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Full text of "The depths of the sea: an account of the general results of the dredging cruises of H.M.SS. 'Porcupine' and 'Lightning' during the summers of 1868, 1869, and 1870, under the scientific direction of Dr. Carpenter, F.R.S., J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S., and Dr. Wyville Thomson, F.R.S."

LIBRARV 

UNIVEJiSITY OF CAUFORNIA 
DAVIS 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/depthsofseaaccouOOthomrich 



C^iVi 



'J- 



T^O/M^OsT 



THE 



DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



THE 



DEPTHS OF THE SEA 



i 

% AN ACCOUNT OF THE GENEKAL RESULTS 

I OF THE 

DREDGING CRUISES OF H.M.SS. 'PORCUPINE' AND 'LIGHTNING 

DURING THE SUMMERS OF 1868, 1869, AND 1870, 

UNDER THE SCIENTIFIC DIRECTION OF 

DR. CARPENTER, F.R.S., J. GWYN JEFFREYS, F.R.S., 
AND DR. WYVILLE THOMSON, F.R.S. 



BY 



C. WYVILLE THOMSON, 

LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.SS. L.&E., F.L.S., F.G.S., Etc 

Regius Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh, 
Awl Director of the Civilian Scientific Staff of the 'Challenger' Exploring Expedition. 



WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS. 

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
DAVIS 

MACMILLAN AND CO. 

1873. 



LONDON : 

R. CLAY, SONS, AND TAYLOR, PRINTERS, 

BREAD STREET HILL. 



TO 

MADAME HOLTEN 

IN 
GRATEFUL REMEMBRANCE OF THE PLEASANT TIMES 

SPENT BY HIMSELF AND HIS COMRADES 



GOVERNOR S HOUSE IN THORSHAVN, 



BY 



THE AUTHOR. 



PEEFACE. 



At the close of the Deep-sea Dredging Expeditions 
which had heen undertaken hy the Admiralty at the 
instance of the Council of the Royal Society during 
the years 1868, 1869, and 1870, it was thought right 
that those who had been entrusted with their scien- 
tific direction should, in addition to their official 
reports, lay before the general public some account 
of their proceedings with the objects ; — first, of show- 
ing, if possible, that the value of the additions which 
had been made to human knowledge justified the 
liberality of Government in acceding to the request 
of the Council of the E>oyal Society, and placing 
means at their disposal to carry out the desired 
researches; and, secondly, of giving such a popular 
outline of the remarkable results of our work as 
might stimulate general interest, and induce those 
who have the proclivities and the opportunity, to 
penetrate farther into the new and strange region 
on whose borders we have had the good fortune to 
have been among the first to encroach. 



viii FREFJCE. 

It was originally intended that the general account 
should have been a joint production, each of us con- 
tributing his part. There were difficulties, however, 
in the way of this arrangement. We were all fully 
occupied with other matters, and the amount of 
communication and correspondence between us, re- 
quired to carry out the plan of joint authorship, 
seemed likely to prove a cumbrous complication. 

It was therefore decided that quoad the popular 
exposition I should take upon myself the office of 
'reporter,' and thus it comes about that I am indi- 
vidually and solely responsible for the opinions and 
statements contained in this book, save where they 
are included within quotation marks, or their sources 
otherwise acknowledged. 

Since we began these deep-sea investigations, 
inquiries have come in from all quarters, both at 
home and abroad, as to the implements and methods 
which we employ. To supply the desired informa- 
tion, I have described, in detail, the processes both 
of sounding and dredging; and I hope that the 
special chapters on these matters — the result of 
considerable experience — may be found useful to 
beginners. 

I pretend to no special knowledge of physics, and 
I should have greatly preferred confining myself to 
the domain of Biology, my own proper province; 
but certain physical questions raised during our late 
explorations have so great importance in relation to 



PREFACE. ix 

the distribution of living beings, and have of late 
been brought into so great prominence by Dr. Car- 
penter, that it has been impossible for me to avoid 
giving my earnest consideration to their general 
bearings on Physical Geography, and forming decided 
opinions, which, I regret to say, do not altogether 
coincide with those of Dr. Carpenter. The chief 
points on which my friend and I ' agree to differ ' 
are discussed in the chapter on the Gulf- stream. 

It was at first my intention that appendices should 
be added to the different chapters, containing lists 
and scientific descriptions of the animal forms which 
were observed. This it was found impossible to 
accomplish, chiefly on account of the large number 
of undescribed species which were placed in the hands 
of the experts who undertook the examination of the 
several groups. I am not sure that, even if it had 
been possible to furnish them in time, such lists 
would have been altogether an appropriate addition 
to what is intended merely as a popular preliminary 
sketch. 

The metrical system of measurement, and the 
centigrade thermometer scale, have been adopted 
throughout the volume. The metrical system is pro- 
bably familiar to most of my readers. In case the 
centigrade notation, which comes in very frequently 
owing to the frequent discussion of questions of the 
distribution of temperature, should not be equally 
familiar, a comparative scale, embodying those of 



C. R. 



PREFACED. 

Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Eeau- 
mur, is introduced for com- 
parison. 

My various sources of infor- 
mation, and the friendly as- 
sistance I have received on all 
hands during the progress of 
our work, are acknowledged, so 
far as possible, in the text. 
I need here only renew my 
thanks to Staff- Commander 
May and the officers of the 
'Lightning,' and Captain Cal- 
ver and the officers of the 
' Porcupine,' without whose 
hearty sympathy and co-ope- 
ration our task could never 
have been satisfactorily accom- 
plished ; to my colleagues. Dr. 
Carpenter, F.Il.S., and Mr. 
Gwyn Jeffreys, F.E^.S., who 
have cordially assisted me in 
every way in their power ; and 
to the naturalists into whose 

_ hands the animals of various 
classes were placed for descrip- 
tion and study, — the Rev. A. 
Merle Norman, Professor Kol- 

_liker, Dr. Carter, P.E.S., Dr. 
oilman, E.R.S., Professor Martin Duncan, E.R.S., 



85 



80 



75 



70 



65 



60 



55 



50 



45 



40 



35 



30 



25 



PREFACE. xi 



and Dr. Mcintosh, for information courteously 
supplied. 

The whole of tlie illustrations in the book — with 
the exception of the vignettes of Fseroe scenery for 
which lam indebted to the accomplished pencil of 
Madame Holten — are by my friend Mr. J. J. Wild. 
I need scarcely thank him for the admirable way in 
which he has accomplished his task, for every figure 
w^as with him a labour of love, and I almost envy 
him the gratification he must feel in the result. 
To Mr. J. D. Cooper I owe my sincere thanks for 
the singularly faithful and artistic rendering of 
Mr. Wild's beautiful drawings on the wood-blocks. 

On the return of the 'Porcupine' from her last 
cruise, so much interest was felt in the bearings of 
the new discoveries upon important biological geo- 
logical and physical problems, that a representation 
was made to Government bv the Council of the 
Royal Society, urging the despatch of an expedition 
to traverse the great ocean basins, and take an out- 
line survey of the vast new field of research — the 
bottom of the sea. 

Eear-Admiral Richards, C.B., P.R.S., the Hydro- 
grapher to the Navy, warmly supported the pro- 
posal, and while I am writing a noble ship is 
lying at Sheerness equipped for scientific research 
under his wise and liberal directions, as no ship 
of any nation was ever equipped before. 



xii 



PREFACE. 



The scientific staff of the ' Challenger* are well 
aware that for some time to come their rdle is to 
work and not to talk ; but now, on the eve of depar- 
ture, I think it is only right to take this opportunity 
of saying that nothing has been left undone by the 
Government to ensure the success of the undertaking, 
and that dire misfortune only ought to prevent our 
furnishing a valuable return. 

C. Wyville Thomson. 

Edinburgh, 

December 2nd, 1872. 




CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER L 

INTRODUCTION. 

The Question of a Bathymetrical Limit to Life. — The general Laws which 
regulate the Geographical Distribution of Living Beings. — Professor 
Edward Forbes' Investigations and Views. — Specific Centres. — Repre- 
sentative Species. — Zoological Provinces. — Bearings of a Doctrine of 
Evolution upon the Idea of a ' Species/ and of the Laws of Distribution. 
— The Circumstances most likely to affect Life at great Depths : Pres- 
sure, Temperature, and Absence of Light Page 1 



CHAPTER II. 

THE CRUISE OF THE * LIGHTNING.' 

Proposal to investigate the Conditions of the Bottom of the Sea. — Sugges- 
tions and Anticipations. — Correspondence between the Council of the 
Royal Society and the Admiralty. — Departure from Stornoway. — The 
Fseroe Islands. — Singular Temperature Results in the Fseroe Channel. — 
Life abundant at all Depths. — Brisinga coronata. — Holtenia carpenteri. 
— General Results of the Expedition Fage 49 

Appendix A. — Particulars of Depth, Temperature, and Position at the 
various Dredging Stations of H.M.S. 'Lightning,' in the Summer of 
1868 ; the Temperatures corrected for Pressure Page 81 

CHAPTER III. 

THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE.' 

The Equipment of the Vessel. — The first Cruise, under the direction of Mr. 
Gwyn JeflFreys, off the West Coast of Ireland and in the Channel 
between Scotland and Rockall. — Dredging carried down to 1,470 fathoms. 



xiv CONTENTS. 

— Change of Arrangements. — Second Cruise ; to the Bay of Biscay. — 
Dredging successful at 2,435 fathoms. — Third Cruise ; in the Channel 
between Fseroe and Shetland. — The Fauna of the ' Cold Area.' Page 82 

Appendix A. — Official Documents and Official Accounts of preliminary 
Proceedings in connection with the Explorations in H.M. Surveying- 
vessel 'Porcupine/ during the Summer of 1869 Page \2iZ 

Appendix B. — Particulars of Depth, Temperature, and Position at the 
various Dredging Stations of H.M.S. ' Porcupine,' in the Summer of 
1869 Page 142. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUPINE ' {continued). 

From Shetland to Stornoway. — Phosphorescence. — The Echinothuridce. — 
The Fauna of the ' Warm Area.' — End of the Cruise of 1869. — Arrange- 
ments for the Expedition of 1870. — From England to Gibraltar. — 
Peculiar Conditions of the Mediterranean. — Return to Cowes. Page 145 

Appendix A. — Extracts from the Minutes of Council of the Royal Society, 
and other official Documents referring to the Cruise of H.M.S. ' Porcu- 
pine ' during the Summer of 1870 Page 197 

Appendix B. — Particulars of Depth, Temperature, and Position at the 
various Dredging- stations of H.M.S. ' Porcupine ' in the Summer of 
1870 Page 202 



CHAPTER V. 

deep-sea sounding. 

The ordinary Sounding-lead for moderate Depths. — Liable to Error when 
employed in Deep Water. — Early Deep Soundings unreliable. — Improved 
Methods of Sounding. — The Cup-lead. — Brooke's Sounding Instrument. — 
The ' Bull-dog ; ' Fitzgerald's ; the ' Hydra.' — Sounding from the ' Porcu- 
pine.' — The Contour of the Bed of the North Atlantic . . . Page 205 



CHAPTER VI. 

deep-sea dredging. 

The Naturalist's Dredge. — 0. F. Miiller.— Ball's Dredge. — Dredging at 
moderate Depths. — The Dredge-rope. — Dredging in Deep Water. — The 
' Hempen tangles.' — Dredging on board the * Porcupine.' — The Sieves. — 



CONTENTS. XV 

The Dredger's Note-book. — The Dredging Committee of the British 
Association. — Dredging on the Coast of Britain.— Dredging abroad. — 
History of the Progress of Knowledge of the Abyssal Fauna. Page 236 

Appendix A. —One of the Dredging Papers issued by the British Associa- 
tion Committee, filled up by Mr. Mac Andrew Pa^e 281 

CHAPTER VIL 

DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 

Ocean Currents and th^r general Effects on Climate. — Determination of 
Surface Temperatures. — Deep-sea Thermometers. — The ordinary Self- 
registering Thermometer on Six's principle. — The Miller-Casella modifi- 
cation. — The Temperature Observations taken during the Three Cruises 
of H.M.S. ' Porcupine ' in the year 1869, etc Page 284 

Appendix A. — Surface Temperatures observed onboard H.M.S. 'Porcupine' 
during the Summers of 1869 and 1870 Page 329 

Appendix B. — Temperature of the Sea at different Depths near the Eastern 
Margin of the North Atlantic Basin, as ascertained by Serial and by 
Bottom Soundings Page 352 

Appendix C. — Comparative Rates of Reduction of Temperature with 
Increase of Depth at Three Stations in different Latitudes, all of them 
on the Eastern Margin of the Atlantic Basin Page 353 

Appendix D. — Temperature of the Sea at diff'erent Depths in the Warm and 
Cold Areas lying between the North of Scotland, the Shetland Islands, 
and the Fseroe Islands ; as ascertained by Serial and by Bottom Sound- 
ings Page 354 

Appendix E. — Intermediate Bottom Temperatures showing the Intermixture 
of Warm and Cold Currents on the Borders of the Warm and Cold 
Areas Page 355 



CHAPTER VIII. 

the gulf-stream. 

The Range of the * Porcupine ' Temperature Observations. — Low Tempera- 
tures universal at great Depths. — The Difl&culty of investigating Ocean 
Currents. — The Doctrine of a general Oceanic Circulation advocated by 
Captain Maury and by Dr. Carpenter. — Opinion expressed by Sir John 
Herschel. — The Origin and Extension of the Gulf-stream. — The Views of 
Captain Maury ; of Professor Bufi^ ; of Dr. Carpenter. — The Gulf-stream 
off the Coast of North America. — Professor Bache's ' Sections.' — The 
Gulf-stream traced by the Surface Temperatures of the North Atlantic. — 
Mr. Findlay's Views. — Dr. Petermann's Temperature Charts. — Sources of 



xvi CONTENTS. 

the underlying Cold Water. — The Arctic Keturn Currents. — Antarctic 
Indraught. — Vertical Distribution of Temperature in the North Atlantic 
Basin Page 356 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 

The Protozoa of the Deep Sea. — Bathyhhis. — ' Coccoliths,' and * Cocco- 
spheres.' — The Foraminifera of the Warm and Cold Areas. — Deep-sea 
Sponges. — The Hexactinellid*. — liossella. — Hyalonema. — Deep-sea 
Corals. — The Stalked Crinoids. — Pentacrinus. — Rhizocrinus.—Bathy- 
crinua. — The Star-fishes of the Deep Sea. — The general Distribution and- 
Relations of Deep-sea Urchins. — The Crustacea, the Mollusca, and the 
Fishes of the * Porcupine ' Expeditions Page 407 



CHAPTER X. 

THE CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 

Points of Resemblance between the Atlantic Ooze and the White Chalk. — 
Differences between them. — Composition of Chalk. — The Doctrine of the 
Continuity of the Chalk. — Objections. — Arguments in favour of the 
View from Physical Geology and Geography. —Former Distribution of 
Sea and Land. — Palseontological Evidence. — Chalk-flints. — Modem 
Sponges and Ventriculites — Corals. — Echinoderms. — Mollusca. — Opinions 
of Professor Huxley and Mr. Prestwich. — The Composition of Sea-water. 
— Presence of Organic Matter. — Analysis of the contained Gases. — Differ- 
ences of Specific Gravity. — Conclusion Page 467 

Appendix A. — Summary of the Results of the Examination of Samples of 
Sea-water taken at the Surface and at various Depths, By William Lant 
Carpenter, B.A., B.Sc Page 502 

Appendix B. — Results of the Analyses of Eight Samples of Sea-water 
collected during the Third Cruise of the ' Porcupine.' By Dr. Frank- 
land, F.R.S Page 511 

Appendix C. — Notes on Specimens of the Bottom collected during the First 
Cruise of the ' Porcupine ' in 1869. By David Forbes, F.R.S. Page 514 

Appendix D. — Note on the Carbonic Acid contained in Sea-water. By 
John Young Buchanan, M.A., Chemist to the 'Challenger' Expedition. 

Page 518 

INDEX Page 523 



LIST OF ILLUSTllATIONS, 



WOODCUTS. 

FIO. PACK 

1. AsTEROPHYTON LiNCKii, Miiller and Troschel. A young speci- 

men slightly enlarged (No. 75) 

2. Globigerina bulloides, D'Orbigny. Highly magnified . . . 

3. Orbulina universa, D'Orbigny. Highly magnified 

4. Caryophyllia borealis, Fleming. Twice the natural size 

(No. 45) - 

5. Brisinga coronata, G. 0. Sars, Natural size. (No. 7) 

6. HoLTENiA CARPENTERi (sp. n.). Half the natural size. (No. 12] 

7. TisiPHONiA AGARiciFORMis (sp. n.). Natural size. (No. 12) .. 

8. GoNOPLAX RHOMBOiDES, Fabricius. Young. Twice tlie natural 

size. (No. 3) 

9. Geryon TRiDENS, Kroyer. Young. Twice the natural size 

(No. 7) 

10. Orbitolites tenuissimus, Carpenter MSS. Magnified. (No 

28) 

11. PoROCiDARis PURPURATA (sp. n.). Natural size. (No. 47) .. 

12. Pourtalesia jeffreysi (sp. n.). Slightly enlarged. (No. 64) 108 

13. Stylocordyla borealis, Loven (sp.). Natural size. (No. 64) 114 

14. SoLASTER FURCiFER, VoH Dubeu and Koren. Natural size. 

(No. 55) 119 

15. KoRETHRASTER HispiDUS (sp. H.). Dorsal aspect. Twice the 

natural size. (No. 57) 119 

16. Hymenaster pellucidus (sp. n.). Ventral aspect. Natural 

size. (No. 59) 120 

17. Arch aster bifrons (sp. n.). Dorsal aspect. Three-fourths of 

the natural size. (No. 57) 122 

18. EusiRUS CUSPID ATUS, Kroyer. (No. 55) 125 

19. Caprella spinosissima, Norman. Twice the natural size. 

(No. 59) 12(J 

b 



88 



91 
102 



XVlll 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



20. 
21. 

22. 
23. 

24. 

25. 

26. 

27. 

'28. 

29. 

30. 

31. 
32. 

33. 
34. 

35. 

36. 

37. 
38. 
39. 

40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 



^3A NASUTA, Norman. Slightly enlarged. (No. 55) 

Arctorus baffini, Sabine. About the natural size. (No. 

59) ... • 

Nymphon abyssorum, Norman. Slightly enlarged. (No. 56) 
Thecophora semisuberites, Oscar Schmidt. Twice the natural 

size. (No. 76) 

Thecophora ibla (sp. n.). Twice the natural size. (No. 76) 
Archaster vexillifer (sp. n.). One-third the natural size. 

(No. 76) 

Zoroaster fulgens (sp. n.). One-third the natural size. (No. 

78) - 

Calveria hystrix (sp. n.). Two-thirds the natural size. (No. 

86) ... 

Calveria hystrix (sp. n.). Inner surface of a portion of the 

test showing the structure of the ambulacral and iuterambu- 

lacral areas ... 

Calveria fenestrata (sp. n.). One of the four-valved pedi- 

cellarite ... 

Lophohelia prolifera, Pallas (sp.). Three-fourths the natural 

size. (No. 26) 

Allopora oculina, Ehrenberg 

Ophiomusium lymani (sp. n.). Dorsal surface. Natural size. 

(No. 45) 

Ophiomusium lymani (sp. n.). Oral surface 

Uorynchus thomsoni, Norman. Once and a half the natural 

size ; everywhere in deep water 

Amathia carpenteri, Norman. Once and a half the natural 

size. (No. 47) 

Chrondrocladia virgata (sp. n.). One-half the natural size. 

(No. 33,P1. V.) 

The * Cup-lead ' 



Brooke's Deep-Sea Sounding Apparatus 



• I 



The 'Bull-Dog' Sounding Machine 

The ' Fitzgerald ' Sounding Machine 

The 'Hydra' Sounding Machine 

'Massey's' Sounding Machine 

Otho Frederick Muller's Dredge, a.d. 1750 

'Ball's Dredge' 

The Stern Derrick of the ' Porcupine,' showing the 
' Accumulator,' the Dredge, and the Mode of stowing 
the Rope 

The End of the Dredge-frame 



PAGB 

127 

128 
129 

147 
148 

150 

153 

156 

157 

159 

169 
170 

172 
173 

174 

175 

187 
210 
211 
213 
215 
217 
218 
225 
239 
240 



248 
250 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. xix 

*'">• PAGK 

48. dlledqe-fkame, showing the mode of attachment of the 

Bag 251 

49. The End of the Dredge-frame, showing the Mode of 

Attachment of the Bag 252 

50. Diagram of the relative Position of the Vessel, the 

Weights, and the Dredge, in dredging in Deep Water 253 

51. Dredge with 'Hempen Tangles' 257 

52. Set of Dredging Sieves 260 

53. The Miller-Oasella Modification of Six's Self- register- 

ing Thermometer 291 

54. Copper Case for protecting the Miller-Casella Ther- 

mometer 292 

55. Serial Sounding, Station 64 312 

56. Serial Sounding, Station 87 312 

57. Curves constructed from Serial Soundings in the 'Warm'- 

AND * Cold-Areas' in the Channel between Scotland 
AND FiiROE 315 

58. Curves constructed from Serial and Bottom Soundings in 

the Channel between Scotland and Rockall 319 

59. Diagram representing the Relation between Depth and 

Temperature off Rockall 322 

60. Diagram representing the Relation between Depth and 

Temperature in the Atlantic Basin 322 

61. Curves constructed from Serial and Bottom Temperature 

Soundings IN THE Atlantic Basin 324 

62. Diagram representing the Relation between Depth and 

Temperature, from the Temperature Observations 

TAKEN between CaPE FiNISTERRE AND CaPE St. ViNCENT, 

August 1870 327 

<)3. "Eine grossere Cytode von Bathibius mit EINGEBETTETEN 

COCCOLITHEN " (x. 700) 412 

64. ' CoccosPHERE ' (x. 1000) 414 

65. RossELLA VELATA (sp. n.). Natural size. (No. 32, 1870) ... 419 

66. Hyalonema lusitanicum, Barboza du Bocage. Half the natural 

size. (No. 90, 1869) 421 

67. AsKONEMA setubalense, Kent. One-eighth the natural size. 

(No. 25, 1870) ... 429 

68. Flabellum distinctum. Twice the natural size. (No. 28, 1870) 432 

69. Thecopsammia socialis, Pourtales. Once and a half the natural 

size. (No. 57, 1869) 433 

70. Pentacrinus asteria, Linnaeus. One-fourth the natural size ... 436 

71. Pentacrinus wyville-thomsoni, JeflFreys. Natural size, (No, 

17,1870) 443 



XX 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



FIG. 

73. 

74. 



77. 
78. 

71). 

80. 

81. 

82. 
83. 
84. 



PAGE 

Rhizocrinus loffotensis, M. Sars. Ouce aud a half the natural 

size. (No. 43, 1869) 451 

Bathycrinus gracilis (sp. n.). Twice the natural size. (No. 

37,1869) ... 453 

Archaster bifrons (sp. n.). Oral aspect. Three-fourths the 

natural size. (No. 57, 1869) 455 

SoLASTER furcifer, Vou Dubcn and Koren. Oral aspect. 

Natural size. (No. 55, 1869) 456 

BucciNOPSis STRIATA, Jeffreys. Fseroe Channel 464 

Latirus albus, Jetfreys. Twice the natural size. Fseroe 

Channel 464 

Pleuronectia lucida, JeflFreys. Twice the natural size, a, 

from the Eastern Atlantic ; &, from the Gulf of Mexico ... 465 

Pecten HOSKYNSi, Forbes. Twice the natural size 465 

Ventriculites simplex, Toulmin Smith. Once and a half the 

natural size 483 

Ventriculites simplex, Toulmin Smith. Outer surface ; four 

times the natural size 484 

Ventriculites simplex, Toulmin Smith. Section of the outer 

wall, showing the structure of the silicious network (x. 50) 485 
CcELOsPH^RA tubifex (sp. u.). Slightly enlarged. Off the 

Coast of Portugal 485 

' Choanites.' In a flint from the white chalk 486 



VIGNETTES. 



The FyEROE Islands xii 

TlNDHOLM 48 

Thorshavn 80 

The Governor's House, Thorshavn 132 

Lille Dimon 196 

NOLSO, FROM THE HiLLS ABOVE ThORSHAVN ... 235 

FUGLO, FROM THE EASTERN ShORE OF ViDERO 280 

Vaay Church in Sudero .' ... 328 

The Giant and the Hag ... 406 

BORDO, KUNO, AND KaLSO, FROM THE HaMLET OF ViDERO 466 

KuNo, FROM Vaay in Bordo 501 



MAPS AND PLATES. 





To face 
page 

. 59 


1869 


. 87 


—1869 


. 95 


-1869 


. 106 





. 180 



PLATE 

I.— Track of H.M.S. * Lightning '—1868 
II. — First Cruise of H.M.S. ' Porcupine '- 
III. — Second Cruise of H.M.S. 'Porcupine 
IV. — Third Cruise of H.M.S. 'Porcupine '- 
v.— Track of H.M.S. ' Porcupine '—1870 
VI. — Diagram of the 'Porcupine' Soundings in the Atlan- 
tic and in the F^roe Channel, showing the Eelation 
between Temperature and Depth, — the Serial Sound- 
ings REDUCED to CuRVES. ThE NUMBERS REFER TO THE 

Stations on the Charts, Plates II., III., and IV. ... 

VII. — Physical Chart of the North Atlantic : showing the 
Depth, and the General Distribution of Temperatures 
for the Month of July 

VIII. — Map showing the General Distribution of the Ter- 
tiary, the Cretaceous, and the Jurassic Systems 
IN the North- West of Europe with reference to 
Contour 



323 



363 



474 



THE 



DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA, 



C H A P T E 11 I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The Question of a Batliymetrical Limit to Life. — The general Laws 
which regulate the Geographical Distribution of Living Beings. — 
Professor Edward Forbes' Investigations and Views. — Specific 
Centres. — Eepresentative Species. — Zoological Provinces. — Bear- 
ings of a Doctrine of Evolution upon the Idea of a ' Species/ 
and of the Laws of Distribution. — The Circumstances most likely 
to affect Life at great Depths : Pressure, Temperature, and Absence 
of Light. 

The sea covers nearly three-fourths of the surface of 
the earth, and, until within the last few years, very 
little was known with anything like certainty about 
its depths, whether in their physical or their biological 
relations. The popular notion was, that after arriving 
at a certain depth the conditions became so peculiar, 
so entirely different from those of any portion of the 
earth to which we have access, as to preclude any 
other idea than that of a waste of utter darkness, sub- 
jected to such, stupendous pressure as to make life of 
any kind impossible, and to throw insuperable diffi- 
T B 

t 



2 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

culties in the way of any attempt at investigation. 
Even men of science seemed to share this idea, for 
they gave little heed to the apparently well-authenti- 
cated instances of animals, comparatively high in the 
scale of life, having been brought up on sounding 
lines from great depths, and welcomed any suggestion 
of the animals having got entangled when swimming 
on the surface, or of carelessness on the part of the 
observers. And this was strange, for every other 
question in Physical Geography had been investi- 
gated by scientific men Avith consummate patience 
and energy. Every gap in the noble little army of 
martyrs striving to extend the boundaries of know- 
ledge in the wilds of Australia, on the Zambesi, 
or towards the North or South Pole, was struggled 
for by earnest volunteers, and still the great ocean 
slumbering beneath the moon covered a region 
apparently as inaccessible to man as the ' mare 
serenitatis/ 

A few years ago the bottom of the sea was required 
for the purpose of telegraphic communication, and 
practical men mapped out the bed of the North 
Atlantic, and devised ingenious methods of ascertain- 
ing the nature of the material covering the bottom. 
They laid a telegraphic cable across it, and the cable 
got broken and they went back to the spot and fished 
up the end of it easily, from a depth of nearly two 
miles. 

It had long been a question with naturalists whether 
it might not be possible to dredge the bottom of the 
sea in the ordinary way, and to send down water- 
bottles and registering instruments to settle finally 
the question of a ' zero of animal life,' and to deter- 



CHAP. 1.] INTRODUCTION. 3 

mine with precision the composition and temperature 
of sea-water at great depths. An investigation of this 
kind is beyond the ordinary limits of private enter- 
prise. It requires more power and sea skill than 
naturalists can usually command. "When, however, 
in the year 1868, at the instance of my colleague 
Dr. Carpenter and myself, with the effective support 
of the present Hydrographer to the Navy, w^ho is 
deeply interested in the scientific aspects of his pro- 
fession, w^e had placed at our disposal by the Admi- 
ralty sufiicient power and skill to make the experiment, 
we found that we could work, not with so much ease, 
but with as much certainty, at a depth of 600 fathoms 
as at 100 ; and in 1869 we carried the operations down 
to 2,435 fathoms, 14,610 feet, nearly three statute 
miles, with perfect success. 

Dredging in such deep water was doubtless very 
trying, Each haul occupied seven or eight hours ; 
and during the whole of that time it demanded and 
received the most anxious care on the part of our 
commander, who stood with his hand on the pulse of 
the accumulator ready at any moment, by a turn of 
the paddles, to ease any undue strain. The men, 
stimulated and encouraged by the cordial interest 
taken by their officers in our operations, worked 
willingly and well ; but the labour of taking upw^ards 
of three miles of rope coming up with a heavy strain, 
from the surging drum of the engine, was very severe. 
The rope itself, 'hawser-laid,' of the best Italian 
hemp, 2\ inches in circumference, with a breaking 
strain of 2\ tons, looked frayed out and worn, as if it 
could not have been trusted to stand this extraordinary 
ordeal much longer. 

B 2 



4 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

Still the thing is possible, and it must be done 
again and again, as the years pass on, by naturalists of 
all nations, working with improving machinery, and 
with ever-increasing knowledge. Por the bed of the 
deep sea, the 140,000,000 of square miles which we 
have now added to the legitimate field of Natural 
History research, is not a barren waste. It is inhabited 
by a fauna more rich and varied on account of the 
enormous extent of the area, and with the organisms 
in many cases apparently even more elaborately and 
delicately formed, and more exquisitely beautiful in 
their soft shades of colouring and in the rainbow-tints 
of their wonderful phosphorescence, than the fauna 
of the well-known belt of shallow water teeming with 
innumerable invertebrate forms which fringes the 
land. And the forms of these hitherto unknown 
living beings, and their mode of life, and their rela- 
tions to other organisms whether living or extinct, 
and the phenomena and laws of their geographical 
distribution, must be worked out. 

The late Professor Edward Porbes appears to have 
been the first wlio undertook the systematic study of 
Marine Zoology with special reference to the distribu- 
tion of marine animals in space and in time. After 
making himself well acquainted with the fauna of 
the British seas to the depth of about 200 fathoms by 
dredging, and by enlisting the active co-operation of 
his friends — among whom we find MacAndrew, Barlee, 
Gwyn Jeff'reys, William Thompson, Eobert Ball, and 
many others, entering enthusiastically into the new 
field of Natural History inquiry — in the year 1841 
Porbes joined Capt. Graves, Avho was at that time in 
command of the Mediterranean Survey, as naturalist. 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. 5 

During about eighteen months he studied with the 
utmost care the conditions of the ^gean and its 
shores, and conducted upwards of one hundred 
dredging operations at depths varying from 1 to 130 
fathoms. In 1843 he communicated to the Cork 
meeting of the British Association an elaborate report 
on the Mollusca and Radiata of the jEgean Sea, and 
on their distribution considered as bearing on Geology.^ 
Three years later, in 1846, he published in the first 
volume of the ' Memoirs of the Geological Survey of 
Great Britain,' a most valuable memoir upon the. 
Connection between the existing Eauna and Elora of 
the British Isles, and the geological Changes which 
have affected their Area, especially during the Epoch 
of the Northern Drift.^ In the year 1859 appeared 
the Natural History of the European. Seas by the late 
Professor Edward Eorbes, edited and continued by 
Bobert Godwin Austen.^ In the first hundred pages 
of this little book, Eorbes gives a general outline of 
some of the more important of his views with regard 

^ Eeport on the Mollusca and Kadiata of the ^gean Sea, and on 
their Distribution, considered as bearing on Geology. By Edward 
Forbes, F.L.S., M.W.S., Professor of Botany in King's College, London. • 
(Report of the Thirteenth Meeting of the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science ; held at Cork in August 1843. London, 1844.) 

2 On the Connection between the Distribution of the existing Fauna 
and Flora of the British Isles and the geological Changes which have 
affected their Area, especially during the Epoch of the Northern Drift. 
By Edward Forbes, F.R.S., L.S., G.S., Professor of Botany at King's 
College, London ; Palaeontologist to the Geological Survey of the 
United Kingdom. (Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, 
vol. i. London, 1846.) 

2 The Natural History of the European Seas, by the late Professor 
Edward Forbes, F.R.S., &c. Edited and continued by Robert Godwin 
Austen, F.R.S. London, 1859. 



6 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

to the distribution of marine forms. The remainder 
of the book is a continuation by his friend Mr. Godwin 
Austen, for before it was finished an early death had 
cut short the career of the most accomplished and 
original naturalist of his time. 

I will give a brief sketch of the general results to 
which Forbes was led by his labours, and I shall 
have to point out hereafter, that although we are 
now inclined to look somewhat differently on certain 
very fundamental points, and although recent inves- 
tigations w^ith better appliances and more extended 
experience have invalidated many of his conclusions, 
to Eorbes is due the credit of having been the first to 
treat these questions in a broad philosophical sense, 
and to point out that the only means of acquiring a 
true knowledge of the rationale of the distribution of 
our present fauna, is to make ourselves acquainted 
with its history, to connect the present with the past. 
This is the direction which must be taken by future 
inquiry. Eorbes, as a pioneer in this line of research, 
was scarcely in a position to appreciate the full value 
of his work. Every year adds enormously to our 
stock of data, and every new fact indicates more 
clearly the brilliant results which are to be obtained 
by following his methods, and by emulating his 
enthusiasm and his indefatigable industry. 

Porbes believed implicitly, along with nearly all the 
leading naturalists of his time, in the immutability 
of species. He says (Natural History of the British 
Seas, p. 8), "Every true species presents in its indi- 
viduals, certain features, specific characters, which 
distinguish it from every other species ; as if the 
Creator had set an exclusive mark or seal on each 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. 7 

type." He likewise believed in specific centres of 
distribution. He held that all the individuals com- 
posing a species had descended from a single pro- 
genitor, or from two, according as the sexes might be 
united or distinct, and that consequently the idea of a 
species involved the idea of the relationship in all the 
individuals of common descent; and the converse, that 
there could by no possibility be community of descent 
except in living beings which possessed the same 
specific characters. He supposed that the original 
individual or pair was created at a particular spot 
where the conditions were suitable for its existence 
and propagation, and that the species extended and 
migrated from that spot on all sides over an area of 
greater or less extent, until it met with some natural 
barrier in the shape of unsuitable conditions. No 
specific form could have more than a single centre of 
distribution. If its area appeared to be broken up, a 
patch not in connection with the original centre of 
distribution occurring in some distant locality, it was 
accounted for by the formation, through some geolo- 
gical change after the first spread of the species, of a 
barrier which cut off a part of its area; or to some 
accidental transport to a place where the conditions 
were sufficiently similar to those of its natural original 
habitat to enable it to become naturalized. No species 
once exterminated was ever recreated, so that in those 
few cases in which we find a species abundant at one 
period over an area, absent over the same area for a 
time, and recurring at a later period, it must be ac- 
counted for by a change in the conditions of the area 
which forced the emigration of the species, and a sub- 
sequent further change which permitted its return. 



8 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

Porbes defined and advocated what he called the 
law of representation. He found that in all parts 
of the world, however far removed, and however 
completely separated by natural barriers, where the 
conditions of life are similar, species and groups 
of species occur which, although not identical, 
resemble one another very closely; and he found 
that this similarity existed likewise between - groups 
of fossil remains, and between groups of fossils 
and groups of recent forms. Admitting the con- 
stancy of specific characters, these resemblances 
could not be accounted for by commimity of de- 
scent, and he thus arrived at the generalization, 
that in localities placed under similar circumstances, 
similar though specifically distinct specific forms 
were created. These be regarded as mutually repre- 
sentative species. 

Our acceptance of the doctrines of specific centres 
and of representation, or, at all events, the form in 
which we may be inclined to accept these, depends 
greatly upon the acceptance or rejection of the funda- 
mental dogma of the immutability of species ; and 
on this point there has been a very great change of 
opinion within the last ten or twelve years, a change 
certainly due to the remarkable ability and candour 
with which the question has been discussed by Mr. 
Darwin^ and Mr. Wallace,^ and to the genius of Pro- 

^ The Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection ; or, the 
Preservation of Favoured Eaces in the Struggle for Life. By Charles 
Darwin, M.A., F.E.S., L.S., G.S., &c. &c. London, 1859, and subse- 
quent editions. 

2 Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection. A Series of 
Essays by Alfred Eussel Wallace. London, 1870. 



CHAP. 1.] INTRODUCTION. 9 

fessor Ernst Haeckel/ Dr. Fritz Miiller,^ and others of 
their enthusiastic disciples and commentators. I do 
not think that I am speaking too strongly when I say- 
that there is now scarcely a single competent general 
naturalist who is not prepared to accept some form 
of the doctrine of evolution. 

There is, no douht, very great difficulty in the 
minds of many of us in conceiving that, commenc- 
ing from the simplest living being, the present state 
of things in the organic world has been produced 
solely by the combined action of ' atavism/ the ten- 
dency of offspring to resemble their parents closely ; 
and 'variation,' the tendency of offspring to differ 
individually from their parents within very narrow 
limits : and many are inclined to believe that some 
other law than the ' survival of the fittest ' must 
regulate the existing marvellous system of extreme 
and yet harmonious modification. Still it must be 
admitted that variation is a vera causa, capable, 
within a limited period, under favourable circum- 
stances, of converting one species into what, accord- 
ing to our present ideas, we should be forced to 
recognize as a different species. And such being the 
case, it is, perhaps, conceivable that during the lapse 
of a period of time — still infinitely shorter than 
eternity — variation may have produced the entire 
result. 

^ Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. AUgemeine Grundziige 
der organischen Formen-Wissenscliaft mechanisch begriindet durch 
die von Charles Darwin reformirte Descendenz-Theorie. Yon Ernst 
Haeckel. Berlin, 1866. — ]N"atiirliclie Sclibpfungsgescliiclite. Yon Dr. 
Ernst Haeckel, Professor an der TJniversitat Jena. Berlin, 1870. 

2 FUr Darwin. Yon Dr. Fritz Miiller. Leipzig, 1864. Translated 
from the German by W. S. Dallas, F.L.S. London, 1869. 



] THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

The individuals comprising a species have a definite 
range of variation strictly limited by the circum- 
stances under which the group of individuals is 
placed. Except in man, and in domesticated animals 
in which it is artificially increased, this individual 
variation is usually so slight as to be unappreciable 
except to a practised eye ; but any extreme variation 
which passes the natural limit in any direction 
clashes in some way with surrounding circum- 
stances, and is dangerous to the life of the indivi- 
dual. The normal or graphic line, or ' line of 
safety,' of the species, lies midway between the 
extremes of variation. 

If at any period in the history of a species the 
conditions of life of a group of individuals of the 
species be gradually altered, with the gradual change 
of circumstances the limit of variation is contracted 
in one direction and relaxed in another ; it becomes 
more dangerous to diverge towards one side and 
more desirable to diverge towards the other, and the 
position of the lines limiting variation is altered. 
The normal line, the line along which the specific 
characters are most strongly marked, is consequently 
slightly deflected, some characters being more strongly 
expressed at the expense of others. This deflection, car- 
ried on for ages in the same direction, must eventually 
carry the divergence of the varying race far beyond 
any limit within which we are in the habit of 
admitting identity of species. 

But the process must be infinitely slow. It is diffi- 
cult to form any idea of ten, fifty, or a hundred mil- 
lions of years ; or of the relation which such periods 
bear to changes taking place in the organic world. 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. 1 1 

We must remember, however, that the rocks of 
the Silurian system, overlaid by ten miles' thickness 
of sediment entombing a hundred successive faunae, 
each as rich and varied as the fauna of the present 
day, themselves teem with fossils fully representing 
all the existing classes of animals, except perhaps 
the highest. 

If it be possible to imagine that this marvellous 
manifestation of Eternal Power and Wisdom involved 
in living nature can have been worked out through 
the law of ' descent with modification ' alone, we 
shall certainly require from the Physicists the longest 
row of cyphers which they can afford. 

Now, although the admission of a doctrine of evolu- 
tion must affect greatly our conception of the origin 
and rationale of so-called specific centres, it does not 
practically affect the question of their existence, or of 
the laws regulating the distribution of species from 
their centres by migration, by transport, by ocean 
currents, by elevations or depressions of the land, or 
by any other causes at work under existing circum- 
stances. So far as practical naturalists are con- 
cerned, species are permanent within their narrow 
limits of variation, and it would introduce an element 
of infinite confusion and error if we were to regard 
them in any other light. The origin of species by 
descent with modification is as yet only a hypothesis. 
During the whole period of recorded human observa- 
tion not one single instance of the change of one 
species into another has been detected ; and, singular 
to say, in successive geological formations, although 
new species are constantly appearing and there is 
abundant evidence of progressive change, no single case 



1 2 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

has yet been observed of one species passing through 
a series of inappreciable modifications into another. 
Every species appears to have an area of maximum 
development, and this has been called the metropolis 
of the species ; and practically we must employ the 
same methods in investigating the laws of its distri- 
bution as if we still regarded it as having been 
specially created in its metropolis. 

It is the same in dealing with the law of represen- 
tation. Accepting an evolution doctrine, we should 
certainly regard closely allied or ' representative ' 
species as having descended comparatively recently 
from a common ancestry, and as having diverged 
from one another under somewhat different conditions 
of life. It is possible that as our knowledge increases 
we may be able to trace the pedigree of our modern 
species, and some attempts have already been made 
to sketch out the main branches of the universal 
genealogical tree;^ but practically we must continue 
to accord a specific rank to forms which exhibit 
characters to which we have been in the habit of 
assigning specific value. 

"Every species has three maxima of develop- 
ment, — in depth, in geographic space, in time. In 
depth, we find a species at first represented by few 
individuals, which become more and more numerous 
until they reach a certain point, after which they 
again gradually diminish, and at length altogether 
disappear. So also in the geographic and geologic 
distribution of animals. Sometimes the genus to 
which the species belongs ceases with its disappear- 
ance, but not unfrequently a succession of similar 

^ Ernst Haeckel, op. cit. 



I 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. 13 

species are kept up, representative as it were of each 
other. When there is such a representation, the 
minimum of one species usually commences before 
that of which it is representative has attained its 
correspondent minimum. Porms of representative 
species are similar, often only to be distinguished by 
critical examination." ^ 

As an illustration of what is meant by the law of 
' representation,' I may cite a very curious case men- 
tioned by Mr. Verril and Mr. Alexander Agassiz. On 
eitlier side of the Isthmus of Panama the Echinoderm 
order EcMnidea, the sea-urchins, are abundant ; but 
the species found on the two sides of the Isthmus 
are distinct, although they belong almost universally 
to the same genera, and in most cases each genus is 
represented by species on each side which resemble 
one another so closely in habit and appearance as to 
be at first sight hardly distinguishable. I arrange 
a few of the most marked of these from the Carib- 
bean and Panamic sides of the Isthmus in parallel 
columns. 

Eastern Fauna. Western Fauna. 

Cidaris annulata, Gray. Cidaris thouarsii, Yal. 

Diadema antillarum, Phil. Diadema mexicanum, A. Ag. 

Ec/miocidaris punctulatay Desml. Echinocidaris stellata, Ag. 

Echinometra michelini, Des. Echinometra van hrunti, A. Ag. 

„ viridis, A. Ag. „ rupicola, A. Ag. 

Lytechinus variegatus, A. Ag. Lytechinus semituherculatus, 

A. Ag. 

Trijmeustes ventricosus, Ag. Tripneustes depressus, A. Ag. 

Stolonoclypus ravenellii, A. Ag. Stolonoclypus rotundus, A. Ag. 

Mellita testudinata, Kl. Mellita longifissa, Mich. 

1 Edward Forbes, Eeport on ^gean Invertebrata, op. cit. p. 173. 



14 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

Eastern Fauna. Western Fauna. 

Mdlita hexapora^ A. Ag. Mellita pacifica, Ver. 

Encope michelini, Ag. Encope grandis, Ag. 

„ emarginata, Ag. ,, micropora, Ag. 

Rhyncholampas caribbcearmn, Rhyncholampas pacificus^ A. Ag. 

A. Ag. 

£riss2is columharis, Ag. Brissus obesus, Yer. 

Meoma ventricosa^ Lutk. Meoma grandis, Gray. 

Plagionotus pectoralis, Ag. Plagionotus nobilis, A. Ag. 

Agassizia excentrica, A. Ag. Agassizia scrobicidata, Val. 

Moera atropos, Mich. Moera clotho, Mich. 

Supposing species to be constant, this singular 
chain of resemblances would indicate simply the 
special creation on the two sides of the Isthmus of 
two groups of species closely resembling one another, 
because the circumstances under which they were 
placed were so very similar ; but admitting ' descent 
with modification/ while gladly availing ourselves 
of the convenient term ' representation/ we at once 
come to the conclusion that these nearly allied ' re- 
presentative species ' must have descended from a com- 
mon stock, and we look for the cause of their diver- 
gence. Now on examining the Isthmus of Panama we 
find that a portion of it consists of cretaceous beds 
containing fossils un distinguishable from fossils from 
the cretaceous beds of Europe ; the Isthmus must 
therefore have been raised into dry land in tertiary or 
post-tertiary times. It is difficult to doubt that the 
rising of this natural barrier isolated two portions 
of a shallow-water fauna which have since slightly 
diverged under slightly different conditions. I quote 
Alexander Agassiz : — "• The question naturally arises, 
have we not in the different Faunae on both sides of 
the Isthmus a standard by which to measure the 



1 



CHAP. I.] INTRODVCTION. 15 

changes which these species have undergone since the 
raising of the Isthmus of Panama and the isolation 
of the two Faunae?"' 

Edward Porbes distinguished round all seaboards 
four very marked zones of depth, each characterized 
by a distinct group of organisms. The first of these 
is the littoral zone, the space between tide-marks, 
distinguished by the abundance of sea-weeds, on 
the European shores of the genera Lichina, Fucus, 
Enteromo7'pJia, Folysiphonia, and Lmirencia, which 
severally predominate at different heights in the 
zone, and subdivide it into subordinate belts like 
a softly-coloured riband border. This band is under 
very special circumstances, for its inhabitants are 
periodically exposed to the air, to the direct rays 
of the sun, and to all the extremes of the climate 
of the land. Animal species are not very numerous 
in the littoral zone, but individuals are abundant. 
The distribution of many of the littoral species is 
very wide, and some of them are nearly cosmopolitan. 
Many are vegetable feeders. Some characteristic 
genera on the coast of Europe are Oammarus, 
Talitrus, and JBalanus among Crustacea, and Lit- 
torinct, Patella, Furpura, and Mytilus among Mol- 
lusca, with, under stones and in rock-pools, many 
stragglers from the next zone. 

The Laminarian zone extends from low-water mark 
to a depth of about fifteen fathoms. This is specially 

^ Preliminary Report on the Echini and Starfishes dredged in Deep 
Water between Cuba and the Florida Pteef, by L. F. de Pourtales, 
• Assistant U.S. Coast Survey; prepared by Alexander Agassiz. 
Communicated by Professor B. Peirce, Superintendent U.S. Coast 
Survey, to the Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass., 1869. 



16 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

the zone of ' tangles ' for the first few fathoms, and 
in deeper water of the beautiful scarlet sea-weeds 
(floridece). It is always under water except at the 
very lowest ebb of spring tides, when we get a 
glimpse of its upper border. Tiie laminarian zone 
produces abundance of vegetable food, and, like the 
littoral zone, may be divided into subordinate bands 
distinguished by differently tinted algae. Animals 
swarm in this zone, both as to species and indi- 
viduals, and are usually remarkable for the bright- 
ness of their colouring. The moUuscan genera 
Trochus, Lacuna, and Lottia are characteristic of this 
belt in the British seas. 

The Laminarian zone is succeeded by the Coralline 
zone, which extends to a depth of about fifty fathoms. 
In this belt vegetation is chiefly represented by coral- 
like millipores, and plant-like hydroid zoophytes and 
bryozoa abound. All of the higher orders of marine 
invertebrates are fully represented, principally by 
animal feeders. The larger crustaceans and echino- 
derms are abundant; and the great fishing-banks 
frequented by the cod, haddock, halibut, turbot, and 
sole, belong properly to this zone, although they 
sometimes extend into water more than fifty fathoms 
deep. Characteristic moUuscan genera are Buccinum, 
Fusus, Ostrea, and Fecten; and among echinoderms 
in the European seas we find Afitedon sarsii and 
celticus, Astei^acanthion glaciale and rubens, Ophio- 
thrix fragilis, and on sand, Ophioglypha lacertosa 
and alhida. 

The last belt defined by Forbes as extending from 
about fifty fathoms to an unknown lower limit is the 
zone of deep-sea corals. '* In its depths the number 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. \J 

of peculiar creatures are few, yet sufficient to give a 
marked character to it, whilst the other portions of its 
population are derived from the higher zones, and 
must he regarded as colonists. As we descend deeper 
and deeper in this region, its inhabitants become more 
and more modified, and fewer and fewer, indicating 
our approach towards an abyss where life is either 
extinguished, or exhibits but a few sparks to mark 
its lingering presence.'" 

Eorbes pointed out that the groups of animals having 
their maximum development in these several zones 
are thoroughly characteristic, and that groups of 
representative forms occupy the same zones all over 
the world, so that on examining an assemblage of 
marine animals from any locality, it is easy to tell 
from what zone of depth they have been procured. 
At all periods of the earth's history, there has been 
the same clear definition of zones of depth, and fossil 
animals from any particular zone are in some sense 
representative of the fauna of the corresponding zone 
at the present day. We can, therefore, usually tell 
with tolerable certainty to which zone of depth a par- 
ticular assemblage of fossils is to be referred. 

Although we must now greatly modify our views 
with regard to the extent and fauna of the zone of 
deep-sea corals, and give up all idea of a zero of 
animal life, still we must regard Forbes' investiga- 
tion into the bathymetrical distribution of animals 
as marking a great advance on previous knowledge. 
His experience was much wider than that of any 
other naturalist of his time ; the practical difficulties 
in the way of testing his conclusions were great, and 

* Edward Forbes, Natural History of the European Seas, p. 26. 

C 



18 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap, i, 



they were accepted by naturalists generally without 
question. 

The history of discovery bearing upOn the extent and 
distribution of the deep-sea fauna will be discussed in 
a future chapter. It will suffice at present to mention 
in order the few data which gradually prepared the 
minds of naturalists to distrust the hypothesis of a 
zero of animal life at a limited depth, and led to the 
recent special investigations. In the year 1819 Sir 
John Hoss published the official account of his voyage 
of discovery during the year 1818 in Baffin's Bay.^ 
At page 178 he says, " In the meantime I was em- 
ployed on board in sounding and in trying the cur- 
rent, and the temperature of tlie water. It being 
perfectly calm and smooth, I had an excellent oppor- 
tunity of detecting these important objects. Sound- 
ings were obtained correctly in 1,000 fathoms, 
consisting of soft mud, in which there were worms, 
and, entangled on the sounding line, at the depth 
of 800 fathoms, was found a beautiful Caput Medusce 
(Eig. 1). These were carefully preserved, and will be 
found described in the appendix." This was in lat. 
73° 37' N., long. 77° 25' W., on the 1st of September, 
1818, and it is, so far as I am aware, the first recorded 
instance of living animals having been brought 
up from any depth approaching 1,000 fathoms. 
General Sir Edward Sabine, who was a member of 
Sir John Boss's expedition, has kindly furnished Dr. 

^ A Voyage of Discovery made under the Orders of the Admiralty 
in His Majesty's ships ^Isabella' and 'Alexander/ for the purpose 
of exploring Baffin's Bay, and inquiring into the Possibility of a 
ISTorth-west Passage. By John Eoss, K.G., Captain Royal l!^avy. 
London, 1819. 



I 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. [<) 

Carpenter with some more ample particulars of tliis 




Fig. 1. — Asterophyton linckii, Muller and Troschel. A young specimen slightly 
enlarged. No. 75. 



occurrence : 



.1 it c 



The ship sounded in 1,000 fathoms, 
mud, hetween one and two miles off shore (lat. 

^ Preliminary Report, by Dr. William B. Carpenter, V.P.R.S., of 
Dredging Operations in the Seas to the Korth of the British Islands, 
carried on in Her Majesty's steam- vessel 'Lightning,' by Dr. 
Carpenter and Dr. Wyville Thomson. (Proceedings of the Royal 
Society, 1868, p. 177.) 

C 2 



20 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

73° 37' N., long. 77° 25' W.) ; a magnificent Asterias 
{Caput Medusce) was entangled by the line, and 
brought up with very little damage. The mud was 
soft and greenish, and contained specimens of Lum- 
hricus tuhicola' So far my written journal ; but I 
can add, from a very distinct recollection, that the 
heavy deep-sea weight had sunk, drawing the line 
with it, several feet into the soft greenish mud, 
which still adhered to the line M^hen brought to 
the surface of the water. The star-fish had been 
entangled in the line so little above the mud that 
fragments of its arms, which had been broken off in 
the ascent of the line, were picked up from amongst 
the mud." 

Sir James Clark Ross, R.N., dredging in 270 
fathoms, lat. 73° 3' S., long. 176° & E., reports:^ 
" Corallines, FlustrcB, and a variety of invertebrate 
animals, came up in the net, showing an abundance 
and great variety of animal life. Amongst these I 
detected two species of JPycnogonum ; Idotea baffini, 
hitherto considered peculiar to the Arctic seas ; a 
Chiton, seven or eight bivalves and univalves, an un- 
known species of Gammarus, and two kinds of Serpula 
adhering to the pebbles and shells ... It was interest- 
ing amongst these creatures to recognize several that . 
I had been in the habit of taking in equally high! 
northern latitudes ; and although, contrary to the 
general belief of naturalists, I have no doubt that, 
from however great a depth we may be enabled to 
bring up the mud and stones of the bed of the ocean. 



^ A Voyage of Discovery and Research in the Southern and 
Antarctic Regions during the Years 1839-43. By Captain Sir 
James Clark Ross, R.N. London, 1847. 






CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. 21 

we shall find them teeming with animal life ; the ex- 
treme pressure at the greatest depth does not appear 
to affect these creatures ; hitherto we have not heen 
able to determine this point beyond a thousand 
fathoms, but from that depth several shell-fish have 
been brought up with the mud." 

On the 28th of June 1845, Mr. Henry Goodsir, 
who was a member of Sir John Pranklin's ill-fated 
expedition, obtained in Davis' Strait from a depth of 
300 fathoms, '' a capital haul, — mollusca, Crustacea, 
asterida, spatangi, corallines, &c." ^ The bottom was 
composed of fine green mud like that mentioned by 
Sir Edward Sabine. 

About the year 1854 Passed-midshipman Brooke, 
TJ.S.N., invented his ingenious sounding instrument 
for bringing up samples from the bottom. It only 
brought up a small quantity in a quill. These trophies 
from any depth over 1,000 fathoms were eagerly sought 
for bv naturalists and submitted to searching: micro- 
scopic examination ; and the result was very surpris- 
ing. All over the Atlantic basin the sediment brought 
up was nearly uniform in character, and consisted 
almost entirely of the calcareous shells, whole or in 
fragments, of one species of foraminifer, Glohigerina 
hulloides (Fig. 2). Mixed with these were the shells 
of some other foraminifera, and particularly a little 
perforated sphere, Orbulina tmiversa (Fig. 3), which 
in some localities entirely replaces Glohigerina ; 
with a few shields of diatoms, and spines and 
trellised skeletons of Radiolaria. Some soundings 
from the Pacific were of the same character, so 

1 Natural History of the British Seas. By Professor Edward 
Forbes and R. Godwin- Austeu. P. ol. 



22 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA [chap. i. 

that it seemed probable that this gradual deposition 
of a line uniform organic sediment was almost 
universal. 

Then the question arose whether the animals which 
secreted these shells lived at the bottom, or whether 
they floated in myriads on the surface and in tlie 
upper zones of the sea, their empty shells falling 
after death through the water in an incessant shower. 
Specimens of the soundings were sent to the eminent 




Fir,. 2.—Globigerina btilloides, D'Orbigny. Highly magnified. 

microscopists Professor Ehrenberg of Berlin and the 
late Professor Baily of West Point. On the moot 
question these two naturalists gave opposite opinions. 
Ehrenberg contended that the weight of evidence 
was in favour of their having lived at the bottom, i 
while Baily thought it was not probable that the i 
animals live at the depths where the shells are ' 
found, but that they inhabit the water near the I 







GHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. 23 

surface, and when they die their shells settle to the 
bottom.^ 

The next high authority who expressed an opinion 
was Professor Huxley, and he was very guarded. The 
samples procured by Capt. Dayman in the 'Cyclops,' 




Fio. S.—Orhulina universa, D'Orbigny. Highly magnified. 

in 1857, w^ere submitted to him for examination, and 
in his report to the Admiralty^ in 1858 he says : — 

^ Explanations and Sailing Directions to accompany the Wind and 
Currents Charts. By M. F. Maury, LL.D., Lieut. U.S.K, Super- 
intendent of the National Observatory. 6th Edition. Philadelphia, 
1864. P. 299. 

^ Appendix A to Deep Sea Soundings in the North Atlantic Ocean 
between Ireland and Newfoundland, made in H.M.S. 'Cyclops,' 
Lieut.-Commander Joseph Dayman, in June and July 1857. Pub- 
lished by order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
London, 1858. 



24 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA, [chap. i. 

" How can animal life be conceived to exist under 
such conditions of light, temperature, pressure, and 
aeration as must obtain at these vast depths ? To this 
one can only reply that we know for a certainty that 
even very highly- organized animals do contrive to live 
at a depth of 300 or 400 fathoms, inasmuch as they 
have been brought up thence, and that the difference 
in the amount of light and heat at 400 and at 2,000 
fathoms is probably, so to speak, very far less than 
the difference in complexity of organization between 
these animals and the humble Protozoa and Proto- 
phyta of the deep-sea soundings. I confess, though, 
as yet, far from regarding it proved that the GIg- 
higerincB live at these depths, the balance of proba- 
bilities seems to me to incline in that direction." 

In 1860 Dr. Wallich accompanied Captain Sir 
Leopold McClintock in H.M.S. 'Bulldog' on her 
sounding expedition to Iceland, Greenland, and New- 
foundland, as naturalist. During the cruise soundings 
were taken, and specimens of the bottom were brought 
up from depths from 600 to 2,000 fathoms ; many of 
these were the now well-known grey *Globigerina ooze,' 
while others were volcanic detritus from Iceland, and 
clay and gravel the product of the disintegration of the 
metamorphic rocks of Greenland and Labrador. On 
the return voyage, about midway between Cape Pare- 
well and Rockall, thirteen star-fishes came up from a 
sounding of 1,260 fathoms, " convulsively embracing 
a portion of the sounding-line which had been payed 
out in excess of the already ascertained depth, and 
rested for a sufficient period at the bottom to permit 
of their attaching themselves to it." On his return 
Dr. Wallich published in 1862, an extremely valuable 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. 25 

work which will be frequently referred to hereafter, 
upon * The Atlantic Sea -bed.' ^ He warmly advocated 
the view that the conditions of the bottom of the sea 
were not such as to preclude the possibility of the 
existence of even the higher forms of animal life, and 
discussed fully and with great ability the arguments 
which had been advanced on the other side. The first 
part only of Dr. Wallich's book appeared, in a some- 
what costly and cumbrous form, and it scarcely came 
into the hands of working naturalists, or received the 
attention which it deserved. At the time, however, it 
was merely an expression of individual opinion, for 
no new facts had been elicited. Star-fishes had come 
up on several previous occasions adhering to sounding- 
lines, but the absolute proof was still wanting that 
they had lived upon the ground at the depth of the 
sounding. Dr. Wallich referred the star-fishes procured 
to a well-known littoral species, and complicated their 
history somewhat irrelevantly Avith the disappearance 
of the ' Land of Buss.' Portunately the artistic if 
not very satisfactory figure which he gives of a star- 
fish clinging to the line does not bear out his deter- 
mination either in appearance or attitude, but suggests 
one or other of two species which we now know to 
be excessively abundant in deep water in the North 
Atlantic, Ophiopholis aculeata, O. F. MiJLLER, or 
Ophiacantha spinulosa, Mtjller and Troschel. 

^ The North Atlantic Sea-bed : comprising a Diary of the Voyage 
on board H.M.S. * Bulldog.' in 1860; and Observations on the 
presence of Animal Life, and the Formation and Nature of Organic 
Deposits at great Depths in the Ocean. By G. C. Wallich, M.D., 
F.L.S., F.G.S., &c. Published with the sanction of the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty. London, 1862. 



26 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. j 

Dr. Wallicli's is the only book which discusses fully 
and systematically the various questions bearing 
upon the biological relations of the sea-bed, and his 
conclusions are in the main correct. 

In the autumn of the year 1860 Mr. Tleeming 
Jenkin, C.E., now Professor of Engineering in the 
University of Edinburgh, was employed by the 
Mediterranean Telegraph Company to repair their 
cable between Sardinia and Bona on the coast of 
Africa, and on January 15, 1861, he gave an interest- 
ing account of his proceedings at a meeting of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers.* 

This cable was laid in the year 1857. In 1858 it 
became necessary to repair it, and a length of about 
30 miles was picked up and successfully replaced. 
In the summer of 1860 the cable completely failed. 
On taking it up in comparatively shallow water on 
the African shore, the cable w^as found covered with 
marine animals, greatly corroded, and injured appa- 
rently by the trawling operations in an extensive 
coral fishery through which it unfortunately passed. 
It was broken through in 70 fathoms water a few 
miles from Bona. The sea-end was however recovered, 
and it was found that the cable which thence traversed 
a wide valley nearly 2,000 fathoms in maximum 
depth, w^as perfect to within about 40 miles of Sar- 
dinia. It was then picked up from the Sardinian end, 
and the first 39 miles were as sound as when it was 
first laid down. At this distance from the shore there 
was a change in the nature of the bottom, evidenced 
by the different colour of the mud, and the wires were 

^ Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
with Abstracts of the Discussions. Vol. xx. p. 81. London, 1861. 



CHAP. I.] 



INTRODUCTION. 



27 



much corroded. Shortly afterwards the cable gave 
way in a depth of 1,200 fathoms, at a distance of one 
mile from the spot where the electrical tests showed 
that the cable had been previously broken. 

With these 40 miles of cable much coral and many 
marine animals w^ere brought up, but it did not appear 
that their presence had injured the cable, for they 
were attached to the sound as well as to the corroded 
portions. On his return, Mr. Pleeming Jenkin sent 
specimens of the animals which he had himself taken 
from the cable, noting the respective depths, to Pro- 
fessor Allman, E.E.S. for determination. Dr. Allman 
gives a list of fifteen animal forms, including the ova 
of a cephalopod, foimd at depths of from 70 to 1,200 




Fig. 4. — Caryophylliahorealis, Fletaing. Twice the natural size. No. 45. 

fathoms. On other portions of the cable species of 
Grantia, JPlumularia, Gorgonia, Gary ophy Ilia, Alcy- 
onium, Cellepora, Retepora, Eschara, Salicornaria, 
Ascidia, Lima, and Serpula. I observe from Professor 



28 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

Eleeming Jenkin's private journal, which he has 
kindly placed in my hands for reference, that an 
example of Caryophyllia, a true coral (Fig. 4), was 
found naturally attached to the cahle at the point 
where it gave way; that is to say, at the bottom in 
1,200 fathoms water. 

Some portions of this cahle subsequently came into 
the custody of M. Mangon, Professor at the Ecole 
des Fonts et Chaussees in Paris, and were examined 
by M. Alphonse Milne-Edwards, who read a paper 
upon the organisms attached to them, at the Academy 
of Sciences, on the 15th of July, 1861/ After some 
introductory remarks which show that he is thoroughly 
aware of the value of this observation as a final 
solution of the vexed question of the existence of 
animal life at depths in the sea greatly beyond the 
supposed 'zero* of Edward Eorbes, M. Milne- 
Edwards gives a list of the animals which he found on 
the cable from the depth of 1,100 fathoms. The list 
includes Mm^ex lamellosus, Cristofori and Jan, and 
Craspedotus limbatus, Philippi, two univalve shells 
allied to the whelk ; Ostrea cochlear, Poli, a small 
oyster common below 40 fathoms throughout the 
Mediterranean; Fecten testce, Bivona, a rare little 
clam ; Car yophy Ilia borealis, Fleming, or a nearly 
allied species, one of the true corals ; and an unde- 
scribed coral referred to a new genus and species 
under the name of Thalassiotrochiis telegraphicus, 
A. Milne-Edwards. 

^ Observations sur I'Existence de divers Mollusques et Zoophytes a 
de tres grandes profondeurs dans la Mer Mediterranee : Annales des 
Sciences Naturelles; quatrieme serie — Zoologie. Tome xv. p. 149. 
Paris, 1861. 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. 29 

It is right, however, to state that Prof. Eleeming 
Jenkin's notes refer to only one or two species, and 
especially to Car yopJiy Ilia horealis, as attached to the 
cable at a depth of upwards of ] ,000 fathoms. From 
this depth he took examples of Caryophyllia with his 
own hands, hut he suspects that specimens from the 
shallower water may have got mixed with those from 
the deeper in the series in the possession of M. 
Mangon, and that therefore M. Milne-Edwards' list is 
not entirely trustworthy. 

Up till this time all observations with reference to 
the existence of living animals at extreme depths had 
been liable to error, or at all events to doubt, from 
two sources. The appliances and methods of deep- 
sea sounding were imperfect, and there was always 
a possibility, from the action of deep currents upon 
the sounding line or from other causes, of a greater 
depth being indicated than really existed ; and again, 
although there was a strong probability, there was 
no absolute certainty that the animals adhering to 
the line or entangled on the sounding instrument 
had actually come up from the bottom. They might 
have been caught on the way. 

Before laying a submarine telegraphic cable its 
course is carefully surveyed, and no margin of doubt 
is left as to the real depth. Fishing the cable up is a 
delicate and difficult operation, and during its progress 
the depth is checked again and again. The cable lies 
on the ground throughout its whole length. The 
animal forms upon which our conclusions are based 
are not sticking loosely to the cable, under circum- 
stances which might be accounted for by their having 
been entangled upon it during its passage through the 



30 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA, [chap. i. 

water, but they are moulded upon its outer surface or 
cemented to it by calcareous or horny excretions, and 
some of them, such as the corals and bryozoa, from 
what Ave know of their history and mode of life, must 
have become attached to it as minute germs, and have 
grown to maturity in the position in which they were 
found. I must therefore regard this observation of 
Mr. Eleeming Jenkin as having afforded the first 
absolute proof of the existence of highly-organized 
animals living at depths of upwards of 1,000 fathoms. 

During the several cruises of H.M. ships 'Light- 1 
ning ' and ' Porcupine ' in the years 1868, 1869, and i 
1870,^ fifty-seven hauls of the dredge were taken in \ 
the Atlantic at depths beyond 500 fathoms, and sixteen 
at depths beyond 1,000 fathoms, and in all cases life was 
abundant. In 1869 we took two casts in depths greater 
than 2,000 fathoms. In both of these life was abun- 
dant ; and with the deepest cast, 2,435 fathoms, off 
the mouth of the Bay of Biscay, we took living, well- 
marked and characteristic examples of all of the five | 
invertebrate sub-kingdoms. And thus the question of |i 

^ Preliminary Eeport, by Dr. William Carpenter, V.P.E S., of i 
Dredging Operations in the Seas to the north of the British Islands, ' 
carried on in Her Majesty's steam-vessel ' Lightning ' by Dr. Carpenter !' 
and Dr. Wyville Thomson, Professor of IS'atural History in Queen's ' 
College, Belfast. (Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 1868.) 

Preliminary Report of the Scientific Exploration of the Deep Sea 
in H.M. surveying-vessel 'Porcupine,' during the Summer of 1869. 
Conducted by Dr. Carpenter, Y.P.R.S., J. Gwyn Jeifreys, P.R.S., and 
Professor Wyville Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. (Proceedings of the Royal 
Society of London, 1870.) 

Report of Deep Sea Researches carried on during the months of 
July, August, and September 1870, in H.M. surveying-ship ' Porcu- 
pine,' by W. B. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S., and J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S. 
(Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 1870.) 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. 31 

the existence of abundant animal life at the bottom 
of the sea has been finally settled and for all depths, 
for there is no reason to suppose that the depth any- 
where exceeds between three and four thousand 
fathoms ; and if there be nothing in the conditions of 
a depth of 2,500 fathoms to prevent the full develop- 
ment of a varied fauna, it is impossible to suppose 
that even an additional thousand fathoms would make 
any great difference. 

The conditions which might be expected principally 
to affect animal life at great depths of the sea are 
pressure, temperature, and the absence of light which 
apparently involves the absence of vegetable food. 

After passing a zone surrounding the land, which is 
everywhere narrow compared with the extent of the 
ocean, through which the bottom more or less abruptly 
shelves downwards and the water deepens ; speaking 
very generally, the average depth of the sea is 
2,000 fathoms, or about two miles ; as far below 
the surface as the average height of the Swiss Alps. 
In some places the depth seems to be considerably 
greater, possibly here and there nearly double that 
amount ; but these abysses are certainly very local, 
and their existence is even uncertain, and a vast por- 
tion of the area does not reach a depth of 1,500 
fathoms. 

The enormous pressure at these great depths seemed 
at first sight alone sufficient to put any idea of life 
out of the question. There was a curious popular 
notion, in which I well remember sharing when a boy, 
that, in going down, the sea- water became gradually 
under the pressure heavier and heavier, and that all 
the loose things in the sea floated at different levels. 



32 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

according to their specific weight : skeletons of men, 
anchors and shot and cannon, and last of all the 
broad gold pieces wrecked in the loss of many a 
galleon on the Spanish Main ; the whole forming a 
kind of ' false bottom ' to the ocean, beneath which 
there lay all the depth of clear still water, which 
was heavier than molten gold. 

The conditions of pressure are certainly very extra- 
ordinary. At 2,000 fathoms a man would bear upon his 
body a weight equal to twenty locomotive engines, each 
with a long goods train loaded with pig iron. We are 
apt to forget, however, that water is almost incom- 
pressible, and that therefore the density of sea-water 
at a depth of 2,000 fathoms is scarcely appreciably 
increased. At the depth of a mile, under a pressure 
of about 159 atmospheres, sea-water, according to the 
formula given by Jamin, is compressed by the ttt of 
its volume ; and at twenty miles, supposing the law of 
the compressibility to continue the same, by only | of 
its volume — that is to say, the volume at that depth 
would be T of the volume of the same weight of water 
at the surface. Any free air suspended in the water, 
or contained in any compressible tissue of an animal 
at 2,000 fathoms, would be reduced to a mere fraction 
of its bulk, but an organism supported through all its 
tissues on all sides, within and without, by incom- 
pressible fluids at the same pressure, would not 
necessarily be incommoded by it. We sometimes 
find when we get up in the morning, by a rise of an 
inch in the barometer, that nearly half a ton has been 
quietly piled upon us during the night, but we expe- 
rience no inconvenience, rather a feeling of exhilara- 
tion and buoyancy, since it requires a little less exer- 



CHAP. I.] IXTRODUCTIOX. 33 

tion to move our bodies in the denser medium. We are 
already familiar, chiefly through the researches of the 
late Professor Sars, with a long list of animals of all 
the invertebrate groups living at a depth of 300 to 
400 fathoms, and consequently subject to a pressure 
of 1,120 lbs. on the square inch ; and off the coast of 
Portugal there is a great fishery of sharks (^Centros- 
cymnus coelolepis, Boc. and Cap.), carried on beyond 
that depth. 

If an animal so high in the scale of organization 
as a shark can bear without inconvenience the 
pressure of half a ton on the square inch, it is a 
sufficient proof that the pressure is applied under 
circumstances which prevent its aflPecting it to its 
prejudice, and there seems to be no reason why 
it should not tolerate equally well a pressure of 
one or two tons. At all events it is a fact that 
the animals of all the invertebrate classes which 
abound at a depth of 2,000 fathoms do bear that 
extreme pressure, and that they do not seem to be 
affected by it in any way. We dredged at 2,435 
fathoms Scrohicularia nitida, MtJLLEii, a species 
which is abundant in six fathoms and at all inter- 
mediate depths, and at 2,090 fathoms a large Ftisus, 
with species of many genera which are familiar at 
moderate depths. Although highly organized animals 
may live when permanently subjected to these high 
pressures, it is by no means certain that they could 
survive the change of condition involved in the pres- 
sure being suddenly removed. Most of the mollusca 
and annelids brought up in the dredge from beyond 
1,000 fathoms were either dead or in a very sluggish 
state. Some of the star-fishes moved for some time 

D 



34 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

feebly, and the spines and pedicellarise moved on the 
shells of the urchins, but all the animals had evi- 
dently received from some cause their death- shock. 
Dr. Perceval Wright mentions^ that all the sharks 
brought up by the long lines from 500 fathoms in 
Setubal Bay are dead when they reach the surface. 

Various methods have been proposed to test the 
actual pressure at great depths, but as all the elements 
in the calculation are well known, it is easier to work 
out the question in the study than in the field. A 
neat instrument was constructed for the American 
Coast Survey. A brass piston or plunger was fitted 
accurately into a cylindrical hole in the wall of a brass 
water-tight chamber. The chamber was completely 
filled with water, and a clasping index on the plunger 
marked to what extent the plunger had been driven 
into the water contained in the chamber by the 
extreme pressure. The required indication is no 
doubt given, but such an instrument is at the same 
time an extremely delicate thermoscope, and until 
lately there has been no perfect means of correcting 
for temperature. A more important application of 
the pressure gauge is to check the accuracy of deep 
soundings. Probably the best arrangement which 
has been proposed for the purpose is a long capil- 
lary glass tube, calibrated and graduated to milli- 
metres, open at one end, and provided with a moveable 
index to show to what amount the air contained in 
the tube has been compressed by the entrance of the 
water. The principal objection to this device is the 

^ Notes on Deep Sea Dredging, by Edward Perceval Wright, M.D., 
F.L.S., Professor of Zoology, Trinity College, Dublin. (Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History, December 1868.) 



CHAP. 1.] INTRODUCTION. 35 

great difficulty in arranging an index which will 
measure with accuracy the extremely small space into 
which even a long column of air is compressed when 
the pressure becomes very great. It can scarcely be 
made available beyond 1,000 fathoms (200 atmo- 
spheres). 

We have in Sir John Herschel's ' Physical Geo- 
graphy,'^ and in Dr. Wallich's 'Atlantic Sea-bed,'^ 
where it is given in the fullest dstail, the doctrine of 
the distribution of deep-sea temperature as it seems 
to have been almost universally adopted up till the 
time of the cruise of the ' Lightning.' It was gene- 
rally understood that while the surface temperature, 
which depended upon direct solar radiation, the 
direction of currents, the temperature of winds, and 
other temporary causes, might vary to any amount ; 
at a certain depth the temperature was permanent at 
4° C, the temperature of the greatest density of fresh 
water. It is singular that this belief should have met 
with so general acceptance, for so early as the year 
1833 M. Depretz^ determined that the temperature 
of the maximum density of sea- water, which contracts 
steadily till just above its freezing-point, is — 3°'67 C. ; 
and even before that time observations of sea-tempe- 
ratures at great depths, which were certainly trust- 
worthy within a few degrees, had indicated severa- 
degrees below the freezing-point of fresh water. 

The question of the distribution of heat in the sea, 

"^ Physical Geography ; from the " Encyclopaedia Britannica." By 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. KH. &c. &c., p. 45. Edinburgh, 1861. 

2 Atlantic Sea-bed, p. 98. 

^ Recherches sur le Maximum de Densite des Dissolutions aqueuses. 
(Annales de Chimie, tome Ixx. 1833, p. 54.) 

D 2 



36 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

which is one of the greatest interest in connection 
with the distribution of marine animals, will be fully 
discussed in a future chapter. The broad conclusions 
to which we have been led by late investigations are, 
that instead of there being a permanent deep layer of 
Avater at 4° C. the average temperature of the bottom 
of the deep sea in temperate and tropical regions is 
about 0° C, the freezing-point of fresh water ; and that 
there is a general surface movement of warm water, 
produced probably by a combination of various causes, 
from the equatorial regions towards the poles, and a 
slow under-current, or rather indraught, of cold water 
from the poles towards the equator. Prom cases 
which are recorded, chiefly by the earlier American 
sounding expeditions, of the sounding-line having been 
run out into long loops in soundings where, from the 
nature of the sea-bed, the bottom water appeared. to 
be still, it would seem that there are also in some 
places intermediate currents ; but Avith reference to 
their limits and distribution we have as yet no data. 
That a cold flow from the polar seas passes over the 
bottom seems to be proved by the fact that in all 
parts of the world wherever deep temperature sound- 
ings have been taken, from the arctic circle to the 
equator, the temperature sinks with increasing depth, 
and is lower at the bottom than the normal tempera- 
ture of the crust of the earth ; an evidence that a 
constantly renewed supply of cold water is cooling ; 
down the surface of the crust, which, being a bad con- 
ductor, does not transmit heat with sufficient rapidity j 
to affect perceptibly the temperature of the cold in- j 
draught. It is probable that in winter, in those parts | 
of the arctic sea Avhich are not directly influenced by I 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. 3j 

the northern extension of the gulf stream, the whole 
column of water from the surface to the bottom is 
reduced to the lowest temperature which it will bear 
without freezing, and is thus an ample source of the 
coldest water of the highest specific gravity. 

The proof that the flow of the cold indraught is 
almost secular in its slowness, is that over a large 
portion of the ocean where the low bottom tempera- 
ture is known to prevail, the sea-bed is covered with 
a light fleecy deposit of microscopic organisms of 
great delicacy, into which the sounding-lead has in 
some instances sunk several feet, and which must 
inevitably be drifted away by a current of appreciable 
velocity. In all places where any perceptible current 
exists, the bottom consists of sand or mud or gravel 
and rolled pebbles. In some cases also, sounding in 
the deep water of the mid- Atlantic, the line, after 
running out greatly in excess of the depth, has been 
found to have coiled itself in a tangled mass right 
over the lead — a proof of almost absolute stillness. 

In some places, owing to the conformation of the 
neighbouring land or of the sea-bottom, warm and 
cold currents are circumscribed and localized, and this 
sometimes gives us the singular phenomenon of a 
patch or stripe of warm and a patch of cold sea meet- 
ing in an invisible but very definite line. There is a 
curious instance of this in the ' cold wall ' which 
defines the western border of the gulf stream along 
the coast of Massachusetts, and another scarcely less 
marked which we discovered during the trial cruise 
of the ' Lightning ' has been fully described by Dr. 
Carpenter in his report of that cruise, and will be 
referred to hereafter. 



38 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

In moderate depths sometimes the whole mass of 
water from the surface to the bottom is abnormally 
warm, owing to the movement in a certain direction 
of a great body of warm water, as in the ' warm area ' 
to the north-west of the Hebrides ; and sometimes the 
whole body of water is abnormally cold, as in the 
' cold area ' between Scotland and Pseroe, and in the 
northern part of the German Ocean. In deep water 
however, after the first few hundred fathoms, the 
thermometer usually sinks gradually and very slowly 
till it reaches its minimum at the bottom, a little 
above or below the zero of the centigrade scale. 

The temperature of the sea apparently never sinks 
at any depth below — 3°*5 C, a degree of cold which, 
singularly enough, is not inconsistent with abundant 
and vigorous animal life, so that in the ocean, except 
perhaps within the eternal ice-barrier of the antarctic 
pole, life seems nowhere to be limited by cold. But 
although certain sea-animals — many of them, such as 
the siphonophora, the salpse, and the ctenophorous 
medusae, of the most delicate and complicated organiza- 
tion — are tolerant of such severe cold, it would appear 
to be temperature almost entirely w^hich regulates the 
distribation of species. The nature of the ground 
can have little to say to it, for on every line of coast 
of any extent almost every condition and every kind 
of sediment is usually represented. From their inha- 
biting a medium which differs but little in weight 
from the substance of their bodies, and from the great 
majority of them producing free-moving larvae or fry 
in vast numbers which are floated along from place 
to place by currents, marine animals would seem to 
have every possible chance of extending their area. 



CHAP. 1.] INTRODUCTION. 39 

and yet the geographical distribution of most of the 
shallow- water species is well defined, and frequently 
somewhat restricted. Unfortunately we know as yet 
very little about the general distribution of marine 
animals. Except along the coasts of Britain and 
Scandinavia, a part of the North American coast, and 
j a part of the Mediterranean, we know absolutely 
' nothing beyond the shore zone, or at all events beyond 
10 or 15 fathoms. What little we do know is con- 
I fined almost entirely to the mollusca, and is due, not 
so much to scientific research as to the commercial 
value which the acquisitive zeal of conchologists has 
placed upon rare shells. It may be supposed, how- 
ever, that the same laws which regulate the distri- 
bution of littoral and sub-littoral mollusca, afPect in 
like manner that of shallow-water annulosa, echino- 
derms, and coelent crates ; indeed, from the scattered 
observations which have been made on the distribu- 
tion of these latter groups, it seems certain that such 
is the case. 

Woodward^ regarded the marine mollusca as occupy- 
ing eighteen well-defined ' provinces,' fulfilling more 
or less completely the condition of having at least one- 
half of the species peculiar to the province. Edward 
Eorbes defined twenty-five such 'regions;' but it must 
be remembered that in both cases at least three- fourths 
of the number of areas defined were based upon the 
most imperfect knowledge of the larger and more con- 
spicuous shore shells only. It has been constantly 
observed in the few cases confined entirely to the 
shores of the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean, 

' A Manual of the Mollusca. By S. P. Woodward. London, 1851. 
P. 354. 



40 THE DEFTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

in which dredging has been attempted at any consider- 
able depth, say 30 or 40 fathoms, that the number oi 
species common to the province dredged and to the] 
province to the north of it, is greatly increased 
by the investigation being carried into a deeper zone.^j 
Thus in the lusitanian province Mr. McAndrei 
dredged off the coast of Galicia and Asturias, 212] 
species, 50 per cent, of which were common to the 
coast of Norway ; and off the south of Spain 3351 
species were obtained, of which 28 per cent, w^ere] 
common to Norway (boreal province), and 51 pei 
cent, to Britain (chiefly Celtic province). The shells 
common to the two or three provinces were chiefly 
those dredged from considerable depths. The littoral 
forms had a much more distinct aspect. The moUusca 
of the ' Porcupine ' expedition have not yet been 
thoroughly worked out. They are in the hands of 
Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, and his preliminary reports give a 
most interesting forecast of w^hat we may expect when 
his labour is completed. He announces something 
like 250 new species. Some of the more interesting 
of these, and the general phenomena of their distri- 
bution, will be referred to in a future chapter. 

The echinoderms of the expedition are more limited 
in number, and have already been examined by the 
writer with some care. The general distribution of 
the Echinodermata is not so w^ell known as that of the 
Mollusca. There are many littoral and sub -littoral 
species. Many of these are local, but many have a 
wide geographical distribution, usually along what 
Edward Eorbes calls a ' homoiozoic belt,' a belt of 
nearly similar circumstances of climate extending 
^ Woodward, loc. cit. p. 362. 



CHAP. 1.] INTRODUCTION. 4 1 

tlirougli many degrees of longitude, but few of latitude. 
• As a class, however, they prefer a depth rather beyond 
20 fathoms,^ beyond the reach of very violent climatic 
vicissitudes. They are conspicuous things, showing 
usually sufficiently bold specific characters, and thus 
they are less liable to confusion than most other groups. 
They involve in their history and economy several of 
the principal questions discussed in this volume; while 
giving, therefore, such a brief sketch as the space at 
my disposal and the amount of my present informa- 
tion may permit, of the additions which have been 
made during our dredging cruises to the knowledge 
of the other invertebrate classes, I will use the echi- 
noderms and the protozoa principally for the purpose 
of general illustration. 

Littoral and shallow-water species of animals must 
be much more liable to have their migrations inter- 
rupted by 'natural barriers,' such as deep water 
through which they cannot pass, or currents of 
warmer or of colder water; they must likewise be 
much more affected by local circumstances, such as 
extreme differences between summer and winter tem- 
perature ; so that they might be expected to be more 
circumscribed and local in their distribution than the 
denizens of greater depths — and they certainly are so. 
The conditions of the bottom in the zone from 20 to 
50 fathoms are much more equable than near the 
surface. Direct solar radiation in temperate regions 
affects this zone very slightly, so that it probably 

^ Distribution of Marine Life. By Professor Edward Forbes, F.R.S., 
President of tbe Geological Society. (From the Physical Atlas of 
K^atural Phenomena, by Alexander Keith Johnston, F.E.G.S., &c. 
Edinburgh, 1854.) 



42 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

maintains nearly the same conditions of temperature 
through many degrees of latitude; and when as it 
passes southwards it does become gradually affected 
by increasing warmth, it may be supposed merely to 
sink a few fathoms deeper, carrying its conditions and 
its fauna along with it. Por example, animal forms 
which abound in the Celtic province at 25 fathoms 
with a mean temperature of 10° C, may be expected in 
greatest number in perhaps 40 or 50 fathoms, with 
the same temperature, in the lusitanian province. 
Such a zone may thus be continuous for a great dis- 
tance, while the surface climate has been altering 
greatly, and the migrations of littoral forms have 
been again and again interrupted. But the deeper 
zone also sometimes meets with a * natural barrier,' 
as at the line of junction between the warm and cold 
areas already mentioned; which causes a curious sift- 
ing out of those species which are intolerant of a 
change of temperature. Thus the fauna of the tem- 
perate northward flow of water off the west coast of 
Scotland is materially different from that of the cold 
indraught along the east coast. 

If there be this overlapping between the lusitanian 
and Celtic provinces, the same relation may be antici- 
pated between our own and the boreal province ; and 
it is well known that this is the case, for the great 
majority of the mollusca which have been dredged by 
McAndrew, Barlee, and especially by Gwyn Jeffreys, 
from depths below 50 fathoms, are identical with those 
found in shallower water on the Scandinavian coast. 
Our recent work, while it has brought out more fully 
the overlapping, has gone much farther towards the 
indication of a general law. 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION, 43 

It seems probable that the distribution of marine 
animals is determined by the extremes of temperature 
rather than by the means. The mean winter tempera- 
ture of the surface and of moderate depths off the 
north coast of Norway is about 2° C, and the extreme 
about 0° C. ; and on the coast of Greenland the mean 
sinks to — 1° C, and the extreme to — 3° G. 

The temperature of the trough between Scotland 
and Pseroe at the depth of 500 fathoms is from 0° to 
—1° C, and we find in that trough, along with many 
undescribed forms which are special to very deep 
water, every one of the echinoderms hitherto found 
on the coast of Scandinavia and Greenland, with the 
single exception, I believe, of Ophioglypha stuwitzii, a 
shallow-water Greenland form among the ophiurids, 
and of one or two holothurids which have as yet 
evaded us. 

The temperature of the telegraphic plateau at 1,000 
to 2,000 fathoms is apparently usually from 3° to 2° C, 
and at 2,500 fathoms in the Bay of Biscay it is 2° C. 
From 800 to 2,000 fathoms all along the west coasts 
of Scotland, Ireland, and France, we have dredged 
Scandinavian echinoderms in abundance, and from 
the deep water as far south as the coast of Portugal 
\ I have received examples of some of the best marked 
northern forms, such as Echimts elegans, ~D. and K.; 
I Toxopneustes drobachiensis, O. F. Muller ; Brissopsis 
I lyrifera, Forbes ; Tripylus fragilis, D. and K. ; the 
I magnificent Brisinga coronata, G. O. Sars (Fig. 7), 
I and B, endecacnemos^ Absjornsen; Bter aster mili- 
tarise M. and T. ; Ophiacantha spinulosa, M. and T.; 
Ophiocten sericeum, Forbes ; Ophioglypha sarsii, 
LtJTK. ; Asteronyx loveni, M. and T. ; and Astero- 



44 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

jjhyton linckli, M. and T , from Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys' 
dredgings in 1870. Deep-sea forms dredged round 
our coast identical with northern species have been 
usually regarded as ' boreal outliers ' (Eorbes), or at 
all events as species which have extended their dis- 
tribution from northern centres. This idea probably 
arose in a great measure from their having been 
discovered and first described in Scandinavia. We 
actually know nothing about their centres of distri- 
bution ; all ^^Q know of them is that they are the in- 
habitants of an enormously extended zone of special 
thermal conditions, which ' crops out,' as it were, or 
rather comes within range of the ordinary means of 
observation, off the coasts of Scandinavia. 

Edward Eorbes pointed out long ago the kind of in- 
verted analogy which exists between the distribution of 
land animals and plants and that of the fauna and flora 
of the sea. In the case of the land, while at the level 
of the sea there is, in temperate and tropical regions, a 
luxuriant vegetation with a correspondingly numerous 
fauna, as we ascend the slope of a mountain range 
the conditions gradually become more severe ; species 
after species belonging to the more fortunate plains 
beneath disappear, and are replaced by others whose 
representatives are only to be found on other moun- 
tain ridges, or on the shores of an arctic sea. In the 
ocean, on the other hand, there is along the shore line 
and within the first few fathoms, a rich and varied 
flora and fauna, which participates and sympathises 
in all the circumstances of climate which affect the 
inhabitants of the land. As we descend, the condi- 
tions gradually become more rigorous, the tempera- 
ture falls, and alterations of temperature are less felt. 



niAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. 45 

The fauna becomes more uniform over a larger area, 
and is manifestly one of which the shallower water 
fauna of some colder region is to a great extent a 
lateral extension. Going still deeper, the severity of 
tlie cold increases until we reach the vast undulating' 
plains and valleys at the bottom of the sea, with their 
fauna partly peculiar and partly polar — a region the 
extension of whose extreme thermal conditions only 
approaches the surface within the arctic and antarctic 
circles. 

"We have as yet very little exact knowledge as to 
the distance to which the sun's light penetrates into 
the water of the sea. According to some recent 
experiments which will be referred to in a future 
chapter, it would appear that the rays capable of 
aflPecting a delicate photographic film are very rapidly 
cut off, their effect being imperceptible at the depth 
of only a few fathoms. It is probable that some 
portions of the sun's light possessing certain pro- 
perties may penetrate to a much greater distance, but 
it must be remembered that even the clearest sea-water 
is more or less tinted by suspended opaque particles 
and floating organisms, so that the light has more 
than a pure saline solution to contend with. At all 
events it is certain that beyond the first 50 fathoms 
plants are barely represented, and after 200 fathoms 
they are entirely absent. The question of the mode 
of nutrition of animals at great depths becomes, there- 
fore, a very singular one. The practical distinction 
between plants and animals is, that plants prepare 
the food of animals by decomposing certain inorganic 
substances which animals cannot use as food, and 
recombining their elements into organic compounds 



46 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i. 

upon which animals can feed. This process is, how- 
ever, so far as we are at present aware, constantly 
effected under the influence of light. There seems 
to he little or no light at the hottom of the sea, 
and there are certainly no plants except such as 
may sink from the surface, hat the hottom of the 
sea is a mass of animal life. At first sight it 
certainly seems difficult to account for the main- 
tenance of this vast animal population living with- 
out any visible means of support. Two explanations 
have been suggested. It is conceivable that certain 
animal forms may have the power of decomposing 
water, carbon dioxide, and ammonia, and re-com- 
bining their elements into organic compounds without 
the agency of light. Dr. "Wallich supports this view, 
and in doing so he states that " No exceptional law 
is invoked, but, on the contrary, that the proof of 
these organisms being endowed with the power to 
convert inorganic elements for their own nutrition 
rests on the undisputed power which they possess 
of separating carbonate of lime or silica from waters 
holding these substances in solution." ^ This, how- 
ever, seems scarcely satisfactory. All the substances 
employed in the nutrition of animals are offered to 
them finally in solution in water, and the abstraction 
of these from their watery solutions cannot be re- 
garded as a 'chemical separation.' The broad dis- 
tinction still remains, that when carbon dioxide in 
solution is presented to a green plant in the sun- 
shine it can decompose it, while an animal cannot. 

I believe we have a simpler explanation. All 
sea- water contains a certain quantity of organic 

^ North Atlantic Sea-bed, p. 131. 



CHAP. 1.] INTRODUCTION. 47 

matter, in solution and in suspension. Its sources 
are obvious. All rivers contain a considerable quan- 
tity. Every shore is surrounded by a fringe which 
averages a mile in width, of olive and red sea- 
weed. In the middle of the Atlantic there is a 
marine prairie, the ' Sargasso sea,' extending over 
three millions of square miles. The sea is full of 
animals, which are constantly dying and decay- 
ing. The amount of organic matter derived from 
these and other sources by the water of the ocean 
is very appreciable. Careful analyses of the water 
were made during the several cruises of the ' Porcu- 
pine ' to detect it and to determine its amount, 
and the quantity everywhere was capable of being 
rendered manifest and estimated, and the propor- 
tion was found to be very uniform in all localities 
and at all depths. !N'early all the animals at extreme 
depths — practically all the animals, for the small num- 
ber of higher forms feed upon these — belong to one 
sub-kingdom, the Protozoa ; whose distinctive charac- 
ter is that they have no special organs of nutrition, 
but absorb nourishment through the whole surface 
of their jelly-like bodies. Most of these animals 
secrete exquisitely formed skeletons, some of silica, 
some of carbonate of lime. There is no doubt that 
they extract both these substances from the sea- 
water; and it seems more than probable that the 
organic matter which forms their soft parts is 
derived from the same source. It is thus quite 
intelligible that a world of animals may live in 
these dark abysses, but it is a necessary condition 
that they must chiefly belong to a class capable of 
being supported by absorption through the surface 



48 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. I. 



of their bodies of matter in solution, developing 
but little heat, and incurring a very small amount 
of waste by any manifestation of vital activity. 
According to this view it seems probable that at 
all periods of the earth's history some form of 
the Protozoa — rhizopods, sponges, or both — predomi- 
nated greatly over all other forms of animal life 
in the depths of the warmer regions of the sea. 
The rhizopods, like the corals of a shallower zone, 
form huge accumulations of carbonate of lime, and it 
is probably to their agency that we must refer most 
of those great bands of limestone which have resisted 
time and change, and come in here and there witli 
their rich imbedded lettering to mark like milestones 
the progress of the passing ages. 




TINDHOLM. 



CHAPTER II. 

! 

THE CRUISE OF THE ' LIGHTNING.' 

! I Proposal to investigate the Conditions of the Bottom of the Sea. — 
Suggestions and Anticipations. — Correspondence between the 
Council of the Royal Society and the Admiralty. — Departure 
from Stornoway. — The Fseroe Islands. — Singular Temperature 
Results in the Faeroe Channel. — Life abundant at all Depths. — 
Brisinga coronata. — HoUenia carpenteri. — General Results of the 
Expedition. 

J jAppendix A, — Particulars of Depth, Temperature, and Position at 
the various Dredging Stations of H.M.S. ' Lightning,' in the 
Summer of 1868; the Temperatures corrected for Pressure. 

%* The bracketed numbers to the woodcuts in this chapter refer to the dredging 
stations on Plate I. 

In the spring of the year 1868, my friend Dr. W. 

B. Carpenter, at that time one of the Yice-Presidents 

3f the Eoyal Society, was with me in Ireland, where 

WQ were working out together the structure and 

levelopment of the Crinoids. I had long previously 

lad a profound conviction that the land of promise 

J m the naturalist, the only remaining region where 

^ here were endless novelties of extraordinary interest 

'eady to the hand which had the means of gathering 

hem, was the bottom of the deep sea. I had even 

lad a glimpse of some of these treasures, for I had 

een the year before, with Professor Sars, the forms 

E 



50 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. n. 

which I have already mentioned dredged by his son at 
a depth of 300 to 400 fathoms off the Loffoten islands. 
I propounded my views to my fellow-labourer, and 
we discussed the subject many times over our micro- 
scopes. I strongly urged Dr. Carpenter to use his 
influence at head-quarters to induce the Admiralty, 
probably through the Council of the Hoyal Society, 
to give us the use of a vessel properly fitted with 
dredging gear and all necessary scientific apparatus, 
that many heavy questions as to the state of things 
in the depths of the ocean which were still in a state 
of uncertainty, might be definitely settled. After full 
consideration, Dr. Carpenter promised his hearty co- 
operation, and we agreed that I should write to him 
on his return to London, indicating generally the 
results which I anticipated, and sketching out what 
I conceived to be a promising line of inquiry. The 
Council of the Hoyal Society warmly supported the 
proposal ; and I give here in chronological order the 
short and eminently satisfactory correspondence which 
led to the Admiralty placing at the disposal of Dr. 
Carpenter and myself the gunboat ' Lightning ' under 
the command of Staff- Commander May, R N., in the 
summer of 1868, for a trial cruise to the north of 
Scotland, and afterwards to the much wider surveys 
inH.M.S. 'Porcupine,' Captain Calver, E.N., which 
were made with the additional association of Mr. Gwyn 
Jeffreys in the summers of the years 1869 and 1870. 

From Prof. Wyville Thomson, Belfast, to Dr. Carpenter, V.P.B.S. 

May 30, 1868. 

My dear Carpenter, — When I last saw you, I suggested how 
very important it would be to the advancement of science to 



CHAP. n.J THE CRUISE OF THE 'lightning: 51 

determine with accuracy the conditions and distribution of 
Animal Life at great depths in the ocean ; I now resume the 
facts and considerations which lead me to believe that researches 
in this direction promise valuable results. 

All recent observations tend to negative Ec^ard Forbes's 
opinion that a zero of animal life was to be reached at a depth 
of a few hundred fathoms. Two years ago, M. Sars, Swedish 
Government Inspector of Fisheries, had an opportunity in his 
official capacity of dredging off the Loffoten Islands at a depth 
of 300 fathoms. I visited Norway shortly after his return, and 
had an opportunity of studying with his father, Prof. Sars, some 
of his results. Animal forms were abundant ; many of them 
were new to science ; and among them was one of surpassing 
interest, the small Crinoid of which you have a specimen, and 
which we at once recognized as a degraded type of the Apio- 
CEINID^, an order hitherto regarded as extinct, which attained 
its maximum in the Pear-encrinites of the Jurassic period, and 
whose latest representative hitherto known was the Boiirguetti- 
fivinus of the Chalk. Some years previously, M. Absjornsen, 
dredging in 200 fathoms in the Hardangerfjord, procured several 
examples of a Starfish {Brisinga) which seems to find its nearest 
illy in the fossil genus Protaster. These observations place it 
ibeyond a doubt that animal life is abundant in the ocean at 
depths varying from 200 to 300 fathoms, that the forms at these 
^reat depths differ greatly from those met with in ordinary 
Iredgings, and that, at all events in some cases, these animals are 
ilosely allied to, and would seem to be directly descended from, 
he fauna of the early Tertiaries. 

I think the latter result might almost have been anticipated ; 
nd probably further investigation will add largely to this class 
f data, and will give us an opportunity of testing our deter- 
lination of the zoological position of some fossil types by an 
xamination of the soft parts of their recent representatives, 
''he main cause of the destruction, the migration, and the extreme 
lodification of Animal tjrpes, appears to be change of climate, 
biefly depending upon oscillations of the earth's crust. These 
scillations do not appear to have ranged, in the northern portion 

E 2 



52 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ii. 

of the Northern Hemisphere, much beyond 1,000 feet since the 
commencement of the Tertiary epoch. The temperature of deep 
water seems to be constant for all latitudes at 39° ; so that an 
immense area of the North Atlantic must have had its conditions 
unaffected by tertiary or Post-tertiary oscillations. 

One or two other questions of the highest scientific interest 
are to be solved by the proposed investigations : — 

1st. The effect of pressure upon animal life at great depths. 
There is great misapprehension on this point. Probably a per- 
fectly equal pressure to any amount would have little or no 
effect. Air being highly compressible, and water compressible 
only to a very slight degree, it is probable that under a pressure 
of 200 atmospheres, water may be even more aerated, and in 
that respect more capable of supporting life, than at the surface. 

2nd. The effect of the great diminution of the stimulus of 
Light. Prom the condition of the Cave Fauna, this latter agent 
probably affects only the development of colour and of the 
organs of sight. 

I have little doubt that it is quite practicable, with a small 
heavy dredge, and a couple of miles of stout Manilla rope, to 
dredge at a depth of 1,000 fathoms. Such an undertaking 
would, however, owing to the distance and the labour involved, ; 
be quite beyond the reach of private enterprise. What I am 
therefore anxious for is, that the Admiralty may be induced, 
perhaps at the instance of the Council of the Eoyal Society, to 
send a vessel (such as one of those which accompanied the Cable 
Expedition to take soundings) to carry out the research. I \ 
should be ready to go any time after July ; and if you would take 
part in the investigation, I cannot but believe that it would give 
good results. 

I would propose to start from Aberdeen, and to go first to the 
Eockall fishing-banks, where the depth is moderate, and thence 
north-westward, towards the coast of Greenland, rather to the 
north of Cape Farewell. We should thus keep pretty nearly 
along the isotherm of 39°, shortly reaching 1,000 fathoms depth, 
where, allowing 1,000 feet for oscillations in level, and 1,000 feet' 
for influence of surface-currents, summer heat, &c., we should 



CHAP. II. j THE CRUISE OF THE ' LIGIJTJSING: 53 

{still have 4,000 feet of water whose conditions have probably not 
varied greatly since the commencement of the Eocene epoch. 

Yours most truly, 

Wyville Thomson. 



From Dr. Carpenter, V.FM.S., to the President of the Royal Society. 

Univehsity of Londo]s, Burlington House, \V. 
June 18th, 1868. 

Dear General Sabine, — During a recent visit to Belfast, I 
thad the opportunity of examining some of the specimens 
retransmitted by Prof. Sars of Christiania to Prof. Wyville 
Irhomson) which have been obtained by M. Sars, jun.. Inspector 
bf Fisheries to the Swedish Government, by deep-sea dredgings 
off the coast of Norway. These specimens, for reasons stated in 
:he enclosed letter from Prof. Wyville Thomson, are of singular 
j nterest alike to the zoologist and to the palaeontologist ; and the 
discovery of them can scarcely fail to excite, both among natu- 
-alists and among geologists, a very strong desire that the zoology 
)f the deep sea, especially in the Northern Atlantic region, should 
oe more thoroughly and systematically explored than it has 
ver yet been. From what I know of your own early labours in 
jhis field, I cannot entertain a doubt of your full concurrence in 
I his desire. 

Such an exploration cannot be undertaken by private indi- 
dduals, even when aided by grants from Scientific Societies. 
Tor dredging at great depths, a vessel of considerable size is 
equisite, with a trained crew, such as is only to be found in the 
xovernment service. It was by the aid of such an equipment, 
urnished by the Swedish Government, that the researches of 
d. Sars were carried on. 
Now, as there are understood to be at the present time an 
nusual number of gun-boats and other cruisers on our northern 
nd western coasts, which will probably remain on their stations 
ntil the end of the season, it has occurred to Prof. Wyville 
'homson and myself, that the Admiralty, if moved thereto by 
lie Council of the Eoyal Society, might be induced to place one 
t' these vessels at the disposal of ourselves and of any other 



54 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i^. 

naturalists who might be willing to accompany us, for the 
purpose of carrying on a systematic course of deep-sea dredging 
for a month or six weeks of the present summer, commencing 
early in August. Ml 

Ttiough we desire that this inquiry should be extended bot^B' 
in geographical range and in depth as far as is proposed in Prof 
Wyville Thomson's letter, we think it preferable to limit our- 
selves on the present occasion to a request which will not, we 
believe, involve the extra expense of sending out a coaling- 
vessel. We should propose to make Kirkwall or Lerwick our 
port of departure, to explore the sea-bottom between the Shetland 
and the Fseroe Islands, dredging around the shores and in the 
fiords of the latter (which have not yet, we believe, been 
scientifically examined), and then to proceed as far north-west 
into the deep water between the Fseroe Islands and Iceland as 
may be found practicable. 

It would be desirable that the vessel provided for such 
a service should be one capable of making way under canvas 
as well as by steam-power ; but as our operations must neces- 
sarily be slow, speed would not be required. Considerable * 
labour would be spared to the crew if the vessel be provided * 
with a 'donkey-engine' that could be used for pulling up the 
dredge. \ 

If the Council of the Eoyal Society should deem it expedient j 
to prefer this request to the Admiralty, I trust that they may i* 
further be willing to place at the disposal of Prof. WyviUe \ 
Thomson and myself, either from the Donation Fund or the i 
Government-Grant Fund, a sum of £100 for the expenses we \ 
must incur in providing an ample supply of spirit and of jars ! 
for the preservation of specimens, with other scientific appliances, f' 
We would undertake that the choicest of such specimens should 
be deposited in the British Museum. 

I shall be obliged by your bringing this subject before the 
Council of the Koyal Society, and remain. 

Dear General Sabine, yours faithfuUy, 

William B. Caepenter. 

The President of the Royal Society. 



CHAP. 11.] TUE CRUISE OF THE 'LIGHTNING: 55 



From tlic Minutes of the Council of the Royal Society, 
Jime 18, 1868. 

These letters having been considered, it was resolved, — " That 
the proposal of Drs. Carpenter and Wyville Thomson be ap- 
proved, and recommended to the favourable consideration of the 
authorities of the Admiralty ; and that a sum, of not exceeding 
£100, be advanced from the Donation Fund to meet the expenses 
referred to in Dr. Carpenter's letter." 

The following draft of a letter to be written by the Secretary, 
to the Secretary of the Admiralty, was approved : — 

My Lord, — I am directed to acquaint you, for the information 
of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that the President 
and Council of the Eoyal Society have had under their con- 
sideration a proposal by Dr. Carpenter, Vice-President of the 
Eoyal Society, and Dr. Wyville Thomson, Professor of Natural 
History in Queen's College, Belfast, for conducting dredging 
operations at greater depths than have heretofore been attempted 
in the localities which they desire to explore — the main purpose 
of such researches being to obtain information as to the ex- 
istence, mode of life, and zoological relations of marine animals 
living at great depths, with a view to the solution of various 
questions relating to Animal Life, and having an important bear- 
ing on Geology and Palaeontology. The objects of the opera- 
tions which they wish to undertake, and the course which they 
would propose to follow, as well as the aid they desire to obtain 
from the Admiralty, are more fully set forth in the letter of 
Dr. Carpenter to the President, and that of Professor Thomson, 
copies of which I herewith enclose. 

The President and Council are of opinion that important 
advantages may be expected to accrue to science from the 
proposed undertaking ; accordingly they strongly recommend it 
to the favourable consideration of her Majesty's Government, 
and earnestly hope that the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty may be disposed to grant the aid requested. In such 



56 TIIE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. 

case- the scientific appliances required would be provided for froij 
funds at the disposal of the Koyal Society. 

I am, &c., 

W. Shakpey, Sec. Rj 

Lord H. Lennox, M.P., Secretary of the Admiralty. 

From the Minutes of the Council of the Royal Society 
for Oct. 20, 1868. 

Admiralty, lUh July, 1868 J 
Sir, — In reply to your letter of the 22nd ultimo, submitting" 
a proposition from Dr. Carpenter and Professor Thomson to 
investigate, by means of dredging, the bottom of the sea in 
certain localities, with a view to ascertain the existence and 
zoological relations of marine animals at great depths, — a re- 
search which you and the Council of the Eoyal Society strongly 
recommend in the interests of science to the favourable con- 
sideration of her Majesty's Government, for aid in furtherance 
of the undertaking, — I am commanded by my Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty to acquaint you that they are 
pleased to meet your wishes so far as the Service will admit, and 
have given orders for her Majesty's steam-vessel 'Lightning' to 
be prepared immediately, at Pembroke, for the purpose of carry- 
ing out such dredging operations. 

I am. Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

W. G. EOMAINE. 

To the President of the Royal Society. 

It will be seen by the letters from my colleague 
and myself what our ideas were at that time, and what 
our anticipations as to the result of our labours. We 
both more than doubted the ' anti-biotic ' view which 
was then very generally received, and we expected to 
be able to trace a relationship between the living 
inhabitants of the deep sea and the fossils of some of 
the later geological formations which we looked upon 
as their direct and not very remote ancestors. We 



:iiAF. II.] THE CRUISE OF THE 'LIGHTNING: 57 

had adopted the current strange misconception with 
regard to the distribution of ocean temperature ; and 
jit is perhaps scarcely a valid excuse that the fallacy 
of a universal and constant temperature of 4° C. 
below a certain depth varying according to latitude, 
was at the time accepted and taught by nearly all 
the leading authorities in Physical Geography. 

Trom the time that the Admiralty gave their 
sanction to the use of a Government vessel for the 
investigation, Dr. Carpenter's labours in working out 
all the necessary arrangements and preparations were 
unceasing, and to his influence in the Council of the 
Eoyal Society, and to the confidence placed in his 
judgment by members of the Government and men 
{in official positions, the success of the undertaking is 
unquestionably due. 

The surveying ship * Lightning' was assigned for 
the service — a cranky little vessel enough, one which 
.had the somewhat doubtful title to respect of being 
[perhaps the very oldest paddle-steamer in her 
Majesty's navy. We had not good times in the 
'Lightning.' She kept out the water imperfectly, 
and as we had deplorable weather during nearly the 
whole of the six weeks we were afloat, we were in con- 
|siderable discomfort. The vessel, in fact, was scarcely 
j seaworthy, the iron hook and screw-jack fastenings of 
jthe rigging were worn with age, and many of them 
iwere carried away, and on two occasions the ship ran 
I some risk. Still the voyage was on the whole almost 
pleasant. Staff-Commander May had lately returned 
from Annesley Bay, where he had been harbour-master 
during the Abyssinian war ; and his intelligence and 
vivacity, and the cordial good-fellowship of his officers, 



58 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. 



I 



who heartily seconded my colleague and myself in o 
work and sympathised with us in our keen interes 
in the curious results of the few trials at great depths 
which we had it in our power to make, made the 
experience, a very novel one to us, certainly as 
tolerable as possible. 

The ' Lightning ' left Pembroke on the 4th of 
August, 1868, and arrived at Oban on the evening 
of the 6th. At Oban Dr. Carpenter, his son Herbert, 
and I joined, and, after having taken observations 
for the chronometers, completed coals and water, 
and being otherwise ready, we left Oban on the 8th 
of August, anchored on that evening in Tobermory 
Bay, and after a gusty passage through the Mincli 
we reached Stornoway on the evening of the 9th. 
At Stornoway we were received by Sir James and 
Lady Matheson with a courteous hospitality which 
on many subsequent occasions has made us leave 
their island kingdom with regret and return to it 
with pleasure. We took in as much coal as we 
could carry, stowing as mach as was safe in bags 
on the deck, set up a dredging derrick over the 
stern, took final observations, and departed to the 
northward on the morning of the 11th. We took a 
haul or two the same afternoon in from 60 to 100 
fathoms, about 15 miles to the north of the Butt of 
the Lews, to try our dredging-tackle and donkey- 
engine and to trace the limits of the shallow-water 
species. All the appliances worked well, but the 
dredge brought up few animal forms, and all of them 
well-known inhabitants of the seas of the Hebrides. 
The next day we were met by a breeze from the N.E., 
which continued for three days with such force that 



jHAP. II.] THE CRUISE OF THE 'LIGHTNING: 59 

we were compelled to lie-to under canvas, drifting to 
the northward towards the edge of the Eseroe Banks, 
any attempt to dredge being out of the question. 
On the 13th, during a lull, we sounded and found no 
bottom at 450 fathoms (Station 1, PI. I.), with a 
minimum temperature of 9°-5 C, the temperature of 
the surface water being 12°* 5 C. This was so high a 
temperature for so considerable a depth that we sus- 
pected some error in the indications of the thermo- 
meters, three of Six's registering instruments of the 
Hydrographic OfB.ce pattern. Subsequent observa- 
tions however in the same locality showed us that 
tlie temperature to the depth of 600 to 700 fathoms 
in that region is the moderate temperature of the 
northward current of the gulf stream. 

The Pseroe Banks are greatly frequented in the 
fishing season by English and foreign fishing- smacks. 
Of course the principal object is to prepare cured or 
hard-fish, but many of the English vessels are welled 
for the supply of fresh cod for the London market. 

A large square tank occupies the middle of the 
v^essel, and holes in the sides allow the water to pass 
freely through it. The water in the tank is thus 
kept perfectly fresh ; the best of the cod are put into 
it, and they stand the voyage perfectly. It is curious 
to see the great creatures moving gracefully about 
in the tank like gold-fish in a glass globe. They are 
Qo doubt ' quite unaccustomed to man,' and conse- 
iquently they are tame ; and with their long smooth 
mottled faces, their huge mouths, and lidless un- 
speculative eyes, they are about as unfamiliar objects 
as one can well see. They seem rather to like to 
be scratched, as they are greatly infested by caligi 



60 THE DEPTHS OF TUE SEA, [chap. ii. 

and all kinds of suctorial copepods. One of them will 
take a crab or a large fusus or buccinum quietly out 
of one's hand, and with a slight movement transfer it 
down its capacious throat into its stomach, where it 
is very soon attacked and disintegrated by the power- 
ful gastric secretions. In one welled smack I visited 
on one occasion, one of the fish had met w^ith some 
slight injury which spoiled its market, and it made 
several trips in the well between London and Egeroe 
and became quite a pet. The sailors said it knew 
them. It was mixed up with a number of others in 
the tank when I was on board, and certainly it was 
always the first to come to the top for the chance of 
a crab or a bit of biscuit, and it rubbed its ' head 
and shoulders ' against my hand quite lovingly. 

On the 15th and IGtli we dredged over the Eseroe 
Banks at a depth of from 200 to 50 fathoms, the 
bottom gravel and nullipore, and the temperature 
from 8° to 10° C. The banks swarm with the com- 
mon brittle star Ophiothrix fragilis, with the Norway 
lobster Nephrons norvegictis, large spider crabs, several 
species of the genus Galathea, and many of the genus 
Crangon, So ample a supply of their favourite food 
readily accounts for the abundance and excellence of 
the cod and ling on the banks. 

There is some rough rocky ground on the Pseroe 
Banks, and notwithstanding all possible care and the 
use of Hodge's ' accumulators ' to ease the strain on 
the dredge ropes, we lost two of our best dredges and 
some hundreds of fathoms of rope. On the morning 
of the l7th M^e sighted Eaeroe, as usual only getting 
now and then a glimpse of the islands of this remote 
little archipelago by the lilting of the curtain of mist 



CHAP. II.] THE CRUISE OF THE 'LIGHTNING: 61 

which almost constantly envelopes them. Towards 
mid-day the weather improved a little, and as we 
threaded among the islands towards the little harhour 
of Thorshavn we greatly enjoyed our first view of 
their fantastic outlines, partly shrouded in their veil 
of mist ; their soft green and brown colouring ren- 
dered still softer by the subdued sub-arctic light, and 
the streams and cascades embroidering the gentle 
slopes of the hills and falling over the cliffs like 
silver threads and tassels. 

The Pseroe Islands are basaltic ; terrace over 
terrace of soft easily decomposed anamesite probably 
of Miocene tertiary age. This uniform structure, 
and the absence of trees or any prominent form of 
vegetation, gives a singular sameness of effect. The 
scattered habitations are usually sad-coloured and 
roofed with growing turf, so that they are actually 
invisible at a little distance. We were greatly struck 
[sometimes by the difficulty of estimating distance 
I and height; from the total want of familiar objects 
for comparison it was sometimes difficult to tell, 
passing among the islands and looking at them 
through the moist transparent air, whether the 
ridge was 500 feet high, or double or four times that 
I height. The intermediate height is usually nearest 
the truth. 

