- 
side and outside the country. On this anniver- 
sary of the wanton Fascist attack, I am glad 
to pay tribute to Iheir unceasing resistance and 
to give expression to our pride in being asso- 
ciated in a common struggle with such gallant 
and tested Allies. Already the Axis front has 
been breached. The Fascist regime has been 
destroyed. Italy is grimly expiating its 
crimes. The hardest tasks still lie ahead, but 
I am confident that an unfaltering determina- 
tion to devote our whole united effort to the 
struggle against the enemy will speed the day 
of our complete victory; and that liberated 
Greece, restored and strengthened, will take the 
honored place in the world to which her deeds 
have proved her so worthy. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 

TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE 
INDEPENDENCE OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA 

[Released to the press October 28] 

The text of a telegram from the President 
of the United States to His Excellency Dr. 
Eduard Benes, President of the Republic of 
Czechoslovakia, upon the occasion of the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the independence of 
Czechoslovakia, follows : 

The White House, Octoler 28, 1943. 
My thoughts and the thoughts of the Ameri- 
can people are today with the gallant people of 



296 

Czechoslovakia, as they silently salute in the 
shadow of tyranny this twenty-fifth anniver- 
sary of the founding of their Kepublic, a day as 
dear to their hearts as our own Independence 
Day is to America. 

We are resolved that the steadfast courage, 
and the devotion to, and sacrifices for, demo- 
cratic ideals of Czechoslovaks and all liberty 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

loving peoples during these trying years shall 
not have been in vain. The people of the United 
States join me in sending our greetings to you 
and to your countrymen everywhere in confi- 
dent assurance that the efforts of the United 
Nations are steadily bringing nearer the return 
of freedom to Czechoslovakia and to Europe. 
Feanklin D Roosevelt 



General 



ADDRESS BY JOSEPH C. GREW ON THE BIRTHDAY ANNIVERSARY OF 

THEODORE ROOSEVELT^ 



[Released to the presa October 27] 

He entered all the portals of the world, 
A vibrant, thrilled, exhaustless, restless soul. 
Riding at last the very stars. 

Who shall competently measure the worth of 
any man? Certainly not his contemporaries, 
for they are too close to the scene of his life 
and work to weigh them in proper perspective, 
too liable in assessing character to be influenced, 
consciously or unconsciously, by the current and 
often inadequate or misguided estimates of pub- 
lic opinion. Only history can fully and broadly 
gage these things. "By their fruits ye shaU 
know them," and no epitome can today or in 
the future more accurately and broadly char- 
acterize the life and work, the "vibrant, thrilled, 
exhaustless, restless" striving and determination 
of Theodore Eoosevelt than those ringing and 
all-embracing words : "With liberty and justice 
for all." For these words represented the core 
of his personal, his political, and his spiritual 
creed. How often in the history of mankind 
has a prophet cried in the wilderness ! Yet how 
often have the seeds which those prophets 
planted fallen on good ground and sprung up 
in their time I 

Theodore Roosevelt inspired my youth, as his 
creed and doctrine have constantly inspired 
my efforts in later life. To be one of the re- 



cipients tonight of the medal of the Roosevelt 
Memorial Association is therefore among the 
highest and certainly the most deeply appre- 
ciated honors that have come to me in life. I 
wish in full measure to express that apprecia- 
tion and my profound sense of gratitude at 
having thus been brought into intimate touch 
with an association with whose purposes I am 
and always have been in close sympathy. 

At the risk of obtruding a personal story — 
and yet I suppose that all personal stories have 
a degree of human interest — it is perhaps not 
out of place to relate my first contact with 
Theodore Roosevelt. The thoughts of youth 
are long, long thoughts, and the thoughts of this 
youth about 40 years ago aspired to a foreign 
post in the service of the United States, although 
we had no such thing as an organized Foreign 
Service in those days. Political influence ruled 
appointments, and my own political influence or 
backing was precisely nil. A friend in Wash- 
ington spoke of me to the President, but he re- 
plied discouragingly. Political support was 
lacking. And then, one day, my friend went 

'Delivered at Town Hall, New Tork, N.Y., Oct. 27, 
1943. Mr. Grew, former American Ambassador to 
Japan, is now Special Assistant to the Secretary of 
State. 



OCTOBER 30, 1943 



297 



out on a cross-country tramp with the President 
and, bringing tlie conversation around to his pet 
subject of big-game hunting, told him of a little 
experience I had enjoyed with a tiger in a 
dark cave in China, in which the tiger emerged 
second-best. Various myths have arisen about 
that episode, but it was quite simple : Once in 
the cave, all the hunter had to do was to pull 
the trigger and hit the barn door, since the tiger 
was onlj' two or three feet away. But the epi- 
sode seemed to appeal to the President, for he 
pulled out his notebook and said : "By Jove, I'll 
have to do something for that young man !" — 
and the next day my appointment as Third Sec- 
retary of our Embassy in Mexico City was an- 
nounced. Several years later, as Chairman of 
the Examining Board for the Foreign Service, 
I had plenty of fun with the candidates, telling 
them: "You young men don't know how for- 
tunate you are. All you have to do to get into 
the Foreign Service is to answer a few questions ; 
I had to shoot a tiger." But that was the way 
of Theodore Koosevelt. 

When I came to Washington the President 
said: "I have put you in the Foreign Service 
because I believe in you, but there's no career in 
it. It's all politics. I will keep you in while I 
am President but my successor will most cer- 
tainly throw you out — and then where will you 
be?" I remember replying: "Mr. President, as 
a great nation we must develop a professional 
Foreign Service if only to protect our world 
interests and in self-defense. Anyway, I'd like 
to have a hack at it." Within a year from that 
conversation, Theodore Roosevelt had put 
through Congress a bill applying civil service 
principles to the then diplomatic service, fol- 
lowing President Cleveland's similar action for 
the consular service; and some 20 years later, 
in 1924, the Rogers Act amalgamated the two 
services in one great Foreign Service of the 
United States, which, in point of individual 
qualifications and professional training and all- 
around efficiency, I do not believe is surpassed 
by any similar service in the world. I say this 
from 40 years experience. To the vision of 
Grover Cleveland and Theodore Koosevelt, and 



later to the vision of Congressman John Jacob 
Rogers, we owe the great organization that 
serves the United States abroad today. The 
faults and failures of that Service, as of any 
service, are sometimes news; its wide-spread ac- 
complishments and successes often pass unpub- 
licized. 

I venture to give one more little personal and 
intimate anecdote of Theodore Roosevelt, for it 
is. I think, from such even trivial illustrations 
that the personality of any man emerges. 

During the ex-President's famous hunting 
trip in Africa in 1909 I was only a young sec- 
retary in Berlin, but I had the temerity to write 
him at his camp on the White Nile saying that 
I would like to arrange, during his forthcoming 
visit to the Kaiser in Berlin, a luncheon of the 
well-known German big-game hunters, with 
many of whom he was acquainted, at least from 
their books — especially with Schilling, the then 
famous big-game photographer. The reply 
came in due course, written on a scrap of well- 
stained paper as befitted the jungle, accepting 
the invitation with typical Rooseveltian gusto. 
I took the reply to my chief, the Ambassador, 
who shook his head. "No", he said, "I don't 
think we can arrange that luncheon ; Mr. Roose- 
velt is going to be awfully busy during his 
week's visit; every minute will be occupied with 
official duties." Of course I deferred to my 
chief's wishes, and a long telegram was dis- 
patched to Mr. Roosevelt in Cairo, as he 
emerged from central Africa, sending him the 
program. The reply came very quickly and 
tersely : "Program approved but please include 
Grew's lunch." I was not very popular with 
my chief that day. 

Then King Edward of Great Britain died; 
his nephew, the Kaiser, had to go into mourn- 
ing; and Mr. Roosevelt's visit to Wilhelm II 
was off. Instead, it was arranged that the dis- 
tinguished guest should stay at the American 
Embassy for three days instead of the proposed 
week at the palace. The Ambassador called 
me in and politely pointed out that my luncheon 
would now have to go overboard. "Of course", 
I said. The revised program was wired to Mr. 



298 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN" 



Koosevelt in Rome and promptly back came the 
reply: "Revised program approved but don't 
forget Grew's lunch." By that time my rela- 
tions with the Ambassador were getting some- 
what tenuous. 

Well, the luncheon was duly held, and Mr. 
Roosevelt was of course very much in his ele- 
ment, surrounded by mighty hunters. The 
chief had said to me that our distinguished 
guest must leave promptly at two o'clock to 
carry out his round of calls on high German 
officials, but after luncheon Professor Schilling 
showed his admirable film of big game at close 
quarters, climaxed by a petition to Mr. Roose- 
velt signed by all the beasts of the African jun- 
gle in the Swahili language, saying: "We ap- 
peal to you, oh greatest of hunters, to protect 
us from extermination !" The ex-President 
loved that, because the protection of wildlife 
from indiscriminate killing anywhere in the 
world was one of his shibboleths. At about 
three o'clock the Ambassador came to me. 
"You really must get Mr. Roosevelt started on 
his calls," he said; and I reluctantly conveyed 
the message. "Wliat, what?" said T. R. "Offi- 
cial calls ? Not a bit of it. We're all going to 
the Zoo !" And we did. Those calls, I fear, 
were never made. There, indeed, was the "vi- 
brant, thrilled, exhaustless, restless soul". 

In the volume Peace and War^ recently issued 
by our Government, there is published a des- 
patch of mine from Tokyo, dated December 27, 
1934, in which occurs the passage : 

"Theodore Roosevelt enunciated the policy 
'Speak softly but carry a big stick.' If our 
diplomacy in the Far East is to achieve favor- 
able results, and if we are to reduce the risk of 
an eventual war with Japan to a minimum," I 
wrote, "that is the only way to proceed. . . . 
It would be criminally short-sighted to discard 
it from our calculations [the possibility of war], 
and the best possible way to avoid it [war] is to 
be adequately prepared, for preparedness is a 
cold fact which even the chauvinists, the mili- 
tary, the patriots and the ultra-nationalists 
in Japan, for all their bluster concerning 'pro- 



vocative measures' in the United States, can 
grasp and understand. . . . Again, and yet 
again, I urge that our own country be ade- 
quately prepared to meet all eventualities in the 
Far East." 

For years before Pearl Harbor we "spoke 
softly." The "big stick" — our two-ocean Navy — 
began to grow, but alas, it had to grow 
from a willow branch, and two-ocean navies 
cannot be built overnight. Even before the 
drafting of that despatch of mine, Mr. Hull, 
on May 5, 1934, warned our people that dicta- 
torships had sprung up suddenly in place of 
democracies; that numerous nations were "fe- 
verishly arming," taxing their citizens beyond 
their ability to pay, and in many ways were 
developing a military spirit which might lead 
to war. He warned that it would be both a 
blunder and a crime for civilized peoples to fail 
much longer to take notice of present danger- 
ous tendencies. He appealed to every individual 
to awaken and come to a realization of the 
problems and difficulties facing all and of the 
necessity for real sacrifice of time and service. 
A month later Mr. Hull warned, in another 
public speech, of international dangers. He 
said that abroad there was reason "for the 
giavest apprehension"; that the theory seemed 
to be abandoned that nations, like individuals, 
should live as neighbors and friends. 

These were strong words, and they were reit- 
erated and amplified in public utterances by 
other high officials of our Government during 
those fateful years before Pearl Hai'bor. The 
handwriting was on the wall for all to see. 
Our people, alas — as in the case of so many 
other peace-minded and peace-loving people 
throughout the world — were quite simply asleep. 
They had forgotten the grim lessons of history. 
"Nine-tenths of wisdom," said Theodore Roose- 
velt in 1917, "is being wise in time." 

But that is all water over the dam now. To- 
day we are, like Theodore Roosevelt, "a vibrant, 
thrilled, exhaustless, restless" Nation, and we 
must not rest until we have brought our ene- 
mies — all our enemies-^to unconditional sur- 



OCTOBER 30, 1943 



299 



render through complete defeat in battle. No 
inconclusive peace, however momentarily al- 
luring, must tempt us to leave our mighty work 
half done ; for should we, through weariness of 
war, fail to achieve our final goal, our grand- 
sons or their sons will beyond peradventure 
be called upon to fight again in their generation. 
That cancer of aggressive militarism which has 
overrun the world must be excised now — and 
kept excised for all time to come. 

Here again we are inevitably reminded of 
Theodore Roosevelt's prophetic vision in the 
autumn of 1918: "It is a sad and dreadful 
thing to have to face some months or a year or 
so of additional bloodshed", he wrote, in sup- 
port of his insistence on the unconditional sur- 
render of Germany, "but it is a much worse 
thing to quit now and have the children grow- 
ing up be obliged to do the job all over again, 
and with ten times as much bloodshed and suf- 
fering, when their turn comes." The possibil- 
ity that he foresaw was "that, perhaps, within 
a dozen years, certainly within the lifetime of 
the men now fighting this war [the first World 
War], our country and the other free countries 
would have to choose between bowing their 
necks to the German yoke or going into an- 
other war under conditions far more disad- 
vantageous to them." 

For Theodore Roosevelt personally, war was 
indeed a "sad and dreadful thing", for his sons 
were at the front, just as they and their sons 
are today, once again, distinguishing themselves 
on the field of valor. Anything else would have 
been to him unthinkable. His attitude when 
his son Quentin was killed might well be a 
source of consolation to many a war-bereaved 
father and mother today. On the day that the 
news was published, a friend, who had an en- 
gagement with Roosevelt in the afternoon, tele- 
phoned his secretary, asking whether the Colo- 
nel would keep the appointment. The answer 
came after a moment's silence. "The Colonel 
says he will keep all his appointments." As 
the friend entered the room, neither spoke for 
a moment. Then, convulsively, Roosevelt said, 
"Well?" and the other said, "WeU?" and tbey 



sat down. Suddenly the Colonel banged his 
fist on the table. "He did his duty, and now 
let us do ours. Go ahead." 

Next daj' he made the keynote address at the 
Republican State Convention at Saratoga. 
Pleading for a finer and truer patriotism ex- 
pressed in political action, he appeared to lose 
himself and his grief in his passion for the 
cause he was upholding, as he, who in peace 
had urged preparedness for war, now, in war, 
urged preparedness for peace. Toward the 
end of his speech — I quote from Hermann Hage- 
dorn's book The Bugle That Woke America — 
Roosevelt abruptly laid the manuscript aside 
and interpolated an appeal which held the audi- 
ence in breathless silence: 

"In this great world crisis, perhaps the great- 
est in the history of the world during the Chris- 
tian era," he said, "when the events of the next 
few years will profoundly influence for good 
or for ill our children and our children's chil- 
dren for generations, surely in this great crisis, 
when we are making sacrifices and making 
ready for sacrifices on a scale never before 
known, surely when we are rendering such 
fealty to the idealism on the part of the young 
men sent abroad to die — surely we have the 
right to ask and to expect a loyal idealism in 
life from the men and women who stay at 
home. 

"Our young men have gone to the other 
side — very many of them to give up in their 
joyous prime all the glory and all the beauty 
of life for the prize of death in battle for a lofty 
ideal. Now, while they are defending us, can't 
we men and women at home make up our minds 
to insist in public and private on a loftier 
idealism here at home? I am asking for an 
idealism which shall find expression beside 
the hearthstone and in the councils of the State 
and Nation. 

"And I ask you to see that when those who 
have gone abroad to endure every species of 
hardship, to risk their lives and to give their 
lives — when those of them who live come home, 
that they shall come home to a nation that they 



300 

can be proud to have fought for or to have died 
for." 

And later, into a brief article, which he 
called "The Great Adventure", a heart-break- 
ing tribute to his dead son and his son's mother 
and to all mothers who might be called upon 
to experience bereavement like hers, in prose 
chastened by sorrow and filled with somber yet 
heroic music, he poured all that 60 years of 
whole-hearted living had taught him of birth 
and death, and motherhood and fatherhood; 
and grief, and aspiration, and love of country. 

"Only those are fit to live," he wrote, "who do 
not fear to die ; and none are fit to die who have 
shrunk from the joy of life and the duty of life. 
Both life and death are part of the same Great 
Adventure. Never yet was worthy adventure 
worthily carried through by the man who put 
his personal safety first. Never yet was a coun- 
try worth living in unless its sons and daughters 
were of that stern stuff which bade them die for 
it at need ; and never yet was a country worth 
dying for unless its sons and daughters thought 
of life not as something concerned with the self- 
ish evanescence of the individual, but as a link 
in the great cliain of creation and causation, so 
that each person is seen in his true relations as 
an essential part of the whole, whose life must 
be made to serve the larger and continuing life 
of the world . . . 

"Alone of human beings the good and wise 
mother stands on a plane of equal honor with 
the bravest soldier ; for she has gladly gone down 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

to the brink of the chasm of darkness to bring 
back the children in whose hands rests the fu- 
ture of the years ... In America today all our 
people are summoned to service and sacrifice. 
Pride is the portion only of those who know 
bitter sorrow or the foreboding of bitter sor- 
row. But all of us who give service, and stand 
ready for sacrifice, are the torchbearers. We 
run with the torches until we fall, content if we 
can then pass them to the hands of other runners. 
The torches whose flame is brightest are borne by 
the gallant men at the front, and by the gallant 
women whose husbands and lovers, whose sons 
and brothers, are at the front. These men are 
high of soul as they face their fate on the shell- 
shattered earth or in the skies above or in the 
waters beneath ; and no less high of soul are the 
women with torn hearts and shining eyes; the 
girls whose boy lovers have been struck down 
in their golden morning, and the mothers and 
wives to whom word has been brought that 
henceforth they must walk in the shadow. 

"These are the torchbearers; these are they 
who have dared the Great Adventure." 

So wrote Theodore Roosevelt. Let us, in our 
day, rise to the heights of that noble, utterly 
courageous, prophetic soul who would never 
compromise righteousness for expediency, and 
let us derive from his life the inspiration, both 
in war and peace, to carry forward the flaming 
torch that will illuminate "the larger and con- 
tinuing life of the world" — with liberty and 
justice for all. 



SELECTIVE SERVICE REGISTRATION OF AMERICAN CITIZENS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES 



[Released to the press October 28) 

In pursuance of the President's proclama- 
tion (No. 2597) of October 26, 1943,i providing 
for the Selective Service registration, under 
the supervision of American diplomatic and 
consular officers, of American male citizens of 
military age in foreign countries, the following 

' 8 Federal Register 14595. 



general information concerning the plan for 
registration has been released: 

1. Who must register: (a) All male citi- 
zens of the United States, not prer'tomly reg- 
istered^ born after December 31, 1898 and born 
on or before December 31, 1925 are required to 
register between November 16. 1943 and De- 
cember 31, 1943. (6) All male citizens of the 
United States who attain 18 years of age sub- 



OCTOBER 30, 1943 



301 



sequent to November 16, 1943 are required to 
roister upon, or immediately following, the 
anniversary of their 18th birthday, (c) Amer- 
ican nationals who are not citizens of the 
United States are not required to register, {d) 
Members of the armed forces of the United 
States, whether in active or reserve status, are 
not required to register. 

2. When must registration he accomplished: 
(a) The date upon which registration will 
commence — November 16, 1943. {b) Period 
allowed within which to register — November 
16, 1943 to December 31, 1943. (c) Date upon 
which registration must be completed — not 
later than December 31, 1943. (d) Any per- 
son required to register under the presidential 
proclamation, who is prevented from doing so 
within the period prescribed for i-egistration by 
reason of circumstances over which he has no 
control, must register with an official of the 
American Foreign Service or other duly ap- 
pointed registrar as soon as it is possible for 
him to do so. 

3. Where and through whom can registration 
be accomplished: Officials of the American 
Foreign Service will be responsible for super- 
vising the registration, and they will designate 
registrars as well as locations at which regis- 
tration may be accomplished. In the event in- 
formation is desired concerning the place at 
which or the person through whom registration 
can be accomplislied, inquiry should be directed 
to the nearest American embassy, legation, or 
consular office. 

4. How registration is completed: Upon re- 
porting to a registrar for the purpose of regis- 
tration, each person who is required to register 
will sign a registration card containing infor- 
mation relative to his name, addi-ess, age, and 
employment. Persons who are in possession 
of a passport or consular "Certificate of Iden- 
tity and Eegistration" should, if practicable, 
submit such documents for examination at time 
of registration. 

5. What will be done with registration cards: 
On the registration card a person registering 
may designate a place of domicile or last resi- 



dence in the United States, Territory of Alaska, 
Territory of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, or the Vir- 
gin Islands of the United States. The local 
Selective Service board having jurisdiction over 
the address given by the registrant will be the 
one having jurisdiction over his classification. 
Registration cards, upon completion, will ac- 
cordingly be forwarded by the persons respon- 
sible for supervising the registration to the 
Director of Selective Service, who in turn will 
forward them to the appropriate local boards. 
If no place of domicile or last residence in the 
United States, Territory of Alaska, Territory 
of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands of 
the United States is designated by a registrant, 
the registration card will be forwarded to the 
Director of Selective Service for transmittal to 
Local Board No. 1, District of Columbia, 
U. S. A., which board will have jurisdiction 
over his classification. The local board to 
which a registration card is forwarded will 
issue and forward to the registrant a registra- 
tion certificate, which must be retained in the 
possession of the registrant at all times as evi- 
dence of registration. Until a registration cer- 
tificate is received by a registrant from the local 
board which will have jurisdiction over his clas- 
sification, the registrar will provide him with 
interim proof of registration. 

6. What is the effect of registration: After 
a registration card has been received by a local 
board which is to have classification jurisdic- 
tion over a registrant, that local board will 
forward to the registrant a Selective Service 
questionnaire, which he will be required to 
complete in detail and return to his local Selec- 
tive Service board. Based upon the informa- 
tion contained in that questionnaire and upon 
any additional information submitted in sup- 
port of a claim for deferment, the local board 
will classify the registrant. In the event a 
registrant is found available for military serv- 
ice and all rights of appeal have been exhausted, 
provision can usually be made to induct the reg- 
istrant without requiring that he return to the 
United States for that purpose. If ordered 
to report for induction, a registrant will ordi- 



302 

narily be required to proceed at his own expense 
to the induction station designated or, in the 
event it is closer to him, to the nearest American 
consular or diplomatic office or other designated 
point of assembly. If a registrant is forwarded 
for induction from an American consular or 
diplomatic office, transportation will be fur- 
nished him by the Government to the induction 
station designated to which he is ordered to 
report. Registrants located outside the conti- 
nental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto 
Eico may enlist in the armed forces at any 
time without the prior consent of their respec- 
tive local boards. 

7. What i? the remit of failure to register: 
Any person required to register who knowingly 
fails or neglects to do so, or otherwise evades 
registration, is subject to the penalties of fine 
or imprisonment imposed by the Selective 
Training and Service Act of 1940, as amended. 



The Department 



LIAISON BETWEEN THE DEPARTMENT 
OF STATE AND THE FOREIGN ECO- 
NOMIC ADRUNISTRATION 

[Released to the press October 26] 

The Department of State, in consultation 
with the Foreign Economic Administration 
and the Bureau of the Budget, is working out 
arrangements which will provide between the 
Department and the Foreign Economic Admin- 
istration the close liaison necessary to assure 
conformity of our foreign economic operations 
to our national foreign policy. Accordingly, 
it is planned that there will be in the Depart- 
ment special advisers, reporting to an Assistant 
Secretary. Thes3 advisers and their assistants 
will work closely with the appropriate officers 
and divisions of the Foreign Economic Admin- 
istration, from the inception of a given economic 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE. BULLETIN" 

program (at the initiative of either agency) to 
its conclusion, so that the Foreign Economic 
Administration may be kept fully informed of 
foreign policy as it affects each program, and 
the Department in turn may be in touch with 
the course of operations. 

Detailed plans for these arrangements have 
been submitted to the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget for his approval. 



Commercial Policy 



SUPPLEMENTAL TRADE-AGREEMENT 
NEGOTLVTIONS WITH CUBA 

CoMMrrTEE FOR RECIPROCITY INFORMATION 

SUPPLEMENTAL TRADE-AGREEMENT NEGOTIATIONS 
WITH CUBA 

Public Notice 

List Following Public Notice of October 19, 
1943 Amended 
The Committee for Reciprocity Information 
gives notice that the "List of Products on 
Which the United States Will Consider Grant- 
ing Concessions to Cuba", following the Public 
Notice of said Committee, dated October 19, 
1943, and headed "Supplemental Trade-Agree- 
ment Negotiations With Cuba",^ is hereby 
amended; and said list, as amended, follows 
this notice. 

Edward Yardlet 

Secretary 
iVashington, D. C, 
October 27, 19^3. 

List of Products on Which the United States 
Will Coksider Granting Concessions to 
Cuba 

Note : The rates of duty indicated are those appli- 
cable to products of Cuba.' For the purpose of facili- 
tating identification of the articles listed, reference is 



' BtnxETiN of Oct. 23, 1943, p. 281. 



OCTOBEK 30, 1943 



303 



made in the list to the paragraph numbers of the tariff 
schedules in the Tariff Act of 1930. 

In the event that articles which are at present re- 
garded as classifiable under the descriptions included 
in the list are excluded therefrom by judicial decision 
or otherwise prior to the conclusion of the agreement, 
the list will nevertheless be considered as including 
such articles. 



United States 
Tariff Act 

of 1930 
Paragraph 


Description of article 


Rate of duty applicable 
to Cuban products 


601 


Filler tobacco not specially 
provided for, other than 
cigarette leaf tobacco: 






$0.14 or 0.28 per lb.« 




Ifstemmed 


0.20 or 0.40 per lb.« 


603 




0.14 or 0.28 per lb.« 









• The higher rates of duty Indicated for the three classifications are 
applicable to imports of Cuban flllei and scrap tobacco entered, or with- 
drawn from warehouse, for consumption in e.\cess of a tariff quota of 
22,000,000 pounds (unstemmed equivalent) [n any calendar year. In 
accordance with the following note which appears hi the original trade 
agreement with Cuba, as amended: 

"Note: Filler tobacco, not specially provided for, unstemmed or 
stemmed (other than cigarette leaf tobacco), and scrap tobacco, the 
growth, produce or manufacture of the Republic of Cuba, entered, or 
withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption in excess of a total quantity 
(unstemmed equivalent) of 22,000,000 pounds in any calendar year after 
1939. shall be subject to duty as though such articles were not enumerated 
and described In this Schedule, but the rates of duty thereon shall not 
exceed those In effect on Aug. 24, 1934. For the purposes of this note, 
the quantity of unstemmed filler tobacco shall be the actual net weight, 
and the quantity (unstemmed equivalent) of stemmed filler and scrap 
tobacco shall be 133 per centum of the actual net weight, as determined, 
respectively, for the assessment of duties or taxes in the United States." 

Imports from Cuba of the products men- 
tione(i, under the tariff quota in any calendar 
year, are subject to the lower rates of duty 
indicated. 



Publications 



FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES: THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE, 

1919, VOLUMES HI AND IV 



[Released to the press for publication October 30, 8 p.m.] 

The Department of State released on Octo- 
ber 30 in the Foreign Relations of the United 
States series the third and fourth volumes of 
the documentary record of the Paris Peace Con- 
ference of 1919. As volumes I and II ' veere 
composed of documents dealing with the period 
of preparation between the signing of the Ar- 
mistice with Germany and the opening of the 
Conference at Paris, the present volumes are the 
first containing records of the deliberations at 
the Conference itself. 

Volume III opens with directories of the 
Peace Conference as constituted on April 1, 
1919 and on October 1, 1919. The rest of the 



' BtnxETiN of Dec. 26, 1942, p. 1024. 



volume consists of minutes of plenary sessions 
of the Preliminary Peace Conference and of 
the Peace Congress, of meetings of the Powers 
with Special Interests, and of meetings from 
January 12 to February 14, 1919 of the Council 
of Ten. 

Volume IV contains the minutes of the meet- 
ings of the Council of Ten from February 15 to 
June 17, 1919 and of the meetings of the Coun- 
cil of Foreign Ministers. 

Copies of Foreign Relations of the United 
States: The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, vol- 
ume III (1062 pages) and volume IV (880 
pages) may be obtained from the Superintend- 
ent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D. C, for $2 each. 



304 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



International Conferences, 
Commissions, Etc. 



Treaty Information 



INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC SALMON 
FISHERIES COMMISSION 

[Released to the press October 30] 

The President has designated Mr. Fred J. 
Foster, Director of the Department of Fisheries 
of Washington State, Seattle, Wash., a member, 
on the part of the United States, of the Inter- 
national Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission 
to fill the position left vacant by the resignation 
on July 16, 1943 of Mr. B. M. Brennan of Seattle. 
The other American members are Mr. Charles 
E. Jackson, Assistant Director, United States 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the 
Interior, and Mr. Edward W. Allen, of Seattle, 
Wash., who is Secretary of the Commission. 

The International Pacific Salmon Fisheries 
Commission was established pursuant to article 
II of the convention between the United States 
and Canada, signed May 26, 1930, for the pro- 
tection, preservation, and extension of the sock- 
eye salmon fisheries of the Eraser Eiver System 
(Treaty Series 918). 

The primary duty of the Commission is to in- 
vestigate the natural history of the salmon fish- 
eries and to make recommendations to the two 
Governments as to the best measures for the reg- 
ulation of the fisheries with a view to conserva- 
tion and restoration. 



MILITARY MISSIONS 
Agreement With Paraguay 

[Released to the press October 27] 

In conformity with the request of the Gov- 
ernment of Paraguay, there was signed on 
October 27, 1943 by the Honorable Edward R. 
Stettinius, Jr., Acting Secretary of State, and 
His Excellency Seiior Dr. Don Celso R. Velas- 
quez, Ambassador of Paraguay in Washington, 
an agreement providing for the detail of a Mili- 
tary Aviation Mission by the United States to 
serve in Paraguay. 

The agreement will continue, in force for 
four years from the date of signature but may 
be extended beyond that period at the request 
of the Government of Paraguay. 

The agreement contains provisions similar in 
general to provisions contained in agreements 
between the United States and certain other 
American republics providing for the detail of 
ofBcers of the United States Army or Navy to 
advise the armed forces of those countries. 

COMMERCE 

Supplemental Trade-Agreement Negotiations 
With Cuba 

An announcement regarding the supplemen- 
tal trade-agreement negotiations with Cuba 
appears in this Bulletin under the heading 
"Commercial Policy". 



0. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICEi t94S 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Offlee, Washington. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPUOVAL OF THE DIEECTOB OF THE BCEEAU OF THB 8DD0BT 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BUL 



H 



") r 



1 



IN 



NOVEMBER 6, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 228— Publication 2021 



fontents 

The War Pago 
The Tripartite Conference in Moscow: 

Anglo-Soviet-American Communique 307 

Declaration of Four Nations on General Security . ' 308 

Declaration Regarding Italy ■ 309 

Declaration on Austria 310 

Declaration of German Atrocities 310 

United Nations Eelief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion : Signature of the Agreement and First Session 

of the Council 311 

Proclamation Authorizing Extension of General-Order 

and Bonded-Warehousing Periods 312 

; Europe 

Anniversary of the Founding of the Soviet Union . . . 313 

The Foreign Service 

Confirmations 313 

Legislation 314 

Publications 314 




NOV 26 1943 



The War 



THE TRIPARTITE CONFERENCE IN MOSCOW 

Anglo-Soviet-American Communique 



[Released to the press November l] 

The Conference of Foreign Secretaries of the 
United States of America, Mr. Cordell Hull, of 
the United Kingdom, Mr. Anthony Eden, and 
of the Soviet Union, Mr. V. M. Molotov, took 
place at Moscow from the 19th to 30th of October 
1943. There were twelve meetings. 

In addition to the Foreign Secretaries the 
following took part in the Conference : 

For the United States of America : Mr. W. 
Averell Harriman, Ambassador of the United 
States, Major General John R. Deane, United 
States Army, Mr. Green H. Hackworth, Mr. 
James C. Dunn, and experts. 

For the United Kingdom : Sir Archibald 
Clerk Kerr, His Majesty's Ambassador, Mr. 
"William Strang, Lt. General Sir Hastings 
Ismay, and experts. 

For the Soviet Union : Marshal K. E. Voro- 
shilov. Marshal of the Soviet Union, Mr. A. Y. 
Vyshinski, Mr. M. M. Litvinov, Deputy People's 
Commissars for Foreign Affairs, Mr. V. A. Ser- 
geyev. Deputy People's Commissar for Foreign 
Trade, Major-General A. A. Gryslov, of the 
General Staff, Mr. G. F. Saksin, Senior Official 
of the People's Commissariat for Foreign 
Affairs, and experts. 

The agenda included all the questions sub- 
mitted for discussion by the three Governments. 
Some of the questions called for final decisions 
and these were taken. On other questions, after 
discussion, decisions of principle were taken : 
these questions were referred for detailed 
consideration to commissions specially set up 



for the purpose, or reserved for treatment 
through diplomatic channels. Other questions 
again were disposed of by an exchange of views. 

The Governments of the United States, the 
United Kingdom and the Soviet Union have 
been in close cooperation in all matters concern- 
ing the common war effort. But this is the first 
time that the Foreign Secretaries of the three 
Governments have been able to meet together in 
conference. 

In the first place there were frank and ex- 
haustive discussions of measures to be taken to 
shorten the war against Germany and her satel- 
lites in Europe. Advantage was taken of the 
presence of military advisers, representing the 
respective Chiefs of Staff, in order to discuss 
definite military operations, with regard to 
which decisions had been taken and which are 
already being prepared, and in order to create 
a basis for the closest military cooperation in 
the future between the three countries. 

Second only to the importance of hastening 
the end of the war was the unanimous recogni- 
tion by the three Governments that it was 
essential in their own national interests and in 
the interest of all peace-loving nations to con- 
tinue the present close collaboration and coop- 
eration in the conduct of the war into the period 
following the end of hostilities, and that only in 
this waj' could peace be maintained and the 
political, economic and social welfare of their 
peoples fully promoted. 

This conviction is expressed in a declaration 
in which the Chinese Government joined dur- 

307 



308 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETrN 



ing the Conference and which was signed by the 
three Foreign Secretaries and the Chinese Am- 
bassador at Moscow on behalf of their govern- 
ments. This declaration, published todaj',' pro- 
vides for even closer collaboration in the prose- 
cution of the war and in all matters pertaining 
to the surrender and disarmament of the ene- 
mies with which the four countries are respec- 
tively at war. It sets forth the principles upon 
which the four governments agree that a broad 
system of international cooperation and se- 
curity should be based. Provision is made for 
the inclusion of all other peace-loving nations, 
great and small, in this system. 

The Conference agreed to set up machinery 
for ensuring the closest cooperation between 
the three Governments in the examination of 
European questions arising as the war develops. 
For this purpose the Conference decided to es- 
tablish in London a European Advisory Com- 
mission to study these questions and to make 
joint recommendations to the three Govern- 
ments. 

Provision was made for continuing, when nec- 
essary, tripartite consultations of representa- 
tives of the three Governments in the respec- 
tive capitals through the existing diplomatic 
channels. 

The Conference also agreed to establish an 
Advisory Council for matters relating to Italy, 
to be composed in the first instance of represen- 
tatives of their three governments and of the 
French Committee of National Liberation. 
Provision is made for the addition to this coun- 
cil of representatives of Greece and Yugoslavia 
in view of their special interests arising out of 
the aggressions of Fascist Italy upon their terri- 



tory during the present war. This Council will 
deal with day-to-day questions, other than mili- 
tary operations, and will make recommendations 
designt'd to coordinate Allied policy with re- 
gard to Italy. 

The three Foreign Secretaries considered it 
appropriate to reaffirm, by a declaration pub- 
lished today ,^ the attitude of their Governments 
in favor of restoration of democracy in Italy. 

The three Foreign Secretaries declared it to 
be the purpose of their Governments to restore 
the independence of Austria. At the same time 
they reminded Austria that in the final settle- 
ment account will be taken of efforts that Aus- 
tria may make towards its own liberation. The 
declaration on Austria is published today.^ 

The Foreign Secretaries issued at the Con- 
ference a declaration by President Eoosevelt, 
Prime Minister Churchill and Premier Stalin 
containing a solemn warning that at the time 
of granting any armistice to any German Gov- 
ernment those German officers and men and 
members of the Nazi party who have had any 
connection with atrocities and executions in 
countries overrun by German forces will be 
taken back to the countries in which their 
abominable crimes were committed to be 
charged and punished according to the laws of 
those countries.' 

In the atmosphere of mutual confidence and 
understanding which characterized all the work 
of the Conference, consideration was also given 
to other important questions. These included 
not only questions of a current nature, but also 
questions concerning the treatment of Hitlerite 
Germany and its satellites, economic coopera- 
tion and the assurance of general peace. 



Declaration of Four Nations on General Security 



[Released to the press November 1] 

The Governments of the United States of 
America, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union 
and China : 



' See infra. 



united in their determination, in accordance 
with the Declaration by the United Nations of 
January 1, 1942, and subsequent declarations, to 

' See post, p. 309. 
• See post, p. 310. 



NOVEMBER 6, 1943 



309 



continue hostilities against those Axis powers 
with which they respectively are at war until 
such powers have laid down their arms on the 
basis of unconditional surrender ; 

conscious of their responsibility to secure the 
liberation of themselves and the peoples allied 
with them from the menace of aggression ; 

recognizing the necessity of ensuring a rapid 
and orderly transition from war to peace and of 
establishing and maintaining international 
peace and security with the least diversion of the 
world's human and economic resources for arma- 
ments ; 

jointly declare: 

1. That their united action, pledged for the 
prosecution of the war against their respective 
enemies, will be continued for the organization 
and maintenance of peace and security. 

2. That those of them at war with a common 
enemy will act together in all matters relating to 
the surrender and disarmament of that enemy. 

3. That they will take all measures deemed by 
them to be necessary to provide against any vio- 
lation of the terms imposed upon the enemy. 

4. That they recognize the necessity of estab- 
lishing at the earliest practicable date a general 
international organization, based on the prin- 



ciple of the sovereign equality of all peace-lov- 
ing states, and open to membership by all such 
states, large and small, for the maintenance of 
international peace and security. 

5. That for the purpose of maintaining inter- 
national peace and security pending the re-estab- 
lishment of law and order and the inauguration 
of a system of general security, they will consult 
with one another and as occasion requires with 
other members of the United Nations with a 
view to joint action on behalf of the community 
of nations. 

6. That after the termination of hostilities 
they will not employ their military forces within 
the territories of other states except for the pur- 
poses envisaged in this declaration and after 
joint consultation. 

7. That they will confer and co-operate with 
one another and with other members of the 
United Nations to bring about a practicable gen- 
eral agreement with respect to the regulation of 
armaments in the post-war period. 

v. molotov 
Anthony Eden 
CoRDELL Hull 

FOO PiNG-SHEUNG 

Moscow, 

30th October, 19J^. 



Declaration Regarding Italy 



[Released to the press November 1] 

The Foreign Secretaries of the United States 
of America, the United Kingdom and the Soviet 
Union have established that their three Gov- 
ernments are in complete agreement that Al- 
lied policy towards Italy must be based upon 
the fundamental principle that Fascism and all 
its evil influences and emanations shall be ut- 
terly destroyed and that the Italian people shall 
be given every opportunity to establish govern- 
mental and other institutions based upon demo- 
cratic principles. 

The Foreign Secretaries of the United States 
of America and the United Kingdom declare 
that the action of their Governments from the 
inception of the invasion of Italian territory, 
in so far as paramount military requirements 

55848. 



have permitted, has been based upon this 
policy. 

In the furtherance of this policy in the future 
the Foreign Secretaries of the three Govern- 
ments are agreed that the following measures 
are important and should be put into effect : 

1. It is essential that the Italian Government 
should be made more democratic by the intro- 
duction of representatives of those sections of 
the Italian people who have always opposed 
Fascism. 

2. Freedom of speech, of religious worship, 
of political belief, of the press and of public 
meeting shall be restored in full measure to the 
Italian people, who shall also be entitled to form 
anti-Fascist political groups. 



310 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



3. All institutions and organisations created 
by the Fascist regime shall be suppressed. 

4. All Fascist or pro-Fascist elements shall be 
removed from the administration and from the 
institutions and organizations of a public char- 
acter. 

5. All political prisoners of the Fascist regime 
shall be released and accorded a full amnesty. 

6. Democratic organs of local government 
shall be created. 

7. Fascist chiefs and other persons known or 
suspected to be war criminals shall be arrested 
and handed over to justice. 



In making this declaration the three Foreign 
Secretaries recognize that so long as active mili- 
tary operations continue in Italy the time at 
which it is possible to give full effect to the prin- 
ciples set out above will be determined by the 
Commander-in-Chief on the basis of instruc- 
tions received through the Combined Chiefs of 
Staff. The three Governments parties to this 
declaration will at the request of any one of 
them consult on this matter. 

It is further understood that nothing in this 
resolution is to operate against the right of the 
Italian people ultimately to choose their own 
form of government. 



Declaration on Austria 



[Released to the press November 1] 

The Governments of the United Kingdom, 
the Soviet Union and the United States of 
America are agreed that Austria, the first free 
country to fall a victim to Hitlerite aggression, 
shall be liberated from German domination. 

They regard the annexation imposed upon 
Austria by Germany on March 15th, 1938, as 
null and void. They consider themselves as in 
no way bound bj' any changes effected in Aus- 
tria since that date. They declare that they 
wish to see reestablished a free and independent 



Austria, and thereby to open the way for the 
Austrian people themselves, as well as those 
neighboring states which will be faced with 
similar problems, to find that political and eco- 
nomic security which is the only basis for lasting 
peace. 

Austria is reminded, however, that she has a 
responsibility which she cannot evade for par- 
ticipation in the war on the side of Hitlerite 
Germany, and that in the final settlement ac- 
count will inevitably be taken of her own con- 
tribution to her liberation. 



Declaration of German Atrocities 



[Released to the press November 1] 

The United Kingdom, the United States and 
the Soviet Union have received from many 
quarters evidence of atrocities, massacres and 
cold-blooded mass executions which are being 
perpetrated by the Hitlerite forces in the many 
countries they have overrun and from which 
they are now being steadily expelled. The bru- 
talities of Hitlerite domination are no new thing 



and all the peoples or territories in their grip 
have suffered from the worst form of govern- 
ment by terror. What is new is that many of 
these territories are now being redeemed by the 
advancing armies of the liberating Powers and 
that in their desperation, the recoiling Hitlerite 
Huns are redoubling their ruthless cruelties. 
This is now evidenced with particular clearness 
by monstrous crimes of the Hitlerites on the 



NOVEMBER 6, 194 3 



311 



territory of the Soviet Union which is being 
liberated from the Hitlerites, and on French 
and Italian territory. 

Accordingly, the aforesaid three allied Pow- 
ers, speaking in the interests of the thirty-two 
[thirty-three] United Nations, hereby solemnly 
declare and give full warning of their 
declaration as follows: 

At the time of the granting of any armis- 
tice to any government which may be set up in 
Germany, those German officers and men and 
members of the Nazi party who have been re- 
sponsible for, or have taken a consenting part 
in the above atrocities, massacres and execu- 
tions, will be sent back to the countries in which 
their abominable deeds were done in order that 
they may be judged and punished according to 
the laws of these liberated countries and of the 
free governments which will be created therein. 
Lists will be compiled in all possible detail from 
all these countries having regard especially to 
the invaded parts of the Soviet Union, to 
Poland and Czechoslovakia, to Yugoslavia and 
Greece, including Crete and other islands, to 
Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, 
Luxemburg, France and Italy. 



Thus, the Germans who take part in whole- 
sale shootings of Italian officers or in the exe- 
cution of French, Dutch, Belgian or Nor- 
wegian hostages or of Cretan peasants, or who 
have shared in the slaughters inflicted on the 
people of Poland or in territories of the Soviet 
Union which are now being swept clear of the 
enemy, will know that they will be brought 
back to the scene of their crimes and judged 
on the spot by the peoples whom they have out- 
raged. Let those who have hitherto not im- 
brued their hands with innocent blood beware 
lest they join the ranks of the guilty, for most 
assuredly the three allied Powers will pursue 
them to the uttermost ends of the earth and will 
deliver them to their accusers in order that jus- 
tice may be done. 

The above declaration is without prejudice 
to the case of the major criminals, whose 
offences have no particular geographical locali- 
sation and who will be punished by the joint 
decision of the Governments of the Allies. 
(Signed) : Eoosevelt 

Chtjechill 
Stalin 



UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND REHABILITATION ADMINISTRATION 
Signature of the Agreement and First Session of the CouncU 



[Released to the press November 4] 

It will be recalled that in September 1943 
this Government submitted to the governments 
of the United Nations and of the nations asso- 
ciated with them in this war a revision of the 
draft agreement for the establishment of a 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration, which previously had been 
circulated.^ 

A substantial majority of the governments 
and authorities concerned have now indicated 
their willingness to sign the agreement in its re- 
vised form. Accordingly plans are proceeding 
for holding the ceremony of signature at the 
White House on November 9, 1943 and for the 

' Bulletin of Sept. 25, 1943, p. 211. 



opening of the First Session of the Council of 
the organization the following day at the Clar- 
idge Hotel, Atlantic City, N. J. The Council 
will be the policy-making body of the Admin- 
istration, on which each member government 
will have a representative. 

The President has approved the designation 
of the Honorable Dean Acheson, Assistant Sec- 
retary of State, to represent the United States 
on the Council of the Administration. Mr. 
Acheson will be accompanied by several ad- 
visers and assistants whose designations have 
also been approved by the President. The fol- 
lowing individuals will constitute the group 
representing this Government at the First 
Council Session : 



312 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXTLLETrN 



The Honorable Dean Aeheson, Assistant Secretary of 
State, Member of the Council for the Vnited States. 

The Honorable Francis B. Sayre, Special Assistant to 
the Secretary of State, Alternate Member of the 
Council for the Vnited States and Adviser. 

Advisers: 

Mrs. Elizabeth A. Conkey, Commissioner of Public Wel- 
fare, Cook County, 111. 

Mr. Max Gardner, Former Governor of North Carolina. 

Mr. Harold Glasser, Assistant Director of the Division 
of Monetary Research, Treasury Department. 

Mr. Roy Hendrickson, Director, Food Distribution Ad- 
ministration. 

Mr. Murray Latimer, Chairman of the Railroad Retire- 
ment Board, Assistant Director, Liberated Areas 
Branch of Foreign Economic Administration. 

Dr. Thomas Parran, Surgeon General, United States 
Public Health Service. 

Mr. Leroy S'tiuebower, Chief, Division of Economic 
Studies, State Department. 

Mr. Herman Wells, State Department. 

Mrs. Ellen S. Woodward, Member, Social Security 
Board. 

Liaison Officer Prom Foreign Economic Administration: 
Mr. John Carter Vincent, Special Assistant to Admin- 
istrator of Foreign Economic Administration. 

Technical Advisers: 

Mr. Richard M. Bissell, Jr., Director, Division of Ship 

Requirements, War Shipping Administration. 
Mr. E. D. Hester, Economic Adviser to the United States 

High Commissioner of the Philippine Islands. 
Mr. Laurence Lombard, Assistant General Counsel, War 

Production Board. 
Mr. Lincoln White, Senior Divisional Assistant, Division 

of Current Information, State Department. 
Mr. Walter Wilcox, Assistant Cliief, Requirements and 

Allocations Control, War Pood Administration. 

Assistant to the Member: 

Mr. Kermit Roosevelt, Jr., State Department. 

Secretary: 

Mr. Edvcard G. Miller, Jr., State Department. 

The Government of the United States will 
serve as host to the First Session of the Council, 
which is expected to continue for a number of 
days. The closing date of the First Session will 
be selected by the Council. The necessary ar- 
rangements for the inaugural plenary meeting 
on November 10 are being made through the De- 
partment of State. This inaugural meeting will 
be open to the public but because of the limited 



capacity of the auditorium at the Claridge 
Hotel, admission will be by card only. 

Mr. Eobert B. Parker, Jr., Chief of the Divi- 
sion of Public Information, Bureau of Liber- 
ated Areas, Foreign Economic Administration, 
is in charge of the special arrangements which 
are being made for the accommodation of the 
press, news photograph, newsreel, and radio rep- 
resentatives at the inaugural meeting. The 
Council as the governing body of this autono- 
mous international organization will determine 
its own policy with respect to the character of 
subsequent meetings and accommodations for 
the press. 

PROCLAMATION AUTHORIZING EXTEN- 
SION OF GENERAL - ORDER AND 
BONDED - WAREHOUSING PERIODS 

[Released to the press November 5] 

The President on November 4, 1943, issued a 
proclamation authorizing the extension of the 
one-year "general-order" period and the three- 
year "bonded-warehousing" period, at the ex- 
piration of which imported merchandise as 
abandoned normally becomes subject to sale by 
the Government. This action was taken with a 
view to granting relief in numerous cases in 
which invasion by the Axis armies. Allied ship- 
ping controls, or other trade restrictions result- 
ing from the war have prevented or delayed the 
disposition of the merchandise contemplated at 
the time of importation. A number of these 
cases have been brought to the attention of this 
Department by the governments of some of the 
other United Nations. 

The proclamation empowers the Secretary of 
the Treasury to grant one-year extensions of 
these two periods, upon certification by the For- 
eign Economic Administration that such action 
will not impede the war effort. Such extensions 
may be granted when either of the periods has 
expired since December 6, 1942 or will expire 
while the proclamation remains in effect, except 
in cases in which abandoned merchandise al- 
ready has been sold. 



NOVEMBER 6, 1943 

Authority, under the proclamation, to make 
the extensions is granted only until the termi- 
nation of the unlimited national emergency de- 
clared by the President on May 27, 1941 or until 
proclamation by the President that such exten- 
sions are no longer necessary, whichever is the 
earlier. 

The full text of this proclamation (no. 2599) 
appears in the Federal Register of November 9, 
1943, page 15359. 



Europe 



ANNIVERSARY OF THE FOUNDING 
OF THE SOVIET UMON 

[Released to the press November 6] 

The President of the United States of Amer- 
ica has sent the following message to His Excel- 
lency Mikhail Kalinin, President of the Presi- 
dium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, on the occasion of 
the anniversary of the founding of the Soviet 
Union : 

November 6, 1943. 

The anniversary of the founding twenty-six 
years ago of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics falls this year at a time when freedom- 
loving peoples everywhere are dealing fateful 
blows at the enemy who dared attempt to en- 
slave and oppress them. On the battlefield and 
by the growth of cooperation and single-minded 
purpose, the members of the United Nations are 
driving the forces of aggression toward irrep- 
arable defeat. 

Allow me, on this day, to congratulate you, 
the people and the leaders of the Soviet Union, 
and to express the deep admiration, of myself 
and my countrymen, for the magnificent manner 
in which the Red Army has hurled back the in- 
vader. To the Red Army and people of the 
Soviet Union belong eternal honor and glory. 
They have written deathless pages of history in 
the struggle against tyranny and oppression. 



313 

Their example and sacrifice are an inspiration 
to all the forces joined in the common struggle 
for victory. 

In a spirit of unity, made even more evident 
in the agreements recently concluded at Mos- 
cow, and with the strength derived from mutual 
understanding, confidence and active collabo- 
ration, the United Nations will overthrow the 
forces of aggression and establish and maintain 
a just, enduring peace. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 

The following message was sent by the Act- 
ing Secretary of State to the People's Commis- 
sar for Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union, 
His Excellency V. M. Molotov : 

NoTOMBER 6, 1943. 

In the absence of Secretary Hull permit me 
to extend my felicitations on the twenty-sixth 
anniversary of the formation of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics. 

The historic declarations recently agreed 
upon at Moscow providing for united action 
not only in the prosecution of the war against 
our respective enemies but in the organization 
and maintenance of peace and security after 
victory bring increased strength to the forces 
combating aggression throughout the world. 
Through concerted effort the United Nations 
may confidently look forward to the dawn of an 
era when peace-loving states freed from the 
menace of aggression can devote their full ener- 
gies to the develojoment of the economic and 
social welfare of all mankind. 

SxETTiNrus 



The Foreign Service 



CONFIRMATIONS 

The Senate, on October 7, 1943, confirmed the 
nominations of W. Averell Harriman, of New 
York, as American Ambassador to the Union of 



314 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE' BULLETIN 



Soviet Socialist Republics, and of John K. 
Caldwell, of Kentucky, a Foreign Service offi- 
cer of class I, acting as Minister Resident and 
Consul General in Ethiopia, as American Min- 
ister to Ethiopia. 



Treaty Information 



POLITICAL 

Joint Four-Nation Declaration, Declaration 
Regarding Italy, Declaration on Austria, 
And Declaration Regarding Atrocities 

The text of the joint four-nation declaration 
agreed to by the United States, the United 
Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and China; the 
texts of the declaration regarding Italy and the 
declaration on Austria agreed to by the United 
States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet 
Union, all three of which declarations were 
adopted at the tripartite conference at Moscow ; 
and the text of the declaration by President 
Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Pre- 
mier Stalin regarding atrocities, which was is- 
sued at the conference at Moscow, appear in this 
Bulletin under the heading "The War". 



Legislation 



First Supplemental National Defense Appropriation 
Bill, 1944 : 
Hearings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee 
on Appropriations, House of Representatives, 78th 
Cong., 1st sess. li, 1638 pp. [State Department, 
pp. 576-646.] 
H. Kept. 822, 78th Cong., 1st sess., on H. B. 3598. 
71 pp. [State Department, pp. 41-42, 52, 66.] 
Relief of Certain Officers and Employees of the Foreign 
Service of the United States. H. Kept. 819, 78th 
Cong., 1st sess. 24 pp. 
Assisting in Relieving Economic Distress in Puerto 

Rico. H. Rept. 810, 7Sth Cong., 1st sess. 6 pp. 
Outline of Food Program : Message from the President 
of the United States transmitting an outline of his 
food program for the needs of our armed forces, our 
civilians at home, and our fighting allies. H. Doc. 
347, 78th Cong., 1st sess. 23 pp. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Publications of the Department of State (a list cumu- 
lative from October 1, 1929). October 1, 1943. Pub- 
lication 2007. iv, 26 pp. Free. 

Detail of Military OtHcer To Serve as Technical Direc- 
tor of the Eloy Alfaro Military College of Ecuador : 
Agreement Between the United States of America 
and Ecuador — Signed at Washington September 13, 
1943 ; effective September 13, 1943. Executive Agree- 
ment Series 338. Publication 2009. 10 pp. 50. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1943 



For sale by tbe Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Wasliington, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - . . . Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WBEKLI WITH THE APPKOVAL OF THE DIRECTOB OF THE BUBEAD OF THE BDDOEI 



^6b 6^ 



/ / ', -^ ^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULI 



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NOVEMBER 13, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 229— Publication 2024 



ontents 



The War Pago 

Signature of Agreement for United Nations Relief and 
Rehabilitation Administration: Address by the 

President of the United States 317 

The Tripartite Conference in Moscow: Remarks of the 

Secretary of State Upon Return to Washington . . 319 

Bombing of the Vatican . 319 

Exchange of American and Japanese Nationals .... 320 
Statement by the Secretary of State on the Eighth 
Anniversary of the Establishment of the Philippine 

Commonwealth 321 

Report of the President to the Congress on Reverse 

Lend-Lease Aid to the United States 322 

Note From the Spanish Government Regarding Mes- 
sage of Spanish Foreign Minister to the Philippine 
Puppet Government 325 

The Far East 

Documents Regarding the Bombing of the U.S.S. 

Tutuila at Chungking in July 1941 326 

Decision To Suppress the Use of Opium in British and 

Netherlands Territories in the Far East 331 

American Republics 

Economic Cooperation With Haiti 332 

The Department 

Designation of Special Advisers on Foreign-Policy 

Aspects of Wartime Economic Activities 333 

[OVERl 




U- S. SUPERINTENOENTOF OOCUMFNT/ 

DEC 9 1943 



G 



ontents -coNTmvED 

The Foreign Service page 
Embassy Rank for Representation Between the United 

States and Canada 334 

Confirmations 335 

Treaty Information 

Economics: Agreement for United Nations Relief and 

Rehabilitation Administration 335 

Publications 337 



The War 



SIGNATURE OF AGREEMENT FOR UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND 
REHABILITATION ADMINISTRATION 

Address by the President of the United States ^ 



[Released to the press by the White House November 9] 

On behalf of the host nation I welcome you 
to this historic occasion. 

Hei-e in the White House, seated about a 
table in the historic East Room, are representa- 
tives of 44 nations — United Nations and those 
associated with them.- 

The people of these 44 nations include ap- 
proximately 80 percent of the hmnan race, 
now united by a common devotion to the cause 
of civilization and by a conmion determination 
to build for the future a world of decency and 
security and, above all, peace. 

Representatives of these 44 nations — you 
gentlemen here — have just signed an agreement 
creating the United Nations Relief and Reha- 



' Broadcast from the White House on the occasion of 
the signature of the agreement, Nov. 9, 1943. An an- 
nouncenfent regarding the signing of the agreement, 
including a list of the representatives who signed on 
behalf of the countries parties to the agreement, apijears 
in this Bulletin under the heading "Treaty Informa- 
tion". 

^ The United Nations include the following 33 na- 
tions : Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, 
China, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican 
Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Greece, Guatemala, 
Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Luxembourg, Mex- 
ico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, 
Panama, Commonwealth of the Philippines, Poland, 
Union of South Africa, Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics, United Kingdom, United States of America, and 
Yugoslavia. Nations or authorities associated with 
the United Nations in this war include Chile, Colombia, 
Ecuador, Egypt, Iceland, Liberia, Paraguay, Peru, Uru- 
guay, and Venezuela, and the French Committee of 
National Liberation. 



bilitation Administration — commonly known 
by a simpler word as UNRRA.^ 

This agency will help to put into practical 
effect some of the high purposes that were set 
forth in the declaration of the United Nations 
on January 1, 1942. 

Coming after the Declarations of Moscow, 
recently,* this agreement shows that we mean 
business in this war in a political and humani- 
tarian sense, just as sui-ely as we mean business 
in a military sense. It is one more strong link 
joining the United Nations and their associates 
in facing j^roblems of mutual need and interest. 

The agreement which we have all just signed 
is based on a preamble in which the United Na- 
tions declare that they are "determined that im- 
mediately upon the liberation of any area . . . 
the population thereof shall receive aid and re- 
lief from their sufferings, food, clothing and 
shelter, aid in the prevention of pestilence and 
in the recovery of the health of the people, and 
that preparation and arrangements shall be 
made for the return of prisoners and exiles to 
their homes and for assistance in the resump- 
tion of urgently needed agricultural and indus- 
trial production and the restoration of essential 
services". That is the preamble of the agree- 
ment which has just been signed here today. 

All of the United Nations agree to cooperate 
and share in the work of UNRRA — each nation 



'For the text of the draft agreement as revised 
Sept. 20, 1943, see the Bulletin of Sept. 25, 1943, p. 211. 
* Bullbpin of Nov. 6, 1943, p. 307. 

317 



318 



DEPAETMENT OF OTATE BULLETIN' 



according to its own individual resources — and 
to provide relief and help in rehabilitation for 
the victims of German and Japanese barbarism. 

I think it is hard for us to grasp the magnitude 
of the needs in occupied countries. 

The Germans and the Japanese have carried 
on their campaigns of plunder and destruction 
with one purpose in mind : that in the lands they 
occupy there shall be left only a generation of 
half-men — undernourished, crushed in body and 
spirit, without strength or incentive to hope — 
ready, in fact, to be enslaved and used as beasts 
of burden by the self-styled master races. 

The occupied countries have been robbed of 
their foodstuffs and raw materials and even of 
the agricultural and industrial machinery upon 
which their workers must depend for employ- 
ment. The Germans have been planning sys- 
tematically to make the other countries economic 
vassals, utterly dependent upon and completely 
subservient to the Nazi tyrants. 

Responsibility for alleviating the suffering 
and misery occasioned by this so-called "New 
Order" must be assumed not by any individual 
nation but by all the united and associated na- 
tions acting together. No one country could — 
or should for that matter — attempt to bear the 
burden of meeting the vast relief needs — either 
in money or in supplies. 

The work confronting UNRRA is immediate 
and urgent. As it now begins its operations, 
many of the most fertile food regions of the 
world are either under Axis domination or have 
been stripped by the practice of the dictatorships 
to make themselves self-sustaining on other peo- 
ples' lands. Additional regions will almost in- 
evitably be blackened as the German and Japa- 
nese forces in their retreat scorch the earth 
behind them. 

So it will be the task of UNRRA to operate in 
these areas of food shortages until the resump- 
tion of peaceful occupations enables the liber- 
ated peoples once more to assume the full burden 
of their own support. It will be for UNRRA, 
first, to assure a fair distribution of available 
supplies among all of the liberated peoples, and, 
second, to ward off death by starvation or ex- 
posure among these peoples. 



It would be supreme irony for us to win a 
victory, and then to inherit world chaos simply 
because we were unprepared to meet what we 
know we shall have to meet. We know the 
human wants which will follow liberation. 
Many ruthlessly shattered cities and villages in 
Russia, China, and Italy provide horrible evi- 
dence of what the defeated retreating Germans 
and Japanese will leave behind. 

It is not only humane and charitable for the 
United Nations to supply medicine, food, and 
other necessities to the peoples freed from Axis 
control ; it is a clear matter of enlightened self- 
interest and of military strategic necessity. 
Tliis was apparent to us even before the Germans 
were ousted from any of the territories under 
their coiftrol. 

But we need not any longer speculate. We 
have had nearly a year of experience in French 
Africa — and later experience in Sicily and in 
Italy. 

In French North Africa, the United Nations 
have given assistance in the form of seeds, agri- 
cultural supplies, and agricultural equipment, 
and have made it possible for the people there to 
increase their harvest. 

After years of looting by the Germans, the 
people of French Africa are now able to supply 
virtually all of their own food needs, and that in 
just one year. Besides, they are meeting im- 
portant needs of the Allied armed forces in 
French Africa, in Sicily, and Italy, and giving 
much of the civilian labor which assists our 
ai-med forces there in loading and unloading 
ships. 

The assistance rendered to the liberated 
peoples of French Africa was a joint venture 
of Great Britain and the United States. 

The next step, as in the case of other joint 
operations of the United Nations, is' to go 
further, to handle the problems of supply for 
the liberated areas on a United Nations basis — 
rather than the cooperation of only two nations. 

We have shown that while the war lasts, 
whenever we help the liberated peoples with 
essential supplies and services, we hasten the 
day of the defeat of the Axis powers. 



NOVEMBER 13, 1943 



319 



When victory comes there can certainly be 
no secure peace until there is a return of law 
and order in the oppressed countries, until the 
peoples of these countries have been restored 
to a normal, healthy, and self-siistaining exist- 
ence. This means that the more quickly and 
effectually we apply measures of relief and 
rehabilitation, the more quickly will our own 
boys overseas be able to come home. 

We have acted together with the other United 
Nations in harnessing our raw materials, our 
production, and our other resources to defeat 
the conunon enemy. We have worked together 
with the United Nations in full agreement and 
action in the fighting on land, on the sea, and 
in the air. We are now about to take an addi- 
tional step in the combined actions which are 
necess'ary to win the war and to build the foun- 
dation for a secure peace. 

The sufferings of the little men and women 
who have been ground under the Axis heel can 
be relieved only if we utilize the production of 
all the world to balance the want of all the 
world. In UNRRA we have devised a mech- 
anism, based on the processes of true democ- 
racy, which can go far toward accomplishment 
of such an objective in the days and months of 
desperate emergency which will follow the 
overthrow of the Axis. 

