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{^_ THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 

JT ^7 R O y INCLUDING 

CEYLON AND BURMA. 



Published under the autsoeitt of the Seceetary of 
State foe India in Council. 

edited by a. e. shipley, m.a., hon. d.sc, f.r.s. 



D E R M A P T E R A 

(EARWIGS). 

BY 

MALCOLM BURR, D.Sc, M.A., F.E.S., F.L.S., F 




LONDON: 

TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 

CALCUTTA: I BOMBAY : 

THACKER, SPINK, & CO. | THACKER & CO., LIMITED. 

BERLIN : 
R. FRIEDLANDER & SOHN, U CARLSTRASSE. 

1910. 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR ANT) FRANCIS, 
RED LIOM COURT, FLEET STREET, LONDON. 




CONTENTS. 



Page 

Editor's Preface v 

Author's Preface viij 

Systematic List of Species xiii 

Introduction ] 

General 1 

Structure 2 

Determination of Species 10 

Development H 

Copulation 12 

Oviposition 13 

Ova 14 

Habits 14 

Food 17 

Maternal Care 18 

Geographical Distribution 19 

Literature 26 

Table of Families 31 

ApachyidcB 31 

Pygidicranidce 37 

Labiduridce 67 

Labiidcc HO 

Forjicididce 129 

Species of Uncertain Position 204 

Appendices : — 

A. On Collecting and Preserving Earwigs 207 

B. List of Authors, and Abbreviations 208 

C. Glossary 210 

Index 213 

Explanation of Plates. 



EDITOR'S PREFACE. 



In this the first of the 'Fauna of British India' Series 
issued under my Editorship, I would wish to record my 
sense of the loss Science has sustained through the death of 
the late Lieutenant-Colonel C. T. Bingham, He succeeded 
Dr. Blanford, who initiated and edited the Series for more 
than twenty years, in 1905, and since that time devoted 
himself unremittingly to the task he then took up. His 
loss has been widely felt, especially amongst the workers 
in systematic Entomology : if I may quote his own words 
about his predecessor : — " To few, however, will that loss be 
personally so great as to those who under his direction were 
working for the Fauna of India series/' 

During the year 1908 Colonel Bingham was engaged on 
his third and final volume on the Indian Butterflies. This, 
which was to have included the families Lycanidce and 
Hesperiidce, he left unfinished. I am happy to state that 
Mr. H. Druce has, with the sanction of the Secretary of 
State for India, undertaken to complete the work; but 
owing to the constantly increasing amount of material now 
available it will be necessary to devote a volume to each of 
these families. 

At the time of Lieutenant-Colonel Bingham's death, 
volumes on the following Groups had been sanctioned by 



VI EDITOR S PREFACE. 

the Secretary of State for publication : — on the Cicindelida, 
PaussidcE, and a General Introduction to the Coleoptera, by 
Canon W. W. Fowler : on the Orthoptera, by Mr. W. F. 
Kirby : on the Dermaptera, by Mr. Malcolm Burr : on the 
Butterflies (third and last volume), by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Bingham : on the Curculionidce, by Mr. G. A. K. Marshall : 
on the Cetoniidce and Dynastida, by Mr. G. Arrow : on 
the Ichneumonid(S, by Mr. Claude Morley : on Longicorn 
Beetles, by Mr. C. J. Gahan : and on the Bnprestidce, by 
Mr. E. P. Stebbing. 

Since that date, sanction has been obtained for an 
Appendix to the volumes on the Rhynchota, by Mr. W. L. 
Distant. In addition to the two (3rd and 4th) volumes on 
Butterflies already mentioned, the Secretary of State for 
India has also sanctioned a half volume on the Blattida, by 
Mr. R. Shelford ; and a whole volume, instead of the half 
volume previously sanctioned, on the Acridiidce and 
Locustida, by Mr. Kirby. Further, approval has been given 
for a second volume on the Mollusca, by Lieutenant-Colonel 
H. H. Godwin-Austen. 

Although there are few better known insects in Europe 
than the common Earwig, the Dermaptera are said to be 
rare in most parts of the world. The Order, however, in 
warm and tropical regions is rich in species. Hence, 
although but two species are probably indigenous to our 
islands, the number described by Dr. Burr from India 
amounts to over one hundred and thirty. 

In the present work Dr. Burr has adopted a new classifi- 
cation, and has incorporated in its pages the results of a 
series of systematic Papers which he has published during 
the last year or two. If we except some statements taken 
from de Bormans^ account of Earwigs from Burma, a very 
large proportion of this work is original. In the fifth 
volume of the ' Cambridge Natural History ' Dr. Sharp 
states: — "The classification of the earwigs is still in a 
rudimentary state " : I do not think I exaggerate when 



EDITOR S PREFACE. vii 

I say that Dr. Burr's work will cause the deletion of 
this senteuce if a new edition of Dr. Sharp's volume be 
called for. 

I cannot let this volume appear without expressing mv 
gratitude to Mr. G. A. K. Marshall for much time spent 
in proof-reading, and for much help in other Editorial 
tasks. 

A. E. SHIPLEY. 
October 1909. 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 



The Earwigs form a compact, homogeneous and well-defined 
group of insects. Owing to a superficial resemblance to 
certain Staphylinida, Linnaeus included them in the Coleo- 
ptera, but de Geer placed them in his Order Dermaptera, 
which corresponded to the Orthoptera of Olivier, in the 
modern acceptance of the name. Kirby, in 1815, treated 
them as a distinct Order, restricting to them de Geer's name 
Dermaptera, which had been superseded by Olivier's word 
for the larger group. Authors were then divided into two 
camps, those in favour of considering the earwigs as an 
Order and those who preferred to regard them as a Family 
of the Orthoptera. 

The actual name employed for the group of earwigs has 
varied still more. Erichson and Fischer called them Labi- 
duroidcB ; Latreille. Serville, and Scudder, Forficulidce ; 
Newman and Fischer von Waldheim, Forculina, followed at 
first by Burmeister, who later proposed Dermaptera in 
an amended form, Dermatoptera. Westwood invented the 
appropriate name Euplexoptera, and Fischer, Harmoptera ; 
Lrunner called them Forficularia, as a family of the Ortho- 
ptera ; Bolivar regards them as a section of the Orthoptera, 
under the name Dermaptera, with the single family Forfi- 
culidce. Dohrn, Redtenbacher, Krauss and Verhoeff follow 
Kirby, in giving them full ordinal rank, under de Geer's 
name Dermaptera; but de Bormans, in his monograph 
published in " Das Tierreich," treats them as a family, 
Forficulidce. 

Our own inclination is to treat them as a distinct order. 



AUTHOR S PREFACE. IX 

with the name Dermaptera, sanctioned by much use^ 
rejecting the corrections suggested, such as Dermoptera by 
Agassiz and Dermatoptera by Burmeister. 

No attempt had been made to subdivide earwigs into 
smaller gi-oups until this was done by Verhoeff (1902), who 
based his classification upon the genitalia. His system has 
the double disadvantage of being impracticable for ordinary 
purposes, and incomplete. Many of his characters are of 
doubtful value, and some of his Avork will probably never be 
accepted, while it is not free from inaccuracy, involved 
synonymy, and other drawbacks. It was, however, the first 
attempt to reject the empirical arrangement, with which 
de Bormans, for want of material, had been obliged to be 
content. As such it merits recognition and approbation. 

The writer of this work has endeavoured to pick out those 
portions of Verhoeff's Avork which appear to him to be 
souna, to retain the best part of de Bormans' system, to add 
a considerable amount of new material and original observa- 
tion and to produce a harmonious whole. The result of this 
attempt is set forth in the following pages. 

Families and subfamilies were first established by Verhoeff, 
but his definitions are not always retained, and his separation 
of the Apachjidxe into a suborder under the name Para- 
dermaptera is rejected. Only five families are retained, each 
divided into a varying number of subfamilies. A careful 
study of the characterisation of these groups is essential 
to the understanding of the Dermaptera as a whole; the 
main outline of this new classification is presented in the 
synoptical table of families on page 31. 

The author is engaged at the same time upon a general 
revision and Monograph of the Earwigs of the world, and the 
system put forward in the following pages is that which he 
has so far adopted in his manuscript of the larger work. 

It is unnecessary to add with what pleasure criticism and 
suggestions will be received. Above all, fresh material is 
most urgently required, in order that a solution may be 
obtained for the still remaining problems. 



X AUTHOR S PREFACE, 

In order to be cousistent in the use of the word " type " 
the author lias uniformly followed the principle that one 
individual specimen, and one only, can be the type of a 
species. 

For instance, of Forficula sjostedti, Burr, an African 
species, the author has examined nearly 500 specimens. Now, 
it is posssible that in future generations, some entomologist, 
with great local knowledge, may decide that this number 
included two distinct forms ; consequently, if every one of 
these 500 specimens were labelled '' Type ^' and these 
"types" were scattered through the collections and 
museums of the world, it would have been impossible to 
decide which was the true Forficula sjostedti. 

Again, some of de Bormans' species were based on material 
partly in the Genoa and partly in the Vienna Museum. 
Each Museum claims to possess the type. Every specimen, 
in both collections, in many instances, is labelled " type.'^ 
In such a case the author has endeavoured to identify the 
actual individual on which the description was based, or the 
first specimen named, and for him that has been the type. 

All the others are syntypes, which have nearly, but not 
quite, the same value for purposes of identification. The 
499 remaining specimens of Forficula sjostedti, for instance, 
are syntypes. 

A further term is paratype, which is applied to a specimen 
which has been identified authoritatively by comparison with 
a true type. 

A paratype has therefore a little less value than a syntype, 
and a syntype than the type, of a species. 

In the systematic part of this work, an asterisk indicates 
that the type has been examined by the author, two asterisks 
denoting a syntype. 

The material for this work has been derived from the 
following sources : — 

I. The results of Leonardo Fea's travels in Burma ; 
the collections are in the Civic Museum of Genoa ;. 
they have been reported on by de Bormans (88) 
and (94). 



AUTHOR S PREFACE. XI 

II. A few species taken in Trichinopoli, near Kodai- 
kanal, enumerated by Bolivar (97), in which paper 
de Bormans describes some new species. 
III. Scattered references to Indian localities in general 
works upon Orthoptera, or on Dermaptera, such 
as Gue'rin (38), Dohrn (63-67), de Bormans (83) 
and (00), Diibrony (79), VVestwood (39), and so on. 
IV. Material in the collections of the Museums of 
Brussels, Budapest and Paris, reported on by Burr 
(00), (02), (07^), (08^) and (OS^- 
V. Material in the Oxford University INluseum ; no 
account of this collection has yet been published, 
but the material has been kindly lent to the author 
by Professor E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S. 
VI. A paper on the Earwigs of Ceylon, by Burr (01), 
based chiefly on material collected by Mr. E. 
Ernest Green, Government Entomologist, at the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya. 
VII. Material in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, mostly 
taken by Dr. Nelson Annandale, and published by 
Burr (05*), (06') and (07-), including some com- 
municated by Mr. Maxwell Lefroy, Imperial 
Entomologist at Pusa, Bengal. 
VIII. Material specially collected for the purpose of this 
work, and communicated to the author, by Mr. T. 
B. Fletcher, formerly of H.M.S. ' Sealark,' 
quartered at Ceylon, and by Dr. A. Willey, of 
Colombo. 
IX. Material from various sources contained in the 
author's collection and in the collection of Mon- 
sieur Henri Gadeau de Kerville, of Rouen, who 
has very obligingly placed his specimens very freely 
at the author's disposition. 
But for the efforts of the gentlemen named above, the 
number of species and localities in the following work would 
have been reduced by about half. The author takes this 
opportunity of repeating his thanks for their valuable and 
enthusiastic help. 



Xll AUTHOR S PREFACE. 

It will be observed in the list of species ou p. 23, that a 
large proportion of types have been examined and it has 
been attempted to show where all the types are at present 
preserved. This has been possible in almost all cases 
where species have been recently described, but the older 
authors did not specify their types with the accuracy which 
is now considered necessary. Consequently it has not always 
been possible to state where the types are in the case of 
such authors as Serville, Dohrn, &c. In describing a new 
species the latter author often noted that his material was 
based on specimens in several collections ; all his original 
specimens are syntypes, but it is impossible to determine 
which individual is the type. In such instances, the where- 
abouts of the syntypes has been noted. It has been 
assumed that Dohrn's own specimens are still preserved at 
Stettin, but this is the only important collection of earwigs 
which has not been placed at the disposal of the author. 