Thorshavn, the capital of Paeroe, is a strange little 
place. The land shelves down rather abruptly to a 
little bay, round the head of which the town is built ; 
and the habitations are perched among the rocks on 
such flat spaces as may be found for their reception. 
The result is irregular and picturesque ; and very 
peculiar, for something like a scramble is necessary 



62 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ii. 

to get along some of the principal * streets.' Abov^ 
the town a little clearing forms a miniature la^ 
and garden gay with bright flowers in front of th< 
Governor's house, a pretty wooden cottage residenc 
like a villa in a suburb of one of the Scandinavia 
towns. 

Eaeroe, with its wet sunless climate and precarious 
crops of barley ; its turf- thatched cottages and quie< 
little churches ; its glorious cliffs and headlands and 
picturesque islets, the haunt of the eider-duck and 
the puffin; and its hardy, friendly islanders, with their 
quaint, simple, semi-Icelandic semi-Danish customs, 
has been described again and again. Eseroe only came 
to us as a pleasant haven of rest in the middle of our 
northern work. We paid it two visits of a week each 
in successive years, and one of the most pleasant 
memories in the minds of all of us connected with 
these expeditions will always be the cordial sympathy 
which we received from our friend M. Holt en the 
Danish Governor, and his accomplished wife. M. 
Holten received us with the most friendly hospitality, 
and did everything in his power at all times to render 
us assistance and to further our views. He introduced 
us to the leading inhabitants of his dominion, and 
during the many pleasant evenings which we spent 
at his residence we heard all that we could of the 
economy of this simple little community, perhaps the 
most primitive and the most isolated in Europe. To 
Governor Holten I have already had the pleasure of 
dedicating a singularly beautiful sponge-form which 
we discovered during our return voyage ; and to 
Madame Holten, to whose graceful pencil I am in- 
debted for the vimettes of Eaeroe scenerv which so 



CHAP. II.] THE CRUISE OF THE 'LIGHTNING: 63 

appropriately close these chapters, I now dedicate 
this volume, in remembrance of the great kindness 
which we invariably experienced from her and from 
her excellent husband. 

We lay in Thorshavn harbour till the 26th of 
August, the weather being so bad as to make all idea 
of pursuing our work outside hopeless. "Whenever it 
was possible we dredged in the fiords with Pseroese 
boats and native boatmen, and we made the acquaint- 
ance of Sysselman Mtiller, the representative of Eseroe 
in the Danish Parliament, who had made himself 
thoroughly conversant with the mollusca of Pseroe, 
and had contributed his information to a list published 
in 1867 by Dr. O. A. L. Morch. The shallow-water 
fauna seems to be scanty, as we find frequently to be 
.the case on a bed of decomposing trap. It is of a 
character intermediate between that of Shetland and 
the Scandinavian coast. The forms which perhaps 
interested us most were Fusus despectus, L. — a hand- 
some shell which may possibly be only a very marked 
variety of Fusus anliquiis, L. ; but if so, it is one with 
very definite limit of distribution, as it occurs only 
rarely in very deep water in the British seas. In water 
of moderate depth among the Pseroes it is abundant, 
apparently replacing F. antiquus. Another common 
Faeroe shell is Tellina calcarea, Chemnitz, — a very 
abundant British glacial clay fossil, but not hitherto 
j found recent in the British area. In the glacial clays 
jaear Eothesay it is in regular beds associated with 
Mya truncata, L , var. uddevallensis, Porbes ; Saxi- 
oava norvegica, Sphengleu; Fecten islcmdicus, O. P. 
MuLLER, and other northern forms, and frequently 
so fresh that the two valves are still in position and 



^ 



64 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA, [chap. n. 

held together hy their connecting ligament. A some- ^ 
what peculiar variety of Uchinus sphcera, O.E.Muller, ! 
was met with in one of the Pjords associated with a 
large form of U.Jlemingii, Ball ; and what appears to 
be a small form of Cuciimaria frondosa, Gunner, was 
very common in shallow water on the tangles. [ 

While we were lying in Thorshavn harbour the | 
Danish gunboat ' Pylla ' and the Erench steam trans- 1 
port ' L' Orient ' came in on their way from Iceland. 
Both of the vessels from the north had come through , 
bad weather, and were glad to run into shelter. During ■ 
the stay of the three war- ships the little capital was 
quite gay, and the Governor had abundant opportunity 
of exercising his genial hospitality. On the 26th of 
August, as the barometer rose a little and there - 
seemed to be some slight sign of improvement, we \ 
left Thorshavn and steamed southward to dredge if? 
possible in the deep channel between Eseroe and Shet- j 
land ; but the same evening wild weather set in again ' 
with a strong gale of wind from the north-westward, 
and the barometer down to 29*08. The hook and i 
screw-jack fastenings of the main rigging went one! 
after another, and we narrowly escaped losing thei 
mast. The gale lasted till the 29th, when there was 
rather better weather ; and after lying-to and drifting 
to the north-east for nearly three days, we took a 
sounding in lat. 60° 45' N., long. 4° W W. (Station 6). 
This gave a depth of 510 fathoms and a bottom tern- \ 
perature of 0° 0. On the evening of the 29th and ■ 
on the 30th the weather was sufficiently moderate to 
allow us to work our dredging gear, and the first 
trials were of great interest, as it was our first oppor- 
tunity of making the attempt in so great a depth of 



CHAP, ir.] THE CRUISE OF THE ' lightning: 05 

water. The operation seemed however to present no 
1 special difficulty, and nearly every haul was success- 
I ful. The bottom was sand and gravel, mostly derived 
I from the disintegration of the old rocks of the Scottish 
1 plateau. Animal life was not abundant, but several 
groups were fairly represented. Sandy rhizopods of a 
ii large size were numerous, and there were several con- 
I spicuous crustaceans and echinoderms, among the latter 
; an example of Astropecien tenuispijius, of a brilliant 
^ scarlet colour, which came up entangled on the line. 

On the 31st bad weather set in again, and we could 

neither sound nor dredge. On the 1st of September 

we got one temperature sounding in 550 fathoms with 

- r-2 C, but could do no work. 

The next day, September 2, was more moderate, 

land we dredged all day at a depth of only 170 fathoms 

lover a very restricted shoal, which, singularly enough, 

we could not find when we sought for it the year 

I after in the * Porcupine.' Here we found animal 

I life abundant and varied — a mixture of Celtic and 

I Scandinavian forms. The bottom was chiefly small 

'rounded pebbles of the dark anamesite of the Faeroes, 

and sticking to them, singly or in little groups like 

•plums on their stems, were many large specimens 

|of the rare brachiopod Terehratida cranium, O. E. 

' MtJLLER, along with abundance of the commoner form 

Terehratulina caput-serpentis, L. 

The following day, September 3, we were again in 
deep water, about 500 fathoms, with a bottom tem- 
perature a little below the freezing-point, the tliermo- 
meter at the surface giving 10"* 5 C. Here we took 
representatives of many invertebrate groups — rhizo- 
pods, sponges, echinoderms, crustaceans, and molluscs; 



QQ THE DEPTHS OF THE SEJ. [chap. ii. 

among them a magnificent specimen of a new star- 
fish A¥hich has been since described by M. G. O. Sars 
under the name of BrisiHga coronata (Fig. 5). The 
genus Brislnga was discovered in 1853 by M. P. Chr. 
Absjornsen, who then dredged several specimens of 
another species, B. endecacnemos, Absj., at a depth 
of 100 to 200 fathoms in the Ilardangerfjord on 
the Norway coast a little to the south of Bergen. 
These are certainly very wonderful creatures. At 
first sight they look intermediate between ophiurids 
and star-fishes, the arms too thick and soft for the 
former, but much more long and delicate than we 
usually find them in the latter group. 

The disk is small, about 20 to 25 mm. in diameter ; 
in B, endecacnemos nearly smooth, in B. coronata 
covered with spines. The madreporiform tubercle is 
on the dorsal surface close to the edge of the disk. A 
firm ring of calcareous ossicles forms and supports the j 
edge of the disk, and gives attachment to the arms. 
The arms are ten or eleven in number : the latter 
number is probably abnormal. They are sometimes 
as much as 30 centimetres in length : narrow at the 
base, where they are inserted into the ring ; enlarging 
considerably towards the middle, where the ovaries are \ 
developed ; and tapering again to the end. Rows of ■ 
long spines border the ambulacral grooves ; the spines 
are covered with a soft skin, which, when the animal is | 
quite fresh, forms a little transparent, sack-like expan- 
sion full of fluid at the end of each spine. The soft 
covering of the spines is full of small pedicellarise, 
and pedicellarise are likewise scattered in groups over 
the surface of the arms and disk. 

The arms in B. endecacnemos are nearly smooth, 



1'. II.] THE CRUISE OF THE ' LIGHTNING: 



<i7 




Flu. o.—Brisinga coromta, G. O. Saks. >'atunil size. (No. 7.) 

F 2 



68 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ir. 

ribbed transversely here and there by slightly raised 
calcareous bands passing irregularly partly or wholly 
across them. In B. coronata these ridges are sur- 
mounted by crests of spines. Both species are of i 
a rich crimson colour, passing into orange-scarlet. | 
The arms are easily detached from the disk. We 
never got one of either species nearly entire, but even 
coming up in pieces they were certainly the most ; 
striking objects we met with. One was sufficient to i 
give a glorious dash of colour to a whole dredgeful. \ 
"Le nom Brisinga est derive d'un bijou brillant | 
(Brising) de la deesse Prey a," which brings a pleasant j 
flavour of Scandinavian heathendom about it. " J'ai \ 
trouve cefcte Asterie brillante a Hardangerfjord a Taide 
du dredge a la fin du mois d'aout 1853, a la profon- 
deur de 100 a 200 brasses, ou elle etait placee sur le 
plan lateral et perpendiculaire d'une montagne, qui 
semblait descendre de 80 a 90 brasses jusqu'a 200 
brasses et meme de plus. Elle se trouve bien rare- 
ment ; en draguant plus de huit jours avec beaucoup[ 
d'assiduite dans la meme localite et dans les environs 
je trouvais seulement quelques bras, et quelques indi- 
vidus plus ou moins grands, dont le plus petit entre 
les pointes des bras opposes avait une grandeur de 6| 
pouces, le plus grand environ 2 pieds de diametre.j 
Aucun d'eux n'etait sans etre endommao^e ; Tanimali 
est extremement fragile et semble, comme les coma-j 
tules et quelques esp^ces d'Ophiolepis et d'OphiotrixJ 
a cause de la pression diminuante de I'eau, tire vers 
la surface, par un effort vigoureux, se defaire de cesj 
bras, qui toujours se detachent a I'endroit ou ils sonij 
unis avec I'anneau du disque. Le surpois du bras enj- 
comparaison du disque tr^s petit, et la grandeur con- 



CHAP. II.] THE CRUISE OF THE 'LIGHTNING.' 69 

siderable de ranimal, augmente aussi les difficultes a 
le faire sortir du dredge sans etre dechire. Quoique 
je fusse assez heureux pour le saisir avant qu'il sortait 
de Teau, et malgre toute la precaution possible, je 
r^ussis settlement a eonserver deux disques d'une paire 
de bras fermes, mais a ceux-ci meme le peau etait 
rompue. Quand I'animal est complet et coherent, 
ainsi que je I'ai vu une ou deux fois sous I'eau dans 
le dredge, il est veritablement un exemplaire de luxe, 
une ' gloria maris.' "^ 

The bad weather was unrelenting, and again inter- 
rupted us for a couple of days : we got a sounding 
however on the 5th of September, in lat. 60° 30' N. 
and long. T 16' W., with no bottom at 450 fathoms 
and a minimum temperature about the freezing-point. 
It will be seen by the chart that the last five stations, 
Nos. 7 to 11, form an oblique line from south-east to 
! north-west between the northern part of Orkney and 
I the FaBroe Bank. The bottom is throughout a mixture 
I of gravel and sand, with patches of mud ; Nos. 7 and 8 
j principally the debris of the metamorphic rocks of 
I the north of Scotland ; Nos. 9, 10, and 11 chiefly 
\ volcanic, the detritus of the F^roe traps. This line 
I of soundings is entirely within what we afterwards 
learned to call the ' coM area,' the thermometer for 
depths below 300 fathoms indicating a temperature 
slightly above or below 0° C. 

As we were now again approaching the Fseroe 
fishing-banks, we shaped our course southwards, and 
on the morning of September 6th we sounded and 

^ Description d'un Xoiiveau Genre des Ast^ries, par P. Chr. Abs- 
jomsen, in "Fauna littoralis Norvegiee," by Dr. M. Sars, J. Koran, 
and D. C. Danielssen. Seconde Livraison. Bergen, ISoG, p. 90. 



™1 



70 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ^J 

dredged in lat. 59° 3G', long. 7° 20' (Station 12), with a | 
depth of 530 fathoms and a 'warm area' temperature ! 
of 6°-4 C. The dredging here was most interesting, j 
The bottom was for the first time ' Atlantic ooze/ a 
fine bluish-grey tenacious calcareous mud^ with some I 
sand and a considerable admixture of Glohigerince. 
Imbedded in this mud there came up an extraordinary ; 
number of silicious sponges of most remarkable and | 
novel forms. Most of these belonged to an order ^ 
which had been described by the writer a couple of I 
years before as ' Porifera vitrea,' a tribe at that time : 
but little known, but which have since become very \ 
familiar to us as denizens of the abyssal zone, i 
Working from more extended data, Professor Oscar j 
Schmidt afterwards defined the group more exactly ' 
as a familv, under the name of HexactlnellidcB — the i 
term which I shall here adopt. | 

The relations and peculiarities of this singular j 
group will be fully discussed in a future chapter. 
The most characteristic forms which we met with on j 
this occasion were the beautiful sea-nests of the \ 
Setubal shark-fishers, IloUenia carpenter i, Wy. T. ' 
(Fig. 6), and the even more strange Hyalonema 
lusitanieitm, BARiiOZA de Bocage, closely related toi 
the glass-rope sponges of Japan which have so long! 
perplexed naturalists to determine their position in ' 
the animal series, and their relation to their constant 
companion the parasitic Falythoa. 

B-oUenia carpenter i is an oval or sphere 90 to 100 1 
mm. in heiglit, with one large oscular opening at the! 
top about 30 mm. in diameter, whence a simple 
cylindrical cavity cupped at the bottom passes down 
vertically into the substance of the sponge to the 



I CHAP. II.] 



/7/A' CRUISE OF THE ' LIGHTNING. 



depth of 55 mm. The outer wall of the sponge 




Fro. fi, — HoUenia cni-ppnffH. Wyvili.e Thomson. Hfilf the nattual size. (No. 12.) 



consists of a complicated network of the cross-like 



72 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. i^J 

heads of five-rayed spicules. One ray of eacli 
spicule dips directly into the hody of the sponge, 
and the other four, which are at right angles to it, 
form a cross on the surface, giving it a beautiful ! 
stellate appearance. The silicious rays of one star 
curve towards and meet the rays of the neighbouring 
stars, and run parallel with them. All the rays of \ 
all the spicules are thickly invested Avith consistent f 
semi-transparent gelatinous matter, which binds their 
concurrent branches together by an elastic union, 
and fills up the angles of the meshes with softly \ 
curved viscous masses. This arrangement of the ^ 
spicules, free and yet adhering together by long 
elastic connections, produces a strong, flexible, and j 
very extensible tissue. The cylindrical oscular cavity | 
within the sponge is lined with nearly the same kind \ 
of network. 

When the sponge is living, the interstices of the ! 
silicious network are filled up both outside and in with \ 
a delicate fenestrated membrane formed of a glairy ! 
substance like white of e^^, which is constantly \ 
moving, extending or contracting the fenestrae, and \ 
gliding over the surface of the spicules. This | 
' sarcode,' which is the living flesh of the sponge, \ 
contains distributed through it an infinite number j 
of very minute spicules, presenting the most sin- ] 
gular and elegant forms very characteristic of each! 
species of sponge. A constant current of water 
carried along by the action of cilia passes in by: 
apertures in the outer wall, courses through thej 
passages in the loose texture of the intermediate I 
sponge-substance carrying organic matter in solution 
and particles of nourishment into all its interstices, 



CHAP. II.] THE CRUISE OF THE 'LIGHTNING: 73 

and finally passes out by the large ' osculum ' at the 
top. Over the upper third of the sponge a multitude 
of radiating rigid silicious spicules form a kind of 
ornamental frill, and from the lower third a perfect 
maze of delicate glassy filaments, like fine white hair, 
spread out in all directions, penetrating the semi-fluid 
mud, and supporting the sponge in its precarious bed 
by increasing its surface indefinitely while adding 
but little to its weight. 

This is only one of the ways by which sponges 
anchor themselves in the ooze of the deep sea. 
Syalonema sends right down through the soft 
mud a coiled whisp of strong spicules, each as thick 
as a knitting needle, which open out into a brush 
as the bed gets firmer, and fix the sponge in its place 
somewhat on the principle of a screw pile. A very 
singular sponge from deep water off the Loffoten 
Islands spreads into a thin circular cake, and adds 
to its surface by sending out a flat border of silky 
spicules, like a fringe of white floss- silk round a 
little yellow mat ; and the lovely Euplectella, whose 
beauty is imbedded up to its fretted lid in the grey 
mud of the seas of the Philippines, is supported by 
a frill of spicules standing up round it like Queen 
Elizabeth's ruff. 

The sponges of the deep-water ooze are by no 
means confined to one group. The Hexactinellidce 
are perhaps the most abundant, but corticate sponges 
even, closely allied to those which look so rigid when 
fixed to stones in shallow water, send out long anchor- 
ing spicules and balance themselves in the soft mud 
(Fig. 7) ; and off the coast of Portugal Mr. Gwyn 
Jeffreys dredged in 1870 several small forms of 



74 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. n. 

the B.alicliondrid(B^ with long supporting fibrous 
beards. 

Prom its appearance when brought up Iloltenia 
evidently lives buried in the mud to its upper fringe 
of spicules. When freshly dredged, it is loaded with 




Fir.. 7. — 7'is»ji/!on,i« o(/«ric?/o?')nis, Wyville Thomson. Natural size. ;Xo. 12.) 

pale grey semi-fluid sarcode, full of Glohigerincp, 
TriloculhKE, and other rhizopods, and covered in our 
northern localities with the little ophiurid Aniphiura 
ahifssicola , Sars, and the exquisitely delicate trans- 



CHAP, n] THE CRUISE OF THE ' LIGHTNING: 75 

parent clam, Pecten vitreus, Chemnitz. Holtenia 
extends from the Butt of the Lews to Gibraltar, in 
from 500 to 1,000 fathoms. Mr. Saville Kent, 
dredging in Mr. Marshall Hall's yacht 'Noma,' found 
a singular variety off the coast of Portugal, which 
from its flatter, more hemispherical form, and more 
rigid anchoring spicules, probably inhabits a firmer 
medium.* 

As might be expected, the Atlantic ooze of this 
station, rich in rhizopods giving an ample supply of 
food, and with a comparatively mild climate, yielded 
many living forms belonging to various orders. Along 
with Globigerince and other small forms there were 

1 many large rhizopods, among them Rhabdammina 
abyssorum, Sars, a singularly regular triradiate sandy 
form of a bright orange colour, and very hard ; from 
analyses made by Dr. Williamson at the request 

I of Dr. Carpenter, its hardness is apparently owing to 
the cement employed by the animal in the construc- 
tion of its case containing phosphate of iron, the only 
instance of the use of this substance for such a 
purpose of which we are yet aware : Astrorhiza 
limicola, Sandahl, a large irregularly -formed rhizo- 
pod with a soft test of mud and sand : many large 
CornuspircB and TexttilaricB, and large Bi- and Tri- 
locidince and other miliolines : a few zoophytes, and 
especially common the curious sea-pen Ko'pliohelem- 
mon miilleri, Sars, and the fine branching coral, 

1 On the Hexactinellidae, or Hexradiate Spiculed Silicious Sponges, 
taken in the ' Noma ' Expedition off the coast of Portugal ; with 
Description of New Species and Revision of the Order. By W. Saville 
Kent, E.L.S., F.R.M.S., of the Geological Department, British 
Museum. (Monthly Microscopic Journal, November 1st, 1870.) 



76 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ii. 

Lophohelia prolifera, Pallas : among Echinoderms 
some beautiful varieties of Echinus norvegicus, D. and 
K., E. elegans, D. and K., Opliiocten sericeum, Porbes, 
and OpJdacantha spinulosa, M. and T., which seems to 
be universal in deep water, and the curious little 
crinoid Rhizocrinus loffotensis, Saes, which will be 
described hereafter : some remarkable crustaceans, 
including as one of the inost prominent a scarlet 
Munida with remarkably large brilliant eyes, of the 
colour and lustre of burnished copper. 

We now proceeded towards Stornoway, which we 
reached on the 9th of September, dredging on our 
way in shallowing water, and still meeting with in- 
teresting things such as Antedon celticus, Bakrett, 
collected previously by Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys on the 
coast of Ross-shire; abundance of 'the pij)er,' Cidaris 
p>apillata, Leske, until lately one of the prizes of the 
British collector, now known to be perhaps the 
most abundant of the larger living forms at depths 
from 250 to 500 fathoms in the British seas. 

The weather now looked more promising. I was 
unfortunately obliged to return to my duties in 
Dublin ; but as the results already obtained led Dr. 
Carpenter strongly to desire an opportunity of 
examining both the temperature and the animal life 
of still deeper waters, it was thought by him and 
Captain May that, notwithstanding the lateness of the 
season, it would be worth while to venture another 
short cruise in a westerly direction, where it Avas 
known from previous soundings that the depth was 
beyond 1,000 fathoms. Accordingly, after re- fitting, 
an operation which in some respects was sorely , 
needed, and restoring as far as possible the lost dredg- ! 



CHAP. 1 1.] THE CR VISE OF THE ' LIGHTNING: 7 7 

ing gear, the ' Lightning ' once more steamed out of 
Stornoway Harbour on the 14th of September. 

After a fine run of 140 miles in a north-westerly 
direction from the Butt of the Lews, a sounding was 
taken on the morning of September 15th, in lat. 
59° 59', long. 9° 15^ with a bottom of Atlantic ooze, 
, at a depth of 650 fathoms (Station 14). Still running 
1 north-westward sixty miles further, another sound- 
1 ing was taken on the 18th, at 570 fathoms, when the 
scoop of the sounding instrument brought up scarcely 
! anything but entire Glohigerince, like the finest sago. 
I Fifty miles further, in the same direction, bottom 
I was found at 650 fathoms; but on this occasion 
J the sounding-lead and three thermometers were 
\ unfortunately lost in hauling up, so that the tem- 
I perature was not ascertained. A haul of the dredge 
\ was taken, however, at this great depth, 120 fathoms 
! deeper than at any of the previous stations, perfectly 
successfully, the dredge bringing up 2\ cwt. of very 
viscid greyish white mud. The mud was everywhere 
traversed by the long glassy root-fibres of anchoring 
sponges, and about 50 fathoms from the dredge there 
were two white tufts of such fibres sticking to the 
' rope, no doubt pulled oflF the ground, as they en- 
tangled in their meshes some ophiurids, some small 
I crustaceans, and one or two tube-forming annelids. 
I In the mud was a remarkable sea-pen, which Pro- 
fessor Kolliker, who has undertaken the description 
of such things procured in our several expeditions, 
refers to a new genus under the name of Bathy- 
ptilum carpenteris and some large foraminifera. 
; Dr. Carpenter now stood due north, wishing to get 
' into the deep trough between the Hebrides and 



78 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ii. 

Rockall, and on the morning of September 17th 
sounded at a depth of 620 fathoms, in lat. 59° 49', 
long. 12° 36', with a ' warm area ' temperature. 

The weather now again broke, became too un- 
favourable for work, and grew worse until the fore- 
noon of the 20th, when St. Kilda was in sight and it 
was blowing a strong gale with a heavy sea. At day- 
light on Monday the 21st off Barra Head the south 
point of the Hebrides, a fresh easterly wind blowing 
the barometer low and appearances suspicious, Capt. 
May did not deem it advisable to stand to sea again. 
He therefore, after consultation with Dr. Carpenter, 
determined to conclude the work, proceeded down the 
Sound of Mull, and anchored at Oban on the same 
afternoon. j 

At Oban Dr. Carpenter and his young son, who 
had manfully borne no little hardship and helped to 
lighten the evil times to his seniors, went on shore 
and proceeded southwards by land. 

Her fate pursued the ' Lightning.' After lying a 
couple of days at Oban, Captain May started for 
Pembroke on the 24th September. On the 25th 
off the Calf of Man, the barometer having suddenly . 
fallen and the wind and sea fast rising, he determined | 
to run for Holyhead, when suddenly, without increase 
of wind and in a roll not heavier than usual, the whole 
of the weather fore-rigging went by the straightening 
or breaking of the iron hooks which held it. Luckily 
the mast did not fall, and after an hour spent in tem- 
porarily repairing it the ' Lightning ' proceeded on - 
her course and anchored in the new harbour of 
Holyhead about 6 p.m. i 

The general results of the ' Lightning ' expedition 



CHAP. II.] THE CRUISE OF THE 'LIGHTNING: 79 

were upon the whole as satisfactory as we liad ventured 
to anticipate. The vessel was certainly not well suited 
for the purpose, and the weather throughout the cruise 
was very severe. During the six weeks which elapsed 
between our departure from Oban and our return only 
ten days were available for dredging in the open sea, 
and on four of these only we were in water over 500 
fathoms deep. On our return Dr. Carpenter submitted 
to the Royal Society a preliminary report on the 
general results of the cruise, and these were regarded 
by the Council of the Society as sufficiently new and 
valuable to justify a strong representation to the 
Admiralty urging the importance of continuing an 
investigation Avhich had already, even under unfavour- 
able circumstances, achieved a fair measure of success. 

It had been shown beyond question that animal 
life is varied and abundant, represented by all the 
invertebrate groups, at depths in the ocean down to 
650 fathoms at least, notv/ithstanding the extra- 
ordinary conditions to which animals are there 
exposed. 

It had been determined that, instead of the water 

i3f the sea beyond a certain depth varying according 

jto latitude having a uniform temperature of 4° C, an 

indraught of Arctic water may have at any depth 

beyond the influence of the direct rays of the sun a 

temperature so low as — 2° C. ; or on the other hand, 

1 warm current may have at any moderate depth a 

:emperature of 6°-5 C. : and it had been shown that 

^reat masses of water at different temperatures are 

noving about, each in its particular course ; main- 

aining a remarkable system of oceanic circulation, 

md yet keeping so distinct from one another that 



80 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. II. 



an hour's sail may be sufficient to pass from the 
extreme of heat to the extreme of cold. 

Pinally, it had been shown that a large proportion 
of the forms living at great depths in the sea belong 
to species hitherto unknown, and that thus a new 
field of boundless extent and great interest is open 
to the naturalist. It had been further shown that 
many of these deep-sea animals are specifically identi- 
cal with tertiary fossils hitherto believed to be extinct, 
while others associate themselves with and illustrate 
extinct groups of the fauna of more remote periods; 
as, for example, the vitreous sponges illustrate and 
unriddle the ventriculites of the chalk. 




THOUSHAVN. 



FIAP. II.] 



THE CRUISE OF THE ' LIGHTNING: 



81 



APPENDIX A. 



'artimlars of Depth, Temperatwe, and Position at the various 
Dredging Stations of If. M.S. ' Lightning! ^^ i^^ Summer of 
1868 ; the Temperatures corrected for pressure. 



amber 
. Jtation. 


Depth in 
Fathom^. 


6 


510 


7 


500 


8 


550 


10 


500 


11 


450 


12 


530 ; 


14 


650 


15 


570 

; 


17 


; 620 ; 



Bottom 
Temperature. 



Surface 
Temperature. 



Position. 



0°- 5 C. 
1 1 
1 -2 
• 3 
0- 5 
6 -4 

5 • 8 

6 • 4 
6 -4 



ir 


1 c. ! 


10 


5 


11 


7 


10 


5 


10 





11 


3 


11 


7 


11 


1 


11 


• 1 



60° 45' N. 
60 7 
60 10 
60 28 
60 30 
59 36 

59 59 

60 38 
59 49 



4°49'W. 
5 21 

5 59 

6 55 

7 16 
7 20 
9 15 

11 7 

12 36 



i 



¥: 



CHAPTER III. 

THE CRUISES OE THE ' PORCUPINE.' 

The Equipment of the Vessel. — The first Cruise, under the direction 
of Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, off the West Coast of Ireland and in the 
Channel between Scotland and Rockall. — Dredging carried down 
to 1,470 fathoms. — Change of Arrangements. — Second Cruise ; to 
the Bay of Biscay. — Dredging successful at 2,435 fathoms. — Third 
Cruise ; in the Channel between Faeroe and Shetland. — The Fauna 

of the ' Cold Area.' 

J 
Appendix A. — Official Documents and Official Accounts' of preliminary^ 
Proceedings in connection with the Explorations in H.M. Survey- 
ing-vessel * Porcupine,' during the Summer of 1869. 

Appendix B. — Particulars of Depth, Temperature, and Position at tlifj 
various Dredging Stations of H.M.S. ' Porcupine,' in the Summei; 
of 1869. ; 






The bracketed numbers to the woodcuts in this chapter refer to the dredging ■; 



stations on Plates IL, III., and IV, 



On the 18th of March, 1869, an oral communicatioif 
was made by the Hydrographer to the Navy that th 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty had accede< 
to the wish of the Council of the Royal Society, an^ 
that H.M. Surveying-vessel 'Porcupine' had bee 
assigned for the service. 

The equipment of the 'Porcupine' progressed rapidl 
under the direction of her commander. Captain Calve:^ 
with the careful superintendence in all matters bearir 



• CHAP. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE * PORCUPINE: 83 

upon the efficiency of the scientific appliances, of 
Dr. Carpenter assisted by a committee composed 
of the officers and a few of the members of the Royal 
Society. The * Porcupine/ though a small vessel, was 
well suited for the work ; thoroughly seaworthy, very 
steady, and fitted up for surveying purposes. Captain 
Calver and his officers had long been engaged in the 
arduous and responsible duty of conducting the sur- 
vey of the east coast of Britain, and were trained to 
minute accuracy and thoroughly versed in the use of 
instruments and in the bearings of scientific investi- 
gation. The crew were chiefly known and tried men, 
Shetlanders who had spent many successive summers 
in the ' Porcupine ' under Captain Calver' s command ; 
returning to their homes in Shetland for the winter, 
while the vessel was laid up and the officers employed 
in bringing up their office work at their head- quarters 
in Sunderland. 

The working of the dredge was superintended 
throughout by Captain Calv^er, whose trained ability 
very early gave him so complete a mastery over the 
operation that he found no difficulty in carrying it 
down to depths at which this kind of exploration 
would have been previously deemed out of the ques- 
tion. It is impossible to speak too highly of the skill 
he displayed, or too warmly of the sympathy he showed 
I in our work. It is a pleasure to add that the other 
I officers of the ' Porcupine,' Staff-Commander Inskip, 
I Mr. Davidson, and Lieutenant Browning, most heartily 
and zealously seconded their commander in promoting 
I alike the scientific objects of the expedition and the 
' welfare and comfort of all who were engaged in carry- 
ing them out. 

G 2 



84 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. jii. 

As it was intended that the exploration in the 
' Porcupine ' in the summer of 1869 should occupy 
much more time, and if possible be much more 
thorough than that in the ' Lightning ' the year 
before, the preparations for the ' Porcupine ' expedi- 
tion were much more elaborate and comprehensive. 
The Committee of the Eoyal Society were desirous 
that various important questions as to the physical 
condition and chemical composition of the water at 
great depths should be investigated ; and the singular 
temperature results of the former cruise ably discussed 
by Dr. Carpenter in his preliminary report had excited 
so much curiosity and interest that their further elu- 
cidation was regarded as vieing in importance with 
that of the distribution and conditions of animal life. 
It was consequently decided that the naturalists direct- 
ing the exj)edition should be accompanied by assistants 
trained in chemical and physical work, and the chart- 
room of the vessel was fitted up as a temporary 
laboratory, with physical and chemical apparatus and 
microscopes. 

The vessel was available from the beginning of 
May to the middle of September, and as it was im- 
possible for those who had conducted the previous 
expedition to be absent so long from their public 
duties, it was resolved to have three separate cruises ; 
and Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, P.R.S., whose co-operation 
was specially valuable from his thorough knowledge 
of the species and distribution of recent and fossil 
mollusca, was associated with Dr. Carpenter and 
myself, and undertook the scientific charge of the 
first cruise. 

Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys was accompanied by Mr. W. 



CHAP. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 85 

Lant Carpenter, B.Sc., as chemist and physicist ; and 
(luring the first cruise they explored the west coast of 
Ireland, the Porcupine Bank, and the chano el between 
Rockall and the coast of Scotland. It was originally 
arranged that the second expedition, under the charge 
of the writer with- the assistance of Mr. Hunter, 
M.A., P.C.S., assistant in the Ohemical Laboratory in 
Belfast, in the physical department, should take up 
the ground to the north of Bockall, leading northwards 
to the point where we had left off the year before ; 
but subsequently, for reasons which will be explained 
hereafter, we altered our plan and took the second 
cruise in the Bay of Biscay. Dr. Carpenter took the 
direction of the last cruise, in which we carefully 
worked over the ' Lightning channel,' and checked 
our previous observations ; Mr. P. Herbert Carpenter, 
our former companion in the ' Lightning,' doing the 
analyses of water, and determining the amount and 
composition of its contained air; while I went as 
supernumerary and made myself generally useful. 

The special appliances and apparatus which were 
prepared under Dr. Carpenter's superintendence, after 
much consultation among experts in different depart- 
j ments, for carrying out the various investigations, will 
be described, each in its place, when describing the 
several methods of investigation and their general 
results. 

Por the management of the dredging operations 
two assistants were appointed on the recommendation 
of Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, — Mr. Laughrin, of Polj^erro, 
an old coast-guard man and an associate of the Lin- 
naean Society, for dredging and sifting ; and Mr. B. 
S. Dodd, for picking out, cleaning, and storing the 



86 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iti. 

specimens procured. Both remained with us the 
whole summer. 

The first cruise of the ' Porcupine ' under the scien- 
tific charge of Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys commenced on the 
18th of May and ended on the 13th of July. It ex- 
tended for a distance of about 450 miles along the 
Atlantic coasts of Ireland and Scotland, from Cape 
Clear to Hockall; and included Lough Swilly and 
Lough Eoyle and the North Channel to Belfast. 

The first dredgings were made about 40 miles off 
Valentia, in 110 fathoms water with a bottom of 
mud and sand. The result of this dredging gives a 
fair idea of the fauna of the 100-fathom line on the 
west coast of Ireland. The moUusca are mostly 
northern species, such as Necera rostrata^ Sprengler; 
Verticordla ahyssicola, Jeffreys; Dentalimn ahys- 
soritm, Sars ; Buccinum humphreysianiim, Bennett ; 
and Fleurotoma carinatttm, Bivona. Some however, 
as Ostrea cochlear, PoLi ; Aporrhals serresianns, 
Miciiaud; Murex lamellosiis, Cristofori and Jan; 
and Trochiis gramdatus, Born, — are Mediterranean 
forms, and impart somewhat of a southern character 
to the assemblage. Cidaris papillata, Leske ; Echi- 
nus rarispina, G. O. Sars ; U. elegans, D. and K. ; 
Spatangus raschi^ Loven ; and several varieties of 
CaryopJiyllia horealis, Eleming, were abundant: 
but these species seem to abound at a depth of from 
100 to 200 fathoms from the Mediterranean to the 
North Cape. 

After coaling at Galway they proceeded southwards, 
and as the weather was very rough and unpromising 
they dredged in shallow water, from 20 to 40 fathoms, 
in Dingle Bay : and the next week, with improving 



1 



I 



CHAP, in.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 87 

weather, off Yalentia and between Valentia and 
Galway, at depths varying from 80 to 808 fathoms 
(Station 2), with a temperature at the latter depth of 
5°-2 C. The general character of the fauna was that 
which we have hitherto been in the habit of regarding 
as Northern. Several interesting things were met 
with — Nuciila timiidiila. Malm.; JJedaJrigida, ToubIjI,; 
Verticordia ahyssicola, Jeffreys ; and Siphonodenta- 
lium qumquangtilare, Forbes. Among the echino- 
derms a multitude of the large form oi Echinus norve- 




¥ia.%.—Gonopl(xxrhcmiboides,¥KB^ic\vs,. Young. Twice the natural size. (No. 3.) 

gicus, D. and K., which I am now inclined to regard, 
along with several of its allies, as a mere variety of 
E. flemingii, Ball ; and the fine asterid already 
mentioned, Brisinga coronata, G. O. Sars. Some 
interesting crustaceans, including Gonoplax rhom- 
boides, Pab. (Fig. 8), a well-known Mediterranean 
species, and a young specimen of Geryon fridens, 
Kroyer (Fig. 9), a rare Scandinavian form, and the 
only known North European brachyurous crustacean 



88 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. hi. 

which had not previously been taken in the British 
seas. 

Here the Miller-Casella thermometers were tried 
for the first time and compared with those of the 
ordinary construction. The minimum recorded by 
one of the former w^as 5°-2 C, while that recorded by 
one of the best ordinary instruments of the Hydro- 
graphic Office pattern was 7°*3 C. As this difference 
of 2° C. was almost exactly what the results of the ex- 
periment previously made had indicated as the effect 




Fig. 9. — Geryon trkhns,Kvt,oy}s.-R. Young. Twice tlie natural size. (No. 7.) 

of a pressure of 1 ton on the square inch, which is 
about equal to the pressure of a column of sea-water 
of 800 fathoms, this close coincidence gave great 
confidence in the practical working of the protected 
instrument, a confidence which all subsequent ex- 
perience has fully justified. 

Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys and his companions next pro- 
ceeded to examine the sea-bed between Galway and 
Porcupine Bank, a shoal discovered during one of 



CHAP. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 89 

tlie previous cruises of our little vessel under the 
command of Lieut. Hoskyn, K.N.. The deepest 
dredging of this excursion was 1,230 fathoms, with 
a minimum temperature of 3°'2 Q., and a bottom of 
fine grey mud with a considerable admixture of 
sand. Animals were abundant even at this great 
depth : among the moUusca several new forms allied 
to Area; Trochus minutissimus, Mighel, a North 
American species ; and several others ; several crus- 
taceans, and many interesting foraminifera. As in 
previous dredgings in deep water, the miliolines were 
of very large size, and the large cristellarians showed 
every gradation in their axis of growth from the 
i rectilineal to the spiral. In the shallower dredgings 
I of this cruise the general character of the fauna was 
much the same as before. It had what we have been 
in the habit of considering a northern ' facies,' but 
.probably, as already explained, because the largely 
extended deep-water fauna at a temperature of 
0° to + 3°C., of which it forms a part, has hitherto 
only been investigated off the coast of Scandinavia, 
where it crops up within reach of observation. 

Limopsis aurita, Brocchi; Area glacialis, Gray; 
Vertieordia abyssieola, Jepfreys; Dentalium ahys- 
Borum, Sars ; Troehus c'mereus, Da Costa ; Fusus 
despeetus, L. ; F, islandieus, Chem. ; F. fenestratus, 
TuRT ; Columhella haliceeti, Jeffreys ; Cidaris papil- 
lata, Leske ; Eehinus norvegiens, D. and K. ; and 
Lophohelia prolifera^ Pallas, were found in these 
dredgings. 

The ' Porcupine ' next put into Killibegs Bay, on 
the north coast of Co. Donegal, and coaled there for 
her trip to Kockall. As it was anticipated that this 



90 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. hi. 

trip would require a clear fortnight, as much coal was 
stacked on deck as was considered prudent. 

This cruise was entirely successful. The weather 
was remarkably fine, and Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys' party 
found it possible to work the dredge during seven 
days at depths exceeding 1,200 fathoms, and on four 
days at less depths. The greatest depth achieved was 
1,476 fathoms (Station 21), and this dredging yielded 
moUusca, a stalked-eyed crustacean with unusually 
large eyes, and a fine specimen of Holothuria tremula. 

The deep dredgings in this trip yielded an abund- 
ance of novel and most interesting results in every 
sub-kingdom of the invertebrates. Among the mol- 
lusca were valves of an imperforate brachiopod, with 
a septum in the lower valve, which Mr. Jeffreys 
proposes to name Atretia gnomon. Among the Crus- 
tacea were new species of the D tasty lidw, and many 
forms of Isopoda, Amphipoda, and Ostracoda, several 
of them new to science. 

Two or three specimens were obtained at a depth 
of 1,215 fathoms (Station 28) of a very remark- 
able echinoderm belonging to the genus Pour- 
talesia, A. Ag. All these specimens were appa- 
rently immature, judging by tlie condition of the 
ovaries. I have named this species provisionally 
Fourtalesia phiale. After careful consideration I 
have come to the conclusion that it is not the 
young of a form of which we afterwards took a 
mature example in the cold area between Pgeroe and 
Shetland (Station 64), which will be described here- 
after. Fine corals were constantly dredged in the 
more moderate depths, particularly great living masses 
of Lophohelia prolifera (T'ig. 30), with smaller tufts 



;hap. in.] THE CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUPINE: 



91 



of AmpMhelia ramea, and everywhere the several 
varieties of Ca?yophi/llia horealis. 

The foraminifera, as before, were remarkable for 
their size, and the same types were predominant ; 
but species were here obtained for the first time of a 




Fig. 10.— 0/-Z/(7oZi7e.s /8«iu'5si«ii/if;, Carpenter MSS. Magnified. (No. 28.) 

(peculiarly interesting Orbitolite, a type not hitherto 
liiscovered farther north than the Mediterranean, 
i^nd there attaining a comparatively small size. 
[OrbitoUtes temdssimus, CAnvB^TE^ MSS. (Pig. 10), 
IS Avhen complete about the size of a sixpence, and as 



« 



92 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iii. 

thin as paper. Erom its extreme tenuity and the 
ease with which the rings of chamherlets of which 
it is composed separate from one another, all our 
large specimens were more or less injured. All 
the chamherlets are on the same plane ; this spe- 
cies therefore belongs to the * simple type ' of the 
genus, though the form of the chamherlets corre- 
sponds, as Dr. Carpenter has pointed out, with those 
of the superficial layer in the complex type. Another 
peculiarity which Dr. Carpenter regards as of special 
importance in its general bearings, is that, instead of 
commencing with a ' central ' and ' circumambient ' 
chamber like the ordinary Orhitolites, this form com- 
mences with a spine of several turns like that of a 
young Cormispira, thus showing the fundamental 
conformity of this cyclical type to the spiral plan of 
growth.^ 

As I have already mentioned, it was the original 
intention to devote the second cruise to the exploration 
of an area to the west of the outer Hebrides, between 
Rockall and the south-western limit of last year's 
work in the ' Lightning.' During the first cruise 
however dredging had been carried down successfully 
to a depth of nearly 1,500 fathoms ; and the result 
so far realized our anticipations, and confirmed the 
experience of last year. The conditions (to that 
great depth at all events) were consistent Avith the life 

1 Researches on the Foraminifera. Part I. In the Philosophical; 
Transactions of the Royal Society of London for the year 1855 J 
P. 193 et seq. I 

Introduction to the Study of the Foraminifera. By William C ! 
Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., (fcc. Published for the Rayi 
Society, 1862. P. 106 et seq. \ 



CHAP. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUPINE: 93 

of all the types of marine invertebrata ; though 
undoubtedly in very deep water the number of species 
procured of the higher groups was greatly reduced, 
and in many cases the individuals appeared to be 
dwarfed. Prom these observations (which thoroughly 
corroborated those of Dr. Wallich and others, about 
which there had been some difference of opinion on 
account of the imperfection of the appliances at the 
command of the observers), we concluded that prob- 
ably in no part of the ocean were the conditions so 
altered by depth as to preclude the existence of 
animal life,— that life had no bathy metrical limit. 
Still we could not consider the question thoroughly 
settled ; and when upon consultation with Captain 
Calver we found him perfectly ready to attempt any 

j depth, and from his previous experience sanguine of 
success, we determined to apply to the Hydrographer 
to sanction an attempt to dredge in the deepest sound- 
ings within our reach, viz. 2,500 fathoms indicated 
on the chart 250 miles west of Usliant. The deepest 
reliable soundings do not go much beyond 3,000 
fathoms; and we felt that if we could establish the 
existence of life, and if we could determine the 
conditions with accuracy down to 2,500 fathoms, the 
general question would be virtually solved for all 
depths of the ocean, and any further investigation of 
its deeper abysses would be mere matter of curiosity 

I and of detail. The Hydrographer cordially acquiesced 
in this change of plan ; and on the I7th of July the 
* Porcupine' left Belfast under the scientific direction 
of the writer ; Mr. Hunter, P.C.S., Chemical Assistant 
in Queen's College, Belfast, taking charge of the 
examination and analysis of the sea-water. 



94 THE DEATHS OF THE SEA. [chap. m. 

The weather was very settled. On the Sunday, as 
we steamed down the Irish Channel there was nearly 
a dead calm, a slight mist hanging over the water 
and giving some very beautiful effects of coast 
scenery. On the evening of Sunday the 18th we 
anchored for the night off Bally cottin, a pretty little 
port about fifteen miles from Queenstown, and 
dropped round to Queenstown on Monday morning, 
where we anchored off Haulbowline Island at 7 a.m. 
At Queenstown Mr. P. Herbert Carpenter joined 
Mr. Hunter in the laboratory, to practise under his 
direction the gas-analysis, which it had been arranged 
that he should undertake during the third cruise. 
Monday the 18th was employed in coaling and pro- 
curing in Cork some things which were required for 
the chemical department ; and at 7 p.m. we cast off 
from the wharf at Haulbowline and proceeded on our 
voyage. 

During Monday night we steamed in a south- 
westerly direction across tiie mouth of the Channel. 
On Tuesday we dredged in 74 and 75 fathoms on the 
plateau which extends between Cape Clear and Ushant, ^ 
on a bottom of mud and gravel with dead shells and 
a few living examples of the generally diffused species 
of moderate depths. The weather was remarkably 
fine, the barometer 30*25 in., and the temperature of 
the air 22°-5 C. 

On Wednesday, July 21, we continued our south- 
westerly course, the chart indicating during the earlier 
part of the day that we were still in the shallow 
water of the plateau of the Channel. At 430 a.m., 
we dredged gravel and dead shells in 95 fathoms, but; 
toAvards mid- day the lead gave a much greater depth ; | 



niAP. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE * PORCUPINE: 95 

and in the afternoon, rapidly passing over the edge 

of the plateau, we dredged in 725 fathoms with a 

bottom of muddy sand (Station 36). This is about 

ithe bathymetrical horizon at which we find the 

ivitreous Sponges in the northern area ; and although 

the bottom is here very diff*erent, much more sandy 

with but a slight admixture of globigerina ooze, we 

iredged a specimen, tolerably perfect though dead, 

)f Aphrocallistes hocagei, Wright, a vitreous sponge 

ately described by Dr. E. Perceval Wright from a 

specimen procured by Professor Barboza de Socage 

rom the Cape-Yerde Islands, and one or two small 

pecimens of SoUenia carpenteri, Wy. T. The muddy 

;and contained a considerable proportion of gravel 

i-nd dead shells. 

On Thursday, July 22, the weather was still re- 

jaarkably fine. The sea was moderate, with a slight 

well from the north-west. We sounded in lat. 47° 38' 

f., long. 12° 08' W., in a depth of 2,435 fathoms 

Station 37), when the average of the Miller- C a sella 

hermometers gave a minimum temperature of 

'•5 C. 

As this was about the greatest depth which we had 

3ason to expect in this neighbourhood, we prepared 

) take a cast of the dredge. This operation, rather 

serious one in such deep water, will be described 

I detail in another chapter. It was perfectly suc- 

3ssful. The dredge-bag which was safely hauled 

1 deck at 1 o'clock on the morning of the 23rd, 

'ter an absence of 7^ hours and a journey of up- 

ards of eight statute miles, contained li cwt. of 

iry characteristic grey chalk-mud. The dredge 

speared to have dipped rather deeply into the 



96 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iii. 

soft mud, as it contained amorphous paste with hut 
a small proportion of fresh shells of GloUgerina 
and Orbulina. There was an appreciable quantity 
of diffused amorphous organic matter, which we 
were inclined to regard as connected, whether as 
processes, or ' mycelium,' or germs, with the various 
shelled and shell-less Protozoa, mixed very likely 
with the apparently universally distributed moner 
of deep water, Bathyhius, 

On careful sifting, the ooze was found to contain 
fresh examples of each of the Invertebrate sub-king- 
doms. When examined at daylight on the morning 
of the 23rd none of these were actually living, but 
their soft parts were perfectly fresh, and there waa 
ample evidence of their having been living when they 
entered the dredge. The most remarkable species 
were : — 

MoLLUSCA. — Dentalium, sp. n., of large size. 

Fecten fenestratus, Porbes, a Mediterranean 

species. 
Dacrydium vitreum, Torell ; Arctic, Norwegian, 

and Mediterranean. 
Scrobicularia nitida, Muller ; Norwegian, 

British, and Mediterranean. 
Necera obesa, Loven ; Arctic and Norwegian. 
Crustacea. — Anonyx Iwlbollii, Kroyer {==A. den- 
' ticulatus, Bate), with the secondary appendage 
of the upper antennae longer and more slender 
than in shallow-water specimens. 
Ampelisca cequicomis, Bruzelius. 
Munna, sp. n. > 

One or two Annelides and Gephyrea, which have 
not yet been determined. 



FiAP. 111.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 97 

EcHiNODERMATA. — OpMocten sericetim, Forbes ; 
several well-grown specimens. 
Echinocucumis typica, Saks. This seems to be a 
very widely distributed species ; we got it in 
almost all our deep dredgings, both in the 
warm and in the cold areas. 
A remarkable stalked crinoid allied to Hhizocrimis, 
lit presenting some very marked differences. 
PoLYZOA. — Salicornaria, sp. n. 
CcELENTERATA. — Two fragments of a hydroid 
)ophyte. 

Protozoa. — Numerous foraminifera belonging to 

le groups already indicated as specially charac- 

ristic of these abyssal waters ; together with a 

•anching flexible rhizopod, having a chitinous cortex 

f Lidded with globigerinaej which encloses a sarcodic 

ledulla of olive-green hue. This singular organism, 

( which fragments had been detected in other dredg- 

igs, here presented itself in great abundance. 

One or two small Sponges, which seem to be 
iferable to a new group. 

On Priday, July 23, we tried another haul at the 
sine depth ; but when the dredge came up at 1.30 p.m. 
i was found that the rope had fouled and lapped right 
rind the dredge-bag, and that there was nothing in 
ti3 dredge. The dredge was sent down again at 3 p.m., 
ad was brought up at 11 p.m., with upwards of 
2cwt. of ooze. — We got from this haul a new 
Sicies of Fleurotoina and one of Dentalium ; 
trohicularia nitida, Muller; Dacrydium mtreum, 
Irell; Ophiacantha spinulosa, M. and T. ; and 
Ohiocten Jcrdyeri, Lutken ; with a few crustaceans 
a 1 many foraminifera. 

H 



1 



98 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. 

In both of these last deep dredgings the dredge 
brought up a large number of extremely beautiful 
Folycystina, and some forms apparently intermediate 
between Folycystina and Sponges, which will be 
described shortly. These organisms did not seem to 
be brought from the bottom, but appeared to be sifted 
into the dredge on its way up. They were as numerous 
adhering to the outside of the dredging-bag as within 
it. During the soundings taken near this locality 
quite a shower of several beautiful species of the 
Folycystina and AcantJiometrina fell upon the chart- 
room skylight from the whole length of the sounding- 
line while it was being hauled in. 

We were now steaming slowly back towards the 
coast of Ireland; and on Monday, July 26, we 
dredged in depths varying from 557 to 584 fathoms 
(Stations 39-41) in ooze, with a mixture of sand and | 
dead shells. In these dredgings we got one or two 
very interesting alcyonarian zoophytes, and several | 
ophiurideans, including Opliiothrix fragilis, AmpMural 
ballii, and Ophiacantha spinulosa. Many of thej 
animals were most brilliantly phosphorescent, and wej 
were afterwards even more struck by this phenomenon^ 
in our northern cruise. In some places nearly every-l 
thing brought up seemed to emit light, and the mud| 
itself was perfectly full of luminous specks. Th^ 
alcyonarian s, the brittle-stars, and some annelids 
were the most brilliant. The Fennatulce, the Virgu- 
laricB, and the Gorgonice shone with a lambent white 
light, so bright that it showed quite distinctly the 
hour on a watch ; while the light from Ophiacanthi 
spimdosa was of a brilliant green, coruscating fronj 
the centre of the disk, now along one arm, now alonr 



MAP. 111.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 99 

j nother, and sometimes vividly illuminating the whole 
'utline of the star-fish. 

On the 27th we dredged in 862 fathoms (Station 42), 

he weather heing still very fine, and the sea quite 

;iiiooth. The bottom was ooze, with sand and dead 

hells. Among the Mollusea procured were a new 

peeies of Fleuronectia, Leda abyssicola (Arctic), Leda 

\iessinensis (a Sicilian tertiary fossil), Dentalkwi 

\igas (sp. n.), Siplioiiodentalium (sp. n.), Cerithium 

\ietula, Amaura (sp. n.), Columhella haliceeti, Cylichia 

yramidata (Norwegian and Mediterranean), and 

liany dead shells of Cavolma trispmosa. These 

itter were very common in all the northern dredg- 

iigs, though we never saw a living specimen on the 

'irface. 

During the afternoon we took a series of inter- 

lediate temperatures, at intervals of 50 fathoms, from 

le bottom at 862 fathoms to the surface. 

On the 28th we dredged in 1207 fathoms (Station 

3), with a bottom of ooze. A large Fusus of a new 

)ecies {F. atteniiaius, Jeffreys) was brought up alive, 

ith two or three Gephyrea^ and an example each of 

^phiocten sericeum and Fchinocucumis typica. We 

>ain dredged on the 29th and 30th, gradually draw- 

ig in towards the coast of Ireland in 865, 458, 180, 

ad 113 fathoms successively (Stations 44, 45). In 

58 fathoms (Station 45) we procured a broken 

cample of Briswga endecacnemos, previously taken 

y Mr. Jeffreys off Valentia, and a number of 

iteresting Mollusea ; and in 458 and 180 fathoms 

stations 45 and 45<^) an extraordinary abundance of 

limal life, including many very interesting forms — 

^entalium ahyssorum, Aporrhals serresiamis, Solarivm 

H 2 



1 



100 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. 

fallaciosuMy Fusus fenestratus, with abundance of 
Caryophyllia borealis, and all the ordinary deep- 
water forms of the region. 

The last station, 45a, gave us a most singular as- 
semblage of OpMurideans . OpMoglypha lacertosa 
was in large numbers and of extraordinary size, and 
associated with it were two most conspicuous species, 
new to science ; one a large species of Ophiothria:, 
coming near O. fragilis, but of much larger size; 
the disk in the larger specimens 25 mm. in 
diameter, and the span from tip to tip of the rays 
275 mm. The colours of the disk are very vivid, 
purple and rose ; and all the plates of the disk, and 
the dorsal plates of the arms, are studded with 
delicate spines. Notwithstanding its totally different 
aspect, I had a misgiving that this might yet prove 
only an extreme variety of O. fragilis. My friend 
Dr. LtJTKEN, however, protests that it is totally 
distinct. On such a question I bow to his authority, 
and dedicate it to him, doubts and all, under the name 
of Ophiothrix lutkeni. The second novelty was a fine 
species of Ophionmsium, 

About mid-day on Saturday, the 31st of July, we 
steamed into Queenstown. Having coaled at Haul- 
bowline on Monday, the 2nd of August, we were 
moored in the Abercorn Basin, Belfast, after a 
pleasant return passage up the channel, on the 
evening of Wednesday, the 4th. 

As it was necessary that her boilers should be 
thoroughly cleared out after having been so long at 
sea, the ' Porcupine' did not leave Belfast till 
Wednesday, the 11th of August; when she pro- 
ceeded to StornoAvay, her final port of departure. 



jHAr. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUPINE: 101 

The scientific staff consisted of Dr. Carpenter, 
Vir. P. Herbert Carpenter (who had gone through his 
ipprenticeship in making analyses under unfavourable 

. *;ircumstances in the former cruise with Mr. Hunter, 
md was now prepared to undertake this task on his 
)wn account), and myself; and our intention was, in 
'iccordance with our original programme, to go care- 
ully over again the region which we had examined 
n the ' Lightning,' to test with better appliances and 
laore trustworthy instruments the singular distri- 

1 imtion of temperatures in the 'warm' and 'cold' 
ireas, to map out as accurately as we could the 
)aths of the warm and cold currents, and to deter- 
jnine the influences of these currents upon the 
I'haracter and distribution of animal life. 
I We left Stornoway on the afternoon of Sunday 

i jhe 15th of August, and made straight for the scene 
f our most successful 'warm area' dredging of the 
ear before. We were equally successful on this 
ccasion, and procured several good specimens of 
loUenia, and a beautiful series of Uyalonema, ranging 
L'om 2 mm. in length up to 30 and 40 centimetres, 
nd thus giving all the stages in the development of 
he wonderful ' glass rope,' and proving to demon- 
jtration its relation to the body of the sponge — 
|)r. J. E. Gray's so-called Carteria, 

The most interesting novelty however which re- 
.^arded us was a very fine Echinid belonging to the 
''idaridse to which I had given the name Forocidaris 
urpurata (Fig. 11). I believe I am justified in 
3ferring this handsome species to the genus JPoroci- 
aris, although in it the special character is absent 
n which that genus w^as founded by Desor. Some 



102 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ni. 




Fig. 11.— rorocicfar is i^wrpHrato, Wrv^iLLE Thomson. Natural size. (No. 47.) 



HAP. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 103 

radioles,' as the fossil spines of Cidarites are usually 

3alled, presenting a very marked character, had been 

:bund in various formations from the lower oolite 

ipwards. These spines are paddle-shaped, compressed, 

ongitudinally grooved, flattened almost into plates, 

imd strongly serrated on the edges. In the nummu- 

[itie beds of Yal-Dominico near Yerona such spines 

»vere found associated with plates much resembling 

hose of Cidaris, but with the unique peculiarity of a 

jcow of holes penetrating the test in the areolar space 

jpound the primary tubercle. This character our new 

Urchin does not possess, but the radioles have the 

flatness, the longitudinal strise, and the serrated edges 

3f those of Forocidaris. 

I do not attach much importance to the perfora- 
tions in the plates. Prom Desor's figures they are 
act round and defined in outline, but lengthened and 
somewhat irregular, and they radiate from the inser- 
tion of the spine. . Our species has a set of depres- 
sions occupying the position of these perforated 
grooves which are undoubtedly for the insertion of 
the muscles moving the large long spines, and as the 
test is thin these grooves might readily penetrate the 
plate, or so nearly penetrate it as to be worn into 
boles by very little drifting or wear. 

Our • recent species and the eocene form have 
another character in common ; the areolar circles 
are not well defined, and the areolae tend to become 
confluent. 

Scattered plates only of this genus have been 
found fossil, and the ovarial plates were till now 
unknown. They present a very singular character, 
which is certainly of generic value. The ovarial 



4 

104 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap, nt 

aperture does not penetrate the plate, but perforates 
a membrane which fills up a diamond-shaped space, 
one-half of which is cut out of the outer edge of the 
ovarial plate in the form of a large triangular notch, 
while the other half is formed by a separation into a 
like notch of the two upper interradial plates, in the 
middle line of the interradial space. The charac- \ 
teristic paddle-shaped spines are ranged in several \ 
rows round the mouth. The large spines round the j 
equator of the corona are diverse in form, some of j 
them cylindrical, only slightly tapering towards the | 
tip, and others bulging out and thick near the neck j 
and coming somewhat rapidly to a sharp point. The ( 
colouring of the animal is very remarkable. The | 
short spines covering the test are of a rich purple, \ 
and a purple of even a deeper and richer hue dyes i 
about one-third of the length of the spine, from the j 
head of the spine outwards, ending abruptly in a [ 
sharply defined line. The spine beyond this purple j 
portion is of a beautiful pale rose colour. Two ; 
mature examples of this fine species were found, and i 
two young ones, one nearly half-grown and the other I 
much smaller. 

We now moved slowly to the northward towards 
the Eseroe Bank, and soundings were taken to fix as i 
closely as possible the point of passage from the warm I 
water into the cold : a temperature sounding taken in 1 
lat. 59° 37', long. T 40', gave a depth slightly less 
than that of the ' Holtenia ground,' — 475 fathoms, — 
with a slightly higher bottom temperature, 7°'4 C. ; and 
at Station 50, lat. 59° 54', long. T 52', with a depth of 
335 fathoms, the minimum temperature had risen to 
7°-9 C. A sounding at Station 51, lat. 60° 6', long. 



CHAP. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 105 

I 8° 14', gave MO fathoms, and a bottom temperature of 
I 5°*5 C, showing that we were passing into another set 
I of conditions ; and at Station 52, lat. 60° 25', long. 
i 8° 10', only a few miles further on, with a depth of 
, 384 fathoms, nearly the same as that of Station 20, 
i the thermometers recorded a minimum of >-0°-8 C. 
I We now altered our course towards the east-south- 
I east, and, after a run of about 25 miles, sounded in 
490 fathoms, with a bottom temperature of — l°'l C. 
i The following six stations, Nos. 54 to 59, were all in 
! the cold area with a temperature below the freezing- 
point of fresh water. At the last station, No. 59, lat. 60° 
21', long. 5° 41', at a depth of 580 fathoms, the guarded 
thermometer recorded the lowest temperature which 
was met with - 1°-3 C. While we were passing through 
the cold area' and making these observations, the 
weather was extremely settled and fine, and under the 
careful management of Captain Calver all our appli- 
ances worked admirably. The temperatures were noted 
in every case by the same pair of Miller-Casella ther- 
mometers, which were sometimes compared with other 
instruments and found to give perfectly accurate indi- 
cations, even after being so frequently subjected to 
prodigious pressure. The sounding instruments and 
the dredges never failed, and an ingenious device, for 
which we are indebted to our Captain, enabled us 
sometimes to multiply our prizes a hundred-fold. A 
number of tangles of teazed-out hemp, like the 
* swabs ' for cleaning the deck, were hung in a way 
which will be explained hereafter at the bottom of the 
dredge. These hempen tangles swept by the sides of 
the dredge, pulling along and picking up everything 
which was moveable and rough. As echinoderms. 



106 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. m. 

crustaceans, and sponges were very numerous in the 
cold area, the tangles often came up absolutely loaded, 
while there was but little within the dredge-bag. 

In the course of the last series of dredgings I 
we crossed the position of the bank on which we j 
got large specimens of Terehratula cranium in 
so great abundance the year before, but we could \ 
not find it. The bank appears to be of very limited ' 
area, and both on this occasion and on the previous 
one the sky was so overcast for several days together, j 
just when we were in this neighbourhood, that it was ' 
impossible to fix the position either of the 'Lightning' 
or of the ' Porcupine ' by observation. A dead-reckon- 
ing is of course kept under great disadvantages wh^ 
the vessel is drifting for the greater part of the time 
half anchored by a dredge. 

Erom Station 59 we proceeded northward to Thors- 
havn, where we were warmly received by our kind I 
friend Governor Holien, who had been forewarned of 
our visit, and at once came off in his barge to welcome 
us. Governor Holten was uncommonly proud of this 
barge, and he had some reason. She was a very hand- 
some trim boat ; and, manned by a dozen stout Eaeroese \ 
boatmen in their neat uniform, and with the Danish 
ensign flying at the stern, and our handsome friend ; 
mufiied in his military cloak, and with a thick hood ^ 
to keep out the somewhat palpable and intrusive 'cli- 
mate' of FeiBroe, she looked all that could be desired. 
When the Governor came on board, he proposed to | 
Captain Calver to try a race with him for the honour i 
of old England and the white ensign. Some of us 
were going ashore, and when the Governor came up j 
from the cabin our whale-boat was lying alongside 



CHAP. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 107 

with twelve blue-jacketed Shetlanders sitting like 
statues, their white oars glittering in the sun. The 
Governor looked with the critical eye of a sailor at 
the two boats, — he still spoke lovingly of the ' Maid 
of Fsferoe/ but I suppose he saw that, as Tennyson 
says, ' we were all of us Danes ; ' and the question 
of a trial of strength lapsed by mutual consent ! 

We were obliged to remain a few days at Thorshavn 
replenishing in various ways, and while there we were 
very anxious to have had an opportunity of seeing 
iMyling Head — a magnificent cliff at the north-western 
point of StromcJe, which falls perpendicularly, even 
slightly overhanging its base, from a height of upwards 
3f 2,000 feet into the sea. The tide runs among 
md round these islands like a mill-race, and the 
jrovernor told us that if we started with the morning 
iood, and our vessel kept pace w ith the tide, we might 
nake the circuit of the island, passing under Myling, 
md returning to Thorshavn in six hours. If we did 
lot carry the tide with us, it became a matter of dif- 
iculty only to be achieved at considerable expense 
)oth of fuel and time. 

We found that high water would occur on the fol- 
owing Monday, Aug. 23, at 4 o'clock in the morning ; 
tnd as the weather was brilliant up to the evening 
>f Sunday — unusually brilliant for those regions — we 
nade all our arrangements in high hope of a pleasant 
rip, as we had persuaded our kind host and hostess 
o accompany us. With the first dawn of Monday 
Horning it was blowing and pouring, and we were 
bliged to defer our visit to the celebrated headland 
some possible future opportunity. 
; The next morning was fine again, and we left 



I 



108 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iii. 

Thorshavn about noon, steaming east by south, so 
as to cross the deep channel between Eseroe and 
Shetland. Our first two stations were on the Fseroe 
plateau, at depths a little over a hundred fathoms, but' 
the third sounding, taken in the evening of the 24jth: 
at a depth of 317 fathoms, gave a bottom temperature! 
of — 0''-9 C. ; we were therefore once more in the cold' 
current. Having kept the same course under easyi 
steam during the night, we took a sounding next; 
morning, lat. 61° 21' N., long. 3° 44' W., at a depth ofi 
640 fathoms, with a bottom temperature of — 1°-1 Ci 
A haul of the dredge brought up rolled pebbles andj 




Fig. 12. — Pourtal^ia jeffreysi, Wyville Thomson. Slightly enlarged, i (No. 64.) 

fine gravel with few animal forms, but among theml 
one of extraordinary interest, a large specimen of a| 
fine species of the genus Fourtalesia, a heart-urchinJ 
one of whose congeners had been discovered byl 
M. de Pourtales in the gulf- stream explorations of^ 
the American coast, and a second by Mr. Gwyi^ 
Jefireys near Eockall. The present example (Eig. 12^ 
was much larger than either of those previously 
dredged, and it appeared to be specifically distinct. 

^ I have the pleasure of dedicating this interesting species to oui 
accomplished colleague, J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S. 



CHAP. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 109 

The shell is singularly unlike that of any other 
known living eehinoderm. It is about tAvo inches in 
length, almost cylindrical, ending posteriorly in a blunt 
rostrum, and the anterior extremity is truncated. 
The surface of the shell is covered with short 
spatulate spines, and near the anterior end there is 
a kind of fringe of long thin cylindrical spines, especi- 
ally congregated on the upper surface. The mouth is 
at the bottom of a deep anterior and inferior groove, 
and the excretory opening is at the bottom of a pit 
on the dorsal surface, above the terminal rostrum. 
The arrangement of the ambulacra is most peculiar. 
jThe four ovarial openings and the madreporic tubercle 
jare on the dorsal surface, just above the truncated 
'anterior end at the base of which the mouth lies, 
md the three ambulacral vessels of the ' trivium' take 
I short course from the oral vascular ring, one along 
the centre of the anterior face, and the other two 
pound its edges to meet in a ring surrounding the 
)varial openings. The two vessels of the ' bivium ' 
lave a very singular course. They run back into 
he great posterior prolongation of the shell, on the 
ddes of which they form long loops, sending conical 
vater-feet through single pores in long double lines of 
omewhat irregularly-formed ambulacral plates, which 
inally converge in a point a considerable distance 
)ehind the point of convergence of the three am- 
'ulacra of the bivium. Between these two points of 
onvergence, which are both on the middle line of 
he back, several plates are intercalated. We have 
hus the three anterior ambulacra ending in their 
cular plates, meeting at one point, where there 
re likewise four genital plates, and the madreporic 




110 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. hi. 



tubercle; and the two posterior ambulacra, with 
their ocular plates, meeting at another point and 
forming a kind of secondary apex. The fifth genital 
plate is obsolete. The specially interesting point is 
that, while we had so far as we were aware no living 
representative of this peculiar arrangement of what 
is called ' disjunct ' ambulacra, we have long been 
well acquainted with a fossil family, the Dysasteridce, 
possessing this character. Many species of the 
genera Dysaster, Agassiz, Collyrites, Desmoulins, 
Metaporhlnus, Michelin, and Grasia, Michelin, 
are found from the lower oolite to the white chalk, 
but there the family had previously been supposed to 
have become extinct. 

The next attempt was one of our very few entirely 
unsuccessful hauls, the dredge coming up empty. 
This we attributed to an increase of wind and swell, 
and consequent drift on the vessel, which seemed to 
have prevented the dredge from reaching the ground. 

We devoted the morning to a series of temperature I 
soundings at intervals of 50 fathoms from the surface ' 
to the bottom, and this we accomplished in a very! 
satisfactory manner, with results which will be fully ' 
discussed hereafter. After a rapid descent for the 
first 50 fathoms the next 150 fathoms maintained! 
a high and a tolerably equable temperature, and 
there was then a rapid fall between 200 and 300 
fathoms, the thermometer at the greater depth indi-i 
eating O'C. Prom 300 fathoms to^the bottom thej 
temperature fell little more than a degree. " Thus' 
the entire mass of water in this channel is nearlyj 
equally divided into an upper and lower stratum, the; 
lower being an Arctic stream of nearly 2,000 feetj 



iiAP. HI.] THE CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUPINE: \l\ 

iieep, flowing in a south-westerly direction, beneath 
kn upper stratum of comparatively warm water 
Inoving slowly towards the north-east ; the lower 
[balf of the latter, however, having its temperature 
jsonsiderably modified by intermixture with the 
fetratum over which it lies." ^ 

Our next few dredgings were on the Shetland 

plateau, in depths under 100 fathoms, and over 

ground already carefully worked by our colleague 

Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys. We got few novelties, but 

)wing to our very eflPective dredging appliances we 

:ook some of the ' Haaf ' rarities, such as Fusus nor- 

wgicus, Chemn. ; Fusus berniciensis, King ; Fleuro- 

toma carinatum, Bivona ; in considerable numbers. 

The hempen tangles stood us in good stead with the 

)chinoderms. On one occasion the dredge brought up 

it a single haul, in the bag and on the tangles, cer- 

pinly not less than 20,000 examples of the pretty 

ittle urchin. Echinus no7wegicus, D. and K. 

j On the 28th of August we anchored in Lerwick 

jEarbour. We remained at Lerwick several days 

aking in necessary supplies, looking at the geology 

md the many remarkable antiquities of the neigh- 

pourhood, and ransacking the haberdashers' shops for 

f.hose delicate fleecy fabrics of wool which imitate in 

I scarcely grosser material, and with almost equal 

lelicacy of design, the fretted skeletons of ILoltenia, 

Euplectella, and Aphrocallistes. 

In this earlier part of the cruise nearly all the 
iredgings had been confined to the cold area, and 

^ Dr. Carpenter, in " Preliminary Report on the Scientific Explora- 
ion of the Deep Sea, 1869." (Proceedings of the Royal Society, vol. 
Lvii. p. 441.) 



■ 



112 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap, m 

over that region we had found a great uniformity of 
conditions. As already mentioned, the average bottom 
temperature throughout was a little below the freezing- 
point of fresh water, and it sometimes fell to nearly 
2° C. below the zero of the centigrade scale. The 
bottom was uniformly gravel and clay, the gravel on 
the Scottish side of the channel consisting chiefly of 
the debris of the laurentian gneiss and the other 
metamorphic rocks of the North of Scotland, and the 
devonian beds of Caithness and Orkney. On the 
Pseroe side of the channel, on the other hand, the 
pebbles were chiefl.y basaltic. This difference shows 
itself very markedly in the colour and composition of 
the tubes of annelids, and the tests of sundry fora 
minifera. The pebbles are all rounded, and the 
varying size of the pebbles and roughness of the 
gravel in different places give evidence of a certain 
amount of movement of material along the bottom, j 

There seems to be but little doubt, from thet 
direction of the series of depressions in the isothermal j 
lines of the region (PL 7), that there is a direct move-j 
ment of cold water from the Spitzbergen Sea into the' 
North Sea, and that a branch of this cold indraughtj 
passes into the P^roe Channel. The fauna of the colds 
area is certainly characteristic, although many of itss 
most marked species are common to the deep water; 
of the warm area whenever the temperature sinks 
below 2° or 3° C. 

Over a considerable district in the Pseroe Channel 
there is a large quantity of a sponge which is pro- 
bably identical with Cladorliiza ahjssicola, Saiis,| 
dredged by G. O. Sars in deep water off the 
Loffoten Islands. This sponge forms a kind of 



^HAP. HI.] THE CRUISES OF THE * PORCUPINE: \ \ 3 



lush or shrub, which appears to clothe the bottom 

1 some places over a large area like heather on a 

boor. There are at least three species. In one the 

Jranches are strict and rigid ; while in another the 

irangement is more lax, side branches coming off 

from a flexible central rachis like the barbs from the 

laft of an ostrich feather. The branches seem in 

»me cases to be from 50 to 80 centimetres in height, 

id the stems near the base are 2 to 3 centimetres in 

ameter. The stem and branches consist of a firm 

intral axis, semi-transparent and of a peculiar 

iUowish green colour; composed of a continuous 

)my substance filled with masses of needle-shaped 

iicules arranged longitudinally in dense sheaves. 

!iis axis is overlaid by a soft bark of sponge sub- 

iance supported by needle-shaped spicules, and full 

( the bihamate ' spicules of the sarcode ' so charac- 

Iristic of the genus Esperia and its allies. The 

cjiist is covered with pores, and rises here and there 

ifco papillae perforated by large oscula. This sponge 

3 pears to belong to a group allied to the Espe- 

rLdse, and perhaps even more closely allied to 

sue of the fossil branching forms whose remains 

a|3 so abundant in some beds of the cretaceous 

i:riod. A still finer species of the same group 

V.S dredged by Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys in the first 

(uise of the following year. 

A.I1 other peculiar sponge (Eig. 13) is very abundant 
ft i of a large size. This form was admirably described 
1) Professor Loven — unaccountably under the name 
^ySyalonema horeale. It is certainly very far from 
■^.'alonema. It is more nearly allied to Tethya, for 
tl? body of the sponge must certainly be referred to 

; I 



114 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



I 



[chap. in. 



the corticate type, though it differs from all the other 
known members of the order in being supported on a 
long symmetrical stalk formed, as Professor Lov^n 
has shown, of sheaves of short spicules bound together! 




Fig. 13. — Stylocordylabormlis, ho\ks (Up. j. Natural size (No. 64.) 

by horny cement. A tuft of delicate fibres fixes the 
base of the stem in its position. Professor Oscaii 
Schmidt, in his *' Outline of the Sponge Fauna oi 
the Atlantic," refers this form to his genus Cometellc 



CHAP. IN.] THE CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUPINE: 1 1 5 

land this he associates with Suberites, Tethya greatly 
i restricted, and one or two other generic groups, to 
form a family the Suberitidinae, a part of the old 
order Corticata3, which order he now proposes to 
dismember. I doubt if this arrangement will hold 
good, for the silicious sponges w4iose skeleton con- 
sists mainly of radiating sheaves of long spicules, 
form a conspicuous and natural assemblage. Stylo- 
cordyla is evidently nearly related in habit and 
general character to the Mediterranean stalked 
sponge figured by Schmidt under the name of 
Tetilla enplocamos} 

Eoraminifera are not very abundant in the cold 
larea, though here and there in isolated patches 
large numbers of large and remarkable forms came 
up on the ' hempen tangles.' These were principally 
of the Arenaceus type. On one occasion, at Station 
51, one of the intermediate dredgings between the 
w^arm area and the cold, the tangles brought up 
X multitude of tubes three-quarters of an inch to 
in inch long, composed of sand- grains cemented 
together, and with a slight appearance externally of 
jeading, as if they were divided into segments. 
During the ' Lightning ' excursion the year before, 
m. the middle bank along with the specimens of 
Terehratula a^anium, we had found in abundance a 
sandy LUuola with very much the same appearance, 
jxcept that at one end the Lituolce had a promi- 
lent mouth, and on breaking them open this 
nouth w^as repeated, definitely moulded of peculiarly 

^ Die Spongien der Kiiste von Algier. Von Dr. Oscar Schmidt 
-^rofessor der Zoologie and vergleichenden Anatomie, Director des 
iUiidschaftliclien zoologischen Museums zu Gratz. Leipzig, 18()8. 

I 2 



116 THE DEFTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iii. 

! 
coloured sand grains, for every chamber of the series 
into which the test was divided. The new form, how- 
ever, was found not to be divided into chambers, but 
to have its cavity continuous throughout, '* though 
traversed in every part of its length by irregular 
processes, built up partly of sand-grains and partly of 
sponge-spicules," resembling those described by Dr. 
Carpenter in the gigantic fossil form Parkeria} One 
extremity of this chamber is arched over, spaces being 
left between the agglutinated sand-grains, through ; 
which it appears that the gelatinous being within com- j 
municates with the outer world by protruding its ; 
sarcode processes. The other end was so constantly - 
broken oflP, leaving a rough fracture, that Dr. ; 
Carpenter was inclined to believe that this form ; 
to which he gave the generic name of Botellina, grew I 
attached to the bottom or to some foreign body. \ 

The cold area teems with echinoderms. In the i 
channel north and west of Shetland, we added to the ,; 
fauna of the British area besides a large number of \ 
species new to science, nearly every one of the forms i 
described by the Scandinavian naturalists as inhabit- | 
ing the seas of Norway and Greenland. \ 

In comparatively shallow water Cidaris hystrix \ 
was most abundant, and of large size. The large \ 
form o£ UchitiMs flemingii, Ball, was rare; but every 
haul at all depths brought up some variety or other 
which was referred with doubt to K elegans, D. and 
K., to one or other form of U, norvegicus, D. and K., 
or to E. rarituberculatus^ G. O. Sars ; and although it 
may, perhaps, be necessary still to describe all these 
which certainly in their extreme forms present very 

^ Philosophical Transactions, 1869, p. 806. 



CHAP. III.] th:e cruises of the ' porcupine: 117 

marked differences as distinct species, after having 
gone over some thousands of them — some hr ought 
up in nearly every haul of the dredge from Pseroe to 
Gibraltar — I am inclined to suspect that they may 
be all varieties of Echinus flemingii, I have already 
alluded to the countless myriads in which the 
small form of E, norvegicus, D. and K., 15 mm. in 
diameter, swarms on the ' Haaf ' fishing banks. 
These little urchins are mature so far as the develop- 
ment of their generative products is concerned ; and I 
suspect from the abundance of three sizes, that they 
attain their full size in two years and a half or three 
years; but in colouring, in sculpture, and in the 
form of the pedicellariae, I do not see any character to 
distinguish them from a form four times the size, 
common in deep water off the coast of Ireland; 
nor, again, can I distinguish these last by any definite 
character which one would regard as of specific value 
from the shallow water form of Echinus flemingii, as 
large as the ordinary varieties of E. sphcera. 

The Shetland variety of Equus cahallus is certainly 
not more than one-fourth the size of an ordinary 
London dray-horse, and I do not know that there is 
any good reason why there should not be a pony 
form of an urchin as well as of a horse. 

Professor Alexander Agassiz^ has discovered that 
the Florida species of Echinocyamus is nothing 
more than the young of a common Florida clypeas- 
troid, Stolonoclypus prostratus, Aa., and he sug- 
gests the possibility of our Echnocyamus angulosiis, 
Leske, being one of these stunted ' pony ' varieties, 
or undeveloped young, either of the American Stolo- 

^ Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, No. 9, p. 291. 



118 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. hi. 



noclypus, the pluteus * pseudemliryo ' having heen 
carried along and distributed by the gulf-stream, or 
of some European deep-water clypeastroid hitherto 
unknown. 

The three so-called species of the genus Toxo- 
pneustes of the cold area must, I fear, submit 
to fusion. T. plctus, Norman, and T. pallidus^ 
G. O. Sars, are certainly varieties of T. drobaohi- 
ensis, O. E. Muller. 

The young of Brissopsis lyrifera^ Eorbes, were 
abundant at all depths, but mature examples did 
not occur beyond 200 fathoms, and were larger 
and more abundant from 50 to 100 fathoms. Tri- 
pylus fragilis, D. and K., a rather scarce Scandinavian 
form, was added to the British fauna ; several speci- 
mens having been taken, unfortunately usually 
crushed on account of its great delicacy, in the I 
deeper and colder hauls. Magnificent specimens of ^ 
the handsome heart -urchin, Spatangus raschi, were 
very abundant, associated in the same zone of depth 
with Cidaris. \ 

Star-fishes were verv numerous, rare and new 
species sometimes actually crowding the hempen 
tangles. The two species of Brisinga, B. endeca- 
cnemos, Absj., and B. coronata, G. O. Sars, came up 
occasionally and were always regarded as prizes, 
although it was a matter of some difficulty to ex- 
tricate their spiny arms one after the other from the 
tangles; they were scarcely ever within the dredge. 
Salaster papposus, Eorbes, apparently their nearest of 
kin though far removed, was represented abundantly 
by a very pretty deep-water variety, with ten arms 
about forty millimetres across from tip to tip, 



SAP. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 



119 



f a bright orange-scarlet even at Station 6i, at a 
piepth of 640 fathoms ; and we dredged abundantly 
k furcifer, D. and K. (Pig. 14), previously known 



Fio. 14. -Soluster urcifer, Von Dubkn and Kohen. Natural sizj. (Xo. 55.) 

nly in the Scandinavian seas. Pedicellaster typictis, 
Jars, occurred but sparingly, and more frequently the 





Pio. I&.—Kpretkrasterhispidus, Wvville Thomson. Dorsal aspect. Twice the natural size. 

(No. 57.) 

pretty biscuit-like Astrogonium granulave, MtJLLER 
and Troschel. A. phryjianam, O. P. MItller, and 



120 'PHE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. id. 

Asteropsls pulvillus, O. P. Muller, were not met 
with beyond the 100-fathom line. A curious little 
group of cushion stars, hitherto supposed to be con- 
fined to higli latitudes, were represented by Fteraster 
militaris, M. and T., and P. pulmllus, Sars, and by 
two forms new to science, — one, Koreth raster his- 
pidus, sp. n., with the whole of the upper surface 
covered with long free paxillse like sable brushes (Fig. 
15), Ranges of delicate spatulate spines border the 




Fro. 16. —^?/me);as^er pel'ZMC'id?^'?, WvvitLE Thomson. Ventral aspect. Natural size. ^No. 69) 

arabulacral grooves. As in Tteraster, there is a double 
row of conical water feet. The other genus (Fig- 16) 
is perhaps even more remarkable. The star-fish is 
very flat, the dorsal surface covered with short paxilloo 
which support a membrane as in Tier aster. A row 
of spines fringing the ambulacral grooves is greatly 
lengthened and webbed, and the web running along 
the side of one arm meets and unites with the web 



CHAP. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE ♦ PORCUPINE: 121 

of the adjacent arm, so that the angles between the 
iarms are entirely filled up by a delicate membrane 
jstretched on and supported by spines, and the body 
(thus becomes regularly pentagonal. There is no trace 
on the ventral surface of the arms of the trans- 
verse ranges of membranous comb-like plates which 
are so characteristic in Pteraster, 

By far the most abundant and conspicuous forms 
among the star-fishes in deep water were the genera 
Asti'opecten and Ar chaster, and their allies. At one 
to two hundred fathoms the small form of Astro- 
pecten irregularis, A. acicularis of Norman, literally 
swarmed in some places, usually in company with 

> the small form of Luidia savignii, M. and T., L, 
sarsii, D. and K. I feel no doubt that these two 
porms, A. acicularis and Jj. sarsii, are mere deep- 
fwater varieties of the forms which attain so much 
larger proportions in shallow water. Mr. Edward 
Waller took charge of Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys' yacht 
during the summer of 1869, on a dredging cruise off 
the south coast of Ireland. He worked principally 
about the 100-fathom line and a little within it, and 
procured a magnificent series both of Astropecten and 

-* Luidia showing a gradual transition through all 

) intermediate stages between the large and the small 

'■ varieties. 

The cold area gave us Astropecten tenuispinus in 
great abundance and beauty. The tangles sometimes 
came up scarlet with them, and associated with this 
species a handsome new form of a peculiar leaden 
grey colour, and with paxillse arranged on the 
dorsal surface of the disk in the form of a rosette, or 
the petaloid ambulacra of a Clypeaster. Astropecten 



^.^ 



122 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. III. 



arcticus, Sars, was met with sparingly in some of the 
deeper dredgings. The known northern species of 
Archaster were abundant and of large size; A. 
parellii, D. and K., passing into comparatively shah 
low water; and A. andromeda abundant at greater 
depths. 




FrG. 17. — Archaster bifrons, Wyvitj.e Thomson. Dorsiil aspect. Three-fourths of the natural 

size. (No. .57.) 



At Stations 57 and 58, and at various others in 
the cold area we took many specimens of a fine 
Archaster (Fig. 17) with a double row of large 
square marginal plates giving the edges a thickened 
square-cut appearance like those of Ctenodiscns; 



t 



,AP, III.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 123 

ich marginal plate covered with miliary grains, 
lid with a prominent rigid central spine. This is 

large form, one of our most striking additions to 
:ie tale of known species. It measures 120 mm. from 
^p to ti]3 of the arms across the disk. The colour 
i a rich cream, or various shades of light rose. 

Ctenodiscus crisj^atus occurred rarely and of rather 
mall size, not more than 25 mm. across. Nearly 

ery haul brought up small specimens of Aster- 
canthion mulleri, M. Sars, and specimens of all sizes 
f Cribrella sanguinolenta, O. P. MtJLLEii. 

The distribution of Ophiuoridea was altogether 
ew to a British dredger. By far the most abundant 
)rm in moderate depths was Amphiura abyssicola, 
\L Sars, a species hitherto unknown in the British 
eas ; and at greater depths this species was associated 
n about equal numbers with OpMocten sericeum, 

y'ORBES. 

Everywhere Ophiacantha spimilosa, M. and T., 
tibounds, and the common Ophioglypha lacertosa of 
jihallow water is replaced by O. sai^sii, Lutken, 
f\a\Q Ophiopholis aculeata, O. F. MIjller, loves to 
lestle among the branches of corals and stony 
polyzoa. In such characteristic cold area dredg- 
ngs as Stations 54, 55, 57, and 64, we find the 
:wo species of OpMoscolex, O. purpurea^ D. and 
K., and O. glacialis, M. and T. ; the former in 
some places in great abundance, and the latter 
fnuch more scarce. Both species are new to the 
British area, and two very remarkable forms which 
accompany them are new to science. One of these 
is a very large ophiurid with thick arms, up- 
ivards of three decimetres long, and a large soft disk 



J* 



1 24 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. m. 

resembling that of Ophiomyxa, to which genus it 
seems to be allied. Tlie specimens which have been 
hitherto procured are scarcely sufficiently perfect to 
allow of its being thoroughly worked out. The other 
is a large handsome species of Ljungmans genus 
Ophiopus. The plates covering the disk are small and 
obscure, and partly masked by a netted membrane. 
In moderate depths AmpJdura balli, Thompson, was 
common, and we now and then dredged a stray 
example of the beautiful little Ophiopeltis securigerciy , 
D. and K., lately added to the Shetland fauna by ! 
the Rev. A. Merle Norman. 

It was a matter of some surprise to us as well as \ 
of great pleasure to bring up in many of our cold | 
area hauls considerable numbers of the handsomest 
of the northern free crinoids, Antedon escrichtii 
So far as I am aware, this species has not hitherto 
been met with in the Scandinavian or Spitzbergen 
seas ; all our museum specimens come from Green 
land or Labrador. This is also the case with Cteno 
discus crisp atus. In neither instance do the speci- i 
mens from the north of Scotland appear to be quite | 
so large as those from Greenland. One or two \ 
hauls in moderate water gave us abundant examples I 
of Antedon celticus, Barrett, a form still more com- f 
mon however in the Minch ; and almost every haul j 
we found a broken specimen or some fragments of | 
Antedon sarsii. j 

Once or twice we found a fragment of the stem of * 
Hhizocrinus, but singularly enough no living specimen i 
of this interesting little crinoid rewarded us from the 
cold water, although our conclusion seemed to be 
just, that the Arctic indraught sets into the Fseroe 



I A?. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE * PORCUPINE: 125 

Ihannel directly from the seas of the Loffotens where 

abounds. 

We dredged many Holothurise ; notably everywhere 
!|elow 200 or 300 fathoms the delicate little Echino- 
\icumis typica, M. Saks; and Psolus squamatus, 
LOREN, which does not seem however to be common, 
hjough we dredged it in great profusion on one occa- 
lon in the ' Lightning,' its white scaly disks showing 
jut against the smooth black pebbles of Tseroe basalt 
p which they were attached. Holothuria ecalcarea, 
L-RS, was met with occasionally, and formed another 




Fig. 1%.—Eusirus cuspidalus, Kkoyeb. (No. 56.) 

nteresting addition to the British fauna. It always 
lad a peculiar effect coming up among a number of 
nuch smaller and more delicate things, like a massive 
jrerman sausage twenty or thirty centimetres long. 

In the characteristic hauls in the cold area we met 
iv^ith some very interesting crustaceans, one or two of 
.vhich I j&gure as they are highly suggestive of the 
iource of the cold water. They are some of the 
gigantic forms of amphipoda and isopoda of the 
A-rctic sea. 



126 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. III.! 



Uuswus cuspidatus, Kroyer (Fig. 18), had pre-i 
viously been known only in the Greenland sea, and! 




Fig. 19.—Caprella spmosissma, Norman, Twice the natural size. (No. 5t).) 



the genus was represented for the seas of Britain by 
an imperfect example of another species. 

rig. 19 is a large and hitherto unknown species of 



HAP. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 127 

he genus Caprella, the odd-looking group of skeleton 
hrimps which fix themselves by their hind elaspers, 
isually in this locality to branching sponges, and wave 
heir gaunt grotesque bodies about in the water. 

^ga nasuta, Norman (Fig. 20), is another new 
pecies, one of the ' normal ' isopods. Much larger 
pecimens of this curious genus are however known 
n the British coasts, usually semi-parasitical on large 
Lshes. 

Arcturus baffini, Sabine (Eig. 21), is another of 
he 4sopoda norma lia' — normal to a certain extent in 
ts structure, but very peculiar in its appearance and 




Vui. 20.—yEi/a ikusuta, Norman. Slightly enlaiged. (No. 55. 

abits. Arcturus has, like Caprella, the habit of 
linging to some foreign body by its elaspers, and 
taring up the anterior part of its body in a queer 
lanner ; but it has in addition a pair of enormously 
eveloped antennae, and to these the young cling by 
iieir elaspers, and range themselves along like a 
auple of living fringes. Idotea {Arcturus) baffini 
as first described in the Appendix to Captain Parry's 
)urth voyage. This, or a nearly allied species, 
^ems to occur also in the Antarctic seas. Sir James 
lark Ross remarks,' that in dredging at a depth 

1 A Voyage of Discovery and Kesearch, vol. i. p. 202. 



128 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. 



III. 



of 270 fathoms, lat. 72 31 S., long. 173° 39 R, 
** corallines, flustrse, and a variety of marine inverte- 
brate animals came up in the net, showing an abun- 
dance and great variety of animal life. Amongst 
them I detected two species of Pycnogonum, Idotea\ 
haffini, hitherto considered peculiar to the Arcti(3' 




Fig. 21. — Jrc^t/rttsZxy^ni, Sabine. About the natural size. (No. 50.) 



seas " — and some other forms. The figure represents 
Arcturus baffini and a few of its progeny, whicli 
however have got somewhat into disorder. The 
nursery arrangements are usually much more regular. 
One or two species of the singular marine arachnida 
of the genus NympJion, of a very large size, were' 



iiAP. III.] TtlE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 



129 



jrequently entangled in large numbers on the loose 
Lamp. This group seems to be specially characteristic 
|f the sea at an arctic temperature. They are re- 
lorted of almost incredible size, thirty centimetres or 
b across, from the late German and Swedish polar 
expeditions, and they have also been found enor- 




Fig. 22. — Nymphon njtyxsni-vm, Kokma'S. Sliglitlj- enlargerl (No. 56.) 



ously large in deep water in the antarctic regions, 
bey often come up clinging to the sounding line. 
The MoUusca, which in the preceding cruises 
mally constituted the principal results of the 
edging, were here quite subordinate as regards 
)th number and variety to the groups already 



K 



130 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. hi. 

mentioned; and the difference between the moUuscan 
fauna of the cold and that of the warm area was not 
by any means so great as that shown in other groups. 
One of the most interesting types which we met with 
was Terehratula septata, Philippi = T. septigera, 
LovEN, a brachiopod found living at Station 65 in 
the Shetland Channel, at a depth of 345 fathoms, 
and a bottom-temperature of — 1°* IC. A variety of 
this species, from the Pliocene beds of Messina, hasj 
been described and figured by Professor Seguenza' 
under the name of IValdheimia peloritana ; and it is| 
clearly the same as the Waldheimia floridana, foundi 
in the Gulf of Mexico by De Pourtales, which ou 
own numerous specimens so considerably exceed i 
size as to show that its more congenial home is ii 
frigid water. 

Only a small number of Pishes were procured, bd 
their scarcity may probably have been due to im 
unsuitableness of the dredge as a means for theii 
capture. The few species taken were placed in th^ 
hands of Mr. Couch of Polperro by Mr. Loughrin 
and were examined by him after our return. The lis,, 
includes a new generic form intermediate betweeil 
Chimcera and Macrourus, which was brought up fronj 
a depth of 540 fathoms in the cold area ; a new specie 
of a genus allied to Zeus ; a new Gadus approachiii{| 
the common Whiting; a new species of OpMdion^ 
a species of a new genus near Cyclopterus ; Blennin 
fasciatus^ Bloch, new to Britain ; Ammodytes siculus 
a fine new S err amis ; and a new Syngnathus. 

Death put an end to the labours of the Vetera" 
Cornish naturalist while he was preparing descrip 
tions and figures of our new species. He died full c 



HAP. HI.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 131 

ears and work, and this last task, on which he had 
tered with keen interest, must be finished by other 
ands. 

It will be seen that the bottom temperature of the 

Id area, at 500 fathoms, does not differ by more 

an two or three degrees from that of the warm 

ea, at depths beyond 1,500 fathoms. It seems, in 

ct, as Dr. Carpenter has well pointed out, as if all 

le extreme climatal conditions which, in the deep 

■ ater of the Atlantic are extended over a vertical 

[stance of two or three miles, are here compressed, 

ithout greatly altering their proportions, into the 

)mpass of half a mile. We have the same surface 

iper-heating and rapid fall for the first short dis- 

mce ; the same hump on the curves, indicating the 

resence of a layer of water heated by some other 

luse than direct solar radiation; the same rapid fall 

irough a ' stratum of intermixture;' and, finally, 

^T le same long excessively slow depression through a 

' ;ep bottom bed of cold water nearly at a uniform 

' mperature. 

As might be anticipated, if the view be correct 
I lat arctic conditions are in a broad sense con- 
i ^ auous throughout the abyssal regions of the sea, a 
I rge number of the inhabitants of the ' cold area ' are 
i <immon to the deep water off Kockall and as far south 
i i the coast of Portugal ; but the fauna of the Paeroe 
I (lannel includes besides these generally distributed 
i Irms, an assemblage of species— for example the 
Irge crustaceans and arachnida and some of the star- 
i iihes — which are not only generally characteristic of 
i iigid conditions, but specially of that part of the 
ctic province represented by the seas of Spitzbergen, 

k2 



132 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. III. 



Greenland, and Loffoten. There can be little doubt 
that this especially arctic character of the fauna is 
maintained by the continual migration of arctic 
species along with the arctic current indicated by 
the depressions in the lines of equal temperature. 
Many species characteristic of the ' cold area ' were 
not met with beyond its limits, owing doubtless to 
the entire banking in and disappearance of the cold 
water, and the obliteration of the arctic current 
as such at the western opening of the channel 
between the Paeroe banks and the Hebrides. 




THE GOVKRNOR'S HOUSE, THORSHAVN. 



AP. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE ' rORCUriNE: 133 



i APPENDIX A. 

,Oj/icial Documents and Official Accounts of Preliminary Pro- 
! ceedings in connection with the Explorations in H.M. Sur- 
veying-vessel 'Porcupine,' during the Bummer of 1869. — 
I Extracts from the Minutes of the Council of the Royal Society, 
' setting fm^th the origin of the ' Porcupine ' Exjjcdition, and 
the objects which it was designed to carry out : — 

January 21, 1869. 

The Preliminary Report of the Dredging Operations conducted 
by Drs. Carpenter and Wyville Tliomson (in the ' Lightning') 
liaving heen considered, it was 

liesolved, — That, looking to the valuable results obtained from 
these Marine Researches, restricted in scope as they have 
been in a first trial, the President and Council consider it 
most desirable, with a view to the advancement of Zoology 
and other branches of science, that the exploration should 
be renewed in the course of the ensuing summer, and 
carried over a wider area ; and that the aid of Her 
Majesty's Government, so liberally afforded last year, be 
again requested in furtherance of the undertaking. 

Resolved, — That a Committee be appointed to report to the 
Council on the measures it will be advisable to take in 
order to carry the foregoing resolution most advantageously 
into effect The Committee to consist of the President 
and Officers, with Dr. Carpenter, Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, and 
Captain Richards. 

February 18, 1869. 
Read the following Report of the Committee en Marine 
Researches : — 



134 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA, [chap. hi. 

"The Committee appointed by the Council on the 21st of 
January, to consider the measures advisable for the further pro- 
secution of Kesearches into the Physical and Biological Condi- 
tions of the Deep Sea in the neighbourhood of the British Coast, 
beg leave to Eeport as follows : — 

" The results obtained by the Dredgings and Temperature- 
Soundings carried on during the brief Cruise of H.M.S. ' Light- 
ning' in August and September, 1868, taken in connection with 
those of the Dredgings recently prosecuted under the direction 
of the Governments of Sweden and of the United States, and 
with the remarkable Temperature-Soundings of Captain Short- 
land in the Arabian Gulf, have conclusively shown — 

"1. That the Ocean-bottom, at depths of 500 fathoms or more, 
presents a vast field for research, of which the systematic 
exploration can scarcely fail to yield results of the highest 
interest and importance, in regard alike to Physical, Biological, 
and Geological Science. 

" 2. That the prosecution of such a systematic exploration is 
altogether beyond the reach of private enterprise, requiring 
means and appliances which can only be furnished by Govern- 
ment. 

" It may be hoped that Her Majesty's Government may be 
induced at some future time to consider this work as one of the 
special duties of the British N"avy; which possesses, in the 
world-wide distribution of its Ships, far greater opportunities for 
such researches than the Navy of any other country. 

"At present, however, the Committee consider it desirable that 
the Royal Society should represent to Her Majesty's Government 
the importance of at once following up the suggestions appended 
to Dr. Carpenter's ' Preliminary Report ' of the Cruise of the 
' Lightning,' by instituting, during the coming season, a detailed 
survey of the deeper part of the Ocean-bottom between the 
North of Scotland and the Fseroe Islands, and by extending that 
survey in both a N.E. and a S.W. direction, so as thoroughly to 
investigate the Physical and the Biological conditions of the two 
Submarine Provinces included in that area, which are character- 
ized by a strongly marked contrast in Climate, with a correspond- 



CHAP. Ill] THE CRUISES OF THE ' FORGUFINE: 135 

ing dissimilarity in Animal Life, and to trace this climatic 
dissimilarity to its source ; as well as to carry down the like 
survey to depths much greater than have been yet explored by 
the Dredge. 
" This, it is believed, can be accomplished without difficulty 
• (unless the weather should prove extraordinarily unpropitious) 
by the employment of a suitable vessel, provided with the 
requisite appliances, between the middle of May and the middle 
of September, The Ship should be of sufficient size to furnish a. 
Crew of which each * watch ' could carry on the work con- 
tinuously without undue fatigue, so as to take the fullest advan- 
tage of calm weather and long summer days ; and should also 
I provide adequate accommodation for the study of the specimens 
- when freshly obtained, which should be one of the primary 
objects of the Expedition. As there would be no occasion to 
extend the Survey to a greater distance than (at the most) 400 
miles from land, no difficulty would be experienced in obtaining 
the supplies necessary for such a four months' cruise, by running 
from time to time to the port that might be nearest Thus, 
, supposing that the Ship took its departure from Cork or Galway, 
; and proceeded first to the channel between the British Isles and 
i Rockall Bank, where depths of from 1,000 to 1,300 fathoms are 
i known to exist, the Dredgings and Temperature-Soundings could 
\ be proceeded with in a northerly direction, until it would be 
convenient to make Stornoway. Taking a fresh departure from 
that port, the exploration miglit then be carried on over the area 
; to the N.W. of the Hebrides, in which the more moderate 
depths (from 500 to 600 fathoms) would afford greater facility for 
. the detailed survey of that part of the Ocean-bottom on which a 
j Cretaceous deposit is in progress — the Fauna of this area having 
! been shown by the • Lightning ' researches to present features of 
most especial interest, while the careful study of the deposit 
may be expected to elucidate many phenomena as yet unex- 
! plained which are presented by the ancient Chalk Formation. A 
month or six weeks would probably be required for this part of 
the Survey, at the end of which time the vessel might again run 
to Stornoway for supplies. The area to the N. and N.E. of 



136 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. hi. 

Lewis sliould then be worked in the like careful manner ; and as 
the 'cold area' would here be encountered, special attention 
should be given to the determination of its boundaries, and of 
the sources of its climatic peculiarity. These would probably 
require the extension of the survey for some distance in a N.E. 
direction, which would carry the vessel into the neighbourhood 
of the Shetland Isles ; and Lerwick would then be a suitable 
port for supplies. Whatever time might then remain would be 
advantageously employed in dredging at such a distance round 
the Shetlands as would give depths of from 250 to 400 fathoms, 
Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys' dredgings in that locality having been limited 
to 200 fathoms. 

" The Natural-History work of such an Expedition should be 
prosecuted under the direction of a Chief (who need not, how- 
ever, be the same throughout), aided by two competent Assistants 
(to be provided by the Royal Society), who should be engaged 
for the whole Cruise. Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys is ready to take charge 
of it during the first five or six weeks, say, to the end of June, 
when Professor Wyville Thomson would be prepared to take his 
place ; and Dr. Carpenter would be able to join the Expedition 
early in August, remaining with it to the end. It would be a 
great advantage if the Surgeon appointed to the Ship should 
have sufficient knowledge of Natural History, and sufficient 
interest in the inquiry, to participate in the work. 

" The experience of the previous Expedition will furnish 
adequate guidance as to the appliances which it would be 
necessary to ask the Government to provide, in case they accede 
to the present application. 

" With reference to the Scientific instruments and apparatus 
to be provided by the Eoyal Society, the Committee recommend 
that the detailed consideration of them be referred to a Special 
Committee, consisting of gentlemen practically conversant with 
the construction and working of such instruments/' 

Eesolved, — That the Report now read be received and adopted, 
and that application be made to Her Majesty's Government 
accordingly. 



Jl 



CHAP. III.] THE CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUPINE: 137 

The following Draft of a Letter to be transmitted by the Secre- 
tary to the Secretary of the Admiralty was approved : — 

*' The Royal Society, Burlington House, 
'' February IS, 1869. 

" SiE, — Keferring to the 'Preliminary Eeport' by Dr. Carpenter 
of the Eesults of the Deep-Sea Exploration carried on during the 
brief Cruise of Her Majesty's Steam- vessel 'Lightning' in 
August and September last, which has already been transmitted 
for the consideration of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty — I am directed by the President and Council of the 
Eoyal Society to state that, looking to the valuable information 
obtained from these Marine Eesearches, although comparatively 
restricted in duration and extent, they deem it most desirable, 
in the interests of Biological and Physical Science, and in no 
small degree also for the advancement of Hydrographical know- 
ledge, that a fresh exploration should be entered upon in the 
ensuing summer, and extended over a \\ider area ; and they now 
desire earnestly to recommend the matter to the favourable con- 
sideration of My Lords, in the hope that the aid of Her Majesty's 
Government, which was so readily and liberally bestowed last 
year, may be afforded to the undertaking now contemplated, for 
which such support would be indispensable. 

" In favour of the practicability and probable success of the 
proposed fresh exploration, I am directed to explain that the 
objects to be aimed at, as well as the course to be followed and 
the measures to be employed for their attainment, have mainly 
been suggested by the observations made and the experience 
gained in the last Expedition. 

" Eurther information as to the proposed exploration will be 
found in the Eeport, herewith transmitted, of a Committee to 
whose consideration the subject was referred by the Council. 

" It is understood that the requisite Scientific Apparatus and 
the remuneration of the Assistants to be employed would be 
provided by the Eoyal Society. With regard to the appliances 
which Her Majesty's Government may be asked to provide, the 
experience of the previous Expedition will furnish adequate 
guidance, w^henever the general scheme may be approve.]. It 



138 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA, (chap. hi. 

has appeared to the President and Council, that if the ship i | 
required for the proposed service could be provided by the " 
temporary employment of one of Her Majesty's Surveying 
Vessels now in commission, anything beyond a trifling outlay on 
the part of the Government would be rendered unnecessary. 
"I remain, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

« W. Sharpey, M.D., 

* ' Thd Secretary to the Admiralty. ** * * Sec. U.S." 

Eesolved, — That a Committee be appointed to consider the 
Scientific Apparatus it will be desirable to provide for the 
proposed Expedition, The Committee to consist of the 
President and Officers, with Dr. Carpenter, Captain Eichards, 
Mr. Siemens, Dr. Tyndall, and Sir Charles Wheatstone, 
with power to add to their number. 

That a sum of £200 from the Government grant be assigned 
to Dr. Carpenter for the further prosecution of Eesearches 
into the Temperature and Zoology of the Deep Sea. 

March 18, 1869. 
An oral communication was made by the Hydrographer to the 
effect that the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty had 
acceded to the request conveyed in Dr. Sharpey's letter of 
February 18 ; that Her Majesty's Surveying- vessel ' Porcupine ' 
had been assigned for the service ; and that the special equip- 
ment needed for its efficient performance was proceeding under 
the direction of her Commander, Captain Calver. 



April 15, 1869. 
Head the following letter from the Admiralty : — 



"Admiralty, March 19, 1869. 
** Sir, — With reference to previous correspondence, I am coni- 
manded by My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to 
acquaint you that Dr. Carpenter and his Assistants, who have 
been deputed by the Eoyal Society to accompany the Expedition 
about to be dispatched to the neighbourhood of the Faeroe Isles 



I 



CHAP. HI.] THI CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 139 

for the purpose of investigating tlie bottom of the Ocean by- 
means of deep-sea soundings, will be entertained whilst embarked 
on board the ' Porcupine ' at the Government expense. 

*'' I am. Sir, 
*' Your obedient servant, 

"W. G. EOMAINE." 
" The Presidevi of the Boy at Society y 



Eead the following Eeport : — 

"The Committee appointed Feb. 18, 1869, to consider the 
Scientific Apparatus it will be desirable to provide for the pro- 
posed Expedition for Marine Eesearches, beg leave to lay before 
the Council the following Eeport : — 

"The chief subjects of Physical Enquiry which presented 
themselves as interesting on their own account, or in relation to 
the existence of Life at great depths, were as follows : — 

"(1) The temperature both at the bottom and at various 
depths between that and the surface. 

"(2) The nature and amount of the dissolved Gases. 

" (3) The amount of Organic matter contained in the water, 
and the nature and amount of the Inorganic salts. 

" (4) The amount of Light to be found at great depths. 

"Among these subjects IJie Committee thought it desirable to 
confine themselves in the first instance to such as had previously 
to some extent been taken in hand, or could pretty certainly be 
carried out. 

" The determination of Temperatures has hitherto rested 
chiefly upon the registration of minimum Thermometers. It is 
obvious that the temperature registered by minimum thermo- 
meters sunk to the bottom of the sea, even if their registration 
were unaffected by the pressure, would only give the lowest 
temperature reached somewhere between top and bottom, not 
necessarily at the bottom itself. The temperatures at various 
depths might indeed, provided they nowhere increased on going 
deeper, be determined by a series of minimum thermometers 
placed at different distances along the line, though this would 



1 40 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. jji. 

involve considerable difficulties. Still, the liability of the index 
to slip, and the probability that the indication of the thermo- 
meters would be affected by the great pressure to which they 
were exposed, rendered it very desirable to control their indica- 
tions by an independent method. 

'' Two plans were proposed for this purpose, one by Sir Charles 
Wheatstone, and one by Mr. Siemens. Both plans involved the 
employment of a voltaic current, excited by a battery on deck ; 
and required a cable for the conveyance of insulated wires. The 
former plan depended upon the action of an immersed Breguet's 
thermometer, which, by an electro-mechanical arrangement, was 
read by an indicating instrument placed on deck. The latter 
plan made the indication of temperature depend on the existence 
of a thermal variation in the electric resistance of a conducting 
wire. It rested on the equalization of the derived currents in 
two perfectly similar partial circuits, containing each a copper 
wire running the whole length of the cable, the sea, and a 
resistance- coil of fine platinum wire ; the coil in the one circuit 
being immersed in the sea at the end of the cable, and that in 
the other being immersed in a vessel on deck, containing water 
the temperature of which could be regulated by the addition of 
hot or cold water, and determined by an ordinary thermometer. 

"The instruments required in Sir Charles Wheatstone's plan 
were more expensive, and would take longer to construct ; and, 
besides, the Committee were unwilling to risk the loss of a some- 
what costly instrument in case the cable were to break. On 
these accounts they thought it best to adopt the simpler plan 
proposed by My. Siemens ; and the apparatus required for carry- 
ing the plan into execution is now completed, and in use in the 
expedition. 

" Meanwhile a plan had been devised by Dr. Miller for 
obviating the effect of pressure on a minimum thermometer, 
without preventing access to the stem for the purpose of setting 
the index. It consists in enclosing the bulb in an outer bulb 
rivetted on a little way up the stem, the interval between the 
bulbs being partly filled with liquid, for the sake of quicker 
conduction. The Committee have had a few minimum thermo- ^ 



CHAP. HI.] THE CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUPINE: Ul 

meters constructed on this principle, which have been found to 
answer perfectly. The method is described in a short paper 
which will be read to the Society to-morrow. 

" For obtaining specimens of water from any depth to which 
the dredging extends, the Committee have procured an instru- 
ment constructed as to its leading features on the plan of that 
described by Dr. Marcet in the Philosophical Transactions for 
1819, and used successfully in the earlier northern expeditions. 

"Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys is now out on the first Cruise of the 
* Porcupine/ the vessel which the Admiralty have sent out for 
the purpose, and is accompanied by Mr. W. L. Carpenter, B.Sc. 
(son of Dr. Carpenter), who undertakes the general execution of 
the physical and chemical part of the inquiry. A letter has 
been received by the President from Mr. Jeffreys, who speaks 
highly of the zeal and efficiency of Mr. Carpenter. The ther- 
mometers protected according to Dr. Miller's plan, and the 
instrument for obtaining specimens of water from great depths, 
have been found to work satisfactorily in actual practice. Mr. 
Siemens' instrument was not quite ready when the vessel started 
on her first Cruise, and was not on board when the above letter 
was written. The gas-analyses have been successfully carried 
on, notwithstanding the motion of the vessel. From a letter 
subsequently received from Mr. Carpenter, it appears that Mr. 
Siemens' apparatus, so far as it has yet been tried, works in 
perfect harmony with the thermometers protected according to 
Dr. Miller's plan." 

•' June 16, 1869." 

Resolved, — That the Eeport now read be received and entered 
on the Minutes. 



142 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. Hi. 



APPENDIX B. 



Particulars of Depth, Temperature, and Position at the various 
Dr edging-stations of H.M.S. 'Porcupine' in the Summer 
of 1869 :— 



Number 


Depth in 


Bottom 


Surface 


1>/^c 




of Station. 


Fathoms. 


Temperature. 


Temperature. 


r^OSiuiuii. 


1 


370 


9°- 4 a 


12°- 3 C. 


5r5rK 


ir50'W. 


2 


808 


5 


•2 


12 


•3 


51 22 


12 25 


3 


722 


6 


•1 


12 


•5 


51 38 


12 50 


4 


251 


9 


•7 


12 


•0 


51 56 


13 39 


5 


364 


9 




12 


•2 


52 7 


12 52 


6 


90 


10 


•0 


12 


•2 


52 25 


11 40 


7 


159 


10 


• 2 


11 


■8 


52 14 


11 48 


8 


106 


10 


•7 


12 


3 


53 15 


11 51 


9 


165 


9 


•8 


12 





53 16 


12 42 


10 


85 


9 


•7 


12 


5 


53 23 


13 29 


11 


1630 


^ 


— 





_ 


53 24 


15 24 


12 


670 


5 


9 


11 


2 


53 41 


14 17 


13 


208 


9 


8 


12 





53 42 


13 55 


14 


173 


9 


8 


11 


8 


53 49 


13 15 


15 


422 


8 


3 


11 


2 


54 5 


12 17 


16 


816 


4 


2 


11 


7 


54 19 


11 50 


17 


1230 


3 


2 


11 • 


8 


54 28 


11 44 


18 


183 


9 


7 


11 


8 


54 15 


11 9 


19 


1360 


3 





12- 


6 


54 53 


10 56- 


20 


1443 


2 


8 


13- 





55 11 


11 31 


21 


1476 





7 


13 • 


4 


55 40 


12 46 


22 


1263 


2 


y 


13- 


8 


56 8 


13 34 


23 


630 


6 


4 


14- 





56 7 


14 19 


23a 


420 


8- 





13 • 


7 


56 13 


14 18 


24 


109 


8 





14- 


3 


56 26 


14 28 


25 


164 


8- 


1 


13 • 


7 


56 41 


13 39 



III.] 



THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 



143 



t 

Number 


Depth in 


Bottom 


Surface, 


Posit''""" 


of Station. 


Fathoms. 


Temperature. 


Temperature. 






26 


345 


8°- 2 C. 


14°- 1 e. 


56°58'K 


13° ir w. 


27 


54 


9 


1 


13 


1 


r Eockall \ 
( Bank, j 


1 Eockall ) 
t Bank. J 


28 


1215 


2 


8 


14 


2 


56 44 


12 52 


29 


1264 


2 


7 


13 


8 


56 34 


12 22 


30 


1380 


2 


8 


13 


3 


56 24 


11 49 


, 31 


1360 


2 


9 


13 


8 


56 15 


11 25 


32 


1320 


3 





13 


3 


56 5 


10 23 


33 


74 


9 


•8 


18 


4 


50 38 


9 27 


34 


75 


9 


8 


18 


9 


49 51 


10 12 


35 


96 


10 


7 


17 


4 


49 7 


10 57 


! 36 


725 


6 


1 


17 


7 


48 50 


11 9 


I 37 


2435 


2 


5 


18 


6 


47 38 


12 8 


i 38 


2090 


2 


4 


17 


•9 


47 39 


11 33 


39 


557 


8 


3 


17 


•2 


49 1 


11 56 


40 


517 


8 


7 


17 


•4 


49 1 


12 5 


41 


584 


8 


1 


17 


4 


49 4 


12 22 


42 


862 


4 


3 


17 





49 12 


12 52 


! 4^ 


1207 


3 


2 


16 


5 


50 1 


12 26 


44 


865 


4 


1 


16 


•2 


50 20 


11 34 


i 45 


458 


8 


9 


15 


9 


51 1 


11 21 


46 


374 


7 


7 


12 


1 


59 23 


7 4 


47 


542 


6 


5 


12 


2 


59 34 


7 18 


48 


540 


_ 


— 


— 


_ 


59 32 


6 59 


49 


475 


7 


4 


12 


•0 


59 43 


7 40 


i 50 


355 


7 


9 


11 


4 


59 54 


7 52 


! 51 


440 


5 


5 


10 


9 


60 6 


8 14 


i 62 


384 


-0 


8 


11 


2 


60 25 


8 10 


! 53 


490 


-1 


1 


11 


2 


60 25 


7 26 


\ 54 


363 


^0 


3 


11 


4 


69 56 


6 27 ■ 


55 


605 


-1 


2 


11 


4 


60 4 


6 19 


66 


480 


-0 


7 


11 


4 


60 2 


6 11 


! 57 


632 


- 


8 


11 


1 


60 14 


6 17 


i 58 


540 


-0 


6 


10 


6 


60 21 


6 51 


1 59 


580 


- 1 


3 


11 


5 


60 21 


5 41 


i 60 


167 


6 


9 


9 


7 


61 3 


5 58 


61 


114 


7 


2 


10 


2 


62 1 


5 19 


' 62 


125 


7 





9 


8 


61 59 


4 38 


63 


317 


-0-9 


9 -4 


61 57 


4 2 



144 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



Number 


Depth in 


Bottom 


Surface 


PQgj + iriTl 


of Station. 