As in most of the difficult and complex things 
in life, nations will learn to work together only 
by actually working together. Why not ? The 
nations have common objectives. It is, there- 
fore, with a lift of hope, that we look on the 
signing of this agreement by all of the United 
Nations as a means of joining them together 
still more firmly. 

Such is the spirit and such is the positive 
action of the United Nations and their associ- 
ates at the time when our military power is 
becoming predominant, when our enemies are 
being pushed back — all over the world. 

In defeat or in victory, the United Nations 
have never deviated from adherence to the basic 
principles of freedom, tolerance, independence, 
and security. 

Tomorrow I am glad to say the UNRRA be- 
gins its first formal conference — and makes the 



first bold steps toward the practicable, workable 
realization of a thing called freedom from want. 
The forces of the United Nations are marching 
forward, and the peoples of the United Nations 
march with them. 

So, my friends, on this historic occasion I 
wish you all the success in the world. 



THE TRIPARTITE CONFERENCE 
IN MOSCOW 

Remarks of the Secretary of State Upon 
Return to Washington ^ 

[Released to the press November 10] 

On our mission abroad we received every 
courtesy, every hospitality, and every consider- 
ation. For two weeks the Conference in Mos- 
cow worked together as a single unit in an 
atmosphere of understanding and trust and 
friendliness and cooperation. We agreed upon 
a broad basic program of international cooper- 
ation. The program contemplates the hasten- 
ing of victory over the Axis powers, also the 
preservation of peace and the promotion of 
hiunan welfare in the post-war world. 

I believe that our country and other peace- 
loving countries have a vast opportunity to 
profit by the program of policies outlined by 
the Moscow Conference. I have supreme faith 
that they will avail themselves of that oppor- 
tmiity. 



BOMBING OF THE VATICAN 

[Released to the press November 9] 

On the evening of November 6 the Depart- 
ment received a communication from the Apos- 
tolic Delegate in Washington informing it that 
on November 5 at 8:10 p.m. an airplane flew 
repeatedly over Vatican City and released four 
bombs. The bombs fell on Vatican territory 
and in close proximity to the Basilica of St. 
Peter. While no lives were lost, considerable 
damage was inflicted on buildings in tho vicin- 



• Nov. 10, 1943, 



320 

ity. The Archbishop had no information with 
respect to the identity of the attacking plane. 
The Department of State immediately requested 
the War Dei^artment to institute inquiries 
through the appropriate military authorities in 
an effort to identify the nationality of the at- 
tacking plane. 

A reply has now been received from General 
Eisenhower which establishes beyond any doubt 
that the attacking plane was not an Allied air- 
craft. General Eisenhower reports that the 
only Allied aircraft that conducted operations 
in the vicinity of Rome on Friday night, No- 
vember 5, were two Mosquito Intruders and 
seven Boston light bombers. The seven Bostons 
carried out an armed reconnaissance on roads 
north and south of Rome between 7 : 20 and 8 : 25 
p.m. that evening. At 8 : 07 bombs were seen by 
one of these craft to burst in Rome. Visibility 



DEPARTMENT OF S/IATE BXTLLETIN 

over Rome was reported good at that time. 
There were no clouds. 

The only bombs dropped by any of these 
l^lanes were as follows : Six of the Bostons car- 
ried out a bombing attack on Castelnuovo di 
Porto, 28 kilometers due north of Rome on the 
Via Flaminia. The seventh Boston developed 
engine trouble and bombed objectives on a road 
in the vicinity of Arce, 192 kilometers south- 
east of Rome. 

No bombs were dropped by the Mosquitoes 
within 40 miles of Rome. 

General Eisenhower in his report recalled 
that a Berlin broadcast of several days ago pre- 
dicted an early bombing of Rome by the Allies. 
German aircraft bombed Naples the same night 
that Vatican City was bombed. 

The Apostolic Delegate has been informed of 
General Eisenhower's reply. 



EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND JAPANESE NATIONALS 



Negotiations between the United States Gov- 
ernment and the Japanese Government lasting 
more than a year have culminated in a second 
exchange of civilians resulting in the repatri- 
ation of approximately 1,240 nationals of the 
United States, including a small number from 
the Philippine Islands, and 200 nationals of the 
other American republics and Canada. In the 
first exchange, which took place in the summer 
of 1942, over 1,300 United States officials and 
non-officials were repatriated from the Far East. 

The motorship GHpshoIm, carrying the per- 
sons who are returning from the Far East in 
the current exchange of American and Japanese 
nationals, departed from the exchange port at 
Mormugao, Goa, Portuguese India, on October 
22. The vessel is now en route to the United 
States and is scheduled to reach New York on 
December 2} 

The Japanese Government refused to apply 
the provisions of the civilian-exchange arrange- 

'BuiUETiN of Sept. 4, 1943. p, J40; Oct. 16, 1943, p. 
255; and Oct. 23, 1943, p. 273. 



ments to American civilians who were ca^^tured 
in the Philipjaine Islands, Guam, and Wake 
Island. Although it finally agreed to permit 
the repatriation of a small number of American 
civilians from the Philippines in the second ex- 
change, it reserved to itself the right to select 
them. In the current exchange, the repatriates 
were thus drawn almost entirely from Japan, 
Japanese-occupied China, Hong Kong, and 
Indochina. 

The Swiss representatives in the Far East, 
under broad directives issued by the United 
States Government, compiled the list of those 
to be repatriated, giving preference to the fol- 
lowing categories of American civilians in Japa- 
nese hands: (1) those under close arrest; (2) 
interned women and children; (3) the seriously 
ill; and (4) interned men, with preference be- 
ing given, other things being equal, to married 
men long separated from their families in the 
United States. 

The Japanese Government has indicated that 
it will not enter into negotiations for additional 



NOVEMBER 13, 1943 



321 



exchanges until the present exchange is com- 
jDleted. The Department of State will proceed 
with the negotiations as soon as feasible and 
will continue its efforts to induce the Japanese 
Government to agree to apply to all American 
civilians detained by the Japanese, wherever 
they may have been captured, the provisions of 
such arrangements as may be made. The De- 
partment hopes eventually to obtain Japanese 
agreement to further exchanges at an acceler- 
ated rate so that all American civilians remain- 
ing in Japanese custody, numbering about 
10,000, may have an opportunity to be repatri- 
ated at the earliest practicable date. 

[Released to the press November 13] 

Upon the arrival of the Grifshohn in New 
York December 2 the American Red Cross, 
having been designated by agreement among 
various interested agencies, will be the sole 
agency at the pier for the purpose of delivering 
mail and telegrams to repatriates and of giving 
them information as to addresses and telephone 
numbers and where they can meet friends and 
relatives in New York. 

For reasons of security, the authorities will 
not permit repatriates to meet friends and rela- 
tives on the pier in New Jersey. Relatives and 
friends have been asked to remain at their hotels, 



homes, and other points of contact away from 
the pier and to inform the Red Cross of their 
exact location and telephone number in New 
York. In this connection mail and telegrams 
for repatriates arriving on the Gripsholrm 
should be addressed in the following manner: 

"Mr. Jolin Doe, Gripsholrrn Repatriate, Care of 
New York Chapter, American Red Cross, 
31.5 Lexington Avenue, New York, N. Y." 

or 

"Mr. John Doe, Gripsholm Repatriate, Care of 
Postmaster, New York, N. Y." 

Repatriates requiring assistance in obtaining 
transportation from the pier to Manhattan will 
so inform the Red Cross at the pier, and Motor 
Corps service will be made available. 

In addition to the foregoing information the 
repatriates on the Gripsholm are being advised 
as to detailed arrangements made for their re- 
ception by the various agencies concerned, to- 
gether with instructions as to addresses and tele- 
phone numbers of such agencies. 

Appropriate travel and relief assistance will 
be extended through these agencies at a recep- 
tion center provided by the American Red Cross 
and located at 315 Lexington Avenue, New 
York, N. Y. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE ON THE EIGHTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE 
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMONWEALTH 



[Released to the press November 13] 

In connection with the eighth anniversary of 
the establishment of the Philippme Common- 
wealth, the Secretary of State has made the fol- 
lowing statement: 

"The President's pledge to redeem the Philip- 
pines is certain of fulfilment.^ His message 
to the Congress on October 6, 1943, recommend- 
ing that authority be granted to him to pro- 
claim the legal independence of the Islands as 
soon as feasible and to provide measures for 



» BDiiETiN of Jan, 3, 1942, p. 5. 



their protection and rehabilitation, is but a step 
in that direction. 

"It is worthwhile to recall briefly how the 
Filipinos fared before the Japanese invaded 
their homeland. Freedom, independence, and 
sovereignty of the Filipino people were a fore- 
gone conclusion from the time the flag of the 
United States was raised over the Islands. 
After November 15, 1935, the Filipino people 
enjoyed the true substance of freedom, for 
Filipino officials elected by the Filipino people 
carried on the internal affairs of the Philip- 
pines. American authorities remained in the 



322 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIN 



Islands on a temporary basis and enjoyed hap- 
py and harmonious relations with the Filipino 
authorities and people. The armed forces of 
the United States labored shoulder to shoulder 
with their Filipino comrades, solely for the 
protection of the Filipino people themselves. 

"In contrast to the freedom which the Fili- 
pinos knew before the Japanese invasion, the 
Filipino people became enslaved — forced by 
guns to do the bidding of the enemy. Japan 
not only coerced the Filipinos but also deluged 
them with propaganda, blandishment, and 
cajolery. No one knows better than the Fili- 
pinos themselves that so-called independence at 
the hands of the Japanese — whose one thought 
is to stifle Filipino initiative, to stunt Filipino 
culture, and to mold the Filipino people to Ja- 
pan's purposes of empire and self-aggrandize- 
ment — denotes independence only in name. The 
Filipinos know, and we all know, that the Japa- 
nese, until they are driven from the Islands, will 
continue their attempts to control all principal 
aspects of Filipino life: spiritual, educational, 



financial, economic, and personal. They will 
continue their efforts through debased ideolo- 
gies and false values to reach into the very 
minds of the Filipinos and to change the Fili- 
pino way of thinking and of living. 

"Eemembering their life before Japan came, 
the Filipinos will not forget their rightful 
heritage and will wonder how Japan, itself the 
slave of its own military, could hope to grant 
real independence to another people. 

"As the Filipino people recall what the Japa- 
nese enemy has done and is doing to the natives 
of Formosa, of Korea, of China, of Thailand, 
and of Burma, and of all the areas overrun and 
invaded by Japanese, it will be apparent to 
them, and to all of us, that Japan will never 
voluntarily withdraw from the Philippines but 
rather will put forth its utmost effort to remain 
there for the purpose of exploiting those areas 
and those peoples in the sole interest of the 
Japanese Government. 

"They will not remain. They will be driven 
out." 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS ON REVERSE LEND-LEASE AID 

TO THE UNITED STATES 



On November 11, 1943 the President trans- 
mitted to Congress his twelfth quarterly report 
on operations under the Lend-Lease Act of 
March 11, 1941. The repoi't includes informa- 
tion regarding a part of the expenditures made 
by the British Commonwealth of Nations for 
reverse lend-lease aid to the United States, and 
excerpts from the report follow : ^ 

"... The overwhelming benefit which the 
United States has received from its lend-lease 
program has, of course, been the pooling of 
resources and the combined effort of the United 
Nations against the Axis countries. Each of 
the United Nations has contributed. There is, 



' The full text of the President's report is printed as 
H. Doc. 353, 78th Cong., 1st sess. 



of course, no physical or financial standard of 
value by which we can measure the military con- 
tribution to the war on land or sea or in the air 
wiiich has been made by our allies or ourselves. 
One thing is clear: by the help which our 
friends and allies have given us, and by the 
help which we have given them in the common 
cause, we have not only made progress in the 
war, but we have saved the lives of many of 
our own boys as well as those of our allies. 

"The Master Agreements entered into with 
Great Britain, the Soviet Union, China and 
other United Nations receiving lend-lease aid 
establish the principles which govern the lend- 
lease relationship. The other United Nations, 
under the Master Lend-Lease Agreements, 
have agreed to contribute to the defense of the 



NOVEMBER 13, 1943 



32c 



United States by providing as reverse lend- 
lease aid all articles, services, facilities or infor- 
mation which they can furnish. Under these 
agreements, all lend-lease supplies', such as, for 
example, merchant ships or cargo planes, which 
are not used up in the war, can be required by 
the President to be returned at the end of the 
present emergency. Article VII of the Master 
Agreements entered into with the United Na- 
tions receiving lend-lease aid provides that they 
will join fl-ith the United States in working 
toward some of the economic conditions which 
are a prerequisite to a s'ecure peace. 

• • • « • 

"As conditions have permitted, our allies have 
expanded the scope and nature of their reverse 
lend-lease aid. During the past summer, the 
United Kingdom agreed to extend reverse 
lend-lease aid to include not only goods, services 
and information for our armed forces, but also 
raw materials, commodities and foodstuffs 
hitherto purchased, for export, in the United 
Kingdom and the British Colonies by or on 
behalf of United States Government agencies. 
Discussions on the administration and pro- 
cedure for the handling of the contracts, trans- 
fers and other details are now going forward. 

"This plan will make available to the United 
States, under revers'e lend-lease and without 
payment, such materials and foodstuffs as rub- 
ber from Ceylon, Trinidad, British Guiana and 
British Honduras, sisal and pyrethrum from 
British East Africa, asbestos and chrome from 
Southern Rhodesia, cocoa from British West 
Africa, tea and coconut oil from Ceylon, and 
benzol and tar acids from the United Kingdom. 

"British shipping for these raw materials and 
foodstuffs from all parts of the British Com- 
monwealth will also be made available under 
reverse lend-lease. 

• • • • • 

"As of June 30, 1943, the British Common- 
wealth of Nations reported that expenditures of 
about $1,171,000,000 had been made for reverse 
lend-lease aid. The United Kingdom has ex- 
pended about $871,000,000 of this amount ; and 

559827—43 2 



Australia, New Zealand and India have ex- 
pended approximately $300,000,000. Based 
upon estimates for the first six months of this 
year, expenditures by the British Common- 
wealth for reverse lend-lease aid to the United 
States are now at an annual rate of about 
$1,250,000,000. This does not take into account 
the anticipated exports' of raw materials, com- 
modities, and foodstuffs for the account of the 
United States. . . . 

British aid is rendered to the armed forces 
of the United States all over the world. 
Usually it is under conditions very different 
from those surrounding lend-lease from the 
United States, which flows from a central 
source. Many supplies and services have been 
made available by the British to United States 
armed forces in North Africa, Sicily and else- 
where for which no report has yet been received. 

"The figures set forth in this report include 
expenditures made by the British Common- 
wealth for newly constructed barracks, military 
airports, hospitals and other military facilities 
for our armed forces. 



"... The operation of reverse lend-lease 
has made contributions to the outstanding per- 
formance of our air forces based in the United 
Kingdom. Under reverse lend-lease, the Brit- 
ish have provided our bomber and fighter com- 
mands with many necessary items. Specially 
heated winter flying clothing to protect bomber 
crews from the intense cold suffered at high alti- 
tudes was supplied by the British to our air 
forces. When certain United States fighter gun 
sights proved less effective than the sights em- 
ployed by British fighters, the Eoyal Air Force 
provided a substantial number of British-type 
sights for immediate installatioil. American 
bombers have been equipped by the British with 
photographic equipment effective in obtaining 
photographs of the target during the bomb run. 
The British have also provided facilities for the 
development and production of a new type of 
protective body armor designed by our medi- 
cal authorities. 



324 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETrN' 



"A variety of other aid has also been provided 
for our air forces by the United Kingdom. 
Mobile repair shops located throughout the 
United Kingdom recondition American bombers 
forced to make crash landings. A one-man 
dinghy, developed by the British for parachute 
landings at sea, provides pilots of American 
planes with a one-man floating raft. Special- 
ized British radio equipment has been installed 
in American planes which has given greater 
safety to our bomber crews, and has improved 
the effectiveness of our bombing missions. For 
purposes of recognition training, the Royal Air 
Force has delivered to the United States Air 
Forces more than 60,000 items of aircraft, 
warship and armed vehicle recognition de- 
vices. . . . 

"AJthough Great Britain depends upon im- 
ports for a large portion of her curtailed food 
supply, she is providing American forces with 
substantial amounts of foodstuffs as reverse 
lend-lease aid. Th^se range from fresh vege- 
tables, flour and potatoes to corn-on-the-cob and 
soft drinks. 

■ • • • • 

"Australia and New Zealand have supplied 
American forces in the South and Southwest 
Pacific with the bulk of their foodstuff require- 
ments on a ration scale comparable to the basic 
allowance of the American Army. . . . 

"Although clothing rationing has been in- 
troduced in Australia, the Government has un- 
dertaken an extensive clothing manufacturing 
program for the United States forces. This 
program includes millions of pairs of socks and 
hundreds of thousands of shirts, jackets, trous- 
ers, pull-overs, underclothing, boots and shoes 
and blankets. Recreational needs of Ameri- 
can soldiers have been met by an Australian 
program which calls for every type of game 
and accessory from boxing gloves to medicine 
balls — in all, more than 420,000 items of such 
equipment. Numerous hospitals, including the 
newest and most modern in the country, have 
been made available to the United States Army 
for its exclusive use. Official air, rail, and 
water passenger costs and freight, and cable 



and telegraph expenses of our troops are paid 
by the Commonwe&lth Government as reverse 
lend-lease aid. A large number of small ships 
of various types has been turned over to Ameri- 
can authorities, and Australian shipyards are 
now turning out landing barges and small ves- 
sels for the combat use of our forces. 

• • • • « 

"New Zealand, no less than Australia and the 
United Kingdom, has supplied its share of 
reverse lend-lease aid. For the period ending 
June 30, 1943, the New Zealand Government 
has officially reported having expended $51,- 
000,000 for reterse lend-lease aid' to the United 
States. ... In order better to provide for the 
needs of our troops in remote Pacific islands, 
New Zealand has greatly increased her capacity 
for the packing, canning and dehydration of 
meats, vegetables and dairy products. Al- 
though its population is less than 1,700,000, this 
Dominion has supplied the United States under 
reverse lend-lease and without charge with 
more than 170,000,000 pounds of foodstuffs dur- 
ing the year ending June 30, 1943. . . . 

"New Zealand also supplies numerous articles 
of clothing, including shoes and textiles, to 
United States forces as reverse lend-lease aid. 
When American requirements were added to 
those of local forces. New Zealand found it nec- 
essary to ration the civilian supply of clothing 
to less than one full outfit per year. 

"'Wliile no official report has yet been received 
from the Government of India, our Army re- 
ports total expenditures by India for reverse 
lend-lease aid of approximately $56,900,000. . . . 
We have received aviation gasoline, motor gaso- 
line and lubricating oil, and lesser amounts of 
other petroleum products from the Indian Gov- 
ernment for use by American forces. A part of 
the motor fuel has been used in a number of 
trucks and passenger cars given our troops 
without payment as reverse lend-lease aid. In 
addition. United States Army groups have been 
afforded postal, telegraph, and telephone facili- 
ties, water and electric power, furnishings for 



NOVEMBER 13, 1943 



325 



buildings, and items of clothing, including 
mosquito- and gas-proof outfits. 

"Canada has received no lend-lease aid from 
the United States. She has paid cash for the 
supplies obtained in this country. It may be 
noted, however, that Canada has already made 
a billion dollars worth of aid available without 
payment to the United Kingdom and is now 
engaged in making available another billion dol- 
lars worth of aid to the United Kingdom, Rus- 
sia, China and the other United Nations on a 



mutual aid progi-am similar to our lend-lease 
program." 

The President concludes by stating that the 
contribution which the British Commonwealth 
has made "to the defense of the United States" 
indicates "the extent to which the British have 
been able to pool their resources with ours so 
that the needed weapon may be in the hands of 
that soldier — whatever may be his nationality — 
who can at the proper moment use it most effec- 
tively to defeat our common enemies." 



NOTE FROM THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT REGARDING MESSAGE OF SPANISH 
FOREIGN MINISTER TO THE PHILIPPINE PUPPET GOVERNMENT 



[Released to the press November 9] 

At the press conference of the Acting Secre- 
tary of State, Mr. Stettinius, on the afternoon 
of November 9, a news correspondent inquired 
regarding a recent message of the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs of Spain addressed to Jose P. 
Laurel, "President" of the puppet government 
which has been set up by Japan in the Philip- 
pines. The Acting Secretary replied that the 
Spanish Ambassador in Washington, Seiior 
Don Juan Francisco de Cardenas, had called on 
him that afternoon and had left a note in the 
Spanish language, a literal translation of which 
follows : 

"In view of the erroneous interpretation 
ascribed to the cablegram of courtesy which the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs sent on October 
18th in reply to one addressed to him by Mr. 
J. P. Laurel from Manila, on the 13th of the 
same month, the Spanish Government is inter- 
ested in letting the United States Government 
know what follows : 

"1. The cable in question is an act of courtesy 
towards the Philippine people, taking advan- 
tage of the opportunity offered by this same 
people in addressing our own. It was dictated 
exclusively by the sentiments which every phase 
of the Philippine life inspires to Spain, because 



of the afiuiity of blood, religion and language 
which link the Spanish people to the Philip- 
pines, with which they shared life until fifty 
years ago, creating between both countries a 
confraternity which embraces all moral and ma- 
terial phases, and which makes of the Philip- 
pines, independently from whatever its politi- 
cal situation and its international position may 
be, a country spiritually bound to Spanish tra- 
dition. It is precisely because of that, that 
Spain, appreciating as it does appreciate the 
Philippine people without distinctions of any 
kind, refrains from any act of a political char- 
acter which might be interpreted as partiality 
towards a country for which it only wishes all 
kinds of prosperity and well-being. 

"2. In thus establishing the true significance 
of the cable, completely devoid of all political 
aspects, and, consequently, of all act implying, 
even indirectly, recognition, the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs wishes to emphasize the point, 
so as to avoid at any time a disfigured interpre- 
tation which might serve as a foundation for a 
campaign tending to disturb the good relations 
existing between the Governments of Spain and 
the United States, and which, for our own part, 
have been proved time and again by evident and 
ostensible acts of a manifest good will." 



The Far East 



DOCUMENTS REGARDING THE BOMBING OF THE U.S.S. "TUTUILA" AT CHUNGKING 

EN JULY 1941 



[Released to the press November 12] 

On November 11 the Department of State 
released the following previously unpublished 
papers relating to the bombing of the U.S.S. 
Tutuila at Chungking on July 30, 1941. These 
papers will be included, in the first of two 
volumes in the Foreign Relations series which 
the Department plans to publish within the 
next few weeks under the title Foreign Rela- 
tions of the United States, Japan: 1931-19^1. 

The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassa- 
dor in Japan . ( Grew ) 

[Telegram] 

Washington, 
July 30, 191^1—1 p.m. 
443. 1. Report was received from Attache 
at Chungking July 30, giving account of opera- 
tions by 26 Japanese heavy bombers. In 
paraphrase : 

These bombers approached from northwest 
at height about fifteen thousand feet in ideal 
weather conditions. Upon reaching city they 
changed course to the line crossing directly over 
the Tutuila and the Embassy. Having crossed 
the city without firing, they dropped bombload 
on foreshore across river opposite Tutuila. Left 
center of formation dropping last bombs swept 
across river and passed directly overhead. One 
bomb struck near stern Tutuila, shattered an 
outboard motor boat and threw it upon motor 
sampan which, sinking by stern, was saved by 
bowline. Gunboat's stern superstructure was 
bent inward by blast and swept by a huge wave 
which collapsed awning and washed away ship's 
gear and gasoline containers. Personnel escaped 
injuries from fragments only b)' miracle which 
326 



apparently was due to funneling of bombs in 
water. Last bomb was dropped about four hun- 
dred yards eastward of and behind Embassy. 
All this was witnessed by three U.S. officials 
from Embassy hill immediately overlooking 
ship. Unanimous opinion of these officials is 
that the bombing was a deliberate attack on Em- 
bassy area and Tutuila which missed its targets 
only by a fraction of a second. 

2. I called the Japanese Ambassador in this 
morning. I handed him a copy of the report 
and asked him for answers to questions as fol- 
lows: (1) Did this take place upon instruction 
by or knowledge of responsible authorities; 
(2) what responsibility, if any, does the Japa- 
nese Government assume for it; (3) what pre- 
cise measures in detail does the Japanese Gov- 
ernment intend to take toward eilectively pre- 
venting recurrence of any such action. I re- 
minded him of the pledge solemnly given by the 
Japanese Government, with, I understand, the 
knowledge and approval of the Emperor, at the 
time of the sinking of the Panay, that such ac- 
tion would not be repeated; also, of the fact 
similar pledges have repeatedly been given since 
then and have repeatedly been disregarded. 

3. I desire that you also take this matter up 
urgently and with great emphasis with the Min- 



ister for Foreign Affairs. 



Welles 



The Ambassador in Japan {Grew) to the 
Secretary of State 

[Telegram] 

Tokyo, July 31, 191^1 — / p.m. 
[Received July 31—3 :10 a.m.] 
1134. Department's 443, July 30, 1 p.m. The 
Acting Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mr. 
Yamamoto, called on me at the Chancery in 



NOVEMBER 13, 1943 



327 



the Embassy at 11 o'clock this morning and said 
that they had just received word of damage 
caused to U.S.S. Tutu'da during a bombing at- 
tack on Chungking by Japanese naval planes 
and that he had come on behalf of the Foreign 
Minister, Admiral Toyoda, who was absent 
from the Foreign Office, to express the deep re- 
gret of the Japanese Government at this inci- 
dent. Up to the present, Mr. Yamamoto said, 
they had received no details. 

I said to the Acting Vice Minister that I had 
just received instructions to see the Foreign Min- 
ister himself on this matter and that as soon as 
my instructions were ready I would ask for an 
appointment. In the meantime I said tliat I 
would withhold any comment but I expressed to 
him my appreciation of the couitesy of his call 
and expressions of regret. Sent to Department. 
Repeated to Shanghai for Chungking. 

Grew 

The Anibassador in Japan {Grew) to the 
Secretary of State 

[Telegram] 

Tokyo, July 31, 1941— G p.m. 
[Received July 31—9 : 40 a.m.] 
1138. Department's 443, July 30, 1 p.m. ; Em- 
bassy's 113-t, July 31, 1 p.m. 

1. Following the call of the Acting Vice Min- 
ister for Foreign Affairs on me this morning I 
asked for an appointment with the Minister 
for Foreign Affairs himself. After some delay 
the Minister's secretary informed me that Ad- 
miral Toyoda desired to call on me at the Em- 
bassy at 2 o'clock, later changing the appoint- 
ment to 2 : 30. At 2 : 30 I was informed that the 
Foreign Minister was then with the Prime Min- 
ister and that Admiral Toyoda would be glad 
to have me come to see him at 2 : 45, which I did. 
I am unaware of the i-eason for the Minister's 
cliange of plans. 

2. I read to the Minister my signed note set- 
ting forth the details of the bombing of the 
Tutuila including the unanimous opinion of 
three American officials, who had observed the 
bombing from the hill immediately overlook- 
ing the ship, that the attack was deliberate ; also 



that the weather conditions were ideal. I 
thereupon made the most emphatic representa- 
tions, and, to indicate the very grave nature of 
the incident, I read to the Minister the obser- 
vations which I had made to his predecessor, 
Mr. Matsuoka, on June 16 (see Embassy's 830, 
June 16, 9 p.m.). I also read to him the oral 
statement made to Mr. Matsuoka on July 8 re- 
garding tlie attitude of the Government of the 
United States toward the Japanese request that 
consideration again be given to the moving of 
the U. S. S. Tutuila, as set forth in the Depart- 
ment's telegram No. 350, June 24, 8 p.m. (see 
Embassy's 961, July 8, 11 p.m.). 

3. The Minister said that he had sent the Act- 
ing Vice Minister to see me this morning to con- 
vey his regrets at the incident and he repeated 
on behalf of the Japanese Government and him- 
self expressions of sincere regret. He said that 
so far as he could remember a new instruction 
had been sent only recently to naval aviation 
officers carefully to avoid jeopardizing the 
American Embassy and the U. S. S. Tutuila in 
their bombing operations over Chungking and 
as a naval officer formerly in control of aviation 
he could assure me that these young aviation 
officers were strictly obedient to orders from 
their superiors. He could therefore only 
assume that in proceeding to its military ob- 
jective the bombing gear of the plane in ques- 
tion had loosened during flight and that the 
bomb had dropped without any intention on 
the part of the pilot. The Minister several 
times repeated his conviction that the incident 
was purely and simply an accident but he rec- 
ognized the potential gravity of the results of 
such accidents and said that once again he 
would have the most explicit instructions sent 
out to the Navy's air arm to avoid such risks. 

4. I repeated to the Minister my own convic- 
tion that the incident could not possibly have 
been accidental, especially in the light of the 
evidence of the several attacks on our Embassy 
and ship during the last several weeks. I once 
again pointed out the deplorable effect which 
this new incident would have on American pub- 
lic opinion and that in the present tenseness of 
our relations it seemed to me questionable 



328 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



whether these relations could stand the strain 
of an American fatality or the sinking of the 
Tuscaloosa [Tuiuila] in the course of further 
bombing operations. 

5. In closing the conversation I said that my 
Government must reserve a further expression 
of its views which I assumed would be commu- 
nicated through Admiral Nomura in Wash- 
ington. 

Sent to the Department, repeated to Shanghai 
for Chungking, Peiping. 

Grew 

The Ambassador in Japan (Grew) to the Secre- 
tary of State 

[Telegram] 

Tokyo, Jidy 31, 1941—9 p. m. 
[Received July 31— 9: 19 a.m.] 

1141. At 9 : 30 this morning the senior aide to 
the Minister of the Navy called on the naval 
attache and, under instructions from the Min- 
ister of the Navy, orally expressed the regret of 
the Navy for the damage done to the United 
States ship Tutuila by the Japanese naval air 
forces in raid on Chungking on July 30, and, 
after giving assurances that the bombing was 
accidental, stated that the Japanese Navy is pre- 
pared to make full reparations for any dam- 
age. As he was leaving, the aide stated that the 
Minister of the Navy was very much worried 
over this latest bombing incident and had told 
the aide that the Japanese Navy would do 
everything possible to prevent a war between 
the United States and Japan. 

Please inform Navy Department. 

Grew 

The Acti7ig Secretary of State to the Ambas- 
sador in Japan (Grew) 

[Telegram : Paraphrase] 

Washington, 
August 1, 194-1 — 11 a. m. 
451. 1. Late yesterday afternoon the Japa- 
nese Ambassador called and said his Govern- 
ment had instructed him to state : (1) That the 
endangering of the Tutuila and the United 



States Embassy at Chungking was greatly re- 
gretted by the Japanese Government; (2) that 
the Japanese Government was certain that the 
bombing was accidental; (3) that the Japa- 
nese will discontinue bombing of the city area 
of Chungking in order to give the United States 
Government assurance that no such endanger- 
ing will again occur; (4) that as soon as the 
facts and amounts thereof have been ascer- 
tained, the Japanese Government is prepared 
to make indemnification for any and all damage 
done. The Ambassador added that there was 
one request which his Government had, namely, 
that the Japanese Government's promise to dis- 
continue the bombing of Chungking be kept 
strictly confidential by us. 

2. With the express authorization of the 
President, the press, in light of this approach, 
has been informed of the above points 1, 2, and 
4 and, in lieu of point 3, they have been told that 
the Japanese Government has informed the 
United States Government concretely and in 
detail regarding the measures taken to prevent 
a recurrence of such an incident; and it has 
been stated by me that the incident is con- 
sidered closed by the United States Government. 

Welles 

The Ambassador in Japan (Grew) to the 
Secretary of State 

[Telegram] 

Tokyo, August 5, 1941 — 5 p.m. 

[Received August 5 — 9 a.m.] 
1173. The following is a translation of a 
statement which was handed today to the naval 
attache at the Navy Department : 

"Concerning the incident of the U.S.S. 
Tutuila being damaged during our air raid of 
Chungking on July 30, the following conclu- 
sion was drawn upon the basis of report by com- 
mander at the front line, detailed explanations 
by a staff officer specially despatched to the 
front, and repeated and minute investigations: 

"The bomb which fell in the vicinity of the 
Tutuila was dropped from a plane in a forma- 



NOVEMBER 13, 1943 



329 



tion that participated in the air raid in follow- 
ing a course the formation Avas compelled to 
take, and the bomb went wide of its mark on 
account of an infinitesimal delay in releasing it. 
The incident was caused by a pure accident. 
(We wish to emphatically deny a rumor re- 
ported to be current in certain quarters that we 
intentionally bombed American interests at the 
time of the air i-aid, and hoj^e very much that 
no such misunderstanding exists). 

"Our air forces are under strict orders to ex- 
ercise utmost caution during operations in 
China lest American interests, particularly 
American men-of-war, should be damaged and 
heretofore the orders were well observed. How- 
ever, the attention of the commander at the 
front was called immediately to the regrettable 
incident. 

"In informing you results of our investiga- 
tion we wish to express our profound gratitude 
and respect towards the American Government 
for the measures it took in connection with the 
incident." 

Grew 

The Department of State to the Japanese 
Embassy 

[Washington,] August 12, 19^1. 
On July 31, 1941 the Japanese Ambassador to 
the United States, Admiral Nomura, called on 
the Under Secretary, Mr. Welles, and, reading 
from notes, stated tliat he, the Ambassador, was 
instructed by his Government to inform the 
President officially of the deep regret of the 
Japanese Government over the bombing of the 
U.S.S. Tutuila at Chungking; to say that the 
Japanese Government desired to assure this 
Government that the bombing was an accident 
pure and simple; to say that, in order to make 
sure that no further incident of this kind would 
take place, the Japanese Government had de- 
cided to suspend all bombing operations over 
the city area of Chungking; to say that the 
Japanese Government offered to pay full in- 
demnity for any damage occasioned American 
properties inamediately upon the completion of 



the necessary investigations; to say that the Jap- 
anese Government requested that its decision 
with regard to the suspension of bombing oper- 
ations over the city area of Chungking be re- 
garded as strictly confidential. Further, the 
Ambassador gave the Under Secretaiy to un- 
derstand that it was he himself, the Ambassa- 
dor, who had recommended this procedure to the 
Japanese Government. 

Shortly after the conversation under refer- 
ence, the Under Secretary, having communi- 
cated the Ambassador's statement to the Presi- 
dent, announced that, in view of the action taken 
by the Japanese Government, the American 
Government considered the incident to which it 
related closed. On August 8, 10, and 12, there 
have appeared in the press news dispatches 
from Chungking giving accounts of bombings 
by Japanese planes at and in the neighborhood 
of Chungking. This Government is now in re- 
ceipt of a telegram dated August 11 from the 
American Ambassador at Chungking stating 
that Chungking has during the jaast four days 
been subjected to unusually heavy and prolonged 
air raids; and that not only districts outside of 
the city proper but also the city area have been 
repeatedly bombed although no bombs have been 
droj^ped in that part of the city area which is 
directly opposite the anchorage of the Ameri- 
can gunboat and the location of the United 
States Embassy's chancery. News dispatches 
indicate that at least one American residence 
was demolished and that there was bombing 
around another residence which is everywhere 
known to be within the city area. 

This Government requests an explanation and 
a definitive indication of the Japanese Govern- 
ment's attitude and intentions regarding the 
pledge which was given on July 31. 

The Secretary of State to the Ambassador 
In Japan {Grew) 

[Telegram : Paraphrase] 

Washington, 

August H, 191^1 — 6 p. m. 
502. Our telegram No. 451, August 1, 11 a.m. 
At my request the Japanese Ambassador called 



330 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



on August 13, 1941. During the call I pointed 
out that our authorities in Chungking had re- 
ported that in the four days before August 11 
that city had been subjected to exceptionally 
heavy and prolonged air raid, including the 
city area itself as well as districts outside the 
city proper. I said that according to press 
dispatches the bombs had demolished at least 
one American residence and had endangered 
another. I reiterated in substance the tele- 
gram from the Department referred to above 
and requested, with regard to the pledge given 
on July 31 not to bomb the city area of Chung- 
king, an explanation and a definitive indication 
on the part of the Japanese Government of its 
attitude and intention. 

The immediate reply of the Japanese Am- 
bassador was that the promise of the Japanese 
Government had merely been to cease bombing 
the city arei "temporarily" and not indefinitely. 
He said that although he might have failed to 
do so, he believed this fact had been made clear 
by him to Mr. Welles. 

HXXLL 

The Ambassador in Japan {Grew) to the 
Secretary of State 

[Telegram : Paraphrase] 

Tokyo, August H, 191^1 — 6 p. m. 
[Received August 14 — 9 : 11 a. m.] 

1238. This afternoon the Director of the 
American Bureau, Mr. Terasaki, called the 
Counselor of the Embassy to the Foreign Office 
and said that the Foreign Minister had in- 
structed him to make a statement for com- 
munication to me which is substantially as fol- 
lows : 

1. With regard to the assurance which was 
conveyed to the United States Government 
through Admiral Nomura that Japanese forces 
would suspend bombing of the city area of 
Chungking, not including of course its suburbs, 
it is unthinkable that the United States Govern- 
ment would communicate such information to 
the Chungking Government. However, a very 
dangerous' situation would arise if any third 
party should inform Chungking, and if the fact 



that Chungking had been so informed should 
become known in Japan. 

2. Except to say that the United States Gov- 
ernment must be aware of the Japanese doc- 
trine of the Imperial Command and that an 
undertaking which would be a restriction on 
the freedom of operation of the Japanese armed 
forces is a serious thing for the Japanese Gov- 
ernment to give, Mr. Terasaki declined to elab- 
orate on his statement. 

3. That his statement be regarded as being 
of most confidential character was requested 
with great emphasis by Mr. Terasaki. 

Grew 

The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in 
Japan (Grew) 

[Telegram : Paraphrase] 

Washington, 

August 16, IQJfl — 7 p.m. 

509. Embassy's telegram No. 1238, August 
14, 6 p.m. Except in strict confidence to you 
and the Ambassador at Chungking, the assur- 
ance set forth in item 3 of paragraph 1 of our 
telegram No. 451 of August 1, 11 a.m., has not 
been communicated to anyone by the Depart- 
ment. 

Although the above is for your information, 
you may so inform the Foreign Office if occa- 
sion should arise whereby you feel it would 
serve some useful purpose. In addition you may 
say that the apparently complete disregard by 
the Japanese armed forces of the spirit if not 
the letter of the Japanese Government's prom- 
ise is deprecated and deplored by you and your 
Government. 

Hull 

The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in 
Japan {Grew) 

[Telegram] 

Washington, 

October 11, 191).l — 5 p.m. 
650. Reference previous telegrams in regard 
to damage to the Tutuila and Embassy staff 
residence at Chungking during air raid of 
July 30. 



NOVEMBER 13, 1943 



331 



1. The Department desires that you address 
a note to the Foreign Office in which, after mak- 
ing appropriate reference to the assurances 
conveyed to the Department by the Japanese 
Ambassador on July 31 in regard to indemnifi- 
cation to be made for damages sustained by the 
U. S. S. Tutuila and the American Embassy at 
Chungking as a result of Japanese aerial bomb- 
ing, you inform the Foreign Office that the Navy 
Department has advised the Department that 
the damages sustained by the U.S.S. Tutuila are 
in the total sum of Twenty-seven Thousand 
Forty-five Dollars and Seventy-eight Cents 
($27,045.78), United States currency .^ 

2. For your information the above-mentioned 
sum contains items of damage classified as fol- 
lows, in the amounts specified: 

{a) United States Government: Twenty-five 
Thousand Seven Hundred Fifty-four Dollars 
and Thirty-eight Cents ($25,754.38). 

(5) U.S.S. Tutuila wardroom mess: Five 
Dollars ($5.00). 



(c) Commissioned personnel of the U.S.S. 
Tutuila: Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00). 

{d) Crew members of the U.S.S. Tutuila: 
Two Hundred Eighty-six Dollars and Forty 
Cents ($286.40). 

{e ) Dry-docking charges : Five Hundred Dol- 
lars ($500.00). 

The above itemized classification should not be 
transmitted to the Foreign Office unless such 
a statement is requested, in which case you may 
supply it in the form of an unofficial letter. 

3. You may add that the Department has not 
yet received from the Embassy at Chungking 
a statement in regard to Embassy property 
damaged or destroyed as a result of Japanese 
aerial bombing, but that as soon as such a state- 
ment is available the Foreign Office will be 
informed. 

Sent to Tokyo via Shanghai. Rejjeated to 
Peiping and Chungking. 

Hull 



DECISION TO SUPPRESS THE USE OF OPIUM IN BRITISH AND NETHERLANDS 

TERRITORIES IN THE FAR EAST 



[Released to the press November 10] 

On November 10, 1943 the Acting Secretary 
of State, Mr. Stettinius, issued the following 
statement : 

"I have noted with satisfaction the decision 
announced today by the British and the Neth- 
erlands Governments to prohibit the use of 
opium for smoking and to abolish opiima mo- 
nopolies in their territories when those terri- 
tories are freed from Japanese occupation. 

"For many years it has been the policy of the 
United States Government, domestically and in- 
ternationally in cooperation with other govern- 
ments, to seek the eradication of the abuse of 
opium and its derivatives. To tliis end it initi- 

'In telegram No. 1670, Oct. 22, 1941, Ambassador 
Grew reported that with regard to the Department's 
telegram No. 650, a note dated October 20 had been 
sent to the Foreign OflSce. 



ated the movement resulting in the calling of 
the International Opium Commission at Shang- 
hai in 1909. It participated in the conference 
called at The Hague which resulted in the 
Hague Opium Convention of 1912.^ Article 6 
of that Convention provided for the gradual 
suppression of the manufacture, the internal 
traffic in, and the use of prepared opium. Sub-, 
sequently each of the governments parties to the 
Hague Opium Convention having possessions 
in the Far East enacted legislation which it 
deemed to be appropriate for the fulfilment of 
this article. The United States Government 
met its obligations under the Hague Convention 
through legislation which effectively prohibited 
the manufacture, importation, or sale of smok- 
ing opium both at home and in its possessions. 



' Treaty Series 612. 



332 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETESr 



"In view of the measures which have been 
taken during the last 20 years to combat the 
abuse of narcotic drugs, among which was 
the coming into force of the Narcotics Limi- 
tation Convention of 193 1,^ tliis Goverimient 
feels that the problem of smoking opium should 
now be susceptible of solution. 

"With reference to the question of limitation 
and control of production, mentioned in the 
statements made by the British and Nether- 
lands Governments, the United States Govern- 
ment has for many years taken every oppor- 
tunity to urge that only by limiting the cultiva- 
tion of the poppy for the production of opium 
and other narcotic drugs can clandestine manu- 
facture be stopped and the illicit traffic be effec- 
tively combated. This Government will there- 
fore be glad to continue its cooperation in inter- 
national efforts to bring about a solution of this 
problem. 

"On September 21, 1943 the United States 
Government addressed aide-memoire to the 
British, Netherlands, and other interested gov- 
ernments in regard to the suppression of the 
non-medical use of narcotic drugs in areas in 
the Far East now occupied by Japanese forces 
when such areas are reoccupied by the armed 
forces of the United Nations. It is a source of 
deep gratification that the action taken by the 
British and Netherlands Governments is so 
closely in accord with the policy of the United 
States Government in this regard." 



American Republics 



ECONOMIC COOPERATION WITH HAITI 

[Beleased to the press November 8] 

During the visit in Washington of His 
Excellency President Elie Lescot, of Haiti, in 
October, a number of questions relating to the 
joint war efforts of the two countries were dis- 



' Treaty Series 863. 



cussed with President Eoosevelt, Vice President 
Wallace, and with the leaders of the Senate 
and of the House of Representatives. Addi- 
tional conferences' were held by the President 
and the Cabinet Ministers of Haiti in the 
presidential party with officers of the Depart- 
ment of State and of other agencies of the 
United States Government. 

These conferences included a consideration of 
the program for Cryptostegia rubber develop- 
ment in Haiti, an activity on which the Rubber 
Development Corporation of the United States 
Government expects to expend approximately 
$9,600,000 during 1944. 

The occasion of the visit to Washington was 
also used for dis'cussions between the Haitian 
Minister of Finance and the President of the 
Export-Import Bank of Washington, during 
the course of which agreements were reached 
regarding the schedule of repayments to the 
bank for a line of credit established in 1938 
for a public- works progi'am in Haiti. Thp 
Minister of Finance also indicated the intention 
of the Haitian Government to take steps toward 
the further reduction of its dollar-bond obliga- 
tions. 

One of the topics' which the two Presidents 
discussed at the White House, i.e. the develop- 
ment of industries in Haiti, was explored, and 
decisions were taken to request the Inter- 
American Development Commission to conduct 
surveys and studies of the possible ways in 
which both private capital and government 
agencies might cooperate to develop certain 
small industries in Haiti, particularly after the 
war. 

With the Office of the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs, the Haitian Minister of Edu- 
cation and Agriculture laid plans for a coopera- 
tive educational project which will involve the 
exchange of educators and students between 
Haiti and the United States. The Institute of 
Inter-American Affairs has also made arrange- 
ments for the continuance for an additional 
three years of certain projects of malaria con- 
trol and public-health and sanitation improve- 



NOVEMBER 13, 19 43 



333 



ment, which have been under way for some time 
in a number of Haitian communities, both urban 
and rural. 

A number of other matters were taken up dur- 
ing President Lescot's visit, inchiding the loan 



of the services of agricultural, educational, and 
taxation experts from the United States and the 
coordination of the two Governments in the in- 
creased production of strategic material such as 
rubber and sisal. 



The Department 



DESIGNATION OF SPECIAL ADVISERS ON FOREIGN-POLICY ASPECTS OF WARTIME 

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES 



[Released to the press November 9] 

With reference to the press release of October 
26, 1943 1 stating that the Department of State, 
in consultation with the Foreign Economic Ad- 
ministration and the Bureau of the Budget, 
was working out arrangements which would 
provide between the Department and the 
Foreign Economic Administration the close 
liaison necessary to assure conformity of our 
foreign economic operations to our national 
foreign policy, the Acting Secretary of State, 
Mr. Stettinius, issued the following Depart- 
mental order (no. 1210) on Xovember 6, 1913: 

"Pursuant to the provisions of Executive Or- 
der No. 9380 of September 25, 1943,^ establish- 
ing the Foreign Economic Administration, the 
Office of Foreign Economic Coordination of 
the Department of State is hereby abolished, 
except as hereinafter provided. 

"Under the general supervision of the As- 
sistant Secietary, Mr. Acheson, there shall be 
four groups of advisers concerned, respectively, 
with the foreign policy aspects of matters re- 
lating to the allocation of supplies, of wartime 
economic activities in liberated areas, of war- 
time economic activities in eastern hemi- 
sphere countries other than the liberated areas, 

' BuiiEn^N of Oct. 30, 1»43, p. 302. 
' Bulletin of Sept. 25, 1943, p. 205. 



and of wartime economic activities in the other 
American republics. 

"Mr. Charles P. Taft is hereby designated 
Special Adviser on Supply and Resources with 
responsibility for organizing the group of ad- 
visers who will assist Mr. Acheson in dealing 
with the foreign policy aspects of matters re- 
lating to the allocation of supplies. Mr. Taft's 
office symbol shall be SR. 

"Mr. Herman Wells is hereby designated 
Special Adviser on Liberated Areas with re- 
sponsibility for organizing the group of advisers 
who will assist Mr. Acheson in dealing with the 
foreign policy aspects of wartime economic 
activities in the liberated areas. Mr. Wells' 
office symbol shall be LA. 

"Mr. Emilio G. CoUado is hereby designated 
Special Adviser on the other American repub- 
lics with responsibility, in addition to such other 
responsibilities as may be assigned to him, for 
organizing the group of advisers who will assist 
Mr. Acheson in dealing with the foreign policy 
aspects of wartime economic activities in the 
other American republics. Mr. Collado's of- 
fice symbol shall be ERA. 

"Mr. Henry Labouisse is hereby designated 
Special Adviser on the Eatetern Hemisphere 
with responsibility for organizing the group of 
advisers who will assist Mr. Acheson in dealing 
with the foreign policy aspects of wartime eco- 



334 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETrN" 



nomic activities in the countries of the eastern 
hemisphere other than the liberated areas. Mr. 
Labouisse's office symbol shall be EH. 

"The Special Advisers and advisers referred 
to in this Order shall, in their respective fields, 
have responsibility, subject to the authority of 
the Secretary, the Under Secretary and the As- 
sistant Secretary, Mr. Acheson, for establishing 
effective liaison on the part of the Department 
with the Foreign Economic Administration in 
order to keep the Department informed of the 
operations of that organization and pursuant 
to Paragraph 4 of the aforesaid Executive 
Order, to assist in advising that organization of 
the foreign policy of the United States as de- 
fined by the Secretary of State. In addition, 
the Special Advisers and advisers shall, in their 
respective fields, have similar responsibility for 
establishing effective liaison with other agencies 
engaged in wartime economic activities. In the 
execution of such responsibility and authority 
the Special Advisers and advisers shall main- 
tain close and continuous relations with the ap- 
propriate geographic and other divisions and 
offices within the Department, and arrangements 
shall immediately be effected by such Special 
Advisers and advisers and the chiefs of the geo- 
graphic and other divisions and offices, to pro- 
vide a free and full exchange of information 
and views. 

"Pending further determinations the Division 
of World Trade Intelligence shall continue to 
function as a separate division, under the gen- 
eral direction of the Assistant Secretary, Mr. 
Acheson. Mr. Francis EusseU shall continue as 
Acting Chief and the symbol of the division 
shall continue to be WT. 

"The responsibilities of the fornaer Division 
of Exports and Requirements relating to the 
administration of Section 12 of the Neutrality 
Act of November 4, 1939, governing the move- 
ment of arms, ammunition and implements of 
war ; the Helium Act of September 1, 1937 ; and 
the Tin Plate Scrap Act of February 15, 1936, 
are hereby transferred to the Special Adviser 
on Supply and Resources, Mr. Taft. 



"Responsibility for all questions of foreign 
policy relating to the application of foreign 
funds and proi^erty controls to territories which 
have been or are subject to enemy domination, 
including the application of Executive Order 
No. 8389, as amended to property located in 
the United States of governments of such ter- 
ritories and their nationals, questions relating 
to the operations of the Alien Property Cus- 
todian, and questions relating to the property 
control measures of other United Nations, is 
vested in the Special Adviser, Mr. Wells. 

"The provisions of this Order shall be effec- 
tive immediately and shall supersede the pro- 
visions of any other Departmental Order in con- 
flict therewith. 

"The Division of Departmental Personnel 
shall proceed immediately to effect the neces- 
sary transfers of personnel within the Depart- 
ment and such other persoimel actions as may 
be necessai-y to carry out the purposes of this 
Order." 



The Foreign Service 



EMBASSY RANK FOR REPRESENTATION 
BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND 
CANADA 

[Released to the press November 11] 

The Governments of Canada and the United 
States on November 11 announced that arrange- 
ments have been completed whereby the Lega- 
tions of the two countries at Washington and 
Ottawa will be elevated to the rank of Em- 
bassy. The change in status will become effec- 
tive with respect to each Mission upon the 
presentation of the letter of credence of the 
Ambassador-designate. 

The ties of friendship which for so long have 
bound Canada and the United States together 
during both war and peace are thus further 
strengthened by this accord of the two Gov- 
ernments. 



NOVEMBER 13, 1943 



335 



CONFIRMATIONS 

On November 12, 1943 the Senate confirmed 
the nominations of Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, 
Jr.. as American Minister near the Government 
of Luxembourg now established in London, and 
of Lincohi MacVeagh as American Ambassador 
near the Government of Greece, now established 
in Egypt, and also, to serve concurrently, as 
American Ambassador near the Government of 
Yugoslavia, now established in Egypt. 



Treaty Information 



ECONOMICS 

Agreement for United Nations Relief and 
Rehabilitation Administration ^ 

[Released to the press November 10] 

An agreement for United Nations Relief and 
Rehabilitation Administration was signed at the 
White House between noon and 12 : 30 p.m., No- 
vember 9, 1913, on behalf of 44 governments or 
authorities representing the United Nations or 
nations associated with the United Nations in 
the war. Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of 
the United States, signed the agreement on 
behalf of the United States of Ajnerica. 

The agreement establishes the Administra- 
tion, with a council which shall be the policy- 
making body of the Administration, with a view 
to giving effect to the determination of the 
United Nations and of the other nations asso- 
ciated with them in the war that, as stated in 
the preamble of the agreement, "immediately 
upon the liberation of any area by the armed 
forces of the United Nations or as a consequence 
of retreat of the enemy the population thereof 
shall receive aid and relief from their suffer- 
ings, food, clothing and shelter, aid in the pre- 

' The text of the address delivered by President 
Roosevelt on the occasion of the si^^ature of the 
agreement appears in this BtriiiTiN under the heading 
"The War". 



vention of pestilence and in the recovery of the 
health of the people, and that preparation and 
arrangements shall be made for the return of 
prisoners and exiles to their homes and for as- 
sistance in the resumption of urgently needed 
agi-icultural and industrial production and the 
restoration of essential services". 

The list of the signers of the agreement, in 
the order in which they signed, is as follows : 

For the Commonwealth of Australia: Sir Owen Dixon, 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
of Australia in Washington 

For Belgium: Mr. Paul-Henri Spaal£, Minister for 
Foreign Affairs of Belgium 

For Bolivia: Senor Dr. Don Luis Fernando Guachalla, 
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
Bolivia in Washington 

For the United States of Brazil: Mr. Eurico Penteado, 
Financial Attach^, Brazilian Embassy in Wash- 
ington 

For Canada: The Honorable Leighton McCarthy, En- 
voy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
of Canada in Washington 

For Chile: Seuor Don Rodolfo Michels, Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Chile in 
Washington 

For China: Dr. Tingfu F. Tsiang, Chief Political Sec- 
retary to the President of the Executive Yuan 
of China 

For Colombia: Senor Don Alberto Vargas NariSo, 
Charg6 d'Affaires ad interim of Colombia in 
Washington 

For Costa Rica: Seiior Don Carlos Manuel Escalante, 
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 
of Costa Rica in Washington 

For Cuba: Senor Dr. Aurelio F. Concheso, Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Cuba in 
Washington 

For Czechoslovakia: Mr. Jan Masaryk, Deputy Prime 
Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Czecho- 
slovakia 

For the Dominican RepuUic: Senor Dr. Julio Vega 
Batlle, First Secretary, Dominican Embassy in 
Washington 

For Ecuador: Senor Dr. Don Sixto Durfln Ballto, 
Consul General of Ecuador, New York 

For Egypt: Mr. Mahmoud Hassan, Envoy Extraordi- 
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Egypt in 
Washington 

For El Salvador: Senor Dr. Don Hector David Castro, 
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
El Salvador in Washington 



336 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETrN" 



For Ethiopia: Blatta Bphrem Tewelde Medhen, for- 
mer Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of Etliiopia 
and newly appointed Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of Ethiopia in Wash- 
ington 

For the French Committee of National Liberation: Mr. 
Jean Monnet, Commissioner for Supply and Re- 
construction 

For Oreece: Mr. Kyriakos Varvaressos, Governor of 
the Bank of Greece, and former Minister of Fi- 
nance of Greece 

For Guatemala: Senor Dr. Don Adrian Recinos, Am- 
bassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
Guatemala in Washington 

For Haiti: Mr. Andre Liautaud, Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary of Haiti in Washington 

For Honduras: Senor Dr. Don Julian R. Caceres, Am- 
bassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
Honduras in Washington 

For Iceland: Mr. Magnus Sigurdsson, Director of the 
National Bank of Iceland 

For India: The Honorable Sir Girja Shankar Bajpai, 
Agent General for India in Washington 

For Iran: Mr. Mohammed Shayesteh, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Iran in 
Washington 

For Iraq: Mr. All Jawdat, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of Iraq in Washington 

For Liheria: Mr. Walter P. Walker, Consul General of 
Liberia in New York 

For Luxembourg: Mr. Pierre Dupong, Prime Minister 
of Luxembourg 

For the United Mexican States: SeCor Dr. Don Fran- 
cisco Castillo -Nitjera, Ambassador Extraordinary 
and Plenipotentiai-y of the United Mexican States 
in Washington 

For the Netherlands: Mr. P. A. Kerstens, Minister for 
Trade, Industry, Shipping, Agriculture and Fish- 
eries of the Netherlands 

For New Zealand: Geoffrey S. Cox, Charge d'Affaires 
ad interim of New Zealand in Washington 

For Nicaragua: Senor Dr. Don Guillermo Sevilla 
Sacasa, Ambassador Extraordinary and Pleni- 
potentiary of Nicaragua in Washington 

For Norway: Mr. Wilhelm Munthe de Morgenstierne, 
Ambassador Extraordinary and PleniiJotentiary of 
Norway in Washington 

For Panama: Seiior Don Enrique A. Jimenez, Ambas- 
sador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
Panama in Washington 

For Paraguay: Senor Dr. Don Celso R. Velazquez, Am- 
bassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
Paraguay in Washington 



For Peru: Seiior Don Manuel de Freyre y Santander, 
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
Peru in Washington 

For the Philippine Commonwealth: The Honorable 
Sergio Osmena, Vice President of the Philippine 
Commonwealth 

For Poland: Mr. Jan Kwapinski, Vice Premier and 
Minister of Industry, Commerce and Shipping of 
Poland 

For the Union, of South Africa: Mr. Ralph William 
Close, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of the Union of South Africa in Wash- 
ington 

For the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Mr. 
Andrei A. Gromyko, Ambassador Extraordinary 
and Plenipotentiary of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics in Washington 

For the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North- 
ern Ireland: The Right Honorable the Viscount 
Halifax, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipo- 
tentiary of the United Kingdom in Washington 

For the United States of America: Mr. Franklin D. 
Roosevelt, President of the United States of 
America 

For Uruguati: Dr. Juan Carlos Blanco, Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Uruguay in 
Washington 

For Yenexuela: Seiior Dr. Don Di6genes Esealante, 
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
Venezuela in Washington 

For Yugoslavia: Mr. Constantin Fotitch, Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Yugoslavia 
in Washington 

It is provided in article IX of the agreement 
that it shall enter into force with respect to each 
signatory on the date when signed by that sig- 
natory, unless otherwise specified by such sig- 
natory. The agreement was signed on behalf 
of 14 Governments with a reservation or 
statement to the efPect, in each case, that the 
agreement was signed subject to ratification or 
legislative approval. The 14 Goverimients on 
behalf of which the agreement was signed with 
such a reservation or statement are as follows : 
Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Ethiopia, 
Guatemala, India, Iran, Iraq, Mexico, Nicara- 
gua, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. 

Article V of the agreement provides that each 
member government shall contribute to the sup- 
port of the Administration so far as its appro- 
priate constitutional bodies shall authorize. 



NOVEMBER 13, 1943 



337 



Publications 



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Provincial and Municipal Taxation on United States 
Defense Projects In Canada : Agreement Between the 
United States qf America and Canada — Effected by 
exchange of notes signed at Ottawa August 6 and 9, 
1943. Executive Agreement Series 830. Publication 
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Jlilitary Aviation Instructors : Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Argentina Renewing 
the Agreement of June 29, 1940 as Renewed by the 
Agreement of May 23 and June 3, 1941— Effected by 
exchange of notes signed at Washington June 23 
and September 2, 1943; effective June 29, 1943. 
Executive Agreement Series 340. Publication 2014. 
2 pp. 50. 

Waiver of Claims Arising as a Result of Collisions Be- 
tween Vessels of War: Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Canada — Effected by 
exchange of notes signed at Washington May 25 
and 26, 1943; effective May 26, 1943. Executive 
Agreement Series 330. Publication 2015. 2 pp. 50. 

Diplomatic List, November 1943. Publication 2019. 
ii, 120 pp. Subscription, $1 a year ; single copy, 100. 

Other Agencies 

American Farmers and United Nations Conference on 
Food and Agriculture. Aug. 1943. (Department 
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ii, 12 pp. 50 (available from Superintendent of 
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Trade Problems Confronting Italy Under United Na- 
tions Occupation. Aug. 1943. (Department of 
Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce.) 20 pp., processed. Free from Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



Important Economic and Military Events, With Index 
[1st quarter of 1943, arranged in chronological or- 
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Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Labor Conditions in Greece. 1943. (Department of 
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Foreign Trade of Colombia for 1940 and 1941. 1943. 
(Pan American Union.) 16 pp., illus. [Foreign 
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1941 and 1942. July 1943. (Pan American Union.) 
viii, 155 leaves, 8 plates ; processed. 250 from the 
P. A. U. 
Travel in the Americas [a series of pamphlets on vari- 
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of suggested books, issued by the Pan American 
Union in June 1943 and available from that organi- 
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Argentina. 12 pp., illus. 
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Mexico. 12 pp., illus. 
Peru. 12 pp., illus. 
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Status of Pan American Treaties and Conventions (re- 
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7 pp., processed. (In Spanish, Portuguese, and 
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Americas United, Summary of Cooperative Effort of 
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from CIAA. 
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NOVEMBER 20, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 230— Publication 2025 

(^ontents 

The War Page 
Address by the Secretary of State Before Congress Re- 
garding the Moscow Conference 341 

Address by Joseph C. Grew Before the Holland Society 

of New York 345 

Proclaimed List : Cumidative Supplement 2 to Revision 

VI 348 

Alignment of the Nations in the War 349 

Axis Against the World 357 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 
Message of the President to the Congress on United 
States Participation in the United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration 372 

Europe 

Tenth Anniversary of Establishment of Diplomatic Re- 
lations With the Soviet Union 373 

Anniversary of the Founding of the Soviet Union . . 374 

The Foreign Service 

Confirmations ' 374 

Publications 

"Foreign Relations of the United States, Japan: 1931- 

1941", Volume I 374 

Legislation 376 



U. a SUPERINTENDENT OF OUUUMENU 

DEC 9-1943 



The War 



ADDRESS BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE BEFORE CONGRESS REGARDING 

THE MOSCOW CONFERENCE' 



[Released to the press November 18] 

Mr. President, IVIr. Speaker: 

I appreciate deeply the high compliment of 
being invited to meet with you today. But I 
appi'eeiate even more the fact that by your in- 
vitation you have emphasized your profound 
interest in the principles and policies for which 
the Moscow Conference stood and in the prog- 
ress made by the participating governments in 
carrying them forward.^ 

In the minds of all of us here present and 
of the millions of Ajnericans all over the 
country and at battle-stations across the seas, 
there is and there can be at this moment but 
one consuming thought — to defeat tlie enemy 
as speedily as possible. We have reached a 
stage in the war in which the United Nations 
are on the offensive in every part of the world. 
Our enemies are suffering defeat after defeat. 
The time will come when their desperate move- 
ment to destroy the world will be utterly 
crushed. But there are in store for us still 
enormous hardships and vast sacrifices. The 
attainment of victory will be hastened only in 
proportion as all of us, in this country and in 
all the United Nations, continue to exert all 
possible effort to press home our advantage 
without the slightest relaxation or deviation. 

The glorious successes which have already 
attended our arms and the confidence which 



'Delivered before a joint meeting of both Houses 
of Congress, Nov. 18, 1943. 

'See tlie Buixetin of Oct. 23, 1943, p. 271, and of 
Nov. 6, 1943, p. 307. 



we all feel today in assured, though still im- 
mensely difficult, victory would have been 
impossible if this country, and Great Britain, 
and the Soviet Union, and China, and the 
other victims of aggression had not each risen 
as a unit in defense of its liberty and inde- 
pendence. They would have been equally im- 
possible if all these nations had not come 
together in a brotherhood of self-preservation. 