The author gladly takes this opportunity of recording his 
gratitude to Dr. Shipley, the most courteous of editors, and 
especially to Mr. G. A. K. Marshall, whose laborious and 
careful proof-reading has placed him under a deep sense of 
obligation. 

The plates and figures in the text have been drawn by 
Mr. Edwin AVilson, with the exception of several figures 
(75, 76, 79 & 90) which are by Mr. Horace Knight. No 
work upon this group of insects has yet enjoyed such 
accurate and abundant illustration. 

MALCOLM BURR. 

Eastry, Kent. 
July 6th, 1009. 



SYTEMATIC LIST OF SPECIES. 



DEEMAPTEEA.' 

Family I. Apachyidae. 

Genus 1. Apachyus, Serv. 

1. A. feci', Bonn. 

2. A.jxtscoei, Kirby. 

Genus 2. Dendroiketes, Burr. 

1 1. Z>. corticinus, Burr. 

Family II. Pygidicranidae. 

Subfamily 1 . Diplaty in ce. 

Genus 1. Diplatts, Serv. 

tl. -0. fjladiator, Burr. 

t2. D. falcatiis, Burr. 

t3. D. lefroyi, Burr. 

+ 4. D. aufj/ustatus, Burr. 

5. D. hormansi, Burr. 

6. D. gerstceckeri, Dohrn. 

1 7. D. erncsti. Burr. 

1 8. D. siva, Burr. 
9. D. greeni, Burr. 

10. D. rufescens, Kirby. 
til. D.Jletchen,Bnvr. 
12. D. liheratus. Burr. 

Subfamily 2. P y r/ i die r a n i n cf. 

■ Genus 1. Pygidicrana, Serv. 
1. P.picfa, Guer. 
t 2. P. valida, Dohrn. 

3. P. 2icillidipennis, Haan. 

4. P. en'hnia, Dohrn. 

5. P. marmoricrura, Serv. 

6. P. siamensis, Dohrn. 

1 Species marked with a dagger (t) are not represented in the National 
Collection. 



LIST OF SPECIES, 

Genue 2. Diceana, Burr. 

1 . D. halUpyga, Dohrn. 

Genus 3. Cranopxgia, Burr. 

1. C. cwningi, Dohrn. 

2. C. 7iietneri, Dohrn. 

Genus 4. Piceania, Burr. 

1. P. angusiata, Dohrn. 

Genus 5. Pyge, Burr. 

1. P. modexta, Borm. 

2. P. o^hthahiiica, Dohrn. 

Family III. Lahiduridae. 

Subfamily 1 . Palicina;. 

Genus 1. Palex, Burr. 

fl. P. sparattoides, Borm. 

Subfamily 2. Ec hi no so m at in ce. 

Genus 1. Echinosoma, Serv. 

1. E. sumatraman, Haan. 
t2. E. parvidum,J)ohxn. 

Subfamily 3. Psal i n ce. 

Genus 1. Psalis, Serv. 

1. P. femora? /s, Dohrn. 

2. P. dohrni, Kirby. 
t3. P. lefroyi, Burr. 
1 4. P. castetsi, Borm. 

Genus 2. Labidurodes, Dubr. 

1 1. L. robusttis, Dubr. 

Genus 3. Gonolabis, Burr. 

1 1, G. electa, Burr. 

Genus 4. Anisolabis, Pieb. 

1. A. colossea, Dohrn. 

2. A. maritima, Bou. 
t 3. J.. litdagcB, Burr. 

4. A. annidipes, Luc. 

5. A. dubronii, Kirby. 
to. A. gaudens, Burr. 



LIST OF SPECIES. 

Genus 5. Bokellia, Burr. 

1. B. greeni, Burr. 

2, B. stali, Dohrn. 
t3. B. annandalei, Burr. 

Subfamily 4. L ah id u r i n cb. 

Genus 1. Forcipula, Bol. 

tl. F. decolyi, Borm. 

2. F. trispinosa, Dohrn. 

3. F. pugnax, Kirby. 

4. F. quadrispinosa, Dohrn. 
1 5. F. lurida, Bol. 

Genus 2. Labidura, Leach. 

f 1. L. 7iepalensis, Burr. 

2. L. lividipes, Dufour. 

3. L. benc/alensis, Dohrn. 

4. L. riparia. Pall. 

Subfamily 5. P a r i sol ah i n ce. 

Genus 1. Pseudisolabis, Burr. 

1 1. P. hurri, Bor. 
t 2. P. tenera, Burr. 

Subfamil}^ 6. Brack y I ah i nee. 

Genus 1, Nannisolabis, Burr. 

fl. N. p}iiletas,~Quvv. 
t2. N. luilleyi, Burr. 

Genus 2. Metisolabis, Burr. 

1 1. M. hifoveolata , Bol. 
2. M. caudelli, Burr. 

Genus 3. Ctexisolabis, Verb. 

1 1. Ct. fletcluri. Burr. 

Family IV. Labiidae. 

Subfamily 1. Lahiince. 

Genus 1. Spongiphora, Serv. 

1. /Sj»). lutea, Borm. 

2. Si), ni/idipennis, Borm. 

3. Sp. semijlava, Borm. 



LIST or SPECIES. 

Genus 2. Eeotesis, Burr. 

1. E. deaj)iens, Kirby. 
Genus 3. Labia, Leach. 

1. L, nigrella, Dubr. 

2. L. luzonica, Dohru. 

3. L. ciirvicauda, Motseli. 

4. L. mucronata, tStal. 

5. L. pilicornis, Motsch. 

6. L. ]iygidiata, Dubr. 

7. L. ridens, Bonn. 

8. L. arachidis, Yers. 

Genus 4. Platylabia, Dohru. 

1. P. major, Dohrn. 

2. P. gestroi, Dubr. 

3. P. thoracica, Dohrn. 

4. P. nigriceps, Kirbj. 

Genus 5. Sphingolabis, Borm. 
1. S. fecv, Borm. 

Faniily V. Forficulidae. 

Subfamily 1. C h eliso chince. 

Genus]. Chelisochella, Verb. 

1. Ch. siiperha, Dohrn. 

Genus 2. Exipjfus, Burr. 

1. Ex. jjulchri2)ennis, ^ovm. 

Genus 3. Chelisoches, Scudd. 
1. Ch. morio, Fabr. 

Genus 4. Peoreus, Burr, 

1. P. simidans, Stal. 

2. P. melanocejjhalus, Dohrn. 

3. P. ritsemcf, Borm. 

Genus .5. Solenosoma, Burr. 

t 1. «S'. birmanum, Bonn. 

Genus 6. Adiathetus, Burr. 

] . A. slielfordi. Burr. 
t 2, A. dravidius, Burr. 

3. A. cjlaucoptervs, Borm. 
t 4. A. nigrocastaneKS, Burr. 

5. A. tenebrator, Ivirby. 

Genus 7. Hamaxas, Burr. 

1. H. fece, Borm. 



LIST OF SPF.CIES. 

Subfamily 2. A nee h n r i n cf. 

Genus 1. Allodahlia, Verb. 

1. A. scabriusculus, Serv. 

2. A. macTopygus^ Westw 

3. A. coriacea, Bonn. 

4. A. ahrimanes, Burr. 

Genus 2. Homotages, Burr. 
1. H. fece, Borm. 

Genus 'S. Pterygida, Verb. 

1. P. circulata, Dobrn. 

Genus 4. Anechura, Scudd, 

fl. ^. calciatii, Bor. 

2. A. zuJ>ovsk{i, Sem. 

SubFainily 3. Fo r fi ciil i n </-. 
Genus 1. Elaunon, Burr. 

1. E. hipartitus^ Kirby. 

Geiuis 2. FoRFicTJLA, Linn. 

1 1. F. schhigintweiti. Burr. 
t 2. F. mogul, Burr. 
t3. F. beehehuh, Burr. 
t 4. F. aceris, Burr. 

5. F. ornata, Borm. 
t 6. F. greeni, Burr. 

t 7. F. amlngua, Burr. 
8. F. lucasi, Dohrn. 
t 9. F. celeris. Burr. 
1 10. F. interrogans, Burr. 
11. F. 2yl((nicollis, Kirhy. 

Subfamily 4. O^j isthocosmi i n ce. 

Genus 1. SoxDAX, Burr. 

fl. /S. repens, Burr. 

Genus 2. Epbohrnia, Burr. 

1. E. metallicd, Dobrn. 

(Jeiuis 3. Emboros, Burr. 

t I. E. dubius, Borm. 

Genus 4. Liparura, Burr. 

1 1. E. punctata, Burr. 

Genus 5. Obelura, Burr. 

tl. 0. asiatica, Borm. 

1 2. 0. taimiJ, Burr. 



LIST OF SPECIES. 

Genus 6. Cordax, Burr. 

1. C. armatus, Haan. 

2. C. ceylonicns, Motscli. 

Genus 7. Htpurgus, Burr. 

1. H. humeralis, Kirby. 
ti. H. simplex, Borm. 

Genus 8. Eparchus, Burr. 

■\1. E. dux, Bonn. 

2. E. msignis, Haan. 

3. E. tenellus, Haan. 

Genus 9. Timomenus, Burr. 

1 1. T. oannes, Burr. 
■f 2. T. (xscidaplvs, Burr. 
t3. T. nevilli. Burr. 

4. T. lugens, Bonn. 

Genus 10. Syntonus, Burr. 

1. »S'. neolohoj)h oroides, Burr, 

Genus 11. Kosmetor, Burr, 

t ] . K. temora, Burr. 
t 2. K. hrahma, Burr. 
t3. K. vlshnn, Burr. 

Genus 12. Lipodes, Burr. 

fl. L. vivax, Burr. 

Species of Uncei'tain Position. 

Forficnla ? pnlchripes, Borm. 
Forficnla ? rwr/nJensia, Dolirn. 



Suminari/. 

Subfamilies. Genera. Species. 

Apachyidae 1 2 3 

Pygidicranidae 2 24 

Labiduridae 6 13 34 

Labiidae 1 5 17 

ForficulidEe 4 25 55 

Total.. 14 51 133-1-2 uncertain. 



DEEMAPTERA, 

The literature dealing with tlie Dermapterous Pauna of British 
India IS not very extensive. In general books upon Dermaptera 
and Orthoptera there are occasional references to Indian species 
and Indian localities, such as may be found in the M'orks of 
berville, Do hrn, and de Bormans. The first paper deahnj? ex- 
dusive ly with Indian Earwigs was de Bornians' ' first account of 
the collections uiade by Leonardo Tea in Bui-ma, pu Wished in 
the Annah del Museo Civico di Genova ' in 1888, followed six 
years later by his second paper (1894), in which he incorporated 
the first, and added a number of species, many of which Mere 
new In 1897 Bolivar described an extensive collection of 
Orthoptera from Trichmopoli, in which several species of earxviffs 
are recorded, three being new. ^ 

But these works, valuable as they are, give little assistance for 
the determination of species. The first paper which enabled an 
entomologist m India to determine the species was the account 
of the earwigs of Ceylon by the author of the present work, 
published m the ' Transactions of the Bombay Natural History 
bociety'm 1902 based almost entirely upon material obtained 

lu cf- \'T'^ ^' ^'''^"- '^^''' P^^Pe^' however, dealt only 
with Singhalese species, and is now out of date. In 1905 the 
present writer published a first list of the earwigs in the collection 
of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, followed in 1906 and 1907 
by two more, chiefly based on material obtained by Dr. Nelson 
Annandale. These three papers, however, contain little beyond 
hsts of names and localities, and are of no use for purposes of 
Klentilieation, except where new species are described. 

In these circumstances it is evident that there is a real need for 
a work by the help of which entomologists in India may be 
able to determine such collections of earwigs as they may make 
It IS hoped that by its means collectors in India may be encourao-ed 
to take an interest in a group of insects which is by no means 
Jacking m fascination, and which has the undeniable advantage 
of being so neg ected that it offers scope and encouragement to 
all students. The need of such a work is further made evident by 
the following pages, in which it will be noticed there are frequent 
appeals for further material, and there remain still several species 
the exact position of which is doubtful. This is especially the 

1 Full references to these works are giyen iu the Bibliography on p. 26. 



2 INTEODUCTIOIS'. 

case where single females have been described, since, without an 
examination of the male, it is impossible accurately to determine 
the aiRuities of a species of earwig. It is also encouraging to 
collectors to know that species new to science are being con- 
tinually discovered. Hardly a collection, however small, is sent 
to England for determination that does not contain one or more 
undescribed species. 

