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Full text of "Derbyshire"

CAMBRIDGE COUNTY GEOGRAPHIES 




ERBYSHIRE 





CAMBRIDGE COUNTY GEOGRAPHIES 

General Editor: F. H. H. GUILLEMARD, M.A., M.D. 



DERBYSHIRE 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY TRESS 

ILonfcOlt: FETTER LANE, E.G. 

C. F. CLAY, MANAGER 




OFUtnburgl) : 100, PRINCES STREET 

Berlin: A. ASHER AND CO. 

Heipjijj: F. A. BROCK HAUS 

$efo gorfe: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

ttombap. anU Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD. 



[Ail rights reserved] 



Cambridge County Geographies 



DERBYSHIRE 

by 
H. H. ARNOLD-BEMROSE, Sc.D. ; F.G.S. 



With Maps, Diagrams and Illustrations 



//**. 

Cambridge : /^ / 7 

at the University Press 
1910 



(JTambritige : 

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



NOTE 

THE author is indebted to his wife Nellie Arnold- 
Bemrose for Chapters 20, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 28. 

He wishes to acknowledge the information he has 
obtained from the Victoria History of Derbyshire, Dr Cox's 
Churches of Derbyshire, Mr Sandeman's paper on " The 
works of the Derwent Valley Water Board " and Kelly's 
Directory. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

1. County and Shire. The Origin of Derbyshire . i 

2. General Characteristics. Position and Natural Con- 

ditions ......... 4 

3. Size. Shape. Boundaries ..... 8 

4. Surface and General Features Peakland and Lowland 1 2 

5. Watershed and Rivers . . . . . .14 

6. Derwent Valley Water Scheme . . . .21 

7. Geology (i) Sedimentary Rocks . . . -25 

8. Geology (ii) Igneous Rocks . . . . -37 

9. Caverns and Underground Drainage . . .41 

10. Caverns and their Mammalian Contents. . . 47 

11. Natural History 5I 

12. Climate and Rainfall 54 

13. People and Population . . . . . .59 
14- Agriculture Main Cultivations, Woodlands, Stock . 63 
15. Industries and Manufactures . 66 



CONTENTS vii 

PAGE 

1 6. Mines and Minerals (i) General Coal Mines . 70 

17. Mines and Minerals (ii) Metalliferous Mines . 73 

1 8. Mines and Minerals (iii) Quarries ... 76 

19. Mines and Minerals (iv) Lead and Lead Mining 77 

20. History of Derbyshire . . . . . . 80 

21. Antiquities ........ 89 

22. Architecture (a) Ecclesiastical. Churches and 

Crosses . . . . . . . .96 

23. Architecture (b} Religious Houses . . .109 

24. Architecture (c] Military. Castles . . .116 

25. Architecture (d) Domestic . . . . .118 

26. Communications, Past and Present Roads, Canals, 

Railways ....... 129 

27. Administration and Divisions Ancient and Modern . 139 

28. The Roll of Honour of the County . . -143 

29. The Chief Towns and Villages of Derbyshire . 153 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Dovedale from Reynard's Cave. Phot. R. Keene . 5 

Upperdale, near Monsal Dale Station on the Wye. Phot. 

Frith . . 6 

Monsal Dale. Phot. R. Keene 7 

Chee Dale. Phot. R. Keene . 8 

Dovedale. Phot. R. Keene . 9 

Goyt Valley, near Buxton. Phot. Frith . .11 

Hope Valley, Castleton. Phot. Frith . .13 

Ashop Clough, Kinder Scout. Phot. R. Keene . 15 

River Derwent, Hathersage. Phot. Frith . .16 

High Tor, Matlock Bath : River Derwent. Phot. R. Keene 1 8 
River Wye, Water-cum-Joly, near Miller's Dale. Phot. 

R. Keene 19 

Ham Rock, Dovedale. Phot. Frith 20 

Howden Masonry Dam. Phot. E. Sandeman . . .24 
Chee Tor (showing thick horizontal beds in Mountain 

Limestone). Phot. R. Keene . . . . .29 
Syncline and Anticline in Shales and Limestones, L. and 

N. W. R. cutting, Tissington, near Ashbourne. Phot. 

H. A. Bemrose ........ 30 

Sketch-section across Derbyshire. By permission of London 

Geol. Soc. . . . . . . . .31 

Black Rocks, Cromford (Millstone Grit). Phot. R. Keene . 33 
Boulder Clay, Crich. Phot. H. A. Bemrose . . .36 



ILLUSTRATIONS ix 

PAGE 

Lava and Tufaceous Limestone resting on Limestone, Buxton 
Lime Co.'s Quay, near Miller's Dale Station. Phot. 

H. A. Bemrose 3 8 

Grange Mill Vents from the N.W. Phot. A. T. Metcalfe . 40 
Entrance to Peak Cavern, Castleton. Phot. Frith . . 4 2 
Middleton Dale. Phot. Frith ... -43 

The Winnats, Castleton. Phot. Frith . -4.5 

Dove Holes, Dovedale. Phot. Frith. . . 46 

Left Lower Jaw of fells leo, showing milk teeth, about 
(from Hoe Grange Cavern, Longcliffe : Pleistocene) 
Phot. Newton & Bemrose .... -49 

Upper Canine of Sabre-toothed Tiger, about (from 
Dove Holes Cave : Pliocene). Phot. Bemrose & Sons, 

Ltd 50 

Old Silk Mill, Derby. Phot. R. Keene .... 67 
Fragment of Rib with Engraving of Horse, Robin Hood 

Cave. By permission of London Geol. Soc. . . 91 
Bone Needle, Church Hole Cave. By permission of London 

Geol. Soc . .91 

Bone Awl, Church Hole Cave. By permission of London 

Geol. Soc. . . . . . . . .91 

Stone Circle, Arborlow. Phot. Frith . . . -93 

Mam Tor, Castleton. Phot. Frith 94 

Saxon Crypt, Repton. Phot. R. Keene .... 99 
Saxon Font, St Chad's, Wilne. Phot. R. Keene . .100 
St Michael's, Melbourne. Phot. R. Keene . . 101 

The Nave, St Michael's, Melbourne. Phot. R. Keene . 102 
St John the Baptist, Tideswell. Phot. R. Keene . .104 
All Saints, Chesterfield. Phot. Frith . . . .105 

Eyam Cross. Phot. R. Keene 108 

All Saints, Bakewell. Phot. R. Keene . . . .no 
Repton School. Phot. A. J. Laurence . . . .112 
Derby School, St Helen's House. Phot. R. Keene . .113 



x ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Dale Abbey Church and Guest-house. Phot. R. Keene . 114 
Dale Abbey Hermitage. Phot. R. Keene . 1 1 5 

Peveril Castle, Castleton. Phot. Frith . . .116 

Codnor Castle. Phot. R. Keene . . . . 117 

Dovecote, Codnor Castle. Phot. R. Keene . .119 

The Mayor's Parlour, Derby. Phot. R. Keene . .120 
The Peacock, Rowsley. Phot. R. Keene. . . .121 

Haddon Hall. Phot. R. Keene 123 

The Banqueting Hall, Haddon Hall. Phot. Frith . .124 
Wingfield Manor. Phot. R. Keene . . . .125 

Chatsworth. Phot. R. Keene 126 

The Hall, Eyam. Phot. Frith 127 

The Presence Chamber, Hardwick Hall. Phot. R. Keene . 128 
Derby from the Derwent. Phot. R. Keene . . .130 

Cromford Bridge. Phot. R. Keene 132 

Road from Castleton to Buxton and Chapel-en-le-Frith. 

Phot. Frith . . . . . . .134 

Midland Railway Tunnel in Mountain Limestone near 

Monsal Dale. Phot. R. Keene 137 

Samuel Richardson. Phot. Emery Walker . . .146 
John Flamsteed. Old print, Sir Henry Bemrose . .148 
Sir R. Arkwright. Phot. Emery Walker . . .150 

Hardwick Hall. Phot. R. Keene 152 

Bridge over the Wye, Bakewell. Phot. Frith . . .155 

The Crescent, Buxton. Phot. Frith 157 

Castleton. Phot. Frith 159 

Matlock Bath. Phot. Frith 165 

Diagrams 171 

MAPS 

Derbyshire, Topographical .... Front Cover 

Geological Back Cower 

England and Wales, showing Annual Rainfall . . 58 



i. County and Shire. The Origin of 
Derbyshire. 

In his preface to The Making of England, published 
thirty years ago, the historian J. R. Green truly remarks 
that " Archaeological researches on the sites of Villas and 
Towns, or along the line of road or dyke, often furnish 
us with evidence even more trustworthy than that of 
a written chronicle ; while the ground itself, where we 
can read the information it affords, is, whether in the 
account of the Conquest or in that of the Settlement of 
Britain, the fullest and most certain of documents. Phy- 
sical Geography has Still its part to play in the written 
record of that human history to which it gives so much 
of its shape and form." 

During the last thirty years much has been learned 
from physical geography in the deposits left in caverns 
and in the burying places of early Man. Men have 
struggled for mastery in our island against wild beasts, 
and have conquered some and domesticated others. Most 
of these wild animals have become extinct. Since then, 
men have fought with each other and our land has 

B. D. i 



2 DERBYSHIRE 

been invaded again and again by different races of people. 
In the struggle for existence the fittest have survived, 
and thus have been evolved the present inhabitants of 
England. 

In treating of the geography of Derbyshire we may 
first pause to consider the difference of meaning of the 
words u County " and " Shire." Though these are 
modern terms they will help us to understand the rela- 
tion which our present divisions of the kingdom bear to 
the ancient ones. The words " County " and " Shire," 
though now used as equivalent terms, have a very different 
origin and carry us back to different conditions in the 
political development of our country. The word "Shire," 
of Anglo-Saxon derivation, meaning a portion shorn or 
cut off from some larger division of land, implied as a rule 
a part of one of the great Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, though 
in some cases it was also applied to quite a small division 
of a district or even of a town^so that there were once, 
for example, six small "shires" in Cornwall, and there 
are still seven " shires " in the city of York. The word 
u County " is of Norman date and meant the land be- 
longing to or ruled by a Comte or Count. More recently 
the word county acquired the same meaning as shire, so 
that now we speak indifferently of Derbyshire or the 
county of Derby. We cannot however call the county 
of Sussex, Sussexshire, because the historic counties and 
shires owe their origin to different causes. Each name 
is a survival of the ancient distribution of tribes which 
united to form the English people. Middlesex, Sussex, 
and Essex, for example, define the areas of three Saxon 



COUNTY AND SHIRE 3 

kingdoms, but Derbyshire is a share or portion of the 
kingdom of Mercia and is one of those counties which 
take its name from the county town. 

We will now consider the origin of the word Derby 
which has thus given its name to our county. 

For about 150 years after the first coming of the 
English, the Peakland and the northern parts of the 
present county of Derby were held by the Celts or 
Welsh. The few Mercians who settled in the hilly parts 
of Derbyshire were called Pecsaete, or Settlers in the 
Peak, so that the part of England which is now called 
Derbyshire narrowly escaped being called Pecsetshire after 
the fashion of Dorsetshire or Somersetshire. The word 
Derby we owe to the Danes. The Saxon name was 
Northweorthig, or Northworth, as it would be now 
written. The Danes, probably attracted by the Derby- 
shire lead-mines, overran the county and built a fort at 
Northweorthig, from which place the valley of the Der- 
went and its tributary valleys made access to the lead 
mining districts more easy. The Danes changed the 
name to Deoraby, which at a later date was abbreviated 
to Derby. 

'The name Derby is supposed by some writers to 
indicate a settlement by the uncleared deer-forest, but 
it is more probable that the name was derived from 
words expressing a settlement by the water (dwr].j The 
first mention of Deorabisair, now Derbyshire, occurs only 
two years before the Norman Conquest. 



i 2 



DERBYSHIRE 



2. General Characteristics. Position 
and Natural Conditions. 

Derbyshire is an inland county near the centre of 
England bounded by Yorkshire, Cheshire, Staffordshire, 
Leicestershire, and Nottinghamshire. Its distance from 
the sea and the hilly nature of its surface made it for 
many centuries more or less inaccessible. 

Though mountainous regions have now a fascination 
for lovers of nature, there was a time when people looked 
upon them with horror and only fled to them for refuge 
from their enemies. A writer about 150 years ago thus 
records the experience of some travellers on horseback on 
their arrival at Dovedale : " Proceeding towards the edge 
of the plain, they came to a precipice of an astounding 
height from which was a stupendous view into a deep 
valley, the hills rising on the opposite side covered with 
wood nearly half a mile perpendicularly." 

Though the county with its rivers available for water 
power is adapted to many industries, few of them were 
fully developed owing, no doubt, to its inland position and 
the difficulty of communication. The various industries 
were with few exceptions only carried on to meet local, 
needs. The earliest and most important of them was 
that of lead-mining, but, owing to the low price of the 
metal, this has of late years declined. With this exception 
Derbyshire was mainly an agricultural county. The in- 
troduction of canals, and improvements in the making 



6 DERBYSHIRE 

and mending of roads, and the later communication by 
railways, cheapened the transit of goods and caused a rapid 
growth in the industries and population. The utilisation 
of coal and .the manufacture of iron created quite a new 
and increasing industry in the county, which was rich in 
both these minerals. 




Upperdale, near Monsal Dale Station on the Wye 

During the nineteenth century, although the popu- 
lation as a whole increased, the number of persons 
engaged in cultivating the land became less, so that 
fewer persons were employed in agriculture in 1901 than 
in 1841. At present the railway and engineering works, 
coal-mines, quarries, and various factories, employ a large 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 7 

number of inhabitants, and Derbyshire, which at one time 
was an agricultural county, is now essentially a manu- 
facturing one. 

Derbyshire is noted for its beautiful and varied scenery. 
The uplands, or hilly northern portion of the county, 
form the southern spur of the Pennine Chain, the back- 
bone of England, and rise to a height of more than 




Monsal Dale 

20OO feet above sea-level. The Peak District, .the 
narrow dales and gorges in the limestone in Chee Dale, 
Dovedale, and at Matlock, and the various limestone 
caverns, are visited annually by a large number of people. 
The county is also rich in Prehistoric and Roman re- 
mains. Haddon Hall, Chatsworth House, Wingfield 
Manor, as well as numerous ecclesiastical buildings, are 



8 DERBYSHIRE 

objects of interest. Lastly, warm mineral springs at Buxton 
and Matlock Bath have made these places for many years 
noted as health resorts, to which the surrounding fine 
scenery is an added attraction. 




Chee Dale 



3. Size. Shape. Boundaries. 

Derbyshire has a rather irregular outline. Its greatest 
length from north to south is about 55 miles, measured 
from near Woodseats to Measham, and the greatest 
breadth from near New Mills in the west to the Notting- 
ham border near Whitwell is 37 miles. The county 
encloses an area of 658,885 acres, or nearly 1030 square 
miles, and is about the same size as Cheshire. 

About half the counties of England are larger than 



SIZE SHAPE BOUNDARIES 9 

Derbyshire and the remainder smaller, so that in point 
of size ^Derbyshire may be considered an average 
county. Its shape is so irregular that it is difficult to 
describe it concisely. The irregularity is mainly due 
to the fact that rivers form about three-fourths of the 
boundary. The county is broad in the north and tapers 
towards the south. While, as we have seen, its greatest 




Dovedale 

breadth in the north is 37 miles, the distance from the 
Dove near Tissington on the west to Pye Bridge on 
the Erewash in the east is only 18 miles, and in the 
southern part of the county, the breadth at the latitude of 
Burton-on-Trent is only six miles. 

Derbyshire is bordered on the north by Yorkshire, 
on the east by Nottinghamshire, on the south-east by 



10 DERBYSHIRE 

Leicestershire, on the west by Staffordshire, and on the 
north-west by Cheshire. If we examine a map of the 
county, we soon notice that the following rivers form 
about three-quarters of the boundaries, viz. the Etheroe 
on the north-west, the Goyt, the Dove, and the Trent 
on the west, and the Erewash and the Trent again on 
the east. The remaining portions of the boundaries are 
mainly artificial-^ 

A peculiarity connected with Derbyshire and the 
neighbouring counties may be referred to in this chapter. 
On old maps portions of Derbyshire appeared like islands 
in Leicestershire, and were entirely separated from Derby- 
shire geographically, though for administrative purposes 
they formed part of Derbyshire. A similar occurrence is 
found in other counties. Under the Local Government 
Board Act of 1888 it was provided that these outlying 
portions may be added to the district in which they are 
situated if both parties interested in the locality agree 
to the amalgamation. Portions of Leicestershire were 
accordingly transferred to Derbyshire, and portions of 
Derbyshire to Leicestershire in the year 1897. In the 
year 1894, portions of Nottinghamshire were transferred 
to Derbyshire, and the Derbyshire portion of Croxall, 
Stapenhill, and Winshill were transferred to Staffordshire. 
The boundary of the county had been previously altered 
by a part of New Mills being annexed from Cheshire and 
a part of Burton-on-Trent being transferred to Stafford- 
shire. 



12 DERBYSHIRE 

4. Surface and General Features. 
Peakland and Lowland. 

A clear idea of the chief features of the surface of 
Derbyshire will enable us better to understand the effect 
they have had upon the history and development of the 
inhabitants. 

The surface of Derbyshire is very varied in character. 
An examination of the physical map at the beginning of 
this volume, coloured according to the heights of the land 
above sea-level, will show that the county may be divided 
naturally into two main portions the uplands and the 
lowlands. These differ not only in altitude, but in many 
other ways. 

The uplands, or the Peak District, as they are called, 
form the southern end of the long ridge called the Pennine 
Chain which extends through a large portion of England. 
The lowlands comprise the southern part of the county. 
The lowest parts in the south are slightly more than 
100 feet above sea-level, whilst the highest part is Kinder 
Scout or the Peak, more than 2000 feet above the sea. 
The Peak is not, as its name implies, a point, but a nearly 
flat plateau or tableland, higher than any other portion of 
Derbyshire, which is situate to the north of Castleton 
and the Edale Valley. The name High Peak is applied 
to one of the hundreds or divisions of the county and the 
name Low Peak to the wapentake of Wirksworth. 

The finest scenery is in the uplands. The Mountain 
Limestone with its outlines generally smooth and well 



SURFACE AND GENERAL FEATURES 13 

rounded, with its deep narrow dales and gorges, presents 
a marked contrast to the wild moorlands and escarpments 
of the Millstone Grits by which it is surrounded. The 
latter attain a greater height than the limestone. The 
uplands are sparsely populated ; the absence of hedges and 
the division of the fields by stone walls are very noticeable. 
In the lowlands the fields are flat, many-acred, and divided 




Hope Valley, Castleton 

by hedges, so that there is a great contrast between the 
two portions. 

This difference of feature means a difference in the 
means of locomotion, and in the amount of rainfall and 
snow. In the uplands, as has been well said, the " land 
is mountainous, rocky, and wind-swept, and winter longs 
to linger far beyond its legitimate time." 

There are extensive moorlands in Derbyshire, some 
of which once formed part of the ancient forests. The 



14 DERBYSHIRE 

King's Forest of the High Peak was a wild region in the 
thirteenth century. Its bounds began on the south at 
Goyt, went down the rivers Goyt and Etheroe, thence 
by Langley to the head of the river Derwent, to Mytham 
Bridge, Bradwell, Hucklow, and Tideswell ; thence to 
the river Wye, and up the Wye to Buxton, so that the 
forest included the whole of the north-western portion of 
the county. 

The Peak Forest, from which the village of Peak 
Forest derives its name, does not appear to have been 
well wooded at any time, but Duffield Forest, or Duffield 
Frith, in the southern part of the county, about five 
miles north of Derby, was more fertile and covered with 
woods. 



5. Watershed and Rivers. 

Some of the rivers in Derbyshire and on its borders 
flow west into the basin of the Mersey and others east 
into that of the Humber. The high land which forms 
the division between the two basins is called the water- 
shed or divide, though sometimes this word watershed is 
used for the sloping ground down which the water flows 
on either side of the divide. In order to understand the 
position and nature of the river basins and drainage areas 
of a country we must know something of its physical 
conformation. The great watershed of Central England 
passes through the higher parts of Derbyshire, and the 
greater portion of the county lies to the east of this 



WATERSHED AND RIVERS 



15 



divide. The actual water-parting passes by the Cat and 
Fiddle (Axe Edge), near Buxton, along Rushup Edge 
and Cowburn, a little to the east of Kinder Scout, the 
western flank of the Peak ; thence it runs northward till 
it meets the ridge formed by the northern outcrop of the 
Millstone Grit, which it follows for about four miles, and 




Ashop clough, Kinder Scout 

then strikes away northwards beyond the boundaries of 
the county. The streams rising on the west of this line 
flow into the Goyt or Etheroe and find their way into 
the Mersey. Those on the east flow into the Derwent, 
the Don, or the Dove, and finally into the Humber. 
The Derwent is the most important river in Derbyshire : 
it has the largest drainage area (290,000 acres), and is 



16 DERBYSHIRE 

65 miles in length. It rises in the moorlands on the 
borders of Yorkshire and Derbyshire and forms the 
boundary between these counties for a short distance, 
but continues for the remainder of its course in the county. 
The Alport and Ashop join at Alport Bridge and enter the 
Derwent at Ashopton. The Noe flows along the wide 
dale of Edale and joins the Derwent at Mytham Bridge. 




River Derwent, Hathersage 

The Derwent then flows south, passes through Chats- 
worth Park, and is joined by the Wye near Rowsley 
Station. It then flows along the broad valley of Darley 
Dale and at Matlock enters the gorge in the Mountain 
Limestone, through which it flows as far as- Willersley. 
The river then winds along more open dales to Derby, 
and thence takes a tortuous course through a wide alluvial 
valley to the Trent on the south-east of the county. 



WATERSHED AND RIVERS 17 

Other tributaries of the Derwent, in addition to those 
mentioned above, are the Amber, which rises on Darley 
Moor, the Ecclesbourn River and Bottle Brook coming 
from the Wirksworth valley, and the Markeaton Brook, 
which flows through Derby. 

During its course through the limestone gorge at 
Matlock, the Derwent receives no tributaries, but the 
volume of water is very much increased by springs from 
the Mountain Limestone. In the Derwent basin there 
are many old lead-mines which were drained by levels 
or "soughs." Meerbrook Sough (now utilised for the 
water-supply of Heanor and Ripley) in 1868 yielded 
over 1 6 millions of gallons a day, which flowed into the 
Derwent. 

The river Wye rises near Buxton on the northern 
slope of Axe Edge, and collects water in Buxton from 
a number of tributary streams both north and south. At 
Wye Head an underground stream issues from the lime- 
stone and flows through the gardens, where it is joined 
by the Serpentine, a stream which rises near Burbage. 
The Wye has been well described as "a singularly romantic 
river, running in deep rocky ravines, its clear stream 
sparkling along a confined and rugged bed." Its course 
is at first through the fine gorges of Chee Dale, Miller's 
Dale, and Monsal Dale, and then through a more open 
country at Bakewell. During the remainder of its course 
the river winds about considerably in the neighbourhood 
of Haddon Hall. 

The Dove, an important tributary of the Trent, rises 
on the eastern slope of Axe Edge and drains 95,000 acres. 