While we are thus engaged in the task of 
winning the war, all of us are acutel}' conscious 
of the fact that the fruits of our victory can 
easily be lost unless there is among us whole- 
hearted acceptance of those basic principles and 
policies which will render impossible a repeti- 
tion of our present tragedy, and unless there 
is promptly created machinery of action nec- 
essary to carry out these principles and policies. 
The Moscow Confei'ence is believed to have been 
an important step in the direction both of short- 
ening the war and of making provision for the 
future. 

The convocation of the Conference was the 
result of a profound conviction on the part of 
President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, 
and Marshal Stalin that, at this stage of the 
war, frank and friendly exchanges of views be- 
tween responsible representatives of their three 
Governments on problems of post-war, as well 
as war, collaboration were a matter of great 
urgency. Up to that time, such exchanges of 
views had taken place on several occasions be- 
tween our Government and that of Great Brit- 
ain. But the exigencies of war had been ob- 

341 



342 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



stacles to the participation of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment in such exchanges to the same extent. 
With the acceleration of the tempo of war 
against Germany, the necessity became daily 
more and more apparent for more far-reaching 
discussions and decisions by the three Govern- 
ments than had occurred theretofore. 

I went to Moscow, by direction of President 
Roosevelt, to discuss with the representatives 
of Great Britain and the Soviet Union some 
basic problems of international relations in the 
light of principles to which our country, under 
the President's leadership, has come to give 
wide-spread adherence. It has never been my 
fortune to attend an international conference 
at which thei-e was greater determination on the 
part of all the participants to move forward in 
a spirit of mutual understanding and confidence. 

The Conference met against the background 
of a rapidly changing military situation. From 
the east and from the south, the Nazi armies 
were being steadily hammered back into nar- 
rower and narrower confines. From the west, 
the Allied air forces were relentlessly and sys- 
tematically destroying the nerve centers of Ger- 
man industrial and military power. 

Formidable as the war task still is, it has 
been increasingly clear that the time is near- 
ing when more and more of the territory held by 
the enemy will be wi-ested from his grasp, and 
when Germany and its remaining satellites will 
have to go the way of Fascist Italy. In these 
circumstances, new problems arise which re- 
quire concerted action by the Allies, to hasten 
the end of the war, to plan for its immediate 
aftermath, and to lay the foundation for the 
post-war world. Our discussions in Moscow 
were concerned with many of these problems. 
Important agreements were reached, but there 
were no secret agreements, and none was sug- 
gested. 

Of the military discussions which took place 
it can be stated that they were in the direction 
of facilitating closer cooperation between the 
three countries in the prosecution of the war 
against the common enemy. I am glad to say 
that there is now in Moscow a highly compe- 



tent United States Military Mission, headed by 
Maj. Gen. John R. Deane. 

The attention of the Conference was centered 
upon the task of making sure that the nations 
upon whose armed forces and civilian efforts 
rests the main responsibility for defeating the 
enemy will, along with other peacefully minded 
nations, continue to perform their full part 
in solving the numerous and vexatious prob- 
lems of the future. From the outset, the 
dominant thought at the Conference was that, 
after the attainment of victory, cooperation 
among peace-loving nations in support of cer- 
tain paramount mutual interests will be almost 
as compelling in importance and necessity as it 
is today in support of the war effort. 

At the end of the war, each of the United 
Nations and each of the nations associated with 
them will have the same common interest in 
national security, in world order under law, in 
peace, in the full promotion of the political, 
economic, and social welfare of their respective 
peojiles — in the principles and spirit of the 
Atlantic Charter and the Declaration by 
United Nations. The future of these indis- 
pensable common interests depends absolutely 
upon international cooperation. Hence, each 
nation's own primary interest requires it to co- 
operate with the others. 

These considerations led the Moscow Con- 
ference to adopt the four-nation declaration 
with which you are all familiar. I should like 
to comment briefly, on its main provisions. 

In that document, it was jointly declared by 
the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet 
Union, and China "That their united action, 
pledged for the prosecution of the war against 
their respective enemies, will be continued for 
the organization and maintenance of peace and 
security." 

To this end, the four Governments declared 
that they "recognize the necessity of establish- 
ing at the earliest practicable date a general 
international organization, based on the princi- 
ple of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving 
states, and open to membership by all such 
states, large and small". I should like to 



NOVEMBER 20, 1943 



343 



lay particular stress on this provision of tlie 
declaration. The principle of sovereign equal- 
ity of all peace-loving states, irrespective of size 
and strength, as partners in a future system of 
general security will be the foundation stone 
upon which the future international organiza- 
tion will be constructed. 

The adoption of this principle was particu- 
larly welcome to us. Nowhere has the concep- 
tion of sovereign equality been applied more 
widely in recent years than in the American 
family of nations, whose contribution to the 
common effort in wartime will now be followed 
by representation in building the institutions 
of peace. 

The four Governments further agreed that, 
pending the inauguration in this manner of a 
permanent system of general security, "they 
will consult with one another and as occasion 
requires with other members of the United 
Nations with a view to joint action on behalf 
of the community of nations" whenever such ac- 
tion may be necessary for the purpose of main- 
taining international peace and security. 

Finally, as an important self-denying ordi- 
nance, they declared "That after the termina- 
tion of hostilities they will not employ their 
military forces within the territories of other 
states except for the purposes envisaged in this 
declaration and after joint consultation." 

Through this declaration, the Soviet Union, 
Great Britain, the United States, and China 
have laid the foundation for cooperative effort 
in the post-war world toward enabling all 
peace-loving nations, large and small, to live 
in peace and security, to preserve the liberties 
and rights of civilized existence, and to enjoy 
expanded opportunities and facilities for eco- 
nomic, social, and spiritual progress. No other 
important nations anywhere have more in com- 
mon in the present war or in the peace that is 
to follow victory over the Axis powers. No 
one, no two of them can be most effective with- 
out the others, in war or in peace. 

Each of them had, in the past, relied in vary- 
ing degrees upon policies of detachment and 
aloofness. In Moscow, their four Governments 



pledged themselves to carry forward to its full- 
est development a broad and progressive pro- 
gram of international cooperation. This ac- 
tion was of world-wide importance. 

As the provisions of the four-nation declara- 
tion ai"e carried into effect, there will no longer 
be need for spheres of influence, for alliances, 
for balance of power, or any other of the special 
arrangements through which, in the unhappy 
past, the nations strove to safeguard their se- 
curity or to promote their interests. 

The Conference faced many political prob- 
lems growing out of the militaiy activities in 
Europe. It was foreseen that problems of com- 
mon interest to our three Governments will con- 
tinue to arise as our joint military efforts hasten 
the defeat of the enemy. It is impracticable 
for several governments to come to complete 
and rapid understanding on such matters 
through the ordinary channels of diplomatic 
communication. The Conference accordingly 
decided to set up a European Advisory Com- 
mission with its seat in London. This Com- 
mission will not of itself have executive powers. 
Its sole function will be to advise the Govern- 
ments of the United States, Great Britain, and 
the Soviet Union. It is to deal with non-mili- 
tary problems relating to enemy territories and 
with such other problems as may be referred to 
it by the participating governments. It will 
provide a useful instrument for continuing 
study and formulation of recommendations con- 
cerning questions connected with the termina- 
tion of hostilities. 

For the purpose of dealing with problems 
arising from the execution of the terms of sur- 
render of Italy and with related matters gi-ow- 
ing out of the developing situation in that coun- 
try, the Conference established an Advisory 
Council for Italy. This Council will consist of 
representatives of the Governments of the 
United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet 
Union, of the French Committee of National 
Liberation, and of the Governments of Yugo- 
slavia and Greece, as early as practicable. The 
members of the Council will advise the Allied 
Commander in Chief and will make recom- 



344 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BITLLETm 



menclations to the respective governments and 
to the French Committee concerning non-mili- 
tai-y problems relating to Italy. 

It was clearly understood that the setting up 
of these two agencies was not intended to super- 
sede the usual diplomatic channels of communi- 
cation between the three Governments. On the 
contrary, arrangements were made for expedi- 
tious and effective handling of questions of con- 
cern to the three Governments through tripar- 
tite diplomatic conversations in any one of the 
three capitals. 

In a declaration on Italy, the Conference set 
forth a number of principles on the basis of 
which democratic restoration of that country's 
internal political structure should take place. 
These principles — including freedom of reli- 
gion, of speech, of the press, and of assembly, 
and the right of the people ultimately to choose 
their own form of government — are among the 
most basic human rights in civilized society. 

In a declaration on Austria, the forcible an- 
nexation of that unhappy country was pro- 
nounced null and void. It was further declared 
that Austria is to be given an opportunity to 
become reestablished as a free and independent 
state, although the Austrians were put on notice 
that in final analysis the treatment to be ac- 
corded them will depend upon the contribution 
which they will make toward the defeat of 
Germany and the liberation of their country. 

The Conference also served as an occasion for 
a solemn public declaration by the heads of the 
three Governments with regard to the perpe- 
trators of the bestial and abominable crimes 
committed by the Nazi leaders against the 
harassed and persecuted inhabitants of occupied 
territories — against people of all races and 
religions, among whom Hitler has reserved 
for the Jews his most brutal wrath. Due pun- 
ishment will be administered for all these 
crimes. 

Finally, the Conference gave preliminary at- 
tention to a mmiber of other specific problems 
relating to the eventual transition from war 
to peace. A fruitful exchange of views took 
place on such questions as the treatment of 



Germany and its satellites, the various phases 
of economic relations, the promotion of social 
welfare, and the assurance of general security 
and peace. 

These were among the outstanding develop- 
ments at the Moscow Conference. The inten- 
sive discussion, lasting two weeks, did not and 
was not intended to bring about the solution of 
all the problems that are before us. Much less 
could we anticipate the problems that are bound 
to arise from day to clay and from year to year. 
There were other problems, such, for example, 
as questions relating to boundaries, which must, 
by their very nature, be left in abeyance until 
the termination of hostilities. This is in ac- 
cordance with the position maintained for some 
time by our Government. 

Of supreme importance is the fact that at 
the Conference the whole spirit of international 
cooperation, now and after the war, was re- 
vitalized and given practical expression. The 
Conference thus launched a forward movement 
which, I am finnly convinced, will steadily ex- 
tend in scope and effectiveness. Within the 
framework of that movement, in the atmos- 
phere of mutual understanding and confidence 
which made possible its beginning in Moscow, 
many of the problems which are difficult today 
will as time goes on undoubtedly become more 
possible of satisfactory solution through frank 
and friendly discussion. 

I am happy on this occasion to pay personal 
tribute to those with whom it was my privilege 
to confer in Moscow. Mr. Molotov arranged 
for the business of the Conference in a most 
efficient manner. Both as chairman and par- 
ticipant he manifested throughout the highest 
order of ability and a profound grasp of inter- 
national affairs. Mr. Eden, with his excep- 
tional wisdom and experience, exhibited the 
finest qualities of statesmanship. I found in 
Marshal Stalin a remarkable personality, one 
of the great statesmen and leaders of this age. 

I was deeply impressed by tli« people of 
Russia and by the epic quality of their patriotic 
fervor. A people who will fight against ruth- 
less aggression, in utter contempt of death, as 



NOVEMBER 2 0, 1943 



345 



the men and women of the Soviet Union are 
fighting, merit the acbniration and good-will of 
the i>eoples of all countries. 

We of today shall be judged in the future 
by the manner in which we meet the unprece- 
dented responsibilities that rest upon us — not 
alone in winning the war but also in making 
certain that the opportimities for future peace 
and security shall not be lost. As an American, 
I am proud of the breadth and height of vision 
and statesmanship which have moved you, 
ladies and gentlemen, in each House of the 
Congress, to adopt, by overwhelming non-par- 
tisan majorities, resolutions in favor of our 



country's participation with other sovereign 
nations in an effective system of international 
cooperation for the maintenance of peace and 
security. 

Only by carrying forward such a program 
with common determination and united na- 
tional support can we expect, in the long range 
of the future, to avoid becoming victims of de- 
structive forces of international anarchy which 
in the absence of organized international rela- 
tions will rule the world. By the procedure of 
cooperation with other nations likewise intent 
upon security we can and will remain masters 
of our own fate. 



ADDRESS BY JOSEPH C. GREW BEFORE THE HOLLAND SOCIETY OF NEW YORK ^ 



[Released to the press November 19] 

"Great honors are great burdens", wrote Ben 
Jonson, and "on whom they are cast, his cares 
must still be double to his joys, in any dignity". 

It is in that humble spirit that I accept the 
honor that has so generously been conferred on 
me tonight in the form of the gold medal of the 
Holland Society of New York, an honor the sig- 
nificance of which I fully recognize and of 
which I express profound appreciation. The 
care, however, must still be double the joy, real- 
izing as I do that such a mark of confidence — 
having especially in mind the distinguished list 
of Americans already recipients of this medal — 
must be taken less as a testimonial for work al- 
ready clone than as a spur and incentive to fur- 
ther and fuller service to our country. To be 
thus associated with the members of a society 
which seeks to perpetuate the memory and to 
foster and promote the principles and virtues 
of their Dutch ancestors, descended as you are 
from one of the most vigorous, staunch, and 



' Delivered at the annual banquet of the Holland 
Society of New York, Nov. 18, 1943. Mr. Grew, formerly 
American Ambassador to Japan, is now Special As- 
sistant to the Secretary of State. 



wholesome f ountainheads of our American civi- 
lization, gives me the keenest pleasure, and I 
thank you, gentlemen, with all my heart, for 
this high distinction. 

I shall not insult your intelligence by talking 
platitudes tonight. This is a time, if ever, for 
frank speaking, and, although an officer of the 
Government, I shall, in what follows, express 
my own personal thoughts rather than try to 
undertake anything in the nature of official pro- 
nouncements. Indeed, in any group of men, 
whether in official or private life, especially in 
dealing with the conduct of the war and with 
prognostications as to the course the war will 
take, opinions must inevitably vary, for many 
imponclerable factors are involved in the situa- 
tion, and it is wiser to try to analyze rather 
than to predict, except in general terms. I 
have never understood the somewhat sibylline 
prescience of some of our self-appointed mili- 
tary authorities who freely predict the dates for 
the ending of our war with Germany and the 
ending of our war with Japan. 

In many talks throughout the country I have 
expressed the personal opinion that the morale 
of the Germans will eventually crack and that. 



346 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN' 



when the process of demoralization and disinte- 
gration once sets in, it will be like a snowball 
rolling downhill, gathering momentum as it 
goes. I base this belief on my knowledge of the 
German character, derived from nearly 10 years 
of residence in Berlin. That residence was many 
years ago, and profound changes have taken 
place in Germany since those days. But the 
moral stamina of a people does not greatly 
change from one generation to another. As a 
race, the Germans are cocksure, blatant, and 
vainglorious when on the crest of the wave, but 
when things go against them, when they can no 
longer be fed with a daily diet of triumphal 
victories, but, on the contrary, are subjected to 
grim hardship, terror, and defeat, they cannot 
and, I believe, will not long stand the test. In 
this respect they are different from the Japa- 
nese — but that is another story to be dealt with 
later. The Germans cracked in 1918 ; I believe 
that they will crack again in the not-too-distant 
future. 

Let us for a moment analyze the present situ- 
ation of the Germans as compared with their 
situation in 1918. In 1918 the food situ- 
ation in Germany, resulting from the blockade, 
was serious; their then available sources of 
trained manpower were drying up. Those two 
factors — food and manpower — chiefly brought 
about their defeat, demoralization, and capitu- 
lation. 

Today, in this second World War, their food 
situation is not serious, for they have the greater 
part of Europe available as their larder. Their 
manpower problem, however, conservatively 
speaking, is as bad as before, and very old and 
very young men are appearing in the ranks, but 
they still possess an army of immense magni- 
tude and power. Their Gestapo is far more 
thorough, efficient, and ruthless in controlling 
defections than ever could the police control 
morale in the last war. Futhermore, the Ger- 
mans, especially their j'ounger generation, have 
been tl^oroughly and fundamentally indoctri- 
nated with the principles and spirit of Naziism. 



They believe themselves a race of sui^ermen; 
they believe that defeat in this war will mean 
the extermination of their country as a great 
power — and since they interpret national great- 
ness as military greatness, they are in this con- 
ception of defeat profoundly right. These are 
their chief assets. Now let us look at some of 
their liabilities. 

Bombing. The blotting out of great indus- 
trial areas in Germany given over to the manu- 
facture of imi^lements of war. The curve of 
Nazi production is clearly moving downward. 

Terror. Daily and nightly ever-lurking ter- 
ror. The deaths by bombing of thousands of 
Germans. Those civilian deaths were not pur- 
posely designed. They were the inevitable con- 
comitant of the destruction of German war- 
plants. Yet those deaths might well be held to 
be just retribution for the wholly indiscriminate 
bombing of London, Coventry, and many other 
British cities during the earlier stages of the 
war. The Germans began those methods of 
warfare. We and the British reluctantly but 
inevitably had to learn the direct modern road 
to victory, yet our own policy and practice of 
precision bombing is a far cry from the policy 
and practice of the Nazis. How direct is that 
modern road to winning the war may soon 
become apparent. Sleepless nights and a per- 
petual sense of terror — constant anticipation 
yet ignorance as to where and when that terror 
will strike — cannot be conducive to high morale. 
Then, too, morale cannot be improved by the 
knowledge that Gestapo spies are everywhere, 
ready to pick up the slightest indiscreet remark 
in the nature of complaint which could be in- 
terpreted as defeatism, with the concentration 
camp, the whip, or even liquidation awaiting 
the unwary. 

Housing. Millions of homeless Germans. 
Mass migrations from one destroyed area to an- 
other area awaiting destruction. Families liv- 
ing in one room with the remainder of their 
homes given over to refugees. That leads to 
discomfort, dissatisfaction, bickering, hatred. 



NOVEMBER 20, 1943 



347 



Defection of their chief ally, Italy. It was 
not long after Austria-Hungary capitulated in 
1918 that the floodgates broke. 

Failure of the U-boat warfare. In 1917 and 
1918 it was "touch and go" whether England 
would be starved into submission. That situa- 
tion does not obtain in 1943. 

Oil. I myself know little about their reserves 
or their rate of production, but I have good 
reason to believe that all is not rosy in that 
respect. I have long ventured one prediction, 
namely, that oil might and probably would have 
an important bearing on the winning of the war 
against Germany. Every effort was made by 
the Nazis, in vain, to reach and to control the 
oil fields in the Caucasus and in Iraq. The 
bombing of Ploesti unquestionably made a big 
dent in production. 

The seething hatred against the Nazis and 
the underground forces of rebellion constantly 
gaining momentum in the occupied countries of 
Europe, including the countries nominally 
allies of the Reich — Hungary, Rumania, Bul- 
garia. The Frenchman, the Norwegian, the 
Dutchman lives because he hates. The Dutch- 
man thinks and talks only of "Hatchet Day", 
and the unity of purpose and of resistance in 
Norway and Holland and Denmark is unsur- 
passed. Throughout Europe the flame is there, 
only awaiting the moment when it can expand 
into a single devastating conflagration in which 
the enemy must and will be consumed. 

And finally, the gradually but inevitably 
closing pincers of the mighty Allied forces in 
Russia and Italy and the constant threat of a 
descent in western Europe. This is a very dif- 
ferent picture from the comparatively static 
battle-lines of 1918. These are the battle-lines 
of certain ultimate doom to the Nazis, and the 
handwriting is on the wall for all in Germany — 
who can see — to read. 

There, gentlemen, are the main outlines of 
the situation facing the Germans in 1943 as 
compared with the situation just prior to their 
collapse in 1918. We may draw our own infer- 



ences. I submit that the time is approaching, 
if not already here, for the final stupendous 
knockout blow — the blow that will bring about 
the early collapse of Germany and permit the 
concentration of all our forces against that 
other and — morally at least, I believe — that 
even tougher enemy, Japan. From all indices, 
that knockout blow is not to be long delayed. 

In a few moments I shall speak briefly about 
that other enemy. But first, let me make an 
apjDeal. I realize that this will be a digression 
fiom my train of thought, but I do wish, if 
only for a moment, to dwell on another subject 
in which I am deeply interested, and I venture 
to hope that I may interest you gentlemen also. 

One of the proudest achievements of our 
country is our assimilation of many different 
races within our borders. We take well-justi- 
fied pride in the term "melting pot" as applied 
to our nation. The existence and purpose and 
membership of the Holland Society are a liv- 
ing testimonial to that great principle, and it 
is especially interesting to note that, even three 
centuries ago, when the Dutch West India 
Company had extended to all friendly Euro- 
pean countries the privilege of trading with the 
then province of New Amsterdam, the town of 
New Amsterdam rapidly assumed the cosmo- 
politan character for which it has ever since 
been noted, and that, according to contemporary 
reports, 18 languages were spoken among its 400 
or 500 inhabitants in 1643. 

The point I wish to make is this: In time 
of war, blind prejudice is always rampant. In 
the last war I remember that even loyal Ameri- 
cans with German names were all too often 
looked at askance. That bigotry fortunately 
does not exist today, but it does exist today 
among a large proportion of our fellow coun- 
trymen with regard to American citizens of 
Japanese descent. In fact many, perhaps most, 
of our compatriots refer to those fellow-citizens 
of ours quite indiscriminately as "Japs". In 
reading the many letters I receive fi'om all 
over the country on that subject I very seldom 



560737 — 13- 



348 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETrN" 



know whether the writer is referring to 
Americans or to outright enemy aliens. There 
is, or should be, a great difference there. 

In time of war, especially, we must take every 
proper step to protect our country from hostile 
acts, especially from espionage or sabotage 
within our gates. We have competent oflScial 
authorities to attend to that consideration, and 
they are attending to it, constantly and effec- 
tively. I do know that, like the Americans of 
German descent, the overwhelming majority of 
Americans of Japanese origin wish to be and 
are wholly loyal to the United States, and not 
only that, but they wish to prove that loyalty 
in service to their native land. Relman Morin, 
of the Associated Press, i-eports from the Fifth 
Army in Italy that the first unit of American- 
born Japanese troops went into combat smiling 
with satisfaction as if they were going to a base- 
ball game; their motto is "Eemember Pearl 
Harbor", and their commander said that he 
wouldn't trade his command for any other in the 
Army. Their officers, said Morin, are unani- 
mously enthusiastic about the quality and spirit 
of those men and said they never had seen any 
troops train harder and more assiduously and 
never had any doubt as to what to expect of 
them in combat. A German prisoner was 
brought i^ast their encampment one day; he 
gaped with surprise when he saw their faces and 
asked if they were Japanese. An interpreter 
explained that they were Americans of Japa- 
nese parentage. The German shook his head 
in wonder and said: "Ach, that's American." 
There are camps in our country today engaged 
exclusively in training these men for military 
service. I have met and talked to them. Their 
officers are proud of their charges. 

What I wish to say is merely this. Those 
Americans of Japanese descent have grown up 
in our country — in our democratic atmosphere. 
Most of them have never known anything else. 
Among those few who have been to Japan, most 



of them could not stand the life there and soon 
returned to the United States. The overwhelm- 
ing majority of those men want to be loyal to us, 
and, perhaps surprisingly, the few who don't 
want to be loyal to us often say so openly. It 
does not make for loyalty to be constantly under 
suspicion when grounds for suspicion are ab- 
sent. I have too great a belief in the sanctity of 
American citizenship to want to. see those Amer- 
icans of Japanese descent penalized and alien- 
ated through blind prejudice. I want to see 
them given a square deal. I want to see them 
treated as we rightly treat all other American 
citizens regardless of their racial origin — with 
respect and support, unless or until they have 
proved themselves unworthy of respect and 
support. That fundamental principle" should 
apply all along the line — to every citizen of 
the United States of America. 

Once again, gentlemen, I heartily thank you 
for the honor you have accorded me tonight. 



PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE SUP- 
PLEMENT 2 TO REVISION VI 

[Released to the press for publication November 20, 9 p.m ] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Attorney General, the Secretary of Commerce, 
the Administrator of Foreign Economic Ad- 
ministration, and the Actmg Coordinator of 
Inter-American Affairs, on November 20 issued 
Cumulative Supplement 2 to Revision VI of 
the Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Na- 
tionals, promulgated October 7, 1943. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 2 contains 
97 additional listings in the other American 
republics and 144 deletions. Part II contains 
107 additional listings outside the American 
reimblics and 27 deletions. 



NOVEMBER 20, 1943 



349 



ALIGNMENT OF THE NATIONS IN THE WAR ^ 



Note: 

The following information, compiled in the Divi- 
sion of Resfiu-ch and Publication, Department of 
State, is intended to serve as a ready reference 
guide only and is not meant to be definitive from the 
viewpoint of international law. 

The dates in parentheses are the dates of the an- 
nouncements in cases in which the effective dates 
were not specified in the announcements. 

Australia 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 

Bulgaria 1/6/42 ; 

Finland 12/8/41 ; 

Germany (9/3/39) ; 

Hungary 12/8/41; 

Italy 6/11/40; 

Japan 12/8/41, and Japan took similar action 
(According to a telegram from American 
Legation at Stockholm 12/17/41 the 
Japanese Charge at Stockliolm was re- 
ported, in a Stockliolm newspaper, to 
have stated that Japan considered itself 
at war with Australia, Canada, New 
Zealand, and Union of South Africa as 
well as with United States and Great 
Britain. A declaration of war by Japan 
was made against "the British Empire", 
which presumably would include India 
and the Dominions) ; 

Rumania 12/8/41 ; 

Thailand 3/2/42. 

Belgium 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 
Italy (11/23/40) ; 
Japan (12/20/41). 
No record of a formal declaration of war with 
Germany has been found. Germany in- 
vaded Belgium, Luxembourg, and the 



Netherlands May 9-10, 1940, and on May 
10, 1940 Belgian Government declared in 
a note to foreign governments that the 
Belgian Army would defend Belgian na- 
tional territory with all its force. On 
12/20/41 the Belgian Ambassador at "Wash- 
ington informed the Secretary of State of a 
Belgian proclamation that war "exists" 
between Belgium and Japan as it "already 
exists with Germany and Italy". 

Severed diplomatic relations with: 
Bulgaria (see below under countries severing 

relations with Belgium) ; 
Finland (6/29/41). 

No record of a formal severance of diplomatic 
relations with Hungary has been found, but 
according to telegrams from American 
Minister at Budapest the Belgian Minister 
departed 4/11/41 under instructions from 
his Government. 

According to despatches from American Min- 
ister at Bucharest, the Belgian Minister to 
Rwmania, who departed from Bucharest 
2/14/41, indicated that this was not a "rup- 
ture" of relations. The note by which the 
Belgian Minister informed tlie Rumanian 
Government of his approaching departure 
explained that he was "called to other fimc- 
tions" and added that after his departure 
the affairs of his Legation would be con- 
ducted by the American Minister until 
other disposition was made by his Govern- 
ment. 

Following countries severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with Belgium : 

Bulgaria (3/4/41), and Belgium took similar 

action 3/5/41 ; 
Z>e?i«iarX- 7/15/40; 
France 9/5/40. 



^ As of Nov. 1, 1943. For information on this subject 
previously printed, see the Buixetin of Dec. 20, 1941, 
Feb. 7, 1942, and Apr. 18, 1942. 



350 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETrN" 



Bolivia 

Member of United Nations. Notification of ad- 
herence to Declaration by United Nations, 
Apr. 27, 1943, and Bolivian President af- 
fixed his signature May 5, 1943. 

A telegram of 4/27/43 from Bolivian Minister 
of Foreign Affairs to Secretary of State 
of the United States read in j^art as fol- 
lows (translation) : "In harmony with the 
decree issued by my Government on the 
seventh day of the current month and year 
declaring a state of war between Bolivia 
and the nations of the Axis . . . Bolivia 
formally adheres by means of this com- 
munication to the declaration of the United 
Nations". The Bolivian Congress has not 
enacted a resolution declaring war. 

Brazil 

Member of United Nations. Notification of ad- 
herence to Declaration by United Nations, 
Feb. 8, 1943 (The notification, in a note of 
2/8/43 from the Brazilian Ambassador at 
Washington to the Secretary of State, 
stated (translation) : "... by act of the 
sixth of this month Brazil declared formal 
adherence to the Declaration of the United 
Nations.") Tlae Brazilian Ambassador 
affixed his signature to the Declaration 
Apr. 10, 1943. 

Declared war on : 
Germany (8/22/42); 
Italy (8/22/42). 

Severed diplomatic relations with Japan 
1/28/42. 

Following countries severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with Brazil : 
Hungary 5/2/42 ; 
Rumania (3/6/42). 

Bulgaria 
Declared war on : 

Greece (Bulgaria announced 4/24/41 that a 
state of war existed in those areas of 
Greece and Yugoslavia occupied by Bul- 
garian troops) ; 



United Kingdom (12/13/41), and United 

Kingdom took similar action 12/13/41; 

United States (12/13/41), and U. S. took 

similar action (6/5/42) ; 
Yugoslavia, and Yugoslavia took similar ac- 
tion 4/6/41 (Bulgaria and Hungary are 
declared by Yugoslav Government to 
have participated in German attack of 
early April 1941 upon Yugoslavia. Bul- 
garia announced 4/24/41 that a state of 
war existed in those areas of Greece and 
Yugoslavia occupied by Bulgarian 
troops.) 
Following countries declared war against Bul- 
garia : 
Australia 1/6/42; 

Czechoslovakia 12/16/41 (see following para- 
graph) ; 
Haiti (12/24/41); 
IVew Zealand 12/13/41 ; 
Nicaragua 12/19/41; 
Union of South Africa 12/13/41 ; 
United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia 
(see preceding paragraph). 
A declaration broadcast from London 12/9/41 
by the Minister of State in the Min- 
istry of Foreign Affairs of Czechoslo- 
vakia stated: "The Czechoslovak Gov- 
ernment proclaims that every country wag- 
ing war against the British Empire and 
the Soviet Union or against the United 
States of America becomes, automatically 
and with all the relevant implications, an 
enemy of the Czechoslovak Republic". On 
12/16/41 the President of the Czechoslovak 
Republic, Dr. Eduard Benes, issued the 
following laroclamation in London : "In ac- 
cordance with article 3, paragraph 1 of 
section 64 of the Constitutional Charter, I 
hereby proclaim that the Czechoslovak Re- 
public is in a state of war with all countries 
which are in a state of war with Great 
Britain, the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics or the United States of America, 
and that the state of war between the 
Czechoslovak Republic on one side, and 



NOVEMBER 20, 1943 



351 



Germany and Hungary on the other, has 
been in existence since the moment when 
the Governments of these countries com- 
mitted acts of violence against the security, 
independence and territorial integrity of 
the Republic." 
Severed diijlomutic relations with : 
Belgium (3/4/41), and Belgium took similar 

action 3/5/41 ; 
Netherlands (3/4/41), and the Netherlands 

took similar action 3/9/41 ; 
Poland (3/4/41), and Poland took similar 
action 3/5/41. 
Following countries severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with Bulgaria: 
BelgkiTn (see preceding paragraph) ; 
Chile (5/18/43) ; 
Egypt 1/5/42; 
Mexico 12/20/41; 

Netherlands, Polatid (see preceding para- 
graph). 

Canada 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 
Finland 12/7/41 ; 
Germany 9/10/39 ; 
Hunganj 12/7/41; 
//ff/y 6/10/40; 

Japan, 12/7/41, and Japan took similar action 
(According to telegram 12/17/41 from 
American Legation at Stockholm the 
Japanese Charge at Stockholm was re- 
ported, in a Stockholm newspaper, to 
have stated that Japan considered itself 
at war with Australia, Canada, New 
Zealand, and Union of South Africa as 
well as with United States and Great 
Britain. A declaration of war by Japan 
was made against "the British Empire", 
which presumably would include India 
and the Dominions.) ; 
Rumania 12/7/41. 
Terminated diplomatic relations with France 
(11/9/42). 



Chile 
Severed diplomatic relations with : 
Bulgaria (5/18/43) ; 
France (5/18/43) ; 
Germany 1/20/43 ; 
Hungary (5/18/43) ; 
//■aZy 1/20/43; 
Japan 1/20/43 ; 
Rumania (5/18/43). 

China 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 

Germany 12/9/41 midnight; 
Italy 12/9/41 midnight; 
Japan (12/9/41 midnight). 
Severed diplomatic relations with the Govern- 
ment of France at Vichy 8/1/43. 

Colombia 

Severed diplomatic relations with : 
France 11/26/42; 
Germany 12/19/41 ; 
Italy 12/19/41 ; 
Japan (12/8/41). 

Costa Rica 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 

Germany 12/11/41; 

Italy 12/11/41; 

Japan 12/8/41. 
Severed diplomatic relations with : 

Hungary 5/15/42 ; 

RuTnania 5/15/42. 

Cuba 
Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 
G^ermany 12/11/41; 
Italy 12/11/41; 
Japan 12/9/41. 
Severed diplomatic relations with France 
(11/9/42). 



352 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTILLETITC 



Czechoslovakia 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 

Bulgaria 12/16/41 ; 

Finland 12/16/41 ; 

Germany (12/16/41) ; 

Hungary (12/16/41) ; 

Italy 12/16/41 ; 

Japan 12/16/41 ; 

Rumania 12/16/41 ; 

Thailand (see following paragraph). 
A declaration broadcast 12/9/41 from London 
by the Minister of State in the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs of the Czechoslovak Gov- 
ernment stated: "The Czechoslovak Gov- 
ernment proclaims that every country wag- 
ing war against the British Empire and the 
Soviet Union or against the United States 
of America becomes, automatically and 
with all the relevant implications, an enemy 
of the Czechoslovak Republic". Czechoslo- 
vakia is indicated here as being at war 
with Thailand although it was not at war 
with the British Empire, the Soviet Union, 
or the United States until after 12/9/41. 
On 12/16/41 the President of the Czecho- 
slovak Republic, Dr. Eduard Benes, issued 
the following proclamation in London : "In 
accordance with article 3, paragraph 1 of 
section 64 of the Constitutional Charter, 1 
hereby proclaim that the Czechoslovak Re- 
public is in a state of war with all countries 
which are in a state of war with Great 
Britain, the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics or the United States of America, 
and that the state of war between the 

. Czechoslovak Republic on one side, and 
Germany and Hungary on the other, has 
been in existence since the moment when 
the Governments of these countries com- 
mitted acts of violence against the security, 
independence and territorial integrity of 
the Republic." 



Denmark 
Severed diplomatic relations with: 

Belgium 7/15/40 ; 

The Netherlands 5/10/40, and the Nether- 
lands took similar action 7/15/40 (In a 
note of 4/2/43 to the Department of State 
the Netherlands Ambassador stated that 
the severance of diplomatic relations be- 
tween the Netherlands and Denmark 
must be considered to have become ef- 
fective on 5/10/40. In a telegram of 
7/17/40 to the Department of State the 
American Legation at Copenhagen, how- 
ever, reported that the Danish Govern- 
ment had that morning confirmed re- 
ports of the recall of the Danish diplo- 
matic representatives from Belgium, the 
Netherlands, and Norway. The Danish 
Foreign Office added that the activities 
of these offices had ended as of July 15.) ; 

Norway 7/15/40 ; 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (6/26/- 
41). 

Dominican Republic 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 

Germany 12/11/41 ; 

Italy 12/11/41 ; 

Japan 12/8/41. 

Ecuador 

Severed diplomatic relations with : 
Germany 1/29/42 ; 
Italy 1/29/42; 
Japan 1/29/42. 

Egypt 

Severed diplomatic relations with : 
Bulgaiia 1/5/42 ; 
Finlamd 1/5/42; 
Germany (9/3/39) ; 
Hungary 12/15/41 ; 
Italy 6/12/40; 



NOVEMBER 2 0, 194 3 



353 



Japan 12/9/41 ; 

Rwmania 12/15/41 ; 

Thailand (date uncertain; apparently 3/5/42 
or earlier). 
According to the 1/7/42 issue of Progres Egyp- 
fien, the Under Secretary of the Egyptian 
Foreign Office said: "Strictly speaking a 
rupture of diplomatic relations between 
the Egyptian Government and the Govern- 
ment of Vichy has not taken place. It is 
simply an interruption or cessation of these 
relations. This measure aims only at the 
official representation of the Government 
of Vichy, it does not imply any modifica- 
tion of the status of French nationals." 

El Salvador 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on: 

Germany (12/12/41) ; 
I My (12/12/41) ; 
Japan (12/8/41). 
Severed diplomatic relations with France 
11/13/42. 

Ethiopia 

ISIember of United Nations. Notification of ad- 
herence to Declaration by United Nations, 
July 28, 1942. 
Declared war on : 
Germany (12/1/42) ; 
Italy (12/1/42) ; 
Japan (12/1/42). 

Finland 

Declared war on U.S.S.R. (6/25/42). 
Following countries declared war against Fin- 
land: 

Australia 12/8/41 ; 

Canada 12/7/41 ; 

Czechoslovakia 12/16/41 (see following para- 
gi-aph) ; 

India (12/7/41) ; 

New Zealand 12/7/41; 

Union of South Africa 12/8/41 ; 

United Kingdom 12/7/41. 



A declaration broadcast from Loiidon 12/9/41 
by the Minister of State in the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs of Czechoslovakia stated : 
"The Czechoslovak Government proclaims 
that every country waging war against the 
British Empire and the Soviet Union or 
against the United States of America, be- 
comes, automatically and with all the rele- 
vant implications, an enemy of the Czecho- 
slovak Republic". On 12/16/41 the Presi- 
dent of the Czechoslovak Republic, Dr. Ed- 
uard Benes, issued the following proclama- 
tion in London : "In accordance with article 
3, paragraph 1 of section 64 of the Consti- 
tutional Charter, I hereby proclaim that 
the Czechoslovak Republic is in a state of 
war with all countries which are in a state 
of war with Great Britain, the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics or the United 
States of America, and that the state of 
war between the Czechoslovak Republic on 
one side, apd Germany and Hungary on 
the other, has been in existence since the 
moment when the Governments of these 
countries committed acts of violence against 
the security, independence and territorial 
integrity of the Republic." 
Severed diplomatic relations with Poland 

6/24/41. 
Following countries severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with Finland : 

Belgium (6/29/41); 

Egypt 1/5/42; 

Netherlands (6/28/41) ; 

Norway (12/7/41); 

Yugoslavia (8/22/41). 

France 

Declared war on Germany 9/3/39. 
Italy declared war on France 6/11/40. 
Severed diplomatic relations with : 

Belgium 9/5/40; 

Luxemhowg 9/5/40; 

Netherlands 9/5/40; 

Norway 9/5/40 ; 

Peru (see following paragraph) ; 

Poiaw^ 9/23/40; 



354 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN" 



V. S. S. R. (6/30/41) ; 

United Kingdom (On 7/5/40 the American 
Embassy in France reported to the De- 
partment of State that orders had been 
sent recalling the French Charge in Lon- 
don. In a telegram of 7/7/40 the Ameri- 
can Embassy at London informed the De- 
partment of State (1) that the French 
Charge on July 7 informally advised the 
British Foreign Office of the severance of 
relations and (2) that on July 8 the 
French Charge would deliver a formal 
note.) ; 
United States ll/B/42,; 
Yugoslavia 8/22/41. 
Following countries severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with France : 
Canada (On 11/9/42 the Canadian Prime 
Minister announced that diplomatic re- 
lations with France were terminated.) ; 
Chile (5/18/43); 
China 8/1/43 ; 
Colombia 11/26/42 ; 
C^iba (11/9/42); 
El Salvador n/n/i2; 
Guatemala 11/12/42; 
Haiti 11/10/42 ; 
Honduras (11/13/42); 
Iraq (11/16/41) ; 
Mexico 11/9/42 ; 

Nicaragua (relations "suspended" 11/10/42) ; 
Panama (11/13/42) ; 

Pem (1/26/43), and France took similar ac- 
tion (1/26/43) ; 
Union of South Africa 4/23/42 ; 
Uruguay (5/12/43). 
According to the 1/7/42 issue of Progres Egyp- 
tien, the Under Secretary of the Egyptian 
Foreign Office said: "Strictly speaking a 
rupture of diplomatic relations between the 
Egyptian Government and the Government 
of Vichy has not taken place. It is simply 
an interruption or cessation of these rela- 
tions. This measure aims only at the official 
representation of the Government of Vichy, 



it does not imply any modification of the 
status of French nationals". 

Germany 

Declared war on : 

Greece (4/6/41) ; 

U.S.S.R. 6/22/41; 

United States 12/11/41, and U. S. took simi- 
lar action (12/11/41) ; 

Yugoslavia 4/6/41. 
No record has been found of a formal declara- 
tion of war between Germany and Belgium; 
Germany and the Netherlands; Germany 
and Poland. Germany invaded Belgium, 
Luxembourg, and the Netherlands 5/9- 
10/40, and on 5/10/40 the Belgian Govern- 
ment declared in a note to foreign govern- 
ments that the Belgian Army would defend 
Belgian national territory with all its force. 
On 12/20/41 the Belgian Ambassador at 
Washington informed the Secretary of 
State of a Belgian proclamation that war 
"exists" between Belgium and Japan as it 
"already exists with Germany and Italy". 
German troops invaded Poland 9/1/39, and 
on that date Hitler issued a proclamation 
to the German armed forces which read in 
part as follows : "The Polish State has re- 
fused the peaceful arrangement of neigh- 
borly relations striven for by me; instead 
it has appealed to arms. ... To put an 
end to these mad doings no other means 
are left me than from now on to pit force 
against force". 
The German Minister to Luxenibourg informed 
the Luxembourg Foreign Office 5/10/40 
that "the Government of the Reich is forced 
to extend to Luxembourg territory the 
military operations started upon". The 
Luxembourg Government has on various 
occasions indicated that it is fighting for 
the independence of the country, and in a 
note of 9/8/42 to the Secretary of State the 
Minister of Luxembourg at "Washington 
stated that the Luxembourg Go\''ernment 
considered itself in a state of war with the 
Axis powers. 



NOVEMBER 2 0, 1943 



355 



Germany attacked Norway 4/9/40. The 4/26/40 
issue of Reichsgesetzhlatt, Teil 1, No. 
74, p. 677, contains a decree of the Fiihrer 
for the Exercising of Governmental Au- 
thority in Norway, 4/24/40, wliich reads 
as follows (translation) : "The Ny- 
gaardsvokl [Premier of Norway] Govern- 
ment through its proclamation and conduct 
as well as the military fighting that is tak- 
ing place as a result of its will has created 
a state of war between Norway and the 
German Reich." In an undated telegram 
received by the Department of Statfr 
4/9/40, 12 : 04 a. m., the American ilinister 
at Oslo (Mrs. Harrunan) stated: "Foreign 
Minister informs me . . . that Norway is 
at war with Germany". A telegram 
4/11/40 from the American Legation at 
Stockholm rejjorted that Mrs. Harriman 
had stated in a telephone conversation at 
3 : 30 p. m. "that the Norwegian Foreign 
Minister had told her that Norway has not 
declared war on Germany but at the same 
time, as Norway had been attacked, she 
considers herself at war". In a telegram 
of 4/29/40 the American Legation at 
Stockholm stated that a declaration issued 
by the Norwegian Government declared 
that the "Norwegian Government has been 
aware of this state of war ever since night 
between April eighth and ninth". 
Following countries declared war against 
Germany : 

Australia (9/3/39); 

Belgium (see ante, p. 354) ; 

Brazil (8/22/42); 

Canada 9/10/39 ; 

China 12/9/41 midnight; 

Costa Rica 12/11/41 ; 

Cuha 12/11/41 ; 

Czechoslovakia 12/16/41 (see following para- 
graph) ; 

Dominican Republic 12/11/41; 

El Salvador (12/12/41) ; 



Ethiopia (12/1/42); 

France 9/3/39; 

Guatemala (12/11/41); 

Haiti (12/12/41); 

Honduras 12/13/41; 

IMia (9/3/39); 

Iran 9/9/43 ; 

Iraq 1/16/43 midnight; 

Italy (10/13/43) ; 

Luxembourg (see ante, p. 354) ; 

Mexico 5/22/42; 

Netherlands (5/10/40) (see supra); 

New Zealand ^/2,/m; 

Nicaragua 12/11/41 ; 

Norway 4/8-9/40 (see preceding para- 
graph) ; 

Panama (12/12/41); 

Union of South Africa 9/6/39; 

United Kingdom 9/3/39 ; 

United States (see ante, p. 354). 
A declaration broadcast from London 12/9/41 
by the Minister of State in the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs of the C zechoslcrvak Gov- 
ernment stated : "The Czechoslovak Govern- 
ment proclaims that every country waging 
war against the British Empire and the 
Soviet Union or against the United States 
of America becomes, automatically and with 
all the relevant implications, an enemy of 
the Czechoslovak Republic". On 12/16/41 
the President of the Czechoslovak Repub- 
lic, Dr. Eduard Benes, issued the following 
proclamation in London: "In accordance 
with article 3, paragraph 1 of section 64 
of the Constitutional Qiarter, I hereby pro- 
clahn that the Czechoslovak Republic is in 
a state of war with all countries which 
are in a state of war with Great Britain, 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or 
the United States of America, and that the 
state of war between the Czechoslovak Re- 
public on one side, and Germany and Hun- 
gary on the other, has been in existence 
since the moment when the Governments of 



560737— -43- 



356 

these countries committed acts of violence 
against the security, independence and ter- 
ritorial integrity of the Republic." 
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Bolivia, in 
a telegram of 4/27/43 to the Secretary of 
State of the United States, stated in part 
(translation) : ''In harmony with the decree 
issued by my Government on the seventh 
day of the current month and year de- 
claring a state of war between Bolivia and 
the nations of the Axis . . . Bolivia for- 
mally adheres by means of this communi- 
cation to the declaration of the United 
Nations". The Bolivian Congress has not 
enacted a resolution declaring war. 
Following countries severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with Germany: 

Chile 1/20/4.Z', 

Colombia 12/19/41 ; 

Ecuador 1/29/42 ; 

Egypt (9/3/39) ; 

Pam^way 1/28/42; 

Peru 1/24/42 ; 

Uruguay 1/25/42; 

Venezuela 12/31/41. 

Great Britain. See United Kingdom 
Greece 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war against /teZy 10/28/40 (see fol- 
lowing paragi-aph). 
Following countries declared war against 
Greece : 
Bulgaria (Bulgaria announced 4/24/41 that 
a state of war existed in those areas of 
Greece and Yugoslavia occupied by Bul- 
garian troops) ; 
Germany (4/6/41) ; 

Italy, and Greece took similar action 
10/28/40 (Italy attacked Greece 
10/28/40). 
Severed diplomatic relations with Japan 
12/7/41. 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE' BTJLLETrN" 

Following countries severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with Greece : 
Hungary (The Hungarian Foreign Office 
asked the Greek Minister, presumably 
on 6/24/41, to close his Legation) ; 
Rumania (6/24/41). 

Guatemala 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 

Germany (12/11/41) ; 
Italy (12/11/41) ; 
Japan (12/8/41). 
Severed diplomatic relations with France 
11/12/42. 

Haiti 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 
Bulgaria (12/24/41); 
Germany (12/12/41) ; 
Hungary (12/24/41) ; 
Italy (12/12/41); 
Japan. (12/8/41) ; 

Rumama (12/24/41), and Rumania took sim- 
ilar action 12/24/41. 
Severed diplomatic relations with France 
11/10/42. 

HONDTJRAS 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 
Germany 12/13/41 ; 
Italy 12/13/41 ; 
Japan 12/8/41. 
Severed diplomatic relations with France 
(11/13/42). 

Hungary 

Declared war on: 
f/./S.x^.^. 6/27/41; 

United States ( 12/12/41 ) , and U. S. took simi- 
lar action (6/5/42). 

( Continued on p. 361 ) 



NOVEMBER 20, 1943 



357 



AXIS AGAINST THE WORLD 



Practically all nations are lined up with either 
the Axis or the United Nations. This align- 
ment has far-reaching significance. The ac- 
companying map, diagram, and table show the 
territory and population of the Axis countries, 
United Nations, and neutrals at the present 
time (November 20, 1943) except with refer- 
ence to Italy. They show what the world is 
like. They bring into sharp focus the nature 
of some of the problems which lie ahead. 

Even before the Italian surrender, Septem- 
ber 8, 19i3, the comparatively small extent of 
Axis territory and population was strikingly 
apparent. The three principal members, Ger- 
many, Italy, and Japan, and their overseas de- 
jjendencies together had only 10 percent of the 
earth's inhabitants and 3 percent of its land 
area before they started their respective at- 
tempts at conquest. 

Five small nations that were persuaded or 
forced to join the Axis in war against one or 
more of the United Nations had an additional 
1 percent of the world's population and less 
than 1 percent of its area. 



At first glance the figures give the reader a 
feeling of utter incredulity. How could the 
Axis leaders be so audacious as to suppose they 
could dominate the world from bases so small ? 

The answer is common knowledge. The Axis 
members were organized for war and plunder. 
On the other hand, the manpower, industry, and 
natural resources of other nations were directed 
chiefly toward peaceful pursuits; yet they had 
no adequate organization to maintain peace. 

Each nation tried to go its own way, leaving 
responsibility to others. Aggression in Man- 
churia and Ethiopia was not checked by con- 
certed action. Sliort-sightedly failing to per- 
ceive their danger the Allied nations were slow 
in erecting a common front against it. Thus the 
Axis aggressors struck down their victims 
singly ; for several years Germany was able to 
make quick and apparently easy conquests. 

Not until 28 months after Germany invaded 

Poland did the United Nations come into being. 

There are now 33 United Nations. These, 

their dependencies, and the territories now 

{Continued on p. 360) 



Principal Axis nations 

Associates and cobel- 
ligerents of the Axis 



Non-United Nations 
areas occupied by Axis 



Area (in millions of square miles) 
15 20 



Europe USSR. 



Asia 



Australia 
and Oceania 



United Nations 



Under Frencfi Committee 



Relations with the 
Axis severed 



Neutrals 



«>>»»■»»««« 



Each dot { • )- 10,000,000 population 
AREA AND POPULATION OF AXIS COUNTRIES, UNITED NATIONS, AND OTHER COUNTRIES 



35S 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXTLLETIN 




WORLD WAR II 
ALIGNMENT OF THE NATIONS 



, , , . Principal Axis nations and dependencies 
'Y//; (as on September 1. 1943) 



Associates and cobelllgerents of the Axis 
United Nations territories occupied by Axis 
Ottier territories occupied by Axis 



Relations S€ 
Axis nations 
with United 



Neutral nati( 



The map shows the ali£:ninent of nations at the pres- 
ent time (Novenil)ei- 20, 1943) except with i-efefenee to 
Italy. The territories of the three principal Axis na- 



tions are thus shown at their full extent, as they were 
until the surrender of Italy, September 8, 1943. The 
map also shows the large areas of the countries which 



NOVEMBER 20, 1943 



359 




.Sinusoidal equal-ares projection 



Office of the Geographer, Department of State, November 20, 1943 



have come to comprise the Uuited Nations and their still occupied by Axis forces, the Axis territories 
dependencies, the countries that have severed relations (Italian Africa) occupied by the United Nations, and 

with one or more Axis natiohs, the considerable areas the small areas which are neutral in the present war. 



360 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE- BULLETIN' 



(Continued from p. 357) 
under the French Committee of National 
Liberation, had, before the start of the at- 
tempted Axis aggressions, about 77 percent of 
the population and 82 percent of the land area 
of the world. This is a tremendous total on 
the map, but large portions are difficult of ac- 
cess, thinly inhabited, or poorly developed. 

The Axis nations, especially Germany and 
Japan, have had the great advantage of oper- 
ating from interior lines. With all its territory, 
population, wealth, and resources the United 
States cannot get at its opponents without reach- 
ing far out across two oceans, one of them, the 
Pacific, being the largest in the world. From 
the very nature of the geographical situation, 
Germany and Japan are able to exact a stagger- 
ing price from us in these far-flung operations. 

Wliile the map, diagram, and table show the 
striking preponderance of United Nations ter- 
ritory and population it does not follow that 
there is the same discrepancy in resources. 
Modern industrial strength depends largely 
upon coal, petroleum, and steel. Both Germany 
and Japan have provided themselves, through 
military preparedness and subsequent con- 
quests, with great quantities of fuel and steel ; 
Germany already had a tremendous peacetime 
production of both coal and steel. 



But just as disease sometimes sets up an im- 
munity of its own, so the aggression of the Axis 
powers is gradually engendering a world of 
truly United Nations. On October 30, 1943, 
by the pact of Moscow, the Governments of the 
United States of America, United Kingdom, 
Soviet Union, and China, stood pledged to ham- 
mer their Axis foes into unconditional sur- 
render. 

Calamity has brought them together. It is 
forging 2^owerful weapons in their hands. 
"Blood, sweat and tears" are at last converting 
potential manpower and resources into actual 
figliting power. 

With the threatened nations actually uniting, 
events seem to prove how foolhardy was the at- 
tempt by so small a minority to subdue all the 
other peoples of the earth. But the time for 
exultation has not arrived. More than once the 
aggressors have come perilously close to their 
abhorrent goal. 

The enemy is beginning to feel the weight of 
the preponderance of United Nations resources, 
but only continued and tremendous exertions 
will make them effective. 

Finally the map and table indicate the truly 
global character of the war, since only 5 percent 
of the earth's population and 8 percent of its 
land area are in neutral countries. 



POPULATION AND AREAS 





Population 
(in millions) 


Percent of 
world total 


Area (in mil- 
lions of square 
miles) 


Percent of 
world total 


Principal Axis nations «_ . _ 


218 
36 


10 

1 


1.5 
.3 


3 


Associates and cobelligerents _ _ 


1 






Total Axis and associates -- - 


254 
98 


11 

5 


1.8 

.8 


4 




1 






Total _._ -- 


352 


16 


2.6 


6 








1,613 
43 


75 
2 


37. 6 
4.2 


74 


Under French Committee of National Liberation _ _ _ . _ 


8 






Total United Nations and Allies 


1,656 


77 


41. 8 


82 






Relations severed with one or more of Axis nations, or closely 
associated with United Nations 


59 


2 


2.6 


5 






Neutral nations and other territories 


99 


5 4.0 


8 






Total World 


2, 166 


100 


51. 100 



NOVEMBER 2 0, 1943 

(Continued from p. 356) 

HuNGAET — Continued 

Bulgaria and Hungary are declared by the Yu- 
goslav Government to have participated in 
the German attack of early April 1941 upon 
Yugoslavia. Admiral Horthy's command 
of 4/10/41 to the Hungarian Army reads 
in part as follows (translation) : "Duty 
again calls us to hasten to help such of 
our Hungarian blood as were detached from 
us. . . . Forward, to the thousand-year 
frontier to the South!" 
Following countries declared war against 
Hungary : 

Australia l2/8/il; 

Canada 12/7/41 ; 

Czechoslovakia (12/16/41) (see following 
paragraph) ; 

Haiti (12/24/41) ; 

India (12/7/41) ; 

New Zealand 12/7 /il; 

Nicaragua 12/19/41; 

Union of South Africa 12/8/41 ; 

United Kingdoin 12/7/41 ; 

United States (see ante, p. 356) ; 

Yugoslavia (see supra). 
A declaration broadcast from London 12/9/41 
by the Minister of State in the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs of Czechoslovakia 
stated: "The Czechoslovak Government 
proclaims that every country waging war 
against the British Empire and the Soviet 
Union or against the United States of 
America becomes, automatically and with 
all the relevant implications, an enemy of 
the Czechoslovak Eepublic". On 12/16/41 
the President of the Czechoslovak Eepub- 
lic, Dr. Eduard Benes, issued the following 
proclamation in London: "In accordance 
with article 3, paragraph 1 of section 64 of 
the Constitutional Charter, I hereby pro- 
claim that the Czechoslovak Eepublic is in 
a state of war with all countries which are 
in a state of war with Great Britain, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Eepublics or the 
United States of America, and that the 



361 

state of war between the Czechoslovak Ee- 
public on one side, and Germany and Hun- 
gary on the other, has been in existence 
since the moment when the Governments 
of these countries committed acts of vio- 
lence against the security, independence and 
territorial integrity of the Eepublic." 
Severed diplomatic relations with : 
Brazil 5/2/'i2; 

Greece (The Hungarian Foreign Office asked 
the Greek Minister, presumably on 
6/24/41, to close his Legation) ; 
Poland (In a note of 12/24/40 to the Hungar- 
ian Government the Polish Minister at 
Budapest referred to the note of 12/7/40 
from the Hungarian Government re- 
questing that the necessary measures be 
taken to end all activities of the Polish 
Legation at Budapest, and he informed 
the Hungarian Goveriunent that he had 
consulted his Government and had re- 
ceived pertinent instructions and that the 
Polish Legation at Budapest would cease 
its activities Jan. 1, 1941). 
Following countries severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with Hungary : 
Chile (5/18/43) ; 
Costa Rica 5/15/42; 
Egypt 12/15/41; 

Iran (date uncertain; for pertinent state- 
ments see the Bulletin of Apr. 18, 1942, 
p. 344) ; 
Mexico 12/19/41 ; 

Netherlands 4/9/41 (The Netherlands Charge 
at Budapest informed the Hungarian 
Foreign Office on 4/9/41 that he had been 
instructed by his Government to leave 
Hungary. According to a note of 
4/2/43 from the Netherlands Ambassa- 
dor at Washington to the Department of 
State, the Netherlands Charge at Buda- 
pest left Hungary 4/9/41, and the Am- 
bassador informed the Department that 
the decision of the Netherlands Govern- 
ment to sever diplomatic relations with 
the Hungarian Government was made 
4/8/41. A telegram of 4/11/41 from the 



362 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJLLETIN 



American Legation at Budapest to the 
Department stated that the Netherlands 
Charge left Budapest for Moscow at noon 
4/11/41.) ; 
Poland (see preceding paragraph). 
No record of a formal severance of diplomatic 
relations between Hungary and Belgixtm, 
has been found, but according to telegrams 
from the American Minister at Budapest 
the'Belgian Minister departed 4/11/41 un- 
der instructions from his Govermnent. 

India 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 
Finland (12/7/41); 
Germany (9/3/39) ; 
Hungary (12/7/41) ; 
Italy (6/11/40) ; 

Japan ( 12/9/41 ) (Japan declared war against 
"the British Empire", which presumably 
would include India and the Dominions.) ; 
. Rwmaniu (12/7/41). 

Iran 

Member of United Nations. Notification of 
adherence to Declaration by United Na- 
tions, Sept. 10, 1943. The Iranian notifi- 
cation, a note of 9/10/43 from the Iranian 



Minister at "Washington, stated : " 



by 



act of the 9th day of this month, Iran de- 
clares the existence of a state of war with 
Germany and formally adheres to the 
Declaration of the United Nations". (The 
Iranian Minister affixed his signature to 
the Declaration Sept. 14, 1943.) 
Declared war on Germany 9/9/43. 
Severed diplomatic relations with: 

Hungary, Italy, Eiimania (dates uncertain; 
for pertinent statements see the Bulle- 
tin of Apr. 18, 1942, p. 344) ; 
Japan (4/12/42). 

Iraq 

Member of United Nations. Notification of 
adherence to Declaration by United Na- 



tions, Jan. 16, 1913 (Minister of Iraq affixed 
his signature to the Declaration Apr. 10, 
1943). 
Declared war on : 

Germany 1/16/43 midnight; 
Italy 1/16/43 midnight; 
Japan 1/16/43 midnight. 
Severed diplomatic relations with France 
(11/16/41). 

Italy 
Declared war on : 
France 6/11/40 ; 
Germany (10/13/43) ; 

Greece, and Greece took similar action 
10/28/40 (Italy attacked Greece 
10/28/40) ; 
Z7.>S./S'.^. 6/22/41; 

United Kingdom 6/11/40, and United King- 
dom took similar action 6/11/40; 
United States 12/11/41, and U. S. took similar 

action (12/11/41) ; 
Yugoslavia (4/6/41). 
Following countries declared war against Italy : 
A^istralia &/ll/iQ; 
Belgium (11/23/40) ; 
Brazil (8/22/42) ; 
^'anarfa 6/10/40; 
China 12/9/41 midnight ; 
Costa Rica 12/11/41 ; 
Cuba 12/11/41 ; 

Czechoslovakia 12/16/41 (see following para- 
graph) ; 
Dominican Republic 12/11/41 ; 
Fl Salvador (12/12/41) ; 
Fthiopia (12/1/42) ; 
Greece (see preceding paragraph) ; 
Guatemala (12/11/41) ; 
//a/^!^ (12/12/41); 
Honduras 12/13/41 ; 
India (6/11/40) ; 
Iraq 1/16/43 midnight; 
Mexico 5/22/42; 
Netherlands 12/11/41; 
New Zealand 6/11/40; 
Nicaragua 12/11/41; 
Panama (12/12/41) ; 
Union of South Africa 6/11/40; 



NOVEMBER 2 0, 1943 



363 



United Kingdom, United States (see preced- 
ing paragraph). 

A declaration broadcast from London 12/9/41 
by the Minister of State in the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs of Czechoslovakia 
stated: "The Czechoslovak Government 
proclaims that every country waging war 
against the British Empire and the Soviet 
Union or against the United States of 
America, becomes, automatically and with 
all the relevant implications, an enemy of 
the Czechoslovak Republic". On 12/16/41 
the President of the Czechoslovak Republic, 
Dr. Eduard Benes, issued the following 
proclamation in London : "In accordance 
with article 3, paragraph 1 of section 64 of 
the Constitutional Charter, I hereby pro- 
claim that the Czechoslovak Republic is in 
a state of war with all countries which are 
in a state of war with Gi'eat Britain, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the 
United States of America, and that the 
state of war between the Czechoslovak Re- 
I^ublic on one side, and Germany and Hun- 
gary on the other, has been in existence 
since the moment when the Governments 
of these countries committed acts of vio- 
lence against the security, independence 
and territorial integrity of the Republic." 

The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Bolivia, in 
a telegram of 4/27/43 to the Secretary of 
State of the United States, stated (trans- 
lation) : "In harmony with the decree is- 
sued by my Government on the seventh 
day of the current month and year declai- 
ing a state of war between Bolivia and the 
nations of the Axis . . . Bolivia formally 
adheres by means of this commvniication to 
the declaration of the United Nations". 
The Bolivian Congress has not enacted a 
resolution declaring war. 

The following counti'ies severed diplomatic re- 
lations with Italy : 
C/»7e 1/20/43; 
Colombia 12/19/41 ; 
Ecuador 1/29/42; 



Egyft%/n/m; 

Iran (date uncertain; for pertinent state- 
ments see the Bulletin of Apr. 18, 1942, 
p. 344) ; 

Paraguay 1/28/42; 

Peru 1/24/42 ; 

Urtiguay 1/25/42 ; 

Venezuela 12/31/41. 
In a telegram of 2/24/42 from the American 
Minister accredited to Saudi Arabia and 
resident at Cairo, it was stated as follows : 
" ... in December [1941] he [King Ibn 
Saud] . . . advised the Italian Minister 
that in view of the friendly relations exist- 
ing between his Government and the 
British ... it was of vital importance 
to him to do nothing to impair those rela- 
tions. The maintenance of diplomatic rep- 
resentation by Italy in Saudi Arabia did 
constitute a source of difficulty in tliis re- 
spect and in the circumstances he felt im- 
pelled to ask the Italian Minister to close 



down his Legation and leave. 



Ac- 



cording to the most recent information 
available the Italians left Riad February 
17 [1942] ..." 

No record of a formal severance of diplomatic 
relations between Italy and Nonoay has 
been found, but on 6/13/40 the diplomatic 
representative of Norway left Rome. 