It is to be especially hoped that entomologists in the field, 
having now a means of naming their specimens, will be induced 
to observe the bionomics — the true Natural History — of Earwigs. 
There remains a very great deal to be done that may be easily 
accomplished by a careful observer, even if he makes no claim 
to be a systematist or a specialist. The interesting notes of 
Dr. Annandale, in these pages, and, above all, the classic ob- 
servations of Mr. Green on DipJatys, are encouraging examples 
of this. As instances of work that may be well carried out in 
India, the following lines of research are suggested : — The post- 
embryonic development of Apachyvs and Pygidicrana compared 
with Diplatys; the variation of the allied species of Forficida', 
the semi-aquatic habits of Forciptda ; the elucidation of the 
numerous and subtle species of Diplatys ; the vertical distribution 
of the mountain-loving forms, such as Allodalilia, EndoJirnia, &c., 
and why these have deeply tinted wings ; the discovery of the 
males of those species of which only the females are known : 
earwigs are frequently accused of damaging flowers by devourg 
the petals ; has this been proved ? Probably they are omnivorous ; 
they are known to be largely carnivorous ; are they entirely so ? 
These and many other problems await solution. 



Str7(cture. 

The Jiead is more or less heart-shaped, varying from almost 
triangular to pentagonal ; the posterior margin is generally trun- 
cate, but sometimes emarginate in the middle. The head is 
divided dorsally by a transverse sritnre between the eyes into 
the frons or anterior portion, and the occijmt or posterior portion, 
the latter being divided by a median suture which runs from the 
middle of the ti-ansverse suture to tlie posterior margin of the 
head. In some earwigs the head is smooth and tumid, so that 
the sutures are scarcely discernible ; in others the sutures are 
profoundly marked and very distinct. The form of the head 
offers useful specific characters in the genus Di^datys, where the 
frons is often tumid and the occiput depressed, while an oblique 
keel runs from the eyes to the posterior margin of the head, but 
these characters are scarcely developed in the females. The 
mouth-parts offer practically no characters of any value to the 
systematist. The eyes are large and prominent in Diplatys and 
some Brachylahina', but are generally small, and ocelli are not 
present. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The antemm ofPer very valuable and important characters both 
generic and specific; the number of segments may be as few as 
ten or as great as fifty. The first or basal segment is relatively 
large generally clubbed at the apex ; in Eudohrnia this segment 
has two distinct keels. The second segment is invariably minute 
andcyhndrical; the third is of very variable length and form 
being cyhndncal ovate, or clubbed; the fourth segment is 
usua ly_ minute, shorter than the third and generally more 
simple in shape; it is sometimes barely half as long as the third 
but occasionally equals it or even slightly exceeds it in length.' 
Ihe fifth segment resembles the fourth, bnt is always a little 
longer ; the rest of the segments are each a httle longer than the 
preceding one ; sometimes the fifth equals the length of the 
third but when it falls short the sixth is the first to equal 
the third. _ The relative length of the third, fourth, and fifth 
segments is one of the characters most valuable to the Derm- 
apterist. The segments may be absolutely cylindrical, in which 
case they are usually very slender; more or less ovate or spindle- 
shaped, subcorneal or clavate, or sometimes decidedly conical 
in which case the apex of the cone is invariably directed basally' 
* e backwards towards the head. Sometimes "the segments are 
globular, and no_ longer than broad, and as a rule th? fewer the 
segments the thicker they are and the more removed from cyhn- 
dncal. In Mnnisolahis phihtas. Burr, there are only nine 
segments, but in Apaclujmfece, Borm., there are nearly fiftv 

ihe thorax consists of three segments, t\xQ pro-, meso- and meta- 
tJiorax, each covered by a dorsal sclerite, the pro-, meso- and meta- 
notum respectively. The pronotum is a flat disc of very varied 
shape ; it is as a rule more or less quadrangular • the' hinder 
margin IS generally more or less rounded in winged forms, or 
at least the hinder angles are rounded; in the wingless forms 
the hinder margin is usually truncate; the anterior margin ia 
usually truncate, but occasionally narrowed and produced Tnto a 
kind of neck. The pronotum is sometimes oval, or almost 
circular. Very useful characters are afforded by the diflferent 
shapes of this plate : the anterior portion or prozona is generally 
more or less tumid, while the posterior portion or metazona is as a 
rue flattened. There is often a more or less distinct median 
sulcidus or furrow, which may pass into a faint ridge or keel 
eathrde '° ^^'^ ^"""'""^ ^^^""^ '' frequently an impression on 

.i,'''^u-?r''f'*"' ^^''"®' *^'® ^^•^^^^'-'^ ^^'^^^ these are present, and is 
thus hidden from view ; in apterous forms it is visible as a short 
transverse plate ; in the Brachjlahince it is often furnished on each 
side with an obhque tumid ridge or keel. 

The metanotum carries the functional wings when these are 
present; in apterous forms it is visible as a transverse segment 
with the anterior margin straight, but the posterior margin shiuate 
or roundly emarginate. 

b2 



4 INTBODUCTION. 

The corresponding ventral plates form the pro-, meso- and 
metasUrna. 

The prosternum is a longitudinal plate, generally more or less 
parallel-sided, with a ccmstriction near the base, but occasionally 
angustate or narrowed posteriorly ; this constriction admits the 
insertion of the anterior pair of legs. 

The mesosternmn is a plate of irregular outline, usually about as 
broad as long, with sinuate sides to admit the middle pair of legs ; 
the hinder margin extends somewhat beyond the middle coxae, 
and is truncate, or more or less rounded ; the relative width 
of this intercoxal portion is the expression of the breadth or 
slenderness of the insect. 



Wings. 




Glandular folds or 
stink-glands. 



Abdomen. •-' 

First tarsal segment. ' 

Second tarsal segment. '' 

T hird tarsal segment. -- 

Pulvillus. -- 

Claws. - 



Antenna. 
Frons. 

Frontal suture. 
Occiput. 
Median suture. 

Prozona. 

Suture. 

Metazona. 

Shoulder. 

Scutellum. 

Sutural margin. 

Costal margin. 

Posterior margin. 

Posterior femur. 

Posterior tibia. 



Posterior tarsus. 

Last dorsal segment. 
Pygidium. 



Forceps. 



Fig. 1. — Diagram of dorsal aspect of an Earwig. 



The metasternum is of the same general shape as the meso- 
sternum, but is larger, in order to carry the hinder or largest 
pair of legs ; its maximum breadth is in the anterior portion, and 
it is strongly narrowed behind by the emargination of the sides 
so that the posterior portion forms a relatively narrow lobe which 
generally extends beyond the coxae ; the shape of this lobe affords 
useful characters : its posterior margin may be truncate, sinuate 



INTRODUCTION. O 

or rounded, and its breadth may be relatively great or the 
contrary ; the amount of the extension beyond the coxae varies in 
different genera. 

The elytra are totally absent in Anisolabis, the Brachylabime, 
and certain other genera not occurring in India. In the normal 
development they are more or less rectangular, veinless, chitinous 
flaps. They are attached to the mesonotum, and in repose lie in 
a horizontal position over the dorsal surface of the insect, the 
sutural margins of the two elytra being contiguous and conse- 
quently forming a median suture. They are divided into a broad 



sternal plates. 



. Penultimate ventral 
segment. 

Pygidium. 



Fig. 1 a. — Diagram of ventral aspect of au Earwig. 

dorsal area or disc, and a narrow costal portion, which, in repose, 
assumes a vertical position along the Hanks of the thorax. These 
two portions are sharply separated from each other by a distinct 
keel in Lahidura, Forcijnda, AUodahlia and some other genera ; 
but as a rule there is no sharp line of demarcation, the areas 
passing gradually into each other. In a good many genera the 
shoulders of the elytra are rather prominent, rounded and pro- 
jecting beyond the sides of the pronotum, but when the wings are 



6 INTEODUCTION. 

ill-developed or absent this shoulder is not developed, and the 
sides of the pronotum form a continuous line with those of the 
elytra. In normally winged forms the axillary portion of the elytra 
is as a rule rectangular, so that in repose the sutural margins are 
in contact from base to apex ; but in feebly winged or apterous 
forms the axillary angle may be rounded, so that a small portion 
of the mesonotum is exposed at the base of the suture, even when 
these organs are in repose : this portion of the mesonotum is in 
such cases hardened by exposure, and is termed the scutellum. 
As a rule, in fully Avinged forms the pronotum extends backwards 
over the base of the elytra and prevents the exposure of any 
scutellum ; but in Apaehijus, Diplatys, and the Pygldicranince the 
axillary augle is rounded off so that the elytra are oval rather than 
rectangular, and at the same time the pronotum is not produced 
backwards and cousequeutly the scutellum is prominent. The 
disc of the elytra is always fiat, and it is the disc which is implied 
when the ehjtra is used in description without qualification. The 
small vertical costal area is sometimes of a different colour. The 
elytra may be rectangular and so parallel in repose, as is usually 
the case, or they may be dilated and convex, broad at the shoulders 
and narrowing posteriorly as in Hi/jnirgus, Pterijf/iila, andiAUodahlia. 
In Apacliyus and Diplatys the distinction between the disc and 
costal area is weak and the whole elytra lie flat upon the thor'ax. 
The apex of the elytra is truncate in hemiapterous forms, generally 
sinuate in winged forms, or obliquely truncate. 

When rudimentary, the elytra are very much shortened ; they 
may be mere lateral flaps on the sides of the mesonotum (BorelUa), 
or they may still be sufficiently large to meet at the median suture 
in the apical portion (Obelura, Lijjcirura) ; the weakening of the 
axillary augle and consequent exposure of a scutellum is the first 
step towards abbreviation. The elytra may be perfectly smooth 
{Forficida, &c.), or granulose (AUodaJdia), or clad with short, 
obtuse bristles (Echimsoma), or punctulate (certain species of 
Forcipida). 

The 7iind wlnqs are often entirely absent (Anisolahis and 
Brachylabince) ; when perfectly developed (which is the rule) they 
are semicircular in shape, very ample and membranous ; the basal 
half of the costal margin is hardened into a leathery scale which 
protrudes from beneath the elytra in repose, and it is this scale 
\\'hich is meant when the word " wing " is used without quahfica- 
tion. From the apex of this scale the wing-veins radiate, and 
when the wings are closed they shut up fanwise about this point ; 
they are then folded transversely at right angles to the first line of 
folding and so tucked away under the scale that they are entirely 
hidden when in repose. In Apachyus and Diplatys, however, the 
membranous folds are visible along the suture during repose. The 
basal margins of the squamce, or hardened scales, are in contact 
M-hen in repose, and thus form the continuation of the suture 
of the elytra. The wings are frequently abbreviated, and it is 



INTEODTJCTIOX, 7 

common to find wings well developed or abbreviated in one and the 
same species {Labia spp., &c,). In addition to the fan-like radiating 
veins mentioned there is a curved transverse vein, the radial vein, 
which runs the length of the wing and remains at a more or less 
constant distance from tlie axillary or anal margin of the wing. 

The wings are exceedingly delicate, and their unfolding is a 
matter of great difficulty. In fresh or highly relaxed specimens 
they may be teased open with a line pair of forceps and a camel's- 
hair brush ; a glass tube, drawn out to a capillary point, is useful 
to blow them gently out ; but considerable practice is required 
before they can be expanded without tearing. This operation, 
however, is by no means necessary, as the wings are scarcely ever 
referred to for distinctive characters, and there appears to be little 
diversity in the venation. 