Fathoms. 


Temperature. 


Temperature. 






64 


640 


- r- 1 c. 


9^' 3 C. 


6r2i']sr. 


3° 44' W 


65 


345 


-1 


• 1 


11 


• 1 


61 10 


2 21 


^Q> 


267 


7 


6 


11 


3 


61 15 


1 44 


67 


64 


9 


5 


11 





60 32 


29 


68 


75 


6 


7 


11 


•4 


60 23 


33 E. 


69 


67 


6 


5 


12 





60 1 


18 E. 


70 


66 


7 


3 


11 


9 


60 4 


21 


71 


103 


9 


2 


11 


6 


60 17 


2 53 


72 


76 


9 


4 


11 


3 


60 20 


3 5 


73 


84 


9 


4 


11 


5 


60 29 


3 6 


74 


203 


8 


7 


11 


4 


60 39 


3 9 


75 


250 


5 


5 


10 


8 


60 45 


3 6 


76 


344 


-1 


1 


10 


1 


60 36 


3 58 


77 


560 


- 1 


2 


10 


5 


60 34 


4 40 


78 


290 


5 


3 


11 


2 


60 14 


4 30 


79 


76 


9 


4 


11 


2 


59 44 


4 44 


80 


92 


9 


6 


11 


8 


59 49 


4 42 


81 


142 


9 


5 


11 


8 


59 54 


5 1 


82 


312 


5 


2 


11 


2 


60 


5 13 


83 


362 


3 





11 


7 


60 6 


5 8 


84 


155 


9 


5 


11 


4 


59 34 


6 34 


85 


190 


9 


3 


12 


1 


59 40 


6 34 


86 


445 


- 1 





12 





59 48 


6 31 


87 


767 


5 


2 


11 


4 


59 35 


9 11 


88 


705 


5 


9 


12 





59 26 


8 23 


89 


445 


7 •'5 


11 


7 


59 38 


7 46 


90 


458 


7-3 


11-7 


59 41 


7 34 
















1 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE CRUISES OF THE ^ PORCUPINE ' {continued). 

From Shetland to Stornoway, — Phosplioresceiice. — The Echinoihuridce. 
—The Fauna of the ' Warm Area.'— End of the Cruise of 1869. 
Arrangements for the Expedition of 1870. — From England to 
Gibraltar. — Peculiar Conditions of the Mediterranean. — Return to 
Cowes. 

Appendix A. — Extracts from the Minutes of Council of the Royal 
Society, and other official documents referring to the Cruise of 
H.M.S. 'Porcupine' during the Summer of 1870. 

Appendix B. — Particulars of Depth, Temperature, and Position at 
the various Dredging-stations of H.M.S. 'Porcupine' in the 
Summer of 1870. 

*^* Tlie bracketed numbers to the woodcuts in this chapter refer to the dredging- 
stations on Plates IV. and V. 

We left Lerwick on the 31st of August, and ran 
south- and westward, passing close to Sumburgh 
Head; Fair Isle, of evil repute among mariners, 
lying on the southern horizon like a little grey 
3loud. The weather was still very fine, and we 
lad a good tossing with scarcely a breath of wind 
n the famous Roost of Sumburgh. Past Noma's 
-yrie on the ' Eitful Head ; ' past in the falling 
hadows of the autumn night the rocky Island of 
I'oula, still the haunt of one or two pairs of the 
Teat skua gull, Lestris cataractes, a species fast 

L 



146 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

hastening to join the dodo and the gair-fowl among 
the creatures of bygone times. 

We now steered somewhat to the north of west, and 
early on the 1st of September sounded in lat. 60° 17', 
long. 2° 53', at a depth of 103 fathoms, and a bottom 
temperature of 9° '2 C. We were still in the shallow 
water, and had not touched the arctic stream. All 
day we slipped over the edge of the plateau, dredging 
chiefly well-known Shetland forms, and the tempera- 
ture falling slightly, reaching in the afternoon at' a 
depth of 203 fathoms, 8°-7 C. (Station 74). The next 
sounding, about ten miles farther north, gave us the 
stratum of intermixture, a temperature of 5°*5 0. at a 
depth of 250 fathoms. We ran about thirty miles in 
the night, and early next morning dredged in the 
frigid water again in lat. 60° 36' N., long. 3° 58' N., at 
a depth of 344 fathoms, with a bottom temperature of 
~1°*1 C, the temperature at the surface being 10°'l C. 
Five-and-twenty miles to the westward, we sounded 
again at noon of the same day at 560 fathoms, with 

-r-2C. 

In these two or three last cold dredgings the 
character of the bottom was much the same —gravel 
of the older rocks, and clay. The preponderance 
of echinoderms and sponges was again remarkable, 
and the paucity of mollusca, though in this region 
we took a single specimen of a moUusk which 
seemed to be greatly out of its latitude. This was a 
pretty little brachiopod, Flatydiacm omioides, Sacchi 
(Morrisia, Davidson), hitherto found only in the 
Mediterranean. The size of this specimen greatly 
exceeded that of Mediterranean examples of the 
same species a singular circumstance which leads 



CHAP. IV.] TEE CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUFINE: 147 

our friend Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys to the somewhat 
hazardous presumption that **its original home is 
in the boreal, perhaps even in the arctic region." 

Two very peculiar little sponges were met with here 
rather frequently sticking to stones. A short smooth 
column, about 20 mm. in height, is surmounted in 
one species, which must I think be identified with 
Thecophora semisuberites, OscAU Schmidt, by a soft 




Ff«. 2-i.— Thecophora semisuherites, Ohvas, Schmidt. Twice the iiiitaral size. (No 76.) 

pad of spongy matter, with one or two projecting 
tubes with oscula in the centre. The other, which I 
shall call Thecophora ibla (Fig. 24), from its resem- 
blance to the cirripede of that name, ends in a scaly 
cone with a single osculum in the middle. The outer 
wall of the column in both forms is firm and glossy, 
under the microscope composed of closely-packed 
sheaves of needle-shaped spicules with their termi- 
nation blunt and slightly bulbous. The sheaves are 

L 2 



148 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

arranged vertically, and this peculiar tissue forms a 
complete sheatli surrounding a pulpy mass of gra- 
nular horny and sarcodic matter which fills the in- 
terior. In this inner spongy substance sheaves of 
similarly-shaped spicules are likewise arranged ver- 
tically, but much more loosely ; and the projecting 
scales forming the head of Thecophora ibla are formed 
by the projecting ends of such sheaves. Among 
echinoderms, OpJiiacantha spimilosa was one of the 




Fig. 'ZA.—Thecophwa ibla, Wyvii-lk Thomson. Twice the natural size. (No. 7C,.) 

prevailing forms, and we were greatly struck with 
the brilliancy of its phosphorescence. Some of 
these hauls were taken late in the evening, and the 
tangles were sprinkled over with stars of the most 
brilliant uranium green ; little stars, for the phos- 
phorescent light was much more vivid in the younger 
and smaller individuals. The light was not constant, 
nor continuous all over the star, but sometimes it 
struck out a line of fire all round the disk, flashing, 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 149 

or one might rather say glowinc^, up to the centre; 
then that would fade, and a defined patch, a centi- 
metre or so long, break out in the middle of an arm 
and travel slowly out to the point, or the whole five 
rays would light up at the ends and spread the fire 
inwards. Very young Ophiacanthce, only lately rid 
of their ' plutei,' shone very brightly. It is difficult 
to doubt that in a sea swarming with predaceous 
crustaceans, such as active species of Dorynchus and 
Munida with great bright eyes, phosphorescence 
must be a fatal gift. We had another gorgeous 
display of luminosity during this cruise. Coming 
down the Sound of Skye from Loch Torridon, 
on our return, we dredged in about 100 fathoms, 
and the dredge came up tangled with the long 
pink stems of the singular sea-pen Tavonaria qua- 
drangularis. Every one of these was embraced and 
strangled by the twining arms of Aster onyx lovSni, 
and the round soft bodies of the star-fishes hung from 
them like plump ripe fruit. The Pavonarice were 
resplendent with a pale lilac phosphorescence like 
the flame of cyanogen gas ; not scintillating like the 
green light of Ophiacantha, but almost constant, some- 
times flashing out at one point more brightly and 
then dying gradually into comparative dimness, but 
always sufficiently bright to make every portion of a 
stem caught in the tangles or sticking to the ropes 
distinctly visible. From the number of specimens of 
Favonaria brought up at one haul we had evidently 
passed over a forest of them. The stems were a metre 
long, fringed with hundreds of polyps. 

OpJiiocten sericeum, Forbes, and OpMoscolex pur- 
purea^ D. and K., were likewise very common, and 



15a 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. IV. 



in sand patches, Ophioglypha sarsii, Lutken. The 
most abundant asterid was Asteropecten tenuispu 
nus, always a marked object from its bright red 
colour — with here and there an example of Archaster 
andromeda and Fteraster miUtaris. Every haul 
brought up several specimens of the so-called large 




Yn-i.^o.—Archaste.rvexiUifer,Vf\\iiA.T, Thomson. One-third the natural sire. (No.Tfi) 



form of Echinus norvegicus, here of a pale colour, 
somewhat conical, and looking suspiciously like 
small forms of JE. jlemingii. 

Along with one or two specimens of Archaster 
andromeda^ we took at Station 76 an exceedingly 
beautiful Archaster (Pig. 25), certainly by far the 
finest species yet dredged in the Northern Seas. 

The arms are flattened, somewhat square in section 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE ' FORCUFJI^^E' 1 51 

owing to the position and size of the marginal plates, 
which run up nearly vertically from the side of the 
unusually wide amhulacral groove till they meet the 
edge of the perisoni of the dorsal surface. The mar- 
ginal plates are thickly covered with rounded scales 
and bear three rows of spines — one at the upper edge 
(and this series in combination form a fringe round 
the dorsal surface of the star-fish), one near the centre, 
and one a little farther down towards the ventral 
edge. The amhulacral groove is bordered by ob- 
liqaely placed combs of spines, short towards the 
apex and centre of the arm, but becoming longer 
towards its base, and forming at the re-entering 
angles between the amhulacral grooves large sin- 
gularly beautiful pads ; each plate bearing a double 
row of spines, and each spine having a second short 
spine or scale on the end, an arrangement which 
adds greatly to the richness of the bordering. The 
inner spine of each comb on the side of the amhu- 
lacral groove is longer than the others, and bears 
on the end a little oblong calcareous plate usually 
hanging from it somewhat obliquely like a flag, 
with sometimes a rudiment of a second attached to 
it in a gelatinous sheath, which makes it pro- 
bable that it is an abortive pedicellaria. Prom 
this character, which is one which cannot escape 
observation, I have called the species ' vexillifer.' 
I know no star-fish in w^hich the amhulacral grooves 
are so wide and the amhulacral tubes so large in pro- 
portion to the size of the animal as in this species. 
The dorsal perisom is closely covered with rosette-like 
paxillse. The colour is a pale rose, with a tinge of 
buff. The amhulacral tubes, which when the animal 



152 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

is living present a very marked feature from their 
great size, are semi-transparent and of a pale pink 
colour. 

We now took a run once more to the southward, 
recrossing the boundary of the cold stream, and 
sounding successively in 290 fathoms, with a bottom 
temperature of 5°-3 C, and in 76 fathoms, with a 
temperature of 9°'4, practically the same result as 
in the former case ; and in the next four Stations, 
80, 81, 82, and 83, we repeated the operation in- 
versely, sounding in 92 fathoms, with a tempera- 
ture of 9°-7 C. ; in 142, with 9°-5 ; in 312, with 5°-2 ; 
and in 362, with 3''-0. 

After a run of about sixty miles in a south-easterly 
direction nearly parallel with the lOO-fathom line, on 
the morning of Saturday the 4th of September we 
sounded in lat. 59° 34' jST., long. 6° 34' W., with a 
depth of 155 fathoms and a temperature of 9°*5 C. 
Two other Stations after running distances of six 
and eight miles only took us once more over the 
edge of the bank and into the cold river, the first 
giving a depth of 190 fathoms, with a temperature of 
9°*3, and the second 445 fathoms, and - 1°*0. 

As we were satisfied for the present with our work 
in the cold area, and as the next day was the day of 
rest, we steamed quietly westwards for about 100 
miles, past the Butt of the Lews and beyond the 
entrance of the channel to Station 87, lat. 59°-35' N., 
long. 2° 11' W., a point nearly in the middle line of 
the deep water of the channel, and consequently in 
the axis of the cold stream, the line in which the 
peculiarities of the cold area are most pronounced. 
Here a sounding gave us a depth of 767 fathoms and 



CHAP. IV.] THE CR UISES OF THE ' FORCUflNE: 153 

a bottom temperature of 6°- 2 0. We were thus in 
the warm area, and the dead-cold water of the cold 
area lying fifty or sixty miles off, with the bottom 
at a higher level, was completely banked in. The 
bottom temperature here corresponded so closely 
with that of the same depth in the Eockall Channel 
that apparently scarcely a drop of the Arctic in- 




FiG. 20.— Zoroaster fulgtns, Wtvilljj: Thomson. One-third the natural size. (No. 78.) 

draught makes its escape in this direction. The 
dredge here brought up half a ton of Atlantic 
* globigerina ooze,' a load which tested its tackle 
and the donkey-engine to the utmost. The weight 
of the dredge itself with the weight attached was 
8 cwt., so that altogether the burden reached not 



154 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

far short of a ton, , and the distance it had to he 
dragged through the water was not much less than a 
mile. As was frequently the case when these great 
loads came up, there were few of the higher animal 
forms in the dredge. The tangles brought up, how- 
ever, two or three specimens of a very handsome star- 
fish, the type of a new genus. 

Zoroaster fulgens (Fig. 26) is a five-rayed star-fish, 
250 mm. from tip to tip of the arms, which run close 
up to the centre leaving a small disk not more than 
20 mm. in diameter. There are four rows of sucking 
feet in the ambulacral grooves, a character which 
places the genus in the first division of the Asterida, 
along with Asteraca7ithion. The arms are compressed 
laterally, and run up to a central longitudinal ridge, 
which bears a row of large pointed spines articulated 
to 'a row of projecting knob-like ossicles. From this 
ridge bands of ossicles curve downwards to the edge 
of the ambulacral groove so close together and so 
thick and solid that the arms are continuously and 
strongly mailed over. The disk is paved with large 
calcareous tubercles with articulated spines; the tuber- 
cles and spines becoming larger towards the centre of 
the disk. The whole surface of the body is covered 
with long fine spines, with here and there a group 
of pedicellariae on short soft stalks attached to the 
tops of special spines, while a row of such spines 
bearing large groups of pedicellariae runs along the 
edges of the ambulacral grooves. When living, the 
whole surface of the animal is covered with a 
quantity of glairy mucus. The colour of the perisom 
is a magnificent yellow scarlet, but it is very evan- 
escent, fading immediately in spirit. This is a 



CHAP. IT.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUFINE: 155 

distinct, as well as a very striking form. We only 
met with it on this occasion. Tlie skeleton of this 
star-fish at first sight closely resembles that of some 
species of Op1iidlaste7\ for instance O. asperuliis, 
LtJTKEN. It is at once distinguished, however, by the 
fundamental character of the quadruple row of ambu- 
lacral suckers ; and the texture of the surface of 
the star-fish is utterly difPerent. The arrangement 
of the ossicles of the frame-work is perhaps nearest 
to that in Arthraster dixoni, Eoubes, from the lower 
chalk of Balcombe pit near Amberley, Sussex; but 
the only specimen of that species, now in the British 
Museum, unfortunately does not show the arrange- 
ment of the plates in the ambulacral grooves. 

As our coals were beginning to run short, and 
what remained were blowing off fast — steaming 
against rather a strong head wind — we thought it 
prudent to retrace our steps slowly towards Storno- 
way, dredging on our way. Accordingly, in the 
afternoon, we took a haul in lat. 59° 26', N., long. 
8° 23' W., with a depth of 705 fathoms, and a 
temperature of 5°*9 C. Continuing our easterly 

; course during the night, but heading slightly north- 
wards so as to come upon the ground where we 

I had been previously so successful in dredging the 

\ singular anchoring sponges, we dredged in the 
morning in lat. 59° 38' N., long. T 46' W., with a 
depth of 445 fathoms and a temperature of T' 5 C. 
This haul was not very rich, but it yielded one speci- 
men of extraordinary beauty and interest. As the 
dredge was coming in we got a glimpse from time to 
time of a large scarlet urchin in the bag. We 

! thought it was one of the highly-coloured forms 



156 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. IV, 



of Echinus flemingii of unusual size, and as it was 
blowing fresh and there was some little difficulty in 
getting the dredge capsized, we gave little heed to 
what seemed to be an inevitable necessity — that it 
should be crushed to pieces. "We were somewhat 
surprised, therefore, when it rolled out of the bag 
uninjured; and our surprise increased, and was cer- 




Fio. 27.—Calveria hystrix, Wyville Thomson. Two'-tliirds the natural size. iNo. 86.) 



tainly in my case mingled with a certain amount of 
nervousness, when it settled down quietly in the form 
of a round red cake, and began to pant — a line of 
conduct, to say the least of it very unusual in its 
rigid undemonstrative order. Yet there it was with 
all the ordinary characters of a sea-urchin, its inter- 
ambulacral areas, and its ambulacral areas with their 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUPINE: 157 

rows of tube feet, its spines, and five sharp blue teeth ; 
and curious undulations were passing through its 
perfectly flexible leather-like test. I had to summon 
up some resolution before taking the weird little 
monster in my hand, and congratulating myself on 
the most interesting addition to my favourite family 
which had been made for many a day. 

Calveria hystrix — for I have named this genus and 
species after our excellent Commander and his tidy 




Fig. 28.— Calveria hystrix, Wvville Thomson. Inner surface of a portion of the test showing 
the structure of the anibulacral and interanibulacral areas. 

little vessel, in grateful commemoration of the plea- 
sant times we had together — is circular and depressed, 
rather more than 120 mm. in diameter, and about 
25 mm. high (Eig. 28). Both interambulacral and 
ambulacral areas are wide. The peristome and the 
periproct are unusually large ; the former covered with 
calcareous scale-like plates, perforated up to the rim of 
the mouth for the passage of ambulacral tube-feet, as 
in CidaiHs; the latter with a large madreporic tubercle 



1 58 THE DEPniH OF THE SEJ. [chap. iv. 

and five large round openings in the ovarial plates 
in the centre of which open the wide ducts from the 
ovaries. The jaw pyramid, 'Aristotle's lantern/ is 
large and strong, and formed on the plan of the Dia- 
dematidse, and the teeth are large and simply chan- 
nelled. The point of structure, however, in which 
Calveria differs from all previously described recent 
urchins is the arrangement of the ambulacral and 
interambulacral plates. These, instead of meeting 
edge to edge and abutting against one another so as 
to form a continuous rigid shell as in most other 
echinids, overlap one another ; the plates of the inter- 
ambulacral arese from the apical pole towards the 
mouth, those of the ambulacral areee from the mouth 
towards the apical disk (Pig. 28). In Calveria, the 
outer portions of the interambulacral plates leave 
spaces between them wliich are filled up with mem- 
brane, and the inner ends of the plates form large wide 
expansions, which overlap greatly. The ambulacral 
pairs of pores are singularly arranged : they are in 
arcs of three, but two of the pairs of each arc penetrate 
small special accessory plates, while the third pair 
penetrates the ambulacral plate near the end. The 
outer ends of the interambulacral plates overlap the 
outer ends of the ambulacral plates, so that the 
ambulacral arese are essentially within the interambu- 
lacral. The interambulacral plates bear each close to 
the outer end where they overlap the ambulacral 
plates, a large primary tubercle ; and two imperfect 
rows of primary tubercles bearing long spines are 
ranged in the middle of the ambulacral arese; the 
remainder of the surface of the plates is thickly 
studded with secondary tubercles and miliary grains. 



CHAP. IV.] 



THE CRUISES OF THE ' F0RCUEL\E: 



151) 



The spines are very delicate and hollow, with pro- 
jecting processes arranged in an imperfect spiral; and 
resemble somewhat the small spines of the Diade- 
matidse. The colour of the test is a rich crimson with 
a dash of purple, and it is very permanent ; the only 
perfect specimen procured which is 
preserved in spirit has not lost 
colour greatly to the present time. 
In the summer of 1870, Mr. 
Gwyn Jeffreys, dredging on the 
coast of Portugal, took two nearly 
perfect specimens and several frag- 
ments of another species of the 
genus Calveria ; and subsequent 
careful examination of fragments 
and debris has shown that this 
second species, C fenestrata^ occurs 
likewise in the deep water off the 
coast of Scotland and Ireland. The 
interambulacral plates are nar- 
rower, and leave larger membra- 
nous spaces between them, and the 
great key-like overlapping expan- 
sions in the middle line are much 
larger. The spines have the same 
form and are arranged nearly in 
the same way; but parallel to 
the outer row of large spines 
on each interambulacral space 
of four or five or more pedicellarise, of quite a 
peculiar type. The head of the pedicellaria which 
is supported on a long stalk, consists of four valves 
(Pig. 29), the wide terminal portion of each forming 




Fia. 29. — Calveria fenestrata, 
Wyville Thomson. One of 
the four-valved pedicellarise. 



there is a row 



160 THE DEPTHS OF THE SE/l. [chap. iv. 

a beautiful double fenestrated frame, with a peculiar 
twist in it reminding one of a Campy lodiscus, and a 
very elegant erenated border. These disks are raised 
on delicate hollow pedicels, which expand beneath, 
at their point of attachment to the common stalk. 
A large mass of muscle envelopes the lower part of 
the group of pedicels, and doubtless determines the 
movement of the valves in reference to one another. 

It is difficult to see what relation in position the 
valves can occupy when the instrument, whatever 
may be its use, is closed. 

We now steamed onwards to the south-east for 
about ten miles, and put down our dredge, fully 
equipped with * hempen tangles ' and every accessory 
device for entrapping the denizens of the deep, exactly, 
as our Commander assured us, over the spot where we 
had dredged the Roltenice early in the cruise. We 
got there in the evening, and adopted a plan which 
we had tried successfully once or twice before; we 
allowed the dredge to remain down all night, moving 
along with the drift of the vessel, and hauled it up 
in the early morning. I do not believe human 
dredger ever got such a haul. The special inhabit- 
ants of that particular region — vitreous sponges and 
echinoderms — had taken quite kindly to the tangles, 
warping themselves into them and sticking through 
them and over them, till the mass w^as such that we 
could scarc3ly get it on board. Dozens of great Hol- 
tenice, like 

" Wrinkled heads and aged, 
Wit'u silver beard and hair," 



n 



a dozen of the best of them breaking off just at 
that critical point where everything doubles its 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 161 

weight by being lifted out of the water, and sink- 
ing slowly away back again to our inexpressible 
anguish ; glossy whisps of Hyalonema spicules ; a 
bushel of the pretty little mushroom-like Tisiphonia ; 
a fiery constellation of the scarlet Astropecten temiis- 
pinus ; while a whole tangle was ensanguined by the 
* disjecta membra ' of a splendid Brisinga. 

There was not much in the dredge-bag that was 

new. Some large Munidce, with their ' spheery eyne ; ' 

some fine specimens of Kophohelemnon mulleri; an 

example of the Euryalid, Asleronyx loveni, nearly 

the only Scandinavian echinoderm which we had not 

previously taken ; and an injured specimen of a 

flexible urchin, w hich we supposed to be of the same 

: species as that procured the day before, although it 

I diflPered greatly in colour, being of a uniform pale 

grey. Upon further examination, however, it proved 

.to be the type of a totally different generic group of 

the same family. 

Fhormosoyna placenta resembles Calveria in having 

jthe perisom flexible, the plates overlapping in the 

same way and in the same directions ; but the plates 

overlap one another only slightly, and they leave no 

'membranous spaces between, so that they form a 

-ontinuous shell. The great peculiarity of this form 

s that the upper surface is quite different from the 

ower. Above, the ambulacral and interambulacral 

irese are well defined and in ordinary proportion, 

l he interambulacral arese being just twice as wide 

IS the ambulacral, and the spines are much like 

hose of Calveria, and are arranged nearly in the 

ame manner. At the periphery the shell comes to 

kind of ridge, and alters entirely ; from the edge 

M 



162 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap, it 

to the mouth the distinction between ambulacral 
and interambulaeral areae is apparently lost, and 
the sutures between the plates can scarcely be made 
out ; the pore areae are reduced to mere lines of 
double pores, and tlie whole of the surface of the 
shell is studded over uniformly with the very large 
areolae of primary tubercles, bearin^^ spines which 
are small and delicate and apparently quite out of 
proportion to the mass of muscle connected with 
them which fills the areolae. As in Calveria, the 
tubercles are perforated. 

We have thus become acquainted with three 
members of a family of urchins which, while differ- 
ing in a most marked way from all other knownj 
living groups, bear a certain relation to some of these,' 
and easily fall into their place in urchin classification. 
They are ' regular echinids,' and have the normalj 
number and arrangement of the principal parts. 
They resemble the Cidaridse in the continuation ot| 
the lines of ambulacral pores over the scaly membrane! 
of the peristome to the mouth, and they approach! 
the Diadematidae in their hollow spines, in the form 
of their small pedicellariae, and in the general structure! 
of the jaw pyramid. From both of these families the^ 
differ in the imbricated arrangement of the plates an^ 
in the structure of the pore areae, to the widest extend 
compatible with belonging to the same sub- order. 

Many years ago Mr. Wickham Elower of Part 
Hill, Croydon, procured a very curious fossil fron 
the upper chalk of Higham near llochester. It con 
sisted of a number of series of imbricated platei 
radiating from a centre, and while certain sets of thes( 
plates were perforated with the characteristic doubL 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 163 

pores of the urchins, these were absent in alternate 
series. Some points about this fossil, particularly 
the imbricated arrangement of the plates over portions 
indicating a circle at least four inches in diameter, 
caused great difficulty in referring it to its place. 
Edward Eorbes examined it, but would not hazard 
an opinion. The general impression was that it must 
be the scaly peristome of some large urchin, possibly 
of a large CypJiosoma, a genus abundant in the same 
bed. Some years after the discovery of the first 
specimen, a second was obtained by the Rev. Norman 
Glass, from Charlton in Kent. This specimen ap- 
peared at first to solve the difficulty, for it contained 
in the centre a well-developed ' lantern of Aristotle ; ' 
there then was the peristome of the urchin, of which 
Mr. riower's specimen was the periproct. The late 
Dr. S. P. Woodward examined the two specimens 
carefully, and found that the question was not so 
easily settled. He detected the curious reversal of 
the imbrication of the plates in the ambulacral and 
interambulacral areas which I have described in 
Calveria, and at one fpoint he traced the plates over 
the edge of the specimen, and found that they were 
repeated inverted on the other side. With great 
patience and great sagacity he worked the thing out, 
and came to the conclusion that he was dealing 
with the representative of a lost family of regular 
echinids. 

Woodward names his new genus EcJiinothuria, and 
describes the chalk species, E. floris, almost as fully 
and accurately as we could describe it now with a full 
knowledge of its relations — for EcJiinothuria is 
closely related to Culver la and Fhormosoma. In all 

^i 2 



lG-4 TUE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

essential family characters they agree. The plates 
imbricate in the same directions and on the same 
plan, and the structure of the ambulacral arese, 
which is so special and characteristic, is the same. 
Echinothuria differs from Calveria in the wider inter- 
ambulacral and ambulacral plates, in the smaller 
amount of overlapping, and in the absence of mem- 
branous intervals; and from Fhormosoma it differs 
in having the structure and ornament of the apical 
and oral surfaces of the test the same. 

As the genus Echinothuria was the first described, 
I have felt justified in naming the family the Echino- 
thuridse. I have done this with the greater pleasure, 
as it brings into prominence a term suggested by 
my late friend Dr. Woodward, whose early death 
was a serious loss to science. In Dr. Woodward's 
memoir, the following curious paragraph occurs : — 

"After this apparently conclusive demonstration, 
it appears desirable to give a name to this fossil and 
to attempt a short description, although its rank and 
affinities are still a matter of conjecture. At present 
it is one of those anomalous organisms which Milne 
Edwards compares to solitary stars belonging to no 
constellation in particular. The disciples of Von Baer 
may regard it as a ' generalized form ' of echinoderm, 
coming, however, rather late in the geological day. 
The publication of it should be acceptable to those 
who base their hopes on the ' imperfection of the 
geological record,' as it seems to indicate the 
former existence of a family or tribe, whose full 
history must ever remain unknown.'' The special 
bearings of the discovery of this group, and of 
several other animal forms allied to chalk fossils 



I 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRLflSES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 165 

living among the recent chalk-mud of the Atlantic 
sea-bed, will be discussed in a future chapter. 

While we were examining our wonderful dredge- 
load the little ' Porcupine ' was steaming slowly 
southwards — past the island of Rona, and Cape Wrath 
looking out into the north cold and blue, with the 
waves now curled up asleep at its feet, as if they 
never did any harm ; past the welcome Butt of the 
Lews, and into the little harbour of Stornoway. Here 
we remained some days; not sorry— even although 
our cruise had been thoroughly pleasant — to exchange 
the somewhat cramped routine of life in a gun-boat 
for the genial hospitalities of Stornoway Castle. 

The fauna of the ' warm area ' is under circum- 
stances altogether special and peculiar, which must 
be discussed in full hereafter. While the cold area 
is sharply restricted, the warm area extends con- 
tinuously from the Pseroes to the Strait of Gibraltar. 
At all events the same conditions are continuous ; 
but as will be explained more fully hereafter, the 
whole 600 or 700 fathoms of water down to the 
bottom at the mouth of the Pseroe Channel, corre- 
sponds with the surface layer only to a like depth in 
the Eockall Channel or in the Atlantic basin. The 
first 700 to 800 fathoms in all cases are actually 
warm, but where the depth greatly exceeds 800 
fathoms, there is a mass of cold water beneath sink- 
ing slowly to nearly the freezing-point. The bottom 
therefore, the habitation of the fauna, is only warm 
where the depth is not greater than 800 fathoms, 
and in such a case only can the term 'warm area' 
be correctly applied. Such are the conditions off 
Faeroe, and it is this which makes the contrast 



166 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

between the warm and cold areas so marked in that 
region. The warm area, however, even as thus 
restricted, is continuous southwards so far as we 
know indefinitely for the North Atlantic, occupying 
the zone of depth along the coast from say 300 to 800 
fathoms. At great depths everywhere the climatal 
conditions approach those of the cold area, and the 
actual character of a fauna — an assemblage of animals 
at any one spot — must depend not merely upon tem- 
perature but upon the laws regulating the distribu- 
tion of deep-sea animals ; a subject on which we know 
as yet very little. 

The bottom in the cold area in the Eaeroe Channel 
is rough gravel. That in the warm is everywhere 
nearly homogeneous 'globigerina ooze.' This cir- 
cumstance alone is sufficient to determine a marked 
difference in the habits of the animals and their 
mode of life. 

B^eferring then to the foraminifera, the dredge came 
up throughout the warm area full of Glohigerlna and 
Orbulina, and fine calcareous mud, the product of their 
disintegration. Among these were multitudes of 
other forms, most of them of large size. I quote from 
Dr. Carpenter. Speaking of the Holtenia ground, he 
says : — '' The Foraminifera obtained on this and the 
neighbouring parts of the warm area presented many 
features of great interest. As already stated, several 
arenaceous forms (some of them new) were extremely 
abundant ; but in addition to these we found a great 
abundance of Miliolines of various types, many of 
them attaining a very unusual and some even 
an unprecedented size. As last year, we found 
Cornus'pirce resembling in general aspect the large 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 167 

OperculincB of tropical seas, and Biloculince aud 
Triloculince far exceeding in dimensions the littoral 
forms of British shores; and with these were asso- 
cated Cristellariw of no less remarkable size, pre- 
senting every gradation from an almost rectilineal 
to the nautiloid form, and having the animal body in 
so perfect a state as to enable it to be completely 
isolated by the solution of the shell in dilute acid." 
Sponges were extremely abundant, but they were 
restricted to only a small number of species ; all of 
them with one form or another of the curious an- 
choring habit. Among the Hexactinellidse Holtenia 
was the most striking and the most abundant form. 
Hyalonema was also common ; but we got few per- 
fect specimens with the sponge and glass-rope in 
connection. The conical sponge heads were very 
numerous ; they seemed to have been torn off by 
the edge of the dredge, the rope remaining in 
the mud, and the ropes were frequently brought 
up without the sponge. Almost all the ropes were 
encrusted with the constant ' commensal ' of Ilya- 
lonemay JPalythoa fatua. Very young examples of 
Hyalonema, with the whisp from 5 mm. to 20 mm. 
long, had usually no Falythoa on them ; but when 
they had attained above the latter dimensions in 
almost every case one could see the first polyp of 
the Falythoa making its appearance as a small 
bud, and its pink-encrusting coenosarc spreading 
round it. By far the most common sponge in the 
chalk-mud is the pretty little hemispherical corti- 
cate form Tisiphonia agariciformis. This species, 
though difPering from it greatly in appearance and 
habit, seems to be closely allied to a strong, heavy 



I 



168 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [cii/p. iv. 

encrusting sponge which we met with frequently 
sticking to stones in the ' cold area.' The form of 
the spicules was nearly though not quite the same, 
and their arrangement was very similar. It appeared 
as if the two forms placed in intermediate circum- 
stances might have approached one another very 
closely. 

In the warm area, as in the cold at these great 
depths, there is a singular absence of Hydrozoa. A 
few species of SertulaiHa and Flmnularia, and one or 
two allied forms occurred, and they are now in the 
skilful hands of Dr. Allman for determination ; but 
their small number and insignificance is remarkable. 

Neither are the true corals represented by numer- 
ous species, although in some places individuals 
are enormously abundant. During the ' Porcupine ' 
cruises of 1869 twelve species of Madreporaria were 
procured which have been determined by Professor 
Martin Duncan. None of these belong to 'reef- 
building' genera, but to a group which are recognized 
as deep-sea corals, a group which appears to have had 
numerous representatives during all the later geolo- 
gical periods. In a band somewhat restricted in 
depth, extending downwards from the 100-fatliom 
line, we met in some places with very large numbers 
of many varieties of Caryophyllia horealis, Pleming 
(Fig. 4) ; and at depths of 300 to 600 fathoms the 
handsome branching LophoJielia prolifera, Pallas 
(Pig 30), forms stony copses covering the bottom 
for many miles, the clefts of its branches aflPording 
fully appreciated shelter to multitudes of Area 
nodulosa, Psolus squamatus, Ophiopholis aculeata, 
and other indolent ' commensals.' 



CHAP. IV J 



THE CRUISES OF THE 'FORCUFINEJ 



169 



Five species of Amphihelia are cited by Professor 
Martin Duncan from the ' Porcupine ' expedition : — 
A. profunda, Pourtales ; A. oculata, L. sp. ; A. mio- 
cenica, Seguenza; A. atlantica, n. sp. ; and A. ornata, 




Fro. SO.—Lophoheliaprolifera, Pallas (sp.). Three-fourths the natural size. (No. 26.) 



n. sp. ; and on one or two occasions, chiefly on 'the 
verge of the cold area, the hempen tangles involved 
some elegant fragments of the stony coral Allopora 
oculina, Eiirenberg (Pig. 31). 



170 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. IV. 



Although many of the echinoderms of the cold 
area are common to the warm, the general fades 
of the echinoderm fauna is different, and there are 
a numher of additional and very striking forms. 

Cldarls papillata, Leske, is abundant at moderate 




Fio. 31. — Allopora ocuKna, Ehbenbebo. 



depths. On our second visit to the HoUenia groun 
we dredged one small specimen of the handsome 
urchin already described, Forocidaris purpurata, 
A fine brilliantlv-coloured urchin of the Echinus 



i 



CHAP. IV ] THE CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUPINE: 171 

flemingii group, but distinguished from U. Jiemmgii 
by characters which I must regard as of specific 
value, JEchinus microstoma^ Wyville Thomson, was 
common and of large size ; and along with it many 
very beautiful brightly-coloured examples of the 
smallest form of E. norvegicus. 

The three species of the Echinothuridae, Calveria 
hystrix, (7. fenestrata, and Phormosoma 'placenta have 
as yet been met with in this region only, and they 
seem to have a wide distribution, stretching at about 
the same depth and temperature from the Psferoe 
Islands to the south of Spain. I hear from Pro- 
fessor Alexander Agassiz that Count Pourtales has 
dredged fragments of one of the species under nearly 
similar circumstances in the Strait of Plorida. 
Cribrella sanguinolenta was in thousands, of all 
colours — scarlet, bright orange, and chocolate brown. 
Several examples were found of a fine Scy taster, 
probably identical with the Asterias canariensis of 
D'Orbigny, and if so having a southern distribu- 
tion. The curious little JPedicellaster typicus of 
Sars was not unfrequent ; a form which looks very 
much like the young of something else. One small 
specimen of Pteraster militaris came up from the 
Holtenia ground, but with the exception of Astro- 
pecten tenuispinus, which seemed to be more abun- 
dant than ever, the characteristic arctic echino- 
derms were absent. We took no examples here of 
Toxopneustes drobachiensis, Tripylus fragilis, Ar- 
chaster andromeda, Cte7iodiscus crispatus, Astropecten 
arctiGus, Buryale linJcii, OpMoscolex glacialis, or 
Antedon escrichtii. It is very likely that there may 
be colonies in the ' warm area ' of some or of all of 



172 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. IV. 



these — for the region in which they are common 
under very diiferent climatal conditions is within a 
few miles, and there is no intervening barrier — but 




Fi0. Z2.—Ophiomusiwn lymani, Wtville Thomson. Dorsal surface ; natural size. (No. 45. 

they certainly are not abundant. AmpMura ahys- 
sicola, Sars, was in great numbers sticking to the 
sponges, and OpMacantha spinulosa was nearly as 
common as in the cold area. 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE ' FORCUFINE: 1 73 

We took one or two small examples of a very fine 
ophiurid, of which larger specimens had been pre- 
viously found at about the same depth and tem- 
perature during the second cruise of the same 
season oflP the coast of Ireland. This form probably 
ought to be referred to Lyman's genus Ophiomusium, 




Fig. iZ.—OpMomv.sium lymani, Wyville Thomson. Oral surface. 

though the characters of the genus must be some- 
what altered to admit it. OpMomusium eburneum, 
Lyman, of which several specimens were taken by 
Count Pourtales at depths of from 270 to 335 
fathoms, off Sandy Key, is distinguished by the 
great solidity and complete calcification of the 



1 74 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA, [chap. iv. 

perisom. The plates of the disk are soldered 
together, so as to form a close mosaic (fMuaelov), \{ 
The mouth-papillae are fused into two lines, their 
numher being only indicated by grooves. The 
lateral arm-plates are united together above and 
below, the upper and lower arm-plates are reduced i 
to mere rudiments, and there are no tentacle pores 
beyond the first arm-joints. 




Fig. Si.—Dorymhus thomsoni, Norman. Ouce and a half the natural size ; everywhere in . . 

deep water. , 

?■■ 

In our new species, which I name provisionally 
Ophiomusium lymani, the diameter of the disk is 
28 mm., and the length of each arm 100 mm. in 
large specimens. The two lateral arm-plates, fused 
together above and below, form complete rings, their 
distal edge notched on each side for the insertion of 
seven arm spines, of which the lowest is much longer 
than the rest. The dorsal arm-plates are small and 
diamond-shaped, let in between the lateral arm- 
plates at the distal end of their upper line of 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'FORCUFINE: 175 

junction. The ventral arm-plates are entirely absent. 
This is a large handsome star- fish. I am not aware 
of any fossil form which can be referred to the same 
genus; but it looks like a thing which might be 
expected to have congeners in the upper chalk. 
Holothurids were not frequent, but the singular 
little JEchinocucuniis typica of Sars, covered with 
spiny plates, turned up in every sifting. 




Fig. Zb.—Amathia carpenteri, Nokman. Once and a half the natural size. (No. 47.) 

Crustacea are numerous ; but we have here entirely 
lost the gigantic Arctic amphipods and isopods of 
the ' cold area.' A pretty little stalk-eyed form 
Dorynchus thomsoni, Norman (Fig. 34), small and 
delicate, and very distinct from all previously de- 
scribed species of the genus, is very widely diffused. 



1 76 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

This crab, from its long spiny legs and liglit body, 
very often comes up entangled on the part of the rope 
which had been passing over the ground. Another 
handsome new species, Amathia carpenteri, Nor- 
man (Fig. 35), was common in the sandy chalk- 
mud of the ' Holtenia ground.' The genus had 
previously been familiar as a Mediterranean form. 

I quote from a preliminary notice of the Crus- 
tacea by the lie v. A. Merle Norman : '^ Ethusa 
granulata (sp. n.), the same species as that found 
off Valentia, but exhibiting a most extraordinary 
modification of structure. The examples taken at 
110 — 370 fathoms in the more southern habitat 
have the carapace furnished in front wdth a spi- 
nose rostrum of considerable length. The animal 
is apparently blind, but has two remarkable spiny 
eye-stalks, with a smooth rounded termination 
where the eye itself is ordinarily situated. In the 
specimens however from the north, which live in 
542 and 705 fathoms, the eye-stalks are no longer 
moveable. They have become firmly fixed in their 
sockets, and their character is quite changed. They 
are of much larger size, approach nearer to each 
other at their base, and instead of being rounded at 
their apices they terminate in a strong rostrate 
point. No longer used as eyes, they now assume the 
functions of a rostrum ; while the true rostrum so 
conspicuous in the southern specimens has, marvellous 
to state, become absorbed. Had there been only a 
single example of this form procured, we should at 
once have concluded that we had found a monstrosity, 
but there is no room for such an hypothesis by which 
to escape from this most strange instance of modifi-^ 



OHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 177 

cation of structure under altered conditions of life, 
i Three specimens were procured on two different 
occasions, and they are in all respects similar." 

Mollusca are much more abundant and varied 
in the warm area than in the cold. Mr. Gwyn 
JeflPreys remarks, however, that there is not such 
a decided diflPerence in the MoUuscan fauna of the 
two regions as might have been expected from the 
difference in their conditions ; very many species 
being common to both. At 500 fathoms the sponges 
are full of Fecten vitreus, Chem., and Columbella 
halioeti, Jeffreys ; and throughout the area species 
occur of many Molluscan genera, including Lima, 
j Dacridkmi, Nucula, Leda, Montacuta, Aximis, Astarte, 
\ Tellina, Newra, Dentalium, Cadulus, Siphonoden- 
talium, Rissoa, Aclis, Odostomia, Aporrhais, Fleuro- 
toma, Fusus, and Fuccinmn. 

Taken as a whole the fauna of the warm area off 
jthe north of Scotland seems to be an extension of 
la fauna with which we are as yet very imperfectly 
acquainted, occupying what we must now call 
moderate depths, say from 300 to 800 fathoms, 
along coasts which are bathed by currents of equa- 
torial water. The fauna of this zone is evidently 
3xtremely rich ; and as it is beyond the reach of 
ordinary dredging from an open boat, and yet not 
it a sufficient depth to present any very great diffi- 
bulty from a yacht of average size, its exploration 
lieems to present just the combination of adventure 
jind novelty to stimulate amateurs; so we may 
'lope shortly to have its conditions and distribution 
leared up. A most successful step in this direction 
las been made already by Mr. Marshall Hall, who, 



.1 

1 78 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

with his yacht 'Noma,' and with the aid of Mr. 
Saville Kent, has thrown a good deal of additional 
light upon the zoology of the ' warm area ' off the 
coast of Portugal. 

We left Stornoway on the 13th of Septemher, and 
in the afternoon dredged for a few hours in Loch 
Torridon without much result. Late in the evening, 
steaming down Raasay Sound, we came upon the 
luminous forest of Favonarla to which I have already 
referred. At noon, on the 14th, we were ahreast of 
the Island of Mull, and on the 15th we were once 
more moored in the Abercorn Basin, Belfast, where 
we took leave of the ' Porcupine ' and our highly- 
valued friends her captain and officers ; in the hope 
of meeting them again shortly, and thoroughly 
satisfied with the success of our summer's work. 

On the 24th of March, 1870, a letter was read at 
the council meeting of the Boyal Society from Dr. Car- 
penter, addressed to the President, suggesting that an . 
exploration of the deep sea, such as was carried out 
during 1868 and 1869 in the regions to the north and 
west of the British Islands, should now he extended 
to the soutli of Europe and the Mediterranean, and 
that the council of the Boyal Society should recom- 
mend such an undertaking to the favourable con- 
sideration of the Admiralty, with a view to obtain 
the assistance of Her Majesty's Government, as on 
the previous occasions. The official correspondence, 
with reference to the expedition of the summer of 
1870, is given in Appendix A to the present chapter. 

It was intended, as on the previous occasion, to 
divide this year's expedition into cruises; and again 
Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys undertook the scientific direction 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 1 79 

of the first cruise, at a time when both Dr. Carpenter 
and I were occupied with our official work. A young 
Swedish naturalist, Mr. Joshua Lindahl of the Uni- 
I versity of Lund, accompanied him as zoological 
I assistant, and Mr. W. L. Carpenter took charge of 
: the chemical department. It was arranged that Mr. 
Jeffreys' cruise should extend from Falmouth to 
Gibraltar. Dr. C^arpenter and I were to have rc- 
ilieved him at Gibraltar, meeting the vessel there, and 
[to have worked together as we did the year before; 
but I was unfortunately laid up with an attack of 
fever, and the whole charge of the last cruise in the 
Mediterranean rested with Dr. Carpenter. Owing to 
this untoward circumstance, I must give at second- 
hand the brief account of the first part of the work 
of the year 1870 which is necessary to complete the 
; sketch of what has been done towards the illus- 
Itration of the condition and fauna of the North 
Atlantic. In the Mediterranean Dr. Carpenter found 
ithe conditions of temperature and of the distribu- 
tion of animal life entirely exceptional, as might 
have been to a certain extent anticipated from the 
exceptional circumstances of that land-locked sea. 
The investigation of 1870 can only be said to have 
1)roken ground towards the solution of a series of 
very special and peculiar problems ; and I am not 
in a position to go farther at present than to indicate 
the general results at which my colleague has arrived. 
The ' Porcupine ' left Falmouth on the 4tli of July, 
but was detained in the Channel for several days by 
fogs and contrary winds. On the 7th of July, they 
reached the slope from the plateau of the Channel to 
the deep water of the Atlantic, and took a first haul 



1 80 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

ill 567 fathoms. Mr. Jeffreys reports the contents of 
the dredge as small but very interesting. Among 
the mollusca he notes Terehratula septata, Limopsis 
borealls, Hela tenella, Verticordia ahyssicola, Turho 
Jilosus, and Rmgiciila ventricosa. Turbo Jilosus and 
its^ variety T. glabratus had previously been known 
only as fossils in the tertiaries of Calabria and Mes- 
sina. Terehratula septata, Limopsis borealis, and 
Hela tenella are likewise fossil in the Pliocene beds of 
southern Italy, and are found living in the Scandi- 
navian seas. Mr. Norman notes among the crus- 
taceans new species of Ampelisca and of six other 
genera ; and the beautiful scarlet Echimis microstoma 
was the most conspicuous echinoderm. 

The wind, as the vessel passed over the slope of the 
Channel, was rather too light for successful dredging ; 
the drift-way was scarcely sufficient to carry the 
dredge along. The tangles were most valuable, 
coming in as highly effective aids, particularly in 
securing all things provided with anything in the 
form of spines or other asperities. 

On the 8th the first haul was nearly a failure. Other 
hauls later in the day, at 690 and 500 fathoms, gave 
important results. Rhynchonella sicula, Segued za; 
Tleuro7iectia, sp. n. ; and Actceoii, sp. n., occurred: 
besides the usual northern species. Mr. Norman 
reports as to No. 3 : "A most important dredging, 
the results among the Crustacea being more valu 
able than all the rest put together — at any ratel^ 
of the first cruise. It contains almost all of the 
choicest of the new species in last year's expedi- 
tion, and four stalk-eyed crustaceans of great in 
terest, three of which are new, and the fourth, 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 181 

Geryon tridens, is a fine Norwegian species. With 
these are associated two forms of a more southern 
character, Inachus dorsettensis and Ehalia cranchii, 
^v\ncll I should not have expected at so great a 
depth." The echinoderms were a very northern 
group. They included Cidaris papillata, Echinus nor- 
vegicus and E. microstoma, the young of Brissopsis 
lyrifera, Astropecten arcticus, Ar chaster andromeda, 
and A. parellii, with a small specimen of Ophio- 
miisiiim lymani, several examples of Ophiacantha 
sjnnulosa, and as usual one or two of the universally 
distributed Echinocucmnis typica. Dr. Mcintosh, to 
whom the annelids were referred, notices as a species 
supposed to be specially northern, Thelepus coro- 
natus, Eab.; and Iloltenia carpenteri, our familiar 
anchoring sponge, of all sizes and ages and in consider- 
able numbers, was entangled in the hempen ' swabs.' 
July 9th. — The wind still too light for effective 
work. Dredged in 717 and 358 fathoms, the assem- 
blage of moUusca having the usual character of being 
to a great extent common to the recent fauna of the 
seas of Norway and to the pliocene fauna of Sicily 
and the Mediterranean. It included on this occasion 
Terebratelta spitzhergensis, an arctic and Japanese 
form, Pecten vitreus, and P. aratus, Leda pernula, 
Trochus suturalis, Odostomia nitens, and Fleurotoma 
hispidutum. Among the echinoderms w^as a fine 
specimen of Brisinga endecacnemos, Absjornsen, 
very markedly different from B. coronata, which was 
the form commonly met with in the north. The 
corals were represented by Amphihelia oculata and 
Besmophyllum crista-galli. Among the annelids were 
]?ista cristata, O. P. MtJLLER, and Trophonia glauca, 



X82 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

Malmgren, both of them Arctic species. The 10th 
was Sunday, and the vessel lay-to, and on the 11th 
they dredged, still on the slope of the channel plateau, 
with nearly the same result as before, the fauna 
maintaining the same character. 

Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys was now anxious to get a haul 
or two in the very deep water off the mouth of the 
Bay of Biscay, which we had explored successfully 
in 1869. They therefore steamed southwards, going 
a considerable distance without dredging, as they 
were afraid of (coming in contact with the cable 
between Brest and North America. When they got 
to their ground unfortunately bad weather set in, 
and they were obliged to make for Yigo. On Thurs- i 
day, July 14th, they passed Cape Pinisterre, and 
dredged in 81 fathoms about 9 miles from the 
Spanish coast. Along with a number of familiar 
forms, some of them with a wide northern exten- 
sion, they here took on the tangles two specimens, 
one young and one apparently mature, both con- 
siderably injured, of the singular Echinidean already 
mentioned, Calveria fenestrata. This is evidently 
not a rare form nor is it confined to very deep water ; 
it is rather remarkable that it should have escaped 
notice so long. On the 15th, they sounded in from 
100 to 200 fathoms, about 40 miles from Vigo, and 
on the 16th took one or two hauls in Vigo Bay at 
a depth of 20 fathoms. This locality had already 
been well-nigh exhausted by Mr. McAndrew in 1849^ 
and only a few additions were made to his list. 

They left Vigo on the 18th. I quote from Mr; 
Gwyn Jeffreys : — 

" Wednesday, July 20tJi. — Dredged all day witi 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 



183 



considerable success at depths from 380 to 994 
fathoms (Stations 14-16) : the wind and sea had now 
gone down; and we took with the scoop-net a few 
living specimens of Clio cuspidata. The dredgings in 
380 and 469 fathoms yielded among the moUusca 
Leda lucida (Norwegian and a Sicilian fossil), Axinus 
eumyarius (also Norwegian), Necera obesa (Spitz- 
bergen to the West of Ireland), Odostomia, n. sp., O. 
minuta (Mediterranean), and Cerithium, n. sp. ; and 
among the echinoderms were Brisinga endecacnemos 
and Asteronyx loveni. But the results of the dredg- 
ing in 994 fathoms were so extraordinary as to excite 
our utmost astonishment. It being late in the even- 
ing, the contents of the dredge could not be sifted 
and examined until daylight the next morning. We 
then saw a marvellous assemblage of shells, mostly 
dead, but comprising certain species which we had 
always considered as exclusively northern, and others 
which Mr. Jeifreys recognized as Sicilian tertiary fos- 
sils, while nearly 40 per cent, of the entire number 
of species were undescribed, and some of them repre- 
sented new genera. The following is an analysis of 
the moUusca perfect and fragmentary taken in this 
one haul : — 




1S4 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

The northern species above referred to are 34 in num- 
ber, and include Dacridmm mtreum, Nucula pumila, 
Leda lucida, L.frlgida, Verticordia ahyssicola, Necera 
jugosa,N.ohesa, Tectura fulva^ Mssurisepta papillosa, 
Torellia vestita,Pleurotoma turricula, Admete viridula, 
Cylichna alba, Cyliclma ovata, Jeffreys n. sp., Bulla 
conulus, S. Wood not Deshayes (Coralline Crag), 
and Scaphander Uhrarius. Leda lucida, Necera jugosa, 
Tectura fulva, Fissurisepta pap>illosa, To7^ellia vestita, 
as well as several other known species in this dredging, 
are also fossil in Sicily. Nearly all these shells, as 
well as a few small echinoderms, corals, and other 
organisms, had evidently been transported by some 
current to the spot where they were found ; and they 
must have formed a thick deposit similar to those of 
which many tertiary fossiliferous strata are composed. 
It seemed probable also that the deposit was partly 
caused by tidal action, because a fragment of Melam- 
piis myosotis (a littoral pulmonibranch) was mixed 
with deep-water and oceanic Pectinibranchiates and 
Lamellibranchiates. None of the shells were Miocene 
or of an older period. 

''This remarkable collection, of which not much 
more than one-half is known to conchologists, not- 
withstanding their assiduous labours, teaches us how 
much remains to be done before we can assume that 
the record of Marine Zoology is complete. Let us 
compare the vast expanse of the sea-bed in the North 
Atlantic with that small fringe of the coast on both 
sides of it which has yet been partially explored, and 
consider with reference to the dredging last men- 
tioned what are the prospects of our ever becoming 
acquainted with all the inhabitants of the deep 



(HAP. lY.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 185 

throughout the g-lobe ! We believe, however, that a 
thorough examination of the newer Tertiaries would 
materially assist us in the inquiry ; and such exami- 
nation is feasible and comparatively easy. Much 
good work has been done in this line ; but although 
the researches of Brocchi, Bivona, Cantraine, Phi- 
lippi, Calcara, Costa, Aradas, Brugnone, Seguenza, 
and other able palaeontologists in the south of Italy 
have extended over more than half a century, and 
are still energetically prosecuted, many species of 
molluscous shells are continually being discovered 
there, and have never been published. Besides the 
MoUusca in this dredging from 994 fathoms, Pro- 
fessor Duncan informs us that there are two new 
genera of corals, and Flabellum distinctum, which last 
he regards as identical with one from North Japan. 
It coincides with the discovery on the Lasitanian 
coasts of two Japanese species of a curious genus of 
Mollusca, Vertico7'dia, both of which are fossil in 
Sicily and one of them in the Coralline Crag of 
Suffolk." 

In the same dredging there are a number of very 
singular undescribed sponges, many of them recalling 
some of the most marked characters of one of the 
sections of Ventriculates. These will be referred to 
in a future chapter. 

On Thursday, the 21st of July, dredging was 
carried on all day at depths from 600 to 1095 fathoms, 
lat. 39° 42' N., long. 9° 43' W., with a bottom tempera- 
ture at 1095 fathoms of 4° 3 C. and at 740 fathoms 
of 9°-4 C. The dredging was most successful ; many 
of the new and peculiar mollusca of the last dredging 
were taken here alive, with several additional forms. 



186 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

Several imdescribed crustaceans were added ; — a new 
species of the genus Ccenocyathus among the corals, 
and a species of an unKnown genus allied to JBathy- 
cyathus. Brisinga endecacnemos and some new ophi- 
urids were part of the treasures, but the greatest 
prize was a splendid Fentacrmus about a foot long, of 
which several specimens came up attached to the tan- 
gles. This northern Sea-lily, on which my friend Mr. 
Gwyn Jeffreys has bestowed the name Fentacrinus 
iDyville-thomsoni, will be described hereafter with some 
other equally interesting members of the same group. 

Cape Espichel was reached on the 25th. The 
weather was now, however, so rough that Captain 
Calver was obliged to take shelter in Setubal Bay. 
Professor Barboza de Bocage of Lisbon had given 
Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys a letter of introduction to the 
coastguard officer at Setubal, who knew the place 
where the deep-sea shark and the Hyalonema are 
taken by the fishermen, but the state of the weather 
prevented his taking advantage of it. 

Off Cape Espichel in 740 and 718 fathoms, with a 
temperature of 10°-2 C, the mollusca were much the 
same as those from Station 16, but included Leda 
pusio, Limopsis pygmcea (Sicilian fossils), and Verti- 
cordia acuticostata. The last-named species is in- 
teresting in a geological as well as a geographical 
point of view. It is fossil in the Coralline Crag 
and the Sicilian Pliocene beds, and it now lives in the 
Japanese archipelago. Mr. Jeffreys suggests a mode 
of accounting for the community of so many species 
to the eastern borders of the Atlantic basin and the 
Mediterranean, in which several Japanese brachi- 
opods and crustaceans are found, and the seas of 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 187 

Northern Asia, by supposing a migration through 




Pig. ^G.—Chondrodadia virgafa, Wyvillk Thomsox. One-half the natural size. (No. 3.3, PI. V.) 



the Arctic Sea. We must know, however, much 



188 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

more than we yet do of tlie extension both in time 
and space of the fauna of deep water before we can 
come to any certain conclusion on these questions. 

Dredging across the entrance of the Strait of Gib- 
raltar in 477, 651, and 554 fathoms. Stations 31, 32, 
and 33, with a bottom temperature of 10°-3, 10°*1, 
and 10° respectively, many remarkable forms were 
dredged, including a very elegant sponge, apparently 
allied to, if not identical with, Oscar Schmidt's, 
Caminus vulcani, and some beautiful forms of the 
Corallio-spongiae, which will be noticed in a future 
chapter. Station No. 31 yielded a sponge form 
which recalled the branching heather-like Cladorhiza 
of the cold area off Ejferoe. Chondrocladia virgata 
(Pig. 36) is a graceful branching organism from 
twenty to forty centimetres in height. A branching 
root of a cartilaginous consistence, formed of densely 
packed sheaves of needle-shaped spicules bound 
together by a structureless organic cement, attaches 
the sponge to some foreign body, and supports it 
in an upright position; and the same structure is 
continued as a solid axis into the main stem and the 
branches. The axis is made up of a set of very definite 
strands like the strands of a rope, arranged spirally, 
so as to present at first sight a strong resemblance to 
the whisp of Kyalonema ; but the strands are opaque, 
and break up under the point of a knife ; and under 
the microscope they are found to consist of minute 
needle-like spicules closely felted together. The soft 
sponge substance spreads over the surface of the axis 
and rises into long curving conical processes, towards 
the end of which there is a dark greenish oval mass 
of granular sponge matter, and the outline of the 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUPINE: 189 

cone is continued beyond this by a number of 
groups of needle-shaped spicules which surround a 
narrow oscular opening. All parts of the sponge 
are loaded with triple-toothed 'bihamate' spicules 
of the sarcode. 

On the 5th of August the ' Porcupine ' steamed into 
Tangier Bay, after ineffectually trying to dredge in 
190 fathoms off Cape Spartel. In Tangier Bay two 
casts were taken at a depth of 35 fathoms. The 
fauna was chiefly British, with a few more southern 
forms. 

On the 6th of August Mr. Jeffreys went to Gib- 
raltar, and there yielded up the reins to Dr. Car- 
penter, going on to Sicily via Malta, for the purpose 
of examining the newer tertiary formations in the 
south of Italy, and the collections of fossil shells at 
Catania, Messina, Palermo, and Naples, in connec- 
tion with the results of his cruise. 

On Monday, the 15th of August, Captain Calver, 
with Dr. Carpenter, who fortunately retained the 
services of Mr. Lindahl as assistant, in charge of the 
science department, steamed out into the middle of 
the Strait for the purpose of commencing a series 
of observations on the currents of the Strait of 
Gibraltar. 

These experiments, which at the time were not 
considered very satisfactory, were repeated and ex- 
tended in the summer of 1871 by Captain JN'ares, 
R.N., and Dr. Carpenter, in II.M.S. 'Shearwater.' 
Their curious results have been given in great detail 
by Dr. Carpenter in the Proceedings of the Royal 
Society of London, and by Captain Nares in a special 
report to the Admiralty. As it is my purpose to 



190 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

confine myself at present almost exclusively to the 
description of the phenomena of the deep water in the 
Atlantic so far as these have been worked out, I 
will not here repeat the narrative of the experiments 
in the Strait. I will, however, give a brief sketch of 
Dr. Carpenter's cruise in the Mediterranean, as the 
remarkable phenomena connected with the distribu- 
tion of temperature and of animal life which he 
observed, illustrate while they contrast with the 
singularly different conditions which have been 
already described in the outer ocean. 

The first sounding in the basin of the Mediter- 
ranean was taken on the 16th of August, lat. 36° 0' 
N., long. 4° 40' W., at a depth of 586 fathoms, with a 
bottom of dark grey mud. The surface temperature 
was 23°-6 C, and the bottom temperature 12°-8 C, 
about three degrees higher than at the same depth 
in the ocean outside. A serial sounding was taken to 
determine the rate of the diminution of temperature, 
with the following curious result : — 

Surface 23°- 60. 

10 fathoms 20-9 

20 „ 18-0 

30 „ 17-5 

40 „ 16-7 

50 „ 15-6 

100 „ 12-8 

586 „ 12-8 



Thus the temperature fell rapidly for the first 30 
fathoms, more slowly for the next 20, from 50 to 100 
lost only 3° C, and before reaching the depth of a 
hundred fathoms had attained its minimum tempera- 



CHAP. IV.] 



THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 



191 



ture, there being no further diminution to the bottom. 
This serial sounding and all the subsequent tempera- 
ture observations taken during the Mediterranean 
cruise showed that the trough of the Mediterranean 
from the depth of 100 fathoms downwards is filled 
with a mass of water at almost exactly the same 
temperature throughout, a temperature a little above 
or below 12°-75 C. 

The following instances have been cited by Dr. 
Carpenter from the earlier observations in the Medi- 
terranean basin, to show the great uniformity of the 
bottom temperature for all depths : — 



Number 

of 
Station. 


Depth 

in 

Fathoms. 


Bottom 
Tempera- 
ture. 


Surface 
Tempera- 
ture. 


41 


730 


13°- 4C. 


23" • 6C. 


42 


790 


13 • 2 


23-2 1 


43 


162 


]3 -4 


23-8 1 


44 


455 


13 -0 


21 -0 


45 


207 


12 -4 


22 -6 


46 


493 


13 -0 


23 -0 


47 


845 


12 -6 


21 -0 



Position. 



.35^ 


57' K 


35 


45 




35 


24 




35 


42 


20" 


35 


36 


10" 


35 


29 




37 


25 


30" 



Long. 4' 



12'W. 
3 57 
3 i ' 30" 
3 00 30" 

2 29 30" 

1 56 

1 10 30" 



At this last Station (No. 47) a serial sounding was 
taken, which entirely confirmed the results of the 
first (No. 40) :— 



Surface 20" • 9 C. 



10 fathoms 15 



20 
30 
40 
50 

100 

845 



14 
13 
13 
13 
12 
12 -6 



192 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEJ. [chap, iv, 

— again a mass of water lying at the bottom, 745 
fathoms — not far from a mile — in depth, at the 
uniform temperature of 12°*6 C. (54!°-7F.) 

The dredge was sent down at each successive 
station, but with very poor result ; and Dr. Car- 
penter was driven to the conclusion that the bottom 
of the Mediterranean at depths beyond a few hundred 
fathoms is nearly azoic. The conditions are not 
actually inconsistent with the existence of animal 
life, for at most of the stations some few living forms 
were met with, but they are certainly singularly un- 
favourable. Tlius at Station 49, at a depth of 1412 
fathoms, and a temperature of 12°* 7 C, the following 
species of mollusca were obtained : Nueula quadrata, 
n. sp. ; N. pumila, Absjornsen ; Leda, n. sp. ; Verti- 
cordia grmitilata, Seg. ; Ilela tenella, Jeffreys ; 
Trochus gemmulatus. Ph.; Bissoa suhsoluta, Aradas ; 
Natica affinis, Gmelin ; Trophon mtdtilamellosus, 
Ph. ; Nassa prismatica, Br. ; Columhella halicBti, 
Jeff. ; Buccinium acuticostatum, Ph. ; Fleurotoma 
carmatum, Cristofori and Jan ; P. torqiiatum, Ph. ; 
P. decussatum, Ph. 

Near the African coast the fauna was more abun- 
dant, but the bottom was so rough that it was unsafe 
to use the dredge, and the tangles were usually sent 
down alone. Many polyzoa, echinoderms, corals, and 
sponges were taken in this way, but they were mostly 
well-knewn Mediterranean species. After remaining 
for a few days at Tunis and visiting the ruins of 
Carthage, dredging was resumed on the 6th of 
September on the ' Adventure' Bank , so called from 
its having been discovered by Admiral Smyth when 
surveying in H.M.S. 'Adventure.' Here, at depths 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE 'PORCUPINE: 193 

from 30 to 250 fathoms, animal life was tolerably 
abundant. With other mollusca the following were 
found: — Trochus siituralis, Ph. (Sicilian fossil); 
Xeno'pliora crispa, Konig (Sic. fossil) ; Cylichna 
striatula, Eohbes (Sic. fossil) ; C. ovulata, Brocchi 
(Sic. fossil) ; Gadinia excentrica, Tiberi ; Scalcma 
frondosa, J. Sowerby (Sicilian and Coralline Crag 
fossil) ; 'Pyramidella plicosa, Bronn (Sic. and Cor. 
Crag fossil) ; Actceon pusillus, Eorbes (Sic. fossil). 
The Echinodermata were abundant so far as indi- 
viduals went, but the number of species was small, 
and they were nearly all well-known Mediter- 
ranean forms. Cidaris papillata, Leske, showing 
many varieties, but diflPering in no specific character 
from the many forms of the same species which 
range from North Cape to Cape Spartel in the 
ocean outside. The Mediterranean varieties of this 
species are certainly Cidaris hystrix, of Lamarck. 
I feel a degree of uncertainty about the pretty 
little Cidm^is, described by Philippi under the name 
of C. affinis. Characteristic examples of it, which 
are abundant on the 'Adventure' Bank and along 
the African coast, look very distinct. They are of 
a beautiful deep rose red, the spines are banded 
with red and brownish-yellow, and come to a fine 
point, while those of C. papillata are usually blunt 
at the point, and frequently even a little expanded 
or cupped ; and the portion of the interambu- 
lacral plates covered with miliary granules is wider, 
and two defined rows of body spines nearly of equal 
size lie up against the bases of the primary spines, 
over the alveolae. These would appear to be cha- 
racters of specific value, but then again there are 

o 



194 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. 

a mass of intermediate forms; and although after^ 
careful consideration I have described the two 
species as distinct, I find it a matter of great diffi- 
calty to draw the line between them. Several 
specimens of a handsome Astrogonium allied to 
A. granular e were taken on the 'Adventure ' 
Bank. Professor Duncan reports some interesting 
corals, and Professor AUman two new species of 
Aglaophenia ; and Dr. Carpenter detected once 
more the delicate Orhitolites tenuissimus, and the 
large nautiloid \Lituola, with which he was familiar 
in the dredgings in the Atlantic. 

After a short stay at Malta, on September 20th the 
'Porcupine' steamed out of Yaletta Harbour, and 
steered in a north-easterly direction, towards a point 
seventy miles distant, at which a depth of 1700 
fathoms was marked on the chart. This was reached 
early the next morning, and the line ran out 1743 
fathoms, lat. 36° 31' 30" N., long. 15° 46^30" (No. 60), 
with a temperature of 13°*4 C, more than half a 
degree higher than the temperature of the deepest 
sounding in the western basin. The tube of the 
sounding apparatus brought up a sample of yellow 
clay, so like the bottom at some of the most unpro- 
ductive spots in the western Mediterranean, that 
it was not considered advisable to delay the time 
necessary for even a single cast of the dredge, which 
at that depth would have occupied nearly a day. 
Having thus satisfied themselves as far as they 
could by a few observations that the physical con- 
ditions of the eastern basin of the Mediterranean 
were similar to those of the western, they steered for 
the coast of Sicily. Quietly along the Sicilian coast 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUPINE: 1 95 

during the night, in early morning through the 
narrowest part of the Strait between Messina and 
lieggio, past Charyhdis and the castled rock of Scylla, 
and so out of the 'Earo' into the open sea to the 
north of Sicily, studded with the I^ipari Islands. 
A temperature sounding taken near Stromboli, lat. 
38° 26' 30" N., long. 15° 32' E., gave a depth of 730 
fathoms, and a bottom temperature of 13°*1 C, while 
the temperature of the surface was 22°*5 C. 

Under the rugged cone of Stromboli the dredgers 
took another set of temperatures, with the result com- 
mon to the whole volcanic neighbourhood of Sicily, 
of a temperature slightly higher than that of the deep 
water in the western basin of the Mediterranean, a 
phenomenon of which it would take long and careful 
observation to determine the cause ; and while doing 
so they pondered on the cloud of smoke hanging over 
the peak, so suggestive of the theatre of subterranean 
change beneath, and admired the industry and enter- 
prise of those who, rendered contemptuous by the 
familiarity of ages, carried their vineyards " all over 
the cone, save on two sides, looking north-west and 
south-east, over one or other of which there is a con- 
tinual discharge of dust and ashes." 

Their course w^as now laid straight for Cape de 
Gat, which they passed on the 27th of September, 
arriving at Gibraltar on the 28th. At Gibraltar, 
Dr. Carpenter resumed his observations and experi- 
ments on the currents of the Strait. These obser- 
vations were continued until the 2nd of October, 
when it became necessary for Captain Calver to re- 
turn homewards. The coast of Portugal was repassed 
in fine weather, the time at their disposal not allow- 



196 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. 11 



iDg any further use of the dredge in the deep water, 
and after encountering a fresh breeze in the chops of 
the Channel, on the evening of October the 8th, the 
' Porcupine ' anchored at Cowes. 




CHAP. IV.] TIIU: CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUPINE: 197 



APPENDIX A. 

Extracts from the Minutes of Council of the Royal Society, and 
other Official Documents referring to the Cruise of H.M.S. 
' Porcupine ' during the Summer of 1870 : — 

March 24, 1870. 

A Letter was read from Dr. Carpenter, addressed to the 
President, suggesting that an Exploration of the Deep Sea, such 
as was carried out during 1868 and 1869 in the regions to the 
North of the British Islands, should now be extended to the 
South of Europe and the Mediterranean, and that the Council 
of the Koyal Society should recommend such an undertaking to 
the favourable consideration of the Admiralty, with a view to 
obtain the assistance of Her Majesty's Government as on the 
previous occasions. 

Eesolved, — That a Committee, consisting of the President 
and Officers, with the Hydrographer, Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, 
Mr. Siemens, Professor Tyndall, and Dr. Carpenter, with 
power to add to their number, be appointed, to consider 
the expediency of adopting the proposal of Dr. Carpenter, 
and the plan to be followed in carrying it out, as well 
as the instruments and other appliances that would be 
required, and to report their opinion thereon to the 
Council ; but with power previously to communicate to tlie 

(Admiralty a draft of such report as they may agree upon, 
if it shall appear to them expedient to do so in order to 
save time. 
April 28, 1870. 
Eead the following Report : — 

" The Committee appointed on the 24th of March to consider 
a proposal for a further Exploration of the Deep Sea during the 



198 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. iv. 

ensuing summer, as well as the scientitic preparations which 
would be required for a new expedition, beg leave to report as 
follows : — 

"The general course proposed to be followed, and the chief 
objects expected to be attained in a new expedition, are pointed 
out in the following extract from the letter of Dr. Carpenter, 
read to the Council on the 24th ult., which was referred to the 
Committee : — 

" ' The plan which has been marked out between my colleagues 
in last year's work and myself is as follows : — 

" ' Having reason to hope that the " Porcupine " may be spared 
towards the end of June, we propose that she should start early 
in July, and proceed in a S.W. direction towards the furthest 
point to which our survey was carried last year; carefully 
exploring the bottom in depths of 400 to 800 fathoms, on 
which, as experience has shown us, the most interesting collec- 
tions are to be made ; but also obtaining a few casts of the 
Dredge with Temperature-soundings at greater depths, as oppor- 
tunities may occur. 

" ' The course should then be nearly due South, in a direction 
of general parallelism with the coast of France, Spain, and 
Portugal, keeping generally within the depths just mentioned, 
but occasionally stretching westwards into yet deeper waters. 
Prom what has been already done in about 400 fathoms' water 
off the coast of Portugal, there is no doubt that the ground is 
there exceedingly rich. When approaching the Straits of 
Gibraltar, the survey, both Physical and Zoological, should be 
carried out with great care and minuteness ; in order that the 
important problem as to the currents between the Mediterranean 
and Atlantic Seas, and the relation of the Mediterranean Fauna 
to that of the Atlantic (on which Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys is of 
opinion that the results of our last year's work throw an entirely 
new light), may be cleared up. 

" ' Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys is prepared to undertake the scientific 
charge of this part of the expedition ; and if Professor Wyville 
Thomson should not be able to accompany him, it will not be 
difficult to find him a suitable assistant. 

" ' The ship would probably reach Gibraltar early in August, 



aiAP. iv.J TEE CRUISES OF THE ' porcupine: 199 

and there I sliould be myself prepared to join her, in place of 
Mr. Jeffreys, with one of my sons as an assistant. We should 
propose first to complete the survey of the Straits of Gibraltar, 
if that should not have been fully accomplished previously ; and 
then to proceed eastwards along the Mediterranean, making 
stretches between the coasts of Europe and Africa, so as to carry 
out as complete a survey, Physical and Zoological, of that part 
of the Mediterranean basin as time may permit. Malta would 
probably be our extreme point ; and this we should reckon to 
reach about the middle of September. 

" ' It is well known that there are questions of great Geolo- 
gical interest connected with the present distribution of Animal 
life in this area ; and we have great reason to believe that we 
shall here find at considerable depths a large number of Tertiary 
species which have been supposed to be extinct. And in regard 
to the Physics of the Mediterranean, it appears, from all that 
we have been able to learn, that very little is certainly known. 
The Temperature and Density of the water, at different depths, 
in a basin so remarkably cut off from the great ocean, and 
having a continual influx from it, form a most interesting sub- 
ject of inquiry, to which we shall be glad to give our best 
attention, if the means are placed within our reach.' 

" Considering the success of the two previous Expeditions, and 
especially that of the * Porcupine ' last year, the Committee are 
persuaded that no less important acquisitions for the furtherance 
of scientific knowledge would be gained by the renewed explora- 
tion as now proposed ; and they aocordingly recommend that a 
representation to that effect be made to the Admiralty, with a 
view to obtain the aid of Her Majesty's Government as on the 
previous occasions. 

" The Committee approve of a proposal made by Mr. Gwyn 
Jeffreys to accept the services of Mr. Lindahl, of Lund, in the 
expedition as unpaid Assistant !N"aturalist. 

"As regards scientific instruments, the Committee have to 
report that those employed in last year's voyage will be 
again available for use ; and Mr. Siemens hopes to render 
his electro-thermal indicator of more easy employment on 
ship-board. 



200 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA [chap, iv] 

" The Committee, having learned that Dr. Frankland has con-i 
trived an apparatus for bringing up the deep-sea water chargec 
with its gaseous contents, have resolved to add his name 
their number ; and they request leave to meet again in ordei 
to complete the arrangements and make a final report to the 
Council." 

Eesolved, — That the Eeport now read be received and adopted] 
and that the Committee be requested to continue their' 
meetings and report again on the arrangements when finally 
decided on. 

Eesolved, — That the following draft of a Letter to be 
addressed to the Secretary of the Admiralty be approved, 
viz. : — 

" Sir, — I am directed by the President and Council of the 
Eoyal Society to acquaint you, for the information of the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, tliat, considering the 
important scientific results of the Physical and Zoological 
Exploration of the Deep Sea carried on in 1868 and 1869 
through the aid of Her Majesty's Government, they deem it 
highly desirable that the investigation should be renewed during 
the ensuing summer, and extended over a new area. 

" The course which it would be proposed to follow in a new 
Expedition, the principal objects to be attained, and the general 
plan of operations, are sketched out in the enclosed extract from 
a Letter addressed to the President by Dr. Carpenter, and have 
in all points been approved by the Council. 

" The President and Council would therefore earnestly recom- 
mend such an undertaking to the favourable consideration 
of My Lords, with the view of obtaining the assistance of 
Her Majesty's Government so liberally accorded and effectively 
rendered on the previous occasions. 

"The scientific conduct of the expedition would, as in the 
last year, be shared by Dr. Carpenter, Professor Wy ville Thomson, 
provided that gentleman is able to undertake the duty, and Mr. 
Gwyn Jeffreys. It is also proposed that Mr. Lindahl, a young 
Swedish gentleman accustomed to marine researches, should 
accompany the expedition as Assistant Naturalist. 



HAr. IV.] tht: cruises of the ' porcupine: 201 



" I have to add that whatever appertains to the strictly 
Scientific equipment of the Expedition will, as formerly, be at 
the charge of the Eoyal Society. 

** W. Sharpey, Secretary." 

A sum of £100 from the Government Grant was assigned 
for the Scientific purposes of the Expedition. 

May 19, 1870. 
Eead the following Letter from the Admiralty : — 

"Admiralty, \Oth May, 1870. 
" Sir, — Having laid before My Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty your letter of the 2nd inst., requesting that further 
researches may be made of the deep sea, I am commanded by 
their Lordships to acquaint you that they will spare Her 
Majesty's Steam- vessel ' Porcupine ' for this service, and that the 
Treasury have been requested, as on the former occasion, to 
defray the expense of the messing of the scientific gentlemen 
composing the Expedition. 

" I am. Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

'' Vernon Lushington.'* 

''To W. Sharpey, Esq., M.D., 
** Secretary of the Royal Society, Burlington House!'' 



202 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. IV 



APPENDIX B. 



Particulars of DeptJis, Temperature, and Position at the various 
Dredging-stations of H.M.S. ^ Porcupine^' in tlie Summer 
of 1870 :— 



Number Depth in 
of Station. Fathoms. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 



Bottom 
Temperature. 



567 
305 
690 
717 
100 
358 
93 
257 
539 
81 
332 
128 
220 
469 
722 
994 
1095 
1065 
248 
965 
620 
718 
802 
292 



14°' 8 C. 



7 

10 

10 

10 

9 

8 

11 

10 

11 

11 

10 

9 

4 

4 

4 

11 

10 

10 

9 

11 



Surface j 
Temperature. | 



Position. 







16°- 2 C. 


16-3 


16 


•8 


16 


9 


16 


•2 


15 


9 


17 


8 


16 


4 


16 


1 


16 


3 


18 


1 


18 


4 


20 





21 





19 


8 


18 


2 


18 


1 


19 


5 


19 


1 


19 





19 


6 



48^ 


38' K 


48 


37 


48 


31 


48 


32 


48 


29 


48 


26 


48 


18 


48 


13 


48 


6 


42 44 1 


42 


32 


42 


20 


40 


16 


40 


6 


40 


2 


39 


55 


39 42 1 


39 


29 


39 27 1 


39 


25 


38 


19 


38 


15 


37 20 1 


37 


19 



10° 15' W. 
10 9 
10 3 

9 59 

9 45 

9 44 

9 11 

9 11 

9 18 

9 23 

9 24 

9 17 



37 
44 
49 
56 
43 
44 



9 39 
9 45 



30 
33 
30 
13 



CHAP. IV.] THE CRUISES OF THE ' PORCUPINE: 



203 



1 

Number 


Depth in 


Bottom 


Surface 


I'osit^"" 


of Station. 


Fathoms. 


Temi)erature. 


Temperature. 






1 

25 


374 


ir-9C. 


20°- 9 C. 


37° 11' N. 


9° 7'W. 


26 


364 


11 • 


5 


22 





36 44 


8 8 


27 


322 


10 


6 


22 


7 


36 37 


7 33 


28 


304 


11 


7 


21 


8 


36 29 


7 16 


28a 


286 


— 






- 


36 27 


6 54 


29 


227 


12 


9 


22 


8 


36 20 


6 47 


30 


386 


11 


7 


22 


6 


36 15 


6 52 


31 


477 


10 


3 


21 


7 


35 56 


7 6 


32 


651 


10 


1 


21 


8 


35 41 


7 8 


33 


554 


10 





22 


4 


35 32 


6 54 


34 


414 


10 


1 


21 


8 


35 44 


6 53 


35 


335 


10 


9 


23 


•2 


35 39 


6 38 


36 


128 


12 


9 


23 


8 


35 35 


6 26 


37 


190 


11 


8 


22 


•0 


35 50 


6 


38 


503 


11 


8 


22 


•0 


35 58 


5 26 


39 


517 


13 


3 


21 


•0 


35 59 


5 27 


40 


586 


13 


•4 


23 


•6 


36 


4 40 


41 


730 


13 


4 


23 


•6 


35 57 


4 12 


42 


790 


13 


2 


23 


• 2 


35 45 


3 57 


43 


162 


13 


•4 


23 


•8 


35 24 


3 54 


44 


455 


13 


•0 


21 


•0 


35 42 


3 


45 


207 


12 


•4 


22 


•6 


35 36 


2 29 


46 


493 


13 


•0 


23 


•0 


35 39 


1 56 


47 


845 


12 


•6 


21 


•0 


37 25 


1 10 


48 


1328 


12 


• 8 


23 


•0 


37 10 


31 


49 


1412 


12 


•7 


22 -0 


36 29 


31 


50 


51 





— 


36 14 


17 E. 


ma 


152 





— 


36 18 


24 


51 


1415 


12-7 


24-0 


36 55 


1 10 


52 


660 








36 38 


1 38 


52a 


-590 





— 


36 36 


1 38 


53 


112 


13-0 


25 • 


36 53 


5 55 


54 


1508 


13 -0 


24-4 


37 41 


6 27 


55 


1456 


12 -8 


24- 8 


37 29 


6 31 


56 


390 


13-6 


25 -6 


37 3 


11 37 


57 


224 





— 


37 6 


13 10 


58 


266 


13-6 


24- 1 


36 43 


13 36 


59 


445 


13-6 


24-6 


36 32 


14 12 


60 


1743 


13-4 


23-3 


36 31 


15 46 



204 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. IV. 



Number 


Depth in 


Bottom 


Surface 






of Station. 


Fathoms. 


Temperature. 


Temperature. 




61 


392 


13°- 1 C. 


22°- 5 C. 


38° 26' K 


15°32'E. 


62 


730 


13 -0 


22-5 


38 38 


15 21 


63 


181 


12 -4 


20-2 


36 1 


5 26 W. 


64 


460 


12 -4 


18 -8 


35 58 


5 28 


65 


198 


12 • 1 


17-3 


35 50 


5 57 


66 


147 


— 




35 56 


5 57 


67 


188 


12 -8 


22 -9 


35 49 


6 21 



CHAPTER V. 

DEEP-SEA SOUNDING. 

The ordinary Sounding-lead for moderate Depths. — Liable to Error 
when employed in Deep Water. — Early Deep Soundings un- 
reliable. — Improved Methods of Sounding. — The Cup-lead. — 
Brooke's Sounding Instrument. — The * Bull-dog ' ; Fitzgerald's ; 
the * Hydra.' — Sounding from the * Porcupine.' — The Contour 
of the Bed of the North Atlantic. 

In all deep-sea investigations it is of course of the 
first importance to have a means of determining the 
depth to the last degree of accuracy, and this is not 
so easy a matter as might be at first supposed. 
Depth is almost invariably ascertained by some 
modification of the process of sounding. A weight 
is attached to the end of a line graduated by attached 
slips of different coloured buntine (the woollen mate- 
rial of which flags are made, in which the colours are 
particularly bright and fast) into fathoms, tens of 
fathoms, and hundreds of fathoms ; or, for deep-sea 
work, with white buntine at every 50, black leather 
at every 100, and red buntine at every 1,000 fathoms. 
The weight is run down as rapidly as possible, and 
the number of fathoms out when the lead touches 
the bottom gives a more or less close approximation 
to the depth. 



206 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. v. 

The ordinary deep-sea lead is a prismatic leaden 
block about two feet in length and 80 to 120 lbs. in 
weight, narrowing somewhat towards the upper end, 
where it is furnished with a stout iron ring. Before 
heaving, the lead is ' armed,' that is to say the lower 
end, which is slightly cupped, is covered with a thick 
coating of soft tallow. If the lead reach the bottom 
it brings up evidence of its having done so in a 
sample sticking to the tallow. Usually there is 
enough to indicate roughly the nature of the ground, 
and it is on the evidence of samples thus brought 
up on the * arming ' of the lead that our charts note 
'mud,' 'shells,' 'gravel,' 'ooze,' or 'sand,' or a com- 
bination of these, as the kind of bottom at the 
particular sounding ; thus we have m^sTs.j mud, shells, 
and sand at 2,000 fathoms ; o^z.^st.> ooze and stones at 
2,050 fathoms; m. f'sh%c.j niud, sand, shells, and scoriae 
at 2,200 fathoms, and so on. 

When no bottom is found, that is to say, when 
there is no arrest to the running out of the line 
and nothing on the 'arming' of the lead, the sounding 
is entered on the chart thus, 3-^^, no bottom at 3,200 
fathoms. Such soundings are not to be depended 
upon in deep water, but they are usually quite 
reliable for moderate depths, so far as they go. They 
give us no help in the exploration of the bottom of 
the sea, but they are of great practical value, and 
indeed they give all the information which is directly 
required for the purposes of navigation ; for if there 
be 'no bottom' at 200 fathoms, there is probably no 
dangerous shoal in the immediate neighbourhood. 

Soundings are usually taken from the vessel, and 
while there is some way on. Where great accuracy 



CHAP, v.] DEEP-SEA SOUNDING. 207 

is required, as in coast-surveying, it is necessary to 
sound from a boat, which can be kept in position by 
the oars and reference to some fixed objects on shore. 
This ordinary system of sounding answers perfectly 
well for comparatively shallow water, but it breaks 
down for depths much over 1,000 fathoms. The 
weight is not sufficient to carry the line rapidly and 
vertically to the bottom ; and if a heavier weight be 
used, ordinary sounding line is unable to draw up its 
own weight along with that of the lead from great 
depths, and gives way. No impulse is felt when the 
lead reaches the bottom, and the line goes on running 
out, and if any attempt be made to stop it it breaks. 
In some cases bights of the line seem to be carried 
along by submarine currents, and in others it is 
found that the line has been running out by its own 
weight only, and coiling itself in a tangled mass 
directly over the lead. All these sources of error 
vitiate very deep soundings. In many of the older 
observations made by officers of our own navy and 
of that of the United States, the depth returned 
for many points in the Atlantic we now know to 
have been greatly exaggerated; thus Lieutenant 
Walsh, of the U.S. schooner ' Taney,' reported a cast 
with the deep-sea lead at 34,000 feet without 
j bottom;^ Lieutenant Berryman, of the U.S. brig 
j 'Dolphin,' attempted unsuccessfully to sound mid- 
ocean with a line 39,000 feet long ; ^ Captain 
Denham, of H.M.S. 'Herald,' reported bottom in the 

^ Maury's Sailing Directions, 5tli edition, p. 165, and 6th edition 
j (1854), p. 213. 

I 2 Maury, Physical Geography of the Sea. Eleventh edition, 
I p. 309. 



208 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. v. 

South Atlantic at a depth of 46,000 feet;' and 
Lieutenant Parker, of the U.S. frigate ' Congress,' ran 
out a line 50,000 feet without reaching the bottom.^ 
In these cases, however, the chances of error were 
too numerous ; and in the last chart of the North 
Atlantic, published on the authority of Rear-Admiral 
Richards in Nov. 1870, no soundings are entered 
beyond 4,000 fathoms, and very few beyond 3,000. 

A great improvement in deep-sea sounding, first 
introduced in the United States navy, was the use 
of a heavy weight and a fine line. The weight, a 
32 or 68 lb. shot, is rapidly run down from a boat ; 
and when it is supposed to have reached the bottom, 
w^hich is usually indicated with tolerable certainty by 
a sudden change in the rate of running out of the 
line, the line is cut at the surface, and the depth 
calculated by the length of line left on the reel. 

As the great problems of physical geography, the 
strength and direction of currents, and the general 
conditions of the bottom of the sea began to acquire 
more general interest, the particles brought up on the 
* arming ' of the lead from great depths were eagerly 
sought for and scrutinized ; it thus became important 
that a greater quantity should be procured, enough 
at all events for the purposes of chemical and micro- 
scopical examination. Many instruments have been 
contrived from time to time for this purpose, and a 
vast amount of information has been gained by their 
use. It has now been shown that dredging on a large 
scale is possible at all depths, but dredging can only 
be performed under specially favourable circum- 
stances, and requires a vessel specially fitted at con- 
^ Loc. cit. 2 Lqc. cit. 



CHAP, v.] DEEF-SEA SOUNDING. 209 

siderable expense. We must still, therefore, depend 
mainly upon some form of sounding apparatus for 
the gradual accumulation of observations which will 
give us in time a consistent idea of the nature of 
the bottom of the sea throughout. A simple instru- 
ment which will bring up a surface sample of a 
pound or so, from a depth of 2,000 fathoms, with- 
•out much trouble and with some certainty, is still a 
desideratum. 

In the year 1818, Sir John Ross, in command of 

H.M.S. ' Isabella,' on a voyage of discovery for the 

purpose of exploring Baffin's Bay, invented a machine 

" for taking up soundings from the bottom of any 

fathomable depth," which he called a ' deep-sea 

clamm.' A large pair of forceps w^ere kept asunder 

by a bolt, and the instrument was so contrived that 

on the bolt striking the ground, a heavy iron weight 

' slipped down a spindle and closed the forceps, which 

I retained within them a considerable quantity of the 

! bottom, whether sand, mud, or small stones.^ On the 

\ 1st of September, 1818, Sir John Boss sounded in 

1 1,000 fathoms, lat. 73° 37' N., long. 75° 25' W. The 

1 soundings consisted of " soft mud, in which there 

I were worms, and, entangled on the sounding-line, at 

the depth of 800 fathoms, was found a beautiful Caput 

Medusce'! On the 6tli of September Sir John Boss 

sounded in 1,050 fathoms, lat. 72° 23' N., long. 

73° 075' W., and the clamms brought up 6 lbs. of very 

^ A Voyage of Discovery made under the Orders of the Admiralty 
in His Majesty's Ships ' Isabella ' and ' Alexander,' for the purpose of 
exploring Baffin's Bay, and inquiring into the Possibility of a North- 
west Passage. By John Eoss, K.S,, Captain Eoyal Navy. London : 
1811); p. 178. 

P 



210 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. 



soft mud. I mention these soundings thus parti- 
cularly because they are the first authentic instancesMl 
of any quantity of the bottom having been brought 
up from such depths. The clamms were used with 
strong whale line made of the best hemp, 2^ inches 
in circumference. The weight recommended by Sir 
John Eoss for the sounding in the North 
Sea is fifty pounds. 

One of the earliest and certainly not the 
worst of these miniature dredges is a simple 
modification of the common deep-sea lead, 
the 'cup-lead* (Eig. 37). A rod of iron 
passes through the lead, and ends a few 
inches beneath it in a conical iron cup. 
A thick bend-leather washer slides freely 
on the rod between the end of the lead and 
the cup. The theory of this instrument is, 
that as the lead runs down, the current of 
water keeps up the washer, leaving the 
mouth of the cup free. On reaching the 
ground, the weight of the lead drives the 
cup into the mud or sand, and the lead falls 
to one side. When the lead is hauled up, 
a sample of the bottom goes into the cup, 
and is retained there by the washer, which 
is pressed down upon the top of the cup 



Fir,. 37. 



The during its upward journey by the reversal 
of the current. The 'cup-lead' is very 
useful for moderate depths. Twice out of three 
times it brings up a sample, but the cup is too open 
and the means of closing it are too crude, and the 
third time everything is washed out and the cup 
comes up perfectly clean. Deep soundings take too 



CHAP, v.] 



DEEP-SEA SOUNDING. 



211 



much time and are too valuable to admit so large 
an average of losses. 




Fifj. 3S.— Brooke's Deep-Sea Sounding Apparatii 



About the year 1854, J. M. Brooke, passed-mid- 
I shipman in the U.S. navy, a clever young officer who 



p 2 



212 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. v. 

was at the time doing duty in the Observatory, pro- 
posed to Captain Maury a contrivance by which the] 
shot might be detached as soon as it reached the' 
bottom, and specimens brought up in its stead. The] 
result of this suggestion was Brooke's deep-sea sound- 
ing apparatus (Figs. 38 and 39), of which all the morej 
recent contrivances have been to a great extent modi- 
fications and improvements, retaining its fundamental! 
principle, the detaching of the weight. The instru- 
ment as devised by Mr. Brooke is very simple. Aj 
64 lb. shot E is cast with a hole through it. An^ 
iron rod a has a chamber b at the lower end, and 
two moveable arms hinged to the upper end with 
eyes to fasten two cords by which the rod is sus- 
pended ; so that when the instrument is hanging free 
the arms are nearly vertical (Fig. 38). Each arm 
bears a projecting notched tooth, and before sounding 
the shot is suspended, with the rod passing through 
it, in a canvas or leather sling c attached by cords 
whose loops pass over the teeth. The cup at the 
lower end of the rod is filled with tallow ' arming,' in 
which a chamber has been made by pushing in a 
wooden plug. When the instrument strikes, the end 
of the rod is driven into the material of the bottom, 
which fills the chamber in the arming, the two jointed 
arms fall down, the loops of the sling are relieved 
from the teeth, and the rod slips through the hole in 
the shot and comes up alone with its enclosed sample 
of sediment. 

In this simplest and earliest form Brooke's sound- 
ing apparatus had some of the defects of the cup-lead. 
The sample of the bottom was too small, and ran a 
risk of being washed out in hauling up. Modifica- 



CHAP, v.] DEEP-SEA SOUNDING. 213 

tions were soon made. Commander Dayman made 




Fig. 39.— Brooke's Deep-Sea Sounding Apparatus. 

several improvements for the sounding voyage of 



214 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. v. 

H.M.S. ' Cyclops' in 1857.^ He used iron wire braces 
to support the sinker, as these detach more freely 
than slings of rope ; he replaced Brooke's round-shot 
by a leaden cylinder to diminish the resistance and 
thus increase the velocity in descending ; and he 
adapted a valve opening inwards, to the terminal 
chamber in the rod, to prevent the washing out of 
the sample. Commander Dayman seems to have 
found the apparatus thus improved to answer well. 
He used it throughout his important survey of the 
* telegraph plateau.' 

The ' Bull-dog ' sounding machine (Fig. 40) is now 
probably the most generally known of these dredging- 
leads. This instrument is an adaptation of Sir John 
Boss' deep-sea clamms, with the addition of Brooke's 
principle of the disengaging weight. It was invented 
during the famous sounding voyage of H.M.S. ' Bull- 
dog' in the year 1860, and Sir Leopold M'Clintock 
gives the chief credit of its invention to the assistant- 
engineer on board, Mr. Steil.2 A pair of scoops A 
close upon one another scissor wise on a hinge, and have 
two pairs of appendages b, which stand to the open- 
ing and closing of the scoops in the relation of scissor 
iiandles. This apparatus is permanently attached to 
the sounding-line by the rope r, which in the figure 
is represented hanging loose, and which is fixed to 

1 Deep-Sea Soundings in the North Atlantic Ocean, between 
Ireland and Newfoundland, made in H.M.S. ' Cyclops/ Lieut.-Com- 
mander Joseph Dayman, in June and July 1857. Published by 
order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. London : 1858. 

2 Eemarks illustrative of the Sounding Yoyage of H.M.S. 'Bull- 
dog' in 1860; Captain Sir Leopold M'Clintock commanding. Pub- 
lished by order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
London: 1861. 



CHAP. V.J 



BEEF -SEA SOUNDING. 



215 




Fig. 40.— Tlie 'Bull-dog' Sounding Machine. 



216 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. v. 

the spindle on which the cups turn. Attached to 
the same spindle is the rope d, which ends above in 
an iron ring, e represents a pair of tumbler hooks, 
fastened likewise to the end of the sounding-line; 
c a heavy leaden or iron weight, with a hole through 
it wide enough to allow the rope d with its loop and 
ring to pass freely ; and b, a strong india-rubber band 
which passes round the handles of the scoops. In the 
figure the instrument is represented as it is sent 
down and before it reaches the bottom. The weighty 
c and the scoops a are now suspended by the rope d, 
whose ring is caught by the tumbler hooks e. Th( 
elastic ring b is in a state of tension, ready to draw; 
together the scoop handles and close the scoops, but; 
it is antagonized by the weight c, which, pressing 
down into a space between the handles, keeps them 
asunder. The moment the scoops are driven into th( 
ground by the weight, the tension on the rope d it 
relaxed, the tumblers fall and release the ring, an( 
the weight falls and allows the elastic band to clos( 
the scoops and to keep them closed upon whatevei 
they may contain; the rope D slips through th( 
Aveight, and the closed scoops are drawn up by the 
rope F. This is a pretty idea, and an ingenious am 
elegant apparatus, but it is rather complicated, 
have never seen it in use, but I should fear that th( 
observer might often be thwarted by the scoops falli 
ing in a wrong direction, or by pebbles getting int( 
the hinges and preventing their closing thoroughly. 
The simpler all these things are the better. 

We used in our trip in the 'Lightning' in 1868 ai 
instrument (Fig. 41) which at first sight scarceb 
looks promising from its apparent want of compact- 



;iTAr. v.] 



DEEF-ShA SOUNmKG. 



217 



ness, but I will say this for the 
* Fitzgerald' sounding apparatus 
that I never knew it fail ; and 
we were obliged, unfortunately 
for ourselves, to try it fre- 
quently in very bad weather 
and under most unfavourable 
circumstances. The sounding- 
line ends in a loop passing 
through an eye in the centre of 
a bar of iron r. The bar ter- 
minates at one end in a claw 
and at the other in a second 
eye, to which a chain is at- 
tached. A scoop A, with a 
sharp, spade-like lip, is fixed to 
a long and rather heavy iron 
rod D, with an expanded rudder- 
shaped end to steady it in pass- 
ing quickly through the water, 
and beneath this an eye, which 
fits the claw of the bar f. A 
door B fits the scoop to which 
it is hinged, and it is also 
hinged to the arm c, which, 
when held in a vertical posi- 
tion, keeps it open. The arm c 
is attached by the chain to the 
eye in the bar e, and the arm 
and chain correspond in length 
to the rod d. Two teeth ee 
project from d, and on these are 
hung a heavy weight. The 



Fig. 41. 



-Tiie • Fitzgerald ' 
Machine. 



Sounding 



218 



7 HE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. v. 



apparatus is so adjusted, that when 
the weight is attached and the instru- 
ment hanging ready for use, as repn 
sented in the figure, the rod f main] 
tains a horizontal position. When th< 
instrument strikes the ground, th^ 
tension on the har f is relieved, th^ 
weight draws the rod d off the clai 
and slips off, at the same time filling 
the scoop. When hauling up, all the 
instrument falls into a nearly vertical 
line, and the scoop comes up fall in 
the middle, the weight of d keeping 
its mouth closed up against its lid. 

The apparatus used during the 
cruise of the ' Porcupine," where 
sounding was carried on to the utmost 
attainable accuracy and at great 
depths, was a somewhat elaborate 
modification of Brooke's sounding 
machine which had been previously 
employed by Captain Shortland in 
the voyage of H.M.S. ' Hydra,' sound- 
ing across the Arabian Gulf prepara- 
tory to laying the Indian Cable. 

This special modification, which cer- 
tainly answered remarkably well, ap- 
pears to have been due entirely to 
Mr. Gibbs, the blacksmith on board 
the vessel.^ We christened it the 

^ Sounding Voyage of H.M.S. * Hydra,' Captain 
P. F. Shortland, 1868. Published by order of the 
^'sounto'^ Machine '** ' ^"^^^^ Commiss. of the Admiralty. London : 1869. 



CHAP, v.] DEEP-SEA SOUNDING. 219 

* Hydra,' in recognition of its inventor and of the 
vessel in which it was first used. 

The axis of the - Hydra ' (Pig. 42) is a strong brass 
tube, which unscrews into four chambers. The three 
lowest of these are closed above by conical valves 
opening upwards, but not fitting absolutely tightly, so 
as to allow a little water to pass ; and the lowest 
chamber b is closed by a butterfly valve also open- 
ing upwards. The upper (fourth) chamber a contains 
a piston, and the piston-rod c is continued upwards 
into a rod which ends in the ring to which the 
soimding-line is attached. The upper chamber in 
which the piston works has a large hole on either 
side about the middle of its length, and a small hole 
passes through the piston itself. Projecting from the 
upper part of the rod there is a notched tooth D, and 
over the tooth passes an arched steel spring, with 
a slit which allows the tooth to pass through its 
centre, and its two ends fastened moveably to the 
rod. When the spring is forcibly pushed back, it 
allows the tooth with its notch to protrude through 
the central slit. The weight consists of three or four 
cylinders of iron f, toothed and notched so as to fit 
into one another and make one mass. The weight 
used in the ' Porcupine ' was from two to three 

i hundredweight, according to the depth. The weight 
is suspended by an iron wire sling which passes over 

j the notched tooth, the spring having been pressed 
back. The weight is amply sufficient to retain the 
spring in that position. 

The figure represents the instrument prepared to let 
go, the whole weight suspended from the ring at the 
top of the piston-rod, which is thus fully drawn out 



220 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. 

of its cylinder. As the instrument runs down th< 
water passes freely through the tube and valves, an< 
pours out by the holes in the wall of the cylindei 
When it touches the ground the piston is pulh 
down by the weight, but its progress is somewhat 
arrested by the water in the lower part of the 
cylinder, which can only escape slowly, thus giving 
the weight time to force the terminal chamber with 
the butterfly valves into the ground. The weights 
then rest upon the bottom and relieve the spring 
which throws the sling off the tooth. The tube 
comes up free with all the valves closed, and the last 
chamber filled with the substance of the bottom, and 
the other chamber with bottom water. 

In the skilful hands of Captain Calver the * Hydra' 
never once failed, and from the great weight used it 
is admirably suited for accurate soundings in deep 
water ; but it is somewhat complicated, and it brings 
up very small samples of the bottom. In the case of 
the cruise of the ' Porcupine,' where the large dredge 
was sent down at almost every sounding-station, this 
was of little consequence ; but where dredging is im- 
practicable, and all information as to the condition of 
the bottom must be got from soundings, some simple 
adaptation of the ' Bull-dog ' scoops or the Fitzgerald 
apparatus would certainly have a great advantage. 

During the cruise of the ' Porcupine ' in 1869 
soundings were taken with the utmost care at ninety 
stations, and in 1870 at sixty-seven stations, and on 
every occasion the operation was conducted by Capt. 
Calver himself, whose great experience on the sur- 
veying service was in itself a guarantee of the greatest 
possible accuracy. Captain Calver told me that on 



iiAP. v.] DEEP-SEA SOUNDING. 221 

every occasion, even at the greatest depths, he felt 
distinctly the shock of the arrest of the weight upon 
the bottom communicated to his hand. A careful 
sounding was always taken immediately before letting 
go the dredge. I will take as an example the sound- 
ing which determined the depth of the deepest haul 
of the dredge yet made, in 2,435 fathoms in the Bay 
of Biscay on the 22nd of July, 1869, and describe 
the modus opermidi. 

The ' Porcupine ' was provided at Woolwich with 
an admirable double cylinder donkey-engine of 12- 
horse power (nominal), placed on the deck amidships, 
with a couple of surging drums. This little engine 
was the comfort of our lives ; nothing could exceed 
the steadiness of its working and the ease with which 
its speed could be regulated. During the whole ex- 
pedition it brought in with the ordinary drum, the 
line, whether sounding-line or dredge-rope, with 
almost any weight, at a uniform rate of a foot per 
second. Once or twice it was over-strained, and then 
we pitied the willing little thing panting like an over- 
taxed horse ; and sometimes we put on a small drum 
for very hard work, gaining thereby additional power 
at some expense of speed. 

Two powerful derricks were rigged for sounding 
and dredging operations, one over the stern and one 
over the port bow. The bow derrick was the stronger, 
and we usually found it the more convenient to 
dredge from. Sounding was most frequently carried 
on from the stern. Both derricks were provided with 
accumulators, accessory pieces of apparatus which 
we found of great value. The block through which 
the sounding-line or dredging-rope passed was not 



222 THE DEfTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. v._l 

attached directly to the derrick, but to a rope which 
passed through an eye at the end of the spar, and_| 
was fixed to a ' bitt ' on the deck. On a bight ofl| 
this rope between the block and the ' bitt ' the accu- 
mulator was lashed. This consists of thirty or forty 
or more of Hodge's vulcanized india-rubber springs 
fastened together at the two extremities, and kept 
free from one another by being passed through 
holes in two round wooden ends like the heads of 
churn- staves. The loop of the rope is made long 
enough to permit the accumulator to stretch to double 
or treble its length, but it is arrested far within its 
breaking point. The accumulator is valuable in the 
first place as indicating roughly the amount of strain 
upon the line; and in order that it may do so witli 
some decree of accuracy it is so arranged as to play 
along the derrick, which is graduated from trial to the 
number of cwts. of strain indicated by the greater or 
less extension of the accumulator ; but its more im- 
portant function is to take off the suddenness of the 
strain on the line when the vessel is pitching. The 
friction of one or two miles of cord in the water is so 
great as to prevent its yielding freely to a sudden jerk 
such as that given to the attached end when the 
vessel rises to a sea, and the line is apt to snap. A 
letting-go frame like that used on board the ' Hydra,' 
a board with a slit through which tlie free end of the 
sounding machine passed, and which supported the 
weights wliile the instrument was being prepared, was 
fitted under the stern derrick. The sounding instru- 
ment was the ' Hydra,' weighted with 336 lbs. The 
sounding-line was wound amidships just abaft the 
donkey-engine on a large strong reel, its revolution 



■HAP. v.] 



DEEP-SEA SOb'NniJSiG. 



223 



commanded by a brake. The reel held about 4,000 
fathoms of medium No. 2 line of the best Italian 
hemp, tlie No. of threads 18, the weight per 100 
fathoms 12 lbs. 8 ozs., the circumference 0*8 inch, and 
the breaking strain, dry, 1,402 lbs., soaked a day 
1,211 lbs., marked for 50, 100, and 1,000 fathoms. 

The weather was remarkably clear and fine ; the 
wind from the north-west, force = 4 ; the sea mode- 
rate, with a slight swell from the north-west. We 
were in lat. 47° 38^ N., long. 12° 08' W., at the 
mouth of the Bay of Biscay, about 200 miles to the 
west of Ushant. The sounding instrument, with two 
Miller- Casella thermometers and a water bottle 
attached a fathom or two above it, was cast off the 
letting- go frame at 2h. 44m. 20s. p.m. The line was 
run off by hand from the reel and given to the 
weight as fast as it would take it, so that there might 
not be the slightest check or strain. The following 
table gives the absolute rate of descent : — 



Fathoms. 


Time. 


! 
Interval. \ 

m. s. 1 


Fathoms. 




Time. 


Interval. 




h. m. s. 


h. 


m. S. 


111. s. 





2 44 20 


— 


1300 


2 


58 5 


1 23 


100 


2 45 5 


45 


1400 


2 


59 37 


1 32 


, 200 


2 4.5 45 


40 1 


1500 


3 


1 9 


1 32 


1 300 


2 46 30 


45 


1600 


3 


2 42 


1 33 


400 


2 47 25 


55 


1700 


3 


4 19 


1 37 


500 


2 48 15 


50 


1800 


3 


6 6 


1 47 


600 


2 49 15 


1 ; 


1900 


3 


7 53 


1 47 


700 


2 50 24 


1 9 


2000 


3 


9 40 


1 47 


800 


2 51 23 


59 


2100 


3 


11 29 


1 49 


1 900 


2 52 45 


1 22 


2200 


3 


13 24 


1 55 i 


1 1000 


2 54 


1 15 ^ 


2300 


3 


15 23 


1 59 


' 1100 


2 55 21 


1 21 


2400 


3 


17 15 


1 52 


1200 


2 56 42 


1 21 


2435 


3 


17 55 


40 



224 THE DEFTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. v. 

In this case the timing was only valuable as cor- 
roborating other evidence of the accuracy of the 
sounding, for even at this great depth, nearly three 
miles, the shock of the arrest of the weight at the 
bottom was distinctly perceptible to the commander, 
who passed the line through his hand during the 
descent. This was probably the deepest sounding 
which had been taken up to that time which was 
perfectly reliable. It was taken under unusually 
favourable conditions of weather, with the most 
perfect appliances, and with consummate skill. The 
whole time occupied in descent was 33 minutes 
35 seconds ; and in heaving up, 2 hours 2 minutes. 
The cylinder of the sounding apparatus came up 
filled with fine grey Atlantic ooze, containing a con- 
siderable proportion of fresh shells of Glohigerina, 
The two Miller- Casella thermometers registered a 
minimum temperature of 2°* 5 C. 

Various attempts have been made to devise an 
instrument which should determine accurately the 
amount of vertical descent of the lead by self-regis- 
tering machinery. The most successful apparatus for 
this purpose, and the one most in use is * Massey's 
sounding-machine.' This instrument, in its latest and 
most improved form, to be used with the common 
lead, is shown in Eig. 43. Two thimbles ff pass 
through the two ends of the heavy oval brass sbield 
A a; to the upper of these the sotinding-line is 
attached, and to the lower the weight at about half 
a fathom .from the machine. A set of four brass 
vanes or wings b are soldered obliquely to an axis 
in such a position that as the machine descends the 
axis revolves by the pressure of the water against 



CHAP, v.] 



DEEP-SEA SOUNDING. 



225 



the vanes. The revolving axis communicates its 
motion to the indices on the dial-plate c, which are 
so adjusted that the index on the right-hand dial 
passes through a division for every fathom of 




Fig. 43. — ' Massey's ' Sounding Machine. 

vertical descent, whether quick or slow, and makes 
an entire revolution for 15 fathoms, while the left- 
hand index passes through a division on the circle for 
15 fathoms, and makes an entire revolution during 

Q 



226 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vJ 

a descent of 225 fathoms. Where greater depths! 
are required it is only necessary to add another! 
dial and index. Tliis sounding instrument answers! 
very well in moderately deep water, and is extremely 
valuable for checking soundings by the ordinary 
method, Avhere deep currents are suspected, as it 
ought to register vertical descent only. It is not 
satisfactory in very deep water, and its uncertainty 
is shared apparently by all instruments involving 
metal wheel-work. It is difiB.cult to tell the reason. 
The machinery seems to get jammed in some way 
under the enormous pressure of the water. 

The ' Massey's sounding-machine ' in common use 
is somewhat different from the * shield ' instrument 
described and figured above. It is constructed oh. 
precisely the same principle, but it is bolted to a 
special form of sounding lead, and is thus somewhat 
more cumbrous. 

Besides the increasins^ attention which has been 
paid of late years to all subjects of scientific interest, 
and especially to those connected with physical geo- 
graphy, the conditions of the depths of the sea, the 
nature of the bottom, the force and direction of deep 
currents, the temperature at great depths, and, in 
fact, all the conditions affecting the sea bottom, 
have lately acquired great practical importance in 
connection with telegraphic communication by ocean 
cables. 

The Atlantic Ocean, with the accessible portions 
of the Arctic Sea, has naturally, from the relation in 
which it stands to the first maritime and commercial 
nations of the present period, been the most carefully 
surveyed ; and as it appears to contain depths nearly 



criAP. V.J DEEP-SEA SOUNDING. 227 

if not quite as great as any to be found in tlie other 
ocean basins, it may probably be taken as a fair 
example of ordinary conditions. It is open from 
pole to pole, and thus participates in all conditions 
of climate, and it communicates freely with the 
other seas. We have still but scanty information 
about the beds of the Indian, the Antarctic, and the 
Pacific oceans, but the few observations which have 
hitherto reached us seem to indicate that neither is 
the depth extreme in these seas, nor does the nature 
of the bottom differ greatly from what w^e find nearer 
home. The Mediterranean — a closed cul-de-sac 
almost cut off from the general ocean — is under 
most peculiar circumstances, which will be discussed 
hereafter. The general result to which we are led 
l)y the careful and systematic deep-sea soundings 
which have been undertaken of late years by our 
own Admiralty and by the American and Swedish 
Governments, is that the depth of the sea is not so 
great as was at one time supposed. I have already 
mentioned that in some of the earlier sounding expe- 
ditions enormous depths were registered from various 
parts of the Atlantic, and I have also mentioned the 
reasons, depending chiefly upon defective appliances, 
why many of these soundings are now considered un- 
trustworthy. Lieutenant Berryman, of the U.S. brig 
' Dolphin,' reported 4,580 fathoms (27,480 feet), equal 
to the height of Dwalagiri, in lat. 41° 1' N., long. 
49° 23' W., half-way between New York and the 
A9ores; 'no bottom' at 4,920 fathoms (29,520 feet), 
deeper than the height of Deodunga, the higliest 
peak in the world, in lat. 38° 3' N., long. 67° 14' W.; 
and 'no bottom' at 6,600 fathoms (39,600 feet), 

Q 2 



228 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. v. 

lat. 32° 55' N., long. 47° 58' W., indicating a cliasni 
between the coast of America and the Western 
Islands, which might easily engulph the whole range 
of the Himalayas. This space probably represents 
the deepest part of the North Atlantic ; but there is 
little doubt that these depths are greatly exagge- 
rated. The average depth of the ocean bed does not 
appear to be much more than 2,000 fathoms (12,000 
feet), about equal to the mean height of the elevated 
table lands of Asia. 

The thin shell of water which covers so much of 
the face of the earth occupies all the broad general 
depressions in its crust, and it is only limited and 
more abrupt prominences which project above its 
surface as masses of land with their crowning pla- 
teaux and mountain ranges. The Atlantic Ocean 
covers 30,000,000 of square miles and the Arctic Sea 
3,000,000, and taken together they almost exactly 
equal the united areas of Europe, Asia, and Africa 
— the whole of the old world ; and yet there seem 
to be few depressions in its bed to a greater depth 
than 15,000 or 20,000 feet— a little more than the 
height of Mont Blanc — and except in the neigh- 
bourhood of the shores there is only one very 
marked mass of mountains, the volcanic group of 
the A9ores. 

The central and southern parts of the Atlantic 
appear to be an old depression, probably at all events 
coseval with the deposition of the Jurassic forma- 
tions of Europe, and throughout these long ages 
the tendency of that great body of water has no 
doubt been to ameliorate the outlines, softening down 
asperities by the disintegrating action of its waves 



CHAP, v.] DEEP-SEA SOUNDING. 229 

and currents, and filling up hollows by drifting about 
and distributing their materials. 