B. D. 2 




High Tor, Matlock Bath : River Derwent 



WATERSHED AND RIVERS 



19 



It is one of our most beautiful streams, and passes through 
very fine scenery. It runs through the narrow gorge 
of Dovedale and then emerges into a broad and fertile 
valley, flows through Rocester and Tutbury, and enters 
the Trent at Newton Solney. Throughout the greater 
part of its course of 45 miles during which it falls over 





River Wye, Water-cum-Joly, near Miller's Dale 

1500 feet it forms the boundary between Staffordshire 
and Derbyshire. It has for many years been noted for 
its fishing. 

The Erewash, which has a course of about 20 miles, 
forms part of the boundary between Derbyshire and 
Nottinghamshire, and flows into the Derwent. 

The Rother, which rises in the N.E. part of Derby- 



2 2 




Ham Rock, Dovedale 



WATERSHED AND RIVERS 21 

shire, flows through Chesterfield into the Don, and 
finally becomes part of the Ouse. The Rother drains 
in Derbyshire an area of over 88,000 acres. 

The Trent flows through the county for a short 
distance and also forms part of the boundary of Derby- 
shire, on the west separating the county from Staffordshire 
for some eight or ten miles, flowing through Burton, and 
on the south-east dividing it from Notts for about half 
this distance. 

The Goyt and Etheroe separate Cheshire from Derby- 
shire, drain about 54,000 acres in Derbyshire, and flow 
into the Mersey. The Goyt rises on Axe Edge, and 
flows down a picturesque ravine during the earlier part 
of its course. 

6. Derwent Valley Water Scheme. 

The account just given of the rivers of Derbyshire 
would not be complete without mention of the Derwent 
Valley water scheme. Under this joint scheme the upper 
parts of the area drained by the Derwent have been 
bought for the purpose of supplying water to Sheffield, 
Derby, Nottingham, and Leicester, and to the County of 
Derby. The Derwent and the Ashop rise in this area, 
which contains 31,946 acres, or 50 square miles of land, 
and lies at a height of between 500 and 2OOO feet above 
sea level. The rainfall varies from 38 inches in the 
southern part to 60 inches in the more elevated regions, 
and the average for the whole is about 49 inches. 

The Derwent Valley Water Board was established in 



22 DERBYSHIRE 

1899 in order to reconcile the claims of the authorities of 
the four large towns and the county above mentioned. 

The method of obtaining the water is by making five 
large reservoirs, three on the river Derwent called the 
Howden, Derwent, and Bamford reservoirs and two on 
the river Ashop, the Haglee and Ashopton reservoirs. It 
is estimated that the Derwent reservoirs will have an area 
of 594 acres, and contain over six thousand million gallons 
of water, whilst those in the Ashop valley will have an 
area of 319 acres, and hold more than three and a half 
thousand million gallons of water. The ultimate scheme, 
in addition to the reservoirs, includes the making of about 
100 miles of aqueduct for distributing the water, about 
2O acres of filter-beds at Bamford, and a service reservoir 
at Ambergate. 

On account of its magnitude the work has been divided 
into three parts or instalments, which will be carried out 
as they are required by the people for whose benefit they 
are intended. The first portion, consisting of the Howden 
and Derwent reservoirs, was commenced eight years ago 
and will probably be complete in 1912. It is estimated 
that it will deliver 12 or 13 million gallons of water a day 
and will cost 2^ million sterling. 

The reservoirs are formed by building large dams of 
sandstone and concrete across the valley. An idea of the 
magnitude of the work and of the method of carrying it 
out may be gathered from the following particulars and 
from the accompanying illustration of the Howden Dam, 
photographed in 1909. 

The largest reservoir, called the Bamford reservoir, 



DERWENT VALLEY WATER SCHEME 23 

will require a dam 1950 feet in length and 95 feet in 
height. The Howden and Derwent dams, which are 
nearly complete, are 1080 and mo feet in length, and 
117 and 114 feet in height respectively, and will together 
store 3886 million gallons of water. 

The whole of the work of constructing the darns .is 
administered by the Derwent Valley Water Board instead 
of being let to contractors. The first acts of the Board 
were to build a railway seven miles in length from the 
Midland Railway at Bamford to the site of the Howden 
reservoir, and to construct the village of Birchinlee which 
had a population of 869 in December, 1908. 

The stone used in making the dams is millstone grit, 
obtained from a quarry at Grindleford on the Midland 
Railway ; and it is estimated that 1,200,000 tons will be 
required for the two first dams. The position for reser- 
voirs of this enormous size was determined by the drainage 
area for the supply of water, and the nature of the rocks 
was necessarily a secondary consideration. 

The foundations of the Howden and Derwent dams 
are in the shales and sandstones. These beds of rock are 
much contorted and crushed, and the ground is not water- 
tight. It was, therefore, necessary to make what is called 
a watertight " curtain," i.e. a six foot width of concrete 
beneath the dam for its whole length and into the hills 
at each side. This curtain in the Derwent dam extends 
55 feet down below the base of the dam ; so that, although 
the dam is only 114 feet high,, the distance from the 
foundations of the curtain wall to the top of the dam 
(including the dam foundations, 54 feet) is 21 2 feet. 



DERWENT VALLEY WATER SCHEME 25 

The main aqueduct extends from Howden to Amber- 
gate reservoir and is 30 miles in length. The first 
instalment of the Ambergate reservoir, which is for 
regulating the supply to the towns, will hold 30 million 
gallons of water. The water will be distributed from 
this reservoir to Leicester, Derby, Nottingham, and the 
County of Derby, by means of pipes. The whole of the 
works, including the three instalments, are expected to 
cost ^6,000,000, and the additional cost of carrying the 
water to the four towns will be slightly over one million 
sterling. 

7. Geology, (i) Sedimentary Rocks. 

s* 

In Chapter 4 we saw how the northern part of 
Derbyshire differed from the southern and eastern parts. 
Not only are there differences of elevation, however, but 
also those of soil and of the occupations of the people. In 
some places the hard rock comes to the surface and is 
quarried as limestone or sandstone, in others coal is being 
raised from below the surface of the earth ; in others 
again clay forms the surface of the land, and is dug out 
and used for making bricks and tiles. There is a reason 
why one part is mountainous, another level, one thinly 
peopled and agricultural, another populous and industrial, 
one barren and another fertile. These variations are due 
to the differences between the rocks of which the ground 
is composed, and if we would learn why the rocks affect 
the" shape and nature of the ground we must turn to 
geology for the explanation. \ 



26 DERBYSHIRE 

The word rock is used for any natural stone, whether 
it be hard or soft. Thus limestone, sandstone, clay, mud, 
and coal are all called rocks by the geologist. The greater 
portion of the rocks in Derbyshire are what are called 
sedimentary, and have been laid down in water just as 
gravel, sand, and mud are deposited by our rivers and 
lakes, and as limestone mud is laid down at the bottom 
of the sea. 

The sedimentary rocks of Derbyshire consist mainly 
of clay, shale, sandstone, limestone, and gravel. 

A visit to one of the numerous quarries in Derbyshire 
or a walk up one of our limestone dales will teach us that 
the rocks are arranged in beds or layers of varying thick- 
ness, one above another. The materials vary from bed to 
bed so that, as at Cromford station, limestone alternates 
with shale. It will easily be understood that the beds at 
the bottom of the quarry are the oldest, being necessarily 
deposited before those above them. This arrangement of 
one bed or stratum above another tells us the order in 
which the beds have been laid, the oldest being at the 
bottom, and the newest at the top. 

The oldest beds in Derbyshire consist of Mountain 
Limestone, these are followed by the Limestone Shales, 
Millstone Grits and Coal Measures, and together form 
what is called the Carboniferous or coal series. Above this 
series we have the Permian or magnesian limestones and 
sandstones, the Bunter Conglomerates and Keuper Marls 
or clays with gypsum ; later, the Pleistocene cavern de- 
posits, glacial drifts, and clays ; and later still the alluvium, 
peat bogs, calcareous tufa, and stalactitic formations. 



GENERAL LIST OF THE ROCKS OF DERBYSHIRE. 



QUATERNARY 



Recent 



Pleistocene 



(Superficial deposits of Historic 
Iron, Bronze, and Neolithic 
Ages 

l Cavern deposits, Glacial Drift, 
j Sands and Clays of Palaeo- 
I lithic Age 



TERTIARY Pliocene 



Cavern deposit of Doveholes 



SECONDARY Triassic 



[Keuper 



I Bunter 



(Red Marl with Gypsum 
{Waterstones 

( Pebble Beds or Conglomerate 
\ Lower Mottled Sandstone 



PRIMARY 



Permian 



I Marls and Sandstones 



( Magnesian Lime- T ,, . T . 

c; Lower Magnesian Limestone 



stone Series 



Coal Measures 



V Carboniferous 



(Marls and Sandstones 

(Middle Coal Measures 
Lower or Gannister Series 



Millstone Grit Beds of Grit divided by Shales 

T . c , , (Shales with thin beds and 

Ll me S tone Shales J nodules of LImestone 

(Limestone with Chert, thin 
Shales and Clay partings, 
and contemporaneous and 
intrusive Igneous Rocks 



28 DERBYSHIRE 

The rocks earlier than the Carboniferous are not seen 
because we have not reached the bottom of the limestone 
in Derbyshire. The Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene, and 
Pliocene rocks are absent from the county, though 
deposits of Pliocene age have been found in a cavern at 
Dove Holes. 

The table overleaf gives a list of the strata found 
in Derbyshire. The thickness of some of the beds is 
unknown, whilst that of others varies in different parts 
of the county. The table denotes therefore only the 
relative ages or order of succession of the deposits. 

The sedimentary rocks were deposited in more or 
less horizontal layers, and some of the beds as those at 
Chee Tor near Miller's Dale remain horizontal, but in 
various parts of the county, in quarries or natural sections, 
we can see that the beds of rock are inclined and in some 
cases have been bent into arches and troughs. The 
amount of inclination is called the dip. 

At Cromford station the beds are not level or hori- 
zontal, but dip towards Derby and under the Black 
Rocks. At Matlock Bath opposite the High Tor the 
limestone beds dip rapidly, or at an high angle towards 
Derby, but as we walk to Matlock Bridge they become 
horizontal, as seen in the face of the High Tor, then roll 
over and dip towards Matlock Bridge to the north. What 
we see is the section of a dome or inverted basin of beds 
of rock, which is called an anticline. If instead of going 
to the Bridge we proceed by road to Cromford, we see 
that the limestone beds first dip towards Matlock Bath 
station, and then rise along the Lovers' Walk, roll over, 




Chee Tor 
(showing thick horizontal beds in Mountain Limestone) 



30 DERBYSHIRE 

and dip in the direction of Cromford, forming another 
anticline. Between the two anticlines, where the lime- 
stone beds dip into the ground, we have what is called 
a syncline. We thus learn that the rocks, owing to 
lateral or side pressure, have been crumpled in some parts 




Syncline and Anticline in Shales and Limestones, 
L. and N. W. R. cutting, Tissington, near Ashbourne 

of the county. The figure given above shows a well- 
marked anticline, and a syncline to the left of it, in the 
railway cutting at Tissington. 

The structure of the northern part of the county is 
shown in the figure on the opposite page which is a rough 
section across the Pennine Chain. The beds are folded into 



PQ 






32 DERBYSHIRE 

a broad irregular dome, so that the lowest beds are in the 
middle of the area, dip east and west, and are covered 
by beds higher in the series. To the east and west of 
this dome are the synclinal troughs which form the coal- 
fields. 

There are several places in the county in which the 
Mountain Limestone comes to the surface. But the 
largest mass of limestone forms an irregularly-shaped inlier 
measuring 20 miles from north to south, and 10 miles 
from east to west. Roughly, the beds dip away from the 
mass in every direction, the rocks on the east dipping 
gently beneath the shales. On the west the dip is greater, 
and the rocks are thrown into numerous folds, and often 
broken. The thickness of the limestone in Derbyshire is 
not known, the beds at the base not having been reached. 
The lowest beds seen are near Pig Tor tunnel in the 
valley of the Wye, and are about 1800 feet down in the 
limestone series. 

The limestone varies in structure, composition, and 
colour. It is often an almost pure carbonate of lime. 
The upper beds are generally thin, and contain bands and 
nodules of chert. The limestone is distinguished by the 
number of fossil contents, which are mineralised remains 
of organisms living in the sea at the time the limestone 
was deposited. 

The limestones are succeeded by a series of shales, 
with thin limestones and limestone nodules, termed the 
limestone shales. These are followed by shales and sand- 
stones. 

Above these we have the Millstone Grit series, which 



GEOLOGY 



33 



has been divided into five divisions by the Geological 
Survey. They are found in the northern part of Derby- 
shire, and on the east and the west side of the Pennine 
Chain. They extend as far south as Little Eaton. The 
outcrop of each sandstone bed forms a long ridge with 
a sloping surface on one side in the direction of the dip, 




" *?. 



Black Rocks, Cromford (Millstone Grit] 

and on the other side a steep face or escarpment which is 
nearly vertical. These escarpments are locally known as 
" edges," and form well-marked features in the landscape. 
Amongst the finest of them are Curbar, Froggatt, Barn- 
ford, and Derwent Edges on the eastern side of the 
county, and the "Black Rocks" near Cromford. 

The Coal Measures lie on the east and west of the 
B. D. 3 



34 DERBYSHIRE 

Pennine Chain. In Derbyshire they are divided into the 
Middle Coal Measures about 2300 feet in thickness, and 
the lower or Gannister series, which is about 1000 feet. 
The Middle Coal Measures consist of sandstones, shales, 
and clays with ironstones and coal seams. The Gannister 
series is made up of flagstones and shales, with thin coal- 
seams, under which are floors of gannister. The seams 
of coal vary from 2 to 7 feet in thickness. 

The fossils in the Coal Measures indicate a great 
profusion of vegetable growth during the time when they 
were formed. The flora, consisting of some hundreds 
of forms, has only distant representatives to-day in the 
tree-ferns of tropical swamps. The seams of coal are 
composed of compressed and mineralised remains of this 
vegetation. 

In the east of Derbyshire, the Permian rocks, con- 
sisting of limestones, sandstones, and marls, have been 
deposited upon the upturned edges of the Coal Measures, 
and are found in a narrow strip running north and south. 
They were probably formed in isolated basins or inland 
salt lakes. The Permian rocks of Derbyshire consist 
mainly of the lower magnesian limestones and sandstones. 
The scenery of this limestone somewhat resembles that 
of the Mountain Limestone, but is on a much smaller 
scale. 

The Triassic rocks have been divided into the Bunter 
and the Keuper. The Bunter in Derbyshire consists of 
pebble beds or conglomerate, and the lower mottled 
sandstone. It is found in several isolated patches. The 
largest extends from Ashbourne by Mugginton to Quarn- 



GEOLOGY 35 

don, near Derby. It is found at Norbury and Brailsford, 
and further south near Breadsall and Morley Dale, and 
at Sandiacre in the Erewash valley. 

The Keuper beds (or new Red Marl) overlie the 
Bunter. They occupy a large tract of country south of 
Ashbourne, Breadsall, and Sandiacre, and stretch across 
the county in a direction from east to west. The Upper 
Keuper consists of red marl and shale with micaceous 
sandstone (called skerry) and irregular bands of gypsum. 
The Lower Keuper consists mainly of sandstones. 

The Keuper beds were deposited on the more or less 
tilted edges of the Carboniferous rocks. They cover in 
one place Millstone Grit, in another the Yoredale rocks, 
and in another the Mountain Limestone. Hence, before 
the Keuper period, earth movements took place which 
raised the older rocks and exposed them to the action of 
the weather. 

The Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits of Derbyshire 
owe their preservation to the fact that they have been 
washed into caverns and thus protected from the denuda- 
tion or wear and tear of the rocks above them. A brief 
description of these deposits will be found in Chapter 10. 

The later Pleistocene or glacial deposits consist of 
clays, sands, and gravels. Boulders varying in size and 
character are often found embedded in the Boulder Clay. 
Some of them consist of rocks derived from the district, 
others are foreign to it, and must have travelled hundreds 
of miles from the places where they once formed part 
of the natural rock. These boulders are frequently 
much scratched, grooved, and polished from having been 

32 



GEOLOGY 37 

pressed and rubbed against the rocks of the country over 
which they passed, and when the rocky floor is laid bare 
by the removal of the clay it has been found to be covered 
with scratches and grooves whose bearings indicate the 
direction from which the boulders and clay have been 
brought. A few years ago, scratches in a N.N.W. 
direction were seen on the limestone floor below the 
Boulder Clay at Crich. 



8. Geology, (ii) Igneous Rocks. 

There are some rocks in Derbyshire, locally called 
" toadstone," which have had a very different origin from 
that of the sedimentary rocks described in the last chapter. 
Several good exposures of these rocks may be seen in 
travelling by rail from Derby to Miller's Dale. Imme- 
diately after leaving Matlock Bath station and just before 
entering the High Tor tunnel, a bed of dark-coloured 
rock is seen on both sides of the railway cutting. It is 
about 70 feet in thickness, with beds of limestone above 
and below it. Just before we arrive at Miller's Dale 
station there is a bed of similar dark rock at the bottom of 
the dale on our right with a bed of white limestone above 
it ; whilst in the wall of the cutting on our left hand we 
can see traces of a bed of similar dark rock, between 
which and that at the bottom of the dale is a stratum 
150 feet thick of limestone beds. If we alight at Miller's 
Dale and walk a short distance up Priestcliffe Lane 
towards Taddington we soon enter the upper bed of dark 



38 DERBYSHIRE 

rock. These beds have been traced through various 
parts of the county and sometimes extend over a number 
of square miles and are always interbedded with the lime- 
stone. That they were once lava streams is evident on 
examination of the rock, which is crystalline in structure, 



-:' 




Lava and Tufaceous Limestone resting on Limestone, 
Buxton Lime Co.'s Quay, near Miller's Dale Station 

t lava^ a = tufaceous limestone, I limestone 

studded with numerous holes or vesicles, some of which 
have been filled with carbonate of lime and are called 
amygdaloids. There is another variety, also interbedded 
with the limestone, which is not a massive rock but made 
up of fragments, which vary in size and are arranged in 



GEOLOGY 39 

thin layers. The fragments, when carefully examined, 
are found to be irregular in shape and composed of a vol- 
canic glass with numerous small steam holes. They are 
due to the breaking up of molten rock in a volcano and 
are called lapilli, while the beds of rock are known as 
volcanic tuff 1 . 

Beds of tuff may be seen amongst other places at 
Litton near Tideswell, in Cressbrook Dale, Tearsall 
Farm, near Matlock, and in the Tissington railway cut- 
tings. These lava streams and tuff beds tell us that 
whilst the limestone was being deposited upon the bed 
of the ocean, submarine volcanoes burst forth, welled 
out their lava streams, and deposited their tuff on the 
sea floor. 

The volcanoes from which these outbursts came must 
have been buried under further accumulations of materials 
on the sea floor, but in a county like Derbyshire where 
the limestone is entrenched by deep valleys we might 
expect to find traces of the pipes through which the 
volcanic material came to the surface. 

At Grange Mill, about five miles from Matlock Bath, 
are two dome-shaped hills with grassy slopes rising from 
the valley to a height of 100 and 200 feet respectively. 
They consist mostly of a grey rock with numerous green 
lapilli, whilst some parts are of coarser material. 

The position of these hills and their relations to the 
limestones surrounding them show that they form the 
necks or stumps of old volcanoes composed of the material 

1 The term Volcanic Ash is sometimes applied to them but though in 
popular use is incorrect because the rocks have not been subjected to fire. 



40 DERBYSHIRE 

which has filled the pipe up which the rock came from 
the interior of the earth. 

In the limestones which are seen on both sides of the 
valley is a bed of volcanic tuff about 90 feet in thickness. 
It is higher up in the series of limestone and was probably 
thrown out of these vents. 

A good section of the tuff may be seen at Shothouse 




Grange Mill Vents from the N.W. 

Spring on the road from Grange Mill to Winster. Per- 
haps the largest vent in Derbyshire is Calton Hill near 
Taddington, which is composed of a dark green or black 
crystalline rock known as basalt. 

There are other vents near Castleton, at Hopton, and 
at Kniveton. We also have in Derbyshire some igneous 
rocks of a later period than the Carboniferous volcanoes. 



GEOLOGY 41 

They may be popularly described as volcanoes which 
failed to reach the surface of the ground. 

After the limestone had become consolidated into 
hard rock the molten material from the inside of the 
earth pushed its way up into the Mountain Limestone, 
across the beds and in some places between them, baking 
the limestone with which they came into contact and 
making it into a crystalline limestone or marble. 

By the agency of denudation the rocks above them 
have been removed and valleys have been cut into them 
by rivers, so that we are able to find sections which show 
their relation to the beds in contact with them. These 
intrusive masses, as they are called, are composed of 
a coarse-grained crystalline rock, very hard and black or 
dark green in colour. In Tideswell Dale a sheet of this 
intrusive rock about 70 feet in thickness has baked the 
limestone below it into marble for a depth of some feet. 
At Peak Forest a similar rock has baked the limestone 
beds above it. 

In Tideswell Dale and on Masson Hill near Matlock 
and at Water Swallows the intrusive rock is quarried for 
road-metal. 



9. Caverns and Underground Drainage. 

There are numerous caverns in Derbyshire in the 
upper beds of the Mountain Limestone which are inter- 
esting either because of the manner in which they have 
been formed, or from their connection with the under- 



42 



DERBYSHIRE 



ground drainage of the district, or lastly from the mam- 
malian deposits which some of them contain. In some 
parts of the limestone district there are numerous vertical 
cavities or "swallow-holes" in the ground, which have 
been formed by water dissolving the limestone and carrying 
it away in solution. The hamlet of Water Swallows 
near Buxton no doubt owes its name to the number of 




Entrance to Peak Cavern, Castleton 

swallow-holes in its neighbourhood. The water disappears 
down these holes and the surface drainage passes under- 
ground and dissolves out of the solid rock a system of 
chambers and tunnels. The Peak Cavern at Castleton, 
which has a magnificent entrance, is an example of a 
natural cavern connected with a system of underground 
drainage. 



CAVERNS 43 

The water which runs down Rushup Edge north of 
the road from Chapel-en-le-Frith to Castleton, instead 
of flowing down the valley in a westerly direction towards 
Chapel-en-le-Frith, enters the limestone along a line of 
swallow-holes near Perryfoot, at the boundary of the 
Mountain Limestone and shales. The water is finally 
discharged partly through the caverns, but largely by a 




Middleton Dale 

spring called Russett Well, and the combined stream, 
known as Peak's Hole Water, flows down the valley, 
joining the river Noe near Hope. 

Another system of underground drainage occurs near 
Eyam. The water enters the limestone by swallow-holes 
and finds its way to the valley of the Derwent by way of 
Middleton Dale. The disappearance of the water down 
swallows often results in a dry valley which represents 



44 DERBYSHIRE 

the old watercourse. Linen Dale near Eyam is one of 
these dry valleys, and Great Rocks Dale, through which 
the Midland Railway passes between Doveholes and 
Buxton Junction, is another. The Winnats and Cave 
Dale near Castleton are fine examples of dry valleys. 

The Speedwell Cavern and the Blue John mine near 
Castleton are partly natural and partly artificial. The 
entrance to the Speedwell is at the foot of the Winnats. 
A level was driven into the hill to reach some of the lead 
veins and entered the New Rake vein at a distance of 
750 yards from the entrance. The level now contains 
water and visitors are taken in a boat to the large narrow 
cavern, which extends to a great height and was hollowed 
out by underground waters. A solid platform has been 
built on the sloping floor of the cavern and the excess 
of water falls over into the lower part known as the 
"Bottomless Pit." This pit was explored by the Kyndwr 
Club in 1901, and the water at the bottom was found to 
be 2O feet deep and 63 feet below the platform. 