The legs offer very useful characters. The femora are generally 
rather compressed, but they are decidedly thickened in Timomenvs. 
They are strongly compressed in the Pygidicranicke and furnished 
with little keels. The tihioi are gently curved as a rule and 
compressed ; the upper margin at the extreme apex is flattened 
and rather hollowed; in Ex>/pnus, Chelisoches and the allied 
genera, this character takes the form of a well-marked furrow or 
sulcus, which extends for one-third or one-half the length of the 
tibia. The tarsi ha\e three segments : in Apachyus the first 
segment is much shorter than the third, but as a rule the first 
segment is longer than the other two united. The second 
segment is invariably the shortest ; in Lahia it is very minute ; 
the greatest length is attained in the Bracliylabina; ; as a rule it 
is cylindrical, like the other segments (Labidurido', Labiidce, &c.), 
but in the Chclisoclunm it is produced into a long narrow lobe 
under the third segment; in the other Forjiculidce it is broadened 
and dilated into a heart-shaped lobe. The third segment is 
usually about half as long as the first, and generally cyhndrical ; 
it is rather short and broad in the Chelisocldnai. The tarsi are 
depressed. In Diplatys and some other genera there is a indvUlus 
or pad between the claws of the tarsi, but this shrivels up so much 
in drying that it it is not of great value as a character. The 
third segment is armed with a pair of claws. The tarsi are 
generally strongly pubescent and furnished with long stiff' bristles. 
The legs are long and slender in the Opisthocosmiinai and in some 
genera of the Chelisochina;, but as a rule they are relatively short. 
The hinder pair are always longer than the middle, and the middle 
than the anterior pair. 

The abdomen is the most prominent part of an earwig. It is 
elongate, and in bulk equal to the whole of the rest of tlie insect. 
In Solenosoma it is almost perfectly cylindrical ; in many Opisilio- 
cosmiincB it is spindle-shaped, that is, thickest in the middle, but 
convex, with an almost circular cross-section ; in Diplatys and 
Pygidicrana it is also convex, but narrowest in the middle (in the 
male); the commonest form of the abdomen is more or less 



8 INTRODUCTIOIf. 

depressed, with a transverse elliptical cross-section ; the sides- 
may be parallel (Labidwa, Elaunon), or gently dilated about the 
middle {Anisolahis and certain species of Forjicula) ; in the 
Apacliyklce and in Platylabia the body is remarkably depressed, 
being as flat as cardboard. In tlie female the abdomen almost in- 
variably tapers somewhat towards the hinder end. There are in all 
ten segments ; excluding the last, there are nine, but in the female- 
only seven are visible, as the eighth and the ninth are aborted and 
reduced to mere specks of chitin which can only be detected upon 
dissection. 

In Forcijmla the sides of certain segments are furnished with 
ridges, keels or long spines ; in certain species of Psalince the 
sides of the segments are produced posteriorly to a more or less 
acute angle and are generally striated or furrowed. This struc- 
ture affords useful specific characters. In Eparchus the sides of 
the abdomen are studded with a series of knobs or tubercles. In the 
Lahidtirince the posterior margins of the segments are milled. All 
these structures are almost or entirely undeveloped in the females. 
In many genera, as in the Forjiculidie, the Labiidce, and others,, 
the second and third abdominal segments have at the sides 
tubercular folds in the integument, which are stink-glands. The 
segments are closely imbricated into each other ; when the abdomen 
is distended, the membrane holding the chitinous plates together 
may be seen with the minute perforation of the tracheal pores. 
The texture of the chitin varies from smooth to granular. The 
ventral surface is flat, and generally smoother and paler than the 
dorsal surface. 

The last dorsal plate, or sdcrite, is large and ample, and as it 
presents a great variety of form and of armature it offers valuable 
discriminative characters ; it is invariably more simple and almost 
always narrower in the female than in the male. 

The ■penidtimate ventral sderite is very large, so that the last 
ventral sderite is almost or entirely hidden ; w hen disclosed by 
the removal of the penultimate it is shown to be separated into 
two portions by a median fissure so as to permit the passage of 
the fseces and the reproductive cells. The outline of the penulti- 
mate segment is usually slightly different in the two sexes and 
offers useful generic and specific characters. 

The pygidium is a chitinous organ existing between the roots of 
the forceps and the edges of the apical abdominal segments ; it is 
sometimes hidden, but is as frequently protruded. It assumes 
a great variety of shapes in both sexes, thus offering very useful 
specific characters. 

In the Apadiyidce the last abdominal segment is produced 
without any apparent suture or joint into a depressed lobe termed 
the anal process ; as it appears to be a mere extension of the anal 
segment, it is probably not homologous with the pygidium, which 
is a distinct organ. 

The forcejys are the most characteristic organs of earwigs. They 
consist of a pair of more or less elongate, hard unsegmented 



INTRODUCTION". 



chitmoiig processes, rooted into the last abdominal segment, which 
IS enlarged in order to accommodate the powerful muscles whieli 
work these organs. The forceps present a great diversity of 
form : they may be remote or contiguous at the base ; thev may 
be long and slender, or stout and conical ; they may have a round 
or a trigonal cross-section ; they are invariably more or less 
attenuate towards the apex and almost always slightly hooked at 
the points themselves ; they may be strongly depressed and dilated 
near the base (Forficuln), or slender and almost cylindrical 
(Kos77ietor), or conical (Fsalis), very elongate (EudoJirnia), arcuate 
{Pterygida), asymmetrically bowed (Anisolabis, BoreUia), undulate 
m a vertical plane {Anechum, AUodaJiIia), armed with diversified 
teeth {E2X(n'hits)- in both sexes of Apachyus they are curved, 
siclde-shaped_ hooks. In the female they are almost invariably 
simpler than in the male, being as a rule straight and unarmed'; 
but in certain species of the CheUsocJihue the female has forceps as 
highly organized as those of the male, though very different from 
them, so that they have sometimes been described as male specimens. 

As a rule a given type of forceps will be found to characterize 
a group of species, a genus, or a group of genera, but it is far from 
rare to find very different forceps in closely allied species. The 
forceps vary in different degrees within certain limits, aud a very 
slight actual difference will often alter the superficial appearance 
of a specimen to a remarkable extent. Care must be taken in 
drawing deductions from the form of the forceps ; the remarks 
upon these organs under the heading "Variation" should be 
studied. The development of the forceps presents phenomena of 
great interest which throw light upon the phylogeny of the 
Dermaptera; these are referred to in the article upon the 
development of Dijilat'/s. 

The forceps are subject to malformations due to wounds and 
mutilations, and also to deficient nourishment. It is common 
to find a male earwig in which one branch of the forceps is 
formed as in the female ; such cases are frequently recorded as 
hermaphrodites, but whenever the full complement of nine seg- 
ments occurs together with one male branch, it is more probable 
that these are not gynandromorphic specimens, but merely that 
one branch has been unable to attain full development. Since 
the specialization (armature &c.) of the forceps is purely a sexual 
character, it is probable that the simple forceps of the female 
represent the more primitive form, to which there would be a 
natural tendency to revert. 

Cases undoubtedly due to traumatism are shown where an 
immature specimen has one branch of the forceps pronged : this 
is evidently caused by an attempt at reproduction of lost parts 
caused by an injury to the immature forceps. Cases where the 
forceps have the full complement of teeth but are misshapen or 
distorted are probably caused by an injury received when the 
insect has freshly emerged from the nymphal skin and is conse- 
quently soft and tendei-. 



10 INTEODUCTION. 



Determination of Species. 

In attempting to determine the species of an earwig, until 
experience has taught the distinction of the leading groups, the 
Table of Families on p, 31 should first be consulted. The species 
of the ApacJiyidie are so distinctive and so few in number, that 
thej can be recognized almost at a glance. If the specimen is not 
one of the Apacliyida'., the femora should be examined ; if these 
are compressed and have one or two little ridges running down 
them, the specimen is one of the Pyg idler ani dee. The appearance 
of the two subfamilies of this group are quite distinctive. Each 
subfamily has its own strong family likeness, but although it is 
easy to recognize a member of the Dlplatyince or Pyr/idicranince at 
a glance, it is usually a matter of some difficulty to determine the 
species. If the femora are smooth, the tarsi should be examined; 
if the small second segment has any lobe or dilation, the specimen 
is one of the Forficulidce, and if not, it must be referred to the 
Labidurimc or to the Lahiida;. In the fox'mer family, the dorsal 
surface of the last segment is folded downward between the base 
of the forceps and so presents a vertical face, which sometimes is 
separated from the dorsal horizontal face by an angle, but the 
passage is often gradual. In the Lahiidiv, this does not occur, 
there being an opening between the roots of the forceps and the 
dorsal and ventral plates of the end of the abdomen, and in this 
space there may often be seen the chitinous organ of diversified 
shape termed the i^ygldium. It is worth while giving an 
imaginary example of these synoptical tables. 

The examination of our undetermined earwig perhaps shows a 
small lobe on the second segment of the tarsi ; we accordingly 
turn to the Table of the Subfamilies of the Forjtculido} on p. 129. 
We again examine the second tarsal segment and observe that it 
is broadened out on each side, thus assuming a heart-shaped out- 
line ; this precludes the ChelisocMno'. Next, turning the speci- 
men over and examining the sternal plates, we find that these 
are not decidedly broader than they are long, which precludes 
the Anechuriiue. The body is rather depressed — somewhat 
widened about the middle ; a cross-section would not be circular, 
but would show a depressed transverse ellipse. Therefore it must 
be referable to the Forficulince, and we turn to the Table of Genera 
on p. 162. 

The shape of the forceps, which are very broad and flat near the 
base, but become suddenly elongate, arcuate and slender, show 
that it is a Forficula, and we turn to the Table of Species on p. 165 
"We see that the pronotum is not very decidedly transverse, so 
this precludes the first four species. Neither is it crescent-shaped, 
and this precludes the next two. As the dilation of the forceps is 
not confined to the extreme base, but extends about a quarter or 
a third of the length of these organs, it cannot be F. ambigna. 
The elytra and wings are not spotted, so it cannot be F. lucasi. 



INTKODrCTION. 



11 



The pronotum is not much longer than broad, and does not extend 
very far over the base of the elytra, so it cannot be F. celeris. The 
sides of the abdomen are not parallel, thus excluding F. interrogans, 
but are decidedly widened about the middle. Our specimen is 
therefore Forflcula 2i^(t.^^icoUis, Kirby, and we verify this by a 
careful comparison of the detailed description, remarks and figures 
on p. 174. 

Bevelojoment. 

The post-embryonic development of Dlplatys has been worked 
out by Green for the two Singhalese species, D. gerstcecheri, Dohrn, 
and I), r/reeni, Burr. 

The young larva has a general resemblance to the imago, but 
there are of course no signs of any organs of flight in the earlier 
stages. The second tarsal segment is fused with the first, there 
is no pulvillus between the claws, and the lateral abdominal 
glandular folds are not developed until later. But the most 
remarkable characteristic of the larva lies in the fact that instead 
of forceps, the apex of the abdomen is furnished with long 
segmented cerci or filaments. The number of segments in these 
cerci varies in the different species, and also in different indi- 
viduals of the same species, this being probably due to their 
fragihty. 

The following series of measurements of B. gerstcecleri is given 
by Green : — 



No. 


Length of 
hody. 


Length oj 
cerci. 


No. of segments in cerci. 


1 .. 


. . 2-5 mm. 


2 "5 mm. 


14 


o 
3 .. 


.. 3 
.. 4-5 


6 

10 


27 with incomplete divisions 
where fresh joints are 
forming. 

43 


4 .. 


.. 6-5 


incomplete 


(apparently injured) 


5 .. 


.. 7-75 


13-5 


45 


6 .. 


.. 9 


1 


1 



This table brings out the remarkable development of the cerci. 

In the penultimate instar these are abruptly curtailed to a 
single segment, which retains, however, its original character, and 
the extremities look as though they were bitten off. The two cerci 
are not necessarily curtailed simultaneously. The future forceps 
can be seen by transmitted light, showing through the sheath thus 
formed by this basal segment, which is always much longer than 



12 INTRODUCTION'. 

any of the other segments. In D. greeni, Burr, the cerci are 
shorter, the increase in the number of segments is more gradual, 
and the maximum number attained appears to be 18 or 20. 

Green was unable to count the exact number of ecdyses, but 
observed four successive moults, the last revealing the perfect 
insect. Each instar occupies about 10 days. In ecdysis, the skin 
splits along the median dorsal line of the thorax and is shed 
completely, even including the covering of the delicate caudal 
appendages. The penultimate instar, or nymph, may be recognized 
by the truncated cerci and also by the appearance of the 
radiating pattern on the metathorax, showing in miniature 
the future wing of the imago. The lateral glandular folds of the 
abdomen appear when the larva is about half grown. 