The first careful surveys of the Atlantic, in which 
great depths were determined with considerable accu- 
racy, are the cruises of Lieut. -Commanding Lee, in 
the*^ U.S. brig ' Dolphin ' (1851-52), and of Lieut- 
Commanding O. H. Berryman, in the same vessel 
in 1852-53; but the sounding voyage in which 
modern appliances were first employed with perfect 
accuracy with a practical object was that of Lieu- 
tenant Berryman in 1856, in the U.S. steamer 
'Arctic,' in which twenty-four deep-sea soundings 
were taken with the Brooke's and Massey's sounding 
machines on a great circle between St. John's, New- 
foundland, and Yalentia in Ireland, with a view 
to the laying of the first cable. The same ground 
was gone over by Lieutenant Dayman, in H.M.S. 
'Cyclops,' in June and July 1857, and thirty-four 
soundings were taken, the depth being estimated by 
Massey's sounding-machine and a modification of 
Brooke's machine already described. The next im- 
portant sounding expedition was that of Commander 
Dayman, in H.M.S. * Gorgon,' from Newfoundland to 
the A9ores, and thence to England. The depths 
were taken in this case with a lead usually 188 lbs. 
in weight which was lost at each cast, and alba- 
core line with a breaking strain of 420 lbs. Only 
on one occasion, about a third of the way from the 
A9ores to England, a cup-lead was let go, attached 
to a stronger line, in 1,900 fathoms, and came up half 
filled with grey ooze. 

Another route for a telegraph cable having been pro- 
posed, H.M.S. ' Bull-dog' started in July 1860, under 



130 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEJ. 



[chap. 



the command of Captain Sir Leopold M'Clintock, and 
took depths between the Fgeroe Islands and Iceland, 
and thence to Greenland and Labrador. The sound- 
ings were taken first by cod-line and an iron sinker 
of about 1 cwt., the line and sinker being cut off at 
each operation ; and the sounding was then usually 
repeated with the 'Eull-dog' sounding-machine, with 
which large samples of the bottom were procured. 
A diary of this voyage was kept by Dr. Wallich, 
Naturalist to the Expedition, and was afterwards 
published by him as part of the extremely important 
memoir on the North Atlantic sea-bed, to which 
I have already referred. Some further questions 
having arisen as to the best line to be taken by 
an Atlantic telegraph cable. Captain Hoskyn, E.N., 
Avas despatched in the ' Porcupine ' to examine the 
curious dip from 550 to 1,750 fathoms, described 
by Captain Dayman in 1857 as occurring about 170 
miles west of A^alentia. One important result of this 
cruise was the discovery of the ' Porcupine ' Bank, 
about 120 miles west from Gal way Pay, with a mini- 
mum depth of 82 fathoms. 

Towards the latter part of the year 1868 H.M.S. 
'Gannet,' Commander W. Chimmo, E;.N., wasj 
ordered by the Admiralty to define during her 
homeward voyage from the West India Station] 
the northern limits of the Gulf Stream, and to] 
take deep soundings and temperatures. Thirteen' 
soundings were taken with the Brooke's machine] 
over an area of upwards of 10,000 square miles 
from Sable Island (lat. 43^ 20' N., long.^60° W.), at] 
depths varying from 80 to 2,700 fathoms. 

Por many years past the American Governmeni 



CHAP, v.] -DEPJP-SEA SOUNDING. 231 

have been prosecuting a most careful and elaborate 
survey of their coast-line ; and latterly the Coast 
Survey, under the late Professor Bache and the pre- 
sent energetic head of the Bureau, Professor Pierce, 
has pushed its operations into deep water, particu- 
larly in the Gulf-stream region north-westwards of 
the Strait of Plorida. Dredging operations have 
been conducted most successfully under Count Pour- 
tales, and it will be seen hereafter that his results 
are a valuable complement and corroboration of our 
own. The Swedish Government has twice executed 
careful soundings in the sea between Spitzbergen and 
Greenland and to the south-west of Spitzbergen ; in 
1860 under the direction of Otto Thorell, and in 
1868 through the Swedish Arctic Exploring Expe- 
dition under Captain Count von Otter of the Boyal 
Swedish steamer ' Sophia/ In 1869 the Swedish 
corvette ' Josephine ' sounded and dredged in the 
North Atlantic, taking soundings to the depth of 
upwards of 3,000 fathoms, and discovered the ' Jose- 
phine Bank,' with a minimum depth of 102 fathoms, 
in ]at. 36° 45' N., long. 14° 10' A¥. to the north-west 
of the Strait of Gibraltar. The North-German Polar 
expeditions greatly increased our knowledge of the 
Spitzbergen and the Greenland Seas ; and finally, 
on December 20th, 1870, the American nautical 
school-ship 'Mercury,' Captain P. Giraud, crossed the 
Tropical Atlantic to Sierra Leone, which she reached 
on the 14th of Eebruary, 1871. She left Sierra 
Leone on Eebruary 21st, and soundings and other 
observations were continued till she reached Havan- 
nah on the 13th of April. The object of this ex- 
pedition and the character of the observers are 



232 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. v. 

singular and instructive. It seems that the ' Mer- 
cury ' is a vessel belonging to the Commissioners in 
charge of the hospitals and prisons of New York, and 
it is employed for the purpose of training boys, 
committed by the magistrates for vagrancy and slight 
misdemeanours, to become thorough seamen. One 
important part of the training in this ship is that 
she makes long cruises, and the boys are thus fitted 
quickly to enter into the service of the navy or the 
mercantile marine. In the present cruise, the Com- 
missioners, desiring to promote the education of the 
lads and to advance the interests of science as much 
as lay in their power, instructed the captain to obtain 
a series of soundings on the line of or near the 
equator from the coast of Africa to the mouth of the 
Amazon, and to observe the set of the surface currents 
and the temperature of the water at various depths. 

The Commissioners report most favourably of this 
mode of training, which is now being so generally 
adopted in this country. For such boys the adven- 
turous life has a special charm, and, " instead of 
growing up to be a curse to the community, they 
are made into valuable men." Two hundred and 
fifty scapegraces were sent out on this voyage, and 
on the return of the ship, in the opinion of the 
captain 100 of these were capable of discharging the 
duties of ordinary seamen. 

Brooke's detaching sounding apparatus was used 
in the ' Mercury,' and in the report of the scientific 
results of the voyage, which w as drawn out by Pro- 
fessor Henry Draper of New York, a diagram of the 
bed of the Atlantic at the twelfth parallel is intro- 
duced, based on fifteen soundings. It shows that, ■ 

' J 



CHAP, v.] DEEP-SEA SOUNDING. 233 

'' parting from the African coast, the bed of the 
ocean sinks very rapidly. A couple of degrees west 
of the longitude of Cape Yerde the soundings are 
2,900 fathoms. From this point the mean depth 
across the ocean may be estimated at about 2,400 
fathoms, but from this there are two striking 
departures — first, a depression, the depth of which 
is 3,100 fathoms ; and, second, an elevation, at which 
the soundings are only 1,900, the general result of 
this being a deep trough on the African side and a 
narrower and shallower trough on the American."^ 

lleferring to the chart (PL VII.), in which the 
greater depths are indicated by the deeper shades of 
blue, a shade to every 1,000 fathoms ; in the Arctic 
Sea there is deep water ranging to 1,500 fathoms to 
the west and south-west of Spitzbergen. Extending 
from the coast of Norway and including Iceland, the 
Fseroe Islands, Shetland and Orkney, Great Britain 
and Ireland, and the bed of the North Sea to the 
coast of France, there is a wide plateau on which the 
depth rarely reaches 500 fathoms, but to the west of 
Iceland and communicating doubtless with the deep 
water in the Spitzbergen Sea a trough 500 miles wide 
and in some places nearly 2,000 fathoms deep, 
curves along the east coast of Greenland. This is 
the path of one of the great Arctic return currents. 

^ Cruise of the School-ship 'Mercury' in the Tropical Atlantic, 
with a Report to the Commissioners of Public Charities and Coi-rection 
of the City of JS'ew York on the Chemical and Physical Facts collected 
from the Ueep-sea Pesearches made during the Voyage of the Nautical 
School-ship ' Mercury,' undertaken in the Tropical Atlantic and Carib- 
bean Sea, 1870-71. By Henry Draper, M.D., Professor of Analytical 
Chemistry and Physiology in the University of ]^ew York. Abstracted 
in Nature, vol. v. p. 324. 



234 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. v. 

After sloping gradually to a depth of" 500 fathoms 
to the westward of the coast of Ireland in lat. 52° N., 
the bottom suddenly dips to 1^700 fathoms at the 
rate of about fifteen to nineteen feet in the 100 ; 
and from tliis point to within about 200 miles of 
the coast of Newfoundland Avhen it begins to shoal 
again, there is a vast undulating submarine plain, 
averaging about 2,000 fathoms in depth below the 
surface — the ' telegraph plateau.' 

A valley about 500 miles wide, and with a mean 
depth of 2,500 fathoms, stretches from off the south- 
west coast of Ireland, along the coast of Europe 
dipping into the Bay of Biscay, past the Strait of 
Gibraltar, and along the west coast of Africa. Oppo- 
site the Cape de Yerde Islands it seems to merge into 
a slightly deeper trough, which occupies the axis of 
the South Atlantic and passes into the Antarctic Sea. 
A nearly similar valley curves round the coast of 
North America, about 2,000 fathoms in depth off 
Newfoundland and Labrador, and becoming consider- 
ably deeper to the southward ; where it follows the 
outline of the coast of the States and the Bahamas 
and Windward Islands, and finally joins the central 
trough of the South Atlantic off the coast of Brazil, 
Avith a depth of 2,500 fathoms. A wide nearly level 
elevated tract with a mean depth below the surface 
of 1,500 fathoms, nearly equal in area to the con- 
tinent of Africa, extends southwards from Iceland as 
far as the 20th parallel of north latitude. This 
plateau culminates at the parallel of 40° north 
latitude in the volcanic group of the A9ores. Pico, 
the highest point of the Acores, is 7,63 3 feet (1,201 
fathoms) al)ove the level of the sea, which gives from 



CHAP, v.] 



DEEP-SEA SOUNDING. 



235 



the level of the plateau a height of 16,206 feet (2,701 
fathoms), a little more than the height of Mont 
Blanc above the sea-level. 

Accurate soundings are as yet much too distant 
to justify anything like a detailed contour map of the 
bed of the Atlantic, and such a sketch as the one 
here given can only be regarded as a first rough 
draft. Nothing, however, can give a more erroneous 
or exaggerated conception of its outline than the 
ideal section in Captain Maury's ' Physical Geo- 
graphy of the Sea,' although it is in a certain sense 
correct. 

According to our present information, we must 
regard the Atlantic Ocean as covering a vast region 
of wide shallow valleys and undulating plains, with 
a f^w groups of volcanic mountains, insignificant 
both in height and extent, when we consider the 
enormous area of the ocean bed. 




XOUSO, KUOM THE HILLS ABOVE THORSHAVN 



CHAPTER VI. 

DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 

Tho Naturalist's Dredge. — 0. F. Miiller. — Ball's Dredge. — Dredging 
at moderate Depths. — The Dredge-rope. — Dredging in Deep 
Water. — The * Hempen tangles.' — Dredging on board the * Porcu- 
pine.' — The Sieves. — The Dredger's Note-book. — The Dredging 
Committee of the British Association. — Dredging on the Coast of 
Britain. — Dredging abroad. — History of the Progress of Know- 
ledge of the Abyssal Fauna. 

Appendix A. — One of the Dredging Papers issued by the British 
Association Committee, filled up by Mr. MacAndrew. 

Up to the middle of last century the little that 
was known of the inhabitants of the bottom of the 
sea beyond low-water mark, seems to have been 
gathered almost entirely from the few objects found 
thrown upon the beach from time to time after 
storms, and from chance captures on lead-lines, and 
by fishermen on their long lines and in trawls and 
oyster and clam dredges. Even these precarious 
sources of information could not be used to the 
utmost, for it was next to impossible to induce fisher- 
men to bring ashore anything except the regular 
objects of their industry. Even now the schoolmaster 
has scarcely made way enough to eradicate old pre- 
judices. Eishermen are often so absolutely ignorant 
of the nature of these extraneous animals, that it 



cnAP. VI.] DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 237 

is conceivable to them that they may be devils of 
some kind which may have the power in some occult 
way of influencing them and the results of their 
fishing. I believe, however, that with the progress 
of education this notion is dying out in most places, 
and tliat now fewer rarities and novelties are lost 
because it is ' unlucky' to keep them in the boat. 

Tiie naturalist's dredge does not appear to have 
been systematically used for investigating the fauna 
of the bottom of the sea, until it was employed by 
Otho ^Frederick Mtiller in the researches which 
afforded material for the publication in 1779 of his 
admirable " Descriptions and History of the rarer and 
less known Animals of Denmark and Norway." In 
the preface to the first volume Mtiller gives a quaint 
account of his machinery and mode of working which 
it is pleasant to read. 

The first paragraph quoted gives a description of a 
dredge not very unlike that used by Ball and Eorbes 
(Eig. 44), only the mouth of the dredge seems to 
have been square, a modification of the ordinary 
form which we find useful for some purposes still, 
but in most cases it gives fatal facilities for ' wash- 
ing out ' in the process of hauling in. 

" Praecipuum instrumentum, quo fundi maris et 
sinuum incolas extrahere conabar, erat Sacculus re- 
ticularis, ex funiculis cannabinis concinnatus, mar- 
gine aperturae alligatus laminis quatuor ferreis ora 
exteriori acutis, vlnam longis, quatuor vncias latis, 
et in quadratum dispositis. Angulis laminarum ex- 
surgebant quatuor bacilli ferrei, altera extremitate in 
annulum liberum iuncti. Huic annectitur funis du- 
centarum et plurium orgyarum longitudine. Saccus 



238 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vi. 

mari immissus pondere ferrei apparatus fundum 
plerumque petit, interdum diuersorum et contra- 
riorum saepe fluminum maris inferiorum aduersa 
actione * moleque ipsius funis plurium orgyarum in 
via retineri, nee fundum attingere creditur." 

The figure of this first ' naturalist's dredge ' is taken 
from an ornamental scroll on the title-page of 
Mailer's book. 

"Eundo iniaeens ope remorum aut venti modici 
trahitur, donee tractum quendam quaeuis obuia exci- 
piendo confecerit. In cymbam denique retrahitur spe 
et labore, at opera et oleum saepe perditur, nubesque 
pro lunone captatur, vel enim totus argil la fumante 
aut limo foetente, aut meris silicibus, aut testaceorum 
et coralliorum emortuorum quisquiliis impletur, vel 
saxis praeruptis et latebrosis cautibus implicitus 
horarum interuallo vel in perpetuum omnia experi- 
entis retrahendi inuenta frustrat ; interdum quidem 
vnum et alterum molluscum, helmintliicum, aut tes- 
taceum minus notum in dulce laborum lenimen 
reportat." Muller graphically describes the difficul- 
ties which he encountered- in carrying on his work. 
The paucity of animal life on the Scandinavian coasts : 
the wild and variable climate, '' aeris intemperies, 
marisque in sinubus et oris maritimis Norvegiae 
ineonstantia adeo praepropera et praepostera, vt aer 
calidissimus vix minutorum interuallo in frigidum, 
tempestas serena in horridam, malacia infida in aestu 
ferventem pelagum baud raro mutetur." Still nothing 
can quell the energy of the enthusiastic old naturalist, 
who looks upon all his hardships as part of the day's 
work: "Hanc mutationem saepius cum vitae periculo 
et sanitatis dispendio expertus sum, nee tamen, 



:;iAP. VI. J 



DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 



239 



membra licet fractus, animum demisi, nee ab incepto 
desistere potui. . Discant dehinc historiae naturalis 
scituli, rariora naturae absque indefesso labore nee 
comparari, nee iuste nosci."^ It does not- appear, 
however, that Otho Erederick MiiUer dredged much 
beyond thirty fathoms, and in his day the knowledge 
of marine animals was not sufB.ciently advanced to 
warrant any generalization as 
to their bathymetrical distri- 
bution. 

The instrument usually em- 
ployed in this and other 
northern countries for dredg- 
ing oysters and clams is a 
light frame of iron about five 
feet long by a foot or so in 
width at the mouth, with a 
scraper like a narrow hoe 0:1 
one side, and a suspending 
apparatus of thin iron bars 
Avhich meet in an iron ring for 
the attachment of the dredge 
rope on the other. Prom 
the frame is suspended a bag- 
about two feet in depth, of 
iron chain netting, or of wide-meshed hempen cord 
netting, or of a mixture of both. Naturalist dredgers 
at first used the oyster dredge, and all the different 
dredges now in use are modifications of it in one 
direction or in another ; for in its simplicity it is not 

^ Zoologia Danica. Sev Aiiimalivm Dauiae et K'orvegiae rariorum 
ac minvs notorvm Descriptiones et Historia. Avctore Othone Friderico 
Mliller. Havniae, 1788. 




Fig. 44.— Otlio Frederick Mlillei" 
Dredge. a.d. 1750. 



240 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VI. 



suitable for scientific purposes. The oyster dredge 
has a scraper only on one side. In the skilled hands 
of the fishermen this is no disadvantage, for it is 
always sent down in such a way that it falls face 
foremost, but philosophers using it in deep water 

very generally found that 
whether from clumsiness 
or from want of sufficient 
practice, they had got the 
dredge down on its back, 
and of course it came 
up empty. Again, oyster 
dredgers are only allowed 
to take oysters of a certain 
size, and the meshing of 
the commercial dredge is 
so contrived as to alloAV 
all bodies under a certain 
considerable size to pass 
through. This defeats the 
object of the naturalist; 
for some of the prizes 
to which he attaches the 
highest value are mites of 
things scarcely visible to 
the unaided eye. 

The remedy for these de- 
fects is to have a scraper 
on each side, with the arms attached in such a way 
that one or other of the scrapers must reach the 
ground in whatever position the dredge may fall ; and 
to have the bag deeper in proportion to the size of 
the frame, and of a material which is only sufficiently 




Fig. 45.—' Ball's Dredge. 



CHAP. VI.] DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 241 

open to allow the water to pass freely through, with 
the openings so distributed as to leave a part of the 
bag close enough to bring up the finest mud. 

The late Dr. Robert Ball of Dublin devised the 
modification which has since been used almost uni- 
versally by naturalists in this country and abroad 
under the name of 'Ball's Dredge' (Fig. 45). The 
dredges on this pattern used in Britain for ten 
years after their first introduction about the year 
1838, were usually small and rather heavy — not 
more than from twelve to fifteen inches in length 
by four or four and a half inches in width at the 
mouth. There w^ere two scrapers the length of the 
dredge-frame and an inch and a half or two inches 
wide, set at an angle of about 110° to the plane 
of the dredge's mouth, so that when the dredge 
was gently hauled along it took hold of the ground 
and secured anything loose on its surface. I have 
seen Dr. Ball scatter pence on the drawing-room 
floor and pick them up quite dexterously with 
the dredge drawn along in the ordinary dredging 
position. 

Latterly we have used Ball's dredges of consider- 
ably larger size. Perhaps the most convenient form 
and size for dredging from a row-boat or a yawl at 
depths under a hundred fathoms is that represented 
by Pig. 45. The frame is eighteen inches long, and 
its width is five inches. The scrapers are three 
inches wide, and they are so set that the distance 
across between their scraping edges is seven inches 
and a half. The ends of the frame connecting the 
scrapers are round bars of iron five-eighths of an 
inch in diameter, and from these two curved arms of 



242 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vi. 

round iron of the same thickness, dividing heneath 
into two branches which are attached to the ends of 
the cross-bars by eyes allowing the arms to fold down 
over the dredge-mouth, meet in two lieavy eyes at a 
point eighteen inches above the centre of the frame. 
The total weight of the dredge-frame and arms is 
twenty pounds. It ought to be of the best Low- 
moor on Swedish wrought-iron. I have seen a stout 
dredge-frame of Lowmoor iron twisted like a bit 
of wax in extricating it from a jam between two 
stones, and, singularly enough, the dredge which 
came up in that condition contained the unique 
example of an echinoderm never found before or 
since. SI 

The thick inner edges of the scrapers are perforated"^" 
by round holes at distances of about an inch, and 
through these, strong iron rings about an inch in 
diameter are passed, and two or three like rings run 
on the short rods which form the ends of the dredge- 
frame. A light iron rod bent to the form of the 
dredge opening usually runs through these rings, and 
to this rod and to the I'ings the mouth of the dredge- 
bag is securely attached by stout cord or strong 
copper wire. j 

In the dredge now before me, which has worked ^ 
well and seen good service, the bag is two feet in 
depth, and is of hand-made net of very strong twine, 
the meshes half an inch to the side. So open 
a network would let many of the smaller things 
through, and to avoid this the bottom of the bag, to 
the height of about nine inches, is lined with ' bread- 
bag,' a light open kind of canvas. 

Manv other materials have been used for dredo-e- 



CHAP. VI.] DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 243 

bags. Raw buffalo- and cow-hides are very strong, 
but they are apt to become offensive. When these 
are used it is necessary to punch holes here and there 
to let the water through or to leave the seams which 
are sewed with thongs a little open. Another bag 
which I have used frequently is made of sail-cloth, 
with a window of strong brass wire gauze let in on 
either side. Nothing, however, seems to me so good 
as strong cord netting. The water passes easily 
through and carries with it a large part of the fine 
mud, while enough mud is retained by the bread- 
bag lining in the bottom to give a fair sample of its 
contents. It may be said that many small valuable 
objects may be washed through the meshes of the 
upper part of the dredge along with the mud, and 
thus lost ; but, on the other hand, if the bag be very 
close it is apt to get filled up with mud . at once, and 
to collect nothing more. 

It is always well when dredging, at whatever 
depth, to ascertain the aj)proximate depth with the 
lead before casting the dredge ; and the lead ought 
always to be accompanied by a protected thermome- 
ter, for the subsequent haul of the dredge will gain 
greatly in value as an observation in geographical 
distribution if it be accompanied by an accurate note 
of the bottom temperature. For depths under 100 
fathoms the amount of rope paid out should be at 
least double the depth. Under thirty fathoms, where 
one generally works more rapidly, it should be more 
nearly three times. This gives a good deal of sla<jk 
before the dredge if the boat be moving very slowly, 
and keeps the lip of the dredge well down ; and if the 
boat be moving too quickly through the water, by 

11 2 



244 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vi. 

far the most common error in amateur dredging, 
Irom the low angle at which the line is lying in the 
water the dredge has its hest chance of getting an 
occasional scrape. It is bad economy to use too 
light a rope. I'or a dredge such as that described, 
and for work round the coasts of Europe at depths 
attainable from a row-boat or yawl, I would recom- 
mend bolt-rope of the best Russian hemp, not less 
than one and a half inch in circumference, which 
should contain from eighteen to twenty yarns 
in three strands. Each yarn should bear nearly a 
hundredweight, so that the breaking strain of such a 
rope ought to be upwards of a ton. Of course it is 
never voluntarily exposed to such a strain, but in 
shallow water the dredge is often caught among 
rocks or coral, and the rope ought to be strong 
enough in such a case to bring up the boat, even if 
there were some little way on. 

Dredging in sand or mud, the dredge-rope may 
simply be passed through the double eye formed by 
the extremities of the two arms of the dredge ; but in 
rocky or unknown ground it is better to fasten the 
rope to the eye of one of the arms only, and to tie the 
two eyes together with about three or four turns of 
rope yarn. This breaks much more readily than the 
dredge rope, so that if the dredge get caught it is 
the first thing to give way under a strain, and in 
doing so it very often so alters the position and form 
of the dredge as to allow of its extrication. 

The dredge is slipped gently over the side, either 
from the bow or from the stern — in a small boat 
more usually the latter — wliile there is a little way 
on, and the direction which the rope takes indi- 



CHAP. VI.] DEEP-SEA DREDGING. '^45 

cates roughly whether the dredge is going down 
properly. When it reaches the ground and hegins 
to scrape, an experienced hand upon the rope can 
usually at once detect a tremor given to the dredge 
by the scraper passing over the irregularities of the 
bottom. The due amount of rope is then paid out, 
and the rope hitched to a bench or rollock-pin. 

When there is anything of a current, from Avhat- 
ever cause, it is usually convenient to attach a weight 
varying from fourteen pounds to lialf a hundred- 
weight, to the rope three or four fathoms in front of 
the dredge. This prevents in some degree the lift- 
ing of the mouth of the dredge. If the weight be 
attached nearer the dredge, it is apt to injure delicate 
objects passing in. 

The boat should move very slowly, probably not 
faster than a mile an hour. In still water, or with 
a very slight current, the dredge of course anchors 
the boat, and oars or sails are necessary; but if 
the boat be moving at all it is all that is required. 
I like best to dredge with a close-reefed sail before a 
light wind, with weights, against a very slight tide 
or current ; but these are conditions which cannot 
always be commanded. The dredge may remain 
down from a quarter of an hour to twenty minutes, 
by which time, if things go well, it ought to be 
fairly filled. 

In dredging from a small boat the simplest plan is 
for two or three men to haul in hand over hand and 
coil in the bottom of the boat. For a large yawl 
or yacht, and for depths beyond fifty fathoms, a 
winch is a great assistance. The rope takes a couple 
of turns round the winch, which is worked by two 



246 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vi. 

men, while a third takes it from the winch and 
coils it. 

Dredging in deep water— that is, at depths beyond 
200 fathoms — is a matter of some difTiculty, and can 
scarcely be compassed with the ordinary machinery 
at the disposal of amateurs. Deep-sea dredging can 
no doubt be carried on from a good-sized steam yacht, 
but the appliances are so numerous and so bulky, 
and the work is so really hard, that it is scarcely 
compatible with pleasure-seeking. 

I do not know that much improvement can be 
made upon the apparatus and method employed in 
the ' Porcupine ' in 1869 and 1870. I will therefore 
describe her dredging gear and the dredging opera- 
tion carried on from her at the greatest depths in 
the Bay of Biscay, that which tested our resources 
most fully, somewhat in detail. 

The ' Porcupine ' is a 382-ton gun-boat, fitted up 
for the surveying service, in which she has been em- 
ployed for some years past among the Hebrides, and 
latterly on the east coast of England. She was 
assigned for our special work in 1869, with all her 
ordinary surveying fittings; and certain very im- 
portant additions were made; among others the 
double-cylinder donkey engine, which worked up 
to about twelve horse-power, with surging drums 
of different sizes, large drums for bringing up light 
weights rapidly, and smaller drums for heavy work. 
This engine was set up amidships, so that lines could 
be led to the drums either from fore or aft. The 
donkey-engine proved a most serviceable little 
machine. We almost always used the large drum, 
both in dredging and sounding ; and except on one 



CHAP. VI.] DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 247 

or two occasions when an enormous load, once 
nearly a ton, came up in the dredge-bag-, it de- 
livered the rope steadily, at a uniform rate of more 
than a foot per second, for the whole summer. 

A powerful derrick projected over the port bow. 
A large block was suspended at the end of the 
derrick by a rope which, as in the case of the sound- 
ing-line, was not directly attached to the spar but 
passed through an eye, and was attached to a ' bitt ' 
on deck. On a bight of this rope was lashed a 
powerful accumulator, the machine already described 
(p. 222) as of so much use in the management of 
the sounding-line. In dredging from a large vessel 
the ' accumulator ' is invaluable. Prom the great 
strength of the springs the dredge is usually drawn 
along without stretching them to any great degree ; 
they become tense and taut, and yield, with a kind 
of slight pulsation, to the rise and fall of the vessel. 
Whenever they run out it is a sure indication that 
either the dredge has caught or the weight in it is 
becoming too great, and that the dredge rope ought 
to be relieved by a turn of the paddle-wheel or screw. 
Care should be taken not to have the bight of the 
rope to which the accumulator is attached more 
than about twice the length of the unstretched 
springs. Springs in good order ought to stretch to 
much more than double their length ; but it is unsafe 
to try them too far, as a lash from one, if it were to 
give way, would be most serious. When a great 
strain comes upon the rope, it acts first upon the 
accumulator, pulling down the block and stretching 
the elastic bands ; and a graduated scale on the der- 
rick, against w^hich the accumulator i)lays, gives in 



248 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VI. 




Fig. 46.— The Stern Derrick of the 'Porcupine/ showing tl)e ' accuuiuiator ' tne ureuge, and 
the mode of stowing the rope. 



CHAP. VI.] DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 249 

cwts. an approximation at all events to the strain 
on the rope. 

A second derrick, nearly equally strong, was rigged 
over the stern, and we dredged sometimes from one 
and sometimes from the other. The stern derrick was, 
however, principally used for sounding ; the letting- 
go board, &c., being fitted up in connection with it. 
We had an excellent arrangement for stowing the 
dredge-rope in the ' Porcupine ;' an arrangement 
which made its manipulation singularly easy, not- 
withstanding its great weight — about 5,500 lbs. A row 
of about twenty great iron pins, about two and a half 
feet in length, projected over one side of the quarter- 
deck, rising obliquely from the top of the bulwark. 
Each of these held a coil of from two to three hun- 
dred fathoms, and the rope was coiled continuously 
along the whole row (Fig. 46). When the dredge 
was going down, the rope was taken rapidly by the 
men from these pins— 'Aunt Sallies' we called them, 
from their ending over the deck in smooth white 
balls — in succession, beginning with the one nearest 
the dredging derrick ; and in hauling up, a relay of 
men carried the rope along from the surging drum 
of the donkey-engine and laid it in coils on the pins 
in inverse order. Thus, in letting go, the rope 
passed to the block of the derrick directly from the 
' Aunt Sallies ; ' in hauling up, it passed from the 
1)lock to the surging drum of the donkey-engine, 
from which it was taken by the men and coiled on 
the ' Aunt Sallies.' 

The length of the dredge-rope was 3,000 fathoms, 
nearly three and a half statute miles. Of this, 2,000 
fathoms were 'hawser-laid,' of the best Russian 



250 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. • [chap. vi. 

hemp, 2^ inches in circumference, with a breaking 
strain of 2\ tons. The 1,000 fathoms next the 
dredge were * hawser-laid,' 2 inches in circumference. 
A Russian hemp rope appears to be the most suit- 
able. A manilla rope is considerably stronger for 
a steady pull, but the fibre is more brittle and liable 
to go at a ' kink.' I have never seen a wire-rope used, 
but I should think it would be liable to the same 
objection. The 'Challenger' is to be supplied with 
' whale-line ' for her great expedition. The frame of 
one of the dredges which we used in the Bay of 
Biscay is represented at Pigs. 47 and 48. The length of 




^^^ 




<- G 

Fig. 47.— The Eijd of the Dredge frame. 



the dredge-frame is 4 ft. 6 in., and it is 6 inches wide 
at the throat or narrowest part. The dredge used in 
the deepest haul was somewhat different. About 
half of each arm next the eye to which the rope was 
attached, was of heavy chain. I doubt greatly, how- 
ever, if this is an advantage. The chain drags along 
in front of the dredge, and may possibly obstruct 
the entrance of objects and injure them more than a 
pair of rigid arms would do. On one side the chain 
was attached to the arm of the dredge by a stop of 
five turns of spun-yarn, so that in case of the dredge 



CHAP. VI.] 



BEEP-SEA DREDGING. 



251 



becoming entangled or wedged among rocks or 
stones, a strain less than sufficient to break the 
dredge rope would break the stop, alter the position 
of the dredge, and probably enable it to free itself ; 




Fio. 48 — Dredge-frame showing the mode of attachment of the Bag. a. Spunyam Stop^ 

and in case of its taking in a greater load of mud 
than the rope could bring up, the stop would like- 
wise give way and allow the dredge to fall into such 
a position that a large part of its contents would slip 



252 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VI. 



out. The weight of the frame of this dredge, the 
largest we ever used, was 225 lbs. ; it was forged by 
Messrs. Harland and Wolff of Eelfast of the best 
Lowmoor iron. The dredge-bag was double — the 
outer of strong twine netting, the inner of bread- 
bag. Three sinkers — one of 1 cwt., 
the other two of 56 lbs. each — were 
attached to the dredge- rope at 500 
fathoms from the dredge. 

The operation of sounding at a 
depth of 2,435 fathoms in the Bay 
of Biscay on the 22nd of July, 1869, 
has already been described in detail. 
When the depth had been accurately 
ascertained, about 4.45 p.m. the 
dredge was let go, the vessel drift- 
ing slowly before a moderate breeze 
(force = 4) from the N.W. The 3,000 
fathoms of rope were all out at 5.50 
P.M. The diagram (Fig. 50) will 
give an idea of the various relative 
positions of the dredge and the vessel 
according to the plan of dredging 
adopted by Captain Calver, which 
worked admirably, and which ap- 
pears, in fact, to be the only mode 
wliich would answer for great depths. 
A represents the position of the vessel when the 
dredge is let go, and the dotted line A b the line of 
descent of the dredge, rendered oblique by the ten- 
sion of the rope. While the dredge is. going down 
the vessel drifts gradually to leeward ; and when 
the whole (say) 3,000 fathoms of rope are out, c, w, 




Pig. 49.— The End of the 
Dredge-frame, showing 
the mode of attachment 
of the Bag. 



CHAP. VI.] DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 253 

and D might represent respectively the relative jjosi- 




FiG. 50.— Diagram of the relative position of the Vessel, the Weights, and the Dredge, in 
dredging in deep water. 



tions of the vessel, the weight attached 500 fathoms 



254 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEJ. [chai'. vi. 

from the dredge, and the dred^ itself. The vessel now 
steams slowly to windward, occupying successively 
the positions E, F, G, and H. The weight, to which 
the water oflFers but little resistance, sioks from 
w to w , and the dredge and Lag more sloAvly from 
D to B. The vessel is now allowed to drift back 
before the wind from h towards c. The tension of 
the motion of the vessel, instead of acting immedi- 
ately on the dredge, now drags forward tlie weight 
Tv', so that the dredging is carried on from the 
weight and not directly from the vessel The 
dredge is thus quietly pnlled along ^vith its lip 
scraping the bottom in the attitude which it 
assumes from the centre of weight of its iron frame 
and arms. If, on the other hand, the weights 
were hung close to the dredge, and the dredge were 
dragged directly from the vessel, owing to the great 
weight and spring of the rope the arms would be 
continually lifted up and the lip of the dredge pre- 
vented from scraping. In very deep dredging this 
operation of steaming up to windward until the 
dredge-rope is nearly perpendicular, after drifting 
for half an hour or so to leeward, is usually 
repeated three or four times. 

At 8.50 P.M. we began to haul in, and the * Aunt 
Sallies' to fill agaio. The donkey-engine delivered 
the rope at the rate of rather more than a foot per 
second, without a single check. A few minutes 
before 1 A.>t, the weights appeared, and a little after 
one in the morning, eight hours after it was cast 
over, the dredge was safely hauled on deck, having 
in the internal accomplished a journey of upwards 
of eight statute mile^i. The dredge contained \\ cwt. 



CHAP. vi.J DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 255 

of very characteristic pale grey Atlantic ooze. The 
total weight brought up by the engine was — 

2,000 fathoms, 2|-iQch rope 4,000 lbs. 

1,000 fathoms, 2-mch rope 1,500 „ 

5,500 lbs. 

Weight of rope reduced to one-fourth in water = 1,375 lbs. 

Dredge and bag 275 „ 

Ooze brought up 168 „ 

Weight attached , 224 „ 

2,042 Ihp. 

Much more experience will yet be necessary before 
we can assure ourselves that we have devised the 
dredge of the best form and weight for work in the 
deep sea. I rather think that the dredges, 150 to 
225 lbs. J which we have been in the habit of using, 
are too hea^'y. In many instances we have had 
evidence that the dredge, instead of falling gently 
upon the surface and then gliding along and gather- 
ing the loose things in its path, has fallen upon its 
mouth and dug into the tenacious mud, thereby 
cloggiug itself, so as to admit but little more. I 
mean to try the experiment of heavier weights and 
lighter dredge-frames in the ' Challenger,' and I 
believe it will be an improvement. 

In many of our dredgings at all depths we found 
that, while few objects of interest were brought up 
within the dredge, many echinoderms, corals, and 
-pouges came to the surface sticking to the outside 
of the di-edge-bag, and even to the first few fatlioms 
of the dredge-rope. 

This suggested many exi)edients, and finally 



256 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [(jhap. vi; 

Captain Calv^er sent down half-a-dozen of the 'swabs' 
used for washing the decks attached to the dredge. 
The rosLilt was marvellous. The tangled hemp 
brought up everything rough and moveable which 
came in its way, and swept the bottom as it might 
have swept the deck. Captain Calver's invention ini- 
tiated a new era in deep-sea dredging. After various 
experiments we came to the conclusion that the 
best plan was to attach a long iron transverse bar 
to the bottom of the dredge-bag, and to fasten large 
bunches of teazed-out hemp to the free ends of the 
bar (Fig. 51). We now regard the ' hempen tangles ' 
as an essential adjunct to the dredge nearly as 
important as the dredge itself, and usually much 
more conspicuous in its results. Sometimes, when 
the ground is too rough for ordinary dredging, we 
use the tangles alone. There is some danger, how- 
ever, in their use. The dredge employed under the 
most favourable circumstances may be supposed or 
hoped to pass over the surface of the floor of the 
sea for a certain distance, picking up tli^e objects in 
its path which are perfectly free, and small enough 
to enter the dredge mouth. If they chance to be 
attached in any way, the dredge rides over them. 
. If they exceed in the least the width of the dredge- 
opening, at the particular angle at which the dredge 
may present itself at the moment, they are shoved 
aside and lost. 

The Mollusca have by far the best chance of being 
fully represented in investigations carried on by the 
dredge alone. Their shells are comparatively sm.all 
solid bodies mixed with the stones on the bottom, 
and they enter the dredge along with these. Echino- 



"CHAP. VI.] 



DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 



25 



derms, corals, and sponges, on the contrary, are bulky 
objects, and are frequently partially buried in the 




Fio. 51. — Dredge with 'hempen tangles ' 



mud or more or less firmly attached, so that the 
dredge generally misses them. Witli the tangles it 

s 



258 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vi. 

is the reverse. The smooth heavy shells are rarely 
hrought up, while frequently the tangles loaded with 
the spiny spheres of Cldarls, great white-hearded 
Holteniw, glistening coils of Hyalonema, relieved hy 
the crimson stars of Astropecten and Brisinga, pre- 
sent as remarkable an appearance as can well be 
imagined. On one occasion, to which I have already 
referred, I am sure not fewer than 20,000 examples 
of Echinus norvegicus came up on the tangles at 
one haul. They were warped through and through 
the hempen fibres, and actually filled the tangles 
so that we could not get them out, and they hung 
for days round the bulwarks like nets of pickling 
onions in a greengrocer's shop. The use of the 
tangles, which seem so singularly well adapted to 
their capture, gives therefore a totally unfair advan- 
tage to the radiate groups and the sponges, and this 
must always be taken into account in estimating 
their proportion in the fauna of a particular area. 

The tangles certainly make a sad mess of the 
specimens ; and the first feeling is one of woe, as we 
undertake the almost hopeless task of clipping out 
with a pair of short nail-scissors the mangled 
remains of sea-pens, the legs of rare crabs, and 
the dismembered disks and separated arms of delicate 
crinoids and ophiurids. We must console ourselves 
with the comparatively few things which come up 
entire, sticking to the outer fibres ; and with the re- 
flection that had we not used this somewhat ruthless 
means of capture the mutilated specimens would have 
remained unknown to us at the bottom of the sea. 

The dredge comes up variously freighted according 
to the locality. Usually, if dexterously managed, 



CHAP. VI.] DEEP-SEA DREDOINQ. 259 

the bag is about half full. If, from a great depth, 
beyond the reach of currents, where there is only so 
slow a movement of the mass of water that the finest 
sediment is not carried away, it contains usually 
fine calcareous or aluminous mud alone, with the 
animals forming the fauna of the locality distributed 
through it. In shallower water we may have sand 
or gravel, or stones of various sizes mixed with mud 
and sand. 

The next step is to examine the contents of the 
dredge carefully, and to store the objects of search for 
future use. The dredge is hauled on deck, and there 
are two ways of emptying it. We may either turn it 
up and pour out its contents by the mouth, or we 
may have a contrivance by which the bottom of the 
bag may be made to unlace. The first plan is the 
simplest and the one most usually adopted. The 
second has the advantage of letting the mass out 
more smoothly and easily, but the lacing introduces 
rather a damaging complication, as it is apt to 
loosen or give way. In a regularly organized dredg- 
ing expedition, a frame is often arranged with a 
ledge round it to receive the contents of the dredge, 
but it does very well to capsize it on an old piece of 
tarpauling. Any objects visible on the surface of 
the heap are now carefully removed and placed for 
identification in jars or tubs of sea- water, of which 
there should be a number standing ready. The 
heap should not be much disturbed, for the delicate 
objects contained in it have already been unavoid- 
ably subjected to a good deal of rough usage, and 
the less friction among the stones the better. 

Close to the place where the dredge is emptied 

s 2 



260 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VI. 



there ought to be one or two tubs about two feet 
in diameter and twenty inches deep, and each tub 
should be provided with a set of sieves so arranged 
that the lowest sieve fits freely within the bottom 
of the tub, and the three succeeding sieves fit freely 
within one another (Pig. 52). Each sieve is pro- 
vided with a pair of iron handles through which 
the hand can pass easily, and the handles of the 
largest sieve are made long, so that the w^hole nest 
can be lifted without stooping and putting the arms 




Fig. 52.— Set of Dredging Sieves. 

into the water. The upper smallest sieve is usually 
deeper than the others ; it is made of a strong open 
net of brass wire, the meshes a half inch to a side. 
The second sieve is a good deal finer, the meshes 
a quarter inch to a side. The third is finer still, 
and the fourth so close as only to allow the passage 
of mud or fine sand. The sieves are put into the 
tub, and the tub filled up to the middle of the top 
sieve with sea-water. The top sieve is then half 
filled with the contents of the dredge, and the set 
of sieves are gently moved up and down in the 



CHAP. VI.] DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 2G1 

water. It is of great importance not to give any 
rotatory motion to the sieves in this part of the 
process, for such is very ruinous to fragile organisms. 
The sieves should be gently churned up and down, 
whether singly or together. The result, of course, is 
that the rougher stones and gravel and the larger 
organisms are washed and retained in the upper 
sieve. The fine mud or sand passes through the 
whole of the sieves and subsides into the bottom of 
the tub, while the three remaining sieves contain, in 
graduated series, the objects of intermediate size. 
The sieves are examined carefully in succession, and 
the organisms which they contain gently removed 
with a pair of brass or bone forceps into the jars 
of sea-water, or placed at once in bottles of weak 
spirit of wine. 

The scientific value of a dredging operation de- 
pends mainly upon two things, — the care with which 
the objects procured are preserved and labelled for 
future identification and reference, and the accuracy 
with which all the circumstances of the dredging, 
position, depth, nature of ground, bottom tempera- 
ture, date, &c., are recorded. With regard to the 
preservation of the animals, I cannot here go into 
detail. There are many ways of preserving, special 
to the different invertebrate groups ; and ' taxidermy ' 
is in itself a complicated art. I will merely men- 
tion one or two general points. A specimen in 
almost every group is of infinitely greater scientific 
value if it be preserved entire with its soft parts. 
Por this purpose the most usual plan is to place it 
at once in spirit of wine diluted to about proof 
Care must be taken not to put too many specimens 



262 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vi. 

together ia one jar, or they will very shortly become 
discoloured ; and the jars ought to be looked to care- 
fully and the spirit tested, and if necessary renewed 
after they have been set aside for a day or two, asj 
sea animals contain a large quantity of water. laj 
hot weather, and if the specimens be bulky, it is] 
often better to use strong spirit. The ordinary] 
methylated spirit of commerce answers sufficiently] 
well for ordinary purposes, though if a specimen boj 
reserved for minute dissection, I prefer using pure, 
or even absolute alcohol. 

For very delicate transparent objects, — such as] 
salpae, siphonophora, polycystina, &c., — Goadby' 
solution seems to be preferable: but do what w( 
may, a preserved specimen of one of these lovel] 
objects is a mere caput mortumriy a melancholy sug- 
gestion of its former beauty ; good only for the 
demonstration of anatomical structure. 

In preserving marine animals dry, as much of 
the soft parts should be removed as possible, and 
replaced by tow or cotton, and the object to be 
dried should be steeped in several changes of fresh 
water to get rid of the whole of the salt, and then 
dried very thoroughly and not too quickly. Every 
specimen, whether dry or in spirit, should be labelled 
at once, with the number under which this particular 
dredging is entered in the dredger's note-book. It 
is wonderful how soon things get into confusion 
if this be not rigorously attended to. The small 
paper tickets with a fancy margin and gummed on 
the back, which haberdashers use for ticketing 
their goods, are to be had of all wholesale 
stationers at nominal prices, and they are very con- 



CHAP. VI.] DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 263 

venient. Their great disadvantage is that if the 
bottles on which they are fixed get wet they are apt 
to come off. 

Pencils are sold by seed-merchants for writing on 
tallies which are to be exposed to rain. Perhaps 
the safest plan is to mark the number and date with 
such a pencil on a shred of parchment or parch- 
ment paper, and put it into the bottle. This may 
seem a trifling detail, but so great inconvenience 
constantly arises from carelessness in this matter, 
that I feel sure of the sympathy of all who are 
interested in the scientific aspect of dredging when 
I insist upon the value of accurate labelling. 

It is of even greater importance that certain 
circumstances relating to every individual haul of 
the dredge should be systematically noted, either 
in the dredger's diary, or on a special form prepared 
for the purpose. The precise position of the station 
ought to be defined in shore dredging by giving 
the distance from shore and the bearings of some 
fixed objects; in ocean dredging by noting accurately 
the latitude and longitude. In the ' Lightning,' in 
1868, we dredged at a station about 100 miles to 
the north of the Butt of the Lews, and came upon 
a singular assemblage of interesting animal forms. 
Next year, in the ' Porcupine,' we were anxious to 
try again the same spot to procure some additional 
specimens of a sponge which we were studying. 
The position had been accurately given in the log 
of the ' Lightning,' and the first haul at a depth of 
upwards of half a mile gave us the very same group 
of forms which we had taken the year before. On 
our return Captain Calver again dropped the dredge 



264 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEJ. [guap. vi. 

upon the same spot, with like success. The depth 
in fathoms should be carefully noted, as a most im- 
portant element in determining the conditions of life 
and distribution of species; and the nature of the 
bottom — whether mud, sand, or gravel; and if the 
latter, it is well to state the nature and composition 
of the pebbles, and if possible the source from which 
they may probably have been derived. Now that 
we have in the Miller-Casella thermometer a reliable 
instrument for this purpose, the bottom temperature 
ought always to be noted. This is important whether 
in shallow or in deep water. In shallow water it 
gives a datum, for determining the range of annual 
variation of temperature which can be endured by 
certain species ; and at great depths it is even more 
important, as we are now aware that, owing to the 
movement of masses of water at different tempera- 
tures in various directions, totally different condi- 
tions of climate may exist in deep water within a 
few miles of one another, and the limits of these 
conditions can only be determined by direct experi- 
ment. It is important when determining the bottom 
temperature to note also the temperature of the 
surface of the sea, the temperature of the air, the 
direction and force of the wind, and the general 
atmospheric conditions. If the dredger be purely a 
zoologist, having no particular interest in special 
physical problems, it will still be well worth his 
while to make all the observations indicated and to 
publish the results. These then pass into the 
hands of physical geographers, to whom all trust- 
worthy additions to the myriad of data which are 
required to arrive at a true generalization of the 



CHAP. VI. J DEEF-SEA DREDOING. 265 

phenomena of the distribution of temperature are 
most acceptable. 

At the Birmingham Meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation in 1839 an important committee was ap- 
pointed "for researches with the dredge, with a 
view to the investigation of the marine zoology of 
Great Britain, the illustration of the geographical 
distribution of marine animals, and the more 
accurate determination of the fossils of the plio- 
cene period : under the superintendence of Mr. 
Gray, Mr. Eorbes, Mr. Goodsir, Mr. Patterson, Mr. 
Thompson of Belfast, Mr. Ball of Dublin, Dr. George 
Johnston, Mr. Smith of Jordan Hill, and Mr. A. 
Strickland." The appointment of this committee 
may be regarded as the initiation of the systematic 
employment of this method of research. Edward 
Eorbes was the ruling spirit, and under the genial 
influence of his contagious enthusiasm great pro- 
gress was made during the next decade in the know- 
ledge of the fauna of the British seas, and many 
wonderfully pleasant days were spent by the original 
committee and by many others who, from year to 
year, were ' added to their number.' Every annual 
report of the British Association contained commu- 
nications from the English, the Scottish, or the Irish 
branches of the committee, and in 1850 Edward 
Eorbes submitted its first general report on British 
marine zoology. This report, as might have been 
anticipated from the eminent qualifications of the 
reporter, was of the highest value ; and taken along 
with his remarkable memoirs previously published, 
" on the distribution of the MoUusca and Eadiata 
of the ^gean Sea," and ''on the geological relations 



266 • THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vi. 

of the existino? Pauna and Flora of the British 
Isles," may be said to mark an era in the progress 
of human thought. 

After enumerating various additions to our know- 
ledge of the distribution of marine invertebrata 
within the British area which were still to be de- 
sired, Eorbes concludes his report with the following 
sentence: "And lastly, though I fear the consum- 
mation, however devoutly wished for, is not likely 
soon to be effected, a series of dredgings between 
the Zetland and the Pseroe Isles, where the greatest 
depth is under 700 fathoms, would throw more light 
on the natural history of the North Atlantic and 
on marine zoology generally than any investigation 
that has yet been undertaken/' 

To Forbes' s general report succeeded many reports 
from the different sections into which from year to 
year the committee divided itself. Among these I 
may mention particularly the very excellent work 
done by the Belfast dredging committee, communi- 
cated to several meetings of the Association by the 
late Mr. George C. Hyndman; the reports of the 
Dublin committee by the late Professor Kinahan 
and Professor E. Perceval Wright; the important 
lists of the fauna of the East Coast of England re- 
ported on behalf of the Natural History Society of 
Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
and of the Tyne-side Naturalists' Field Club, by Mr. 
Henry T. Mennell and Mr. G. S. Brady ; and lastly 
the invaluable reports on the marine fauna of the 
Hebrides and Shetland, compiled at an extraordinary 
expense of labour, discomfort, and privation — doubt- 
less with an immediate guerdon of infinite enjoyment 



CHAP, vj.] DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 267 

— through many years, by Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. 
Barlee, the Eev. A. Merle Norman, and Mr. Edward 
Waller, and communicated to the Transactions of the 
Association from 1863 to 1868. The dredging com- 
mittees of the British Association, combining the 
pursuit of knowledge with the recreation of their 
summer holidays, may be said to have worked out the 
fauna of the British area down to the 100-fathom 
line, for the dredger is now rarely rewarded by a 
conspicuous novelty, and must be contented that the 
greater number of his additions to the British list 
are confined to the more obscure groups. 

Meanwhile some members of the dredging com- 
mittee and their friends who had time and means 
at their disposal pushed their operations farther 
a-field, and did good service on foreign shores. In 
1850, Mr. Mac Andrew published many valuable notes 
on the lusitanian and mediterranean faunae ; and 
in 1856, at the request of the biological section of 
the British Association, he submitted to the Chel- 
tenham meeting a general "report on the marine 
testaceous mollusca of the North-east Atlantic and 
neighbouring seas, and the physical conditions affect- 
ing their development." The field of these arduous 
labours extended from the Canary Islands to the 
North Cape, over about 43 degrees of latitude, and 
many species are recorded by him as having been 
dredged at depths between 160 and 200 fathoms off 
the coast of Norway. Subsequently, Mr. Gwyn 
Jeffreys went over some of the same ground, and 
made many additions to the lists of his predecessors. 

Nor were our neighbours idle. In Scandinavia 
a brilliant triumvirate — Loven of Stockholm, Steen- 



268 TEE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vr. 

strup of Copenhagen, and Michael Sars of Chris- 
tiania — were making perpetual advances in the 
knowledge of marine zoology. Milne-Edwards was 
illustrating the fauna of the coast of Prance, and 
Philippi, Grube, Oscar Schmidt, and others were 
continuinoj in the Mediterranean and the Adriatic 
the work so well begun by Donati, Olivi, E^isso, 
Delle Chiage, Poll, and Cantraine; while Deshayes 
and Lacaze Duthiers illustrated the fauna of the 
coast of Algeria. So much progress had already 
been made at home and abroad, that in the year 
1854 Edward Porbes considered that the time had 
arrived for giving to the public, at all events a pre- 
liminary sketch of the fauna of the European seas 
— a work which he commenced, but did not live to 
finish. 

I need scarcely say that these operations of the 
British Association dredging committees were carried 
on generally under the idea that at the 100-fathom 
line, by which amateur work was practically limited, 
they approached the zero of animal life — a notion 
which was destined to be gradually undermined and 
finally completely overthrown. Prom time to time, 
however, there were not wanting men of great skill 
and experience to maintain, with Sir James Clark 
Ross, that " from however great a depth we may be 
enabled to bring up the mud and stones of the bed 
of the ocean, we shall find them teeming with animal 
life." Prom the very general prevalence of the 
negative view there was little to stimulate to the 
investigation of the bottom at great depths, and data 
gathered very slowly. 

I have already referred (p. 18 et infra) to the 



CHAP. VI.] * DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 2G9 

observations of Sir John. Ross in 1818, of Sir 
James Ross in 1810, and of Mr. Harry Goodsir 
in 1845. In the year 1844 Professor Loven con- 
tributed a paper, '' on** the bathymetrical distribu- 
tion of submarine life on the northern shores of 
Scandinavia," to the British Association. He says, 
** With us the region of deep-sea corals is character- 
ized in the south by Oculina ramea and Terehratula^ 
and in the north by Astrophyton, Cldaris, Spatangiis 
ptirpweus of an immense size, all living; besides Gor- 
gonice and the gigantic Alcyonmm arhoreum, which 
continues as far down as any fisherman's line can be 
sunk. As to the point where animal life ceases, it 
must be somewhere, but with us it is unknown."^ 

In 1863 the same naturalist, referring to the 
result of the Swedish Spitzbergen expedition of 
1861, when mollusca, Crustacea, and hydrozoa Avere 
brought up from a depth of 1,400 fathoms, expresses 
the remarkable opinion, which later investigations 
appear generally to support, that at great depths, 
wherever the bottom is suitable, " a fauna of the 
same general character extends from pole to pole 
through all degrees of latitude, some of the species 
of the fauna being very widely distributed." ^ 

In 1846 Keferstein mentions having seen in Stock- 
holm a whole collection of invertebrate animals— 
Crustacea, phascolosoma, annelids, spatangus, myrio- 
trochus, sponges, bryozoa, rhizopoda, &c. — taken at 
a depth of 1,400 fathoms during O. Torell's Spitz- 

^ Eeport of the Fourteenth Meeting of the British Association, held 
at York in September 1844. (Transactions of the Sections, p. 50.) 

2 Forh. ved de Skand. l^aturforskeres Mode i Stockholm, 18G3, 
p 384. 



270 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vr. 

bergen expedition in the * Maclean nets,' and in 
the same year O. Torell alludes to one of the crus- 
taceans from that depth being of a bright colour/ 

In 184^6 Captain Spratt, R.N., dredged at a depth' 
of 310 fathoms forty miles east of Malta a number 
of mollusca which have been subsequently examined 
by Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys and found to be identical with 
species dredged at considerable depths in the north- 
ern seas during the 'Porcupine' expedition. The 
list includes Leda pellucida, Philippi ; Leda acu- 
minata, Jefpreys ; Dentalium agile, Sars ; Sela 
tenella, Jepfreys ; Eulima stenostoma, Jeppreys ; 
Trophon barvicensis, Johnston ; JPleurotoma cari- 
natum, Bivona; and I^hiline quadrata, S. V. Wood. 
Captain Spratt observes that he *' believed animal 
life to exist much lower, although the general 
character of the -^gean is to limit it to 300j 
fathoms." ^ 

In 1850 Michael Sars, in an account of a zoolo-1 
gical excursion in Einland and Loffoten, expressed 
his conviction that there is a full development of | 
animal life at considerable depths off the Norwegian 
coast. He enumerated nineteen species taken by 
himself at depths beyond 300 fathoms, and pointed 
out that two of these were the largest species 
known of their respective genera.^ 

^ Nachrichten der Kdnigl. GeRellsch. der Wissensch. zu Gottingen. 
Marz 1846. 

2 On the Influence of Temperature upon the Distribution of the 
Fauna in the ^gean Sea. Eeport of the Eighteenth Meeting of the 
British Association, 1848. 

3 Beretning om en i Sommeren, 1849, foretagen zoologisk Eeise i 
Lofoten og Finmarken. Christiania, 1850. 



CHAP. VI.] DEEP-SEA DREDGINO. 271 

I have referred likewise (p. 26) to Professor 
Fleeming Jenkin's notes on the living animals 
attached to the Mediterranean cahle at a depth of 
1,200 fathoms, and to the results of Dr. Wallich's 
special investigations on hoard H.M.S. ' Bull-dog.' 

In a general review of the progress of knowledge as 
to the conditions of life at great depths, these investi- 
gations deserve special notice, as, even if they must 
still he regarded as somewhat unsatisfactory, they 
distinctly mark a stage in advance. Although, from 
the imperfection of the means at his disposal, Dr. 
Wallich could not hring home evidence sufficient 
absolutely to satisfy others, he was convinced in his 
own mind from what he saw, that living beings high 
in the scale of organization might exist at any depth 
in the ocean; he expounded clearly and forcibly 
the train of reasoning which led him to this belief, 
and subsequent events have amply justified his con- 
clusion. The space at my disposal will not allow 
me to quote and discuss Dr. Wallich's arguments, in 
some of which I thoroughly concur, while from 
others I am compelled to dissent. The facts w^ere 
most important, and their significance increases now 
that they are fully confirmed and illustrated by ope- 
rations on a large scale. In lat. 59° 27^ N., long. 
26° 4r W., a depth of 1,260 fathoms having been 
previously ascertained, " a new kind of deep-sea dredge 
was lowered ; but in consequence of its partial failure, 
a second apparatus (namely, the conical cup) was em- 
ployed, fifty fathoms of line in excess of the recorded 
depth being paid out in order to ensure the unchecked 
descent and impact of the instrument at the bottom. 
The dredge had already brought up a small quantity 



272 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VI. 



of unusually fine globigerina deposit and some small 
stones. The second instrument came up quite full of 
the deposit ; but it was neither so free from amorphous 
matter, nor did it contain any of the small stones. 
Adhering, however, to the last fifty fathoms of line, 
which had rested on the ground for several moments, 
were thirteen ophiocomse, varying in diameter across 
the arms from two to five inches." The misfortune] 
of these star-fishes was that they did not go into the] 
dredge ; had they done so, they would at once have 
achieved immortality. Noio, of course, we have no 
doubt that they came from the bottom, but their j 
irregular mode of appearance left, in the condition 
of knowledge and prejudice at the time, a loophole 
for scepticism. 

In three soundings, including that in which the 
star-fishes were obtained, at 1,260, 1,913, and 1,268 
fathoms respectively, '' minute cylindrical tubes oc- 
curred, varying from one-eighth to half an inch ini 
length, and from one-fiftieth to one-twentieth of ani 
inch in diameter. These were built up almost ex-i 
clusively of very small globigerina shells, and still 
more minute calcareous debris cemented together."] 
. . . . "The shells forming the outer layer of the I 
tubes were colourless, and freed of all sarcodic^ 
matter; but the internal surface of the tubular] 
cylinder was lined with a delicate yet distinct layer] 
of reddish chitine." Er. Wallich is satisfied that] 
these tubes contained some species of annelid. " In] 
a sounding taken in lat. 63° SV N., long. 13° 45' W.,! 
in 682 fathoms, a portion of a serpula-tuhQ five- 
twelfths of an inch in length, and about three- 
sixteenths of an inch in diameter, belonging to a 



CHAP. VI.] DEEP-SEA D HEDGING. 273 

known species, came up in such a condition as to 
leave no room for doubt that it had been broken 
off the rock or stone to which it was adherent by 
the sounding-machine, and that tlie animal was 
living ; whilst a smaller Serpula and a cluster of 
apparently living polyzoa were adherent to its ex- 
ternal surface. A minute Spirorhis also occurred in 
this sounding. Lastly, from a depth of 145 fathoms, 
within a short distance of the south coast of Iceland, 
a couple of living amphipod crustaceans were ob- 
tained, and a filamentous annelid about three-quarters 
of an inch in lengtli." Basing his opinion principally 
upon these facts. Dr. Wallich, in conclusion, submits 
several propositions, the two most important of which 
may be said to anticipate the more remarkable results 
of our subsequent work. As the others are merely 
founded upon what I conceive to be a mistaken 
determination of the animal species captured, I need 
not now quote them.^ 

"1. The conditions prevailing at great depths, 
although differing materially from those w^hicli pre- 
vail at the surface of the ocean, are not incompatible 

with the maintenance of animal life. 

* * * * * » * * 

"5. The discovery of even a single species, living- 
normally at great depths, warrants the inference that 
the deep sea has its own special fauna, and that it has 
always had it in ages past ; and hence that many 
fossiliferous strata heretofore regarded as having been 

^ And see Professor Sars' " Bemoerkningen over (let dyriske Livs 
Udbredning i llavets Dybder, med soerligt Hensyn til et af. Dr. 
Wallich i London niylig udkommet Skrift, * The ^^orth Atlantic Sea- 
bed.' " (Vid.-Selsk. Forhandlinger for 1864.) 

T 



274 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vi. 

deposited in comparatively shallow water, have been 
deposited at great depths."^ 

In 1864, Professor Sars made a great addition to 
his list of species from depths of from 200 to 300 
fathoms off the coast of Norway. He remarks : — 
" The species of animals named are not certainly very 
numerous (92), yet when we consider that most of 
them were taken accidentally, attached to the lines 
of the fishermen, and that only in a few instances the 
dredge was used at these great depths, it will be seen 
that there is a very interesting field here for the 
Naturalist furnished with the proper instruments." 

In 1868 Professor Sars made a still further addi- 
tion to the deep-sea fauna of the Norwegian Seas ; 
an addition so important, that he remarks 'Hhat it 
is so great as to give a tolerably complete idea of 
the general fauna of these coasts." This increase of 
knowledge. Professor Sars states, is almost entirely 
due to the indefatigable labours of his son, G. O. 
Sars, an Inspector of Eisheries under the Swedish 
Government, who took advantage of the opportuni- 
ties given by his occupation to dredge down to 450 
fathoms on some parts of the coast, and among the 
Loffoten Islands. Sars likewise acknowledges many 
contributions from his old fellow-labourers, Danielssen 
and Keren. The number of species from depths be- 
tween 250 and 450 fathoms on the coast of Norway 
now reaches 427, thus distributed : — 

Species. 

^ , f Rhizopoda Qd^ 

Protozoa ^ r) •/? 

( roritera 5 

— 73 
1 ^N'orth Atlantic Sea bed, p. 154. 



CHAP. VI.] 



DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 



275 



Coelenterata . . 



Echinodermata . 



/ Hydrozoa 
I Anthozoa 



Species. 

2 
20 



'Crinoidea 

J Asteridea, including Opliiuridea 

j Echinoidea 

^ Holotliuridea 



Vermes 



r Gephyrea 
I Annelida 



Mollusca 



Arthropod a . . . 



Polyzoa . . 

Tunicata . 
- Brachiopoda 

Conchifera . 
[ Cephalophora 



( Arachnida 
1 Crustacea 



2 

21 

5 

8 

6 
51 

35 

4 

4 

37 

53 

1 

105 



22 



36 



57 



133 



106 



Of these 24 protozoa, 3 echinoderms, and 13 mol- 
lusca are from a depth of 450 fathoms. Professor 
Sars adds : " We may say, according to our present 
information, that the true deep-water belt commences 
at about 100 fathoms. The greater number of deep- 
sea species begin to appear then, though sparingly, 
and they increase in number of individuals as we 
descend to 300 fathoms, or in some cases to 450, 
j^wheji investigations have been carried so far. To 
what depth this belt extends, or whether there is 
another below it of a difPerent character, is not yet 
known." ^ 

In the year 1864, M. Barboza du Bocage, Director 

^ Fortsatte Bemaerkninger over det dyriske Livs Udbredning i 
Havets Dybder, af M. Sars. (Vidensk.-Selsk. Forhandlinger for 

18G8.) 

t2 



276 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vi. 

of the Natural History Museum of Lisbon, greatly 
surprised the zoological world by a notice of the 
occurrence on the coast of Portugal of whisps of 
silicious spicules resembling those of the ITya- 
lo7iema of Japan. ^ They were brought up by the 
Setubal shark-fishers, who, it seemed — an equally sin- 
gular circumstance— plied their vocation at a depth 
of 500 fathoms. Professor Percival Wright, anxious 
to ascertain the full history of the case and to 
get Ilyalonema in a fresh state, went to Lisbon 
in the autumn of 1868, and with the assistance of 
Professor du Bocage and some of his friends procured 
at Setubal an open boat and a crew of eight men, 
with " 600 fathoms of rope, the dredge, lots of hooks 
and bait, and provisions for a couple of days. Leav- 
ing the port of Setubal a little before five o'clock in 
the evening, we, after a fair night's sailing, reached 
what the fishermen signed to me to be the edge of 
the deep-sea valley, where they were in the habit 
of fishing for sharks, and there, while thus engaged, 
they had found the Ilyalonema. It was now about 
five o'clock in the morning ; and the men, having had 
their breakfast, put the boat up to the wind, and let 
down the dredge ; before it reached the bottom, about 
480 fathoms of rope were run out, some thirty more 
were allowed for slack, and then we gently drew it — 
by hoisting a small foresail— for the distance of about 
mile along the bottom. It required the united 
efforts of six men, hauling the line hand over hand, 
with the assistance of a double pulley-block, to pull 
in the dredge : the time thus occupied was just an 

^ Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 
1S64, p. 2C)5. 



CHAP. VI.] ' DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 277 

hour. The dredge was nearly full of a tenacious 
yellowish mud, through which sparkled innumerable 
long spicules of the Hyalonema ; indeed, if you drew 
your fingers slowly through the mud, you would 
thereby gather a handful of these spicules. One 
specimen of Hyalonema^ with the long spicules in- 
serted into the mud and crowned with its expanded 
sponge-like portions, rewarded my first attempt at 
dredging at such a depth. '^ ^ This dredging is of 
especial interest, for it shows that although difficult 
and laborious, and attended with a certain amount of 
risk, it is not impossible in an open boat and with a 
crew of alien fishermen, to test the nature of the 
bottom and the character of the fauna, even to tho 
great depth of 500 fathoms. 

In the year 1868, Count L. P. de Pourtales, one 
of the officers employed in the United States Coast 
Survey under Professor Pierce, commenced a series of 
deep dredgings across the gulf-stream off the coast of 
Florida ; which were continued in the following year, 
and were productive of most valuable results. Many 
important memoirs at the hands of Count Pourtales, 
Mr. Alexander Agassiz, Mr. Theodore Lyman and 
others, have since enriched the pages of the Bulletin of 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and have greatly 
extended our knowledge of the deep-sea gulf-stream 
fauna ; and much information has been gained as to 
the nature of the bottom in those regions, and the 
changes which are there taking place. Unfortunately 
a large part of the collections were in Chicago in the 

^ Notes on Beep-sea Dredging, by Edward Percival W^right, M.D., 
F.L.S., from the Annals and Magazine of Natural History for 
December 1868. 



278 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEJ. [chap. vi. 

hands of Dr. Stimpson for description at the time 
of the terrible catastrophe which laid a great part 
of that citv in ashes, and were destroyed ; hut, hj 
a sinsnlarlv fortunate accident, our colleasrue Mr. 
Gwrn JeflPreys happened to he in Chicago shortly 
before the fire, and Dr. Stimpson gave him a series 
of duplicates of the moUusca for comparison with 
the species dredged in the ' Porcupine,' and a valu- 
able remnant was thus saved. M. de Pourtales, 
writing to one of the editors of SLlliman's Journal 
on the 20th of September, 18G8, savs : '' The dredg- 
ings were made outside the Florida reef, at the 
same time as the deep-sea soundings, in lines ex- 
tending from the reef to a depth of about 400 to 
500 fathoms, so as to develop the figure of the 
bottom, its formation and fauna. Six such liaes 
were sounded out and dredged over in the space 
comprised between Sandy Bay and CoflSji's Patches. 
All of them agree nearly in the following particu- 
lars : from the reef to about the 100-fathom line, 
four or five mUes off, the bottom consists chiefly 
of broken shells and very few corals, and is rather 
barren of life. A second region extends from the 
neighbourhood of the 100-fathom line to about 300 
fathoms; the slope is very gradual, particularly 
between 100 and 200 fathoms ; the bottom is rocky, 
and is inhabited by quite a rich fauna. The breadth 
of this band varies from ten to twenty miles. The 
third region begins between 250 and 300 fathoms, 
and is the great bed of foraminifera so widely ex- 
tended over the bottom of the ocean 

"From the third region the dredges brought up 
fewer though not less interesting specimens, the 



CHAP. VI.] DEEP -SEA DREDGING. 279 

chief of which was a new crinoid belonging to the 
genus Bourguettlcrinus of D'Orbigny ; it may even 
be the species named by him _S. hotessieri, which 
occurs fossil in a recent formation in Guadaloupe, 
but of which only small pieces of the stem are 
known. I obtained half-a-dozen specimens between 
230 and 300 fathoms, unfortunately more or less 
injured by the dredge. The deepest cast made was 
in 517 fathoms ; it gave a very handsome Mopsea 
and some annelids." ^ 

The results of the ' Lightning ' cruise in 1868, in 
which dredging was successfully carried dowTi to 
650 fathoms, have already been recorded. 

In the summer of 187o/Mr. Marshall Hall, F.G.S., 
with an interest in science which is unfortunately 
rare among yachtsmen, devoted his yacht ' Xorna ' 
to deep-sea dredging work during a cruise along 
the coasts of Portugal and Spain. If we may judge 
by several preliminary sketches which have from 
time to time appeared at the hands of Mr. Saville 
Kent, the collections made during this expedition 
must have been extensive and valuable. ^ 

The last researches in order of time are those eon- 
ducted on board H.M.S. 'Porcupine' in 1869 and 

1870. With the use of a Government surveying 
ship well found in all necessary appliances every- 
thing was in our favour, and, as has been already 
told, dredging was carried down to 2,435 fathoms ; 

^ American Journal of Science, vol. xcvi. p. 413. 

^ Zoological Eesults of the 1870 Dredging Expedition of the Yacht 
*Xorna* oJGf the coasts of Spain and Portugal, communicated to the 
Biological Section of the British Association, Edinburgh, August «, 

1871. Xature, vol. iv. p. 456. 



280 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. V 



and the fact that there is an abundant and charac- 
teristic invertebrate fauna at all depths Avas placed 
beyond further question. As yet, little more can be 
said. A grand new field of inquiry has been opened 
up, but its culture is terribly laborious. Every haul 
of the dredge brings to light new and unfamiliar 
forms — forms which link themselves strauE^elv with 
the inhabitants of past periods in the earth's history ; 
but as yet we have not the data for generalizing the 
deep-sea fauna, and speculating on its geological 
and biological relations ; for notwithstanding all our 
strength and will, the area of the bottom of the 
deep sea which has been fairly dredged may still 
be reckoned by the square yard. 




FUOLO "from THF, EASTERN SHOUF, OK VIDKRO." 



C?TAP. VI.] 



DEEP-SEA DREDGING. 



281 



APPENDIX A. 

One of the Dredging Papers issued hg the British Assoeiatlon 
Committee, filled up hj Mr. MacAndrein. 

DREDGING PAPER No. 5. 

Da^e.— 7th of June, 1849. 

LocaUty.—Off Malta. 

Depth. — 40 fathoms. 

Distance from Shore.—l to 2 miles. 

Ground.— ^ojid and stones, 

liegio7i.-~~ 



Srecies obtained. 



Dentalium dentalis .... 
„ rubescens, or fissura 

„ tarentinum, var. (?) 



Caecum trachea .... 
Ditrupa coarctata, or stranorti- 
lata ] . 



Corbula nucleus 

Nerora cuspidata 

„ cost u lata 

Pandora obtusa 

Psammobia ferroensis . . . 
Tellina distorta 

„ balaustina 

„ serrata 

„ depressa 

Syndosmya tenuis? (prismatica?) 
Venus ovata 



No. of living 
specimens. 


No. of dead 
sijecimene. 


Observations. 


Numerous. 


1 


( Striated with an 




.1 


< undulated ap- 


.. 


.2 


( pearance. 


Several. 








'2 


j With a notched 


Several. 


1 apex. 




1 and valves. 




1 


2 and valves. 


1 


2 


Valves. 


i 


:j 


1 and valves. 




1 and valves. 


1 
1 




1 valve. 




• 


Valves. 




1 


Valves. 





282 



THE DEPTHS CF THE SEA. 



[chap. VI. 



Species obtained. 



Astarte incrassata? . 

Cardium papillosum . 
„ minimum . 
,. Itevigatum , 
Cardita squamosa . . 
Lncina spinifera . . 
Diplodonta rotundata 
Modiola barbata . . 
Nucula micleus . , 
Leda emarginata . . 

„ striata . . . 
Area tetragona . 

„ antiquata . . 
Pectunculus glycimeris 
Lima subauriculata . 
Pecteii jacobeeus . , 

„ gibbus . . . 

„ polymorphus . 

,, testae. . . . 

„ similis . . . 

„ sulcatus . . 
Anomia patelliformis 
Pileopsis huugaricus . 
Bulla lignaria . . . 

„ cranchii . . . 

„ hydatis . . . 

„ striatula . . . 
Rissoa bruguieri . . 

„ carinata (costata^ 



acuta, var. . 
desmarestii 



Natica macilenta . . 

Euliraa polita . . . 
,, distorta . . 

Chemnitzia varicosa . 
„ elegantissima 

„ indistincta (?) 



Eulimella acicula . . 
Trochus tenuis, or dubius 

„ magus. . . 

„ montaorui 



No. of livinj 
specimens. 



No. of dead 
specimens. 



Observations. 



Several. 
3 
4 

8 



i Sulcated to the 
< margin, some of 
( them radiated. 



Valve. 



1 valve. 



1 valve. 
1 and valves. 
Valves. 
Valves. 
Valves. 
Valves. 

Viilves. 
1 and valves. 

1 

1 
2 
4 
1 
3 



Several. 



Longer, destitute 
of ribs, one 
very large. 

\ Like cimex, but 
\ minute. 



Imperfect. 



■HAP. VI.] 



DEEP-SEA DREDGING . 



283 



Species obtained. 



Trochus montagui 

Turritella terebra . . 
„ tricostalis . 
Cerithum vulgatuin, var 
reticulatum 



Fusus muricatus 



Pleurotoma nanum . 
„ secalinum 

Murex tetrapterus . 
Chenopus pes-pelecani 
Buccinum 1 . . . . 
Mitraebenea . . . 



Ringicula auriculata . 
Marginella secalina . 

„ clandestina 

Cyprsea pulex . . . 
Cidaris histrix . . . 
Zoophytes .... 
Algae ...... 



No. of living 
specimens. 



Few. 
1 



3 

Several. 



No. of dead 
specimens. 



Several. 
Several. 



Several. 
2 



2 

4 

Several. 

2 



Observations. 



Small. 



White. 



This species at 
Gibraltar. 



( Bright orange 
< colour, banded, 
( small, striated 



CHAPTER YLL 

DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 

Ocean Currents and their general Effects on Climate.— Determination 
of Surface Temperatures.- -Deep-sea Thermometers.— The ordinary 
Self-registering Thermometer on Six's principle. — The Miller- 
Casella modification. — The Temperature Observations taken during 
the Three Cruises of H.M.S. ' Porcupine ' in the year 1869, 

Appendix A. — Surface Temperatures observed on' board H.M.S. 
'Porcupine' during the Summers of 1869 and 1870. 

Appendix B.— Temperature of the Sea at different Depths near the 
Eastern Margin of the North Atlantic Basin, as ascertained by 
Serial and by Bottom Soundings. 

Appendix C. — Comparative Rates of Reduction of Temperature with 
Increase of Depth at Three Stations in different Latitudes, all of 
them on the Eastern Margin of the Atlantic Basin. 

Appendix D. — Temperature of the Sea at different Depths in the 
Warm and Cold Areas lying between the North of Scotland, 
the Shetland Islands, and the Faeroe Islands ; as ascertained by 
Serial and Bottom Soundings. 

Appendix E. — Intermediate Bottom Temperatures showing the Inter- 
mixture of Warm and Cold Currents on the Borders of the 
Warm and Cold Areas. 

1^ the surface of this world of ours were one 
uniform shell of dry land, other circumstances of 
its central heat, its relation in position to the sun, 
and to its investing atmospheric envelope, remaining 
the same, some zones would present certain pecu- 



CHAP. VII.] DEEP-SEA TE.h'PEJtJTUnES. 285 

liarities in temperature, owing to the mixture of 
hot and cold currents of air; hut in the main, iso- 
thermal lines, that is to say, lines drawn tiirough 
places having the same mean temperature, would 
coincide with parallels of latitude. A glance at any 
isothermal chart, whether for the whole year, for 
summer, for winter, or for a single month, will show 
that this is far from heing the case. The lines of 
equal temperature deviate everywhere, and often 
most widely, from their noi^mal parallelism with the 
parallels of latitude and with each other. A glance 
at the same chart will also show, that wiiile there 
is an attempt, as it were, on the part of the iso- 
thermal lines to maintain their normal direction 
through the centre of great continents, the most 
marked curves, indicating the widest extensions of 
uniform conditions of temperature, are where there 
is a wide stretch of open sea extending through 
many degrees of latitude, and consequently includ- 
ing very different climatal conditions. 

The lands bordering upon the ocean partake in 
this general diffusion of heat and amelioration of 
climate, and hence we have the difference between 
continental and insular climates — the former giving 
extremes of summer heat and winter cold, and the 
latter a much more uniform temperature, somewhat 
below the normal temperature within the tropics, 
and usually greatly above it beyond their limits. 

The islands of Ireland and Great Britain and the 
west coast of the Scandinavian peninsula are in- 
volved in the most extreme system of abnormal 
curves which we have in any of the ocean basins ; 
and to this peculiarity in the distribution of tern- 



286 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. 

perature in the North Atlantic we are indebted for 
the singular mildness of our winter climate. The 
chart PL YII., the general result reduced from many- 
hundreds of thousands of individual observations, 
gives the distribution of the lines of equal mean 
temperature for the surface of the North Atlantic 
for the month of July ; and it will be seen that 
the isotherms, instead of passing directly across the 
ocean, form a series of loops widening and flatten- 
ing northwards, all participating in certain secondary 
deflections which give them a scalloped appearance, 
but all of them primarily referred to some common 
cause of the distribution of heat, having its origin 
somewhere in the region of the Straits of Elorida. 

These peculiarities in the distribution of tempera- 
ture on the surface of, the sea may usually be very 
immediately traced to the movement of bodies of 
water to and from regions where the water is exposed 
to different climatal conditions; — to warm or cold 
ocean currents, which make themselves manifest like- 
wise by their transporting power, their effect in 
speeding or retarding vessels, or diverting them from 
their courses. Prequently, however, the current, 
although possibly involving the movement of a vast 
mass of water, and exerting a powerful influence 
upon climate, is so slow as to be imperceptible ; its 
steady onward progress being continually masked 
by local or variable currents, or by the drift of the 
prevailing winds. 

The Gulf-stream, the vast 'warm river' of the 
North Atlantic, which produces the most remark- 
able and valuable deviations of the isothermal lines 
Avhich we meet with in any part of the world, is in 



CHAP. VII.] DEEF-SEA TEMFERATURES. 287 

this way imperceptible by any direct effect upon 
navigation beyond the 45th parallel of north latitude, 
a peculiarity which has produced and still produces 
great misconceptions as to its real character. 

The mode of determining the surface temperature 
of the ocean is sufficiently simple. A bucket is 
let down from the deck of the vessel, dashed about 
for a little in the water to equalize the temperature, 
and filled from a depth of a foot or so below the sur- 
face. The temperature of the water in the bucket is 
then taken by an ordinary thermometer, whose error 
is known. A common thermometer of the Kew 
Observatory pattern graduated to Pahrenheit degrees 
can be read with a little practice to a quarter of a 
degree, and a good- sized centigrade thermometer to 
a tenth. Observations of .surface- temperature are 
usually made every two hours, the temperature of 
the air being taken with each observation, and the 
latitude and longitude noted at noon, or more fre- 
quently by dead reckoning if required. 

Every observation of the surface-temperature of 
the sea taken accurately and accompanied by an 
equally exact note of the date, the geographical 
position, and the temperature of the air, is of value. 
The surface observations taken from H.M.S. ' Por- 
cupine' during her dredging cruise, in the summer 
of 1869, are given in Appendix A. 

The surface-temperature of the North Atlantic has 
been the subject of almost an infinite number of such 
observations, more or less accurate. Dr. Petermann, 
in a valuable paper on the northern extension of 
the Gulf-stream, reduces the means of more than a 
hundred thousand of these, and deduces the scheme 



288 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. 

of curves which has been used with some slight 
modification in the construction of this chart. 

Until very recently little or nothing has been 
known with any certainty about the temperature of 
the sea at depths below the surface. This is, however, 
a field of inquiry of very great importance in Physical 
Geography, as an accurate determination of the tem- 
perature at different depths is certainly the best, 
frequently the only available means of determining 
the depth, width, direction, and generally the path of 
the warm ocean currents, which are the chief agents 
in the diffusion of equatorial heat ; and more espe- 
cially of those deeper indraughts of frigid water 
which return to supply their place and to com- 
plete the general cycle of oceanic circulation. The 
main cause of this want of accurate knowledge of 
deep-sea temperatures is undoubtedly the defective- 
ness of the instruments which have been hitherto 
employed. 

The thermometer which has been almost universally 
used for this purpose is the ordinary self-registering 
thermometer on Six's construction, enclosed in a 
strong copper cise, with valves or apertures below 
and above to allow a free current of water to pass 
through the case and over the surface of the 
instrument. Six's registering thermometer (Pig. 53) 
consists of a glass tube bent in tlie form of a Y, 
one limb terminating in a large cylindrical bulb, 
entirely filled with a mixtura of creosote and water. 
The bend of the tube contains a column of mercury, 
and the other limb ends in a small bulb partially 
filled with creosote and water, but Avitli a large 
space empty, or rather containing the vapour of the 



CHAP. VII.] DEEP-SEA . TEMPERATURES. 289 

liquid and slightly compressed air. A small steel 
index, with a hair tied round it to act as a spring 
and maintain the index in any position which it 
may assume, lies free in the tuhe among the creo- 
sote at either end of the column of mercury. This 
thermometer gives its indications solely by the con- 
traction and expansion of the liquid in the large full 
bulb, and is consequently liable to some slight error 
from the effect of variations of temperature upon 
the liquids in other parts of the tube. When the 
liquid in the large bulb expands, the column of mer- 
cury is driven upwards towards the half-empty bulb, 
and the limb of the tube in which it rises is graduated 
from below upwards for increasing heat. When the 
liquid contracts in the bulb, the column of mercury 
falls in this limb, but rises in the limb terminating in 
the full bulb, which is graduated from above down- 
wards. W^hen the thermometer is going to be used the 
steel indices are drawn down in each limb of the tube 
by a strong magnet, till they rest on each side on 
the surface of the mercury. When the thermometer 
is brought up, the height at which the lower end of 
the index stands in each tube indicates the limit to 
which the index has been driven by the mercury, 
the extreme of heat or cold to which the instrument 
has been exposed. 

Unfortunately, the accuracy of the ordinary Six's 
thermometer cannot be depended upon beyond a 
very limited depth, for the glass of the bulb which 
contains the expanding fluid yields to the pressure 
of the water, and, compressing the contained fluid, 
gives an indication higher than is due to tem- 
perature alone. This cause of error is not con- 

u 



290 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. 

stant ill its action, as the amount to which the 
bulb is compressed depends upon its form and upon 
the thickness and quality of the glass ; thus the 
error of good thermometers of the Hydrographic 
Office pattern varies from 7° C. to 10°-5 C. at a pres- 
sure of 6*817 lbs. on the square inch, representing 
a depth of 2,500 fathoms. In thoroughly well- 
constructed thermometers, however, such as those 
made by Casella and Pastorelli for the English 
Admiralty, the pressure error is tolerably constant ; 
and Captain Davis, R.N., who has lately conducted 
important experiments on this point, expresses his 
opinion that by an extended series of observations 
a scale might be obtained to correct the ther- 
mometers hitherto in use to a close approximation 
to the truth, and thus utilize to some extent obser- 
vations which have been already made with our 
ordinary instruments. 

In the 'Lightning' expedition in 1868 we used 
the ordinary Hydrographic Office pattern, and a 
large number by different makers were sent with 
us for testing and comparison. The depths not 
being very great, the general temperature results 
came out well, and were among the most singular 
phenomena which we had to record. Many of the in- 
struments were very wild at a few hundred fathoms, 
and several gave way under the pressure. On our 
return in April 1869, Dr. W. A. Miller, V.P.U.S., 
attended a meeting of the Deep-Sea Committee of 
the lloyal Society at the Hydrographic Office, 
and proposed encasing the full bulb in an outer 
covering of glass containing air, in order to permit 
the air to be compressed by the pressure of the 



CHAP. VII.] 



DEEP-SEJ TEMPERATURES. 



291 



§60- 



water on the outer shell, and thus protecting the 
bulb within. 

Mr. Casella was directed to construct some ther- 
mometers on this plan, only instead of 
being filled with air, the outer shell 
was nearly filled with alcohol warmed 
to expel a portion of the remaining 
air, and the chamber Avas then her- 
metically sealed, leaving a bell of air 
and vapour of alcohol to yield to the 
pressure and relieve the bulb within. 
The ' Miller - Casella ' thermometer 
proved so nearly perfection that it was 
decided to adopt it in future, and to 
use it as a standard in a series of 
experiments which were undertaken 
to test the ordinary Six's thermo- 
meters of the Hydrographic Office 
pattern. We depended upon this 
thermometer alone in our subsequent 
cruises in the ' Porcupine,' and we 
found it most satisfactory. During the 
summer of 1869 temperature observa- 
tions were taken at upwards of ninety 
stations, at depths varying from 10 to 
2,435 fathoms. Two thermometers, 
numbered 100 and 103 respectively, 
were sent down at everv station, and 
in no instance did they give the least 
reason to doubt their accuracy. Every 
observation was taken by Captain Calver himself, 
the lead with the thermometers attached being in 
every single instance let down by his own hand, 

u 2 



Fig. 53.— The Miller- 
Casella iiioditicatioii 
of Six's self-regi.s- 
tering therinomcter. 
The large bulb is 
double, with a layer 
of liquid and a bell 
of vaiiour between 
the shells, to relieve 
pressure. 



292 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VII. 



I 



and I have always regarded it as a remarkable 
evidence of my friend's care and skill that he 
landed those two precious instruments at the end 
of the year safe back at Woolwich. 

Fig\ 53 represents the latest im- 
provements on the Miller- Casella 
modification of Six's self-registering 
thermometer. The instrument is of 
small size, to reduce as far as pos- 
sible the friction in passing through 
the water. The tube is mounted in 
ebonite, to avoid the expansion of a 
wooden mounting in the water, by 
which the instrument is liable to 
get jammed in the case. The scale 
is of white porcelain, graduated to 
Fahrenheit degrees; the large bulb 
is enclosed in an outer shell three- 
fourths filled with alcohol and her- 
metically sealed. It is right to 
mention that I am informed by 
Sir Edward Sabine that the ther- 

FiG. 5 1. — Copper case for , i i o • t i t» 

protecting the Miller- momctcrs uscd bv Sir John Koss 

Casella thermometer. The ...... 

ends of the case above and m hlS ArctlC VOVafiTe lU 1818 WCrC 
below are perforated to e/ o 

topass^Sy through'"'' pfotcctcd somcwhat on the same 
principle, and that a thermometer 
for resisting pressure was constructed under the 
directions of the late Admiral Fitzroy, at the 
suggestion of Mr. Glaisher, which diff'ered from 
tlie Miller-Casella pattern in little else than the 
outer shell being partially filled with mercury 
instead of alcohol, and in being somewhat less 
compact and more fragile than the latter instru- 




CHAP. VII.] DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 293 

ment/ A modification of Phillip*s maximum ther- 
mometer devised by Sir William Thomson, in which 
the thermometer is entirely encased in an outer 
shell of glass partly filled with alcohol, appears to 
have the smallest error of all. 

A neat modification of Breguet's metallic ther- 
mometer was designed by Joseph Saxton, Esq., of 
the U.S. Office of Weights and Measures, for the 
use of the U.S. Coast Survey. A riband of 
platinum and one of silver are soldered with silver 
solder to an intermediate plate of gold, and the 
compound riband is coiled round a central axis of 
brass, with the silver within. Silver is the most 
expansible of the metals under the influence of 
heat, and platinum nearly the least. Gold holds an 
intermediate place, and its intervention between the 
platinum and silver moderates the strain, and pre- 
vents the coil from cracking. The lower end of 
the coil is fixed to the brazen axis, while the upper 

1 In Messrs. Negretti and Zambia's list of meteorological instruments 
published in 1864, a deep-sea thermometer on this j)lan is mentioned 
(p. 90) : " The thermometers constructed for this purpose do not differ 
materially from those usually made under the denomination of Six's 
thermometers, except in the following most important particulars : — 
The usual Six's thermometers have a central reservoir or cylinder 
containing alcohol ; this reservoir, which is the only portion of the 
instrument likely to be affected by pressure, has been, in Negretti and 
Zambra's new instrument, superseded by a strong outer cylinder of 
glass, containing mercury and rarefied air. By this means the portion 
of the instrument susceptible of compression has been so strengthened, 
that no amount of pressure can possibly make the instrument vary." 
Some obscurity is introduced into this passage by the use of the word 
'superseded;' but I am assured by Messrs. Xegretti and Zambra that 
in principle this instrument was exactly the same as that devised by 
Professor Miller and constructed by Mr. Casella. 



294 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEJ. [chap. vii. 

end is attached to the base of a short cylinder. 
Any variation of temperature causes the coil to 
wind or unwind, and its motion acts to rotate the 
axial stem. This motion is magnified by multiply- 
ing wheels, and is registered upon the dial of the 
instrument by an index which pushes before it a 
registering hand, moving with sutficient friction 
merely to retain its place when thrust forward by 
the index hand of the thermometer. The instru- 
ment is graduated by trial. The brass and silver 
2)ortions are thickly gilt by the electrotype process 
to prevent the action of sea-water upon them. The 
box which covers the coil and indicatory part of the 
thermometer is merely to protect it from accidental 
injury, and is open so as to permit the free passage 
of the sea- water. This instrument appears to answer 
tolerably well for moderate depths, its error up to 
600 fathoms not greatly exceeding 0°'5 C. ; at 1,500 
fathoms, however, the error rises to 5°C., quite as 
great as that of the unprotected Six's thermometers, 
and the error is not so constant. It is evident 
that under great pressure little confidence can be 
placed upon instruments which give their indica- 
tions through metal machinery. 

Before H.M.S. ' Porcupine ' started on her summer 
cruise in 1869, a valuable series of experiments were 
made upon the effect of pressure on various register- 
ing thermometers at Woolwich, under the superin- 
tendence of the Hydrographer and of the Deep-Sea 
CJommittee of the Rojal Society. The object was to 
subject all the forms of deep-sea thermometers in use 
to pressures in a hydraulic press, equivalent to the 
pressures which they would encounter at different 



CHAP, VII.J 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



295 



depths in the ocean, to determine the amount and 
sources of error, to ascertain which was the most 
satisfactory instrument, and if possible to construct 
a scale by which the observations hitherto taken 
with ordinary instruments might be roughly cor- 
rected, so as to be made available. As there was 
some difficulty in getting the use of a suitable press, 
Mr. Casella undertook to have a testing apparatus 
constructed at his own place in Hatton Garden, 
capable of producing a pressure of three tons on 
the square inch. 

The results were very interesting.^ The first expe- 
riment went to test the value of the various instru- 
ments. A Miller- Casella thermometer was placed in 
the cylinder with No. 57, a good thermometer by 
Casella, of the ordinary Hydrographic Office pattern, 
and they were subjected together to a pressure of 
4,032 lbs., equal to 1,480 fathoms, with the following 
result : — 



Thennometer. 


Minimum. 


Maximum. 


Difference of 
Maximum. 


Before. 


After. 


Before. 


After. 


2 
57 


8- 6 C. 
8- 6 


8^- 6 C. 
8-6 


8°- 6 C. 
8- 6 


8°'85C. 0°-25C. 

12-75 4-15 

1 



That is to say, the temperature remaining the same, 
the pressure forced up No. 57 to 12°-75 C, and left its 
index there. 

1 On Deep Sea Thermometers, by Captain J. E. Davis, R.N. Nature^ 
vol. iii. p. 124. Abridged from a Paper read before the Meteorolo- 
gical Society, April 19th, 1871. 



296 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VII. 



This experiment at once proved the advantage of 
the encased bulb. It was repeated with other ther- 
mometers with the same pressure and for the same 
period of time, and it was found that while the mean 
difference of the encased bulbs was only 0°-955 that of 
the ordinary deep-sea thermometers was, as in No. 57, 
7°*25. It foUow^s, also, from these experiments, that 
very nearly all the difference or error is due to pres- 
sure on the full bulb, and that by encasing that bulb 
we have a nearly perfect instrument. 

The next series of experiments was made to esta- 
blish a scale by which observations by the ordinary 
instruments might be approximately corrected for 
pressure. The following table gives the errors of 
six thermometers at diflPerent pressures. The 
' standard ' is an encased Miller-Casella, the last 
a registering minimum thermometer by Casella 
enclosed in a hermetically sealed glass tube on Sir 
William Thomson's plan. 



I 



Pressure 














in 


standard. 


No. 54. 


No. 56. 


No. 76. 


No. 73. 


Thomson. 


Fathoms. 














250 


0^- 4 C. 


0°- 8 C. 


1°- c. 


0°- 7 C. 


0°- 8 C. 


0°- G. 


500 


0-4 


1-7 


1 -5 


1 -4 


1 -7 


0-05 


750 


0-7 


2-2 


2-2 


2- 3 


2-5 


0-0 


1,000 


0-8 


2-9 


2-9 


2- 7 


2-7 


0-2 


1,250 


0-9 


3-5 


3-5 


3-5 


4- 1 


0-05 


1,500 


0-8 


4-3 


4-3 


4- 


4-3 


0-3 


1,750 


0-95 


4- 6 


4-9 


4- 7 


5- 7 


0-2 


2,000 


1 • 1 


5- 4 


5 • 5 


5-3 


6-4 


0-3 


2,250 


1 • 1 


6- 2 


6-0 


6-0 


6- 8 


0-4 


2,500 


1 -2 


7 2 


6-7 


6-5 


7-6 


0-2 



The mean diflPerence for each 250 fathoms in each 
thermometer is as follows : — 



CHAP. VII.] 



DEEP-SEA lEMPERATUBES. 



297 



Thermometer. 


Difference. 


Standard 


+ 0"^-12C. 


54 


-f 0-72 


56 


+ 0-67 


76 


+ 0-65 


73 


+ 0-76 


Thomson 


-f 0-03 



During these experiments the water in the cylin- 
der was of course maintained as far as possible at 
the same — or at a known temperature ; a certain 
amount of calorific effect must, however, be pro- 
duced hj the sudden compression of the water, and 
the next series of experiments was performed in 
order to determine the amount of that efPect. Three 
of Phillips's encased maximum thermometers (Sir 
William Thomson's design), being entirely protected 
from any eflPect from compression, were employed for 
this purpose, with the following result : — 

Pressure, 6,817 lbs. = 2,500 fathoms. 



Thennometer. 


Difference. 


11,424 

9,649 

9,645 


+ 0=- 05 C. 
+ 0-22 
+ 0-11 



So that this source of error is absolutely trifling. 

The true error of the Miller-Casella thermometer, 
as deduced from these observations, is — 

For 250 fathoms 0°'079 C. 
For 2,500 fathoms 0°-79 C. 



298 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VII. 



This, therefore, may be regarded as a perfect instru- 
ment for all ordinary purposes. 

A number of the instruments which had been 
previously tested in the press were sent out in the 
'Porcupine' on her summer cruise in 1869, and on 
her return the results of Captain Calver's observa- 
tions at different depths in the ocean were carefully 
compared with the eflPects of equivalent pressures ap- 
plied to the thermometers in Mr. Casella's ' Bramah's 
press.' The result in the ocean, contrary to that in 
the hydraulic press, proves that the elasticity is not 
regular or in a ratio to the pressure, but that after 
continuing regular up to a pressure of 1,000 fathoms, 
it decreases in a compound ratio to a pressure of 
2.000 fathoms, when its elasticity nearly ceases. 

The following table gives an abstract of the 
behaviour of Casella's ordinary Hydrographic Office 
thermometers in the ocean and in the press : — 





Error. 


Per 250TATHOMS. 




Press. 


Ocean. 


Press, 


Ocean. 


Fathoms. 








i 


250 


0°- 726 C. 


0°- 738 C. 


0°- 726 C. 


0°- 738 C. 


500 


1 • 548 


1 -564 


0- 774 


0-782 1 


750 


2- 123 


2 • 223 


0- 708 


0-741 ' 


1,000 


2- 474 


3 -015 


0-674 


0-754 


1,250 


3-255 


3-492 


• 651 


0- 698 


1,500 


4- 107 


3-921 


0- 684 


• 653 


1,750 


4 • 555 


4-056 


0-650 


0- 579 


2,000 


5-354 


4- 284 


0-669 


- 536 


2,250 


6-021 





0- 669 





2,500 

1 


6- 817 


— 


0- 682 


— 



Por taking bottom temperatures at great depths 
two or more of the Miller-Casella thermometers are 



CHAP. VII.] DEKP-SKi TEMPERATURES. 299 

lashed to the sounding-line at a little distance from 
one another, a few feet above the attaching ring of 
a ' detaching ' sounding instrument. The lead is 
run down rapidly, and, after the weight has been 
disengaged by contact with the ground, an interval 
of five or ten minutes is allowed to elapse before 
hauling in. The shorter of these periods seems to 
be quite sufficient to insure the instrument acquiring 
the true temperature. In taking serial temperature 
soundings — that is to say, in determining the tem- 
perature at certain intervals of depth in deep water 
— the thermometers are attached above an ordinary 
deep-sea lead, the required quantity of line for each 
observation of the series run out, and the ther- 
mometers and lead are hove in each time. This is 
a very tedious process ; one serial sounding in the 
Bay of Biscay, where the depth was 850 fathoms 
and the temperature was taken at every fifty 
fathoms, occupied a whole day. 

I ought to mention that in taking the bottom 
temperature with the Six's thermometer the instru- 
ment simply indicates the lowest temperature to 
which it has been subjected; so that if the bottom 
water were warmer than any other stratum through 
which the thermometer had passed, the observation 
would be erroneous. This is only to be tested by 
serial soundings, but in every locality where the 
temperature was observed during the ' Porcupine ' 
expeditions the temperature gradually sank, some- 
times very steadily, sometimes irregularly, from the 
surface to the bottom, the bottom water having been 
constantly the coldest. It is probable that under 
certain conditions in the Polar seas, where the sur- 



300 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. 

face is sometimes subjected to intense cold, warmer 
water may be found below, until the balance is 
restored by convection. This I believe, however, to 
be entirely" exceptional ; and it may certainly be 
taken as the rule for all latitudes that if we dis- 
regard the film which is affected by diurnal altera- 
tions, the temperature sinks from the surface to the 
bottom. 

The first important series of deep-water tempera- 
ture observations was made during the Arctic voyage ; 
under Sir John Eoss in the year 1818. On Sept. the 
1st, lat. 73° 37' N., long. 77° 25' W., the temperature \ 
at the surface being l°-3 C, the registering thermo- 
meter gave at eighty fathoms 0° C, and at 250 
fathoms — V'4l C. On the 6th of September, lat. 
72° 23' N., long. 73° 07' W., the first serial sounding 
on record was taken, the thermometer having been let 
down to 500, 600, 700, 800, and 1,000 fathoms in 
succession, the thermometer showing each time a 
lower temperature and indicating at the greatest 
depth named a temperature of — 3°-6 C. On the 
19th of September, in lat. m"" 50' N., long. 60° 30' 
W., another serial sounding was taken, the tempera- 
ture being registered at 100 fathoms — 0°*9 C, at 
200 -l°-7 C, at 400 -2°-2 C, and at 660 fathoms 
-3°-6 C. On the 4th of October, lat. 61° 41' N., 
long. 62° 16' W., Sir John Eoss sounded, but found 
no ground in 950 fathoms ; at the same time the 
self-registering thermometer was sent down, and the 
temperature of the sea at that depth was found to 
be 2° C, while at the surface it was 4° C, and the air* 
at 2°-7 0. I am informed by General Sir Edward 
Sabine, who accompanied Sir John Uoss's expedition. 



I 



HAP. VII.} DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 301 

that these observations were made with registering 
thermometers guarded somewhat in the same way 
as those which we employed in the ' Porcupine.' 
There is almost sufficient internal evidence that the 
mode of protecting these thermometers must have 
been satisfactory, for the temperatures at the greatest 
depths are such as might have been expected from 
Miller-Casella thermometers. Unguarded instru- 
ments would certainly have given higher indica- 
tions. 

The last of the observations quoted, a considerable 
way up Davis' Strait, is of great interest. The tem- 
perature of the surface of the sea was nearly a 
degree and a half Centigrade above that of the air, 
and the temperature of the water was altogether 
unusually high. It is now well known that at 
certain seasons of the year a very marked extension 
of the Gulf-stream passes into the mouth of the 
Strait. The isotherms for September and July are 
shown on the chart from data kindly procured for 
me by Mr. Keith Johnston. 

Sir Edward Sabine, in an extract from his pri- 
vate Journal of Sir John Ross's voyage quoted by 
Dr. Carpenter,^ gives a lower temperature than any 
hitherto recorded. He says : " Having sounded on 
September 19th, 1818, in 750 fathoms, the regis- 
tering thermometer was sent down to 680 fathoms, 
and on coming up the index of greatest cold was 
at 25°*75 Eahrenheit ( — 3°'5 C), never having known 
it lower than 28° ( — 2°-2 C.) in former instances, even 
at a depth of 1,000 fathoms; and at other times 

1 Dr. Carpenter's Preliminary Eeport on Deep- Sea Dredgings. Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. xvii. p. 186. 



302 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. 

when close to the bottom, I was very careful in 
examining the thermometer, but could discover no 
other reason for it than the actual coldness of the 
water." 

Notwithstanding these observations and several 
others telling in the same direction, — such as those 
of Lieutenant Lee of the U.S. Coast Survey, who 
in August 1847 found a temperature of 2°- 7 C. below 
the Gulf-stream, at the depth of 1,000 fathoms, 
in lat. 35° 26' N., and long. 73° 12' W. ; and of 
Lieutenant Dayman, who found the temperature 
at 1,000 fathoms, in lat. 51° N. and long. 40° W. 
to be 0°*4C., the surface temperature being 12°'5 C, 
the impression seems to have prevailed among 
physicists and physical geographers that salt water 
followed the same law as fresh water, attaining its 
greatest density at a temperature of 4° C. The 
necessary result of this condition, were it to exist, 
is thus stated by Sir John Herschel : ''In very 
deep water all over the globe a uniform temperature 
of 39° Eahrenheit (4°C.) is found to prevail; while 
above the level where that temperature is first 
reached, the ocean may be considered as divided 
into three great regions or zones — an equatorial and 
two polar. In the former of these warmer, and in 
the latter colder water is found on the surface. The 
lines of demarkation are of course the two isotherms 
of 39° mean annual temperature.'' Dr. Wallich 
gives an excellent resume of this curious fallacy. 
He says : " But whilst the temperature of the atmo- 
sphere beyond the line of perpetual congelation goes 
on gradually increasing, that of the water below the 
isothermal line remains constant to the bottom. 



CHAP. VII.] DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 303 

Were it not for the operation of the law on which 
the latter phenomenon depends, the entire ocean 
would long since have hecome solidified, and both 
sea and land rendered unfit for the habitation of 
living organisms. Unlike other bodies which ex- 
pand and become lighter with every rise in tempera- 
ture, water attains its maximum density, not under 
the lowest degree of cold, but at 39°- 5 Fahrenheit; 
and consequently so soon as the superficial layer 
of sea is cooled down to this degree, it descends, 
and allows a fresh portion to ascend and be in 
turn cooled. This process is continued until the 
whole upper stratum is reduced in temperature to 
39°*5, when, instead of contracting further, it begins 
to expand and get lighter than the water beneath, 
floats on it, becomes further cooled down, and at 
28°'5 is converted into ice. . . . Thus under the 
operation of an apparently exceptional law, the 
equilibrium of the oceanic circulation is maintained ; 
for whilst at the equator the mean temperature of 
the surface layer of water, which is 82°, gradually 
decreases, until at a depth of 1,200 fathoms it be- 
comes stationary at 39° '5, and retains that tempera- 
ture to the bottom, within the Polar regions and 
extending to lat. 56° 25' in either hemisphere, the 
temperature increases from the surface downwards 
to the isothermal line, beyond which it remains 
uniform as in the former case. Hence in lat. 56° 25' 
the temperature is uniform the wiiole way from the 
surface to the bottom; and as has been found by 
observation about lat. 70°, the isothermal line occurs 
at 750 fatiioms below the surface." ^ 

1 Dr. Wallich : JSTorth Atlantic Sea-bed, p. 99. 



304 THE DEPTUS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. \ 

There can be no doubt that this view, which of 
late years has received almost universal acceptance, 
is entirely erroneous. It has been shown by M. 
Despretz,' as the result of a series of carefully con- 
ducted experiments which have since been frequently 
repeated and verified, that sea-water, as a saline 
solution, contracts and increases steadily in density 
down to its freezing-point, which is, when kept 
perfectly still, about ~3°-67 G. (25°-4P.), and when 
agitated -2°-55 C. 

The temperature observations of Sir James Clarke 
Ross during his Antarctic voyage in 1840-41, 
seemed to give support to the theory of a constant 
temperature of 4°'5 C. for deep water, but these obser- 
vations have as evidently been made with unguarded 
instruments, as those of Sir John Ross in 1818 with 
instruments defended from pressure; and although 
I believe they must be taken as proving that in 
high southern latitudes the surface temperature is 
sometimes lower than the temperature of the water 
at a considerable depth beneath, still the amount of 
correction for pressure is uncertain, depending upon 
the construction of the thermometers used, and in 
any case it must reduce the difference considerably. 

A large number of thermometers of the ordinary 
Hydrographic Office pattern were sent out with us, 
as I have already mentioned, in the * Lightning,' 
and these were of course the instruments used by 
Staff-Commander May for his temperature obser- 
vations. There was an opportunity of testing these 
thermometers, however, on the return of the vessel, 

Recherches sur le Maximum de Densite des Dissolutions aqueuses. 
Loc. cit. 



I CHAP. VII.] DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 305 

SO that we are tolerably certain by actual experi- 
ment of the amount of their error. In speaking 
of the ' Ijightning ' temperatures, I mean, therefore, 
the actual temperatures taken by the ordinary ther- 
mometers, corrected -approximately to tlie standard 
of the Miller-Casella thermometers, afterwards used 
in the ' Porcupine.' 

Leaving Stornoway in the ' Lightning/ on the 
11th of August, 1868, and directing our course 
towards the Fseroe banks, we sounded in 500 fathoms 
about 60 miles to the north-west of the Butt 
I of the Lews, and took a bottom temperature of 
9°*4 Cent, with the ordinary Six's thermometer — 
the only form of the instrument in use at the time. 
This, when corrected for pressure, gives about 7°8 C. 
We were surprised to find the temperature so high, 
I and we were at the time inclined to think that the 
I observation, which was taken in a breeze of wind, 
I was scarcely to be depended upon. Subsequent 
observations, however, in the same locality, con- 
' firmed its accuracy. On the Pgeroe Banks, at a 
I depth under 100 fathoms, the bottom temperature 
I averaged 9° C, while that of the surface was about 
I 12'' C. ; temperature indications on this bank were, 
j however, of little value, as the water is no doubt 
' affected to some extent through its entire depth by 
direct solar radiation. Tlie next observation was 
in lat. 60° 45' N. and long. 4° 49' W., at a depth 
of 510 fathoms, with a bottom temperature of 
— 0°'5 C, about 140 miles nearly directly north 
of Cape AVrath. Then followed a series of sound- 
ings, Nos. 7, 8, 10, and 11 of the chart (Plate L), 
taken while traversing the northern portion of the 

X 



306 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vu. 

channel between Scotland and the Eaeroe plateau ; 
and giving, respectively, the temperatures of — 1°-1, 
-r-2, -0°-7, and -0°-5C. No. 9, with a depth of 
170 fathoms* and a temperature of 5° C, is excep- 
tional; it is apparently the top of a circumscribed 
ridge or bank. We dredged at this station and got 
large numbers of the rare and beautiful Terehratula 
cranium, ; but when we tried for the same spot in the 
following year in the ' Porcupine,' we could not find 
it. On the 6th of September w^e sounded and took 
temperatures in lat. 59° 36' N., long. T 20' W., in 
530 fathoms, when the mean of three thermometers, 
which only differed from one another by about *3 
of a degree, gave a bottom temperature of 6° '4 C. 
A temperature sounding, at the moderate depth of 
189 fathoms, was taken on the morning of the 7th 
September in lat. 59° 5' N., long. T 29' W., and 
gave a bottom temperature of 9°'6 C. The three 
soundings, Nos. 13, 14, and 17, at the depths 650, 
570, and 620 fathoms, extending into the North 
Atlantic as far westward as long. 12° 36' W., gave 
a bottom temperature of 5°*8, 6°'4, and 6°'6 C, 
respectively. 

The general result of these observations we could 
not but regard as very remarkable. The region 
which we had somewhat imperfectly examined in- 
cluded, in the first place, the channel about a couple 
of hundred miles in width, with an extreme depth 
of rather under 600 fathoms, extending between the 
northern boundary-line of the British plateau and 
tlie shoal which culminates in the Pgeroe Islands 
and their extensive banks; and secondly, a small I 
portion of the North Atlantic extending Avestwardsj 



CHAP. VII.] DEEP-SEA TEMPERJTURES. 307 

and northwards of the western entrance of the channel. 
We found that in these two areas, freely communi- 
cating with one another and in immediate proximity, 
two totally different conditions of climate existed at 
all depths below the immediate surface, where they 
differed but slightly. In the Pseroe channel, at a 
depth of 500 fathoms, the bottom temperature aver- 
aged — 1°0 C, while at a like depth in the Atlantic 
the minimum index stood at +6° C, a difference of 
7 degrees Centigrade, nearly 13 degrees Eahrenheit. 

The conclusion at which we speedily arrived as 
the only feasible explanation of these phenomena 
was that an arctic stream of frigid water crept from 
the north-eastward into the Fseroe channel lying in 
the deeper part of the trough, owing to its higher 
specific gravity ; while a body of water warmed even 
above the normal temperature of the latitude, and 
therefore coming from some southern source, was 
passing northwards across its western entrance and 
occupying the whole depth of that comparatively 
shallow portion of the Atlantic from the surface to 
the bottom. 

Several important facts of very general applica- 
tion in Physical Geography had been placed beyond 
doubt by these observations. It had been shown 
that in nature, as in the experiments of M. Despretz, 
sea-water does not share in the peculiarities of fresh 
water, which, as has been long known, attains its 
maximum density at 4° C. ; but, like most other 
liquids, increases in density to its freezing-point : and 
it had also been shown that, owing to the movement 
of great bodies of water at different temperatures 
in different directions, we may have in close proxi- 

x 2 



308 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. 

mity two ocean areas with totally different bottom 
climates — a fact wliich, taken along with the dis- 
covery of abundant animal life at all depths, has 
most important bearings upon the distribution of 
marine life, and upon the interpretation of pah^eon to- 
logical data. 

The conditions during the ' Lightning ' cruise were 
so unfavourable to careful observation, that we deter- 
mined to take the earliest opportunity of going over 
this region again, and determining the limits of these 
warm and cold areas, and investigating their con- 
ditions more in detail. Accordingly, in the follow- ^ 
ing year, when we had H.M.S. 'Porcupine' at our ' 
disposal. Dr. Carpenter and I once more left Storno- 
way on the 15th of August, 1869. On this occasion 
we had everything in our favour; the w^eather w^as 
beautiful, the vessel suitable, and we were provided 
with Miller- Casella thermometers on whose accuracy 
we could depend. A table of Captain Calver's valu- 
able thermometrical observations during this cruise 
is given in Appendix A to this chapter. 

We proceeded to very nearly the same spot when 
we had taken our first sounding on the former year,] 
and took a warm area temperature of 7°*7 C. Statioi 
No. 46 (Plate IV.). We then moved on slowly' 
towards the Paeroe fishing banks, finding in succes- 
sion at Stations 47, 49, and 50, - 6°-5, T'Q, and 7°'9 C.j 
At Station 51, about 40 miles south of the bank,} 
there was a decided fall of temperature — the ther- 
mometer indicating 5°'6 C. at a depth of 440 fathoms ;j 
and about 20 miles directly northwards a soundin' 
at Station 52, lat. 60° 25' N., long. 8° 10' W., at 
depth of only 380 fathoms, gave a minimum tern- 



CHAP. VII. J DEEP-SEA TE3IPERATURES. 309 

perature of — 0°'8 C, showing that we had passed 
the boundary, and were in the ' cold area.' 

At this point we requested Captain Calver to take 
a serial sounding, ascertaining the temperature at 
depths progressively increasing by 50 fathoms, which 
was done with the following result : — 

Surface 11"- 8 C. 

50 fathoms 9-2 

100 „ 8-4 

150 „ . 8-0 

200 „ 7-5 

250 „ 3-5 

300 „ • G 

384 (Bottom) • 8 

We thus ascertained that the minimum tempera- 
ture was at the bottom; and this we have found to be 
universally the case over the whole of the area which 
we have examined, whatever the bottom temperature 
might be. And we also ascertained that the decrease 
in heat from the surface downwards was by no means 
uniform, but that while after passing the surface 
layer it was tolerably regular for the first 200 
fathoms, there was an extraordinary fall amounting 
to upwards of 7'C. from 200 to 300 fathoms, at 
wliich latter depth the minimum is nearly gained. 

The next few observations. Stations 53 to 59, were 
all within the limits of the cold area, the bottom tem- 
perature at depths ranging from 360 to 630 fathoms, 
nowhere reaching the freezing-point of fresh water; 
and *at one point. Station 59, lat. 60° 2V N., long. 
5° 41' W., at a depth of 580 fathoms, the index stand- 
ing so low as -l°-3 C. On Saturday the 21st we took 
a sounding in 187 fathoms, on the edge of the Fjferoe 



310 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VII. 



plateau, and about twenty miles north of the pre- 
vious station, with a temperature of 6°'9C., and so 
found that we had passed the limits of the cold 
basin. 

Our first two soundings after leaving Thorshavn 
(Stations 61 and 62) were in shallow water on the 
Fseroe Bank, 114 and 125 fathoms, with a tempera- 
ture of 7°'2 and 7°*0 C. respectively ; but the next 
Station, No. 63, after a run of eighty miles, gave 
317 fathoms and 0°-9 C, showing that we were 
once more in the cold region. From that point, 
passing in a south-easterly direction across the 
channel towards the northern point of Shetland, we 
traversed the cold area in its most characteristic 
form, finding at Station 64, lat. 61° 21' N., long. 
3° 44' W., a depth of 640 fathoms, with a botto] 
temperature of — 1°*2 C. Here we took another j 
serial sounding, and its results corresponded generally] 
with those of No. 52. The surface temperature wasj 
lower, and the temperature down to 200 fathoms some- 
what lower ; at 350 fathoms it was a little higher : — 

Surface 

50 fathoms 

100 



150 
200 
250 
300 
350 
400 
450 
500 
550 
600 
G40 



O'' 


8C. 