No record of a formal severance of diplomatic 
relations between Italy and Poland has been 
found, but on 6/13/40 the diplomatic repre- 
sentative of Poland left Rome. On 6/13/40 
the Polish Ambassador at Washington in- 
formed an officer of the Department of 
State that according to a telegram he had 
received from his Government "the rela- 
tionship between the Polish and Italian 
" Governments would be similar to that be- 
tween the British and the French Govern- 
ments on the one hand and the Soviet Gov- 
ernment on the other hand during the 
recent period when the French and the 
British Ambassadors were absent from 
their posts at Moscow." 



364 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE. BUtiLETriSr 



' Japan 

Declared war on : 

Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Union of 
South Africa (see following paragraph) ; 

United Kingdom 12/7/41, and United King- 
dom took similar action (12/8/41) (A 
declaration of war by Japan was made 
against "the British Empire", which 
presumably would include India and the 
Dominions.) 

United States 12/7/41, and U. S. took similar 
action (12/8/41). 
Following countries declared war against 
Japan : 

Australia 12/8/41, and Japan took similar ac- 
tion (According to a telegram of 12/17/41 
from the American Legation at Stock- 
holm the Japanese Charge at Stockholm 
was reported, in a Stockholm newspaper, 
to have stated that Japan considered 
itself at war with Australia, Canada, New 
Zealand, and the Union of South Africa 
as well as with the United States and 
Great Britain.) ; 

Belgium (12/20/41) ; 

Canada 12/7/41, and Japan took similar ac- 
tion (see note following Australia, 
supra) ; 

China (12/9/41 midnight) ; 

Costa Rica 12/8/41 ; 

Cula 12/9/41 ; 

Czechoslovakia 12/16/41 (see following para- 
graph) ; 

Dominican Republic 12/8/41 ; 

El Salvador (12/8/41) ; 

Ethiopia (12/1/42) ; 

Guatemala (12/8/41) ; 

Haiti (12/8/41); 

Honduras 12/8/41 ; 

India (12/9/41) ; 

Iraq 1/16/43 midnight; 

Mexico 5/22/42; 

Netherlands (12/8/41) ; 

New Zealand (12/8/41), and Japan took 
similar action (see note following Aus- 
tralia, supra) ; 



Nicaragua V2/S/A1 (Nicaraguan newspapers 
of 12/9/41 printed a manifesto of the 
President of Nicaragua declaring that 
the Nicaraguan Government "finds it- 
self under the necessity of considering 
Nicaragua in a state of war 'de hecho' 
with Japan pending the legal declara- 
tion of such status by the National Con- 
gress" (translation). On the same date 
the Nicaraguan Congress resolved that 
"From the eighth day of the current 
month a state of war has existed between 
the Eepublic of Nicaragua and the Em- 
l^ire of Japan" (translation). The 
President of Nicaragua signed the reso- 
lution on Dec. 10. The American Min- 
ister at Managua telegraphed to the 
Department of State on 12/11/41 as 
follows: "Minister of Foreign Affairs 
informs me that a formal declaration of 
war against Japan has been passed by 
Congress, has been signed by President 
Somoza and is in effect today".) ; 
Panama 12/7/41 ; 
Poland 12/11/4:1 ; 

Union of South Africa 12/8/41, and Japan 
took similar action (see note following 
Australia, supra) ; 
United States, United Kingdom (see preced- 
ing paragraph) ; 
Yugoslavia 12/7/41. 
A declaration broadcast from London 12/9/41 
by the Minister of State in the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs of Czechoslovakia 
stated : "The Czechoslovak Govermnent 
proclaims that every country waging war 
against the British Empire and the Soviet 
Union or against the United States of 
America, becomes, automatically and with 
all the relevant implications, an enemy of 
the Czechoslovak Eepublic". On 12/16/41 
the President of the Czechoslovak Kepub- 
lic. Dr. Eduard Benes issued the following 
proclamation in London: "In accordance 
with article 3, paragraph 1 of section 64 
of the Constitutional Charter, I hereby 
proclaim that the Czechoslovak Republic 



NOVEMBER 20, 1943 



365 



is in a state of war with all countries which' 
are in a state of war with Great Britain, 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or 
the United States of America, and that the 
state of war between the Czechoslovak Re- 
public on one side, and Germany and Hun- 
gary on the other, has been in existence 
since the moment when the Governments 
of these countries committed acts of vio- 
lence againjst the security, independence 
and territorial integrity of the Republic." 
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Bolivia, in 
a telegram of 4/27/43 to the Secretary of 
State of the United States stated (transla- 
tion) : "In harmony with the decree issued 
by my Government on the seventh day of 
the current month and year declaring a 
state of war between Bolivia and the na- 
tions of the Axis . . . Bolivia formally 
adheres by means of this communication to 
the declaration of the United Nations". 
The Bolivian Congress has not enacted a 
resolution declaring war. 
Following countries severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with Japan: 

Brazil 1/28/42; 

Chile 1/20/43; 

ColomUa (12/8/41) ; 

Ecuador 1/29/42; 

Egypt 12/9/41; 

Greece 12/7/41; 

Iran (4/12/42); 

Norway (date uncertain; presumably about 
12/9/41) ; 

Paraguay 1/28/42; 

Peru 1/24/42; 

Uruguay 1/25/42; 

Venezuela 12/31/41. 

Luxembourg 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 

The German Minister to Luxembourg informed 
the Luxembourg Foreign Office 5/10/40 
that "the Government of the Reich is 
forced to extend to Luxembourg territory 



the military operations started upon". The 
Luxembourg Government has on various 
occasions indicated that it is fighting for 
the independence of the country, and in a 
note of 9/8/42 to the Secretary of State of 
the United States the Minister of Luxem- 
bourg at Washington stated that the Lux- 
embourg Government considered itself in 
a state of war with the Axis powers. 
France severed diplomatic relations with Lux- 
embourg 9/5/40. 

Mexico 

Member of United Nations. Notification of 
adherence to Declaration by United Na- 
tions June 5, 1942 (the Mexican Ambassa- 
dor affixed his signature to the Declaration 
June 14, 1942). 
Declared war on : 
Germany 5/22/'^ ; 
Italy h/2yi2,; 
Japan 5/22/42. 
Severed diplomatic relations with : 
Bulgaria -i2/20/41; 
France 11/9/42; 

Hungary 12/19/41 (A statement issued by 
the Mexican Foreign Office 12/23/41 re- 
lating to the declaration of war by Bul- 
garia, Hungary, and Rumania against 
the United States reads in part as fol- 
lows (translation) : "... the Govern- 
ment of Mexico has resolved to declare its 
diplomatic relations with those nations 
to be severed. . . . As regards Rumania, 
it may be said that Mexico has no Treaty 
of Friendship with that country nor do 
diplomatic relations with it exist".) 

Netherlands 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on :' 
Italy 12/11/41 ; 
Japan (12/8/41). 
Germany invaded the Netherlands, Belgium, 
and Luxembourg on May 9-10, 1940. 



366 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE. BTJIiLETESr 



Severed diplomatic relations with : 

Bulgaria, Denmark (see following para- 
graph) ; 

Finland (6/28/41); 

Hungary 4/9/41 (The Netherlands Charge at 
Budapest informed the Hungarian For- 
eign Office 4/9/41 that he had been in- 
structed by his Government to leave 
Hungary. According to a note of 4/2/43 
from the Netherlands Ambassador at 
Washington to the Department of State, 
the Netherlands Charge at Budapest left 
Hungary 4/9/41, and the Ambassador in- 
formed the Department that the decision 
of the Netherlands Government to sever 
diplomatic relations with the Hungarian 
Government was made 4/8/41. A tele- 
gram of 4/11/41 from the American Le- 
gation at Budapest to the Department 
stated that the Netherlands Charge left 
Budapest for Moscow at noon April 11.) ; 

Rumania 2/11/41 ; 

Thailand 12/9/41. 
Following countries severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with the Netherlands : 

Bulgaria (3/4/41) , and Netherlands took sim- 
ilar action 3/9/41 ; 

Denmark 5/10/40, and Netherlands took simi- 
lar action 7/15/40 (In a note of 4/2/43 
to the Department of State the Nether- 
lands Ambassador stated that the sever- 
ance of diplomatic relations between the 
Netherlands and Denmark must be con- 
sidered to have become effective 5/10/40. 
In a telegram of 7/17/40 to the Depart- 
ment of State the American Legation at 
Copenhagen, however, reported that the 
Danish Government had that morning 
confirmed reports of the recall of the 
Danish diplomatic representatives from 
Belgium, the Netherlands, and Norway. 
The Danish Foreign Office added that the 
activities of these offices had ended as of 
. July 15.) ; 

France 9/5/40. 



New Zealand 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 

Bulgaria n/\%/\\; 

Finla7ull2/7/'il; 

Germany 9/3/39 ; 

Hungary 12/7/41 ; 

Italy ^/ll/AQ; 

Japan (12/8/41), and Japan took similar 
action (According to a telegram of 
12/17/41 from the American Legation 
at Stockholm the Japanese Charge in 
Stockholm was reported, in a Stockholm 
newspaper, to have stated that Japan 
considered itself at war with Australia, 
Canada, New Zealand, and the Union of 
South Africa as well as with the United 
States and Great Britain. A declaration 
of war by Japan was made against ''the 
British Empire", Mhich presumably 
would include India and the Domin- 
ions.) ; 

Rumania 12/7/41 ; 

Thailand 1/25/42. 

Nicaragua 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 

Bulgaria 12/19/41 ; 

Germany 12/1\/41\ 

Hungary 12/19/41 ; 

Italy 12/11/41 ; 

Japan 12/8/41 (Nicaraguan newspapers of 
12/9/41 printed a manifesto of the Presi- 
dent of Nicaragua declaring that the 
Nicaraguan Government "finds itself un- 
der the necessity of considering Nica- 
ragua in a state of war 'de hecho' with 
Japan pending the legal declaration of 
such status by the National Congress" 
(translation). On the same date the 
Nicaraguan Congress resolved that 
"From the eighth day of the current 



NOVEMBER 20, 1943 



367 



month a state of war has existed between 
the Republic of Nicaragua and the Em- 
jjire of Japan" (translation). The 
President of Nicaragua signed the reso- 
lution on Dec. 10. The American Min- 
ister at Managua telegraphed to Depart- 
ment Dec. 11 as follows: "Minister of 
Foreign Affairs informs me that a for- 
mal declaration of war against Japan 
has been passed by Congress, has been 
signed by President Somoza and is in 
effect today".) 

Rumania declared war on Nicaragua 12/19/41, 
and Nicaragua took similar action 12/19/41. 

Severed diplomatic relations with France 
(11/10/42). 

Norway 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 

Norway was attacked by Germany 4/9/40. The 
4/26/40 issue of the Reichsgesetzblatt, 
Teil 1, No. 74, p. 677, contains a decree of 
the Fiihrer for the Exercising of Govern- 
mental Authority in Norway, issued 
4/24/40, which reads as follows (transla- 
tion) : "The Nygaardsvold [Premier of 
Norway] Government through its procla- 
mation and conduct as well as the military 
fighting that is taking place as a result of 
its willhas created a state of war between 
Norway and the German Reich". In an 
undated telegram received by the Depart- 
ment of State 4/9/40 at 12 : 04 a. m., the 
American Minister at Oslo (Mrs. Harri- 
man) stated: "Foreign Minister informs 
me . . . that Norway is at war with Ger- 
many". A telegram of 4/11/40 from the 
American Legation at Stockholm reported 
that Mrs. Harriman had stated in a tele- 
phone conversation at 3 : 30 p. m. "that the 
Norwegian Foreign Minister had told her 
that Norway has not declared war on Ger- 
many but at the same time, as Norway had 
been attacked, she considers herself at 
war". In a telegram of 4/29/40 the Amer- 



ican Legation at Stockholm stated that a 
declaration issued by the Norwegian Gov- 
ernment declared that the "Norwegian 
Government has been aware of this state 
of war ever since night between April 
eighth and ninth." 
Severed diplomatic relations with : 

Finland (12/7/41) ; 

Japan (date uncertain; presumably about 
12/9/41). 
Following countries severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with Norway : 

Denmark 7/15/40 ; 

France 9/5/40; 

Spain (3/6/42). 
No record of a formal severance of diplomatic 
relations between Norway and Italy, and 
between Norway and Rumania has been 
found, but the diplomatic representative 
of Norway left Rome 6/13/40, and the 
Norwegian Minister to Rumania, also 
accredited to Yugoslavia, left Bucharest 
2/21/41 to take up residence in Belgrade. 

Panama 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on: 

Germany (12/12/41) ; 
Italy (12/12/41); 
Japan 12/7/41. 
Severed diplomatic relations with France 
(11/13/42). 

Paraguay 

Severed diplomatic relations with : 

Germany 1/28/42; 
Italy 1/28/42; 
Japan 1/28/42. 

Peru 

Severed diplomatic relations with: 
France (1/26/43), and France took similar 
action (1/26/43) ; 

Germany 1/24/42 ; 
Italy 1/24/42; 
Japan 1/24/42. 



368 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE. BtTLLETrM 



Philippines, Commonwealth of the 

Member of United Nations. Notification of 
adherence to Declaration by United Na- 
tions June 10, 1942. The President of the 
Commonwealth of the Philippines affixed 
his signature to the Declaration June 14, 
1942. 

Poland 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on Japan 12/11/41. 
No I'ecord of a formal declaration of war with 
Gennany has been found, but on 9/1/39, 
when German troops invaded Poland, a 
proclamation was issued by Hitler to the 
German armed forces and broadcast on 
that date which read in part as follows: 
"The PoUsh State has refused the peaceful 
arrangement of neighborly relations striven 
for by me ; instead it has appealed to arms. 
... To put an end to these mad doings no 
other means are left me than from now on to 
pit force against force". 
Severed diplomatic relations with : 
Bulgaria (see following paragraph) ; 
Rumania 11/5/40 (The departure of the 
Polish diplomatic and consular represent- 
atives in Rumania was characterized in 
the Polish Embassy's note to the Foreign 
Office as a "suspension" of Polish-Eu- 
manian relations.) 
Following counti'ies severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with Poland : 
Bulgaria (3/4/41), and Poland took similar 

action 3/5/41; 
Finland 6/24/41 ; 
France ^/2yi0; 

Hungary (In a note of 12/24/40 to the Hun- 
garian Government the Polish Minister 
at Budapest referred to tlie note of 12/- 
7/40 from the Hungarian Government re- 
questing that the necessary measures be 
taken to end all activities of the Polish 
Legation at Budapest, and he informed 
the Hungarian Government that he had 
consulted his Government and had re- 



ceived pertment instructions and that 
the Polish Legation at Budapest would 
cease its activities 1/1/41.) ; 
Spain (1/21/42) ; 

U. S. S. R. (On 4/26/43 the Soviet Govern- 
ment sent to the Polish Embassy at Mos- 
cow a note, dated 4/25/43, in which it an- 
nounced the decision "to suspend its re- 
lations with the Polish Government".) 
No record has been found of a formal severance 
of diplomatic relations M'ith Italy, but on 
6/13/40 the diplomatic representative of 
Poland left Rome. On June 13 the Polish 
Ambassador at Washington informed an 
officer of the Department of State that ac- 
cording to a telegram he had received from 
his Government "the relationship between 
the Polish and the Italian Governments 
would be similar to that between the British 
and the French Governments on the one 
hand the Soviet Government on the other 
hand during the recent period when the 
Fi-ench and British Ambassadors were ab- 
sent from their posts at Moscow." 

Rumania 

Declared war on : 

Haiti (see following paragraph) ; 

Nicaragua 12/19/41, and Nicaragua took 
similar action 12/19/41; 

United States (12/12/41), and U. S. took 
similar action (6/5/42). 
Following countries declared war against 
Rumania : 

Australia 12/8/41 ; 

Canada 12/7/41 ; 

Czechoslovakia 12/16/41 (see following para- 
graph) ; 

Haiti (12/24/41), and Rumania took similar 
action 12/24/41 ; 

India (12/7/41); 

New. Zealand 12/7/41; 

Nicaragua (see preceding paragraph) ; 

Union of South Africa 12/8/41 ; 

United Kingdom 12/7/41 ; 

United States (see preceding paragraph). 



NOVEMBER 20, 1943 



369 



A declaration broadcast from London 12/9/41 
by the Minister of State in the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs of Czechoslovakia stated : 
"The Czechoslovak Government proclaims 
that every country waging war against the 
British Empire and the Soviet Union or 
against the United States of America, 
becomes, automatically and with all the 
relevant implications, an enemy of the 
Czechoslovak Republic". On 12/16/41 the 
President of the Czechoslovak Republic, 
Dr. Eduard Benes, issued the following 
proclamation in London : "In accordance 
with article 3, paragraph 1 of section 64 of 
the Constitutional Qiarter, I hereby pro- 
claim that the Czechoslovak Republic is in 
a state of war with all countries which are 
in a state of war with Great Britain, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the 
United States of America, and that the 
state of war between the Czechoslovak Re- 
public on one side, and Germany and Hiui- 
gary on the other, has been in existence 
since the moment when the Governments 
of these countries committed acts of vio- 
lence against the security, independence 
and territorial integrity of the Republic." 

Certain territory of the U. S. S. R. was attacked 
by Rumania 6/22/41 with a view to re- 
possessing it. No record of a formal decla- 
ration of war between Rumania and 
U. S. S. R. has been found. On 6/22/41 
General Antonescu, Chief of the Rumanian 
State, issued a proclamation to the Ru- 
manian Army, which reads in part as fol- 
lows (translation) : "Fight for the libera- 
tion of our brothers of Bessarabia and 
Bucovina . . . Victory will be ours. On to 
battle". In a proclamation to the Nation 
on the same day he said : "I call you to 
battle . . . The holy war has begun". 

Severed diplomatic relations with: 
Brazil (3/6/42) ; 
Greece (6/24/41). 



Following countries severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with Rumania : 
Chile (5/18/43) ; 
Costa Rico 5/15/42; 
Egypt 12/15/41; 

Iran (date uncertain; for pertinent state- 
ments see the Bulletin of Apr. 18, 1942, 
p. 344) ; 
Netherlands 2/11/^1; 

Poland 11/5/40 (The departure of the Polish 
diplomatic and consular representatives 
in Rumania was characterized in the 
Polish Embassy's note to the Foreign 
Office as a "suspension" of Polish-Ruma- 
nian relations.) ; 
Yugoslavia 5/9/41. 
According to a telegram from the American 
Minister at Bucharest the Belgian Minis- 
ter departed 2/14/41. A despatch of 
2/28/41 from the American Minister to 
Rumania, in reporting the departure of the 
Belgian Minister from Bucharest, stated 
that the Belgian Minister indicated that 
this was not a "rupture" of relations. The 
note by which the Belgian Minister in- 
formed the Rumanian Government of his 
approaching departure explained that he 
was "called to other functions". He also 
added the information that, after his de- 
parture, the affairs of the Legation would 
be conducted by the American Minister 
until other disposition was made by his 
Government. 
A statement issued by the Mexican Foreign Of- 
fice on 12/23/41 relating to the declaration 
of war by Bulgaria, Hungary, and Ru- 
mania against the United States reads in 
part as follows (translation) : "... the 
Government of Mexico has resolved to de- 
clare its diplomatic relations with those 
nations to be severed. ... As regards Ru- 
mania, it may be said that Mexico has no 
Treaty of Friendship with that country 
nor do diplomatic relations with it exist". 



370 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BtTLLETrN 



No record of a formal severance of diplomatic 
relations between Norway and Rumania 
has been found, but the Norwegian Min- 
ister to Rumania, who was also accredited 
to Yugoslavia, left Bucharest 2/21/41 to 
take up his residence at Belgrade. 

Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 

In a telegram of 2/24/42 from the American 
Minister accredited to Saudi Arabia and 
resident at Cairo, it was stated as follows: 
" ... in December [1941] he [Kinglbn 
Saud] . . . advised the Italian Minister 
that in view of the friendly relations ex- 
isting between his Government and the 
British ... it was of vital importance to 
him to do nothing to impair those relations. 
The maintenance of diplomatic representa- 
tion by Italy in Saudi Arabia did consti- 
tute a source of difficulty in this respect 
and in the circumstances he felt impelled 
to ask the Italian Minister to close down 
his Legation and leave. . . . According 
to the most recent information avail- 
able the Italians left Riad February 17 
[1942] . . ." 

Spain 

Severed diplomatic relations with : 
Nonoay (3/6/42); 
Poland (1/21/42). 

Thailand 

Declared war on : 

United Kingdom 1/25/42, and United King- 
dom took similar action 1/25/42; 
United States 1/25/42. 
Following countries declared war against 
Thailand : 
Australia 3/2/42; 
New Zealand 1/25/42 ; 
Union of Siouth Africa 1/25/42 ; 
United Kingdom (see preceding paragraph). 
Following countries severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with Thailand: 
Egypt (date uncertain; apparently 3/5/42 

or earlier) ; 
Netherlands 12/9/41. 



A declaration broadcast from London 12/9/41 
by the Minister of State in the Ministry 
of Foreign Ajffairs of Czechoslovakia 
stated : "The Czechoslovak Government 
proclaims that every country waging war 
against the British Empire and the Soviet 
Union or against the United States of 
America, becomes, automatically and 
with all the relevant implications, an ene- 
my of the Czechoslovak Republic". On 
12/16/41 the President of the Czechoslo- 
vak Republic, Dr. Eduard Benes, issued 
the following proclamation in London : 
'Tn accordance with article 3, paragraph 1 
of section 64 of the Constitutional Charter, 
I hereby proclaim that the Czechoslovak 
Republic is in a state of war with all coun- 
tries which are in a state of war with Great 
Britain, the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics or the United States of America, 
and that the state of war between the 
Czechoslovak Republic on one side, and 
Germany and Hungary on the other, has 
been in existence since the moment when 
the Governments of these countries com- 
mitted acts of violence against the security, 
independence and territorial integrity of 
the Republic." 

Union of South Africa 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 

Bulgaria 12/13/41 ; 

Finland 12/8/41 ; 

Germany 9/6/39 ; 

Hungary 12/8/41 ; 

Italy &/\l/AO; 

Japan 12/8/41 (According to a telegram of 
12/17/41 from the American Legation 
at Stockholm the Japanese Charge at 
Stockholm was reported, in a Stockliolm 
newspaper, to have stated that Japan 
considered itself at war with Australia, 
Canada, New Zealand, and the Union of 
South Africa as well as with the United 
States and Great Britain. A declaration 



NOVEMBER 20, 1943 



371 



of war by Japan was made against "the 
British Empire", which presumably 
would include India and the Domin- 
ions.) ; 

Rumania 12/8/41 ; 

Thailand 1/25/42. 
Severed diplomatic relations with France 

Union or Soviet Socialist Eepublics 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 

Following countries declared war against 
U.S.S.R.: 
Finland (6/25/41) ; 
Germany 6/22/41; 
Hungai-y 6/27/41 ; 
Italy 6/22/41. 

No record of a formal declaration of war has 
been found between Rumania and U.S.S.R. 
Rumania attacked certain Soviet terri- 
tory 6/22/41 with a view to re-possessing it, 
and on the same day. General Antonescu, 
Chief of the Rumanian State, issued a proc- 
lamation to the Rumanian Army, which 
reads in part as follows (translation) : 
"Fight for the liberation of our brothers of 
Bessarabia and Bucovina . . . Victory 
will be ours. On to battle". In a procla- 
mation to the Nation the same day he said : 
"I call you to battle . . . The holy war 
has begun". 

The Soviet Government, on 4/26/43, sent to the 
Embassy of Poland at Moscow a note, 
dated Apr. 25, in which it announced the de- 
cision "to suspend its relations with the 
Polish Government". 

Following countries severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with U. S. S. R. : 
Denmark (6/26/41) ; 
France (6/30/41). 

United Kingdom 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion b}^ United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 
Bulgaria (see following paragraph) ; 



Finland 12/7/41 ; 
Germany 9/3/39 ; 
Hungary 12/7/41 ; 
Italy (see following paragraph) ; 
Japan (see following paragraph) ; 
Rumania 12/7/41 ; 

Thailmul (see following paragraph). 
Following countries declared war against 
United Kingdom : 
Bulgaria (12/13/41), and United Kingdom 

took similar action 12/13/41 ; 
Italy 6/11/40, and United Kingdom took simi- 
lar action 6/11/40; 
Japan 12/7/41, and United Kingdom took sim- 
ilar action (12/8/41) (A declaration of 
war by Japan was made against "the 
British Empire", which presumably 
would include India and the Domin- 
ions.) ; 
Thailand 1/25/42, and United Kingdom took 
similar action 1/25/42. 
The American Embassy in France reported on 
7/5/40 to the Department of State that 
orders had been sent recalling the French 
Charge at London. In a telegram of 7/7/40 
the American Embassy at London informed 
the Depai-tment of State (1) that the French 
Charge on July 7 informally advised the 
British Foreign Office of the severance of 
relations and (2) that on July 8 the French 
Charge would deliver a formal note. 

United States or America 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Following countries declared war against the 
United States: 
Bulgaria (12/13/41), and U. S. took similar 

action (6/5/42) ; 
Germany 12/11/41, and U. S. took similar 

action (12/11/41) ; 
Hungary (12/12/41), and U. S. took similar 

action (6/5/42) ; 
Italy 12/11/41, and U. S. took similar action 

(12/11/41); 
Japan 12/7/41, and U. S. took similar action 
(12/8/41) ; 



372 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BinXETEN 



Rwnania (12/12/41), and U. S. took similar 

action (6/5/42) ; 
Thailand 1/25/42. 
France severed diplomatic relations with United 
States 11/8/42. 

Uruguay 

Severed diplomatic relations with: 
France (5/12/43) ; 
Germany 1/25/42; 
/ifa/y 1/25/42; 
Japan 1/25/42. 

Venezuela 

Severed diplomatic relations with: 
Germany 12/31/41 ; 
Italy 12/31/41 ; 
Japan 12/31/41. 

Yugoslavia 

Member of United Nations. Signed Declara- 
tion by United Nations, Jan. 1, 1942. 
Declared war on : 

Bulgaria, Hungary (see following para- 
graph) ; 
Japan 12/7/41. 



Following countries declared war against Yugo- 
slavia : 

Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia took similar action 
4/6/41 (Bulgaria and Hungary are de- 
clared by the Yugoslav Government to 
have participated in the German attack 
of early April 1941 upon Yugoslavia. 
Bulgaria announced 4/24/41 that a state 
of war existed in those areas of Greece 
and Yugoslavia occupied by Bulgarian 
troops. Admiral Horthy's command of 
4/10/41 to the Hungarian Army reads 
in part as follows (translation) : "Duty 
again calls us to hasten to help such of 
our Hungarian blood as were detached 
from us. . . . Forward, to the thou- 
sand-year frontier to the South !") ; 

Germany 4/6/41 ; 

Hungary, and Yugoslavia took similar action 
4/10/41 (see note following Bulgaria, 
supra) ; 

Italy (4/6/41). 
Severed diplomatic relations with : 

Finland (8/22/41) ; 

Rumania 5/9/41. 
France severed diplomatic relations with Yugo- 
slavia 8/22/41. 



International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 



MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS ON UNITED STATES PARTICIPATION 
IN THE UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND REHABILITATION ADMINISTRATION 



[Released to the press by the White House November 15] 

To THE Congress or the United States : 

I am happy to inform the Congress that on 
November 9, 1943, reijresentatives of 43 nations 
and peoples joined with our own Government 
in signing the accompanying UNRRA agree- 
ment,^ setting up an international Relief and 



* BuixETiN of Sept. 25, 1943, p. 211. 



Rehabilitation Administration to give first aid 
in the liberated areas. This agreement provides 
only the framework. The implementation is 
left to the constitutional lawmaking body of the 
member states. 

The task of the organization will be to assist 
in furnishing the medicine, food, clothing, and 
other basic necessities and essential services 
which are required to restore the strength of the 



NOVEMBER 20, 1943 



373 



liberated peoples. They have been deliberately 
stripped by the enemy in order to support the 
Axis war-machine. More than that, the Axis 
leaders have boasted that as they withdraw, they 
will leave only devastation — what they have not 
stolen, they will destro3^ As our American sol- 
diers fight their way up the Italian boot, they 
are discovering at first-hand that the barbarism 
of the Nazis is equal to their boasts. Their only 
rivals in this respect are the Japanese. 

UNRRA will be able to make only a begin- 
ning in the vast task of aiding the victims of 
war. The greatest part of the job will have to 
be done by the liberated peoples themselves. 
What UNRRA can do is to help the liberated 
peojDles to help themselves, so that they may 
have the strength to undertake the task of re- 
building their destroyed homes, their ruined 
factories, and their plundered farms. 

The length of the war may be materially 
shortened if, as we free each occupied area, the 
l^eople are enlisted in support of the United 
Nations' armies. 

Already, for example, a new French Army 
has been created, and, as we strike toward Ber- 
lin, increasing numbers in Sicily and Italy are 
falling in step beside the soldiers of the United 
Nations. Others construct roads and military 
installations required for our military opera- 
tions. Millions more are waiting for the mo- 
ment when they, too, can strike a blow against 
the enemy. 

They do not want charity. They seek the 
strength to fight, and to do their part in secur- 
ing the peace. Aid to the liberated peoples dur- 
ing the war is thus a matter of military neces- 
sity as well as of humanity. 

UNRRA will not, of course, be expected to 
solve the long-range problems of reconstruction. 
Other machinery and other measures will be 
necessary for this purpose. Wliat UNRRA can 
do is to lay the necessary foundation for these 
later tasks of reconstruction. 

The devastation and disorganization caused 
by the Nazi and Japanese war-machines is so 
great that this world disaster can be met only 
by the united action of the 44 United Nations 



and associated nations. Accordingly, under the 
agreement establishing UNRRA, it is proposed 
that each nation will contribute in accordance 
with its ability. Each will determine for itself 
the amount and character of the contribution 
which it can make. 

A small fraction of the national income of 
the contributing member states will, it is hoped, 
be sufficient to meet the needs. Some of the 
liberated nations may be able to make payment 
for the supplies and services rendered. But 
only by bringing to bear the resources of all 
the United Nations will we be able to relieve 
a substantial part of the suffering of the millions 
who will need help. 

The nature and the amount of the contribu- 
tion to be made by the United States will, in 
accordance with the terms of the UNRRA agi'ee- 
ment, be determined by the Congress of the 
United States under its constitutional proce- 
dure. 

At this time I recommend to the Congress 
the enactment of a bill authorizing the appro- 
priation of funds as Congi-ess may from time 
to time determine to permit the participation 
by the United States in the work of UNRRA. 
I am not now recommending the appropriation 
of a specific sum. At a later date after the con- 
clusion of the Atlantic City meeting, I shall 
send to you a further recommendation, inform- 
ing you of the result of the meeting and re- 
questing the appropriation of specific funds. 
Franklin D Roosevelt 



Europe 



TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF ESTABLISH- 
MENT OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS 
WITH THE SOVIET UNION 

[Released to the press November 16] 

The following telegram has been sent by the 
Seci-etary of State to His Excellency V. M. 
Molotov, People's Commissar for Foreign Af- 
fairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : 



374 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



November 15, 1943. 
I am happy to recall that 10 years ago a new 
period in the relations between the Soviet 
Union and the United States was inaugurated 
which has led to increased understanding and' 
friendliness between our peoples and has pro- 
vided the basis for today's collaboration and 
cooperation between our two countries. I am 
confident that in the coming months and years 
our recent conference at Moscow will be re- 
garded as an historic step forward in Soviet- 
American relations and as the beginning of an 
era of closer collaboration among all free na- 
tions devoted to the principles of liberty and 
peace. 

CORDELL HtHLL 

AINMVERSARY OF THE FOUNDING 
OF THE SOVIET UNION 

[Released to the press November 16] 

The President of the United States of 
America has received the following message 
from His Excellency Mikhail Kalinin, Presi- 
dent of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 
of the Union of Soviet .Socialist Kepublics : 

[Translation] 

November 15, 1943. 
I beg you to accept my thanks, Mr. Presi- 
dent, for your friendly greetings on the oc- 
casion of the anniversary of the Soviet State. 
I express the conviction that the strengthening 
of our collaboration will find fresh expression 
in the decisions of the Moscow Conference and 
the intensification of the joint blows of the 
Anglo-American armies and the Soviet forces 
against our common foe — Hitler Germany — to 
hasten the ending of the war and to insure 
lasting peace and security of the nations in the 
post-war period. 

M. Kalinin 

The following message has been received by 
the Secretaiy of State from His Excellency V. 
M. Molotov, People's Commissar for Foreign 



Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics : 

November 15, 1943. 
I thank you, Mr. Secretary of State, for your 
kind congratulations and good wishes on the 
occasion of the anniversary of the Soviet 
Union. Now that you have safely arrived in 
your native land after your extended journey, 
I am glad to salute you again and to express to 
you my best wishes. 

MoLOTOV 



The Foreign Service 



CONFIRMATIONS 

On November 15, 1943 the Senate confirmed 
the nomination of R. Henry Norweb, now 
American Ambassador to Peru, as American 
Minister to Portugal. 

On November 18, 1943 the Senate confirmed 
the nomination of Ray Atherton, now American 
Minister to Canada, as American Ambassador 
to Canada (see the Bulletin of Nov. 13, 1943, 
p. 334). 



Publications 



"FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED 
STATES, JAPAN: 1931-1 941", VOL- 

UME I 

[Released to the press for publication November 20, 9 p.m.] 

On November 20 the Department of State 
released the first of two volumes containing a 
documentary record of the diplomatic relations 
between the United States and Japan from the 
beginning of the Japanese occupation of Man- 
churia on September 18, 1931 to the declaration 
of war by the United States following the sur- 
prise Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on De- 
cember 7, 1941. These volumes form part of 



NOVEMBER 2 0, 1943 



375 



the Foreign Relations series in which the dip- 
lomatic correspondence of the Department is 
regiUarly published, and in general the same 
jDrinciples of editing have been followed as for 
other volumes of that series. To keep the record 
within the compass of even two large volumes 
it has been necessary, however, to limit the 
amount of background material printed. Dur- 
ing the 10 years covered there was, of course, 
a continuous flow of pertinent reports coming 
to the Department from American diplomatic 
representatives. Such information reports are 
included either because they seem to be of spe- 
cial significance or because they are essential 
to the proper understanding of other diplomatic 
documents. 

In dealing with the crises which arose in the 
Far East during this "fateful decade" the Amer- 
ican Government often consulted with other 
interested powers and at times took parallel 
action with them, but it was not its practice to 
take joint action. It has therefore been possible 
to present a substantially complete record of 
direct dealings between the American and Jap- 
anese Governments without entering into the 
ramifications of discussions with third powers. 

A frequent complaint of the Japanese Gov- 
ernment was that its true intentions were not 
understood. For the purpose of presenting the 
Japanese contentions as stated by tlieir own 
spokesmen, there have been included in these 
volumes a considerable number of statements by 
i-esponsible Japanese leaders, as well as reports 
of numerous conversations between American 
and Japanese officials. It is believed that Amer- 
ican readers will have no difficulty in properly 
evaluating these Japanese claims with regard 
to Japanese intentions in connection with the 
establishment of "a new order in East Asia". 

Volume I, containing 691 documents, opens 
with the story of the Japanese occupation of 
Manchuria, during the course of which succes- 
sive military actions on the part of Japan were 
accompanied by diplomatic protestations by 
Japan of non-aggressive intentions against 
China, the setting up by the Japanese of the 



puppet state of "Manchukuo", the application 
of the non-recognition policy of the United 
States, and American representations against 
the closing of the "open door". These papers 
are followed by chapters on the military action 
by Japan at Shanghai in 1932, further Japanese 
political and economic penetration in China in 
the years 1934 to 1936, and the abandonment by 
Japan of cooperation with other powers in ef- 
forts for the limitation of naval armaments. 

The last two thirds of this volume is concerned 
with various aspects of Japan's undeclared war 
on China which followed the clash at Marco 
Polo Bridge, July 7, 1937. The extension of 
Japanese aggression and the failure of efforts 
to bring about a peaceful settlement are traced 
in one chapter through the years 1937 and 1938. 
In this chapter there is included the statement 
made by Secretary of State Hull to a foreign 
diplomat on September 21, 1938 as follows: 

"... since August a year ago I have proceeded 
here on the theory that Japan definitely con- 
templates securing domination over as many 
hundreds of millions of people as possible in 
eastern Asia ancl gradually extending her con- 
trol through the Pacific islands to the Dutch 
East Indies and elsewhere, thereby dominating, 
in practical effect, that one-half of the world; 
and that she is seeking this objective by any 
and every kind of means ; that at the same time 
I have gone on the theory that Gennany is 
equally bent on becoming the dominating co- 
lossus of continental Europe" (pp. 475-476). 

Bombings of civilians by Japanese and other 
acts endangering the lives and welfare of Amer- 
ican citizens in China are recorded in a chapter 
with sections for each year from 1937 to 1941 
inclusive, with a separate section on the sinking 
of the U.S.S. Panay, December 12, 1937; and 
in a similar manner are treated acts of Japan 
in occupied China interfering with American 
treaty rights and equality of commercial op- 
portunity. The correspondence with the Jap- 
anese Government with respect to such acts is 
so voluminous that only the record of repre- 



376 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



sentaticns of a general character and a number 
of notes on particular incidents are printed. On 
September 13, 1940, Joseph C. Grew, Ambas- 
sador to Japan, informed the Japanese Govern- 
ment that, since the beginning of hostilities, ap- 
proximately 280 instances of bombing of prop- 
erty belonging to American nationals, by the 
Jajjanese air forces, had been brought to the 
attention of the American Embassy (p. 697). 

A separate chapter contains representations 
to the Japanese Government with respect to 
the integrity of the Chinese Maritime Customs 
and the Salt Revenue Administration. The 
volume concludes with statements by the Secre- 
tary of State of the policy of the United States 
to relinquish extraterritorial rights in China by 
agreement with the Chinese Government — a 
policy which was subsequently implemented by 
the conclusion on January 11, 1943 of the treaty 
between the United States and China for the 
relinquishment of extraterritorial rights and 
the regulation of related matters. 

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of 
the United States, Japan: 1931-19^1, Volume 
I, xcii, 947 pages, may be purchased from the 
Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office, for $2.25. It is expected 
that the second volume will be available for 
release within about two weeks. 



The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals: 
Cumulative Supplement No. 2, November 19, 1943, to 
Revision VI of October 7, 1943. Publication 2022. 
36 pp. Free. 



During the week of November 15-20 the De- 
partment of State also released the following 
publications : 

The State Department and Its Foreign Service in 
Wartime : Address by G. Rowland Shaw, Assistant 
Secretary of State, at the Thirtieth National Foreign 
Trade Convention, New York, N.Y., October 26, 1943. 
Publication 2020. 12 pp. 50. 



Legislation 



Amending the Nationality Act of 1940. H. Kept. 867, 
78th Cong., on H.R. 2832. [Purpose of bill is to per- 
mit naturalization proceedings in cases of sick or 
disabled persons to be had in places other than office 
of the clerk of court or in open court.] 5 pp. 

Repealing the Chinese Exclusion Laws and To Estab- 
lish Quotas. S. Rept. 535, 78th Cong., on H.R. 3070. 
[Letter from the Under Secretary of State, dated 
October 11, 1943, recommending enactment of the 
proposed legislation, p. 2.] 9 pp. 

Philippine Independence. S. Rept. 537, 78th Cong., on 
S.J. Res. 93. [Favorable report.] 2 pp. 

Filipino Rehabilitation Commission. S. Rept. 538, 
78th Cong., on S.J.Res. 94. [Favorable report.] 2 
pp. 

Visit to the Various War Fronts by Several Members 
of the United States Senate : Remarks of Senator 
Richard B. Russell in the Senate of the United 
States October 28, 1943 and remarks of Senator 
James M. Mead October 12, 1943 relative to their 
visit to the various war fronts, together with a de- 
tailed individual report by Senator Ralph O. Bi'ew- 
ster. Presented by Senator Harry S. Truman. S. 
Doe. 109, 78th Cong. 45 pp. 

Schedule of Claims Allowed by the General Ac- 
counting Office : Communication from the President 
of the United States transmitting, pursuant to law, 
a schedule of claims allowed by the General Ac- 
counting Office, amounting to $2,419,868.84. [State 
Department, p. 29.] S. Doc. 119, 78th Cong. 32 pp. 

Exchange and Treatment of Prisoners of War: Re- 
marks of the Hon. Elbert D. Thomas, a Senator from 
the State of Utah, in the Senate of the United States 
November 15, 1943 relative to exchange and treat- 
ment of prisoners of war. S. Doc. 129, 78th Cong. 
12 pp. 



U. 5. CnvtRNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1943 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - . Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE BUREAU OF THE BUDGET 



c-'^ -^ . 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



.0 U L 



J 




1 



J JL A. L 








ontents 



NOVEMBER 27, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 231— Publication 2026 




The War Page 

Appointments to the Allied Control Commission for 
Italy and to the French Committee of National 

Liberation 379 

Statement by the Secretary of . State Regarding the 
Annorincement by Colombia of a State of Bellig- 
erency With Germany 379 

Message of the Secretary of State to the United Nations 

Fonim Lectin-e Series : 380 

Bombing of the American Embassy Building in Berlin . 380 
Financial Assistance to Americans Held by the Japa- 
nese in the Philippines 380 

Arrival in New York of the Motorsliip Gripsholm ... 381 

The Near East 

Restoration of the Government m the Lebanese Re- 
public 381 

Adherence of Egypt to the Principles of the Atlantic 

Charter 382 

American Republics 

American Legion Dinner for Diplomatic Representa- 
tives of the American Republics: Greeting of the 
Secretary of State 383 

Industrial Mission, United States and Haiti 383 

Statement by the Secretary of State on the Brazilian 

Bond Settlement 384 

Payment by Mexico Under Claims Convention of 

1941 ." 384 

lOVEBj 







ontents-coNTiNVEn 



General Page 

Address by Assistant Secretary Berle Before the Knox- 

ville Rotary Club 384 

Conversations Between the United States and Canada 

on Double Taxation Upon Estates 388 

The Department 

Retirement of Thomas Griffin 389 

Cultural Relations 

Distinguished Visitors from Other American Repub- 

Ucs 389 



m 7 ^^^ 



The War 



APPOINTMENTS TO THE ALLIED CONTROL COMMISSION FOR ITALY AND 
TO THE FRENCH COMMITTEE OF NATIONAL LIBERATION 



[Released to the press November 22] 

The President has appointed the Honor- 
able Robert D. Murphy, presently in Algiers, 
to be the United States member on the Ad- 
visory Council to the Allied Control Com- 
mission for Italy. He will have the per- 
sonal rank of Ambassador and will con- 
tinue as an adviser on General Eisenhower's 
staff for Italian affairs. 

The President has likewise designated Mr. 
Edwin C. Wilson as representative of the 
United States to the French Committee of 
National Liberation, with the personal rank 



of Ambassador. Mr. Wilson is already in 
Algiers and will assume his new duties at 
once. 

The following two appointments have been 
made by this Government to positions on the 
Allied Control Commission for Italy: The 
Honorable Henrj' F. Grady to be the ranking 
American official of the Economic and Admin- 
istrative Section of the Allied Control Com- 
mission with the title of Deputj' Vice President; 
Mr. Samuel Reber provisionally to be the rank- 
ing American member of the Political Sec- 
tion of the Allied Control Commission with 
the title of Deputy Vice President. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE REGARDING THE ANNOUNCEMENT BY 
COLOMBIA OF A STATE OF BELLIGERENCY WITH GERMANY 



[Released to the press November 27] 

I have just learned that the Goverimieut of 
Colombia has announced a state of belliger- 
ency with Germany, following a series of ag- 
gressions by the German Government culmi- 
nating a few days ago in the sinking by a 
German submarine of the Colombian vessel 
Ruhy with the loss of Colombian nationals. 
I feel sure that I speak on behalf of the people 
of this country in extending their profound 
sympathy to the people of Colombia at the 
death of their fellow citizens. 

The virile action taken by the Colombian 
Government is in keeping with the noble tra- 
ditions of that great democracy. The world of 
freedom-loving peoples will receive this ac- 



tion witli admiration and understanding, and 
those nations now at war with the Axis 
powers will welcome Colombia into their 
ranks. 

I am glad also on this occasion to have 
the opportunity once more of expressing 
my appreciation of the manifold contribu- 
tions made by Colombia to the cause of 
continental security and defense both before 
and since the outbreak of the war. The re- 
quirements of that cause, as set forth in the 
inter-American resolutions and declarations 
freely entered into by all 21 of the American 
republics, have encountered a full measure of 
understanding and implementation on the part 
of the Colombian Government and people. 



379 



380 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETm 



MESSAGE OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
TO THE UNITED NATIONS FORUM LEC- 
TURE SERIES^ 

I Released to the press November 22] 

It is a pleasure to extend greetings to the 
participants in the United Nations Forum Lec- 
ture Series. I wisli to commend you on your 
laudable purpose of promoting international 
understanding. 

Your opening subject, Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion, is indeed timely and ajjpropriate. We 
cannot be reminded too often that millions of 
human beings day after day and week after 
week are suflFeiing almost unendurable hard- 
ship at the hands of the common enemies of 
the United Nations. Some of the speakers at 
this meeting represent peoples who have fallen 
victim to Axis aggression. We can well pay 
tribute to these unconquerable peoples whose 
spirit remains unbroken a,fter several terrible 
years under the heel of a barbarous invader. 

We must all re-dedicate ourselves with in- 
creased vigor to the stern business of carrying 
on the war — of driving the Axis hordes from 
invaded territory and bringing tire war to an 
early and decisively victorious conclusion. We 
of the United Nations and of all other jjeace- 
•loving nations must likewise now resolve to 
construct an international organization so 
sti'ong and so effective that never again can 
ruthless tyrants make a serious bid to conquer 
and enslave the world. 



BOMBING OF THE AMERICAN EMBASSY 
BUILDING IN BERLIN 

[Released to the press Xovember 27] 

The State Department has received a mes- 
sage from the American Minister in Bern which 
states that he has been informed that the 
American Embassy building on the Pariser 
Platz in Berlin was struck by a bomb or bombs 
during the raid on Berlin on the night of No- 
vember 23. The exact extent of the damage is 



' Kead at !be United Nations Forum Lecture Series, 
Constitution Hall, Washington, Nov. 22, 1943. 



not yet known, but the building has had to be 
completely abandoned. The protection of 
American interests, formerly administered by 
the Swiss from this building, is now being 
handled from another location. 

The American Embassy was situated just in- 
side the Brandenburg Gate and next to the 
Ministry of Munitions and tlte official residence, 
of Propaganda Minister Goebbels, both of 
which are reported in the press to have been hit 
during the recent raids. • 



FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO AMERICANS 
HELD BY THE JAPANESE IN THE PHIL- 
IPPINES 

[Rele.ised to the press November 22] 

As a result of prolonged efforts by the Depart- 
ment of State and the American Red Cross 
to provide funds for the purchase locally of 
relief supplies and to extend financial assistance 
to the Americans held by the Japanese in the 
Philippine Islands, the Japanese Government 
has granted to the Swiss Legation at Tokj^o, 
which is charged with the representation of 
American interests in Japan and Japanese-occu- 
pied territory, permission to make remittances 
each month to civilian internment camps in the 
Philippine Islands. Funds totaling $50,000 
have been sent to Santo Tomas for this purpose, 
and arrangements have been made to forward 
on a regular basis $25,000 monthly to this camp. 
Seven thousand four hundred and ten dollars 
has also been distributed to the smaller camps 
at Bacolod, Baguio, Cebu, Davao, Iloilo, Taclo- 
ban, and Tagbilaran for relief purposes. These 
remittances will continue on a monthly basis. 
Permission has likewise been requested to remit 
funds to the Ateneo and Los Banos camps on a 
regular monthly basis. Efforts to make similar 
arrangements for American prisoner-of-war 
camps in the Philippine Islands are being con- 
tinued. 

According to information so far received by 
the Department, American civilians are now 
being held by the Japanese authorities in intern- 
ment camps in the Philippines as follows: 



NOVEMBER 2 7, 1943 



381 



Ateiieo (Manila) 81 

Bacolod 87 

Baguio ; 414 

CeiHi : — i::_i__-_..____ '_ 89 

Davao 230 

Iloilo 60 

Los Banos 800 

Santo Tomas (Manila) 2,300 

Tacloban 10 

Tagbilaran , 1 

Total 4, 081 

The persons now on board tlie exchange ves- 
sel Gripskobii who are returning to the United 
States from the Philippine Islands are being in- 
terviewed by representatives of the Depart- 
ment of State witli a view to obtaining and cor- 
relating such information as the repatriates may 
liave concerning Americans remaining in the 
Philippines. This information will be made 
available to next-of-kin and other interested 



persons in the United States as soon as it is 
received in the Department. 

ARRIVAL IN IVfEW YORK OF THE 
MOTORSHIP "GRIPSHOLM" 

[Released to the press November 27] 

The M.S. Gripsholm, which is bringing 
American and Canadian repatriates to the 
United States from the Far East, dei>arted from 
Eio de Janeiro on November 16, 1943. The 
Gripsholm has been favored with unusually 
lino weather conditions during the voyage 
from Eio de Janeiro, and as a consequence 
it is expected that the vessel will arrive in 
New York ahead of schedule. 

If the weather continues to be good the 
Grjpshohn will probably arrive in New York 
on Wednesday, December 1, instead of on 
Thursday, December 2, as has been an- 
nounced previously. 



The Near East 



RESTORATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE LEBANESE REPUBLIC 



[Kele.-ised to the press November 26] 

Tlie Government of the United States has 
noted with approval the action of the French 
Committee of National Liberation in releasing 
and restoring to office the President and Minis- 
ters of the Lebanese Republic and in abrogating 
the decrees issued on November 11, 1943, sus- 
pending the Lebanese Constitution, dissolving 
the Lebanese Parliament, and naming a "Chief 
of State, Chief of Government". 

Tlie situation in Lebanon is thus restored to a 
normal basis, iind it is the earnest hope of this 
Government that friendly negotiations can now 
proceed in an atmosphere of good-will on both 
sides for the solution of the underlying issue 
of the independence of ihe Levant States. 

By way of background it may be recalled that 
the independence of Syria and Lebanon was 
contemplated in the terms of the Class A Man- 



date over these States entrusted to France by the 
League of Nations. American rights in these 
States were defined in the treaty of 1924 be- 
tween the United States and France.^ The 
Government of the United States has subse- 
quently expressed its symi)athy and that of the 
American people with the aspirations of the 
Syrian and Lebanese peoples for the full en- 
joyment of sovereign independence. The 
proclamations of independence issued in the 
name of the French Natifinal Committee in 1941 
were welcomed as steps toward the realization 
of these aspirations,- and this Government ex- 
tended limited recognition to the local govern- 
ments established thereunder by accrediting to 
them a diplomatic agent.' More recently, this 

' Treaty Series 695. 

'' Bulletin of Nov. 29, 1941, p. 440. 

' IU6,., Oct. 10, 1942, p. 828. 



382 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Government observed with satisfaction the 
successful establisliment of elected governments 
in these States. Moreover, the eastern Mediter- 
ranean is a theater of war. While it is an area 



of primary British strategic responsibility, any 
activities therein which hamper the general war 
effort are of concern to all the United Nations. 



ADHERENCE OF EGYPT TO THE PRINCIPLES OF THE ATLANTIC CHARTER 



I Released to the press November 271 

The texts of cornmunications exchanged be- 
tween the Minister of Egypt and the Secretary 
of State concerning the adherence of Egypt 
to the principles enunciated in the Atlantic 
Charter, follow: 

November 20, 1943. 

Sir: 

Acting on instructions of my Government, 1 
have the honour to transmit to Your Excellency 
the following communication: 

"Ever since the Joint Declaration of Presi- 
dent Eoosevelt and Prime Minister ChiU'chill 
published to the world on August 14, 1941 and 
since known as the Atlantic Charter, the Egyp- 
tian Government has publicly expressed its en- 
tire approval of the principles, and the lofty 
ideals this Pact engenders as a basis for the re- 
construction of a future world. 

"Both through respect of her treaty obliga- 
tions with Great Britain, and taking into con- 
sideration the objectives to which the democratic 
powers have dedicated their efforts for the at- 
tainment of a just and lasting peace, Egypt has 
not failed to extend to her ally, and conse- 
quently, the United Nations, every help pro- 
vided for by the treaty of Amity and Alliance 
between her and Great Britain. It is because 
of this that Egypt hereby declares its adherence 
to the principles enunciated in the Atlantic 
Charter, which holds forth the promise of a 
universal peace ; for Egypt is convinced that the 
sole peace capable of covering all nations, and 
providing them with security and justice, is a 
peace which recognizes the sovereign rights of 
all peoples, and sets forth the essential princi- 
ple of human liberty as a basis for a highly 



civilized world. Egypt is, therefore, glad to 
be able to contribute its share, and associate in 
such a system and order, as evolved and pro- 
vided for by the Atlantic Charter, which stands 
as much for the Orient as for the Occident, and 
for the New World as for the Old in bringing 
forward the trend for a modern life of a high 
order. In this connection, Egypt highly appre- 
ciates the decision that no discrimination what- 
soever be tolerated, that would divide races and 
peoples. 

"By her adherence to the principles enunci- 
ated in the Atlantic Charter, Egypt endorses her 
traditional liberal policy of justice and amity 
towards all nations, inasmuch as this policy can- 
not but strengthen and cement all the more 
firmly the ties of Egypt with the other nations 
animated with the desire of creating and estab- 
lishing a happier future for the world." 

Please accept [etc.] M. Hassan 



November 27, 1943. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt 
of your note of November 20, 1943, in which you 
state, under instructions from your Govern- 
ment, that Egypt declares its adherence to the 
principles enunciated in the Atlantic Charter 
and that by adhering to those principles Egypt 
endorses her traditional liberal policy of justice 
and amity toward all nations. 

I wish to thank you for informing me of this 
action of the Egyptian Government which con- 
stitutes new evidence of Egypt's firm devotion 
to the ideals and principles for which the 
United Nations are fighting. 

Accept [etc.] Cordell Hull 



NOVEMBER 27, 1943 



383 



American Republics 



AMERICAN LEGION DINNER FOR DIPLO- 
MATIC REPRESENTATIVES OF THE 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

Greeting of the Secretary of State ' 

[Released to the press November 26] 

]\Ir. Chairman, Youk Excellencies, Distin- 
guished Guests: 

A generation ago the men who now make 
up the American Legion fought gallantly with 
their comrades-in-arms in a struggle for the 
defense of America — for the defense of civili- 
zation. We owe a great debt of gratitude to 
the brave men who participated in that 
struggle. 

At its annual convention in September of 
this year the American Legion unanimously 
adopted a report which is admirable as an 
expression of a high purpose of that oi'ganiza- 
tion. Included in this report was a state- 
ment that the Legion endorsed the good- 
neighbor policy and urged the removal of 
every difference standing in the way of hemis- 
phere solidarity in order that the nations of 
the Americas might speak and act as one in 
the cause of liberty and justice. 

Tonight the Commander of the American 
Legion is meeting with representatives of the 
other American republics as a part of the 
Legion program to promote inter-American 
understanding. This is a most welcome step. 
With the active support of its million and 
a quarter members and the half million mem- 
bers of its Women's Auxiliary, the Legion 
can provide immeasurable assistance in bring- 
ing about a wider understanding of the pur- 
poses and program of our good-neighbor 
policy, especially as it relates to the other 
American republics. 



' Read by the Honorable Breckinridge Long, As- 
sistant Secretary of State, at a dinner given by 
tlie Commander of the American Legion for the 
diplomatic representatives of the American re- 
publics, in Washington, Nov. 26, 1943. 



Now, more than ever before, the republics 
of the Western World are learning to know 
each other better through inter-American 
travel, through ever-expanding trade relations, 
through their cooperation to raise living- 
standards, and through united action against 
common enemies. Yet there is much more 
that can be done to promote better under- 
standing and a spirit of solidarity. The 
American Legion can contribute to this end, 
and that great organization is to be highly 
commended for undertaking this worthwhile 
task. 



INDUSTRIAL MISSION, UNITED STATES 
AND HAITI 

[Released to the press November 25] 

It was announced in the Department's press 
release of November 8, 1943 " that during the 
visit to Washington of His Excellency Presi- 
dent Elie Lsscot, of Haiti, a decision was taken 
to conduct a survey "of the possible ways in 
which both private capital and government 
agencies might cooperate to develop certain 
small industries in Haiti, particularly after the 
war." 

The Secretary of State on November 25 an- 
nounced that after consultation with His Ex- 
cellency Andre Liautaud, the Ambassador of 
Haiti in Washington, it has been agreed to set 
up an industrial mission consisting of three 
representatives each of the Governments of 
Haiti and of the United States of America. 
The representatiTCs of the United States on the 
mission are : 

Mr. Charles A. Howard, Director of the Technical Of- 
fice, Inter-American Development Commission 

Dr. Louis Shore, Assistant Director of the Division of 
Tax Research, Treasury Department 

Mr. John K. Whitaker, a Director of the Cotton Tex- 
tile Institute, designated upon the recommendation 
of the United States Commission of Inter-American 
Development 

The three United States members expect to 
proceed to Port-au-Prince within the next few 



■ Bulletin of Nov. 13, 1943, p. 332. 



384 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



(Lays, where they will collnborate with repre- 
sentatives of the Haitian Government. 

The mission expects to cooperate with the 
Haitian Commission of Inter-American Devel- 
opment of which His Excellency Abel Latroix, 
Minister of Finance, is the chairman. 

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF 
STATE ON THE BRAZILIAN BOND SET- 
TLEMENT 

[Released to the pi-ess November 25] 

The bond settlement proposed by the Brazil- 
ian Government is a very comprehensive and 
broad proposal covering all the dollar and ster- 
ling -bonds of the Brazilian Government, 
Brazilian States, and Brazilian mnnicipalities, 
some 80 different issues. It was worked out by 
the Brazilian Minister of Finance, Dr. Souza 
Costa, in long negotiations with representatives 
of the Foreign Bondholders Protective Council 
and the British Council- of Foreign Bond- 
holders. The proposal is a manifestation of 
Brazil's earnest desire to meet its foreign obliga- 
tions within the limits of its capacity. This 
Government is extremely gratified that an ar- 
rangement of this far-reaching and definitive 
nature has been reached between the Brazilian 
authorities and the representatives of the 
United States and British bondholders. The 



breadth of vision and the spirit which have 
characterized these negotiations are further 
testimony of the friendship and understanding 
between- tte Brazilian and Ajiieriean peoples. 

PAYMENT BY MEXICO UNDER CLAIMS 

CONVENTION OF 1941 

[Released to the press November 22] 

The Ambassador of Mexico has presented to 
the Secretary of State the Mexican Govern- 
ment's check for $2,500,000 (U. S. currency) 
representing the second annual instalment due 
to the United States under the Claims Conven- 
tion concluded November 19, 1941. The Secre- 
tai-y of State requested the Ambassador to con- 
vey to his Government an expression of this 
Government's appreciation. 

Under the terms of the convention, Mexico 
agreed to pay the United States $40,000,000 
(U. S. curi'cncy) in settlement of certain 
property claims of citizens of the United States 
against the Government of Mexico, as described 
in the convention. Payments heretofore made 
amount to $8,500,000. With the present pay- 
ment of $2,500,000 the balance remaining 
amounts to $29,000,000, to be liquidated over a 
period of years by the annual payment by 
Mexico of not less than $2,500,000 (U. S. cur- 
rency). 



General 



ADDRESS BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY BERLE BEFORE THE 
KNOXVILLE ROTARY CLUB ^ 



[Released to the press November 23] 

Ladies and Genti.emen: 

Every State Department man welcomes the 
opportunity to visit Tennessee. Certainly the 
Department of State, and the entire United 
States, owes an enonnous debt to Tennessee for 
having given to the country the most sagacious 
and successful Secretai'v of State in American 



iiistory. Already the debt which all of us owe 
to Cordell Hull is appreciated, but the measure 
of it will not and cannot be known until history 
writes the full and final story. 

The foreign policy of the United States has 
been rejieatedly set out by Secretary Hull, and 



' Delivered before tlie Rotary Club of Kuoxville, 
Tenn., Nov. 23, 1SM3. 



NOVEMBER 2 7, 1943 



385 



its guiding principles are perfectly clear. Its 
first task is to assure the independence, safety, 
and well-being of the United States. Its second 
is to work toward an organization of the world 
in which this country and other law-abiding 
nations can live together at peace under a 
political and economic system which gives op- 
portunity for steadily increasing well-being of 
l)eoples. 

These two objectives are not attained by vast 
and glittering generalities. They rest on 
steady, detailed, undramatic, hard work, ap- 
jilied day by day. We often envy those who 
are free to draw the pictures of a brave new 
world, which inspire us all. Our task is hum- 
liler. We can only say what we think can be 
done. We endeavor to work toward great goals, 
but we have to move step by step, as we can find 
or create means and opportunity. Prime Minis- 
ter Churchill is- fond of quoting a remark of 
Edmund Burke to the effect that the idealist is 
always the enemy of the statesman. It is more 
accurate to say that the idealist is an artist who 
can draw a pictui-e ; the statesman is an engineer 
who has to use bricks and mortar and hods to 
build the pictured structure. The dreamer will 
always be ahead of the diplomat. It is no good 
criticizing the diplomat because he is not a 
dreamer, nor is it fair to blame the dreamer 
because he is no diialomat. We need both, but 
they have different jobs. 

The independence and safety of the United 
States depend immediately on winning a huge 
war. It has been fashionable in some circles 
to assume that this war is a revolution; that 
all conservatives, moderates, or other non-rev- 
olutionaries must be Nazis or Fascists, and that 
the only true defenders of liberty were found 
in extreme left-wing groups. Some say, there- 
fore, the war is chieflj- to be won by encouraging 
social upheaval the world over. This is an easy 
generalization which goes along nicely until it 
bumps up against the hard facts. 

Undoubtedlj' great social changes are abroad 
in the world. Undoubtedly the forces set in 
motion bj' this war will liberate vast popular 
forces both here and abroad. But the fact was, 



Hitler — not the democracies — wanted to create 
a class war. He hoped, by bribery and threat 
and propaganda, to make allies for himself in 
every country in the world and thereby to create 
fifth columns and open the way for his panzer 
divisions. In the main he lost that fight, 
though in a few places he had a degree of suc- 
cess. His victims did not split along class lines. 
They refused to engage in civil wars. He did 
not succeed in bringing to his support great 
classes in the victim countries. Instead, in 
nation after nation, all groups arrayed them- 
selves solidly against him, irrespective of their 
social doctrines. Poland, with a conservative 
government, fought him to the death, just as did 
Soviet Russia with a Communist government. 
Xorway and the Netherlands have resisted him 
both before and after their invasion as bitterly 
as Czechoslovakia. The British resistance, 
turning-point of the war, was first carried 
on by a Tory government, just as the American 
war effort was organized by the liberal govern- 
ment of President Koosevelt. The men who 
come out of the undergrounds in Europe — we 
have the privilege of seeing thein in the State 
Department from time to time — are of every 
]iolitical and i-eligious belief : Conservative and 
Communist; Capitalist and Socialist; Catholic, 
Protestant, and Jewish. Nor is the situation 
different in the Western Hemisphere: Liberal 
governments like that of Mexico find common 
cause with conservative governments like that 
of Brazil. 