The Blue John mine consists of large underground 
cavities connected by artificial passages, and derives its 
name from the variety of fluor spar known as " Blue 
John " which is obtained from it. The total distance of 
the winding passages is said to amount to more than three 
miles. Eldon Hole, a chasm 180 feet deep in the side 
of Eldon Hill near Peak Forest, which the writer and 
others explored in 1900, is about 100 feet long and 20 feet 
wide at the top, and at the bottom measures 36 feet by 
29 feet. The floor when reached from the surface is 
found to be composed of loose angular blocks of lime- 



46 



DERBYSHIRE 



stone and from it a low archway opens out into a large 
cavern, the lowest part of which is 256 feet from the 
surface of the ground. 

Amongst other caverns shown to visitors are the 
Bagshawe Cavern at Brad well near Castleton, the High 
Tor, Cumberland, and Jacobs Caverns, Matlock Bath, and 
Poole's Hole, Buxton. As a rule the parts accessible to 







Dove Holes, Dovedale 

the public form but a small proportion of the whole, the 
passages sometimes extending to several miles in length. 

Water charged with carbonic acid has the property of 
dissolving limestone and in this way the caverns have 
been formed. As the water evaporates the carbonate of 
lime which has been dissolved is re-deposited as beds 
of tufa, and in a cavern the drippings from the roof form 



CAVERNS 47 

stalactites hanging from the roof and stalagmites built up 
from the floor which often produce most beautiful effects. 
Large deposits of this rock have been formed by the 
warm springs at Matlock Bath. Here and in Via Gellia 
it is quarried for ornamental rock work. 

The " Petrifying Springs " at Matlock Bath, which 
issue from the limestone, form deposits of carbonate of 
lime on any small objects placed in them and at the 
present day along their short course into the Derwent are 
forming tufa. 



10. Caverns and their Mammalian 
Contents. 

Many of the caverns of Derbyshire are interesting 
because of the records they contain of animals which 
existed in England, not only during the later Prehistoric 
period, but also during the older Pliocene and Pleistocene 
periods. These records consist of bones buried in clay or 
cave earth. In some cases a more ancient deposit has 
been carried by water to a lower level of the cavern, and 
subsequently the upper part of the cavern has been carried 
away by denudation or the action of the weather. In 
other cases, the animals have lived in the caverns or been 
taken into it by hyaenas. Still later, man and domesticated 
animals have lived in the cave, and their remains have 
been covered up by the deposits of clay and stalagmite. 
In this chapter we shall briefly consider some of the more 
important of the Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits. 



48 DERBYSHIRE 

The Dream Cave at Wirksworth was explored by 
Dean Buckland in the early part of last century. He 
found an almost perfect skeleton of a rhinoceros. The 
animal had fallen down an open swallow-hole, and was 
buried in the clay and loam introduced by a stream of 
water. 

At Windy Knoll, near Castleton, is a swallow-hole 
in the limestone. It contained bones of the bison, bear, 
fox, wolf, and reindeer. Professor Boyd Dawkins con- 
sidered that these remains point out one of the routes by 
which the bisons and reindeer passed from the east to the 
west of England, or from the valley of the Derwent into 
the plains of Lancashire and Cheshire. 

On the north-eastern boundary of Derbyshire, four 
of the Creswell Caverns in the Magnesian or Permian 
limestone were explored by the Rev. J. M. Mello and 
Professor Boyd Dawkins. They contained remains of 
a Romano-British population, with bones of recent 
animals. Below these deposits were bones of the cave 
bear, hyaena, wolf, bison, deer, lion, mammoth, woolly 
rhinoceros, and the modern horse (Equus caballus\ together 
with the tools of Palaeolithic man. 

In 1902 a cavern in the limestone quarry at Hoe 
Grange, near Longcliffe, was broken into. The cavern 
was filled with clay and sand, which contained numerous 
bones. The writer obtained over 8000 specimens, of 
which 4545 were named by Mr E. T. Newton. They 
comprised some twenty-seven species of vertebrate animals. 
There was no evidence of the presence of man. The 
reindeer, which was present at Creswell, was absent from 






CAVERNS 



49 



Longcliffe, and its absence is the more remarkable in that 
it occurs in nearly all the lists of animals from Derbyshire 
caves. The rhinoceros at Longcliffe is different from the 
woolly rhinoceros which has been previously found in 
Derbyshire. The horse, though present in most of the 
Derbyshire caves, was absent from Longcliffe. The 
mammoth (Elephas primigenius) was found at Creswell, 
but was absent from Longcliffe, whilst Elephas antiquus 
was represented at Longcliffe by a milk tooth only. 



Left lower jaw of Felis leo showing milk teeth, about f 
(From Hoe Grange Cavern, Longclijfe : Pleistocene] 

The fallow deer is supposed to have been introduced 
into Great Britain by the Romans, but the large number 
of bones of this animal found in the Longcliffe cavern 
mingled indiscriminately with those of the other Pleisto- 
cene animals proves that it existed in Britain in Pleistocene 
times. The occurrence of the lower jaw of a lion's whelp 
was said by Professor Dawkins to be " the most important 
recorded from any cave in this country." 

B. D. 4 



50 DERBYSHIRE 

A cavern at Dove Holes, 2| miles north of Buxton, 
was broken into by the quarrymen prior to the year 
1903, and the bones, which were described by Professor 
Dawkins, were those of the hyaena, the sabre-toothed 
tiger (Machairodus), the mastodon, Elepbas meridionalis, 
Rhinoceros etruscus, Equus stenonis (probably the ancestor of 
the horse of Pleistocene age and the present day called 
Equus caballus] and Cervus etueriarum. These mammalia 
belong to the fauna of the Pliocene strata of Britain and 
the Continent. 




Upper Canine of Sabre-toothed Tiger, about & 

(From Dove Holes Cave: Pliocene) 

The Dove Holes cave " is the only Pliocene cave yet 
discovered in Europe, and is the only evidence yet avail- 
able of the existence of the upper Pliocene bone caves 
which from the nature of the case must have been as 
abundant in Europe as those of the succeeding Pleistocene 
age." Professor Dawkins considers that the fragmentary 
remains in the cave at Dove Holes were derived from 
a den of hyaenas belonging to the Pliocene age, and that 
they were conveyed from a higher level into it by water, 



CAVERNS 51 

and that the cave at Dove Holes escaped the destruction 
by denudation because it was a sufficient distance below 
the surface of the ground. 

Remains of Pleistocene mammalia, frequent in the 
river gravels of the southern counties, have been found 
in at least one place in Derbyshire. In 1896, the 
author and Mr R. M. Deeley obtained the greater por- 
tion of the skeleton of a hippopotamus, together with 
part of the breast-bone of an elephant and of the femur 
of a rhinoceros, in the Derwent gravel at Allenton, 
immediately to the south of Derby. These bones are 
now in the Museum at Derby. 



ii. Natural History. 

There are several lines of evidence which lead to the 
conclusion that what we call the British Islands formed 
part of the continent of Europe at a late geological 
period. 

The bones of extinct animals found in the caverns 
of Derbyshire and other parts of England, and in the old 
river gravels, are similar to those found on the continent 
and on the bed of the North Sea, especially on the Dogger 
Bank. When these animals invaded Great Britain, the 
North Sea could not have existed and the English Channel 
also, instead of sea, must have been a broad plain or river 
valley. The land must therefore have been some 
300 feet above its present level. The raised beaches on 
some parts of our coasts also point to an elevation of 

42 



52 DERBYSHIRE 

the land, while on the other hand the remains of forests 
now sunk beneath the sea and only to be seen at low 
water show that a sinking of the land has since taken 
place. The fact that the number of species is greater 
on the Continent than in Britain, and greater in Britain 
than in Ireland, shows that Britain was severed by sea 
from the Continent before all the European species had 
time to establish themselves with us, while even before 
this Ireland must have been separated from Great Britain. 
The distribution of the flora of Derbyshire is mainly 
determined by the climate and the soil. The former 
varies to a great extent with the altitude, and the latter 
depends upon the rocks from which the soil has been 
produced. Different plants thrive best on different soils 
and as we proceed from lower to higher ground, the less 
hardy plants die out. There is therefore a very rich and 
varied flora in a county like Derbyshire. The number of 
species of flowering plants which have been noted in the 
county is about 1000. The richest part is the Peak 
district, including the Mountain Limestone and Millstone 
Grit, in which are found subalpine and bog plants. In 
the dales are many plants peculiar to the Mountain Lime- 
stone. The fragrant lily-of-the-valley flourishes in the 
loose dry gravel on the steep limestone slopes of the Via 
Gellia and Monsal Dale, the yellow heartsease and white 
saxifrage grow well in the banks and fields on the 
Mountain Limestone, and the small yews and juniper 
bushes form a marked contrast to the white limestone 
crags on which they grow in many of the dales and 
gorges. The central area, including the Coal Measures, 



NATURAL HISTORY 53 

is the poorest in plants, and the southern or lowland 
part is rich in such plants as are found in simitar districts 
of England. 

In the parks of Derbyshire are many fine oaks and 
Spanish chestnuts, as well as beech, sycamore, elm, horse- 
chestnut, and lime. In Darley Dale churchyard is an 
ancient yew tree 32 feet in circumference, dating from 
Saxon times. 

The wild animals of Derbyshire of the present day 
differ little from those of other counties. The weasel is 
common in all parts of the county. The stoat is rare in 
the northern parts, and the fox survives in considerable 
numbers in the southern parts, which is hunted, but 
is killed in the moorlands, where it is exceedingly rare. 
The badger is becoming more rare and the marten and 
polecat are extinct. The otter exists in large numbers on 
the river Dove, especially in the lower portion, where 
protection is given to it by the landowners, but is scarce 
in the upper Dove and in the Derwent. The red deer, 
which is known to have existed in a wild state in the 
Forest of the Peak until about the year 1600, is now 
found only in the parks of Chatsworth, Hardwick, and 
Calke Abbey. There are about twelve herds of fallow 
deer in the county, and many of them may be descended 
from the wild fallow deer which inhabited the Peak and 
other forests. The herd at Stanton-in-the-Peak, near 
Rowsley, consists entirely of the black variety. 

Derbyshire is not so rich in birds as some of the other 
counties, because its distance from the sea prevents the 
visits of maritime birds, and because the greater part of 



54 DERBYSHIRE 

the county, with the exception of the Trent valley, is 
outside the main migration routes. 

There is however in Derbyshire an overlapping of 
the northern and southern kinds of birds. The lowlands 
are a breeding place for such southern species as the 
nightingale, and the uplands for such birds as are rarely 
found breeding in the central plains of the Midlands. 
The ring ousel, a summer visitor to the uplands, and the 
meadow pipit, a resident, seldom breed below an altitude 
of 1000 feet, whilst the yellow wagtail and red-backed 
shrike nearly always breed at a height of less than 500 
feet. On the bare uplands bird life is comparatively 
scarce. 



12. Climate and Rainfall. 

The climate of a country or district is, briefly, the 
average weather of that country or district, and it depends 
upon various factors, all mutually interacting, upon the 
latitude, the temperature, the direction and strength of 
the winds, the rainfall, the character of the soil, and the 
proximity of the district to the sea. 

The differences in the climates of the world depend 
mainly upon latitude, but a scarcely less important 
factor is this proximity to the sea. Along any great 
climatic zone there will be found variations in proportion 
to this proximity, the extremes being "continental" 
climates in the centres of continents far from the oceans, 
and " insular " climates in small tracts surrounded by sea. 
Continental climates show great differences in seasonal 



CLIMATE AND RAINFALL 55 

temperatures, the winters tending to be unusually cold 
and the summers unusually warm, while the climate of 
insular tracts is characterised by equableness and also by 
greater dampness. Great Britain possesses, by reason of 
its position, a temperate insular climate, but its average 
annual temperature is much higher than could be expected 
from its latitude. The prevalent south-westerly winds 
cause a drift of the surface-waters of the Atlantic towards 
our shores, and this warm-water current, which we know 
as the Gulf-stream, is the chief cause of the mildness of 
our winters. 

Most of our weather comes to us from the Atlantic. 
It would be impossible here within the limits of a short 
chapter to discuss fully the causes which affect or control 
weather changes. It must suffice to say that the conditions 
are in the main either cyclonic or anticyclonic, which 
terms may be best explained, perhaps, by comparing the 
air currents to a stream of water. In a stream a chain 
of eddies may often be seen fringing the more steadily- 
moving central water. Regarding the general north- 
easterly moving air from the Atlantic as such a stream, a 
chain of eddies may be developed in a belt parallel with 
its general direction. This belt of eddies, or cyclones as 
they are termed, tends to shift its position, sometimes 
passing over our islands, sometimes to the north or south 
of them, and it is to this shifting that most of our weather 
changes are due. Cyclonic conditions are associated with 
a greater or less amount of atmospheric disturbance ; 
anticyclonic with calms. 

The prevalent Atlantic winds largely affect our island 



56 DERBYSHIRE 

in another way, namely in its rainfall. The air, heavily 
laden with moisture from its passage over the ocean, 
meets with elevated land-tracts directly it reaches our 

shores the moorland of Devon and Cornwall, the Welsh 

mountains, or the fells of Cumberland and Westmorland 

and blowing up the rising land-surface, parts with this 

moisture as rain. To how great an extent this occurs is 
best seen by reference to the accompanying map of the 
annual rainfall of England, where it will at once be 
noticed that the heaviest fall is in the west, and that it 
decreases with remarkable regularity until the least fall 
is reached on our eastern shores. Thus in 1906, the 
maximum rainfall for the year occurred at Glaslyn in the 
Snowdon district, where 205 inches of rain fell ; and the 
lowest was at Boyton in Suffolk, with a record of just 
under 20 inches. These western highlands, therefore, 
may not inaptly be compared to an umbrella, sheltering 
the country further eastward from the rain. 

The above causes, then, are those mainly concerned 
in influencing the weather, but there are other and more 
local factors which often affect greatly the climate of a 
place, such, for example, as configuration, position, and 
soil. The shelter of a range of hills, a southern aspect, 
a sandy soil, will thus produce conditions which may 
differ greatly from those of a place perhaps at no great 
distance situated on a wind-swept northern slope with 
a cold clay soil. 

It is interesting to know how rainfall is measured, and 
how its distribution is recorded. When a meteorologist 
speaks of the mean rainfall at Buxton being 52 inches, he 



CLIMATE AND RAINFALL 57 

means that if all the rain which falls upon a level piece 
of ground in Buxton during an average year could be 
collected without waste, at the end of the year it would 
form a layer of water which would cover the piece of 
ground to a depth of 52 inches. The weight of such 
a mass of water is very great, as may be realised from the 
fact that one inch of rain is equivalent to 100 tons of 
water on each acre. The rainfall of course varies from 
day to day and year to year. Thus in 1882, one of 
the wettest years on record, the rainfall at Buxton 
was 65-86 inches, whereas during 1887 it was only 
32-38 inches. 

The rainfall for a number of years in Great Britain 
has been measured and recorded by voluntary observers, 
whose records have been published annually in British 
Rainfall from 1860 to the present time. The results 
thus obtained are shown on the map illustrating this 
chapter. From this it is plain that the heaviest rainfall 
is in the Welsh and Cumberland hills and in Cornwall. 

A similar map for Derbyshire was made by Dr Barwise, 
and published in 1899, in the "Report upon the Water- 
Supplies of Derbyshire " by himself and Mr J. S. Story. 
The mean rainfall varied from below 25 inches to over 
50 inches. The heaviest rainfall in the county occurred 
near Woodseats in the Derwent basin and at Fairfield, 
near Buxton, whilst over the strip of land between Derby 
and the river Trent containing Wellington and Alvaston 
the lowest rainfall was recorded. 

In 1907 the highest rainfall in Derbyshire was at 
Bleaklow Stones, 2060 feet above sea level in the Peak 




GEORGE PHIUPtSON L T . 



(The figures give the approximate annual rainfall in inches.} 






CLIMATE AND RAINFALL 59 

district, where it measured 64 inches. At Derby it was 
28*38 inches, or rather more than two inches above the 
average of 30 years. 

In Derbyshire there are few records of temperature 
over a series of years compared with those of rainfall. 
The mean temperature for twenty years (1881-1900) at 
9 a.m. at Buxton, 987 feet above sea level, was 46*1 
Fahr., and at Belper, 344 feet above sea level, 46-8. At 
both places July was the hottest month and January the 
coldest. The mean temperature at Buxton for 20 years 
(1881-1900) was 45*2 Fahr., and at Belper 47*3. 

Buxton is the only place in Derbyshire where regular 
records of sunshine have been made. The average of five 
years (1904-1908) was 1334 hours. The 1313 hours of 
sunshine at this place in the year 1907 may be con- 
trasted with the 1666 hours at Cromer, the 1234 hours 
at Westminster, and the 894 hours at Manchester in the 
same year. 

13. People and Population. 

Little is known about the earliest inhabitants of 
Derbyshire. They were probably men of the Palaeo- 
lithic or Early Stone age, who lived by hunting and 
fishing at the time when England was joined to the 
Continent. They dwelt in caverns, and were without 
domestic animals or a knowledge of agriculture. These 
men were succeeded by those of the Neolithic or New 
Stone age who lived in rude huts in spaces which they had 
cleared in the forests. They had domesticated the goat, 



60 DERBYSHIRE 

ox, sheep, dog, horse, and hog, had cultivated wheat and 
flax, possessed some knowledge of spinning and weaving, 
and understood the art of making pottery by hand. 

When Julius Caesar invaded Great Britain he found 
that the Britons belonged to various races, used different 
languages, and were in different stages of civilisation. 
The people inhabiting Derbyshire were called by the 
Romans Coritani. 

The Romans had three forts in Derbyshire, viz. 
Little Chester, Brough, and Melandra Castle. Derventio 
(Little Chester) was the most southerly of the system of 
the North British auxiliary forts held by the Romans. 
That this county was then of importance is shown by the 
Roman " pigs " of lead which have been found in Derby- 
shire, and the extensive system of Derbyshire roads in 
Roman times. 

On the retirement of the Romans at the dawn of the 
fifth century, the Celts or Welsh were left in possession 
and retained a large part of the Peakland for 150 years. 
They were disturbed by hordes of Picts from Scotland, 
and by Saxons from Northumbria. The Saxons soon 
settled in parts of Derbyshire, and founded the kingdom 
of Mercia. Those who settled in the Peak were called 
Pecsaetas or Peak settlers, and the county might have 
been called Pecsetshire. Some of the Celts were driven 
away and others gradually became absorbed in the Saxon 
or Mercian population. Northweorthig (now Derby) 
was held by the Saxons for three centuries, and Repton 
shared with Tamworth the " Capitalship " of Mercia. 
Ethelfrith in the seventh century took a large part of the 



PEOPLE AND POPULATION 61 

Peakland from the Celts or Britons, and thus considerably 
extended his kingdom. The country was invaded by the 
Northmen or Danes, who were attracted by the lead, and 
then settled here. They changed the name Northweorthig 
to Derby, the termination "by" denoting its Scandinavian 
origin. They took the north part of the kingdom as one 
of their five "burghs," each ruled by its own earl. 

There was much righting between the Saxons and 
the Danes until in 941 A.D. King Edmund finally freed 
from Danish rule the five burghs and all Mercia "long 
time constrained by heathen men in captive chains." 

The ancient or geographical county of Derby con- 
tains, according to revised returns, an area of 658,885 
statute acres. Its population numbered 620,322 persons 
in 1901. In 1 80 1 the population was only 161,567. 
It has therefore nearly quadrupled during the century. 
When the census was taken in 1901, there were 
610,522 people in the Administrative County of Derby, 
105,912 of whom were in the county borough of 
Derby. About three-fifths of the people live in towns 
or in urban districts and the remainder in villages or in 
rural districts. 

The average number of persons to a square mile is 
600 in Derbyshire, compared with 558 for the whole of 
England and Wales, so that the density of its population 
is slightly above the average. The census of 1901 shows 
that there were more males than females in Derbyshire. 
The former numbered 306,545 and the latter 303,977. 

Of the 620,322 persons enumerated in the county of 
Derby, 431,803, or 69*6 per cent., were born within the 



62 DERBYSHIRE 

county, 5310 were born in London, 3882 in Ireland, 
2580 in Wales and Monmouthshire, 2321 in Scotland, 
and 997 in British colonies and dependencies. Persons of 
foreign birth numbered 1341 ; 859 of these were British 
and naturalised British subjects, and 482 foreigners. 
Only 2ii persons were enumerated as having passed the 
night of the census of 1901 in barns, sheds, and caravans. 

The main occupations of the people were as follows : 
the men were chiefly engaged in the mining and metal 
industries, in agriculture, on railways, in house-building, 
and other trades ; while the women following occupations 
were mainly domestic servants, workers in cotton, hosiery, 
and lace, dressmakers and milliners. 

There were 356 blind persons, 362 deaf and dumb, 
and 1692 lunatics and imbeciles in Derbyshire, 1202 of 
the latter being inmates of institutions. It should be 
noted that the numbers of persons enumerated as suffering 
from one or another infirmity are affected by the presence 
or absence of institutions in which many of such persons 
might be resident. Thus of the 198 persons enumerated 
as deaf and dumb in the county borough of Derby, 155 
were in the Royal Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 
the use of which is not confined to the inhabitants of the 
borough. 



AGRICULTURE 63 

14. Agriculture Main Cultivations, 
Woodlands, Stock. 

The agricultural character of Derbyshire is as varied 
as its surface. The meadows on the banks of the Trent, 
Derwent, and Dove in the southern lowlands of the 
county provide a rich pasture, but the northern uplands 
are poor grazing land and in some parts yield only a 
scanty herbage. The red marl or clay and the gravels in 
the arable district south of Derby are productive, whilst 
the limestones in the north are generally unsuited for 
anything but permanent pasture. The coal districts in 
the eastern part of Derbyshire are mainly devoted to the 
getting of coal and to allied industries. The statistics of 
the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries for the year 1906 
deal with 650,370 acres in the county of Derby ; of 
which 35,274 acres are mountains and heath, and 3958 
water. 

The total acreage of cultivated land according to the 
returns made in 1906 was 489,322 acres, of which 450,128 
acres are occupied by tenants and 39,194 acres are farmed 
by the owners. The total number of holdings is 11,481, 
of which 2392 are above one and less than five acres, 
6129 are above five and less than 50 acres, whilst not 
more than 2870 are above 50 acres and only 90 above 
300 acres. The average size of the Derbyshire farm is 
42*6 acres. So that though Derbyshire is not a great 
agricultural ^county, the small farm system is not only 
common, but in many cases the farm has consisted of 



64 DERBYSHIRE 

much the same acreage for several hundred years and has 
been farmed by the same family for many generations. 

The vegetable products of Derbyshire as well as of 
all the counties are arranged by the Board of Agri- 
culture under the following divisions : Corn Crops, 
Green Crops, Sainfoin and Grasses for Hay, Other Crops, 
and Small Fruit. The portion of land which does not 
produce any of these crops is described as Bare Fallow, 
and in our county this comprised only 1749 acres in the 
year 1906. 

The corn crops are grown on 41,206 acres and con- 
sist of wheat, barley, oats, rye, and beans and peas. Thus 
about one-fifteenth of the area of Derbyshire is devoted 
to these crops. Oats and wheat are the most important ; 
barley being grown on 5034 acres only. 

The green crops cover about 18,000 acres, or one 
thirty-sixth of the county. They consist of turnips and 
swedes, mangold, potatoes, cabbage, and vetches or tares. 