7 


5 


7 


• 2 


6 


3 


4 • 


1 


1 


3 





2 





3 





5 





8 


-1 





-1 


•0 


-1 


1 


-1 


2 



CHAP, vn.] DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 311 

At this point, therefore, the ice-cold water of the 
Arctic current filling up the bottom of the trough 
is nearly 2,000 feet deep, while the temperate water 
above has nearly an equal depth. The lower half of 
the latter, however, has its temperature considerably 
reduced by intermixture and diffusion. Pig. 55 
represents dia grammatically the general result of 
temperature observations in the cold area. The 
depth at the next Station, No. 65, was 354 fathoms, 
showing that the channel had begun to shoal towards 
Shetland; the temperature was, however, still low, 
almost exactly 0° C. The next Station, No. Q^^ 
eighteen miles further on towards the Shetland 
banks, gave a depth of 267 fathoms, with a bottom 
temperature of 7°*6 C, the temperature at the surface 
being ll°-3 C. We had therefore got beyond the 
edge of the trough filled by the cold stream, and 
passed into lesser depths occupied from the surface to 
the bottom by the warm southern stratum. 

The next series of soundings, Nos. 67 to 75, are either 
in shallow water round Shetland, or in water on the 
shelving edge of the plateau, not deep enough to reach 
the frigid stream. It is of some interest that the 
two soundings, Nos. 68 and 69, in 75 and 67 fathoms 
respectively, to the east of Shetland, show a bottom 
temperature of QI^'Q C, while a serial sounding in the 
Avarm area at the western entrance of the Paeroe 
Channel gives for the same depth a temperature of 
about 8°*8 C. This circumstance, along with others 
to be mentioned hereafter, would seem to show that 
a considerable indraught of cold water spreads over 
the bottom of the shallow north sea. 

At Stations 76 to 86, which are along the southern 



CHAP. VI I. j 



DEEF-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



313 



border of the cold area, temperature soundings were 
taken mainly with a view to define its southern limit, 
and they are sometimes on one side and sometimes on 
the other. The general result is indicated on Plate 
IV. by the southern border of the shaded space. Nos. 
87 to 90 are once more in the warm area, the water 
reaching a depth of upwards of 700 fathoms, but 
maintaining, after the first 300 fathoms, a tempera- 
ture of from 6° to 7° C. above that of corresponding 
depths in the cold area. At Station 87, lat. 59° 35' Is., 
long. 9° 11' W., with a depth of 767 fathoms, a serial 
sounding was taken, which contrasts remarkably 
with the series at Station 64. The general result of 
this sounding is represented diagrammatically by 
Eig 56. The temperature was taken at every 100 
fathoms after the first 200. 



Surface .11" 

50 fatboms 9 

100 „ 8 

150 „ 8 

200 „ 8 

300 „ 8 

4(^0 „ . 7 

500 „ 7 

600 „ G 

767 5 



4C. 



5 

3 

2 

I 

8 

3 

1 

1 



It will be seen by reference to the chart that two 
nearly parallel series of soundings were taken, ex- 
tending from the shallow water on the Scottish side 
to the ed2:e of the Fgeroe Bank close to the western 
opening of the F^feroe Channel, and that one of these 
chains, including Stations 52, 53, 5i, and 86, are in 
the cold area, while the other chain of Stations, 48, 



314 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chai'. vii. 

47, 90, 49, 50, and 51, are in the warm area. There 
is no great difference in depth hetween the two series 
of soundings ; and there is no indication of a ridged 
separating them. The only possible explanation ot\ 
these two so widely different submarine climates,] 
existing apparently under the same circumstances^ 
and in close proximity to one another, is that the 
Arctic indraught which passes into the deeper part 
of the Pseroe Channel is banked in at its entrance, 
by the warm southern stream slowly passing north- 
wards. There is a slight but very constant depres- 
sion of the isothermal lines of surface temperature 
in the shallow water along the west coast of Britain. 
This, I believe, indicates that a portion of the cold 
Pseroe stream makes its escape, and, still banked in 
close to the land by the warm water, gradually makes 
its way southwards, so mixed and diluted as only to 
be perceptible by its slight effect on the lines of mean 
temperature. Diagrams 55 and 56 illustrate the dis- 
tribution of temperature in the cold and warm areas 
respectively ; and in Eig. 57, the results of the serial 
soundings Nos. 52, 64, and 87, are reduced to curves. 
Erom these diagrams, taken together, it will be seen 
that in the first 50 fathoms there is a rapid fall of 
nearly 3° C. Station No. 64 is a good deal farther 
north than the other two, and the surface tempera- 
ture is lower, so that the fall, which is nearly to the 
same amount, starts from a lower point. The surface 
temperature is doubtless due to the direct heat of 
the sun, and the first rapid fall is due to the rapid 
decrease of this direct effect. Prom 50 to 200 fathoms 
the temperature in all three cases falls but little, re- 
maining considerably above the normal temperature 




I I 



3 1 G THE DEPTHS OF THE SEJ. [chap. vir. 

of the ocean for the parallel of latitude. At a 
depth of 200 fathoms, however, the divergence be- 
tween tlie curves of the warm and cold areas is most 
remarkable. The curve of tlie warm area, No. 87, 
shows a fall of scarcely half a degree at 500 fathoms, 
and less tlian one degree more at 767 fathoms at 
the bottom. Between 200 and 300 fathoms the cold 
area curves run down from 8° C. to 0° C, leaving 
only one degree more of gradual descent for the 
next 300 fathoms. The temperature of the ' hump ' 
on the curves of the ' cold area ' between 50 and 
200 fathoms corresponds so nearly with that of the 
long gradual sinking of the curve of the warm area 
from the surface nearly to the bottom, that it seems 
natural to trace it to the same source. We there- 
fore conclude that a shallow layer of Gulf-stream 
water driftino^ slowlv northwards overlies in the cold 
area an indraught of cold water represented by the 
sudden and great depression of the curves, while in 
the warm area this cold indraught is absent, the 
Gulf-stream water reaching to the bottom. 

Tracing the ' warm area ' southwards from the 
mouth of the Fseroe Channel along the coast of Scot- 
land, we find that the area between Eseroe, the Lews, 
and llockall, is a kind of plateau with a depth of 
from 700 to 800 fathoms ; and we may be certain from 
analogy, although this region has not yet been actu- 
ally examined, with a bottom temperature not lower 
than 4°'5 C. Commencing opposite Rockall, and ex- 
tending between the great shoal which culminates 
in the llockall fishing^ banks and the sino^ular isolated 
rock, and the west coast of Ireland, there is a wide 
trough deepening gi-adually southwards, and at length 



(HAP. VII.] DEEP-SEA TEMFERATURES. 317 

continuous with the general basin of the North 

1( Atlantic. 

The temparature of this ocean valley was investi- 

; gated with great care during the first and second 
cruises of the ' Porcupine ' in 1869, and the results 
were so very uniform throughout the area that it 
will be needless to describe in detail the slight 
differences in different localities. These differences, 
in fact, only affected the surface layer of the water, 
and depended merely upon differences of latitude. 
The temperatures ifi deep water may be said to 
have been practically the same everywhere. The 
first chain of soundings, taken by Captain Calver 
during the first cruise under the scientific direction 
of Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, was between Lough S willy 
and Rockall. The greatest depth, 1,380 fathoms, is 
in the middle of the channel, and a sounding at 
that depth, lat. 56° 2V X., long. IV W W., gave 
a bottom temperature of 2°* 8 C. A depth of 630 
fathoms, No. 23, a little to the south of Rockall, 
gave a temperature of 6°*4 C, almost exactly the 
same as the temperature of a like depth in the warm 
area off the entrance of the Pseroe Channel ; and a 
temperature at 500 fathoms, one of a series taken 
at Station 21 with a bottom temperature at 1,476 
fathoms of 2°*7 C, was 8°'5 C, rather less than a 
degree higher than the temperature at a correspond- 
ing depth at Station 87. At Station 21 the tempera- 
ture was taken at everv 250 fathoms. 

Surface 13°' 5 C. 

250 fathoms 9 • 

500 „ 8-5 

750 „ 5-8 



318 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. ,[chap. vii 

1,000 fVithoms 3°- 5C. 

1,200 „ 3-3 

1,47G , 2-7 

We have lisre on a larg-e scale, as Dr. Carpenter 
has pointed out, conditions very analogous to those 
which exist in comparatively shallow water, and on a 
small scale in the cold area in the Faeroe Channel. 
There is a surface layer of ahout 50 fathoms, super- 
heated in August by direct solar radiation, and, as we 
see by the variations of surface isotherm als, varying 
greatly with the seasons of the year. Next, we have a 
band extending here to a depth of nearly 800 fathoms, 
in which the thermometer sinks slowly through a" 
range of about 5° C. Then a zone of intermixture 
of about 200 fathoms, where the temperature falls 
rapidly, and finally a mass of cold water from a deptli 
of 1,000 fathoms to the bottom, through which, what- 
ever be its depth, the thermometer falls almost im- 
perceptibly, the water never reaching the dead cold- 
of the Arctic undercurrent in the F^roe Channel, 
and the lowest temperature being universally at the 
bottom (Fig. 58). 

The area investigated during the second cruise of 
the ' Porcupine ' at the mouth of the Bay of Biscay, 
about a couple of luindred miles west of Ushant, 
may be regarded as simply a continuation southwards 
of the tract between Scotland and Ireland and the 
Bockall ridge. As, however, the depths were greater 
than any attained on any foi"mer occasion — were so 
great, indeed, as probably to represent the average 
depth of the great ocean basins— it may be well to 
describe the methods of observation and the condi- 
tions of temperature somewhat in detail. 



320 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vit. 

The sounding at Station No. 37, at a depth of 
2;435 fathoms, has already heen fully described as an 
example of the most recent method of determining 
extreme depths with accuracy. Two Miller-Casella 
thermometers, numbered 100 and 103 respectively, 
were lashed to the sounding -line in their copper 
cases, one a little above the other, about a fathom 
and a fathom and a half above the 'Hydra' sounding- 
machine. These two instruments had been prepared 
and tested with extreme care, and had been employed 
throughout the first cruise ; their freezing-points had 
been ai]^ain verified at Belfast in case the enormous 
pressure to w^iich they had been subjected might 
have affected the glass, and we had absolute confidence 
in their indications. The indices were set before the 
instruments were let down at the temperature of the 
surface, 2r-l C, and 'IV 1^ C. They were allowed to 
remain at the bottom for ten minutes, and on their 
return to the surface in upwards of two hours and a 
half, they were unanimous in recording a minimum 
of 1°'65 C, the slight differences between the two 
instruments, which gave the almost inappreciable 
error for one of them of 0°*05 C. at 21° C, being 
imperceptible at the lower temperature. 

It had a strange interest to see these two little 
instruments, upon whose construction so much skilled 
labour and consideration had been lavished, con- 
signed to their long and hazardous journey; and their 
return eagerly watched for by a knot of thoughtful 
men, standing, note-book in hand, ready to register 
this first message, which should throw so much light 
upon the physical conditions of a hitherto unknown 
world. 



CHAP. VII.] 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



321 



A series of temperature soundings, at depths in- 
creasing progressively by 250 fathoms, Avas taken to a 
depth of 2,090 fathoms, on the 24th of July, lat. 



47° 39' N., long. 11° 33' W. 



Surface . 


17° 


• 08 C. 








250 fathoms 


. 10 


• 28 


less th 


in Surface 


. 7'^- 5 C 


500 




8 


8 


5J 


250 fathoms 


1 -5 


750 




5 


17 


)J 


500 


3 -G 


1,000 




3 


5 


J) 


750 


1 -7 


1,250 




3 


17 


5> 


1,000 „ 


-3 


1,500 




2 


9 


5> 


1,250 „ 


• 3 


1,750 




2 


61 


)J 


1,500 


• 3 


2,090 




2 • 


4 


J5 


1,750 „ 


-2 



The same two Miller-Casella thermometers were 
employed as in the previous observation. 

Another serial sounding was taken a few days late^ 
in water 862 fathoms deep, somewhat nearer the coast 
of Ireland. In this case tlie temperature was taken 
at intervals of 10 fatlioms from the surface to a 
depth of 50 fathoms, and thence at intervals of 
50 fathoms to the bottom. This was done to deter- 
mine exactly the rate of diminution of temperature, 
and the exact position of the most marked irregu- 
larities. 



Surface . 


17° 


22 C. 










10 fathoms 


16 


72 


less than 


surface . . 


. 0° 


5C 


20 




15 


22 


less than 


10 fathoms 


1 


5 


30 




13 


33 




20 „ 


1 


9 


40 




12 • 


44 




30 „ 





9 


50 




11 • 


8 




40 „ 





64 


100 




10- 


6 




50 „ 


1 


2 


150 




. 10 


5 




100 „ 





' 1 


200 




10 


3 




150 „ 





2 


250 




10 


11 




200 „ 





2 


300 




. 9 


• 8 




250 „ 





3 



Fio. 59. — Diagram representing the 
relation between depth and tem- 
perature off Rockall, 



Fig. 60.— Diagram representing the 
relation between depth and tem- 
perature in the Atlantic basin. 



CHAP. VII.] 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



323 



350 


fathoms 


9^- 5 C. less than 300 f 


athoms 


. 0- 3 C. 


400 




. 9 • 17 


350 


3J 


. 0-3 


450 




. 8 -7 


„ 400 


>J 


. 0-5 


500 




. 8- bb 


„ 450 


J) 


. 0-15 


550 




8 • 


„ 500 


)> 


. 0-55 


COO 




7 • 4 


550 


» 


. 0-5 


650 




6 -83 


600 


» 


. 0-6 


700 




6 -44 


„ 650 


JJ 


. 0-4 


750 




5 • 83 


700 


)« 


. 0-6 


800 




5 • 55 


750 


5) 


. 0-3 


862 (Bottom) 


4 • 3 


800 


J> 


. 1-25 



The general result of these two series of soundings 
is very important. The high temperature reduced by 
T'h C. in the first series at 250 fathoms is undoubtedly 
due to superheating by direct solar radiation. This 
is shawn still more clearly in the second series, where 
nearly 4° C. are seen to be lost between the surface and 
30 fathoms, and somewhat above 2° C. more between 
30 and 100 fathoms. Prom 100 to 500 fathoms the 
temperature is still high and tolerably uniform, and 
it falls rapidly between 500 and 1,000 fathoms. A 
reference to the second series shows that this rapid 
fall is between 650 and 850 fathoms, in which inter- 
val there is a loss of more than 3° C. This second 
stage of elevated temperature from 250 to 700 
fathoms, which is represented graphically by the 
singular 'hump' on the temperature curves in Eig. 
61 and Plate YI. would seem to be caused by the 
north-easterly reflux under peculiar conditions, which 
will be referred to in next chapter, of the great 
equatorial current. Prom 1,000 fathoms down- 
wards, the loss of temperature goes on uniformly at 
the rate of about 0°-3 0. for every 250 fathoms. 
The most singular feature in this decrease of tem- 

y2 



H 






^■■1 


H 






HIHI 


H 






BlHpl 


H 






mm 


H 






HMhi 


H 






■||H|| 


H 






HIhI 


pi 






hI^H 


III 






HHiH 


Ih 






^Bl 







II 



-ail 






ciTAP. vir.] BEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 32.) 

perature for the last mile and three-quarters is its 
absolute uniformity, which appears to he incon- 
sistent witli the idea of anything like a current in 
the ordinary sense, and rather to point to a slow 
and general indraught of cold water, falling in 
chiefly by gravitation from the coldest and deepest 
sources available, to supply the place of the warm 
water constantly moving to the northward. 

In 1870, Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys took his first tem- 
perature observations at the mouth of the Channel, 
and found them to correspond very closely with 
those of the previous year ; on the 9tli of July the 
bottom temperature at 358 fathoms, Station 6 PL V., 
was lO'^'OC, against 9°*8 C, at about the same depth 
in a serial sounding in 1869, in the immediate 
neighbourhood. The next few soundings, Stations 
10 to 13, are in comparatively shallow water, off the 
coast of Portugal, while the next four Stations, a 
little north of Lishou, may serve as an example of 
the temperatures to a considerable depth in that 
latitude. Station 14, 469 fathoms, with a surface 
temperature of 18'''3 C, has a bottom temperature of 
10°-7 C. ; Station 15, at 722 fathoms, a temperature 
of 9°'7 C. ; Station 16, at 994 fathoms, 4°-4 C. ; and 
Station 17, at 1,095 fathoms, 4°-3 C. This result is 
very similar to that which we met with in 1869 off 
Ushant. With certain differences, which seem to de- 
pend mainly upon the differences of latitude, we have 
the same phenomena — a thin surface-layer, superheated 
by the direct rays of the sun; a layer of warm water 
through which the temperature descends very slowly 
down to 800 fathoms; a zoue of intermixture and 
rapid descent of the thermometer of nearly 200 



326 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. 

fathoms in thickness ; and finally the deep cold layer 
into which these soundings do not penetrate very far, 
through which the temperature sinks almost imper- 
ceptibly from 4° C. The difference between these 
soundings and those of the year before at the mouth 
of the Bay of Biscay is that the temperatures at all 
depths are somewhat higher. 

I refrain for the present from going into any detail 
with regard to the distribution of temperature in the 
Mediterranean, further than to give a mere outline of 
the remarkable conditions which were observed there 
by Dr. Carpenter. 

Dr. Carpenter's observations were principally con- 
fined to the western basin of the Mediterranean, and 
during the months of August and September the 
surface temperature averaged between 23° C. and 
26° C. On two occasions only the surface tempera- 
ture fell considerably lower, and the fall was attri- 
buted in both cases to the influence of the colder 
surface current passing from the Atlantic through 
the Straits of Gibraltar. The following table of the 
series taken at Station 53 gives about the average rate 
of fall of temperature for the first 100 fathoms : — 

Surface 25°- C. 

5 fathoms 24 • 5 

10 „ 21-6 



20 
30 
40 
50 
100 



16-4 
15- 5 
14- 1 
13- 6 
13-0 



and Dr. Carpenter made the remarkable observa- 
tion that "whatever the temperature was at 100 



4 



Fig. 62.— Diagram representing the relation between depth and temperature, from the tempera 
ture observations taken between Cape Finisterre and Cape St. Vincent, August 1870. 



328 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VII. 



fathoms, that was the temperature of the whole 
mass of water heneath, down to the greatest depth 
explored." The temperature at 100 fathoms varies 
very little from 13° C. (555° Eahrenheit), and the 
Mediterranean attains in many places a depth of up- 
wards of 1,500 fathoms, so that here we have the 
strange phenomenon of an underlying mass of water, 
1,400 fathoms deep, of a uniform moderate tempera- 
ture ; a state of things singularly different from that 
which obtains at like depths in the Atlantic. Dr. 
Carpenter's ingenious speculations as to the cause 
of this difference will be considered later. 




vaaV chuech in sudero. 



CHAP. VII.] 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES, 



329 



APPENDIX A. 

Surface Temperatures ohse'tDed on hoard H.M.S. ' Porcupitu 
during the Summers of 1869 and 1870. 

I. Temperatures observed in 1869. 









e 


es 






g 


£ i 




Date and Position. 


i 


p 

!'■< 


1 


Date and Position. 


1 ^ 

\ § 


fe 


P :2 

£02 






W 


1= 


^1 






go 


11 








Deg. 


Deg. 






Deg. 


De- 








Cent. 


Cent. 






Cent. 


cent. 


i 


May 28th . . 


2 


10-0 


9-4 


May 30th . . 


4 


10-0 


9-4 


■ 


4 


lO'O 


10-2 




6 


10-8 


10-8 




6 








8 


12-2 


iri 






8 








10 


15-0 


11-1 






10 


10-0 


10-5 


In Valentia . . 


Noon. 


15-0 


12-7 




Off the Great) 
Skelligs . . ] 


Noon. 


9*4 


10-8 




2 
4 


12-8 
12-5 


12-2 
11-4 






2 




11-9 




6 


11-4 


iri 






4 


11-6 


111 




8 










6 




11-4 




io 


10-0 


iri 






8 








Midn. 


9-4 


111 






10 


11-6 


10-2 


May 31st . . . 


2 


9-4 


10-8 






Midn. 


10-0 


10-6 




4 


10-0 


11-1 




May 2.9th . . 


2 








6 


11-1 


111 






4 


7-2 






8 


13-3 


11-1 


1 




6 


11*6 


10-2 




10 


13-3 


11-1 






8 
10 


111 
13-3 


10-8 
12-7 


Lat. 5r52'N. ) 
Long. 11°34'W. 


Noon. 


13-9 


11-6 




In Dingle Bay . 


Noon. 


13-9 


11-6 




2 


13-9 


11-4 






2 


13-9 


11-4 




4 


12-7 








4 


127 


11-4 




6 


12-2 


11-9 






6 




10-5 




8 


12-2 


11-6 






8 


10-0 


10-6 




10 


11-6 


11-6 






10 


11-6 


1 




Midn. 


11-9 


11-9 


f 




Midn. 


11-1 




June 1st . . . 


2 


12-2 


12-2 




May 30th . . 


2 


11*6 


' 




4 


12-2 


12-2 





















330 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEJ. 



[chap. VII. 



! 
I 


i 


2 


^i 






£ 


tm 




1 


_g 


fS^ 






s 




Date and Position. 

1 


1 i< 

1 


1! 

So 

4) 


II 


Date and Position. 

1 


§ 


So 


el 


i 

1 




H 


^% 






EH 


H, 






Deg. 


Deg. 






Deg. 


Deg.i 






Cent. 


Cent. 






Cent. 


Cent 


June 1st . . . 


6 


12-2 


11-9 


June 4th . . . 


2 


13-3 


11-6^ 




8 


13-0 


11-9 




4 


13-3 


11-6 




10 


13-9 


11-9 




6 


12-8 


11-9 


Lat. 5r22'N. \ 
Long. 12° 26' W. ] 


Noon. 


14-4 


11-9 




8 
10 


12-8 
12-2 


12-2, 
11-4 




2 


14-4 


12-2 




Midn. 


11-9 


11-9 




4 


12-2 


11-6 


June 5th . . . 


2 


11-9 


11-9. 




6 


13-3 


11-9 


i 


4 


11-6 


11-6 


! 


Q 


12-2 


11-9 




6 


12-7 


iri 




10 


11-9 


12-2 




8 


12-7 


iri 




Midn. 


11-6 


11-9 




10 


12-7 


11-6 


; June 2nd . . . 


2 


11-9 


11-9 


In Galway Dock 


Noon. 


16-1 


13-3 


1 


4 


11-1 


11-9 




2 


15-5 


150 




6 


10-5 


11-9 




4 


13-9 






8 


11-6 






6 


15-5 




1 


10 


12-2 


12-2 




8 


13-3 




; Lat. 52° 8'N. ) 
Long. 12° 50' W. ] 


Noon. 


15-0 


12-2 




10 
Midn. 


13-3 
13-9 






2 


14-4 


12-2 


June 6th . . . 


2 


13-3 






4 


15-0 


12-2 




4 


12-7 






■6 


13-9 


12-2 




6 








8 


11-1 


11-9 




8 








10 " 


"11-4 


11-9 




10 


14-4 






Midn. 


iri 


11-9 


In Gahvay Dock 


Noon. 


12-2 




June 3rd . . . 


2 


11-1 


11-6 




2 


17-2 






4 


10-8 


11-6 




4 


19-4 




. 


6 


11-1 


11-9 




6 


19-4 






8 


12-7 


11-6 




8 








10 


15-0 


11-9 




10 


13-9 




Lat. 52^ 26' N. ) 
Long. ir41'W. C 


Noon. 


13-3 


11-6 


June 7th . . . 


Midn. 
2 


13-3 
13-3 






2 


147 


11-9 




4 


12-7 






4 


130 


12-2 




6 




* 




6 1 


11-6 


12-2 




8 








8 


11-1 


11-8 




10 


16-1 






10 


111 


11-6 


in Galway Dock 


Noon. 


18-3 


'-. 




Midn. 


10-8 


11-6 




2 


17-7 


X 


June 4th . . . 


2 


11-1 


11-6 




4 


17-7 


♦ 




4 


iri 


11-6 




6 


17-2 






6 


111 


11-6 1 




8 


15-0 






8 


10-8 


il-6 1 




10 


13-9 






10 


10-5 


11-6 \ 




Midn. 


12-2 




Lat. 52° 14' N. \ 
Long. 11*45'W. ] 


Noon. 


10-5 


11-1 


June 8th . . . 


2 1 
4 


11-1 
10-0 


•' 



CHAP. VII.] 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



331 



Date and Position. 



June 8th . . . 
[n Galway Dock 



I 



e9th . 



In Galway Dock 



June lOth . . 



Lat. 53"16'N. 
Long. 11°52'W. 



June 11 til 



Lat. 53" 22' N. 
Lonor 13°23'W. 



6 

8 

10 

Noon. 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 

Midn. 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 

Noon. 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 

Midn. 

2 

4 

6 

8 
10 

Noon. 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 

Midn. 

2 

4 

6 

8 
10 

Noon. 

2 
4 



2 

So 


If 


Deg. 
Cent. 


Deg. 
Cent. 


i 10-0 


1 


1 17-2 




21-1 




! 20-5 




i 20-5 


17-7 


' 20-0 




16-6 


15-0 


11-6 


12-7 


iri 


12-5 


7-2 


12-2 


7-7 


11-6 


10-5 


12-2 


12-7 


12-5 


16-1 


13-3 


19-4 


13-9 


1 17-4 


13-9 


1 17-2 


13-6 


1 15-0 


12-5 i 


1 11-4 


12-7 


10-5 


12-5 


10-5 


12-5 


10-0 


11-6 1 


10-5 


11-6 


10-2 


12-2 |i 


12-2 


12-5 


11-6 


12-5 


12-7 


12-5 


13-3 


12-7 


12-2 


12-2 ! 


11-6 


12-7 


10-5 


12-3 


10-0 


12-3 


10-0 


12-3 


I 10-0 


12-2 


1 10-0 


12-2 


111 


12-5 ; 


111 


12-5 


12-5 


12-5 


15-0 


12-2 


13-9 


12-7 


14-4 


12-7 



Diite and Position. 



June 11 til 



June 12tli 



Lat. 
LontJ 



53"24'N 
15° 24' W. 



June 13tli 



Lat. 
Lone 



53° 28' N. 
15° 08' W. 



June 14th 



Lat. 
Lone 



53° 43' N. 
13° 48' W. 



June 15th 



. 


£ 


. £S 




3 


-tS 




-u . • 


-u si 


i 


i-^ 




M 


|=s 


11 




H 


^=o 




Deg. 


Deg. 




Cent. 


Cent. 


6 


11-9 


12-7 


8 


10-5 


12-7 


10 


111 


12-2 


Midn. 


10-0 


12-2 


2 


10-0 


12-2 


4 


10-2 


12-3 


6 


11-1 


12-9 


8 


11-4 


13-0 


10 


12-2 


12-7 


Noon. 


12-2 


12-7 


2 


11-1 


12-7 


4 


12-2 


12-7 


6 


10-8 


13-0 


8 


iri 


12-9 


10 


11-1 


12-5 


Midn. 


10-5 


12-3 


2 


10-5 


11-9 


4 


10-0 


12-2 


6 


9-1 


12-2 


8 


9-7 


11-9 


10 


9-4 


12-0 


Noon. 


10-8 


12 2 


2 


10-5 


12-5 


4 


11-4 


12-2 


6 


11-1 


12-2 


i 8 


10-7 


12-3 


! 10 


ll'l 


12-2 


! Midn. 


11-1 


12-2 


1 2 


111 


12-2 


4 


11-4 


12-2 


6 


11-4 


11-9 


8 


11-9 


12-5 


10 


11-1 


12-2 


Noon. 


13-3 


12-2 


1 2 


11-7 


12-2 


4 


13-0 


12-2 


6 


12-7 


12-2 


! 8 


iri 


11-8 


I 10 


iri 


iri 


! Midn. 


11-1 


11-4 


1 2 


10-8 


iri 



332 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEJ. 



[chap. VI t. 





i 


i £ 


ti 


1 




£ 


fit 






3 










a.rt 


Date and Position. 


3 


.F 


I! 


1 

Date and Position. 


1 










5 o 


Sm 




1 


S "3 


z^^ 






H 


"o 




1 


H 


H=- 




I 


Reg. 


Deg. 






Deg. 


Deg 






Cent. 


Cent. 






Cent. 


Cent 


June 15th . . 


4 
6 


10-8 

iri 


11-6 
11-6 


Lat. 54°10'N. ) 
1 Long. 10° 59' W. S 


Noon. 


12-5 


12-2 




8 


14-4 


11-6 




2 


12-9 


12-2 




10 


12-2 


11-6 




4 


12-7 


12-4 


Lat. 53°47'N. ( 
Long. 13" 14' VV. 


Noon. 


12-7 


10-6 




6 

8 


127 
11-9 


11-8 
11-8 




2 


13-6 


11-6 




10 


11-4 


11-6 




4 


13-0 


11-6 




Midn. 


11-4 


11-4 




6 


13-9 


11-8 


June 19th . . 


2 


11-1 


11-6 




8 


10-8 


11-8 




4 


111 


111 




10 


10-8 


11 6 




6 


11-6 


11-8 




Midn. 


10-5 


11-1 




8 


11-6 


12-2 


June 16th . . 


2 


10-0 


11-7 




10 


13-9 


11-8 




4 


10-2 


11-4 


At Killibegs . . 


Noon. 


13-9 


11-9 




6 


12-7 


11-5 




2 


13-3 


12-2 




8 


12-0 


11-5 ; 




4 


12-2 


12-2 




10 


13-9 


11-6 




6 


11-6 


12-3 


Lat. 54° 2'N. \ 
Long. 12" 14' W. ] 


Noon. 


15-0 


11-6 




8 
10 


13-0 
11-1 


12-7 
12-2 




2 


13-9 


11-9 




Midn. 


10-5 


12-2 




4 


13-3 


12-1 i 


June 20th . . 


2 


10-6 


11-9 




6 


12-2 


11-6 




4 


11-1 


11-6 




8 


J 0-2 


111 ' 




6 


11-6 


11-6 




10 


11-1 


11-4 




8 


12-7 


12-2 




Midn. 


11-4 


11-4 1 




10 


13-0 


11-9 


June 17 th . . 


2 


11-6 


11-6 1 


At Killibegs . . 


Noon. 


13-9 


12-2 




4 


11-6 


11-6 i 




2 


15-0 


12-2 




6 


11-9 


11-8 


. 


4 


14-4 


12-5 




8 


13-6 


11-6 ; 




6 


14-4 


12-5 




10 


12-5 


11-6 ; 




8 


12-2 


12-5 ! 


Lat. 54''2rN. ) 
Long. ir43' W. ] 


Noon. 


13-9 


11-8 \ 




10 
Midn. 


10-0 
10-8 


12-2 1 
12-5 1 




■ 2 


13-3 


11-9 


June 21.st . . 


2 ■ 


11-1 


12-2 ! 




4 


13-3 


11-9 i 




^ i 


11-1 


12-2 




6 


12-2 


11-9 




6 


11-8 


12-2 




8 


12-2 


116 




8 ' 


12-2 


12-2 i 




10 


11-9 


11-6 




10 


13-0 


12-2 


. 


Midn. 


12-2 


11-6 


At Killibegs . . 


Noon. 


15-0 


12-5 i 


June 18th . . 


2 


11-6 


11-6 




2 


15-3 i 


12-2 




4 


11-6 


12-0 




4 , 


14-4 1 


12-5 




6 


12-2 


12-0 




6 


13-0 i 


12-2 




8 


12-2 


121 




8 i 


11-6 


12-3 




10 


12-2 


12-2 ! 




10 : 

i 

! 


11-1 


11-6 



CHAP. VII.] 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



333 





Date aud Position. i 

j 


1 

i 


l! 
r 


Temperature 
of Sea-8urlace. 


Date aud Position. 


1 

1 

o 


I! 


11 


June 21st . . 


i 

Midn. ! 


Deg. 
Cent. 
10-5 


Ueg. 1 

Cent. 1 

12-2 1| June 25th . . i 


4 


Deg. 
Cent. I 
15-0 1 


Deg. 
Cent 
150 




June 22nd . . 


2 1 


iri 


11-8 


! 


6 


16-1 


13-9 




j 


4 


iri 


11-9 




8 


15-0 


14-1 




! 


6 


iri 


11-6 


i 


10 


15-5 


15-5 




J 


8 ' 


11-6 


12-0 




Midn. 1 


14-4 


15-5 






10 


13-3 


12-2 


June 26th . . i 


2 1 


14-1 


15-8 




At Killibegs . . 


Noon. 


13-3 


12-2 1 




4 


13-9 


15i) 






2 } 


13-9 


12-3 




6 


13-9 ! 


13-3 






4 ! 


13-3 


12-2 




8 


15-3 


13-6 






6 


12-2 


12-2 




10 


18-0 1 


14-4 






8 




1 In Donegal Bay 


Noon. 


19-1 1 


13-9 






10 


11-1 


12-5 || 


2 


22-2 


15-3 






Midn. 


11-1 


11-9 




4 


19-4 j 


16-1 




June 23rd . . 


2 


10-8 


12-2 




6 


16-6 


15-5 






4 


iri 


12-2 




8 


15-5 


15-5 






6 


12-4 


12-2 




10 


12-7 


15-2 






8 


13-9 


12-2 




Midn. 


12-5 


15t 




. 


10 


15'5 


12-5 


1 June 27th . . 


2 


iri 


14-^ 




At Killibegs . . 


Noon. 


16-6 


12-5 




4 


11-4 


14-^ 




' 


2 


15-5 


12-5 




6 


12-7 


131 


; 




4 


17-7 


12-7 


1 


8 


13-6 


131 


: . 




6 


16-6 


13-3 




10 


15-5 


14-z 






8 


13-3 


130 


At Killibegs . . 


Noon. 


16-6 


14-' 






10 


13-6 


13-3 




2 


20-0 


15-( 






Midn. 


12-7 


13-0 




4 


17-2 


14-^ 




June 24th . . 


2 


12-7 


13-3 


j 


6 


13-3 


13- 






i 4 


13-3 


13-3 II 


8 


13-3 


13- 






1 6 


14-4 


13-5 


10 


13-3 


13- 






' 8 


15-3 


13-3 !' 


Midn. 


13-3 


13- 






10 


1 16-6 


13-5 June 28th . . 


2 


12-7 


13- 




At Killibegs . . 


Noon. 


; 17-5 


13-5 


j 


4 


12-7 


12- 






2 


17-7 


13-9 




6 


1 12-7 


12- 






4 


17-7 


14-1 


1 


8 


1 13-3 


13- 






i 6 


17-2 


15-0 i 


10 


■\ 13-9 


13- 






i 8 
1 10 


16-1 
14-7 


14-1 1 Lat. 54°54'N. \ 
15-0 ! Long. 10° 59' W. f 


Noon. 


14-7 


13- 






, Mirn. 


14-7 


15-3 




2 


14-7 


13- 




June 25th . . 


2 


14-4 


14-4 




4 


13-9 


13- 






4 


14-1 


14-4 




6 


13-0 


\^- 




i 


' 6 


13-9 


13-6 




8 


13-6 


V^' 




1 


8 


18-3 


14-4 




10 


12-7 


13- 






' 10 


20-0 


13-9 




Midn. 


12-9 


13- 




At Bundoran 


Noon. 


20'.5 


16-6 June 29th . . 


2 


12-7 


13- 






! 2 


23-9 


16-6 


4 


12-2 


13- 

! 



334 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VII. 







i 


ll 


i 




2 

3 


IT 

If 


Date and Position. 


1 


so 


Sec 

1 si 


1 Date and Position. 

j 


3 


12 








H 


H=5 






H 


H^J 






Dg. 


Deg. 






Deg. 


Deg. 






Cent. 


Cent. 






Cent. 


Ceni 


June 29th . . 


6 


13-6 


13-3 


July 2nd . . . 


i 4 


16-2 


H-g" 




8 


14-4 


13-3 




6 


15-5 


14-&. 




10 


16-6 


13-9 


1 


8 


14-7 


14-4s 


Lat. 55° 11' N. ) 
Long.ll°31'W. j 


Noon. 


16-6 


14-4 




10 
Midn. 


15-0 
14-4 


14-6 
13-9 




2 


16-1 


15-0 


July 3rd . . . 


2 


13-9 


13-9 




4 


15-5 


14-4 




4 


13-3 


13-9 




6 


15-5 


14-4 




6 


14-9 


14-1 1 




8 


15-0 


14-4 




8 


15-5 . 


141 1 




10 


13-6 


13-9 




10 


16-1 


14-0 1 




Midn. 


13-3 


13-9 


Lat. 56°58'N. ) 
Long. 13° 17' W. j 


Noon. 




13-91 

:: 


June 30tli . . 


2 


13-0 


14-1 


15-3 




4 


13-3 


14-0 




2 


16-9 


14-4 




6 


16-6 


13-9 




4 


16-1 


13-9 




8 


18-0 


13-9 




6 


14-7 


13-6 




10 


16-1 


14-4 




8 


13-9 


12-5 


Xat. 55°44'N. ) 
Long. 12° 53' W. ] 


Noon. 


16-4 


14-4 




10 
Midn. 


13-3 

12-7 


12-6 
12-2 




2 


17-7 


14-5 


July 4tli . . . 


2 


13-4 


13-6 




4 


17-7 


14-4 




4 


13-9 


13-9 




6 


15-8 


15-0 




6 


13-6 


14-0 




8 


15-0 


15-0 




8 


14-1 


13-6 




10 


14-4 


15-3 




10 


14-7 


14-7 


July 1st . . . 


Midn. 
2 


13-6 
12-7 


14-4 
13-9 


Lat. 56°47'N. ) 
Long. 12°49'W. 1 


Noon. 


15-0 


13-9 




4 


13-3 


13-9 




2 


14-4 


14-7 




6 


15-5 


14-4 i 




4 


14-4 


14-8 




8 


16-3 


14-4 




6 


13-9 


14-8 




10 


17-3 


14-7 




8 


13-9 


14-9 




Noon. 


17-2 


14-8 




10 


13-9 


16-0 




2 


17-2 


15-5 




Midn. 


13-3 


14-7 




4 


16-6 


15-0 


July 5th . . . 


2 


12-7 


15-0 




6 


15-0 


14-4 : 




4 


13-3 


15-0 




8 


14-4 


14-4 1 




6 


13-9 


14-7 




10 


14-1 


14-1 




8 


13-9 


14-7 




Midn. 


14-1 


14-1 1 




10 


14-4 


14-7 


July 2nd . . . 


2 
4 


14-1 
14-1 


13-9 1 
14-0 


Lat. 56°41'N ( 
Long. 12° 56' W. ( i 


Noon. 


13-9 


14-7 




6 


15-0 


14-1 


1 


2 


14-4 


15-0 




8 


15-5 


14-1 




4 


13-3 


15-0 




10 


15-5 


14-4 1 




6 


12-7 


14-4 J 


Lat. 56° 9'N. ) 
Long. 14^ 10' AV. ( 


Noon. 


17-7 


14-4 




8 
10 


12-2 
12-5 


14-1 
14-4 I 


1 
1 


2 

i 


n-4 


14-7 




Midn. 


12-5 


14-4 

\ 



CHAP. VI J.] 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



335 











si 






2 


s| 




Date and Position. 


1 


1° 


is 

II j 


Date and Position. 






ll 








H 


H- 1 






H 


^•o 








Deg. 


Deg 






Deg. 


Deg. 








Cent. 


Cent. ' 






Cent. 


Cent. 




July 6th . . . 


2 


12-2 


13-9 1 


In Lough Swilly 


Noon. 


15-8 


13-3 


j 




4 


12-7 


13-9 




2 


16-1 


13-3 






6 


12-4 


13-8 




4 


15-5 


13-0 






8 


13-9 


14-1 j 




6 


15-3 


13-3 






10 


14-1 


13-9 1 




8 


13-9 


13-3 




Lat. 56°22'N. / 


Noon. 




13-9 




10 


12-2 


13-3 




Long. irS/'W. \ 






Midn. 


11-6 


12-7 






2 


15-0 




July 10th . . 


2 


11-6 


13-6 






4 


15-3 


14-1 




4 


12-2 


13-6 






6 


13-9 


14-4 




6 


14-1 


13-0 






8 


13-3 


14-4 




8 


16-1 


13-4 






10 


12-0 


13-9 




10 


16-1 


13-4 






Midn. 


11-1 


13-3 


In Lough Foyle 


Noon. 


17-7 


14-4 




July 7th . . . 


2 


12-7 


13-3 




2 


17-7 


15-0 






4 


14-1 


13-3 




4 


18-3 


14-7 


> 




6 


14-7 


13-3 




6 


16-1 


14-4 




8 


14-7 


13-3 




8 


14-4 


13-9 




10 


15-0 


13-4 




10 


13-9 


-13-3 


i 


Lat. 55°55'N. \ 
Long. 10° 17' W. } 


Noon. 


15-0 


13-3 


July 11th . . 


Midn. 

2 


14-4 
15-0 


13-9 
14-4 






2 


15-0 


13-9 




4 


13-9 


14-4 






4 


15-0 


13-6 




6 


14-7 


13-9 






6 


15-0 


13-9 




8 


16-3 


13-9 






8 


15-0 


13-9 




10 


16-6 


13-6 






10 
Midn. 


14-4 
14-4 


13-3 
13-3 


At Moville, ) 
Lough Foyle ] 


Noon. 


18-9 


14-4 


j 


July 8th . . . 


2 


14-4 


13-9 




2 


20-5 


15-5 


A 




4 


14-4 


13-6 




4 


21-1 


15-0 






6 


15-5 


13-9 




6 


18-9 


14-4 






8 


15-5 


13-9 




8 


18-0 


14-4 






10 


15-0 


13-9 




10 


15-8 


13-9 




Lat. 56° 6' N. \ 
Long. 9° 36' W. ] 


Noon. 


15-0 


13-3 


July 12th . . 


Midn. 

2 


15-8 
15-3 


14-4 
15-0 






2 


14-7 


13-6 




4 


13-0 


14-7 






4 


15-0 


13-6 




6 


13-9 


11-4 






6 


13-3 


13-9 




8 


15-5 


11-1 






8 


13-3 


13-6 




10 


16-1 


10-5 






10 
Midn. 


13-3 
12-7 


13-9 
12-7 


Off Belfast ") 
Lough . . . ) 


Noon. 


15-5 


11-1 




July 9th . . . 


2 


12-2 


13-9 




2 


16-1 


11-1 






4 


12-2 


12-7 




4 


13-9 


14-4 






6 








6 


14-4 


14-4 






8 


14-1 


13-3 




8 


14-4 


14-1 






10 


15-5 


13-3 




10 


12-7 


12-2 





















336 



Date and Position. 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 




CHAP. 


V'll. 




£ 


ti 






2 


£§• : 




s 


^■^ 






s 


Pt^ 


1 


S o 


11 

11 


Date and Position. 


^ 
S 


1" 


si 
il > 




H 


^■5 






H 


H^ 




Deg. 


Deg. 






Deg. 


Deg. 




Cent. 


Cent. 






Cent. 


Cent. 


Midn. 


12-2 


11-6 


July 16th . . 


4 


16-1 


19-4 


2 


10-5 


13-3 


! 


6 


16-1 


18-9 


4 


iri 


13-3 




8 


17-7 


18-9 


6 


12-2 


13-3 




10 


17-2 


18-9 


8 


13-3 


13-6 


1 


Midn. 


14-7 


18-9 


10 


13-3 


14-1 


, July 17th . . 


2 


127 


18-3 


Noon. 


15-5 


15-5 




4 


12-2 


17-2 


2 


17-2 


17-2 




6 


16-4 


18-3 1 


4 


16-6 


17-2 




8 


17-7 


18-3 f 


6 


17-7 


17-2 




10 


19-4 


18-9 1 


8 


15-5 


17-2 


At Belfast . . 


Noon." 


26-1 


19-7 1 


10 


12-2 


16-6 




2 


18-9 


13-9 


Midn. 


11-6 


16-6 




4 


15-3 


11-6 


2 


13-3 


16-6 




6 


14-7 


11-6 


4 


13-3 


16-6 




8 


15-0 


12-7 


6 


14-1 


16-3 




10 


15-0 


13-9 


8 


15-8 


16-6 




Midn. 


16-6 


15-5 


10 


17-5 


16-6 


'July 18th . . 


2 


16-1 




Noon. 


17-8 


16-6 




4 


15-5 




2 


18-3 


16-6 




6 


16-1 




4 


17-8 






8 


15-5 




6 








10 


16-9 




8 






OffTuskarL.H. 


Noon. 


16-6 




10 


16-1 






2 


18-9 




Midn. 


16-1 


16-6 




4 


19-4 




2 


15-5 


16-1 




6 


17-9 




4 


15-0 


16-6 




8 


19-4 




6 


16-6 


16-1 




10 


18-0 




8 


18-3 


16-4 




Midn. 


17-7 




10 


20-5 


17-7 


July 19th . . 


2 


16-1 




Noon. 


21-4 




\ 


4 


15-5 




2 


21-1 






6 


16-3 




4 


21-1 






8 


19-7 




6 


20-5 


17-2 




10 


21-6 




8 


19-4 


17-7 


At Haulbowline 


Noon. 


22-8 




10 


19-4 


17-2 




2 


20-0 




Midn. 


17-7 


17-2 




4 






2 


17-2 


17-2 




6 


20-0 




4 


16-6 


17-2 




8 


17-2 


17-4 


6 


17-5 


17-2 




10 


16-6 


16-6 


8 


18-9 


17-2 




Midn. 


16-6 


16-6 


10 


22-5 


17-7 


July 20th . . 


2 


16-9 


17-7 


Noon. 


22-5 


18-9 




4 


16-6 


18-0 


2 


17-2 


18-9 


1 


6 


17-6 


18-3 



CHitt«v^JI.] 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



33 



Hate and Position. 



July 20th . . 

Laf. 50° 28' N. 
Lonor. 9=^ 37' W. 



July 21st 



Lat. 48° 51' N. ^ 
Long. 11° 8'W. j" 



July. 22nd 



Lat. 47° 38' N. 
Lonor. 12°11' W. 



July 23rd 



Lat. 47°39'N. 
Long. ir52'W. 



10 

Noon. 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 

Midn. 

2 

4 

6 

8 
10 

Noon. 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 

Midn. 

2 

4 

6 

8 
10 

Noon. 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 

Midn. 

2 

4 

6 

8 
10 

Noon. 

2 





Temperature 
of Sea-Surface. 


Deg. 

Cent. 


peg. 1 
Cent, i 


20-5 


18-3 1 


21-1 


18-9 


22-2 


•18-9 


20-8 


19-7 


20-0 


19-4 


20-0 


18-9 


18-6 


18-3 


17-7 


18-3 


17-2 


18-0 


17-7 


17-7 


17-2 


16-9 1 


17-7 


17-5 1 


17-7 


17-5 


18-9 


17-5 


19-4 


17-5 " 


20-8 


17-2 


18-3 


17-2 


18-3 


17-2 


18-0 


17-7 


17-7 


17-7 


17-7 


17-7 


17-7 


16-9 


17-7 


17-7 


18-3 


18-3 


18-9 


18-0 


17-2 


17-7 


19-4 


18-3 


19-4 


18-3 


20-0 


18-3 


18-9 


18-3 


: 17-5 


18-3 


17-5 


18-3 


17-2 


18-0 


17-2 


18-0 


16-6 


18-3 


17-7 


17-7 


19-4 


18-0 


19-1 


18-0 


20-0 


18-0 


20-0 


18-3 



Date and Position. 



July 23rd . 



July 24th 



Lat. 47° 40' N. 
Long. 11° 34' W. 



July 25th 



Lat. 49° I'N. 
Long. 12°22' W. 



July 26th . 



Lat. 49° O'N. 
Long. 11°58'W. 



4 
6 

10. 

Midn. 

2 

4 

6 



10 

Noon. 

2 
4 
6 



10 
Midn. 

2 

4 

6 

8 
10 

Noon. 

i 

i 2 

I 4 

1 ^ 
! 8 

I 1^ 
' Midn. 

2 

; 4 

J 6 
I 8 
I 10 

: Noon. 

2 
4 
6 
8 
10 
Midn. 



Deg. 
Cent. 

17-2 
18-9 
17-5 
17-2 

17-2- 

17-2 

17-5 

18-6 

18-9 

18-3 

19-4 
18-9 
18-0 
18-0 
18-3 
17-7 
17-2 
16-9 
16-6 
17-7 
18-0 

18-9 

18-3 
18-3 
18-3 
19-4 
18-3 
18-9 
16-1 
16-1 
17-2 
16-1 
18-9 

18-9 

17-2 
16-9 
16-9 
16-4 
16-1 
15-8 



338 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VII. 







£ 


,i \ 










Date and Position. 


p3 


1 

So 


emperatu 
Sea-Surfa 


Date and Position. 


1 


fc 

c o 


II 

So 






EH 








H 


H^ 






Deg. 


1 

Deg. i 






Deg. 


Deg. 






Cent. 


Cent. 1 






Cent. 


Cent. 


July 27th . . 


2 
4 


15-5 
15-0 


17-7 
17-2 


Lat. 51° 5' N. ) 
Long. 11° 22' W.J 


Noon. 


17-7 


15-8 




6 


17-2? 


17-5 




2 


17-7 






8 


14-6 


17-5 




4 


17-5 


16-1 




10 


18-9 


17-5 




6 


17-2 


16-6 


Lat. 49° 10' N. ) 
Long. 12°45'W. ( 


Noon. 


18-0 


17-5 




8 
10 


16-6 
16-6 


16-6 
15-5 




2 


17-7 


17-5 




Midn. 


16-6 


15-8 




4 


18-9 


17-7 


July 31st . . . 


2 


16-3 


15-5 




6 


18-3 


17-7 




4 


15-5 


15-5 




8 


16-1 


17-7 




6 


15-3 


14-7 




10 


16-1 


17-7 


■ 


8 


17-2 


14-7 


' 


Midn. 


15-8 


177 i 




10 


18-9 


12-5 


! July 28th . . 


2 
4 


15-3 
15-0 


17-5 
16-6 


Near Cork Har- \ 
hour • . .] 


Noon. 


16-6 


12-2 




6 


15-5 


16-9 




2 




^ 


1 


8 


18-6 


16-6 




4 


18-3 


16-1 




10 


17-7 


16-6 




6 


16-1 


15-8 


Lat. 49° 59' N. \ 
Long. 12°22'W. / 


Noon. 


19-4 


16-6 




8 
10 


14-4 
12-7 


14-4 
11-6 




2 


19-7 


16-9 




Midn. 


12-7 


iri 


i 


4 


18-3 


171 


August 1st . . 


2 


12-2 




; 


6 


16-6 


16-9 




4 


12-2 




1 


8 


15-5 


16-9 




6 


13-9 






10 


15-8 


15-5 




8 


16-6 






Midn. 


16-1 


16-6 




10 


17-5 


14-7 


July 29th . . 


2 


161 


17-2 


At Queenstown . 


Noon. 


191 


14-7 


j 


4 


15-5 


17-7 




2 


18-9 


15-3 


I 


6 


15-8 


16-9 




4 


18-9 


15-8 


; . 


8 


16-4 


16-9 




6 








10 


16-6 


16-6 




8 


13-9 


15-8 


Lat. 50°24'N. ) 
Long. ir42'W. ] 


Noon. 


17-2 


16-3 




10 
Midn. 


12-2 
12-5 


15-0 
14-7 




2 


16-1 


16-3 


August 2nd . . 


2 


12-2 


14-4 




4 


17-7 


16-3 




4 


11-9 ■ 


15-0 




6 


17-7 


16-6 




6 


12-7 


15-5 


1 • 


8 


16-3 


17-2 


! 


• 8 


15-0 


15-3 




10 


16-1 


16-6 




10 


14-7 






Midn. 


16-1 


17-2 


At Queenstown . 


Noon. 


15-5 




July 30th . . 


2 


16-1 


15-8 




2 


15-5 




^ 


4 


1 161 


15-8 




4 


16-4 


15-0 




6 


1 17-2 


15-8 




6 


15-3 


15-5 




8 


17-2 


15-8 




8 


13-9 


15-0 


! 


10 


17-2 


15-5 


i 
1 


10 


13-9 


15-0 



















CHAP. VII.] 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



339 



Date and Position. 


1 


2 


emperature 
Sea-Surface. 


Date and Position. 


o 


It 
So 


II \ 

f' 3 
a^ 1 






&H 


^=3 I 






H 


^■s 






Deg. 


Deg. ! 






Deg. 


Deg. 






Cent. 


Cent. 






Cent. 


Cent. 


August 2nd . . 


Midn. 


13-9 


13-9 


August 6th . . 


10 


17-7 


14-7 


August 3rd . . 


2 


15-3 


14-4 


At Belfast . . 


Noon. 


18-3 


15-5 




4 


15-5 


14-1 




2 








6 


15-0 


13-9 1 




4 


18-9 


17-2 




8 


15-5 


13-9 ' 


■ 


6 


15-0 






10 


15-5 


14-1 




8 


130 


16-6 


Lat. 52° 22' N. ] 






] 




10 


11-1 


16-1 


Black water, > 


Noon. 


16-1 


13-6 ; 




Midn. 


10-0 


15-0 


Lat. N. 11 miles. ) 








August 7th . . 


2 


10-8 


15-5 




2 


16-2 


13-9 




4 


11-1 


15-5 




4 


18-3 


14-1 




6 


12-7 


15-5 




6 


17-2 


14-7 




8 


14-4 


15-5 




8 


15-5 


13-3 




10 


15-3 


15-5 




10 


14-4 


13-3 


At Belfast . ; 


Noon. 


15-0 


15-0 




Midn. 


14-4 


13-3 




2" 


15-3 


15-5 


August 4th . . 


2 


13-9 


13-9 




4 


15-0 


15-5 




4 


13-3 


13-9 




6 


15-5 






6 


13-3 


12-7 




8 








8 


11-9 


12-5 




10 


14-7 


15-5 




10 


13-9 


12-2 




Midn. 


15-0 


14-7 


At Copeland Is- \ 
land . . •] 


Noon. 


14-4 


12-5 


August 8th . . 


2 
4 


13-9 
13-9 


15-0 
15-0 




2 


15-0 


13-9 




6 








4 


16-1 


16-1 




8 


15-0 


15-0 




6 


16-6 


15-8 




10 


15-5 


15-3 




8 


13-3 




At Belfast . . 


Noon. 


17-2 


15-8 




10 


13-3 


15-0 




2 


20-8 


16-1 




Midn. 


11-1 


13-9 




4 


16-6 


15-8 


August 5th . . 


2 


11-1 


14-1 




6 


13-9 


15-5 




4 


10-5 


14-4 




8 


14-4 


15-8 




6 


12-7 


14-6 




10 


13-6 


15-8 




8 


15-3 


14-7 




Midn. 


13-9 


15-5 




10 


18-3 


15-0 


August 9th . . 


2 


13-3 


15-5 


At Belfast . . 


Noon. 


16-9 


15-5 




4 


13-3 


15-5 




2 


17-4 






6 


13-3 


15-3 




4 


17-7 


16-4 




8 


13-3 






6 


12-8 


15-5 




10 


14-4 


15-5 




8 






At Belfa,at . . 


Noon. 


15-0 


15-5 




10 


111 


15-0 




2 


16-1 


15-5 




Midn. 


10-0 


15-0 




4 


16-6 


15-5 


August 6th . . 


2 


10-5 


14-7 


1 


6 


14-4 


15-8 




4 


10-0 


14-4 




8 


11-4 


15-5 




6 


12-5 


14-1 




10 


10-5 


15-0 




8 


16-6 


14-4 




Midn. 


10-0 


14-4 








Z 


2 









340 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VII. 



Date aufi Position. 


§ 


fe 




1 

Date and Position. 


1 ■ 
1 % 


tl 






W 




i.^ 




W 


So 


tl 






H 


^=3 


■ 




Eh 


^■^ 






Deg. 


Deg. 


i 




Deg. 


Deg. 






Cent. 


Cent. 






Cent. 


C.nt. 


August 10th, . 


2 


' iri 


13-9 


August 13th. . 


. 2 


12-5 


11-6 




4 


10-5 


14-7 




4 


12-7 


i2-2 




6 


10-5 


14-4 




6 


13-3 


l'l-6 




8 


11-4 


14-4 




8 


120 


1^-7 




10 


13-9 






10 


11-4 


11-6 


At Belfast . . 


Noon. 


15-5 


15-0 




Midn. 


111 


12-2 


. 


2 


150 




August 14th . . 


2 


11-6 


12-0 




4 


14-7 






4 


11-4 


11-4 




6 


12-7 






6 


11-4 


12-2 




. 8 


11-9 


15-0 




8 


13-3 


12-0 




10 


11-6 


14-4 




10 


12-7 






Midn. 


11-6 


13-9 


At Stornoway . 


Noon. 


15-5 


12-2 


1 August 11th. . 


2 


10-5 


13-9 




2 


16-1 


12-5 




4 


11-7 


13-3 




4 


15-0 


127 




6 


12-2 


13-6 




6 


14-7 




1 


8 


13-3 


13-9 




8 


13-3 


12-2 




10 


14-4 






10 


13-3 


12-5 


111 Belfast Lough 


Noon. 


14-4 


14-4 




Midn. 


12-7 


12-2 




2 


15-3 


12-2 


August 15th . . 


2 


13-3 


12-2 




4 


15-0 


13-0 




4 


13-3 


12-2 


1 


6 


13-9 


12-2 




6 


13-3 


12-^ 


' 


8 


12-2 


12-2 




8 


13-9 


12-2 




10 


11-7 


11-7 




10 


13-9 


12-2 




Midn. 


12-0 


11-7 


At Stornoway . 


Noon. 


14-4 


12-2 


August 12th. . 


2 


12-2 


12-2 




2 


15-8 


L2-5 




4 


iri 


11-7 1 




4 


16-1 


12-5 




6 


11-4 


12-0 ; 




6 


15-5 


12-6 




8 


13-3 


12-5 j 




8 


13-3 


12| 




10 


17-2 


127 j 




10 


12-7 




OoU Island, ] 
North, 3 miles ( 


Noon. 


18-3 


12-5 ! 

1 


August 16th . . 


Midn. 

2 


13-0 
12-7 


J^l 




2 


15-3 


13-3 ! 




4 


12-7 


12-1 




4 


14-4 


12-2 1 




6 


13-3 


12-2 


i 


6 


12-7 


12-2 1 




8. 


13-3 • 


12f 


1 
1 


8 i 


12-2 


12-0 i 




10 


13-6 


12t 


1 


10 1 
Midn. 


11-7 
12-0 


12-2 i 
12-2 j 


Lat. 59° 21' N. ^ ! 
Long. 6° 58' W. ] i 


Noon. ' 


13-3 

1 


12-0 


August 13th. . 1 


^ 


12-7 


11-6 1 




2 1 


130 j 


12-2 < 




4 


12-5 


11-6 




4 j 


13-3 


12-2 




6 


12-7 


120 




6 


13-3 


12-2. 




8 


12-5 


12-0 


1 


8 


12-7 


12^ \ 




10 


14-7 


11-6 1 


1 


10 


12-5 


12-2 


Shiant Islands, \ 
N. N. W. 6 miles ^ 


Noon. 


13-3 


11-6 


August 17th. . 


Midn. ' 

1 


12-2 
111 


12-2 
11-6 



CHAP. VII. 



DEF.P-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



341 



Date and Position. 



AuOTSt 17 th 



L;i*. 59° 3(5' N. 
Long. 7° 12' W. 



August 18th 



Lat. 60° 25' N. \ 
Long. 8° 9' W. ( 



August 19th . 



Lat. 60° 13' N. 
Long. 6° 41' W. 



August 20th 



O 




Temperature 
of Sea-Sui-face. 




Deg. 
Cent. 


Deg. i 

Cent. 


4 


12-2 


11-9 


6 


12-2 


11-9 


8 


12-2 




10 


13-9 


12-2 


! Noon. 


13-9 


12-2 i 


2 


13-6 


11-9 \ 


4 


14-1 


11-9 1 


6 


130 


11-9 ' 


8 


12-5 


11-4 ^ 


10 


12-7 


IM ; 


Midn. 


12-2 


11-1 ! 


2 


12-2 


10-5 1 


4 


12-2 


11-1 ll 


6 


12-7 


11-1 


8 


13-9 


11-4 :| 


10 


13-6 


10-8 \ 


Noon. 


13-6 


11-4 


2 


12-7 


iri 


4 


12-5 


10-8 


6 


12-2 


11-1 1 


8 


12-2 


11-1 


10 


12-2 


11-1 


Midn. 


12-2 


iri 


2 


12'2 


111 


4 


12-2 


111 


6 


12-7 


11-4 


8 


12-7 


11-4 


10 


13-3 


11-4 


Noon. 


12-7 


111 


2 


13-3 


11-1 1 


4 


13-9 




6 


12-7 


11-1 


8 


12-7 


iri : 


10 


12-7 


111 


Midn. 


12-2 


10-5 


2 


12-2 


10-5 


4 


12-0 


lO'O 


6 


12-2 


10-8 


8 


12-5 


10-5 


10 


12-5 


10-3 



Date and Position. 



Lat. 60° 35' N. ] 
Long. 6° 41' W. ( 



August 21st 



Off Sandu in / 
Fjeroe Islands ( 



August 22nd 



At Thorshavn . 



August 23rd 



At Thorshavn 



3 
o 


2 


II 




Deg 

Cent. 


Deg. 

Cent. 


Noon. 


13-3 


11-4 


2 


12-7 


11-4 


4 


12-2 


11-6 


6 


9-4 


11-4 


8 


9-4 


10-5 


- 10 


9-7 


10-0 


Midn. 


lO'O 


9-4 


2 


10-0 


9-4 


4 


9-4 


9-4 


6 


10-0 


9-4 


8 


10-0 


10-0 


10 


13-6 


9-7 


Noon. 


13-3 


9-1 


2 


11-4 


8-8 


4 


11-7 


9-1 


6 


11-4 


91 


8 


10 5 


9-1 


10 


10-8 


9-4 


Midn. 


10-5 


9-4 


2 


10-5 


9-1 


4 


10-8 


9-4 


6 


HI 


9-1 


.8 


11-6 


9-4 


10 


12-7 


9-4 


Noon. 


14-4 


9-4 


2 


13-3 


9-7 


4 


12-2 


10-0 


6 


13-3 


9-7 


8 


10-5 


9-4 


10 


10-0 


9-4 


Midn. 


10-0 


9-4 


2 


9-4. 


9-4 


4 






6 


10-8 


9-4 

C\. i 



8 
10 
Noon. 
2 
4 
6 



10-5 
12-7 
12-7 
12-7 
12-7 
12-2 
11-6 



9-4 
9-7 
9-7 
9-4 
9-4 
9-4 
91 



342 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VII. 







£ 


e| 






« 








s 








^ 


3;2 


Date and Position. 


^ 




l| ; 


Date and Position. 


S 


II 






w 


to 


ll 1 




W 


§■■3 

05 


§!» 






H 


^^ 1 






H 


^•s 






Deg. 


Deg. 






Deg. 


Deg. 






Cent. 


Cent. 






Cent. 


Cent. 


August 23rd . 


10 


11-1 


9-4 


August 27th. . 


8 


11-1 


11-4 




Midn. 


11-1 


9-1 




10 


11-6 


11-6 


August 24th . . 


2 
4 


11-1 
11-1 


9-1 

9-4 1 


Lat. 60° 26' N. ) 
Long. 0° 15' E. ] 


Noon. 


12-5 


11-6 




6 


11-1 


9-4 




2 


13-3 


12-2 




8 


11-4 


9-1 




4 


12-2 


11-9 




10 


11-6 


9-1 




6 


11-1 • 


11-9 


About 10 miles ) 
EastofHaalso ] 


XT 








8 


iri 


12-2 


Noon. 


15-5 


9-1 

1 




10 


10-0 


12-2 




2 


12-0 


9-7 




Midn. 


9-4 


111 




4 


13-3 


10-0 


August 28th . . 


2 


10-5 


11-6 




6 


11-1 


9-4 




4 


12-2 


11-6 




8 


11-1 


9-4 




6 


11-9 


11-9 




10 


10-5 


9-4 




8 


10-0 


111 




Midn. 


11-1 


9-4 




10 


10-0 


111 


August 25 th , . 


2 


11-6 


9-7 


At Lerwick . . 


Noon. 


9-4 


111 




4 


11-6 


9-7 




2 


10-5 


111 




6 


12-5 


9-4 




4 


11-1 


111 




8 


12-5 


9-7 




6 


9-7 


111 




10 


12-5 


9-4 




8 


8-8 


111 


Lat. 61° 36' N. ) 
Long. 3° 45' W. ( 


Noon. 


12-2 


9-4 




10 
Midn. 


7-5 

7-2 


111 
111 




2 


12-2 


9-7 


August 29th . . 


2 


7-2 


111 




4 


11-6 


9-4 


~ 


4 


7-7 


10-3 




6 


11-6 


9-4 




6 


7-7 


11-4 




8 


11-4 


9-7 




8 


9-4 


111 




10 


11-4 


9-1 




10 


9-7 


111 




Midn. 


12-0 


10-5 


At Lerwick . . 


Noon. 


9-4 


111 


August 26th . . 


2 


12-0 


11-1 




2 


9-4 


111 




4 


12-0 


11-1 




4 


9-4 


111 




6 


12-0 


iri 




6 


9-1 


111 




8 


12-0 


11-4 




8 


7-7 


111 




10 


12-2 


11-6 




10 


7-7 


10-8 


Lat. 61° 14' N. ) 
Long. 1° 58' W. ] 


Noon. 


12-7 


11-4 


August 30th . . 


Midn. 
2 


8-9 
8-3 


10-8 
111 




2 


12-7 


11-4 




4 


77 






4 


11-6 


11-4 


' 


6 


8-3 


10-8 




6 


iri 


11-4 


1 


8 


10-3 


111 




8 


11-6 


11-4 


At Lerwick . . 


10 


11-1 


111 


1 


10 


11-6 


iri 


Noon. 


11-6 


111 




Midn. 


11-4 


11-1 


I 


2 


12-7 


11-4 


1 August 27th . . 


2 


11-1 


11-1 




4 


12-2 


111 


1 


4 


11-1 


11-1 




6 






J 
1 


6 


11-1 


iri 




8 


7-7 


111 



CHAP. VII.] 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



343 



Date aud Posiiion. 



August 30th . 
August 31st . 

At Lerwick . 



September 1st 



Lat. 60° 27' N. 
Long. 3° 11' W. 



September 2nd 



i Lat. 60° 29' N. 
Long. 4° 38' W. 



September 3rd . 



10 
Midn. 



Deg. 
Cent. 

7-2 
6-6 

7-2 

77 



6 


10-0 


8 


10-O,', 


10 


11-6 1 


Noon. 


12-2 i 


! 2 


13-6 


4 


11-1 


6 


10-5 


8 


11-1 


10 


10-8 


! Midn. 


10-5 


2 


11-1 


4 


11-1 1 


6 


11-6 ; 


8 


11-6 


10 


11-1 


Noon. 


11-1 


2 


12-2 


4 


13-3 


6 


11-6 


8 


11-4 


10 


11-1 


Midn. 


11-1 


2 


10-8 


4 


10-8 


6 


11-1 


8 


11-1 


10 


11-1 


Noon. 


11-4 


2 


li'4 


4 


11-6 1 


6 


11-6 1 


8 


11-1 


10 


11-6 


Midn. 


ll'l 


2 


11-6 


4 


iri 


6 


11-1 


8 


11-6 







1^ ^ 



Deg. 
Cent. 
11-1 
11-1 
10-5 
10-5 
11-1 
111 
10-8 
11-1 
11-1 
11-1 
11-1 
11-1 
10-8 
11-1 
11-1 
11-6 
11-6 
11-6 
11-4 

11-6 

11-6 
11-4 
11-1 
11-1 
11-6 
11-6 
10-8 
10-5 
10-3 
10-3 
10-3 

10-0 

10-3 
10-5 
11-1 
11-1 
11-4 
11-6 
11-1 
11-1 
11-6 
11-6 



Date und Position. 






September 3rd 
Lat. 60° 3' N. 
Long. 5° 10' W. 



September 4th 



Lat. 59° 43' N. 
Lono'. 6° 35' W. 



September 5th 



I Lat. 59° 38' N. 
Long. 8° 25' W. 



September 6th 



Lat. 59° 
Long. 9° 



37' N. 
4' W. 



10 
Noon. 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 

Midn. 

2 

4 

6 

8 
10 



Deg. 
Cent. 
13-0 



Deg. 
Cent. 
11-6 



12-7 I 11-6 



12-5 
12-2 
12-2 
12-5 
12-7 
12-7 
12-7 
13-3 
13-9 
13-9 
14-4 



Noon. I 14-4 



2 


13-6 


4 


12-0 


6 


iri 


8 


11-1 


10 


10-8 


: Midn. 


11-1 


1 2 


11-1 


i 4 


11-1 


6 


12-2 


8 


13-0 


10 


12-7 


Noon. 


12-7 


2 


130 


4 


12-7 



Noon. 


13-3 


2 


13-3 


4 


13-0 


6 


12-7 


8 


12-7 


10 


12-2 


Midn. 


12-5 


2 


12-2 


4 


12-5 


6 


12-7 


8 


12-7 


10 


13-3 



11-6 
11-6 
11-4 
11-4 
11-6 
12-2 
12-2 
12-2 
12-5 
12-5 
12-2 

12-2 

12-2 
12-2 
12-2 
11-6 
11-6 
12-0 
12-0 
11-6 
11-6 
11-6 
12-0 

12-2 

11-6 
11-6 
11-6 
11-6 
11-4 
11-4 
11-4 
11-4 
11-6 
11-6 
12-0 

12-2 



12-2 



344 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VII. 



« 




£ 


. 1 
« S ! 






£ 


ti 






5 








p 


p^ 


DiitP and Position. 


p 


%i 


Hi 


Date and Position. 


3 


<u 






^ 


P 


11 1 




S 








H 


-=5 ' 

t 






EH 


h| 






Deg. 


De.. 






Beff. • 


Deg. 






Cent. 


Cent. 






Cent. 


Cent. 


September 6th . 


6 


12-2 


12-0 


September 10th 


6 


14-4 


12-7 




8 


12-2 


12-2 ; 


■ 


8 


15-0 


12-7 




10 


12-2 


12-2 




10 


13-9 


12-7 




Midn. 


11-6 


11-6 i 


At Stornoway . 


Noon. 


16-3 


13-3 


September 7 th . 


2 


11-4 


11-6 i 




2 


16-3 


13-9 




4 


10-5 


11-6 




4 


15-0 


13-6 




6 


10-5 


11-9 , 




6 


13-9 


13-3 




• 8 


12-2 


11-6 




8 


12-7 


13-3 




10 


14-7 


11-9 




10 


12-2 


13*0 


Lat. 59° 41' N. ( 
Long. T 32' W. j 


Noon. 


15-5 


12-2 


September 11th 


Midn. 

2 


11-6 

iri 


12-7 
12-7 




2 


13-9 


12-2 




4 


11-1 


12-7 




4 


13-3 


12-2 




6 


11-1 


12-7 




6 


12-7 


12-2 




8 


11-1 


12-7 




8 


12-5 


12-5 




10 


13-9 


12-7 




10 


12-7 


12-2 


At Stornoway . 


Noon. 


15-3 


12-7 




Midn. 


12-2 


12-2 




2 


13-3 


12*2 


September 8th . 


2 


12-2 


11-6 




4 


11-6 


12-7 




4 


12-7 


11-9 




6 


11-4 


12-7 




6 


12-7 


11-9 




8 


10-8 


12-7 




8 


13-6 


12-2 




10 


9-7 


12-2 




10 


15-0 


12-7 




Midn. 


9-4 


12-2 


Lat. 59° 7' N. ) 
Long. 6" 35' W. ] 


Noon. 


14-4 


12-7 


September 12th 


2 
4 


91 

8-9 


12-2 
12-2 




2 


15-3 


12-7 




6 


9-4 


12-2 




4 


15-5 


12-7 




8 


11-4 


12-2 


,. 


6 


13-3 


12-5 




10 


12-5 


12 2 




8 


13-3 


12-5 


At Stornoway . 


Noon. 


12-7 


12-2 




10 


13-3 


13-0 




2 


12-7 


12-5 




Midn. 


12-7 


13-0 




4 


12-7 


12-5 


September 9th . 


2 


13-3 


12-7 




6 


111 


12-2 




4 


13-3 


12-7 




8 


10-5 


12-2 




6 


13-3 


12-7 




10 


10-0 


12-2 




8 


13-0 


12-7 


. 


Midn. 


11-1 


12-0 




10 


13-3 


12-7 


i September 13th 


2 


10-0 


11-6 


At Stornoway . 


Noon. 


13-9 


12-7 




4 


91 


111 




2 








6 


11-1 


11-6 




4 


14-4 


12-7 


{ 


8 


11-1 


11-6 




6 


15-3 


12-7 




10 


13-0 


12-2 




8 
10 


15-5 
15-5 


12-7 
13-3 


i In Loch Shell- ) 
1 dag . . . . } 


Noon. 


12-2 


12-0 




Midn. 


15-5 


12-7 




2 


14-1 


12-2 


September 10th 


2 


13-9 


12-7 




4 


14-4 


12-2 




4 


14-4 


12-7 


i 


n 


13-9 


12-2 



CHAP. VIJ.] 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



345 



Date and Position. 


o 


-2 


ll 

SOJ 

Ueg. 
Cent. 


Date and Position. 


o 


^■"3 


Temperature 
of Sea-Surface. 






Deg. 

Cent. 








Deg. 
Cent. 


Deg. 
Cent. 


September 13fch 


8 


13-0 


12-2 


Abreast of Mull 




Noon. 


12-7 


13-0 




10 


12-2 


12-2 






2 


14-4 


13-3 




Midn. 


12-2 


12-2 


1 




4 


14-4 


13-3 


September 14th 


2 


11-6 


12-5 


■ 




6 


13-6 


12-7 




4 


12-2 


12-2 






8 


13-0 


13-3 




6 


12-5 


12-2 






10 


12-5 


13-0 




8 


12-2 


12-7 






Midn. 


12-0 


13-0 




10 


11-6 


12-7 


1 
1 










II. Surface 


Tempe 


RATURE 


S OBSER 


VED DURING THE 


Summer 


OF 187 


0. 



Date and Position 



July 6th 



Off Scilly Islands 



July 7 th 



Lat. 48° 49' N. \ 
Long. 9° 35' W. / 



s 

^ 


H 


Temperature 
of Sea-Surface. 




Deg. 
Cent. 


Deg. 
Cent. 


2 


13-9 


12-2 


4 


14-4 


12-7 


6 


13-9 


12-5 


8 


14-7 


14-7 


10 


15-3 


13-6 


Noon. 


18-6 


18-3 


2 


19-7 


17-4 


4 


19-4 


18-3 


6 


18-9 


18-3 


8 


17-4 


17-7 


10 


16-6 


17-2 


Midn. 


16-1 


17-2 


2 


16-6 


16-6 


4 


16-6 


16-6 


6 


16-6 


16-6 


8 


16-9 


16-9 


10 


17-7 


16-4 


NOOD. 


18-3 


16-4 


2 


19-4 


16-4 


4 


18-9 


17-2 



Date and Position. 



July 7 th 
July 8th 



Lat. 48°31'N. \ 
I'W. ] 



Lonor. 10° 6' 



July 9 th 





£ 


£§ 




3 


B^ 


f^ 


ti '-< 


rt ^ 


^ 


z'< 


E 73 


M 


.go 


^cS 




S 


cj CO 




H 


^=3 




Deg. 


Deg. 




Cent. 


Cent. 


6 


19-4 


16-4 


8 


17-2 


16-1 


10 


16-9 


16-4 


Midn. 


16-6 


16-4 


2 


16-6 


16-1 


4 


16-1 


16-1 


6 


16-9 


16-1 


8 


19-1 


16-2 


10 


20-8 


16-1 


Noon. 


19-6 


17-2 


2 


20-0 


17-5 


4 


18-6 


17-5 


6 


19-1 


17-5 


8 


17-7 


17-2 


10 


16-9 


17-2 


Midn. 


16-6 


16-9 


2 


16-1 


16-9 


4 


16-6 


16-6 


(' 


16-1 


16-6 


8 


16-1 


16-6 



346 


THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 




[chap. ^ 


vu. 


i 


, 




If 




u 




ill 

2 3 !■' 


Date and Position. 


1 


|2 


11 


Date and Position. 


1 


So 








<u 


©CO 






<p 


<VX 






H 


H^ 






H 


^■s i 






Deg. 


Deg. 






Deg. 


Deg. 






Cent. 


Cent. 






Cent. 


Cent. 


July 9tli . . . 


10 


17-5 


16-6 


July 12th . . 


6 


17-9 


18-0 


Lat. 48° 26' N. ) 
Long. 9° 43' W. ) 


Noon. 


17-5 


16-6 




8 
10 


16-6 
16-6 


18-0 
17-2 




2 


16-4 


16-6 




Midn. 


16-6 


17-7. 




4 


17-2 


16-6 


July 13th . . 


2 


17-2 


17-7 




6 


16-4 


16-6 




4 


17-5 


18-3 




8 


16-4 


16-1 




6 


17-7 


17-7* 




10 


16-6 


16-6 




8 


18-6 


17-5 




Midn. 


16-1 


16-4 




10 


18-9 


17-7 


July 10th . . 


2 
4 


16-1 
16-4 


16-6 
16-4 


Lat. 44° 59' N. ) 
Long. 9° 33' W. \ 


Noon. 


19-7 


18-2 




6 


16-6 


16-4 




2 


21-1 


18-9 ' 




8 


16-4 


16-4 




4 


22-5 


18-9 




10 


17-3 


16-6 




6 


21-1 


18-3 


Lat. 48° 28' N. ) 
Long. 9° 42' W. i 


Noon. 


16-1 


16-6 




8 
10 


17-5 
17-5 


18-3 
18-0 




2 


17-7 


16-9 




Midn. 


17-2 


18-0 




4 


19-4 


16-9 


July 14th . . 


2 


17-7 


17-9 




6 


19-6 


16-6 




4 


17-2 


17-2 




8 


16-2 


16-6 




6 


16-9 


161 




10 


16-1 


16-1 




8 


18-3 


161 




Midn. 


16-1 


16-1 




10 


18-6 


15-5 


July 11th . . 


2 


16-1 


16-6 


Cape Finisterre, ) 










4 


16-4 


16-4 


E. N. N. [ 


Noon. 


18-6 


15 8 




6 


16-4 


16-1 


10 miles . . ) 






i 




8 


18-3 


16-1 




2 


18-6 


15-8 \ 




10 


18-6 


16-6 




4 


19-1 


15-8 


i Lat. 48° 8' N. 
Long. 9° 18' W. 


Noon. 


18-6 


16-9 




6 

8 


17-5 
16-6 


15-8 
15-5 




2 


18-4 


17-2 




10 


16-6 


15-8 




4 


19-1 


17-3 




Midn. 


16-6 


161 




6 


17-3 


17-4 


July 15th . . 


2 


16-6 


161 




8 


16-6 


16-6 




4 


16-6 


16-6 : 




10 


17-2 


17-2 




6 


17-5 


16-4 ^ 




Midn. 


17-2 


17-7 




8 


18-3 


16-9 : 


July 12th . . 


2 


17-2 


177 I 




10 


18-9 


17-2 ' 




4 
6 


17-7 
17-4 


17-7 
18-0 


Lat. 42° 11' N. ) 
Long. 9° 13' W. ) 


Noon. 


20-0 


16-4 , 




8 


17-7 


18-3 




2 


22-3 


17-6 




10 


18-6 


18-0 




4 


21-2 


17-9 


Lat. 46° 26' N. ) 
Long. 9° 31' W. \ 


Noon. 


19-1 


18-2 




6 

8 


19-0 
17-9 


18-9 j 
18-9 j 




2 


19-4 


18-0 




10 


17-7 


18-9 i 




4 


17-7 


18-0 




Midn. 


18-9 


19-3 i 



CHAP. VII.] 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



347 







% 


il 






2 

s 


2§ 

3ig 


Date and Position. 


3 

O 


ii 


Is 


Date and Position. 


3 

o 


w 


is 

11 






s 


§!» 








am 






H 


^=0 






H 


^^ 






Deg. 


Deg. 






Deg. 


Deg. 






Cent. 


Cent. 






Cent. 


Cent. 


July 16th . . 


2 


15-5 


190 


July 19th . . 


2 


20-3 


18-0 




4 


17-2 


18-9 




4 


^0-3 


18-0 




6 


18-3 


17-9 




6 


19-5 


17-9 




8 


20-1 


19-4 




8 


19-4 


18-3 




10 


23-2 


17-9 




10 


18-9 


18-4 


At Vigo . . . 


Noon. 


23-6 


17-8 




Midn. 


18-6 


18-4 


' 


2 


23-6 


17-9 


July 20th . . 


2 


18-3 


18-3 




4 


23-4 


18-0 




4 


18-3 


18-3 




6 


21-6 


17-2 


' 


6 


19-4 


18-4 




8 


18-4 


16-1 




8 


24-4 


18-9 




10 


17-7 


16-6 




10 


23-3 


20-5 


July nth . . 


Midn. 
2 


17-2 
17-7 


16-9 
16-1 


•Lat. 40° 0' N. ) 
Long. 9° 49' W. \ 


Noon. 


24-4 


21-1 




4 


17-5 


16-5 




2 


25-5 


21-1 




6 


17-7 


16-6 




4 


26-3 


21-8 




8 


19-7 


16-4 




6 


23-3 


21-8 




10 


22-2 


16-1 




8 


21-6 


19-7 


At Vigo . . . 


Noon. 


32-2 


16-4 




10 


21-3 


20-8 




2 


26-6 


16-9 




Midn. 


21-3 


20-5 




4 


25-8 


15-8 


July 21st ..." 


2 


21-1 


20-5 




6 


22-5 


16-4 




4 


21-5 


19-7 




8 


20-8 


16-4 




6 


23-3 


18-9 




10 


20-0 


16-5 




8 


22-7 


19-4 




Midn. 


18-6 


16-2 




10 


24-5 


19-4 


July 18th . . 


2 

4 


18-3 
17-7 


16-4 


Lat. 39° 39' N. 
Long. 9° 36' W. 


Noon. 


25-5 


19-4 




6 


18-9 


16-1 




2 


25-0 


19-4 




8 


19-4 


16-6 




4 


23-9 


19-7 




10 


18-9 






6 


21-8 


19-4 


Lat. 41° 55' N. \ 
Long. 9" 30' W. ) 


Noon. 


19-1 


16-2 




8 
10 


20-1 
19-6 


19-4 
19-4 




2 


18-6 


16-3 




Midn. 


19-5 


19-1 




4 


18-9 


16-3 


July 22nd . . 


2 


19-4 


18-9 




6 


18-9 


16-4 




4 


18-9 


18-9 1 




8 


18-3 


16-6 




6 


20-0 


18-2 




10 


18-3 


16-6 




8 


21-2 


18-3 




Midn. 


17-7 


16-4 




10 


25-0 


19-4 


July 19th . . 


2 

4 


17-7 
17-7 


16-9 
16-9 


The Farilhoes, ) 
S.S.E. 5 miles \ 


Noon. 


25-0 


18-9 




6 


19-4 


16 9 




2 


23-9 


19-1 




8 


20-8 


17-5 




4 


23-3 


20-5 




10 


20-1 


17-7 




6 


23-9 


19-4 


Lat. 40° 16' N. ) 
! Long. 9° 33' W. ] 


Noon. 


20-3 


17-9 


1 


8 
10 


20-0 
18-9 


19-4 
18-3 



348 


THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 




CHAP. 


rii. 

I 
1 


1 




t 


£§ 




1 

1 


2 




Date and Position. 


o 




So 


3:2 

is 


Date and Position. 


1 a 


l! 

ft: o 


n 

il ,. 






H 


^1 






H 








Deg. 


Deg. 






Deg. 


Deg. 






Cent. 


Cent. 






Cent. 


Cent. 


July 22nd . . 
July 23rd . . 


Midn. 
2 


191 
18-9 


18-0 
18-5 


Lat. 38° 17' N. ) 
Long. 9' 23' W. \ 


Noon. 


20-0 


18-9 




4 


19-3 


19-4 




2 


20-0 


19-1 




6 


20-5 


18-3 




4 


20-0 


19-1 




8 


23-3 


20-5 




6 


20-0 


19-4 




10 


247 


22-0 




8 


19-4 


191 


At Lisbon , . 


Noon. 


22-5 


21-1 




10 


20-0 


19-1 




2 


23-6 


19-1 




Midn. 


20-0 


19-0 




4 


21-6 


20-0 


July 27th . . 


2 


19-4 


19-1 




6 


23-0 


21-6 




4 


19-4 


19-1 




8 


20-5 


20-3 




6 


•19-4 


19-1 




10 


19-5 


19-1 




8 


20-0 


19-0 




Midn. 


20-1 


19-5 




10 


21-3 


20-0 


July 24th . . 


2 
4 


19-4 
19-4 


18-6 
20-5 


Lat. 37° 18' N. ) 
Long. .9° 12' W. i 


Noon. 


2ri 


20-3 




6 


20-1 


21-6 




2 


23*3 


20-5 




8 


20-8 


20-8 




4 


21-1 


20-6 




10 


21-2 


20-1 




6 


20-0 


207 


At Lisbon . . 


Noon. 


24-1 


19-4 




8 


20-0 


20-5 




.2 


23-0 


20-5 




10 


19-4 


20-5 11 




4 


22-1 


20-1 




Midn. 


19-5 


20-8 1 




6 


22-2 


21-2 


July 2Sth . . 


2 


19-4 


2<)-3 ' 




8 


20-5 


21-4 




4 


19-4 


20-5 




10 


20-0 


20-0 




6 


19-1 


20-0 




Midn. 


19-4 


197 




8 


21-1 


21-1 


July 25th . . 


2 


19-1 


20-0 




10 


21-1 


212 




4 
6 


19-0 

20-3 


20-0 
191 


Lat. 36° 55' N. ) 
Long. 8° 44' W. \ 


Noon. 


21-8 


21-3 




8 


20-4 


19-4 




2 


21-6 


21-6 




10 


20-8 


19-1 




4 


21-6 


22-0 


La.t. 38= 10' N. ) 
Long. 9° 29' W. \ 


Noon. 


21-8 


19-4 




6 

8 


20-5 
18-9 


20-5 
20-0 




2 


21-1 


19-4 




10 


18-9 


19-4 




4 


20-8 


19-4 




Midn. 


18-6 


19-1 




6 


21-6 


19-4 


July 29th . . 


2 


18-3 


197 




8 


20-0 


18-0 




4 


18-3 


197 




10 


18-6 


177 




6 


21-1 


21-6 




Midn. 


18-0 


177 




8 


22-1 


22-4 


July 26th . . 


2 


18-3 


17-4 




10 


23-0 


22-2 




4 
6 


18-3 
19-1 


177 
191 


Lat. 36° 45' N. ) 
Long, 8° 8' W. i 


Noon. 


23-3 


22-5 




8 


19-4 


19-1 




2 


23-3 


22-3 


i 


10 

! 


20-3 


19-3 




4 


24-8 


231 



CHAP. VII.] 


DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 




3 


49 






i i 


II 




1 ^ 




£1 


Date and Position. 






SCO 


Date and Position. 




So 


II 

& OS 
§02 






H 


^=o 






H 


o 




1 


De- 


Dey. 


1 




Deg. 


Des. 




1 


Cent 


Cent. 






Cent. 


Cent. 


July 29th . . 


1 6 


22-2 


22-5 


! August 2nd . . 


8 


21-7 


23-2 




8 


21-1 


22-3 


j 


10 


22-8 


24-4 




10 
Midn. 


21-1 

20-5 


21-6 
21-6 


1 Lat. 36° 18' N. ) 
j Long. 6° 45' W. 


Noon. 


22-8 


23-0 


July 30th . . 


2 


20-3 


21-9 


1 


2 


22-5 


23-0 




1 4 


2()-5 


22-2 




4 


22-7 


23-0 




i 6 


20-5 


22-8 




6 


21-8 


22 8 




8 


22-4 


22-5 




8 


21-2 


22-2 




16 


23-3 


22-9 


1 


10 


21-3 


22-5 


Lat. 36° 27' N. ) 
Long (f 39' W. \ 


Noon. 


23-9 


23-1 


August 3rd . . 


Midn. 

2 


21-1 
20-5 


22-2 
22-0 




2 


25-3 


24-1 




4 


20-5 


22-0 




4 


22-5 


24-1 




6 


21-8 


22-8 




6 


22-8 


24-2 




8 


23-7 


22-2 




8 


21-6 


24-1 




10 


23-3 


21-8 




10 
Midn. 


21-6 
21-5 


24-3 
24-3 


Lat. 35' 39' N. ) 
Long. 7" 4' W. \ 


Noon, 


216 


22-0 


July 31st . . . 


2 


21-1 


22-8 




2 


22-6 


22-2 




4 


21-9 


23-3 




4 


24-1 


22-2 


_ 


6 


21-9 


23-6 




6 


23-2 


22-2 




8 


22-5 


24-1 




8 


21-8 


22-2 




10 


24-5 


23-9 




10 


21-8 


22-0 


; At Cadiz . . . 


Noon. 


25-2 


24-0 




Midn. 


22-5 


22-0 




.2 


25-1 


24-1 


August 4th . . 


2 • 


22-2 


22-2 




4 


24-0 


24-3 




4 


22-2 


22-2 




6 


24-0 


24-4 




6 


23-2 


22-2 




8 


23-4 


24-4 




8 


23-9 


22-2 


1 


10 


22-7 


24-1 




10 


24-4 


23-3 


August 1st . . 


Midn. 

2 . 


22-5 
22-3 


24-1 
23-9 


Lat. 35° 35' N. / 
Long. 6° 24' W. ) 


Noon. 


25-0 


233 




4 


21-6 


22-8 




2 


27-2 


23-4 




6 


22-5 


23-9 




4 


25-6 


23-3 




8 


24-4 


24-1 




6 


24-4 


23-3 


, 


10 


24-1 


24-4 


• 


8 


22-2 


21-8 


At Cadiz . . . 


Noon. 


23-9 


24-7 




10 


22-2 


22-0 




2 


23-6 


24-4 




Midn. 


22-2 


22-2 




4 


23-6 


24-4 


October 1st . . 


2 


17-4 


18-9 




6 


21-6 


23-3 




4 


17-8 


18-9 


! 


8 


21-6 


23-6 




6 


18-0 


18-0 


' 


10 


21-6 


23 9 




8 


19-4 


17-9 




Midn. 


21-8 


23-9 




10 


22-1 


21-5 


igust 2nd . . . 

1 


2 ! 

4 


21-9 
21-3 


23-3 
23-0 


In Strait of } 
G;i>raltar . . i 


Noon. 


23-3 


22-2 




6 


21-6 

1 


23-3 

1 




2 

1 


24-1 


23-4 



350 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VII. 



Date and Position. 



October 1st . 



October 2nd . 



Lat. 36° 27' N. 
Long. 8° 31' W. 



October 3rd . 



Lat. 38° 39' N. 
Long. 9° 30' W. 



October 4th . 



Lat. 40° 57' N. 
Long. 9° 29' W. 





Z 




3 






i 

o 


1^ 


w 


1 o 




H 




Deg. 1 




Cent. 


4 


22-5 


6 


22-0 


8 


21-1 


10 


21-5 


Midn. 


20-8 


2 


21-1 


4 


22-3 


6 


22-6 


8 


24-7 


10 


24-7 


Noon. 


21-1 


2 


22-6 


4 


23-7 


6 


20-5 


8 


20-5 


10 


20-5 


Midn. 


20-5 


2 


20-0 


4 


19-4 


6 


19-1 


8 


18-3 


10 


18-6 


Noon. 


22-2 


2 


21-6 


4 


21-1 


6 


20-5 


8 


20-0 


10 


20-6 


Midn. 


20-5 


2 


20-8 


4 


20-6 


6 


21-1 


8 


21-6 


10 


22-2 


Noon. 


22-2 


2 


22-9 


4 


22-2 


6 


20-0 1 


8 


20-3 ! 


10 


18-9 


Midn. 


19-3 



g 5 



Deg. 
Cent. 
22-8 
22-6 
22-5 
22-2 
22-6 
22-8 
23-3 
22-9 
23-2 
23-3 

23-3 

23-4 
23-0 
22-5 
20-5 
20-8 
21-6 
21-1 
18-3 
20-5 
20-8 
20-5 

20-3 

20-5 
21-1 
20-6 
19-8 
20-3 
20-5 
21-1 
21-1 
21-1 
21-5 
21-0 

21-9 

21-1 
21-0 
20-5 
20-4 
19-4 
19-4 



Date and Position 



October 5 th . 



Lat. 43° 33' N. 
Long. 9° 3' W. 



October 6th 



Lat. 46° 12' N. 
LonjT. 8° 8'W. 



October 7th . 



Lat. 48° 51' N. 
Lons. 5° 54' W. 



October 8th 



u 

o 

w 






Deg. 
Cent. 


2 


18-3 


4 


18-6 


6 


17-5 


8 


17-2 j 


10 


19-8 ! 


Noon. 


20-0 ! 


2 


20-5 


4 


19-8 


6 


18-3 


8 


17-9 


10 


18-5 


Midn. 


18-3 


2 


18-1 


4 


18-3 


6 


18-3 


8 


18-9 


10 


20-1 


Noon. 


20-0 


2 


19-5 


4 


19-3 


6 


18-3 


8 


18-3 


10 


17-9 


Midn. 


18-3 


2 


18-2 


4 


17-6 


6 


16-7 1 


8 


16-6 


10 


17-5 


Noon. 


17-5 


1 2 


17-7 


4 


17-7 


6 


15-3 


8 


14-7 


10 


15-3 


1 Midn. 


16-1 


2 


15-5 ' 


4 


15-0 


! 6 


15-6 


1 8 


16-1 


10 


16-6 



CHAP. VII.] 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



351 







^ 


ll 










Date and Position. 


o 




ll 


Date and Position. 


C3 
O 


1*^ 


1! 






















H 


■^■s 






H 


^=o 






Deg. 


Deg. 






Deg. 


Deg. 






Cent. 


Cent. 






Cent. 


Cent. 


St. Alban's Hd., ) 








October 8th . . 


6 


15-0 


15-8 


Encrlish Chan- > 


Noon. 


18-6 


16-2 




8 


147 


157 


nel . . . .) 










10 


15-5 


15-6 




2 


19-5 


16-0 


At Cowes . . 


Midn. 


15-3 


15-5 




4 


16-6 


15-8 











352 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap, vji 



APPENDIX B. 



Temperature of the Sea at different Depths near the Eastern 
Margin of the N'orth Atlantic Basin, as ascertained hy Serial 
and hy Bottom Soundings. 



Serial Soundings. 


Bottom Soundings. 

i 




Tempe- Tempe- 1 Tempe- , Tern pe- Tempe- 


Tempe- 


Tempe- 


Sta- 




Surface 


Bottom 


Depth. 


rature, rature. 


rature rature. 


rature. 


rature. 


rature. 


tion. 


Depth. 


Tempe- 


Tempe- 




Ser. 23. 


Ser. 42. 


Ser. 22. Ser. 19. 


Ser. 20 


Se.r. 21. 


Ser. 38. 


No. 




rature. 


rature. 




Deg. 


Di'g. 


Deg. 


I>eg. 


Deg. 


Deg. 


Deg. 






Deg. 


Deg. 


Fma. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 




Fms. 


Cent. 


Cent. 





14-0 


17-0 


13-8 


12-6 


13-0 


13-4 


17-7 










50 




]l-8 












27 

34 

6 

35 


54 

:75 

90 
96 


13 1 
18-9 
12-2 
17-4 


9-0 

9-8 

100 

10-7 


100 


9 1 


10-6 












8 
24 


106 
109 


12-3 
14-3 


10-6 

8-0 


150 


... 


10-5 












7 

14 
18 


159 
173 
183 


11-8 
118 
11-8 


10-2 
9-7 
9-6 


200 


8-9 


10-2 












13 


208 


12-0 


9-7 


250 




10-1 


9-1 


8-9 


91 


9-0 


10-2 


4 


251 


12-0 


9-7 


300 


8-7 


9-7 












26 


345 


141 


8-1 


350 




9-5 












! 1 


370 


12-2 


9-4 


400 


8-6 


9-1 












15 


422 


11-2 


8-3 


450 




8-6 












45 


458 


15-9 


8-9 


500 


7*7 


8-5 


8-1 


8-1 


8-3 


8-6 


8-8 


i 40 


517 


17-4 


8-7 


550 




8-0 












1 39 


557 


17-2 


8-3 


600 


6 -9 


7-5 












1 41 


584 


17-4 


8-0 


630 


6-3 














1 - 








650 




6-8 












; 23& 


664 


14-1 


5-3 


700 


... 


6-4 












12 

3 

36 


670 
728 
725 


11-2 
12-5 
17-7 


5-9 
61 


75S 


... 


5-8 


5-5 


5-1 


5-3 


5-7 


5-2 










800 




5-5 












' 2 
16 


808 
816 


12-3 
11-6 


5-2 
4-1 


862 


... 


4-3 












44 


865 


16-2 


4-1 


louo 


... 




3-7 


3-6 


3-7 


3-6 


3-5 


43 
28 
17 


1207 
1215 
1230 


16-5 
14-2 
11-8 


31 
2-8 
3-2 


1250 


... 


... 


... 


... 


31 


3-2 


31 


29 


1264 


13-8 


2-7 


1300 
















32 


13^0 


13-3 


3-0 


1360 






... 


3-0 








30 


1380 


13-3 


2-8 


1400 
















! 








1443 








... 


2-7 














1476 






... 


... 




2-7 










! 


1500 


... 












2-9 








1 


1750 


... 


... 


... 








2-6 








1 


2090 


... 


... 




... 






2-4 


























37 


2435 


18-6 


2-5 



CHAP. VII.] 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



353 



APPENDIX C. 



iparative Bates of Reduction of Temperature with Increase of 
Depth at Three Stations in dijferent Latitudes, all of them on 
the Eastern Margin of the Atlantic Basin. 



Depth. 


Station 42. 
Lat. 49° 12'. 


1 

Station 23. i 
Lat. 56° 13'. { 


Station 87. 
Lat. 59° 35'. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


Difference 


Tempera- 
ture. 


1 
Difference. ! 


Tempera- 
ture. 


Difference. 


Fathoms. 

Surface. 
100 
200 
300 
400 
500 
600 
V50 
767 


17°- C. 
10-6 
10 -2 

9-7 

9-1 

8-1 

7 -5 

5 -8 


- 
6°-4C. 

0-4 

0-5 

0-6 

1 -0 

0-6 

1 -7 


14°- C. 
9- 1 
8-9 
8-7 
; 8-6 
7-6 
6-9 


4°' 9 C. 1 
0-2 

-2 
0- 1 

1 -0 

0-7 

! 


11°-4C. 

8*5 
8-2 
8-1 
7-8 
7-3 
6- 1 

5-2 


2°-9C. 
0-3 
0- 1 
-3 

-5 

1 -2 

0-9 



A A 



354 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[CHAF. VTI. 



APPENDIX D. 





Temperature of 


the A 


Sea at different Depths in the Warm and 


Cold Areas lying between the North 


of Scotland, the Shetland. 


Islands, and the Foeroe Islands; as 


ascertained hy Serial and 


hy Bottom Soundings. 


1 


N.B. — The Koman numerals indicate the 'Lightning' Temperature Soundings, 


corrected for pressure. 


Warm Area. 


Cold Area. , 


Series 87. 


Sta- 


Depth. 


Sui-face 
Tempe- 


Bottom 
Tempe- 


Series 64. 


Ser. 52. 


Sta- 
tion. 


! 

Surface 


il 

Bottom i >• 
Tempe- j 
rature. J 

' '1 






tion. 








Depth. Tempe- 


Depth. 


Tempe- 
rature. 


No. 




rature. 


rature. 


Depth. 


Tempe- 
rature 


Tempe- 
rature. 


No. 


j rature. 




?'^; 






Deg. 


Deg. 




Deg. 


Beg. 




Deg. 


Deg. 1 


Fms. 


Cent. 




Fms. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Fms. 


Cent 


Cent. 




Fms. Cent. 


Cent. 





11-4 













9-8 


11-1 










50 


8-9 


73 


84 


11-5 


9-3 


50 


7-5 


9-1 


70 


QQ 


11-9 


7-3 






80 


92 


11-8 


9-6 








69 


67 


11-9 


6-5 


lOD 


8-5 










100 


7-2 


8-5 


68 


75 


11-4 


Q-Q 






71 


103 


11-6 


9-2 








61 


114 


10-2 


7-2 






81 


142 


11-8 


9-5 








62 


125 


9-7 


7-0 


150 


8-3 


84 


155 


12-3 


9-5 


150 


6-2 


8-0 


60 


167 


9-7 


6-8 






85 


190 


12-1 


92 








IX. 


170 


IM 


5 


200 


8-2 


74 


203 


11-4 


8-7 


200 
250 


4-2 
1-2 


7-5 

3-5 










300 


8-1 










3oa 


0-2 


--0-7 


63 


317 


9-4 














-1-0 




















65 


345 


11-1 


-1-2 1 




















76 


344 


10-2 


-1-3 






50 


355 


11-4 


7-9 


350 


-0-3 




54 


363 


11-4 


-0-3 






46 


374 


12-1 


7-7 


384 




-0-8 










400 


7-8 


89 


445 


11-7 


7-5 


400 
450 


-0-6 

-0-8 




86 


445 


12-0 


-1-1 






90 


458 


11-7 
12-0 


7-3 








53 


4S0 


11 -4. 


-0-7 






49 


475 


1 w 

7-4 








63 


rtoU 

493 


11 4t 

11 '2 


-1-1 ■:! 


500 


7-2 






500 


-1-1 




X. 


500 


10-5 


-0-7 ' 






XII. 


530 
642 


11-4 
12-2 


71 

6-5 








58 
VIII. 


540 
650 


I0-8 
11-6 


-0-7 






47 


-1-3 






XV. 


570 


11-1 


6-3 


550 


-1-1 




77 
59 


560 
680 


10-5 
11-5 


-1-3 
-1-3 1 




















600 


6-1 










600 


-1-2 










1 


. 




XVIT. 
XIV. 


620 
650 


11-1 
11-6 


6-3 

5-8 








55 
57 


605 


11-4 


-13 

-0-8 i 












632 


111 














640 


-1-4 










■ 


700 




88 


705 


11-9 


5-9 
















767 


5-2 






















-T 





























CHAP. VII.] 



DEEP-SEA TEMPERATURES. 



355 



APPENDIX E. 



Intermediate Bottom Temperatures, sliovnng the Intermixture of 
Warm and Gold Currents on the Borders of the Warm and 
Cold Areas. 



station. 
No. 


Depth. 


Surface 
Tempera- 
ture. 


Bottom 
Tempera- 
ture. 


station. 
No. 


Depth. 


Surface 
Tempera- 
ture. 


Bottom 
Tempera- 
ture. 


72 


Fathoms. 

76 


peg. 

Cent. 

11-3 


Deg. 
Cent. 

9-3 


75 


Fathoms. 

250 


Deg. 
Cent. 

10-8 


Deg. 
Cent. 
6-5 


79 


76 


11-2 


9-3 


78 


290 


11-2 


5-3 


73 


84 


11-5 


9-3 


i 82 

1 


312 


11-3 


51 


71 


103 


11-6 


9-2 


1 83 


362 


11-8 


3-0 


74 


203 


11-4 


8-7 


! 








66 


267 


11-4 


7-6 


15 


440 


10-9 


5-6 



A a2 



CHAPTER YIII. 

THE GULF -STREAM. 

The Range of the ' Porcupine ' Temperature Observations. — Low 
Temperatures universal at great Depths. — The Difficulty of in- 
vestigating Ocean Currents. — The Doctrine of a general Oceanic 
Circulation advocated by Captain Maury and by Dr. Carpenter. — 
Opinion expressed by Sir John Hers(;hel. — The Origin and Exten- 
sion of the Gulf-stream. — The Yiews of Captain Maury; of Pro- 
fessor Buff ; of Dr. Carpenter. — The Gulf-stream off the Coast of 
North America. — Professor Bache's ' Sections.' — The Gulf-stream 
traced bj' the Surface Temperatures of the North Atlantic. — Mr. 
Findlay's Views. — Dr. Petermann's Temperature Charts. — Sources 
of the underlying Cold Water. — The Arctic Return Currents. — 
Antarctic Indraught. — Vertical Distribution of Temperature in 
the North Atlantic Basin. 

All the temperature investigations carried on in 
H.M.S.S. 'Lightning' and 'Porcupine' during the 
years 1868-69 and 1870, with the exception of a 
series of observations already referred to taken in 
the Mediterranean under Dr. Carpenter's direction 
in the summer of 1870, were included within an area 
nearly 2,000 English miles in length by 250 in 
width, extending from a little beyond the Fgeroe 
Islands, lat. 62° 30' N., to the Strait of Gibraltar, 
lat. 36° N. 

The greater part of this belt may be described as 



CHAP, vul] the gulf-stream. 357 

the eastern border of the North Atlantic fringing 
Western Europe. A small but very interesting por- 
tion of it forms the channel between the Fseroe 
Islands and the North of Scotland, one of the chan- 
nels of communication between the North Atlantic 
and the North Sea ; and a few soundings in shallow 
water to the east of Shetland are in the shallow 
North Sea basin. It is evident, therefore, that the 
greater part if not the whole of this belt must par- 
ticipate in the general scheme of distribution of 
temperature in the North Atlantic, and must owe 
any peculiarities which its thermal conditions may 
present to some very general cause. 

All our temperature observations, except the few 
taken in the ' Lightning ' in 1868, were made with 
thermometers protected from pressure on Professor 
Miller's plan, and the thermometers were individually 
tested by Captain Davis at pressures rising to about 
three 'tons to the square inch before they were fur- 
nished to the vessel ; they were also more than once 
reduced to the freezing-point during the voyage to 
ascertain that the glass had been in no w^ay distorted. 
The results may therefore be receivcfJ with absolute 
reliance within the limits of error of observation, 
Avhich were reduced to a minimum by the care of 
Captain Calver. 

A large number of scattered observations, most 
of which have unfortunately been made with instru- 
ments which cannot thoroughly be depended upon 
for accuracy of detail, — the error, however, being 
probably in the direction of excess of heat, — esta- 
blished the singular fact that although the tempera- 
ture of the surface of the sea in equatorial regions 



358 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. vm. 



may reach 30° C, at the greatest depths both in the 
Atlantic and in the Pacific the temperature is not 
higher than from 2° to 4° C, sometimes falling at 
great depths to 0° C. I quote from Mr. Prestwich's 
able presidential address to the Geological Society 
for the year 1871, a table of the most important of 
these earlier obsei'vations in the Atlantic and the 
Pacific '} — 

Temperatures of the Atlantic. 









Temperature. 






Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Depth 
in 






Observer and Date. 










Paths. 


Surface. 


Bottom. 






42° O'N. 


34° 40' W. 


780 


16-7° C. 


6-6° C. 


Chevalier. 


1837 


29 


34 50 


1400 


24-4 


6-1 




lh37 


7 21 


20 40 


505 


26-6 


2-2 


Lenz . . 


1832 


4 25 


26 6 


1006 


27-0 


3-2 


Tessan 


1841 


15 3S. 


23 14 


1200 


25-0 


4-1 


>> * 


1841 


25 10 


7 59 E. 


886 


19-6 


3-0 


yy 


1841 


29 33 


10 57 


1051 


19-1 


2-0 


jj • 


1841 


32 20 


43 50 


1074 


21-6 


2-4 


Lenz . . 


1832 


38 12 


54 SOW. 


333 


16-8 


3-0 


Tessan . 


1841 



Temperatures of the Pacific. 



Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Depth 
in 


Temperature. 


Observer and Date. 










Faths. 


Surface. 


Bottom. 




51°34'N. 


161° 41' E. 


957 


11-8° C. 


2-5° C. 


Tessan . .1832 


28 52 


173 9 


600 


25-5 


5-0 


Beechey . . 1828 


18 5 


174 10 


710 


24-7 


4-8 


. . 1836 


4 32 


134 24 W. 


2045 


27-2 


1-7 


The'Bonite' 1837 


Equator. 


179 34 


1000 


30-0 


2-5 


Kotzebue . 1824 


21 14 S. 


196 1 


916 


27-2 


2-2 


Lenz . . .1834 


32 57 


176 42 E. 


782 


16-4 


5-4 


„ . . . 1834 


43 47 


80 6 W. 


1066 


13-0 


2-3 


Tessan . . 1841 



^ Address delivered at the Anniversary Meeting of the Geological 
Society of London on the 17th of February, 1871, by Joseph Prest- 
wich, F.E.S. Pp. 36, 37. 



CHAP, viii] THE GULF-STREAM. 359 

To these may be added the observations of Lieu- 
tenant S. P. Lee, of the United States Coast Survey, 
who, in August 1847, recorded a temperature of 
2°-7 C. below the Gulf-stream at a depth of 1,000 
fathoms, lat. 35° 26' N., long. 73° 12' W. ; and of 
Lieutenant Dayman, who found the temperature at 
1,000 fathoms in lat. 51° N. and long. 40° W. to 
be — 0°'4 C, the surface temperature being 12°* 5 C. 
These results are fully borne out by the recent 
determinations of Captain Shortland, H.N., who 
observed a temperature of 2°-5 C. in deep water in 
the Arabian Sea between Aden and Eombay,^ by 
those of Commander Chimmo, R.N., and Lieutenant 
Johnson, 11. N., who found at various points in the 
Atlantic a temperature of about 3°-9 C. at 1,000 
fathoms, and a slow decrease from that point to 
2,270 fathoms, where the temperature registered by 
unprotected thermometers was Q°'Q C, reduced by the 
necessary correction for pressure to about 1°*6 C.,^ 
and finally by the temperature determinations of the 
' Porcupine ' expeditions, carefully conducted with 
protected instruments, but not carried nearer the 
tropics than the latitude of the Strait of Gibraltar ; 
and they appear to go far to establish a nearly uni- 
form temperature for abyssal depths, not far from 
the freezing-point of fresh water. 

As it was evident that the low temperature for 
deep water in tropical regions could not be acquired 

1 Sounding Voyage of H.M.S. ' Hydra,' Captain P. F. Shortland. 
London: 1869. 

^ Soundings and Temperatures in the Gulf-stream. By Commander 
W. Chimmo, RN. (Proceedings of the Eoyal Geographical Society, 
vol. xiii.) 



360 TEE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vm. 

by contact with the surface of the crust of the 
earth, the inevitable conclusion seems to have been 
early arrived at that, if such temperatures existed, 
they must be due to a general oceanic circulation, — 
to surface currents of vrarm water passing towards 
the poles, and compensating counter- currents of cold 
water from the poles towards the equator. Hum- 
boldt states that he showed, in 1812, ''that the low 
temperature of the tropical seas at great depths could 
only be owing to currents from the poles to the 
equator " ^ 

D'Aubuisson, in 1819, also attributed the low 
temperature of the sea at great depths at or near 
the equator to the flow of currents from the poles.^ 

But although the fact of the existence of currents 
lowering the temperature of deep water in equa- 
torial regions was admitted by various authorities 
in physical geography, little light was thrown upon 
the causes of this circulation. Latterly, the whole 
subject became obscured by the very general adop- 
tion of the doctrine already referred to of a perma- 
nent temperature of 4° C. all over the world beyond 
a certain depth ; and it was not until the publi- 
cation of Captain Maury's fascinating book on the 
* Physical Geography of the Sea ' had given an extra- 
ordinary stimulus to the study of this department 
of science, that the question was again raised. 

It was natural from its geographical position, and 
from the much greater opportunity which it offered 
for the accumulation of the almost infinite number 

1 Fragments de Geol. et de Cliraatol. Asiafc., 1831. 

2 Trait6 de Geognosie. — Quoted in the Anniversary Address to the 
Geological Society of London, 1871. 



CHAP. VIII.] THE G ULF-STREAM. 361 

of data required for the consideration of such sub- 
jects, that the basin of the North Atlantic should 
be selected for investigation, more particularly as 
peculiarities of climate seemed there to be limited in 
space, and well defined and even extreme in character. 

It seems at first somewhat singular that there 
should be any room for question as to the causes, 
the sources, and the directions of the ocean currents 
which traverse the ocean in our immediate neigh- 
bourhood, and exercise a most important influence 
on our economy and well-being. The investigation 
is, however, one of singular difficulty. Some currents 
are palpable enough, going at a rate and with a force 
which make it easy to detect them, and even com- 
paratively easy to gauge their volume and define 
their path; but it seems that the great movements 
of the water of the ocean, those which produce the 
most important results in the transfer of tempera- 
ture and the modification of climate, are not of this 
character. These move so slowly that their surface 
movement is constantly masked by the drift of vari- 
able winds, and they thus produce no sensible effect 
upon navigation. 

The path and limits of such bodies of moving 
water can only be determined by the use of the 
thermometer. The equalizing of the temperature 
of bodies of water in contact with one another and 
differently heated, by conduction, diffusion, and 
mixture, is however so slow, that we usually have 
but little difl&culty in distinguishing currents from 
different sources. 

Up to the present time little had been done in 
determining the depth and mass of currents by the 



362 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

thermometer, and uuder-eurrents were practically 
unknown ; but the limits of surface currents had 
been traced with considerable precision by observa- 
tions of the temperature of the surface of the sea, 
even when the movement was so slow as not to be 
otherwise perceptible. The amount of heat received 
directly from the sun may be taken approximately 
to depend upon latitude only, and this heat is in 
addition to the heat of the surface water derived 
from other sources, whatever these may be. Observa- 
tions of surface temperature accordingly give us the 
heat derived directly from the sun in the region, and 
the heat derived from the same source during the 
passage of the water to the region, in addition to the 
original heat of the water ; if, therefore, the water of 
any region be derived from — that is to say, form part 
of — a movement of water from a polar source, and 
if the surface water of another area on the same 
parallel of latitude form part of an equatorial current, 
although in that particular latitude they receive in 
both cases the same amount of heat from the sun, 
there will be a marked difference in their tempera- 
ture. To take an extreme case ; the mean tem- 
perature of the sea in the month of July off the 
Hebrides, in lat. 58° N., in the path of the Gulf- 
stream, is 13° C. ; while in the same latitude off the 
coast of Labrador, in the course of the Labrador 
current, it is 4° 5 0. 

The distribution of surface temperature in the 
North Atlantic is certainly very exceptional. A 
glance at the chart PL YII., representing the general 
distribution of heat for the month of July, shows 
that the isothermal lines for that month, instead of 



CH-VP. viii] THE GULF-STREAM. 363 

tending in the least to coincide with the parallels 
of latitude, run up into a series of long loops, some 
of them continued into tlie Arctic Sea. 

The temperature of the bordering land is not 
affected to any perceptible degree by direct radia- 
tion from the sea ; but it is greatly affected by the 
temperature of the prevailing winds. Setting aside 
the still more important point of the equalization 
of summer and winter temperature, the mean annual 
temperature of Bergen, lat. 60° 24' N., subject to 
the ameliorating influence of the jjrevailing south- 
west wind blowing over the temperate water of the 
North Atlantic, is 6°-7 C. ; while that of Tobolsk, 
lat. 58° 13' N., is - 2° 4 C. 

But the temperature of the Xorth Atlantic and 
its bordering lands is not only raised above that 
of places on the same parallel of latitude having a 
' continental ' climate, but it is greatly higher than 
that of places apparently similarly circumstanced to 
itself in the southern hemisphere. Thus the mean 
annual temperature of the Pseroe Islands, lat. 62° 2'N., 
is 7°'l C, nearly equal to that of the Ealkland Islands, 
lat. 52° S., which is 8°'2 C. ; and the temperature of 
Dublin, lat. 53° 21' K, is 9°-6 C, while that of Port 
Pamine, lat. 53° 8' S., is 5°-3 C. Again, the high 
temperature of the North Atlantic is not equally 
distributed, but is very marked in its determination 
to the north-east coast. Thus the mean annual 
temperature of Halifax (Nova Scotia), lat. 44° 39' N., 
is 6°-2 C, while that of Dublin, lat. 53° 21' N., 
is 9° '6 C. ; and the temperature of Boston (Mass.), 
lat. 42° 21' N., is exactly the same as that of 
Dublin. 