It would be merely playing Hitler's game to 
])retend that the spirit of resistance is possessed 
only by those holding a particular social faith. 
The war is essentially the defense of freedom 
and national life for this nation and for all 
nations. Without exccjition, every one of the 
United Nations has placed its national existence 
above every other objective; though all realize 
that their safety must lie in common action. 

We in the State Department, accordingly, 
have been unable to accept the idea that social 
upheaval was the primary means of defeating 
Hitler. Rather, the principle has been and 
must continue to be that of unity in the face of 
enemies of civilization. 



561917 — 43- 



386 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The liberated countries undoubtedly will wish 
to rebuild their social structures when the enemy 
is expelled. They may wish to modify and 
change those structures. But this is a choice 
for them to make, and not for us. Our obli- 
gation was set forth in the Atlantic Charter 
which contains a declaration that nations have 
the right to live under governments of their 
own choosing. 

At the close of the Moscow Conference, 
Premier Stalin made a speech in which he set 
forth the same view. He said : "The liberated 
countries of Europe must receive full right and 
freedom to decide for themselves their form of 
state." 

It may be added that, from a military point 
of view, the proposition that the United States 
should engage in a series of adventures for the 
purpose of intervening in the affairs of other 
states seems merely absurd. Our divisions are 
thoroughly engaged in the task of smashing 
the Japanese and the Germans. Nor have we 
any intention to scrap the well-settled policy of 
non-intervention in the affairs of other states. 
The policy of non-intervention in other peo- 
ples' affairs is and must be the first principle of 
sound doctrine. Unless this is the settled prac- 
tice of nations, there can be no principle of 
sovereign equality among peace-loving states 
and probably no permanent peace at all. The 
Nazis practiced the principle of forcing their 
neighbor nations to instal governments satis- 
factory to their ideas. We are content to leave 
to them the patent on that idea. 

In following this line the Government of the 
United States follows the oldest, strongest, and 
most successful liberal tradition in the world. 
The doctrine of democracy established itself 
spontaneously in the United States in 1776. In 
the century which followed, representative 
democracy became the rule throughout the 
Western World. But this was done by force of 
example and by the free process of men's minds. 
We need not apologize for that record; and 
nothing in the history of European controversy 



during the past two generations justifies us in 
departing from this American principle. 

The application of this principle is translated 
into the day-by-day work, dealing with the 
territories which we are progressively liberat- 
ing, in company with our Allies. We have not 
used the force of American armies, destined to 
fight the Nazis, to compel erection of improvized 
political governments against the will of their 
peoples, in spite of the fact that certain fac- 
tions have earnestly and sometimes bitterly 
urged this course upon us. Rather, the attempt 
has been made to open the way for healthy 
political evolution in these countries. It has 
been necessary to provide a reasonably stable 
economic life and to open the streams of in- 
formation and public thought. Once this is 
done, and subject to military necessity, we can 
rely on the peoples of these countries to re- 
create their own political life. This does not 
please some who are anxious for partisans of 
particular political factions ; nor does it satisfy 
some European political personalities who have 
found refuge on our shores. Yet it is, I think, 
the only wise and sound course. 

There are some who say that the United 
Nations should boldly announce that there will 
be no return to the system previously existing 
in Europe; that every effort should be made, 
now, to assist in destroying the political life 
which existed before 1939. Since the continent 
of Europe is at present silenced, the first effect 
of any such policy would be to leave every 
European country voiceless, without even the 
external symbols of their continued life. Until 
these countries are liberated, no one outside 
them can secure a new mandate. Every gov- 
ernment in refuge has recognized and declared 
that its first act, on liberation, must be to submit 
itself to the judgment of its people, who can 
then make such changes as they choose. Q lite 
likely there will be changes; for those who 
have fought out, underground, in their own 
countries, the terrible and bloody battle against 
the Nazi invaders, will unquestionably emerge 



NOVEMBER 2 7, 194 3 



387 



from the struggle, covered with wounds and 
sweat, claiming their right to be heard as rep- 
resentatives of the silenced and struggling 
masses. Having faith, as we do, in the com- 
mon and kindly people who are the mass of 
Europe, we can safely leave it to them to decide 
the forms of their government. The contribu- 
tion we can make is to give them, by force of 
arms and continuing victory, their freedom to 
speak once more without fear of Gestapo or 
danger from German bayonets. To take any 
other course would be to deny the essential 
democracy of our being. 

Many of the arguments addressed to the De- 
partment of State — and I have no doubt the 
same arguments are directed likewise to the 
British Foreign Office and to the Soviet Com- 
missar of Foreign Affairs — should more prop- 
erly be directed to the people of the countries 
whose affairs are discussed. 

In terms of day-to-day work, these problems 
present themselves in a light somewhat more 
difficult than that of mere generalization. An 
army moves into a country and frees it from 
German domination. At that moment the only 
organized force in the country is that of a group 
which had maintained itself through the pre- 
vious phase. Every other element of political 
life is either dead, in concentration camps, in 
hiding, or in exile. Even information as to the 
outside world has been cut off. Slowly the ele- 
ments of political choice have to be reassembled ; 
the news of the world has to be readmitted. 
Relationships of neighborhoods, trades-unions, 
town and city governments, provincial life, and 
eventually national life, have to be reestab- 
lished. The evolution goes on; representative 
men appear ; they take their place in the public 
life of the country, set out the doctrines they 
represent, and enter into the structure of the 
government as public opinion accepts their 
ideas. 

It is natural to expect controversy in the dif- 
ficult work of European reconstruction. These 
controversies largely arise from, or continue. 



the bitter political divisions in the Europe of 
before the war. Representatives of practically 
every European party and from practically 
every European country are present in the 
United States. Between themselves they carry 
on much the same sort of warfare that went on 
in the European capitals. Being exiled, each 
of these representatives claims to speak not for 
his party but for his country ; for a purely party- 
claim would have little appeal to the public 
opinion of the United States. 

When opportunity arises, these claims to 
represent other countries can be referred to the 
people of that country, who are and must be 
the final judges. This does not satisfy some 
claimants, who wish to be recognized now as 
spokesmen for theii' still captive countries and 
to be assisted with American money and men 
to take power in those countries. The United 
States Government has consistently taken the 
view that it had no right to make such decisions, 
least of all in respect to friendly countries. In 
some quarters the disappointed candidates have 
turned their criticism on the State Department; 
and some of that criticism has been both ill- 
founded and unscrupulous. 

To all non-enemy groups the Department has . 
zealously guarded their freedom of speech, their 
freedom to organize, and their right to state 
their own case and to present themselves to such 
public opinion as may be available. Each group 
has been very glad to avail itself of this right. 
Some groups, unhappily, are very anxious to 
see this right denied to other groups with whose 
views or aspirations they disagree, and seem to 
feel that the Government of the United States 
in some dictatorial fashion should suppress 
their rival groups. I need hardly say that there 
is no likelihood that this Goveinnient will de- 
part from its traditional position — which is in 
fact the strongest liberal tradition in the world. 

The true aim of enlightened foreign policy 
now must be to place world affairs on a new 
footing — a basis in which, as Secretary Hull 
observed the other day, spheres of influence. 



388 



DEPARTMET^T OP STATE BULLETIN 



special alliances, and all the shoddy tricks of 
balance-of -power politics and imperialist opera- 
tions can be discarded. This has to be done in 
the name of common humanity, but it. equally 
has to be done in the interest of tlie United 
States. It is a titanic job. 

It will not be achieved by cultivating hatreds 
or taking sides in stale European controversies. 
It cannot be based on civil wars, disingenuous 
propaganda, or political trickery. The vast 
problem of securing a reconstituted world 
system which can maintain peace and recognize 
human rights can only be carried forward by 
finding and increasing a common denominator 
of public oi^inion. This must be such as will 
enable countries to establish peace within their 
own borders and to join in establishing a peace- 
ful framework for the whole world. Increasing 
bitterness and factional fights within nations, or 
the differences between nations, can only im- 
pede the largest and most important work we 
have to do. And it can only hinder and impede 
the pressing and immediate necessity for win- 
ning the war. 

The time is long since past when any group 
seeking to lead public opinion in international 
affairs can be merely negative. Progress today 
depends, not on the number of things you can 
fiiid to oppose, but on the number of things you 
can find to support. Tangible and permanent 
advances, embodied in well-founded institu- 
tions, have to be based on programs studied, 
thought out. and commanding such wide-spread 
approval that they can be jiut into effect. None 
of these plans will satisfy everyone's hopes. 

But we have arrived at the stage where a 
modest achievement which has in it the power of 
growth is better than a lost cause and another 
generation of want and fear and agony. 

I think that the true forward movements 
when they come will not talk the language of 
hatred. They will not endeavor to set neighbor 
against neighbor. Their political weapons will 
not be slander and falsehood. They will be 
based on the age-old constructive principles of 
justice, kindliness, and a search for truth. Not 



otherwise has any society been permanently 
founded ; and no international society will well 
serve either the United States or any other na- 
tion unless it rests on these timeless qualities in 
human life. 



CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED 
STATES AND CANADA ON DOUBLE TAX- 
ATION UPON ESTATES 

Exploratory conversations are in progress 
between representatives of the Government of 
the United States and the Government of 
Canada in regard to the possibilities of nego- 
tiating a convention for the avoidance of double 
taxation in respect of death duties of the Fed- 
eral Government and the Dominion Govern- 
ment. 

[Released to the press November 22] 

On March 4, 1942 representatives of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States and the Govern- 
ment of Canada signed a convention in regard 
to double taxation upon income,^ and the present 
exploratorj' conversations in regard to double 
taxation upon estates logically follow that con- 
vention and are the next stei^ in the prevention 
of double taxation by the two Governments. 

The question of double taxation upon estates 
or successions has arisen as a I'esult of the 
passage by Canada of the Dominion Succession 
Duty Act* of 1941. 

The following representatives are participat- 
ing in the conversations on behalf of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States: 

Mr. Roy Blough, Director of Tax Research, Tie:isury 
Department 

Mr. Klfloii r. King, Special Deputy Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue, Treasury Department 

Mr. William V. Whittington, Acting Chief, Treaty Di- 
vision, Department of State 

Mr. Herliert P. Fales, Foreign Service Ofticer, Finant'ial 
Division, Department of State 

Mr. Adelliert Christy, Assistant Deputy Commissioner, 
Bureau of Internal Revenue 



' Bulletin of Mar. 7, 1042, p. 225 ; Treaty Series 983. 



NOVEMBER 27, 1943 



389 



On behalf of the Government of Canada the 
following representatives are participating: 

Mr. C. Fraser Elliott, K.C., Deputy Minister of Na- 
tional Revfnue (for taxation) 
Prof. Heiir.v Angus, Department of External Afl'alrs 
Dr. A. K. Eaton, Department of Finance 
Mr. S. Quiyg, K.C., Chief Solicitor, National Revenue 
Mr. W. J. Murpli.v, Administrator of Succession Duties 



The Departmejit 



RETIREMENT OF THOMAS GRIFFIN 

[Released to the press November 23] 

The Secretary of State has addressed the fol- 
lowing letter to Mr. Thomas Griffin who has 
been in the service of the Department of State 
continuously .since April 26, 1910 and is re- 
tiring, effective December 31, 1943. Mr. Griffin 
has been a research assistant in the Ti-eaty Di- 
vision since the organization of the Division on 
April 21, 1928. Mr. Griffin's father, the late 
Thomas Griffin, was employed by the Depart- 
ment of State continuously for 55 years (1866- 
1921). 

November 23, 1943. 

Mt Dear Mr. Griffin : 

I am informed that upon the completion of 
33 years of faithful and efficient service to your 
country in the Department of State you wish to 
avail yourself of your well-earned prerogative 
to retire. It is with sincere regret that I see 



you go, not only because you have at all times 
loyally and effectively discharged the important 
duties and responsibilities devolving upon you 
but also for the reason that you have main- 
tained the high tradition of patriotic selfless- 
ness established by your father in his 55 years 
of devotion to duty in the Department before 
you. A total of 88 years of service by father 
and son is a record of which your family can be 
justly proud and for which your Government 
is deeply beholden. It is a pleasure to thank 
you and to assure you that in leaving you take 
M'ith you my earnest wishes for your future 
happiness and welfare. 
Sincerely yours, 

CoRDELL Hull 



Cultural Relations 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press November 24] 

Dr. Andres Eloy Blanco, Venezuelan lawyer 
and man-of-letters and a member of the Vene- 
zuelan Congress, has arrived in Washington as 
the guest of the Department of State. 

While in this country he is especially inter- 
ested in observing our cultural life and uni- 
versities, and also in such aspects of our legal 
history as the development of civil codes in for- 
mer Hispanic regions, such as California, the 
Spanish Southwest, and Florida. 



U. S. GaVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 194S 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 
Piice, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPKOTAL OF THE DIKECTOtt Or THE BUREAU OF THE BUDQET 



I -D^ 3 , J t-y^ o 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



c 



DECEMBER 4, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 232— Publication 2028 



ontents 



Page 



The War 

Conference of President Roosevelt, Generalissimo 
Chiang Kai-shek, and Prime Minister Churchill 
in North Africa 393 

Appointment of United States Representative on the 

European Advisory Commission 393 

Alignmeat of Nations in the War 394 

American Republics 

Centennial Celebration of the Independence of the 

Dominican Republic 394 

Publications 

"Foreign Relations of the United States, Japan: 1931- 

1941", Volume II 394 

Cultural Relations 

International Languages for One World: Address by 

Haldore Hanson 39.5 

Treaty Information 

Economics: Agreement With Mexico Relating to Plan- 
tation-Rubber Investigations 404 



pr^ 




U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENT? 
JAN 7 1944 



The War 



CONFERENCE OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT, GENERALISSIMO CHIANG KAI- 
SHEK, AND PRIME MINISTER CHURCHILL IN NORTH AFRICA 



[Released to the press by the White House December 1] 

President Eoosevelt, Generalissimo Chiang 
Kai-shek and Prime Minister Churchill, to- 
gether with their respective military and diplo- 
matic advisers, have completed a conference in 
North Africa. 

The following general statement was issued : 

"The several military missions have agreed 
upon future military operations against Japan. 
The Three Great Allies expressed their resolve 
to bring unrelenting pressure against their bru- 
tal enemies by sea, land, and air. This pressure 
is already rising. 

"The Three Great Allies are fighting this war 
to restrain and punish the aggression of Japan. 
They covet no gain for themselves and have no 
thought of territorial expansion. It is their 
purpose that Japan shall be stripped of all the 



islands in the Pacific which she has seized or oc- 
cupied since the beginning of the first World 
War in 1914, and that all the territories Japan 
has stolen from the Chinese, such as Manchuria, 
Formosa, and the Pescadores, shall be restoi'ed 
to the Republic of China. Japan will also be ex- 
pelled from all other territories which she has 
taken by violence and greed. The aforesaid 
three great powers, mindful of the enslavement 
of the people of Korea, are determined that in 
clue course Korea shall become free and inde- 
pendent. 

"With these objects in view the three Allies, 
in harmony with those of the United Nations at 
war with Japan, will continue to persevere in 
the serious and prolonged operations necessary 
to procure the unconditional surrender of 
Japan." 



APPOINTMENT OF UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE ON THE EUROPEAN 

ADVISORY COMMISSION 



[Released to the press December 4] 

The Honorable John G. Winant, Ambassador 
of the United States of America to Great 
Britain, has been appointed by the President 



as representative of the United States on the 
European Advisory Commission. The Com- 
mission was provided for at the Moscow Con- 
ference and will have its seat in London. 



56'298-t— 43 



393 



394 



DEPAKTMENT OF iSTATE BULLETIN 



ALIGNMENT OF NATIONS IN THE WAR 
Errata 

Bulletin of November 20, 1943 : 

Page 353 : The date of the announcement by 
Finland declaring a state of war with the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Eepublics sliould read 
"(6/25/41)" instead of "(6/25/42)". 

Pages 358-359 : On the map entitled "Align- 
ment of the Nations", Tasmania, to the south of 
Australia, is shown in white, indicating a neu- 
tral country. This error occurred in the plate- 
making process, and Tasmania should have 
been shown with shading to indicate it as a 
part of the United Nations and dependencies. 



Publications 



American Republics 



CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION OF THE IN- 
DEPENDENCE OF THE DOMINICAN 
REPUBUC 

[Released to the press December 1] 

This Government has accepted the invitation 
of the Dominican Government to participate 
in the celebration to take place at Ciudad Tru- 
jillo between February 23 and March 3, 1944 
commemorating the first centennial of the 
proclamation of the independence of the Do- 
minican Kepublic. President Roosevelt has 
designated the following individuals as repre- 
sentatives on the part of the United States of 
America at this centennial celebration : 

The Honorable Charles W. Taussig, United States 
Chairman, Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, 
chairman 

The Honorable Avra M. Warren, American Ambassa- 
dor, Ciudad Trujillo, Dominican Republic 

Maj. Gen. H. 0. Pratt, U. S. A., Commanding General, 
The Antilles Department, San Juan, Puerto Rico 



"FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED 
STATES, JAPAN: 1931-1941", VOL- 
UME H 

[Released to the press for publication December 4, 8 p.m.] 

On December 4 the Department of State re- 
leased the second volume of the two-volume 
publication containing a documentary record 
of the diplomatic relations between the United 
States and Japan during the decade prior to the 
outbreak of war between the two countries. 
(For the press release of Nov. 20, 1943 con- 
cerning volume I, see the Bulletin of Nov. 20, 
1943, p. 374.) 

Volume II, which comprises 423 dociunents, 
opens with a chapter on the growing tension 
between the United States and Japan during 
the years 1939 and 1940, and the early months 
of 1941, and on the efforts made by the United 
States Government to persuade the Japanese 
Government to adopt a more moderate course 
of action and to cease from interfering with 
American nationals and American rights in the 
Far East. The text of Ambassador Grew's 
siJeech "straight from the horse's mouth" to 
the America-Japan Society in Tokyo on Octo- 
ber 19, 1939 is here given (pp. 19-29) and also 
the record of numerous confidential conversa- 
tions which were held in Washington and in 
Tokyo between officials of the two Governments. 

Other chapters deal with the relations of 
Japan with the European Axis powers begin- 
ning with the conclusion of the agreement be- 
tween Japan and Germany against the Com- 
munist International in November 1936; the 
abrogation by the United States of the Treaty 
of Commerce and Navigation of 1911 between 
the United States and Japan; economic meas- 
ures adopted by the United States affecting 
trade with Japan; and the extension, or at- 



DECEMBER 4, 1943 



395 



tempted extension, of Japanese military, polit- 
ical, and economic activities into southern Asia 
and the south Pacific, including the Nether- 
lands East Indies, Thailand, and Indochina. 

In the last-named chapter, Japanese aggres- 
sion first against northern Indochina in 1940 
and then against southern Indochina in 1941 
and Japanese interference with American rights 
in Indochina figure prominently. The move- 
ment of large Japanese forces into southern 
Indochina while the informal conversations be- 
tween oiEcials of the United States and of Japan 
were in progress in Washington gave clear evi- 
dence of Japan's determination to continue with 
its policy of military expansion in southeast 
Asia and led to a suspension of those conversa- 
tions in July 1941. 

Documents relating to the informal conversa- 
tions which were held in 1941 between officials of 
the United States and of Japan looking toward 
the working out of a settlement of issues relat- 
ing to the Far East comprise more than half the 
volume. There are presented the texts of docu- 
ments exchanged between officials of the two 



Governments; memoranda of conversations of 
Secretary of State Hull with Ambassador No- 
mura and Mr. Kurusu and also of other officers 
of the Department of State with officials of the 
Japanese Embassy. These documents and 
memoranda of conversations reflect the efforts 
of the Japanese Government to bring this Gov- 
ernment to enter into an agreement on the basis 
of vague formulas, and the attempts of this Gov- 
ernment to elicit from the Japanese Govern- 
ment clear-cut commitments on policies of peace. 
The detailed record of the conversations is pre- 
ceded by a summary in the form of a memoran- 
dum prepared in the Department of State sub- 
sequent to the termination of the conversations 
(pp. 325-386). While a number of the items 
included in this chapter have previously been 
printed, the greater part of them are here pub- 
lished for the first time. 

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of 
the United States, Japan: 1931-19 Jfl, Volume 
II, lix, 816 pages, may be purchased from the 
Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, for $1.75. 



Cultural Relations 



INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGES FOR ONE WORLD 
Address by Haldore Hanson ^ 



There are among mankind today, accord- 
ing to the French Academy, no fewer than 
2,796 different languages. The majority of all 
people are cut off' from communication with 
each other by the language barrier. 

This confusion of languages was not difficult 
to explain in olden times when the world was 
divided by mountains and seas into small com- 
partments, each with its own language. Ti'avel 
was slow and dangerous. Coimnunication was 
difficult. 



But all this has changed. Fast transporta- 
tion has caused the world to shrink and has 
brought peoples closer together. We now have 
one science for one world. Communications 
are flashed instantaneously from one end of 
the earth to the other. 



' Excerpt of an address delivered before the New 
England Association of Teachers of English, Boston, 
Nov. 27, 1943. Mr. Hanson is with the Division of 
Cultural Relations, Department of State. 



396 



DEPARTMEfNT OF STATE BULLETIN 



In such an age of shrinking distance the con- 
flict of language remains a relic of history. It 
is as though we should meet on a street in Bos- 
ton a donkey caravan, a covered wagon, a stage- 
coach, a circuit rider, and a horse-drawn street- 
car, all intermingled with the motorbus, the 
limousine, and the jeep. 

Physical unity of the world is already emerg- 
ing, but the universal consciousness which 
should draw together the peoples of this world 
is still lacking, because the thinking of mankind 
is divided by languages. Until we have at- 
tained a tongue, or several tongues, which can 
be comprehended by most people, we cannot 
have a universal consciousness, and with that, a 
universal conscience. 

Many solutions have been proposed for the 
language problem. For nearly a thousand 
years after the fall of Rome scholars expected 
Latin to reestablish itself as the international 
language of Europe, and perhaps of the whole 
world. That dream was ended by the rise of 
nationalism in Europe and the flowering of na- 
tional literatures. It is worth noting, however, 
that Latin was the language of the Hapsburg 
Court in Austria-Hungary until the first World 
War, less than 30 years ago. 

The downfall of Latin impelled men to seek 
out another solution. They experimented with 
various artificial languages as a possible uni- 
versal tongue. More than 100 artificial lan- 
guages have been devised Since the middle of 
the seventeenth century. The best known is 
Esperanto, invented in 1887 by a Russian 
physician named Zamenhof. Esperanto looks 
like Spanish and sounds like Italian. There is 
an international society which promotes this 
language and publishes a journal. Esperanto 
has been used at some international confer- 
ences. Today 55 years have elapsed since the 
language was invented, yet the number of its 
adherents has been estimated at no more than 
40,000. It is not necessary here to analyze the 
reasons for its failure to spread more widely. 
Judged by historical experience, the artificial 
language has 'been tried and found inadequate. 



This led to the proposal that one living lan- 
guage should be chosen as the universal auxil- 
iary tongue which all nations would use for 
international communications while retaining 
their own national speech. 

The proposal has actually been applied by 
Japanese militai'y leaders on a regional basis. 
Naturally they selected Japanese as the inter- 
national language. Military governors from 
Japan now are prohibiting the official use of 
English by the regimes in the Philippines, in 
Malaya, and in Burma. They have banned the 
use of Dutch by officials of the Dutch East 
Indies. The Japanese language has been 
forcibly installed as the international language 
of Greater East Asia. Thousands of language 
classes have been set up for the teaching of Japa- 
nese to the officials of that region. Japanese is 
required in all the schools. 

This Japanese procedure has one obvious dis- 
advantage. It arouses national sensibilities in 
every countiy where there exists even a spark of 
national pride. The program as carried out by 
the Japanese has been called cultural imperial- 
ism, and that is what it is. The forceful spread 
of any language carries with it the earmarks of 
cultural domination. 

The United States Government has a policy 
on international languages. This policy is 
enunciated by the Department of State under its 
cultural-relations program. 

Our Government hopes to widen the use of 
several international languages, each of which 
is the mother-tongue in part of the world and is 
understood by a growing number of persons 
in other regions of the world. 

Our Government program is reciprocal, a giv- 
ing and receiving of languages. We seek to 
build in every nation a larger community of citi- 
zens who can use English. At the same time we 
urge our own citizens to learn foreign languages. 
This is not a program to achieve one language 
for one world. It is not a panacea. It is an 
effort to break down the barriers separating the 
major language groups of the world. The pro- 
gram maintains due respect for the cultural 
heritage of every nation. 



DECEMBER i, 194 3 



397 



You will ask : What are these great interna- 
tional languages which our Government en- 
dorses? They cannot be chosen arbitrarily, as 
tlie Japanese have tried to do. Such languages 
will emerge on their own merits, each serving a 
commercial or political or scholarly need. We 
may cite several obvious candidates. There are 
two languages on which the sun never sets, Rus- 
sian and English. English is the mother- 
tongue over most of two continents, North 
America and Australia. Spanish is spoken over 
most of one continent and has a great literary 
tradition. German has become a widely used 
medium of science, just as French has been the 
instrument of diplomacy. The Asiatic lan- 
guages will require greater attention. Chinese 
is spoken by more people than is any other liv- 
ing tongue, yet in the United States, excluding 
those of Chinese ancestry, there are not 10 per- 
sons in a million who can speak or read Chinese. 
The Arabic language, though spoken by only an 
estimated 30 million persons, is the language of 
Islam and one of the truly international, inter- 
racial and intercontinental tongues. Its speak- 
ers are scattered over 10,000 miles of the earth's 
surface, stretching across North Africa and 
Central Asia to the borders of China. You 
might suggest other candidates. 

All these languages are likely to be of growing 
importance in international relations. 

I should like to describe the wartime work of 
our Government in promoting the studj' of in- 
ternational languages, but first it is useful to 
mention some of the agencies which are con- 
tributing to this program. 

The Division of Cultural Relations in the De- 
partment of State is charged with the planning 
of the Government program of cultural rela- 
tions. Tlie Office of the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs has made an outstanding con- 
tribution to the promotion of the study of Eng- 
lish in the other American republics and of 
Spanish and Portuguese in the United States. 
The Office of Education has also promoted the 
study of Spanish and Portuguese in this coun- 
try. The United States Army has supported 
classes in American colleges for a great variety 



of foreign languages. The Navy has giv^n 
training in Japanese to several thousand of its 
men. All these activities may be regarded as 
contributing to one reciprocal program. 

Special circumstances attending the rela- 
tions of the United States with the other Ameri- 
can republics have led in recent years to an em- 
phasis on cultural relations within the Western 
Hemisi^here. That is a useful starting point 
for a survey of language study. 

When we talk about the teaching of English 
in the other American republics we think first 
of the cultural institutes. For more than 10 
years there has been growing up in each of the 
other American republics one or inore cultural 
institutes which bring together the local 
United States residents with the citizens of each 
country. A cultural institute is an educational 
club. It generally possesses a clubhouse or a 
suite of rooms. These institutes bear some re- 
semblance to the Pan American societies of Bos- 
ton, Chicago, San Francisco, and a number of 
other cities in the United States. There are in 
Central and South America 23 such societies 
dedicated to the building of better understand- 
ing toward the people of the United States. 

Each institute emijhasizes the study of Eng- 
lish by nationals and the study of Spanish or 
Portuguese bj^ residents from the United 
States. The majority of English students are 
adults, including many local government offi- 
cials, school teachers, and merchants. The in- 
stitute at Caracas offers special classes for 
Venezuelan laborers, and the institute at 
Florianopolis has a class for 80 Brazilian Army 
officers. Our Government gives some financial 
assistance to these institutes. 

A.gencies in Washington also have assisted in 
setting up United States libraries in the capi- 
tals of Mexico, Nicaragua, and Uruguay. 
Each of these libraries has organized English 
classes. 

More than 7,200 citizens of other American 
lepublics are studying English at the cultural 
institutes and libraries. This figure was de- 
rived from a survey in September 1943, based 
upon the latest reports available at that time. 



398 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETtNI 



Our Government then had sent 19 United 
States teachers of English to aid these classes. 
The institutes also employed scores of local 
teachers. 

To reach some of the school children in the 
other American republics our Government has 
found a great asset in the primary schools and 
high schools established throughout the hemi- 
sphere by citizens of the United States. Many 
schools were set up by church organizations. 
Scores were organized by American industrial 
or trading companies. Some of the best insti- 
tutions were founded by groups of United 
States citizens who were seeking suitable educa- 
tion for their own children. Regardless of ori- 
gin, nearly all the schools have welcomed the 
children of nationals and have generally given 
them good training in English. A report pre- 
pared in 1941 listed 509 of these American- 
founded schools in the Western Hemisphere, 
outside of the United States. The total en- 
rolment was more than 50 thousand, of whom 
an estimated 20 thousand were the children of 
nationals. Recently our Government has ex- 
tended limited financial assistance to a few of 
the independent American schools. 

The radio is another channel for the teaching 
of English in the Western Hemisphere. This 
is a comparatively new development in educa- 
tion. In Colombia, for example, two United 
States teachers have developed their own radio 
English texts. They have been broadcasting 
English lessons in four cities of Colombia. It 
is diiScult to learn how many persons listen to'j 
such broadcasts, but an estimate may be based 
on the fact that 13 thousand persons purchased 
the necessary radio textbooks during a period 
of 18 months. To the present time this is the 
most outstanding achievement in teaching Eng- 
lish by radio in the Western Hemisphere. The 
Office of the Coordinator is now broadcasting 
English lessons in 15 cities in Central and South 
America. The number of listeners must total 
several tens of thousands. 

Since you are accustomed to classroom tech- 
niques, you may reasonably be skeptical 
whether radio can take the place of the class- 



room for foreign students. That is a question 
to which our Government has given consider- 
able thought. Present experience would indi- 
cate that the chief value of radio is to stimulate 
interest in language study. Radio lessons have 
promoted the enrolment of adults in evening 
classes at public schools. The broadcasts also 
give listening practice to those already familiar 
with elementary English. 

The radio broadcast consists of an actual 
English class conducted in front of the micro- 
phone. Some of the students are good; some 
are not so good. The broadcast has many of 
the appeals of a quiz program, and the teacher 
requires the skill of a master of ceremonies to 
make the program lively. 

Those then are the types of English classes in 
the Western Hemisphere to which our Govern- 
ment has given support. I shall name them 
again. The cultural institutes and libraries en- 
roll more than 7,200 students. The United 
States schools in Central and South America 
reach an estimated 20 thousand children of na- 
tionals. And the radio English classes reach 
several tens of thousands. 

The results are admittedly small and the 
problem is great. We can find some encour- 
agement in the old Chinese proverb that even a 
walk of 1,000 miles must begin with one step. 
We have taken the first step. There are more 
than 100 million persons in the Western Hemi- 
sphere whose mother-tongue is Spanish, Portu- 
guese, or French. It is generally conceded that 
the only agency which will be able to spread 
a general knowledge of English among so large 
a population is the public-school system, just 
as the teaching of Spanish and Portuguese in 
the United States must rest largely upon the 
public schools. 

Government schools in the other American 
republics are already performing excellent work 
in the teaching of English, and they are re- 
questing assistance from the United States in 
the training of their English teachers. 

In Haiti, for example, the Government in 
1942 made the teaching of English compulsory 
in all primary and secondary schools. Our 



DECEMBER 4, 194 3 



399 



Government sent a group of 10 United States 
English teachers and supervisors to assist in 
training the Haitian teachers. 

In the Dominican Eepublic the Government 
this year made English teaching compulsory 
for all students above the fifth primary grade. 
Our Government has sent three English spe- 
cialists as advisers. 

In Brazil English is required in the last three 
years of high school. There are at the present 
time over 200 thousand Brazilian children 
studying English. 

In Ecuador, where a foreign language is re- 
quired but the student may make his own choice, 
85 percent of the high-school pupils have 
chosen English this year. English only re- 
cently replaced French as the "first" foreign 
language in the schools of Ecuador. 

To sum up, English is a required course in 
the public schools of 12 out of the 20 other 
American republics. In 8 republics English is 
an elective course. 

English teachers in most of those countries 
are constantly asking our diplomatic missions 
whether the United States Government can pro- 
vide vacation training for English teachers. 

One solution has been the special seminars or- 
ganized by our cultural-relations officers in the 
field. An interesting example was the gather- 
ing of 47 English teachers at the capital of 
Ecuador in August and September 1943. 
Thirty-nine of the teachers were men and eight 
were women. The teachers came from 8 cities 
and 24 different schools. They ranged in age 
from 20 to 64. For 6 weeks they took an in- 
tensive course which included: 

From 9 to 10 a. m. — Grammar and 

Rhetoric 
Spoken English 
Methods of 
teaching English 

During the afternoon each registrant was 
busy with his homework. Each was required to 
read one book in English on the history of the 
Western Hemisphere, one American novel, One 
other prose work, and one anthology of Ameri- 



From 10 to 11 a. m. 
From 11 until noon 



can poetry. These teachers also listened to 
English lectures. They watched motion pic- 
tures with English sound tracks. They heard 
radio broadcasts from the United States. The 
Minister of Education indicated his approval by 
giving a special diploma to each teacher who 
completed the seminar. 

Similar vacation seminars have already been 
held in Brazil, Nicaragua, and the Dominican 
Republic. Plans are completed for Peru and 
Colombia. 

A more thorough method of raising the stand- 
ard of English teaching is the bringing of 
groups of English teachers to the United States 
for vacation courses. A group of 10 Mexican 
teachers selected by the Mexican Ministry of 
Education was brought to the United States 
during January and February 1943. They 
spent a month at the University of North Caro- 
lina, taking a review course in English. Each 
teacher was later given a month of observation 
in a public school. 

Another group of 12 teachers from Ecuador, 
Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras spent the 
past summer attending courses in English at 
Mills College and the Universities of Michigan 
and Texas. This group attended the Boston- 
Concord English Seminar and later spent a pe- 
riod observing the teaching methods in our pub- 
lic schools in the eastern half of the United 
States. 

A much larger gi'oup of English teachers is 
expected to visit this country during the com- 
ing year. As those who attended the Boston 
Seminar may agree, the visit of the foreign 
teachers not only benefits foreign schools but 
builds among our own teachers a community of 
interest toward English teachers all over the 
world. 

So much for the assistance to English study 
among our neighbors. Our Government has 
been no less interested in the promotion of Span- 
ish and Portuguese study in this country. 

In 1941, largely as a result of the good-neigh- 
bor policy, Spanish replaced French as the 
"first" foreign language in United States col- 
leges and universities. A survey of about 500 



400 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



colleges and universities in the autumn of 1942 
revealed, in round numbers, 82 thousand stu- 
dents in SjJanish, 50 thousand in French, and 
45 thousand in German. 

The study of Portuguese in colleges had in- 
creased similarly. During the 1942-43 school 
year the nmnber of American colleges offering 
Portuguese increased from 38 to 75. 

The spread of Spanish in the primary schools 
and high schools has been phenomenal. The 
state of Texas early in 1942 offered Spanish to 
all its public-school pupils above the third 
grade. A total of 225 thousand Texas children 
were enrolled in these classes during the past 
school year. The city of Los Angeles is offer- 
ing Spanish from the first grade up. That 
means that pupils begin their foreign language 
at the age of six. 

These figures are significant for the future, be- 
cause the million or more students studying 
Spanish or Portuguese in our schools and col- 
leges range in age from 6 to 22. In another gen- 
eration they will be the block of public opin- 
ion which will carry on the good-neighbor 
policy. 

The study of Spanish by adults is perhaps a 
more accurate gage of the importance of Span- 
ish in immediate world affairs. In our na- 
tion's Capital, for example, the Inter-American 
Training Center for Government employees 
has enrolled more than 3,000 students of Sjian- 
ish during a single year. In addition to this 
center there are in Washington 10 classes of 
Spanish at the Department of Agriculture and 
one or more classes for adults at the Y.W.C.A., 
the American Association of University Women, 
the Navy Department, the Inter- American De- 
fense Board, the public evening schools, the 
numerous commercial language schools, and the 
local universities. It is probable that there 
are more than 5,000 Government emploj'ees in 
Washington studying Spanish outside office 
hours and at their own expense. 

Commercial radio stations in the United 
States are now broadcasting Spanish lessons, 
and the many Pan American societies through- 
out the United States are offering Spanish and 



Portuguese, just as the cultural institutes offer 
English. 

This recipi'ocity of language study, empha- 
sizing English for our neighbors and Spanish or 
Portuguese for our own citizens, is the corner- 
stone of cultural relations. 

As this language program extends into Eu- 
rope and Asia it is found that the study of Eng- 
lish is far more wide-spread outside the United 
States than is the reciprocal study of foreign 
languages inside our country. 

The Soviet Union, for example, announced 
last August that the study of English had been 
made compulsory in two thirds of all Soviet 
schools. We can point to no such study of Rus- 
sian in our high schools. 

Germany and France have offered English in 
their schools on an elective basis, similar to the 
study of German and French in the United 
States. 

In the smaller European countries the study 
of English has reached surprising proportions. 
In 1934 English was made the "first" foreign 
language of the Latvian schools, although Rus- 
sia and Germany are Latvia's neighbors. Eng- 
lish has been taught in all the schools of Yugo- 
slavia. The Swedish Royal Commission has 
recommended the universal adoption of English 
study, rather than German, for Swedish chil- 
dren. The Norwegians, who need a second lan- 
guage in their merchant marine, chose English 
for their schools. 

The Near East presents a similar picture. At 
the eastern end of the Mediterranean, our Gov- 
ernment has an invaluable cultural asset in the 
group of six American colleges founded in the 
last century by religious groups. These col- 
leges are no longer denominational, but they 
still draw some financial support from the Near 
East College Association in New York. The 
prestige of their English studies in Egypt, 
Syria, and Turkey has been a continuing stimu- 
lus to the study of English in those countries. 
The American colleges in Bulgaria and Greece 
are temporarily closed. 

In the Far East a group of American Chris- 
tian colleges in China and Japan have been a 



DECEMBER 4, 194 3 



401 



major influence upon the study of English for 
more than half a century. English has been 
the "first" foreign language of both China and 
Japan. It was recently I'eported that eight out 
of the ten members of the Chinese National Cab- 
inet speak English. 

In this world-wide survey no mention has 
been made of the excellent cultural-relations 
progi-am conducted by the British Council, 
which is also interested in English teaching. 
British activities are especially strong in the 
Near East. The Council, in its report for the 
year ending March 1943, mentioned 37 British 
teachers of English sent to Turkey. The Brit- 
ish Cultural Institute in Madrid, Spain, had 
over 1,400 students of English. In Sweden the 
British Council gave assistance in 1942 to vaca- 
tion schools for teachers of English, attended 
by 500 Swedish teachers. 

Here in the United States our Government is 
stressing the study of foreign languages. De- 
spite our backwardness in language studies we 
have made remarkable strides during this war. 
In 1941 the American Council of Learned So- 
cieties in Washington, using funds from the 
Rockefeller Foundation, began to set up courses 
for the intensive teaching of 40 different lan- 
guages, exclusive of French, German, Spanish, 
and Italian. In the first year the Council or- 
ganized courses in 26 of these languages. The 
courses were taught at 18 universities. More 
important than the coui'ses themselves was the 
development of teaching tools. No diction- 
aries had ever been written for many African 
and Asiatic languages. There were no gram- 
mar books, no conversation textbooks, no re- 
cordings of speech by natives. Nearly all of 
this tooling up for language teaching has now 
been completed. The work has been described 
by one official as the greatest coordinated study 
of foreign languages in human history. 

The methods used by the Council for teaching 
foreign languages may alter the future methods 
of language study in the United States. Amer- 
icans have always wanted to do things quickly, 
and that is the purpose of intensive language 
teaching. The student devotes his full time to 



language study and to reading about the areas 
in which the language is spoken. His week gen- 
erally includes 15 iiours of classroom instruction 
by a linguist, 15 hours of drill by a native 
speaker, and from 20 to 30 hours of homework. 
Tliis schedule is continued for six weeks and 
tlien, after a period of rest, another six weeks. 

When the Army and Navy found they needed 
more language specialists than were available in 
uniform, the armed services began to send 
soldiers and sailors back to college to study 
languages. The Army took over from the 
Council of Learned Societies the techniques of 
intensive language study. The Army used 
many of the same textbooks and some of the 
same teachers. There are now reported to be 
10 thousand or more Army students studying 
Japanese, Chinese, Russian, and many lesser- 
known languages. Out of the Army and Navy 
training-programs are likely to come many 
teachers who will make possible the expansion 
of foreign-language courses in our schools after 
the war. 

This wartime program may make another 
permanent contribution to the study of lan- 
guages. There have grown up at certain uni- 
versities outstanding language departments 
specializing in the lesser-known languages. 
These departments include the African lan- 
guages at the University of Pennsylvania and 
the languages of southeast Asia at Yale. 

The Army and Navy are not the only agencies 
interested in languages during the war. The 
Department of Agriculture has a graduate 
school which is the largest in the Federal Gov- 
ermnent. Since Pearl Harbor this school has 
added eight languages to its curriculum. These 
include Japanese, Chinese, Malay, Hindi, 
Arabic, Russian, Czech, and Dutch. 

Another civilian program of language study 
was developed by employees in the Foreign Eco- 
nomic Administration. A survey was made of 
the personnel in this agency to find which per- 
sons were interested in studying a foreign lan- 
guage. Then another canvass was made to find 
whether there were available within the agency 
persons who could teach these languages. The 



402 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN' 



result is a remarkable evening school which is 
offering Chinese, Arabic, Russian, Malay, Turk- 
ish, French, and German. The teachers are all 
volunteers. This idea is spreading to other 
agencies in Washington. 

There are already grounds to hope that the 
United States will rise out of its present posi- 
tion of most backward among world powers in 
the study of languages and will instead assume 
a position of leadership both in the science of 
linguistics and in the number of its citizens who 
can sjjeak foreign tongues. 

Our Government, as was pointed out, does not 
hope for one universal language in our genera- 
tion but anticipates the broader use of several 
international languages. 

As English teachers you are naturally inter- 
ested in knowing what the chances may be for 
our own mother-tongue, the English language, 
to continue to be one of the international lan- 
guages. I shall devote the remainder of my re- 
marks to three of the reasons why English is 
likely to grow in prestige. These reasons may 
be summarized as follows: 

First, English is exceeded by no other lan- 
guage in its storehouse of technical knowledge 
and in the richness of its literature. 

Second, English is surpassed by no other 
Western language in the simplicity of its word- 
structure. 

And third, English has been carried to the 
ends of the earth by political prestige and com- 
mercial interests, which are not likely to dimin- 
ish in our lifetime. 

No defense need be offered for the greatness 
which English has attained as a storehouse of 
knowledge. Last year the rector of the Na- 
tional University of Colombia declared in a 
radio address : 

"It can be positively stated that without at 
least a reading knowledge of English it would 
be next to impossible for a student in one of 
our technical schools — engineering, chemistry, 
agronomy, pharmacy — to keep up with his 
studies, because practically all modern books in 
these specialized fields are in English." 

The assertion that English is simpler in 
word-structure than any other Western lan- 



guage requires proof. To provide that proof 
it may be helpful to review a little history. 
You must be patient if I seem to go far afield, 
for the story begins with our earliest ancestors. 
It is an interesting story. 

As Dr. Hubert Jagger, the British philol- 
ogist, points out, our ancestors probably began 
to speak in a kind of babble that was confusing 
even to themselves. Their words had no reg- 
ular relationship to each other. Out of this 
confusion came one of the eai'ly principles of 
speech: that the relationship between two 
words, say an adjective and a noun, can be indi- 
cated by adding to both words the same ending. 
Thus we find in Latin the phrase "good master" 
expressed dominus bonus. That principle, as 
you know, has been called "concord." It is still 
found in a majority of European languages. 

Concord was employed in primitive languages 
to build up a word-structure which was far more 
complex than most contemporary languages. 
Professor Jagger cites the Zulu language, in 
which every noun belongs to one of 16 classes, 
each with movable prefixes and suffixes. 

Classical Greek and Latin were also compli- 
cated. The regular Greek noun had 17 termina- 
tions; the adjective had 33 endings; and the 
verb had more than 500 forms. 

Latin was not much better. Adjectives had 
24 endings, and regular verbs had 133 forms. 

Colloquial Latin began to slough off some of 
these endings. In the seventh century A.D., 
under the shock of barbarian conquest col- 
loquial Latin split into dialects which became 
Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and 
Rumanian. 

All these languages are simpler than Latin 
and make more use of word order, rather than 
variable suffixes. But they have not cast off en- 
tirely the burden of concord. The French ad- 
jective still possesses four terminations. The 
P^rench regular verb has 38 forms, against the 
English four. 

The Teutonic languages passed through a 
similar process of simplification. Gothic had 15 
adjective endings. Old English, a descendent of 
Gothic, reduced this number to eight. Modern 
English has only one. 



DECEMBER 4, 1943 

On the evidence of this brief summary, prog- 
ress has been from the complex to the simple. 
All languages have worked slowly toward the 
elimination of variable word-endings. English 
has been more thorough-going than other lan- 
guages in achieving this simplicity. Perhaps 
that is because English developed on an island 
isolated by the English Channel. 

Professor Jagger states that the shaking down 
of the English language has left us with the larg- 
est vocabulary in any living speech today, yet 
the English language can pack into a given 
quantity of sound a greater quantity of mean- 
ing than most languages can. 

This quality has many merits. For example, 
Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island con- 
tains 77,000 words. Wlien translated into Ital- 
ian it contains 88,000 words. The Italian uses 
10 percent more words. The difference in quan- 
tity of sound is even greater, because of the Ital- 
ian word-endings. Stevenson's book in English 
contains 94,000 syllables ; in Italian 212,000, more 
than twice as many. In other words to read this 
book in Italian, either aloud or silently, would 
require twice as much time as the English ver- 
sion. If this principle is applied to the class- 
room, the Italian college student must sit twice 
as long as the American student to hear the same 
lectures. 

To a lesser degree this is true of French. A 
Swiss correspondent in Washington who writes 
for a French-language paper remarked the other 
day that he telegraphs all his copy in English 
because the wordage would be 25 to 30 percent 
longer if he sent them in French. At the present 
cable rate of 614 cents per word, the amount of 
money saved by using English is tremendous. 
Similar economy would be noticeable in using 
English over the long-distance telephone. 

The German language, of all the present-day 
European tongues, comes nearest to English in 
economy of words and sound. The New Testa- 
ment, both in English and German, contains 
180,000 words. In syllables, English is slightly 
more economical. The English Testament con- 
tains 250,000 syllables, the German 280,000. 
The difference is about 10 percent. 



403 

This intrinsic simplicity of English may be 
a factor in its increasing use by foreign 
students. 

But we have not yet touched upon the third 
and most important factor which will cause a 
language to rise or to decline. There have 
been great literary languages of the past which 
have died. There have been languages which 
contained virtually all the knowledge of the 
western world in a single era, and they are now 
dead. Where is the speech of the ancient 
Egyptians? Where is the speech of Babylon, 
which lasted for a thousand years? The an- 
swer is that the political influence of Egypt and 
Babylon died, and with that influence the 
language died also. 

Great languages have always been associated 
with political influence, with commercial con- 
venience, and with cultural superiority. Of 
these, political influence has generally been the 
deciding factor. 

Alexander the Great made Greek the general 
speech of the Near East. Arabic accompanied 
the Moslems into Persia, Syria, Asia Minor, 
North Africa, and Spain. 

At the time of Louis XIV, the lavishness of 
the French Court and the brilliance of French 
literature made that language the symbol of 
good-breeding and the language of diplomacy. 
This has continued to our own time, for French 
is still the official language of the League of 
Nations. 

The British merchant marine has made Eng- 
lish the lingua franca of world trade. A Brit- 
ish traveler returning home from Japan in 1910 
wrote that English was the language of the 
ship's traffic at every port of Asia, including 
Shanghai, Hong Kong, Singapore, Penang, 
Colombo, Suez, and Port Said. 

If we come down to recent world events, we 
may be amused by a letter to the editor of the 
London Times in 1935. The letter reads : 

"My dear Editorship, 

"I am in Poland and I want English learn. 
I want this tongue know, which is most popular 



404 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXJLLETEN! 



in the world, the tongue which speak English- 
men, the ruler of two-thirds of the world." 

During the last war Count Bernstorff was 
the Ambassador of Germany at Washington 
until the United States declared war. He later 
wrote in his Memoirs: 

"It was my fate during the war to occupy a 
position that brought me into the sharpest con- 
flict with England, for at Washington the dip- 
lomatic duel was almost exclusively between 
Germany and England. In this struggle Eng- 
land proved victorious. . . . Her victory was 
facilitated by the predominance of the English 
language. I fancy it would not be incorrect to 
say that the English language won the war." 

That is high praise for your profession of 
English teaching. In this war also our enemies 
have honored our language. The London Daily 
Express reported in 1939 that when the two 
Axis Foreign Ministers met on business, Hei'r 
von Ribbentrop and Count Ciano found it most 
convenient to speak in English. There was also 
the exchange of letters between the Japanese 
scholar Noguchi and the Indian leader Tagore. 
They corresponded in English. 

Last June in London a meeting of represent- 
atives of the Allied Ministers of Education 
recommended the establishment of English or 
French as a universal auxiliary language after 
the war. There was reported to be a slight lean- 
ing in favor of English. 

There can be little doubt that English will 
emerge from this war with even greater 
prestige. 

In closing, it may be noted that our govern- 
ment language-program faces two great chal- 
lenges. The first comes from abroad, and the 
second is here at home. 

In foreign countries there is an eagerness 
among many people to learn English, but the 
number of qualified teachers is inadequate. 
Whenever our Government receives requests 
for assistance in English teaching, especially 
from foreign schools or groups of teachers, we 
shall try to provide information on the tech- 



niques of teaching English as a foreign lan- 
guage. 

Here at home we find comparatively few of 
our citizens who know the language and cul- 
ture of our great Allies, Russia and China ; of 
our enemy, Japan; and of many other coun- 
tries of Europe and Asia. Encouragement 
will be given to educational authorities to pro- 
vide facilities for the teaching of these 
languages. 

"It takes little foresight", the editor of the 
New York Times recently pointed out, "to 
envisage the time when Americans must either 
imjirove their ability with foreign languages 
or find themselves at a serious disadvantage 
in the post-war world. For in one relation- 
ship or another we shall find an increasing 
number of our people spread out all over the 
globe. Their missions may be diplomatic, 
economic, or industrial. Lacking knowledge 
of the languages of those with whom they 
work they will suiler in proportion to their 
lack of understanding of the cultures they 
encounter." 

By this iDrocess of exchange of languages, 
by the teaching of English abroad and for- 
eign languages at home, our Government ex- 
pects to break down the language barriers for 
millions of school children. These children 
\\ill be the citizens of the next generation, 
w hich may win or lose the peace. 



Treaty Information 



ECONOMICS 

Agreement With Mexico Relating to 
Plantation-Rubber Investigations 

By a despatch dated November 9, 194.3 the 
American Embassy at Mexico City sent to the 
Department of State a certified copy of a note 
dated July 10, 1943 addressed by the American 
Ambassador to the Mexican Minister of For- 



DECEMBER 4, 1943 

eign Kelations and the original of a note dated 
September 7, 1943 addressed by the Mexican 
Minister of Foreign Relations to the American 
Ambassador, effecting an agreement between 
the United States and Mexico for the extension 
after June 30, 1943, and until six months from 
the date of a notice of termination given by 
either Government, of an agreement relating 



405 

to plantation-rubber investigations in Mexico, 
which was signed on April 11, 1941 by the Sec- 
retario de Agricultura y Foraento of the United 
Mexican States and the Assistant Secretary of 
Agriculture of the United States of America, 
and which was supplemented by an agreement 
signed on July 1 4, 1942 and an agi-eement signed 
on March 3, 4, and 29 and April 3, 1943. 



I). S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1943 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, D. S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPEOTAL OF THE DIEBCTOR OF THE BUEEAC OF THE BODGBT 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BU 



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H 



1 r 



1 




DECEMBER 11, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 233— Publication 2035 







ontents 



The War Page 

Conference of President Roosevelt, Prime Minister ChurchUl, 
and Premier Stalin at Tehran: 

Declaration of the Three Powers 409 

Declaration Regarding Iran 409 

Statement by the Secretary of State 410 

Return Journey of President Roosevelt 410 

Conference of President Roosevelt, Prim.e Minister Churchill, 

and President Inonu of Turl^ey at Cairo 412 

Declaration of War by Bolivia Against the Axis Powers. . . 413 
Second Anniversary of Declarations of War Against the 

United States by Bulgaria, Hungarj', and Rumania . . 413 

Capture of Prizes on the High Seas 413 

Address by Joseph C. Grew at St. Thomas' Church, New 

York 414 

Appointment of Charles Warren as Member of the Presi- 
dent's War Relief Control Board 415 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration: 
Letter of the Secretary of State to the Chairman of the 
House Foreign Affairs Committee 416 

General 

Inauguration of the President of Liberia 417 

Cultural Relations 

Distinguished Visitors From Other American Republics . . 417 

Treaty Information 

Military Missions: Agreement With Paraguay 417 

Legislation 417 




U.S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

- JAN 7 1944 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1943 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, D. S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D. C. 
Price. 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PDBLXSHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIEECTOB OF THE BOKBAU OF THE BDDGET 



The War 



CONFERENCE OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT, PRIME MINISTER CHURCHILL 

AND PREMIER STALIN AT TEHRAN 

Declaration of the Three Powers 



[Released to the press by the White House December 6] 

We— The President of the United States, the 
Prime Minister of Great Britain, and the Pre- 
mier of the Soviet Union, have met these four 
days past, in this, the Capital of our Ally, Iran, 
and have shaped and confirmed our common 
policy. 

We express our determination that our na- 
tions shall work together in war and in the peace 
that will follow. 

As to war- — our military staflFs have joined 
in our round table discussions, and we have con- 
certed our plans for the destruction of the Ger- 
man forces. We have reached complete agree- 
ment as to the scope and timing of the opera- 
tions to be undertaken from the east, west and 
south. 

The common understanding which we have 
here reached guarantees that victory will be 
ours. 

And as to peace — we are sure that our concord 
will win an enduring Peace. We recognize fully 
the supreme responsibility resting upon us and 
all the United Nations to make a peace which 
will command the goodwill of the overwhelming 



mass of the peoples of the world and banish the 
scourge and terror of war for many generations. 

With our Diplomatic advisors we have sur- 
veyed the problems of the future. We shall seek 
the cooperation and active participation of all 
nations, large and small, whose peoples in heart 
and mind are dedicated, as are oyr own peoples, 
to the elimination of tyranny and slavery, op- 
pression and intolerance. We will welcome 
them, as they may choose to come, into a world 
family of Democratic Nations. 

No power on earth can prevent our destroy- 
ing the German armies by land, their U Boats 
by sea, and their war plants from the air. 

Our attack will be relentless and increasing. 

Emerging from these cordial conferences we 
look Avith confidence to the day when all peoples 
of the world may live free lives, untouched by 
tyranny, and according to their varying desires 
and their own consciences. 

We came here with hope and determination. 
We leave here, friends in fact, in spirit and in 
purpose. 

EocsEVELT, Churchill and Stalin 

Signed at Tehran, December 1, 1943 



Declaration Regarding Iran 



The following communique, dated December 
first, was issued in Tehran December 6 after 
the three-power meeting : ^ 



^ Text as cabled from Tehran. 



The President of the United States of Amer- 
ica, the Premier of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics, and the Prime Minister of the United 
Kingdom, having consulted with each other and 

409 



410 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



with the Prime Minister of Iran, desire to de- 
clare the mutual agreement of their tliree Gov- 
ernments regarding their relations with Iran. 

The Governments of the United States of 
America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics and the United Kingdom recognize the 
assistance which Iran has given in the prosecu- 
tion of the war against the common enemy, par- 
ticularly by facilitating transportation of sup- 
plies from overseas to the Soviet Union. The 
three Governments realize that the war has 
caused special economic difficulties for Iran and 
they are agreed that they will continue to make 
available to the Government of Iran such eco- 
nomic assistance as may be possible, having re- 
gard to the heavy demands made upon them by 
their world-wide military operations and to the 
world-wide shortage of transport, raw mate- 
rials and supplies for civilian consumption. 

With resjject to the post-war period, the 
Governments of the United States of America, 



the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the 
United Kingdom are in accord with the Govern- 
ment of Iran that any economic problem con- 
fronting Iran at the close of hostilities should 
receive full considei'ation along with those of 
the other members of the United Nations by 
conferences or international agencies held or 
created to deal with international economic mat- 
ters. 

The Governments of the United States of 
America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics and the United Kingdom are at one with the 
Government of Iran in tlieir desire for the main- 
tenance of the independence, sovereignty and 
ten-itorial integrity of Iran. They count upon 
the participation of Iran together witli all other 
peace-loving nations in the establisliment of in- 
ternational peace, security and prosperity after 
the war in accordance with the principles of the 
Atlantic Charter, to which all four governments 
have continued to subscribe. 



Statement by the Secretary of Stale 



[Released to the press December 6] 

The conferences of the Chiefs of Government 
at Cairo and Tehran have naturally attracted 
keen and universal attention because of the 
wide-spread importance and significance of the 
discussions and decisions. At both of these con- 
ferences military plans were concerted for the 
destruction of Axis forces on all fronts. It 
should be welcome news to all the United Na- 
tions that in the European theater complete 



agi'eement has been reached "as to the scope and 
timing of the operations to be undertaken from 
the east, west and south". These concerted 
plans will undoubtedly result in making eflfec- 
tive to the fullest extent the fighting strength 
of all the United Nations. The meetings of the 
Chiefs of State have further cemented the 
friendship and cooperation between our respec- 
tive countries and assure their fullest possible 
collaboration. 



Return Journey of President Roosevelt 



[Released to the press by the White House December 11] 

President Roosevelt rode homeward by air 
from his highly successful Middle East meet- 
ings with Marshal Stalin, Prime Minister 
Churchill, Turkish President Inonu, and Gen- 



eralissimo Chiang Kai-shek^ over the desert 
route upon which General Sir Harold Alex- 
ander and his British Eighth Army started the 
final Nazi rout from Africa. 



' Bulletin of Dec. 4, 1943, p. 393. 



DECEMBER 11, 1943 



411 



El Alamein, the salt marshes of the Qattara 
Depression, Tobruk, Bengazi, Tripoli, Turns — 
all grim points in the see-saw battle of the 
African desert — constituted landmarks for the 
presidential air entourage on the home run from 
Cairo. 

Bj' direction of his main passenger, Maj. Otis 
Bryan flew the huge four-motored C-54 of the 
Air Transport Command low over the bloody 
wastes of the desolate 1,500-mile battleground. 

It was but a few minutes' flight from Cairo's 
famed Pyramids, almost at the base of which 
momentous military decisions had been reached 
to deal a death-blow to Germany and Japin, 
before Mr. Roosevelt's plane hovered over the 
point of Rommel's ultimate threat to Egypt and 
the vital Suez Canal. 

This was El Alamein, whei-e the British 
Eighth dug in to save Cairo and Alexandria 
and later to launch the dazzling offensive that 
coincided with the American landing in North 
Africa to trap the Nazis in a costly and final 
collapse in Tunisia. 

As President Roosevelt gazed intently from 
his plane window at this turning-point of the 
war there came to his view to the south the 
Qattara Depression. It was this great marsh 
and the crazy-quilt of desert tracks over which 
American Sherman tanks, German Mark Fours, 
and other military vehicles had ebbed and 
flowed. Innumerable shell and bomb craters 
and slit trenches were discernible on the barren, 
dust-clouded waste. The Chief Executive 
brought his acute knowledge of geography to 
bear and predicted almost to the minute when 
his plane would pass over Tobruk, that sand- 
spitted harbor which changed hands so many 
times. From the air it appeared pitifully small 
and arid to have proved such a vital point in 
the African campaign. 

Off to the "starboard", as the President put 
it, lay the lazy, blue Mediterranean, overcast 
by a dim haze. Watchful fighter planes darted 
constantly around the three-plane formation of 
the presidential party, ever mindful of a pos- 
sible enemy threat to their important charge. 



The desert panorama gave President Roose- 
velt a graphic impression of the bitter hardships 
overcome by the British, Australians, and New 
Zealanders in turning back the Nazi "Desert 
Fox". He conunented on the fortitude and de- 
termination of the men Avho battled across this 
vast area of sand and desolation. 

Next came Bengazi, another local point that 
will live in the history of this war. Major 
Bryan circled the congested town at an altitude 
of 4,000 feet so the President could better view 
its break-water harbor. 

Continuing on a line with the North African 
Coast, the presidential flight proceeded to Trip- 
oli. It was the capture of this major Axis 
stronghold, the President reminded his plane 
mates, that finally broke the back of German 
resistance. Damage had been neatly repaired 
but from a bird's-eye view it seemed there had 
been some damage done to the general terrain. 

Real evidence of the devastation accomplished 
by the Anglo-American forces came, however, 
when the Roosevelt plane circled Tunis and 
Cape Bon at low altitude. It was from Cape 
Bon that the Nazis made their futile effort to 
escape. The harbor of Tunis was fronted by* 
completely leveled blocks, result of Allied bomb- 
ing and shelling, and retreating German de- 
struction. Heartening sight was the number of 
Nazi aircraft, shot down or destroyed on the 
ground, that littered the airfield and the adja- 
cent countryside. 

"Somebody seems to have been doing a rather 
grand job", observed the President as he caught 
a fast view of the wrecked Heinkels, Messer- 
schmitts, and Junkers. 

(Note: The above dispatch was received from Maj. 
George E. Durno, a member of the President's party.) 

[Released to the preas by the White House December 11] 

President Roosevelt spent 48 hours as the 
guest of Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower on his way 
home from the Cairo-Tehran Conferences, tak- 
ing advantage of that opportunity to acquaint 
the North African Allied Commander in Chief 
with details of the grand Mediterranean strat- 



412 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



egy determined upon in collaboration with 
Prime Minister Churchill and the combined 
British-American staffs. 

Genera] Eisenhower met tlie Chief Executive 
at a Tunis airport, but their informal confe'r- 
ences actually took place in adjoining Carthage. 
Mr. Roosevelt was quartered in a large villa 
facing out over the Mediterranean toward Cape 
Bon, and aptly called "The White House". 
The villa had been erected on the ruins of the 
ancient city which figured so large in early 
Roman history. 

This was not the first meeting between the 
two in Africa. On his way to Cairo and Tehran 
for the full-dress war meetings with Prime Min- 
ister Churchill, Marshal Stalin, and General- 
issimo Chiang Kai-shek, the President was met 
at Oran and accompanied to Tunis by General 
Eisenhower. Next, in the midst of the confer- 
ence at the base of the Pyramids, Mr. Roosevelt 
dispatched a plane to Allied Headquarters to 
bring the General to Cairo. 

It was upon this background that Mr. Roose- 
velt constructed a final and complete picture 
, for General Eisenhower at Carthage, apprising 
him of the myriad details agreed upon by the 
joint staff to make possible execution of the new 
over-all strategy. 

In constant attendance on General Eisen- 
hower was Chief of Staff Maj. Gen. Walter 
'"Beedle" Smith. Also sitting in was Lt. Gen. 



Carl "Touhy" Spaatz, Commanding General of 
the Northwest African Air Force. 

Lover of history that he is. Mi-. Roosevelt 
took particular pleasure in his sojourn at Car- 
thage, regaling members of his party with 
stories of the turbulent existence of the city 
which was in full flower in the year 814 B. C. 

From the presidential villa, the ruins of the 
amphitheater, the cells of the Christians, and 
the pits of the lions were still discernible. A 
few hundred yards south of the amphitheater 
could be seen the foundations of the "Spina", 
or- wall around which the chariot races used to 
be run. Also close by were the remains of the 
Roman theater where actors, conjurors, and 
acrobats entertained (he Romans before the time 
of Christ. 