A somewhat larger portion of the county, viz. 24,358 
acres, or about one twenty-seventh of its area, is devoted 
to the growing of clover, sainfoin, and grasses. Nearly 
three-fourths of this produce is " for hay," the remainder 
is "not for hay," but the land is broken up in rotation. 
The largest portion of agricultural land in Derbyshire is 
used for Permanent Pasture, or grass not broken up in 
rotation. This area of permanent pasture measures no 
less than 402,857 acres, or nearly two-thirds of the entire 
area of the county. The proportion of arable land to 
permanent grass land is a little over one-fifth r 

The woodlands of Derbyshire, though formerly more 






AGRICULTURE 65 

extensive, covered only 25,852 acres in the year 1906. 
Coppice woods (or those which are cut over periodically 
and reproduce themselves naturally by stool shoots) and 
plantations form only a small proportion of the whole 
woods. 

The animals reared in Derbyshire for various purposes 
are divided into four classes, viz. horses, cattle, sheep, 
and pigs. In the year 1906 cattle numbering 142,450 
formed the largest class : the number of sheep was 
nearly the same as that of cattle, 140,773. The number 
of horses was 28,472, and of pigs 27,751. The greater 
number of horses are used for agricultural purposes, whilst 
the cows are reared to supply milk for the towns of Derby- 
shire and for Liverpool, Manchester, and Stockport. 

In the south-western part of the county condensed 
milk is largely manufactured. In 1901, the Anglo-Swiss 
Condensed Milk Company started works which have had 
a great influence on the agriculture of this part of the 
country. The supply of milk is derived from Derbyshire 
and Staffordshire, and the maximum daily quantity is 
about 20,000 gallons in summer and 10,000 in winter. 
The annual output consists of about 15 million tins of 
condensed milk, which are mainly exported to the British 
colonies. 

Cheese-making, which some fifty years ago was so 
great an industry, has become almost extinct except in 
large factories. The reason for this is that the railway 
system increased the facilities for selling milk in London, 
Liverpool, Manchester, and Stockport. 



B. D. 



66 DERBYSHIRE 

15. Industries and Manufactures. 

Derbyshire in early times was mainly an agricultural 
county and, with the exception of lead-mining, industries 
were only worked to supply local needs. But since the 
seventeenth century, when the mining industries made 
a great advance, and in the nineteenth century, when rail- 
ways came in and enabled coal to be applied more largely 
to industrial purposes, there has been a rapid advance in 
industry and a decline in agriculture. 

The census returns taken every ten years show the 
changes which have taken place. The number of people 
engaged in agriculture in 1841 was over 18,000 ; this rose 
to 26,000 in 1 86 1 , and fell to below 1 6,000 in 1901. The 
numbers engaged in the textile trades rose from 11,000 in 
1841 to 22,000 in 1 86 1, and fell to below 13,000 in 1901, 
whilst those employed in the hosiery and lace industries 
fell from 8000 in 1841, to 4000 in 1871, and rose to 
nearly 9000 in 1901. 

The mining and iron trades have during the same 
period rapidly increased. The iron trades employed about 
four times as many persons in 1901 as in 1841. The 
increase in mining was much greater. The number of 
persons employed in mining in 1901 was more than six 
times as great as in 1841. The knitting of stockings by 
hand was a domestic industry throughout Derbyshire 
before the invention of the stocking frames. In 1758 
Jedediah Strutt, a native of Derbyshire, invented a rib 
machine for attaching to Lee's Stocking Frame. The 
stockings knitted on this machine were known as "Derby 



INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES 67 

ribs," and the industry spread rapidly over the midland 
counties. These frames were often in the homes of the 
worker, but the factory system has caused the aggregation 
of the trade in the centres of Derby, Ilkeston, Heanor, 
and Long Eaton. 

Silk was manufactured in Derby in the eighteenth 
century. The first textile silk-mill in England was erected 





Old Silk Mill, Derby 

by John Lombe on an island in the river Derwent which 
was rented from the Corporation. This mill was at work 
until a few years ago but has since been removed by the 
Corporation. During the nineteenth century the industry 
rapidly increased, but after 1861 declined, owing to the 
competition with France, and in 1901 there were only 
about 600 persons employed in the county in the manu- 
facture of silk. 



52 



68 DERBYSHIRE 

The cotton trade, which is now an important industry 
in Derbyshire, began in 1771, when Richard Arkwright 
patented the "water-frame" and subsequently made other 
improvements in the manufacture of cotton. He left 
Nottingham, where horse-power was used, for Cromford, 
at which place he utilised the water-power of the river 
Derwent. The removal of the excise duty on calico in 
1774 revolutionised the cotton industry, which spread 
rapidly in Derbyshire, and many new mills were built at 
Belper and Milford by the Strutts, who were partners 
of Arkwright, and at Glossop. The improvement of 
bleaching and dyeing and the introduction of cotton 
printing was a natural result of the growth of the cotton 
trade. The former trades are now carried on near Glossop 
and Matlock. 

Paper is manufactured at Glossop, New Mills, and 
Hayfield in the Mersey watershed, and at Bonsall and 
Little Eaton in the Derwent watershed. 

Pottery and china manufacture are also important 
industries. Pottery was made at Duffield during Nor- 
man times, and at Dale Abbey and Repton paving tiles 
were manufactured in the fourteenth century. In the 
eighteenth century brown pottery was made in many 
places in Derbyshire, and at the present day pottery works 
at Codnor Park, Derby, Ripley, Langley Mills, Ilkeston, 
Swadlincote, and Hartshorne employ a large number of 
hands. 

Derby is specially noted for its china industry. The 
first china works in Derby were established by Duesbury 
on the Nottingham Road. At a later date he bought the 






INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES 69 

Chelsea china factory, and plant at Bow, and afterwards 
closed these two works and manufactured only in 
Derby. The china works remained for three genera- 
tions in the Duesbury family, and after passing through 
several employers were discontinued in 1845. In 1877 
Mr Phillips, who came from the Worcester Royal Porce- 
lain Works, revived the manufacture of china in Derby 
on a new site, and in 1890 the Company received the 
honorific title of Royal and became the Derby Royal 
Crown China Company. 

The iron trade is now the most important industry of 
Derbyshire, with the exception of coal mining) (dealt with 
in the next chapter). After the middle of the seventeenth 
century the trade in iron increased, but at the close of 
that century it declined rapidly because of the importa- 
tion of cheap Swedish iron and the expense of procuring 
charcoal for the furnaces and forges. 

About the middle of the eighteenth century the sub- 
stitution of coke for charcoal created a great revival of 
the iron industry, which has been maintained to the 
present day. From the census returns of 1901 it appears 
that engineers and machine-makers formed by far the 
greater proportion of the iron-workers in Derbyshire. 
The railway men at Derby, however, form an impor- 
tant branch of this trade. The locomotive and carriage 
works there employ a great number of hands, and 
according to the census of 1901, over twelve thousand 
men were employed for the conveyance of persons and 
goods on railways in the county. 



70 DERBYSHIRE 

16. Mines and Minerals, (t) General- 
Coal Mines. 

The mines and minerals of Derbyshire are so numer- 
ous and interesting that several chapters will be required 
to describe them. The language of commerce uses the 
terms minerals and metals in a more or less general sense 
for the materials forming the crust of the earth which 
have been obtained either from the surface of the ground, 
from pits or quarries, or from greater depths in mines. 

Each year the Home Office publishes reports of its 
inspectors of mines. These reports contain information 
about inspections under three sets of Acts of Parliament 
the Coal Mines Regulation Acts, the Metalliferous 
Mines Regulation Acts, and the Quarries Act. Interesting 
information is given about the minerals worked, the 
number of people employed, and the quantities of minerals 
obtained, and it is convenient therefore to divide our 
subject into three portions the coal mines and minerals 
connected with them, the metalliferous mines, and the 
quarries ; though lead-mining, being such an old and 
important industry, will have a separate chapter. 

In the year 1906, according to Mr Stokes' report, the 
number of people employed in Derbyshire in coal mines 
was 51,904, in metalliferous mines 482, and in quarries 
3927. From the coal mines 16,647,224 tons were raised, 
from the metalliferous mines 46,194, and from quarries 
2,5^79,840 tons. 

Coal is the most important and most largely worked 



MINES AND MINERALS 71 

mineral in Derbyshire. It is obtained from three separate 
coalfields the North Derbyshire, which is part of the 
Lancashire coalfield ; the Leicestershire and South Derby- 
shire ; and the Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, and Derbyshire 
coalfield, on the east of the latter county. Although 
the presence of coal near to the ironstone must have 
been known at an early date, we have no evidence to 
show how early coal was worked in our county. From 
a charter of Edward II we learn that in 1315 the coals 
from Derbyshire were used in the monasteries, and the 
monks of Beauchief Abbey were supplied with coals from 
mines near Alfreton and Norton. 

The amount of coal raised in Derbyshire has increased 
rapidly each year. Since the year 1808 when a little over 
a quarter of a million tons were carried by the Cromford, 
Erewash, and Nottingham Canal, the output has in- 
creased, as we have seen, to more than sixteen and a half 
million tons in the year 1906. There are about 176 coal 
mines in Derbyshire, and of the 52,000 people employed 
in them slightly over 41,000 worked underground, and 
only between ten and eleven thousand above ground. 
Females have not been employed in Derbyshire coalpits, 
but before the middle of the nineteenth century boys as 
young as five years of age were employed for driving the 
donkeys and hauling the baskets of coal. The Mines 
Act of 1872 prohibited the employment of very young 
children in mines, and led to improvements in the methods 
of mining. 

The coal is worked at varying depths in Derbyshire, 
from 100 to as much as 1700 feet below the surface of 



72 DERBYSHIRE 

the ground. In 1899 about as much coal was raised 
from the last 600 feet as from the first 400 feet, and by 
far the greatest quantity was obtained at a depth of be- 
tween 500 and 1000 feet. In some places the coal is 
worked at the surface, but in Derbyshire only 4759 tons 
were obtained from quarries in 1906. 

There are several important minerals which occur in 
the coal-measures in Derbyshire, and are worked in the 
collieries. These are ironstone, fireclay, gannister, and 
pyrites. 

The Derbyshire ironstone is what is commonly called 
clay ironstone, and is found nearly throughout the whole 
depth of the coal-measures in the eastern coalfield of the 
county. Formerly a large quantity was raised in Derby- 
shire, but Northamptonshire ore, which is much easier to 
get, is now largely imported into Derbyshire. In 1906, 
only 5485 tons of ironstone were raised in Derbyshire, 
against 56,874 raised in Northamptonshire. 

A large quantity of fireclay is obtained from the 
Derbyshire coalfield. This clay contains little or no 
iron, lime, or alkali, and will stand intense heat without 
melting. In 1906, 72,389 tons were raised in Derby- 
shire. 

Gannister, a hard and fine grained sandstone consisting 
of silica, sometimes forms the floors of the seams of coal 
in the lower measures. It is used in some places for 
road-metal and when ground down and mixed with fire- 
clay makes excellent fire-bricks, or forms fire-resisting 
lining for the inside of furnaces. In 1906, 367 tons were 
obtained from mines and noo tons from quarries. 







MINES AND MINERALS 73 

Pyrites, a mineral composed of sulphur and iron, is 
frequently found in nodules and in thin layers in coal 
seams. It deteriorates the value of the coal in which it 
occurs, and gives much trouble in sorting the coal for 
iron smelting, but it is used largely for the production of 
sulphuric acid. Some 1774 tons of it were raised in 
Derbyshire in 1906. 



17. Mines and Minerals, (if) Metalli= 
ferous Mines. 

Of the 482 persons employed in metalliferous mines 
in Derbyshire in 1906, the report states that 297 worked 
below ground and 185 above ground. The quantity of 
material raised was 46,194 tons, and we may divide the 
material into two classes, firstly that consisting of gypsum, 
chert, ochre, and umber, which as commercial products 
are never found in association with lead ore ; and secondly 
the minerals such as barytes, calc spar, and fluor spar, 
which often form the matrix enclosing a lead vein ; and 
zinc ore, which is often found in lead-mines. 

Alabaster or gypsum (sulphate of lime) is said to have 
been raised from Chellaston as early as the fourteenth 
century. It is obtained by sinking shafts or driving levels 
into the ground (i.e. horizontal tunnels) and then cutting 
out in headings, from which the blocks of gypsum are 
taken out. Though it is now mainly used for making 
plaster of Paris, the whiter variety called alabaster was 
used for ornamental purposes. The pulpit and entrance 



74 DERBYSHIRE 

to the choir in St Luke's Church, Derby, and tombs in 
the churches at Bakewell and Ashbourne are wrought 
in alabaster. Plaster of Paris is made by baking the 
gypsum in ovens, and thus evaporating what is called its 
water of crystallisation, the mineral falling into a white 
powder. The powder is used for statues, medallions, 
casts of all sorts, paper-glazing, and many other purposes. 
The output from Derbyshire in 1906 was 7381 tons. 

The mining of chert is a characteristic Derbyshire 
industry. The chert of commerce is a silicious limestone 
used in making china and porcelain which is found in thick 
beds in the neighbourhood of Bakewell. Its crystalline 
structure differentiates it from the nodules and layers of 
chert in the upper beds of Mountain Limestone. The 
chert is obtained in large blocks by taking away the lime- 
stone underneath the bed of chert and letting the latter 
fall by its own weight. In 1906, 3612 tons of chert 
were obtained from mines and 150 tons from quarries in 
Derbyshire. A large quantity is sent to the potteries 
in Staffordshire. 

Umber, ochre, and manganese " black wad " are used 
in the manufacture of paints. In 1906, 74 tons of ochre 
from mines, in addition to no tons from quarries; and 
63 tons of umber from mines were obtained in Derby- 
shire. These substances are found in cavities in the 
limestone into which they have at some time been 
introduced by water. 

Barytes, locally termed u cauk," is a heavy mineral 
often found in lead-mines. Formerly this mineral was 
thrown away on to the old hillocks surrounding the 



MINES AND MINERALS 75 

mines. Of late years, since its commercial value has 
been recognised, it has been obtained from the old tip 
heaps. It is largely used for adulterating white lead, and 
probably enters into the composition of paint. It is also 
used for coating papers upon which impressions from 
"process" blocks are made. In 1906, 326 tons of barytes 
were raised in Derbyshire. 

Calc spar, or crystallised carbonate of lime, is chiefly 
found associated with lead ore. Some large specimens 
have been used for ornamental purposes, but it is chiefly 
used for garden walks. For this purpose it is broken up 
and sifted. In 1906, 1298 tons were obtained from mines 
and 700 tons from quarries. 

Fluor spar, or fluoride of lime, is sometimes called 
fluxing spar, because the commoner varieties are used in 
smelting copper ores and in plate-glass making. "Blue 
John " is the name given to the dark purple concretionary 
spar found in the Blue John mine, and it is much used 
for making ornaments, which fetch a good price. Fluor 
spar is used for making one of the most penetrating and 
corroding acids known, called fluoric acid. This has the 
property of corroding glass, and is kept in leaden vessels, 
on which it has no action. 

In working the old lead mines, fluor spar and other 
minerals were thrown aside as useless, so that in the old 
hillocks or refuse heaps there are large quantities of fluor 
spar. During the last few years the value of the fluor 
spar refuse has been discovered, and large quantities have 
been sent away for fluxing purposes to various parts of 
England and America. In 1906, 26,984 tons were 



76 DERBYSHIRE 

obtained from mines or mine hillocks, and 700 tons from 
quarries. 

The amount of zinc ore raised in Derbyshire was 
only 766 tons in 1906. Little attention to the ores of 
zinc was paid until the eighteenth century. They are 
often associated with lead ore. 

18. Mines and Minerals. (Hi) Quarries. 

Limestone or carbonate of lime is the most widely 
distributed mineral in Derbyshire. The quantity quarried 
in 1906 was more than twice as great as that of all the 
other minerals taken together, and amounted to 1,841,875 
tons. It covers a large area of ground in the northern 
part of the county from Castleton in the north to near 
Ashbourne and Wirksworth in the south, and is associated 
with some of the finest scenery. It is used in the manu- 
facture of iron, chemicals, and lime, as a metal for roads, 
and for building purposes. A large quantity of limestone 
is burnt at Buxton, Ambergate, and Small Dale near Peak 
Forest Station. The stone is broken up and burnt in 
special kilns. The carbonic acid which it contains is 
driven off and the resulting product is quicklime. 

The limestone in the eastern part of Derbyshire is of 
a different kind and contains magnesia as well as lime. 
The Houses of Parliament are partly built of magnesian 
limestone from near Bolsover. 

The sandstones of Derbyshire vary very considerably 
in colour and texture. They are used for paving, building, 
and roofing, and for making millstones. Some of the 



MINES AND MINERALS 77 

millstone grit is used for engine beds, and other founda- 
tions where strength and weight are required. This 
rock has been used largely for buildings. St George's 
Hall Liverpool, Chatsworth House, and Buxton Crescent, 
are built of Derbyshire gritstone. 

In addition to the above-mentioned minerals, large 
quantities of clay, brick-earth, marl, and shale are 
quarried, as well as gravel and sand. 



19. Mines and Minerals, (iv) Lead and 
Lead Mining. 

The oldest industry in Derbyshire is that of lead- 
mining and smelting. 

The majority of mines have been worked out, or 
abandoned owing to the difficulty of getting rid of water, 
the expense of obtaining the ore, and the great fall in the 
price of lead. The only mine at which any quantity of 
lead is being raised at the present day is the Mill Close, 
near Darley Dale, in the upper beds of the Mountain 
Limestone. The large number of old mine-heaps or 
hillocks and of old shafts bear witness to the vast amount 
of lead-mining which has been done in Derbyshire. 

The discovery of pigs or blocks of smelted lead with 
Latin inscriptions proves that lead ore was raised and 
smelted in Derbyshire during the Roman occupation of 
Britain. 

Since the Roman invasion some of the mines appear 
to have belonged to various religious houses, and became 



78 DERBYSHIRE 

the property of the Crown at a very early period. The 
lead-mining industry in Derbyshire is governed by curious 
customs and rights which have existed for many centuries. 
A poem composed by Edward Manlove, printed in 1653, 
and a book called The Articles and Customs of the King's 
Field in the High Peak of Derbyshire, published in 1601, 
give in detail the old customs and rights of lead-mining. 
These mining rights were confirmed by Acts of Parlia- 
ment passed in the years 1851 and 1852. 

In certain parts of the county anyone may search or 
dig for lead without asking for the permission of the 
owner or occupier of the land, and the latter cannot claim 
compensation. This is subject to the condition that the 
miner finds lead ore and pays a dish of lead to the bar- 
master. The miner is entitled to sufficient surface on 
which to deposit his hillock of waste material, a way to 
the highway or road most convenient from the mine, and 
a right of waterway to the nearest stream of running 
water. The only satisfaction the owner of the land gets 
for annoyance and loss is the right to sell any other 
mineral except lead which the miner may bring to the 
surface. 

The miner had to pay dues to the Crown, the Duchy 
of Lancaster, the barmaster, and in some places to the 
church of the district. The royalty to the Crown was 
a certain rate per dish, a dish containing about 472 cubic 
inches. The barmaster even at the present day carries 
his dish with him to measure the ore. The standard 
dish for the wapentake of Wirksworth is of brass, and is 
kept at the Moot Hall, Wirksworth. 



LEAD AND LEAD MINING 79 

The lead ore chiefly worked is galena or sulphide of 
lead, which contains a small quantity of silver (two to 
four ounces per ton). The ore occurs in veins known to 
the miners as "rakes," "pipes," and "flats." A rake 
vein is generally an almost vertical fissure or crack in 
the limestone, and " serins " are strings of ore which 
branch off from the rake and form smaller veins. The 
ore occurs in ribs with layers of calcite or fluor arranged 
more or less parallel to the walls of the rake or vein. 
Pipe veins are irregularly-shaped hollows or pockets in 
the limestone, generally parallel to the bedding-planes 
and often connected with one another by a crack filled 
with clay or spar called a leader. A flat is not so common 
as the rake or pipe veins. It is generally found along 
the junction of two beds of limestone, and consists of a 
low flat chamber with the roof and floor only a few feet 
apart : it seldom has any leaders connected with it. 

We can readily understand from the chapters on 
caverns and underground streams that the miner must 
often have met with volumes of water greater than 
pumping engines could cope with. Before steam-engines 
were introduced, the miners drove adits through the 
limestone with their mouth on a river or brook-side, so 
that water running out found its way into the natural 
drainage of the district. These artificial underground 
channels for carrying away the water from the mines are 
called "soughs." The Hill Car and Meerbrook soughs 
are the longest in the county. The former, near Youl- 
greave, is about four miles in length, took 21 years to 
drive, and cost upwards of 50,000. The Meerbrook 



80 DERBYSHIRE 

sough, ..which drains the Wirksworth lead-mines and 
empties the water into the Derwent near Whatstandwell, 
was commenced in 1773, is three miles in length, and 
cost ^45,000. 

With few exceptions the descent into the mines is by 
ladders, "stempels," and footholes. Stempels are pieces 
of wood, about four to six inches in diameter, fixed from 
one side of the shaft to the other and fastened at each end 
in the rock. They are placed a few inches from the side 
and about two feet apart on opposite sides of the shaft. 
The miner descends by planting one foot on a stempel 
on each side of the shaft, and moving the feet alternately 
on to lower stempels. The most dangerous way of 
climbing a shaft is by footholes, which are small holes 
about eighteen inches apart made on opposite sides of a 
narrow shaft. The miner places his feet in them with 
legs astride in the shaft, his back pressing against the side 
of the shaft, and in descending places the palms of his 
hands where his feet have been, taking alternate steps 
until he reaches the bottom of the shaft. 



20. History of Derbyshire. 

In considering the present-day condition of a country 
we must by no means omit a review of its past, for the 
one is but the outcome of the other and is indissolubly 
connected with it. The complex social and political life 
of the present day is a growth from small and seemingly 
unimportant happenings perhaps hundreds of years ago, 



HISTORY OF DERBYSHIRE 81 

and it is the tracing of these which makes history so 
interesting. Let us now see what these early influences 
in Derbyshire have been. 

In Chapter 13 we have already sketched the history 
of the county up to the time of the Norman Conquest. 
Soon after the Normans settled in England a, most 
interesting and valuable survey and series of statistics 
were made and recorded in the Domesday Book. The 
portion dealing with Derbyshire is short, but shows how 
much the county has been influenced by Scandinavian 
rule. The population of Derbyshire was 2868, including 
the exceptionally large number of 42 censarii, i.e. men 
who paid money rent instead of service. 

Derbyshire was one of the very few English counties 
which had a distinctive industry at the date of the survey. 
Its lead-mining was evidently important, though the 
greater part of the county was agricultural. The King 
was the chief holder of lands here as elsewhere, and these 
were grouped into large manorial blocks for the sake of 
agricultural organisation. He owned a series of manors 
stretching from Ashbourne to the York border, and the 
payment from these before the Conquest had been in 
" honey and lead." Ashbourne is the only recorded town 
paying in "pure silver." William de Ferrers was custodian 
of these manors for a time, but soon acquired possession 
of them. 

William the Conqueror also owned the forfeited 

estates of Edwin, late Earl of the Shire, and his eight 

messuages in Derby, the valuable manor of Melbourne, 

and a group of manors with their satellite " berewicks." 

B. D. 6 



82 DERBYSHIRE 

Berewicks were settlements connected with barns for the 
collection of corn, a " wick " being a village in which 
barley was grown. 