364 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

This remarkable diversion of the isothermal lines 

from their normal direction is admittedly caused 

t/ 

by ocean currents affecting the temperature of the 
surface while conveying the warm tropical water 
towards the polar regions, whence there is a con- 
stant counterflow of cold water beneath to supply 
its place. 

We thus arrive at the well-known result that the 
temperature of the sea bathing the north-eastern 
shores of the North Atlantic is raised greatly above 
its normal point by currents involving an inter- 
change of tropical and polar water; and that the 
lands bordering on the North Atlantic participate 
in this amelioration of climate by the heat imparted 
by the water to their prevailing winds. 

This phenomenon is not confined to the North 
Atlantic, although from its peculiar configuration 
and relation to the land that ocean presents the 
most marked example. A corresponding series of 
loops, not so well defined, passes southwards along 
the east coast of South America, and a very marked 
series occupies the north-eastern angle of the Pacific 
off the Aleutian Islands and the coast of California. 

Two principal views have been held as to the 
causes of the currents in the North Atlantic. One of 
these, which appears to have been first advanced in 
a definite form by Captain Maury, and which has 
received some vague support from Professor Buff, is 
that the great currents, and counter-currents of warm 
and cold water are due to a circulation in the watery 
shell of the globe, comparable to the circulation of 
the atmosphere, — that is to say, caused by tropical 
heat and evaporation, and arctic cold. 



CHAP. VIII.] THE GULF-STREAM. 365 

It is not easy to understand Captain Maury's view. 
He traces all ocean currents to differences in specific 
gravity. He says : *' If we except the tides, and the 
partial currents of the sea, such as those that may be 
created by the wind, we may lay it down as a rule 
that all the currents of the ocean owe their origin to 
the differences of specific gravity between sea-water 
at one place and sea-water at another ; for wherever 
there is such a difference, whether it be owing to dif- 
ference of temperature or to difference of saltness, 
&c., it is a difference that disturbs equilibrium, and 
currents are the consequence."^ These differences 
in specific gravity he attributes to two principal 
causes ; differences in temperature, and excess of salts 
produced by evaporation. Captain Maury explains 
his views as to the first of these causes by an illustra- 
tion. " Let us now suppose that all the water within 
the tropics to the depth of one hundred fathoms sud- 
denly becomes oil. The aqueous equilibrium of the 
planet would thereby be disturbed, and a general 
system of currents and counter-currents would be 
immediately commenced, the oil in an unbroken sheet 
on the surface running towards the poles, and the 
water as an under-current towards the equator. The 
oil is supposed, as it reaches the polar basin, to be re- 
converted into water, and the water to become oil as 
it crosses Cancer and Capricorn, rising to the surface 
in intertropical regions, and returning as before." 
" Now, do not the cold water of the north, and the 
warm water of the gulf made specifically lighter by 
tropical heat, and which we see actually presenting 

^ The Physical Geography of the Sea, and its Meteorology. By 
M. T. Maury, LL.D. 



366 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

such a system of counter-currents, hold at least, in 
some degree, the relation of the supposed water and 
oil."^ 

u There can be no doubt that Maury concludes 
that the waters in intertropical regions are expanded 
by heat, and those in polar regions are contracted by 
cold, and that this tends to produce a surface-current 
from the equator to the poles, and an under-current 
from the poles to the equator."^ 

With regard to increased specific gravity produced 
by excess of salt, Captain Maury says, — 

" The brine of the ocean is the ley of the earth. 
From it the sea derives dynamical power, and its cur- 
rents their main strength."^ '' One of the purposes 
which in the grand design it was probably intended 
to accomplish by leaving the sea salt and not fresh, 
was to impart to its waters the forces and powers 
necessary to make their circulation complete."* " In 
the present state of our knowledge concerning this 
wonderful phenomenon (for the Gulf- stream is one 
of the most marvellous things in the ocean), we can 
do little more than conjecture. But we have the 
causes in operation, which we may safely assume 
are among those concerned in producing the Gulf- 
stream. One of these is the increased saltness of 
its water after the trade-winds have been supplied 
with vapour from it, be it much or little ; and the 
other is the diminished quantum of salt which the 

^ Captain Maury, op. cit. 

2 On Ocean Currents. Part III. On the Physical Cause of Ocean 
Currents. By James Croll, of the Geological Survey of Scotland. 
(Philosophical Magazine, October 1870.) 

^ Captain Maury, op. cit. ^ w^i^^ 



CHAP. VIII.] WE GULF-STREAM. 367 

Baltic and the northern seas contain." ^ " Now, here 
we have on one side the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of 
Mexico with their waters of brine ; on the other, 
the great Polar Basin, the Baltic, and the North Sea, 
the two latter with waters that are but little more 
than brackish. In one set of these sea-basins the 
water is heavy, in the other it is light. Between 
them the ocean intervenes ; but water is bound to 
seek and to maintain its level ; and here, therefore, 
we unmask one of the agents concerned in causing 
the Gulf-stream." 2 

As Mr. James CroU has very clearly pointed out. 
Captain Maury's two causes tend to neutralize each 
other. 

" Now it is perfectly obvious that if diflPerence in 
saltness is to co-operate with difference in tempera- 
ture in the production of ocean currents, the saltest 
waters, and consequently the densest, must be in 
the polar regions; and the waters least salt, and 
consequently lightest, must be in equatorial and in- 
tertropical regions. Were the saltest water at the 
equator and the freshest at the poles, it would tend 
to neutralize the effect due to heat, and, instead of 
producing a current, would simply tend to prevent 
the existence of the currents which otherwise would 
result from difference of temperature." '* According 
to both theories it is the differences of density be- 
tween the equatorial and polar waters that gives rise 
to currents ; but according to the one theory, the 
equatorial waters are lighter than the polar, whilst 
according to the other theory they are heavier than 
the polar. Either the one theory or the other may 

Captain Maury, op. cit. ^ Ibid. 



368 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. yiii. 

be true, or neither; but it is logically impossible that 
both of these can, for the simple reason that the 
waters of the equator cannot at the same time be 
both lighter and heavier than the water at the poles/' 
'* So long as the two causes continue in action, no 
current can arise unless the energy of the one cause 
should happen to exceed that of the other, and even 
then a current will only exist to the extent by 
which the strength of the one exceeds that of the 
other." 1 

It seems scarcely necessary to enter further into 
detail in reference to Captain Maury's theory of ocean 
currents, which is really chiefly remarkable for its 
ambiguity, and for the pleasant popular style in 
which it is advocated; since my friend and col- 
league Dr. Carpenter has latterly brought into great 
prominence what appears to be a modification of the 
same view, put in a more definite form. 

Professor Buff, in his excellent little volume on the 
Physics of the Earth, speaking of the layer of cold 
water derived from the Arctic seas which underlies 
the tropical ocean, and its method of transport, says : 
" The following well-known experiment clearly illus- 
trates the manner of the movement. A glass vessel 
is to be filled with water with which some powder 
has been mixed, and is then to be heated at bottom. 
You will soon see, from the motion of the particles 
of powder, that currents are set up in opposite direc- 
tions through the water. Warm water rises from the 
bottom, up through the middle of the vessel, and 
spreads over the surface ; while the colder, and there- 
fore heavier liquid, falls down at the sides of the 

^ James Croll, op. cit. 



CHAP, viri.] THE GULF-STREAM. 369 

glass. Currents like these must arise in all water- 
basins, and even in the oceans if different parts of 
their surface are unequally heated."^ 

This is of course a common class-experiment illus- 
trating convection. It is evidently impossible that 
movements of ocean water can be produced in this 
way, for it is well known that everywhere, except 
under certain exceptional circumstances in the polar 
basin, the temperature of the sea decreases i'rom the 
surface to a minimum at the bottom, and tropical 
heat is applied at the surface only. It is singular 
that this irrelevant illustration should have been 
introduced by Professor Buff; for his account of the 
origin and extension of the Gulf-stream, which may 
be taken as the type and exponent of ocean currents, 
is quite consistent with the commonly received 
opinions. 

On working up the temperature results of the 
* Porcupine ' expedition of 1869, Dr. Carpenter satis- 
fied himself that the mass of comparatively warm 
water, 800 fathoms deep, which we had established as 
existing, and probably moving in a north-easterly 
direction, along the west coasts of Britain and the 
Lusitanian peninsula, could not be an extension of 
the Gulf-stream, but must be due to a general circu- 
lation of the waters of the ocean comparable with 
the circulation of the atmosphere. 

" The influence of the Gulf-stream proper (meaning 

^ Familiar Letters on the Physics of the Earth ; treating of the 
chief Movements of the Land, the Water, and the Air, and the Forces 
that give rise to them. By Henry Buff, Professor of Physics in the 
University of Giessen. Edited hy A. W. Hofmann, Ph.D., F.E.S. 
London: 185L 

B B 



370 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

by this the body of superheated water which issues 
through the 'narrows* from the Gulf of Mexico), if 
it reaches this locality at all— which is very doubtful 
— could only affect the most superficial stratum ; and 
the same may be said of the surface- drift caused 
by the prevalence of south-westerly winds, to which 
some have attributed the phenomena usually ac- 
counted for by the extension of the Gulf-stream to 
these regions. And the presence of the body of 
water which lies between 100 and 600 fathoms depth, 
and the range of whose temperature is from 48° 
(8°-85 C.) to 42° (5°'5 C), can scarcely be accounted 
for on any other hypothesis than that of a great 
general movement of equatorial water towards the 
polar area, of which movement the Gulf-stream con- 
stitutes a peculiar case, modified by local conditions. 
In like manner the arctic stream which underlies 
the warm superficial strata in our cold area, con- 
stitutes a peculiar case, modified by the local condi- 
tions, to be presently explained, of a great general 
movement of polar water towards the equatorial 
area, which depresses the temperature of the deepest 
parts of the great oceanic basins nearly to the 
freezing-point." ^ 

At first Dr. Carpenter appears to have regarded 
this oceanic circulation as a case of simple convection. 
"To what, then, is the north-east movement of the 
warm upper stratum of the North Atlantic attri- 
butable ? I have attempted to show that it is part 
of a general interchange between polar and equa- 
torial waters, which is quite independent of any such 

1 A Lecture delivered at the Royal Institution, abstracted with 
the Author's signature in Nature, vol. i. p. 488 (March 10th, 1870). 



CHAP. VIII.] THE GULF-STREAM. 37 [ 

local accidents as those which produce the Gulf- 
stream proper, and which gives movement to a much 
larger and deeper body of water than the latter can 
affect. The evidence of such an interchange is two- 
fold — that of physical theory, and that of actual 
observation. Such a movement must take place, as 
was long since pointed out by Professor Buff, when- 
ever an extended body of water is heated at one part 
and cooled at another ; it is made use of in the warm- 
ing of buildings by the hot- water apparatus, and it 
was admirably displayed at the Royal Institution a 
few months since in the following experiment kindly 
prepared for me by Dr. Odling." Dr. Carpenter 
then repeats Professor Buff's convection experiment, 
the heat being applied by a steam jet introduced 
vertically at one end of a narrow glass trough while 
a block of ice was wedged into the other end. 
"Thus a circulation was shown to be maintained 
in the trough by the application of heat at one of its 
extremities and of cold at the other, the heated water 
flowing along the surface from the warm to the cold 
end, and the cooled water flowing along the bottom 
from the cold to the warm end ; just as it has been 
maintained that equatorial water streams on the 
surface towards the poles, and that polar water 
returns along the bottom towards the equator, if 
the movement be not interfered with by interposed 
obstacles, or prevented by antagonistic currents 
arising from local peculiarities."^ 

That such a movement cannot take place on this 
hypothesis has been already shown ; and Dr. Car- 

^ The Gulf-stream. A letter from Dr. Carpenter to the Editor of 
NaUire, dated Gibraltar, August 11th, 1870. {Nature, vol. ii. p. 334.) 

BB2 



372 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viti. 

penter in a lecture to tlie Royal Geographical 
Society, in an illustration drawn from two supposed 
basins, one under equatorial conditions and the other 
under polar, connected by a strait,^ says : "The effect 
of surface-^^^^ upon tlie water of the tropical basin 
will be for the most part limited to its uppermost 
stratum, and may here be practically disregarded. 
But the effect of surface-cold upon the water of the 
polar basin will be to reduce the temperature of its 
whole mass below the freezing-point of fresh water, 
the surface stratum sinking as it is cooled, by virtue 
of its diminished bulk and increased density, and being 
replaced by water not yet cooled to the same degree. 
The warmer water wdll not come up from below, but 
will be drawn into the basin from the surface of the 
surrounding area ; and since what is thus drawn 
away must be supplied from a yet greater distance, 
the continual cooling of the surface stratum in the 
polar basin will cause a 'set' of water towards it to 
be propagated backwards through the whole inter- 
vening ocean in connection with it, until it reaches 
the tropical area." And further on in the same 
address : " It is seen that the application of cold at 
the surface is precisely equivalent as a moving power 
to that application of heat at the bottom by which 
' the circulation of water is sustained in every heating 
apparatus that makes use of it." No doubt the 
application of cold to the surface of a mass of water 
previously at the same temperature throughout, would 

1 On the Gibraltar Current, the Gulf-stream, and the general 
Oceanic Circulation. By Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.E.S. Reprinted 
from the Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 
1870. 



CHAP. viii.J THE GULF-STREAM. 373 

have the same effect as the application of heat to 
the bottom, and in either case we should have an 
instance of simple convection, the warmer under- 
water rising through a colder upper layer; but 
that is not what we have in the polar sea ; for the 
temperature of the arctic sea gradually sinks from 
a few fathoms beneath the surface to a minimum 
temperature, and consequent maximum density, at 
the bottom. Therefore in this case the application 
of cold at the surface is not equivalent to the appli- 
cation of heat to the bottom in a hot- water heating 
apparatus, and Dr. Carpenter has shown that he is 
aware of this by requiring the backward propagation 
of a surface-iiVivr&ni, 

That a certain efiPect in increase of specific gravity 
must be produced by the cooling of the surface film 
of the arctic ocean there seems to be little doubt ; 
but the area of maximum eff^ect is very limited, and 
during the long arctic winter the greater part of that 
area is protected by a thick layer of ice, one of the 
worst possible conductors. 

It certainly appears to me that this cause is 
totally inadequate to induce a powerful current of 
great depth, six thousand miles long and several 
thousand miles in width, the effect which Dr. Car- 
penter attributes to it. 

During the summer of 1870, and afterwards in 
1871, Dr. Carpenter made a series of observations on 
the current in the Strait of Gibraltar. The existence 
of an under-current out of the Mediterranean was 
considered to be established by these observations, 
and the conclusions arrived at as to its cause did not 
differ materially from those already very generally 



374 ^^^ DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap, vui 

accepted. Dr. Carpenter believes, however, that the 
conditions in the Strait of Gibraltar and in the 
Baltic Sound aptly illustrate the general circulation 
in the ocean, and confirm his views. 

I quote from the general summary of Dr. Car- 
penter's address to the Geographical Society : — 

" The application of the foregoing principles to 
the particular cases discussed in the paper is as 
follows : — 

''VIII. — A vertical circulation is maintained in 
the Strait of Gibraltar by the excess of evaporation 
in the Mediterranean over the amount of fresh water 
returned into its basin, which at the same time 
lower's its level and increases its density; so that 
the surface inflow of salt water which restores its 
level (exceeding by the weight of salt contained 
in it the weight of fresh water which has passed off 
by evaporation) disturbs the equilibrium and pro- 
duces a deep outflow^ which in its turn lowers the 
level. The same may be assumed to be the case 
in the Strait of Babelmandeb. 

'' IX. — A vertical circulation is maintained in the 
Baltic Sound by an excess in the influx of fresh 
water into the Baltic; which at the same time 
raises its level and diminishes its density, so as to 
produce a surface outflow, leaving tlie Baltic column 
the lighter of the two, so that a deep inflow must 
take place to restore the equilibrium. The same 
may be assumed to be the case in the Bosphorus and 
Dardanelles. 

'' X. — A vertical circulation must, on the same 
principles, be maintained between polar and equa- 
torial waters by the difference of their temperatures : 



CHAP. VIII.] THE GULF-STREAM. 375 

the level of the pola^r water being reduced, and its 
density increased by the surface-co/c? to which it is 
subjected, whilst a downward motion is also imparted 
to each stratum successively exposed to it ; and the 
level of equatorial water being raised and its density 
diminished by the surface-^^a^ to which it is exposed. 
(The first of these agencies is by far the more effec- 
tive, since it extends to the whole depth of the water, 
whilst the second only affects, in any considerable 
degree, the superficial stratum.) Thus a movement 
will be imparted to the upper stratum of oceanic 
water from the equator towards the poles, whilst a 
movement will be imparted to the deeper stratum 
from the poles towards the equator." 

It seems to me that the doctrine here propounded 
by my distinguished colleague, if I understand it 
aright, is open to the objection to which I have 
already referred in connection with the speculations 
of Captain Maury. 

If the currents flow in the direction and with the 
permanence accepted by Dr. Carpenter in the Strait 
of Gibraltar and in the Baltic Sound, if their flow 
and its direction be due to the causes to which Dr. 
Carpenter attributes them, and if there be any 
analogy whatever between the conditions of equi- 
librium of these inland seas and that of the outer 
ocean, — none of which propositions appear to me at 
all satisfactorily proved, — I should think that the vast 
equatorial region, the path of the trade-winds and the 
belt of vertical solar radiation, must, so far as eva- 
poration is concerned, resemble, or rather greatly 
exaggerate, the conditions of the Mediterranean. The 
consequent accumulation of salt,^ — through the whole 



376 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

depth of course, the hrine sinking downwards, — must 
sjreatly outweigh (I give this as what Petermann 
would call a gratuitous speculation) the slight ex- 
pansion caused by the heating of the surface layer. 
The more restricted arctic basin on the other hand, 
as was long ago pointed out by Capt. Maury, partici- 
pates to a certain extent in the characteristics of 
the Baltic; and I am greatly mistaken if the low 
specific gravity of the polar sea, the result of the 
condensation and precipitation of vapour evaporated 
from the intertropical area, do not fully counter- 
balance the contraction of the superficial film by 
arctic cold. 

The North Atlantic ocean bears a proportion 
in depth to the mass of the earth considerably 
less than that of the paper covering an eighteen- 
inch globe to that of the globe it covers, while 
the film heated by direct solar radiation may be 
represented by its surface coating of varnish, 
and is not actually thicker than the height of 
St. Paul's. Physicists seem to find a difficulty in 
giving us the amount of palpable efPect in pro- 
ducing currents in this shell of water, six thousand 
miles in length by three thousand in width and 
two miles in thickness, which may be due to causes 
such as those relied upon by Dr. Carpenter, acting 
under the peculiar circumstances and to the amount 
in which we find them in nature; and probably we 
are not yet in a position to give them sufficient data 
to enable them to do so. Mr. Croll, a good authority 
in such matters, has attempted to make some calcu- 
tions, and comes to the conclusion that none of them 
are sufficient to overcome the friction of water and to 



CHAP, viii.] THE GULF-STREAM. 377 

produce any current whatever ; ^ but in tliis view he 
does not certainly receive universal support. I am 
myself inclined to believe that in a great body of 
salt water at different temperatures, with unequal 
amounts of evaporation, under varying barometric 
pressures, and subject to the drift of variable winds, 
currents of all kinds, great and small, variable and 
more or less permanent, must be set up ; ^ but the 
probable result appears to be reduced to a minimum 
when we find that causes, themselves of doubtful 
efficiency, actually antagonize one another ; and that 
we are obliged to trust for the final effect to the 
amount by which the least feeble of these exceeds 
the others in strength. Speaking in the total ab- 
sence of all reliable data, it is my general impres- 
sion that, if we were to set aside all other agencies, 
and to trust for an oceanic circulation to those con- 
ditions only which are relied upon by Dr. Carpenter, 
if there were any general circulation at all, which 
seems very problematical, the odds are rather in 
favour of a warm under-current travelling north- 
wards by virtue of its excess of salt, balanced by a 
surface return-current of fresher though colder arctic 
water. 

With regard, then, to this question of a general 
circulation caused by difference in specific gravity, 
for the present I cordially endorse the opinion ex- 
pressed by the late Sir John Herschel in a cautious 

^ James CroU, op. cit. 

2 On the Distribution of Temperatures in the North Atlantic. 
An Address delivered to the Meteorological Society of Scotland at 
the General Meeting of the Society July 5th, 1871, by Professor 
Wyville Thomson. 



378 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

and excellent letter addressed to Dr. Carpenter — a 
letter which there is no impropriety in my quoting in 
full as it is already in print, and which has a special 
interest as being probably one of the last written 
by Sir John Herschel on scientific subjects : — 



•* CoLLiNGWooD, April 9th, 1871. 

"My dear Sir, — Many thanks for your paper on the Gib- 
raltar current and the Gulf-stream. Assuredly, after well con- 
sidering all you say, as well as the common sense of the matter, 
and the experience of our hot-water circulation pipes in our 
greenhouses, &c., there is no refusing to admit that an oceanic 
circulation of some sort must arise from mere heat, cold, and 
evaporation, as verce causae, and you have brought forward with 
singular emphasis the more powerful action of the polar cold, or 
rather the more intense action, as its maximum effect is limited 
to a much smaller area than that of the maximum of equatorial 
heat. 

"The action of the trade and counter-trade winds, in like 
manner, cannot be ignored ; and henceforward the question of 
ocean currents will have to be studied under a twofold point of 
view. The wind-currents, however, are of easier investigation : 
all the causes lie on the surface ; none of the agencies escape 
our notice ; the configuration of coasts, which mainly determines 
their direction, is patent to sight. It is otherwise with the other 
class of movements. They take place in the depths of the ocean ; 
and their movements and directions and channels of concentra- 
tion are limited to the configuration of the sea-bottom, which 
has to be studied over its entire surface by the very imperfect 
method of sounding. 

" I am glad you succeeded in getting specimens of Mediter- 
ranean water near the place of the presumed salt spring of 
Smyth and Wollaston, making it clear that the whole affair 
must have arisen from some accidental substitution of one 
bottle for another, or from evaporation. I never put any hearty 
faith in it. 



CHAP. VIII.] THE GULF-STREAM. 379 

" So, after all, there is an under-current setting outwards in 
the Straits of Gibraltar. 

"Eepeating my thanks for this interesting memoir, believe 
me, dear Sir, 

" Yours very truly, 

"J. E. W. Herschel. 

*'Dr. W. B. Carpenter.'''^ 

The second view, supported by Dr. Petermann of 
Gotlia, and by most of the leading authorities in 
physical geography in Germany and Northern 
Europe, and strongly urged by the late Sir John 
Herschel in his 'Outlines of Physical Geography' 
published in the year 1846, attributes nearly the 
whole of the sensible phenomena of heat-distribution 
in the North Atlantic to the Gulf- stream, and to the 
arctic return-currents which are induced by the 
removal of tropical water towards the polar regions 
by the Gulf-stream. If we for a moment admit that 
to the Gulf-stream is due almost exclusively the 
singular advantage in climate which the eastern 
borders of the North Atlantic possess over the 
western, the origin of this great current, its extent 
and direction, and the nature and amount of its 
influence, become questions of surpassing interest. 
Before considering these, however, it will be well 
to define what is here meant by the term * Gulf- 
stream,' for even on this point there has been a good 
deal of misconception. 

I mean by the Gulf-stream that mass of heated 
water which pours from the Strait of Florida across 
the North Atlantic, and likewise a wider but less 
definite warm current, evidently forming part of the 
same great movement of water, which curves north- 

^ Nature, vol. iv. p. 7L 



380 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

wards to the eastward of the AYest Indian Islands. 
I am myself inclined, without hesitation, to regard 
this stream as simply the reflux of the equatorial 
current, added to no doubt during its north-easterly 
course, by the surface-drift of the anti-trades which 
follows in the main the same direction. 

The scope and limit of the Gulf- stream will be 
better understood if we inquire in the first place into 
its origin and cause. As is well known, — in two 
bands, one to the north and the other to the south 
of the equator, — the north-east and south-east trade- 
winds, reduced to meridional directions by the east- 
ward frictional impulse of the earth's rotation, drive 
before them a magnificent surface current of hot 
water 4,000 miles long by 450 miles broad at an 
average rate of thirty miles a day. Off the coast of 
Africa near its starting-point to the south of the 
Islands of St. Thomas and Anna Bon, this 'Equa- 
torial Current ' has a speed of forty miles in the 
twenty-four hours, and a temperature of 23° C. 

Increasing quickly in bulk, and spreading out 
more and more on both sides of the equator, it flows 
rapidly due west towards the coast of South America. 
At the eastern point of South America, Cape St. 
Roque, the equatorial current splits into two, and 
one portion trends southwards to deflect the isotherms 
of 21°, 15°-5, 10°, and 4°-5 C. into loops upon our maps, 
thus carrying a scrap of comfort to the ^Falkland 
Islands and Cape Hoorn ; while the northern portion 
follows the north-east coast of South America, gaining 
continually in temperature under the influence of the 
tropical sun. Its speed has now increased to sixty- 
eight miles in twenty -four hours, and by the union 



CHAP, viii] THE GULF-STREAM. 381 

with it of the waters of the river Amazon, it rises to 
one hundred miles (6 '5 feet in a second), but it soon 
falls off again when it gets into the Caribbean sea. 
Plowing slowly through the w^hole length of this sea, 
it reaches the Gulf of Mexico through the Strait of 
Yucatan, when a part of it sweeps immediately round 
Cuba ; but the main stream "having made the circuit 
of the Gulf of Mexico, passes through the Strait of 
[Florida ; thence it issues as the ' Gulf-stream ' in a 
majestic current upwards of thirty miles broad, two 
thousand two hundred feet deep, with an average 
velocity of four miles an hour, and a temperature of 
86° Eahr. (30° C)/' ^ The hot water pours from the 
strait with a decided though slight north-easterly 
impulse on account of its great initial velocity. Mr. 
Croll calculates the Gulf-stream as equal to a stream 
of water fifty miles broad and a thousand feet deep 
flowing at a rate of four miles an hour ; consequently 
conveying 5,575,680,000,000 cubic feet of water per 
hour, or 133,816,320,000,000 cubic feet per day. This 
mass of water has a mean temperature of 18° C. as it 
passes out of the gulf, and on its northern journey it 
is cooled down to 4°*5, thus losing heat to the amount 
of 13°* 5 C. The total quantity of heat therefore trans- 
ferred from the equatorial regions per day amounts 
to something like 154,959,300,000,000,000,000 foot- 
pounds.^ 

This is nearly equal to the whole of the heat 

^ Physical Geography. From the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica.' By 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., K.H.P. Edinburgh, 1861, p. 49. 

2 On Ocean Currents. By James Croll, of the Geological Survey of 
Scotland. Part I. Ocean Currents in relation to the Distribution of 
Heat over the Globe (Philosophical Magazine. February 1870.) 



382 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

received from the sun by the Arctic regions, and, 
reduced by a half to avoid all possibility of exaggera- 
tion, it is still equal to one-fifth of the whole amount 
received from the sun by the entire area of the N orth 
Atlantic. The Gulf- stream, as it issues from the Strait 
of Florida and expands into the ocean on its north- 
ward course, is probably the most glorious natural 
phenomenon on the face of the earth. The water is 
of a clear crystalline transparency and an intense 
blue, and long after it has passed into the open sea it 
keeps itself apart, easily distinguished by its warmth, 
its colour, and its clearness ; and with its edges so 
sharply defined that a ship may have her stem in 
the clear blue stream while her stern is still in the 
common water of the ocean. 

" The dynamics of the Gulf-stream have of late, 
in the work of Lieutenant Maury already mentioned, 
been made the subject of much (we cannot but think 
misplaced) wonder, as if there could be any possible 
ground for doubting that it owes its origin entirely 
to the trade-winds." ^ Setting aside the wider ques- 
tion of the possibility of a general oceanic circulation 
arising from heat, cold, and evaporation, I believe 
that Captain Maury and Dr. Carpenter are the only 
authorities who of late years have disputed this 
source of the current which we see, and can gauge 
and measure as it passes out of the Strait of Florida ; 
for it is scarcely necessary to refer to the earlier 
speculations that it is caused by the Mississippi river, 
or that it flows downwards by gravitation from a 
' head ' of water produced by the trade- winds in the 
Caribbean sea. 

^ Herscliel, op. cit. p. 51. 



I 



CHAP. VIII.] THE GULF-STREAM. 383 

Captain Maury writes^ that "the dynamical force 
that calls forth the Gulf-stream is to be found in the 
difference as to specific gravity of intertropical and 
polar waters." '' The dynamical forces which are 
expressed by the Gulf-stream may with as much pro- 
priety be said to reside in those northern waters as 
in the West India seas : for on one side we have the 
Caribbean sea and Gulf of Mexico with their waters 
of brine ; on the other the great polar basin, the 
Baltic, and the North Sea, the two latter with waters 
which are little more than brackish. In one set of 
these sea-basins the water is heavy; in the other it is 
light. Between them the ocean intervenes ; but water 
is bound to seek and to maintain its level ; and here, 
therefore, we unmask one of those agents concerned 
in causing the Gulf-stream. What is the power of this 
agent ? Is it greater than that of other agents ? and 
how much ? We cannot say how much ; we only 
know it is one of the chief agents concerned. More- 
over, speculate as we may as to all the agencies con- 
cerned in collecting these waters, that have supplied 
the trade-winds with vapour, into the Caribbean Sea, 
and then in driving them across the Atlantic, we are 
forced to conclude that the salt which the trade-wind 
vapour leaves behind it in the tropics has to be con- 
veyed away from the trade- wind region, to be mixed 
up again in due proportion with the other water of 
the sea — the Baltic Sea and the Arctic Ocean included 
— and that these are some of the waters, at least, 
which we see running off through the Gulf- stream. 
To convey them away is doubtless one of the offices 
which in the economy of the ocean has been assigned 

1 Maury's Physical Geography of the Sea, op. cit. 



384 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

to it. But as for the seat of the forces which put 
and keep the Gulf-stream in motion, theorists may 
place them exclusively on one side of the ocean with 
as much philosophical propriety as on the other. 
Its waters find their way into the North Sea and 
Arctic Ocean by virtue of their specific gravity, while 
water thence, to take their place, is, by virtue of its 
specific gravity and by counter- currents, carried back 
into the gulf. The dynamical force which causes the 
Gulf-stream may therefore be said to reside both in 
the polar and in the intertropical waters of the 
Atlantic." 

According to this view, the tropical water finds its 
way on account of its greater weight towards the poles, 
while the polar water, owing to its less weight, moves 
southwards to replace it. The general result would 
be of course a system of warm under- and cold 
surface-currents, and these we do not find. I merely 
quote the passage as a curious illustration of the 
adage that on most questions a good deal can be 
said on both sides. 

We have already considered the doctrine of a general 
oceanic circulation, which has been so strongly ad- 
vocated of late by Dr. Carpenter, and I have merely 
to advert in this place to th,e bearing which that 
doctrine has upon our views as to the origin of the 
Gulf-stream ; its bearings on the extension and dis- 
tribution of the current will be discussed hereafter. 
As already stated. Dr. Carpenter attributes all the 
great movements of ocean water to a general con- 
vective circulation, and of this general circulation 
he regards the Gulf- stream as a peculiarly modi- 
fied case. In the passage already quoted (p. 370) of 



CHAP. VIII.] THE GULF-STREJM. 385 

his address to the Eoyal Institution, Dr. Carpenter 
states, that " the Gulf-stream constitutes a peculiar 
case, modified by local conditions," of "a great 
general movement of equatorial water towards the 
polar area." I confess I feel myself compelled to 
take a totally different view. It seems to me that 
the Gulf-stream is the one natural physical pheno- 
menon on the surface of the earth whose origin and 
principal cause, the drift of the trade-winds, can be 
most clearly and easily traced. 

The further progress and extension of the Gulf- 
stream through the North Atlantic in relation to 
influence upon climate has been, however, a fruitful 
source of controversy. The first part of its course, 
after leaving the strait, is sufficiently evident, for 
its water long remains conspicuously different in 
colour and temperature from that of the ocean, 
and a current having a marked effect on naviga- 
tion is long perceptible in the peculiar Gulf-stream 
water. *' Narrow at first, it flows round the penin- 
sula of Florida, and, with a speed of about 70 or 
80 miles, follows the coast at first in a due north, 
afterwards in a north-east direction. At the lati- 
tude of Washington it leaves the North American 
coast altogether, keeping its north-eastward course ; 
and to the south of the St. George's and New- 
foundland Banks it spreads its waters more and 
more over the Atlantic Ocean, as far as the -A9ores. 
At these islands a part of it turns southwards again 
towards the African coast. The Gulf-stream has, 
so long as its waters are kept together along the 
American coast, a temperature of 26°-6 C. ; but, 
even under north latitude 36°, Sabine found that 

c c 



386 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

23°*3 C. at the beginning of December, while the 
sea- water beyond the stream showed only 16°* 9 C. 
Under north latitude 40 — 41'' the water is, accord- 
ing to Humboldt, at 22^-5 C. within, and 17°-5 C. 
without the stream."^ 

The Gulf-stream off the coast of North America 
has been most carefully examined by the officers of 
the United States Coast Survey, at first under the 
superintendence of Professor Bache, and latterly 
under the direction of the present able head of the 
bureau, Professor Pierce. In 1860 Professor Bache 
published an account of the general result. ^ Pour- 
teen sections through the Gulf-stream had been care- 
fully surveyed at intervals of about 100 miles along 
the coast — the first almost within the Gulf of Mexico, 
from Portingas to Havana, and the last off Cape 
Cod, lat. 41° N., where the stream loses all parallel- 
ism with the American coast and trends to the east- 
ward. These sections fully illustrate the leading 
phenomena during this earlier part of its course 
of this wonderful current, which Professor Bache 
well characterizes as " the great hydrographic feature 
of the United States." 

Opposite Portingas, passing along the Cuban coast, 
the stream is unbroken and the current feeble ; the 
temperature at the surface is about 26"'* 7 C. Issuing 
from the Strait of Bernini the current is turned 
nearly directly northwards by the form of the land ; 

1 Professor Buff, op. cit. p. 199. 

2 Lecture on the Gulf-stream, prepared at the request of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, by A. D. Bache, 
Superintendent U.S. Coast Survey. 'Fmm the A merwan Journal of 
Science and Arts, vol. xxx. I^ovember 1860. 5 

I 



CHAP. VIII.] THE GULF-STREAM. 387 

a little to the north of the strait, the rate is from 
three to five miles an hour. The depth is only 325 
fathoms, and the bottom, which in the Strait of 
Florida was a simple slope and counter- slope, is 
now corrugated. The surface temperature is about 
26°-5 C, while the bottom temperature is 4°-5 ; so 
that in the moderate depth of 325 fathoms the equa- 
torial current above and the polar counter-current 
beneath have room to pass one another, the current 
from the north being evidently tempered consider- 
ably by mixture. North of Mosquito inlet the 
stream trends to the eastward of north, and off St. 
Augustine it has a decided set to the eastward 
Between St. Augustine and Cape Hatteras the set 
of the stream and the trend of the coast differ but 
little, making 5° of easting in 5° of northing. At 
Hatteras it curves to the northward, and then runs 
easterly. In the latitude of Gape Charles it turns 
quite to the eastward, having a velocity of from a 
mile to a mile and a half in the hour. 

A brief account of one of the sections will best 
explain the general phenomena of the stream off the 
coast of America. I will take the section following 
a line at right angles to the coast off Sandy Hook. 
.From the shore out, for a distance of about 250 

dies, the surface temperature gradually rises from 
21° to 24° C; at 10 fathoms it rises from 19° to 22° C. ; 
and at 20 fathoms it maintains, with a few irregu- 
larities, a temperature of 19° C. throughout the whole 
space; while at 100, 200, 300, and 400 fathoms it 
maintains in like manner the respective temperatures 
of 8°-8, 5°-7, 4°-5, and 2°-5 C. This space is therefore 
occupied by cold water, and observation has suffi- 

c c 2 



388 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

ciently proved that the low temperature is due to 
a branch of the Labrador current creeping down 
along the coast in a direction opposite to that 
of the Gulf-stream. In the Strait of Florida this 
cold stream divides — one portion of it passing under 
the hot Gulf-stream water into the Gulf of Mexico, 
while the remainder courses round the western end 
of Cuba. 240 miles from the shore the whole mass 
of water takes a sudden rise of about 10° C. within 
25 miles, a rise affecting nearly equally the water at 
all depths, and thus producing the singular pheno- 
menon of two masses of water in contact — one 
passing slowly southwards, and the other more 
rapidly northwards, at widely different temperatures 
at the same levels. This abutting of the side of the 
cold current against that of the Gulf-stream is so 
abrupt that it has been aptly called by Lieutenant 
George M. Bache the ' Cold wall.' Passing the cold 
wall we reach the Gulf- stream, presenting all its 
special characters of colour and transparency and of 
temperature. In the section which we have chosen 
as an example, upwards of three hundred miles in 
length, the surface temperature is about 26° 5 C, 
but the heat is not uniform across the stream, for 
we find that throughout its entire length, as far 
south as the Cape Canaveral section, the stream is 
broken up into longitudinal alternating bands of 
warmer and cooler water. Off Sandy Hook, beyond 
the cold wall, the stream rises to a maximum of 
27°*8 C, and this warm band extends for about 60 
miles. The temperature then falls to a minimum of 
26°* 5 C, which it retains for about 30 miles, when 
a second maximum of 27°*4 succeeds, which includes 



CHAP. VIII.] THE GULF-STREAM. 339 

the axis of the Gulf-stream, and is about 170 miles 
wide. This is followed hj a second minimum of 
25°'5 C, and this by a third maximum, when the 
bands become indistinct. It is singular that the 
minimum bands correspond with valley-like depres- 
sions in the bottom, w^hich follow in succession the 
outline of the coast and lodge de^p southward exten- 
sions of the polar indraught. 

The last section of the Gulf-stream surv^eyed by 
the American Hydrographers extends in a south- 
easterly direction from Cape Cod, lat. 41° N., and 
traces the Gulf-stream, still broken up by its bands 
of unequal temperature, spreading directly eastward 
across the Atlantic; its velocity has, however, now 
become inconsiderable, and its limits are best traced 
by the thermometer. 

The course of the Gulf-stream beyond this point 
has given rise to much discussion. I again quote 
Professor Buff for what may be regarded as the 
view most generally received among Physical Geo- 
graphers : — 

"A great part of the warm water is carried partly 
by its own motion, but chiefly by the prevailing west 
and north-west winds, towards the coasts of Europe 
and even beyond Spitzbergen and Nova Zembla ; and 
thus a part of the heat of the south reaches far into 
the Arctic Ocean. Hence, on the north coast of the 
old Continent, we always find driftwood from the 
southern regions, and on this side the Arctic Ocean 
remains free from ice during a great part of the year, 
even as far up as 80° north latitude; while on the 
opposite coast (of Greenland) the ice is not quite 
thawed even in summer." The two forces invoked 



390 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

by Professor Buff to perform the work are thus the 
vis a tergo of the trade-wind drift, and the direct 
driving power of the anti-trades, producing what 
has been called the anti-trade drift. This is quite 
^n accordance with the views here advocated. The 
proportion in which these two forces act, it is un- 
doubtedly impossible in the present state of our 
knowledge to determine. 

Mr. A. G. Eindlay, a high authority on all hydro- 
graphic matters, read a paper on the Gulf-stream 
before the Royal Geographical Society, reported in 
the 13th volume of the Proceedings of the' Society. 
Mr. Pindlay, while admitting that the temperature 
of north-eastern Europe is abnormally ameliorated by 
a surface-current of the warm water of the Atlantic 
which reaches it, contends that the Gulf-stream proper, 
that is to say the water injected, as it were, into 
the Atlantic through the Strait of Plorida by the 
impulse of the trade-winds, becomes entirely thinned 
out, dissipated, and lost, opposite the Newfoundland 
banks about lat. 45° N. The warm water of the 
southern portion of the North Atlantic basin is still 
carried northwards ; but Mr. Pindlay attributes this 
movement solely to the anti-trades — the south-west 
winds — which by their prevalence keep up a balance 
of progress in a north-easterly direction in the surface 
layer of the water. 

Dr. Carpenter entertains a very strong opinion that 
the dispersion of the Gulf-stream may be affirmed to 
be complete in about lat. 45° N. and long. 35° W. 
Dr. Carpenter admits the accuracy of the projection 
of the isotherms on the maps of Berghaus, Dove 
Petermann, and Keith Johnston, and he admits like- 



CHAP, vm.] THE GULF-STREAM. 391 

wise the conclusion that the abnormal mildness of the 
climate on the north-western coast of Europe is due 
to a movement of equatorial water in a north-easterly- 
direction. "What I question is the correctness of 
the doctrine that the north-east flow is an extension 
or prolongation of the Gulf-stream, still driven on 
by the vis a tergo of the trade-winds — a doctrine 
which (greatly to my surprise) has been adopted and 
defended by my colleague Professor Wyville Thom- 
son. But while these authorities attribute the whole 
or nearly the whole of this flow to the true Gulf- 
stream, I regard a large part, if not the whole, of 
that which takes place along our own western coast, 
and passes north and north-east between Iceland and 
Norway towards Spitzbergen, as quite independent 
of that agency; so that it would continue if the 
North and South American continents were so com- 
pletely disunited that the equatorial currents would 
be driven straight onwards by the trade-winds into 
the Pacific Ocean, instead of being embayed in the 
Gulf of Mexico and driven out in a north-east direc- 
tion through the 'narrows' off Cape Plorida."^ Dr. 
Carpenter does not mean by this to endorse Mr. 
Pindlay's opinion that the movement beyond the 
45th parallel of latitude is due solely to the drift of 
the anti-trades ; he says, '' On the view I advocate, 
the north-easterly flow is regarded as due to the 
vis a f route originating in the action of cold upon 
the water of the polar area, whereby its level is 
always tending to depression." ^ The amelioration 
of the climate of north-western Europe is thus 

^ Dr. Carpenter : Proceedings of the Eoyal Geographical Society for 
1870, op. cit. 2 Op. cit. 



392 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

caused by a ' modified case ' of the general oceanic 
circulation, and neither by the Gulf-stream nor by 
the anti-trade drift. 

Although there are, up to the present time, very 
few trustworthy observations of deep-sea tempera- 
tures, the surface temperature of the North Atlantic 
has been investigated with considerable care. The 
general character of the isothermal lines with their 
singular loop-like northern deflections, has long 
been familiar through the temperature charts of the 
geographers already quoted, and of late years a pro- 
digious amount of data have been accumulated both 
abroad and by our own Admiralty and Meteoro- 
logical Department. 

In 1870, Dr. Petermann, of Gotha, published^ an 
extremely valuable series of temperature charts, 
embodying the results of the reduction of upwards 
of 100,000 observations, derived chiefly from the 
following sources : — 

1. Prom the wind and current charts of Lieu- 
tenant Maury, embodying about 30,000 distinct 
temperature observations. 

2. Prom 50,000 observations made by Dutch sea- 
captains, and published by the Government of the 
Netherlands. 

3. Prom the journal of the Cunard steamers be- 
tween Liverpool and New York, and of the steamers 
of the Montreal Company between Glasgow and 
Belleisle. 

4. Prom the data collected by the secretary of the 

^ Der Golf-Strom und Standpunkt der thermometrischen Kenntniss 
des Nord-Atlantischen Oceans und Landgebietes im Jahre 1870. 
Justus Perthe's ' Geographische Mittheilungen/ Band 16. Gotha, 1 870. 



I 



CHAP. VIII.] THE GULF-STREAM. 393 

Scottish Meteorological Society, Mr. Bachan, with 
regard to the temperature of the sea on the coasts 
of Scotland. 

5. From the publications of the Norwegian Insti- 
tute on sea-temperatures between Norway, Scotland, 
and Iceland. 

6. Prom the data furnished by the Danish Rear- 
Ad miral Irminger on sea-temperature between Den- 
mark and the Danish settlements in Greenland. 

7. Prom the observations made by Earl Dufferin 
on board his yacht 'Poam' between Scotland, Ice- 
land, Spitzbergen, and Norway. 

And finally, from the recent observations collected 
by the English, Swedish, German, and Russian ex- 
peditions to the arctic regions and towards the 
North Pole. 

Dr. Petermann has devoted the special attention 
of a great part of his life to the distribution of heat 
on the surface of the ocean, and the accuracy and con- 
scientiousness of his work in every detail are beyond 
the shadow of a doubt. Plate VII. is in the main 
copied from his charts, with a few modifications and 
additions derived from additional data. The remark- 
able diversion of the isothermal lines from their 
normal course is undoubtedly caused by surface ocean- 
currents conveying warm tropical water towards the 
polar regions. This is no matter of speculation, for 
the current is in many places perceptible through 
its effect on navigation, and the path of the warm 
water may be traced by dipping the thermometer 
into it and noting its temperature. 

In the North Atlantic every curve of equal tem- 
perature, whether for the summer, for the winter, for 



394 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

a single month, or for the whole year, instantly 
declares itself as one of a system of curves which 
are referred to the Strait of Florida as a source of 
heat, and the flow of warm water may be traced in 
a continuous stream, indicated when its movement 
can no longer be observed by its form, — fanning out 
from the neighbourhood of the Strait across the 
Atlantic, skirting the coasts of Trance, Britain, and 
Scandinavia, rounding the North Cape and passing 
the White Sea and the Sea of Kari, bathing the 
western shores of Novaja Semla and Spitzbergen, 
and finally coursing round the coast of Siberia, a 
trace of it still remaining to find its way through 
the narrow and shallow Behring's Strait into the 
North Pacific (see Plate YII.). 

Now, it seems to me that if we had only these 
curves upon the chart, deduced from an almost in- 
finite number of observations which are themselves 
merely laboriously multiplied corroborations of many 
previous ones, without having any clue to their 
rationale, we should be compelled to admit that 
whatever might be the amount and distribution of 
heat derived from a general oceanic circulation, — 
whether produced by the prevailing winds of the 
region, by convection, by unequal barometric pres- 
sure, by tropical heat, or by arctic cold, — the Gulf- 
stream, the majestic stream of warm water whose 
course is indicated by the deflections of the isother- 
mal lines, is sufficiently powerful to mask all the 
rest, and, broadly speaking, to produce of itself all 
the abnormal thermal phenomena. 

The deep-sea temperatures taken in the ' Porcu- 
pine' have an important bearing upon this question, 



CHAP. viiT.] THE GULF-STREAM. 395 

since they give us the depth and volume of the mass 
of water which is heated above its normal tempera- 
ture, and which we must regard as the softener of 
the winds blowing on the coasts of Europe. Refer- 
ring to Pig. 60, in the Bay of Biscay, after passing 
through a shallow band superheated by direct radia- 
tion, a zone of warm water extends to the depth of 
800 fathoms, succeeded by cold water to a depth of 
nearly two miles. In the Bockall channel (Fig. 59) 
the w^arm layer has nearly the same thickness, and 
the cold underlying water is 500 fathoms deep. Off* 
the Butt of the Lews (i^ig. 56) the bottom tem- 
perature is 5*''2 C. at 767 fathoms, so that there 
the warm layer evidently reaches to the bottom. 
In the Eaeroe channel (Fig. 55) the warm water 
forms a surface layer, and the cold water underlies 
it, commencing at a depth of 200 fathoms, — 567 
fathoms above the level of the bottom of the warm 
water off the Butt of the Lews. The cold water 
abuts against the warm^there is no barrier between 
them. Part of the warm water flows over the 
cold indraught, and forms the upper layer in the 
Pgeroe channel What prevents the cold water from 
slipping, by virtue of its greater weight, under the 
warm water off the Butt of the Lews ? It is quite 
evident that there must be some force at work 
keeping the warm water in that particular position, 
or, if it be moving, compelling it to follow that 
particular course. The comparatively high tem- 
perature from 100 fathoms to 900 fathoms I have 
always attributed to the northern accumulation of 
the water of the Gulf- stream. The amount of heat 
derived directly from the sun by the water as it 



^ 



396 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

passes through any particular region, must be re- 
garded, as I have already said, as depending almost 
entirely upon latitude. Taking this into account, 
the surface temperatures in what we were in the 
habit of calling the ' warm area ' coincided precisely 
with Petermann's curves indicating the northward 
path of the Gulf-stream. 

I extract the following from a letter dated 23rd 
September, 1872, from Professor H. Mohn, director of 
the Norwegian Meteorological Institute at Christiania, 
to Mr. Buchan, the excellent secretary of the Scottish 
Meteorological Society : — " I have this summer got 
some deep-sea temperatures which may be of general 
interest for our climate. In the Throndhj ems-fjord 
I found 16° '5 G. on the surface, and from 50 fathoms 
to the bottom (200 fathoms) a very uniform tempera- 
ture of 6° 5 C. in one place, and 6° C. in another 
place further in. In the Sceguefjord I found 16° C. 
on the surface, and 6°'5 C. constantly from 10 to 
700 fathoms. Between Iceland and Paeroe, Lieu- 
tenant Mtiller, commander of the Bergen and Iceland 
steamer, has found this summer 8° C. at the bottom 
in 300 fathoms. This proves that the Gulf-stream 
water fills the whole of the channel, contrary to 
what is the case in the Pgeroe-Shetland channel, 
where there is ice-cold water in a depth of 300 
fathoms." The facts here mentioned are very 
important, and entirely confirm our results ; but my 
chief object in giving the quotation is to show the 
unhesitating way in which the explanation which 
attributes the high temperature of the sea on the 
Scandinavian coast to the Gulf-stream is adopted by 
those best qualified to form an opinion. 



I 



I 



CHAP. VIII.] THE G ULF-STREAM. 397 

The North Atlantic and Arctic seas form together 
a cul de sac closed to the northward, for there is 
practically no passage for a hody of water through 
Behring's Strait. While, therefore, a large portion 
of the water, finding no free outlet towards the 
north-east, turns southward at the Azores, the re- 
mainder, instead of thinning off, has rather a ten- 
dency to accumulate against the coasts bounding 
the northern portions of the trough. "We accordingly 
find that it has a depth off the west coast of Iceland 
of at least 4,800 feet, with an unknown lateral 
extension. Dr. Carpenter, discussing this opinion, 
says : " It is to me physically inconceivable that 
this surface film of lighter (because w^armer) water 
should collect itself together again — even supposing 
it still to retain any excess of temperature — and 
should burrow downwards into tlie ' trough,' dis- 
placing colder and heavier water, to a depth much 
greater than that which it possesses at the point of 
its greatest 'glory' — its passage through the Elorida 
Narrows. The upholders of this hypothesis have to 
explain how such a re-collection and dipping-down 
of the Gulf-stream water is to be accounted for on 
physical principles." ^ I believe that as a rule, 
experimental imitations on a small scale are of little 
use in the illustration of natural phenomena ; a very 
simple experiment will, however, show that such a 
process is possible. If we put a tablespoonfal of 
cochineal into a can of hot water, so as to give it 
a red tint, and then run it through a piece of india- 
rubber tube with a considerable impulse along the 
surface of a quantity of cold water in a bath, we see 

^ Dr. Carpenter's Address to Geographical Society, op. cit. 



398 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

the red stream widening out and becoming paler 
over the general surface of the water till it reaches 
the opposite edge, and very shortly the rapidly 
heightening colour of a band along the opposite 
wall indicates an accumulation of the coloured water 
where its current is arrested. If we now dip the 
hand into the water of the centre of the bath, a warm 
bracelet merely encircles the wrist ; while at the end 
of the bath opposite the warm influx, the hot water, 
though considerably mixed, envelopes the whole hand. 

The North Atlantic forms a basin closed to the 
northward. Into the corner of this basin, as into a 
bath, — with a north-easterly direction given to it by 
its initial velocity, as if the supply pipe of the bath 
were turned so as to give the hot water a definite 
impulse, — this enormous flood is poured, day and 
night, winter and summer. When the basin is full 
— and not till then — overcoming its northern impulse, 
the surplus water turns southwards in a southern 
eddy, so that there is a certain tendency for the 
hot water to accumulate in the northern basin, 
to ' bank down' ^ along the north-eastern coasts. 

It is scarcely necessary to say that for every unit 
of water which enters the basin of the North 
Atlantic, and which is not evaporated, an equivalent 
must return. As cold water can gravitate into the 
deeper parts of the ocean from all directions, it is 
only under peculiar circumstances that any move- 
ment having the character of a current is induced; 

* Ocean Currents. An Address delivered to the Eoyal United 
Service Institution June 15th, 1871. By J. K. Laughton, M.A., 
Kaval Instructor at the Eoyal Naval College. (From the Journal of 
the Institution, vol. xv.) 



I 



OHAP. vin.] THE GULF-STREAM. 399 

these circumstances occur, however, in the confined 
and contracted communication between the North 
Atlantic and the Arctic Sea. Between Cape Eare- 
well and North Cape there are only two channels 
of any considerable depth, the one very narrow 
along the east coast of Iceland, and the other 
along the east coast of Greenland. The shallow 
part of the sea is entirely occupied, at all events 
during summer, by the warm water of the Gulf- 
stream, except at one point, where a rapid current 
of cold water, very restricted and very shallow, 
sweeps round the south of Spitzbergen and then 
dips under the Gulf- stream water at the northern 
entrance of the German Ocean. 

This cold flow, at first a current, finally a mere 
indraught, affects greatly the temperature of the 
German Ocean ; but it is entirely lost, for the slight 
current which is again produced by the great con- 
traction at the Strait of Dover, has a summer tem- 
perature of 7°*5 C. The path of the cold indraught 
from Spitzbergen may be readily traced on the map 
by the depressions in the surface isothermal lines, and 
in dredging by the abundance of gigantic amphi- 
podous and isopodous crustaceans, and other well- 
known Arctic animal forms. 

From its low initial velocity the Arctic return 
current, or indraught, must doubtless tend slightly 
in a westerly direction, and the higher specific gravity 
of the cold water may probably even more power- 
fully lead it into the deepest channels ; or possibly 
the two causes may combine, and in the course of 
ages the currents may hollow out deep south- 
westerly grooves. At all events, the main Arctic 



400 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viit. 

return currents are very visible on the chart taking 
this direction, indicated by marked deflections of 
the isothermal lines. The most marked is the 
Labrador current, which passes down inside the 
Gulf-stream along the coasts of Carolina and New 
Jersey, meeting it in the strange abrupt ' cold 
wall,' dipping under it as it issues from the Gulf, 
coming to the surface again on the other side, 
and a portion of it actually passing, under the Gulf- 
stream, as a cold counter-current into the Gulf of 
Mexico. 

Fifty or sixty miles out from the west coast of 
Scotland, I believe the Gulf-stream forms another, 
though a very mitigated, *cold wall.' In 1868, 
after our first investigation of the very remarkable 
cold indraught into the channel between Shetland and 
Fseroe, I stated my belief that the current was entirely 
banked up in the Fseroe Channel by the Gulf-stream 
passing its gorge. Since that time I have been led 
to suspect that a part of the Arctic water oozes down 
the Scottish coast, much mixed, and sufficiently 
shallow to be affected throughout by solar radiation. 
About sixty or seventy miles from shore the isother- 
mal lines have a slight but uniform deflection. 
Within that line types characteristic of the Scandi- 
navian fauna are numerous in shallow water, and 
in the course of many years' use of the towing net 
I have never met with any of the Gulf- stream 
pteropods, or of the lovely Polycystina and Acantho- 
metrina which absolutely swarm beyond that limit. 
The diflPerence in mean temperature between the 
east and west coasts of Scotland, amounting to 
about 1°C., is also somewhat less than might be 



ii 



CHAP, viii.j THE OULF-STREAM. 401 

expected if the Gulf-stream came close to the western 
shore. 

While the communication between the North 
Atlantic, and the Arctic Sea — itself a second cul 
de sac — is thus restricted, limiting the interchange of 
warm and cold water in the normal direction of the 
flow of the Gulf-stream, and causing the diversion of 
a large part of the stream to the southwards, the 
communication with the Antarctic basin is as open as 
the day ; — a continuous and wide valley upwards of 
2,000 fathoms in depth stretching northwards along 
the western coasts of Africa and Europe. 

That the southern water wells up into this valley 
there could be little doubt from the form of the 
ground; but here again we have curious corroborative 
evidence on the map in the remarkable reversal of the 
curves of the isotherms. The temperature of the bot- 
tom water at 1,230 fathoms off Uockall is 3°-22 C, 
exactly the same as that of water at the same depth in 
the serial sounding, lat. 47° 38' N., long. 12° 08' W. in 
the Bay of Biscay, which affords a strong presumption 
that the water in both cases is derived from the same 
source ; and the bottom water off Bockall is warmer 
than the bottom water in the Bay of Biscay (2°*5 C), 
while a cordon of temperature soundings drawn from 
the north-west of Scotland to a point on the Iceland 
shallow gives no temperature lower than 6°-5 C. This 
makes it very improbable that the low temperature 
of the Bay of Biscay is due to any considerable por- 
tion of the Spitzbergen current passing down the west 
coast of Scotland; and as the cold current to the 
east of Iceland passes southwards considerably to the 
westward, as indicated on the map by the successive 



402 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. viii. 

depressions in the surface isotherms, the balance of 
probability seems to be in favour of the view that the 
conditions of temperature and the slow movement of 
this vast mass of moderately cold water, nearly two 
statute miles in depth, are to be referred to an 
Antarctic rather than to an Arctic origin. 

The North Atlantic Ocean seems to consist first of 
a great sheet of warm water, the general northerly 
reflux of the equatorial current. Of this the greater 
part passes through the Strait of ^Florida, and its 
north-easterly flow is aided and maintained by the 
anti-trades, the whole being generally called the 
Gulf-stream. This layer is of varying depths, ap- 
parently from the observatious of Captain Chimmo 
and others, thinning to a hundred fathoms or so in 
the mid- Atlantic, but attaining a depth of 700 to 800 
fathoms off the west coasts of Ireland and Spain. 
Secondly of a ' stratum of intermixture ' which ex- 
tends to about 200 fathoms in the Bay of Biscay, 
through which the temperature falls rather rapidly ; 
and thirdly, of an underlying mass of cold water, 
in the Bay of Biscay 1,500 fathoms deep, derived as 
an indraught falling in by gravitation from the 
deepest available source, whether Arctic or Antarctic. 
It seems at first sight a startling suggestion, 
that the cold water filling deep ocean valleys in the 
northern hemisphere may be partly derived from 
the southern; but this difficulty, I believe, arises 
from the idea that there is a kind of diaphragm at 
the equator between the northern and southern ocean 
basins, one of the many misconceptions which follow 
in the train of a notion of a convective circulation in 
the sea similar to that in the atmosphere. There is 



CHAP, viii] THE GULF-STREAM. 403 

undoubtedly a gradual elevation of an intertropical 
belt of the underlying cold water, which is being 
raised by the subsiding of still colder water into its 
bed to supply the place of the water removed by the 
equatorial current and by excessive evaporation ; but 
such a movement must be widely and irregularly 
diffused and excessively slow, not in any sense com- 
parable with the diaphragm produced in the atmo- 
sphere by the rushing upwards of the north-east and 
south-east trade-winds in the zone of calms. Perhaps 
one of the most conclusive proofs of the extreme 
slowness of the movement of the deep indraught is 
the nature of the bottom. Over a great part of the 
floor of the Atlantic a deposit is being formed of 
microscopic shells. These with their living inha- 
bitants differ little in specific weight from the water 
itself, and form a creamy flocculent layer, which must 
be at once removed wherever there is a perceptible 
movement. In water of moderate depth, in the 
course of any of the currents, this deposit is entirely 
absent, and is replaced by coarser or finer gravel. 

It is only on the surface of the sea that a line is 
drawn between the two hemispheres by the equatorial 
current, whose effect in shedding a vast intertropical 
drift of water on either side as it breaks against the 
eastern shores of equatorial land may be seen at a 
glance on the most elementary physical chart. 

The Gulf-stream loses an enormous amount of heat 
in its northern tour. At a point 200 miles west of 
Ushant, where observations at the greatest depths 
were made on board the ' Porcupine,' a section of 
the water of the i^tlantic shows three surfaces at 
which interchange of temperature is taking place. 

DD 2 



404 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. fcHAP. viii. 

Eirst, the surface of the sea — that is to say, the 
upper surface of the Gulf-stream layer — is losing 
heat rapidly by radiation, by contact with a layer of 
air which is in constant motion and being per- 
petually cooled by convection, and by the con- 
version of water into vapour. ^ As this cooling of 
the Gulf-stream layer takes place principally at the 
surface, the temperature of the mass is kept pretty 
uniform by convection. Secondly, the band of con- 
tact of the lower surface of the Gulf-stream water 
with the upper surface of the cold indraught. Here 
the interchange of temperature must be very slow, 
though that it does take place is shown by the 
slight depression of the surface isotherms over the I 
principal paths of the indraught. But there is a 
good deal of intermixture extending through a con- 
siderable layer. The cold water being beneath, 
convection in the ordinary sense cannot occur, and 
interchange of temperature must depend mainly j 
upon conduction and diffusion, causes which in the \ 
case of masses of water must be almost secular in 
their action, and probably to a much greater extent 
upon mixture produced by local currents and by 
the tides. The third surface is that of contact be- 
tween the cold indraught and the bottom of the 
sea. The temperature of the crust of the earth 
has been variously calculated at from 4° to 11° C, 
but it must be completely cooled down by anything 
like a movement and constant renewal of cold water. 

^ On Deep-sea Climates. The Substance of a Lecture delivered to 
the Natural Science Class in Queen's College, Eelfast, at the close of 
the Summer Session 1870, by Professor Wyville Thomson. (^Naturey 
July 28th, 1870.) 



CHAP, viii] THE GULF-STREAM. 405 

All we can say, therefore, is that contact with the 
hottom can never be a source of depression of tem- 
perature. As a general result the Gulf-stream water 
is nearly uniform in temperature throughout the 
greater part of its depth ; there is a marked zone 
of intermixture at the junction between the warm 
water and the cold, and the water of the cold 
indraught is regularly stratified by gravitation ; 
so that in deep water the contour lines of the 
sea-bottom are, speaking generally, lines of equal 
temperature. Keeping in view the enormous in- 
fluence which ocean currents exercise in the dis- 
tribution of climates at the present time, I think 
it is scarcely going too far to suppose that such 
currents — movements communicated to the water by 
constant winds — existed at all geological periods as 
the great means, I had almost said the sole means, 
of producing a general oceanic circulation, and thus 
distributing heat in the ocean. They must have 
existed, in fact, wherever equatorial land inter- 
rupted the path of the drift of the trade-winds. 
Wherever a warm current was deflected to north 
or south from the equatorial belt a polar indraught 
crept in beneath to supply its place ; and the ocean 
consequently consisted, as in the Atlantic and 
doubtless in the Pacific at the present day, of an 
upper warm stratum, and a lower layer of cold 
water becoming gradually colder with increasing 
depth. 

I fear, then, that in opposition to the views of 
my distinguished colleague, I must repeat that I 
have seen as yet no reason to modify the opinion 
which I have consistently held from the first, that 



406 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. VIII. 



the remarkable conditions of climate on the coasts 
of Northern Europe are due in a broad sense solely 
to the Gulf-stream. That is to say, that although 
movements, some of them possibly of considerable 
importance, must be produced by differences of spe- 
cific gravity, yet the influence of the great current 
which we call the Gulf-stream, the reflux of the 
great equatorial current, is so paramount as to reduce 
all other causes to utter insignificance. 




THE GIANT ANO TUK HAG. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 

The Protozoa of the Deep-sea. — BathyUus. — * Coccoliths,' and * Cocco- 
spheres.' — The Foraminifera of the Warm and Cold Areas. — Deep- 
sea Sponges. — The Hexactinellidae. — Rossella. — Hyalonema. — 
Deep-sea Corals. — The Stalked Crinoids. — Fentacrinus. — Rhizo- 
crinus. — Balhycrimis. — The Star- fishes of the Deep-sea. — The 
general Distribution and Eelations of Deep-sea Urchins. — The 
Crustacea, the Mollusca, and the Fishes of the ' Porcupine ' Expe- 
ditions. 

The time has not yet arrived for giving anything 
like a detailed account of the deep-sea fauna; even 
if it were possible to do so in a popular sketch of 
the general results of a wide investigation. I must 
therefore confine myself at present to a brief outline 
of the distribution of the forms of animal life which 
were met with in the belt partially examined during 
the ' Porcupine ' dredgings, a belt which carries the 
British zoological area about a hundred miles further 
out to seaward along the northern and western coasts 
of the British Isles, and into depths extending from 
200 fathoms, the previous limit of accurate know- 
ledge, to 800 and 1,000 fathoms, and in one or two 
instances to the extreme depth of upwards of 2,000 
fathoms. 



408 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

The remarkable general result that even to these 
great depths the fauna is varied and rich in all the 
marine invertebrate groups, has inundated us with 
new material which in several of the larger depart- 
ments it will take years of the labour of specialists 
to work up. While referring very briefly to those 
orders which it has been found impossible as yet to 
overtake, I will enter a little more fully into the 
history of certain restricted groups which more par- 
ticularly illustrate the conditions of the abyssal 
region, and the relations of its special fauna to the 
faunae of other zoological provinces, or to those of 
earlier times. And very prominent among these 
special groups we find the first and simplest of the in- 
vertebrate sub-kingdoms, the Protozoa, represented 
by three of its classes, — the monera, the rhizopoda, 
and the sponges. 

The monera have been lately defined as a distinct 
class by Professor Ernst Haeckel,^ for a vast assem- 
blage of almost formless beings, apparently abso- 
lutely devoid of internal structure, and consisting 
simply of living and moving expansions of jelly-like 
protoplasm; and although the special character on 
which Haeckel separates them from the remainder of 
the protozoa, — that they are propagated by no form 
of sexual reproduction, but simply by spontaneous 
division, — may probably prove deceptive as our know- 
ledge increases, still their number, their general 
resemblance to one another, presenting obviously 
different and recognizable kinds although with very 
indefinable characters, and the important part which 

^ Biologische Studien. Yon Dr. Ernst Haeckel, Professor an der 
Universitilt Jena. Leipzig, 1870. 



CHAP. IX.] THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 409 

they play in the economy of nature, would seem to 
entitle them to a systematic position of more than 
ordinal value. The German naturalists of the new 
school, in their enthusiastic adoption of the Dar- 
winian theory of evolution, naturally welcome in 
these ' moners ' the essential attribute of the * Ur- 
schleim,' an infinite capacity for improvement in 
every conceivable direction ; and to more prosaic 
physiologists they are of the deepest interest, as 
presenting the essential phenomena of life, nutri- 
tion and irritability, existing apparently simply as 
the properties of a homogeneous chemical compound, 
and independent of organization. 

The monera pass into the rhizopoda, which give 
a slight indication of advance, in the definite form 
of the graceful calcareous shell-like structures which 
most of them secrete, and the two groups may be 
taken together. 

The dredging at 2,435 fathoms at the mouth of 
the Bay of Biscay gave a very fair idea of the con- 
dition of the bottom of the sea over an enormous 
area, as we know from many observations which 
have now been made, with the various sounding 
instruments contrived to bring up a sample of the 
bottom. On that occasion the dredge brought up 
about 1^ cwt. of calcareous mud. There could be 
little doubt, from the appearance of the contents of 
the dredge, that the heavy dredge-frame had gone 
down wdth a plunge, and partly buried itself in 
the soft, yielding bottom. The throat of the dredge 
thus became partly choked, and the free entrance 
of the organisms on the sea-floor had been thus 
prevented. The matter contained in the dredge con- 



410 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

sisted mainly of a compact 'mortar,' of a bluisli 
colour, passing into a thin — evidently superficial — 
layer, much softer and more creamy in consistence, 
and of a yellowish colour. Under the microscope the 
surface-layer was found to consist chiefly of entire 
shells of GloUgerina bulloides (Fig. 2, p. 22), large 
and small, and fragments of such shells mixed 
with a quantity of amorphous calcareous matter in 
fine particles, a little fine sand, and many spicules, 
portions of spicules, and shells of Radiolaria, a few 
spicules of sponges, and a few frustules of diatoms. 
Below the surface-layer the sediment becomes 
gradually more compact, and a slight grey colour, 
due probably to the decomposing organic matter, 
becomes more pronounced, while perfect shells of 
globigerina almost entirely disappear, fragments be- 
come smaller, and calcareous mud, structureless and in 
a fine state of division, is in greatly preponderating 
proportion. One can have no doubt, on examining 
this sediment, that it is formed in the main by the 
accumulation and disintegration of the shells of 
globigerina — the shells fresh, whole, and living in 
the surface-layer of the deposit, and in the lower 
layers dead, and gradually crumbling down by the 
decomposition of their organic cement, and by the 
pressure of the layers above — an animal formation 
in fact being formed very much in the same way as in 
the accumulation of vegetable matter in a peat bog, 
by life and growth above, and death, retarded de- 
composition, and compression beneath. 

In this dredging, as in most others in the bed 
of the Atlantic, there was evidence of a considerable 
quantity of soft gelatinous organic matter, enough 



CHAP. IX.] THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 411 

to give a slight viscosity to the mud of the surface 
layer. If the mud be shaken with weak spirit of 
wine, fine flakes separate like coagulated mucue ; 
and if a little of the mud in which this viscid con- 
dition is most marked be placed in a drop of sea- 
water under the microscope, we can usually see, 
after a time, an irregular network of matter resem- 
bling white of e^^, distinguishable by its maintaining 
its outline and not mixing with the water. This 
network may be seen gradually altering in form, and 
entangled granules and foreign bodies change their 
relative positions. The gelatinous matter is therefore 
capable of a certain amount of movement, and there 
can be no doubt that it manifests the phenomena of 
a very simple form of life. 

To this organism, if a being can be so called which 
shows no trace of differentiation of organs, consist- 
ing apparently of an amorphous sheet of a protein 
compound, irritable to a low degree and capable of 
assimilating food. Professor Huxley has given the 
name of Bathyhius haeckelii (Fig. 63). If this have a 
claim to be recognized as a distinct living entity, ex- 
hibiting its mature and final form, it must be referred 
to the simplest division of the shell-less rhizopoda, or 
if we adopt the class proposed by Professor Haeckel, 
to the monera. The circumstance which gives its 
special interest to Bathyhius is its enormous extent : 
whether it be continuous in one vast sheet, or broken 
up into circumscribed individual particles, it appears 
to extend over a large part of the bed of the ocean ; 
and as no living thing, however slowly it may live, 
is ever perfectly at rest, but is continually acting and 
reacting with its surroundings, the bottom of the 



412 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. IX. 



sea becomes like the surface of the sea and of the 
land, — a theatre of change, performing its part in 
maintaining the * balance of organic nature.' 




Fig. 63.— "Eine grossere Cytode von Bathybius mit eingebettetcti Coccolithen. Das Proto- 
plasma, welches viele Discolithen und Cyatholithen enthiilt, bildet ein Netzwerk niit breiten 
Strangen.' (x. 700. )i 

1 Biologische Studien. Von Dr. Ernst Haeckel, Professor an der 
Universitat Jena. Leipzig, 1870. 



CHAP. IX.] THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 413 

Entangled and borne along in the viscid streams 
of Bathybius, we so constantly find a multitude of 
minute calcareous bodies of a peculiar shape, that 
the two were for long supposed to have some 
mutual relation to one another. These small bodies, 
which have been carefully studied by Huxley,^ 
Sorby,2 Haeckel,^ Carter,* Giimbel,^ and others, are 
in shape somewhat like oval shirt-studs. There is 
first a little oval disk about 0*01 mm. in length, with 
an oblong rudely facetted elevation in the centre, 
and round that, in fresh sjjecimens, what seems to be 
a kind of frill of organic matter, then a short neck, 
and lastly a second smaller flat disk, like the disk 
at the back of a stud. To these bodies, which are 
met with in all stages of development, Professor 
Huxley has given the name of ' coccoliths.' Some- 
times they are found aggregated on the surface of 
small transparent membranous balls, and these 
which seemed at first to have something to do with 
the production of the ' coccoliths ' Dr. Wallich has 
called ' coccospheres ' (Fig. 64). Professor Ernst 
Haeckel has lately described a very elegant organ- 
ism belonging to the radiolaria and apparently 
allied to Thalassicolla, — MyxohracMa rhopalum, — and 
at the ends of some curious diverging appendages 
of this creature he has detected accumulations of 
bodies closely resembling, if not identical with, the 
coccoliths and coccospheres of the sea-bottom. These 

^ Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 1868, p. 203. 
2 Proceedings of the Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society, 
October 1860. 'Op. cit. 

* Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1871, p. 184. 
^ Jalirbuch Miinch. 1870, p. 75.3. 



414 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

bodies seem to have been taken in to the Myxo- 
brachia as food, the hard parts accumulating in 
cavities in the animal's body after all the available 
nourishment had been absorbed. It is undoubted 
that a large number of the organisms whose skele- 
tons are mixed with the ooze of the bottom of the 
sea live on the surface, the delicate silicious or cal- 
careous shields or spines falling gradually through 




Fig. 64.— 'Coccosphere.' (x. 1000.) 



the water and finally reaching the bottom, what- 
ever be the depth. I think that now the balance of 
opinion is in favour of the view that the coccoliths 
are joints of a minute unicellular alga living on the 
sea-surface and sinking down and mixing with the 
sarcode of Bathyhius^ very probably taken into it with 
a purpose, for the sake of the vegetable matter 
they may contain, and which may afford food for 
the animal jelly. What the coccospheres are, and 



CHAP. IX.] THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 415 

what relation, if any, they have to the coccoliths, 
we do not know. 

Living upon and among this JBathyhius^ we find 
a multitude of other protozoa, — foraminifera and 
other rhizopods, radiolarians, and sponges; and we 
as yet know very little of the life-history of these 
groups. There can be no doubt that when their 
development has been fully traced many of them 
will be found to be di- or poly-morphic, and that 
when we are acquainted with their mode of multi- 
plication we shall meet with many cases of pleo- 
morphism and wide differences between the organs 
and products involved in propagation and in repro- 
duction. I feel by no means satisfied that Bathyhitis 
is the permanent form of any distinct living being. 
It has seemed to me that different samples have been 
different in appearance and consistence; and although 
there is nothing at all improbable in the abundance 
of a very simple shell-less *moner' at the bottom 
of the sea, I think it not impossible that a great 
deal of the 'bathybius,' that is to say the diffused 
formless protoplasm which we find at great depths, 
may be a kind of mycelium — a formless condition 
connected either with the growth and multiplication 
or with the decay — of many different things. 

Many foraminifera of different groups inhabit 
the deep water, lying upon or mixed in the upper 
layer of the globigerina ooze, or fixed to some foreign 
body, such as a sponge, coral, or stone; and all of 
these are remarkable for their large size. In the 
'warm area,' and wherever the bottom is covered with 
ooze, calcareous forms jpredominate, and large sandy 
cristellarians, with their sand-grains bound together 



416 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

by calcareous cement, so that the sand-grains show 
out, dark and conspicuous, scattered on the surface 
of the white shell. Miliolines are abundant, and 
the specimens of Cornus]^ira and Biloculina are 
greatly larger than anything which has been hitherto 
met with in temperate regions, recalling the tropical 
forms which abound among the Pacific Islands. 

In the cold area, and in the paths of cold currents, 
foraminifera with sandy tests are more numerous; 
some of those of the genera Astrorhiza, Lituola, 
and Botellina are gigantic — large examples 30 mm. 
long by 8 mm. in diameter. 

The few hauls of the dredge which we have already 
had in deep water have been enough to teach us that 
our knowledge of sponges is in its infancy, — that those 
which we have collected from shallow water along 
our shores, and even those few which have been 
brought up from deep water on fishing lines, and 
have surprised us by the beauty of their forms and 
the delicacy of their lustre, are the mere margin and 
remnant of a wonderfully diversified sponge-fauna 
which appears to extend in endless variety over the 
whole of the bottom of the sea. I cannot attempt 
here more than a mere outline of the general cha- 
racter of the additions which have been made to our 
knowledge of this group. The sponges of the ' Por- 
cupine' Expedition are now in the hands of Mr. 
Henry Carter, P.R.S., for description; and an ex- 
cellent sketch of the sponge-fauna of the deep Atlan- 
tic, bringing information on certain groups up to a 
late date, has been published by the best authority 
we have on sponges, Professor Oscar Schmidt of 
Gratz. 



CHAP. VII.] THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 417 

As I have already said, the most remarkable new 
forms are referable to the group which seems to be, 
in a sense special to deep water, the Hexactinellidae. 
I have already (p. 70) briefly described one of the 
most abundant and singular forms belonging to this 
order, Holtenia carpenteri ; and all the others, 
though running through most remarkable variations 
in form and general appearance, agree with Holtenia 
in essential structure. In the Hexactinellidse all the 
spicules, so far as we know, are formed on the hex- 
radiate plan ; that is to say, there is a primary axis, 
which may be long or short, and at one point four 
secondary rays cross this central shaft at right angles. 
Very often one-half of the central shaft is absent or 
is represented by a slight rounded boss, and in that 
case we have a spicule with a cross-shaped head, a 
very favourite form in the manufacture, defence, and 
ornament of the surface layer of these sponges ; and 
often the secondary rays are undeveloped : but if 
that be so, — as in the long fibres of the whisp 
of Hyalonema, — in young spicules and in others 
which are slightly abnormal, four little elevations 
near the middle of the spicule, which contain four 
secondary branches of the central canal, maintain the 
oermanence of the type. In many of the Hexac- 
inellidse the spicules are all distinct, and combined, 
is in Holtenia, by a small quantity of nearly trans- 
»arent sarcode ; but in others, as in ' Venus's flbwer- 
asket,' and the nearly equally beautiful genera 
phiteon, Aphrocallistes, and Farrea, the spicules 
an together and make a continuous silicious net- 
ork. When this is the case the sponge may be 
Diled in nitric acid, and all the organic matter and 

E E 



418 THi: DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. 

other impurities thus removed, when the skeleton 
comes out a lovely lacy structure of the clearest 
glass. The six-rayed form of the spicules gives the 
network which is the result of their fusion great 
flexibility of design, with a characteristic tendency, 
however, to square meshes. 

On the 30th of August, 1870, Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys 
dredged in 651 fathoms in the Atlantic off the mouth 
of the Strait of Gibraltar an exquisite sponge, 
resembling Holtenia in its general appearance, but 
differing from it in the singular and beautiful cha- 
racter of having a delicate outer veil about a centi- 
metre from the surface of the sponge, formed by the 
interlacing of the four secondary rays of large five- 
rayed spicules, which send their long shafts from that 
point vertically into the sponge body (Fig. 65). The 
surface of the sponge is formed of a network of large 
five-radiate spicules, arranged very much as in Hol- 
tenia ; but the spicules of the sarcode — the small 
spicules which are imbedded in the living sponge-jelly 
— are of a totally different form. A single large 
* osculum ' opens, as in Holtenia, at the top of the 
sponge, but instead of forming a cup uniformly 
lined with a netted membrane, the oscular cavity 
divides at the bottom into a number of branching 
passages as in JPheronema anncB, described by Dr. 
Leidy. I was inclined at first to place this species 
in the genus 'Pheronema, but Dr. Leidy's descrip- 
tion and figure are by no means satisfactory, and 
may refer to some other form of the Holtenia group. 
The spicules of the ' beard ' are more rigid and thicker 
than those of Holtenia, and scattered among them 
are some very large four-barbed grappling hooks. 



p 



CHAP. VII.] 



THE LEEP-SEA FAUNA. 



419 




Fig. iob.—Rossdla veluta, Wvvii.i.k Thomson. Natural size. (i:o. 3?, 1S70. ) 
E E 2 



420 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. 

Off the Butt of the Lews, in water of 450 to 500 
fathoms, we met on two occasions with full-grown 
specimens of a species of the remarkahle genus 
Hyalonema (Fig. Q^), Avith the coils in the larger 
examples upwards of 40 centimetres in length. 
Hyalonema is certainly a very striking object; and 
although our specimens belong apparently to the 
same species, K. lusitanicum, which has already been , 
recorded by Professor Barboza du Bocage from the | 
coast of Portugal, it is one of the most interesting 
additions made to the British fauna during our 
cruise. 

A bundle of from 200 to 300 threads of trans- 
parent silica, glistening with a silky lustre, like the 
most brilliant spun-glass, — each thread from 30 to 40 
centimetres long, in the middle the thickness of a 
knitting needle, and gradually tapering towards either ._ 
end to a fine point ; the whole bundle coiled like a I 
strand of rope into a lengthened spiral, the threads of 
the middle and upper portions remaining compactly 
coiled by a permanent twist of the individual threads ; 
the lower part of the coil, which, when the sponge is 
living, is imbedded in the mud, frayed out so that the 
glassy threads stand separate from one another, like 
the bristles of a glittering brush ; the upper portion 
of the coil close and compact, imbedded perpen- 
dicularly in a conical or cylindrical sponge; and 
usually part of the upper portion of the silicious ) 
coil, and part of the sponge - substance, covered • 
with a brownish leatherv coatinsr, whose surface is 
studded with the polyps of an alcyonarian zoophyte : 
— such is the general effect of a complete specimen 
of Hyalonema, 




Pig. 66.~Hyalonema lusitaninnn. Barroza du Dotage Half the natural 



size. {No. 90. 1SC9. 



422 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. 

The genus was first known in Europe by specimens 
brought from Japan by the celebrated naturalist and 
traveller, Yon Siebold; and Japanese examples of 
Hyaloiiema sieboldi, Gray, may now be found more 
-or less perfect in most of the European museums. 
When the first specimen of Hyalonema was brought 
home, the other vitreous sponges which approach it 
so closely in all essential points of structure were 
unknown, and the history of opinion as to its rela- 
tions is curious. I 

The being consisted of three very distinct parts : 
first, and greatly the most remarkable, the coil 
of silicious needles ; then the sponge, and for long 
it was supposed that this was the base of the struc- 
ture, — from which the glossy brush projected, spread- 
ing out above it in the water ; and thirdly, the 
apparently constant encrusting zoophyte. 

This complicated association suggested many pos- 
sibilities. Was Syalonema a natural production at 
all ? Was it complete ? Were all the three parts 
essentially connected together ? And if not, were all 
the three independent, or did two of three parts 
belong to the same thing ? and if so, which two ? 

Hyalonema was first described and named in 
1835 by Dr. John Edward Gray, who has since, 
in one or two notices in the 'Annals of Natural 
History' and elsewhere, vigorously defended the 
essential part of his original position. Dr. Gray 
associated the silicious whisp with the zoophyte, 
and regarded the sponge as a separate organism. 
He looked upon the silicious coil as the representa- 
tive of the horny axis of the sea-fans (GorgonicB), 
and the leather-like coat he regarded as its fleshy 



CHAP. VII.} THE DEEP-SEA FAUN J, 493 

rind. He supposed that between this zoophyte and 
the sponge at its base, there subsisted a relation of 
guest and host, the zoophyte being constantly asso- 
ciated with the sponge ; and in accordance with this 
view he proposed for the reception of the zoophyte 
a new group of alcyonarians under the name of 
'Spongicolse,' as distinguished from the 'Sabulicolse' 
(Pennatulce) and the ' Eupicolse ' {Gorgonice). 

Dr. Gray's view seemed in many respects a natural 
one, and it was adopted in the main by Dr. Brandt 
of St. Petersburg, who in 1859 published a long 
memoir, describing a number of specimens brought 
from Japan to Russia. Dr. Brandt referred what he 
believed to be a zoophyte consisting of the coil and 
the crust, to a special group of sclerobasic zoanth- 
carians with a silicious axis. 

One consideration militated strongly against this 
hypothesis of Dr. Gray and Professor Brandt. No 
known zoophyte had a purely silicious axis; and 
such an axis made up of loose separate spicules 
seemed strangely inconsistent with the harmony of 
the class. On the other hand, silicious spicules of 
all forms and sizes were conceivable in sponges ; 
and in 1857 Professor Milne-Edwards, on the 
authority of Valenciennes, who was thoroughly 
versed in the structure of the Gorgonice, combined 
the sponge with the silicious rope, and degraded the 
zoophyte to the rank of an encrusting parasite. 

Anything very strange coming from Japan is to 
be regarded wdth some distrust. The Japanese are 
wonderfully ingenious, and one favourite aim of 
their misdirected industry is the fabrication of im- 
possible monsters by the curious combination of the 



424 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. 

parts of different animals. It was therefore quite 
possible that the whole thing might he an imposi- 
tion : that some beautiful spicules separated from 
an unknown organism had been twisted into a whisp 
by the Japanese, and then manipulated so as to 
have their fibres naturally bound together by the 
sponges and zoophytes which are doubtless rapidly 
developed in the Mongolian rock-pools. Ehrenberg, 
when he examined Hyalonema, took this view. He 
at once recognized the silicious strands as the spicules 
of a sponge quite independent of the zoophyte with 
which they were encrusted ; but he suggested that 
these might have been artificially combined into the 
spiral coil and placed under artificial circumstances 
favourable to the growth of a sponge of a different 
species round their base. The condition in which 
many specimens reach Europe is certainly calculated 
to throw some doubt on their genuineness. It seems 
that the bundles of spicules made up in various 
ways, are largely sold as ornaments in China and 
Japan. The coils of spicules are often stuck upright 
with their upper ends in circular holes in stones. 
Mr. Huxley exhibited a few years ago at the 
Linnaean Society a beautiful specimen of this kind 
now in the British Museum: — a stone has been 
bored, probably by a colony of boring molluscs, and 
a whole colony of Hyalonemas, old and young, are 
apparently growing out of the burrows, the larger 
individuals more than a foot in length, and the 
young ones down to an inch or so, like tiny camel's- 
hair pencils. All these are encrusted by the usual 
zoophyte, which also extends here and there over 
the stone (glued on probably), but there is no trace 



CHAP. VII.] THE DEEP-$IiA VAVNA. 425 

of the sponge. Such an association is undoubtedly 
artificial. 

Dr. Bowerbank, another great sponge authority, 
takes yet another view. He maintains "that the 
silicious axis, its envelopment, and the basal sponge 
are all parts of the same animal." The polyps 
he regards as ' oscula,' forming with the coil a 
' columnar cloacal system.' 

Professor Max Schultze, of Bonn, examined with 
great care several perfect and imperfect specimens of 
Ryalonema in the Museum of Ley den, and in 1860 
published an elaborate description of its structure. 
According to Schultze, the conical sponge is the 
body-mass of Hyalonema, a sponge allied in every 
respect to Euplectella ; and the siliceous coil is an 
appendage of the sponge formed of modified spicules. 
The zoophyte is of course a distinct animal altogether, 
and its only connection with the sponge is one of 
' commensalism.' It * chums ' with the sponge for 
some purpose of its own, — certainly getting support 
from the coil, probably sharing the oxygen and 
organic matters carried in by the ciliary system of 
the sponge passages. This style of association is 
very common. We have another example of the 
same thing in Falythoa axinellce, Schmidt, a con- 
stant * commensal ' with Axinella cinnamomea and 
A, verrucosa^ two Adriatic sponges. 

In 1864 Professor Barboza du Bocage, director 
of the Museum of Natural History in Lisbon, com- 
municated to the Zoological Society of London the 
unexpected news that a species of JSyalonema had 
been discovered off the coast of Portugal ; and in 1865 
he published, in the Proceedings of the same Society, 



426 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. 

an additional note on the habitat of Hyalonema lusi- 
tamcum. It appears that the fishermen of Setubal 
frequently bring up on their lines, from a consider- 
able depth, coils of silicious threads closely resem- 
bling those of the Japanese species, which they 
even surpass in size, sometimes attaining a length of 
about 50 centimetres. The fishermen seem to be very 
familiar with them. They call them ' sea-whips,' 
but with the characteristic superstition of their class 
they regard all these extraneous matters as ' unlucky,' 
and usually tear them in pieces and throw them 
into the water. Judging from some specimens in 
the British Museum, and from Senhor du Bocage's 
figure, the 'glass-rope' of the Portuguese form is 
not so thick as that of S. sieboldi. There is also 
some slight difference in the sculpture of the long 
needles, but the structure of the sponge and the very 
characteristic forms of the small spicules are identical 
in the two. I doubt if there be more than varietal 
distinctions between the two forms ; and if that be 
so, it adds another to the list of species common to 
our seas and the seas of Japan. 

Perhaps the most singular circumstance connected 
with this discussion was that all this time we had 
been looking at the sponge upside down, and that it 
had never occurred to anyone to reverse it. We had 
probably taken this notion from the specimens stuck 
in stones, brought from Japan, and the sponge cer- 
tainly looked very like the base of the edifice. When- 
ever the sponges were dredged on the coasts of Europe 
and compared with allied things, it became evident 
that the whisp was an organ of support passing out 
of the lower part of the sponge, and that the flat, 



CHAP, vii.] TflE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 427 

or sliglitly-cupped disk, with a papilla in the centre 
receiving the upper end of the coil, with large oscular 
openings, and a fringe of delicate radiating spicules 
round the edge, was the top of the sponge, spreading 
out probably level with the surface of the ooze. 

In essential structure Hyalonema very closely re- 
sembles SoUenia, and the more characteristic forms 
of the Hexactinellidae. The surface of the sponge is 
supported by a square network, formed by the sym- 
metrical arrangement of the four secondary rays of 
five-rayed spicules, and the sarcode which binds these 
branches together is full of minute feathered five- 
rayed spicules, which project from the branches like 
a delicate fringe. The oscula are chiefly on the upper 
disk, and lead into a number of irregular passages 
which traverse the body of the sponge in all direc- 
tions. When we trace its development, the coil 
loses its mystery. On one of the Holtenice from the 
Butt of the Lews, there was a little accumulation 
of greenish granular matter among the fibres. On 
placing this under the microscope it turned out to 
be a number of very young sponges, scarcely out of 
their germ state. They were all at first sight very 
much alike, minute pear-shaped bodies, with a long 
delicate pencil of silky spicules taking the place of 
the pear-stalk. On closer examination, however, these 
little germs proved to belong to different species, 
each showing unmistakeably the characteristic forms 
of its special spicules. Most of them were the young 
of Tisiphonia, but among them were several Holtenice, 
and one or two were at once referred to Hyalonema. 
In two or three hauls in the same locality we got 
them in every subsequent stage — beautiful little 



428 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. 

pear-shaped things, a centimetre long, with a single 
osculum at the top, and the whisp like a small 
brush. At this stage the Falythoa is usually absent, 
but when the body of the sponge has attained 15 mm. 
or so in length very generally a little pink tubercle 
may be detected at the point of junction between 
the sponge body and the coil, the germ of the first 
polyp. 

Hyalonema lusifanicum, Barboza du Bocage, the 
species met with in the British seas and along 
the coast of western Europe, appears to be local, 
but very abundant at the stations where it occurs. 
I am still in doubt whether we are to regard it 
as identical with the Japanese species, H. sieboldi, 
Gray. 

During Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys' cruise in 1870, two 
specimens of a wonderful sponge belonging also to the 
Hexactinellidae were dredged in 374 fathoms in rocky 
ground off Cape St. Vincent. The larger of these 
forms a complete vase oi* a very elegant form, nearly 
ninety centimetres in diameter at the top and about 
sixty in height (Fig. 67). The sponge came up folded 
together, and had much the appearance of a piece 
of coarse, greyish-coloured blanket. Its minute 
structure is, however, very beautiful. It consists, 
like Holtenia, of two netted layers, an outer and 
an inner, formed by the symmetrical interlacing of 
the four cross branches of five-rayed spicules; and, 
as in Holtenia and Bossella, the sarcode is full of 
extremely minute five and six-rayed spicules, which, 
however, have a thoroughly distinct character of 
their own, with here and there a very beautiful 
rosette-like spicule, another singular modification of 



CHAP. vu. THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 429 

the hexradiate type characteristic of this group. 
Between the two netted surfaces the sponge sub- 
stance is formed of loose curving meshes of loosely 
aggregated bundles of long simple fibres, sparsely 
mixed with spicules of other forms. This sponge 
seems to live fixed to a stone. There are no 
anchoring spicules, and the bottom of the vase, 




Fig. 67. — Askoneina setubalense, Kent. One-eighth the natural size. (No. 25, 1870.) 

which in our two specimens is a good deal con- 
tracted and has a square shape something like an 
jOld Irish 'mether,' has apparently been torn from 
some attachment. This fine species was named 
Askonema setubalense, and very briefly described 
from a specimen in the Lisbon Museum by Mr. 
Saville Kent, in a paper in w^hich he noticed some 



430 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vir. 

* the sponges dredged from Mr. Marshall Hall's 

acht.^ 
Sponges belonging to other groups from the deep 
Avater were nearly equally interesting. I have 
already alluded, p. 188, to the handsome branching 

ponges belonging to the Esperadise, which abound 
off the coasts of Scotland and Portugal. Near the 
mouth of the Strait of Gibraltar a number of species 
were taken in considerable quantity, belonging to a 
group which were at first confused with the Ilexac- 
tinellidae, on account of their frequently forming a 
similar and equally beautiful continuous network of 
silica, so as to assume the same resemblance to deli- 
cate lace when boiled in nitric acid. The Corallio- 
spongise differ, however, from the Hexactinellidae in 
one very fundamental character. While in the latter 
the spicule is hexradiate, in the former it consists 
of a shaft with three diverging rays at one end. 
These frequently spread in one plane, and they often 
re-divide, and frequently the spaces between them are 
filled up with a secondary expanse of silica, variously 
frilled and netted on the edge, so as to give the spicule 
the appearance of an ornamental flat-headed tack. 
These three-rayed stars or disks, in combination, sup- 
port the outer membrane of sponges of this order ; 
and spicules of the same type, fused together accord- 
ing to various plans, form the sponge skeleton. 

This group of sponges are as yet imperfectly 
known. They seem to pass into such forms as 
Geodia and Tethya ; and the typical example with 
which we are most familiar is the genus Dacty- 
localyx, represented by the cup-shaped pumice-like 

1 Monthly Microscopic Journal, November 1, 1870. 



CHAP, vil] the DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 431 

masses which are thrown ashore from time to time 
on the West Indian Islands. 

Professor P. Martin Duncan has already published 
an account of the stony corals (the Madreporaria) of 
the cruise of the ' Porcupine ' in 1869, and he has 
now in hand those procured off the coast of Portugal 
in 1870r some of which are of even greater interest 
from their close resemblance to certain cretaceous 
forms. Twelve species of stony corals were dredged 
in 1869. 

Caryophyllia borealis, Pleming (Pig. 4, p. 27), is 
very abundant at moderate depths, particularly along 
the west coast of Ireland, where many varieties are 
found. The greatest depth at which this species was 
dredged is 705 fathoms. It is found fossil in the 
miocene and pliocene beds of Sicily. 

Ceratocyathus ornakis, Seguenza. — Of this pretty 
coral only a single specimen was taken in 705 
fathoms, off the Butt of the Lews. It had not pre- 
viously been known as a recent species, and was 
described by Seguenza from the Sicilian miocene 
tertiaries. Flabelliim laciniatum, Edwards and 
Haime, was frequent in water from 100 to 400 
fathoms, from Pgeroe to Cape Clear. Prom the 
extreme thinness of the outer crust, this coral is 
excessively brittle; and although many hundreds 
came up in the dredge, scarcely half-a-dozen examples 
were entire. Another fine species of the same genus, 
Flahellum distinctum (Pig. 68), was dredged on 
several occasions off the Portuguese coast in IS 70. 
The special interest attaching to this species, is 
that it appears to be identical with a form living in 
the seas of Japan. 



432 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. vii. 

Lophohelia prolifera, Pallas (Fig. 30, p. 169). 
— Many varieties ; abundant at depths from 150 
to 500 fathoms all along the west coasts of Scot- 
land and Ireland, at temperatures varying from 
0° to 10° C. In some places, — as, for example, at 
Station 54, between Scotland and Paferoe, and Station 
15, between the west coast of Ireland and the 
Porcupine Bank, — there seem to be regular banks 
of it, the dredge coming up loaded with fragments, 
living and dead. 

Pive allied species of the genus Amphihelia oc- 
curred more sparingly. 




Fio. 68.—Flabelhim distinctum Twice the natural size. (No. 28, 1870.) 

Allopora oculina, Ehrenberg, a very beautiful 
form, of whicli a few specimens were procured in the 
*cold area,' at depths a little over 300 fathoms. 

Thecopsammia socialis, Pourtales (Pig. 69), a form 
closely allied to Balanophyllia, and resembling some 
crag species. It had been previously dredged by 
Count Pourtales in the Gulf of Plorida. Theco- 
psammia is tolerably common in deep water in the 
' cold area,' growing in patches, five or six examples 
sometimes coming up on one stone. 



CHAP. IX.] 



THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 



433 



I have already adverted to the danger \^ e run in 
estimating the relative proportions in vrhich any 
special groups may enter into the sum of the abyssal 
fauna, by the proportion in Avhicli they are recovered 
by any single method of capture. Prom tlieir con- 
siderable size, the length and rigidity of their strag- 
gling rays, and their habit of clinging to fixed ob- 
jects, the Echinodermata are not very readily taken 




Fig. 69.— TAccopmrnmia sodalis, Pourtales. Once and a half the natural size. (No. 57 1869.) 



by the dredge, but they fall an easy prey to the 
* hempen tangles.' It is possible that this circum- 
stance may to a certain extent exaggerate their 
apparent abundance at great depths, but we have 
direct evidence in the actual numbers which are 
brought up, that in some places they must be won- 

F F 



434 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

derfully numerous; and we frequently dredge sponges 
and corals actually covered with them in the atti- 
tudes in which they lived, nestling among their fibres 
and in the angles of their branches. I have counted 
seventy- three examples of Amphiura abyssicola, small 
and large, sticking to one Holtenia. 

Both on account of their beauty and extreme 
rarity, and of the important part they have borne 
in the fauna of some of the past periods of the 
earth's history, the first order of the Echinoderms, 
the Crinoidea, has always had a special interest to 
naturalists; and, on the watch as we were for 
missing links which might connect the present with 
the past, we eagerly welcomed any indication of their 
presence. Crinoids were very abundant in the seas 
of the Silurian period; deep beds of carboniferous 
limestone are often formed by the accumulation of 
little else than their skeletons, the stem joints and 
cups cemented together by limy sedimeAt; and 
dozens of the perfect crowns of the elegant lily- 
encrinite are often scattered over the surface of 
slabs of the muschelkalk. But during the lapse of 
ages the whole order seems to have been worsted 
in the ' struggle for life.' They become scarce in the 
newer mezozoic beds, still scarcer in the tertiaries, 
and up to within the last few years only two 
living stalked crinoids were known in the seas 
of the present period, and these appeared to be 
confined to deep water in the seas of the Antilles, 
whence fishermen from time to time bring up muti- 
lated specimens on their lines. Their existence has 
been known for more than a century ; but although 
many eyes have been watching for them, until very 



CHVP. IX.] THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 4:^5 

lately not more than twenty specimens had reached 
Europe, and of these only two showed all the joints 
and plates of the skeleton, and the soft parts were 
lost in all. 

These two species helong to the genus JPentacrmus, 
which is well represented in the beds of the lias and 
oolite, and sparingly in the white chalk; and are 
named respectively Fentacritius asteria, L., and P. 
millleri. Oersted. Eig. 70 represents the first of thcFe. 
This species has been known in Europe since the year 
1755, when a specimen was brought to Paris from 
the island of Martinique, and described by Guettard 
in the Memoirs of the Hoyal Academy of Sciences. 
Eor the next hundred years an example turned up 
now and then from the Antilles. Ellis described 
one, now in the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow 
University, in the Philosophical Transactions for 
1761. One or two found their way into the museums 
of Copenhagen, Bristol, and Paris ; two into the 
British Museum; and one fortunately fell into the 
hands of the late Professor Johannes Mtiller of 
Berlin, who published an elaborate account of it in 
the Transactions of the Royal Berlin Academy for 
1843. Within the last few years, Mr. Damon of 
Weymouth, a well-known collector of natural his- 
tory objects, has procured several very good speci- 
mens, which are now lodged in the museums of 
Moscow, Melbourne, Liverpool, and London. 

Fentacrintts asieria may be taken as the type of 
its order; I will therefore describe it briefly. The 
animal consists of two well-marked portions, a stem 
and a head. The stem, which is often from 40 to 
60 centimetres in length, consists of a series of 

F r 2 




Fig. 70.— rentacrinvs asteria, Linn^us. One-fourth the natural size. 



CHAP. IX.] THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 437 

flattened calcareous joints ; it may be snapped over 
at the point of junction between any two of these 
joints, and by slipping the point of a pen-knife into 
the next suture a single joint may be removed entire. 
The joint has a hole in the centre, through which 
one might pass a fine needle. This hole forms part 
of a canal filled during life with a gelatinous nutri- 
ent matter which runs through the whole length 
of the stem, branches in a complicated way through 
the plates of the cup, and finally passes through 
the axis of each of the joints of the arms, and of 
the ultimate pinnules which fringe them. On the 
upper and low^er surfaces of the stem-joint there 
is a very graceful and characteristic figure of five 
radiating oval leaf-like spaces, each space surrounded 
by a border of minute alternate ridges and grooves. 
The ridges of tlie upper surface of a joint fit into 
the grooves of the lower surface of the joint above 
it ; so that, though from being made up of man 
joints the stem admits of a certain amount of 
motion, that motion is very limited. 

As the border of each star-like figure exactly 
fits the border of the star above and below, the five 
leaflets within the border are likewise placed directly 
one above the other. Within these leaflets the 
limy matter which makes up the great bulk of the 
joint is more loosely arranged than it is outside, and 
five oval bands of strong fibres pass in the inter- 
spaces right through the joints, from joint to joint, 
from one end of the stem to the other. These 
fibrous bands give the column great strength. It 
is by no means easily broken even when dead and 
dry. They also, by their elasticity, admit a certain 



43 S THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

amount of passive motion. There are no muscles 
between the joints of the stem, so that the animal 
does not appear to be able to move its stalk at 
will. It is probably only gently w^aved by the tides 
and currents, and bv the movements of its own arms. 

In Pentacrinus asteria about every seventeenth 
joint of the lower mature part of the stem, is a little 
deeper or thicker than the others, and bears a whorl 
of five long tendrils or cirri. The stem is, even 
near the base, slightly pentagonal in section, and 
it becomes more markedly so towards the head. 
The cirri start from shallow grooves between the 
projecting angles of the pentagon, so that they are 
ranged in five straight rows up and down the stem. 
The cirri are made up of about thirty-six to thirty- 
seven short joints ; they start straight out from the 
stem rigid and stiff, but at the end they usually 
curve downwards, and the last joint is sharp and 
clawlike. These tendrils have no true muscles : 
they have, however, some power of contracting round 
resisting objects which they touch, and there are 
often star-fishes and other sea animals entangled 
among them. The specimen figured has thus be- 
come the temporary abode of a very elegant species 
of Asteroporpa. 

Near the head the cirri become shorter and 
smaller, and their whorls closer. The reason of 
this is that the stem grows immediately below the 
head, and the cirrus-bearing joints are formed in 
this position, the intermediate joints being produced 
afterwards balow and above each cirrated joint, — 
which they gradually separate from the one on either 
side of it, till the number of seventeen or eighteen 



CHAP. IX.] THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 439 

intermediate joints is complete. At the top of the 
stem five little calcareous lumps like buttons stand 
out from the projecting ridges, and upon these and 
upon the upper part of the stem the cup which 
holds the viscera of the animal is placed. These 
buttons are of but little moment in this form, but 
they represent joints which are often developed into 
large, highly-ornamented plates in the various tribes 
of its fossil ancestors. They are called the ' basal ' 
plates of the cup. Next, in an upper tier, alternating 
with the last, we have a row of five oblong plates 
opposite the grooves of the stem, and all cemented 
into a ring. These plates are separate when the 
animal is young ; they are called the ' first radial ' 
plates. They are the first of long chains of joints 
which are continued to the ends of the arms. Imme- 
diately above these plates, and resting upon them, 
there is a second row of plates nearly of the same 
size and shape, only they remain separate from one 
another, never uniting into a ring. These are the 
' second radials,' and immediately upon these rest 
a third series of five, very like the plates of the 
other two rows, only their upper surfaces rise into 
a cross ridge in the centre, and they have the 
two sides bevelled off like the eaves of a gable, to 
admit of two joints being seated upon each of them 
instead of one. This last ring of joints are the 
' radial axillaries,' and above these we have the first 
bifurcation of the arms. These three rings of 
radial joints form the true cup. In the modern 
species they are very small, but in many fossils 
they acquire a large size, and enclose, frequently 
with the aid of various rows of intermediate or 



440 THE DEPTHS OF TEE SEA. [chap. ix. 

inter-radial plates and a row of basals, a large 
body-cavity. The two upper joints of each ray 
are separated from those of the ray next it by a 
prolongation downwards of the plated skin which 
covers the upper surface or ' disk ' of the body. 
Seated upon the bevelled sides of each radial-axil- 
lary joint, there is a series of five joints, the last 
of the five bevelled again like the radial axillaries 
for the insertion of two joints. These five joints 
form the first series of * brachials/ and from the 
base of this series the arms become free. 

The first of the brachial joints, that is to say, 
the joint immediately above the radial axillary, is, 
as it w^ere, split in two by a peculiar kind of joint, 
called, by Miiller, a ' syzygy.' All the ordinary joints 
of the arms are provided with muscles producing 
various motions, and binding the joints firmly 
together. The syzygies are not so provided, and 
the arms are consequently easily snapped across 
where these occur. This is a beautiful provisicm for 
the safety of an animal which has so wide and 
complicated a crown of appendages. If one of the 
arms get entangled, or fall into the jaws or claws of 
an enemy, by a jerk the star-fish can at once get 
rid of the embarrassed arm ; and as all this group 
have a wonderful power of reproducing lost parts, the 
arm is soon restored. 

When the animal is dying, it generally breaks off 
its arms at these syzygies ; so that almost all the 
specimens which have been brought to Europe have 
arrived with the arms separate from the body. 

About six arm-joints or so above the first on 
either branch there is a second brachial accessorv and 



CHAP. IX.] THE DEEP-SEA FJUNA. 441 

another bifurcation, and seven or eight joints farther 
on another, and so on, but more irregularly the 
farther from the centre, till each of the five primary 
rays has divided into from twenty to thirty ultimate 
branches, producing a rich crown of more than a 
hundred arms. The upper surface of each arm-joint 
is deeply grooved, the lower arched ; and from one 
side of each, alternately on either side of the arm, 
there springs a series of flattened ossicles. These 
form the ultimate branchlets, or * pinnules,' which 
fringe the arms as the barbs fringe the shaft of a 
feather. Unfortunately, most of the examples of 
Fentacrinus asteria hitherto procured have had the 
soft parts destroyed and the disk more or less injured. 
One specimen, however, in my possession is quite 
perfect. The body is covered above by a membrane 
closely tesselated with irregularly-formed flat plates; 
this membrane, after covering the disk, dips into 
the spaces between the series of radial joints, and 
with the joints of the cup completes the body-wall. 
The mouth is a rounded opening of considerable size 
in the centre of the disk, and opens into a stomach 
passing into a short curved intestine which ends in 
a long excretory tube, — the so-called ' proboscis ' of 
the fossil crinoids, — which rises from the surface of 
the disk near the mouth. Prom the mouth five 
deep grooves, bordered on either side by small square 
plates, run out to the edge of the disk, and are con- 
tinuous with the grooves on the upper surface of the 
arms and pinnules, while in the angles between them 
five thickened masses of the mailing of the disk 
surround the mouth like valves. These were at 
first supposed to answer the purpose of teeth. The 



442 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

crinoids, however, are not predatory animals. Their 
nutrition is effected in a very gentle manner. The 
grooves of the pinnules and arms are richly ciliated. 
The crinoid expands its arms like the petals of a full- 
blown flower, and a current of sea-water bearing 
organic matter in solution and suspension is carried 
by the cilia along the brachial and radial grooves 
to the mouth. In the stomach and intestine the 
water is exhausted of assimilable matter, and the 
length and direction of the excretory proboscis pre- 
vent the exhausted water from returning at once into 
the ciliated passages. 

The other West Indian Fentacrinus — P. Miilleri — 
seems to be more common off the Danish Islands 
than P. asteria. The animal is more delicate in 
form. The stem attains nearly the same height, 
but is more slender. The rings of cirri occur about 
every twelfth joint, and at each whorl two stem- 
joints are modified. The upper joint bears the facet 
for the insertion of the cirrus, and the second is 
grooved to receive its thick basal portion, which 
bends downwards for a little way closely adpressed 
to the stem, before becoming free. The syzygy is 
between the two modified joints, and in all the com- 
plete specimens which I have seen the stem is broken 
through at one of these stem syzygies, and the ter- 
minal stem-joint is w^orn and absorbed, showing 
that the animal must have been for long free from 
any attachment to the ground. 

On the 21st of July, 1870, Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, 
dredging from the ' Porcupine ' at a depth of 1,095 
fathoms, lat. 39° 42' N., long. 9° 43' W., with a 
bottom temperature of 4°*3 C. and a bottom of soft 




Fio. 71. — PentazrUms wyvilh-thomioni, Jeffrevs. 



Nitural siz;. (No. 17, 1870.) 



444 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

mud, took about twenty specimens of a handsome 
Pentacrinus involved in the ' hempen tangles ; ' and 
this splendid addition to the fauna of the European 
seas my friend has done me the honour to associate 
Avith my name. 

Fentacrinus wyville4homsoni, Jeffreys (Eig. 71), 
is intermediate in some of its characters between P. 
asteria and P. miilleri; it approaches the latter species, 
however, the more nearly. In a mature specimen the 
stem is about 120 mm. in length, and consists of five 
or six internodes. The whorls of cirri towards the 
lower part of the stem are 40 mm. apart, and the in- 
ternodes contain from thirty to thirty-five joints. The 
cirri are rather short and stand straight out from the 
nodal joint, or curve sharply downwards, as in P. 
asteria. The nodal joint is single, and the syzygy 
separates it from the joint immediately beneath it, 
which does not differ materially from the ordinary 
internodal stem-joint. All the stems of mature 
examples of this species end uniformly in a nodal 
joint, surrounded with its whorl of cirri, which curve 
downwards into a kind of grappling root. The lower 
surface of the terminal joint is in all smoothed and 
rounded, evidently by absorption, showing that the 
animal had for long been free. This character I 
have remarked as occurring in some specimens of 
P. miilleri, I have no doiibt that it is constant in 
the present species, and that the animal lives loosely 
rooted in the soft mud, and can change its place at 
pleasure by swimming with its pinnated arms ; that 
it is in fact intermediate in this respect between 
the free genus Antedon and the permanently fixed 
crinoids. 



CHAP. IX.] THE DEEP-SEA FAVNA. 445 

A young specimen of P. icyville-thomsoni gives the 
mDde in which this freedom is acquired. The total 
length of this specimen is 95 mm., of whicli the head 
occupies 35 mm. The stem is broken off in the 
middle of the eighth internode from the head. The 
lowest complete internode consists of 14 joints, the 
next of 18, the next of 20, and the next of 26 joints. 
There are 8 joints in the cirri of the lowest whorl, 
10 in those of the second, 12 in those of the third, 
and 14 in those of the fourth. This is the reverse of 
the condition in adult specimens, in all of which the 
numbers of joints in the internodes, and of joints 
in the cirri, decrease regularly from below upwards. 
The broken internode in the young example, and 
the three internodes above it, are atrophied and un- 
developed, and suddenly at the third node from the 
head the stem increases in thickness, and looks as 
if it were fully nourished. There can be no doubt 
that in early life the crinoid is attached, and that it 
becomes disengaged by the withering of the lower 
part of the stem. 

The structure of the cup is the same as in P. 
asteria and P. mulleri. The basals appear in the 
form of shield- like projections crowning the salient 
angles of the stem. Alternating with these we have 
well-developed first radials, forming a closed ring 
and articulating to free second radials by muscular 
joints. The second radials are united by a syzygy 
to the radial axillaries, which as usual give off each 
two first brachials from their bevelled sides. A 
second brachial is united by syzygy to the first, 
and normally this second brachial is an axillary, 
and gives off two simple arms ; sometimes, however. 



446 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. , [chap. ix. 

the radial axillary originates a simple arm only from 
one or both of its sides, thus reducing the total 
number of the arms ; and sometimes one of the four 
arms given off from the brachial axillaries again 
divides, in which case the total number of arms is 
increased. The structure of the disk is much the 
same as in the species of the genus previously known. 

Two other fixed crinoids were dredged from the \ 
' Porcupine,' and these must be referred to the Apio- \ 
crinidae, which differ from all other sections of the 1 
order in the structure of the upper part of the stem. \ 
At a certain point, considerably below the crown of | 
arms, the joints of the stem widen by the greater j 
development of the calcareous ring, the central • 
tube only increasing very slightly in width. The \ 
widening of the stem joints increases upwards until [ 
a pear-shaped body is produced, usually very elegant j 
in form, which, looking from the outside, one would j 
take for the calyx. It is, however, nothing more j 
than a symmetrical thickening of the stem, and the j 
body-cavity occupies a shallow depression in the top I 
of it included within the plates of the cup— the j 
basals and radials — which are thicker and more \ 
solid thyn in other crinoids, but otherwise normally i 
arranged. The stem is usually long and simple \ 
until near the base, where it forms some means of-j 
attachment, either as in the celebrated pear-encrinites \ 
of the forest marble, a complicated arrangement of \ 
concentric layers of calcareous cement which fix it t 
firmly to some foreign body, or, as in the chalk | 
Bourgtietticrinus and in the recent RJiizocrinus, an ' 
irres^ular series of jointed branching cirri. 

Tje Apiocrinidae attained their maximum during ' 



CHAP. IX.] THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 447 

the Jurassic period, when they were represented by 
many fine species of the genera ApiocriPMs and 
Millericrinus. The chalk genus Bourguetticrinus 
shows many symptoms of degeneracy. The head 
is small, and the arms are small and short. The 
arm-joints are so minute that it is scarcely possible 
to make lip a series from the fragments scattered 
through the chalk in the neighbourhood of a cluster 
of heads. The stem, on the other hand, is dispro- 
portionately large and long, and one is led to suspect 
that the animal w^as nourished chiefly by the general 
surface absorption of organic matter, and that the 
head and special assimilative organs were principally 
concerned in the function of reproduction. Rhizo- 
crinus loffotensis, M. Sars (Fig. 72), was discovered 
in the year 1864, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, 
off the Loffoten islands, by G. O. Sars, a son of the 
celebrated Professor of Natural History in the Uni- 
versity of Christiania by whom it was described in 
the year 1868. It is obviously a form of the Apio- 
crinidse still more degraded than Bourguetticrinus, 
which it closely resembles. The stem is long and 
of considerable thickness in proportion to the size 
of the head. The joints of the stem are individually 
long and dice-box shaped, and between the joints 
spaces are left on either side of the stem alternately, 
as in Bourguetticrinus and in the pentacrinoid of 
Antedon, for the insertion of fascicles of contractile 
fibres. Towards the base of the stem branches 
spring from the upper part of the joints ; and these, 
each composed of a succession of gradually diminish- 
ing joints, divide and re- divide into a bunch of 
fibres, which frequently expand at the ends into thin 



448 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

calcareous laminae, clinging to small pieces of shell, 
grains of sand — anything which may improve the 
anchorage of the crinuid in the soft mud which is 
nearly universal at great depths. 