The Nazis had occupied the "Wliite House" 
villa befoi'e the British Eighth and First 
Armies and the American Second Corps con- 
verged to capture them at the base of Cape Bon. 
With their retreat the Nazis stripped the villa 
of its furnishings. With furniture at a high 
I^remium in North Africa, the American Com- 
mand was hard put to restore the villa as a liv- 
able place for just such occasions as the presi- 
dential visit. The huge central hallway was 
I'ather barren, and other rooms contained a mini- 
mum of furnishings. 

(Note: The above dispatch was received from Maj. 
George E. Diirno, a member of the President's party.) 



CONFERENCE OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT, PRIME MINISTER CHURCHILL, AND 
PRESIDENT EVONU OF TURKEY AT CAIRO 



The following communique was issued De- 
cember 7 in Cairo : ^ 

Mr. Roosevelt, President of the United 
States; M. Ismet Inonu, President of the Turk- 
ish Republic; and Winston Churchill, Prime 
Minister of the United Kingdom, met in Cairo 
on December 4, 5, and 6, 1943. Anthony Eden, 
His Britannic Majesty's principal Secretary of 

'Text as cabled from Cairo. 



State for Foreign Affairs ; Numan Menemenci- 
oglu. Minister of Foreign AfTairs for Turkey; 
and Harry Hopkins took part in their delibera- 
tions. Participation in this conference of the 
head of the Turkish state in response to a cordial 
invitation addressed to him by the United 
States, the British and the Soviet Governments 
bears striking testimony to the strength of the 
alliance which unites Great Britain and Turkey 



DECEMBER 11, 1943 



413 



and to the firm friendship existing between the 
Turkish people and the United States of Amer- 
ica and the Soviet Union. 

Piesidents Roosevelt and Inonu and Prime 
Slinister Churchill reviev^ed the general politi- 
cal situation and examined at length the policy 
to be followed, taking into account the joint and 
several interests of the three countries. A study 
of all the problems in a spirit of understanding 
and loyalty showed that the closest unity existed 
between the United States of America, Turkey 
and Great Britain in their attitude to the world 
situation. The conversations in Cairo conse- 
quently have been most useful and most fruitful 
for the future of the relations between the four 
countries concerned. The identity of interests 
and of views of the great American and British 
democracies with those of the Soviet Union, as 
also the traditional relations of friendship 
existing between these three powers and Turkey, 
have been reaffirmed throughout the proceedings 
of the Cairo conference. 

DECLARATION OF WAR BY BOLIVIA 
AGAINST THE AXIS POWERS 

[Released to the press December 6] 

On December 6 the Bolivian Ambassador in- 
formed the Department of State officially of the 
promulgation by his Government on December 
4, 1943 of a decree formally declaring that Bo- 
livia is at war with the Axis powers, basing this 
action on the approval by the Bolivian Congress 
on November 26, 1943 of Bolivia's adherence to 
the Declaration by United Nations. The Bo- 
livian Ambassador further informed the De- 
partment that the action of the Bolivian Con- 
gress sanctioned the Bolivian decree of April 7, 
1943 by which a state of war was declared to 
exist between Bolivia and the Axis powers, and 
under which the Bolivian Government adhered 
to the United Nations Declaration. 

This Government received with gratification 
the notification of this latest step on the part of 
Bolivia. 



SECOND ANNIVERSARY OF DECLARA- 
TIONS OF WAR AGAINST THE UNITED 
STATES BY BULGARIA, HUNGARY, AND 
RUMAMA 

[Released to the press December 11] 

The Secretary of State made the following 
statement : 

"It is just two years since the Governments of 
Bulgaria, Hungary, and Eumania, having al- 
ready become servile puppets of Hitler, obedi- 
ent to the orders of their master, declared war 
against the United States. To what degree 
they have been counting on our magnanimity to 
spare their peoples the consequences of this rash 
step foredoomed to disaster we do not know. 
The fact is that whatever may be the sentiments 
of their peoples, the goverimients in power in 
these three countries have recklessly continued 
their participation in the war against us, 
strengtheninor with men and material resources 
the Nazi war-machine. They must by this time 
realize that they will have to share the respon- 
sibility for and consequences of tlie terrible de- 
tent that United Nations arms are so surely 
bringing to Nazi Germany." 



CAPTURE OF PRIZES ON THE 
HIGH SEAS 

By a proclamation dated November 28, 1943 
(no. 2601) the President extended to the Gov- 
ernment of India "privileges with respect to 
prizes captured under authority of the said 
Govermnent and brought into the territorial 
waters of the United States or taken or appro- 
priated in the territorial waters of the United 
States for the use of the said Government",. 
India having already consented to like treat- 
ment for prizes of the United States. The full 
text of the proclamation appears in the Federal 
Register of December 7, 1943, page 16351. 



414 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BULLETIN 



ADDRESS BY JOSEPH C. GREW AT ST. THOMAS' CHURCH, NEW YORK 



(Released to tbe press December 5] 

This is essentially a service of rededication — 
rededication of the tenders of the flame. I use 
that term because it was used by one of our 
young naval fliers in a letter to friends at home 
shortly before he was lost in the battle of Mid- 
way. "You will, I know", he wrote, "do all in 
your power to help others keep the faith. My 
luck can't last much longer. But the flame goes 
on, and only that is important.'" We on the 
home-front are the keepers of the faith, the 
tenders of the flame, and from time to time it is 
well to rededicate ourselves to that high priv- 
ilege and duty — the duty of supporting and 
aiding in every conceivable way, directly and 
indirectly, those guardians of our country on 
the battle- fronts and their families at home. 
That is the essential part of our war effort. 
That is the fundamental purpose of the mem- 
bers of this eager, patriotic, and public-spirited 
organization "Bundles for America". They 
are tenders of the flame. 

I wonder if our defenders on the far-flung 
battle lines realize the thrills of pride which 
we on the home-front experience on reading 
daily the stories of the combined and individ- 
ual heroism of our soldiers and sailors, our air- 
men and marines, and their allies, from Italy to 
the Gilbert Islands and from China to the skies 
over Berlin. Perhaps we can only dimly pic- 
ture to ourselves the trials through which they 
have passed and are passing, but one truth they 
have written for us in fiery letters for all to 
see, to wit: "Our love of fi'eedom and our de- 
termination to protect that freedom can never 
fail. The old spirit of the bridge at Concord 
and of St. Mihiel and the Argonne is alive and 



' Delivered Dec. 5, 1943 at the Evensong Service for 
"Bundles for America". Mr. Grew, formerly American 
Ambassador to Japan, is nov? Special Assistant to the 
Secretary of State. 



flaming today. We have but one watchword: 
'Victory — unequivocal and complete!' " 

A month ago we passed an anniversary of 
solemn and significant memory — the Ai-mistice 
of 1918. How well I remember that day in 
Paris ! Guns booming, bells pealing, the people 
of Paris in the streets laughing and weeping, 
singing and dancing. The war to end wars was 
over. Thenceforth we were to emerge from 
battle to a bright new world, a world of peace 
on earth, good-will toward men. And then, 
what happened? We in America and people 
elsewhere quite simply got into bed and pulled 
the covers over our heads, unwilling to see what 
was going on about us, asleep to actualities. 
And now, once again the world is drenclied in 
blood. 

Shall we make that grim mistake again? I 
do not believe so. Human natui-e may not 
change much through the ages, but at leapt man- 
kind learns something from experience, and I 
believe that we in our country have learned that 
in this modern world of ours — in which the 
nations, through developments in communica- 
tions and transit, have been drawn into inevi- 
table intimacy — isolation has become an anach- 
ronism. We cannot kill the seeds of war, for 
they are buried deep in human natux'e. But 
what we can do and I am convinced we shall 
do is precisely what we did in permanently 
stamping out yellow fever from our country — 
remove the conditions under which those seeds 
of war can germinate anywhere iii the world. 
It can be done and it must be done. 

Once victory is achieved, the guilty leaders 
among our enemies and those individuals re- 
sponsible for the barbarous acts of crime and 
senseless cruelties that have been committed 
under the cloak of war must and shall be pun- 
ished, and just retribution must and shall be 
meted out to the enemy countries so that the 
people of those countries shall be forever cui'ed 



DECEMBER 11, 194 3 



415 



of the illusion that aggression pays. Their 
false philosophy can never be discredited until 
the results are brought home to them in defeat, 
humiliation, and bitter loss. Measures must 
and shall be taken to prevent that cancer of 
aggressive militarism from digging in under- 
ground, once again to rear itself in maglignant 
evil and once again to overrun the world, call- 
ing upon our sons and grandsons to fight this 
dreadful war over again in the next generation. 
Let us assure our defenders on the battle-fronts 
that this time their heroism shall forever finish 
the job begun in 1914. 

But those self-evident measures will not be 
enough. In approaching the eventual peace 
tables, we shall need the highest qualities of 
far-sighted statesmanship. We must abandon 
all promptings of vindictiveness or of pride and 
prejudice. 

First we must clear away the poisonous 
growth in order to lay the foundations for the 
erection of an invulnerable and enduring world 
edifice. Two great cornerstones for that foun- 
dation have already been swung into place. 
One was the Atlantic Charter; the second was 
the Moscow agreement. Others will follow. 

And then we must build. Ke-education in 
certain areas will become essential. I visualize 
a helpful, cooperative, common-sense spirit in 
conducting that system of re-education, devoid 
of browbeating or vindictiveness, with emphasis 
ufion what our enemies will have to gain by 
playing the game with the rest of the world and 
what they would lose by recalcitrance. The 
healthy gi'owth must ultimately come from 
within. When our enemies find that in cooper- 
ation lies their only hope of salvation, they will 
cooperate. 

Weariness of the sufferings of war will work 
in our favor. We do not want festering sores 
anywhere in our future world for the building 
of which we and our Allies are fighting and 
striving today. We do not want the nursing of 
grudges, rebelliousness and bitterness. We 
want the people of the world, including our 



present enemies, to look forward, not back, and 
to look forward not to the day when they can 
achieve revenge but forward to a peaceful, law- 
ful, cooperative, solvent, productive, and pros- 
perous national and international life, purged 
forever of the poison of aggressive militarism. 
That should be our aim. That should be the 
ultimate goal of far-sighted statesmanship and 
that should be the guiding spirit at the peace 
tables. We shall need the wisdom of Solomon 
in approaching those eventual problems. Pray 
God that we may find it. 

Thus may our defenders on the battle lines 
know that they are not fighting or dying in vain. 
Thus may they know that we on the home-front 
are not only with joyful determination support- 
ing them through the war until total victory is 
achieved but that we pledge to them our inexor- 
able determination to carry that support into 
the post-war world, where the final monument 
to their heroism shall be the creation of a per- 
manent international structure based on the 
principles of law, liberty, justice, and peace. 



APPOINTMENT OF CHARLES WARREN AS 
MEMBER OF THE PRESIDENT'S WAR 
RELIEF CONTROL BOARD 

[Released to the press by the White House December 6] 

The White House announced on December 6 
the appointment by the President of the former 
Assistant Attorney General of the United 
States, Charles Warren, of the District of Co- 
lumbia, to membership on the President's War 
Relief Control Board to fill the vacancy created 
by the death of Dean Frederick P. Keppel. 
The other members of the Board are Mr. Joseph 
E. Davies, Chairman, and Mr. Charles P. Taft. 

The President's War Relief Control Board 
has been in existence for two and a half years 
and has been charged with the responsibility of 
coordinating various war-relief agencies in the 
field of private charitable solicitation. 



International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 



UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND REHABILITATION ADMINISTRATION 

Letter of the Secretary of State to the Chairman of the House 
Foreign Affairs Committee 



December 7, 1943. 
Mt Dear Mr. Bloom : 

I understand that H. J. Res. 192, a bill to 
authorize appropriations to enable the United 
States to participate in the work of the United 
Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion, is now before your Committee. I wish to 
endorse this Bill and strongly commend it to 
the favorable consideration of the Committee. 

The UNRRA Agreement itself was carefully 
woi'ked out after consultations with members 
of Congress, and especially with the Foreign 
Affairs and Foreign Relations Committees. 
This Agreement, as you know, was signed on 
November 9 and the first meeting of the UNRRA 
Council was held at Atlantic City. The Council 
elected a distinguished American, the Honor- 
able Herbert H. Lehman, to be Director Gen- 
eral of the Administration. It laid the ground- 
work for the organization of UNRRA and 
adopted sound and useful resolutions on the 
policies which it should follow. It now remains 
for this organization to begin its important op- 
erations. All the forty-four United and As- 
sociated Nations are joining in its work and I 
know that Congress will wish the United States 
to play its proper part. As the President said, 

"... it is hard for us to grasp the magnitude 
of the needs in occupied countries. 

"The Germans and the Japanese have carried 
on their campaigns of plunder and destruction 
with one purpose in mind : that in the lands they 
occupy there shall be left only a generation of 
half-men — undernourished, crushed in body and 
spirit, without strength or incentive to hope — 
ready, in fact, to be enslaved and used as beasts 
of burden by the self-styled master races. 

"The occupied countries have been robbed of 
their foodstuffs and raw materials, and even of 

416 



the agricultural and industrial machinery upon 
which their workers must depend for employ- 
ment. The Germans have been planning sys- 
tematically to make the other countries eco- 
nomic vassals, utterly dependent upon and com- 
pletely subservient to the Nazi tyrants. . . . 

"It is not only humane and charitable for the 
United Nations to supply medicine, food and 
other necessities to the peoples freed from Axis 
control ; it is a clear matter of enlightened self- 
interest and of military strategic necessity." 

The broad plans growing out of the Moscow 
Conference, which Congress has so warmly en- 
dorsed, will need the work of this great organi- 
zation to ensure, in the words of the Four- 
Nation Declaration, "a rapid and orderly tran- 
sition from war to peace" so that we may pro- 
ceed to our announced purpose of "maintaining 
international peace and security with the least 
diversion of the world's human and economic 
resources for armaments." 

It is as essential to be prepared for the emer- 
gency which will follow the end of the war as 
it is to be jirepared for the great operations 
which will bring the victorious peace. This 
organization must begin its work close upon the 
heels of the armies of the United Nations, not 
only to assure that the liberated peoples will 
live and be strengthened for the tasks of peace, 
but to assure that the end of the fighting brings 
peace and not disorganization and further con- 
flict. An instrument of great promise has been 
forged for this purpose by all the United and 
Associated Nations. That instrument is ready ; 
the task is imminent. I earnestly recommend 
that the Congress authorize the funds for full 
and effective participation by this country. 
Sincerely yours, 

CoEDELL Hull 



DECEMBER 11, 1943 



417 



General 



INAUGURATION OF THE PRESIDENT 
OF LIBERIA 

[Released to the press December 11] 

Vice Admiral William A. Glassford, Personal 
Representative of the President at Dakar, has 
been designated by the President as his Special 
Eejiresentative with the rank of Ambassador 
to attend the inauguration at Monrovia of Mr. 
W. V. S. Tubman as President of Liberia on 
January 3, 1944. 



Cultural Relations 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press December 8] 

Dr. Enrique Eodriguez Fabregat, of Uruguay, 
has been awaided a grant enabling him to travel 
in the United States. Dr. Eodriguez Fabregat, 
Minister of Justice and Public Instruction of 
Uruguay between 1927 and 1930, is an historian 
of continent!!l reputation. In 1942 he won the 
Ecuadoran contest for the best book on the 
Amazon Eiver with his work The Epic of the 
Amazon River. In 1943, his BatlU y Ordonez, 
the Reformer won the Grand Literary Prize in 
Uruguay. Other works include a study of the 
Siio Paulo pioneers of the seventeenth century 
and writings on child welfare. Dr. Rodriguez 
Fabregat has held professorial positions both in 
Uruguay and in Brazil. 

While in the United States, Dr. Eodriguez 
Fabregat will study the bases of inter- American 
solidarity as revealed in the lives and works of 
Spanish-American leaders of the period 181(X- 
50. He also plans to make a study of the life and 
ideals of Abraham Lincoln whom he considers 
"the greatest exponent of democracy to be pro- 
duced in the Americas". 



Treatv Information 



MILITARY MISSIONS 
Agreement With Paraguay 

[Released to the press December 10] 

In conformity with the request of the Gov- 
ernment of Paraguaj', there was signed on De- 
cember 10, 1943 by the Honorable Cordell Hull, 
Secretary of State, and His Excellency Sefior 
Dr. Don Celso E. Velazquez, Ambassador of 
Paraguay in Washington, an agreement pro- 
viding for the detail of a military mission by 
the United States to serve in Paraguay. 

The agreement will continue in force for four 
years from the date of signature, but may be 
extended beyond that period at the request of 
the Government of Paraguay. 

The agreement contains provisions similar in 
general to provisions contained in agreements 
between the United States and certain other 
American republics p)roviding for the detail of 
officers of the United States Army or Navy to 
advise the armed forces of those countries. 

It will be recalled that on October 27 a similar 
agreement for the detail of a military aviation 
mission was signed by the Acting Secretary of 
State and the Paraguayan Ambassador. The 
present agreement relates to the giving of in- 
struction in military science other than aviation. 



Legislation 



The Alaslia Highway. S. Rept. 548, 7Sth Cong., on 
S. Kes. 161. 18 pp. 

Coat of Arms of Swiss Confederation. S. Rept. 561, 
78th Cong., on S. 470. 1 p. 

Implementiug the Jurisdiction of Service Courts of 
Friendly Foreign Forces. H. Rept. 936, 78th Cong., 
on H.R. 3241. [Includes letter from Secretary of 
State explaining the need for the bill.] 5 pp. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BUL 



E 



"^ r 

1 . 



1 



I 




c 



DECEMBER 18, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 234— Publication 2P39 



ontents 



The War Page 

Rehabilitation and Lasting Peace: Address by Assistant 

Secretary Acheson 421 

Arrival in North Africa of General Mascarenhas of 

Brazilian General Staff 422 

The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Adminis- 
tration: Address by Francis B. Sayre 423 

The Proclaimed List: Cumulative Supplement 3 to 

Revision VI 429 



430 
431 



431 



American Republics 

Attack by Senator Butler on the Good-Neighbor Pohcy : 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

Inter-American Coffee Board 

General 

Statement by the President on the Repeal of the Chi- 
nese Exclusion Laws 

Commercial Policy 

Proposed Supplementary Trade Agreement With Cuba . 431 

The Department 

Series of Broadcasts Entitled "The Department of 

State Speaks" 432 

Information and Assistance to the Public in Conducting 

Business With the Department 433 

Appointment of Officers . 433 

/ 

[OVER] 








ontents-^oNTwvET) 

Publications Page 

"Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United 

States, 1929", Volume I 433 

"Damages in International Law", Volume III .... 434 
"The Caribbean Islands and the War" 435 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices • 438 

Treaty Information 

Conciliation: Additional Protocol to the General Con- 
vention of Inter-American Conciliation of January 
5, 1929, Signed at Montevideo, December 26, 1933 . 438 

Mutual Assistance: Pact Between the Soviet Union and 

Czechoslovakia 439 

Legislation 439 



0, S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 
JAN 7 1944 



The War 



REHABILITATION AND LASTING PEACE 

Address by Assistant Secretary Acheson ^ 



[Released to the press December 18] 

As Allied forces move forward against the 
enemy in Italy and the Ukraine, as German in- 
dustrial centers and Japanese warships lie under 
the rain of high explosive, the Unite'd Nations 
must face squarely the approaching tasks and 
responsibilities of peace. Although, even as 
amateur strategists, we cannot foresee the mo- 
ment of victory, we can see that certain of these 
tasks are close upon us. One, in fact, has begini 
already, in Sicily and southern Italy. That is 
the task of meeting the emergency which is 
bound to arise in each enemy-occupied area as 
that area is liberated from Axis domination. 
The Nazi "new order" in Europe, and the Jap- 
anese "co-prosperity sphere" in the Far East, 
have meant that the resources and the popula- 
tions of neighboring countries have been turned 
entirely to the ends of the enemy and have been 
spent with utter ruthlessness. 

It is hardly possible for us to grasp the na- 
ture of conditions in these countries. All of us 
know something of the want that can be created 
by a depression brought on by man's mistakes. 
But most of Europe and much of Asia must look 
back to accidental depression as to days of com- 
parative security and well-being, for they are 
feeling now not only the terrible physical im- 
pact of war but the rigors of depression and 
want deliberately enforced upon them. The 
Germans and Japanese are systematically seek- 
ing to create vassal states, whose peoples, under- 
nourished and brutally repressed, may serve as 
beasts of burden for the self-styled master races. 



The people of these lands will need assistance 
to regain their strength so that they can assist 
the armies which will have liberated them in 
the final drive for victory, and participate in 
the construction of a desirable peace. For this 
purpose, the United Nations must work together, 
just as they are fighting side by side in the 
achievement of their liberation. It is for this 
reason that the United Nations Relief and Re- 
habilitation Administration was established. 

The primary task which faces the Relief Ad- 
ministration is to assist the liberated peoples 
to meet their emergency needs. It is to tide 
them over the period between the end of exploi- 
tation by the enemy and the reestablishment 
of their own production for their own needs. 
This will be the critical period, the period when 
quick help will check the sapping of men and 
things, which has been the purpose and end of 
the enemy, and make possible the recuperation 
inherent in every free people. It will be the 
period in which millions of persons driven by 
the enemy from their homes must be cared for 
and helped to return. It will be the period 
when, because of the scarcity of goods and ship- 
ping, effective organization and the deliveiy 
of essential goods at the right place at the right 
time, will be quite as important as financial aid. 



' Broadcast from Washington, Dec. 18, 1943 on the 
Third Opera Victory Rally of 1943-44 of the Metropoli- 
tan Opera Broadcast, over the Blue Network. Mr. 
Acheson is the American Representative on the Council 
of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Admin- 
istration. * 

421 



422 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJLLETEN 



The first task, of course, must fall upon the 
soldiers. So long as military operations con- 
tinue, the soldiers must be in control. This 
means close work between them and the Relief 
Administration. It is through this work that 
essential foundations must be laid in the mobili- 
zation of supplies and in organization. Even 
under military control, local administrative au- 
thorities in the liberated areas must perform 
much of the work of distribution. But as soon 
as possible the whole responsibility for civilian 
supply will become a civilian responsibility. 

If it is possible to state briefly the role of the 
relief organization in that great undertaking, 
it is to do those things which would not be done 
without it, and to leave to others what they are 
doing and can do. Duplication of what is 
already being done by existing war agencies 
would be wasteful and confusing. Nor can the 
Relief Administration take over responsibilities 
which must be assumed by the governments of 
the liberated countries themselves. But this 
organization can most effectively mobilize and 
present the pressing requirements of these coun- 
tries. It can finance purchases which cannot 
otherwise be made and which must be made. It 
can see to it that each liberated country receives 
a fair share of goods which are scarce and in 
great demand. It can see that countries which 
are suffering severe shortages of essential goods 
but lack foreign exchange do not get left out 
at the expense of richer countries which can pay 
for what they need. It can organize the care 
of the millions of the homeless and the exiles. 
It can provide the medical care and health con- 
trols which must be provided if disastrous epi- 
demics are not to spread across the world. 

The Relief Administration, of course, will 
finance through the contributions of its mem- 
ber governments, only a very small part of the 
relief and rehabilitation task. In the first place, 
the vast bulk of needed supplies will be pro- 
duced in the liberated countries by the local 
population itself. Countries which can pay for 
the imports they require will do so. But some 
countries will not be able to pay. The Relief 
Administration will provide the means of help- 



ing those countries to obtain the foods, medi- 
cines, and so forth, which they must import 
to maintain life and order. 

This Government will ask Congress to ap- 
propriate for these purposes a total amount 
equal to five days' war expenditure — one billion 
four hundred million dollars. That is roughly 
one percent of our national income for the last 
fiscal year. Our contributions for relief pur- 
poses after the last war amounted to four per- 
cent of our national income for the year 1919. 
This time the job is even bigger — but more 
hands are doing it, so the burden upon any one 
will be less. 

It is just as important to be prepared for the 
emergency that will come when the fighting is 
over as it is to be prepared for the victorious 
drives that will end in Berlin and Tokyo. It 
would be a hollow victory indeed that brought 
with it famine and disease in large parts of the 
world, and economic chaos that would inevi- 
tably engulf us all. It would be a hollow vic- 
tory that simply led to disorganization and fur- 
ther conflict. We are all of us, in each of the 
44 United and Associated Nations, dedicated 
to the achievement of a real victory. The Re- 
lief Administration repi'esents one important 
step toward that goal, in that it will assure the 
liberated peoples an opportunity to regain theii 
strength and vigor for the common tasks ol 
peace. 

ARRIVAL IN NORTH AFRICA OF GEN- 
ERAL MASCARENHAS OF BRAZILIA> 
GENERAL STAFF 

[Released to the press December 13] 

Commenting on the announcement of the ar- 
rival of General Mascarenhas of the Brazilian 
General Staff and his companions at Allied 
Force Headquarters in North Africa, the Secre- 
tary of State said today : 

"The arrival of General Mascarenhas of the 
Brazilian General Staff and his companions at 
Allied Force Headquarters in North Africa to 
make preliminary arrangements for Brazilian 



DECEMBER 18, 194 3 



423 



ground forces and air-force units to serve with 
Allied troops is a source of gratification to this 
Government. We shall look forward to the day 
when Brazilian troops will be serving shoul- 
der to shoulder with our own, just as their and 
our naval and aviation units are cooperating 
slosely and successfully in the South Atlantic 



in anti-submarine activities. The traditionally 
close relations of Brazil and the United States 
in diplomatic, political, and economic spheres 
can only be strengthened by additional armed 
collaboration in the furtherance of the cause 
for which both nations are concentrating all 
their efforts." 



THE UMTED NATIONS RELIEF AND REHABILITATION ADMINISTRATION 

Address by Francis B. Sayre ^ 



■Released to the press December 14] 

It is always a joy for me to get back to Boston. 
For 15 years this was my home. Boston and 
Cambridge and the surrounding vicinity are 
for me filled with happy memories and unfor- 
gettable associations and innumerable friends. 
Returning to Boston is like getting back home 
igain. It is good to be here. 

I'm glad to have the chance this afternoon 
,o tell you somi^thing of our plans to meet tlie 
irgent problem of bringing emergency relief 
md rehabilitation to the devastated countries 
iberated by the United Nations. For more 
han four years now the world has been con- 
;entrated on death and destruction. We have 
)een living through grim, dark days. Some- 
imes it has seemed as if all the hard- won gains 
(f our civilization were being thrown into the 
liscard. 

But now, thank God, there is light on the 
lorizon. Fascist Italy has already crumpled 
ip. Germany is slowly cracking under the 
train. And Japan, once seemingly invincible 
a the South Pacific, is also obviously weaken- 
ng under the incessant blows of the United 
Nations. We cannot yet relax in any way our 
lilitary effort. All that we have and are we 
lust put into the fight. The ferocity of the 
truggle has probably not yet reached its climax. 

But the daylight is breaking. Winning the 
rar is still our first concern; but at the same 
ime we can now begin to think again in terms 
f rehabilitation, of human progress, of build- ■ 



ing for the future peace. That alone is a tre- 
mendous fact. As we turn our faces in this 
direction it is of prime importance to realize 
the enormity and the complexity of the problem. 
The human need and suffering flowing out of 
the present war will be unparalleled in all his- 
tory. They cannot possibly be met by mere 
lavish and uncontrolled charity. The problems 
can be successfully solved only by carefully 
planned organization and wise leadership. 
The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration has been set up to supply that 
world-embracing organization and that leader- 
ship. 

I 

All of you have read of the signing of the 
United Nations agreement. On November 9, 
upon the invitation of our Government, dele- 
gates from 44 nations, representing some 80 
percent of the people of the world, met in the 
historic East Room of the White House and 
attached their signatures to the document 
setting up an international Relief and Rehabili- 
tation Administration "to the end that peoples 
once freed may be preserved and restored to 
health and strength for the tasks and oppor- 
tunities of building anew". It was a new ad- 
venture. Never before had the peoples of the 



' Delivered before the Boston Institute at the Uni- 
versitj Club, Boston, Dec. 14, 1043. Mr. Sayre is Spe- 
cial Assistant to the Secretary of State. 



424 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



West and the East, the North and the South, 
met together to pool their resources and to 
organize themselves upon an international scale 
to help bind up the wounds of war, to assist in 
feeding the hungry, and to help care for the 
sick. United, as President Roosevelt phrased 
it, "by a common devotion to the cause of civil- 
ization and by a common determination to 
build for the future a world of decency and 
security and, above all, peace", they launched a 
now enterprise, based fundamentally upon 
human brotherhood. 

On the day following the signing, the dele- 
gates of the 44 nations, their advisers and 
assistants, several hundred strong, took a special 
train to Atlantic City ; and there for the follow- 
ing three weeks we set to work hammering out 
plans and creating an organization to translate 
the dream into concrete reality. It was not easy. 
Men from the four corners of the world were 
there, of different race and creed, reflecting 
widely conflicting viewpoints. We did not 
always see eye to eye. But we were determined 
to get on with the business, and all of us felt 
the urgency of the task. We could not afford 
to let minor conflicts impede the work. We 
ironed out all differences and went forward. 
We were learning the meaning of what some 
call international cooperation and others, 
brotherhood. Tliere is no other foundation 
upon which stable peace can be built. 

II 

To the uninitiated, playing the part of the 
good Samaritan to the liberated countries seems 
like a delightfully easy and simple job. In 
truth, imder present conditions, meeting the 
problem of relief is one of the most baifling 
and difficult tasks imaginable. 

To begin with, there is a vastly complicated 
problem of organization. Everyone who has 
given serious thought to the matter knows that 
it would be quite out of the question to import 
into the liberated territories all the supplies 
necessary for their relief needs. No one contem- 
plates doing that. The great bulk of relief sup- 
plies that will be necessary the liberated coun- 



tries probably can, and wiU surely want to, 
produce tliemselves. UNRRA's job will be to 
help to make it possible for them to do so. 

One reason Germany has been able to carry 
on the war so long has been her considerable 
degree of success in harnessing all Europe's re- 
sources to her war effort. The resources of 
Europe are great and are highly developed. 
Wlien Europe is freed from German domina- 
tion, the liberated nations, with the assistance 
of tlie other United Nations, must utilize and 
coordinate these same resources, but to the con- 
structive end of meeting relief-and-rehabilita- 
tion needs instead of war-needs for a "master 
race". That will be a task which no single 
nation or small group of nations acting sepa- 
rately could possibly achieve. It is necessarily 
and unavoidably a job of wide international 
scope. 

In the second place, even though the produc- 
tive powers and capacities of the liberated na- 
tions can be organized and coordinated so that 
the bulk of their needs can be met with their 
own production, some imports, nevertheless, will 
obviously be necessary. These at best will run 
into large amounts. And the fact is that, to 
supply in full the need for even this relatively 
smaller amount of necessary relief-and-rehabil- 
itation goods, there is not nearly enough food or 
clothing or other essential supplies on hand to- 
day in other parts of the world. Also, so long 
as the war is making heavy demands on ship- 
ping, there will not be nearly enough space to 
transport all the sui^plies that could justifiably 
be used. Almost everything of vital conse- 
quence for relief and rehabilitation is in short 
supply. 

Do you see what that means? It means that 
there is no possibility of going out into the 
markets of the world today and buying goods 
as needed. The necessary supplies do not exist 
in large enough quantities. To meet the coming 
need three separate steps are necessary. First : 
The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration — UNRRA as it is called — must 
search out all possible sources of world supply 
of relief-and-rehabilitation goods both within 



DECEMBER 18, 194 3 



425 



and without the confines of the United Nations, 
and wlierever practicable stimulate such addi- 
tional production as is possible. Second: 
UNRRA must carefully prepare and review 
lists of requirements and needs for all coun- 
tries, liberated and to be liberated. Third: In 
the light of these requirements, UNRRA must 
plan and arrange for the procurement of such 
supplies as are available and for the processing 
and production of other supplies that will be 
needed when the day of liberation comes. 

The time factor adds to the difficulties. The 
supplies must be on hand and ready to ship 
when the German and Japanese armies are 
driven out. The supplies cannot be bought over 
the counter. In most cases raw materials must 
first be allocated and procured, and after this 
the processing or production may require many 
weeks and months. If garments are needed, 
it may take months to procure the necessary 
cotton or wool, more months to make the neces- 
sary textiles, and still more months to have the 
needed garments made. If seeds are needed, 
these must first be produced, and Nature can- 
not be hurried in the process. If agricultural 
tools are needed, the steel must first be allo- 
cated and then procured, and after that the tools 
must be manufactured. And always civilian 
needs must wait upon and be subordinated to 
military needs. 

Obviously, therefore, the job in hand requires 
far more than gathering funds for relieving 
essential needs. Once the Axis armies are driven 
out of countries which they have wrecked and 
plundered and stripped of the means of liveli- 
hood, the need for supplies will be acute and 
immediate; and if we are to cope adequately 
with hunger and disease and suffering it is 
imperative that the United Nations have on 
hand adequate supplies for immediate use. 

Military needs infinitely complicate the situ- 
ation. Our primary job is to win the war. The 
Army and the Navy must have first call on all 
foodstuffs and raw materials and supplies to 
transport. We can never assemble goods for 
relief-and-rehabilitation stockpiles in competi- 
tion with the military. In fact, we must allow 



the military whenever necessary to deplete our 
own stockpiles. 

On the other hand, civilian relief and reha- 
bilitation is part of the military job. Our lib- 
erating armies must bring help to suffering ci- 
vilians and thus prove welcome deliverers. In 
modern totalitarian war, protection and stabil- 
ity in the rear and in the "zone of communica- 
tions" are required by military necessity. We 
must preserve the loyalty of liberated popula- 
tions so that supply lines will be safe from in- 
terruption and can be lightly guarded. We 
must prevent the outbreak of disease or epi- 
demics behind the lines for the protection of 
our own troops. We must help to get liberated 
areas back onto their feet at the earliest pos- 
sible moment and encourage the stimulation of 
local production so as to provide supplies and 
transport for further military advance. Indeed, 
so necessary a part of the military function is 
civilian relief that the United Nations military 
authorities have definitely assumed responsi- 
bility for such work during an initial period fol- 
lowing the advance of the troops until the task 
can be safely turned over to civilian responsi- 
bility. The areas in which UNRRA will oper- 
ate and the kind of operations it will undertake 
in each case will be determined by the Director 
General after consultation with, and with the 
consent of, the government or authority (mili- 
tary or civil) which exercises administrative 
authority in the area. 

The exceeding short supply of goods and of 
transport leads to still another consequence. If 
the total world stocks of relief-and-rehabilita- 
tion supplies are equitably apportioned among 
the distressed peoples in the liberated terri- 
tories, there will be barely enough to meet the 
basic and vital needs of all. It follows that 
whatever is acquired by one people beyond their 
vital necessities must be subtracted from the 
share of some other people and thus make it 
impossible for the latter to keep body and soul 
together. 

It is clear, therefore, that as long as an acute 
shortage of world supplies continues, it must be 
part of the task of UNRRA to assure an equi- 
table distribution of world relief supplies to 



426 

and among the liberated areas. Without inter- 
national control those areas which are liberated 
first, or those whose governments possess foreign 
exchange sufficient to enable them to go into the 
markets of the world and buy up procurable sup- 
plies, will secure more than their equitable 
share. This would make it impossible for the 
later liberated or poorer areas to secure enough 
for minimum vital needs. In other words, if 
actual starvation is to be prevented in some 
countries, an uncontrolled scramble in world 
markets for scarce supplies must at all costs be 
prevented until conditions of trade and of pro- 
duction and consumption have become more nor- 
mal. This exceedingly difficult undertaking 
must perforce be assumed by UNRRA as part of 
its necessary task. 

To sum up, the job of administering world 
relief and rehabilitation is obviously one of in- 
ternational scope. No one or even a few nations 
alone could possibly meet the need. Goods must 
be made available and necessary supplies 
planned for and procured all over the world. 
The preparation and coordination of essential 
requirements for each of the liberated areas and 
the planned allocations for each against avail- 
able world supplies is also a task impossible of 
achievement except by international machinery. 
Again, it is only througli international control 
that relief goods in short supply can be equitably 
apportioned according to need rather than ac- 
cording to ability to pay. Through interna- 
tional machinery and through close and under- 
standing international cooperation alone can 
the problem be met. 

ni 

These were the reasons that led to the crea- 
tion for this supremely vital task of the United 
Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion. The structure of UNRRA is compara- 
tively simple. The policy-making body is the 
Council, composed of one representative for 
each of the 44: United Nations and those asso- 
ciated with them in the war. It meets not less 
than twice a year. At Atlantic City we held 
the first meeting of the Council and there set 
the course for the new Administration. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE) BULLETTNI 

The executive and administrative work of 
UNRRA is in the hands of a Director General, 
elected by the Council. His is a position of 
keystone importance; for upon his shoulders 
rests the responsibility of getting the job done — 
of preparing programs for the emergency re- 
lief of civilian populations in liberated areas, 
of coordinating and arranging for the procure- 
ment and assembly of the necessary supplies, 
and of arranging for the distribution of sup- 
plies and services. By universal accord the 
representatives of every one of the 44 member 
nations chose for this supremely important 
position Herbert H. Lehman, former Governor 
of the State of New York. That choice guar- 
antees that the work of UNRRA will be shaped 
by a man of tested ability, free of political and 
personal ambition, and conseci'ated to the cause 
of humanity. Ever since he was called to 
Washington by President Roosevelt to take over 
the work of relief-and-rehabilitation operations 
I have worked shoulder to shoulder with him, 
day in and day out, in the most intimate kind of 
contacts. I have utter confidence in his in- 
tegrity of purpose, his ability, and his determi- 
nation to get the job done. 

At Atlantic City the Council brought into be- 
ing several important standing committees — a 
Committee on Supplies, a Committee on Finan- 
cial Control, and two regional committees, one 
for Europe and one for the Far East. These, 
together with five technical standing commit- 
tees, will assist and advise the Director General 
on matters of policy. They are already func- 
tioning and at work. 

IV 

Much of the discussion at Atlantic City cen- 
tered around the scope and the nature of the 
tasks to be undertaken. This afternoon I can 
touch but very briefly upon a few of the more 
important conclusions reached. 

In the first place, the important tasks of long- 
range reconstruction or development fall out- 
side the scope of UNRRA. We must be 
realistic and look facts in the face. We must 
not promise the impossible. We hope for a bet- 
ter world. But the longer-range work of build- 



DECEMBER 18, 194 3 



427 



ing one is not the task of UNRRA. UNRRA 
has been created to do only an emergency job, 
by providing as promptly and ellectivelj^ as pos- 
sible, the basic needs of victims of war for 
food, fuel, clothing, emergency shelter, public 
health, and medical care. 

With such relief must go a limited amount 
of rehabilitation. Obviously liberated areas 
must not be made objects of charity. They will 
want to get on their own feet. The fundamental 
objective of UNRRA is to assist them to help 
themseli'cs, so that they will no longer need 
relief. Concretely this means that as soon as 
an area is liberated UNRRA must assist the 
])eople, where necessary, to obtain the means of 
planting and tending and harvesting their first 
crops, and must assist them to repair their ma- 
chines and to find the raw materials necessary 
to produce essential relief goods which would 
otherwise have to be sent to them from outside. 
Thus UNRRA will stand ready to assist liber- 
ated peoples in securing materials, such as seeds, 
fertilizers, and raw materials; fishing equip- 
ment, machinery, and spare parts, needed to en- 
able a liberated country to produce or to trans- 
]iort relief supplies for its own and other liber- 
ated territories. It will stand ready to furnish 
so far as practicable such technical services as 
may be necessary for these purposes. Its task 
will also be to give help where possible in the 
rehabilitation of public utilities and services so 
far as they can be repaired or restored to meet 
immediate needs. 

Another part of the task of UNRRA will be 
to assist in the repatriation of displaced per- 
sons. Today there are in Europe over 20 million 
people, in Asia probably an even larger number, 
driven from their homes by Axis armies or by 
the cruelties of war, either wandering and home- 
less or enslaved in Axis labor gangs or impris- 
oned in concentration camps. Many of these 
jieople are weakened by hunger and disease. 
The problem of displaced and homeless persons, 
many of them in dire need, sick in body and in 
mind, will be one of the terrible and dreadful 
aftermaths of the war. The world has never 
faced any problem of human woe comparable to 

565431—43 2 



it. UNRRA must boldly undertake to assist in 
meeting it. 

The cost of relief and rehabilitation as meas- 
ured' by the need will run to large figures — in 
no way comparable to the cost of military oper- 
ations but, nevertheless, substantial and for- 
midable. The scope of UNRRA 's operations 
and the extent of its undertakings will be en- 
tirely dependent upon what the member govern- 
ments choose to contribute to its work. UNRRA 
is clearly in no sense a super-government. The 
UNRRA agreement makes clear that "The 
amount and character of the contributions of 
each member government . . . will be deter- 
mined from time to time by its appropriate 
constitutional bodies." 

The American Congress has not yet deter- 
mined what action it will take with respect to 
the American contribution. A joint resolution 
has been introduced in Congress authorizing 
the President to expend for United States par- 
ticipation in the United Nations Relief and Re- 
habilitation Administration such sums as Con- 
gress may from time to time appropriate for 
this purpose. Last week the House Committee 
on Foreign Aifairs commenced holding public 
hearings upon this resolution. It will shortly be 
debated in the House and thereafter in the 
Senate. Americans have a tremendous stake In 
the outcome of these debates. Future world 
histoi"y may in no small degree depend upon 
what support Congress decides to give to this 
vital international adventure. 

At Atlantic City the members of UNRRA ex- 
pressed the hope, in accordance with a recom- 
mendation pi'oposed by the United States dele- 
gation, that "each member government whose 
home territory has not been occupied by the 
enemy make a contribution for participation in 
the work of the Administration, approximately 
equivalent to one percent of the national income 
of the country for the year ending June 30, 
1943." 

The advantages of meeting the problem of re- 
lief through some method of international co- 
operation such as this are manifest. After the 
first World War substantially the entire burden 
of relief in Europe was borne by this country at 



428 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



a total cost which was somewhat larger than the 
proposed American share of UNRRA's cost. 

If Congress sees fit to follow that recommen- 
dation, as I hope with all my heart that it will, 
that would mean that the United States' share 
of the cost of UNRRA's operations would 
amount to approximately $1,350,000,000. That 
may seem like a large sum. But in fact it is no 
more than the war is costing us every five days. 
If through UNRRA we can shorten the war by 
five days, our contribution, quite apart from 
other considerations, will have proved a thor- 
oughly sound investment. Toward the total 
amount of the American contribution I should 
hope that Congress might appropriate for the 
period to the end of the present fiscal year (up 
to June 30, 1944) say, half a billion dollars. 

Furthermore the cost of UNRRA's work, in 
comparison with the cost of any alternative 
course of action, is relatively almost insignifi- 
cant. If we should close our eyes to the acute 
needs of Europe and Asia in the months ahead 
and pui-sue the course of doing nothing, two cton- 
sequences would be utterly inevitable. One 
would be the lengthening and protraction of a 
period of paralj'zed and stagnant trade and busi- 
ness throughout the world. Each month that 
European and Asiatic markets are unable to buy 
American goods costs the American people hun- 
dreds of millions of dollars iu idle factories, 
stagnant export and imjjort trade, mass unem- 
jjloyment, and lengthening breadlines. The 
second consequence, equally inevitable, would 
be that the fighting would not stop with the 
armistice. Increasing human misery, social un- 
rest, and political instability would continue. 
These woujd set the stage for the third world 
war. We would reap the whirlwind. 

In very truth, we have no practical alternative 
courses open to us. We must face the crucial 
world-wide need for help with our eyes open to 
the problem and with our forces organized to 
meet it in the most efficient and eilective way 
that we can. 

In the few remaining minutes may I touch on 



one or two other basic principles upon which 
UNRRA's work must rest? 

First : At the forefront of all our effort must 
be the winning of the war. All the activities of 
UNRRA, therefore, must further — not im- 
pede — this end. In tlie words of the UNRRA 
Council at Atlantic City "the activities of the 
Administration in bringing assistance to the 
victims of war will be so conducted that they do 
not impede the effective prosecution of the war." 
Scarce supplies and shipping tonnage must be 
carefully controlled and allocated by the inter- 
national control agencies in such a way as fully 
to meet the needs and requirements of the armed 
forces. 

Second : There will always be the danger of 
relief and rehabilitation being used as an in- 
strument for gaining political or social or sec- 
tarian ends. This danger we cannot escape, but 
we can iuid we must frankly recognize and fight 
it unyieldingly. Governor Lehman from the 
very outset has set his face strongly against the 
use of relief for any but humanitarian ends. At 
Atlantic City it was unanimously agreed "that 
at no time shall relief and rehabilitation sup- 
plies be used as a political weapon and no dis- 
crimination shall be made in the distribution of 
relief supplies because of race, creed or politicsl 
belief". 

Third: UNRRA is not set up merely as a 
charity enterprise. It is neither a Lady Bounti- 
ful nor a Santa Claus. It is organized to bring 
help to people in vital need and to proportion 
the help to the need, irrespective of ability to 
pay. Some western European nations are the 
foi'tunate possessors of substantial amounts of 
foreign exchange. They can afford to pay for 
relief-and-rehabilitation supplies. They will be 
expected to do so, in order that the strictly 
limited resources of UNRRA may be stretched 
to the utmost in meeting the limitless need. "It 
sliall be the policy of the Administration", de- 
clared the Council at Atlantic City, "not to de- 
]ilete its available resources for the relief and 
rehabilitation of any area whose government is 
in a position to pay with suitable means of for- 



DECEMBER IS, 19 4 3 



429 



eign exchange." Furthermore, the Council 
recommended that "so far as possible all ex- 
penses of the Administration within a liberated 
area shall be borne by the government of such 
area, and shall be paid in local currency made 
available by the government of the area or de- 
rived from the proceeds of the sale of supplies". 
Fourtli: It will be the constant policy of 
UNRRA to avoid duplication of effort and of 
resources by using, wherever possible, existing 
national or international agencies for the work 
of allocating, procuring, or transporting sup- 
plies. To quote from another Atlantic City 
resolution: "The Director General, after con- 
sultation, when necessary, with the appropri- 
ate intergovernmental agency, will make use 
wherever possible, of the established national 
agencies concerned with the procurement, han- 
dling, storage and transport of supplies." 



V 



In conclusion, may I add one further thought ? 
The true significance of the Atlantic City meet- 
ing goes far beyond the field of relief and re- 
habilitation. 

Tlie issue before the United States today, the 
issue before every nation on earth, is whether 
or not the peoples of the world can learn to work 
constructively and whole-heartedly together for 
human progress and welfare. If humanity with 
its proud dreams and liigli visions can in the 
world of reality find no better way of settling 
its differences than by war, humanity is doomed. 
The present struggle has made manifest to all 
that totalitarian war aided by modern science 
has become so deadly and can be organized on 
so world-wide a scale that unless humanity ex- 
terminates war, war will exterminate humanity. 

There is only one practical way to overcome 
war. That is to learn the way of cooperation — 
of nations working shoulder to shoulder to- 
gether for common ends toward the goal of 
human progress and betterment. Lasting peace 
can be built on no other possible foundation. 



UNRRA today constitutes one of the most 
promising new adventures in practical interna- 
tional collaboration and operation. In Atlan- 
tic City there were discordant views and con- 
flicting opinions a-plenty. There always will 
be whenever representatives of peoples from 
every corner of the world come together. But 
the profoundly heartening fact of the Atlantic 
City meeting was that the minds of all were bent 
on achieving constructive ends by cooperative 
effort; and because of this nothing could stop 
our progress. We hurdled every difficulty that 
stood in the way. 

In the building of UNRRA we are building 
tndy for peace. In the words of Governor 
Lehman, "UNRRA is the first great test of the 
capacity of the pi'esent world partnership of the 
United Nations and associated governments to 
achieve a peacetime goal. It represents a first 
bold attempt of the free peoples to develop ef- 
ficient habits of working together. It is now 
up to all of us to ])rove that it is not only for 
war and destruction but also for help and heal- 
ing that nations can be united to act for the 
conmion good. Then will peace have her vic- 
tory no less than war." 

THE PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE 
SUPPLEMENT 3 TO REVISION VI 

[Released to the press for luiblieation Deceinl)er IS, p.in.] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunc- 
tion with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, 
the Attorney General, the Secretary of Com- 
merce, the Administrator of Foreign Economic 
Administration, and the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs, on December 18 issued Cu- 
mulative Supplement 3 to Revision VI of the 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals, 
promulgated October 7, 1943. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 3 contains 
106 additional listings in the other American 
republics and 94 deletions. Part II contains 64 
additional listings outside the American repub- 
lics and 23 deletions. 



American Republics 



ATTACK BY SENATOR BUTLER ON THE GOOD-NEIGHBOR POLICY 
Statement by the Secretary of State 



[Released to the press December 14] 

The unfair attack recently made on the good- 
neighbor policy by Senator Butler was a matter 
of general astonishment throughout the West- 
ern Hemisphere. It was imperative in our na- 
tional interest that these charges be analyzed 
and answered — answered so completely as to 
leave no grounds for their reiteration. Senator 
McKellar has provided such an answer. With 
painstaking analysis he has demonstrated, I 
believe to tlie satisfaction of everybody, the in- 
accuracies, the fallacies, and the misstatements 
of Senator Butler's unfortunate allegations. 

We in the Department of State are as much 
opposed to extravagance and waste in govern- 
ment expenditures as anyone can be. We have 
consistently practiced a policy of economy. But 
the question here presented is whether, espe- 
cially at this serious stage of the war, we shall 
forget the broad essential nature of our cooper- 
ative activities in the other American republics 
and turn to a controversy over a limited number 
of items of wartime expenditure. Senator Mc- 
Kellar ably and effectively presented the matter 
in this light. It would, of course, be too much 
to expect that no errors of judgment have been 
made in the conduct of programs conceived and 
carried out under the pressure of wartime emer- 
gency, but I believe that Senator McKellar has 
effectively demolished the figures and conclu- 
sions on which Senator Butler based all, or vir- 
tually all, his indiscriminate attacks. 

Senator Butler now protests that he had no 
intention of misrepresenting or injuring the 
good-neighbor policy. Whatever his intentions 
may have been, the effects of what he said, its 
manner and its implications, were such as to 
constitute a most unfair and unfounded attack 
calculated to injure the whole ix)licy. 
430 



Beginning 10 years ago at Montevideo we of 
the Americas have built a cooperative relation- 
ship to increase our trade and raise our stand- 
ard of life and to serve as a bulwark in the 
defense of our independence and freedom. 

At Buenos Aires we established the procedure 
of consultation before the menace of overseas 
aggression. At Lima we proclaimed the soli- 
darity of the Americas and our determination 
jointly to face conmion dangers to our security. 
After war broke out in Europe in 1939 we had 
two special meetings, one at Panama and an- 
other at Habana, where we concerted measures 
of mutual assistance. We agreed to consider an 
attack against one as an attack against all. 

On December 7 attack came and with it the 
sternest test of inter-American solidarity. The 
other American republics realized that the Axis 
attack against the United States was only part 
of a plan to conquer the entire world. Now, 13 
are in a state of war with the Axis, and 6 others 
have broken diplomatic relations with the Axis. 
Argentina alone has failed to act. 

We in the United States are proud of our 
membership in the inter-American system 
through which the 20 American republics have 
so decisively met the challenge of our times. At 
the blackest moment of the war, during the 
meeting of Foreign Ministers at Eio de Janeiro, 
our sister republics raised their banners along- 
side ours. They opened their ports to our ships. 
They welcomed and quartered our troops on 
their soil. They devoted their mines, their for- 
ests, and their fields to the intensive production 
of strategic war materials. They rounded up 
Axis spies and saboteurs, and they shut off trade 
of benefit to the Axis. They cooperated in the 
defense of the Panama Canal and in the sup- 
pression of the submarine menace. All this and 



DECEMBER 18, 1943 



431 



much more they did as their contribution to 
victory. 

The ph^in truth is tliat without this coopera- 
tion the course of the war in highly essential 
strategic areas might have been different. For 
example, consider the situation in the Near East. 
When Rommel was hanunering at the gates of 
Egypt it was planes and light -tank ammunition 
ferried by northeastern Brazil that helped turn 
the tide. The value to our cause of the use of 
these Brazilian airports and of the cooperation 
of the Brazilian Army and Navy cannot be over- 
stated. 

It is distressing that at a time when the na- 
tion is engaged in a gigantic effort to defeat the 
assassins of civilization a wholly indefensible 
attack should be leveled at a policy so univer- 
sally acclaimed. It is a tribute to the good sense 
of the peoi^le of the Americas, who have now 
had 10 years of experience with the good- 
neighbor policy, that these gross misrepresenta- 
tions were not generally believed. 

INTER-AMERICAN COFFEE BOARD 

[Released to the press December 16] 

The President has approved the designation 
of Mr. Emilio G. Collado, Special Assistant to 
the Under Secretary of State, as the delegate 
of the United States to the Inter-American 
Coffee Board ' and of Mr. Edward G. Cale, an 
officer in the Division of Commercial Policy and 
Agreements, as this Government's alternate 
delegate. JNIr. Collado will take the place of 
Mr. Paul C. Daniels, a Foreign Service officer 
who has been assigned to a post at Bogota, and 
Mr. Cale will replace INIr. Robert M. Carr who, 
at the time of his designation, was chairman of 
the Interdepartmental Coffee Committee and 
who has been succeeded in that position by Mr. 
Cale. 



General 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT ON THE 
REPEAL OF THE CHINESE EXCLUSION 
LAWS 

[Released to tbe press by tbe White House December 17] 

It is with particular pride and pleasure that 
I have today signed the bill repealing the 
Cliinese exclusion laws. The Chinese people, I 
am sure, will take pleasure in knowing that this 
represents a manifestation on the part of the 
American people of their affection and regard. 

An unfortunate barrier between allies has 
been removed. The war effort in the Far East 
can now be carried on with a greater vigor and 
a larger understanding of our conunon purpose. 



Commercial Policy 



PROPOSED SUPPLEMENTARY TRADE 
AGREEMENT WITH CUBA 

[Released to the press December 16] 

The Secretary of State announced on De- 
cember 16, after consultation with the Govern- 
ment of Cuba, that a decision had been reached 
not to conclude the proposed supplementary 
trade agreement with Cuba concerning which a 
public notice of intention to negotiate was is- 
sued on October 19, 1943.= 

As announced in the public notice, the pro- 
posed supplementary agreement would have in- 
volved as the sole possible concession on the 
part of the Government of the United States an 
increase in, or the suspension of, for the calen- 
dar year 1914, the annual customs quota of 22 
million pounds of filler and scrap tobacco of 



'Bulletin of Apr. 19, 1941, p. 486; Dec. 6, 1941, p. 
454 ; aud Mar. 7, 1942, p. 225. 



' Bulletin of Oct. 23, 1943, p. 281 ; and Oct. 80, 1943, 
p. 302. 



432 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETEN; 



Cuban origin included in the existing trade 
agreement with Cuba. Decision not to con- 
clude the proposed agreement was reached 
jointly by the Governments of both Cuba and 
the United States. In the case of the Govern- 
ment of the United States the decision was 



based upon a study of the information pre- 
sented by interested persons in written briefs 
and at public hearings held on November 24, 
1943, as well as other information available to 
the interdepartmental trade-agreements organ- 
ization. 



The Department 



SERIES OF BROADCASTS ENTITLED "THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE SPEAKS' 



I Released to the press December 18] 

The role of the Department of State in carry- 
ing into effect the foreign policy of the Govern- 
ment of the United States as determined and ex- 
pressed by the Congress and the President will 
be portrayed in a series of broadcasts over the 
National Broadcasting Company. 

The series, titled "The Department of State 
Speaks'', will be heard from 7 : 00 to 7 : 30 p. m., 
E. W. T., Saturdays, for four weeks beginning 
January 8, 1944. 

The broadcasts will bring to the microphone 
Secretary of State Cordell Hull, Under Secre- 
tary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Assist- 
ant Secretaries of State Breckinridge Long, G. 
Howland Shaw, Dean Acheson, and Adolf A. 
Berle, Jr., Ambassador James G. Winant (from 
London ) , and other officers of the Department. 

The place of Congi-ess in American foreign 
relations will be emphasized through the par- 
ticipation of prominent Democratic and Repub- 
lican members of Congress. 

These distinguished leaders will explain the 
work of the Department of State in the formu- 
lation of policies designed to promote interna- 
tional cooperation, security, and economic well- 
being. The programs will lay stress on new or 
little-known facts of the Department's opera- 



tions and interpi'etations of current develop- 
ments. 

As tentatively set, the four broadcasts will 
deal with the following phases of Department 
of State affairs: 

January 8, 1944: An introductory program 
covering certain of the latest outstanding de- 
velopments in our foreign affairs, including a 
discussion of the preparations which were made 
in the Department of State for such events as 
the recent Moscow Conference with an interpre- 
tation of its long-range implications. 

January 15, 1944: A description of the struc- 
ture and administration of the Department of 
State and the Foreign Service. 

Jtmuary 22, 1944: A discussion of certain 
post-war problems, with emphasis on economic 
fields. These discussions will focus upon the 
questions which will confront the post-war 
world and how they may be met through such 
collaborative action as that projected at the 
recent LTnited and Associated Nations Confer- 
ences at Hot Springs and Atlantic City. 

January 29, 1944: A discussion which will 
center around cooperation between the legisla- 
tive and executive branches of the Government 
in interpreting the will of the people concern- 
ing our foreign relations and carrying it into 
effect. 



DECEMBER 18, 194 3 



433 



INFORMATION AND ASSISTANCE TO THE 
PUBLIC IN CONDUCTING BUSINESS 
WITH THE DEPARTMENT 

On December 16, 194o the Secretary of State 
issued Departmental Order 1215, which reads 
as follows: 

"j\Ir. Jaines E. McKenna, a Foreign Service 
Officer of Chiss III, is hereby designated a Spe- 
cial Assistant to the Assistant Secretary, Mr. 
Shaw, and in collaboration with the Chief Clerk 
and Administrative Assistant shall have respon- 
sibility for effective assistance to visitors or 
telephone callers requiring information or guid- 
ance for the most efficient conduct of their busi- 
ness with the Department. 

"The Chief of each division or office shall give 
Mr. McKenna active cooperation in this work 
and .shall see that he is furnished with full de- 
tails regarding the organization of his division, 
subject-matter handled, and the names, func- 
tions, office locations, and telephone numbers 
of responsible officers. Mr. MeKenna shall be 
kept currently advised of all changes affecting 
the operation of each division." 



APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

On December 15, 1943 the Secretary of State 
issued Departmental Order 1214 which reads as 
follows : 

"Pursuant to the President's request of March 
4, 1942, and recommendations by the Committee 
on Records of War Administration, Dr. Gra- 
ham H. Stuart has been designated a Consult- 
ant in the Division of Research and Publication 
with responsibility, in consultation with the 
Chief of that Division, for directing the prep- 
aration of historical studies of the Department's 
wartime policies and operations. 

"Dr. Stuart and the staff of the Division of 
Research and Publication assisting him shall 
have access, in the discretion of the Chiefs of 
the divisions or offices in the Department, to all 
records, files and other information under their 
respective jurisdictions. The Chiefs of the di- 
visions or offices shall designate an officer to 
assist Dr. Stuart and his staff." 



Publications 



'PAPERS RELATING TO THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 



1929", VOLUME I 



[Heleased to tlie pre.s.s for publication December 18, n p.m.] 

On December 18 the Department of State re- 
leased the first of three volumes giving a docu- 
mentary record of its diplomatic activities for 
tlie year 1929. The other two volumes are 
expecteil to be ready for publication within a 
few weeks. Volume I deals entirely with prob- 
lems of a multilateral nature, the sections treat- 
ing of bilateral i-elations with separate coun- 
tries being reserved for the later volumes. 



Probably of greatest current interest are 
those sections dealing with the problems of 
means for peaceful settlement of international 
disputes and the limitation of armament, in- 
cluding the proposed accession of the United 
States to the World Court, suggestions for im- 
plementing the treaty for the Renunciation of 
War, work of the Preparatory Commission for 
the Disarmament Conference, and negotiations 



434 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIN' 



IDreliminary to the Five Power Naval Confer- 
ence held at London in 1930. There are 
also printed the texts of the conventions con- 
cluded at Geneva in 1929 for the amelioration 
of the condition of the wounded and sick of 
armies in the field and regarding treatment of 
prisoners-of-war. 

Although the world outlook seemed bright in 
1929. there were clouds of war visible on the 
horizon even then. The French Government 
expressed serious fears of Italy due to the fact 
that "the Government of that country is con- 
stitutionally irresponsible and depends entirely 
upon the will of a single man" and declared that 
"An alliance between Italy and Germany is not 
inconceivable and in that case France, obliged to 
face two fronts, would be put in a dangerous 
situation." (p. 59.) 

Discussions between the United States and 
Great Britain preliminary to the London Naval 
Conference centered around an attempt to meet 
the different needs of the two navies for large 
and small cruisers in such a way as to obtain 
parity, to be measured by a "yardstick" difficult 
to devise, and at the same time to check exten- 
sive naval building. The record contains many 
informal letters between Mr. Ramsay MacDon- 
ald, British Prime Minister, and Mr. Charles G. 
Dawes, the American Ambassador at London. 
Mr. MacDonald deplored naval rivalry between 
the British and Americans. He declared : 

"This pai-ity business is of Satan himself. 
I am sure it has struck the President as it has 
me as being an attempt to clothe unreality in the 
garb of mathematical reality. Opinion in the 
United States demands it and the Senate will 
accept nothing which does not look like it. On 



my side I am not interested in it at all. I give 
it to you with both hands heaped and running 
down." (p. 254.) 

Mr. MacDonald asserted that so far as the 
United States and Great Britain were con- 
cerned he would not have to modify his building 
program no matter how many of the larger 
cruisers were built by the United States, but 
that "neither Great Britain nor the United 
States could show the same indifference to the 
building of such cruisers by other nations" and 
that Japan would desire to base its ratio of 
cruiser strength on that of the navy having the 
largest number of 10,000-ton cruisers, (p. 184.) 

Among the many other matters treated in this 
volume are those of naturalization, dual nation- 
ality, and military service; international ques- 
tions relating to aviation, including the exten- 
sion of American airlines to South America; 
commentary on the Monroe Doctrine ; and efforts 
of the United States to assist in the settlement 
of a number of territorial disputes between 
American republics, especially those relating 
to Tacna-Arica and the Chaco. 

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of 
the United States, 1929, were compiled by Mr. 
George Y. Blue, Dr. Victor J. Farrar, and Dr. 
John G. Eeid under the direction of Dr. E.' 
Wilder Spaulding, Chief of the Division of Re- 
search and Publication, and Dr. E. R. Perkins, 
Chief of the Research Section of that Division. 
Copies of volume I (cxxxii, 1035 pp.) will be 
available shortly and may be purchased from 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C, for $2.25 
each. 



"DAMAGES EV INTERNATIONAL LAW", VOLUME III 



[Released to the press December 15] 

On December 15 the Department of State re- 
leased volume III of Damages in International 
Law prepared by Marjorie M. Wliiteman, 
Assistant to the Legal Adviser. Volumes I and 
II, treating of damages with respect to person 



and with respect to property, respectively, were 
published in 1937. 