The growth of towns was accelerated under the royal 
ownership of land, as it was easier to obtain privileges 
from the distant King, who was always wanting money 
for his wars and national improvements, than from the 
wealthy neighbouring barons. 

The King granted large portions of his land to the 
different earls in fee-farms for life. Henry de Ferrers at 
one time owned one hundred and fourteen manors in 
the county, and a large part of the political history of 
Derbyshire is concerned with his house. His chief castle 
was at Tutbury just outside the county boundary, and he 
founded a Priory there before 1086. The chief credit of 
the victory of the Battle of the Standard at Northallerton 
against the Scots is due to his son, Robert de Ferrers, 
who obtained the title of Earl of Derby as a reward. 

The Peverils of North Derbyshire also played an 
important part in history, and William Peveril's castle of 
Peak is mentioned in the Domesday record, but it passed 
to the crown in the reign of Henry II. 

Derbyshire took little part in the wars of the Barons, 
and the three fortresses of Castleton, Bolsover, and 
Horsley were generally held for the King, who appointed 
William de Ferrers, son and heir of the insurgent baron 
who lost his castles in 1174, as custodian. King John 
visited his Derbyshire castles several times, and rebuilt 
Horsley. Earl Ferrers took arms against King Henry III, 
and all his lands were confiscated, and his local possessions 



HISTORY OF DERBYSHIRE 83 

conferred on the King's son Edmund, Duke of Lancaster. 
Some of this property still remains with the royal "Duchy 
of Lancaster." It was then, probably, that Duffield Castle 
was demolished. 

Derbyshire was linked with Nottinghamshire for civil 
administration up to Henry Ill's reign ; the assizes were 
held only at Nottingham, and from the time of Henry III 
to that of Elizabeth they were held alternately at Derby 
and Nottingham. There was only one county gaol at 
Nottingham for the two counties. 

Edward Fs reign marks the beginning of parliamentary 
rule, but no Derbyshire names are mentioned in parlia- 
mentary lists until 1295. Grants of markets were made 
to a number of Derbyshire towns during the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, among them Ashbourne, Wirks- 
worth, Melbourne, Sandiacre, Bakewell, Monyash, and 
Ilkeston. The chief industries were wool, wine, and 
lead, and a good deal of trade was done in these with the 
rest of England and with the Continent. , Fulling and 
dyeing were carried on in Derby, and the name Full 
Street still survives. 

The Third Derby Charter was obtained in 1204; it 
enacted that no cloth should be dyed within a radius of 
ten leagues from Derby except at Nottingham, it also 
allowed the burgesses to form guilds. The guilds were 
very important during the middle ages and exercised a 
great monopoly in trading, though they were themselves 
sometimes fined for taking excessive tolls. Although 
they might oppress individuals yet they stood up for the 
liberties of the town against any infringement of them by 

62 



84 DERBYSHIRE 

the King, and against foreigners. The history of the 
wool trade in Derby is a long series of disputes between 
the King, the Abbots of Darley, and the burgesses. 

The earliest trading was private and retail, but it 
developed into municipal trading when civil officials were 
allowed to buy and sell in the various markets. 

There was little besides architecture and dress in 
which money might be invested at this time, so money 
accumulated, and the guilds often became very wealthy 
bodies. Besides carrying on trade, they built churches, 
repaired and built bridges and town walls, and assisted 
the poor. Chesterfield had several guilds in the thirteenth 
century, and there also was one at Dronfield and another 
at Tideswell. 

Derbyshire was closely connected with John Baliol, 
the claimant for the Scotch throne in 1291. He held 
the custody of the Peak and the honour of Peveril, and 
served as Sheriff for Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire from 
1261-4. All the leading men were engaged in his wars 
until his deposition in 1296. 

In 1327 Queen Isabella held the High Peak Castle, 
town, honour, and forests of the then yearly value of 
^291. 135. 4^., which sum must be multiplied by fifteen 
to bring it up to the present value of money. 

During the fourteenth century the archers of Derby- 
shire were of great repute, and frequent levies were made 
for the wars with France, Scotland, and Spain. One 
hundred and fifty bowmen were provided by this county for 
Agincourt in 141 5. Edward III commissioned 500 archers 
and 200 hobelers (light horsemen) to fight against the 



HISTORY OF DERBYSHIRE 85 

Scots, but there were frequent desertions and punishment. 
The archers continued to be famous, and 4510 of them 
are included in the muster of April, 1539. These county 
musters played an important part in Elizabeth's reign and 
onward until James I abolished the old form of military 
service. 

There was great dissatisfaction felt in Elizabeth's 
reign because some of the miners were compelled to 
serve in quelling the rebellion in Ireland, while the mines 
were standing idle and the men themselves were quite 
untrained for service. 

'The Black Death was very severe in Derbyshire in 
1349 and the plague again visited the county in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Grass grew in the 
streets of Derby, and the Hedles Cross in the Arboretum 
once stood on the western outskirts of the town to mark 
the spot where temporary fairs or markets might be held 
with least danger of infection. During these terrible 
visitations of plague harvests were ungathered, and many 
deaths occurred amongst all classes of the people. The 
story of the heroic action of Mompesson, the vicar of 
Eyam, in his efforts to prevent the spread of the disease 
and to help his stricken people is well known. 

There was much religious persecution during the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and the wild places 
in the Peak formed convenient hiding places for fugitives. 
Several important Derbyshire families were Catholic, as 
owing to the comparative inaccessibility of this county 
and the hill country generally, the old faith lingered on 
more effectively than in the more civilised south. The 



86 DERBYSHIRE 

last Protestant martyr in Derby was Joan Waste, a girl 
only 22 years of age, who was burnt for her faith at 
Windmill Pit in 1556. 

Derbyshire, probably owing to its inaccessibility and 
its distance from the coast, is celebrated for its illustripus 
prisoners. John of Bourbon was taken prisoner at Agin- 
court, and confined at Melbourne Castle for nineteen 
years. 

Mary Queen of Scots spent much of her unhappy 
captivity in Derbyshire at Chatsworth, Derby, Buxton, 
and Wingfield, until her final custody at Tutbury Castle, 
preceding her execution at Fotheringay in 1585. 

Anthony Babington, the leader of the conspiracy to 
murder Elizabeth and to set Mary Queen of Scots on 
the English throne, owned a house in Derby in Babington 
Lane, where Queen Mary stayed in January, 1585. The 
plot was discovered by Walsingham, and Babington was 
executed in 1587. 

In the seventeenth century a large number of Scotch 
prisoners were confined in the church at Chapel-en-le- 
Frith, and in sixteen days 44 had perished from cold and 
starvation. 

A number of French prisoners were sent to Derby- 
shire during the wars of the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries and the art of netted glove making was 
introduced by them into Chesterfield. 

George Fox, the celebrated founder of " The Society 
of Friends," was also a prisoner in Derby for a year, 
"amongst thirty felons in a close stinking place." At 
his trial the name " Quaker " was first given to him by 



HISTORY OF DERBYSHIRE 87 

Justice Bennett, in allusion to the tremblings that formed 
part of his ritual in preaching. Derby was also the first 
place where a female quaker preached. 

James I visited Derby, and King Charles also visited 
the town, staying three days at the " Great House " in 
the market place, and obtaining 300 from the Corpora- 
tion. 

During the civil wars many Derbyshire men fought 
against the King under Sir John Gell of Hopton, who 
had previously made himself notorious over the collection 
of ship-money. 

The Royalists were defeated at Swarkestone Bridge 
and at Ashby-de-la-Zouch. Gell was made Governor of 
Derby and kept his main guard in the Town Hall for 
four years. His soldiers were similar to the levies raised 
at the beginning of the war, " a set of poor tapsters and 
town apprentices" as Cromwell calls them. The town 
and the neighbouring gentry grumbled at the expense of 
keeping them so long, as it exceeded that of other towns 
by three thousand pounds. Farmers, moreover, were 
afraid of bringing their produce to Derby market lest 
they should be robbed by the soldiers. 

Gell was successful in the siege of Lichfield Cathedral, 
and again at the battle of Hopton Heath near Stafford, 
where the Earl of Northampton was killed. The body 
was brought to Derby for burial in the Cavendish vault 
in All Saints' Church. The Royalists pillaged up to the 
gates of Derby and stormed Wingfield Castle, but Gell 
regained it after one month's siege. The county was in 
a miserable state during its varying fortunes, and in 1646 



88 DERBYSHIRE 

there was a serious mutiny in the Derbyshire regiments. 
The unpopular and tactless Secretary of State to Charles I, 
Sir John Coke of Melbourne, was a Derbyshire man. 

William Cavendish, fourth Earl of Devonshire, played 
a great part in driving James II from the throne, and 
bringing William of Orange over to England. The final 
conspiracy was hatched in a small house on Whittington 
Moor, near Chesterfield, and its restored remains are still 
called "Revolution House." William Cavendish was 
made a Duke by William III as a reward for his 
services. 

In August, 1709, the whole county was thrown into 
a ferment by an assize sermon preached by Dr Sacheverell 
at All Saints' Church, Derby. It was a covert attack on the 
revolution of 1688, and advocated the principle of non- 
resistance to supreme power. After a nine days' trial, he 
received a mild sentence which the Tories regarded as an 
acquittal, whereat bells were rung and bonfires lighted in 
Derby as tokens of joy. 

In 1745 Swarkestone Bridge became famous as the 
most southerly point reached by the pretender Charles 
Edward and his force of seven thousand men. The more 
important men of the county joined the tradesmen and 
yeomen to resist the Popish Pretender," but no battle 
was fought, as the officers turned faint-hearted, and 
Charles Edward, much to his regret, was obliged to 
retreat with his force. 

Soon after the Restoration a post was established twice 
a week between Derby and London, and in 1719 the 
first Derby newspaper made its appearance. 



HISTORY OF DERBYSHIRE 89 

The county was in a very unsettled state from the 
time of the French Revolution to the passing of the 
Reform Bill. There were riots at Bakewell, Ashbourne, 
and Wirksworth, due to the rebellion of the miners 
against forced service in the militia. In 1811 the Luddite 
riots commenced and the stocking-frame breakers did 
much damage. The distress amongst the working classes 
reached a crisis in 1817. A murderous scheme was 
hatched, incited chiefly by those in authority. It was 
soon quelled but, for the sake of example, two stone- 
masons and one frame-knitter from Pentrich suffered the 
outrageous death of being hanged, drawn, and beheaded 
(instead of being quartered) for " High Treason." Shelley 
the poet was in the crowd and commented unfavourably 
upon the execution. 



21. Antiquities. 

The earliest history of the people who inhabited 
Derbyshire is not derived from written records but from 
the relics or antiquities which have been found in the 
county. 

Archaeologists divide the prehistoric period during 
which Great Britain was inhabited into four more or less 
distinct periods. These are the Palaeolithic (old stone) 
period during which man used rude implements and 
weapons of stone ; the Neolithic (new stone) period when 
he used more highly finished weapons of stone but was 
still ignorant of the use of metals ; the Bronze age when 



90 DERBYSHIRE 

his implements were made of copper and tin ; and the 
Iron age when the use of that metal became established. 

Relics of man of the Old Stone period are found in 
caverns and old river gravels associated with bones of 
animals which are now extinct in Britain, whilst those 
of the New Stone age are found associated with wild and 
domesticated animals, many of which are similar to those 
now living in Great Britain. The break between these two 
stone ages is of a very marked character and there is little 
doubt that a very lengthy period of time separated them. 
During the Neolithic or New Stone age, the climate and 
general surface of the country were very little different 
from what they are to-day, whilst the climate of the 
Palaeolithic or Old Stone age was so much colder that 
a large portion of Great Britain was coated with ice. 
During this age, Great Britain was united to the Conti- 
nent of Europe. 

The Recent age of the Geologist includes all pre- 
historic time from the Neolithic, through the Bronze and 
Iron ages, to the present time. The changes from the 
Neolithic age to the Bronze and Iron ages show no gap 
like that between the two Stone ages, but were gradual. 
The different materials doubtless remained in use side 
by side for some time, and the change from one period 
to another would be made at different times in different 
districts. 

The antiquities subsequent to the Iron age we gener- 
ally classify as Roman and Saxon, corresponding with the 
history of our land from 55 B.C. to 1066 A.D. 

The only traces of Palaeolithic man found in Derby- 



ANTIQUITIES 



91 



shire occurred in the Creswell Caves on the N.E. border 
of the county. These caves have yielded results only 
surpassed in England by those of Kent's Cavern at Tor- 
quay. In 1876, no less than 2726 bones and 1040 




Fragment of rib with engraving of horse (full size), 
Robin Hood Cave 



Bone needle, Church Hole Cave (full size] 




Bone awl, Church Hole Cave (full size] 

implements were obtained from Robin Hood Cave, and 
1604 bones and 234 implements from Church Hole Cave. 
The implements were of quartzite, flint, and bone. 
Amongst other interesting implements found in Church 
Hole Cave were "a well-shaped needle, absolutely perfect, 



92 DERBYSHIRE 

made out of a metacarpal or tarsal bone of a ruminant 
and much larger than any of those figured from the 
Palaeolithic caves of France, Belgium, or Switzerland " 
and " two bone awls fashioned out of the tibia of a hare 
and polished by long-continued use." On one flat piece 
of bone was scratched a sketch of the head and fore- 
quarters of a horse. This was the first trace of pictorial 
art discovered in Great Britain. The majority of the 
bones were those of animals now extinct but alive in this 
country when it was part of the Continent of Europe 
during Palaeolithic times. The similarity of these de- 
posits to those in France and Switzerland proves that the 
hunters of those countries found their way along the 
Eastern Valley, now covered by the German Ocean, and 
wandered as far north as southern Yorkshire. 

The remains of Neolithic, Bronze, and early Iron 
man in Derbyshire consist mainly of burial mounds and 
other remains of tombs. Nearly 300 of these have been 
opened, and their contents examined scientifically, but 
many others must have been destroyed and used for building 
and other purposes. -^The common word in Derbyshire 
for a burial ground is "low," from the Saxon word 
meaning a small hill or heap, and it often occurs in place 
names. ^ These burial mounds have been divided into 
three kinds, those which belong to the Neolithic stage, 
those of the Bronze age, and those of later type which 
may belong to Roman times. 

There are about a dozen structures in Derbyshire 
popularly known as druidical circles. The two finest 
are at Arborlow, near Parsley Hay station, on the 



ANTIQUITIES 93 

L. & N. W. Railway between Buxton and Ashbourne ; 
and the "Bull Ring" at Dove Holes, on the L. & N. W. 
Railway, between Buxton and Manchester. It is con- 
sidered that they were connected with religious rites, and, 
as Sir Norman Lockyer has shown, they were probably 
erected as rough astronomical instruments. 

There are in Derbyshire ten or twelve defensive 
works or fortifications which are not of Roman origin. 




Stone Circle, Arborlow 

They are probably pre-Roman and were used as refuges 
in times of tribal insecurity. The largest of these are on 
Mam Tor near Castleton, Carl's Wark near Hathersage, 
and the fort at the western end of Combs' Moss, near 
Dove Holes. 

Derbyshire contains interesting traces of the Roman 
occupation. )The three Roman forts in Derbyshire were 
Melandra, Anavio or Brough, and Little Chester. Me- 
landra Fort is near the borders of Cheshire, and not far 



94 DERBYSHIRE 

from Dinting Vale station on a branch of the Great 
Central Railway. It lies near the confluence of the 
Glossop brook and the Etheroe. It commanded the easy 
access to the hills of North Derbyshire. Brough Fort is 
near Hope station on the Dore and Chinley branch of 
the Midland Railway. It is near the confluence of the 
Bradwell Brook with the river Noe, and commanded the 




Mam Tor, Castleton 

approach to the hills in the neighbourhood of Castleton 
and Bradwell. Little Chester is in the N.E. part of the 
present borough of Derby. It is situated as other Roman 
forts often are, in an open valley, close to water, and 
commands the approaches to the hilly country to the 
north. 

The Roman Road in Derbyshire known as Ryknield 



ANTIQUITIES 95 

Street passed through Lichfield, Little Chester, and 
Chesterfield to Templeborough near Rotherham. Four 
other Roman roads branched out from Little Chester. 
One led to Buxton (called by the Romans Aquae\ 
probably a Roman village, a shorter road ran to Sawley- 
on-Trent, and another may have led westwards to 
Rocester on the Staffordshire border. From Melandra, 
the road known as the Doctor Gate led across the moors 
eastward to Brough and ultimately to Templeborough, 
another led to Stockport and Manchester, and another 
possibly to Buxton. 

From Brough the Batham Gate ran up the Bradwell 
valley and across the moors to Buxton ; and Doctor Gate 
and Long Causeway connected Melandra, Brough, and 
Templeborough. 

In the neighbourhood of Buxton and Wirksworth 
Roman remains have been found in caverns showing 
that they were inhabited during the Roman occupation. 
Numerous other small finds are scattered over the hilly 
country, which point to temporary occupation only. 
Roman " pigs " of lead have been found near Matlock 
and Brough, which show that the lead-mining industry 
flourished in Roman times. 

The Saxon remains in Derbyshire, which consist of 
grave-mounds, earthworks and other visible monuments, 
are few compared with those of prehistoric age. A 
number of barrows or mounds, however, have yielded 
ornaments and utensils which sometimes are found with 
the skeletons or bones of uncremated bodies, and in other 
cases with the calcined bones or ashes. 



96 DERBYSHIRE 

22. Architecture (a) Ecclesiastical. 
Churches and Crosses. 

Dr Cox remarks in his exhaustive work on the 
Churches of Derbyshire that " this county cannot vie with 
Somersetshire in its towers, with Northamptonshire in 
its spires, with Norfolk or Suffolk in the size or beauty 
of so many of their churches, or with Kent in the num- 
ber of its brasses ; but no other county of the same size 
has anything like the same extensive variety of styles, and 
excellent specimens of every period, both in the ecclesi- 
astical fabrics themselves and in the monumental remains." 
So that, although Derbyshire possesses no cathedral like 
Lichfield or Southwell, much may be learned from a c fudy 
of its " history in stone." A continuous development 
may be traced from the Romanesque period on through 
the various Gothic periods ; each one embodying the 
ideals and aspirations of the people, and never copying 
the art of a past age. But there was no abrupt change in 
any one year, at all places alike, for styles nearly always 
overlap, and progress was not at all uniform in different 
parts of the country. 

A preliminary word on the various styles of English 
architecture is necessary before we consider the churches 
and other important buildings of our county. 

Pre-Norman or as it is usually, though with no great 
certainty termed Saxon building in England was the 
work of early craftsmen with an imperfect knowledge of 
stone construction, who commonly used rough rubble 



ARCHITECTURE ECCLESIASTICAL 97 

walls, no buttresses, small semi-circular or triangular 
arches, and square towers with what is termed "long- 
and-short work" at the quoins or corners. It survives 
almost solely in portions of small churches. 

The Norman Conquest started a widespread building 
of massive churches and castles in the continental style 
called Romanesque, which in England has got the name 
of " Norman." They had walls of great thickness, semi- 
circular vaults, round-headed doors and windows, and 
massive square towers. 

From 1150 to 1200 the building became lighter, the 
arches pointed, and there was perfected the science of 
vaulting, by which the weight is brought upon piers and 
buttresses. This method of building, the " Gothic," 
originated from the endeavour to cover the widest and 
loftiest areas with the greatest economy of stone. The 
first English Gothic, called " Early English," from about 
1 1 80 to 1250, is characterised by slender piers (commonly 
of marble), lofty pointed vaults, and long, narrow, lancet- 
headed windows. After 1250 the windows became 
broader, divided up, and ornamented by patterns of 
tracery, while in the vault the ribs were multiplied. The 
greatest elegance of English Gothic was reached from 
1260 to 1290, at which date English sculpture was at 
its highest, and art in painting, coloured glass making, 
and general craftsmanship at its zenith. 

After 1300 the structure of stone buildings began to 
be overlaid with ornament, the window tracery and vault 
ribs were of intricate patterns, the pinnacles and spires 
loaded with crocket and ornament. This later style is 

B. D. 7 



98 DERBYSHIRE 

known as "Decorated," and came to an end with the 
Black Death, which stopped all building for a time. 

With the changed conditions of life the type of 
building changed. With curious uniformity and quick- 
ness the style called "Perpendicular" which is unknown 
abroad developed after 1360 in all parts of England and 
lasted with scarcely any change up to 1520. As its name 
implies, it is characterised by the perpendicular arrange- 
ment of the tracery and panels on walls and in windows, 
and it is also distinguished by the flattened arches and the 
square arrangement of the mouldings over them, by the 
elaborate vault-traceries (especially fan-vaulting), and by 
the use of flat roofs and towers without spires. 

The mediaeval styles in England ended with the 
dissolution of the monasteries (1530-1540), for the 
Reformation checked the building of churches. There 
succeeded the building of manor-houses, in which the 
style called " Tudor " arose distinguished by flat-headed 
windows, level ceilings, and panelled rooms. The orna- 
ments of classic style were introduced under the influences 
of Renaissance sculpture and distinguish the " Jacobean " 
style, so called after James I. About this time the pro- 
fessional architect arose. Hitherto, building had been 
entirely in the hands of the builder and the craftsman. 

Most of the Saxon churches have long since perished, 
but round chancel-arches of probable Saxon work may be 
seen at Marston Montgomery, Sawley, Stanton-by-Dale, 
and Ault Hucknall, this last-mentioned church containing 
much work in Saxon style. There is a very remarkable 
Saxon crypt of late eleventh century date under the altar 



ARCHITECTURE ECCLESIASTICAL 99 

at Repton, with spirally twisted pillars and a vaulted 
roof, which is unique in Britain. A characteristic tri- 
angular-headed window, i.e. two stones inclined at an 
angle, may be seen at Sandiacre, and the sides built in 




Saxon Crypt, Repton 

" long and short " work, i.e. alternate bands of stone of 
different widths. At St Chad's Church, Wilne, there is 
a Saxon font of eighth or ninth century date, possibly the 
oldest in England. 

72 



10 o DERBYSHIRE 

Derbyshire is particularly fortunate in possessing two 
such perfect examples of Norman or Romanesque work as 
the large parish church of Melbourne, near Derby, and the 
little gem of late Norman work at Steetley Chapel in the 
extreme north-east of the county. St Michael's Church, 
Melbourne, is built on the cruciform plan, and has a central 
tower and a fine west porch flanked by two small towers. 




Saxon Font, St Chad's, Wilne 

At the east end, the spring of the original three semi- 
circular apses of the chancel and transepts may be plainly 
seen. The thick walls and huge circular pillars on their 
square bases give the idea of strength and permanence so 
characteristic of our Norman conquerors. These early 
builders knew nothing of the laws of weight and thrust, 
and so constructed every part strong enough to carry the 



ARCHITECTURE ECCLESIASTICAL 101 

upper walls and roof. The round arches of the arcades and 
chancel and the small round-headed clerestory windows 
on the north side are of typical Norman design. 

Steetley Chapel had been used as a barn for 350 years, 
but divine service was once more held there in 1875. It 
has an unique richly-ornamented apse at the east end, 




St Michael's, Melbourne 

with a decorated stone vault, and is ornamented on the 
outside with shallow buttresses. Many Norman orna- 
ments may be studied here, including beak-heads, cones, 
billets, zig-zags, grotesques, and foliage on the capitals 
and arches. 