A curious ])oint was also noticed by Green. In the penultimate 
stage the anterior femora were broad and armed on the inner edge 
with a row of spines, which gave them a distinctly raptorial 
appearance : but he never saw them used for any purpose other 
than locomotion. 

The segmented caudal cerci have been recorded, but not 
described, in some unknown African species {vide Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Washington, iv, nr. 2, p. 53, 1898). 

Terry (05) has described the egg and post-embryonic develop- 
ment of CheJisoclies morio. There appear to be four larval instars 
before the adult imago. Terry's observations on the manner of 
increase of the antennal segments ai-e very interesting. It appears 
that the larva has at first only 8 segments ; at the first ecdysis the 
third segment is divided into four additional segments ; at the 
second ecdysis, the third segment gives rise to four more; at the 
third, to three more ; at the fourth, to one more, so that the normal 
total of 20 is thus attained. 

Terry failed to discover any trace of segmentation in the 
forceps of the embryo in ovo : this is interesting when compared 
with Green's observations on Diplatys. 



Copulation. 

De Geer's description of the family life of the common English 
earwig is generally known. According to this observer, the act 
of copulation is effected by the male approaching the female 
backwards, tapping her with his forceps, and then effecting the 
connection tail to tail, the pair being thus arranged in a straight 
line. Gadeau de Kerville has noticed and described the same 
thing, and insists that, though the male seems to try to catch 
hold of the female with his forceps, this organ does not appear to 
be of any use either before or during the act. The male is 
obliged to twist the apex of his abdomen so that the ventral 
plates face upwards in contact with the ventral plates of the 
female, and this torsion sometimes goes so far as to involve the 



IWTEODUCTIOIT. 13 

"head. The connection appears to last several hours, as observed 
in captivity. 

In another species, F. lesnei, Finot, not uncommon in West 
Central Europe, Lesne observed a pair in coitu while hanging from 
the under surface of the cork of a tube : in this case, the ventral 
surfaces of the two individuals were juxtaposed. 

In Chelklura aptera, Charp., a European Alpine species, de 
Bormans observed that the male applied the underside of his 
forceps to the ventral surface of the female. This ])osition 
involves the torsion of the abdomen of the male as Gadeau de 
Kerville observed. Xambeu noted the same thing in an allied 
species, Ch. 2^yi'enaica, Gene. Bennett observed the same fact in 
Anisolahis maritima in New York, and Gadeau de Kerville noticed 
it in Anisolahis mauritanica, Luc. The copulation of Labidura 
riparia, Pallas, as observed by Sopp, is effected in the same way. 
The copulation of Dlplatjis r/reeni is described as follows by 
Green : — " On Oct. 27, 1897, a pair of this new species, reared up 
in captivity, were found in coitu. The abdomen of tlie male was 
twisted round and the extremity was closely applied to the under 
surface of the pygidium [? penultimate ventral plate] of the 
female." 



Ouijposition, 

In Ceylon, Green observed Diplatys greeni in coitu on Oct. 27th : 
the first eggs were deposited on Nov. 4th, that is only a weelv later, 
and other eggs were added at intervals, during the following 
week, until a total of twenty-five had been laid. They were 
scattered singly over the exposed surface of the moss-covered bark, 
which had been provided as a shelter for the insect, adhering 
slightly to their support. Towards the end of the egg-laying 
period, a few were deposited in irregular clusters and unattached 
to the moss. 

In Sweden, de Geer found the newly hatched larvae at the 
beginning of June, and the writer has found them in the south of 
England in April. De Geer also found a female (F. auricularia) 
with her eggs under stones in April. Tascheuberg found the ova 
in Europe on February 19th after an exceptionally mild winter, and 
the larvae emerged on March 7th. Camerano found the ova in 
Southern Europe as early as January 24fch, and the larvae emerged 
on 30th Januaiy- With regard to the period between fertilization 
and oviposition, the same author records a female, which he had 
taken during the winter, laying eggs on 10th March ; and in 
temperate latitudes it is probable that this period is generally a 
good deal longer than in warm countries. Riihl records the 
emergence of young larvae from ova which had been 26 days in his 
possession. 

With regard to Ghelidura pijrc^iaicn, Gene, in the Pyrenees, 
Xambeu records that copulation occurs in April or May, 



14 



INTEODUOTIOJJ". 



according to the altitude (this species ranges from 4000 to 
8000 ft.). The larvse hatch out about three weeks after oviposition, 
in mild weather. In New York, Bennett observed that Anisolabis 
maritima generally lays its eggs in the warm days of July and 
August, and a few after the middle of September. 



Ova. 

The ova are elliptical in shape. Those of Forficula auricularia 
are white, smooth and oval (de Geer). They are described as 
yellowish by Taschenberg and Eiihl ; Camerauo found them 
regularly piled in little heaps. The eggs of CheUdnra pyrenaica 
are described by Xambeu as being 1"3 mm. long and 1 mm. in 
diameter, ovoid in shape, yellowish, smooth and shining, imper- 
ceptibly punctuated, with rounded poles and a resisting shell. 
The eggs of Anisolabis maritima are described by Xambeu as ellip- 
soid, white, and surrounded by a shiuing translucent shell ; they 
are about 2 mm. long. A few days after oviposition the embryo 
is visible inside the egg-shell, in the form of a crescent, and the 
side of the egg bulges somewhat. At the end of 17 days the larva 
emerges, but this period varies with the condition of warmth and 
moisture. 

The egg of Diplati/s greeni is regularly elliptical, pale, pinkish 
yellow, and shining ; 0-8 mm. long and 0"5 mm. broad. Those of 
Anisolabis mauritanica, Luc, are of a faint yellowish white, sub- 
spherical, from 1 to 1*2 mm. long ; the shell is smooth, thin and 
transparent. Heymons describes the ova of Anisolabis littoi'ea, 
White, as 3 mm. long. The number of eggs laid varies : — 



No. of eggs. 
25 



90 



Species. 
Bx-platys greeni (captivity) .... 

Anisolahis maritima (free) 

(captivity) . . 

(One female laid four times in a summer.) 

Anecliura bipunctata (captivity) . . 18-25 

CJielidiira pyrenaica (free) 40-45 

Forjlcula auricularia (free) .... 12-22 



Observer. 
G-reen. 

Bennett. 



Euhl. 

Xambeu. 

Eiihl. 



Habits. 

Earwigs may be found almost everywhere out of doors. 
Generally they shun daylight, and many species may be found 



INTRODUCTION. 15' 

under stones, crawling in shallow galleries or chinks. Green 
noticed a curious habit in Diplatys ; on lifting a stone, this 
creature is usually found back downwards, clinging to the stone 
itself. Other earwigs are generally found resting on the ground 
beneath the stone. Apterous, alpine forms are generally found 
under stones, or under dead leaves, bark of trees or other rubbish. 
They occur up to an elevation of 8000 ft. in the Alps. In the 
Himalayas, ear\vigs are common up to a considerable elevation, 
but information as to the limits of their vertical distribution is 
lacking. 

Although nocturnal in habits, earwigs, like moths, are attracted 
to light, and Mr. Green has taken a good number of species in his 
bungalow in this manner. 

No earwigs are truly aquatic, but species of Forci^mla are known 
to frequent moist places. Dr. Annandale found F. decoJyi at 
Kurseoug, under stones at the edges of mountain streams, prac- 
tically in the water. When forced towards the stream, they swam 
rapidly on the surface, but they did not enter the water of their 
own accord. Dr. Annandale, referring to Lahidura rij^ciria, Pall., 
yar. inermis, Br., writes as follows': — 

" By far the commonest species in Calcutta. They lie in 
crevices such as those in the bark of trees, and when a small cock- 
roach or other suitable insect passes them, the abdomen is rapidly 
shot out sideways and the forceps seize the insect by means of a 
sudden twist. The prey is transferred to the mouth, sometimes 
being held also by the forceps ; but should the earwig be disturbed, 
it runs away carrying the prey in the latter. If one individual 
comes upon another which is feeding, the former often attempts 
to steal the food. The rightful owner then threatens the other by 
directing its forceps towards the aggressor over its back ; but I 
have never seen one earwig nip another, nor have I been able to 
induce one to nip my finger." 

Of an allied species, L. lividipes, Dr. Annandale writes the 
following note ^ : — 

" These little earwigs frequently come to light singly or in 
small numbers during the hot \Aeather and the rains, and speci- 
mens can generally be taken round the arc lamps in the public 
gardens in Calcutta at this time of the year, the two forms 
occurring together. Large numbers were noted round an oil lamp 
in the Museum compound on the evening of June IGth, after a 
wet and stormy day, the first of the monsoon. Several persons 
have told me that they saw enormous numbers of small earwigs 
round their lamps on the same evening in dilierent parts of 
Calcutta. On the pi*eceding and following evenings only a few 
individuals were seen." 



' Burr, (06) p. 388. 

2 Annandale, (06) p. 391. 



16 INTBODIJCTION. 

" I have often watched earwigs of this species expanding and 
folding away their wings. The wings are generally expanded by a 
I'apid movement of the anterior part of the body, suggesting 
a shrug of the shoulders ; but sometimes a hitch occurs, and this 
movement is insutficient to stretch out both wings properly. The 
abdomen is then bent upwards and forwards, and the forceps are 
used to unfold the delicate membrane. They do not seize this 
membrane, however, but are closed together during the operation 
and are used as a lever or smoothing organ. In a similar manner 
they are often employed to push the wing into its place beneath 
the elytra, although movements of the thorax play an important 
part in this process also." 

Terry never saw C'helisocJies morio use its forceps in this manner. 
He writes (05) : — 

" The adults will readily take to flight, the unfolding of the wings 
being a very rapid process and quite independent of the forceps, 
the writer never having seen them used either to assist in the 
folding or unfolding process." 

The flattened forms, as Apachyus, probably live under bark. An 
African species of this genus was observed by Dr. Creightou 
Wellman, at Benguella, to live under the bark of dead trees, and 
to come out of wood when placed on the fire. In Burma, Fea 
found A.fece under bark, as well as various species of Chelisoches, 
and some species of Labia. The flattened genera Sparatia (which 
is not yet known to occur in India) and Platylahia . probably 
resemble Apachijus in their habits. Fea found Metisolabis caudelli 
and various species of Opistliocosmiince under dried leaves, vege- 
table rubbish, and over-ripe fruit. Pygidicrana picta is found 
commonly among dead leaves at the base of trees near Calcutta 
(Annandale), and P. cuminr/i and P. nietneri are found in Ceylon, 
under stones, loose bark, etc., and often come into buildings 
(Green). Labia mucronata was found by Green in decaying 
pods of cocoa and of Poincaiiia, and in the crevices of the bark of 
cocoa trees. Forficula greeni is often taken in bungalows in Ceylon, 
and one was found by Green in an empty gall on Antidesma, one 
of the EiiplwrbiacecB. Cordax ceyloaiciis is attracted to light 
(Green), and also Proreiis simuluns (Annandale). In Europe 
earwigs do not, as a rule, use their wings readily, except Labia 
minor, but in the tropics crowds of them come flying to light (de 
Bormans). 

The common European Forficula auricularia, Linn., has been 
recorded by Collinge (08) to fly into houses through the windows 
in England in considerable numbers on dark sultry evenings in 
June and July between 9.30 and 10.30 p.m. ; in three consecutive 
evenings, as many as 26 specimens flew in ; it is noteworthy that 
they avoided the gas, and also that they were all males. The same 
author notes two occasions on which they were seen to fly in broad 
daylight. 

Theobald (96) has noticed that in Kent they devour the young 
foliage of hops and sometimes do considerable damage ; he writes : 



INTKODUCTION. 17 

" It seems the adults take readily to their wing on certain nights,, 
especially when the moon is bright. Numbers later in the year 
used to fly into my house of a night, attracted by the lights." 

The tubercular folds in the integument at the sides of the abdo- 
men appear to be stink-glands, but little evidence is forthcoming 
on this point. Green found that Elaunon hipartitus, Kirby, when 
handled, gave off a pungent odour, like that of the Bombardier- 
Beetle. 

The forceps, which assume such a variety of remarkable shapes, 
especially in the male, are useful weapons of offence and defence. 
We have seen (p. 15) how Lahidura riparia uses them to 
seize its prey. Of Diplatijs, Green writes: — "When food is? 
offered to an adult Dyscritma [^Diplatys] it usually goes through 
a curious performance to test its suitability. It takes up its 
position to one side of and slightly in advance of the object ; then 
bending its abdomen round to one side, it gives it a sharp nip with 
its forceps and retires quickly to note results. If the proffered 
object does not resent this treatment, it is then considered safe 
and fit for food : but if the victim makes any movement, Di/scritina 
immediately retires beneath its shelter." 