Volume III, the final volume of the series, in- 
cludes the following five chapters: Contracts 
and Concessions ; Indirect and Other Damages ; 
Rate of Exchange; Interest, Expenses, and 
Costs; and Payment and Distribution. 



DECEMBER 18, 194 3 

A list of cases and a comprehensive index, to- 
gether with a tabulation of data concerning 
past arbitrations, are also contained in the pres- 
ent volume. 

This study brings together material indicat- 
ing methods of settlement adopted by arbitral 
tribunals and foreign offices in a vast variety 
of situations involving the question of measure- 
ment of damages. The work will be especially 



435 

useful in connection with cases currently arising 
as a result of the war. 

Copies of Damages in International Lam may 
be procured from the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton, D. C. Vol. I (viii, 826 pp.), is sold for 
$1.50; vol. II (iv, 723 pp.), for $1.50; and vol. 
Ill (iv, 689 pp.), for $2.25. 



'THE CARIBBEAN ISLANDS AND THE WAR" 



[Released to the press December 13] 

On December 13 the Department released the 
publication entitled The Caribbean Islands 
and the War prepared by the United States 
Section of the Anglo-American Caribbean Com- 
mission and published by the Department of 
State. It will be recalled that the Commis- 
sion was created pursuant to an agreement be- 
tween the Governments of the United States 
and Great Britain, and that the United States 
Section of the Commission, which is respon- 
sible to the President of the United States, 
functions as an integral unit of the Depart- 
ment of State. 

The following brief digest of some of the ma- 
terial appearing in this publication may be of 
possible assistance to correspondents : 

In the spring of 1942 enemy submarines came 
to the Caribbean in force. The Axis was at- 
tempting to destroy the petroleum and bauxite 
(aluminum ore) supply lines from that area 
and to sever the islands from their source of 
food and other essentials. Schooners carrying 
food and laborers from island to island were 
sunk by shellfire. Submarines brazenly sailed 
into undefended harbors destroying shipping 
at anchor and at dock, and occasionally dropped 
shells on the islands themselves. Dominica and 
British Guiana were without bread. The 
American Consul reported from Antigua: 
"There is little doubt that considerable part of 
the population is now going without food . . . 



A large number of laborers including base 
workers have recently left their jobs . . . be- 
cause of lack of food." In Ponce, Puerto Rico, 
police intervention was necessary to quell dis- 
turbances among long files of people intent on 
buying rice. Prices of commodities rose 
sharply as a consequence of short supply. The 
Axis radio monotonously repeated the warning, 
"He who sails for North America sails cer- 
tainly to death." 

Secretary Hull cabled to Ambassador Winant 
at London suggesting that the Governments 
of the United States and Great Britain confer 
together in order to take action to meet the 
situation outlined above. 

The Under Secretary of State summarized 
the Caribbean situation in the following letter 
to President Roosevelt : 

"My Dear Mr. PKEsmENT : 

"As you are aware, the problem of supply in 
the Caribbean area is occasioning this Govern- 
ment the gravest concern. Not only has the nor- 
mal economy of the region been disrupted by 
war, but certain sections have, through enemy 
submarine action and diversion of shipping been 
reduced to near-starvation. The British West 
Indies and our own island possessions have for 
a variety of reasons been dependent upon im- 
ported food for subsistence. I need not detail 
the desperate shortages that now prevail. Re- 
ports made directly to you have familiarized you 
with them. 



436 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUUjETIN 



"It is clear that this Government must act 
immediately to alleviate a situation that tlu-eat- 
ens the military and political position of the 
United States in tlije Caribbean. The need for 
haste and economy of action calls for the use of 
existing agencies in solving this problem. It is 
proposed that the Office of Lend-Lease Admin- 
istration furnish the administrative machinery 
and funds to establish stockpiles of food and 
other essential civilian supplies, as well as assist 
in providing, maintaining and operating a sys- 
tem of distribution throughout the area. In 
this it will act, as it has previously done, 
through the Treasury and Agriculture Depart- 
ments, the War Shipping Administration and 
Maritime Commission, relying in matters of 
specific policy upon the advice of the American 
members of the Anglo-American Caribbean 
Commission, and in matters concerning distri- 
bution upon the advice of the War Shipping 
Administration. 

"In general, supplies will be made available 
where they are needed, on a cash reimbursement 
basis, receipts to be paid into a revolving fund 
which will finance replenishment of the stock- 
piles. This will allow participation in the pro- 
gram of all lands in the area, both American 
and foreign. Questions of direct Lend-Lease 
will be decided following the policies evolved 
by the Office of Lend-Lease Administration 
during its operations under the Act of March 
11, 1941, and in consultation with the American 
members of the Anglo-American Caribbean 
Commission. 

"Any agency or department of the Govern- 
ment which can assist in the plan set forth Avill 
be called upon to lend its facilities. The neces- 
sity for speed is so great that only the closest 
collaboration among all branches of the Gov- 
ernment can avert disastrous consequences. 

"With your approval the agencies concerned 
will proceed at once to implement this project. 

"Believe me 

"Faithfully yours, 

"Sumner Welles" 

The President gave immediate sanction to 
the program. 



Most urgent of all was the shipping problem. 
Convoys were assigned to protect the movement 
of military supplies outward from the United 
S(>ates and of essential war material coming in 
from the Caribbean. These convoys gave assist- 
ance to strategic cargoes but did not provide 
services to many of the islands, particularly in 
the eastern region of the Caribbean. Thus the 
areas of critical scarcity experienced little re- 
lief in the early stage of the convoy program. 
In order to use the convoy system to the best 
advantage, the War Shipping Administration 
developed feeder lines by which supplies 
shipped in convoy could be distributed. 
Canada rendered a signal service in this con- 
nection by drastically revising her shipping 
routes to conform to the changed conditions. 

A proposal by President Roosevelt for the 
utilization of the picturesque local schooners re- 
sulted in a substantial amelioration of the situa- 
tion. In a memorandum to Under Secretary of 
State Welles, the President wrote: 

"I have read your memorandum of April 
eighteenth in conjunction with a long letter to 
me from Charles Taussig outlining the immedi- 
ate problems of supplies of food and other 
needed materials for the islands of the Carib- 
bean. I am perfectly willing to have an early 
conference of the Supply Officers of the ad- 
ministrations affected called, in conjunction 
with the Anglo-American Caribbean Commis- 
sion, but I want to point out that it is literally 
impossible to divert cargo-carrying ships from 
our immediate war needs. 

"It might be possible to send certain easily 
unloaded supplies on the southward bound trip 
of bauxite vessels — stopping at some central 
place like Port-of -Spain on their way south for 
a few hours. 

"However, I am convinced that too little at- 
tention has been paid to the use of local schoon- 
ers and sloops now located in the islands them- 
selves. In some islands, for example, there is a 
shortage of oil and gasoline and it ought to be 
possible for these schooners and sloops to get 
oil and gas at Curasao or even in Venezuela to 
meet the needs of the small islands. The same 
thing applies to certain needed foodstuffs." 



DECEMBER 18, 1943 



437 



The West Indies Schooner Pool was organ- 
ized in the British West Indies under the aus- 
pices of the Anglo-American Caribbean Com- 
mission with sufficient schooners to take care of 
almost the entire essential requirements of the 
smaller islands in the eastern Caribbean. 
Emergency stockpiles of food were accumulated 
in various parts of the Caribbean which were 
drawn upon when urgently needed. An emerg- 
ency land-water transportation route was de- 
veloped from Florida through Cuba, Haiti, and 
the Dominican Republic to Puerto Rico with a 
feeder line from Santiago de Cuba to Jamaica. 
Over one million tons of sugar have been trans- 
ported over the first link of the route between 
Cuba and Florida. Food and other supplies 
have gone over this system in reverse direction. 
The Governor of Jamaica said : ". . . This 
Colony was also fortunate in being permitted 
to draw emergency flour supplies from the 
United States stockpile in Cuba during two 
brief periods of shortage and we have sub- 
sequently been permitted to participate in this 
stockpile system to an extent sufficient to provide 
an insurance against future emergencies." 

For decades the Caribbean had devoted its 
agriculture mainly to the production of sugar. 
A substantial part of its food requirements was 
imported. It became necessary, as part of the 
plan, immediately to stimulate domestic food 
production. It was not only necessai-y to over- 
come inertia and to utilize existing facilities and 
skills, but there were also financial risks in- 
curred by producers when they changed over 
from the familiar to the new and uncertain. In 
addition, there was the problem of altering es- 
tablished habits of consumption. But the fact 
remained that a ton of food grown locally saved 
a ton of shipping space. The urgency of the sit- 
uation, growing out of ship sliortages and sub- 
marine warfare, combined with joint appeals of 
all the governments concerned resulted in sub- 
stantial progress. It is estimated that local food 
production has increased by at least 30 percent 
and in some islands by even a greater amount. 
Price-support and marketing programs were 
generally instituted, which aided materially in 



the drive for more local food. Economic con- 
trols were inaugurated. Food, petroleum, pe- 
troleum products, and even electricity were 
allocated or rationed. Several types of sub- 
sidies were employed to curb the rapidly 
mounting cost of living. The types of subsidies 
employed have been largely of three kinds : 

(1) Purchase of a commodity by the ho7l^e 
government at a fixed price, and sale of the com- 
modity at a lower price, or in some cases, free 
distribution of the commodity. (The banana 
subsidy in Jamaica is an example of this type of 
procedure.) 

(2) Purchase of a commodity by the local 
government and sale of the commodity at a 
lower price. 

(3) Reduction or abandonment of tariffs for 
the duration. (An example of this is the sus- 
pension of the tariff on jerked beef entering 
Puerto Rico.) 

A general program of wage increases together 
with war bonuses was promulgated in the vari- 
ous countries of the Caribbean which partially 
offset the increased cost of living. In some areas 
war work on the United States bases and in tlie 
production of materials of war relieved the 
ever-present unemployment problem. In other 
places economic disturbances, due to lack of 
shipping, more than offset increased war em- 
ployment and rising unemployment became 
alarming. This situation was somewhat miti- 
gated by redistributing workers throughout the 
area from islands with labor surpluses to those 
that had shortages, and also by a substantial 
emigration of West Indians to the United 
States to help harvest food crops. 

The morale of the peoples in the Caribbean 
region was a favorite target of Axis propagan- 
dists. Accumulated social, economic, and po- 
litical shortcomings of centuries were condensed 
into vitriolic radio tirades beamed from Nazi 
Europe to the Caribbean and to South America. 
It became necessary to meet and defeat this psy- 
chological warfare carried on by the Axis 
against the morale of this area. The Anglo- 
American Caribbean Commission inaugurated 
a nightly half-hour short-wave program of news 



438 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE^ BtTLLETIN 



and information to combat Axis propaganda 
and to stress the urgent necessity for immediate 
increase in food production. 

In meeting the costs of the adjustments made 
necessary by the impact of the war on the civil- 
ian populations of their territories in the Carib- 
bean, the British Government and that of the 
United States have followed a policy of each 
paying its own way. Lend-lease fixnds have 
been used only for activities directly or indi- 
rectly connected with military operations. 

The combined efforts of all the countries in- 
volved to ameliorate the conditions of the block- 
aded peoples of the Caribbean have met with 
success. There has been a substantial increase 
in industrial expansion. Local fisheries have 
been promoted. Liter-island trade has in- 
creased. Through the joint Anglo-American 
Caribbean Commission Great Britain and the 
United States have cooperated effectively in 
meeting the problems in the Caribbean directly 
caused by the war. The success attained so far 
has already alleviated an immediate situation 
of crisis. This does not, however, imply the 
liquidation of the long-range problems of the 
islands. Those problems remain unfinished 
business challenging the continued combined 
efforts of the Governments concerned. 



Other publications recently released by the 
Department follow: 

The Territorial Papers of the United States. Compiled 
and edited by Clarence Edwin Carter. Volume XI, 
The Territory of Michigan, 1820-1829 continued. 
Publication 1965. viii, 1372 pp. $3.25. 

The Moscow Conference : Address by Cordell Hull, Sec- 
retary of State, Before a Joint Meeting of Both 
Houses of Congress, November 18, 1943. Publication 
2027. 9 pp. Free. 

Diplomatic List, December 1943. Publication 2029. ii, 
122 pp. Subscription, $1 a year ; single copy, 10^. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Bloclied Nationals: 
Cumulative Supplement No. 3, December 17, 1943, 
to Revision VI of October 7, 1943. Publication 2034. 
46 pp. Ftee. 



The Foreign Service 



CONSULAR OFFICES 

The American Vice Consulate at Sao Vicente, 
Cape Verde Islands, was closed, effective De- 
cember 12, 1943. 

The American Consulate at St. Lucia, British 
West Indies, was closed, effective November 
20. 1943. 



Treaty Information 



CONCILIATION 

Additional Protocol to the General Convention 
of Inter-American Conciliation of January 
5, 1929, Signed at Montevideo, December 
26, 1933 

Colombia 

By a note dated December 10, 1943 tlie Chilean 
Ambassador in Washington informed the 
Secretary of State that on August 24, 1943 the 
Government of Colombia deposited with the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile the instru- 
ment of ratification of the Additional Protocol 
to the General Convention of Inter- American 
Conciliation of January 5, 1929, signed at the 
Seventh International Conference of American 
States at Montevideo on December 26, 1933 
(Treaty Series 887). 



The countries in respect of which the Addi- 
tional Protocol of December 26, 1933 is now in 
force as the result of the deposit of their respec- 
tive instruments of ratification or adherence are 
the United States of America, Chile, Colombia, 
the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Honduras, 
Mexico, Paraguay, and Venezuela. 



DECEMBER 18, 1943 



439 



MUTUAL ASSISTANCE 

Pact Between the Soviet Union and 
Czechoslovakia 

[Released to the press December 13] 

When asked for comment on the signing of 
the Soviet-Czech pact, the Department an- 
nounced that the treaty of mutual assistance 
between the Governments of the Soviet Union 
and Czechoslovakia has been under discussion 
for some months. This agreement is somewhat 
after the fashion of the Anglo-Soviet pact of 
1942. It is not understood to be in conflict with 
the general framework of world-wide security. 



Legislation 



Special Mission by Aviation Subcommittee of the Com- 
mittee on Military Affairs : Report of the Committee 
on Military Affairs, House of Representatives, 78th 
Cong., 1st sess. H. Rept. 950, 7Sth Cong. 11 pp. 

Rescue of the Jewish and Other Peoples in Nazi-Occu- 
pied Territory : Hearings Before the Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, 78th Cong., 
1st sess., on H. Res. 350 and H. Res. 352, Resolutions 
Providing for the Establishment by the Executive of a 
Commission To Effectuate the Rescue of the Jewish 
People of Europe. November 26, 1943. 72 pp. 

An Act for the relief of certain officers and employees 
of the foreign service of the United States who, while 
in the course of their respective duties, suffered losses 
of personal property by reason of war conditions. 
S. 1382. Approved December 3, 1943. Private Law 
145, 78th Cong. 2 pp. 



U. S SOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1943 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, D. S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - . . . Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIRKCTUB OF THE BUREAU OF THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BU 



J 



I 



^ 



■^ m 



i 



riN 



DECEMBER 25, 1943 
Vol. IX,;No. 235— Publication 2041 



C< 



ontents 



American Republics 

Statement of Expenditures of the Department of State 
in the Other American Republics and Memoran- 
dum Concerning Report by Senator Butler . . . 

Presentation of Letters of Credence by the Dominican 
Ambassador 

Implementation of Existing Contracts on 1944 Cuban 
Sugar Crop 

United States Attitude Toward the New Bolivian 
Government 

The Near East 

Presentation of Letters of Credence by the Ethiopian 
Minister 

Europe 

Incident at American Consulate m Valencia, Spain . . 

The Far East 

Return From China of United States Agricultural Ad- 



viser 



Legislation 

The Department 

Actmg Petroleum Adviser to the Secretary of State 

Publications 



Page 

443 
448 
449 
449 

449 
450 

451 
451 

452 
452 




«■ S, SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENIi 

JAN 12 1944 



American Republics 



STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE IN THE 
OTHER AMERICAN REPUBLICS AND MEMORANDUM CONCERNING RE- 
PORT BY SENATOR BUTLER 



A report by the Honorable Hugh A. Butler, 
United States Senator from Nebraska, relating 
to expenditures and commitments by the United 
States Government in or for Latin America, and 
the reply to such report made by the Honorable 
Kenneth McKellar, United States Senator from 
Tennessee and a member of the Senate Appro- 
priations Committee, together with accompany- 
ing papers from the heads of various Govern- 
ment departments verifying the reply, are con- 
tained in Senate Document 132, 78th Cong., 1st 
sess. (xii, 170 pp.) In connection with Senator 
Butler's report, the Secretary of State issued a 
statement on December 14, which was printed in 
the Bulletin of December 18, 1943, page 430. 

The text of a letter from the Secretary of 
State to Senator McKellar, dated December 10, 
1943, transmitting a statement of expenditures 
of the Department of State in or with reference 



to the other American republics since July 1, 
1941 and a memorandum concerning the report 
by Senator Butler, follows : 

My Deak Senator McKeixar : I am glad to 
transmit to you herewith at your request infor- 
mation concerning the expenditures of the De- 
partment of State in and with reference to the 
other American republics since July 1, 1941, to- 
gether with some comments regarding state- 
ments made by Senator Hugh A. Butler con- 
cerning activities of this Government in those 
countries. 

Sincerely yours, 

CoEDELL Hull 
Enclosures : 

1. Memorandum and table concerning finan- 
cial expenditures. 

2. Memorandum concerning the report of 
Senator Butler. 



Statement of Department of State financial transactions affecting the other 


American republics for fiscal 


years 1941-48 


Description 


1941 


1942 


1943 


Total 1941-43 


Cultural relations program 








$1 392 649 


Regular State Department appropriation 


$34, 000 
149,020 


$140,000 
207, 833 


$260, 000 
601, 796 




Interdepartmental committee appropriation . . 




Special emergency activities 


331 211 


The Inter-American Advisory Committee for Political 
Defense 




15, 000 


94,000 

22, 810 
126, 924 




The Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory 
Committee. 






Miscellaneous projects . 


3, 171 


69, 306 








Total-.' 


186, 191 


432, 139 


1, 105, 530 


1 723 860 







Note. — It is eslimated that expenditures for the fiscel year 1944 will amount to $2,562,000. 
565953 — 43 



443 



444 



DEPARTMENT OF OTATE BULLETEST 



TYPES OF PROJECTS COVERED IN EXPENDITURES 
REPORTED 

The expenditures reported as current expenses 
of the United States Government agencies in the 
other American republics include all expendi- 
tures by the Department of State under the ap- 
propriation "Cooperation witli the American 
Republics", which includes projects such as (1) 
Convention for the Promotion of Inter-Ameri- 
can Cultural Eelations; (2) selection, transla- 
tion, and printing in Spanish, Portuguese, and 
French of certain publications of this Govern- 
ment for distribution in the other American 
republics; (3) travel of advisory committees 
concei'ned with cultural relations; (4) travel 
grants to leaders; (5) grants to students; (6) 
cultural institutes and services; (7) grants to 
American schools; and (8) other miscellaneous 
projects for the promotion of cultural relations. 
The expenditures reported also include special 
projects which are being carried on in coopera- 
tion with the American republics in connec- 
tion with the war effort, such as (1) the Inter- 
American Advisory Committee for Political De- 
fense; (2) the Inter- Amei'ican Financial and 
Economic [Advisory] Committee; and (3) mis- 
cellaneous and minor jDi'ojects of various types. 



TYPES OF PROJECTS NOT COVERED IN THE 
EXPENDITURES REPORTED 

There have been excluded from the expendi- 
tures reported such items as those listed here- 
after for the reasons stated : 

1. Contributions to inter- American organiza- 
tions dealing with technical and scientific prob- 
lems and rendering joint services to member 
governments, of which the United States is a 
member and to the maintenance and operation 
of which it contributes its proportionate share 
as fixed by treaty or other agreement. Most of 
these organizations have been operating for 
many years. Some of them are located in the 
American republics and others in the United 
States. 



2. Expenses of participation in inter- Ameri- 
can conferences of a character which are re- 
quired in the normal conduct of foreign rela- 
tions, such as those carried on in peace times. 

3. Expenditures for the acquisition of Gov- 
ernment-owned offices and* residences for the use 
of the Foreign Service. 

4. Expenses in connection with the conduct 
of our regular Foreign Service activities which 
are carried on in all countries of the world and 
not only in the American republics. 

• 5. Annual payments to Panama under con- 
vention of 1903 for 99-year lease of the Canal 
Zone. 

Comments on the Report or the Honorable 
Hugh A. Butler Relative to Expenditures 
BY THE United States in Central and South 
American Countries 

u. s. policy in central america 

The Senator charges that the United States in 
1941 contributed to the failure of the "long- 
sought dream of Central American patriots for 
a Federal Union" by recognizing insurgents 
who had overturned the "union government". 
This is cited as an example of the "atmosphere 
of misimderstanding" created by President 
Roosevelt's Good Neighbor Policy. 

The Senator evidently refers to an incident 
that took place in 1921, the last time when a Cen- 
tral American Union was attempted. In that 
year a Central American Union consisting of 
Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala was 
formed and recognition was sought from the 
United States. Two months after establishment 
of the union a revolution of anti-union forces in 
Guatemala overthrew the existing government 
in that country. When the union government 
objected to this act, Guatemala withdrew from 
the federation. The union government pro- 
posed to attempt to put down the revolutionary 
movement in Guatemala but when the United 
States expressed its concern over "any attempt 
by one Central American country to interfere 
with the internal affairs of another", the union 
was dissolved. In April 1922 the United States 
recognized the new government in Guatemala. 



DECEMBER 2 5, 194 3 



445 



Tho policy of this Government towards a 
possible Central American Union has officially 
been stated in the Department's instructions to 
its representatives as follows : "The creation of 
a Central American Union is a matter for the 
exclusive consideration and decision of the 
countries concerned''. 

COMMITTEE FOR POLITICAL DEFENSE 

Referring tp the activities of the Emergency 
Advisory Committee for Political Defense 
which discusses problems of control of subver- 
sive activities with the appropriate officials of 
the governments of the American republics, the 
Senator reports "State Department officials feel 
that this is an intrusion in their field''. 

The Emergency Advisory Committee for Po- 
litical Defense was established in accordance 
with a resolution adopted at the meeting of 
Foreign Ministers in Eio de Janeiro to which 
the American representative, of course, agi'eed. 
The Department has been fully satisfied con- 
cerning the functions of this Committee and 
has cooperated with it in every respect. 

TRADE AGREEMENTS 

Senator Butler argues that the reciprocal 
trade agreements with the other American re- 
publics "have been largely nullified" by our ac- 
tivities under the war programs which he im- 
plies have destroyed the credit standing of 
Latin America and consequently the ability of 
the other republics to do business with the 
United States. 

There is no inconsistency between the recipro- 
cal-trade-agreement policy and the activities of 
this Government in arranging for the purchase 
of strategic materials under agreements be- 
tween the governments concerned. The trade 
agreements are intended to encourage expansion 
of private commerce along sound lines, and they 
may be expected to have this eflPect again after 
the war when normal trade is resumed. Im- 
porters in the other American republics do not 
lack credit to buy United States goods; the 



goods are not available in sufficient quantity 
beca'use of war-time needs. 

The Senator also charges that the trade agree- 
ments have encouraged the production of agri- 
cultural export commodities in countries where 
agricultural workers do not produce enough 
food for an adequate diet and are therefore im- 
poverished and in bad health. 

This Government's policy has been to en- 
courage production of non-competing agricul- 
tural commodities in the other American repub- 
lics. The United States imports such coimnodi- 
ties as sugar and coffee from other American 
republics and exports to them agricultural com- 
modities produced here such as wheat, flour, 
and lard. 

AIRPORT CONTROLS IN RIO DE JANEIRO AND SAN 
SALVADOR 

The Senator state? that Brazil forced the 
United States to relinquish the control towers 
at the airport in Rio de Janeiro to the Brazilian 
Army despite our strenuous objections, and that 
because the Brazilian officials were incompetent 
an airplane of the V. A. S. P. line crashed, kill- 
ing 18 persons. 

The changes in the operation of control towers 
at the Rio de Janeiro airport were made by the 
Brazilian authorities at the urgent insistence of 
American airline officials in order to improve a 
situation which had previously been unsatisfac- 
tory. These changes gi-eatly increased the 
safety factor in landing and taking off. The 
crash of the Brazilian plane to which the Sen- 
ator refers was not due in any way to the opera- 
tion of control towers as the Senator suggests. 

The Senator also cites as an example of in- 
gratitude on the part of El Salvador the report 
that that country recently "booted out" the 
competent radio and control tower men of the 
United States airline and replaced them with 
Salvadorans whose incompetence endangered 
the lives of passengers coming in and out of 
the airport at San Salvador. 

There are no control towers on the airport at 
San Salvador, 



446 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



CULTURAL AIDES STUDYING RUINS 

The Senator reports tliat "several cultural 
aides of the Coordinator of Inter- American Af- 
fairs and the State Department are spending 
time to uncover more ruins and reconstruct 
others in both Mexico and Peru". 

No employees of the State Department have 
been or are now engaged in any such activities. 

INTER-AMERICAN HIGHWAY 

The Senator has criticized the project for 
construction of the Inter-American Highway 
and the "pioneer road" which was undertaken 
for military purposes. The following informa- 
tion is given on that subject. 

United States cooperation in the construction 
of the Inter- American Highway from the Mex- 
ican-Guatemalan border to Panama City was 
approved by Congress, upon the President's 
recommendation, in 1941 (Public 375 of De- 
cember 26, 1941). The President pointed out 
that the completion of the highway would im- 
prove transportation within and between the 
several countries it traversed and the United 
States, develop new lands and new natural re- 
sources, increase consumption of American im- 
ports, notably American automobiles, parts, 
garage equipment, etc., help maintain the eco- 
nomic structure of the Central American re- 
publics, which had been adversely affected by 
war conditions, increase the tourist traffic be- 
tween the United States and this area, and have 
a direct bearing on the defense of the Canal 
Zone area. 

While the latter point was not the primary 
consideration in the decision to cooperate in the 
construction of the highway by May 25, 1942 
the need for an adequate overland line of com- 
munications to the Canal Zone had become so 
acute that the General Staff decided that "An 
all-weather pioneer road from the United States 
to Panama City is needed to serve military pur- 
poses for supply and communication, particu- 
larly in view of restricted water transporta- 
tion. . . . Such a road can be completed within 



one (1) j'ear. . . ." The linking together by a 
pioneer road of the segments of the Inter-Amer- 
ican Highway which had already been com- 
pleted was consequently undertaken. Fifteen 
months later, on August 27, 1943 (approxi- 
mately the time that Senator Butler was speak- 
ing to the military leaders of the Caribbean De- 
fense Command), the Genei'al Staff, in pursu- 
ance of a general plan for the reduction of de- 
fense installations of the Western Hemisphere, 
approved a recommendation that "Participation 
by the Army in the Pan-American Highway 
will be terminated when presently allocated 
War Department funds are exhausted and the 
project turned over to civil agencies of the Gov- 
ernment for completion." Allocations for the 
construction of the pioneer highway amounted 
on that date to $40,000,000. Final accomits of 
the cost of the pioneer highway will not be com- 
pleted for some months, but it is belived that 
costs will approximately equal those allocations. 
An appropriation of $7,000,000 was approved 
on February 21, 1942, under the $20,000,000 au- 
thorization provided by Public 375. A further 
appropriation of $5,000,000 under this authori- 
zation was approved on June 26, 1943. On July 
12, 1943, a separate appropriation of $12,000,000 
was approved in order that a particularly diffi- 
cult section of the highway in Costa Rica might 
be completed on an emergency basis as a part 
common to the pioneer and Inter-American 
Highways. Costa Eica was financially unable 
to provide cooperative funds to match this ap- 
propriation, but in all other cases the respective 
governments have provided one-third of the 
total expenditures for the construction of the 
Inter-American Highway. All United States 
appropriations were made to the Public Roads 
Administration rather than the Department of 
State. 

Total United States expenditures on the 
Inter-American Highway in the fiscal years 
1941-42-43 equaled $3,541,000, including $670,- 
000 in Army funds spent by the Public 
Roads Administration on access roads. Total 



DECEMBER 2 5, 1943 



447 



credits of the Export-Import Bank to the re- 
spective governments for the construction 
of the Inter- American Highway (including a 
general credit of $30,000,000 to Mexico for 
highways, only $10,000,000 of which has been 
withdrawn and $1,686,797 of which has been 
repaid, and a loan of $1,815,000 made to 
Nicaragua in 1939, $199,000 of which has 
ali-eady been repaid) have amounted to $38,- 
215,000 of which but $14,324,202 is actaially 
outstanding. Thus total United States com- 
mitments made since 1939 in connection witli the 
Inter-American Highway, including gross au- 
thorizations, appropriations, or credits of the 
Export-Import Bank but excluding Army ex- 
penditures amount to $70,215,000 as against Sen- 
ator Butler's allegation of $438,800,000. Latest 
figures show expenditures of over $70,000,000 ^ 
by the respective local governments on the high- 
way. Although it appears, on the basis of re- 
vised estimates, that considerable additional 
money beyond that authorized will be needed to 
complete the highway, requests for whatever ap- 
propriations may be necessary for this purpose 
will of course be submitted to the Congress for 
its approval in due course. 



country, which developed in 1942, was due to the 
decrease in banana exports which in turn arose 
from the diversion of shipping by the United 
States to more urgent war-time uses. The situa- 
tion was described by Ambassador John D. 
Erwin (then American Minister to Honduras) 
in a report to the Department dated August 15, 
1942, in which he said that a "few more weeks of 
hardship may produce serious trouble in north 
coast area" and urged "that the United States 
speedily initiate work relief projects in that re- 
gion". The report stated that hundreds of fam- 
ilies were close to starvation despite efforts to 
obtain locally produced food, the situation being 
most hard on women and children. The great- 
est unemployment was found amongst dock 
workers who under normal times loaded and un- 
loaded ships which because of war demands no 
longer could be spared for the banana trade. 
The United States Government cooperated with 
the Honduran Government in the construction 
of a badly needed road which gave work to the 
unemployed until improvements in the economic 
situation, including the expanded production of 
strategic materials such as mahogany and abaca, 
provided other sources of employment. 



HONDURAN RELIEF PROJECTI 

Senator Butler charges that the United States 
unnecessarily undertook road projects in Hon- 
duras to alleviate unemploj'ment which, accord- 
ing to the Senator's report, the American Am- 
bassador described as not sufficiently bad to war- 
rant such an undertaking. The Senator charges 
that such difficulties as Honduras did experi- 
ence were created by the United States because 
gold and antimony mines were shut down and 
''bananas were left to rot in the fields". 

There are no gold mines of importance in 
Honduras. Antimony mines, which provide 
only insignificant amount of employment, have 
not been shut down. The unemployment in that 

' Including amounts spent prior to liMl. 



LOAN TO ARGENTINA FOR OIL EXPLORATION 

Senator Butler states that the United States 
loaned Argentina $50,000,000 for the develop- 
ment of oil resources. The source for this infor- 
mation was given by the Senator as being a 
Mr. Cook of the Standard Oil Company. 

No Government agenc}' has advanced a loan 
to Argentina for such purposes. 

PUERTO RICAN AID 

The Senator includes in his computation of 
United States expenditures in Latin America 
$57,000,000 in aid to Puerto Rico from the 
United States Government. 

Puerto Rico is a Territory of the United 
States, not a foreign country. 



448 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



PRESENTATION OF LETTERS OF CREDENCE BY THE DOMINICAN AMBASSADOR 



[Released to the press December 20] 

A translation of the remarks of the newly 
appointed Ambassador of the Dominican Re- 
public, Sefior Anselmo Gopello, upon, the -.occa- 
sion of the presentation of his letters of credence, 
December 20, follows : 

Mr. President: 

I have the honor to place in Your Excellency's 
hands the autograph letter of His Excellency 
the President of the Dominican Republic ac- 
crediting me as Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary before the Government of the 
United States of America, as well as the letter of 
recall of my predecessor. 

I feel truly proud of being the interpreter 
before Your Excellency's Government of the 
sincere friendship of the Dominican Govern- 
ment and people toward the Government and 
the people of the United States of America and, 
very especially, of its firm decision to continue 
to collaborate with the United Nations in the 
common effort that we are making to banish 
f f omi the world political and social concepts that 
have attempted to destroy the dearest conquests 
achieved by man in order to live in jjeace and 
with dignity. 

You are, Mr. President, the embodiment of 
the ideals of the gi-eat people of the United States 
of America and you can be proud of having 
been, in this tragic hour for the world, the ideo- 
logical symbol of the noble principles that con- 
stitute the juridical inheritance of America, 
from which every nation of the continent de- 
rives inspiration for accomplishing its own his- 
torical destiny and effecting a solidary and re- 
sponsible action of international good neighbor- 
liness, to the end of bringing about a permanent 
period of peace, progress, and collective security. 

The Dominican Republic has at all times 
offered its most essential contribution toward 
the attainment of those ideals, and if many of 
my fellow citizens have fallen in the arena in 



defense of principles so precious for the destiny 
of America, this in itself strengthens the con- 
viction of the Dominican people and Govern- 
ment that the generous struggle to obtain for, 
man an atmosphere of liberty always bears fruit. 
It is a great honor for me to transmit to Your 
Excellency the good wishes of President Trujillo 
for the greatness of the United States of America 
and the i:)ersonal welfare of Your Excellency, 
and I respectfully ask you to accept the expres- 
sion of my own friendly sentiments. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Seiior 
Anselmo Copello follows: 

Mr. Ambassador : 

I am happy to receive from you today the 
letters by which His Excellency the President of 
the Dominican Republic accredits you as Am- 
bassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
the Dominican Republic near the Government 
of the United States of America. I accept also 
tlie letters of recall of your distinguished prede- 
cessor, Seiior Dr. Jesiis Maria Troncoso, whom 
I shall always remember with sincere regard 
and friendship. 

I am deeply grateful to you, Mr. Ambassador, 
for the generous sentiments of friendship which 
you have been so kind to express at this hour in 
which our two nations are united in the defense 
of those principles of liberty and peace to which 
they so steadfastly and fervently aspire. In the 
valiant struggle to maintain our ideals there 
have been great sacrifices but we may look for- 
ward with confidence that the devotion to our 
righteous cause, strengthened by the solidarity 
of purpose of our two nations, will achieve the 
destruction of the evil forces of the enemy and 
the reestablishment of freedom for all peoples. 

I am sure, Mr. Ambassador, that our two 
nations will continue that valuable collabora- 
tion which the Dominican Republic has exempli- 
fied under the leadership of your distinguished 



DECEMBER 2 5, 194 3 



449 



President. You may rest assured that in your 
new and great responsibility as Ambassador 
representing your country you will find the offi- 
cials of this Government responsive to the de- 
sires of the Dominican Republic and always 
ready to collaborate in matters of interest to our 
two nations. 

I extend to Your Excellency a most cordial 
welcome and I would ask you to convey to 
President Trujillo my appreciation of his most 
friendly greetings and my best wishes for his 
hapjDiness and for the welfare of the peojile of 
the Dominican Republic. 

IMPLEMENTATION OF EXISTING CON- 
TRACTS ON 1944 CUBAN SUGAR CROP 

[Released to the press December 22] 

A Cuban delegation headed by Sefior Ama- 
deo Lopez Castro, Minister of the Cuban Presi- 
dency, has arrived in Washington to discuss 
with a United States group, headed by Mr. 
Sidney H. Scheuer, Director, Foreign Procure- 
ment and Development Branch, Foreign Eco- 
nomic Administration, the implementation of 
existing contracts on the lfl44 sugar crop. It 
is expected that consideration will Ix; given to 
the acquisition by the United States of molasses 
and alcohol. 



In general, it is contemplated that problems 
of mutual interest will be thoroughly explored.. 
It has been customary to reexamine periodically 
and cooperatively the mutual problems which 
inevitably flow from our close relations with 
Cuba in connection with its chief crop — sugar — 
and its by-products. 

UNITED STATES ATTITUDE TOWARD 
THE NEW BOLIVIAN GOVERNMENT 

[Released to the press December 22] 

At his press and radio news conference on 
December 22 the Secretary of State made the 
following reply to an inquiry concerning the 
attitude of this Government to the question of 
recognition of the new Government of Bolivia : 

"Considerations of the security of the hemi- 
sphere and of the war effort of the United Na- 
tions must have first importance in any matter 
of this or similar character. Included in the 
relevant considerations is the question whether 
outside influence unfriendly to the Allied cause, 
played any part. It must never be forgotten 
that the hemisphere is at present under"sinister 
and subversive attack by the Axis, assisted by 
some elements from within the hemisphere it- 
self." 



The Near East 



PRESENTATION OF LETTERS OF CREDENCE BY THE ETHIOPIAN MINISTER 



[Released to the press December 20] 

The remarks of the newly appointed Minister 
of Ethiopia, Blatta Ephrem Tewelde Medhen, 
upon the occasion of the presentation of his 
letters of credence, December 20, follow : 

Mr. President: 

It is my high honor to present herewith the 
letter of credence by which His Imperial Maj- 



esty Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia, ac- 
credits me near the Government of the United 
States of America as Minister Plenipotentiary 
and Envoy Extraordinary. 

His Imperial Majesty has expressly charged 
me with the mission of conveying to you, Mr. 
President, the assurances of his personal esteem 
as well as the cordial sentiments of friendship 
of the entire Ethiopian Nation. 



450 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BtTLLETm 



Throughout the period -when the Ethiopian 
people had seemingly succumbed in the struggle 
for the preservation of its existence, it ever had 
one incalculable support: the unalterable faith 
of a great and powerful nation that however 
low she might be brought in sufferings and op- 
pression, Ethiopia had not lost her title of 
existence, her will to struggle, her identification 
with the ultimate triumph of those forces which 
we now, as allies, are irrevocably committed to 
defend. 

With the support of your valiant nation, 
Ethiopia has vindicated to the world that policy 
which has ever guided the United States of 
America toward acts of aggression, as having 
been founded upon the highest conception of 
sound and practical statesmanship and has made 
of it an assurance to sister nations in their hours 
of darkness that justice and morality can never 
be lost nor be stayed from their ineluctable 
ends. 

Such friendship, Mr. President, can be neither 
forgotten nor fully repaid. It is however, my 
agreeable duty and solemn promise as first 
diplomatic representative of Ethiopia to this 
great country, to translate and affirm to the 
people of the United States the lasting and loyal 
devotion of the Ethiopian people. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Blatta 
Ephrem Tewelde Medhen follows: 

Mr. Minister : 

It gives me great pleasure to receive from you 
the letters by which your august sovereign, His 
Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie, Emperor of 
Ethiopia, has accredited you as Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the 
United States. 

That you are the first Minister of Ethiopia 
accredited to the United States makes this occa- 
sion especially memorable, and I am therefore 
particularly happy to welcome you to this 
country. Your arrival marks another mile- 
stone on the long road of mutual understanding 
and friendship between our two peoples, and 
your presence in the United States will, I am 
confident, greatly contribute to the strengthen- 



ing of the ties of confidence and respect which 
subsist between us. The American people have 
been greatly impressed by the courage and forti- 
tude of the Ethiopians during their prolonged 
period of privation and suffering, by their love 
of freedom, and by their determination to resist 
aggression and oppression to the uttermost of 
their strength. The American people admire 
no less the determination of the Ethiopians to 
bind up their wounds and resume without delay 
the labors by which their country will again 
grow strong and healthy. You may rest as- 
sured therefore, Mr. Minister, that in the per- 
formance of your important duties in the 
United States you will meet with the most sin- 
cei'e cooperation and good will on our part. 

I shall be grateful if you will convey to your 
Sovereign my deep appreciation of the cordial 
message which you have voiced, my pleasure at 
your arrival in our Capital, and warm greetings 
and best wishes for His Imperial Majesty's per- 
sonal happiness and for the prosperity of 
Ethiopia. 



Europe 



INCIDENT AT AMERICAN CONSULATE 
IN VALENCIA, SPAIN 

[Released to the press December 21} 

The Department of State has received the fol- 
lowing information from the American Ambas- 
sador at Madrid : 

The American Consul at Valencia has reported 
to the American Embassy at Madrid that on 
Saturday, December 18, 1943, at approximately 
6 p.m., two persons, identified later as Falangists 
and former members of the Blue Division, en- 
tered the American Consulate in Valencia, tore 
down press photographs, and harangued visitors 
on the premises. Police stationed at the street 
entrance of the Consulate arrested the two 
Falangists, who were then taken to a police sta- 
tion nearby and subsequently transferred in 



DECEMBER 2 5, 194 3 



451 



handcuffs to the central police station. Tlie Am- 
bassador reports that appropriate representa- 
tions are being made in Madrid and in Valencia 
by the American representatives. 

[Released to the press December 22] 

According to a report received from the 
American Embassy in Madrid, the National Del- 
egate of Foreign Services and the Vice Secretary 
of the Falange Party called at the American 
Embassy on Monday night, December 20, to 
present in behalf of the Minister of the Party 
his profound regret for the Valencia incident 
and to state that the culprits, who are now 
under arrest, will be expelled from the party 
and placed at the disposition of the courts of 
justice. The Minister of the Party sent word 
through these representatives that he could 
not condemn the incident in sufficiently strong 
terms, and he asked that his expressions of 
regret be transmitted to the American Govern- 
ment. It is understood that the Civil Governor 
and the provincial leader of the party in Va- 
lencia, who were in Madrid on Monday, have 
been instructed to proceed at once to Valencia 
to present appropriate explanations to the 
American Consul at that post. 



The Far East 



RETURN FROM CHINA OF UNITED 
STATES AGRICULTUR4L ADVISER 

[Released to the press December 20] 

Dr. W. C. Lowdermilk, Assistant Chief of the 
Soil Conservation Service, Department of Agri- 
culture, has just returned from China where he 
was serving for one year under the Department 
of State as an adviser to the Chinese Govern- 
ment in a program to increase food production 
as a part of the war effort. 

Wliile Dr. Lowdermilk was in China the 
Chinese Government entrusted him with the 



duty of conducting a survey of a vast area in 
northwest China which is covered by a deposit 
of soil known as "loess". In making this sur- 
vey he was accompanied by a field staff of eight 
well-trained Chinese specialists in soils, 
agronomy, agricultural engineering, forestry, 
grassland management, and hydraulic engineer- 
ing. The duty of the party was to make a sur- 
vey of the conditions of land use, the degree of 
erosion and loss of rainfall by immediate run- 
off, and to evaluate the farm practices and dis- 
cover in what way the farmers of China, who 
have for centuries been fighting a losing battle 
against soil erosion, have sought in one way or 
another to save their rain and save their soil. 
Dr. Lowdermilk expresses high respect for the 
experience of the Chinese farmers in their long 
struggle with erosion. He states, also, that the 
survey party had excellent cooperation from 
both the Central Government officials and the 
provincial officials. 

Dr. Lowdermilk was especially fitted for the 
assignment in China because he previously had 
served as professor of agriculture at Nanking 
University during the period 1922-27. 

Two other specialists from the United States 
Soil Conservation Service have remained in 
China as advisers to the Chinese Government. 
They are Dr. Donald V. Shuhart, recently of 
Fort Worth, Texas ; and Mr. Willis C. Barrett, 
of El Centro, California. 



Legislation 



An Act To repeal the Chinese Exclusion Acts, to estab- 
lish quotas, and for other purposes. Approved De- 
cember 17, 19.43. [H.R. 3070.] Public Law 199, 78th 
Cong. 2 pp. 

Relief for Starving Peoples of Europe. S. Rept. 624, 
78th Cong., on S. Res. 100 [favorable report]. 1 p. 

Preservation of Jews in Europe. S. Rcpt. 625, 78tb 
Cong., on S. Res. 203 [favorable report]. 1 p. 

Protection of Fur Seals in Pribilof Islands. S. Rept. 
626, 78th Cong., on H.R. 2924 [favorable report]. 
27 pp. 



452 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETTOf 



The Department 



ACTING PETROLEUM ADVISER TO THE 
SECRETARY OF STATE 

[Released to the press December 22] 

By Departmental Order 1216, Mr. Charles B. 
Rayner was designated, effective December 17, 
1943, Acting Petroleum Adviser to the Secretary 
of State. Mr. Rayner was formerly Petroleum 



Adviser to the Foi-eign Economic Administra- 
tion. 

Mr. Rayner was graduated from Amherst in 
1909, receiving the Bachelor of Arts degree. He 
was in the employ of various petroleum com- 
panies from 1907 to 1918 and from 1923 to 1941. 
He served in the United States Army from 1918 
to 1919. In 1941 he became Regional Director 
of the Surplus Marketing Administration, Dcr 
partment of Agriculture. He joined the Board 
of Economic Warfare in September 1942. 



Publications 



Department of State 

During the quarter beginning October 1, 1943, 
the following publications have been released 
by the Department : ^ 

1968. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the 
United States: The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, 
vol. III. iv, 10C2 pp. $2 (buckram). 

1961. Digest of International Law (by Green Haywood 
Hacliworth, Legal Adviser of the Department of 
State), vol. VI, chs. XIX-XXI [ch. XIX: Modes of 
Redress; ch. XX: War; ch. XXI; Maritime War]. 
Iv, 655 pp. $1.50. 

1963. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the 
United States : The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, 
vol. IV. iv, 880 pp. $2 (buckram). 

1965. The Territorial Papers of the United States. 
Compiled and edited by Clarence Edwin Carter. Vol- 
ume XI, The Territory of Michigan, 1820-1829 con- 
tinued, viii, 1372 pp. $3.25. 

1983. Peace and War: United States Foreign Policy, 
1931-1941 [documented edition], xxii, 874 pp. $2 
(cloth). 

1989. Principles Applying to Mutual Aid in the Prosecu- 
tion of the War Against Aggression : Preliminary 
Agreement and Exchange of Notes Between the United 
States of America and Ethiopia — Signed at Washing- 



' Serial numbers which do not appear in this list have 
appeared previously or will appear in subsequent lists. 



ton August 9, 1M3 ; effective August 9, 1943. Execu- 
tive Agreement Series 834. 6 pp. 5^. 

1992. Naval Mission : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Colombia Continuing in Effect 
the Agreement of November 23, 1938 as Modified by 
the Supplementary Agreement of August 30, 1941, and 
Extended by the Agreement of September 22 and 
November 5, 1942 — Effected by exchange of notes 
signed at Washington July 23 and August 7, 1943; 
effective November 23, 1943. Executive Agreement 
Series ^17. 3 pp. 5(t. 

1993. Cooperative Rubber Investigations in Costa Rica: 
Agreement Between the United States of America 
and Costa Rica, Continuing in Force the Agreement 
of April 19 and June 16, 1941 as Amended by the 
Supplementary Agreement of April 3, 1943 — Effected 
by exchange of notes signed at San Jos6 June 21 and 
July 1, 1043. Executive Agreement Series 335. 4 pp. 
50. 

1996. Detail of Military Officer To Serve as Adviser to 
the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Panama: Agi'ee- 
ment Between the United States of America and 
Panama Continuing in Effect the Agreement of July 
7, 1942 — Effected by exchange of notes signed at 
Washington July 6 and August 5, 1943 ; effective July 
7, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 336. 2 pp. 50. 

1997. Detail of Military Officer To Serve as Director of 
the Military School and of the Military Academy of 
El Salvador : Agreement Between the United States 
of America and El Salvador — Signed at San Salvador 



DECEMBER 2 5, 1943 



463 



May 21, 1943; effective May 21, 1943. Executive 
Agreement Series 328. 13 pp. 5^. 

1998. Digest of International Law (by Green Hay- 
wood Hackworth, Legal Adviser of the Department 
of State), vol. VII, clis. XXII-XXIV [eh. XXII: 
Interference With Neutral Commerce; eh. XXIII: 
Prize; ch. XXIV: Neutrality], vi, 709 pp. $1.75. 

1999. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

222, September 25, 1943. 17 pp. 100.'^ 

2000. The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Na- 
tionals: Revision VI, October 7, 1943, Promulgated 
Pursuant to Proclamation 2497 of the President of 
July 17, 1041. 362 pp. Free. 

2001. Development of Foodstuffs Production in Vene- 
zuela : Agreement Between the United States of 
America and Venezuela — Effected by exchange of 
notes signed at Caracas May 14, 1943. Executive 
Agreement Series 333. 13 pp. 50. 

2002. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

223, October 2, 1943. 13 pp. 100. 

2003. Diplomatic List, October 1943. ii, 119 pp. Sub- 
scription, $1 a year ; single copy, 10(>. 

2004. Mailing List of Diplomatic and Consular Offices 
of the Foreign Service of the Unifed States (Includ- 
ing Supplemental List of Field Offices in the United 
States of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce, Department of Commerce). September 1, 
1943. 11 pp. Free. 

2005. Damages in International Law (by Marjorle M. 
Whiteman, Assistant to the Legal Adviser of the De- 
partment of State), vol. Ill, chs. VI-X, list of cases, 
index [ch. VI : Contracts and Concessions ; ch. VII : 
Indirect and Other Damages ; ch. VIII : Rates of Ex- 
change ; ch. IX : Interest, Expenses, and Cost's ; ch. 
X: Payment and Distribution], iv, 692 pp. $2.25. 

2006. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 224, 
October 9, 1943. 15 pp. 100. 

2007. Publications of the Department of State (a list 
cumulative from October 1, 1929). October 1, 1943. 
iv, 26 pp. Free. 

2008. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the 
United States, Japan : 1931-1941, vol. I. xc, 947 pp., 
map. $2.25 (buckram). 

2009. Detail of Military Officer To Serve as Technical 
Director of the Eloy Alfaro Military College of 
Ecuador : Agreement Between the United States of 
America and Ecuador — Signed at Washington Sep- 
tember 13, 1943; effective September 13, 1943. 
Executive Agreement Series 338. 10 pp. 50. 

2010. The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Na- 
tionals : Cumulative Supplement No. 1, October 22, 
1943, to Revision VI of October 7, 1943. 20 pp. Free. 

2011. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 
225, October 16, 1943. 18 pp. 100. 



' Subscription, $2.75 a year. 



2012. Provincial and Municipal Taxation on United 
States Defense Projects in Canada : Agreement Be- 
tween the United States of America and Canada — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Ottawa Au- 
gust 6 and 9. 1943. Executive Agreement Series 330. 
3 pp. 50. 

2013. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 
226, October 23, 1943. 16 pp. 100. 

2014. Military Aviation' Instructors: Agreement Be- 
tween the United States of America and Argentina 
Renewing the Agreement of June 29, 1940 as Renewed 
by the Agreement of May 23 and June 3, 1941 — Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes signed at Washington 
June 23 and September 2, 1943; effective June 29, 
1943. Executive Agreement Series 340. 2 pp. 50. 

2015. Waiver of Claims Arising as a Result of Collisions 
Between Vessels of War: Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Canada — Effected by 
exchange of notes signed at Washington May 25 and 
26, 1943; effective May 26, 1943. Executive Agree- 
ment Series 330. 2 pp. 5^. 

2016. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the 
United States, Japan : 1931-1941, vol. II. Ix, 816 pp. 
$1.75 (buckram). 

2017. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 227, 
October 30, 1913. 20 pp. lOff. 

2018. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the 
United States, 1929, vol. I. cxxxii, 1035 pp. $2.25 
( buckram ) . 

2019. Diplomatic List, November 1943. ii, 120 pp. Sub- 
scription, $1 a year; single copy, 10^. 

2020. The State Department and Its Foreign Service in 
Wartime: Address by G. Howland Shaw, Assistant 
Secretary of State, at the Thirtieth National Foreign 
Trade Convention, New York, N.T., October 26, 1943. 
12 pp. 50. 

2021. The IJepartment of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 228, 
November 6, 1943. 10 pp. 10^. 

2022. The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Na- 
tionals : Cumulative Supplement No. 2, November 19, 

' 1943, to Revision VI of October 7, 1943. 36 pp. Free. 

2023. The Caribbean Islands and the War: A Record of 
Progress in Facing Stern Realities, vi, 85 pp., maps, 
charts. 250. 

2024. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 229, 
November 13, 1943. 23 pp. 10«(. 

2025. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 230, 
November 20, 1943. 38 pp. 10^. 

2026. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 231, 
November 27, 1943. 13 pp. 10«f. 

2027. The Moscow Conference : Address by Cordell Hull, 
Secretary of State, Before a Joint Meeting of Both 
Houses of Congress, November 18, 1943. 9 pp. Free. 

2028. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 
232, December 4, 1943. 15 pp. 100. 

2029. Diplomatic List, December 1943. ii, 122 pp. Sub- 
scription, $1 a year; single copy, 100. 



454 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



2030. Detail of Military Officer To Serve as Director of 
the Military Academy of the National Guard of Nic- 
aragua : Agreement Between the United States of 
America and Nicaragua Continuing in Force the 
Agreement of May 22, 1941— Effected by exchange of 
notes signed at Washington October 22 and 25, 1943 ; 
effective May 22, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 
344. 2 pp. 5^. 

2031. Inter-American Highway: Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Guatemala— Effected 
by exchange of notes signed at Guatemala May 19, 
1943. Executive Agreement Series 345. 4 pp. 50. 

2034. The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals : 
Cumulative Supplement No. 3, December 17, 1943, to 
Revision VI of October 7, 1943. 46 pp. Free. 

2035. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

233, December 11, 1943. 11 pp. lOt 

2039. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

234, December 18, 1943. 21 pp. 100. 

Treaty Series 

985. Consular Officers: Convention and Exchanges of 
Notes Between the United States of America and 
Mexico — Convention signed at Mexico City August 12, 
1942 ; proclaimed by the President of the United 
States June 16, 1943. 29 pp. 5(f. 

986. Extradition : Supplementary Convention Between 
the United States of America and Colombia — Signed 
at Bogota September 9, 1940; proclaimed by the 
President of tlie United States June 26, 1943. 10 pp. 
5<t. 

The Department of State also publishes the 
slip laws and Statutes at Large. Laws are 
issued in a special series and are numbered in 
the order in which they are signed. Treaties 
also are issued in a special series and are num- 
bered in the order in which they are proclaimed. 
Spanish, Portuguese, and French translations, 



prepared by the Department's Central Trans- 
lating Office, have their own publication num- 
bers running consecutively from 1. All other 
publications of the Department since October 
1, 1929 are numbered consecutively in the order 
in which they are sent to press; in addition, 
some of them are subdivided into series accord- 
ing to general subject. 

To avoid delay, requests for publications of 
the Department of State should be addressed 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 
except in the case of free publications, which 
may be obtained from the Department. The 
Superintendent of Documents will accept de- 
posits againist which the cost of publications 
ordered may be charged and will notify the de- 
positor when the deposit is exliausted. The 
cost to depositors of a complete set of the pub- 
lications of the Department for a year will 
probably be somewhat in excess of $15. Orders 
may be placed, however, with the Superintend- 
ent of Documents for single publications or for 
one or more series. 

The Superintendent of Documents also has, 
for free distribution, the following price lists 
which may be of interest : Foreign Relations of 
the United States; American History and 
Biography; Tariff; Immigration; Alaska and 
Hawaii ; Insular Possessions ; Laws ; Commerce 
and Manufactures ; Political Science ; and Maps. 
A list of publications of the Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce may be obtained from 
the Department of Commerce. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTINS OFFICEi 1949 



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INDEX 

Volume IX: Numbers 210-235, July 3 -December 25, 1943 



Publicalion 2087 



AchesoQ, Dean : 
Addresses — 

Inaugural session of United Nations Interim Com- 
mission on Food and Agriculture, 35. 
Rehabilitation and lasting peace, 421. 
General supervision of special advisers on foreign- 
policy aspects of wartime economic activities. 
Department of State, 333. 
Addresses. See under Acheson ; Bajpai ; Berle; Boggs; 
Crabtree; Dario Ojeda ; Grew; Hanson; Hull; 
Roosevelt ; Sayre ; Villard. 
Africa {see also North Africa) : 

American relations with, address by Mr. Villard, 

103. 
Maps and Man, address by Mr. Boggs, 188. 
Agreements, international. See Treaties, agreements, 

etc. 
Agriculture (see also Food and Treaties) : 
Adviser to Chinese Government, return to U. S., 

451. 
Food and Agriculture, United Nations Interim Com- 
mission on, 33, 52. 
Research in the Caribbean, 112. 
Alaska Highway, agreement between U.S. and Canada 

(1943) regarding otficial name, 53. 
Alien enemies, exceptions, 155. 
Alignment of the nations in the war : 
Maps and charts, 357. 
Tabulations, 349, 394. 
Allen, Stuart, death, 21. 
Allied Control Commission for Italy, U.S. appointments 

on, 379. 
American Commission for the Protection and Salvage 
of Artistic and Historic Monuments in Europe, 
establishment. 111. 
American Hospital As.sociation, Buffalo, address by 

Dr. Crabtree, ISO. 
American Legion dinner for diplomatic representatives 

of the American republics, 383. 
American relations with Africa, address by Mr. Villard, 

103. 
American republics (see also Commissions; Confer- 
ences; Cultural relations; Treaties; and the indi- 
vidual countries) : 
Cultural leaders, visits to U.S., from — 
Argentina, 21, 280. 
Brazil, 5, 53, 86. 
Chile, 86, 144, 201. 
Cuba, 20. 



American republics — Continued. 
Cultural leaders — Continued. 
Guatemala, 6. 
Haiti, 47. 
Mexico, 47. 
Peru, 21. 
Uruguay, 6, 417. 
Venezuela, 389. 
Declarations of war, 319, 379, 394, 413. 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S. — 
American Legion dinner for, 383. 
Credentials, 71, 448. 
Good-neighbor policy, statement by Under Secretary 

Stettinius, 280. 
U.S. expenditures in, replies to attack by Senator 
Butler, 430, 443. 
Americans. See United States citizens. 
Amir Faisal, visit to U.S., 210. 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, 4th meeting, 

112. 

Appleby, Paul H., designation as U.S. representative. 

United Nations Interim Commission on Food and 

Agriculture, 33. 

Appropriations, State Department, 1944, analysis, 73. 

-Vrabia, Foreign Minister of Saudi Arabia (Amir Faisal), 

visit to U.S., 210. 
Argentina (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 21, 280. 
International position of, correspondence between 
Secretary Hull and Argentine Foreign Minister, 
1.59. 
Military aviation mission, agreement with U.S. 

(1910), renewal (1943), 216. 
Suspension of publication of Jewish newspapers, 

statement by President Roosevelt, 2G4. 
U. S. Ambassador (Armour), return to Buenos Aires, 

247. 
U. S. citizen, arrest, 169. 
U. S. loan for oil exploration, alleged, 447. 
Armed forces, criminal offenses committed by, agree- 
ment with China regarding jurisdiction over 
(1943), text, 114. 
Armed forces, demobilization plans for, address by 

President Roosevelt, 60. 
Armour, Norman, return to Buenos Aires, 247. 
Artistic and historic monuments in Europe, establish- 
ment of American commission for protection and 
salvage of, 111. 
Asia, relief and rehabilitation, address by Mr. Sayre, 14. 



455 



456 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Atherton, Ray, confirmation of nominations: 
Ambassador to Canada, 374. 

Minister to Canada, Denmarls, and Luxembourg, 21. 
Atlantic Charter: 

Adlierence by Egypt, 382. 
Anniversary (2(1) of signing, 92. 
Atrocities, German, declaration of Moscow Conference, 

308, 310, 344. 
Australia, establishment of U. S. information libraries 

in, 228. 
Austria, declarations of Moscow Conference, 308, 310, 

344. 
Aviation : 

Airport controls in Rio de Janeiro and San Salvador, 

445. 
Air-transportation, international, clarification of in- 
terests of State Department and Civil Aeronau- 
tics Board, 265. 
Military aviation mission to — 
Argentina, 216. 
Paraguay, 304. 
Axis countries (.see also Germany, Italy, Japan) : 
Leaders of, refuge in neutral countries, statement by 

President Roosevelt, 62. 
Population and areas, maps and charts, 357. 
War against, declaration by Bolivia, 413. 
Azores, facilities made available to Great Britain, 263. 

Badoglio, Pietro: 

Message from President Roosevelt and Prime Min- 
ister Churchill following Italian caijitulation, 159. 
Proclamation to people of Italy and communication 
to General Eisenhower of Italy's declaration of 
war against Germany, 253. 
Bajpai, Sir Girja Shankar, address at inaugural ses- 
sion of United Nations Interim Commission on 
Food and Agriculture, 37. 
Baldwin, Calvin Benham, appointment as Area Director 
of economic operations for Italy, Office of J'oreign 
Economic Coordination, 153. 
Barnes, Charles M., retirement as Chief of Treaty Divi- 
sion, State Department, 248. 
Bases in the Western Hemisphere leased by U.S., Brit- 
ish offer to compensate for expropriated private 
property, 96. 
Bastille Day, statement by President Roosevelt, 28. 
Belgium: 

Anniversary of national independence, 52. 
Economic rehabilitation, appointment of U.S. Chair- 
man of area committee, 206. 
Berle, Adolf A., Jr. : 
Addresses — 

Inter-American University of the Air, 132. 
Italian-American Labor Council, New York, 256. 
Rotary Club, Ktioxville, Tenn., 3S4. 
Letter on State Ds'p:>rt">ent policy toward foreign 
political leaders and groups in U.S., 150. 



Biddle, Anthony J. Drexel, Jr., confirmation of nomina- 
tion as U.S. Minister near the Government of Lux- 
embourg, 335. 
Blockade and Supply Division, Department of State, 

creation and functions, 142, 143. 
Blocked Nationals, Proclaimed List : 
Revision V, Cumulative Supplements 3, 4, 5, and 6 : 3, 

70; 132, 208. 
Revision VI and Cumulative Supplements 1, 2, and 
3 : 263, 280, 348, 429. 
Board of Economic Warfare, transfer of duties to Office 

of Economic Warfare, 32. 
Boggs, S. W., address at meeting of Association of 

American Geographers, 188. 
Bolivia : 
Declaration of war against the Axis powers, 413. 
Government, new, U.S. attitude, 449. 
Bombing of : 

American Embassy building in Berlin, 380. 
U.S.S. "Tutuila" at Chungking in 1941, documents re- 
garding, 326. 
Vatican City, 319. 
Bonded-warehousing and general-order periods, exten- 
sion, 312. 
Boston Institute, address by. Mr. Sayre, 423. 
Brazil (see also American republics) : 
Airport controls in Rio de Janeiro, 445. 
Bond settlement proposal, 384. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 5, 53, 86. 
General Jla-searenhas, arrival In North Africa, 422. 
Independence, anniversary, 168. 
Postal convention and agreements of the Postal Union 
of the Americas and Spain (1936), deposit of 
ratifications, 201. 
British West Indies, closing of U.S. consulate at St. 

Lucia, 438. 
Broy, Charles C, death, 210. 

Budget estimates, analysis of State Department appro- 
priations for 1944, 73. 
Bulgaria, 2d anniversary of declaration of war against 

U.S., 413. 
Burdett, William C, confirmation of nomination as U.S. 

Minister to New Zealand, 21. 
Butler, Hugh, attack on good-neighbor policy, 430, 443. 

Cairo Conference (President Roosevelt, Prime Minister 
Churchill, and President Inonu of Turkey) : 
Official communique, 412. 
Statement by Secretary Hull, 410. 
Caldwell, John K., confirmation of nomination as U.S. 

Minister to Ethiopia, 248, 314. 
Cale, Edward G., designation as U.S. alternate delegate 

to the Inter-American Coffee Board, 431. 
Canada : 
Address by President Roosevelt before Parliament, 
122. 