At Whitwell there is a fine cruciform Norman church 



I02 DERBYSHIRE 

considerably altered in the fourteenth century, and other 
interesting remains of Norman work may be seen at 
Aston-on-Trent, Bakewell, Longford, Sandiacre, and 
Youlgreave. There are fine south doorways at Allestree, 




The Nave, St Michael's, Melbourne 

Breadsall, and Long Eaton, and particularly at Bradbourne. 
Norman fonts still exist at Mellor and Tissington, and 
a lead one at Ashover. There is a strange font at Youl- 
greave with what appears to be a stoup for holy-water 
attached. 



ARCHITECTURE ECCLESIASTICAL 103 

The reign of Henry III marks the age of national 
development, and a freer and more artistic spirit is shown 
in this Early English period of Gothic architecture. 

In its arcade, chancel, and the three sedilia Ilkeston 
Church shows the Transitional period, which employed 
new methods of construction coupled with old Romanesque 
ornament. Ashbourne Church was built about the middle 
of the thirteenth century, and the choir is one of the best 
examples in the kingdom of the grace and beauty of the 
style. There are two triple lancet windows in the north 
transept.- There is also a fine doorway with characteristic 
"tooth" moulding. Other details such as clustered pillars 
and pointed arches may be seen at Wirksworth, and 
typical lancet windows at Stanton-by-Dale, Doveridge 
chancel, and Weston. 

Early English towers occur at Breadsall and Ecking- 
ton, but the spire at Breadsall is of later date. "Broached 
spires " of this or later periods may be seen at Ockbrook, 
Boisover, Sandiacre, and Horsley. 

A great number of Derbyshire churches seem to have 
been practically rebuilt in the Decorated Period, viz. 
1250-1350 A.D., and we have therefore a number of 
particularly fine examples. 

An important characteristic of this period is the de- 
velopment of tracery in windows. The grouping of 
lancet windows under an enclosing arch left a space in 
the head that was first pierced with geometrical forms, 
such as circles and trefoils, which later developed into 
beautiful bar tracery, becoming more and more twisted 
and contorted into meaningless forms, though never 



104 DERBYSHIRE 

descending quite into the excessive ornamentation of the 
flamboyant tracery of the Continent. 

Examples of Decorated windows of different dates 
and other details can be seen at Sawley, Weston-on- 
Trent, Norbury, Hathersage, Tideswell, Chesterfield, 
Ashbourne, Bonsall, Crich, Chaddesden, Ilkeston, Sandi- 




St John the Baptist, Tideswell 

acre, and Wilne, some of the windows of the last two 
churches being almost flamboyant in character. 

St John the Baptist, Tideswell, is a particularly fine 
church of grand proportions of the Decorated Period, 
situated in a little village some 2j miles from Miller's 
Dale. It has many important features, including an 
unusually large chancel, three fine stone sedilia, a stone 



ARCHITECTURE ECCLESIASTICAL 105 

sepulchre, a stone reredos, an ancient font, a window 
with " reticulated " tracery, and a tower of late date 
(probably about 1380) having a wonderful combination 
of turrets and pinnacles. The crooked spire of All 




All Saints, Chesterfield 

Saints Church, Chesterfield, provokes much interest. It 
was built about 1350, and the twisting is possibly due 
to the use of unseasoned timber. 

Fairs, markets, and revels were sometimes held inside 



106 DERBYSHIRE 

this church, as elsewhere in mediaeval times, and the sacks 
of wool stored here formed a hiding place for Robert de 
Ferrers in 1265. 

Ashbourne Church has a fine tower and a very grace- 
ful octagonal spire of the Decorated Period called " The 
Pride of the Peak." Its angles are ribbed by strings of 
ball flowers, and it possesses twenty windows. 

The visitor to the fine church of Hathersage is shown 
the supposed grave of Little John, which is about ten feet 
long. His bow and cap formerly hung in the church. 
Mention should also be made of the beautiful chancels of 
Dronfield, Norbury, and Sandiacre. 

The love of ornament and of sculptured forms threat- 
ened to run wild in Decorated times, but all building 
was summarily checked about the middle of the fourteenth 
century, owing to the long war with France, but above all 
to the Black Death of 1348 and 1349. 

When architecture once more asserted itself, it was 
sobered and disciplined. The Perpendicular style was 
that of rigid, straight lines in window tracery, and of 
superficial ornament and panelling, with which everything 
was overlaid. The construction, however, was good, and 
the ornament was never used to disguise construction. 

Many of the churches had the steeply-pitched roofs 
lowered and made nearly flat, probably the timbers had 
perished near the outer walls and were taken out and cut. 
The weather-line moulding of the old roof can often be 
seen on the tower as at Ashbourne, Allestree, and Wirks- 
worth. The aisle walls were often raised and small 
square-headed windows inserted as at Allestree, Sandiacre, 



ARCHITECTURE ECCLESIASTICAL 107 

and Wilne, etc. Details of the style may be studied at 
Elvaston, Longford, Youlgreave, and North Wingfield, 
and also in the beautiful tower at Youlgreave, the fine 
late Perpendicular tower of All Saints, Derby, the roofs 
of Longstone and Repton churches, the screen at Chester- 
field, the exceptionally fine one at Fenny Bentley, and 
the unique fourteenth century oak pulpit at Mellor. 
Perhaps the churches which show the best series of ex- 
amples of several periods are Ashbourne, Norbury, Sandi- 
acre, Youlgreave, and Wirksworth. North Wingfield 
Church still boasts its old wooden roof of 1350, and 
Kirk Langley and Chesterfield have interesting screens 
of the Decorated Period. Radbourne Church possesses 
the fifteenth century woodwork from Dale Abbey. 

Derbyshire is very rich in monumental remains in 
stone obtained in the district, and consequently the 
number of brasses is not so great, though there are some 
good ones at Morley, Tideswell, and Sawley. 

The Celtic crosses in the churchyards of Eyam, Bake- 
well, Bradbourne, Hope, Blackwell, Norbury, Spondon, 
and Taddington are interesting. At Bakewell there are 
over 100 fragments of sculptured stone, none later than 
1260, and many earlier than noo. At Chelmorton and 
Darley Dale there are also a large number. Many of 
them are emblematical and represent shears, keys, swords, 
axe, bugle, chalice, cross, and stars. The axe is often 
supposed to mark the grave of the village carpenter, but 
more probably marks that of a knight, or man-at-arms. 
The knife is rare, it may show the grave of the official 
" Kerver " of some great family, which was a post of 




Eyam Cross 



ARCHITECTURE ECCLESIASTICAL 109 

honour. Early stone effigies may be seen at Darley 
Dale, Melbourne, and Youlgreave, and stone lecterns at 
Chaddesden, Crich, Etwall, Mickleover, and Spondon. 

The sedilia at Dronfield, Ilkeston, Monyash, Sandiacre, 
and Whitwell are remarkably good, and most uncommon 
and noteworthy stone chancel screens may be seen at 
Ilkeston and Chelmorton, and a stone parclose in Darley 
Church. 

The earliest glass in the county is probably that of 
the Early English lancet window in the west wall of the 
north transept at Ashbourne. Egginton has some splendid 
glass of about 1300 A.D., but unfortunately very little, and 
the finest of all, of about fifty years later in date, is to be 
seen at Norbury. The late fifteenth century glass from 
Dale Abbey has found a home in Morley Church, and 
some fine early seventeenth century is at St Chad's, Wilne. 
The east window of Youlgreave Church was filled in 
1876 with beautiful glass designed by Burne Jones, and 
the south transept window of Darley Church is a famous 
design of " The Song of Solomon " by the same accom- 
plished artist. There is also some good modern glass in 
Ashbourne Church, including a " St Cecilia " window. 

23. Architecture (b] Religious Houses. 

The religious houses of Derbyshire, though not 
numerous, have an interesting and unique history. A 
large portion of the church lands and many of the 
churches and manors belonged to the monasteries of 
the neighbouring counties. Henry I gave the collegiate 




All Saints, Bakewell 



ARCHITECTURE RELIGIOUS HOUSES 111 

church of All Saints, Derby, and the church at Wirks- 
worth to the Dean of Lincoln, as his predecessor, 
William Rufus, had given Ashbourne and Chesterfield. 
Melbourne Church belonged to the Bishop of Carlisle, 
who also owned a palace at Melbourne, in which he took 
refuge when driven from Carlisle by the Scots. The 
churches of Bakewell, Hope, and Tideswell, from the 
thirteenth century for 300 years, were a constant source 
of dispute between the abbot of Lenton Priory and 
the Chapter of Lichfield. Even now Derbyshire can 
claim no cathedral of its own, but belongs to the see 
of Southwell, and until lately was part of the see of 
Lichfield. 

One of the oldest monasteries in the county was at 
Repton, the capital of Mercia. It was founded early in 
the seventh century " for religious men and women under 
the government of an abbess." Several of the Mercian 
kings were buried at Repton. The monastery was 
destroyed by the Danes, but in the twelfth century 
Repton became famous for a Priory of Austin Canons 
transferred from Calke. It was destroyed by Henry VIII 
at the time of the dissolution of the monasteries, many 
of which had become so corrupt that they well deserved 
their fate. 

Repton Priory illustrates the usual plan for erecting 
a monastery, viz. a square cloister-garth surrounded by 
various buildings, but as the river Trent flowed on the 
north side, the church, contrary to custom, had to be built 
on the south boundary, and the refectory or dining room 
on the north. The picturesque gateway to the precincts 



112 DERBYSHIRE 

still remains, and the hall is used as a school-room. 
The Chapter House and the Calefactory or warmed 
sitting room, with a dormitory above, were on the east, 
and the kitchens, buttery, and cellars with a guest hall 
built above them on the west. The other buildings 
included a " yelyng-house," or brewing house, a 
" boultyng-house " where the meal was sifted, and a 



Repton School 

"kyll house," which might have been the slaughter-house, 
but was probably the kiln-house. Repton School has 
been erected on the ruins of the priory, and part of the 
mediaeval brickwork of Thacker's house, erected after the 
dissolution, is in a good state of preservation, as is also 
"the Prior's Lodging," an excellent example of early 
brickwork (1436-38). 



ARCHITECTURE RELIGIOUS HOUSES 113 

Derby School is also on the site of an old religious 
establishment of Austin Canons, who removed thence to 
Darley, near Derby, and founded a very important abbey, 
of which some small domestic remains survive. They 
owned three Derby churches, besides several in the 
county, and whenever the vicars of these churches were 
ill, the abbot and convent were bound to provide them 




Derby School, St Helen's House 

with food and clothing as long as they lived. The vicars 
had all fees from their churches except the mortuary fee, 
which had to go to the over-ruling convent of Darley. 
When a householder died, his best beast went to the 
over-lord, and his second-best beast went as a mortuary 
fee, provided he had more than three beasts. If he left 
no beasts, then some of his household furniture or wearing 
apparel might be confiscated as the convent's fee. 

B. D. 8 



114 DERBYSHIRE 

A colony of Premonstratensian or White canons was 
established at Beauchief, near Sheffield, and another at 
Dale, near Stanley, the site of which is still marked by a 
fine east window arch of the same type as, and not much 
later than that, at Lincoln Cathedral. There is an inter- 
esting account extant of the foundation of this monastery. 
A holy baker, of St Mary's Street, Derby, had a vision of 




Dale Abbey Church and Guest-house 

the Blessed Virgin Mary, who commanded him to go to 
Deepdale " and there serve my son and me in solitude." 
He found the place, "a marsh exceeding dreadful," and 
then in the rock under the mountain he cut out for him- 
self " a very small dwelling, and an altar turned to the 
south, which is preserved to this day." 

Derby had a house of Benedictine nuns in Kings 
Mead, who were for a time under the control of the 



ARCHITECTURE RELIGIOUS HOUSES 115 

powerful Abbot of Darley. There was a flourishing 
house of Dominican or preaching friars in a street in 
Derby, which is still called Friar Gate. The Normans 
established leper hospitals in Derby, Chesterfield, Locko, 
Alkmonton, and Spital-in-the-Peak, near Hope. The 
Locko hospital was preserved down to the fourteenth 




Dale Abbey Hermitage 

century as a preceptory of the semi-military order of 
Knights of St Lazarus, and was the only one in England. 
Derbyshire suffered severely from the Black Death 
in 1348-9. Two-thirds of her beneficed clergy died, 
and must have been much missed, for they not only said 
mass and administered the sacraments, but assisted the 
poor, and often acted as schoolmasters. 

82 



116 



DERBYSHIRE 



24- 



Architecture (c) Military. Castles. 

The foundations of an enormous keep at Duffield, 
four miles from Derby, were accidentally discovered 
in 1886. The walls are sixteen feet thick, and form a 
rectangle 95 feet by 93 feet, so the keep must have been 
larger than almost any in England except the Tower of 




Peveril Castle, Castleton 

London. Duffield Castle was a very important strong- 
hold of the Ferrers family, and was probably demolished 
about 1266 after Robert de Ferrers' defeat at Chesterfield 
in his fight against the King. 

We can obtain a good idea of what a Norman keep 
was like from the ruins of Peveril Castle at Castleton. \ It 
presents the minimum of comfort with its three stories, 



ARCHITECTURE MILITARY 117 

one partly underground, and no fireplace anywhere. 
Probably the fire was in the middle of the room with 
a ventilating shaft in the roof. The keep and courtyard 
were defended on one side by a strong wall, on the other 
by a precipice. The courtyard gave a little breathing 
space, and made a place of refuge for cattle and dependents 
in time of war. Peak Castle was built by William Peveril 




Codnor Castle 

in the days of the Conqueror, but it passed to the Crown 
on the forfeiture of Peveril's son's estates. King John 
visited his two castles of Peveril and Bolsover in 1200, 
also his castle of Melbourne, and the castle of Horsley 
in 1209, but little or no remains are left of these Norman 
castles. 

There was also a castle at Codnor assigned to 



118 DERBYSHIRE 

William Peveril by the Conqueror and afterwards owned 
by the Greys, of which some portions survive, and 
Mackworth, the home of the Touchets, has a pretty 
remaining fragment. 

Tutbury Castle, although just outside the county 
boundary, undoubtedly played a great part in the history 
of the county. 



25. Architecture (d) Domestic. 

We have seen how much geology has influenced the 
geography of our county. It largely determines the 
natural history, the animals, birds, and flowers, it also 
affects the landscape, the rivers, and the watersheds, and 
by them the industries and population of the county. 
But geology is also a very important factor in deter- 
mining the houses of the people. ../In the southern 
portions of the county, red brick walls with either thatch 
or red tiles were largely used, as at Repton and Norbury. 
Specimens of mediaeval brickwork still remain at Thacker's 
House, Repton. Sometimes " half-timber " was used, as 
may be seen at Somersall Herbert, Sudbury, Hartshorn, 
Mickleover, Derby, and Hilton. In the central portion, 
a mixture of brick and stone was employed, brick walls 
with stone dressings, as at Sudbury, Derby (including 
Babington House, and houses in the Wardwick and 
Friargate), Longford, DufEeld and Stydd ; while in the 
northern portion stone only was used, giving a typical 
Derbyshire style of which Haddon is the supreme 






i 




Dovecote, Codnor Castle 







The Mayor's Parlour, Derby 



ARCHITECTURE DOMESTIC 



121 



example, though hundreds of others might be mentioned, 
including those at Alport, Bakewell, and Ashford. 

The stone domestic buildings are generally simple and 
well-proportioned, with gables and mullioned windows, 
and roofed with "grey" or stone slates, or they are 
sometimes thatched as at Kilburn and Biggin. 

Derbyshire has several fine seats and manor houses, 





The Peacock, Rowsley 

particularly of the sixteenth century and early seventeenth 
century. 3 Peveril Castle, already described, represents the 
earliest and most comfortless method of living. Haddon 
Hall on the other hand gives us a good idea of what feudal 
life might be when no longer a question of incessant attack 
or defence. Haddon has two courts with a fine banqueting 
hall between. In this hall there are still the old raised 
table and the minstrel's gallery. The kitchens are at one 



122 DERBYSHIRE 

end of the building, the sitting rooms at the other. The 
manor is in a good state of preservation, though it has 
not been used for a dwelling for nearly 200 years. 
George IV was the last to occupy the state apartments. 
Sir George Vernon, in the time of Henry VII and VIII, 
kept a large retinue of servants here, and it was his 
daughter Dorothy who was supposed to have eloped with 
Sir John Manners down the moss-covered steps leading 
from the beautiful ball-room. The cottage garden has 
yew trees clipped to represent a boar's head and a 
peacock, the arms of the Vernon and Manners families. 
There are architectural examples of five distinct periods, 
and this, together with its romantic situation, makes 
Haddon one of the most interesting old buildings in 
England. 

Wingfield Manor is the stately ruin of a mansion, 
a fortress, and a prison. It was built in the middle of 
the fifteenth century by Ralph, Lord Cromwell, treasurer 
to Henry VI. The chief features of the manor are a 
large groined vaulted undercroft or crypt, over which is 
a fine hall with an exquisite oriel window, a beautiful 
porch, and a well-preserved quatrefoil battlement. Mary 
Queen of Scots was imprisoned here for nearly sixteen 
years. The building suffered much during the siege at 
the time of the civil wars, and some of the cannon balls 
are preserved in the farmhouse near. 

Chatsworth, "The Palace of the Peak," is a noted 
mansion, built in the sixteenth century by Bess of Hard- 
wick, and pulled down to make way for the present 
building commenced in 1687 b 7 William, the fourth 




CT 1 

q 

8 

PQ 



ARCHITECTURE DOMESTIC 



125 



Earl and first Duke of Devonshire. It contains many 
art treasures, including some beautifully carved wood- 
work by Grinling Gibbons and a local artist Watson. 
The State apartments are on a grand scale, and have 
many times been occupied by royalty. The large con- 
servatory, built by Sir Joseph Paxton, served him as a 
model for the 1851 Exhibition, now the Crystal Palace, 



! 




Wingfield Manor 

and the gardens also contain the fine Emperor Fountain, 
which- throws water to the height of 260 feet. 

/Of mansions of the time of Elizabeth and James I we 
have Hardwick Hall, Barlborough, Tissington, Sudbury, 
and numerous smaller ones. Dr Cox says there is no 
county in all England that has so many remnants left 
of the smaller halls and manor houses of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. Eyam, Swarkestone, Beeley, 



126 



DERBYSHIRE 



Fenny Bentley, Bradbourne, Bradshawe, North Lees, 
OfFerton, Riber, Youlgreave, Hartington, Highlow, and 
Snitterton are but a few of them.J 

"Hardwick Hall, more glass than wall," is a stately 
symmetrical building, the windows of which are overdone 
for the sake of effect. Some are merely shams. There 
are fine plastered rooms, and the original entrance gate- 




Chatsworth 

way and garden walls built by the renowned "Bess of 
Hardwick" still remain, whilst the parapet and flower 
beds have the initials E.S. and a coronet. Near by are 
the ruins of the older manor house. 

Bolsover is interesting because it is built on the site 
of the old Norman keep, and is partly composed of the 
old materials. It has thick walls, quaint vaulted chambers, 
and fine chimney-pieces. Outside are the ruins of a later 



ARCHITECTURE DOMESTIC 



127 



building, the riding school of the Duke of Newcastle. 
The four watch-towers are landmarks for miles around. 
Derbyshire has no late seventeenth century work of 
the time of Inigo Jones and Sir Christopher Wren, but 
of the succeeding period when classic architecture was 
well established, we have an example in Kedleston, the 




The Hall, Eyam 

seat of Lord Scarsdale, the father of Lord Curzon of 
Kedleston. 

Derby has a good example of a Jacobean house, which 
is now converted into a caf6. 

The beautiful garden at Melbourne, laid out in 1720, 
is in the Dutch style, and contains stately vistas with 
fountains and statues at central view-points, and a dense 
yew-hedge walk. 



COMMUNICATIONS 129 

26. Communications, Past and Present. 
Roads, Canals, Railways. 

In these days of rapid locomotion, it is hard to realise 
the difficulty there was in past time for people who 
wished to travel from one part of the country to another. 
At one time the only means of communication was by 
British track-ways or forest paths which traversed parts 
of the country. One of these ways passed through Derby, 
and the river Derwent was crossed by a ford, probably 
near what is now known as the Holmes, which was only 
passable when the water was low. The Romans during 
their occupation of Britain made several roads through 
Derbyshire which are briefly described in the chapter on 
antiquities. After the withdrawal of the Roman legions, 
the existing roads were allowed to fall into decay, and 
new roads were not constructed. For many centuries 
the people journeyed by rude paths, only capable of being 
passed on foot or at best by horses. The Roman roads 
were generally made in a direct line across the country, 
over hills, down into the valleys, and up the other side 
irrespective of the gradient. In later roads the same 
method was followed, no doubt because they were used 
at first by pedestrians and riders on horseback when there 
were few or no wheeled conveyances. An instance of 
such roads is that from Chesterfield to Matlock, which 
was made down the steep descent of Matlock Bank 
to the bridge over the Derwent at Matlock Bridge. 
Later a more suitable course was chosen between town 

B D. Q 



COMMUNICATIONS 1 31 

and town, and hills and streams were avoided as much as 
possible. 

vjn the eighteenth century turnpike roads were made. 
Towards the end of that century when coaches came 
into use for travelling, the roads were much improved. 

The earliest turnpike Act that had reference to 
Derbyshire was for repairing and improving the road 
from the Trent at Shardlow through Derby and Hog- 
naston to Brassington. (The reason alleged for this first 
turnpike road in Derbyshire terminating at a small place 
such as Brassington was that the "traveller towards the 
north, having by means of this improved road been helped 
over the low and deep lands of the county and landed on 
the rocky districts might find his way therein, without 
further assistance, to Buxton, Tideswell, Castleton, Stoney- 
Middleton, Ashford, Bakewell, Winster, Matlock, Wirks- 
worth, Hartington, Longnor, etc." The latter part of 
this road, which was hilly, was afterwards abandoned 
except by the natives, and travellers preferred to journey 
by Ashbourne to Newhaven, although it was a longer 
route. 

In 1814, less than a century ago, the road from Derby 
to Matlock passed through Kedleston, Wirksworth, and 
Cromford. Before 1818 there was no direct public road 
from Derby to Cromford. On the western side of the 
Derwent was a private road belonging to the Strutts, 
the Harts, and Richard Arkwright. It was made into a 
public road in 1818. 

Other old roads in the county were (i) the Notting- 
ham and Newhaven turnpike which entered Derbyshire 

9-2 



132 DERBYSHIRE 

near Alfreton and passed through Wessington, Matlock, 
Snitterton, Wensley to Pike Hall, where it crossed the 
old Roman road and ended at Newhaven ; (2) the road 
from Matlock to Ashbourne, which passed through Hop- 
ton, Cromford, and Kniveton ; (3) that from Matlock to 
Alfreton and Nottingham, which passed through Crom- 
ford, Lea Bridge, Holloway, Crich, and South Wingfield ; 




Cromford Bridge 

(4) that from Matlock to Buxton, through Darley, Rows- 
ley, Bakewell, and Ashford, as well as by Newhaven. 

The growth of trade caused an increase of traffic. 
The main roads from Manchester, London, Leeds, and 
Birmingham passed through Derby, so that the county 
town became one of the changing stations for the wagons 
and coaches on these roads. In 1735 Derby was in 
communication with London by coach, which ran once 



COMMUNICATIONS 133 

a week. In 1790 the coach (then a through coach from 
Manchester) left Derby daily about three in the afternoon 
and arrived in London about ten o'clock the next morn- 
ing. In the year 1828 there were at least seven coaches 
each day from Derby to London, and from Derby to 
Manchester, besides others to Nottingham, Birmingham, 
Leeds, Newcastle-under-Lyme, and other towns. 