In Rhizocrmus the basal series of plates of the 
cup are not distinguishable. They are masked in 
a closed ring at the top of the stem; and whether 
the ring be composed of the fused basals alone, or 
of an upper stem-joint with the basals within it 
forming a * rosette,' as in the calyx of Antedon, is -. 
a question which can only be solved by a careful i 
tracing of successive stages of development. The ' 
first radials are likewise fused, and form the upper i 
wider portion of the funnel-shaped calyx. The first \ 
radials are deeply excavated above for the insertion | 
of the muscles and ligaments which unite them to ( 
the second radials by a true (or moveable) joint. | 
One of the most remarkable points in connection j 
with this species is, that the first radials — the first i 
joints of the arm — are variable in number, some | 
examples having four rays, some five, some six, and I 
a very small number seven, in the following pro- j 
portions. Out of seventy-five specimens examined I 
by Sars, there were — I 

arms. I 



15 


with 


i 


43 


5> 


5 


15 


11 


6 


2 


n 


7 



This variability in so important a character, par- j 
ticularly when associated with so great a preponr j 
derance in bulk of the vegetative over the more ! 
specially animal parts of the organism, must un- i 
doubtedly be accepted as indicating a deterioration 



CHAP. IX.] TITE DEEP SEA FAUN J. 449 

from tlie symmetry and compactness of tlie Apio- 
crinidji3 of the Jurassic period. 

The anchylosed ring of first radials is succeeded hy 
a tier of free second radials, which are united l)y a 
strai^^ht syzygial suture to the next series — the radial 
axillaries. The surface of the funnel-shaped dilatation 
of the stem, headed hy the ring of first radials, is 
smooth and uniform, and the second radials and 
radial axillaries present a smooth, regularly-arched 
outer surface. The radial axillaries differ from the 
corresponding joints in most other known crinoids 
in contracting slightly a hove, presenting only one 
articulating facet, and giving origin to a single arm. 
The arms, which in the larger specimens are from 10 
to 12 mm. in length, consist of a series of from ahout 
twenty-eight to thirty-four joints, uniformly trans- 
versely arched externally, and deeply grooved within 
to receive the soft parts. Each alternate joint bears 
a pinnule, the pinnules alternating on either side of 
the axis of the arm, and the joint which does not 
I bear a pinnule is united to the pinnule-bearing joint 
I above it by a syzygy : thus joints with muscular 
' connections and syzygies alternate throughout the 
whole length of the arm. 

The pinnules, twelve to fourteen in number, eon- 

, sist of a uniform series of minute joints, united by 

I muscular connections. The grooves of the arms and 

[ of the pinnules are bordered by a double series of 

I delicate round fenestrated calcareous plates, which, 

when the animal is contracted and at rest, form a 

.closely imbricated covering to the nerve, and the 

radial vessel with its delicate csecal tentacles. The 

mouth is placed in the centre of the disk, and radial 

G G 



450 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

canals, equal in number to the number of arms, pass 
across the disk, and are continuous with the arm- 
grooves. The mouth is surrounded by a row of 
flexible cirri, arranged nearly as in the pentacrinoid 
of Antedon, and is provided with five oval calcareous 
valve-like plates occupying the interradial angles, 
and closing over the mouth at will. A low papilla 
in one of the interradial spaces indicates the position 
of the minute excretory orifice. 

Rhizocrinus loffotensis is a very interesting addition 
to the British fauna. We met with it in the Tseroe 
Channel in the year 18G9 — three examples, greatly 
mutilated, at a depth of 530 fathoms, with a bottom 
temperature of 6°-4C., Station 12 (1868). Several 
occurred attached to the beards of the Soltenice, off 
the Butt of the Lews, and specimens of considerable 
size were dredged in 862 fathoms off Cape Clear. \ 
The range of this species is evidently very wide. It j 
has been dredged by G. O. Sars off the north of; 
Norway; by Count Pourtales in the Gulf- stream off 
the coast of Elorida ; by the Naturalists on board ; 
the ' Josephine,' on the ' Josephine Bank,' near the \ 
entrance of the Strait of Gibraltar ; and by ourselves ■ 
between Shetland and Eseroe, and off Ushant and J 
Cape Clear. \ 

The genus Bathycrinus must also be referred to thai 
Apiocrinidse, since the lower portion of the head con- 
sists of a gradually expanding funnel-shaped piece,; 
which seems to be composed of coalesced upper stem-" 
joints. ! 

The stem of Bathycrinus gracilis (Fig. 73) is long andj;' 
delicate ; in one example of a stem alone, which came; 
up in the same haul with the one nearly perfect speci- 




Fict. 72. —Rhizocrinits loffotemis, M. Sars. Once and a half the natural size. (No. 43, 18()t).) 

G G 2 



452 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

men which was procured, it was 90 mm. in length. 
The joints are dice-hox shaped, as in Rhizocrinus, 
long and delicate towards the lower part of the stem, 
3*0 mm. in length hy 0*5 in width in the centre 
of the joint, the ends expanding to a width of 
10 mm. As in Hhizocrimis, the joints of the stem 
diminish in length towards the head, and additions 
are made in the form of calcareous lamina3 heneath 
the coalesced joints Avhich form the base of the cup. 

The first radials are five in number. They are 
closely apposed, but they do not seem to be fused 
as in Rhizocrimis, since the sutures show quite dis- 
tinctly. The centre of each of these first radials rises 
into a sharp keel, while the sides are slightly de- 
pressed towards the suture, which gives the calyx a 
fluted appearance, like a folded filter-paper. The 
second radials are long, and free from one another, 
joining the radial axillaries by a straight syzygial 
union. They are most peculiar in form. A strong 
plate-like keel runs down the centre of the outer 
surfaces, and the joint is deeply excavated on either 
side, rising again slightly towards the edges. The 
radial axillary shows a continuation of the same keel 
through its lower half, and midway up the joint the 
keel bifurcates, leaving a very characteristic diamond- 
shaped space in the centre, towards the top of the 
joint ; two facets are thus formed for the insertion of 
two first radials ; the number of arms is therefore 
ten. The arms are perfectly simple, and in our single 
specimen consist of twelve joints each. There is no 
trace of pinnules, and the arms resemble in character 
tlie pinnules of Hhizocrinus. The first brachial is 
united to the second by a syzygial joint, but after 




J 



Fio. 7?,.—Bathycrinus gvucilis, VVyville Thomson. 



Twice tlie natural size. (No. .'37. 18(JS».) 



454 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

that the syzygies are not repeated, so that there is 
only one of these peculiar junctions in each arm. 
The arm-grooves are bordered by circular fenes- 
trated plates, as in Uhizocrinus. 

Certain marked resemblances in the structure of 
the stem, in the structure of the base of the cup, 
and in the form and arrangement of the ultimate 
parts of the arms, evidently associate Bathyerinus 
with Rhizocriniis, but the differences are very wide. 
Eive free keeled and sculptured first radials replace 
the uniform smooth ring formed by these j)lates 
in Uhizocrinus. The radial axillaries give off each 
two arms, thus recurring to the more usual arrange- 
ment in the order, and the alternate syzygies on 
the arms, which form so remarkable a character in 
Hhisoerimis, are absent. 

Only one nearly complete specimen and a de- 
tached stem of this very remarkable species were 
met with, and they were both brought up from the 
very greatest depth which has as yet been reached 
with the dredge, 2,435 fathoms, at the mouth of 
the Bay of Biscay, 200 miles south of Cape Clear. 

It would seem, in our present state of knowledge, 
that the stalked crinoids are members of the deep- 
sea fauna. A second specimen of another very 
remarkable form, Holopus rangi^ D'Orbigny, has 
lately been procured from deep water off Barbadoes, 
and that species, with those already noted, makes 
up the tale of living forms belonging to the order 
which are known at the present time. It is unwise 
to prophesy; but when we consider that the first 
few scrapes of the dredge at great depths have 
added two remarkable new species to the living 



J 



:hap. ix.J 



THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 



455 



representatives of this group, until now supposed 
to be on the verge of extinction, and that all the 
known species are from depths beyond the limit 
of ordinary dredging, we are led to anticipate that 
crinoids may probably form rather an important 
element in the abyssal fauna. 




Fig. 74.—Archfistrrl}ifrons, Wyville Thomson. Oral a.spect. Three-fonrths the natural size 

(No. 57, 1869.) 



The general distribution of the deep sea Asteridea 
has already been referred to. Perhaps the most 
obvious peculiarity which they present is the great 
preponderance of the genera Astrogonium, Arcliaster, 
Astropecien, and their allies. Genera belonging 
to other groups do not apparently become less 



4o() THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

numerous, for species of Asteracanthion, Crihrella, 
Asteriscus, and Ophidiaster are as abundant as they 
are at lesser depths ; but as we go down new species 
with tesselated mailing on the disk and massive 
marginal plates seem to be perpetually added. In 
our own seas some few very characteristic forms, 
such as Astrogonium phrygiamnn and Archaster 
andromecla and parellii, are on the verge of the deep 
water, and are now and then taken at the outer 
limit of shore dredging, or on fishing-lines ; while in 
the deep water all along the north and west of Scot- 
land Ash^ogonium granulare, Archaster tenuispmus, 
and Astropecten arcticiis abound, and the dredge 
is enriclied from time to time with examples of such 
forms as Archaster hifrons (Fig. 74), A. vexillifer, and 
Astrogonium tonglmanum, MoBius. Many additions 
have been made to the singular little group of which 
J^ter aster may be taken as a type, but I am inclined 

to think that these are to 
be referred along with most 
of the characteristic Ophiu- 
ridans rather to a fauna in- 
habiting median depths, and 
coming within range of the 
naturalist's dredge on the 
coast of Scandinavia, than 
to the abyssal fauna ; and 

Via. 75 — Solaster furclfcr, Von Dubkn «^ 

(Jil^srSg.r''^'''^*''*" '''^"^'"■^' ''''■ the same may be said of a 

few other forms, such as 
Solaster furcifer (Fig. 75), and Pedicellaster typicus 
which, although beyond the 200-fathom line on the 
coast of Britain, do not appear to have a great 
range of depth. 




CHAP. IX.] THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 4.") 7 

TA\enty-six Ecliinideans were observed during the 
' Lightning ' and ' Porcupine ' cruises off the coasts 
of Britain and Portugal at depths ranging from 100 
to 2.435 fathoms, at which latter depth the group 
was represented by a small variety of Echmiis vor- 
reyiciis, and a young example of J3rissopsis lyrifira. 

Among the Cidarida^, Cidaris pcqnllata, Leske, 
occurs in enormous numbers over hard ground, at 
depths from 100 to 400 fathoms. This species has 
a very wide range, inhabiting an apparently un- 
broken belt from the North Cape to the Strait of 
Gibraltar, and then passing into the Mediterranean. 
This is a variable form, within narrow limits of 
variation. The southern specimens gradually pass 
into the form, — it can scarcely be called a variety, — 
which is the type of Lamarck's species, C. hystrix. 
Cidaris affinis, Philippi, is very common in the 
Mediterranean, especially along the African coast. 
I think this pretty little form must for the 
present be considered distinct. The body spines 
are bright scarlet, and the long spines, in marked 
specimens, are brown banded with red or rose, so 
that it is a singularly pretty object. 

The genus Forocidaris and the three species of the 
family Echinothuridse, and their interesting relations 
to fossil forms, have already been considered ; but 
even these are scarcely more suggestive of early 
times than two geaera of irregular urchins, one 
dredged off the coast of Scotland, and the other at 
the mouth of the English Channel. 

The first of these is Fourtalesia, one species of 
which, P. jeffreysi, has already been figured and 
described (p. 108), According to the classification of 



458 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

Desor, which makes the disjunct arrangement of the 
ambulacra at the apex the test character of the 
Djsasteridae, this genus should be referred to that 
group, for the apical disk is truly decomposed as in 
Dysaster and Collyrites, and not merely drawn out 
as in Ananchytes. From the arrangement and form 
of the pore areas, however, and the general appear- 
ance and habit of the animal, I am inclined to think 
with Alexander Agassiz, that its affinities are more 
with such forms as Infulaster. Fourtalesia must be 
aberrant in whatever group it may be placed. 

The other genus Neolampas, A. Ag., associates itself 
with the Cassidulidse in virtue of the nearly central 
pentagonal mouth with a tolerably distinct flocelle, 
the anal opening at the bottom of a deep posterior 
groove excavated in a projecting rostellum, the nar- 
row ambulacral areas, and the small compact group 
of apical plates ; but it differs from all known genera 
of the family, living or extinct, in having no trace of 
a petaloid arrangement of the ambulacra, which are 
reduced on the apical surface of the test to a single 
pore passing through each ambulacral plate, and 
thus forming a double row of alternating simple 
pores for each ambulacral area. I think I am right 
in identifying a single specimen, nearly 20 mm. in 
length, which we dredged in 800 fathoms water at 
the mouth of the Channel, with the species dredged 
by Count Pourtales at depths from 100 to 150 
fathoms, in the Strait of Florida, and described by 
Alexander Agassiz under the name of Neolampas 
rostellatus. 

Of the twenty- six Echinoderms dredged from the 
' Porcupine,' six — Echinus flemingii, Echinus esculen- 



CHAP. IX.] THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 459 

tus, PsammecJiimis miliaris, Echinocyamus angulatus^ 
Amphidetus cordatus, and Spatangiis purpureus — may- 
be regarded as denizens of moderate depths in the 
' Celtic province/ recent observations having merely 
shown that they have a somewhat greater range in 
depth than was previously supposed. Probably Spa- 
tmigus raschi may be an essentially deep-water form 
having its head-quarters in the same region. Seven 
species — CidmHs papillata, Hclimus elegans, JE. nor- 
vegicus, E. rarispina, E. microstoma, Brissopsis lyri- 
fera, and Tripylus fragilis — are members of a fauna 
of intermediate depth ; and all, with the doubtful ex- 
ample of Echinus microstoma, have been observed in 
comparatively shallow water off the coasts of Scan- 
dinavia. Pive species — Cidaris affinis, EcJiinus melo, 
Toxop7ieustes hrevispinosus, Fsammechinus micro- 
tuberculatus, and Schizaster canaliferus — are recog- 
nized members of the Lusitanian and Mediterranean 
faun^ ; and seven — Borocidaris purpurata, Plior- 
mosoma placenta, Calveria hystrix, C. fenestrata, 
Neolampas rostellatus, Fourtalesia jeffreysi, and P. 
phiale — are forms which have been for the first time 
brought to light during the late deep-sea dredging 
operations, whether on this or on the other side of 
the Atlantic. There seems little doubt that these 
must be referred to the abyssal fauna, upon whose 
confines we are now only beginning to encroach. 
Three of the most remarkable generic forms — Cat- 
veria, Neolampas, and Tourtalesia — have been found 
by Alexander Agassiz among the results of the dee}) 
dredging operations of Count Pourtales in the Strait 
of Plorida, showing a wide lateral distribution, while 
even a deeper interest attaches to the fact that 



4G0 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEJ. [chap. ix. 

Avliiie one family type, tlie Eckmoilmridce, has been 
hitherto only known in a fossil state, the entire 
group find nearer allies in the extinct faunae of the 
chalk or of the earlier tertiaries than in that of 
the present period. 

As I have already said, the mollusca procured 
during the three years' dredging are in the hands 
of Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys for identification and descrip- 
tion. Erom the large number of new species, and 
from the complicated relations which many of the 
forms from deep water bear to species now widely 
separated from them in space, or belonging to past 
geological periods, the task will be a difficult one, 
and we cannot expect its completion for some time 
to come. In the meanwhile, Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys 
has published several preliminary sketches which 
are full of promise that his complete results will 
be of the highest interest. 

Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys believes that the deep-water 
mollusca which were dred<>ed throuo'hout the whole of 
the area examined from the Peeroe Islands to the coast 
of Spain, are almost all of northern origin. Most of 
the species which have been already described were 
previously known from the Scandinavian seas, and 
many of the undescribed species belong to northern 
genera. He points out that the moUuscan fauna 
of the Arctic Sea is as yet almost unknown ; but he 
reasons from the large collections made at Spitz- 
bergen by Professor Torell, and from the fact that 
fragments of mollusca have been brought up in 
many deep-sea soundings within the Arctic circle, 
that the fauna is probably varied and rich. He 
instances soundings taken in 1868 by the Swedish 



CHAP. IX. J THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 4(ji 

Arctic Expedition, which reached 2,600 fathoms, 
when a Cmna and a frai^ment of an Astarie came up 
in the ' Bulldog ' machine. He adds, " It is evident 
that the majority, if not the whole of our submarine 
(as contradistinguished from littoral or phytopha- 
gous), mollusca originated in the iXorth, whence they 
have in the course of time been transported south- 
wards bv the ffreat Arctic currents. Manv of them 
appear to have found their way into the Mediterra- 
nean, or to have k^ft their remains in the tertiary or 
quaternary formations of the south of Italy ; some 
have even migrated into the Gulf of Mexico." 

I have great hesitation in questioning any of the 
conclusions of my friend Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys on a 
subject in which he is so excellent an authority, 
but I confess I do not quite see the cogency of his 
reasoning on this point. It would seem rather that 
the last change in the mollusca n fauna of the British 
area, at moderate depths, consisted in the retirement 
of northern species at the close of the glacial period 
and the immigration of southern forms. The qua- 
ternary beds of the Clyde district contain a rich 
assemblage of mollusca ; those of the neighbourhood 
of llothesay especially representing the deeper part 
of the Laminarian and the Coralline zone. The 
broad characteristic of the fauna of this bed is 
that many of the most numerous species — for 
example, Pecten islandicus, Tell'ma calcarea, and 
Natica clausa — are now extinct in the seas of 
Britain, but are still met with in abundance in the 
seas of Scandinavia and Labrador ; w^hile many forms 
now extremely common in the British seas and 
having a southern extension are entirely absent. 



462 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

We found some of the glacial shells of the Clyde 
beds living on the northern outskirts of our region, 
— Tellina ccilcarea, for instance, was very common 
in some of the Pjords in Eseroe. It seems evident 
that this fauna quietly retreated northwards in the 
face of slowly' altering circumstances. Such an 
instance of change of fauna, which we are able in 
a great degree to trace step by step, has an interest- 
ing bearing upon the great question of the contem- 
poraneity of beds containing generally the same 
fauna at distant localities. We can well imagine 
that a block of perfectly recent silt might be brought 
from a locality on the verge of the Arctic circle, 
imbedding precisely the same species of moUusca 
as those contained in a block of the Clyde glacial 
clay, and the mineral character of the matrix in 
the two cases might correspond most closely ; apply- 
ing the ordinary geological rule, those two blocks 
agreeing in their palseontological characters ought 
to be contemporaneous, — but we know that while 
the northern silt belongs to the present period, the 
British glacial clays are overlain by a deep series 
of modern deposits, representing the lapse of a 
period of time considerable even in a geological 
sense, and containing a fauna of a very different 
character. This is no doubt a comparatively trifling 
case, involving beds of no great depth or import- 
ance, but it is a case in which two beds correspond 
palaeontologically, and yet we hnoic that they are 
not contemporaneous from one of them being overlain 
by a considerable thickness of newer strata, while the 
other is now forming, and thus furnishes a date, a 
rare and valuable thing in geology. i 

i 



CHAP. IX.] THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 463 

I have already pointed out that in reasoning upon 
the ground of identity of deep-sea forms with species 
hitherto found in Scandinavia, we must remember 
that the conditions of temperature of our southern 
seas at great depths — the conditions which appear to 
have the greatest influence upon the distribution of 
species — correspond very closely with those of much 
shallower water in the Scandinavian seas ; and that 
consequently the corresponding fauna in the northern 
regions was much earlier, and is still much better 
known. Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys lays great stress upon 
the greater numbers and the greater development 
in size and in prominent characters of sculpture and 
other ornament, of the Arctic examples of species 
common to our deep water. This is no doubt often 
the case, but we must admit that in many groups, 
and particularly among the moUusca, there is a 
tendency to dwarfing in deep water, and I should 
think it very possible that a species may attain 
a greater size and development in that region where 
its zone of special temperature conditions comes 
nearest the surface, — most under the influence of 
air and light. 

Many of the mollusca from the deep water have 
hitherto been found only in the northern portions of 
the area examined, and are generally allied to northern 
forms. As examples of this group I may mention 
two interesting additions to the already famous Shet- 
land fauna, Bticcinopsis striata, Jeffreys (Eig. 76), 
a form somewhat allied to Buccinopsis dalei, which 
has long been one of the prizes of the Shetland seas, 
and Latirus albus, Jeffreys (Eig. 77), known also 
from the coast of Norway. CeritUum granosum, S. 



4(U THI^ DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. ix. 

V. Wood, also common to Norway and Shetland, 
is found fossil in the coralline and red crag, and 
Fns'iis sarsi, Jeffreys, common to Shetland and 
Tsorvvay, is found fossil at Eridlino'ton. 

Several species have hitherto been known only 
from the soutli, and Mr. Jeffreys finds a difficulty 
in accounting for their presence. Thus, Tellina com- 
pressa, BROCcni, is known from the Canary Islands 
and the Mediterranean, and is fossil in the ncAver 
Italian tertiaries. Feriicordia acuticostata, Philippi, 





Fig. 76.—Buccivopsis striata, Jeffkeyb. Fig. 77. — LutirnsaVnts, Jeffreys. 

Fici'oe Channel. Twice tlie natural size. Finnje 

Channel. 



I have already referred to as being found on the 
coasts of Portugal and of Japan. It is a common 
fossil in the coralline crag of Calabria. The mol- 
lusca Avhich are of the most special interest, how- 
ever, are those which we must refer to the abyssal 
fauna. About this group we know as yet very 
little. Like the Echinoderms, they seem to be special, 
and to have a wide lateral extension. Pleuronectla 
lucid a, Jeffreys (Pig. 78), a pretty little clam be- 
longing to tlie Pecten plevro7iectes set, is figured 
both from the Nortli Atlantic and from the Gulf of 



CHAP. IX.] 



THE DEEP-SEA FAUNA. 



4G5 



Mexico. The abyssal moUusea are by no means de- 
void of colour, though, as a rule, they are paler than 
those from shallow water. Dacrydium vitreum — 
a curious little mytiloid shell-fish which makes and 
inhabits a delicate flask-shaped tube of foraminifera, 




Fig. 7S.—Plf.uronectia lucida, Jeffreys. Twice the natural size, a, frointlie Eastern Atlantic ; 
h, from the Gulf of Mexioo. 

sponge spicules, coccoliths, and other foreign bodies, 
cemented together by organic matter and lined by a 
delicate membrane — is of a fine reddish brown colour 
dashed with green, from 2,435 fathoms; and the 





Fig. 79. —Pecten hosl-ynsi, Forbes. Twice the natural size. 

animals of one or two species of Lima from extreme 
depths are of the usual vivid orange scarlet. Neither 
are the abyssal mollusca universally destitute of eyes. 
A new species of Fleurotoma from 2,090 fathoms had 
a pair of well-developed eyes on short footstalks ; and 

H II 



4G6 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. IX. 



a Fasus from 1,207 fathoms was similarly provided. 
The presence of organs of sight at these great depths 
leaves little room to douht that light must reach even 
these abysses from some source. From many con- 
siderations it can scarcely be sun-light. I have 
already thrown out the suggestion that the whole 
of the light beyond a certain depth might be due 
to phosphorescence, which is certainly very general, 
particularly among the larvae and young of deep- 
sea animals ; but the question is one of extreme 
interest and difficulty, and will require careful in- 
vestigation. 




BORDO, KUNO, AND KALSu, FROM THE HAMLET OF VIDFBO. 



CHAPTER X. 



THE CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 

I 

B' Points of Resemblance between the Atlantic Ooze and the White 

B^ - Chalk. — Differences between them. — Composition of Chalk. — The 

^K Doctrine of the Continuity of the Chalk. — Objections. — Arguments 

^» in favour of the View from Physical Geology and Geography. — 

Former Distribution of Sea and Land. — Palseontological Evidence. 

— Chalk-flints. — Modern Sponges, and Ventriculites.— Corals. — 

Echinoderms. — Mollusca. — Opinions of Professor Huxley and Mr. 

Prestwich. — The Composition of Sea- water. — Presence of Organic 

Matter. — Analysis of the contained Gases. — Differences of Specific 

Gravity. — Conclusion. 

' Appendix A. — Summary of the Results of the Examination of Samples 

of Sea-water taken at the Surface and at various Depths. By 

"William Lant Carpenter, B.A., B.Sc. 
Appendix B. — Results of the Analyses of Eight Samples of Sea-water 

collected during the Third Cruise of the * Porcupine.' By Dr. 

Erankland, F.R.S. 
Appendix C. — Notes on Specimens of the Bottom collected during 

the First Cruise of the 'Porcupine' in 1869. By David Forbes, 

F.R.S. 
Appendix D. — Note on the Carbonic Acid contained in Sea-water. 

By John Young Buchanan, M.A., Chemist to the 'Challenger' 

Expedition. 

Very speedily after the first samples of the bottom of 
the mid- Atlantic had been brought up by the sound- 
ing-line, and submitted to chemical analysis and 

H H 2 



468 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

to microscopical examination, many observers were 
struck with the great similarity between its composi- 
tion and structure and that of the ancient chalk. I 
have already described the general character and the 
mode of origin of the great calcareous deposit which 
seems to occupy the greater part of the bed of the 
Atlantic. If we take a piece of the ordinary soft 
white chalk of the south of England, wash it down 
with a brush in water, and place a drop of the 
milky product on the slide of a microscope, we find 
that it consists, like the Atlantic ooze, of a large pro- 
portion of fine amorphous particles of lime, with here 
and there a portion of a Glohigerina shell, and more 
rarely one of these shells entire, and a considerable 
proportion — in some examples coming up to nearly 
one-tenth of the whole — of ' coccoliths,' which are 
indistinguishable from those of the ooze. Altogether 
two slides — one of washed down white chalk, and 
the other of Atlantic ooze — resemble one another so 
clearly, that it is not always easy for even an accom- 
plished microscopist to distinguish them. The nature 
of chalk can also be well shown, as has been done by 
Ehrenberg and Sorby, by cutting it into thin dia- 
phanous slices, when the mode of aggregation of the 
different materials can be readily demonstrated. 

But while successive observers have brought out 
more and more clearly those resemblances, — suffi- 
ciently striking to place it beyond a doubt that the 
chalk of the cretaceous period and the chalk-mud of 
the modern Atlantic are substantially the same, — a 
more careful investigation shows that there are very 
important differences between them. The white chalk 
is very homogeneous, more so perhaps than any other 



CHAP. X.J CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 469 

sedimentary rock, and may be said to be almost pure 
carbonate of lime. I quote an analysis of the white 
chalk of Shoreham (Sussex), by Mr. David Eorbes.^ 

Calcium carbonate 98-40 

Magnesium carbonate 0*08 

Insoluble rock (ie6?'i6' 1*10 

Alumina and loss 0*42 

100-00 

Even the grey chalk of Eolkestone contains a very 
large proportion of carbonate of lime, the other sub- 
stances existing merely as impurities which can 
scarcely be said to enter into the composition of the 
rock. The following is an analysis by Mr. Eorbes of 
the base of the Eolkestone grey chalk : — 

Calcium carbonate 94-09 

Magnesium carbonate 0'31 

Insoluble rock debris 3-61 , 

Phosphoric acid 



( 



Alumina and loss 

Sodium chloride 1-29 

Water 0*70 



10000 

The most remarkable point in this analysis is that 
while white chalk is almost always associated with 
chert and flints, the chalk itself does not contain a 
particle of silica. 

The chalk-mud of the Atlantic on the other hand 
contains not more than 60 per cent, of calcium car- 
bonate, with 20 to 30 per cent, of silica, and varying 
proportions of alumina, magnesia, and oxide of iron. 
We must remember, however, that in the English 

^ Quoted in Mr. Prestwich's Presidential Address, 1871. 



470 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

cliffs we have the chalk in its very purest form, and 
that in various parts of the world it assumes a very 
different character, and contains carbonate of lime in 
very different proportions. Mr. Prestwich instances 
a bed 28 to 30 feet thick of the white chalk (Terrain 
Senonien) of Touraine, in which carbonate of lime is 
entirely absent. 

There can be no doubt whatever that we have 
forming at the bottom of the present ocean, a vast 
sheet of rock which very closely resembles chalk ; 
and there can be as little doubt that the old chalk, 
the cretaceous formation which in some parts of Eng- 
land has been subjected to enormous denudation, and 
which is overlaid by the beds of the tertiary series, 
was produced in the same manner, and under closely 
similar circumstances ; and not the chalk only, but 
most probably all the great limestone formations. In 
almost all of these the remains of foraminifera are 
abundant, some of them apparently specifically iden- 
tical with living forms ; and in a large number of 
limestones of all ages Dr. GUmbel has detected the 
characteristic 'coccoliths.' 

Long before commencing the present investigation, 
certain considerations had led me to regard it as 
highly probable that in the deeper parts of the At- 
lantic a deposit, differing possibly from time to time 
in composition but always of the same general cha- 
racter, might have been accumulating continuously 
from the cretaceous or even earlier periods to the 
present day. This view I suggested in my first letter 
to Dr. Carpenter urging the exploration of the sea- 
bed ; and from the first it has had the cordial support 
of my colleague, whose intimate acquaintance with 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 471 

some of the animal groups whose remains enter most 
largely into the chalk hoth old and new, makes his 
opinion on such a question particularly valuable. 

On our return from the ' Lightning ' cruise, during 
which we believed that our speculation had received 
strong confirmation, we used the expression, — perhaps 
somewhat an unfortunate one since it was capable of 
misconstruction, — that we might be regarded in a 
certain sense as still living in the cretaceous period. 
Several very eminent geologists, among whom were 
Sir Roderick Murchison and Sir Charles Lyell, took 
exception to this statement ; but it seems that their 
censure was directed less against the opinion than 
the mode in which it was expressed ; and I think I 
may say that the doctrine of the continuity of the 
chalk, in the sense in which we understood it, is now 
very generally accepted. 

I do not maintain that the phrase 'we are still 
living in the cretaceous epoch,' is defensible in a 
strictly scientific sense, chiefly because the terms 
' geological epoch ' and ' geological period ' are 
thoroughly indefinite. We speak indifferently of 
the ' Silurian period,' and the ' Glacial period,' with- 
out consideration of their totally unequal value ; 
and of the 'Tertiary period,' and of the 'Miocene 
period,' although the one includes the other. The 
expression is intended rather in a popular sense 
to meet what was certainly until very lately the 
general popular impression, that a geological period 
has, in the region where it has been studied and 
defined, something like a beginning and an end ; 
that it is bounded by periods of change — elevation, 
denudation, or some other evidence of the lapse of 



472 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

unrecorded time ; and that it would be inadmissible 
to speak of two portions of the same continuous 
deposit, however distant the times of their deposition 
might be, and however distinct their imbedded 
faunae, as belonging to different 'Geological periods/ 

It was certainly in this sense that in an address to 
a popular audience in April 1869 I ventured to state 
my belief that it is not only chalk which is being 
formed in the Atlantic, ''but the chalk, the chalk of 
the cretaceous period." Sir Charles Lyell says, in 
summing up his objections to this view,^ "The 
reader will at once perceive that the present Atlantic, 
Pacific, and Indian oceans, are geographical terms 
which must be wholly without meaning when applied 
to the eocene, and still more to the cretaceous period, 
so that to talk of the chalk having been uninter- 
ruptedly formed in the Atlantic is as inadmissible in 
a geographical as in a geological sense." I confess 
I do not see the geographical difficulty; the 
"Atlantic ocean" is, undoubtedly, a geographical 
term, but the depression under discussion occupies 
the area at present expressed by that term, and to 
use it seems to be the simplest way of indicating its 
position. We believe that the balance of probability 
is greatly in favour of the chalk having been unin- 
terruptedly forming over some parts of the area in 
question, and our belief is founded upon many con- 
siderations, physical and palseontological. 

All the principal axes of elevation in the north of 
Europe and in North America have a date long an- 
terior to the deposition of the tertiary, or even of the 

1 The Student's Elements of Geology. By Sir Charles Lyell, Bart, 
F.R.S. London, 1871. P. 265. 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 473 

newer secondary beds, although some of them, such as 
the Alps and the Pyrenees, have received great acces- 
sions to their height in later times. All these newer 
beds have therefore been deposited with a certain re- 
lation in position to certain main features of contour 
which are maintained to the present day. Many oscil- 
lations have doubtless taken place since, and every 
spot on the European plateau may have probably 
alternated many times between sea and land; but it is 
difficult to show that these oscillations have occurred 
in the north of Europe to a greater extent than from 
4,000 to 5,000 feet, the extreme vertical distance be- 
tween the base of the tertiaries and the highest point 
at which tertiary or post-tertiary shells are found on 
the slopes and ridges of mountains. A subsidence of 
even 1,000 feet would, however, be sufficient to pro- 
duce over most of the northern land a sea 100 fathoms 
deep, deeper than the German Ocean ; and an eleva- 
tion to a like amount would connect the Shetland and 
Orkney Islands and Great Britain and Ireland with 
Denmark and Holland, leaving only a long deep Ejord 
separating a British peninsula from Scandinavia. 
When we bear in mind the abundant evidence 
which we have that these minor oscillations, with a 
maximum range of 4,000 to 5,000 feet, have occurred 
again and again all over the world within compara- 
tively recent periods, alternately uniting lands and 
separating them by shallow seas, the position of the 
deep water remaining throughout the same, the im- 
portance of an accurate determination of the depth of 
intervening sea in all speculations as to geographical 
distribution and the origin of special faunae becomes 
most apparent. 



474 TEE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

From a glance at the map (PI. VIII.), and remem- 
bering that nearly the same arrangement exists in 
regard to the newer rocks of North America, it would 
seem that the sum of these minor elevations and 
subsidences has produced a general elevation of the 
edges, and a general contraction, — of a basin the long 
axis of which coincides roughly with the long axis of 
the Atlantic. The Jurassic beds crop out along the 
outer edge of the basin, the cretaceous beds form a 
middle band, while the tertiaries occupy the troughs 
and valleys. All of these, however, maintain a cer- 
tain parallelism determined by the contour of the 
earlier land and the direction of the older mountain 
ridges, to one another, and to the shores of the 
present sea. 

From the parallel of 55° north latitude, at all 
events to the equator, we have on either side of 
the Atlantic a depression 600 or 700 miles in width, 
averaging 15,000 feet in depth. These two valleys 
are separated by the modern volcanic plateau of the 
A9ores. It does not seem to us to be at all probable 
that any general oscillations have taken place in the 
northern hemisphere sufficient either to form these 
immense abysses, or, once formed, to convert them 
into dry land. 

Reasoning partly upon physical and partly upon 
palaeontological grounds, Mr. Prestwich thinks it 
probable that the ancient chalk ocean which formed 
a great transverse belt entirely across southern and 
eastern Europe and central Asia on the one hand, and 
across the Isthmus of Panama and southern North 
America on the other, was cut off by a land barrier 
from the Arctic Sea, and on that account possessed a 



i 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 475 

much higher and more equahle temperature to the 
bottom; and there is every reason to believe that such 
a land barrier did exist to the north of the great 
Atlantic basin, and continuous with the belt of 
northern land on which there is no deposition of cre- 
taceous rocks. He says that " if such a land barrier 
existed at the period of the chalk, and that barrier 
was submerged during the earlier part of the tertiary 
period, it would, taken in conjunction with the very 
different conditions of depth under which the chalk 
and lower tertiaries were found, go far to account for 
the great break in the fauna of the two periods." 

Erom the information we have as to the depths 
in the South Atlantic and the North Pacific, there 
seems to be no reason, however, to suppose that a 
barrier has recently existed shutting off the polar 
sea of the southern hemisphere ; and I confess I 
cannot quite see how the result suggested by Mr. 
Prestwich could follow, without taking into account 
another condition of whose existence we seem to 
have evidence. A band of cretaceous rocks has been 
shown to extend round the world a little to the 
north of the equator wherever we have dry land; 
and it has likewise been shown, from considera- 
tions of depth, that this chalk band probably ex- 
tended also across our great ocean basins. At that 
time, then, it seems that no continent ranging from 
north to south interrupted the drift of the equatorial 
current, deflecting the heated equatorial water to 
north and south and inducing a return indraught 
of polar water. This would undoubtedly remove 
one great cause, if not the sole cause, of the present 
low temperature of deep water between the tropics. 



476 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

According to this view, the reduction of the tempera- 
ture, the cause of the break in the fauna, would 
depend more upon the elevation of Central America 
and the Isthmus of Panama and the intertropical 
eastern coast of the continent of Asia, than even 
upon the depression of the northern barrier and the 
throwing open of the Arctic basin. 

"If at any former period the climate of the globe 
was much warmer or colder than it is now, it would 
have a tendency to retain that higher or lower tem- 
perature for a succession of geological epochs. . . . 
The slowness of climatical change here alluded to 
would arise from the great depth of the sea as com- 
pared with the height of the land, and the con- 
sequent lapse of time required to alter the position 
of continents and great oceanic basins. . . . The j 
mean height of the land is only 1,000 feet, the \ 
depth of the sea 15,000 feet. The effect, therefore, \ 
of vertical movements equally ].,000 feet in both j 
directions, upwards and downwards, is to cause a \ 
vast transposition of land and sea in those areas 
which are now continental, and adjoining to which ^ 
there is much sea not exceeding 1,000 feet in depth. \ 
But movements of equal amount would have no \ 
tendency to produce a sensible alteration in the \ 
Atlantic or Pacific oceans, or to cause the oceanic or i 
continental areas to change places. Depressions of \ 
1,000 feet would submerge large areas of existing - 
land; but fifteen times as much movement would 
be required to convert such land into an ocean of 
average depth, or to cause an ocean three miles deep 
to replace any one of the existing continents." ^ 

1 Lyell, Principles of Geology, 1867. Pp. 265-6. | 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. i'J'J 

The wide extent of Tertiaries in Europe and the 
north of Africa sufficiently proves that much dry land 
has been gained in tertiary and post-tertiary times, 
and the great mountain-masses of Southern Europe 
give evidence of great local disturbance. But al- 
though the Alps and the Pyrenees are of sufficient 
magnitude to make a deep impression upon the 
senses of men, taking them together, these moun- 
tains would if spread out only cover the surface 
of the North Atlantic to the depth of six feet, and 
it w^ould take at least two thousand times as much 
to fill up its bed. It would seem by no means im- 
probable, that while the edges of what we call the 
great Atlantic depression have been gradually raised, 
the central portion may have acquired an equivalent 
increase in depth ; but it seems most unlikely that 
while the main features of the contour of the northern 
hemisphere remain the same, an area of so vast extent 
should have been depressed by more than the height 
of Mont Blanc. On these physical grounds alone we 
are inclined to believe that a considerable portion of 
this area has been continually under water, and that 
consequently a deposit has been forming there unin- 
terruptedly, from the period of the chalk to our own. 

I will now turn to the palgeontological bearings of 
the question. Long ago Mr. Lonsdale showed that 
the white chalk was mainly made up of the cUbris of 
foraminifera, and Dr. Mantell estimates the number of 
these shells at more than a million to a cubic inch. 
In 1848 Dr. Mantell, speaking of the chalk, says 
that it ''forms such an assemblage of sedimentary 
deposits as would probably be presented to observa- 
tion if a mass of the bed of the Atlantic, 2,000 feet 



478 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. X. 



in thickness, were elevated above the waters and 
became dry land ; the only essential diflPerence would 
be in the generic and specific characters of the im- 
bedded animal and vegetable remains." ^ In 1858 
Professor Huxley spoke of the Atlantic mud as 
'' modern chalk." ^ Very early the identity of some 
of the chalk foraminifera with species now living was 
observed. Mr. Prestwich, in his able resume of this 
question, so often quoted, gives a table drawn up by 
Professor Uupert Jones of 19 species of foraminifera 
out of 110 from the Atlantic mud identical with 
chalk forms, viz. : — 







other older Formations in which 
they are also found. 


: 


Species of Foraminifera found in both the Atlantic 
Mud and the Chalk of England and Europe. 


"""►^ 

X 
X 

X 
X 
X 

X 
X 


II 

I-? 


C3 


.1 


. CO 

o ^ 

X 


1 
\ 


GlanduUna laevigata, D'Orbigny . 

Nodosaria radicula, Linn. . . . 

„ raphanus, Linn. . . 

Dentalina communis, D'Orbigny . 

Cristellaria cultrata, Mont. . . 

,, rotulata. Lam. . 

„ crepidula, F. and M. . 

Lagena sulcata, W. and J. . . . 

„ globosa, Montagu . . . 

Polymorphina lactea, W. and J. . 

., communis, D'Orbigny 
,, compressa, D'Orbigny 
,, orbignii, Ehr. . . 
Glohigerina hulloides, D'Orbigny . 
Planorbulina lobatula, W. and J. 
Pulvinulina micheliana, D'Orbigny 
1 Spiroplecta biformis, P. and J. 
[ Verneuilina triquetra, Yon M. . . 
„ polystropha, Reuss 




X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 




X 

_ 





1 Wonders of Geology, 6th edition, 1848. 

2 Saturday Review. 



Vol. i. 



305. 



CHAP. X.] 



CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 



479 



And the following table, showing the number of 
foraininifera common to the Atlantic mud and various 
geological formations in England : — 



Total 
, in the 
i deep 
1 Atlantic. 


Coramon to the following Formations. 


Crag. 


London 
clay. 


Chalk. 


Upper 
Jurassic. 

7 


Lower 
Jurassic. 


Rhsetic 
and 


Per. 
niian. 


Carbo- 
niferous. 


110 


53 


28 

■ 


19 


7 ! 7 

i 


1 


1 



The morphology of the foraminifera has been 
studied with great care, and the difiPerences between 
closely allied so-called species are so slight that it is 
possible that in many cases they should only be 
regarded as varieties ; but this careful criticism and 
appreciation of minute differences renders it all the 
more likely that the determinations are correct, and 
that animal forms which are substantially identical 
have persisted in the depths of the sea during a con- 
siderable lapse of geological time. 

In the late deep-sea dredgings by M. de Pourtales 
off the American coast, and by H.M. ships ' Light- 
ning ' and ' Porcupine,' and Mr. Marshall Hall's yacht 
' Noma ' off the west coast of Europe, no animal 
forms have been discovered belonging to any of the 
higher groups, so far as we are as yet aware, speci- 
ficallv identical with chalk fossils ; and I do not think 
that we have any right to expect that such will be 
found. To a depth of 5,000 feet or so a large portion 
of the North Atlantic is at present heated very con- 
siderably above its normal temperature, while the 
Arctic and Antarctic indraught depresses the bottom 



480 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

temperature in deep Avater to a like extreme degree. 
These abnormal temperatures are dependent lipon 
the present distribution of sea and land; and I 
have already shown that we have evidence of many 
oscillations, in modern times geologically speaking, 
which must have produced totally different condi- 
tions of temperature over the same area. Accepting, 
as I believe we are now bound to do in some form, 
the gradual alteration of species through natural 
causes, we must be prepared to expect a total absence 
of forms identical with those found in the old chalk, 
belonging to groups in which there is sufficient 
structural differentiation to require or to admit of 
marked variation under altering circumstances. The 
utmost which can be expected is the persistence of 
some of the old generic types, and such a resemblance 
between the two faunae as to justify the opinion that, 
making due allowance for emigration, immigration, 
and extermination, the later fauna bears to the 
earlier the relation of descent with extreme modi- 
fication. 

I have already mentioned that one of the most 
remarkable diflPerences between the recent Atlantic 
chalk-mud and the ancient white chalk is the total 
absence in the latter of free silica. It would seem, 
from the analysis of chalk, that silicious organisms 
were entirely wanting in the ancient cretaceous seas. 
In the chalk mud, on the other hand, silica is found 
in abundance, in most specimens to the amount of 
from 30 to 40 per cent. A considerable portion of 
this is inorganic silica — sand; and its presence is. 
doubtless due to the circumstance that our dredgings 
have hitherto been carried on in the neighbourhood 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 481 

of land and in the path of sli^^it currents, whilst the 
extreme purity of the white chalk of Sussex would 
seem to indicate that it had heen laid down in deep 
still water far from land. A considerable proportion 
of the silica of the chalk-mud, however, consists of 
the spicules of sponges, of the spicules and shields 
of radiolarians, and of the frustules of diatoms ; 
and this organic silica is uniformly distributed 
through the whole mass. Taken in connection with 
the absence of diffused silica in the white chalk, 
we have the singular fact of the presence of regular 
layers of flinty masses of nearly pure silica, pre- 
senting frequently the external form of more or 
less regularly-shaped sponges, and frequently filling 
up the cavities of sea-urchins or bivalve shells. If 
we take the simple instance of pure grey flint filling 
up entirely the cavity of an urchin, such as Gale- 
rites alho-(jalerus, or Anancliytes ovattis, and showing 
at the oral opening of the shell a little projecting 
knob, like a bullet-mould filled with lead, we have 
no escape from the conclusion that after the death 
of the urchin the silica has percolated into the shell 
in solution or in a gelatinous condition, and the silica 
must have previously existed in some other form, 
either in the chalk or elsewhere. In the chalk which 
contains not a trace of silica we often find the moulds 
and outlines of organisms which we know to have been 
silicious, from which the whole of the silica has been 
removed ; and I have more than once seen cases in 
which a portion of the delicate tracery of a silicious 
sponge has been preserved entire in a flint, while the 
remainder of the vase which projected beyond the 
outline of the flint appeared in the chalk as a trellis- 

I I 



,482 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

work of spaces, vacant, or loosely filled with peroxide 
or carbonate of iron. It therefore seems certain that 
by some means or other the organic silica, distributed 
in the shape of sponge spicules and other silicious 
organisms in the chalk, has been dissolved or reduced 
to a colloid state, and accumulated in moulds formed 
by the shells or outer walls of imbedded animals of 
various classes. How the solution of the silica is 
effected we do not precisely know. Once reduced 
to a colloid condition, it is easy enough to imagine 
that it may be sifted from the water by a process 
of endosmose, the chalk matrix acting as a porous 
medium, and accumulated in any convenient cavities. 
In various localities in the chalk and green-sand of 
the North of England the peculiar bodies which are 
called Ventriculites are excessively abundant,— ele- 
gant vases and cups with branching root -like bases, 
or groups of regularly or irregularly spreading tubes, 
delicately fretted on the surface with an impressed 
network like the finest lace. In the year 1840 the 
late Mr. Toulmin Smith published the result of 
many years' careful study of these bodies, and gave 
a minute and most accurate description of their 
structure. He found them to consist of tubes of 
extreme tenuity, delicately meshed, and having be- 
tween them interspaces usually with very regular 
cubial or octohedral forms. These tubes in the Ven- 
triculites found in chalk were empty, or contained a 
little red ochreous matter ; but when a ventriculite or 
a portion of one happened to be entangled in a flint, it 
was either incorporated with the flint or replaced by 
silica. Mr. Toulmin Smith supposed that the skeleton 
of the ventriculite had been originally calcareous, 



I 



X.] 



CONTINVITY OF THE CHALK. 



483 



and he referred the group to the Polyzoa. When 
Mr. Toulmin Smith studied the Ventriculites, the 
Hexactinellidae — the sponges with six-rayed meshes 
or spicules — were practically unknown, though there 




Fig. f>,(i.— Ventriculites simplex, Toulmin Smith. Once and a half the natural size. 



were already a few examples in museums. One of the 
first results of deep-sea dredging was the discovery 
that the chalk-mud of the deep sea is in many places 
literally crowded with these ; and when we compare 

II 2 



484 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

such recent forms as Aphrocallistes, Iphiteon, Sol- 
tenia, and AsJconema with certain series of the chalk 
Ventriculites, there cannot be the slightest doubt that 
they belong to the same family— in some cases to 
very nearly allied genera. Pig. 80 represents a very 
beautiful specimen of Ventriculites simplex preserved 
in flint, for which I am indebted to Mr. Sanderson of 
Edinburgh. Looking at this in the light of our 
knowledge of Euplectella or ApJirocallistes beatrix, 
we have no difficulty in working out its structure, 
even to the most minute microscopic detail. 

Other sponges, belonging chiefly to the Lithistidse 

and the Corticatse, re- 
produce with wonderful 
accuracy the more irre- 
gular sponge-forms of 
the chalk and green- 
sand ; and a group, as 
yet undescribed, but 
apparently an aberrant 
family of the Esperiadse, 
send out long delicate 

Fig. ^\.— Ventriculites simplex, Toui-min Smith. tUbCS, WlllCn COUtraCt 
Outer surface ; four times the natural size. i • i xi i i. * j. 

slightly, but m a most 
characteristic way, at the point of their insertion 
into the sponge body, recalling very forcibly the 
peculiar manner in which the tube-like root processes 
join the sponge in such genera as the vaguely defined 
Choanites. 

One sponge belonging to the group is represented 
at Eig. 83. A sphere 15 to 20 mm. in diameter con- 
sists of a smooth glossy external rind, composed of 
closely meshed pin-headed spicules, with two kinds 




CHAP. X.] 



CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 



485 



of ' spicules of the sarcode/ one large, C-shaped, the 
other much more minute, answering to Bowerbank's 
' tridentate equianchorate ' type ; every now and then 



^^^i^*% 




Mrmrmr 



Fig. ^2.— Ventriculites simplex, Toulmin Smith. Section of the outer wall, showing the 
structure of the silicious network, (x. 50.) 

the rind thus formed coming to the margin of a small 
pore. The interior of the sphere is filled with soft 
semi-fluid sarcode, supported by the loosest possible 




Fig. 83.— CcB?osj>7icRm tuUfecr., Wvville Thomson. Slightly enlarged. Off the coa.st of Portugal. 

mesh-work of granular horny matter and pin- 
headed spicules. Erom points apparently irregularly 
placed on the surface of the sponge, tubes about 
3 mm. in diameter run out in all directions; 
the walls of the tubes are thin and delicate, being 



486 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

more so towards the distant ends, where the tubes 
contract slightly to an open orifice. At the proximal 
end, at the junction between the tube and the 
sponge body, there is also a contraction, and a slight 
pit-like involution of the surface of the sponge. 
There is something very characteristic in tliis pecu- 




ViQ. M.—' Choanites.' In a flint from the white chalk. 

liar form of junction which it is not easy to define, 
but which almost forces the conviction that there is 
the closest relation between these recent forms and 
tube-bearing fossil sponges such as Choanites. 

Professor Martin Duncan mentions several corals 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK, 487 

from the coast of Portugal more nearly allied to 
chalk forms than to any others, but it is in the 
Echinodermata that the peculiar relation between 
the ancient and the modern faumje becomes most 
apparent. To review briefly the chief points bearing 
upon this question. The Apiocrinidse, the group of 
fixed crinoids which I have already described, are 
abundant throughout the whole range of the Jurassic 
rocks, their remains being frequently very abundant 
in the thick cream-coloured limestone beds of the 
oolites. Towards the close of the Jurassic period, 
the typical genera disappear, and in the chalk we 
find the group represented by an evidently degenerate 
form, Bourguetticmms, In some tertiary-beds frag- 
ments of the stems of a small Bourguetticrinus have 
been found, and such were likewise discovered in 
the recent lime breccia of Guadaloupe, which con- 
tained the well-known human skeleton now in the 
British Museum. There can be little doubt that 
these tertiary and post-tertiary fragments are to be 
referred rather to the genus Rhizocrinus, which we 
now know to be so widely distributed, living, in 
deep water. Now in this series of Apiocrinidse, 
extending from the Eorest marble to the present 
time, although there is a succession of constantly 
changing species, yet the gradual degradation in 
development in the same direction throughout the 
series seems to point unmistakeably to some form 
of continuity, to a type gradually succumbing to con- 
ditions slowly altering in an unfavourable direction. 

The other family of the stalked crinoids, the 
Pentacrinidse, are in a different position. They are 
abundant in the Lias ; very abundant in the lower 



488 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

oolite, where slabs are often found almost made up 
of them, with a characteristic deep-water association 
of CldariSy Astrogonkim, and Astropecten ; and al- 
though not abundant in the English chalk, several 
species are found, and these show no tendency to 
degeneracy. As might be expected, such remains 
are rare in the shallow-water tertiaries. With regard 
to their distribution in modern seas, from the 
apparent abundance of P. asteria and P. mulleri 
in deep water in the West Indies, and of P. u^ymlle- 
tJiomsoni off the coast of Portugal, it is very pos- 
sible, as I have already said, that they may occupy 
a much more important place in the abyssal fauna 
than we at present imagine. 

Nearly all the additions from the deep water to 
the list of the Asteridea fall into the genera 
Archaster and Astropecten, or into the various sub- 
divisions of the old genus Goniaster. Prom their 
breaking up into a multitude of uu distinguishable 
ossicles by the decomposition of their soft organic 
matter immediately after death, the fossil remains 
of star-fishes are comparatively rare, and are scarcely 
met with except in fine calcareous formations, such 
as the Wenlock limestone, — and in later times in the 
fine vellow limestones of the oolites, and in the 
white chalk. In the latter formation, deposited ap- 
parently very much under the same circumstances 
as the Atlantic chalk-mud, the general character of 
the group of imbedded star-fishes is almost the same 
as in the modern fauna of the deep Atlantic. 

The Echinidea are a more typical order. Erom 
the compactness of their tests they are more readily 
preserved entire, and from the earliest periods their 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 489 

characteristic and harmoniously varying series are 
of considerable value in the discrimination of the 
different formations. In the soft white chalk of the 
south of England their remains are extremely abun- 
dant. Perhaps the most abundant and characteristic 
fossils in the chalk are the Cidaridse, and these more 
than any other chalk fossils illustrate the peculiar 
conditions under which the chalk has been laid down. 
The great spines of Cidaris are attached to the plates 
of the shell by a central ligament which passes from 
the cup on the spine to a perforation in the ball on 
the plate, and by a membrane which rises from the 
plate and passes over the base of the spine. The 
spines are, however, so disproportionately large, and 
the soft matter softens and decomposes so rapidly 
after death, that it is diflicult to keep the spines 
attached to a specimen prepared even with consider- 
able care. In the chalk, tests of Cidaris are fre- 
quently preserved absolutely entire, with all the 
spines in position ; so that by carefully working out 
the chalk with a penknife, we can here have the 
whole animal perfect. It is difficult to see precisely 
how this result can have been produced. The urchin 
must have sunk into the soft chalk-mud and 
been covered up by a sufficient quantity to support 
its spines and test, and allow the whole to become 
gradually compacted into a solid mass. One of the 
new deep-sea Cidarites belongs to a genus which 
had previously been supposed to be extinct, but the 
chalk-mud forms generally do not show any special 
approach to any particular chalk species. Still the 
general character of the group is the same. The 
Echinothuridse were previously known only as chalk 



490 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

fossils, SO that their presence apparently in abun- 
dance in the recent chalk-mud is a clear instance 
of the preservation of one of the old types hitherto 
supposed to be extinct. The same may be said of 
Poiirtalesia, which must associate itself either with 
Ananchytes or with Dysaster, both of which are 
types of groups likewise supposed to have been lost. 
We thus find that, while no Echinoderm hitherto 
discovered in the deep water is specifically identical 
with any chalk form, not only does the abyssal fauna 
with its abundance of the Cidaridee, Echinothuridae, 
and irregular urchins, and the disproportionate num- 
bers of the genera Astropecten^ Astrogonlum, and 
Stellaster, and their allies among starfishes, singu- 
larly resemble the chalk in general facies ; but 
several genera approach chalk forms more closely 
than they do any hitherto known in a living state 
— approach them so closely as almost to force upon 
us the conviction that their relation is one of descent, 
accompanied by change of conditions and consequent 
modification, though not to any extreme degree. 

As I have already stated, the whole of the mol- 
lusca from the deep water which had been previously 
described as fossils were known from tertiary and 
post-tertiary beds ; with the very doubtful exception 
of our common Terehratulina caput-serpentis^ which 
certainly approaches very closely Terebratula striata 
from the chalk. 

It is not surprising that this should be the case. 
It is a marked character of the European Tertiaries 
that with the exception of some of the older beds in 
the south of Europe, all of them have been deposited 
in shallow water ; so that the tertiary beds represent 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 491 

the mineral accumulations and the fauna of the 
margin of some sea. We may say that they have been 
deposited in the shallow water of tertiary seas whose 
deep-sea fauna is unknown, and this mode of expres- 
sion is most in accordance with previous ideas ; but if 
the view here advocated be correct, we must regard 
the tertiaries as the deposits formed and exposed by 
depressions and upheavals of the borders of the cre- 
taceous sea ; of a sea which, with many changes of 
condition produced by the same oscillations which 
alternately exposed and submerged the tertiaries, 
existed continuously, depositing conformable beds of 
chalk-mud from the period of the ancient chalk. 

MoUusca are chiefly shallow-water forms, although 
some of them are special to deep water, and others 
have a great vertical range. As I have already said, 
considering the many changes in the conditions which 
most affect animal life which have occurred during 
later geological times, we cannot expect to find any 
animals of the higher groups specifically identical 
with chalk fossils ; the difficulty in the case seems 
rather to be to account for the identity of many 
living deep-water species with species found in the 
Tertiaries. I think, however, that we can find a clue. 
Most of the species common to the modern Atlantic 
and to tertiary beds are now found in the Atlantic at 
much greater depths than those at which they were 
imbedded in the tertiary seas. This we know by the 
species from shallower water which are associated 
with them in the Tertiaries. They are, therefore, 
species which had a considerable vertical range ; and 
probably while many of the shallower water forms 
were exterminated by elevations or other change 



492 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

affecting the first one or two hundred fatlioms, they 
were enabled to survive, the deeper part of their 
habitat having suffered but little alteration. 

Sir Charles Lyell says : " The reader should be 
reminded that in geology we have been in the habit 
of founding our great chronological divisions, not on 
foraminifera and sponges, nor even on echinoderms 
or corals, but on the remains of the most highly 
organized beings available to us, such as moUusca. 
... In dealing with the mollusca, it is those of the 
highest or most specialized organizations which afford 
us the best characters in proportion as their vertical 
range is the most limited. Thus the cephalopoda are 
the most valuable, as having a more restricted range 
in time than the gasteropoda, and these again are more 
characteristic of the particular stratigraphical sub- 
divisions than the lamellibranchiate bivalves, while 
these last again are more serviceable in classification 
than the brachiopoda, a still lower class of shell-fish, 
which are the most enduring of all." With great 
deference to Sir Charles Lyell, I cannot regard the 
most highly specialized animal groups as those most 
fitted to gauge the limits of great chronological 
divisions, though I admit their infinite value in 
determining the minor subdivisions. 

Tiie culmination of such animal groups, such as 
we find in the marvellous abundance and variety of 
both orders of cephalopods at the end of the Jurassic 
and the commencement of the cretaceous period, 
undoubtedly brings into high relief, and admirably 
illustrates to the student, the broad distinctive cha- 
racters of the mezozoic fauna ; but speaking very 
generally, the more highly a mollusc is specialized 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 493 

the shallower is the water which it inhabits. The 
cephalopods are chiefly pelagic and surface things, 
and their remains are consequently found in deposits 
from all depths. To this general pelagic distri- 
bution of cephalopods there seem to he two re- 
markable exceptions, and these the two members 
of their class which are by far the most interest- 
ing in their geological relations. Nautilus pom- 
pilius inhabits the deep water of the Pacific, while 
the habitat of Spirula australis is unknown. The 
shell of Spirula is thin and light, and, probably 
after the death of the animal and by the decom- 
position of organic matter, it becomes filled with air, 
aod the emptied shell floats, and is drifted along on the 
surface of the sea. Tropical shores are strewn with 
the pearly little coil, which attracts attention by the 
elegance of its form. It is abundant on all shores in 
the path of the Gulf-stream. Sysselmann Mliller gave 
me, a few years ago, a quantity which had been drifted 
on the south-western shores of different islands of the 
Fseroe group. Still the structure of the animal of 
Spirula may be said to be unknown. One specimen 
only, which was described by Professor Owen, was 
found nearly perfect on the coast of New Zealand by 
Mr. Percy Noel. I suppose there can be little doubt 
that this is a deep-water form, and I hope that with 
our deep-sea dredging we shall soon clear up its 
economy ; but in the meantime the evident abundance 
of the animal and our ignorance of its history are very 
suggestive. In the London clay one or two examples 
of a fossil have been found, nearly allied to Spirula, 
but differing in this respect — that a solid conical 
rostrum projects backwards, its half-calcified, half- 



494 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

horny substance enclosing the greater part of the 
curved spiral shell. Now if the recent Spirula had 
been weighted with such a rostrum it would probably 
have remained up to the present time utterly unknown 
to us. It is unwise to prophesy, but I certainly 
look upon some form allied to Spirulirostris as one 
of the most likely spoils of the deep sea. From the 
Tertiaries we pass to the Cretaceous forms, and find 
in Belemnitella the chambered shell straightened and 
reduced, and the ' guard ' greatly increased in size. 
If Belemnites were deep-sea animals, as seems very 
probable, and if any of them still exist, — from the 
form and weight of 'their shells it is scarcely possible 
that they should ever be thrown up on the shore, 
and without deep-sea dredging they might remain 
for ever unknown. I merely mention this to show 
that it is by no means safe to base even what little 
argument might rest upon it, upon the absence 
at the present time of all representatives of the 
cretaceous cephalopodous fauna. 

The gasteropods, with comparatively few excep- 
tions, range from the shore to a depth of 100 to 
200 fathoms, and lamellibranchs become scarcer at 
a slightly greater depth ; while some orders of bra- 
chiopods, Crustacea, echinoderms, sponges, and fora- 
minifera, descend in scarcely diminished numbers to 
a depth of 10,000 feet. In fact, the bathymetrical 
range of the various groups in modern seas corre- 
sponds remarkably with their vertical range in 
ancient strata. 

A change in the distribution of sea and land in- 
volving a mere change in the course of an ocean- 
current might modify the conditions of an area for 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 495 

most cephalopods and all pteropods, heteropods, and 
other surface living animals of high type, even to 
their extinction. By oscillations of 500 feet up or 
down, the great mass of gasteropods, and all reef- 
building corals, would be forced to emigrate, would 
become modified, or would be destroyed, — and another 
hundred fathoms would exterminate the greater num- 
ber of bivalves ; w^hile elevations and depressions to 
ten times that amount might only slightly affect the 
region of brachiopods, echinoderms, and sponges. 

After a careful consideration of the results of recent 
investigations, we are strengthened in our confidence 
in the truth of the opinion which we previously held, 
that the various groups of fossils characterizing the 
tertiary beds of Europe and North America represent 
the constantly altering fauna of the shallower por- 
tions of an ocean whose depths are still occupied by 
a deposit which has been accumulating continuously 
from the period of the pre-tertiary chalk, and w^hich 
perpetuates with much modification the pre-tertiary 
chalk fauna. I do not see that this view militates in 
the least against the " reasoning and classification" of 
that geology which we have learned from Sir Charles 
Lyell ; our dredgings only show that these abysses of 
the ocean — abysses which Sir Charles Lyell admits in 
the passage quoted above, to have outlasted on account 
of their depth a succession of geological epochs — are 
inhabited by a special deep-sea fauna, possibly as persis- 
tent in its general features as the abysses themselves. 
I have said at the beginning of this chapter, that I 
believe the doctrine of the 'continuity of the chalk,' 
as understood by those who first suggested it, now 
meets with very general acceptance ; and in evidence 



496 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

of this I will quote -two passages in two consecutive 
anniversary addresses by Presidents of the Geological 
Society, and we may have every confidence that the 
statements of men of so great weight, made under 
such circumstances, indicate the tendency of sound 
and judicious thought. Professor Huxley, in the 
anniversary address for the year 1870, says : — " Many 
years ago^ 1 ventured to speak of the Atlantic mud 
as ' modern chalk,' and I know of no fact inconsistent 
with the view which Professor Wyville Thomson has 
advocated, that the modern chalk is not only the 
lineal descendant, so to speak, of the ancient chalk, 
but that it remains, so to speak, in possession of the 
ancestral estate ; and that from the cretaceous period 
(if not much earlier) to the present day, the deep sea 
has covered a large part of what is now the area of 
the Atlantic. But if Glohlgerina and Terehratula 
caput-serpentis and Beryx, not to mention other 
forms of animals and of plants, thus bridge over the 
interval between the present and the mezozoic 
periods, is it possible that the majority of other 
living things underwent a sea-change into something 
new and strange all at once ? " 

And Mr. Prestwich, in the presidential address for 
1871, says : — "Therefore, although I think it highly 
probable that some considerable portion of the deep 
sea-bed of the mid- Atlantic has continued submerged 
since the period of our chalk, and although the more 
adaptable forms of life may have been transmitted in 
unbroken succession through this channel, the im- 
migrations of other and more recent faunas may 
have so modified the old population, that the original 

^ Saturday Review, 1858 : " Chalk, Ancient and Modern." - 



CHAP. X.J CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 497 

chalk element is of no more importance than is the 
original British element in our own English people.'* 

Mr. Prestwich thus fully admits the high pro- 
bability of the ' continuity ' for which we contend. 
The last question which he raises in the sentence 
quoted is one of enormous difficulty, which we have 
as yet no data to solve. It is perhaps not very much 
harder, however, after all^ than the problem in ethno- 
logy which he has selected as an illustration. 

Several other very important questions bearing 
upon the conditions of the ocean at great depths, 
occupied the attention of the naturalists in scientific 
charge of the dredging cruises of the 'Lightning' 
and ' Porcupine.' An assistant versed in the methods 
of chemical and physical research accompanied the 
vessel on each occasion. A son of Dr. Carpenter, 
Mr. William Lant Carpenter, B.A., B.Sc, went on 
the first cruise with Mr. Jeffreys. Mr. John Hunter, 
P.C.S., a promising young chemist, since deceased, 
accompanied me to the Bay of Biscay, and Mr. Her- 
bert Carpenter, a younger son of my colleague, was 
our companion during the third long cruise in the 
Paeroe channel. 

The specific gravity of the water was taken at 
each station, and in the serial soundings the water- 
bottle was let down to the intermediate depths and 
' the water carefully tested. The differences observed 
were very slight, but they were as a rule confirmatory 
of Professor Eorschammer's opinion that Arctic water 
contains less salt than the sea-water of temperate 
and intertropical regions. 

As I have already mentioned (page 46), organic 
natter in appreciable quantity was detected by the 

K K 



498 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

permanganate test everywhere, and at all depths. 
The gas contained in the water was carefully ana- 
lysed, and it was found, as a general result, that 
the amount of free carbon dioxide increased and 
the proportion of oxygen diminished with increased 
depth. There seemed to be reason to believe, how- 
ever, that the quantity of carbon dioxide depended 
to a great degree upon the abundance of the higher 
forms of life. Mr. Lant Carpenter used always to 
predict a bad haul for the zoologists When he found 
the proportion of carbon dioxide to the oxygen and 
nitrogen unusually low. The great increase in the 
quantity of carbon dioxide was just above the bottom. 
The general average of thirty analyses of surface- 
water gives the following as the proportions of the 
contained gases present: — Oxygen 25*1, nitrogen 54-2, 
carbon dioxide 20*7 ; this proportion was subject, 
however, to great variations. Intermediate water 
gave an average percentage of oxygen 22*0, nitrogen 
52 '8, and carbon dioxide 26*2 ; while bottom waters 
gave — oxygen 19*5, nitrogen 52*6, and carbon dioxide 
27 '9. But bottom water, at a comparatively small 
depth, often contained as much carbon dioxide as 
intermediate water at much greater depths. In one 
of the serial soundings, in which the water was 
taken at every 50 fathoms, three analyses gave the 
following singular result : — 

T50 Fathoms. 800 Fathoms. Bottom, 862 Faths. 

Oxygen 18-8 17-8 ' 17-2 

Mtrogen .... 49-3 . 48-5 34-5 

Carbon dioxide . . 31-9 33-7 48-3 

The greatly increased percentage of carbon dioxide 
in the stratum of sea-water immediately overlying 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 499 

the sea-bed, was here accompanied by a great abun- 
dance of animal life. 

I can scarcely regret that the space at my disposal 
will not allow me to enter at present into the many 
very important bearings of these physical investiga- 
tions, for I am compelled to admit that I do not 
place thorough confidence in our results. The obser- 
vations and analyses were undoubtedly conducted 
with greaV care and skill, but the difference between 
different samples — in specific gravity, and more espe- 
cially in chemical composition and the relative pro- 
portion of the ingredients — is so very slight, that more 
exact methods than those which have been hitherto 
employed will be required to insure accurate results. 

In such investigations everything depends upon 
the perfection of the means of bringing up water 
from any given depth ; and the principle of the 
construction of the water-bottle used in the * Por- 
cupine ' was faulty. It consists of a strong tube of 
brass about two feet in length and two inches in 
internal diameter, containing rather more than a 
litre and a half, and closed at each end by a brass 
disk. In the centre of each of these disks there 
is a round aperture closed by a well-ground conical 
valve, both valves opening upwards when the instru- 
ment is in position for being let down. 

In passing down through the water, a continuous 
current is supposed to raise the valves and run 
through the bottle, thus keeping it constantly filled 
with the water of the layer through which it is 
passing. On reversing the motion in hauling up, 
the valves fall into their places, and the contents 
of the tube at the greatest depth are brought to 

KK 2 



500 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

the surface. This bottle appeared to answer fairly, 
and we often had evidence, from its turbidity, that 
bottom-water came up ; but subsequent experiments 
have shown that it cannot be depended upon, and 
some of the reasons are sufficiently obvious. The 
instrument will not work at all unless the descend- 
ing motion be sufficiently steady and rapid to main- 
tain a current capable of keeping two heavy brass 
valves open to their full extent; if there be the 
slightest reversal, or jerk, or irregularity in hauling 
up, the water is — at all events partially — changed ; 
the two valves, even when thoroughly open, are 
directly in the path of the ingress and egress of 
the water — and there is reason to believe that the 
water is not so rapidly and thoroughly changed as 
we at first imagined. A perfectly satisfactory water- 
bottle is still a desideratum, but I believe that one 
which was used by Dr. Mayer and Dr. Jacobsen 
in the German North Sea expedition of the past 
summer, goes far to remedy most of these defects. 
I hope we may be in a better position to give an 
opinion a year hence. 

I give, in the appendix to this chapter, an abstract 
of the general results of the chemical investigations 
carried on during the ' Porcupine ' cruises of 1869 ; 
and I add a note, for which I am indebted to my 
friend Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, who accompanies me as 
chemist to the ' Gliallenger ' expedition, which will 
show how much has yet to be done before we can 
hope to come to any really satisfactory conclusion 
as to the amount and condition of the gases con- 
tained in sea-water. Neither, I regret to say, can 
we place much reliance on the determination of 



CHAP. X.] 



CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 



501 



organic matter in sea-water by the permanganate 
method, although there is every probability that 



the general result at which we arrived- 



that organic 



matter is contained in the water of the ocean in 
all localities and at all depths — is substantially true. 
The application of the exact methods of modern 
science to this line of inquiry is new, and it will 
require long and patient work to bring it to per- 
fection. The one real advance which has been made 
in this direction is the addition to the appliances for 
the investigation of the physics of the deep sea ; of a 
correct and trustworthy instrument by which ocean 
temperatures can be ascertained to any depth with 
what may be regarded as absolute accuracy for all 
practical purposes. 




KUNO. FROM VAAV IN BOBDO. 



502 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 



APPENDIX A, 

Summary of the Results of the Examination of (Samples of Sea- 
wnter taken at the Surface and at various Deptlis. By Wm. 
LanT Carpenter, B.A., B.Sc. 

Surface-waters. — Care was taken to obtain these samples as 
pure as possible, and free from any contamination caused by 
matters derived from the vessel, by dipping them up in clean 
vessels at a few inches below the surface at or near the bow 
of the ship. In two instances, however, the samples w^ere taken 
from abaft the paddles. 

Waters taken at depths helow the surface. — It was found 
desirable to coat the brass Water-Bottles internally with 
sealing-wax varnish, owing to the corrosive action of the sea- 
water. The apparatus was then found to work perfectly satis- 
factorily in all cases in which there was sufficient weight on the 
sounding-line to which they were attached to keep the bottles 
perpendicular, or nearly so. When, from the smallness of the 
attached weight, or the roughness of the sea, the sounding-line 
w^as at an acute angle with the general level of the sea-surface 
while it was being drawn up, the results of the examination of 
w^ater thus obtained rendered it highly probable that some water 
at or near the surface had found its way into the bottle, and that 
its contents were not to be relied on as coming from the lowest 
depths. 

When bottom-water was obtained from depths beyond 500 
fathoms, it was almost invariably charged with a quantity of 
very fine mud in suspension, rendering it quite turbid. Many 
hours' standing was necessary for the deposit of this ; but it was 
readily removed by filtration. In no instance was there any 
evidence of water from great depths being much more highly 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 503 

charged with dissolved gases than surface-waters ; a considerable 
elevation of temperature being in all cases necessary for the 
evolution of any dissolved gas. 

Mode of examining Samples.— ThQ samples of water thus 
taken were examined with as little delay as possible, with a 
view to determine : — 

(1) The specific gravity of the water. 

(2) The total quantity of dissolved gases contained in them, 

and the relative proportions of oxygen, nitrogen, and 
carbonic acid. 

(3) The quantity of oxygen necessary to oxidize the organic 

matter contained in the water ; distinguishing between 
a, the decomposed organic matter, and 
&, the easily decomposable organic matter. 

(1) The specific gravity determinations were made at a tem- 
perature as near 60° Fahr. as possible, with delicate glass hy- 
drometers, so graduated that the specific gravity could be read 
off directly to the fourth decimal place with ease. 

(2) The apparatus for the analysis of the gases dissolved in 
the sea-water was essentially that described by Prof. Miller 
in the second volume of his ' Elements of Chemistry.' It was 
found necessary to make several modifications in it, to adapt it 
to the motion of the vessel. These consisted chiefly in sus- 
pending much of it from the cabin-ceiling, instead of supporting 
it from beneath, and in rendering all the parts less rigid by a 
free use of caoutchouc tubing, &c., the utmost care being taken 
to keep all joints tight. 

It was found possible to make correct analyses, even when 
the vessel was rolling sufficiently to upset chairs and cabin- 
furniture. 

The method of analysis may be thus summarized: — From 
700 to 800 cubic centimetres of the sample to be examined 
were boiled for about thirty minutes, in such a way that the 
steam and mixed gases evolved were collected over mercuiy in 
a small graduated Bunsen's gas-holder, all access of air being 
carefully guarded against. The mixed gases were then trans- 
ferred to two graduated tubes in a mercurial trough, where the 



504 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. X. 



carbonic acid was first absorbed by a strong solution of caustic 
potash; and subsequently the oxygen was absorbed by the 
addition of pyrogallic acid, the remaining gas being assumed to 
be nitrogen. 

The results of the analyses were always corrected to the 
standard temperature of 0° Cent., and to 760 millimetres' baro- 
metric pressure, for comparison among themselves and with 
others. In nearly every case the duplicate analyses from the 
same gaseous mixture agreed closely, if they were not identical. 

(3) The examination of the sea- water for organic matter was 
made according to the method detailed by Prof. Miller in the 
Journal of the Chemical Society for May 1865, with an addition 
suggested by Dr. Angus Smith. Each sample of water was 
divided into two; to one of these a little free acid was added, 
and to both an excess of a standard solution of permanganate 
of potash. At the end of three hours the reaction was stopped 
by the addition of iodide of potassium and starch, and the 
excess of permanganate estimated by a standard solution of 
hyposulphide of soda. The portion to which free acid was added 
gave the oxygen required to oxidize the decomposed and easily 
decomposable organic matter ; the second portion gave the 
oxygen required by the decomposed organic matter alone, which 
was usually from about one-half to one-third of the whole. 

The following is a summary of the total number of obser- 
vations, analyses, &c., made during the three cruises respec- 
tively : — 





First 
Cruise. 


Second 
Cruise. 


Third 
Cruise. 


Total. 


Specific-gravity determinations . 
Duplicate gas-analyses .... 
Organic-matter tests 


72 

45 

137 


27 

23 

26 


26 
21 
32 


125 

89 

195 



Specific Gravity. — The specific gravity of surface-water was 
found to diminish slightly as land was approached; but the 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 505 

average of thirty- two observations upon water at a sufficient 
distance from land to be unaffected by local disturbances was 
1-02779, the maximum being 1-0284 and the minimum 1-0270. 

It was almost always noticed that, during a high wind, the 
specific gravity of surface-water was above the average. 

The average of thirty observations upon the specific gravity 
of intermediate water was 1*0275, the maximum being 1*0281 
and the minimum 1*0272. 

The specific gravity of bottom-waters at depths varying 
from 77 to 2,090 fathoms, deduced from an average of forty- 
three observations, was 1*0277, the maximum being 1-0283 and 
the minimum 1*0267. 

It will be noticed that the average specific gravity of bottom- 
water is slightly less than that of surface-water. In several 
instances the specific gravities of surface- and of bottom-waters 
taken at the same place having been compared, that of the 
bottom-water was found to be appreciably less than that of the 
surface-water. Thus — 



And 



At 1425 fathoms' depth (Station 17) it was . . 1'0269 

Surface at the same 1*0280 

At 664 fathoms' depth (Station 26 h) it was . . 1 -0272 

Surface at the same 1 -0280 



According, however, to a series of observations made at the 
same spot (Station 42) at intervals of fifty fathoms, from 50 to 
800, the specific gravity increased with the depth from 1*0272 
at 50 fathoms to 1*0277 at 800 fathoms. 

Several series of specific-gravity observations were made near 
the mouths of rivers and streams ; showing the gradual mixture 
of fresh and salt water, and the floating of lighter portions above 
the denser sea-water, as well as the reverse effect produced by 
the influence of tidal currents. Thus outside Belfast Lough a 
rapid stream of water of specific gravity 1*0270 was found above 
water which, at a depth of seventy-three fathoms, had a specific 
gravity of 1-0265. 

Gases of Sea-water.— The analyses of the gaseous constituents 
of sea- water may be divided into two groups : (1) Analyses of 



506 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. X. 



surface-waters. (2) Analyses of waters below the surface ; and 
these last may be again subdivided into {a) intermediate, and 
(b) bottom-waters. 

The total quantity of dissolved gases in sea-water, whether 
at the surface or below it, was found to average about 2-8 
volumes in 100 volumes of water. 

The average of thirty analyses of surface-waters made during 
the expedition gave the following proportions : — 

Percentage. Proportion. 

Oxygen 25-046 100 

Nitrogen . . . 54-211 216 

Carbonic acid . . . 20'743 80 

100-000 
These were thus distributed over the three cruises, and the 
maxima and minima of each constituent are thus shown : — 





If 


Average per- 
centage. 


Average 
proportion. 


Oxygen. 


Nitrogen. 


Carbonic 
Acid. 




Oxy- 
gen. 


g«^- 1 Acid. 


0. 


K. 


CO2 


Max. 
per 
cent. 


Min 
per 
cent. 


Max. 
per 
cent. 


Min. 
per. 
cent. 


Max. 
per 
cent. 


Min. 
per 
cent. 


First Cruise . 
Second Cruise. 
Third Cruise . 


19 
2 
9 


24-47 
31-33 
24 86 


52-95 22-58 
54-85 ' 13-82 
56-73 18-41 


100 
100 
100 


216 
175 
228 


92 
44 
74 


28-78 
37-10 
45-28 


1960 
25-56 
13-98 


62-95 
59-63 
68-67 


46-35 
50-07 
41-42 


32-0 

24-37 

27-14 


12-72 
3-27 
5-64 



It is interesting to remark that surface-water contains a 
greater quantity of oxygen and a less quantity of carbonic acid 
during the prevalence of strong wind. The following is an 
average of five analyses made under such conditions : — 





Per cent. 


Proportion. 


General average. 


c Oxygen . . . 

5 s Nitrogen . . 

( Carbonic acid . 


. 29-10 


100 


25-046 100 


. 52-87 


182 


54-211 216 


. 18-03 


62 


20-743 83 



In the two cases which presented the remarkable small 
minima of carbonic acid with a great excess of oxygen, the 
water had been accidentally taken from immediately abaft 
the paddles, where it had been subject to violent agitation 
in contact with air. 



CHAP. X.] 



CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 



507 



Of water at various depths beneath the surface, fifty-nine 
analyses were made. Those in the first cruise, twenty-six 
in number, were cliiefly from bottom-water at depths from 
25 to 1,476 fathoms. In the second cruise the twenty-one 
analyses chiefly belonged to two series, — the first of samples 
taken at intervals of 250 fathoms, from 2,090 to 250 fathoms 
inclusive; and the second of samples taken at intervals 
of fifty fathoms from 862 to 400 fathoms inclusive. In the 
third cruise twelve analyses were made, — eight of bottom-water, 
of which one-half were in the "cold area," and four at inter- 
mediate depths. 

The general average of the fifty-nine analyses of water taken 
below the surface gives :— 

Percentage. Proportion. 

Oxygen 20-568 100 

Nitrogen 52*240 254 

Carbonic acid . . . . 27'192 132 



I 



100-000 
It will be seen from this that while the quantity of nitrogen 
is only 1*97 per cent, less than in surface-water, the quantity of 
oxygen is diminished by 4*48 per cent., and the quantity of 
carbonic acid increased by 6*45 per cent. This difference is 
greater if bottom- waters only are compared with surface-waters. 





30 Surface. 


24 Ixitermediate. 


36 Bottom. 


Per cent. 


Proportion. 


Per cent. 


Proportion. 


Per cent. 


Propor- 
tion. 


Oxygen . . . 
Nitrogen . . . 
Carbonic acid . 


25-05 
54-21 
20-74 


100 

216 

83 


22-03 
61-82 
26-15 


100 
235 
119 


19-53 
52-60 

27-87 


100 
261 
143 


100-00 


1 00*00 ^ 


100-00 



The two series of analyses, before referred to, performed 
during the second cruise upon intermediate waters at successive 
depths over the same spot, both show a regular increase of the 



508 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

carbonic acid and diminution of the oxygen, as the depth 
increases, the percentage of nitrogen varying but slightly. 

These general results appear to show that the oxygen dimi- 
nishes and the carbonic acid increases with the depth until the 
bottom is reached ; but that at the bottom, whatever the depth 
from the surface, the proportions of carbonic acid and of oxygen 
do not conform to this law, bottom-water at a comparatively 
small depth often containing as much carbonic acid and as little 
oxygen as intermediate water at a greater depth. No instance 
occurred during the first two cruises in which (where samples 
of surface and intermediate or bottom-waters were taken at the 
same place) the quantity of carbonic acid was less and of 
oxygen greater than at the surface ; the only exception occurred 
in the third cruise, at a place where, it is believed, currents of 
water were meeting. 

It was frequently noticed that a large percentage of carbonic 
acid in bottom-water was accompanied by an abundance of 
animal life, as shown by the dredge ; and that where the dredge- 
results were barren, the quantity of carbonic acid was much 
smaller. The greatest percentage of carbonic acid ever found 
was accompanied by an abundance of life; while at a short 
distance (62 fathoms) above the bottom, the proportion of car- 
bonic acid was conformable to the law of variation with depth 
before referred to : — 



Bottom, 862 fms. 

Oxygen 17"22 

Nitrogen 34-50 

Carbonic acid . . . 48*28 



800 fms. 


750 fms. 


17-79 


18-76 


48-46 


49-32 


33-75 


31-92 



100-00 100-00 100-00 

The lowest percentage of carbonic acid (7"93) ever found in 
bottom-water, occurring at a depth of 362 fathoms, was ac- 
companied by a " very bad haul." 

In crossing the wide channel from the north-west of Ireland 
towards Eockall, where the water for some distance is over 
1,000 fathoms depth, so that the other circumstances varied very 
little, if at all, the proportion of carbonic acid appeared to vary 
with the dredge-results ; so that the analyst ventured to predict 



I 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUirr OF THE CHALK. 509 

whether the collection would be good or not before the dredge 
came to the surface — drawing his inference from the results of 
his analyses of the gases of the bottom- water. In each case 
his prediction was justified by the result. 





Station 17. 


Station 19. 


Station 20. 


Station 21. 




1,425 fms. 


1,360 fms. 


1,443 fms. 


1,476 fms. 


Oxygen . . . 


. 16-14 


17-92 


21-34 


16:68 


Nitrogen . . . 


. 48-78 


45-88 


47-51 


43-46 


Carbonic aeid . 


. 35-07 


36-20 


31-15 


39-86 




100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 




Good haul. 


Good haul. 


Bad haul. 


Good haul. 



In the analyses made of the water in the cold area, and 
generally in the third cruise, there appears, as might be 
expected from the various currents, &c., a greater variation in 
the results than in the other series. In the bottom and inter- 
mediate waters the nitrogen appears to be rather in excess of 
the average, and the carbonic acid has a large range of varia- 
tion — from 7*58 per cent, at Station 47 (540 fathoms, temp. 
43°-8) to 45-79 per cent, at Station 52 (384 fathoms, 30°-6 
Fahr.). The average of the surface-waters is much the same as 
in the other parts of the cruise. 

It may be worth notice that in localities where the greatest 
depth did not exceed 150 fathoms, the results of the gas-analysis 
of bottom- and surface-water were frequently so nearly the same, 
whatever the amount of animal life on the bottom, as to lead 
to the supposition that there might be at that limit a sufficient 
circulation, either of the particles of the water itself or of the 
gases dissolved in it, to keep the gaseous constitution alike 
throughout. The coincidence of this depth with the extreme 
depth at which fish are usually found to exist in these seas is 
suggestive. 

Organic matter. — With a view to test the method of analysis 
by permanganate of potash, two or three series of analyses were 
made where fresh and salt water mixed together, as in Killibegs 
Harbour, Donegal Bay, &c. ; and the results in all cases justified 
the expectation formed, that the amount of permanganate was 
an index of the comparative purity of the water, both as regards 
the " decomposed " and the '' decomposable " organic matter. 



510 



THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. 



[chap. X. 



Disregardiug the above series, a total of 134 experiments were 
made upon sea-water, which may be thus divided : — 



56 upon surface-water, 

18 „ intermediate water, 



60 



134 



bottom- water, 



during the first and third cruises. 

The results are given in the quantity of oxygen in fractions 
of a gramme required to oxidize tlie organic matter in a litre of 
water. 

Average of 56 analyses of surface-water : — 



No. 

28. Decomposed . 
28. Decomposable 

Decomposed . . . 

Decomposable . . 

Total . . . 



0-00025 
0-00070 



Total 0-00095. 



Maximum. 
0-00094 
0- 00100 
0-00194 



Minimum. 
0-000>)0 
0-00000 

o-ooooo 



4 cases. 
1 case. 
1 case. 



Average of 18 analyses of intermediate water : — 

} Total 0-00039. 



No. 

9. Decomposed . 
9. Decomposable. 



0-00005 
0-00034 



In 7 out of 9 there was no " decomposed " organic matter ; 
and in 3 out of 9 there was no organic matter at all, as indi- 
cated by this test. 

In this series the analyses of the observations made during 
the second cruise are not included, as the calculations have 
been differently made. 

Average of 60 analyses of bottom-w^ater : — 



i 



No. 

26. Decomposed . . . 0-00047 \ 
34. Decomposable. . . 0-00041 S 

Maximum. 



Total 0-00088 



Decomposed 
Decomposable 
Total 



0-00105 
0-00148 
0-00253 



Minimum. 
0-00000 
0-00000 
0-00000 



2 cases. 
1 case. 
1 case. 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 511 

These figures appear to show (1) that intermediate waters are 
more free from organic contamination than either surface- or 
bottom- waters, as might be expected from the comparative 
absence of animal life in these waters ; (2) that the total absence 
of organic matter is least frequent in bottom-waters, and most 
frequent in intermediate waters, surface-waters occupying a 
middle place in this respect; and (3) that there is not much 
difference between bottom- and surface-waters, either in the total 
quantity of organic contamination or in the relative propor- 
tions of the " decomposed " and " easily decomposable " organic 
matter. 

It may be worth notice that when the bottom-water from 
great depths was muddy, tests made before and after filtration 
showed that some of the organic matter was removed by this 
operation. 



APPENDIX B. 

Results of the Analyses of Eight Samples of Sea-Water col- 
lected during the Third Cruise of the ' Porcupine' By Dr. 
Frankland, F.E.S. 

Royal College of Chemistry, 
November I5th, 1869. 

Dear Dr. Carpenter, — Herewith I enclose results of analyses 
of the samples of sea-water collected during your recent cruise 
in the ' Porcupine.' 

I shall not attempt to draw any general conclusions from these 
results; your own intimate knowledge of the circumstances 
under which the different samples were collected will enable you 
to do this much better than I. 

There is, however, one point which is highly remarkable, and 
to which I would draw your attention ; it is the large amount of 
very highly nitrogenized organic matter contained in most of 



512 TEE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

the samples, as shown of the determinations of organic 
carbon and organic nitrogen, and the proportion of organic 
carbon to organic nitrogen. For the purposes of comparison, I 
have appended the results of analyses of Thames-water and of 
the water of Loch Katrine, the former representing probably 
about a fair average of the proportion of organic nitrogen 
reaching the sea in the rivers of this country, but being pre- 
sumably considerably greater than that contributed by rivers in 
other parts of the world. If this be so, it follows either that 
soluble nitrogenous organic matter is being generated from inor- 
ganic materials in the sea, or that this matter is undergoing con- 
centration by the evaporation of the ocean, — the rivers and 
streams continually furnishing additional quantities whilst the 
water evaporated takes none away. 

The amounts of carbonate of lime given in the table are ob- 
tained by adding the number three (representing the solubility of 
carbonate of lime in pure water) to the temporary hardness which 
denotes the carbonate of lime thrown down on boiling. As the 
determination of temporary hardness in water containing so 
much saline matter is not very accurate, the numbers in the 
columns headed ' Temporary Hardness ' and * Carbonate of Lime ' 
must only be regarded as rough approximations to the truth ; 
moreover, a small proportion of carbonate of magnesia is mixed 
with the carbonate of lime and estimated with it. 

In all their peculiar features these analytical results agree 
with those which I have previously obtained from numerous 
samples of sea-water collected by myself off Worthing and 
Hastings. 

Yours very truly, 

E. Fkankland. 



CHAP. X.] 



CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 



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514 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 



APPENDIX C. 

Notes on Specimens of the Bottom collected during the First 
Cruise of the 'Porcupine' in 1869. By David Foebes, F.RS. 

Atlantic Mud contained in a small bottle marked * Soundings 
No. 20, 1,443 fathoms.' 

A complete analysis of this sample shows its chemical com- 
position to he as follows : — 

Carbonate of lime 50"12 

Alumina ^ (' soluble in acids ') 1'33 

Sesquioxide of iron (' soluble in acids ') . . . 2'17 

Silica (in a soluble condition) 5*04 

Fine insoluble gritty sand (rock debris) . . . 2677 

Water 2-90 

Organic matter 4*19 

Chloride of sodium and other soluble salts . . 7*48 

100-00 

If we compare the chemical composition as above with that 
of ordinary chalk, which consists all but entirely of carbonate 
of lime, and seldom contains more than from 2 to 4 per cent, 
of foreign matter (clay, silica, &c.), it w^ill be seen that it differs 
chiefly in containing so very large an amount of rock-matter 
in a fine state of division. If we subtract the water, organic 
matter, and marine salts, which would probably in greatest 
part be removed before such mud could in process of ages be 
converted into solid rock, even then the amount of carbonate 
of lime or pure chalk would not be more than at highest some 
60 per cent, of the mass. 

As such deposits must naturally be expected to vary greatly 
in mechanical character and chemical composition, it would be 

^ With phosphoric acid. 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 515 

premature to generalize as to the actual nature of the deposits 
now in course of formation in the depths of the Atlantic, before 
a careful examination had been made of a series of such speci- 
mens from different localities. The soluble silica is principally 
from silicious organisms. 

As regards the probable origin of the pebbles and gravel 
found in the various dredgings, it will be at once seen, from 
the description, that they consist principally of fragments of vol- 
canic rocks and crystalline schists. The former of these have 
in all probability come from Iceland or Jan Mayen ; whilst the 
latter, associated as they are with small fragments of grey and 
somewhat altered calcareous rock, would appear to have pro- 
ceeded from the north-west coast of Ireland, where the rocks 
are quite identical in mineral character. The north of Scotland 
and its islands also contain similar rocks ; but, without being 
at all positive on this head, I am rather inclined to the opinion 
that they have been derived from Ireland, and not necessarily 
connected with any glacial phenomena, believing that their 
presence may be accounted for by the ordinary action of marine 
I currents. 

I Pebbles from 1,215 Fathoms (Station 28). 

The stones were all subangular, the edges being all more or 

less worn or altogether rounded off. The specimens were thirty- 

y ' eight in number, and upon examination were found to consist 

' of— 

5 Horblende schist ; the largest of these (which also was the 

largest in size of the entire series) weighed 421 grains (| 

of an ounce), was extremely compact, and was composed 

of black hornblende, dirty-coloured quartz, and some 



garnet. 



2 Mica schist; quartz with mica, the largest weighing 20 

grains. 
5 Grey pretty compact limestone, the largest being 7 grains 

in weight. 
2 Fragments (showing the cleavage faces rounded off on 

edges) of orthoclase (potash felspar), evidently derived 
LL 2 



516 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap. x. 

from granite ; the largest of the two fragments weighed 
15 grains. 
5 Quartz, milky in colour or colourless ; the largest of these 
weighed 90f grains, and showed evidence of having been 
derived from the quartz-veins so common in clay-slate. 
19 Fragments of true volcanic lava, most of which were very 
— light and scoriaceous (vesicular), although some small 
38 ones were compact and crystalline; and in these the 
minerals augite, olivine, and glassy felspar (Sanadine) 
could be distinctly recognized. Among these were frag- 
ments of trachytic, trachydoleritic, andpyroxenic (basaltic) 
lavas, quite similar to those of Iceland or Jan Mayen 
of the present period, from which they had probably 
been derived. 

Gravel from 1,443 Fathoms (Station 20). 

This sample of gravel consisted of 718 subangular fragments, 
in general not above from :i to J grain in weight, with occasion- 
ally some of a little greater size ; but the most considerable of 
all (a fragment of mica schist) only weighed 3 grains. They 
consisted of: — 

3 Fragments of orthoclase felspar. 

4 Bituminous or carbonaceous shale (? if not accidental). 

5 Fragments of shell (undistinguishable species). 

4 Granite, containing quartz, orthoclase, and muscovite. 
15 Grey compact limestone. 
69 Quartzose mica schist. 
317 Hornblende schist; sometimes containing garnets. 
273 Quartzite fragments, with a very few fragments of clenr 
quartz. The majority of the pieces being of a dirty 
colour, often cemented together, were evidently the debris 
of quartzite rocks or beds of indurated sandstone, and 
not from granite. 
28 Black compact rock, containing augite, most probably a 

volcanic basalt. 

718 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 517 

Fkom 1,263 Fathoms (Station 22). 

A single rounded pebble, weighing 18 grains, chiefly quartz, 
with a little of a black mineral hornblende or tourmaline, prob- 
ably from a metamorphic schist. 

Gravel fkom 1,366 Fathoms (Station l^a). 

Consisted of 51 small subangular pieces of rock, all less than 
J grain in weight, excepting only one fragment (angular) of 
quartz, which weighed 2 grains ; they consisted of — 

19 Fragments of quartz, all of which appeared to have pro- 
ceeded from the disintegi'ation of crystalline schists, and 
not from granite. 

9 Hornblende schist. 

8 Mica schist. 

7 Loose, dirty-white tufaceous limestane. 

3 Small fragments of augite or tourmaline (? which). 
1 Fragment of quartz, with tourmaline. 

4 Fragments of indistinct and uncertain character. 

51 

Geavel fkom 1,476 Fathoms (Station 21). 

Six small subangular fragments, the largest of which did not 
exceed two grains in weight ; they were respectively — 

1 Yellow quartz. 

1 Quartzose chlorite schist. 

3 Mica schist. 

1 Small fragment, apparently of volcanic lava. 

6 

The specimen from Rockall is not a fragment of any normal 
rock, but is only a brecciaform aggregate, principally consisting 
of quartz, felspar, and crystals of green hornblende, held to- 
gether by a silicious cement. It has evidently been broken 
from the projecting edge of a fault or vein lissure ; and although 
it cannot settle the matter defiilitely as to what rocks this islet 
may really be composed of, it would indicate that it most 



518 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA [chap. x. 

probably is a mass of hornblendic gneiss or schist, and certainly 
not of true volcanic origin. I may mention that it does not at all 
resemble any of the fragments found in the deep-sea dredgings 
which I have as yet examined. 



APPENDIX D. 

Note on the Carhanic Acid contained in Sea-water. By John 
Young Buchanan, M.A., Chemist to the 'Challenger' 
Expedition. 

At a meeting ^ of the Chemical Society last summer. Dr. 
Hinily mentioned that Dr. Jacobsen, of Kiel, had found that 
carbonic acid is only very imperfectly separated from sea-water 
by boiling in vacuo. This was confirmed by Dr. Jacobsen him- 
self in a letter to Natm^e of August 8, 1872. Almost at the 
very same time the German North Sea Expedition arrived in 
Leith, when I had the privilege of hearing the confirmation of 
it from his own mouth, as well as his conjecture that it was 
probably owing to the presence of salts with water of hal- 
hydration, such as sulphate of magnesia, that the cai'bonic acid 
was retained with such vigour. 

Having assured myself by experiment that, as a matter of 
fact, carbonic acid is retained by sea-water wdth considerable 
energy, the last traces of it having scarcely disappeared before 
the contents of the retort were reduced to dryness, I set on foot 
a series of analytical experiments, so as to determine which of 
the salts it was, whose presence was the cause of the anomaly in 
question. The result of these experiments was shortly this: 
Distilled water, solution of chloride of sodium and solution 
of chloride of magnesium, each saturated with carbonic acid, 
behaved on distillation alike, giving off the whole of their car- 
bonic acid in the first eighth of the distillate. Solutions, however, 
of sulphate of magnesia and of sulphate of lime behaved like 

^ Chemical Society Journal, 1872, p. 455. 



I 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 519 

the others at first, giving off the surplus carbonic acid dissolved 
in the first eighth of the distillate. The amount of carbonic acid 
coming off then fell very low, gradually increasing, however, 
until a half had been distilled over, when the amount coming 
off again reached a maximum, the quantity then diminishing^ 
but rarely entirely disappearing as the contents of the retort 
approached dryness. It is clear, then, that in the sulphates of 
magnesia and lime we have an agent capable of retaining car- 
bonic acid in the way in which we see it in sea-water ; whether 
there may be other agents present, capable of doing the same 
work, will be brought lo light when the subject has been more 
fully investigated. An independent set of experiments were 
made on the variation with pressure of the coefficient of ab- 
sorption for carbonic acid of a solution containing 1'23 per cent, 
of crystallized sulphate of magnesia, kept at a constant tem- 
perature of 11" C. The result was, that at 610 mm. pressure the 
sulphate of magnesia solution dissolved sensibly the same quan- 
tity of carbonic acid as the same volume of water would have 
done ; in other words, their coefficients of absorption were iden- 
tical. Below 610 mm. that of the saline solution was the 
greater; above 610 mm. the reverse was the case. The curve, 
however, is not a straight line, and it appears to cut that of 
water again at a pressure of about 800 mm. 

The facts above related naturally suggefct to the chemist the 
question, what is the body formed when sulphate of magnesia 
and carbonic acid meet each other in solution ? 

It is clear that, besides the carbonic acid dissolved, there is 
some retained by a stronger bond, and which is only liberated 
when the concentration has proceeded a certain distance. Is 
the decomposition caused by the loss of water, or by the rise of 
boiling-point ? The difference between the boiling-jjoints of the 
solution, when it has just ceased to give off the merely dissolved 
carbonic acid, and when the retained gas is being given off in 
greatest quantity, does not exceed 1° C. ; and it is difficult to 
believe that the compound should remain practically intact at 
101° and decompose rapidly at 102°. Again, if the compound 
is decomposed by the water alone, we should expect, that the 



520 THE DEPTHS OF THE SEA. [chap, x- 

more dilute the solution, the easier would be the decomposition. 
Adopting Erlenmeyer's view of the position of the halhydration 
water in sulphate of magnesia (HO — Mg — — SOg — OH), we 
might suppose the carbonic acid simply to replace the molecule 

of water, thus — Mg \r\ZLrn /^ '> ^^^ ^^ would be contrary to 

all analogy for such a body to be more stable in dilute than 
in moderately concentrated solutions of the same temperature. 
If, on the other hand, we suppose the COg to interpose itself 
between the Mg and the basic HO, we have a body of this form : 
HO — CO — — Mg — — SO2 — OH. It is conceivable that 
such a body would in th« process of concentration become dehy- 

/Q Qr\ \ 

drated, when the anhydrous salt Mgx^ roV^ would be 

formed, which would then split up into COg and MgSO^. Assuming 
now that the body formed has this constitution, it is evident that, 
for a given mixture of sulphate of magnesia, water and carbonic 
acid, the amount of the above body formed will be a function 
of the temperature, the pressure and the duration of their 
action upon one another. Now, at great depths in the sea, where 
atmospheric influences are insensible, these conditions are most 
completely fulfilled. The temperature is low, the pressure high, 
and the time practically unlimited. Sea-water contains on an 
average about two grammes of crystallized sulphate of magnesia 
in the litre; and if the reaction were complete, the two grammes 
of sulphate of magnesia, or one litre of sea-water, would absorb 
181 '4 cubic centimetres of carbonic acid. Supposing only 
one-fifth part of the sulphate of magnesia to be thus saturated 
with carbonic acid, we have provision in one litre of sea- 
water for the removal of oVer 36 cubic centimetres of car- 
bonic acid. We have thus in the sulphates (for the lime-salt 
appears to act even more energetically) an agent which in 
the ocean depths performs one of the two important functions 
of plants in shallow waters and in the air, namely, the removal 
of the carbonic acid eliminated by the animals; the task of 
replenishing the oxygen supply is accomplished by the system 
of ocean circulation. Moreover, it would be difficult to conceive 



CHAP. X.] CONTINUITY OF THE CHALK. 521 

circumstances more favourable to the formation of this body than 
those which exist at the bottom of the ocean. The temperature 
is generally little over that of melting ice ; the pressure often 
exceeds several hundred atmospheres ; whilst the carbonic acid, 
being produced gradually, and coming in statu nascendis in con- 
tact with the saline solution, is in the condition most favourable 
for easily entering into chemical combination. 

The amount of this salt formed depending on the pressure, it 
is evident that, on bringing up a sample of water from a great 
depth, a part of the carbonic acid, which was bound before, will 
become free under the atmospheric pressure ; and, moreover, as 
the amount decomposed varies with the time, it is evident that 
the amount of free carbonic acid, obtained by boiling m vacuo, 
will vary with the depths from which the sample was obtained, 
with the time it stands before boiling, with the temperature to 
which it is exposed during boiling, and with the duration of that 
operation. Hence it is easy to see how, assuming the body 
above msntioned to have been formed. Dr. Jacobsen found that 
the quantity of carbonic acid obtained by boiling in vacuo was 
no measure of the amount actually present, and that even 
portions of the same sample gave discordant results. 

It will be seen from the above remarks that solutions of car- 
bonic acid in sea-water and in blood resemble each other in 
almost every particular ; only in the latter the retaining body is 
phosphate of soda, whilst in the former it is sulphate of mag- 
nesia, both of which contain constitutional water. The physical 
conditions, under which carbonic acid is eliminated from the 
blood and from sea-water, are also very similar. 

In the investigation of the behaviour of carbonic acid and of 
other gases to saline solutions, there is a practically unlimited 
field for useful research. The determination of the absorption 
coefficients of sulphate of magnesia solution for carbonic acid 
alone, under varying conditions of temperature, pressure, con- 
centration, and duration of action, would afford interesting and 
profitable occupation for more than one chemist. 



INDEX. 



Acanthometrina, 98. 

jii(/a oiasuta, 127. 

Mgeaxi Sea, MoUusca and Radiata of, 5. 

Agassiz, Alexander, Echinoderm Fauna 

on the two sides of the Isthmus of 

Panama^ 13 ; on Echinocyaimis, 111, 

Til. 
Allman, Professor, F.R.S., list of animal 

forms found at great depths, 27. 
A llopora ocidina, 169, 170, 432. 
Amathia carpenteri, 175. 
Amphidetus cordatiis, 459. 
Amphihelia profunda — A. oculata — A. 

miocemca — A. atlantica — A. ornata, 

169. 
Amp/dura abyssicola, 123. 
Aiitedon celticus, 76 ; A. escrichtii—A. 

sarsii, 124. 
Ajihrocallistes hocagei, 95. 
Archaster hifrons, 122 ; A. vexillifer, 150 ; 

A. androineda, 150; A. parelii, 456; 

A. tenuispimis, 456, 
ArcturtLS baffini, 127, 128. 
Askonema setuhalense, 429. 
Asterophyton linkii, 19. 
Astrwhiza limicola, 75, 
Atavism, 9. 
Atretia gnomon, 90. 



B. 



Bache, Professor A. D., Superintendent 

U.S. Coast Survey, on the Gulf-stream, 

386. 
Bathyhms haechelii, 412, 
Bathycrinus gracilis, 450, 453. 
Bothy ptihmi carpenteri, 77. 
Berryman, Lieutenant, U.S.N., deep-sea 

soundings in the U.S. brig 'Dolphin,' 

227-229. 
Bocage, Professor Barboza du, Director 

of the Nat. Hist. Museum, Lisbon, 

275 ; on Hyalonenm, 425. 
Bowerbank, Dr., F.R.S., on Hyaloiiema, 

425. 



Brandt, Dr., on Hyalonema, 423. 

Brisinga coronata, 67, 118 ; B. endeca- 
cneiuos, 66, 99, 118 ; description of, by 
Absjornsen, P. Chr., 68. 

Brissopsis lyrlfera, 118, 457, 459. 

Brooke, J. M., U.S.N., sounding appa- 
ratus, 21, 211, 213. 

Browning, Lieutenant, 83. 

Buccinopsis striata, 464. 

Buchanan, John Young, M.A., on the 
Carbonic Acid contained in Sea- water, 
518, 521. 

Buff, Professor Henry, on ocean cur- 
rents, 368 ; on the Gulf-stream, 389. 



C. 

Calver, Captain, skill in conducting 
dredging operations, 83 ; serial sound- 
ings, 309. 

Calveria hystrix, 156, 459 ; C. fenestrata, 
159, 182, 459. 

Caprella spinosissima, 126. 

Carpenter, Dr. WiUiam B., F.R.S., 3 ; 
Preliminary Report of the Dredging 
Operations in the 'Lightning,' 133; 
Temperature Observations in the Me- 
diterranean, 326 ; Theory of Ocean 
Currents, 368, 369 ; Observations on 
the currents iji the Strait of Gibraltar, 
373 ; on the Gulf -stream, 390, 

Carpenter, W. Laiat, B.A., B.Sc, 85; 
Analysis of Sea-\yater, 498, 502-51L 

Ca,ryophyllia borealis, 27, 431. 

Ceratocyathus ornatus, 431. 

Cerithium granosum, 463, 

Chalk, 409 ; analysis of, 469. 

Chimmo, W,, Commander R,N,, 230;: 
temperatures of the Atlantic, 359. 

Choanites, 494. 

Chondrocladia virgata, 187. 

Cidaris papillata, 76 ; C. hystrix, 116, 
193, 459 ; C. affinis, 193, 457, 459. 

Cladorhiza abussicola, 112. 
H3, 



CoccoUths, 413. 
Coccospheres, 414. 
Coelosphcera tvbifex, 485, 



524 



INDEX. 



Coralline Zone, 16. 
Crinoidea, 434. 

CroU, James, on ocean currents, 376, 
381. 

D. 

Dcwrydiiim vitreum, 465. 

Darwin, Charles, M.A., F.R.S., 'Origin 
of Species,' 8. 

D'Aubuisson, on deep-sea temperatures, 
360. 

Davis, Captain, R.N., testing thermo- 
meters, 290, 295. 

Dayman. Joseph, Commander R N., 
23, 229, 302 ; temperatures of the 
Atlantic, 359. 

Deep-sea Sounding, 205 ; cup-lead, 210 ; 
Brooke's deep-sea sounding apparatus, 
211, 213 ; the 'Bulldog' sounding- 
machine, 215 ; the ' Fitzgerald ' sound- 
ing machine. 217 ; the 'Hydra ' sound- 
ing-machine, 218 ; donkey-engine, 221 ; 
derricks, 221 ; the 'accumulator,' 
222 ; observed rate of descent of the 
sounding instrument, 223 ; Massey's 
sounding-machine, 225. 

Deep-sea Temperature, doctrine of, 35 ; 
distribution of heat in the sea, 36 ; 
cold wall, 37 ; minimum temperature 
of the sea, 38 ; proximity of warm 
and cold areas, 131 ; great uniformity 
of temperature at all depths in the 
Mediterranean, 191, 285 ; serial 
soundings for temperature, 309-325. 

Depth of the Sea, 1 ; first successful 
dredgings at great depths, 3 ; animal 
forms found at depths of from 70 to 1, 200 
fathoms, 27 ; animal life abundant at 
the bottom of the sea, 31 ; average 
depth of the sea, 31 ; absolute stillness 
at great depths, 37 ; penetration of 
light, 45 ; abundance of the genera 
Astropecten and Archaster, 121. 
Despretz, M., researches on the maxi- 
mum density of saline solutions, 35 ; 
temperature of greatest density of sea- 
water, 307. 
DoTjpichus thomsoni, 174. 
Dredging Apparatus : Mliller's dredge, 
239 ; Ball's dredge, 240 ; deep-sea 
dredges, 246 ; derrick, 247 ; accumu- 
lator, 247 ; Aunt Sallies, 249 ; dredge- 
rope, 249 ; dredging in shallow water, 
244, 245 ; dredging in deep water, 
253 ; hempen tangles, 256, 257 ; empty- 
ing the dredge, 259 ; dredging-sieves, 
260. 
Dredging Committee, members of, 265 ; 

Belfast Dredging Committee, 266. 
Dredging Operations, on the coast of Ire- 
land, 266 ; of England, 266 ; of Shet- 
land and the Hebrides, 266; of Por- 
tugal and the Mediterranean, 267 ; of 
the North-east Atlantic, 267 ; of Nor- 
way, Sweden, and Denmark, 268 ; of 



the Adiiatic, 268; of Algeria, 268; 

Spitzbergen, 269 ; Malta, 27(> ; Finland 

and Loffoten Islands, 270 ; United 

States, 277. 
Dredging Paper, 281. 
Duncan, Professor P. Martin, F.R.S., on 

deep-sea corals, 431. 

E. 

Echinocucumis typica, 125, 175; Echino- 
cyamus angulatus, 117, 459 ; Echino- 
thuridse, wide distribution of, 171 ; 
Echinus elegans, 76, 459 ; E. escu- 
leyitus, 458 ; E.jlemingii, 116, 458 ; E. 
melo, 459 ; E. microstoma, 171, 459 ; 
E. norvegicus, 76, 116, 459 ; E. rari- 
spina, 459 ; E. rarituhercidatus, 116. 

Ethitsa gramUata, 176. 

Euplectella, 73. 

Eusirus cuspidatus, 125, 126. 

Evolution, doctrine of, 9. 



Findlay, A. G., on the Gulf-stream, 390. 

Fishes, new species of, 130. 

Flahellum clistinctum, 432. 

Florida, fauna of the Strait of, 171. 

Foraminifera, 115, 166, 415, 478. 

Forbes, David, F.R.S., analysis of the 
white chalk of Shoreham, 469 ; of the 
Folkestone grey chalk, 469 ; on speci- 
mens of Atlantic mud, 514-518. 

Forbes, Edward, F.R.S., 4; on the dis- 
tribution of marine forms, 6 ; on the 
immutability of species, 6 ; specific 
centres of distribution, 7 ; the law of 
representation, 8, 13 ; zones of depth, 
15 ; representative forms, 17 ; inverted 
analogy between the distribution of 
the fauna and flora of the land and of 
the sea, 44 ; on dredging, 266. 

Fossil Echinidse, 162. 

Frankland, Dr., F.R.S., analysis of sea- 
water, 611-513. 

Eusus sarsi, 464. 

G. 

Geryon iridevs, 88. 

Glohigerina bulloides, 22, 416. 

Gonoplax rhomboides, 87. 

Goodsir, Henry, deep dredging in Davis' 

Strait, 21. 
Gray, Dr. John Edward, F.R.S., on 

Hyalonema, ^•1'2,. 
Gulf-stream, 286, 356 ; description of, 

379; progress and extension of, through 

the North Atlantic, 385. 



H. 

Haeckel, Professor Ernst, 9 ; bioloifical 

studies, 408. 
Halichondridae, 74. 



INDEX. 



525 



Hall, Marshall, F.G.S., cruise of the 
' Noma,' 279. 

Herschel, Sir John F. W., the doctrine 
of a constant temperature of 4^ C. at 
great depths, 35 ; letter to Dr. Car- 
penter, 378 ; description of the Gulf- 
stream, 381. 

Hexactinellidae, 70, 416. 

Holothuria ecalcarea, 125. 

Holtenia carpenteri, 71 ; wide distribu- 
tion of, 75, 101, 167, 417, 427. 

Humboldt, Baron von, on deep-sea tem- 
peratures, 860. 

Hunter, John, M. A.., F.C.S., 85 ; analysis 

- of sea-water, 497. 

Huxley, Professor T. H., Sec R.S., on life 
at great depths, 23 ; on the chalk-mud 
of the Atlantic, 496. 
, Hi/alonema, 73, 101, 167, 276, 417, 422, 
428 ; H. lusitanicum, 420, 421 ; H. 
sieholdi, 422. 

Hymoiaster pellucidus, 120. 



I. 



Inskip, Staff-Commander, 83. 
Isthmus of Panama, Echinoderm Fauna 
on the two sides of, 13. 



J. 



Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, F.R.S., distribution 
of marine mollusca, 40 ; first cruise of 
the 'Porcupine,' 84; dredging off the 
south coast of Ireland, 121 ; fourth 
cruise of the 'Porcupine,' 178, 267, 
278, 418, 428 ; temperature observa- 
tions, 325. 

Jenkin, Professor Fleeming, C.E., F.R.S., 

cable between Sardinia and Bona, 26 ; 

. first absolute proof of the existence of 

highly-organized animals at depths of 

upveards of 1,00[) fathoms, 30. 



ing in deep water, 64 ; the * cold area,' 
69 ; the ' warm area,' 70 ; Stornoway, 
76 ; general results of the cruise, 78. 

Littoral Zone, 15. 

Liluola, 115, 194. 

Lophohelia prolifera, 76, 169, 432. 

Loven, Professor, additions to the know- 
ledge of marine zoology, 267; on bathy- 
metrical distribution ;; of submarine 
life, 269. 

Lyell, Sir Charles, Bart., F.R.S., on the 
cretaceous period, 472 ; on the con- 
tinuity of the chalk, 476, 491. 

Lyman, Theodore, memoirs in the 'Bul- 
letin of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology,' 277. 



M. 



M'Clintock, Admiral Pir Leopold, voyag3 
of the ' Bulldog,' 24. 

Maury, M. F., LL.D., Captain U.S.N., 
23 ; theory of ocean currents, 368 ; on 
the Gulf-stream, 383. 

May, Staff-Commander, cruise of the 
' Lightning,' 57, 304. 

Mean annual temperatures : Hebrides 
362; Labrador, 362; Bergen, 363 
Tobolsk, 363 ; Fteroe Islands, 363 
Falkland Islands, 363 ; Dublin, 363 
Port Famine, 363 ; HaUfax, 363 ; Bos- 
ton, 363. 

* Mercury,' cruise of the, 233. 

Milne-Edwards, Alphonse, list of the 
animals found on the Mediterranean 
cable from the depth of 1,100 fathoms. 
28, 268. 

Mohn, Professor H., on surface and deep- 
sea temperatures on the west coast of 
Norway, 396. 

Muller, Otho Frederick, 237 ; his dredge, 
239. 

Munida, 76, 161. 



N. 



I 



K, 



Kent, W. Saville. F.L.S., the 'Noma' 
expedition, 75, 279 ; on Aslonevia setu- 
halense, 429. 

Kophohelenimoti mulleri, 75. 

Korethraster hispidus, 119. 



Laminarian Zone, 15, 

Ldtirus alhns, 464. 

Laughton, J. K., M.A., on ocean cur- 
rents, 398. 

Lee, Lieutenant, U.S.N., deep-sea sound- 
ings, 229, 392. 