INDEX 



457 



Canada — Continued. 
Combined Food Board, U.S., United Kingdom, and 

Canada, 292. 
Double taxation upon estates, conversations with 

U.S. regarding, 388. 
Embassy rank for representation between U.S. and 

Canada, 334. 
Prizes, capture on high seas, 224. 
Quebec Conference, 121, 122-123. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 
Alaslfa Highway, oflJcial name of, agreement with 

U.S. (1943), 58. 
Migratory birds, convention with United Kingdom 

(1916), amendatory regulations, 267. 
Military supplies to the Soviet Union (1943), 272. 
Taxation on U.S. defense projects, agreement with 
U.S. (1943), 116. 
U.S. Ambassador (Atherton), confirmation of nomi- 
nation, 374. 
U.S. Minister (Atherton), confirmation of nomina- 
tion, 21. 
Cupe Verde Islands, closing of U.S. vice consulate 

at Sao Vicente, 438. 
Capture of prizes on high seas, 224, 413. 
Caribbean Commission, Anglo-American, 4th meeting, 

112. 
"Caribbean Islands and the War", publication, 435. 
Central America, U.S. policy in, 444. 
Charts, maps, etc. : 
Area and population of Axis countries. United Na- 
tions, and other countries, 357, 360. 
Ptolemy map, 189. 

World relationships of the United States, 195. 
World War II, alignment of the nations, 358. 
Chautauqua Institute, N.Y., address by Mr. VillarU, 

103. 
Chiang Kai-shek : 

Conference with President Roosevelt and Prime 

Mini.ster Churchill in North Africa, 393. 
Inauguration as President of the Republic of China, 
message from President Roosevelt, 263. 
Cliicago Sunday Evening Club, address by Mr. Sayre, 

258. 
Chile {see also American republics) : 

Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 86, 144, 201. 
Independence, anniversary, 197. 
Minister of Foreign Affairs (FeruiVndez), visit to 
U.S., 169, 247. 
China (see also Far East) : 
Chinese exclusion laws — 

President Roosevelt's message to U.S. Congress 

favoring repeal, 2.54. 
Repeal, statement by President Roosevelt, 431. 
Conference of President Roosevelt, Generalissimo 
Chiang Kai-shek, and Prime Minister Churchill 
in North Africa, 393. 



China — Continued. 
Criminal offenses by armed forces, agreement with 

U.S. regarding (1943), 114. 
Cultural relations, U.S. (see also Cultural relations) : 
News specialists, appointment, 52. 
Visiting professor, appointment, 230. 
Four-nation declaration on general security, Moscow 

Conference, 307, 308, 342. 
Japanese attack on, 6th anniversary, 19. 
"Mukden incident", 12th anniversary, 179. 
National anniversary, message from President R6ose- 

velt, 263. 
President Lin Sen, death, 85, 97. 
U.S. agricultural adviser (Lowdermllk), return to 

U.S., 451. 
U.S. consultant on industrial cooperatives (Stevens), 

return to U.S., S6. 
U.S.S. "Tutuila," documents regarding bombing by 
Japan at Chungking, 326. 
Churchill, Winston S. : 
Conference at — 

Cairo (with President Roosevelt and President 

Inonu of Turkey), 410, 412. 
North Africa (with President Roosevelt and Gen- 
eralissimo Chiang Kai-shek), 393. 
Tehran (with President Roosevelt and Premier 
Stalin), 409, 410. 
German-atrocities declaration, signer, 308, 310, 344. 
Joint messages, statements, etc. — 
AVith President Roosevelt, 
Combined Food Board, U.S. and United Kingdom, 

membership extended to Canada, 292. 
Italy, people of, 27, 159. 
Quebec Conference, 121. 
With President Roosevelt and Premier Stalin ac- 
cepting Italy as co-belligerent, 2.54. 
Cissel, T. Ross, Jr., designation as Chief, War Com- 
modities Division, Department of State, 143. 
Citizens, U. S. See United States citizens. 
Civil Aeronautics Board, joint statement with State 
Department concerning international air-transpor- 
tation, 265. 
Civilian internees in the Far East, relief and repatria- 
tion. See "Grip.sholm." 
Claims, U.S. and Mexico, payment, 384. 
Coffee agreement, inter-American (1940), continuation, 

267. 
Coffee Board, Inter-Auierican, designation of U.S. dele- 
gate and alternate, 431. 
Collado, Emilio G., designations : 
Special Adviser on other American republics. Depart- 
ment of State, 333. 
U.S. delegate to Inter-American Coffee Board, 431. 
Colombia (see also American republics) : 
Germany, state of belligerency with, 379. 



458 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Colombia — Continued. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 
Conciliation, inter-American, of January 5, 1929, 

additional protocol (1933), ratification, 438. 
Naval mission, with U.S. (1938), renewal (1943), 

117. 
Telecommunications, iiileruatioual convention 
(Cairo revision, 1938), approval, 155. 
Columbia University, New York, address by Mr. Grew, 

28. 
Combined Food Board, U.S. and United Kingdom : 
Canadian representation, 2ii2. 

Designation of Marvin Jones as U. S. member, 293. 
Commerce, international. See Blocked Nationals; Eco- 
nomics ; and Treaties. 
Commercial Affairs Division, State Department, 84. 
Commission to Study the Organization of Peace, ad- 
dress by Mr. Grew under auspices of, 126. 
Commissions, committees, etc. : 
International — 

Caribbean Commission, Anglo-American, 112. 
Coffee Board, Inter-American, 267, 431. 
Economic Cooperation, Mexican-American Commis- 
sion for, 38. 
European Advisory Commission, 308, 343, 393. 
Fisheries Commission, International Pacific Sal- 
mon, 304. 
Food and Agriculture, United Nations Interim 

Commission on, 32, 52. 
Food Board, Combined (U.S., United Kingdom, and 

Canada), 292, 293. 
Industrial Commission, Mexican, 155. 
Italy, Advisory Council (Allied) for matters relat- 
ing to, 308, 343. 
Italy, Allied Control Commission for, 379. 
Mediterranean Commission, 224. 
Political Defense, Emergency Advisory Committee 

for, 51, 63, 445. 
Refugees, Intergovernmental Committee on, 98. 
War Crimes, United Nations Commission for the 
Investigation of, 3. 
National- 
Libraries Abroad, Committee on, 228. 
Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic 
Monuments in Europe, American Commission 
for. 111. 
Communications and Records Division, State Depart- 
ment, 84. 
Conciliation, inter-American, additional protocol 
(1933) to general convention of Jan. 5, 1929, 438. 
Conferences, congresses, etc., international : 

Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, 4th meeting, 

112. 
Cairo Conference. See Cairo. 
Conference of Ministers and Directors of Education 

of the American Republics at Panamil, 210. 
Demographic Congress, luter-Ainerican, 232, 



Conferences, congresses, etc. — Continued. 
Moscow Conference. See Moscow. 
North African conferences. See under North Africa. 
Pan American Physical Education Congress (1st), 

113. 
Quebec Conference, 121, 122-123. 
Tehran Conference. See Tehran. 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Adminis- 
tration {see also UNRRA), First Session of the 
Council, 245, 311. 
Congress, U.S. : 

Chinese exclusion laws — 

Message from President Roosevelt favoring re- 
peal, 254. 
Repeal, statement by President Roosevelt, 431. 
Foreign Service nominations, confirmation of, 21, 

248, 313, 314, 374. 
Fulbright Resolution, comments of Secretary Hull 

on passage of, 207. 
Legislation, listed, 6, 22, 47, 99, 145, 187, 232, 267, 284, 

314, 376, 417, 439, 451. 
Lend-lease aid, reports, 124, 168, 322. 
Moscow Conference, ' address by Secretary Hull re- 
garding, 341. 
"United States Statutes at Large", pt. 2, vol. 56, 

issuance, 248. 
UNRRA, recommendations for U.S. participation — 
President Roosevelt's message, 372. 
Secretary Hull's letter to House Foreign Affairs 
Committee, 416. 
Consular oflBces. See under Foreign Service, U.S. 
Contributions for relief, 167. 
Control Commission for Italy, Allied, U.S. appointments 

on, 379. 
Conventions. See Conferences and Treaties. 
Copello, Anselmo, credentials as Dominican Ambas- 
sador to U.S., 448. 
Correspondents (news) in North Africa, facilities for, 

185. 
Costa Rica (see also American republics), rubber 
agreement with U.S. (1941), extension (1943), 79. 
Cotton Textile Institute, New York, address by Mr. 

Sayre, 274. 
Crabitfes, Pierre, death, 266. 
Crabtree, James A., address before American Hospital 

Association, Buffalo, N.Y., 180. 
Credentials, diplomatic representatives in U.S., 4, 71, 

245, 448, 449. 
Crimes, war, commission to investigate, 3. 
Crimes in Poland, German, 150. 

Criminal offenses committed by armed forces, agree- 
ment with China regarding jurisdiction over 
(1043), 114. 
Crowley, Leo T., appointments: 

Administrator, Foreign Economic Administration, 

Office for Emergency Management, 205. 
Director, Office of Economic Warfare, 32. 



INDEX 



459 



Cnba (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 20. 
Sugar agreement, with U.S. (1&43), 116, 216. 
Sugar crop, 1914, discussions regarding implementa- 
tion of contracts with U.S., 449. 
Trade agreement with U.S., supplemental, 2S1, 302, 
431. 
Cultural relations (see also niider American republics 
and China) : 
Languages, address by Mr. Hanson, 395. 
Libraries, establishment in other countries by U.S., 

228. 
Motion-picture program in other countries, U.S., 197. 
Currency for occupied areas, military, 83. 
Czechoslovakia : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Hurban), credentials, 4. 
Independence, 25th anniversary, telegram from Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, 295. 
Soviet-Czech mutual assistance pact, 439. 

"Damages In International Law", publication of vol. 

Ill, 434. 
Dario Ojeda, Dr. Carlos, address before Emergency 

Advisory Committee for Political Defense, 65. 
Declarations : 

Moscow Conference — 
Austria, 310. 
Four-nation, 308. 
German atrocities, 310. 
Italy, 309. 
Tehran Conference — 
Iran, 409. 
Three-power, 409. 
United Nations Declaration (1042), adherence by 
Iran, 166, 180. 
Declarations of war. See under War. 
Defense Materials Division, State Department, abolish- 
ment, 143. 
Demobilization plans for armed forces, address by 

President Roosevelt, 60. 
Demographic Congress, Inter-American, 232. 
Denmark : 

Resistance to German domination, 152, 153. 
U.S. Minister (Atherton), confirmation of nomina- 
tion, 21. 
"Department of State Speaks" (radio broadcast), 432. 
Dickey, John S., designation as Special Consultant, 

State Department, 6. 
Diplomatic relations, U. S.-Soviet, 10th anniversary of 

establisliment of, 373. 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S. : 
American republics, American Legion dinner for, 383. 
Credentials, 4, 71, 245, 448, 449. 
French, German, and Italian, 207. 
Dominican Republic : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Copello), credentials, 448. 
Independence, centennial celebration, 394. 
Double taxation upon estates, conversations between 
U.S. and Canada, 3S8. 



Drlssel, Roger S., designation as Divisional Consultant, 
Division of Communications and Records, State 
Department, 84. 

East Indies, economic rehabilitation, U.S. chairman of 

area committee appointed, 206. 
Economic affairs, international, resignation of Dr. 

Herbert Feis as adviser on, 283. 
Economic Board, North African, reported purchase of 

French wheat, 97. 
Economic Warfare, Office of, 32, 205. 
Economics (see also Finance; Lend-lease; Relief; and 
UNRRA) : 
Cooperation with Haiti, 332. 
Cooperation with Mexico, commission for, 38. 
Foreign economic affairs, administration of. See 
Foreign Economic Coordination under State De- 
partment ; and Foreign Economic Administration. 
Treaties. See Treaties. 

U.S. Chief of Mission for Economic Affairs in Lon- 
don (Reed), appointment, 273. 
U.S. Director of Economic Operations in the Middle 

East (Landis), appointment, 167. 
Warehousing, disposition of merchandise, extension 
of general-order and bonded-warehousing pe- 
riods, 312. 
Ecuador (see also American republics), military mis- 
sion, with U.S. (1943), 201. 
Eden, Anthony, participation in Moscow Conference. 

See Moscow Conference. 
Egypt : 

Atlantic Charter (1941), adherence, 3S2. 
Cairo Conference. See Cairo. 
Eisenhower, Dwight D., m-eetings with President Roose- 
velt in North Africa, 410. 
El Salvador, airport controls in San Salvador, 445. 
Embassy, American, bombing in Berlin, 380. 
Embassy rank, representation between U. S. and Can- 
ada, 334. 
Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense, 

51, 63, 445. 
Enemy aliens, exceptions, 155. 
Enemy assets in Italy, transfer to neutral ownership, 

207. 
Erhardt, John G., designation as Deputy Director of 
Office of Foreign Economic Coordination, State De- 
partment, 98. 
Estates, conversations between U.S. and Canada ou 

double taxation upon, 38S. 
Ethiopia : 

Minister to U.S. (Blatta Ephrem Tewelde Medhen), 

credentials, 449. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 
Mutual-aid, with U.S. (1943), 92. 
Telecommunications, International convention 
(Cairo revision, 1938), adherence, 155. 
U.S. Minister (Caldwell), confirmation of nomina- 
tion, 248, 314. 



460 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Europe (see also War ; and the individual counMes) : 
Artistic and historic monuiuents in, American com- 
mission for protection of, 111. 
Relief and rehabilitation, address by Mr. Sayre, 14. 
European Advisory Commission : 
Establishment of, 308, 343. 

U.S. representative (Winaut), appointment, 393. 
Exchange of American and Japanese nationals. See 

"Gripsholm". 
Executive agreements. Sec Treaties, agreements, etc. 
Executive orders: 

Alien enemies, exceptions, 155. 

Appointment of Marvin Jones as U.S. meniber of 

Combined Pood Board, 203. 
Foreign economic affairs, uuificatluu of -tigencies con- 
cerned with, 32, 205. 
Exports. See Lend-lease. 

Exports and Requirements Division, State Department, 
84, 334. 

Far East («ee also individual countries) : 

Opium smoking in Briti.<li and Netherlands terri- 
tories, prohibition, 331. 
U.S. prisoners of vrar and civilian internees in 
Japanese custody, relief and repatriation. See 
"Gripsholm". 
Farm-labor-migration arrangement with Mexico 

(1942), revision (1943), 86. 
FEA. See Foreign Economic Administration. 
Feis, Dr. Herbert, resignation as Adviser on Interna- 
tional Economic Affairs, State Dei^artment, 283. 
Fenstermacher, Harvey E.. designation as Divisional 
Consultant, Division of Communications and Rec- 
ords, State Dapartment, 84. 
Fernandez, Joaquin (Chile), visit to U.S., 169, 247. 
Film program abroad. U.S., 197. 
Finance (see also Economics) : 
Assistance to U.S. citizens interned in Philippines, 

380. 
Brazilian bond settlement, proposal for, 384. 
Budget estimates, analysis of State Department ap- 
propriations for 1944, 73. 
Claims payment to U.S. by Mexico, 384. 
Currency, military, for occupied areas, 83. 
Enemy assets in Italy, transfer to neutral owner- 
ship, 207. 
Expenditures, U.S., in other Ataerican republics, 443. 
Financial Division, State Department, added func- 
tions, 144. 
International stabilization fund. United Nations, pro- 
posal for, 112. 
Loan to Argentina for oil exploration, alleged, 447. 
Petroleum properties expropriated in Mexico, com- 
pensation for, 230. 
Taxation, Canadian, on U.S. il(>fense projects, agree- 
ment witli Canada (1943), 116. 
Fish, Bert, death, 54. 



Fisher, Ernest McKinley, appointment as chairman of 
committee for economic rehabilitation of the Low 
Countries, Office of Foreign Economic Coordina- 
tion, State Department, 206. 
Fisheries Commission, International Pacific Salmon, 

304. 
Food (se€ also Agriculture) : 

Production and distribution, U.S.-Mexican coopera- 
tion, 42. 
Shipments to North Africa, 271. 
Food and Agriculture, United Nations Interim Com- 
mission, meetings, 33, 52. 
Food Board, Combined, 292, 293. 
Foreign Economic . Administration : 

Establishment in Ofiice for Emergency Maaageuieut, 

205, 223. 
Letter of Mr. Lehman regarding merging of OFRRO 

with, 223. 
State Department, liaison with, 302. 
Foreign Economic Coordination, Office of. See under 

State Department. 
Foreign Funds Control Division, "State Department, 

abolishment, 143. 
Foreign policy, U.S., address by Secretary Hull, 173. 
"Foreign Relations of the United States, Japan, 1931- 
1941" ; 
Bombing of U.S.S. "Tutuila" at Chungking, documents 

regarding, 326. 
Publication of vols. I and II, 374, 394. 
"Foreign Relations of the United States: The Paris 
Peace Conference, 1919", publication of vols. Ill 
and IV, 303. 
Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Office 

of. See under State Department. 
Foreign Service, U.S. (see also State Department) : 
Address by Mr. Grew on Theodore Roosevelt birth- 
day anniversary, 297. 
Ambassador to Argentina (Armour), return to Buenos 

Aires, 247. 
Ambassador to the Soviet Union (Standley), resig- 
nation, 231. 
Consular offices — 

St. Lucia, B.W.I., closing of, 43S. 
Sao Vicente, Cape Verde Islands, closing of, 438. 
Valencia, Spain, damage by two Falangists, 450. 
Death of— 
Allen, Stuart, 21. 
Broy, Charles C, 210. 
Crabites, Pierre, 266. 
Fish, Bert, 54. 
Garrets, Arthur, 6. 
Hibbard, Frederick P., 144. 
Jarvis, Robert Y., 267. 
Klath, Thormod O., 232. 
Embassy building in Berlin bombed, 3S0. 
Embassy rank for representation between U.S. and 

Canada, 334. 
Nominations, confirmation of, 21, 248, 313, 314, 374. 



INDEX 



461 



Foreign Service, U.S. — Continued. 
Personnel formerly in France, efforts toward re- 
lease from Germans, 207. 
State Department and its Foreign Service in wartime, 

address by Mr. Shaw, 287. 
Foreign trade, U.S. See Blocked Nationals iind 

Treaties. 
Four-nation declaration on general security, 307, 308, 

342. 
Fourth of July rally. New Bedford, Mass., address by 

Mr. Grew, 11. 
Fi-ance : 

Antilles, French, designation of Henri Hoppenot as 

new authority in, 32. 
I'.astille Day, 28. 

Diplomatic representatives in U.S., transfer and re- 
lease, 207. 
French Committee of National Liberation. See 

French Committee of National Liberation. 
Laws enacted prior to German invasion, validity, 

168. 
U.S. diplomatic personnel formerly in France, efforts 

toward release from Germans, 207. 
Wheat, reported purchase by North African Eco- 
nomic Board, 97. 
French Committee of National Liberation : 
Designation of U.S. representative (Wilson), 379. 
Lebanese Republic, restoration of the Government in, 

381. 
U.S. recognition, 125. 
Fulbright Resolution, comments of Secretary Hull on 
passage of, 207. 

Garrels, Arthur, death, 6. 

Geist, Raymond H., designation as Chief, Divi.sion of 
Communications and Records, State Department, 
84. 
Geographers association, address by Mr. Boggs, 188. 
Germany : 
Atrocities, declaration of Moscow Conference, 308, 

310, 344. 
Attack on Poland, 4th anniversary, 153. 
Bombing of American Embassy building in Berlin,' 

380. 
Consular staff formerly at Algiers, detention in U.S., 

207. 
Crimes in Poland, 150. 
Destruction of war-machine, three-power declaration 

at Tehran, 409. 
Domination of Denmark, Danish resistance, 1,52, 153. 
U.S. diplomatic repre.sentatives formerly in France, 

efforts toward release, 207. 
War against, declaration by — 

Colombia, statement of Secretary Hull, 3'79. 
Iran, 166, 180. 
Italy, 2.53. 

578201—44 2 



Germany — Continued. 
War situation in 1943 as compared with 1918, address 
by Mr. Grew, 34.5. 
GlassforO. William A., designation as Special Repre- 
sentative of President Roo.sevelt at inauguration 
of President Tubman of Liberia, 417. 
Good-neighbor policy : 
Attack by Senator Butler, statement by Secretary 
Hull and memorandum of expenditures, 430, 443. 
Statement by Under Secretary Stettinius, 280. 
Grady, Henry F., appointment to position on Allied 

Control Commission for Italy, 379. 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom. 
Greece : 

Italian attack, .3d anniversary, 295. 
U.S. Amba.s.sador (MacVeagh), confirmation of nomi- 
nation, 33,5. 
Grevv', .Joseph C, addresses : 

Columbia University, New York, 28. 

Commission to Study the Organization of Peace, 126. 

Fourth of July rally, New Bedford, Mass., 11. 

Holland Society of New York, 345. 

Navy Day. New York, 294. 

St. Tliomas' Church. New York, 414. 

77th Division (1918), 25th anniversary. New York, 

225. 
Theodore Roosevelt birthday anniversary, 296. 
Griffin, Thomas, retirement, ,389. 

Gripsholm (ship), second exchange of American and 
Japanese nationals: 
Departure from U.S., 149. 
Departure from Mormugao, 273. 
Financial arrangements for repatriates, 227. 
Mail regulations, 110, 227, 321. 
Relief supplies for repatriates and prisoners of war, 

31, 110, 149, 228. 
Return to U.S., 381. 
Safe-conduct, 255. 
Selection of repatriates, ,320. 
Gromyko, Andrei A., credentials as Soviet Ambassador 

to U.S.. 245. 
Guatemala {see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, vi.sit to U.S., 6. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 

Military mi.ssion. with U.S. (1943), 46. 
Postal convention and agreements of the Postal 
Union of the Americas and i>pnm (1936), de- 
posit of ratifications, 201. 

Haiti (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 47. 
Economic cooperation with U.S., discussions re- 
garding, .332. 
Indu.strial mission, U.S. and Haiti, 383. 
President Elie Lescot, visit to I'.S., 247, 264, 332, 383. 



462 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Handy, Frank G., designation as Assistant Chief, Divi- 
sion of Communications and Records, State De- 
partment, S4. 
Hanson, Haldore, address before the New England 
Association of Teachers of English, Boston, 395. 
Harriman, W. Averell, confirmation of nomination as 
U.S. Ambas-sador to the Soviet Union, 248, 313. 
Health problems in occupied countries (.see also For- 
eign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Office 
of, under State Department), address by Dr. Crab- 
tree, 180. 
Henderson, Loy W., confirmation of nomination as U.S. 

Minister to Iraq, 21. 
Hibbard, Frederick P., death, 144. 
Highway, Alaska, U.S.-Canada agreement (1943) re- 
garding official name, 53. 
Hoeliler, Fred K., appointment as Chief of regional 
office in London, Office of Foreign Relief and 
Rehabilitation Operations, State Department, 98. 
Holden, Grenvilie Ross, appointment as chairman of 
committee for economic rehabilitation of Scandi- 
navia, Office of Foreign Economic Coordination, 
State Department, 206. 
Holland Society of New York, address by Mr. Grew, 

345. 
Honduras (see alto American republics) : 

Plantation rubber investigations (1941), extension 

of agreement with U.S. (1943), 21. 
Relief project, U.S. cooperation, 447. 
Hoppenot, Henri, designation by the French Committee 
of National Liberation to assume authority over 
the French Antilles, 32. 
House of Representatives. See Congress, U.S. 
Hull, Cordell (see also State Department) : 
Addresses, statements, etc. — 

Administration in State Department, press con- 
ference comment, 85. 
Allied occupation of Italy, 153. 
American Legion dinner for diplomatic represent- 
atives of the American republics, 883. 
Anniversaries, 

Philippine Commonwealth, 8th anniversary, 321. 

War, 2d anniversary of declaration by Bulgaria, 

Hungary, and Rumania against the U.S., 413. 

Arrival in North Africa of General Mascarenhas 

of Brazil, 422. 
Bolivia, U.S. attitude toward new Government, 

449. 
Brazilian bond settlement proposal, 384. 
Cairo and Tehran conferences, 410. 
Colombia's announcement of a state of belligerency 

with Germany, 379. 
Danish resistance to German domination, com- 
mendation, 152. 
Death of, 

Broy, Charles C, 210. 
Hibbard, Frederick P., 144. 



Hull, (jordell — Continued. 

Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued. 
Death of — Continued. 

Lin Sen, President of China, 85. 
Scott, James Brown, 5. 
Sikorski, General, of Poland, 19. 
Developments in Italy, 63. 
Drew Pearson, false charges by, 154. 
Emergency Advisory Committee for Political De- 
fense, welcome, 03. ' 
Fulbright Resolution, comments on passage of, 207. 
Gripsholni (ship), text of announcement granting 

safe-conduct, 255. 
Independence Day, 5. 
Jewish New Year message, 231. 
•'Mukden incident'', 179. 
Robert Lansing (ship), liuniciiing, 33. 
Senator Butler's attack nn good-neighbor policy, 

430. 
United Nations Forum Lecture Series, 380. 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration, draft agreement for, 211. 
U.S. foreign policy, 173. 
Correspondence — 

Adherence by Egypt to Atlantic Charter, 382. 
Anniversaries, 
Establishment of U.S.-Soviet diplomatic rela- 
tions, 373. 
Mexican independence, 196. 

Reply of Mr. Molotov to anniversary message of 
Acting Secretary Stettinius on founding of 
the Soviet Union, 374. 
Argentine Government, correspondence with For- 
eign Minister regarding international posi- 
tion of Argentina, 159. 
Danish resistance to German domination, commen- 
dation, 153. 
Death of, 

Allen, Stuart, 21. 
Fish, Bert, 54. 
Garrels, Arthur, fi. 
Keppel, Frederick P.. 169. 
Lin Sen, President of China, 85. 
Sikorski, General, of Poland, 20. 
Good-neighbor policy, letter to Senator McKellar 

regarding Senator Butler's attack, 443. 
Iran, adherence to Declaration by United Nations 

(1942), 166, 180. 
Retirement of Charles M. Barnes, 248. 
Retirement of Thomas Griffin, 389. 
UNRRA, letter to House Committee on Foreign 
Affairs recommending U.S. participation, 416. 
Moscow Conference, participation in. See Moscow 
Conference. 
Hungary, 2d anniversary of declaration of war against 

the U.S., 413. 
Hurban, Vladimir (Czecho.slovakia), credentials as 
Ambassador to U.S., 4. 



INDEX 



i63 



Icelaud, trade agreement with U.S. (1943), reciprocal, 

133, 232, 283. . 
Identification certificates, issuance to Americans cross- 
ing tlie Mexican border, 2.S4. 
Immigration of Chinese, 2iA, 431. 
Independence Day statement by Secretary Hull, 5. 
India : 
Establishment of U.S. information library, 228. 
Prizes, capture on high seas, 413. 
Sir Girja Shankar Bajpai, addre.ss at inaugural ses- 
sion of United Nations Interim Commission on 
Pood and Agriculture, 37. 
Indies, East, economic rehabilitation, US. chairman of 

area committee appointed, 208. 
Industrial Commission, Mexican, 1.^5. 
Industrial mi.ssion, U.S. and Haiti, ,383. 
Information and assistance to public. State Depart- 
ment, designation of Special Assistant to handle, 
433. 
Inonu. M. Ismet, conference with President Roosevelt 
and Prime Minister Churchill at Cairo, 410, 412. 
Inter- American Coffee Agreement (1940), continua- 
tion, 267. 
Inter-American Coffee Board, designation of U.S. dele- 
gate and alternate, 431. 
Inter-American Conciliation Convention of January 5, 
1029, additional protocol (1933), ratification by 
Colombia, 438. 
Inter-American Demographic Congress, 232. 
Inter-American Highway, U.S. cooijeration in con- 
struction of, 446. 
Inter-American relations. See American republics. 
Inter-American University of the Air. address by Mr. 

Eerie, 132. 
Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, 98. 
International commissions, conferences, etc. See Com- 

mi.ssions and Conferences. 
International languages for one world, address by Mr. 

Hanson, 395. 
Iran : 
Conference of President Roosevelt, Prime Minister 

Churchill, and Premier Stalin at Tehran, 409. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942 1, adherence, 
166, 180. 
Iraq, confirmation of nomination of U.S. Minister 

(Henderson), 21. 
Italian-American Labor Council, address by Mr. Berle, 

256. 
Italy : 
Advisory Council (Allied) for matters relating to, 

308, 343. 
Allied Control Cjommission for Italy, U.S. appoint- 
ments on, 379. 
Allied occupation, 153. 

Assets, enemy, transfer to neutral ownership, 207. 
Attack on Greece, 3d anniversary, 295. 



Italy — Continued. 
Consular staff formerly at Algiers, detention in U-S., 

207. 
Declarations of Moscow Conference, 308, 309, 344. 
Developments following Mussolini resignation, 

statement by Secretary Hull, 63. 
Economic operations in, appointment of Area Di- 
rector, Ofi5ce of Foreign Economic Operations, 
153. 
.Joint messages from President Roosevelt and Prime 

Minister Churchill, 27, 159. 
Military currency, Allied, 83. 
War against Germany, declaration of — 
Communication of Marshal Badoglio, 253. 
Joint statement by President Roosevelt, Prime 
Minister Churchill, and Premier Stalin, 2.54. 

.Japan {see also Far East) : 
Attack on China, 6th anniversary, 19. 
'Foreign Relations of the United States, Japan : 1931- 

1941", publication of vols. I and II, 374, 394. 
Grew, Joseph C, addresses. See Grew. 
•'Mukden incident", 12th anniversary, 179. 
Permission for financial assistance to Americans in- 
terned in Philippines, 380. 
United Nations military oiJerations against. Confer- 
ence of President Roosevelt, Generalissimo 
Chiang Kai-shek, and Prime Minister CtiurchiU 
in North Africa, 393. 
U.S. prisoners of war and civilian internees, relief 
and repatriation. See "Gripsholm". 
Jarvis, Robert Y., death, 267. 

Jewish New Year message of Secretary Hull, 231. 
.lewish newspapers, suspension of publication by Ar- 
gentina, statement by President Roosevelt, 264. 
Jones, Marvin, designation as chairman of the Inter- 
departmental Committee and U.S. member of the 
Combined Food Board, 293. 

Keatley, G. Harold, designation as Assistant Chief. 

Division of Communications and Records, State 

Department, 84. 
Keppel, Frederick P., death, 169. 

Kiwanis Club, Baltimore, address by Mr. Sayre, 14. 
Klath, Thormod O., death, 232. 

Labor, farm, arrangement with Mexico (1942) fir 
temporary migration to U.S., revision (1943), 8G. 
Labouisse, Henry R., Jr., designations : 
Deputy Director of Office of Foreign Economic Co- 
ordination, State Department, 98. 
Special Adviser on the Eastern Hemisphere, State 
Department, 333. 
Landis, James M., appointment as American Director of 

Economic Operations in the Middle East, 167. 
Languages, address by Mr. Hanson, 395. 
Latin America. See American republics; and the in- 
dividual countries. 



464 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Laws, French, enacted prior to German invasion, valid- 
ity, 168. 
Lebanon Government, restoration, 381. 
Legislation. See wider Congress, U.S. 
Lehman, Herbert H. : 

Appointment as Special Assistant to the President, 

205. 
Letter to staff of OFRRO concerning relief program, 
223. 
Lend-lease : 

Administration, Office of, transfer to Foreign Eco- 
nomic Administration, 205. 
Agreement with Ethiopia (1&43), 92. 
Food shipments to North Africa, 271. 
Operations, reports on, 124, 168, 223, 322. 
Lescot, Elie (President of Haiti), visit to U.S., 247, 

264, 332, 383. 
Liberated areas. See Italy, North Africa, Sicily. 
Liberia, inauguration of President Tubman, 417. 
Libraries, establishment in other countries by U.S., 228. 
Lin Sen, President of China, death, 85, 97. 
Low Countries. See Belgium ; Luxembourg ; and Neth- 
erlands. 
Lowdermilk. W. C, return from China, 451. 
Luxembourg : 

Economic rehabilitation, appointment of U.S. chair- 
man of area committee, 206. 
U.S. Minister (Atherton), confirmation of nomina- 
tion, 21. 
U..S. Minister (Biddle), confirmation of nomination, 
335. 

MacVeagh, Lincoln, confirmation of nomination as U.S. 
Ambassador near the Government of Greece and 
as U.S. Ambassador near the Government of Yugo- 
slavia, 335. 

Malaya, economic rehabilitation, U.S. chairman of area 
committee appointed, 206. 

Malin, Patrick, appointment as Vice Director, Inter- 
governmental Committee on Refugees, 98. 

Manchuria, 12th anniversary of "Mukden incident," 
179. 

Maps. See Charts. 

Mascarenhas, General, arrival in North Africa, 422. 

Matthews, H. Freeman, designation as Chief of Divi- 
sion of European Affairs, State Department, 187. 

McKellar, Kenneth, correspondency regarding good- 
neighbor policy, 443. 

McKenna, .James E., designation as Special Assistant to 
Assistant Secretary Shaw, 433. 

Medical personnel of OFRRO in North Africa, activities 
report, 129. 

Mediterranean Conimission, appointment of U.S. rep- 
resentative (Wilson), 224. 

Merchant, Livingston T., designation as Chief, Blockade 
and Supply Division, State Department, 143. 



Mexico («ee also American republics) : 

Border-crossing certificates for U.S. citizens, 284. 
Claims payment to U.S., 384. 

Commission for Economic Cooperation, U.S. and 
Mexico — 
Exchange of notes by President Roosevelt and 

President Avila Camacho, 38. 
Joint statement by U.S. and Mexico, 39. 
Report, 40. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 47. 
Farm-labor-migration arrangement with U.S. (1942), 

revision (1943), 86. 
Independence, anniversary messages, 196. 
Industrial Commission, 155. 
Inter-American Demographic Congress, 232. 
Mexican-American Commission for Economic Cooper- 
ation, 38. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 

Migratory birds, convention with U.S. (1936), 

amendatory regulations, 267. 
Petroleum properties expropriated in Mexico, com- 
pensation for, agreement with U.S. (1943), 
230. 
Plantation-rubber investigations, with U.S. (1941), 
extension (1943), 404. 
Jleyer, Paul T., designation as Assistant Chief, Divi- 
sion of Communications and Records, State De- 
partment, 84. 
Miildle East Supply Center, American representative on, 

167. 
Migratory birds, conventions with Canada (United 
Kingdom 1916) and Mexico (1936), amendatory 
regulations. 267. 
Military currency in occupietl Sicily, 83. 
Military missions. See Missions, U.S. 
Military supplies to the Soviet Union, multilateral 

treaty regarding (1943), 272. 
Missions, U.S. to: 
Argentina, military aviation, 216. 
Colombia, naval, 117. 
Ecuador, military, 201. 
Guatemala, military, 46. 
Haiti, industrial, 383. 
Panama, military, 117. 

Paraguay, military and military aviation, 304, 417. 
Molotov, V.M., participation in Moscow Conference. 

See Moscow Conference. 
Moscow Conference (Cordell Hull, Anthony Eden, and 
V. Molotov ) : 
Anglo-Soviet-American communique, 307. — 
Arrival of Secretary Hull and delegation in Moscow, 

271. 
Declaration of four nations on general security, 308, 

342. 
Declaration of German atrocities, 310, 344. 
Declaration on Austria. 310, 344. 



INDEX 



465 



Moscow Conference — Continued. 

Declaration regarding Italy, 309, 344. 

Return to Washington of Secretary Hull, remarks, 

319. 
Secretary Hull's address before Congress regard; 
ing, 341. 
Motion-picture program abroad, U.S., 197. 
"Mukden incident", anniversary, statement by Secre- 
tary Hull, 179. 
Murjjhy, Robert D., designation us U.S. member on 
the Advisory Council to the Allied Control Com- 
mission for lialy, 379. 
Mutual-aid agreement, U.S. and Ethiopia (1943), 92. 
Mutual assistance pact, Soviet-Czech, 439. 

Narcotic drugs, decision by British and Netherlauus 
Governments to prohibit smoking of opium in their 
territories in the Far East, 331. 
National Archives, preservation of State Department 

records, 209. 
Naval mission agreement, U.S. and Colombia (1943), 

117. 
Navy Day address by Mr. Grew, 294. 
Near East. See individual countries. 
Netherlands : 

Economic rehabilitation, appointment of U.S. chair- 
man of area committee. 206. 
Opium smoking in Netherlands territories in the 
Far East, decision to prohibit, 331. 
Neutral countries, refuge for Axis leaders in, statement 
by President Roosevelt and Instructions to U.S. 
diplomatic repi-esentatives, 62. 
New England Association of Teachers of English, 

Boston, address by Mr. Hanson, 395. 
New Year, Jewish, njessage of Secretary Hull, 231. 
New Zealand : 

U.S. information library, establishment, 228. 
U.S. Minister (Burdett), confirmation of nomina- 
tion, 21. 
News correspondents In Nortli Africa, facilities for, 

1S5. 
Nicaragua (see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Sevilla Sacasa), credentials, 

71. 
Plantation-rubber investigations, agreement with 
jU.S. (1941), extension (1943), 21. 
North Africa (see also Africa) : 
Arrival of General Mascarenhas of Brazil, 422. 
Conference of President Roosevelt, Generalissimo 
Chiang Kai-shek, and Prime Mlninster Churchill, 
393. 
Conference of President Roosevelt, Prime Minister 
Churchill, and President Inonu of Turkey at 
Cairo, 410, 412. 
, Food shipments from U.S. and United Kingdom, 271. 
Health problems, address by Dr. Crabtree, ISO. 
Medical personnel of OPRRO, report, 129. 
News correspondents, facilities for, 185. 



North Africa — Continued. 

Petroleum distribution in, 97. 
North African Economic Board, reported purchase of 

French wheat, 97. 
Norweb, R. Henry, confirmation of nomination as U.S. 

Minister to Portugal, 374. 

Occupied areas. See Italy, North Africa, Sicily. 

OFEC. See Foreign Economic Coordination, Ofilce of, 
under State Department. 

OFRRO. See Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Oper- 
ations, Office of, mider State Department. 

Oil exploration (see also Petroleum), alleged U. S. loan 
to Argentina, 447. 

Opium, decision by British and Netherlands Govern- 
ments to prohibit smoking of, in their territories 
in the Far East, 331. 

Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, International, 

304. 
Panama (see also American republics) : 

Conference of Ministers and Directors of Education 

of the American Republics at Panama, 210. 
Military mission with U.S. (1942), renewal (1943), 
117. 
Pan American Physical Education Congress, 1st, 113. 
"Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the 

United States, 1929", publication of vol. I, 433. 
Paraguay (see also American republics), treaties, 
agreements, etc. : 
Military aviation mission, with U.S. (1943), 304. 
Military mission, with U.S. (1943), 417. 
Telecommunication convention, etc. (1932), adher- 
ence, 6. 
Paris Peace Conference, 1919, publication of vols. Ill 
and IV in "Foreign Relations of the United States" 
series, 303. 
Passport regulations, modification to permit issuance 

of Mexican border-crossing certificates, 284. 
Peace : 
Commission to Study Organization of, radio address 

by Mr. Grew, 126. 
Internatioual machinery for. Secretary Hull's com- 
ment on Fulbright Resolution, 207. 
Rehabilitation and lasting peace, address by Mr. 
Acheson, 421. 
"Peace and War", publication of Department of State, 

documented edition, 237. 
Pearson, Drew, false charges by, 154. 
Pell, Herbert Claiborne, designation as U.S. representa- 
tive on United Nations Commission for Investiga- 
tion of War Crimes, 3. 
Peru (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 21. 
National anniversary, 72. 
Petroleum (see also Oil) : 

Designation of Mr. Rayner as Acting Petroleum Ad- 
viser to Secretary of State, 452. 



466 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Petroleum — C'lntinued 
Distribution in North Africa, 97. 
U.S. properties expropriated in Mexico, 230. 
Philippines (*( c rilso Far East) : 
Address to the people by President Roosevelt, 91. 
Anniversary (8th) of Philippine Commonwealth, 321. 
Puppet government — 

Message of Spanish Foreign Minister, interpreta- 
tion, ;.25. 
Statement by President Roosevelt, 274. 
U.S. citizens detained by Japanese, financial assist- 
ance, 38U. 
Physical Education Congress, 1st Pan American, 113. 
Plantation-rul)i)(>r investigations, U.S. and : 
Honduras, 21. 
Mexico, 404. 
Nicaragua, 21. 
Poland : 

Anniversary (4th) of German attack on, 153. 
General Sikorski, death, 19. 
German crimes in, 150. 
Independenct' Day, 20. 
Political Defense, Emergency Advisory Committee for, 

51, 63, 445. 
Political leaders and groups in U.S., foreign, State 

Department policy, 150. 
Population and areas of Axis countries, United Nations, 

and other countries, maps and charts, 357. 
Portugal : 

Azores facilities for Great Britain, 263. 
U.S. Minister (Fish), death, 54. 

U.S. Minister (Norveeb), confirmation of nomina- 
tion, 374. 
Postal conventions. See under Treaties. 
Post-war plans, address to the Nation by President 

Roosevelt, 57. 
President, U.S. See Roosevelt. 

Prisoners of war in the Far East (see also "Grips- 
holm"), mail and supplies to, 31, 110, 149. 
Prizes, capture on high seas, 224, 413. 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. See 

Blocked Nationals. 
Proclamations : 
Capture of prizes on high seas, extension of provi- 
sions to Canada and India, 224, 413. 
Extension of general-order and bonded-warehousing 

periods, 312. 
Selective Service registration of Americans in for- 
eign countries, 300. 
Publications : 

Caribbean Islands and the War, 435. 
Damages in International Law, 434. 
Foreign Relations of the United States (1929), 433. 
Foreign Relations of the United States, Japan : 
1931-1941, vols. I and II, 326, 374, 394. 



Publications — Continued. 
Foreign Relations of the United States: The Paris 

Peace Conference (1919), vols. Ill and IV, 303. 
Lists — 

Department of State, 7, 22, 47, .54, 79, 87, 39, 113. 

145. 156, 170, 202. 217, 233, 249, 268, 284, 314, 

337, 376. 438, 452. 

Other agencies, 7, 22, 87, 145, 156, 170, 202, 268, 337. 

Peace and War, 237. 

Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. See 

Blocked Nationals. 
United States Statutes at Large, pt. 2, vol. 56, 248. 
Puerto Rico, statement regarding aid to, 447. 
Puppet government in the Philippines, 274, 325. 

Quebec Conference: 

Address by President Roosevelt before Parliament, 

122-123. 
Joint statement by President Roosevelt and Prime 

Minister Churchill, 121. 

Radio broadcasts. State Department, announcement, 
432. 

Rayner, Charles B., designation as Acting Petroleum 

Adviser to the Secretary of State, 452. 
Reber, Samuel, appointment to position on Allied Con- 
trol Commission for Italy, 379. 
Records, State Department, preservation, 209. 
Red Cross, relief to prisoners of war and civilian in- 
ternees in the Far East. See "Gripsholm". 
Reed, Philip D.. appointment as Chief of Mission for 

Economic Affairs in London, 273. 
Refugees, Intergovernmental Committee on, 98. 
Regulations of U.S. agencies, listed, 54, 79, 87, 145, 169. 
Rehabilitation. See under Relief. 
Relief : 

North Africa, food shipments to, 271. 
Rehabilitation of liberated areas — 
Addfes.ses, 
Mr. Acheson, 421. 
Mr. S:iyre, 14, 274. 
United Nations Forum Lecture Series, 380. 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Admin- 
istration. See UNRRA. 
U.S. activities, administration of. See Foreign 
Economic Administration, Foreign Economic 
Coordination, and Foreign Relief and Rehabil- 
itation Operations under State Department. 
Repatriation of and relief to U.S. citizens: 
Exchange voyages to Far East. See "Gripsholm". 
U.S. citizens detained in the Philippines, financial 
assistance to, 380. 
War relief contributions, 167. 
War Relief Control Board, appointment to, 415. 
Repatriation. See under Relief. 

Research and Publication Division, State Department 
(«ee also Publications), designation of Consultant 
(Stuart), 433. 



INDEX 



467 



Robert, Admiral Georges, relinquishment of authority 

in the French Antilles, 32. 
Robert Lansiog (ship), launching, 33. 
Roosevelt, Franklin D. : 
Addresses and remarks — 

Diplomatic representatives, presentation of cre- 
dentials, 4, 72, 246, 448, 450. 
Philippines, address to the people of, 91. 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Admin- 
istration, signing of agreement, 317. 
War and post-war plans, address to the Nation, 
57. 
Conferences at — 

Cairo (with Prime Minister Churchill and Presi- 
dent Inonu of Turkey), 410, 412. 
North Africa (with Generalissimo Chiang Kai- 
shek and Pi-ime Minister Churchill), 3D3. 
Tehran (with Prime Minister Churchill and Pre- 
mier Stalin), 409, 410. 
Correspondence — 
Anniversaries, 

Belgian independence, 52. 
Brazilian independence, 168. 
Chilean independence, 197. 
China, national anniversary, 263. 
Czechoslovakian independence, 295. 
Greece, Italian attack on, 295. 
Japanese attack on China, 19. 
Mexican independence, 196. 
Peru, natioii.-il anniversary, 72. 
Poland, German attack on, 153. 
Poland, independence, 20. 
Soviet Union, founding, 313, 374. 
Death of General Sikorski of Poland. 19. 
Death of President Lin Sen of China, 85, 97. 
Inauguration of Chiang Kai-shek as President of 

the Republic of China, 263. 
Resignation of Ambassador to the Soviet Union 
(Standley), acceptance, 231. 
Executive orders, 32, 155, 205, 293. 
German-atrocities declaration, signer, 308, 310, 344. 
Messages to Congress — 

Chinese exclu.sion laws, 254. 
Lend-lease aid, 124, 168, 322. 
UNRRA, U.S. participation, 372. 
Proclamations, 224, 300, 312, 413. 
Statements — 
Atlantic Charter, 2d anniversai-y of signing, 92. 
Axis leaders, refuge in neutral countries, 62. 
Bastille Day, 28. 

Chinese exclusion laws, repeal, 431. 
French Committee of National Liberation, U.S. 

recognition, 125. 
Joint, with Prime Minister Churchill, 

Combined Food Board, U.S. and United King- 
dom, membership extended to Canada, 292. 
Italy, people of, 27, 159. 



Roosevelt, Franklin D. — Continued. 
Statements — Continued. 

Quebec Conference, 121. 
Joint, with Prime Minister Churchill and Premier 
Stalin, accepting Italy as a co-belligerent, 254. 
Philippines, puppet government, 274. 
Resignation of Mr. Welles and appointment of 
Mr. Stettinius as Under Secretary of State, 
208. . 
Suspension by Argentina of publication of Jewish 

newspapers, 264. 
U. S. Chief of Mission for Economic Affairs in 
London, appointment of Philip D. Reed, 273. 
Roosevelt, Theodore, address by Mr. Grew on birthday 

anniversary, 296. 
Rotary Club, Knoxville, Tenn., address by Mr. Berle, 

384. 
Rubber : 

Agreements relating to plantation-rubber investi- 
gations — ■ 
With Honduras, 21. 
With Mexico, 404. 
With Nicaragua, 21. 
Investigations in Costa Rica, 79. 
Ruby (Colombian ship), sinking by Germany, 379. 
Rumania, 2d anniversary of declaration of war against 
the U.S., 413. 

St. Lucia, B. W. I., closing of U.S. consulate, 438. 

St. Thomas' Church, New York, address by Mr. Grew, 

414. 
Salmon, David A., designation as Special Consultant 

to Assistant Secretary of State, and Assistant 

Security Officer, Department of State, 84. 
Salmon Fisheries Commission, International, 304. 
Sao Vicente, Cape Verde Islands, closing of U.S. vice 

consulate, 438. 
Saudi Arabia, Foreign Minister (Amir Faisal), visit 

to U.S., 210. 
Savage, Carlton, designation as General Consultant to 

Secretary of State and other high officers of the 

State Department, 98. 
Sayre, Francis B., addresses on relief and rehabilita- 
tion : 
Boston Institute, 423. 
Chicago Sunday Evening Club, 258. 
Cotton Textile Institute, New York, 274. 
Kiwanis Club, Baltimore, 14. 
Scandinavia, economic rehabilitation, U.S. chairman 

of area committee appointed, 206. 
Scott, James Brown, death, 5. 
Selective Service registration of Americans in foreign 

countries, 300. 
Senate. See Congress, U.S. 
77th Division (1918), 25th anniversary, address by 

Mr. Grew, 225. 
Sevilla Sacasa, Guillermo (Nicaragua), credentials as 

Ambassador to U.S., 71. 



468 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Shaw, G. Holland, address on the State Department 

and its Foreign Service in wartime, 287. 
Ships : 

Gripsholm. See "Gripsholm". 
Robert Lansing, launching, 33. 
Ruby, sinliing, 379. 
Sicily : 
Area Director (Sturges), appointment, S3. 
Military currency. Allied, 83. 
Sikorski, Gen. Wladyslaw, death, 19. 
South America. See American republics and the in- 
dividual (ountries. 
Soviet Union. See Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics. 
Spaeth, Dr. Carl B., address" before Emergency Ad- 
visory Committee for Political Defense, 67. 
Spain : 
Message of Spanish Foreign Minister to the Philip- 
pine puppet government, interpretation, 325. 
U.S. consulate in Valencia, damage by two Falang- 
ists, 450. 
Spruks, H. Charles, designation as head of Miami office. 

State Department, 47. 
Stabilization fund, international, tentative proposal for, 

112. 
Stalin, Joseph V. : 
Conference with President Roosevelt and Prime Min- 
ister Churchill at Tehran, 409. 
German-atrocities declaration, 303, 310, 314. 
Joint statement with President Roosevelt and Prime 
Minister Churchill accepting Italy as a co-bellig- 
erent. 254. 
Standley, William H., resignation as U.S. Ambassador 

to the Soviet Union, 231. 
State Department: 
Administration in, comment by Secretary Hull, 85. 
Address by Mr. Shaw on State Department and its 

Foreign Service, 287. 
AdvLser on International Economic Affairs (Feis), 

resignation, 283. 
Agricultural adviser (Lowdermilk), return from 

China, -151. 
Air transportation, international, joint statement 

with Civil Aeronautics Board, 265. 
Appropriations for 1944, analysis, 73. 
Blockade and Supply Division, 142, 143. 
Commercial Affairs Division, 84. 
Communications and Records Division, 84. 
Death of Frederick P. Keppel, 169. 
Defense Materials Division, 143. 
European Affairs Division, designation of Chief 

(Matthews), 187. 
Exports and Requirements Division, 84, 334. 
Financial Division, 144. 

Foreign Economic Administration, liaison with (see 
also Foreign Economic Administration), 302. 



State Department— Continued. 
Foreign Economic Coordination, Office of — 

Appointment of Area Directors for Italy and Sicily, 

83, 153. 
Appointment of Deputy Directors, 98. 
Creation of Divisions in, 142. 
Functions, additional, 143. 

Liberated areas, appointment of chairmen of area 
committees for economic rehabilitation of, 206. 
Transfer of certain functions from, 205, 333. 
Foreign Funds Control Division, 143. 
Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Of- 
fice of — 
Chief of regional office in London, appointment of 

Fred K. Hoehler, 98. 
Functions, 182. 

Medical personnel in North Africa, activities re- 
port, 129. 
Transfer to Foreign Economic Administration, 205, 
223. 
General Consultant to Secretary of State (Savage), 

98. 
Good-neighbor policy, attack by Senator Butler, 430, 

443. 
Miami office, designation of head (Spruks), 47. 
Motion-picture program abroad, non-theatrical, 197. 
Petroleum Adviser, Acting (Rayner), 452. 
Policy toward foreign political leaders and groups 

in U.S., 150. 
Publications. See Publications. 
Radio broadcasts ("State Department Speaks"), an- 
nouncement, 432. 
Records, preservation, 209. 
Research and Publication Division, 433. 
Retirement of — 
Barnes, Charles M., 248. 
Grifiln, Thomas, 389. 
Special advisers on foreign-policy aspects of war- 
time economic activities, 333. 
Special Assistant to Assistant Secretary of State 

(McKenna), 433. 
Special Consultant (Dickey), 6. 
Special Consultant (Salmon) to Assistant Secretary 

of State, 84. 
Treaty Division, retirement of Chief (Barnes), 248. 
Under Secretary of State, resignation of Mr. Welles 

and appointment of Mr. Stettinius, 208, 248. 
Visas for foreign government officials, 144. 
Visiting professor in China (Cressey), appointment, 
. 230. 

War Commodities Division, 142. 
Wartime policies, historical studies, 433. 
World Trade Intelligence Division, 143, 334. 
Statements. See tinder names of the individuals and 
the specific subjects. 



INDEX 



469 



Stettinius, Edward R., Jr.: 
Appointment and oath of oflBce as Under Secretary 

of State, 208, 248. 
Message on anniversary of founding of Soviet Union, 

313. 
Statements — 
Decision by British and Netherlands Governments 
to prohibit the use of opium for smoking in 
their territories in the Far East, 331. 
Good-neighbor policy, 280. 

Moscow Conference, arrival of U.S. delegation, 
271. 
Stevens, Dr. W. Mackenzie, return to U.S. from 

China, 86. 
Storni, Vice Admiral Segundo, Foreign Minister of 
Argentina, correspondence with Secretary of State 
Hull regarding international position of Argentina, 
159. 
Stuart, Graham H., designation as Consultant in Di- 
vision of Research and Publication, State Depart- 
ment, 433. 
Sturges, Wesley A., appointment as Area Director in 

Sicily, 83. 
Sugar, Cuban, 1944 crop, 116, 216, 449. 

Tables. Sec Charts. 

Taft, Charles P., appointments: 

Chairman of committee for economic rehabilitation 
of the East Indies and Malaya, Office of Foreign 
Economic Coordination, State Department, 206. 
Special Adviser on Supply and Resources, State De- 
partment, 333, 334. 
Taxation, Canadian, on U.S. defense projects in Canada, 

reimbursement, 116. 
Taxation upon estates, double, conversations between 

U.S. and Canada, 38S. 
Tehran Conference (President Roosevelt, Prime Min- 
ister Churchill, and Premier Stalin) : 
Declaration regarding Iran, 409. 
Statement by Secretary Hull, 410. 
Three-power declaration, 409. 
Tela Maru (vessel), exchange of American and .TajM- 

nese nationals in the Far Eeast, 273. 
Telecommunications. See under Treaties. 
Tewelde Medhen, Blatta Ephrem, credentials as Ethio- 
pian Minister to U.S., 449. 
Three-power declaration at Tehran, 409. 
Town Hall, New York, address by Mr. Grew on the 
birthday anniversary of Theodore Roosevelt, 296. 
Tobacco, supplemental trade-agreement negotiations, 

U.S. and Cuba, 281, 302, 431. 
Trade agreements, reciprocal. See under Treaties. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Alaska Highway, official name of, U.S. and Canada 

(1943), 53. 
Atlantic Charter (1941), adherence by Egypt, 382. 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Coffee agreement, Inter-American (1940), continu- 
ation, 207. 
Conciliation, inter-American, additional protocol 
(1933) to general convention of .Ian. 5, 1929, 438. 
Criminal offenses committed by armed forces, juris- 
diction over, U.S. and China (1943), text, 114. 
Farm-labor-migration, U.S. and Mexico (1942), re- 
vision (1943), 86. 
Migratory birds, U.S. and Canada (United Kingdom 
1916) and U.S. and Mexico (1936), amendatory 
regulations (1943), 267. 
Military aviation mission, U.S. and — ■ 
Argentina (1940), renewal (1943), 216. 
Paraguay (1943), 304. 
Military mission, U.S. and — 
Ecuador (1943), 201. 
Guatemala (1943), 46. 
Panama (1942), renewal (1943), 117. 
Paraguay (1943), 417. 
Military sujiplies to the Soviet Union ( U.S., Canada, 

United Kingdom, and Soviet Union, 1943), 272. 
MO.SCOW Conference declarations, 308. 
Mutual aid, G.S. and Ethiopia (1943), text, 92. 
Mutual assistance pact, Soviet Union and Czecho- 
slovakia (1943), 439. 
Naval mission, U.S. and Colombia (1938), renewal 

(1943), 117. 
.Petroleum properties expropriated in Alexico, com- 
pensation for, U.S. and Mexico (1943), 2,30. 
Postal convention and agreements of the Postal 
Union of the America.? and Spain (1936) — 
DeiK)sit of ratification by Brazil and Guatemala, 201. 
Status, 201. 
Relief and rehabilitation. United Nations (1943). 

See UNRRA. 
Rubber, U.S. and Costa Rica (1941), extension 

(1943), 79. 
Rubber investigation, plantation, U.S. and — ' 
Honduras (1941), extension (1943), 21. 
Mexico (1941), extension (1943), 404. 
Nicaragua (1941), extension (1943), 21. 
Sugar agreement, U.S. and Cuba (1943), 116, 216. 
Taxation, Canadian, on U.S. defense projects in Can- 
ada, U.S. and Canada (1943), 116. 
Tehran Conference declarations, 409. 
Telecommunications, international convention (Cairo 
revision, 1938) — 
Adherence of Ethiopia, f55. 
Approval of Colombia, 155. 
Telecommunications, international convention, tele- 
graph regulations, and general radio regulations 
(1932), adherence by Paraguay, 6. 
Trade agreements, reciprocal, U.S. and — 
Cuba, 
Intention to negotiate, 281, 302. 
Not concluded, 431. 



470 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Trade agreements, reciprocal— Continued. 
Iceland (1943), 
Analysis, 134. 

Exchange of ratifications, 283. 
Proclamation by U.S., 232. 
Signature, 133. 
Other American republics, U.S. policy, 445. 
United Nations Declaration (1942), adherence by 
Iran, 166, 1£0. 
Tripartite Conference in Moscow. See Moscow Con- 
ference. 
Tubman, W. V. S., inauguration as President of Liberia, 

417. 
Turkey, conference of President Roosevelt, Prime Min- 
ister Churchill, and President Inonu at Cairo, 410, 
412. 
Tutuila (ship), bombing at Chungking in .July 1941, 
documents regarding, 326. 

Union of South Africa, establishment of U.S. informa- 
tion library, 228. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: 
Ambassador to U.S. (Gromyko), credentials, 245. 
Collaboration with U.S. and United Kingdom, 154. 
Conference of. President Roosevelt, Pritne Minister 

Churchill, and Premier Stalin at Tehran, 409. 
Establishment of U.S.-Soviet diplomatic relations, 

10th anniversary, 373. 
Pounding of, anniversary messages, 313, 374. 
Joint statement by Premier Stalin with President 
Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill accept- 
ing Italy as a co-belligerent, 254. 
Moscow Conference. See Moscow Conference. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 
Czech-Soviet mutual assistance pact, 439. 
Military supplies, with U.S., United Kingdom, and 
Canada (1943), signature of protocol, 272. 
U.S. Ambassador (Harriman), confirmation of nom- 
ination, 248, 313. 
U.S. relations with, statement of Secretary Hull 
regarding false charges by Drew Pearson, 154. 
United Kingdom : 
Bases in the Western Hemisphere leased by U.S., 
British oifer to compensate for expropriated 
private property, 9G. 
Churchill, Winston S. See Churchill. 
Collaboration with U.S. and Soviet Union, 154. 
Combined Food Board, U.S., U.K., and Canada, 292. 
Conferences, United Nations, participation in — 
Cairo (with U.S. and Turkey), 410, 412. 
Moscow. See Moscow. 
North Africa (with U.S. and China), 393. 
Quebec (with U.S.), 121. 

Tehran (with U.S. and Soviet Union), 409, 410. 
Facilities in Azores made available, 263. 
Pood shipments to North Africa, 271. 



United Kingdom — Continued. 
Joint messages and statements regarding Italy, 

27, 159, 254. 
Military supplies to the Soviet Union (1943), agree- 
ment regarding, 272. 
Opium-smoking in British territories in the Far 

East, decision to prohibit, 331. 
U.S. Chief of Mission for Economic Affairs in Lon- 
don (Reed), appointment, 273. 
United Nations (see also Commissions; Conferences; 
Declarations; Lend-lease; Relief; and War) : 
Argentine relations with, 159. 
International stabilization fund, proposal for, 112. 
Members, listed, 349, 394. 
Military currency for occupied areas, 83. 
Population and areas, maps and charts, 357. 
United Nations Commission for the Investigation of 

War Crimes, 3. 
United Nations Declaration (1942), 166, 180. 
United Nations Porum Lecture Series, message of 

Secretary Hull, 380. 
United Nations Interim Commission on Pood and 

Agriculture, meetings, 33, 52. 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Adminis- 
tration. See UNRRA. 
United States citizens: 
Arrest in Argentina, 169. 

Civilian internees and prisoners of war in the Far 
East — 
Financial assistance to prisoners in Philippines, 

380. 
Repatriates. See "Gripsholm". 
Mexican border-crossing certificates, is.suance, 284. 
Selective Service registration in foreign countries, 
300. 
United States Congress. See Congress. 
United States Foreign Service. See Foreign Service. 
United States treaties. See Treaties. 
"United States Statutes at Large", pt. 2, vol. 56, issu- 
ance, 248. 
UNRRA : 
Address by President Roosevelt at signing of agree- 
ment, 317. 
Addresses by Mr. Sayre, 262, 274, 423. 
Agreement — 
Draft, revised text, 211. 
List of signers, 335. 
Signing, 245, 311. 
First Session of the Council, 245, 311. 
U.S. participation, recommendations for congres- 
sional appropriation of funds, 372, 416. 
Uruguay (see also American republics), cultural lead- 
ers, visit to U.S., 6, 417. 

Valencia. Spain, damage to U.S. consulate by two Fa- 
langists, 450. 



INDEX 



471 



Vatican City, bombing of, 319. 

Venezuela (see also American republics), cultural 

leader, visit to U.S., 389. 
Vessels. See Slips. 
ViUard, Henry S., address at the Chautauqua Institute, 

N.Y., 103. 
Visas for foreign government oflScials, 144. 

War: 
Address to the Nation by President Roosevelt, 57. 
Alignment of nations, 349, 357, 394. 
Anniversary (2d) of declaration of war by Bulgaria, 

Hungary, and Rumania against the U.S., 413. 
Declaration of war by — 

Bolivia against Axis powers, 413. 
Colombia against Germany, 379. 
Italy against Germany, 253. 
Declarations of war, tabulated, 349, 394. 
Historical studies of State Department's wartime 
policies, 433. 
War Commodities Division, creation in Department of 

State, 142. 
War Crimes, United Nations Commission for the In- 
vestigation of, 3. 
War Relief Control Board, appointment to, 415. 



Warren, Charles, appointment as member of Presi- 
dent's War Relief Control Board, 415. 
Welles, Sumner, resignation as Under Secretary of 

State, 208. 
Wheat, French, reports concerning purchase by North 

African Economic Board, 97. 
Wells, Herman B., appointments : 

Deputy Director of Office of Foreign Economic Co- 
ordination, State Department, 98. 
Special Adviser on Liberated Areas, State Depart- 
ment, 333, 334. 
Wilson, Edwin C., appointments : 

U.S. representative on the Mediterranean Commis- 
sion, 224. 
U.S. representative to the French Committee of 
National Liberation, 379. 
Wiuant, John G., appointment as U.S. representative 

on European Advisory Commission, 393. 
World Trade Intelligence, Division of, State Depart- 
ment: 
Added functions, 143. 
Continuation as separate Division, 334. 

Yugoslavia, U.S. Ambassador (MacVeagh), confirma- 
tion of nomination, 335. 



o 



jiiii ^ 

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