A number of interesting notes on the function of the forceps of 
earwigs have been collected by Gadeau de Kerville (05), who shows 
that they are used as a weapon of offence and defence, but never 
during the act of copulation. Also, the insects do, occasionally, 
at all events, use them as a help to fold and unfold their delicate 
wings and to lift their elytra. Even Forjicula auricularia was 
observed to do this by Paul Noel, and the same thing has been 
observed in an unnamed species by Morris. 

With reference to their use as a weapon, the author was 
startled by a nip of a female Lahidura riparia, which made him drop 
the creature, and though the forceps did not pierce the tough skin of 
the human thumb, it would have been a formidable adventure to an 
insect of its own size. Gadeau de Kerville was nipped by F. auri- 
cidaria so strongly that blood was drawn, and Commander- 
J. J. Walker had the same experience in New South Wales, from 
the largest known earwig, Anisolabis colossea. Baer (04) has 
recorded that tlie relatively weak A'ptenjr/ida linearis, Esch., in 
the Argentine Eepublic, is capable of raising a local inflammation 
by its nip, though the irritation was perhaps caused by septic 
matter present on the forceps, for no traces of poison glands are 
known. The author introduced a large bluebottle into a small 
glass-topped box with a male Lahidura riparia. The earwig by 
a lightning-like movement, instantly transfixed the fly on one 
limb of its forceps, and carried it about thus spiked for several 
hours before devouring it. 

Food. 

Earwigs are probably omnivorous, though chiefly carnivorous. 
Green was unable to determine the natural food of Biplatys, but 

c 



18 INTRODUCTION. 

he is probably correct in supposing that it consists of soft bodied 
insects. In captivity, his larvae and imagines fed sparingly on 
the dead bodies of small spiders and flies and other minute 
insects, showing a preference, however, for certain species. They 
did not relish Lepidoptera or mosquitos, though they would 
devour the bodies of the latter if hungry. Bread, raw meat, petals 
of flowers, fruit, and minute fungi were offered and refused. 

The writer has fed Labidura riparia on bluebottles ; these they 
suck dry and leave the empty skin. Xambeu tells us that Chelidura 
pyrenaica is a veritable glutton. Tender vegetables, fruit, worms, 
larvae, all are greedily eaten ; hut they have pronounced carni\orous 
tastes. 

Many species are found in swarms on stinging nettles, but it is 
probable that they are less attracted by the nettles themselves 
than by the numbers of minute insects to which these plants offer 
a home. 

Terry records of ChelisocJies morio, Fabr., in the Sandwich 
Islands, that its habit of eating the leaf-hoppers has been ob- 
served by several people. Young hoppers are seized and devoured 
without the aid of the forceps, but these organs frequently assist 
inholding an adult hopper whilst it is eaten at leisure. An ex- 
amination of numerous crops invariably revealed only insect 
remains, often entirely leaf-hopper. Those bred in captivity showed 
during all iustars a marked preference for insect diet. 

Maternal Cava. 

The oft-quoted observations of de Gear on the solicitude of the 
mother earwig for her ova and young larvae are worthy of 
reproduction : — 

" At the commencement of the month of June, (says he) I found 
under a stone a female earwig accompanied by several small insects 
which I easily recognized as its young. They grouped round the 
mother and did not leave her, and even placed themselves under 
her stomach like little chicks under the hen. The insects of this 
genus have then, in a kind of manner, care for their young, even 
after their birth : and they seem to wish to protect them by 
^remaining near them. 

" The young resemble their mother in figure, except in one or 

two of their parts I placed them in a sand-box where I 

had put a little fresh earth. They did not enter the earth, and it 
was curious to see how they ran under the stomach and between the 
legs of the mother, who remained very quiet and allowed them to 
do it : she seemed to cover them like a hen does her little chicks, and 
they remained often in this position for hours 

" Another time, at the commencement of April 1759, I found 
some female earwigs under some stones, together with a pile 
of eggs on wliich the mother was seated and of which she took 
the greatest care imaginable without ever moving a step away, 
and this M. Frisch has already observed before me. I took it 



INTRODUCTION. 1 9 

•with its eggs and placed it in a sand-box half filled with fresh 
€arth, in such a fashion that the eggs were scattered here and 
there : but soon the mother took the eggs one after the other 
between her jaws and transported them. After several days I 
noticed she had got them all together in a like place on the surface 
of the earth which she found in a sand-box, and there she re- 
mained constantly seated on them in such a manner that she 
seemed to cover them." 

This interesting observation has been confirmed by a number 
of writers, including Kirby and Spence, Taschenberg, Camerano, 
and Fritz itiihl. Lesne found a mother sitting on her eggs near 
Las Palmas (Grand Canary), and Xambeu's remarks on the same 
habit in Chelklura pyrenaica are worth quoting^: — 

"As soon as the female is fertilized, she digs at the end of the 
gallery a small excavation in which she places her eggs one by 
one to the number of 40 or 45, in such a way as to make a 
small bundle of them, upon which she soon places herself in much 
the same way as a hen sits on her eggs. It is with a solicitude 
without equal — an unexampled attachment — that she devotes 
herself to this maternal task (a rare case in the entomological 
world), and this continues up to the time of hatching. If during 
the course of sitting, anything disturbs or exposes her eggs — in 
raising the stone which shelters them — she takes them with lier 
mandibles and conceals them in the soil at tlie bottom of her gallery. 

" During the first days which follow the hatching, the young 
Caelidura are watched by their mother and led, like a hen leads 
her chicks, towards the places where they will find the means of 
satisfying their great appetites. Tender vegetables, fruits, worms, 
larvae, in fact anything is good enough for these gluttons who are 
insatiable. As soon as their bodies are fortified, and their in- 
tegument has acquired a certain stability, the mother ceases her 
care and abandons them to themselves. They tlien disperse, each 
taking a different direction, and this scattering has become very 
necessary, as, owing to their very pronounced carnivorous tastes, 
they would injure and devour one another, which it is necessary 
to avoid for the preservation of the species." 

Green's ova of Dlplatys greeni were watched by the parent who 
remained constantly near her eggs, visiting each in turn, and 
mouthing them in a peculiar manner, as if to keep them clean. 

Geofjraj^ >h ical D istr ih ution. 

Although the state of our knowledge of the Dermapterous fauna 
of India is still meagre, some generalization may be permitted. 

As would be expected, we find in the Himalayas marked Palae- 
arctic aflSnities : for instance, the essentially Eurasian genus 
Anechura is represented by two species, both occurring in Kashmir ; 
one of these, A. calciatii, is probably peculiar ; the other, 

' (1903) p. 143. 

c2 



20 INTRODUCTION. 

A. zuhovsl-ii, is a local form of the common European Alpine- 
A. hipxmctata, which passes iuto A. asiatica in the mountains of 
Central Asia. Allied to Aneclmra is Allodalilia which has its 
headquarters in the mountains of Northern India, whence it has 
spread through Burma into the Malayan Archipelago ; thus of 
the four known species, A. ahrimanes is prohably confined to the 
Eastern Himalayas, A. viacrojjijfja and A. coriacea extend to the 
uplands of Northern Burma, and A. scah-iuscula has reached 
Java. Of the eleven known Indian species of Forjicxda, eight are 
Himalayan ; as this genus is eminently Palsearctic, it is probably 
from Northern India that it has gained a precarious footing in 
the remoter parts of the Oriental Eegion. 

The occurrence of two species of Pseudisolabis in the mountains 
of the north-west of India is carious, as this genus was hitherto 
only known from a single species in New Zealand. It may be 
that it is a very ancient geiuis. 

The hills of Northern India seem to be the headquarters of 
some other genera, which have thence extended their distribution 
into the heart of the Oriental Eegion. Thus Kosmetor is re- 
presented by three species, the other two being Malayan ; the 
same may be said of TimomeiiKs, which has however, an outlying 
representative in the extreme" north-east of the Palsearctic 
Eegion. The distribution of the genus Forci])ida is remarkable, 
as it is a veil-marked group ; two species are known in the 
Neotropical Eegion, and two in the Ethiopian, but eight are 
purely Oriental, of which five are only found in India. One of 
these, F. Iwida, is a South Indian form, but the other four are 
characteristic of Northern India and Northern Burma ; perhaps 
this district is the headquarters of the group, for the non-Indian 
Oriental forms are rare, and less highly specialized. Another 
M'idely-distributed genus well represented in India is DipJatys ;. 
this is certainly a primitive and ancient group, with representatives 
in all tropical regions except Austraha, so far as is known. Of 
the two dozen described species, no less than twelve occur in 
India and are probably peculiar. Well-marked genera which are 
ronfined to India, so far as we know, are Lijximra, Eudohmiay 
and the curious Solenosoma, all being specialized monotypic genera 
only known from North India and Burma. Lipodes, of which 
a unique defective specimen from Dikraugs is in the Calcutta 
Museum, is probably also peculiar. 

The BrachyJahince are an apterous group m ith some distinctly 
archaic features recalling the Tertiary earwigs of Florissant. 
Probably they are the survivors of an ancient group, which would 
account at once for their comparative scarcity and wide distribution 
in all tropical regions. Of the seven known genera, three are re- 
presented in India : Nannisolahis has two known species, both 
peculiar ; Metisolahis has four, of which two are Indian and 
two Ethiopian ; and Ctenisolabishas three, one Indian, one Ethiopian, 
and one Neotropical. No one species of Brachylahince occurs in 
any two regions. 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

In Southern India and Ceylon we find several peculiar genera, 
«uch as Cranopy<jia (two species), DemlroiJcetes, Obelura, Sondax, 
and Si/ntonus, all inonotypic. We find here also peculiar species 
of genera which have their headquarters in the Burmo-Malayan 
districts, such as EcJiinosoma, Hypurgas, and Cordax. Adia- 
thetus is mainly Indo-Buraian, but extends to Borneo : Oonolahls 
is an Australo-Oriental genus with a single Ethiopian species and 
one peculiar to Ceylon. In Burma we find, as would be expected, 
marked Malayan affinities, as shown in the occurrence o£ several 
species of Eparclius, Hypurgus, Platylabia, Pyge, all of which are 
better developed in the eastern parts of the Oriental liegion, 
though not confined to it. Palex is a monotypic genus common 
to Burma and Sumatra. The Chelisochince are well represented 
in all tropical Old World regions, but most of the genera re- 
presented in India are better developed in the Malay Archipelago. 
Psalis is a cosmopolitan genus, with four species probably [confined 
to India. Anisolahis, BoreUia, Lahidura, Lahin, Spongiplwra, are 
all cosmopolitan but represented in India by several peculiar species. 
Pygidicmna predominates in the Oriental Region, and has four 
purely Indian species, but it is also represented in South America. 
Echinosoma is essentially an Old World genus ; of the two 
Indian species, one is peculiar to Ceylon, the other x*anges from 
Burma to Borneo. Apachyus is also an Old AVorld geuus, with 
perhaps two species peculiar to India. 

The following analyses of genera and species and their geo- 
graphical distribution is of course purely provisional. That of 
the genera is particularly incomplete, as many of the limits 
are vague, and the classification of some of the large genera, 
such as Spongiphora and Labia, requires a thorough revision, as a 
good many heterogeneous forms are included. A glance at the 
list, however, will show which genera are confined to the Oriental 
Region, and of these, which are peculiar, i. e., confined to the 
Indian Fauna ; the geographical relations of the others are shown 
by the regions ' in which they occur. 

The analysis of species supplements the list of genera, and here 
it is possible to be more exact ; in this list it is also stated in 
what collection or what Museum the type is preserved, where 
known to the author, what material has been examined in the case 
of types, syntypes ' or paratypes ", what species are represented 
in the Nationr.l Collection, and what species are peculiar. 



' The usually accepted zoogeographieal regions, namely Palajarctic, Oriental, 
Australian, Ethiopian, Neotropical, and Nearctic, are represented by obvious 
iabbreviations. 

^ These terms are explained in the glossary, q. v, p. 210. 



22 



INTRODUCTION. 



Name of Genus. 


Peculiar. 