Bridges are a necessary accompaniment of roads, and 
often were built by a ford where the water was shallow. 
The old county bridges, notably those at Cromford, 
Matlock, Bakewell, and Rowsley were first erected for 
pack-horse and pedestrian traffic only, and when wheeled 
vehicles came into use they had to be widened. Proof of 
the widening may be seen in the different style of archi- 
tecture on opposite sides of several of the bridges. 

Before the construction of railways, the only means 
of conveying goods and minerals other than by road was 
by canal. Great Britain was the last nation in Europe 
to construct canals as a means of inland navigation. 
Various expedients were adopted for removing obstruc- 
tions in the rivers with a view of facilitating commerce, 
but it was not until the year 1755 that the construction 
of canals entered the system of British economy. A large 
amount of capital was provided for the making of canals, 
and risked in undertakings that were likely to prove 
advantageous, and in a short time the country was inter- 
sected by canals. 

In 1719 an attempt was made to render the Derwent 
from Derby to the Trent navigable, but in 1794 the 
Derby canal from Derby to the Trent and Mersey canal 



134 DERBYSHIRE 

was navigable, and, according to Simpson, gypsum, stone, 
and other materials were imported to, and coal and cheese 
were exported from, Derby. 

The Cromford canal, which was completed before 
the year 1 794, began at Cromford, ran for some distance 
on the west side of the Derwent, and then from Lea 
followed the east bank to Ambergate, Whatstandwell, 



Road from Castleton to Buxton and Chapel-en-le-Frith 

and Bull Bridge, and joined the Erewash canal at Langley 
Bridge. Five miles to the north of Eastwood, a tramway 
worked by horses carried coals and cotton from the 
Pinxton wharf of the Cromford canal up to Mansfield, 
and brought back stone, lime, and corn to the canal. 
Cromford wharf was a busy centre for the import and 
export of produce. Matlock Bath and Cromford obtained 
their supplies of coal from there. 



COMMUNICATIONS 135 

The whole of the stone quarried from Stancliffe for 
the building of St George's Hall, Liverpool, was shipped 
to its destination by the Cromford canal. 

Nottingham, Derby, and Leicester were important 
centres of industry before the introduction of railways, 
holding constant communication with London and Bir- 
mingham and with each other. But the only modes of 
conveyance were by canal, by fly wagon, and by coach, 
and the charges made were proportional to the speed. 
Wool required two days to travel the 15 miles between 
Leicester and Market Harborough. Only three coaches 
ran daily each way between Leicester to Nottingham 
besides the through coaches from distant places. Many 
of the fly wagons were long stagers and were of little 
benefit to the intermediate towns. 

The charge for conveying haberdashery from London to 
Leicester was 2. i$s. od. a ton by canal, 55. a cwt. or ^5 . 
a ton by wagon, and id. a pound or over ^9 a ton by coach. 

One of the earliest railways constructed in England 
was the Cromford and High Peak Railway. It was 
opened in the year 1830, and was 33 miles in length. 
It began at the High Peak Junction near Cromford 
by the Cromford canal and ended at Whaley Bridge at 
the Peak Forest canal. Its course was over the hills and 
not along the valleys. Parts of the line were along 
inclined planes and the longest stretch of level ground 
was 12 miles. This railway not only carried goods from 
one canal to the other over the Pennine Chain, but also 
opened out a large mineral trade in the hilly district over 
which it passed at a later date. The line was taken over 



13 6 DERBYSHIRE 

by the London and North- Western Railway, and is now 
connected with the Midland near Cromford and the 
London and North-Western Railway at Parsley Hay and 
Buxton, the portion between Buxton and Whaley Bridge 
having been dismantled. 

The rise of the Midland Railway, which has for many 
years been associated with the county town of Derby, is 
an interesting one. The Leicester and Swannington line 
was opened in 1832. The coal raised in the Nottingham- 
shire and in the Leicestershire coalfields were distributed 
mainly in the respective areas by water navigation. The 
attempt of the Erewash Valley coal-owners to obtain a 
market for their coal in Leicester resulted in the con- 
struction of the Midland Counties Railway, which con- 
nected Nottingham, Derby, and Leicester. It was opened 
in 1839. In the same year the line from Birmingham to 
Derby was opened, and a year later the North Midland 
line from Leeds to Derby. In the year 1844 an amalga- 
mation of the three railways took place and formed the 
nucleus of the Midland Railway. This amalgamation 
made Derby an important railway centre, and since that 
time the Midland Railway has been greatly extended 
into a complete system in England, Scotland, and Ireland. 
The Midland is the only railway whose main line passes 
through the county, but there are branches of several 
other important lines which serve the needs of Derby- 
shire. The London and North-Western Railway, in 
addition to the High Peak line, runs from Manchester to 
Buxton, thence to Ash bourne and Uttoxeter, and after- 
wards joins its main line through Rugby to London. 



138 DERBYSHIRE 

The North Staffordshire Railway has a line from 
Derby to Uttoxeter and Ashbourne, and the London and 
North-Western Railway has running powers over this 
line from Ashbourne to Uttoxeter. 

The Great Northern has a branch line from Notting- 
ham to Burton via Egginton, and during the last few 
years the Great Central has constructed a line through 
Chesterfield to Manchester. 

It will thus be seen that Derbyshire is very well 
supplied with railways, notwithstanding the hilly nature 
of the country. 

The introduction of railways was vigorously opposed 
by the canal owners, who naturally objected to being 
deprived of a monopoly in which they had invested large 
sums of money, and some of the canals had to be pur- 
chased by the railways and kept up by them. This 
resulted in railways spending large sums of money on 
canals which they would rather not have possessed. 
What future there may be for canals is a matter of 
speculation. The use of horse-power renders them slow 
in transit. It is possible, however, that as the motor car 
on roads is revolutionising traffic and competing with 
railways to some degree, that a similar motive power 
applied to barges might make canals more useful. But 
against this, there is the fact that they cannot be used in 
hilly districts because of the numerous locks and con- 
sequent delay in traffic and the large quantity of water 
which would be required and which would be impossible 
to obtain. The transhipment from canal to railway is 
also a factor which increases the expense of conveyance. 



ADMINISTRATION AND DIVISIONS 139 

27. Administration and Divisions- 
Ancient and Modern. 

The government of our English counties is the result 
of a blending and alteration of several systems. The 
word Sheriff is a survival both of the Saxon and Norman 
rule. In Saxon England the county or shire was presided 
over by the Shire-reeve, who was elected by the people. 
In Norman England the Count, who represented the 
Sovereign, was head of the county. In time he deputed 
his functions to some local lord, who became known as 
the Vicecomes to the Normans, but by the more English 
name of Shire-reeve or Sheriff to the people, who preferred 
the old Saxon to the new Latin word. This is why 
the Saxon Sheriff, originally elected by the people of the 
county, has for many centuries been appointed by the 
Sovereign of England. 

Derbyshire formed part of the Saxon kingdom of 
Mercia. The eastern portion of that kingdom was con- 
quered by the Danes, and Derby became one of the five 
Danish burghs and was therefore associated with the 
other four burghs of Lincoln, Leicester, Stamford, and 
Nottingham. During the Norman rule the shires of 
Derby and Nottingham were grouped together for admini- 
strative purposes. For this reason, up to the reign of 
Henry III, the assizes of the two counties were held at 
Nottingham, and there was only one county gaol, that 
at Nottingham, for both shires. From that time up to 
1566, the assizes were held alternately at Derby and 



140 DERBYSHIRE 

Nottingham. In the year 1566, up to which time there 
had only been one Sheriff for both counties, an Act of 
Parliament was passed giving a separate Sheriff to each 
of the counties of Derby and Nottingham. 

The office of Lord-Lieutenant was not created until 
the year 1554. Hallam remarks that "the power of 
calling to arms and mustering the population of each 
county given in earlier times to the Sheriff" or Justice of 
the Peace or to Special Commissioners of Array began to 
be entrusted to the Lord-Lieutenant." His " office gave 
him the command of the Militia, and rendered him 
the chief Vice-regent of his Sovereign responsible for the 
maintenance of public order." The Lord-Lieutenant 
was at first an extraordinary magistrate, constituted only 
in time of difficulty and danger, but the office soon became 
a permanent institution. 

Derbyshire is at the present time divided into six 
hundreds or wapentakes, viz. the High Peak, Wirks- 
worth or the Low Peak, Appletree, Scarsdale, and the 
joint hundreds of Morleston and Litchurch, and of 
Repton and Gresley. Modern historians consider that 
the hundreds of the Domesday Book cannot be corre- 
lated with those of the present day, because in ancient 
records the terms for these divisions, such as wapentake, 
hundred, liberty or soke appear to have been used some- 
what indiscriminately. 

We will now consider the present mode of county 
government. The chief officers in the county are the 
Lord-Lieutenant and the Sheriff, who are appointed by 
the King, the latter annually and the former generally for 



ADMINISTRATION AND DIVISIONS 141 

life. The Lord-Lieutenant is in most cases a nobleman 
or large landowner. In Derbyshire, the Lord-Lieutenancy 
has been held by the nine Dukes of Devonshire, and the 
present Duke is the twenty-second person who has held 
that office. 

The County Council now conducts the main business 
of the county, and meets in the County Council build- 
ings in St Mary's Gate, Derby, where the offices and 
Council Chamber are situate. This County Council 
consists of 21 Aldermen and 63 Councillors, the latter of 
whom are elected, nine from each of the Parliamentary 
Divisions of the County. The County Council, amongst 
other duties, keeps the county roads and bridges in repair, 
appoints the police, manages the County Lunatic Asylum, 
and looks after the health of the people ; and generally 
carries into effect the laws passed by Parliament. 

The County Council represents the central form of 
County Government which was started in 1888, but 
another Act was passed in 1894 for Local Government 
in the towns and parishes. In the large parishes, the chief 
authorities are now the District Councils, of which there 
are 26 in Derbyshire, while the smaller parishes have their 
Parish Council or Parish meetings. 

In Derbyshire there are four boroughs which have 
been incorporated by Royal Charter. They are each 
governed by a Mayor and Town Council. Derby is the 
most ancient borough in the county, has the powers of 
a County Council and is called the County Borough of 
Derby. The governing body consists of 16 Aldermen 
and 48 Councillors. The Borough of Chesterfield, which 



142 DERBYSHIRE 

was incorporated in 1204, has six Aldermen and 18 Coun- 
cillors ; that of Glossop the same number of each as 
Chesterfield, and that of Ilkeston five Aldermen and 
14 Councillors. The boroughs have greater powers of 
government than the parishes. 

Derbyshire is divided into nine Poor Law Unions, 
each of which is under a Board of Guardians, whose 
duty is to manage the workhouses and to appoint and 
control various officers to carry on the work of relieving 
the poor. 

For purposes of justice, the Administrative County 
has one court of Quarter Sessions, which meets at Derby, 
and is divided into 15 Petty Sessional divisions, each 
having Magistrates or Justices of the Peace, whose duty 
it is to try cases and administer justice. The County 
Borough of Derby and the Municipal Boroughs of Ches- 
terfield and Glossop have separate Commissions of the 
Peace. 

The number of civil parishes in Derbyshire is 314. 
There are 255 ecclesiastical parishes within the ancient 
county of Derby, and of these 249 are in the Diocese of 
Southwell, three in that of Peterborough, and three in 
that of Lichfield. Formerly Derbyshire was in the 
Diocese of Lichfield, but now Derbyshire and Notting- 
hamshire form the Diocese of Southwell. 

The control of public elementary and secondary 
education in the county under the Education Act, 1902, 
is directed by five Education Committees, elected respec- 
tively by the County Council, the Council of the County 
Borough of Derby, and the Councils of Chesterfield, 



ADMINISTRATION AND DIVISIONS 143 

Glossop, and Ilkeston. Since 1902, further powers have 
been given to, and duties placed upon, the Education 
authorities, including amongst the former the feeding of 
necessitous children in elementary schools, and amongst 
the latter the medical inspection of children in elementary 
schools. 

Derbyshire is represented in the House of Commons 
by nine Members of Parliament. The County Borough 
of Derby elects two Members, and the remainder of the 
county, which for Parliamentary purposes is divided into 
seven divisions, sends one Member from each division. 



28. The Roll of Honour of the County. 

There is an old adage which says : 

" Derbyshire born and Derbyshire bred, 
Strong in the arm and weak in the head," 

or, as some say it should be, " wak" meaning "awake in the 
head." Be this as it may, Derbyshire is not without her 
illustrious men and women in every walk of life. 

The first Earl of Derby was the powerful Norman 
Baron, Robert de Ferrers, who owned so much land in 
this county. The title was forfeited in the reign of 
Henry III, but Henry VII revived it, and conferred it 
upon Thomas, Lord Stanley, who had crowned him 
King. 

Amongst more recent statesmen we have Lord Mel- 
bourne, the first of Queen Victoria's Prime Ministers. 



144 DERBYSHIRE 

His name was taken from the little Derbyshire village 
where his ancestors, the Coke family, resided, and it has 
been adopted for that of one of the great capitals of our 
Australian colonies. Lord Chief Justice Denman, born 
in 1779, owned a farm at Stoney Middleton, and his 
grandfather was a doctor at Bakewell. Lord Denman 
was a reformer of abuses, and truly an upright judge. 

The Dukes of Devonshire have resided at Chats- 
worth, and the Cavendish family have been represented 
in the House of Commons almost continuously for over 
three centuries. The noted "Bess of Hardwick" built 
three of the finest seats in the county, viz. Chatsworth, 
Hardwick, and Oldcotes, but Chatsworth has been rebuilt 
and Oldcotes has disappeared. Horace Walpole records a 
tradition that she would die if she ceased building, and 
that shortly before her death, the work at Bolsover Castle 
was stopped by the frost. But alas for the tradition, 
Bolsover was built by her son ! She was married four 
times, and remained a widow for the fourth time for 
17 years. Her second husband was William Cavendish, 
and her fourth husband George, Earl of Shrewsbury, the 
custodian of the unhappy Mary Queen of Scots. 

Amongst soldiers there was Sir John Gell of Hopton, 
who made himself notorious over the collection of ship- 
money, though better known, perhaps, was his kinsman 
of more modern times, Sir William Gell, the archaeologist 
and geographer " topographic Gell " as Byron terms 
him who wrote on Pompeii, Rome, and Greece gene- 
rally and died in 1836. Derbyshire can proudly point 
to Lieutenant-General Sir James Outram of Butterley 



THE ROLL OF HONOUR 145 

Hall, " the Bayard of India," as one of her most noble 
and famous sons, a tower of strength during the Indian 
Mutiny, and in turn both besieger and besieged in Luck- 
now. He died in 1863 and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey. 

Notable amongst Derbyshire divines, were Bishop 
Pursglove, who was born and bred in Tideswell, and 
died in 1579, having built two grammar schools and a 
hospital ; William Bagshawe, " the Apostle of the Peak," 
an eminent Nonconformist and author, who was born at 
Litton in 1628 ; and Mompesson the vicar of Eyam, whose 
courageous unselfishness at the time of the Plague did so 
much to restrict its spread. 

Of men of letters the most salient name is Richardson, 
though less by virtue of peculiar genius than by the fact 
of his having struck a new vein in fiction which appealed 
to the readers of that day with a success which nowadays 
seems astounding. Born in 1689, the son of a joiner, 
and with no special education, Samuel Richardson was 
still more remarkable in that his first novel Pamela was 
published when he was over fifty. It was followed 
by Clarissa and Sir Charles Grandhon, but all three have 
passed long since into practical oblivion. 

William Howitt, born at Heanor in 1792, and his 
wife, Mary Howitt, were keen lovers of nature, and 
wrote many poems as well as tales and travels which are 
both interesting and instructive, amongst the latter an 
account of the Australian goldfields in early days. 

Newton, " the Minstrel of the Peak," who was born 
near Tideswell and lived at Eyam, is better known within 

B. D. 10 




Samuel Richardson 



THE ROLL OF HONOUR 147 

the county than to the outer world ; Antony Bradshawe 
of Farley's Hall, the author of a quaint and interesting 
poem on Duffield and the customs of the peak, was 
a barrister and a historian. His memorial, self-erected 
fourteen years before his death in 1614 in Duffield church, 
is inscribed to himself and his two wives and twenty 
children. 

William Hutton, the well-known historian of our 
county, was bom in Full Street, Derby, in 1723. Be- 
sides his history, he wrote a large number of poems, and 
an interesting autobiography, which reveals his hard fight 
with poverty, and the life of the lower classes of his time. 

The famous philosopher of the nineteenth century, 
Herbert Spencer, was born on April 2yth, 1820, at 
Exeter Row, and lived later in Wilmot Street, Derby. 
He was distinguished for having applied the principles of 
evolution to the social and moral development of man- 
kind ; and the ten volumes dealing with his stupendous 
system of synthetic philosophy mark thirty-six years of 
unflagging industry against adverse circumstances and 
continuous bad health. His best known work on 
Education, Intellectual, Moral, and Physical, has been 
translated into nearly every known language including 
Chinese and Japanese, and a copy is given to every public 
teacher in France. He died December, 1903, and left an 
interesting biography which was published after his death. 

Erasmus Darwin, poet, evolutionist, and physician, 
and grandfather of the illustrious Charles Darwin, was 
the author of Loves of the Plants, and was a resident 
in Derby for nearly twenty years, though not a native. 

102 



148 



DERBYSHIRE 



Derbyshire is particularly noteworthy for its scientific 
men. John Flamste.ed or Flamstead, the first Astronomer 
Royal, was born of Derby parents, who went to Denby, 
five miles away, to escape the plague in 1646, the year after 




John Flamsteed 

his birth. He went to Greenwich the year the Observatory 
was built (1676) and formed the first proper catalogue of 
the fixed stars. He was a friend of Isaac Newton, and 
his great work was the Historia Caelestis Britannica. 

The Derbyshire toadstones furnished John White- 



THE ROLL OF HONOUR 149 

hurst with material for his speculations, which were 
published in 1778. He was the first to believe that 
they were as truly igneous rocks as those of Vesuvius or 
Etna. The family of Whitehurst was well known as 
clockmakers in Derby. 

Amongst artists, Joseph Wright, always known as 
"Wright of Derby," who was born in 1734, bears a de- 
served reputation. He was a wonderful painter of artificial 
light, of fire, moonlight, volcanoes, and other studies in 
chiaroscuro. Some of his finest works are portraits and 
historical subjects, several of which find a permanent 
home in the Derby Art Gallery. 

Sir Francis Chantrey, the matchless English sculptor, 
was born at Norton in 1781. His beautiful monument 
of " The Sleeping Children " at Lichfield is well known. 

Brindley, the famous engineer and constructor of 
canals, was born at Thornsett in 1716. He could hardly 
read or write, but took Nature as his book, and his in- 
born mechanical genius solved most of his problems. 

The founders of the great cotton industry, " Ark- 
wright, Strutt, and Need," built their first mills in 
Derbyshire at Cromford and Milford, and later acquired 
residences in the neighbourhood. Jedediah Strutt in- 
vented the ribbed stocking machine in 1758. Joseph 
Strutt presented the Derby Arboretum to the town, and 
many other proofs of this family's munificence have been 
given to Derbyshire. 

We must also record Michael Thomas Bass as a Derby 
benefactor. Though not a Derbyshire man, he repre- 
sented the borough in Parliament for thirty years. He 



150 DERBYSHIRE 

was simple-minded and unobtrusive, but princely in his 
gifts, among which were the Free Library, Museum, Art 
Gallery, and Swimming Baths. 

Other notabilities who resided in Derby during the 




Sir R. Arkwright 

eighteenth century were Duesbury, the Staffordshire 
potter, who established the Derby China works in 1755 
in connection with Heath, of the Cockpit Hill works ; 
and John Lombe, who started the silk-throwing industry 
in Derby. 



THE ROLL OF HONOUR 151 

Finally, a heroine of whom Derbyshire will ever be 
justly proud is the venerable lady, still with us, Florence 
Nightingale of Lea Hurst, near Cromford. She was 
wealthy and accomplished, but she loved nursing and 
studied it as a science, so when the call for help came 
from our suffering and neglected soldiers in the Crimea, 
she was willing and prepared to obey the call. She 
revolutionised nursing, and when a grateful nation sub- 
scribed 50,000 as a recognition of her services, she 
devoted it all to founding the Nightingale Home for 
Trained Nurses. 






29. THE CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 
OF DERBYSHIRE. 

(The figures in brackets after each name give the population 
from the 1901 census returns, and those at the end of each 
section are references to the pages in the text.) 

Alfreton (17,505) is a market town, pleasantly situated on 
the brow of a hill, and connected by the Midland Railway with 
Mansfield. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the collieries 
and fron-works of the neighbourhood, (pp. 71, 132.) 

Allestree (589). A parish two miles north of Derby, 
(pp. 102, 106.) 

Ambergate and Heage (2490). A large parish. Am- 
bergate station is a junction on the Derby, Chesterfield and 
Sheffield and on the Derby, Matlock and Manchester branches of 
the Midland Railway, (pp. 25, 76, 134.) 

Ashbourne-(4O39) (mentioned in Domesday Book as Esse- 
burn), on the slope of a hill, is a market and union town. It is 
1 3 miles from Derby by road, and four miles from Dovedale, and 
is the terminus of the branch of the North Staffordshire Railway 
from Rocester, and also of the branch line of the London and North- 
Western Railway from Buxton. It is an interesting old town, 
with a fine parish church, noted for its spire, which is called the 



154 DERBYSHIRE 

"Pride of the Peak," and a grammar school founded in 1585. Its 
trade depends on the farmers and the numerous fairs and markets. 
The Royalist troops suffered defeat here in 1 644, and Ashbourne 
Hall, now converted into a hotel, was occupied by the Pretender 
on his march to Derby, and also on his retreat from that town. 
On Shrove Tuesday, the old custom of playing football in the 
streets is still kept up. (pp. 34, 35, 74, 76, 81, 83, 89, 103, 104, 
106, 107, 109, in, 131, 132, 136, 138.) 

Ashford (684), often called Ashford-in-the- Water, is a parish 
about a mile and a half from Bakewell on the river Wye, which 
here flows between lofty hills. Up to a few years ago, it was 
celebrated for its marble quarries, but the industry has now become 
extinct. Rottenstone was obtained from the neighbourhood, 
(pp. 121, 131, 132.) 

Ashover (2426), seven miles south-west of Chesterfield, is a 
township on the Amber, which here flows through the Mountain 
Limestone. Extensive limestone quarries are worked, but the 

many old lead-mines are disused, (p. 102.) 



Aston -upon -Trent (537). A parish and village six miles 
south-east of Derby. All Saints' church contains a Saxon Cross 
built into the wall and some portions of late Norman work, 
(p. 102.) 

Ault Hucknall (1582). A village and parish seven miles 
from Chesterfield. The church of St John the Baptist is Norman 
and Early English. Hardwick Hall, a seat of the Duke of 
Devonshire, was erected in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
(p. 98.) 

Bakewell (2850) is an interesting market and union town 
beautifully situated on the Wye, which is spanned by a stone 
bridge of six arches. It has a station on the Midland Railway, 
and is noted for its fine church and old cross. Several chert 
quarries are worked, and the rock sent to the potteries. Haddon 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 155 

Hall and Chatsworth are in the immediate neighbourhood, (pp. 
71, 74, 83, 89, 102, 107, in, 121, 131, 132, 133, 144.) 