' Lightning,' cruise of the, 57 ; the Faeroe 
Banks, 60 ; the Fajroe Islands, 61 ; 
"Thor^havn, 61 ; first attempt at dredg- 



Neolampas, 358 ; JV. rosUllalvs, 459. 

Norman, Rev. A. Merle, addition to the 
Shetland fauna, 124 ; preliminary no- 
tice of the Crustacea of the ' Porcupine ' 
Expedition, 1/6 ; Shetland dredgings, 

. 267. 

Nutrition of animals at great depths, 45. 

Nymplion ahyssorum, 129. 

0. 

Oceanic circulation, 79, 284 ; Dr. Car- 
penter's theory of, 372. 

Ophiacantlm spimdosa, 76, 148, 172. 

OpJdocten sericeum,, 76, 123. 

Ophiomushxm lymani, Yll. 

Ophinpeltis aecnrigera, 124. 

OpIiioHcolex pjvrpvrea, 123 ; 0. glaciaUx, 
123. 



526 



INDEX. 



OphioihHx Ivitkeni, 100. 
Orhitolites tenuissinuis, 91, 194. 
Orhdina universa, 23. 

P. 

Pecten hoshjnd, 465. 

Pedicellaster typicus, 456. 

Pentacrmus tcyville-ihonuoni, 186, 443 ; 
P. (uteria, 436 ; P. P. Mulleri, 442. 

Petermann, Dr., on the Galf -stream, 287, 
379, 392. 

Ph^ronema annce, 418. 

Pkormosoma placenta, 171, 459. 

Phosphorescence, 98, 148. 

Pierce, Professor, on the Gulf- stream, 
386. 

Platydia anornioides, 146. 

Pleurouectla lucida, 464, 465. 

Polycystina, 98. 

' Porcupine,' first cruise of the, 82 ; equip- 
ment of the vessel, 83 ; results of the 
first dredging, 86 ; first trial of the 
Miller-Casella thermometers, 88 ; Por- 
cupine Bank, 88 ; trip to Rockall, 89 ; 
second cruise, 93 ; dredging at the 
depth of 2,435 fathoms, 95 ; return to 
Belfast, 100 ; third crui^,e, 101 ; Bolte- 
nia ground, 104 ; the hempen tangles, 
105 ; Thorshavn, 106 ; discovery of 
Arctic stream, 110 ; Shetland plateau, 
111 ; predominance of the Arctic fauna, 
131 ; fauna of the warm area off the 
north coast of Scotland, 177 ; return 
to Belfast, 178 ; fourth cruise of the 
' Porcupine,' 179 ; cruise in the Medi- 
terranean, 193 ; fauna near the African 
coast, 192 ; Adventure Bank, 192 ; 
Malta, 194 ; temperature soundings 
near Stromboli, 195 ; return to Cowes, 
196. 

Porocidaris piirpurata, 102, 459. 

Pourtales, Count L. F. de, deep-sea dredg- 
ings across the Gulf-stream off the coast 
of Florida, 277. 

I'oitrtalesia j'ffreyd, 103, 457, 459, 489 ; 
P. phiale, 90, 459. 

Predominance of protozoa, 47. 

Preservation of specimens, 261. 

Pressure, conditions of, at great depths, 
32 ; methods of testing the actual pres- 
sure, 34 ; effect of pressure on the 
thermometer, 294. 

Prestwich, Joseph, F.R.S., President of 
the Geological Society : Temperatures 
of the Atlantic, 358 ; on the continuity 
of the chalk, 496. 

Psamniechimis microtuberculahis, 457 ; P' 
miliar is, 459. 

Psoitis squamatus, 125. 

Pteraster militm-is, 171. 

R. 

Rhahdamviina abyssorum, 75. 
Rhizocrimis foffotensis, 76, 124, 447, 451. 



Richards, Rear- Admiral, C.B., F.R.S., 
Hydrographer to the Navy, 3. 

Ross, Sir James Clark, R.N., deep 
dredgings in the Antarctic Sea, 20 ; 
temperature observations, 304. 

Ross, Sir John, voyage of discovery in 
Baffin's Bay, 18 ; machiu o for taking 
up soundings from great depths, 209 ; 
temperature observations during the 
Arctic voyage, 300. 

Rossella velata, 419. 

Royal Society, letter to, from Dr. Car- 
penter, recommending a systematic 
course of deep-sea dredging, 53 ; letter 
from the Secretary of, to the Secretary 
of the Admiralty, 55 ; reply from the 
Admiralty, 56 : (see also 133-141.) 



S. 



Sabine, General Sir Edward, K.C.B., 

extracts from private journal, 18, 300. 
Sars, Professor Michael, list of animals of 

all the invertebrate groups living at a 

depth of 300 to 400 fathoms, 33. 268, 

270, 274. 
Schizaster canaliferns, 459. 
Schmidt, Professor Oscar, on Hexactinel- 

lidffi, 70 ; Cometella, 114, 268, 416. 
Schultze, Professor Max, on Hyalonema, 

425. 
Serjnda, 273. 

Sharks at great depths, 34. 
Shortland, Captain, R.N., temperatures 

of deep water in the Arabian Sea, 359. 
Smith, Toulmin J., on Ventriculites, 482. 
iSolaster furclfer, 119, 456; S. papposas, 

118. 
Spatangus rascJd, 118 ; S. purpureics, 

459. 
Spirorhis, 273. 
Spratt, Captain, R.N., dredging in the 

Mediterranean, 270. 
Steenstrup, Professor, additions to the 

knowledge of marine zoology, 268. 
Stylocordyla horealis, 114. 
Surface-temperature, mode of determin- 
ing the, 287 ; distribution of, in the 

North Atlantic, 362. 



T. 



Tanks for the transportation of living 

fish, 59. 
Telliiia calcarea, 462 ; T. compressa, 464. 
Temperature of the crust of the earth, 

404. 
Terehraiula septata, 130. 
Tliecophm'a semisuberiies, 147 ; T. ibla, 

148. 
Thecopsammia socialis, 433. 
Thermometer, Six's, 288 ; Miller-Casella, 



INDEX. 



527 



291 ; Bregiiet's metallic"*thennometer, 
293 ; Negretti and Zambra's thermo- 
meter, 293. 

Thomson, Sir William, F.K.S., thermo- 
meter in a sealed glass tube, 296. 

Tidphonia agmndformis, 74, 167. 

Toxopneustes brevispinosus, 459. 

Tripylus fragilis, 118, 459. 



V. 



Variation, 9. 

VentHailites simplex, 483 ; outer surface, 

484 ; section of the outer wall, 485, 
Verticordia acuticosiata, 464. 



W. 

Wallace, Alfred Russel, on natural 
selection, 8. 

Waller, Edward, dredging off the South 
coast of Ireland, Hebrides, and Shet- 
land Islands, 121 ; on the fauna of the 
Hebrides, 267. 

Wallich, G. C, M.D., F.L.S., the North 
Atlantic Sea-bed, 24, 271, 302. 

Wright, Professor Perceval, deep dredg- 
ing off the coast of Portugal, 276. 

Z. 

Zone of deep-sea corals, 16. 
Zoroaster fulgens, 153. 



THE END. 



I 



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place it on a basis altogether independent of the ordinary Cartesian 
system, instead of regarding it as only a special form, of Abridged 
Notation. A short chapter on Determinants has been introdt4ced. 

Frost. — Works by Percival Frost, M.A., late Fellow of St. 
John's College, Mathematical Lecturer of King's College, Cam- 
bridge : — 
THE FIRST THREE SECTIONS OF NEWTON'S PRIN- 
CIPIA. With Notes and Illustrations. Also a Collection of 
Problems, principally intended as.Examples of Newton's Methods. 
Second Edition. 8vo. cloth, los. dd. 



SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 



F ro S t — continued. 

The author's principal intention is to explain difficulties which may be 
encountered by the student on first reading the Principia, and to 
illustrate the advantages of a careful study of the methods employed 
by Newton, by showing the extent to which they may be applied in 
the solution of problems ; he has also endeavoured to give assistance 
to the student who is engaged in the study of the higher branches oj 
mathematics, by representing in a geometrical form several of the 
processes employed in the Differential and Integral Calculus, and in 
the analytical investigations of Dynamics. 

, AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE ON CURVE TRACING. 
8vo. 12s. 

The author has written this book under the conviction that the skill 
and power of the young mathematical student, in order to be 
thoroughly available afterwards, ought to be developed in all possible 
directions. The subject which he has chosen presents so many faces, 
pointing in directions towards which the mind of the intended 
mathematiciaft has to radiate, that it would be difficult to find 
another which, with a very limited extent of reading, combines, to 
the same extent, so ?nany valuable hints of methods of calculations 
to be employed hereafter, with so much pleasure in its present use. 
In order to understand the work it is not necessary to have much 
knowledge of what is called Higher Algebra, nor of Algebraical 
Geometry of a higher kind than that which simply relates to the 
Conic Sections. From the study of a work like this, it is believed 
that the student will derive many advantages. Especially he will 
become skilled in making correct approximations to the values of 
quantities, which cannot be found exactly, to any degree of accuracy 
which may be required. 

Frost and Wolstenholme. — a treatise ON SOLID 

GEOMETRY. By Percival Frost, M.A., and the Rev. J. 

Wolstenholme, M.A., Fellow and Assistant Tutor of Christ's 

College. 8vo. cloth. i8j-. 

Intending to make the subject accessible, at least in the earlier portions 
to all classes of students, the authors have endeavoured to explain 
completely all the processes which are most useful in dealing with 
ordinary theorems and problems, thus directing the student to the 
selection of methods which are best adapted to the exigencies of each 
problem. In the more difficult portions of the subject, they have 
consiaered themselves to be addressing a higher class of students ; 



MATHEMATICS. 



and they have there tried to lay a good foundation on which to 
build, if any reader should wish to pursue the science beyond the 
limits to which the work extends. 

Godfray. — Works by Hugh Godfray, M.A., Mathematical 
Lecturer at Pembroke College, Cambridge : — 

A TREATISE ON ASTRONOMY, for the Use of Colleges and 
Schools. 8vo. cloth. \2s. 6d. 

This book embraces all those branches of Astronomy which have, from 
time to time, been recommended by the Cambridge Board of Mathe- 
matical Studies : but by far the larger and easier portion, adapted 
to the first three days of the Examination for Honours, may be read 
by the more advanced pupils in many of our schools. The author's 
aim has been to convey clear and distinct ideas of the celestial phe- 
nomena. ^^ It is a working book," says the Guardian, ^^ taking 
Astronomy in its proper place in the Mathematical Sciences. . . . 
It is a book which is not likely to be got up unintelligently." 

AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE ON THE LUNAR 

THEORY, with a Brief Sketch of the Problem up to the time of 

Newton. Second Edition, revised. Crown 8vo. cloth. 5^, 6^. 

These pages zinll, it is hoped, form an introduction to more recondite 

works. Difficulties have been discussed at considerable length. The 

selection of the method follaived with regard to analytical solutions, 

which is the same as that of Airy, Herschel, etc., was made on 

account of its simplicity ; it is, moreover, the method which has 

obtained in the University of Cambridge. "As an elementary 

treatise and introduction to the subject, we think it may justly claim 

to supersede all former ones." — London, Edinburgh, and Dublin 

Phil. Magazine. 

Green (George).— mathematical papers of the 

LATE GEORGE GREEN, Fellow of Gonville and Caius 

College, Cambridge. Edited by N. M. Ferrers, M.A., Fellow 

and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College. 8vo. 15^. 

The publication of this book may be opportune at present, as several 

of the subjects with which they are directly or indirectly concerned 

have recently been introduced into the course of mathematical 

study at Cambridge. They have also an interest as being the work 

of an almost entirely self-taught mathematical genius. The Papers 



lo SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 

comprise the following : — An Essay on the application of Mathe- 
matical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism — 
On the Laws of the Equilibrium of Fluids analogous to the Electric 
Fluid — On the Determination of the Attractions of Ellipsoids of 
variable Densities — On the Motion of Waves in a variable Canal 
of small depth and width — On the Reflection and Refraction of 
Sound — On the Reflection and Refraction of Light at the Common 
Surface of two Non- Crystallized Media — On the Propagation of 
Light in Crystallized Media — Researches on the Vibrations of Pen- 
dulums in Fluid Media. ^^ It has been for some time recognized 
that Greenes writings are amongst the most valuable mathematical 
productions we possess " — Athenaeum. 

Hemming. — an elementary treatise on the 

DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS. For the 
Use of Colleges and Schools. By G. W. Hemming, M.A., 
Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. Second Edition, with 
Corrections and Additions. 8vo. cloth. 9^-. 

'* There is no book in cotnnion use front which so clear and exact a 
knowledge of the principles of the Calculus can be so readily ob- 
tained.''^ — Literary Gazette. 

Jackson. — geometrical conic sections. An Ele- 
mentary Treatise in which the Conic Sections are defined as the 
Plane Sections of a Cone, and treated by the Method of Projections. 
By J. Stuart Jackson, M.A , late Fellow of Gonville and Caius 
College. Crown 8vo. 4J. 6</. 

This work has been written with a view to give the student the benefit 
of the Method of Projections as applied to the Ellipse and Hyper- 
bola. When this method is admitted into the treatment of Conic 
Sections there are many reasons why they should be defined, not 
with reference to the focus and directrix, but according to the 
original definition from tvhich they have their name, as Plane 
Sections of a Cone. This method is calculated to produce a material 
simplification in the treatment of these curves and to make the proof 
of their properties more easily understood in the first instance and 
more easily remembered. It is also a powerful instrument in the 
solution of a large class of problems relating to these curves. 



MATHEMATICS. ii 



Morgan.— A COLLECTION OF PROBLEMS AND EXAM- 
PLES IN MATHEMATICS. With Answers. By H. A. 
Morgan, M.A., Sadlerian and Mathematical Lecturer of Jesus 
College, Cambridge. Crown 8vo. cloth. 6j. dd. 

This book contains a number of problems^ chiefly elementary, in the 
Mathematical subjects usually read at Cambridge. They have been 
selected from the Papers set during late years at Jesus College. Very 
few of them are to be met with in other collections, and by far the 
larger number are due to some of the most distinguished Mathe- 
maticians in the University. 



Newton's Principia. — 4to. cloth. 31J. (yd. 

It is a sufficient guarantee of the reliability of this complete edition of 
Newton^ s Principia that it has been printed for and under the care 
of Professor Sir William Tho?nson and Professor Blackburn, of 
Glasgow University. The following notice is prefixed : — * * Finding 
that all the editions of the Prihcipia are now out of print, we have 
been induced to reprint Newton^ last edition [of 1 726) without note 
or comment, only introducing the ' Corrigenda ' of the old copy and 
correcting typographical errors." The book is of a handsome size, 
with large type, fine thick paper, and cleanly-cut figures, and is 
the only recent edition containing the 7vhole of Newton'' s great 
work. 



Parkinson. — Works by S. Parkinson, D.D., F.R.S., Fellow 
and Tutor of St. John's College, Cambridge :— 

AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE ON MECHANICS. For the 
Use of the Junior Classes at the Uniyersity and the Higher Classes 
in Schools. With a Collection of Examples. Fourth Edition, 
revised. Crown 8vo. cloth. 9^. 6d. 

In preparing a fourth edition of this work the author has kept the 
same object in view as he had in the former editions — namely, to in- 
clude in it such portions of Theoretical Mechanics as can be con- 
veniently investigated without the use of the Differential Calculus, 
and so render it suitable as a manual for the junior classes in the 
University and the higher classes in Schools. With one or two short 
exceptions, the student is not presumed to require a knoivledge of any 



12 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 

Parkinson — continued. 

branches of Matheniatics beyond the elements of Algebra, Geometry^ 
and Trigonometry. Several additional propositions have been in- 
corporated in the work for the pmrpose of rendering it more complete^ 
and the collection of Examples and Problems has been largely in- 
ereased. 
A TREATISE ON OPTICS. Third Edition, revised and en- 
larged. Crown 8vo. cloth. \os. 6d. 

A collection of Examples and Problems has been appended to this work, 
which are sufficiently numerous and varied in character to afford 
useful exercise for the student. For the greater part of them, re- 
course has been had to the Examination Papers set in the University 
and tJu several Colleges during the last tiventy years. 

Phear.— ELEMENTARY HYDROSTATICS. With Numerous 
Examples. By J. B. Phear, M.A., Fellow and late Assistant 
Tutor of Clare College, Cambridge. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo. 
cloth. 5j. dd. 

This edition has been carefully revised throughout, and many new 
Illustrations and Examples added, which it is hoped will increase 
its usefulness to students at the Universities and in Schools, In ac- 
cordance with suggestions from many engaged in tuition, answers to 
all the Examples have been given at the end of the book. 

Pratt. — A TREATISE ON ATTRACTIONS, LAPLACE'S 
FUNCTIONS, AND THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH. 
By John H. Pratt, M.A., Archdeacon of Calcutta, Author of 
"The Mathematical Principles of Mechanical Philosophy." Feurth 
Edition. Crown 8yo. cloth. 6s. 6d. 

The author's chief design in this treatise is to give an cmswer to the 
question, ^^ Has the Earth acquired its present form from being 
originally in a fluid state ?" This edition is a complete revision oj 
the former ones. 

Puckle. — AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE ON CONIC SEC- 
TIONS AND ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY. With numerous 
Examples and Hints for their Solution ; especially designed for the 
Use of Beginners. By G. H. Puckle, M.A., Head Master of 
Windermere College. New Edition, revised and enlarged. 
Crown Svo. cloth, "^s. dd. 



MATHEMATICS. 



13 



This work is recommended by the Syndicate of the Cambridge Local 
Examinations, and is the text-book in Harvard University, U.S. 
The Athenaeum says the author ^^ displays an intimate acquaint- 
ance with the difficulties likely to be felt, together with a singular 
aptitude in removing thevi." 



Routh.— AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE ON THE DYNA- 
MICS OF THE SYSTEM OF RIGID BODIES. With 
numerous Examples. By Edward John Routh, M.A., late 
Fellow and Assistant Tutor of St. Peter's College, Cambridge ; 
Examiner in the University of London. Second Edition, enlarged. 
Crown 8vo. cloth, 145-. 

In this edition the author has made several additions to each chapter: 
he has tried, even at the risk of some little repetition, to make each 
chapter, as far as possible, complete in itself, so that all that relates 
to any one part of the subject may be found in the same place. This 
arrangement will enable every student to select his own order in 
which to read the subject. The Examples which will be found at 
the end of each chapter have been chiefly selected from the Examina- 
tion Papers which have been set in the University and the Colleges 
in the last few years. 



Smith's (Barnard) Works. — See Educational Cata- 



Snowball. — the elements of plane and spheri- 
cal TRIGONOMETRY ; with the Construction and Use of 
Tables of Logarithms. By J. C. Snowball, M.A. Tenth 
Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth. 7^, dd. 

In preparing the present edition for the press, the text has been sub- 
jected to a careful revision ; the proofs of some of the more import- 
ant propositions have been rendered more strict and general ; and 
a considerable addition of more than two hundred examples, taken 
principally from the questions set of late years in the public exami- 
nations of the University and of individual Colleges, has been made 
to the collection of Examples and Problems for practice. 



14 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 



Tait and Steele. — DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE. With 
numerous Examples. By Professor Tait and Mr. Steele. New 
Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth. \6s. 6d. 

In this treatise wUl be found all the ordinary propositions, connected 
with the Dynamics of Particles, which can be conveniently deduced 
without the use of D'' Alembert^ s Principle. Throughout the book 
will be found a number of illustrative examples introduced in the 
text, and for the most part completely tvorked out ; others with occa- 
sional solutions or hints to assist the student are appended to each 
chapter. For by far the greater portion of these, the Cambridge 
Senate-House and College Examination Papers have been applied to. 

Taylor. — GEOMETRICAL CONICS; including Anharmonic 
Ratio and Projection, with numerous Examples. By C. Taylor, 
B.A., Scholar of St. John's College, Cambridge. Crown 8vo. 
cloth, 7 J-, dd. 

This work contains elementary proofs of the principal properties of 
Conic Sections, together with chapters on Projection and Anharmonic 
Ratio. 

Todhunter. — Works by L Todhunter, M.A., F.R.S., of 
St. John's College, Cambridge : — 

'■^Perspicuous language, vigorous investigations, scrutiny of difficulties ^ 
and methodical treatment, characterize Mr. Todhunter' s works." — 
Civil Engineer. 

THE ELEMENTS OF EUCLID; MENSURATION FOR 
BEGINNERS ; ALGEBRA FOR BEGINNERS ; TRIGO- 
NOMETRY FOR BEGINNERS; MECHANICS FOR 
BEGINNERS.— See Educational Catalogue. 

ALGEBRA. For the Use of Colleges and Schools. Fifth Edition. 
Crown 8vo. cloth. 7^. bd. 

This'work contains all the propositions which are usually included in 
elementary treatises on Algebra, and a large number of Examples 
for Exercise. The author has sought to render the work easily in- 
telligible to students, without impairing the accurcu:y of the demon- 
strations, or contracting the limits of the subject. The Examples, 
about Sixteen hundred and fifty in number, have been selected with 



MA THEM A TICS. 1 5 



Todhunter (Jl,)— continued. 

a view to illustrate every part of the subject. The work will be 
found peculiarly adapted to the wants of students who are without 
the aid of a teacher. The Answers to the Examples^ with hints 
for the solution of some in which assistance may be needed^ are 
given at the end of the book. In the present edition two New 
Chapters and Three hundred miscellaneous Exajnples have been 
added. ^^ It has merits which unquestionably place it first in the 
class to which it belongs." — Educator. 

KEY TO ALGEBRA FOR THE USE OF COLLEGES AND 
SCHOOLS. Crown 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE ON THE THEORY OF 
EQUATIONS. Second Edition, revised. Crown 8vo. cloth. 
7j. 6d. 

This treatise contains all the propositions which are usually included 
in elementary treatises on the theory of Equations, together with 
Examples for exercise. These have been selected from the College 
and University Examination Papers, and the results have been 
given when it appeared necessary. In order to exhibit a compre- 
hensive view of the subject, the treatise includes investigations which 
are not found in all the preceding elementary treatises, and also 
some investigations which are not to be found in any of them. For 
the second edition the work has been revised and some additions 
have been made, the most important being an account of the 
Researches of Professor Sylvester respecting Newton^ s Rule. "A 
thoroughly trustworthy, complete, and yet not too elaborate treatise." 
— Philosophical Magazine. 

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY. For Schools and Colleges. Fourth 
Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth. 5^. 

The design of this work has been to render the subject intelligible 
to beginners, and at the same time to afford the student the oppor- 
tunity of obtaining all the information which he will require on 

. this branch of Mathematics. Each chapter is followed by a set 
of Examples : those which are entitled Miscellaneous Examples, 
together with a few in some of the other sets, may be advantageously 
reserved by the student for exercise after he has mude some progress 
in the subject. In the Second Edition the hints for the solution of 
the Examples have been considerably increased. 



i6 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 



Todhunter i^,)— continued. 

A TREATISE ON SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY. Third 
Edition, enlarged. Crown 8vo. cloth. 4^-. dd. 

The present work is constructed on the same plan as the treatise on 
Plane Trigonometry^ to which it is intended as a sequel. In the 
account of Napier's Rules of circular parts, an explanation has 
been given of a method of proof devised by Napier, which seems to 
have been overlooked by most modern writers on the subject. Con- 
siderable labour has been bestowed on the text in order to render it 
comprehensive and accurate, and the Examples (selected chiefly 
from College Examination Papers) have all been carefully verified. 
' ' For educational pmrposes this work seems to be superior to any 
others on the subject.'''' — Critic. 

PLANE CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY, as applied to the Straight 
Line and the Conic Sections. With numerous Examples. Fourth 
Edition, revised and enlarged. Crown 8vo. cloth. 7^. dd. 

The author has here endeavoured to exhibit the subject in a simple 
manner for the benefit of beginners, and at the same time to include 
in one volume all that students usually require. In addition, 
therefore, to the propositions which have always appeared in such 
treatises, he has introduced the methods of abridged notation, 
which are of more recent origin : these methods, which are of a 
less elementary character than the rest of the work, are placed in 
separate chapters, and may he omitted by the student at first. 

A TREATISE ON THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS. 
With numerous Examples. Fifth Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth, 
lar. dd. 

The author has endeavoured in the present work to exhibit a compre- 
hensive view of the Differential Calculus on the method of limits. 
In the more elementary portions he has entered into considerable 
detail in the explanations, with the hope that a reader who is without 
the assistance of a tutor may be enabled to acquire a competent ac- 
quaintance with the subject. The method adopted is that of Dif- 
ferential Coefficients. To the different chapters are appended 
Examples sufficiently numerous to render another book unnecessary ; 
these Examples being mostly selected from College Examination 
Papers. This and the following work have been translated into 



MATHEMATICS. ly 



To dhunt e r (I . )— continued. 

Italian by Professor Battaglini, who in his Preface speaks thus : — 
**/« publishing this translation of the Differential and Integral 
Calculus of Mr. Todhunter^ we have had no other object than to 
add to the books which are in the hands of the students of our Uni- 
versities^ a work remarkable for the clearness of the exposition^ tite 
rigour of the demonstrations, the just proportion in the parts, ccnd 
the rich store of examples which offer a large field for useful 
exercise." 

A TREATISE ON THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS AND ITS 
APPLICATIONS. With numerous Examples. Third Edition, 
revised and enlarged. Crown 8vo. cloth. los. 6d. 
This is designed as a work at once elementary and complete, adapted 
for the use of beginners, and sufficient for the wants of advanced 
students. In the selection of the propositions, and in the mode of 
establishing them, it has been sought to exhibit the principles clearly, 
and to illustrate all their most important results. The process oj 
summation has been repeatedly brought forward, with the tAcw 
of securing the attention of the student to the notions which form the 
true foundation of the Calculus itself, as well as of its most 
valuable applications. Every attempt has been made to explain those 
difficulties •which usually perplex beginners, especially with reference 
to the limits of integrations. A new ?nethod has been adopted in 
regard to the transformation of multiple integrals. The last chapter 
deals with the Calculus of Variations. A large collection of Exer- 
cises, selected from College Examinatioji Papers, has been appended 
* to the several chapters. 



EXAMPLES OF ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY OF THREE 
DIMENSIONS. Third Edition, revised. Crown 8vo. cloth. 4?. 

A TREATISE ON ANALYTICAL STATICS. With numerous 
Examples. Third Edition, revised and enlarged. Crown 8vo. 
cloth, los. 6d. 

In this work on Statics (treating of the laws of the equilibrium of 
bodies) will be found all the propositions which usually appear in 
treatises on Theoretical Statics. To the different chapters Examples 
are appended, which have been principally selected from University 
Examination Papers. In the Third Edition many additions have 
been made, in order to illustrate the application of the principles of 
the subject to the solution of problems. 



i8 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 

Todhunter {l.)—conti?tucd. 

A HISTORY OF THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF 
PROBABILITY, from the Time of Pascal to that of Laplace. 
8vo. iSs. 

The subject of this work has high claims to consideration on account 
of the subtle problems luhich it involves, the valuable contributions 
to analysis which it has produced, its important practical applica- 
tions, and the eininence of those who have cultivated it ; nearly 
every great mathe7natician within the range of a century and 
a half comes under consideration in the course of the history. The 
author has endeavoured to be quite accurate in his statements, and 
to reproduce the essential elements of the original works which he 
has analysed. Besides being a history, the zuork may claim the title 
of a comprehensive treatise on the Theory of Probability, for it 
assumes in the reader only so much knozvledge as can be gained from 
an elementary book on Algebra, and introduces him to almost every 
process and every special problem which the literature of the subject 
can furnish. 

RESEARCHES IN THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS, 
Principally on the Theory of Discontinuous Solutions : An Essay 
to which the Adams' Prize was awarded in the University of 
Cambridge in 1871. 8vo. 6^. 

The subject of this Essay was prescribed in the follo7ving terms by the 
Examiners : — "^ dctei'mination of the circumstances under which 
discontinuity of any kind presents itself in the solution of a problem 
of maximum or minimum in the Calculus of Variations, and 
applications to particular instances. It is expected that the discus- 
sion of the instances should be exemplified as far as possible geo- 
metrically, and that attention be especially directed to cases of real or 
supposed failure of the Calculus.'''' While the Essay is thus mainly 
devoted to the consideration of discontinuous solutions, various 
other questions in the Calciilus of Variations are examined and 
elucidated ; and the author hopes he has definitely contributed to the 
extension and improvement of our knozvledge of this refined depart- 
ment of analysis. 

Wilson (W. P.)— A TREATISE ON DYNAMICS. By 
W. P. Wilson, M.A., Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
and Professor of Mathematics in Queen's College, Belfast. 8vo. 
9/. dd. 



MATHEMATICS. 19 



Wolstenholme. — A BOOK OF MATHEMATICAL 
PROBLEMS, on Subjects included in the Cambridge Course. 
By Joseph Wolstenholme, Fellow of Christ's College, some 
time Fellow of St. John's College, and lately Lecturer in Mathe- 
matics at Christ's College. Crown 8vo. cloth. %s. ()d. 

Contents : — Geometry (Euclid) — Algebra— Plane Trigonometrv — 
Geometrical Conic Sections — Analytical Conic Sections — Theory of 
Equations — Differential Calculus — Integral Calculus — Solid Geo- 
metry — Statics — Elementary Dynamics — Newton — Dynamics of a 
Point — Dynamics of a Rigid Body — Hydrostatics — Geometrical 
Optics — Spherical Trigonometry and Plane Astronomy. In some 
cases the author has prefixed to certain classes of problems frag- 
mentary notes on the mathematical subjects to %vhich they relate. 
*^ jfudicious, symmetrical, and well arranged^ — Guardian. 



20 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 



PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

Airy (G. B.) — popular astronomy, with illustrations 
By Sir G. B. Airy, K.C.B., Astronomer Royal. Seventh and 
cheaper Edition. i8mo. cloth. 4^. dd. 

This work consists of Six Lectures^ which are intended ^^ to explairi 
to intelligent persons the principles on which the instruments of an 
Observatory are constructed (omitting all details, so far as they are 
merely subsidiary), and the principles on which the observations 
made with these instruments are treated for deduction of the distances 
and weights of the bodies oj the Solar Syste^n, and of a few stars, 
omitting all minutuz of formula;, and all troublesome details of 
calculation.^^ The speciality of this volume is the direct reference of 
every step to the Observatory, and the full description of the methods 
and instruments of observation. 

Bastian. — Works by H. Charlton Bastian, M.D., F.R.S., 
Professor of Pathological Anatomy in University College, London, 
etc. : — 

THE MODES OF ORIGIN OF LOWEST ORGANISMS: 
Including a Discussion of the Experiments of M. Pasteur, and a 
Reply to some Statements by Professors Huxley and Tyndall. 
Crown 8vo. 4J. dd. 

The present volu?ne contains a fragment of the evidence which will be 
embodied in a much larger wot'k — now almost completed — relating to 
the nature and origin of living matter, and in favour of what is 
termed the Physical Doctrine of Life. ^^ It is a work worthy of the 
highest respect, and places its author in the very first class of scientific 
physicians. . . . It would be difficult to name an instance in which 
skill, knowledge, perseverance, and great reasoning power have been 
more happily applied to the investigation of a complex biological 
problem. ^^ — British Medical Journal. 



PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 21 



Bastian (H. C*)— continued. 
THE BEGINNINGS OF LIFE: Being some Account of the 
Nature, Modes of Origin, and Transformations of Lower Organ- 
isms. In Two Volumes. With upwards of 100 Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo. 28^-. 

The subject of this work is one of the highest interest not only to 
scientific men, but to intelligent irien of all kinds. Dr. Bastian' s 
labours in this direction are already well known and highly valued^ 
even by those who differ from his conclusions. These volumes con- 
tain the results of several years' investigation on the Origin of Life, 
and it was only atfer the author had proceeded some length with 
his observations and experiments that he was compelled to change 
the opinions he started with for those announced in the present work 
— the most important of which is that in favour of " spontaneous 
generation " — the theory that life has never ceased to be actually 
originated. The First Part of the ork is intended to show the 
general reader, more especially, that the logical consequences of the 
now commonly accepted doctrines concerning the " Conservation of 
Energy " and the " Correlation of the Vital and Physical Forces " 
are 7vholly favourable to the possibility of the independent origin of 
^Uiving^' matter. It also contains [a view of the ''^Cellular 
Theory of Organisation.''^ In the Second Part of the work, under 
the head " Archebiosis,'" the question as to the present occurrence or 
non-occurrence of '"''spontaneous generation '^ is fully considered. 
" He has made a notable contribution to the literature of scientific 
research and exposition.'''' — Daily News. ^* It is a book thai 
cannot be ignored, and must inevitably ad to renewed discussions 
and repeated observations, and through Jiese to the estdblishment of 
truth J' — A. R. Wallace in Nature. 

Birks (T. R.)— ON MATTER AND ETHER ; or, The Secret 
Laws of Physical Change, ByTHvMAS Rawson Birks, M.A., 
Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Cambridge. 
Crown Svo. 5^. dd. 

The author believes that the hypothesv. of the existence of besides matter, 
a luminous ether, of immense elasdc force, supplies the true and suf- 
ficient key to the remaining secrete of inorganic 7natter, of the phe- 
nomena of light, electricity, etc. In this tnatise the author endea- 
vours first to form a clear and dtfinili. copttp'ion with regard to the 



22 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 

real nature both of matter and ether, and the laws of mutual action 
which must be supposed to exist between them. He then endeavours 
to trace out the main consequences of the fundamental hypothesis, 
and their correspondence with the known phenomena of physical 
change. 

Blanford (W. T.)— GEOLOGY and zoology of 
ABYSSINIA. By W. T. Blanford. 8vo. 2ij. 

This work contains an account of the Geological and Zoological Obser- 
vations fnade by the author in Abyssinia, when accompanying the 
British Army on its march to Magdala and back in 1868, and 
during a short journey in Northern Abyssinia, after the departure 
of the troops. Part I. Personal Narrative; Part II. Geology ; 
Part III. Zoology. With Coloured Illustrations and Geological 
Map. ^^The result of his labours, ^^ the Academy j^jj/j, '■^ is an 
important contribution to the natural history of the country. " 

Cooke (Josiah P., Jun.)— FIRST PRINCIPLES OF 
CHEMICAL PHILOSOPHY. By Josiah P. Cooke, Jun., 
Ervine Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy in Harvard College. 
Crown 8vo. \2s. 

The object of the author in this book is to present the philosophy of 
Chemistry in such a form that it can be made with profit the subject 
of College recitations, and furnish the teacher with the means of 
testing the studenfs faithfulness and ability. With this view the 
subject has been developed in a logical order, and the principles of 
the science are taught independently of the experimental evidence on 
which they rest. 

Cooke (M. C.)— HANDBOOK OF BRITISH FUNGI, 
with full descriptions of all the Species, and Illustrations of the 
Genera. By M. C. Cooke, M.A. Two vols, crown 8vo. 24J. 

During the thirty-five years that have elapsed since the appearance of 
the last complete Mycologic Flora no attempt has been made to revise 
it, to incorporate species since discovered, and to bring it up to the 
standard of modern science. No apology, therefore, is necessary for 
the present effoH, since all will admit that the want of such a 



PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 23 

manual has long been felt, and this work jnakes its appearance 
under the advantage that it seeks to occupy a place which has long 
been vacant. No effort has been spared to make the work worthy 
of confidence^ and, by the publication of an occasional supplement, 
it is hoped to maintain it for many years as the ' ' Handbook 
for every student of British Fungi. Appended is a complete alpha- 
betical Index of all the divisions and subdivisions of the Fungi 
noticed in the text. The book contains ^00 figures. " Will main- 
tain its place as the standard English book, on the subject of which 
it treats, for many years to come.'''' — Standard. 



Dawson (J. W.)— ACADIAN geology. The Geologic 
Structure, Organic Remains, and Mineral Resources of Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. By John 
William Dawson, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., Principal and 
Vice-Chancellor of M'Gill College and University; Montreal, &c 
. Second Edition, revised and enlarged. With a Geological Map 
and numerous Illustrations. 8vo. \%s. 

The object of the first edition of this work was to place within the 
reach of the people of the districts to which it relates, a popular 
account of the 7nore recent discoveries in the geology and mineral 
resources of their country, and at the same time to give to geologists 
in other countries a connected view of the structure of a very in- 
teresting portion of the American Continent, in its relation to 
general and theoretical Geology. In the present edition, it is hoped this 
design is still more completely fulfilled, with reference to the present 
m.ore advanced condition of knowledge. The author has endea- 
voured to convey a knowledge of the structure and fossils of the 
region in such a manner as to be intelligible to ordinary readers, 
and has devoted much attention to all questions relating to the nature 
and present or prospective value of deposits of useful minerals. 
Besides a large coloured Geological Map of the district, the work 
is illustrated by upwards of 260 cuts of sections, fossils, animals, 
etc. ** The book will doubtless find a place in the library, not only 
of the scientific geologist, but also of all who are desirous of the in- 
dustrial progress and commercial prosperity of the Acadian pro- 
vinces. " — Mining Journal. ' ' A style at once popular and scientific. 
. . . A valuable addition to our store of geological knowledge.'^ — 
Guardian. 



24 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 

Flower (W. H.)— an introduction to the oste- 
ology OF THE MAMMALIA. Being the substance of the 
Course of Lectures delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons 
of England in 1870. By W. H. Flower, F.R.S., F.R.C.S., 
Hunterian Professor of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology. 
With numerous Illustrations. Globe 8vo. 7^-. ^d. 

Although the present work contains the substance of a Course of Lectures, 
the form has been changed, so as the better to adapt it as a hand- 
book for students. . Theoretical vieivs have been almost entirely ex- 
ducted : and while it is impossible in a scientific treatise to avoid the 
employment of technical terms, it has been the author's endeavour to 
use no more than absolutely necessary, and to exercise due care in 
selecting only those that seem most appropriate, or which have re- 
ceived the sanction of general adoption. With a very few excep- 
tions the illustrations have been drawn expressly for this work from 
specimens in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. 

Galton. — Works by Francis Galton, F.R.S. :— 

METEOROGRAPHICA, or Methods of Mapping the Weather. 
Illustrated by upwards of 600 Printed Lithographic Diagrams. 
4to. 9J. 

As Mr. Galton entertains strong views on the necessity of Meteorolo- 
gical Charts and Maps, he determined, as a practical proof of what 
could be done, to chart the entire area of Europe, so far as meteorological 
stations extend, during one month, viz. the month of December, 1861. 
Mr. Galton got his data from authorities in every part of Britain 
and the Continent, and on the basis of these has here drawn up 
nearly a hundred different Maps' and Charts, showing the state of 
the weather all over Europe during the above period. ''^ If the 
various Governments and scientific bodies would perform for the 
whole world for two or three years what, at a great cost and labour, 
Mr. Galton has done for a part of Europe for one month. Meteoro- 
logy would soon cease to be made a joke of'' — Spectator. 

HEREDITARY GENIUS : An Inquiry into its Laws and Con- 
sequences. Demy 8vo. lis. 

^' J propose," the author says, ^^ to show in this book that a man^s 
natural abilities are derived by inheritance, under exactly the satne 



PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 25 



limitations as are the form and physical featztres of the whole organic 
world. I shall show that social agencies of an ordinary character^ 
whose influences are little suspected^ are at this moment working 
towards the degradation of human nature, and that others are 
working towards its improvement. The general plan of my argu- 
ment is to show that high reputation is a pretty accurate test of high 
ability ; next, to discuss the relationships of a large body of fairly 
eminent fnen, and to obtain from these a general survey of the laws 
of heredity in respect of genius. Then will follow a short chapter, 
by way of comparison, on the hereditary transmission of physical 
gifts, as deduced from the relationships of certain classes of oarsmen 
and wrestlers. Lastly, 1 shall collate tny results and draw conclu- 
sions.^^ The Times calls it "a most able and most interesting 
book;" and Mr. Darwin, in his ^^ Descent of Man" (vol. \. p. \\\), 
says, " We knozv, through the admirable labours of Mr. Gallon, 
that Genius tends to be inherited." 

Geikie (A.)— SCENERY OF SCOTLAND, Viewed in Connec- 
tion with its Physical Geography. With Illustrations and a new 
Geological Map. By Archibald Geikie, Professor of Geology 
in the University of Edinburgh. Crown 8vo. loj. dd. 

" We can confidently recommend Mr. Geiki^s work to those who wish 
to look below the surface and read the physical history of the Scenery 
of Scotland by the light of modern science." — Saturday Review. 
" Amusing, picturesque, and instructive." — Times. 

Guillemin. — the forces of nature : A Popular Intro- 
duction to the Study of Physical Phenomena. By Amedbe 
Guillemin. Translated from the French by Mrs. Norman 
LOCKYER ; and Edited, with Additions and Notes, by J. Norman 
LocKYER, F.R.S. Illustrated by 11 Coloured Plates and 455 
Woodcuts. Imperial 8vo. cloth, extra gilt. 31J. dd. 

M. Guillemin is already well known in this country as a most success- 
ful populariser of the results of accurate scientific research, his 
works, while eloquent, intelligible, and interesting to the general 
reader, being thoroughly trustworthy and up to date. The present 
work consists of Seven Books, each divided into a number of 
Chapters, the Books treating respectively of Gravity, Sound, 
Light, Heat, Magnetism^ Electricity, and Atmospheric Meteors. 



26 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 

The programme of the work has Jiof been confined to a simple 
explanation of the facts : but an attempt has been made to grasp 
their relative bearings, or, in other words, their laws, and that 
too without taking for granted that the reader is acquainted 
with mathematics. The author'' s aim has been to smooth the way 
for those who desire to extend their studies, and likeivise to present 
to general readers a sufficiently exact and just idea of this branch of 
science. The numerous coloured illustrations and woodcuts are not 
brought into the text merely for show, but each 07ie is really illus- 
trative of the subject. The name of the translator and editor is a 
sufficient guarantee both that the work is of genuine scientific value 
and that tJie translation is acctirate and executed with intelligence. 
" This book is a luxurious introductioji to the study of the Physical 
Sciences. M. Guillemin Jias found an excellent translator in Mrs. 
Norman Lockyer, while the editorship of Mr. Norman Lockyer, 
wit/i /lis notes and additions, are guarantees not only of scientific 
accuracy, but of the completeness and lateness of the information.'''' 
— Daily News. 

Hooker (Dr.) — the student's flora of the 

BRITISH ISLANDS. By J. D. Hooker, C.B., F.R.S., 
M.D., D.C.L., Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew. Globe 8vo. 
iQs. bd. 

The object of this work is to supply students and field-botanists with a 
fuller account of the Plants of the British Islands than the manuals 
Jiitherto in use aim at giving. The Ordinal, Generic, and Specific 
characters have been re-written, and are to a great extent original, 
and drawn from living or dried specimens, or both. ' ' Cannot fail to 
perfectly fulfil the purpose for w hie It it is intended." — Land and 
Water. " Containing the fullest and most accurate jtianual of the 
kind that has yet appeared." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

Huxley (Professor).— lay sermons, addresses, 

AND REVIEWS. By T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. New 
and Cheaper Edition. Crown 8vo. 7^. 6d. 

Fourteen Discourses on t/ie following subjects: — (i) On the Advisable- 
ness of Improving Natural Knowledge: — (2) Emancipation — 
Black and WJiite : — (3) A Liberal Education, and where to find 
j^;— (4) Scientific Education : — (5) On the Educational Value of 



PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 27 



Huxley (Professor).— ^„«//„«^^. 

the Natural History Sciences: — (6) On the Study of Zoology: — 
(7) On the Physical Basis ofLife:—[%) The Scientific Aspects oj 
Positivism:— {()) On a Piece of Chalk: — (10) Geological Contem- 
poraneity and Persistent Types of Life :— {11) Geological Reform: — 
(12) The Origin of Species:— {it^) Criticisms on the ^'■Origin of 
Species:^''— {l/^) On Descartes^ ^^ Discourse touching the Method of 
using One's Reason rightly and of seeking Scientific Truth." Tht 
momentous influence exercised by Mr. Huxley's writings on physical^ 
mental, and social science is universally acknowledged ; his works 
must be studied by all who would comprehend the various drifts of 
modern thought. 

ESSAYS SELECTED FROM LAY SERMONS, ADDRESSES, 
AND REVIEWS. Crown 8vo. is. 

This volume includes Numbers i, 3, 4, 7, 8, and 14, of the above. 

LESSONS IN ELEMENTARY PHYSIOLOGY. With numerous 
Illustrations. Sixth Edition. iSmo. cloth. 4-f, dd. 

This book describes and explains, in a series of graduated lessons, the 
principles of Human Physiology, or the Structure and Functions 
of th^ Human Body. The first lesson supplies a general vieiu of 
the subject. This is followed by sections on the Vascular or Venous 
System, and the Circulation ; the Blood and the Lymph ; Respira- 
tion : Sources of Loss and of Gain to the Blood ; the Function of 
Alimentation ; Motion and Locomotion ; Sensations attd Sensory 
Organs ; the Organ of Sight ; the Coalescence of Sensations xvith 
one another and with other States of Consciousness ; the Nervous 
System and Innervation ; Histology, or the Minute Structure op 
the Tissues. A Table of Anatomical and Physiological Constants 
is appended. The lessons are fully illustrated by numerous en- 
gravings. The new edition has bee?i thoroughly revised, and a con- 
siderable number of new illuslrations added: several of these have 
been taken from the Rabbit, the Sheep, the Dog, and the Frog, in order 
to aid those who attempt to make their knowledge real, by acquiring 
some practical acquaintance with the facts of Anatomy and Physi- 
ology. "■ Pure gold throughout." — Guardian. ''Unquestionably 
the clearest and most complete elementary treatise on this subject 
that we possess in any language." — Westminster Review. 



I 



r28 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE, 



Jellet (John H., B.D.) — a treatise on the 

THEORY OF FRICTION. By John H. Jellet, B.D., 
Senior Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin ; President of the Royal 
Irish Academy. 8vo. %s. 6d. 

The Theory of Friction^ considered as a part of Rational Mechanics 
has n9t, the author thinks, received the attention which it deserves' 
On this account many students have been probably led to regard 
the discussion of this force as scarcely belonging to Rational 
Mechanics at all ; whereas the theory of friction is as truly a part 
of that subject as the theory of gravitation. The force with which 
ihis theory is concerned is subject to laws as definite, and as fully 
susceptible of mathematical expression, as the force of gravity. 
This book is taken up with a special investigation of the laws of 
friction ; and some of the principles contained in it are believed to 
be here enunciated for the first time. The work consists of eight 
Chapters as follows : — /. Definitions and Principles. II. Equili- 
brium with Frictions. Ill, Extreme Positions of Equilibrium. 
IV. Movement of a Particle or System of Particles. V. Motion 
<f a Solid Body. VI. Necessary and Possible Equilibrium. VII. 
Determination of the Actual Value of the Acting Force of Friction. 
VIII Miscellaneous Problems— I. Problem of the Top. 2. Friction 
Wheels and Locomotives. 3. Questions for Exercise. ^^ The book 
supplies a 7uant zvhich has hitherto existed in the scjence of pure 
mechanics. " — Engineer. 

Kirchhoff (G.)— researches on the solar spec- 
trum, and the Spectra of the Chemical Elements. By. G. 
Kirchhoff, Professor of Physics in the University of Heidelberg. 
Second Part. Translated, with the Author's Sanction, from the 
Transactions of the Berlin Academy for 1862, by Henry R. 
ROSCOE, B.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry in Owens 
College, Manchester. Part II. 4to. 5^. 

*'Itis to Kirchhoff we arc indebted for by far the best and most accurate 
observations of these phenotnena." — Edin. Review. " Thismej7ioir 
seems almost indispensable to every Spectrum observer. ^^ — Philf^ 
sophical Magazine. 

Lockyer (J. N.)— ELEMENTARY lessons IN AS- 
TRONOMY. With numerous Illustrations. By J. NORMAN 
LocKYER, F.R.S. Ninth Thousand. iSmo 5^. 6^'. 



PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 29. 



The author has here aimed to give a connected view of the whole subject y 
and to supply facts, and ideas founded on the facts, to serve as a basis 
for subsequent study and discussion. The chapters treat of the 
Stars and Nebula; the Sun; the Solar System ; Apparent M<rve- 
ments of the Heavenly Bodies ; the Measurement of Time; Light,- 
the Telescope and Spectroscope; Apparent Places of the Heavenly 
Bodies; the Real Distances and Dimensions ; Universal Gravitation. 
The most recent Astronomical Discoveries are incorporated. Mr. 
Lockyer's work supplements that of the Astronomer Royal. ''The 
book is full, clear, sound, and worthy of attention, not only as a 
popular exposition, but as a scientific 'Index.'' — Athenaeum, 
"The most fascinating of elementary books on the Sciences." — 
Nonconformist. 

Macmillan (Rev. Hugh).— For other Works by the same 
Author, see Theological Catalogue. 

HOLIDAYS ON HIGH LANDS ; or, Rambles and Incidents iw 
search of Alpine Plants. Crown 8vo. cloth. Cs. 

The aim of this book is to impart a general idea of the origin, cha- 
racter, and distribution of those rare and beautiful Alpine plants 
which occur on the British hills, and which are found almost every- 
where on the lofty mountain chains of Europe, Asia, Africa, and 
America. In the first three chapters the peculiar vegetation of the 
Highland mountains is fully described ; while in the remaining 
chapters this vegetation is traced to its northern cradle in the moun- 
tains of Noj way, and to its southern European termination in the 
Alps of Switzerland. The infortnation the author has to give is 
conveyed in a setting of personal adventure. "One of the most 
charming books of its kind ever zvritten.'^ — Literary Churchman. 
"Mr. M.' s glozving pictures of Scandinavian scenery." — Saturday 
Review. 

FOOT-NOTES FROM THE PAGE OF NATURE. Witb 
numerous Illustrations. Fcap. 8vo. $s. 

" Those who have derived pleasure and profit from the study of flowers 
and ferns — subjects, it is pleasing to fitid, now everywhere popular 
— by descending lower into the arcana of the vegetable kingdom, 
will find a still more interesting and delightful field of research in 
the objects brought und^r review in the following pages."— Vx&i^zt. 
'♦ The naturalist and the botanist will delight in this volume, and 



30 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 

those wJio understand little of the scientific parts of the work will 
linger over the mysterious page of nature here unfolded to their 
viezu." — ^John Bull. 

Mansfield (C. B.) — a THEORY OF SALTS. A Treatise 
on the Constitution of Bipolar (two-membered) Chemical Com- 
pounds. By the late Charles Blachford Mansfield. Crown 
8vo. 14J. 

^^ Mansfield,^' says the editor, ^^ wrote this book to defend the prin- 
ciple that the fact of voltaic decomposition afforded the true indi- 
cation, if properly interpreted, of the nature of the saline structure, 
and of the atomicity of the elements that built it up. No chemist 
will peruse this book zvithout feeling that he is in the presence of an 
original thinker, whose pages are continually suggestive, even 
though their general argument may not be entirely concurrent in 
direction with that of modern chemical thought.''^ 

Mivart (St. George).— ON THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 
By St. George Mivart, F.R.S. Crown 8vo. Second Edition, 
to which notes have been added in reference and reply to Darwin's 
"Descent of Man." With numerous Illustrations, pp. xv. 296. 

The aim of the author is to support the doctrine that the various 
species have been evolved by ordinary natural laws (for the most 
part unknown) controlled by the subordinate action of ' ' natural 
selection," and at the same time to remind some tJiat there is and 
can be absolutely nothing in physical science which forbids them, to 
regard those natural laws as acting with the Divine concurrerue, 
and in obedience to a creative fiat originally imposed on the primeval 
cosmos, ^' in the beginning," by its Creator, its Upholder, and its 
Lord. Nearly fifty woodcuts illustrate the letter-press, and a com- 
plete index makes all referejices extremely easy. Canon Kingsley^ 
in his address to the ^"^ Devonshire Association," says, ^^ Let me re- 
commend earnestly to you, as a specimen of what can be said on the 
other side, the ' Genesis of Species,^ by Mr. St. George Mivart^ 
F.R.S. , a book which I am happy to say has been received elsewhere 
as it has deserved, and, I trust, will be 7'eceived so among you." 
*^ In no woi'k in the English language has this great controversy 
been treated at once with the same broad and vigorous grasp 
ef facts, and the same liberal and candid temper." — Saturday 
Review. 



PHYSICAL SCIENCE, 31 



Nature.— A weekly illustrated journal of 

SCIENCE. Published every Thursday. Price 4^. Monthly 
Parts, \s. 4d. and is. Sd. ; Half-yearly Volumes, los. 6d. Cases for 
binding Vols. is. 6d. 

•* Backed by many of the best names among English philosophers, and 
by a few equally vahtable supporters in America and on the Conti- 
nent of Europe." — Saturday Review. " This able and well-edited 
Journal, which posts up the science of the day promptly, and 
promises to be of signal service to students and savants." — British 
Quarterly Review. 

Oliver — Works by Daniel Oliver, F.R.S., F.L.S., Professor of 
Botany in University College, London, and Keeper of the Herba- 
rium and Library of the Royal Gardens, Kew : — 

LESSONS IN ELEMENTARY BOTANY. With nearly Two 
Hundred Illustrations. Twelfth Thousand. i8mo cloth. /\s. 6d. 

This book is designed to teafh the elements of Botany on Professor 
Henslow* s plan of selected Types and by the use of Schedules. The 
earlier chapters, ej?ibracing the elements of Structural and Physio- 
logical Botany, introduce us to the methodical study of the Ordinal 
Types. The concluding chapters are entitled, ^^ How to Dry 
Plants " and ^^ How to Describe Plants." A valuable Glossary is 
appended to the volume. In the preparation of this work free use 
has been made of the manuscript materials of ^ the late Professor 
Henslow. 

FIRST BOOK OF INDIAN BOTANY. With numerous 
Illustrations. Extra fcap. 8vo. ds. 6d. 

This manual is, in substance, the author's ^'' Lessons in Elementary 
Botany," adapted for use in India. In preparing it he has had in 
view the want, often felt, of some handy resume of Indian Botany, 
which might be serviceable not only to residents of India, but also to 
any one about to proceed thither, desirous of getting some pre- 
liminary idea of the botany of the country. It contains a well- 
digested summary of all essential knowledge pertaining to Indian 
Botany, wrought out in accordance with the best principles of 
scientific arrangement." — Allen's Indian Mail. 



32 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 



Penrose (F. C.)— ON A method of predicting by 

GRAPHICAL CONSTRUCTION, OCCULTATIONS OF 
STARS BY THE MOON, AND SOLAR ECLIPSES FOR 
ANY GIVEN PLACE. Together with more rigorous methods 
for the Accurate Calculation of Longitude. By F, C. Penrose, 
F.R.A.S. With Charts, Tables, etc. 4to. \2s. 

The author believes that if , by a graphic method, the prediction «f 
occultations can be rendered tnore inviting, as well as more expedi- 
tious, than by the ?nethod of calculation, it may prove' acceptable ta 
the nautical profession as well as to scientific travellers or amateurs. 
The author has endeavoured to make the whole process as intelli- 
gible as possible, so that the beginner, instead of merely having t9 
follow directions imperfectly understood, may readily comprehend 
the meatiing of each stepj and be able to illustrate the practice by the 
theory. Besides all necessary charts and tables, the work contains 
a large number of skeleton forms for working out cases in 
practice. 

RoSCOe. — Works by Henry E. Roscoe, F.R.S., Professor of 
Chemistry in Owens College, Manphester ; — 

LESSONS IN ELEMENTARY CHEMISTRY, INORGANIC 
AND ORGANIC. With numerous Illustrations and Chromo- 
litho of the Solar Spectrum, and of the Alkalies and Alkaline 
Earths. New Edition. Thirty-first Thousand. i8mo; cloth. 
4J-. 6d. 

It has been the endeavour of the author to arrange the most important 
facts and principles of Modern Chemistry in a plain but concise 
and scientific form, suited to the prresent requirements of elementary 
instruction. For the purpose of facilitating the attainment op 
exactitude in the knowledge of the subject, a series of exercises and 
questions upon the lessons have been added. The metric system of 
weights and measures, and the centigrade thermometric scale, are 
used throughout this work. The new edition, besides new wood- 
cuts, contains many additions and improvements, and includes the 
most important of the latest discoveries. *' We unhesitatingly pro- 
nounce it the best of all our elementary treatises on Chemistry. ^^ — 
Medical Times. 

SPECTRUM ANALYSIS. Six Lectures, with Appendices, En- 
gravings, Maps, and Chromolithographs. Royal 8vo. 2\s. 



PHYSICAL SCIENCE, 33 

A Third Edition of these popular Lectures^ containing all the most 
recent discoveries and several additional illustrations. ^* In six 
lectures he has given the history of the discovery and set forth the 
facts relating to the analysis of light in such a ivay that any reader 
of ordinary intelligence and information will be able to understand 
what ^Spectrum Analysis' is, and what are its claims to rank 
among the most signal triumphs of science" — Nonconformist. 
*^The lectures themselves furnish a most admirable elementary 
treatise on the subject, whilst by the insertion in appendices to each 
lecture of extracts from the most important published memoirs, the 
author has rendered it equally valuable as a text-book for advanced 
students.'^ — Westminster Review. 

Roscoe and Jones. — the owens college junior 

COURSE OF PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY. By Professor 
Roscoe and Francis Jones, Chemical Master in the Grammar 
School, Manchester. i8mo. with Illustrations, zs. 6d. 

Stewart (B.)— LESSONS IN ELEMENTARY PHYSICS. 
By Balfour Stewart, F.R.S., Professor of Natural Philosophy 
in Owens College, Manchester. With numerous Illustrations and 
Chromolithos of the Spectra of the Sun, Stars, and Nebulae. New 
Edition. i8mo. 4-r. 6d. 

A description, in an elementary manner, of the most important oj 
those laws which regulate the phenomena of nature. The active 
agents, heat, '^ light, electricity, etc., are regarded as varieties of 
energy, and the tvork is so arranged that their relation to one 
another, looked at in this light, and the paramount importance oJ 
the laws of energy, are clearly brought out. The volume contains 
all the necessary illustrations. The Educational Times calls this 
*Uhe beau-ideal of a scientific text-book, clear, accurate, and 
thorough.^' 

Thudichum and Dupre.— A TREATISE ON THE 

ORIGIN, NATURE, AND VARIETIES OF WINE. 

Being a Complete Manual of Viticulture and O^nology. By. J. L. 

W. Thudichum, M.D., and August Dupr£, Ph.D., Lecturer on 

Chemistry at Westminster Hospital. Medium 8vo. cloth gilt. 25^. 

In this elaborate work the subject of the manufacture of wine is 

treated scientifically in minute detail, from every point of view. A 

chapter is devoted to the Origin and Physiology of Vines, two to the 

C 



SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 



Principles of Viticulture ; zvJiile other chapters treat of Vintage and 
Vinification, the Chemistry of Alcohol, the Acids, Ether, Sugars, 
and other matters occurring in wine. This introductory matter 
occupies the first nine chapters, the remaining seventeen chapters 
being occupied with a detailed account of the Viticulture and the 
Wines of the various countries of Europe, of the Atlantic Islands, 
of Asia, of Africa, of A??ierica, and of Australia. Besides a 
number of Analytical and Statistical Tables, the work is enriched 
2vith eighty five illustrative woodcuts. '^A treatise almost unique 
for its usefulness either to the wine-grower, the vendor, or the con- 
sumer of wine. The analyses of wine are the most complete we 
have yet seen, exhibiting at a glance the constituent principles of 
nearly all the wines known in this country.'''' — Wine Trade Review. 

Wallace (A. R.)— contributions to the theory 

OF natural selection. a Series of Essays. By 
Alfred Russel Wallace, Author of " The Malay Archipelago," 
etc. Second Edition, with Corrections and Additions. Crown 
&W0. &f. 6d. (For other Works by the same Author, see Cata- 
LQGUE OF History and Travels.) 

Mr. Wallace has good claims to be considered as an independent 
originator of the theory of natural selection. Dr. Hooker, in 
his address to the British Association, spoke thus of the author: 
^^ Of Mr. Wallace and his many contributions to philosophical 
biology it is not easy to speak without enthusiasm; for, putting 
aside their great merits, he, throughout his writings, with a 
modesty as rare as I believe it to be unconscious, forgets his oxvn 
unquestioned claim to the honour of having originated indepen- 
dently of Mr. Darwin, the theoi'ies which he so ably defends.'*'' 
The Saturday Review says : ^^ He has combined an abundance of 
fresh and original facts with a liveliness and sagacity of reasoning 
zvhich are not often displayed so effectively on so small a scale. ^^ 
The Essays in this volume are : — /. ''On the Law which has regu- 
lated the introduction of New Species." II. "On the lendencies of 
Varieties to depart indefinitely from the Original Type.' III. "Mi- 
micry, and othef- Protective Resemblances among Animals'' IV. 
" The Malayan Papilionidce, as illustrative of the Theory of 
Natural Selection." V. "On Instinct in Man and Animals." 
VI. " The Philosophy of Birds' Nests." VII '' A Theory of 
Birds' Nests."" VIII. " Creation by Law.'' IX. ^' The Develop- 
ment of Human Races under the Law of Natural Selection." 
X. " The Limits of Natural Selection as applied to Man." 



PHYSICAL. SCIENCE. .35 



Wanngton.— THE week of CREATION; OR, THE 
COSMOGONY OF GENESIS CONSIDERED IN ITS 
RELATION TO MODERN SCIENCE. By George War- 
INGTON, Author of " The Historic Character of the Pentateuch 
Vindicated." Crown 8vo. 4^-. dd. 

The greater part of this work it taken- up with the teaching of the 
Cosmogony. Its purpose is also investigated, and a chapter is 
devoted to the consideration of the passage in which the difficulties 
occur. *'A very able vindication of the Mosaic Cosmogony, by a 
writer who unites the advantages of a critical knowledge of the 
Hebrew text and of distinguished scientific attainments.''^ — 
Spectator. 



Wilson. — Works by the late George Wilson, M.D., F.R.S.E., 
Regius Professor of Technology in the University of Edinburgh : — 

RELIGIO CHEMICI. With a Vignette beautifully engraved after 
a design by Sir Noel Paton. Crown 8vo. %s. 6d. 

" George Wilson,^'' says the Preface to this volume, ^^ had it in his heart 
for many years to write a book corresponding to the Religio Medici 
of Sir Thomas Browne, with the title Religio Chemici. Several 
of the Essays in this volume were intended to form chapters of it. 
These fragtnents being in 7nost cases like finished gevis waiting to be 
set, some of thevi are now given in a collected form to his friends 
and the public. In living remembrance of his purpose, the name 
chosen by himself has been adopted, although the original design 
can be but very faintly represented.''^ The Contents of the volume 
are: — ^'^ Chemistry and Natural Theology.''^ " The Chemistry of 
the Stars; an Argument touching the Stars and their Inhabitants.'^ 
^^ Chejnical Final Causes; as illustrated by the pj-esence of Phos- 
phorus, Nitrogen, and Iron in the Higher Sentient Organisms.'" 
''Robert Boyle." ' ' Wollasfon." ' 'Life and Discoveries of Dalton. " 
'■'• Thoughts on the Resurrection; an Address to Medical Students.'" 
"A mor-e fascinating volume," the Spectator says, "has seldom 
fallen into our hands. " The Freeman says: "These papers are all 
valuable and deeply inta-esting. The production of a profound 
thinker, a suggestive and eloquent writer, and a man whose piety 
and genius went hand in hand."" 



36 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 

^W^OVi— continued. 

THE PROGRESS OF THE TELEGRAPH. Fcap. 8vo. \s. 

** While a complete view of the progress of the greatest of human 
inventions is obtained^ all its suggestions are brought out with a 
rare thoughtfulness, a genial humour^ and an exceeding beauty of 
uttei'ance. " — Nonconformist. 

Winslow. — FORCE AND NATURE : ATTRACTION AND 
REPULSION. The Radical Principles of Energy graphically 
discussed in their Relations to Physical and Morphological De- 
velopment. By C. F. Winslow, M.D. 8vo. i^s. 

The author haviiig for long investigated Nature in jnany directions, 
has ever felt unsatisfied with the physical fojindations upon which 
some branches of science have been so long compelled to rest. The 
question, he believes^ must have occurred to many astronomers and 
physicists whether some subtle principle antagonistic to attraction 
does not also exist as an all-pervading element in nature, and so 
operate as in some way to disturb the action of what is generally 
considered by the scientific world a unique force. The aim of the 
present work is to set forth this subject in its broadest aspects, and 
in such a manner as to invite thereto the attention of the learned. 
The subjects of the eleven chapters are : — /. ' ^ Space. ' ' //. " Matte)'. ' ' 
///. *' Inertia, Force, and Mind." IV. ''Molecules.'" V. 
'' Molecular Force.^' VI. '' Union and Inseparability of Matter 
and Force''' VII. and VIII. '■'Nature and Action of Force — 
Attraction — Repulsion.''^ IX. " Cosmical Repulsion. X. "Me- 
chanical Force.''' XI. "Central Forces and Celestial Physics.''' 
"Deserves thoughtful and conscientiaus study''' — Saturday Review. 

WurtZ.— A HISTORY OF CHEMICAL THEORY, from the 
Age of Lavoisier down to the present time. By Ad. Wurtz. 
Translated by Henry Watts, F.R.S. Crown Svo. ds. 

** The discourse, as a resume of chemical theory and research, unites 
singular luminousncss and grasp. A few judicious notes are added 
by the translator."— ?z\\ Mall Gazette. " The treatment of the 
subject is admirable, and the translator has evidently done his duty 
most efiiciently ." — Westminster Review. 



PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY, ETC. 37 



WORKS IN PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY, AND 
MEDICAL WORKS GENERALLY. 



Allbutt (T. C.)— ON THE USE OF THE OPHTHALMO- 
SCOPE in Diseases of the Nervous System and of the Kidneys ; 
also in certain other General Disorders. By Thomas Clifford 
Allbutt, M.A., M.D. Cantab., Physician to the Leeds General 
Infirmary, Lecturer on Practical Medicine, etc. etc. 8vo. 1 5 j. 

The Ophthalmoscope has been fotmd of the highest value in the invcs' 
tigation of nei-vous diseases. But it is not easy for physicians who 
have left the schools^ and are engaged in practice^ to take up a new 
instrument xuhich requires much skill in using ; it is therefore 
hoped that by such the present volume, containing the results of the 
author's extensive use of the instrument in diseases of the nervous 
system, ivill be found of high value ; and that to all sttuients it may 
prove a uscjul hand-book. After four introductory chapters on the 
history and value of the Ophthalmoscope, and the manner of investi- 
gating the states of the optic nei've and retina, the author treats of 
the various diseases with xvhich optic changes are associated, and 
describes the way in which such associations take place. Besides 
the cases referred to throughout the volume, the Appendix con- 
tains details of IIT, cases illustrative of the subjects discussed in the 
text, and a series of tabulated cases to shaiv the Ophthalmoscopic 
appearances of the eye in Insanity, Mania, Dementia, Melancholia 
and Monomania, Idiotcy, and General Paralysis. 7'he volume is 
illustrated with two vahcable coloured plates of morbid appearances 
of the eye tinder the Ophthalmoscope. ^' By its aid men will no 
longer be compelled to work for years in the dark ; they zvill have a 
definite standpoint whence to proceed on their course of investigation. 
— Medical Times. 

THE EFFECTS OF OVERWORK AND STRAIN ON THE 
HEART AND GREAT BLOOD-VESSELS. (Reprinted from 
St. George's Hospital Reports.) 2s. 6d. 



3S SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 

Anderson. — on the treatment oF diseases of 

THE SKIN ; with an Analysis of Eleven Thousand Consecutive 
Cases. By Dr. McCall Anderson, Professor of Practice of 
Medicine in Anderson's University, Physician to the Dispensary for 
Skin Diseases, etc., Glasgow. Crown 8vo. cloth. 5^. 

The first part of this work, which it is believed will be found of the 
greatest value to all medical men, as 7uell as to all who are ititerested 
in its subject, consists of a carefully tabulated and critical analysis 
of 11,000 cases of skin disease, 1,000 of these having occurred in 
the authoi' s private practice, and the rest in his hospital practice. 
These cases are all classified under certain distinct heads, according 
to the nature and cause of the disease, while a number of the more 
interesting cases are alluded to in detail. The second part of the 
work treats of the Therapeutics of Diseases of the Skin, and will be 
found to contain 7?iany valuable hints, the results of a long and ex- 
tensive experience, as to the most successful method of treating their 
multitudinous forms. 

Anstie (F. E.)— neukalgia, and diseases which 

RESEMBLE IT. By Francis E. Anstie, M.D., M.R.C.P., 
Senior Assistant Physician to Westminster Hospital. 8vo. \os. 6d. 

Dr. Anstie is zvell known as one of the greatest living authorities on 
Neuralgia. The present treatise is the result of many years' careful 
independent scientific investigation into the nature and proper treat- 
ment of this most painful disease. The author has had abundant 
means of studying the subject both in his own person and in the 
hundreds of patients that have resorted to him for treatment. He 
has gone into the whole subject indicated in the title ab initio, ana 
the publishers believe it will be found that he has presented it in an 
entirely original light, and done much to rob this excruciating and 
hitherto refractory disease of many of its terrors. The Introduction 
treats briefly of Pain in General, and contains some striking and 
even original ideas as to its nature and in reference to sensation 
generally. 

Barwell.— THE CAUSES AND TREATMENT OF LATERAL 
CURVATURE OF THE SPINE. Enlarged from Lectures 
published in the Lancet. By Richard Barwell, F.R.C.S., 
Surgeon to and Lecturer on Anatomy at the Charing Cross Hospital. 
Second Edition. Crown 8vo. 4^-. bd. 



PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY, ETC. 39 

Having failed to find in books a satisfactory theory of those conditions 
which produce latcj-al curvature, Mr. Barwell resolved to investi- 
gate the subject for himself ab initio. The present work is the 
result of long and patient study of Spines, normal and abnormal. 
He believes the views whidi he has been led to form account for those 
essential characteristics which have hitherto been left unexplained ; 
and the treatment which he advocates is certainly less irksome, and 
will be found more efficacious than that which has hitherto been 
pursued. Indeed, the mode in which the first edition has been 
received by the profession is a gratifying sign that Mr. BanvelPs 
principles have made their value and their weight felt. Many 
pages and a number of woodcuts have been added to the Second 
Edition. 

Corfield (Professor W. H.)— a digest of facts 

RELATING TO THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION 
OF SEWAGE. ByW. H. Corfield, M.A., B.A., Professor 
of Hygiene and Public Health at University College, London. 
8vo. \os. 6d. Second Edition, corrected and enlarged. 

The author in the Second Edition has revised and corrected the entire 
work, and made many important additions. The headings of the 
eleven chapters are as follow: — /. ^ Early Systems: Midden- Heaps 
and Cesspools.'''' II. ^^ Filth and Disease — Cause and Effect.^* 
III. ^'Improved Midden-Pits and Cesspools ; Midden- Closets, Pail- 
Closets, etc.''' IV. ''The Dry- Closet Systems. V. ''Water-Closets.'' 
VI. "Sewerage.''' VII. "Sanitary Aspects oj the Water- Cortying 
System." VIII. "Value of Setvage; Injury to Rivers." IX. 
"Town Sewage; Attempts at Utilization." X. "Filtration and 
Irrigation." XI. "Influence of Sewage Farming on the Public 
Health." An abridged account of the more recently published 
researches on the subject will be found in the Appendices, while 
the Summary contains a concise statement of the views which the 
author himself has been led to adopt: references have been inserted 
throughout to show from what sources the numei'oiis quotations have 
been derived, and an Index has been added. "Mr. Corfield' s work 
is entitled to rank as a standard authority, no less than a £on- 
venient handbook, in all matters relating to srjuage." — Athenasiim. 

Elam (C.) — A PHYSICIAN'S PROBLEMS. By Charles 
ELAM, M.D., M.R.C.P. Crown 8vo. 9^. 



40 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE, 



Contents :— •' Natural Heritage." *' On Degeneration hi Man'' 
'^ On Moral and Criminal Epidemics.'' ^^Body v. Mind." *' Il- 
lusions and Hallucinations." ^^ On Somnambulism ^^ Reverie 
and Abstraction. " These Essays are intended as a contribution to 
the Natural History of those outlying regions of Thought and 
Action whose domain is the debateable ground of Brain, Nerve, 
and Mind. They are designed also to indicate the origin and mode 
of perpetuation of those varieties of organization, intelligence, and 
general tendencies towards vice or virtue, which seefn to be so 
capriciously developed among mankind. They also point to causes 
for the infinitely varied forms of disorder of nerve and brain — 
organic and functional— far deeper and more recondite than those 
generally believed in. " The book is one which all statesmen, 
magistrates, clergymen, medical men, and parents should study and 
inwardly digest." — Examiner. 

Fox. — -Works by Wilson Fox, M.D. Lond., F.R.C.P., Holme 
Professor of Clinical Medicine, University College, London, 
Physician Extraordinary to her Majesty the Queen, etc. : — 

DISEASES OF THE STOMACH : being a new and revised 
Edition of "The Diagnosis and Treatment of the 
Varieties of Dyspepsia." 8vo. Sj. dd. 

ON THE ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION OF TUBERCLE IN 
THE LOWER ANIMALS. With Coloured Plates. 4to. 5^. 6d. 
In this Lecture Dr. Fox describes in minute detail a large number of 
experiments made by him on guineapigs and rabbits for the pur- 
pose ofinquh'ing into the origin of Tubercle by the agency of direct 
irritation or by septic matters. This method of inquiry he believes 
to be one of the most important advances which have been recently 
made in the pathology of the disease. The work is illustj-ated by 
three plates, each cotztaining a number of carefully coloured illus- 
trations from nature. 

ON THE TREATMENT OF HYPERPYREXIA, as Illustrated 
in Acute Articular Rheumatism by means of the External Applica- 
tion of Cold. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

The object of this work is to show that the class op cases included under 
the title, and ivhich have hitherto been invariably fatal, may, by 
a judicious use of the cold bath and without venesection, be brought 



PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY, ETC. 



to a favourable termination. Minute details are given of the 
successful treatment by this method of two patients by the author, 
followed by a Covimentary on the cases, in which the merits of the 
mode of treatment are discussed and compared with those of methods 
followed by other etninent practitioners. Appended are tables of the 
observations made on the temperature during the treatment; a table 
showing the effect of the immersion of the patients in the baths em- 
ployed, in order to exhibit the rate at which the temperature was 
lowered in each case; a table of the chief details of twenty-iwo 
cases of this class recently published, and which are referred to in 
various parts of the Commentary. Two Charts are also introduced, 
giving a connected view of the progress of the two successful cases, 
and a series of sphygmographic tracings of the pulses of the two 
patients. '^A clinical study of rare value. Should be read by 
everyone.'''' — Medical Press and Circular. 

Galton (D.) — an address on the general prin- 
ciples WHICH should be OBSERVED IN THE 
CONSTRUCTION OF HOSPITALS. Delivered to the British 
Medical Association at Leeds, July 1869. By Douglas Galton, 
C. B. , F. R. S. Crown 8vo. 3^. dd. 

Jr this Address the author endeavours to enunciate what are those 
principles which seem to him to form the starting-point from which 
all architects should proceed in the construction of hospitals. Be- 
sides Mr. Galton' s paper the book contains the opinions expressed in 
the subsequent discussion by several eminent medical men, such as 
Dr. Kennedy, Sir James Y. Simpson, Dr. Hughes Bennet, and 
others. The work is illustrated by a number of plans, sections, and 
other cuts. *^An admirable exposition of those conditions of struc- 
ture which most conduce to cleanliness, economy, and convenience." 
— Times. 

Harley (J.)— the old vegetable neurotics, Hem- 
lock, Opium, Belladonna, and Henbane; their Physiological 
Action and Therapeutical Use, alone and in combination. Being 
the Gulstonian Lectures of 1868 extended, and including a Complete 
Examination of the Active Constituents of Opium. By John 
Harley, M.D. Lond., F.R.C.P., F.L.S., etc. 8vo. 12s. 
The author's object throughout- the investigations and experiments on 
7vhich this volume is founded has been to ascertain, clearly and 



SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 



definitely, the action of the drugs employed on the healthy body in 
medicinal doses, from the smallest to the largest ; to deduce simple 
practical conclusions from the facts observed ; and then to apply the 
drug to the relief of the particular conditions to -which its action 
appeared suited. Many experiments have been made by the author 
both on men and the lower animals ; and the author's endeavour 
has been to prresent to the mind, as far as words may do, ijjipres- 
sions of the actual condition of the individual subjected to the 
drug. ** Those who are interested generally in the progress of 
medical science will find much to repay a careful perusal.'''' — 
Athenaeum. 

Hood (Wharton).— ON BONE-SETTING (so called), and 
its Relation to the Treatment of Joints Crippled by Injury, Rheu- 
matism, Inflammation, etc. etc. By Wharton P. Hood, 
M.D., M.R.C.S. Crown 8vo. 4^.6^. 

The author for a period attended the London practice of the late Mr. 
Hutton, the famous and successful bone-setter, by whom, he was 
initiated into the mystery of the art and practice. Thus the author 
is amply qualified to write on the subject from the practical point of 
viru), while his professional education enables him t» consider it in 
its scientific and surgical bearings. In the present work he gives a 
brief account of the salient features of a bone-setter' s 7nethod of pro- 
cedure in the treatff lent of damaged joints, of the results of that treat- 
ment, and of the class of cases in which he has seen it prove successful. 
The author's aim is to give the rationale of the bone-setter' s practice, 
to reduce it to something like a scientific method, to show whenfojre 
should be resorted to and when it should not, and to initiate 
surgeons into the secret of Mr. HuttofUs successful manifmlation. 
Throughout the work a great number of authentic instances of 
successful treatment are given, with the details of the method of 
cure ; and the Chapters on Manipulations and Affections of the 
Spine are illustrated by a number of appropriate and zoell-exeeuted 
cuts. ^^ Dr. Hoods book is full of instruction, and sJwuld be read 
by all surgeons,^'' — Medical Times. 

Humphry. — Works by G.M. Humphry, M.D., F.R.S., Professor 
of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge, and Honorary Fellow 
of Downing College : — 
THE HUMAN SKELETON (including the Joints). With 260 
Illustrations, drawn from nature. Medium 8vo. 28^-. 



PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY, ETC. 43 

Humphry (G. yi.)— continued. 

In lecturing on the Skeleton it has been the author' s practice, instead 
of giving a detailed account of the several parts, to request his 
students to get up the descriptive anatomy of certain bones, zuith the 
aid of sotne work on osteology. He afterwards tested their acquire- 
7nents by examination, endeavouring to supply deficiencies and 
correct errors, adding also such information— physical, physiologi- 
cal, pathological, and practical — as he had gathered from his own 
observation and researches, and which was likely to be useful attd 
excite an interest in the subject. This additio7ial information 
forjns, in great part, the material oj this volume, which is intended 
to be supplementary to existing works on anatomy. Considerable 
space has been devoted to the description of the joints, because it is 
less fully given in other works, and because an accurate knowledge 
of the structure and peculiar form of the joints is essential to a 
correct knowledge of their movements. The numerous illustrations 
were all drawn upon stone from nature ; and in most instances, 
from specimens prepared for the purpose by the author himself 
'■^Bearing at once the stamp of the accomplished scholar, and 
evidences of the skilful anatomist. We express our admiration of 
the di'awingsT — Medical Times and Gazette. 

OBSERVATIONS IN MYOLOGY. 8vo. 6j. 

Professor Humphry' s previous works have gained for him a very high 
position as an original anatomist, and the present it is believed 
will fully sustain Jhat reputation, as well as prove valuable to al 
who take an interest in the higher problems of anatomy. The work 
includes the Myology of Cryptobranch, Lepidosiren, Dog-Fish, 
Ceratodus, and Psmdopus Pallasii, with the Nerves of Cryptobranch 
and Lepidosiren and the Disposition of Muscles in Vertebrate 
Animals. The volume abounds in carefully executed illustrations. 

Huxley's Physiology. — See p. 27, preceding. 

Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. 

Conducted by Professors Humphry and Newton, and Mr. Clark 
of Cambridge, Professor Turner of Edinburgh, and Dr. 
Wright of Dublin. Published twice a year. Old Series, Parts 
I. and II., price ^s. ed. each. Vol. I. containing Parts I. and II., 
Royal 8vo., i6j. New Series, Parts I. to IX. 6s. each, or yearly 
Vols. I2s. 6d. each. 



44 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 

Lankester.— COMPARATIVE longevity in man and 

THE LOWER ANIMALS. By E. Ray Lankester, B.A. 
Crown 8vo. 4J. ^d. 

This Essay gained the prize offered by the University of Oxford for 
the best Paper on the subject of which it treats. This interesting- 
subject is here treated in a thorough ?nanner, both scientifically and 
statistically. 

Maclaren — training, in theory and practice. 

By Archibald Maclaren, the Gymnasium, Oxford. 8vo. 
Handsomely bound in cloth, 'js. 6d. 

The ordinary agents of health are Exercise, Diet, Sleep, Air, Bath- 
ing, and Clothing. In this work the author examines each of 
these agents in detail, and froju two different points of view. First, 
as to the manner in which it is, or should be, administered zmder 
ordinary circumstances : and secondly, in what manner and to 
zvhat extetit this mode of administration is, or should be, altered for 
purposes of training ; the object of ^''training," according to the 
nuthor, being '^^ to put the body, with extreme and exceptional care, 
under the influence of all the agents which promote its health and 
strength, in order to enable it to meet extreme and exceptional de- 
mands upon its energies.'" Appended are various diagrams and 
tables relating to boat-racing, and tables connected with diet and 
training. " The philosophy of hujnan health has seldom received 
^ so apt an exposition.'''' — Globe. ''^ After all the nonsense that has 
been written about training, it is a comfort to gtt hold of a 
tho7-oughly sensible book at last. " — ^John Bull. 

Macpherson. — Works by John Macpherson, M.D. : — 

THE BATHS AND WELLS OF EUROPE ; Their Action and 
Uses. With Hints on Change of Air and Diet Cures. With a 
Map. Extra fcap. 8vo. 6^-. bd. 

This work is intetided to supply infvmation which will afford aid in 
the selection of such Spas as are suited for particular cases. It 
exhibits a sketch of the present condition of our knowledge on the 
subject of the operation of viineral waters, gathered from the 
author's personal observation, and from every other available 
source of information. It is divided into four books, and each 



PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY, ETC. 45 

Macpherson (},)— continued. 

book into several chapters '.r—Book I. Elements of Treatment, in 
which, among other matters, the external and intej-nal uses of water 
are treated of . II. Bathing, treating of the various kinds of baths. 
HI Wells, treating of the various kinds of mineral waters. 
IV. Diet Cures, in which various vegetable, rnilk, and other 
" cures " are discussed. Appended is an Index of Diseases noticed, 
and one of places named. Prefixed is a sketch map of the principal 
baths and places of health-resort in Europe. '■'■ Dr. Macpherson 
has given the kind of information which every medical practitioner 
ought to possess." — The Lancet. '* Whoever wants to know the 
real character of any health-7'esort must read Dr. Macpherson^ s 
book.'^ — Medical Times. 

OUR BATHS AND WELLS : The Mineral Waters of the British 
Islands, with a List of Sea-bathing Places. Extra fcap. 8vo. 
pp. XV. 205. y. 6d. 

Dr. Macpherson has divided his work into five parts. He begins by 
a fezu introductory observations on bath life, its circumstances, uses, 
and pleasures ; he then explains in detail the composition of the 
various mineral wata'S, and points out the special curative p>r0' 
perties of each class. A chapter ojt '^ The History of British 
Wells " frofji the earliest period to the present time forms the 
natural transition to the second part of this volume, which treats 0/ 
the different kinds of minei'al waters in England, whether pure, 
thermal and earthy, saline, chalybeate, or sulphur. Wales, Scot- 
land, and Ireland supply the materials for distinct sections. An 
Index of mineral zvaters, one of sea-bathing places, and a third of 
wells of pure or nearly pure water, terminate the book, ^^l^his little 
volume forms a very available handbook for a large class of 
invalids." — Nonconformist. 

Maudsley. — Works by Henry Maudsley, M.D., Professor of 
Medical Jurisprudence in University College, London : — 
BODY AND MIND : An Inquiry into their Connection and 
Mutual Influence, specially in reference to Mental Disorders ; being 
the Gulstonian Lectures for 1870. Delivered before the Royal 
College of Physicians. Crown 8vo. 5^. 

The volume consists of three Lectures and two long Appendices, the 
general plan of the whole being to bring Man, both in his physical 



SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 



Maudsley i^.)— continued. 

and mental relations, as jnuch as possible under the scope of scientific 
inquiry. The first Lecture is devoted to an exposition of the physical 
conditions of mental function in health. In the second Lecture are 
sketchedthe features of some for77is of degeneracy of mind, as exhibited 
in morbid varieties of the hu??ian kind, with the purpose of bringing 
prominently into notice the operation of physical causes from 
generation to generation, and the relationship of mental to other 
diseases of the nervous system. In the third Lecture are displayed 
the relations of morbid states of the body and disordered mental 
function. Appendix I. is a criticism of the Archbishop of YorJSs 
address on *' The Limits of Philosophical Inquiry.'''' Appendix II. 
deals with the ^^ Theory of Vitality, ^^ in tvhich the author en- 
deavours to set forth the reflections which facts seem to warrant. 
'*It distinctly marks a step in the progress of scientific psychology.''^ 
— The Practitioner, 

THE PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY OF MIND. 
Second Edition, Revised. 8vo. i6j. 

This work is the result of an endeavour on the author'' s part to arrive 
at some definite conviction tvith regard to the physical conditions of 
mental function, and the relation of the phenomena of sound and 
unsound mind. The author'' s aim throughout has been twofgld : 
I. To treat of mental phenojnena from a physiological rather than 
from a metaphysical point of view. II. To bring the manifold 
instructive instances p>resented by the unsound mind to bear upon 
the interpretation of the obscure problems of mental science. In the 
first part, the author pursues his independent inquiry into the 
science of Mind in the same direction as that followed by Bain, 
Spencer, Laycock, and Carpenter ; and in the second, he studies 
the subject in a light which, in this country at least, is almost 
entirely novel. ^^ Dr. Maudsley s work, which has already become 
standard, we most urgently recommend to the careful study of 
all those who are interested in the physiology and pathology of the 
brain. " — Anthropological Review. 

Practitioner (The). — A Monthly journal of Therapeutics. 
Edited by Francis E. Anstie, M.D. 8vo. ' Price is. 6d 
Vols. I to IX,, 8vo. cloth. io.y. 6d. each. 



PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY, ETC. 47 

Radcliffe. — dynamics of nerve and muscle. By 

Charles Bland Radcliffe, M.D., F.R.C.P., Physician to the 
"Westminster Hospital, and to the National Hospital for the 
Paralysed and Epileptic. Crown 8vo. 8j-. dd. 

This work contains the result of the author' s long investigations into the 
Dynamics of Nerve and Muscle, as connectedzvith Animal Electricity. 
The author endeavours to show from these researches that the state 
of action in nerve and muscle, instead of being a manifestation of 
vitality, must be brought under the domain of physical law in order 
to be intelligible, and that a different meaning, also based upon pure 
physics, must be attached to the state of rest. " The practitioner- 
tvill find in Dr. Radcliffe a ^ guide, philosopher, and friend,^ from 
7vhose teaching he cannot fail to reap a plentiful harvest of new and 
valuable ideas'' — Scotsman, 

Reynolds (J. R.)— a system of medicine. Vol. i. 

Edited by J. Russell Reynolds, M.D,, F.R.C.P. London. 

Second Edition. 8vo. 25^-. 

^^ It is the best Cyclopcedia of medicine of the time.'' — Medical Press. 

Fart I. General Diseases, or Affections of the Whole System. 
§ /. — Those determined by agents operating from without, such as 
the exanthemata, malarial diseases, and their allies. % II. — Those 
determined by conditions existing within the body, such as Gout, 
Rheuf7iatis77i, Rickets, etc. Part II. Local Diseases, or Affections 
of particular Systems. § /. — Diseases of the Skin. ■ 

A SYSTEM OF MEDICINE. Vol. II. Second Edition. 8vo. 

2SS. 

Part II Local Diseases (continued). % I^ Diseases of the Nervous 
Systefn. A. General Nervous Diseases. B. Partial Diseases of 
the Nervous System, i. Diseases of the Head. 2. Diseases of the 
Spinal Column. 3. Diseases ef the Nerves. § II. — Diseases of 
the Digestive System. A. Diseases of the Stofnach. 

A SYSTEM OF MEDICINE. Vol. III. 8vo. 25^. 

Part II Local Diseases (continued). § //. Diseases of the Digestive 
System (continued). B. Diseases of the Mouth. C. Diseases of 
the Fauces, Pharynx, and CEsophagus. D. Diseases of the In- 
testines. E. Diseases of the Peritoneum. F. Diseases of the 



48 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 



Live)'. G. Diseases of the Pancreas. § ///. — Diseases of the 
Respiratory System. A. Diseases of the Larynx. B. Diseases of 
the Thoracic Organs. ^^ One of the best and most comprehensive 
treatises on Medicine which have yet been attempted in any country. ^^ 
— Indian Medical Journal. ^''Contains some of the best essays 
that have lately appeared^ and is a complete library in itself J^ — 
Medical Press. 

Reynolds (O.)— sewer gas, and how to keep it 

OUT OF HOUSES. A Handbook on House Drainage. By 
Osborne Reynolds, M.A., Professor of Engineering at Owens 
" College, Manchester, Fellow of Queen's College, Cambridge. 
Second. Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth. \s. 6d. 

The author'' s chief object in ivriting on this subject is to suggest a plan 
for preventing the evil which has been causing so much alarm since 
the recent illness of the Prince of Wales — viz. the back-flow of gas 
into our houses. Of the plan he here suggests^ he has nozu had 
four years' experience, and has, without exception, found it to answer 
perfectly. He applied it to his own house, a house of the ordinary 
type drained into a foul sriver, at a cost of about fifty shillings. 
Before the introduction of the new plan it was nevet- free from smells: 
while since, there has been no annoyance of the kind, nor have the 
drains required any attention zvhatever. The plan is very simple 
and can be applied to any house without requiring the inside drains 
to be disturbed. Besides fully explaining the plan and shoiving its 
application by means of illustrations, the author throws out sug- 
gestions with regard to drainage generally which many will find 
to be very valuable. ^^ Professor Reynolds' admirable pamphlet will 
a thousand times over repay its cost and the 7'eader''s most attentive 
perusal." — Mechanics' Magazine. 

Seaton.— A handbook of vaccination. By Edwari> 
C. Seaton, M.D,, Medical Inspector to the Privy Council. Extra 
'fcap. 8vo. 8j. ()d. 

The author's object in putting forth this work is twofold: First, to 
provide a text-book on the science and practice of Vaccination for 
the use of younger practitioners and of medical students ; secondly, 
to give what assistance he could to those engaged in the administra- 
tion of the system of Public Vaccination established in England. 



PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY, ETC. 49 

For many years past, from the nature of his office. Dr. Seaton has 
had constant intercourse in reference to the subject of Vaccination, 
with medical men who are inta-ested in it, and especially with that 
large part of the profession who are engaged as Public Vacci- 
tiators. All the varieties of pocks, both in men and the lower 
animals, are treated of in detail, and much valuable information 
given on all points connected with lymph, and minute instructions 
as to the niceties and cautions which so greatly influence success 
in Vaccination. The administrative sections of the work will be 
of interest and value, not only to medical practitionei's, but to 
many others to whom a right understanding of the principles on 
which a system of Public Vaccination should be based is indis- 
pensable. ^'^ Henceforth the indispensable handbook of Public Vacci- 
nation, and the standard authority on this great subject.'''' — Britist 
Medical Journal. 

Symonds (J. A., M.D.)— miscellanies. By John 
Addington Symonds, M.D. Selected and Edited, with an 
Introductory Memoir, by his Son. 8vo. 7^. (>d. 

The late Dr. Symonds of Bristol was a man of a singularly versatile 
and elegant as well as powerful and scientific intellect. In order 
to make this selection from his many works generally interesting, 
the editor has confined himself to works of pure literature, and to 
such scientific studies as had a general philosophical or social 
interest. Among the general subjects are articles on *^ the Principles 
of Beauty," on '' Knowledge," and a ''Life of Dr. Prichard ;" 
among the Scientific Studies are papers on ''Sleep and Dreams," 
"Apparitions," "the Relations between Mind and Muscle," 
"Habit," etc.; there are several papers on "the Social and 
Political Aspects of Medicine ; " and a few Poems and Transla- 
tions selected from a great number of equal merit. "A collection of 
graceful essays on general and scientific subjects, by a very accom- 
plished physician." — Graphic. 



\ 



so SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 



WORKS ON MENTAL AND MORAL 
PHILOSOPHY, AND ALLIED SUBJECTS. 

Aristotle. — an introduction to aristotle'S 

RHETORIC. With Analysis, Notes, and Appendices. By E. 
M. Cope, Trinity College, Cambridge. 8vo. 14J. 

This work is introductory to an edition of the Greek Text of Aristotlis 
Rhetoric y which is in course of preparation. Its object is to render 
that treatise thoroughly intelligible. The author has aimed to 
illustrate^ as preparatory to the detailed explanation of the work, the 
general bearings and relations of the Art of Rhetoric in itself as 
•well as the special mode of treating it adopted by Aristotle in his 
peculiar system. The evidence upon obscure or doubtful questions 
connected with the subject is examined; and the relations which 
Rhetoric bears, in Aristotle's view, to the kindred art of Logic are 
fully considered. A connected Analysis of the work is given, and 
a feiu important matters are separately discussed in Appendices. 
There is added, as a general Appendix, by way of specimen of the 
antagonistic system of Isocrates and others, a complete analysis oj 
the treatise called 'PrfTopix"^ Trpds 'A\€^avdpov, with a discussion oJ 
its authorship and of the probable results of its teaching. 

ARISTOTLE ON FALLACIES; OR, THE SOPHISTICI 
ELENCHI. With a Translation and Notes by Edward Poste, 
M.A., Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 8vo. 8^. dd. 

Besides the doctrine of Fallacies, Aristotle offers, either in this treatise 
or in other passages quoted in the Cotiwientary, variotis glances 
over the world of science and opinion, various suggestions or pro- 
blems which are still agitated, and a vivid picture of the ancient 
system of dialectics, xvhich it is hoped may be found both interesting 



I 



MENTAL AND MORAL PHI LOS OP H V, ETC 51 

and instructive. ''^ It will be an assistance to genuine students qf 
Jristotle."—G\\a.rdia.n. '*It is indeed a work of g^ cat skill." — 
Saturday Review. 

Boole. — AN INVESTIGATION OF THE LAWS OF 
THOUGHT, ON WHICH ARE FOUNDED THE 
MATHEMATICAL THEORIES OF LOGIC AND PRO- 
BABILITIES. By Georgl Boole, LLD. Professor of 
Mathematics in the Queen's University, Ireland, &c. 8vo. 14V. 

The design of this treatis., is to investigate the fundamental laws of 
those operations of the mind by which reasoning is performed ; to 
give expression to thejn in the symbolical language of a Calculus, 
and upon this foundation to establish the science of Logic and con • 
struct its method : to make that method itself the basis of a general 
method for the application of the mathematical doctrine of Proba- 
bilities ; and, finally, to collect from the various elements of truth 
brought to view in the course of these inquiries some probable inti- 
mations concendng the nature and construction of the human 
mind. The problem is one of the highest interest, and no one is 
better able than Professor Boole to treat of this side of ic at any ra'e. 

Butler (W. A.), Late Professor of Moral Philosophy in the 
University of Dublin : — 

LECTURES ON THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT PHILO- 
SOPHY. Edited from the Author's MSS., with Notes, by 
William Hepworth Thompson, M.A., jNIaster of Trinity 
College, and Regius Professor of Greek in the University of 
Cambridge. Two Volumes. 8vo. il. "^s. 

These Lectures consist of an Introductory Series on the Science of Mind 
genei-ally, and five other Series on Ancient Philosophy, the greater 
■ part of which treat of Plato and the Platonists, the Fifth Series 
being an unfinished course on the Psychology of Aristotle, contain- 
ing an able Analysis of the well known though by no means well 
understood Treatise, Trepl yvxvs. These Lectures are the result oj 
patient and conscientious examination of the original documents, 
and may be considered as a petfectly independent contribution to our 
kncrwledge of the great master of Grecian wisdom. Tlie authors 
intimate familiarity with the metaphysical writings of the last 
century, and especially wtfh the English and Scotch School of 

D 2 



52 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 

Butler (W. K.)— continued. 

Psychologists, has enabled him to illustrate the subtle speculations 
of which he treats >n a manner calculated to render them more 
intelligible to the English mind than they can be by writers trained 
solely in t/ie technicalities of modern German schools. The editoi' 
has verified all the references, and added valuable Notes, in which 
he points out sources of more complete information. The Lectures 
constitute a History of the Platonic Philosophy — its seed-time, 
maturity, and decay. 

, SERMONS AND LETTERS ON ROMANISM.- See Theo- 
logical Catalogue. 

CalderwOOd. — Works by the Rev. Henry Calderwood, M.A., 
LL.D., Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edin- 
burgh : — 
PHILOSOPPIY OF THE INFINITE : A Treatise on Man's 
Knowledge of the Infinite Being, in answer to Sir W. Hamilton 
and Dr. Mansel. Cheaper Edition. 8vo. 7^. dd. 

The purpose of this volujue is, by a careful analysis of consciousness, 
to prove, in opposition to Sir W. Hamilton and Mr. Mansel, that 
man possesses a notion of an Infinite Being, and to ascertain the 
peculiar nature of the conception and the particular relations in 
which it is found to arise. The province of Faith as related to that 
of Knowledge, and the characteristics of Knozvledge and Thought 
as bearing on this subject, are examined; and. separate chapters are 
devoted to the consideration of our knowledge of the Infinite as 
First Cause, as Moral Governor, and as the Object of Worship. 
**A book of great ability .... written in a clear style, and may 
be easily understood by even those who are not versed in such 
discussions^ — British Quarterly Review. 

A HANDBOOK OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY. Crown 8vo. 6j. 
// IS, we feel convinced, the best handbook on the subject, intellectually 
and morally, and does infinite credit to its author. — Standard. 

Elam.— A PHYSICIAN'S PROBLEMS. — See Medical 
Catalogue, preceding. 

Galton (Francis).— HEREDITARY GENIUS : An Inquiry 
into its Laws and Consequences. See Physical Science 
Catalogue, preceding. 



MENTAL AND MORAL PHILOSOPHY, ETC. 5 3 



Green (J. H.)— spiritual philosophy: Founded on 
the Teaching of the late Samuel Taylor Coleridge. By tlie 
late Joseph Henry Green, F.R.S., D.C.L. Edited, with a 
Memoir of the Author's Life, by John Simon, F.R.S., Medical 
Officer of Her Majesty's Privy Council, and Surgeon to St. 
Thomas's Hospital. Two Vols. 8vo. 25^. 

l^he late Mr. Green, the eminent surgeon, was for many years the 
intimate friend and disciple of Coleridge, and an ardent student of 
philosophy. The language of Coleridge's will imposed on Mr. 
Green the obligation of devoting, so far as necessary, the remainder 
of his life to the one task of systematising, developing, and establish- 
ing the doctrines of the Coleridgian philosophy. With the assist- 
ance of Coleridge's manuscripts, but especially from the knowledge 
he possessed of Coleridge's doctrines, and indetendent study of at least 
the basal prrinciples and metaphysics of the sciences and of all the 
phenomena of human life, he proceeded logically to woi'k out a 
system of universal philosophy such as he deemed would in the main 
accord with his master'' s aspirations. After many years of pre- 
paratory labour he resolved to complete in a compendious form a 
work which should give in system the doctrines most distinctly 
Coleridgian. The result is these two volumes. The first volume 
is devoted to the general principles of philosophy ; the second aims at 
vindicating a priori (on principles for which the first volume has 
contended) the essential doctrines of Christianity. The work is 
divided into four parts: I. ''On the Intellectual Faculties and 
processes which are concerned in the Investigation of Truth.'* 
II. "Of First Principles in Philosophy." III. " Truths of 
Religion." IV. " The Idea of Christianity in relation to Con- 
troversial Philosophy." 

Huxley (Professor.) — LAY SERMONS, ADDRESSES, 
AND REVIEWS. See Physical Science Catalogue, 
preceding. 

Jevons. — Works by W. Stanley Jevons, M.A., Professor of 
Logic in Owens College, Manchester : — 

THE SUBSTITUTION OF SIMILARS, the True Principle of 
Reasoning. Derived from a Modification of Aristotle's Dictum 
Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 



54 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 



J e V O n S — continued. 

** All acts of reasoning,''' the author says, *' seem to me to be dif- 
ferent cases of one iiniforni process, which may perhaps be best 
described as the substitution of similars. This phrase cLarly 
expresses that familiar mode in zuhich we continually argue by 
analogy from like to like, and take one thing as a representative 
of another. The chief difficulty consists in showing that all the 
forms of the old. logic, as well as the fundamental rules of mathe- 
matical reasoning, may be explained upon the same principle; and 
it is to this difficult task I have devoted the most attention. Should 
my notion be true, a vast mass of technicalities may be swept from 
our logical text-books and yet the small remaining part of logical 
doctrine will prove far more useful than all the learning of the 
Schoolmen.''^ Prefixed is apian of a new reasoning machine, the 
Logical Abacus, the constrttction and working of which is fully 
explained in the text and Appendix. '■^ Mr. fevons' book is very 
clear and intelligible, and quite zuorth consulting.^' — Guardian. 

MaCCOll. — THE GREEK SCEPTICS, from Pyrrho -to Sextus. 
An Essay which obtained the Hare Prize in the year 1868. By 
Norman Maccoll, B.A., Scholar of Downing College, Cam- 
bridge. Crown 8vo, 3J. 6d. 

This Essay consists of five parts : I. ^^ Introduction.'^ II. *■* Pyrrho 
and Timon." 77/. ''The New Academy." IV. ''The Later 
Sceptics." V. " The Pyrrhoneans and New Academy con- 
trasted." — "Mr. Maccoll has produced a monograph which merits 
the gratitude of all students of philosophy. His style is clear and 
mgorous ; he has mastered the authorities, and criticises them in a 
modest but independent spirit." — t'all Mall Gazette. 

M'Cosh — Works by James M 'Cosh, LL.D., President of Princeton 

College, New Jersey, U.S. 

" He certainly shoivs himself skilful in that application of logic to 
psychology, in that inductive science of the human mind which is 
the fine side of English philosophy. His philosophy as a whole is 
worthy of attention." — Revue de Ueux Mondes. 

THE METHOD OF THE DIVINE GOVERNMENT, Physical 
and Moral. Tenth Edition. 8vo. \os. ^d. 



MENTAL AND MORAL PHILOSOPHY, ETC. 55 



M'Cosh (].)— continued. 

This work is divided into four books. The first presents a general 
view of the Divine Government as fitted to thrcnu light on th e 
character of God; the second deals with the method of the Divine 
Government in the physical world; the third treats of the principles 
of the human mind through which God governs mankind; and the 
fourth is on Pastoral and Revealed Religion, and the Restoration 
of Man. An Appendix, consisting of seven articles, investigates 
the fundamental principles which underlie the speculations of the 
treatise. ** This work is distinguished from other similar ones by 
its being based upon a thorough study of physical science, and an 
accurate knowledge of its present condition, and by its entering in a 
deeper and more unfettered manner than its predecessors upon the dis- 
cussion of the appropriate psychological, ethical, and theological ques- 
tions. The author keeps aloof at once from the a priori idealism and 
dreaminess of German speculation since Schelling, and from the 
onesidedness and narrowness of the empiricism and positivism 
which have so prevailed in England,'''' — Dr. Ulrici, in "Zeitschrift 
fiir Philosophic." 

THE INTUITIONS OF THE MIND. A New Edition. 8vo. 
cloth. \os. 6d. 

The object of this treatise is to determine the trite nature of Intuition^ 
and to investigate its laws. It starts with a general view of 
intuitive convictions, their character and the method in zuhich they 
are employed, and passes on to a more detailed examination of 
them, treating them under the vari-ous heads of '"'■ Primitive Cogni- 
tions, " * ' Primitive Beliefs, " " Primitive Judgments, ''^ and " Moral 
Convictions.^^ Their relations to the vai'ious sciences, mental and 
physical, are then examined. Collateral criticisms are thrown 
into preliminary and stipplementary chapters and sections. ** The 
tindertaking to adjust the claims of the sensational and intuitional 
philosophies, and of the a posteriori and a priori methods, is 
accomplished in this work with a great amount of success." — 
Westminster Review. **/ value it for its large acquaintance 
with English Philosophy, which has not led him to neglect the 
great German works. I admire the moderation and clearness, as 
well as comprehensiveness, of the author's views.'" — Dr. Dorner, of 
Berlin. 

AN EXAMINATION OF MR. J. S. MILL'S PHILOSOPHY: 
Being a Defence of Fundamental Truth. Crown 8vo. Is. 6d. 



56 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 

M'Cosh {I.)— continued. 

This volume is not put forth by its author as a special reply to Mr. 
Mill's ^^Examination of Sir William Hamiltor^s Philosophy .'' 
In that work Mr. Mill has furnished the means of thoroughly 
estimating his theory of mind, of which he had only given hints 
and glimpses in his logical treatise. It is this theory which Dr. 
M^Cosh professes to examine in this volume; his aim is simply to 
defend a portion of primary truth which has been assailed by an 
acute thinker who has extensive influence in England. *^In 
such points as Mr. ' Mill's notions of intuitions and necessity, he 
will have the voice of mankind with him.'''— Athenseum. ^^ Such 
a work greatly needed to be done, and the author was the man to 
do it. This volume is important, not merely in reference to the 
viezvs of Mr. Mill, but of the whole school of writei's, past and 
present, British af id Continental, he so ably represents."" — Princeton 
Review. 

THE LAWS OF DISCURSIVE THOUGHT : Being a Text- 
book of Formal Logic. Crown 8vo. 5j. 

The main feature of this Logical Treatise is to be found in the more 
thorough investigation of the nature of the notion, in regard to 
which the views of the school of Locke and Whately are regarded 
by the author as very defective, and the views of the school of Kant 
and Ham.ilton altogether erroneous. The author, believes thai 
errors spring far more frequently from obscure, inadequate, indis- 
tinct, and confused Notions, and from not placing the Notions in 
their proper relation in judgment, than from Ratiocination. In 
this treatise, therefore, the Notion (with the term, and the Relation 
of Thought to Language) will be found to occupy a larger relative 
place than in any logical work written since the ti?ne of the fatuous 
Art of Thinking. ^^ The amount of summarized information 
which it contains is very great; and it is the only work on the very 
important subject with which it deals. Never was such a work 
so much needed as in the present day.'' — London Quarterly 
Review. 
CHRISTIANITY AND POSITIVISM : A Series of Lectures to 
the Times on Natural Theology and Apologetics. Crown 8vo. 
is. dd. 

These Lectures were delivered in New York, bv appointment, in the 
beginning of 1 87 1, as the second course on the foundation of 



MENTAL AND MORAL PHILOSOPHY, ETC. 57: 

the Union Theological Sejninary. There are ten Lectures in ally. 
divided into three series : — /. * ' Christianity and Physical Science'^ 
(three lectures). II. ''Christianity and Mental Science'' (four 
lectures). III. ' * Christianity and Historical Investigation " (three 
lectures). The Appendix contains articles on ''Gaps in the Theory 
of Development ;" " Danvin's Descent of Man." "Principles, 
of Herbert Spencer's Philosophy." In the course of the Lectures 
Dr. M'Cosh discusses all the most important scientific problems 
which are supposed to affect Christianity. 

MaSSOn.— RECENT BRITISH PHILOSOPHY: A Review, 
with Criticisms ; including some Comments on Mr. Mill's Answer 
to Sir William Hamilton. By David Masson, M.A., Professor 
of Rhetoric and English Literature in the University of Edinburgh. 
Crown 8vo. 6j. 

The atithor, in his usual graphic and forcible manner, reviews in 
considerable detail, and points out the drifts of the philosophical 
speculations of the previous thirty years, bringing under notice the 
work of all the principal philosophers who have been at work during 
tJiat period on the highest problems which concern humatdty. The 
four chapters are thus titled: — /. "A Survey of Thirty Years'* 
II. "The Traditional Diff'ei-ences : how repeated in Carlyle, 
Hamilton, and Mill." III. " Efects of Recent Scientific Con- 
ceptions on Philosophy." IV. "Latest Drifts and Groupings." 
The last seventy-six pages are devoted to a Revieiv of Mr. MilVs 
criticism of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy. "We can 
nowhere point to a work which gives so clear an exposition of 
the course of philosophical speculation in Britain during tlie past 
century, or which indicates so instructively the mutual influences of 
philosophic and scientific thought." — Fortnightly Review. 

BRITISH n6vELISTS.— See Belles Lettres Catalogue. 

LIFE OF MILTON.— See Biographical Catalogue. 

Maudsley. — Works by Henry Maudsley, M.D., Professor of 
Medical Jurisprudence in University College, London : — 

BODY AND MIND : An Inquiry into their. Connection and 
Mutual Influence, specially in reference to Mental Diseases. See 
Medical Catalogue, preceding. 



58 SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 

Maudsley {yi.")—conHnued, 

THE PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY OF MIND. 
See Medical Catalogue, preceding. 

Maurice. — Works by the Rev. Frederick Denison Maurice, 
M.A., Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Cam- 
bridge. (For other Works by the same Author, see Theological 
Catalogue.) 

SOCIAL MORALITY. Twenty-one Lectures delivered in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. New and Cheaper Edition. Cr. 8vo. \os, (>d. 

In this series of Lectures, Professor Maurice considei's, historically 
and critically. Social Morality in its three main aspects : I. ** The 
Relations which spring from tlu Family — Domestic Morality. " 
//. ^'' The Relations which subsist among the various constituents 
of a Nation — National Morality y III, "As it concerns Uni- 
versal Humanity — Universal Morality. " Appended to each series 
is a chapter on " Worship :" frst, "Family Worship;^' second, 
"National Worship;'' third, "Universal Worship." " Whilst 
reading it we are charmed by the freedom from exclusiveness and 
prejudice, the large charity, the loftiness of thought, the eagerness to 
recognize and appreciate whatever there is of real worth extant in 
the world, rvhich animates it from one end to the other. We gain 
neio thoughts atid new ways ofvie^oing things, even more, pa'haps, 
from being brought for a time under the influence of so noble and 
spiritual a mind."" — Athenset'm. 

THE CONSCIENCE: Lectures on Casuistry, delivered in the 
University of Cambridge. New and Cheaper Edition. Crown 8vo. 

In this series of nine Lectures, Professor Maurice, with his wonted 
force and breadth and freshness, endeavours to settle what is meant 
by the word "Conscience,''' and discusses the most important 
questions immediately connected with the subject. Taking ' * Casu 
istry " in its old sense as being the "study of cases of Conscience," 
he endeavours to show in what way it may be brought to bear at 
the present day upon the acts and thoughts of our ordinary 
existence. He shows that Conscience asks for laws, twt rules ; 



MENTAL AND MORAL PHILOSOPHY, ETC. 59 

Maurice (F. 1^ .)— continued. 

for freedom, not chains ; for education, not suppression. He 
has abstained from the use of philosophical terms, and has tcnuhtd 
on philosophical systems only when he fancied ^Hhey were inter' 
fering with the rights and duties of wayfarers.''^ The Saturday 
Review joj/j; ^'Werise frovi them with detestation of all that is 
selfish and mean, and with a living impression that there is such a 
thing as goodness after all." 

MORAL AND METAPHYSICAL PHILOSOPHY. New 
Edition and Preface. Vol. I. Ancient Philosophy and the First to 
the Thirteenth Centuries ; Vol. II. the Fourteenth Century and the 
French Revolution, with a glimpse into the Nineteenth Centary. 
2 Vols. 8yo. 2$s. 

This is an Edition In two volumes of Professor Mattrice^s History of 
Philosophy from the earliest period to the present time. Jt was 
formerly scattered throughout a number of separate volumes, and it 
is believed that all admirers of the author and all studtnts of 
philosophy will welcome this compact Edition. The subject is One 
of the highest impor-tance, and it is treated here with fulness and 
eandour, and in a clear and interesting manner. In a long intro- 
duction to this Edition, in the form oj a dialogue, Professor Maurice 
justifies some of his own peculiar vieios, and touches upon some oJ 
the most important topics of the time. 

Murphy.— HABIT AND INTELLIGENCE, in Connection 
with the Laws of Matter and Force : A Series of Scientific Essays. 
By Joseph John Murphy. Two Vols. 8vo. i6j. 

The author's chief purpose in this work has been to state and to dis- 
cuss what he regards as the special and characta-istic principles of 
life. The most important part of the work treats of those vital 
principles which belong to the inner domain of life itself, as dis- 
tinguished from the principles which belong to the border-land 
where life comes into contact with inorgatiic niatter and force. In 
the inner domain of life we find two principles, which are, the 
author believes, coextensive with life and peculiar to it : these are 
Habit and Intelligence. He has made as full a statement as 
possible of the laws under which habits form, disappear, alter under 
altered circumstances, and vary spontaneously. He discusses that 



6o SCIENTIFIC CATALOGUE. 



most important of all questions^ whether intelligence is an ultimate 
fact, incapable of bdng resolved into any other, or only a resultant 
from the laws of habit. The latter part of the first volume is 
occupied with the discussion of the question of the Origin of Species. 
The first part of the second volume is occupied with an inquiry 
into the process of mental growth and development, and the nature 
of mental intelligence. In the chapter that follows, the author dis- 
cusses the science of history, and the three concluding chapters 
contain some ideas on the classification, the history, and the logic, of 
the sciences. The author's aim has been to make the subjects treated 
of intelligible to any ordinary intelligent man. '■'■We are pleased 
to listen,^'' says the Saturday Review, ^'to a writer who has so firm 
' a foothold upon the ground within the scope of his immediate 
survey, and who can enunciate with so' much clearness and force 
propositions which come within his grasp.''* 

Thring (E., M.A.)— THOUGHTS ON LIFE-SCIENCE. 
By Edward Thring, M.A. (Benjamin Place), Head Master of 
Uppingham School. New Edition, enlarged and revised. 
Crown 8vo. *]s. 6d. 

In this volume are discussed in a familiar manner some of the most 
interesting problems between Science and Religion, Reason and 
Feeling, ' ' Learning and Science, ' ' says the author, ' ' are claiming 
the right of building tip and pulling down everything, especially 
the latter. It has seemed to me no useless task to look steadily at 
what has happened, to take stock as it were of men^s gains, and to 
* endeavour amidst new circumstances to arrive at some rational 

estimate of the bearings of things, so that the limits of what is 
possible at all events may be clearly marked out for ordinary 

readers TMs book is an endeavour to bring out some of the 

main facts of the world." 

Venn.— THE LOGIC OF chance : An Essay on the Founda- 
tions and Province of the Theory of Probability, with especial 
reference to its application to Moral and Social Science. By John 
Venn, M.A., P'ellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. 
Fcap. 8vo. 7^. 6d. 

This Essay is in no sense mathematical. Probability, the author 
thinks, may be considered to be a portion of the pyrovinc of Log c 



MENTAL AND MORAL PHILOSOPHY, ETC. 6r 

regarded from the material point of view. The principal objects of 
this Essay are to ascertain how great a portion it comprises, where 
we are to draw the boundary between it and the contiguous branches 
of the general science of evidence, what are the ultimate foundations 
upon which its rules rest, what the nature of the evidence they are 
capable of affoi'ding, and to what class of subjects they may most 
fitly be applied. The general design of the Essay, as a special 
treatise on Probability, is quite original, the author believing that 
erroneous notions as to the real nature of the subject are disastrously 
prevalent. ^^Exceedingly well thought and well written," says the 
Westminster Review. The Nonconformist calls it a *^ masterly 
book:' 



LONDON : K. CLAY, SONS. AND TAYLOK, I'KINTKKS, BREAD hTREET HILL 



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