Distribution. 


EemarJcs. 


Apachyus 




Or., Austr., Eth. 


6sp. 


Dendroikctes . . 


+ 


Or. 


Monotypic. 


Diplatus 





Or., Eth., Neo. 
Or.,Neo.,Eth.,Austr. 


Out of 24 sp., 12 in India. 


Vqgidicrana ... 


Dicrana 


1 


Or., Eth. 


Chiefly Ethiopian. 


Cranopygia ... 


+ 


Or. 


2sp. 


Ficrania 




Or., Eth. 


2 9p. 


Pnne 




Or., Aiistr. 




Palex 




Or. 


Monotypic. 


Echinosoma . . . 


! 


Or., Austr., Eth. 1 


Psalis 




Or., Eth., Neo. 
? Or., Austr. 


One little known species. 


Labidurodes ... 


Gonolabis 




Or., Austr., Eth. 


sp. ; 5 are Oriental. 


Anisolahis 


1 


Cosmopolitau. 




Borellia 





Cosmopolitan. ' 




Foroipula 





Or.,Eth.,Austr.,Neo. 


Out of 12 sp., 5 in India. 


Lahidura 




Cosmopolitan. 




Pseudisolabis . . . 




Or., Austr. 


1 sp. in New Zealand. 


Nannisolabis ... 


+ 


Or. 


2 sp. 


Mefisolabis 




Or., Eth. 




Ctenisolahis ... 




Or., Eth., Neo. 




Sjwngipkora ... 




Or., Austr.. Eth., Neo. 


Requires further revision. 


Labia 




Cosmopolitan. 
Or., Eth., Austr. 


idem, 
idem. 


Plati/labia 


Sphi/igolabis ... 





Or., Eth., Austr. 


idem. 


Erotesis 




Or. 
Or. 


2sp. 
Monotypic. 


ChelUocheUa ... 


E.vypnus 


+ 


Or. 


idem. 


Chelisocltes 





Or., Eth., Austr. 




Proreus 




Or., Austr. 


Mainly Oriental. 


Solenoso7na ... 


+ 


Or. 


Monotypic. 


Adiathcfus 




Or. 


Of the 5 known Indian sp., 
only one occurs elsewhere 
within the Eegion. 


Hamaxaa 




Or. 




Allodahlia 




Or. 


Mainly Indian. 


Homotages 


+ 


Or. 


Monotypic. 


Pterygidd 




Or. 


2 sp. 


Anechura 




Or., Pal. 


Mainly Pala^arctic. 


Elaunon 





Or., Eth. 
Or., Eth., Pal. 


Mainly Pal. ; over 40 


Forjicula 








sp. known. 


Soiidax 


4- 


Or. 


Monotvpic. 


Eudohrnia 


4- 


Or. 


idem. 


Emboros 


4- 


Or., Eth. 
Or. 


idem, 
idem. 


Lijxtrurn 


Obelura 


+ 



Or. 

Or., Eth. 
Or., Eth. 


2 sp. 

Mainly Oriental. 

idem. 


Cordax 


Hypurqus 


Eparcfius 




Or. 




Timomenus . . . 




Or., Pal. 


Mainly Indian, but 1 sp. 
occurs in Korea. 


Syntonus 


+ 


Or. 


Monotypic. 


Kosmetor 




Or. 


Mainly Indian. 


Lipodea 


+ 


Or. 


Monotypic. 





INTBODrCTION". 



23 



IName oj Species. 



Apachi/Hs fc(P 

A. pascoei 

Deudroiketes corticinus. . . 

Biplatys gladiator 

D. falcatiis 

D. lefroyi 

D. angustatus 

D. hormansi 

D. ernesfi 

JD. siva 

B. green i 

D. n(fescevs 

B. gerstcBciceri 

B. Jletchcri 

B. lihcratus 

Bygidicrana 'picta 

P. valida 

P. pallidipen nis 

P. eximia 

P. 7narmoricrura 

P. siamensis 

Bicraiia kallipyga 

Cranojiyg ia cu mingi 

C. nictncri 

Picrania angustata , 

Byge modesta , 

P. ophthalmica 

Palex sparattoides 

Echinosoma sumairanum . 

E. parvuhim , 

Psalis femoral is 

P. dohrni , 

P. lefroyi , 

P. castetsi 

Labidur odes rob iistus 

Gonolabis electa 

Aiiisolabis colossea 



A. maritima 

A. aiimdipes 

A. JcudagcB 

A. duhronii 

A. gaudens 

Borellia green i 

li. annandalei 

B.stdli 

Furcipula dcculyi ... 

F. frispinosa 

F. pugiia.v 

F. quadrispinosa ... 

F. liirida 

Labidura nepalensis 

L. lividipes 

L. riparia , 



Bistribuiion. 



Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or., Austr. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

? Or., Austr. 

Or. 

Or., Austr. 

Cosmopolitan. 

Or. 
Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. and Eth. 

Or. and Austr. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or., Eth., Pal. 

Cosmopolitan. 



Type at : 



Genoa. 
B.M. 

coll. Burr. 
Calcutta. 



coll. Burr, 
coll. Burr. 
Paris, 
coll. Burr. 
B.M. 
Berlin, 
coll. Burr. 
B.M. 



Leyden. 
? Stettin. 



? Stettin. 
Vienna. 
? Stettin. 
Berlin. 

Genoa. 
? Stettiu. 
Genoa. 
Lejden. 
Berlin. 
? Stettiu. 
B.M. 
coll. Burr. 



coll. Burr. 
? Paris, Vienna, 
or Stettin. 



coll. Burr. 

B.M. 

Paris. 

coll. Burr. 

Calcutta. 

Stockholm. 

Genoa. 

Vienna. 

B.M. 

Paris or Berlin, 



Calcutta. 



Material 
examined. 



Syntype. 

Type. 

Type. 

Type. 

Type. 

Type. 

Type. 

Type. 

Type. 

Type. 

Type. 

Type. 



Type. 
Type. 



Type. 
Type. 

Syntype. 



Type. 
Type. 



Type. 



Type. 
Type. 
Type. 
Type. 
Type. 



Syntype. 
Type."" 



Type. 



B.M. 



Peculiar 



+ 


+ 


+- 


+ 


+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 





24 



INTRODUCTION. 



Name of Species. 



Lahidura hcngalensis Or, 



Distribution. 



Fseudtsolabis burri Or. 

Fs. tenera I Or. 

Nannisolabis philetas i Or. 

N. willeyi Or. 

Metisolahis bifoveolata ... " 

M. caudclli 

Ctenisolahis Jletcheri 

Spongiphora lutea 

*S'. nitidipcnnis 

<S'. semifiava 

Erotesis decipiens 

Labia nigrella 

L. luzonica 

L. curvicauda 

L. mucronata 

L. pilicoi'nis 

L. pygidiaia 

L. rideiis 

L. arachidis 

Platylabia major 

P. gestroi 

P. thoracica 

P. nigriceps 

Sphingolabis fees 

Chelisochella sujyerba .. 
E.vypniis pulchripennis . . 

Chelisoches tnorio 

Proreus simulaiis 

P. mela7wcephalus , 

P. ritsemce 

Solcnosoma birmaiium . 

Adiathetus shelf ordi 

A. dravidius 

A. glaucopterus 

A. nigrocastaneus 

A. ieiiebraior 

HamaxasfeeB 

Allodahlia scabriuscula 

A. macropyga 

A. coria^ea 

A. ahrimanes 

Homotages few 

Pterygida circidata .... 

Aneclmra calciatii 

A. tubovskii 

Elaunon bipartittis 

Forficula schiagintweiti 

F. mogul 

F. beelzebub 

F. aceris 

F. ornata 



Etb., Neo. 



Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or., 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. andAustr. 

Or. 

Cosmopolitan. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or., Etb., Austr. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or 

Or. 

Or. 

Or 

O 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 



Type at : 



Vienna or 

Berlin. 
Turin, 
coll. Burr. 
coll. Burr, 
coll. Burr. 



coll. Burr. 

coll. Burr. 

Genoa. 

Genoa. 

Genoa. 

B.M. 

Genoa. 



Stockholm. 



Genoa. 
Genoa. 



Genoa. 

B.M. 

Genoa. 
? Berlin. 
Genoa. 



Stockholm. 



Material 
examined. 



B.M. Peculiar 



Syntype. 
Type. 
Type. 
Type. 



Type. 
Type. 
Syutype. 



Type. 
Syntype. 



Syntype. 
Syntype. 



Type. 

Syntype. 



Leyclen. 

Genoa. 

Sarawak 

Calcutta. 

Genoa, 

Pusa. 

B.M. 

Genoa. 

Vienna. 

Oxford. 

Genoa. 

coll. Burr. 

Genoa. 

Vienna. 

Turin. 

St. Petersburg. 

B.M. 

Paris. 

Paris. 

Brussels. 

Calcutta. 

Genoa. 



Syntype. 



Type. 

Type. 

Syntype. 

Type. 

Syntype. 

Type. 

Type. 

Syntype. 



Type. 

Syntype. 

Type. 

Syntype. 



Syntype. 

Paratype. 

Type. 

Type. 

Type. 

Syntype. 

Type. 

Syntype. 



+ 



+ 



+ 
4- 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
-f 
+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 



4- 



+ 



INTRODUCTION. 



25 



Name of Species. 


BistrihiUion. 


Ty2}e at : 


Material 
examined. 


B.M. 


Peculiar 


Forficula greeni 


Or. 

Or. 

Or., Etb., Pal. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or., Eth. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 

Or. 


coll. Burr. 

Paris. 

Paris or Vienna. 

Calcutta. 

Paris. 

B.M. 

Oxford. 

? Berlin. 

Paris. 

Oxford. 

Leyden. 
B.M. 

Genoa. 

Genoa. 

Leyden. 

Leyden. 

coll. Burr. 

Madrid. 

Paris. 

Genoa. 

coll. Burr. 

Paris. 

Paris. 

Paris. 


Type. 
Type. 

Type."' 
Type. 
Type. 
Type. 

Type. 
Type.'" 

Type."" 

Syntype. 

Type!" 

Type. 

Type. 

Type. 

Type. 

Type. 

Type. 

Tvne. 


+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 


+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
4- 


F. anibigiia. 


F. lucasi 


F. ceteris 


F. interrogans 


F. planicoUis 


Soiidax repens 


Eudohrnia metallica 


Emboros dicbius 


L iparurci punctata, 


Ohelura asiatica 


0. tanuil 




C. aniudus 


Hypurgus humercd is 


H. simplex 


Eparchus dux 


E. insignis 


E. tenellus 


Ti MO mentis oannes 


T. (sscidapius 


T. nevilli 


T. lugens 


Si/ntonus ncolobophoroides . 
Kosmetoi' temora 


K.. brahma 


K. vishnu 


Lipodcs vivax 


Calcutta. 1 Tvne. 









26 LITERATURE. 

LITERATURE. 

Annandale, Dr. Nelson. (06). Note on the habits of the Earwig, 

Lahidura lividipes, Dufour. An Appendix to Mr. Burr's paper. 

(Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beuo-ai, N.S. p. 391, 1901.) 
Baer, Ct. a. {04). Note sur la piqure d'un Forficulide de la Republique 

Argentine. (Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. p. 163, 1904.) 
Bateson, W., & BiuNDLEY, 11. H. (92). On some Cases of Variation in 

Secondary Sexual Characters statistically examined. (Proc. 

Zool. Soc' London, p. 66Q, 1892.) 
Bold, T. J. (60). Note on the Use of the Forceps of the Earwig. 

(Zoologist, xix. p. 7411, 1860, and Tyneside Nat. Field Club, iv. 

p. 335, 1860.) 
BoLiVAU, Ignacio. (97). Les Orthopteres de St. Joseph's College, a 

Trichinopoly, sud de I'lnde. (Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Ixvi. p. 282, 

1897.) 
Borellt, Dr. Alfredo. (07). Ortotteri raccolti da Leonardo Fea nell' 

Africa occidentale. Dermatteri. (Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (3) iii. 

pp. 345-390, 1907.) 
(09). Nuove forficole del Kashmir. (Boll. Mus. Tor. xxiv. no. 