Barlborough (2056). A village and parish eight miles 
from Chesterfield. St James's church contains four Norman 
arches. The chancel is Early English, (p. 125.) 

Beighton (3371). A village and parish in the north- 
eastern division of the county. The chapel of St Thomas has 
a western tower in the Norman style built of part of the ruins 
of the abbey in 1660. 




Bridge over the Wye, Bakewell 

Belper (10,934), a market and union town on the Derwent 
about eight miles due north of Derby, is a straggling modern 
town, with a station on the Midland Railway. The chief indus- 
tries are cotton-spinning, and the manufacture of hosiery, stoves, 
and grates, (pp. 59, 68.) 

Blackwell (4144). A parish about three miles from 
Alfreton with extensive collieries which employ a large number 
of people, (p. 107.) 



156 DERBYSHIRE 

Bolsover (6944) is a large village six miles east of Chester- 
field on the Chesterfield and Mansfield Railway. Bolsover Castle 
is in the neighbourhood, (pp. 76, 82, 103, 117, 126, 144.) 

Bonsall (1360). A town and parish about one and a half 
miles from Cromford Station, situate about 700 feet above sea level. 
Some of the inhabitants are employed in limestone and dolerite 
quarries, and in paint and colour works. The Via Gellia, a 
beautifully wooded and narrow valley in the limestone, is partly 
in this parish, (pp. 68, 104.) 

Bradbourne (132). A township, parish, and village six 
miles from Wirksworth. All Saints' church contains remains of 
Saxon and Norman work. (pp. 102, 107, 126.) 

Bradwell (1033). A township and old town two miles from 
Hope station, situate about 600 feet above sea level and nearly 
surrounded by limestone hills. Here are large limestone quarries 
and the Bagshaw Cavern, (pp. 14, 46, 94, 95.) 

Brampton (2185). A township, village, and parish adjoin- 
ing Chesterfield on the west. The church contains a Norman 
doorway. 

Brassington (651). A township, village, and parish four 
miles from Wirksworth, 800 feet above sea level. The church 
possesses extensive Norman remains. In this parish are several 
brickworks and limestone quarries, Harboro' and Rainster Rocks, 
and the Hoe Grange Quarry, in which a cavern with Pleistocene 
remains was discovered, (p. 131.) 

Breadsall (515). A village and parish two and a half 
miles from Derby with a station on the Great Northern Rail- 
way. The ancient church contains many interesting remains, 
including a carved alabaster "Pieta" and some chained books. 
A priory was founded here in the reign of Henry III, and the 
estate was at one time owned by Dr Erasmus Darwin, (pp. 102, 
103.) 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 157 

Brought (66). B rough and Stratton form a township near 
Hope. At the confluence of the rivers Noe and Bradwell are the 
remains of a Roman Camp. (pp. 60, 93, 94, 95.) 

Burbage (1503). On the Wye, one mile from Buxton. 
It was formed into a civil parish in 1894. Poole's Hole, a cavern 
in the limestone, is in the parish. The large quarries belonging 
to the Buxton Lime Firms Co. Ltd. employ several hundred men 
and have a branch line from the L. & N. W. Railway, (p. 17.) 







The Crescent, Buxton 

Buxton (6373), close to the eastern border of the county and 
the source of the Wye and called Aquae by the Romans, is one of 
the important inland watering-places of England. It is situate at 
a height of 1000 feet above sea level, the portion called Higher 
Buxton being about 100 feet higher. It has two railway stations, 
the Midland and the London and North-Western Railway. The 
town is placed in the deep valley of the Wye, and is almost 
surrounded by hills. The district is wild and bleak, but beautiful 



158 DERBYSHIRE 

river scenery is afforded by the Goyt valley and by the deep gorges 
of the Wye in the direction of Miller's Dale. The chief interest 
is the spring of tepid water which issues from the ground at a 
temperature of 82 degrees and is largely charged with nitrogen. It 
is used for bathing and medicinal purposes, and there are a number 
of various kinds of baths in connection with it. Poole's Hole, a 
cavern in the limestone, is close to the town ; and there are lime- 
stone and sandstone quarries in the neighbourhood, (pp. 8, 14, 
15, 17, 44, 46, 50, 56, 57, 59, 76, 77, 86, 93, 95, 131, 132, 136.) 

Castleton (547) is a village about two miles from Hope 
Station. It is celebrated for its ancient Peak Castle, the ruins of 
which remain, the Peak Cavern, Speedwell Cavern, and "Blue 
John" mine, The Winnats, and Mam Tor or the Shivering 
Mountain. It is visited by a large number of people, (pp. 12, 
40, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 76, 82, 93, 94, 116, 131.) 

Chapel-en-le- Frith (4626), a small market town, is about 
six miles north of Buxton on the Midland and London and North- 
Western Railways, (pp. 43, 86.) 

Charlesworth (1967). A township and parish about two 
miles from Glossop and near the borders of Cheshire. The chief 
trades are cotton spinning, rope making, and cotton-band making. 

Chelmorton (287). A parish five miles from Buxton and 
eight from Bakewell. St John the Baptist's church contains traces 
of Saxon and Norman work. It is the second highest village in 
England (1218 feet above sea level), (pp. 107, 109.) 

Chesterfield (27,185) is a market town, and the largest of 
the three Derbyshire boroughs. It is noted for its church with 
a twisted spire. The Stephenson Memorial Hall was built in 
memory of George Stephenson, the railway engineer, who lived 
near Chesterfield, (pp. ai , 84, 86, 88, 95, 104, 105, 107, in, 
115, n6, 130, 138, 142, 143.) 



160 DERBYSHIRE 

Chinley (1223). Chinley, Bugsworth, and Brownside form 
a township in the parish of Glossop, and together contained 
1223 inhabitants in 1901. Chinley is an important junction on 
the Midland Railway, which here passes over two fine viaducts, 
(p. 94.) 

Church Gresley (8618). A parish and township six miles 
from Ashby-de-la-Zouch. A priory of Austin Canons was 
founded here in 1135-40 by William de Gresley. Part of the 
aisle, arcade and the tower of the existing church are all that 
remain, though many fragments of Norman work have been found 
in the churchyard. There are important coal-works, potteries, 
fire-brick and encaustic tile works. 

Clay Cross (8358). A town five miles south of Chesterfield 
with a station on the Midland Railway. The Urban District 
Council includes Clay Lane (7701), and Egstow (657). About 
3000 hands are employed by the Clay Cross Company (Iron). 

Clowne (3896). A village and parish with a station on a 
branch of the Midland Railway and also on the Great Central 
Railway about eight miles from Chesterfield. 

Codnor and LOSCOC (3831). These are hamlets forming 
a civil parish on the Heanor and Ripley branch of the Midland 
Railway. A great number of men are employed in the extensive 
collieries of the Butterley Company. 

Crich (3063). An old town 600 feet above sea level on an 
inlier of mountain limestone, and one mile from Whatstandwell 
station on the Midland Railway. The church of St Michael is 
partly Norman, but mixed in style. Crich Stand, 950 feet above 
sea level, is a noted landmark a circular tower built in 1851 ; it 
is now closed to the public, as it is unsafe and is being allowed to 
fall into decay. An extensive landslip occurred here in 1882. 
A considerable number of people are employed in the limestone 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 161 

and gritstone quarries. A large covered service reservoir is being 
constructed by the Derwent Valley Water Board from which 
pipes are being laid to Nottingham, Derby, and Leicester, (pp. 37, 
104, 109, 132.) 

Cromford (1080). A town and parish with a station on the 
Manchester line of the Midland Railway. Sir Richard Arkwright 
established the first cotton factory here in 1771. (pp. 26, 28, 30, 
33, 68, 71, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 149, 151.) 

Darley Abbey (915). A parish and village one and a half 
miles north of Derby and on the river Derwent. The ancient 
abbey of St Mary was founded before 1112, by Hugh, dean of 
Derby, (pp. 84, 113, 115.) 

Darley Dale (2756) (or North Darley) has a station on 
the Midland Railway about four miles from Matlock Bath. The 
church dates from Norman times and contains a Norman font. 
Here are the Whitworth Institute and Hospital, and sandstone 
quarries are worked, (pp. 16, 17, 53, 77, 107, 109, 132.) 

Denby (1731). A parish and village eight miles north of 
Derby with large collieries, iron furnaces, and pottery and brick 
tile-works, (p. 148.) 

Derby (105,912), on the Derwent, 127 miles N.N.W. of 
London, is the chief town of Derbyshire, a County Borough and 
Parliamentary Borough, and the headquarters of the Midland 
Railway. Owing to its position as an important railway centre 
near the coalfields of the Midlands, it is essentially a manu- 
facturing town, and many and varied industries are carried on in 
it. It has a number of churches, the most interesting being All 
Saints', with a beautiful tower. The Free Library, Museum and 
Art Gallery, and Free Swimming Baths were built and presented 
to the town by the late Michael Thomas Bass, M.P., and the 
Arboretum by Joseph Strutt. St Helen's House has for many 

B. D. II 



162 DERBYSHIRE 

years been used for Derby School, which is one of great antiquity. 
(PP. 3, 2I 2 5 28 57 59, 61, 62, 63, 67, 68, 69, 74, 83, 84, 85, 
86, 87, 88, 107, in, 113. JI 4> n5> Il8 I2 7 ^O) H 1 ? J 3 2 > *35 
136, 138, 139, '42, 143, 147, 148, i49, 150.) 

Dethick and Holloway (1311). This is a parish two and 
a half miles from Matlock. The church dates from 1220. At 
Holloway is situated Lea Hurst which was for many years the 
home of Florence Nightingale. 

Dore (1305). Dore is a village which, since 1844, has 
formed a separate parish with Totley. It has a station on the 
Midland Railway five miles south-west of Sheffield. The Dore 
and Chinley branch of the Midland Railway, 20 miles in length, 
passes through five and a half miles of tunnels and the remainder 
through Derwent Dale, Hope Dale and Edale. (p. 94.) 

Dronfield (3809) is a manufacturing town six miles from 
Chesterfield on the road between Chesterfield and Sheffield, 
(pp. 84, 1 06, 109.) 

Duffield (1959) is situated on the Derwent and Ecclesbourne 
brook about four miles north of Derby. After the Conquest it 
became the seat of the de Ferrers, Earls of Derby. The foundations 
of Duffield Castle on Castle Hill have been laid bare, and the 
site has been presented to the parish, (pp. 14, 68, 83, 116, 118, 
I47-) 

Eckington (12,895). A township and parish with a station 
on the Midland Railway and is one mile from Renishaw station 
on the Great Central Railway. The church dates from the time 
of Stephen and has considerable Norman remains, (p. 103.) 

Eyam (269). A township, village and parish five miles east 
of Tideswell and six miles north of Bakewell. The village is 
picturesque and interesting, and the churchyard contains a Saxon 
Cross and the tomb of Catherine Mompesson, wife of the Derby- 
shire hero of the Plague, (pp. 44, 85, 107, 125, 145.) 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 163 

Glossop or GlosSOp Dale (21,526), a municipal borough 
and market town, is on the borders of Cheshire. It is the chief 
seat of the cotton manufacture in Derbyshire, having extensive 
factories besides woollen and_ paper mills, while calico printing is 
also carried on in the neighbourhood, (pp. 68, 94, 142, 143.) 

Hartington (3306) is a parish consisting of the four 
townships called Middle, Upper, Nether, and Town Quarters. 
Hartington Town Quarter has a station one and a half miles 
away from the village on the Buxton and Ashbourne branch of 
the L. & N. W. Railway. In the Upper Quarter is Axe Edge, 
1756 feet above sea level, from which the rivers Dove, Wye, 
Dane, and Goyt have their sources, (pp. 126, 131.) 

Hartshorne (1375). A village between Derby and Ashby- 
de-la-Zouch, two miles north-east from Woodville station, (pp. 
68, 1 1 8.) 

Hathersage (1135). A village with a station on the Dore 
and Chinley branch of the Midland Railway, ten miles from 
Sheffield. There are large gritstone quarries in the neighbour- 
hood. Pins and steel wire are the chief manufactures. The 
place is situated in the midst of beautiful moorland and river 
scenery, (pp. 93, 104, 106.) 

Hayfield (2614). A village about 600 feet above sea level. 
It is a convenient starting point for Kinder Scout, and possesses 
large calico-print works and paper and cotton mills, (p. 68.) 

Heanor (12,418). A parish which includes Heanor, Langley 
Mill, Langley Marlpool, and Aldercar and is situated on the road 
from Derby to Mansfield, (pp. 17, 67, 145.) 

Hope (382). A village with a station on the Dore and 
Chinley branch of the Midland Railway two miles from Castleton. 
(PP- 43, 94, 107, in, 115.) 

II 2 



164 DERBYSHIRE 

Ilkeston (25,384), on the Erewash, is a municipal borough, 
with various manufactories, (pp. 67, 68, 83, 103, 104, 109, 143, 
144.) 

Killamarsh (3644). Called in Domesday "Chinewald- 
marese" is a widely scattered parish on the borders of Yorkshire 
and has a station on the branch of the Midland Railway and the 
main line of the Great Central, and on the Lancashire, Derbyshire 
and East Coast Railways The church is partly Norman. There 
are collieries, a steel forge, and chemical works. 

Long Eaton (13,045). On the Erewash, one mile from 
Trent station. There are extensive railway carriage works; and 
lace-making is the chief occupation, (pp. 67, 102.) 

Longford (352). A village six miles from Ashbourne and 
six miles from Tutbury. The church contains Norman piers and 
a Norman font. (pp. 102, 107, 118.) 

Marston Montgomery (341). A scattered village two 
miles from Rocester station on the North Stafford Railway. The 
chancel arch of the church is tenth or eleventh century work and 
there is a south door, a priest's door in the chancel, and a circular 
font all of Norman date. The churchyard contains a fine old 
yew tree and some curious old tombs. The register up to 1660 
was common to this place and Cubley and is still kept in the last 
named parish, (p. 98.) 

Matlock (5979) parish includes Matlock Town and Green, 
Matlock Bank, and Matlock Bridge. The station is Matlock on 
the Midland Railway. Matlock Bank, which is sheltered from 
the east winds, is noted for its hydropathic establishments. Riber 
Castle, built by the late Mr Smedley, is now used as a boarding 
school for boys. (pp. 16, 17, 28, 39, 41, 46, 48, 95, 130, 131, 
*3 2 J 33-) 

Matlock Bath (1819) is an inland watering-place in the 
deep dale or gorge of the Derwent. It is situated amongst charming 



166 DERBYSHIRE 

limestone scenery, and is of world-wide repute for its medicinal 
springs. Of these there are three, which issue from the limestone 
at a temperature of 68 degrees Fahr. There are also petrifying 
wells and several interesting caverns, (pp. 7, 8, 28, 37, 39, 47, 
J 34-) 

Melbourne (3580) is a small town with manufactures about 
eight miles south-east of Derby, noted for its Norman church and 
the gardens of Melbourne Hall, once the seat of Lord Melbourne, 
which were formed in 1720 in the Dutch style. The Castle was 
dismantled in the fifteenth century, (pp. 81, 83, 86, 100, 109, 
in, 117, 127, 144.) 

Mellor (1218). A parish two miles from Marple station 
on the Midland Railway, Wadding and surgical dressings are 
manufactured in the neighbourhood, (pp. 102, 107.) 

Mickleover (2084). A parish three miles from Derby with 
a station on the Great Northern Railway. The County Lunatic 
Asylum for 776 patients is located here. (pp. 109, 118.) 

Middleton-Stoney (478). A picturesque and hilly town- 
ship in the parish of Hathersage, five miles from Bakewell. It 
has two springs, one with a temperature of 60 degrees and baths 
have been erected upon the site of a supposed Roman bath. It 
possesses manufactories for barytes, and has several lime kilns, 
(pp. 131, 144.) 

Milford (1096). The English Sewing Cotton Co. Limited, 
have here a large factory for bleaching and dyeing, which was 
originally founded by Messrs Strutt about 1780. (pp. 68, 149.) 

Newbold-Cum-Dunston (5986), adjoins Chesterfield. 
The ancient Norman and Perpendicular church was nearly 
destroyed by a mob in the reign of William III, and was 
desecrated and used as a cow-house. There are potteries for 
manufacturing stone bottles and brown ware and a brick and tile 
manufactory. 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 167 

New Mills (6253). A manufacturing town on the river 
Goyt. (pp. 8, 10, 68.) 

Norton (11,875). A. pleasant village two and a half miles 
from Beauchief. The church has a few late Norman remains. 
In the churchyard is the grave of Sir Francis Chantrey, R.A., the 
eminent sculptor, (pp. 71, 149.) 

Ockbrook (2567). A parish one mile from Borrowash 
station on the Nottingham and Derby branch of the Midland 
Railway. The tower and font of the church are Norman, though 
the spire is later, and the finely carved oak screen is of the 
sixteenth century, (p. 103.) 

Peak Forest (476). A small village five miles from 
Buxton, with a station on the Midland Railway nearly three 
miles away and one on the L. & N. W. Railway. It was 
originally a free chapelry in the King's forest and was extra- 
episcopal and extra-parochial and up to 1804 there was an average 
of 80 "Gretna" weddings annually. There are extensive lime 
works near the Midland station, (pp. 14, 41, 44, 76.) 

Pinxton (2994). A parish four miles from Alfreton noted 
for its collieries, (p. 134.) 

Pleasley (8448). A pleasant village nine miles from 
Chesterfield. The church contains a highly ornamented Norman 
arch. Pleasley Vale is the site of large cotton, silk, and merino 
spinning mills near picturesque limestone ravines. 

Repton (1695) is celebrated for its old priory and its school, 
which was founded in 1556 by Sir John Port. It is about seven 
and a half miles S.S.W. of Derby, (pp. 61, 68, ^ 107, in, 112, 
1 1 8.) 

Ripley (10,1 1 1) is a market and manufacturing town. The 
ironworks and collieries of the Butterley Co. are in the immediate 
neighbourhood, (pp. 17, 68.) 



168 DERBYSHIRE 

Rowsley (295). Has a station on the Midland Railway 
and is five and a half miles from Matlock. The district is noted 
for its manufacture of grindstones and for excellent building 
stone, (pp. 132, 133.) 

Sandiacre (2954). A large village. The church of 
St Giles contains traces of Norman work. (pp. 35, 83, 102, 
103, 104, 106, 107, 109.) 

Sawley (1751), has a station one and a half miles south-east 
of the village and another (Sawley Junction) half a mile south- 
west on the Midland Railway. A church existed here previous 
to 822, and the north wall of All Saints' church contains herring- 
bone work and is supposed to be Saxon, (pp. 95, 98, 104, 107.) 

Spondon (2544). A parish and township with a station on 
the main line of the Midland Railway, large colour-works, and a 
tar distillery, (pp. 107, 109.) 

Stanley (1263). About a mile from the West Hallam 
station on the Great Northern Railway. The small church 
possesses a Norman south door. (p. 114.) 

Staveley (11,420). A large village with two stations on 
the Midland Railway and two on the Great Central. The church 
contains some interesting tombs and incised slabs, and a fine font 
of twelfth century date. The land yields rich minerals and an 
abundant supply of coal, and there are also corn-mills, a brush 
manufactory, and one for spades and shovels. 

Swadlincote (4017). Noted for the manufacture of 
earthenware and fire-bricks. It has a station on the Burton 
and Ashby branch of the Midland Railway and is six miles 
from Burton-on-Trent. (p. 68.) 

Swarkestone (146), a parish and village three miles south- 
east of Derby. It is remarkable for its ancient bridge and 
raised causeway nearly a mile in length, the oldest remaining 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 169 

portions being of thirteenth century date. There once stood a 
midway chantry or chapel upon it. There are some slight 
Norman remains in the church and a probable Norman font. 
Near the site of the A< Old Hall" is a balcony and enclosure 
supposed to have been used for bull-baiting, (pp. 87, 88, 125.) 

Tideswell (1938) is a market town two and a half miles 
from Miller's Dale Station. It is noted for its fine church with 
an unusually large chancel. The Grammar School was founded 
in 1560 by Robert Pursglove, Bishop of Hull. (pp. 14, 39, 84, 
104, 107, in, 131, 145.) 

Tissington (367). A parish and village with a station on 
the Buxton and Ashbourne section of the L. & N. W. Railway, is 
four miles from Ashbourne. The church dates from Norman 
times and the Hall is a fine Elizabethan building. Tissington is 
remarkable for its ancient custom of well-dressing. The five 
wells which supply the village with water are elaborately decorated 
with flowers on Holy Thursday and a special service is held in 
the church. 

Wensley (or South Darley) (788). An ecclesiastical 
parish separated from North Darley or Darley Dale by the river 
Derwent. It contains the celebrated lead-mine called Mill Close, 
(p. 131.) 

Whitwell (3380). An agricultural and mining village and 
parish in the extreme north-east of the county, with a station on 
the Mansfield and Worksop branch of the Midland Railway. 
The church dates from 1150 and contains a Norman font. At 
Steetley, a farm one and a half miles north of Whitwell, is the 
small Norman church of All Saints. Whitwell Wood extends 
over 440 acres, (pp. 8, 101, 109.) 

Wilne and Draycott (1504). Wilne is a parish about 
one and a half miles south from Draycott station on the Midland 
Railway, (pp. 99, 104, 106, 109.) 



170 DERBYSHIRE 



, North (2973). A township and parish four 
miles south of Chesterfield celebrated for its extensive coal, lime, 
and ironstone beds. There are some few remains of the late 
Norman church surviving, (p. 107.) 

Wingfield, South (1571), contains the old Manor House, 
an interesting ruin known as Wingfield Manor, built in Henry VI's 
time, where Mary Queen of Scots was imprisoned, (pp. 7, 86, 87, 
122, 132.) 

Wirksworth (3807), 13 miles north-west of Derby, is 
situate in a valley at the southern extremity of the lead-mining 
district. An ancient brass dish is kept at the Moot Hall as a 
standard for dishes for measuring lead, and the barmote courts 
for swearing in the Grand Jury and settling mining disputes are 
held here. (pp. 12, 17, 48, 76, 78, 80, 83, 89, 95, 103, 106, 107, 
in, 131.) 

Youlgreave (1077) Five miles from Bakewell. The church 
of All Saints is of mixed styles and includes some Norman work. 
(pp. 79, 102, 107, 109, 126.) 



DIAGRAMS 



171 



England & Wales 

37,327>479 acres 



Fig. i. The Area of Derbyshire (658,885 acres) compared 
with that of England and Wales 



Fig. 2. The Population of 
Derbyshire(62o,322) compared 
with that of England and 
Wales, 1901 



I .i i f I 

Fig. 3. Increase in the 
Population of Derbyshire from 
1861 to 1901 



172 



DERBYSHIRE 




England and Wales 558 



Derbyshire 600 



Lancashire 2347 



Fig. 4. Average Population to the sq. m. in England and 
Wales, in Derbyshire, and in Lancashire in 1901 

(Each dot represents ten persons) 



Area under crops 
other than corn 489,322 acres 




Fig. 5. Proportionate area of Corn Crops to area of Crops 
other than Corn in Derbyshire in 1906 



DIAGRAMS 



173 



Oats and Rye 
25,663 acres 




Fig. 6. Proportionate area of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and 
Rye in Derbyshire in 1906 




Fig. 7. Proportion of Permanent Pasture to other 
Areas in Derbyshire in 1906 



174 



DERBYSHIRE 



Permanent Pasture 
402,857 acres 




Fig. 8. Proportion of Permanent Pasture to Arable Land 
in Derbyshire in 1906 



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