603, pp. 1-4, 1909.) 
BoRG, Hjalmar. (04). Forficuliden aus Kamerun. Beitrage zur 

Kenntniss der Insektenfauna von Kamerun, (Arkiv f. Zool. 

i. p. 563, pi. 26, 1904.) 
Bormaxs, a. de. (83). Etude sur qiielques Forficiilaires nouveaux ou 

peu connus, precede d'un Tableau synoptique des genres decette 

famille. (Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. p. 59, pis. 2 & 3, 1883.) 

(84^). Six Forficulaires nouveaux de Sumatra. (Notes from the 

Leyden Museum, vi. p. 183, 1884.) 

(84-). Description des deux Sexes de la Labia gravidula, Gerst. 

(Notes from the Leyden Museum, vi. p. 197, 1884.) 

(88). Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine, vii. 

Dermapteres. (Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vi. p. 431, 1888.) 

(94). Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine, Ixi. 

Dermapteres (2me partie). (Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) xiv. p. 371, 
1895.) 

(00^) Quelques Dermapteres du Musee civique de Genes. (Ann. 

Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) xx. p. 441, 1900.) 

(00-). Forficulid«5, in "Das Tierreich," 1900. 

Brunner von Wattenwyl, K. (82). Prodromus der europiiischen 

Orthopteren. (Leipzig, 1882.) 
Burmeister, H, (38). Handbuch der Entomologie. (Berlin, 1838.) 

(40). Audinet-Serville, Ilistoire naturelle des Orthopteres 

verglichen mit H. Burmeister's Handb. der Entomologie, etc. 
(Germar's Zeitschr., 1840, ii. p. 1.) 
BtiBR, Malcolm. (98). On the Species of Dyscritina, reared by 
Mr. Green, (Tr. Ent. Soc. London, p. 387, pis. xviii. & xix. 
1898.) 

(99). Notes on the Forficularia, II. Apteryyida or Sphingolahis ? 

III. A N«w Species of Anisoluhis, from Ceylon. (Ann. Mag. 
N, H, (7) iv. p. 254, 1889.) 

(00'). Notes on the Forficularia, V. Descriptions of New Species, 

and a New Genus. (Ann. Mag. N. H, (7) vi. p. 79, pi. vi. 1900.) 

((X)-). Forficules exotiques du Musee royal d'Histoire Naturelle 

de Bruxelles. (Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xliv. p. 47, 1900.) 

(00'). Notes on the Forficularia, VI., On a collection of Forficularia 

from Sarawak. (Ann. Mag. N. II. (7) iv. pp. 89-101, pi. vi. 
figs. 1,2, 4 & 6, 1900.) 



LITERATURE, 27 

Burr, Malcolm. (01). The Earwig's of Cevlon. (Journ. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soc, 1901, pp. i5U-78 & 310-330, pis. A & B.) 

(02). On the Fortlcularia of the Hungarian National Museum of 

Budapest. (Terniesz. Fiiz. xxv. p. 477, pi. xx. 1902.) 

(03). Notes on the Forficulaiia, VIH. Five New Species from the 

de Bormans collection. (Ann. Mag-. N. H. (7) xi. p. 270, 1903.) 

(04), Observations on the Dermatoptera, including revisions of 

several genera and descrijjtions of New (lenera and Species. 
(Tr. Ent, Soc. London, p. 277, 1904.) 

(05'). Descriptions of Five new Dermaptera. (Ent. Mo, Mag. (2) 

no. 184, p, 84, 1905,) 

(05*). Notes on the Forficularia, IX. On New Species, with 

Synonymic Notes, (Ann. Mag. N, II. (7) xvi. p. 486, 1905.) 

(05'). Earwigs of the Indian Museum, with Descriptions of New 

Species. (Journ, Proc, Asiat. Soc. Bengal (N. S.), vol. i. no, 2, 
p. 27, 1905.) 

(05^). Una especie nueva de 0/«s?^ocos?»i« (Dermapteros), (Bol, 

R. Soc. Espafi. Hist. Nat., Diciembre, 1905.) 

(06), A Further Note on Earwigs (Derniaptera) in the Indian 

Museum, with a Description of New Species, (Journ. Proc. 
Asiat. Soc. Bengal (N.S.), vol. ii, p. 387, lUOH.) 

(07'). A Preliminary lievisiou of the ForficuHdtP- (sensu stricto) 

and of the Chelisochidfe, Families of the Dermatoptera. (Tr. 
Ent. Soc. Loudon, 1907, p. 91, pi. iv.) 

(07-). A Third Note on Earwigs (Dermaptera) in the Indian 

Museum, with Description of a New Species. (Rec. Ind. Mus, 
Tol. i. pt. 3, no. 15, Calcutta, 1907,) 

(07*). Catalogue des Forficulides des Collections du Museum 

National d'llistoire Naturelle de Paris. (Premiere I'artie.) 
(Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1907, no. 7, p. 508.) 

(08'). Notes on the Forficularia, XII. Notes on the Genr.s Apachyus^ 

Serv. (Ann. Mag, N. II, (8) i. p. 51 , 1908.) 

(08^) Catalogue des Forticules des Collections du Musee National 

d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. (Deuxieme Partie.) (Bull. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. Paris, 1908, no. 8, p. 29.) 

(083). Catalogue des Forticules du Collections du Mus^e National 

d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. (Iroisieme Partie.) (Bull. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. Paris, 190S, no. 2, p. 115.) 

(OS'). Notes on the Forticularia, XIII. A Revision of the 

Brachylabidce {Isolnhidce). (Ann. Mag. N. II. (8) ii. p. 246, 
1908.)" 

(08'). Notes on the Forticularia, XIV. A Eevision of the Py^i- 

dicmnidce. (Ann. Mag. N. H. (8) ii. p. -382, 1908.) 
(09'), Note on the Classitication of the Dermaptera, (Deutsch, 

Ent. Zeitschr, p, 320, pi. iv, 1909.) 
CoLLiNGE, W, E, (08). A Note on the Flight of an Earwig, Forjicula 

auricularia, Linn. (Journ, Econ. Biol, iii, pt. 2, pp, 46 & 47, 

1908,) 
Costa, Oronzio Gabr, (-39), Fauna Vesuviana, ossia descrizione degli 

Insetti che vivono nei funiajoli del cratere del Vesuvio. (Atti 

K, Accad. Sc. Nap, iv. ZooL 18-39, p. 21, tab. 1.) 
DoHRN, Dr, H. (62). Die Dermaptera von Mexico, (Stett, Ent. Zeit. 

xxiii. p. 225,1862.) 

(63). Yersuch einer Monographie der Dermapteren. (Op. cit. 

xxiv. pp. 35 & .309, 1863.) 

(64). Id. (Op. cit. xxv. pp. 285 & 417, 1804.) 

(Qo). Id. 'Op. cit. xxvi. p. 68, 1865.) 

(67'). Id. (Op. cit. xxviii. p. 341, 1867.) 



28 LITERATURE. 

DoHRN, Dr. H. (67^). Neue imd bisher nicht genugend bekannte 

Forficuliden. '(Op. cit. xxviii. p. 343, 1867.) 
DuBEONY, A. DE. (79). Enumeration des Orthopteres des regions Indienne 

et Austro-Malaise, rapportees par MM. J. Doria, 0. Beccari, et 

L. M. d'Albertis. (Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xiv. p. 348, 1879.) 
DuFouR, LfeoN. (20). Description de dix especes nouvelles ou peu 

conuues d'Insectes recueillis en Espagne. (Ann. gener. des Sc. 

Phys. de Bruxelles, 1820, vi. p. 307, tab. 1.) 

(28). Eechercbes anatomiques sur les Labidoures. (Ann. Sci. 

Nat. 1828, xiii. p. 337, tab. 19-22.) _ 
Fabricius, J. C. (75). Svstema Entomoloiricie. (Felsenberg et Lipsise, 
1775.) 

(93). Entoniologia systematica emendata et aucta. (Hafnise, 

1792-94, torn. II, Orthoptera, 1793.) 

(81). Species Insectormn, exhibentes eorum dift'erentias specificas, 

etc. (Plamburgi et Kiloni, 1781.) 
{S7). Mantissa Insectorum, sistens eorum species nuper detectas, 

etc. (Hafnise, 1787.) 
FiEBER, Fr. (53). Synopsis der europaiscbeu Ortbopteren (aus dem 

iii. Jahrg. der Zeitschrift " Lotos," 1853, besonders abgedriickt). 

Prag, 1854 (recte 1853.) 
Fischer, L. H. (53). Othoptera europaea. (Lipsioe, 1853.) 
Qadeau de Kerville, H. (03), L Accouplement des Forficulides. 

(Bull. Mus. Soc. Ent. Fr. no. 4, p. 85, 1903.) 

(05). Notes sur les Fonctions de la Pince des Insectes Ortho- 

pteres de la Famille des Forficulides. (Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 
XXX. p. 53, 1905.) 

(06). Sur I'Accouplement et les ceufs d'Atiisolabis onauritanica, 

Lucas. (Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. no. 18, p. 252, 1906.) 
■ (07). Note sur I'Accouplement, les oeufs, et ramour maternel 

des Insectes Orthopteres de la Famille des Forficulides. 

(Kouen, 1907.) 
Geer, Carl de. (73). M^moires pour servir a I'Histoire des 

Insectes, I. Orthopteres, vol. iii., avec 44 planches. (Stockholm, 

1773.) 
GENi, Giuseppe. (32). Saggio di una Monografia delle Forficule 

indigene. (Ann. delle Sci. di Regno Lombardo-Veneto, 

Padova, ii. p. 215, 1832.) 
Gerstaecker, a. (73). Baron Karl von der Decken's Reise in Ost- 

Afrika, III. 2 Abth. Gliederthiere, Insecta. (Lipsite, 1873.) 

(83). Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Orthopteren-Fauna Guineas, 

nach den von T. Buchholz wahrend den .Jahre 1872 bis 1875 
dasselbst gesammelten Arten. (Mitth. des naturw. Ver. Neuvorp. 
u. Riigen, 1883.) 
Green, E. Ernest. (96). Notes on Dyscritina lonf/isetosa, Westw. 
(Tr. Ent. Soc. London, p. 229, 1896.) 

(97). Dyscritina lonyisetosa, Westw. is a Forficulid larva. (Ent. 

Mo. Mag. (2) viii. p. 235, 1897.) 

(98). Further notes on i>?/scr/<m« Zo«^;se^o«a, Westw. (Tr. Ent. 

Soc. London, p. 381, pis. xviii. <fc xix., 1898.) 
Guerin-Meneville, F. E. (38). (Magasin de Zool. (2) Paris, viii. 

p. 23, 1838.)' 
IIaan, Dr. W. de. (42). Bijdragen tot de Kennis der Orthoptera. 

(Verhandl. over de natuurlijke Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche 

overzeesche Bezittiugen, 1842.) 



LITERATURE 2^ 

JaCobson, G. G., &Biank:i,V. L. ((T)). IIinnioKpu.ibiH ii JoHiiiocliiHaTOKiibMua 

PocciiicKoii IlMuepiu ii coiipeAfi.ibiii.ixi cTpaiii. (St. Petersburg, 1905.) 
Karsch, Dr. F. (86). Ueber einige neue oder wenig bekannte 

Oehrwuermer (Dermapteru) der asthiopischen llegion. (Berl, 

Eut. Zeit. XXX. p. 85, 1886.) 
Kkrville. See Gadeau. 
KiRBY, W. F. (91). A Revisioij of the Forficulidse, with Descriptions 

of New Species iu the British Museum, (Liun. Soc. Jourii., 

Zool. xxiii. pp. .002-512, 1891.) 

(96). Descriptions of New Species of Forficulidc'e, in the Col- 

lection of the British Museum (N. II.). (Linn. Soc. .Journ., Zool. 
xxv. pp. 520-529, 189G.) 

(03). Notes on Forficulidae, with Descriptions of New Species in the 

Collection of the Natural History Museum, South Kensington. 
(Ann. Mag. N. H. (7) xi. p. 60, 1903.) 

(04). A Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera. (Vol. i. 1904.) 

Krauss, Dr. II. (92). Dermaptera oder Dermoptera ? Eiue nomen- 

clatorische Eroerterung. (Wiener Ent. Zeit, xi. p. 164, 1892.) 

(9-5). Beschreibung einer neuen Forficula aus Tunis, nebst 

Bemerkungen ueber das Vovkounnen yon Forficula lucnsi, 

Dohrn. (Entom. Nachr. xxi. p. 97, 1895.) 
Leach, "W. (15). Article on Entomology, in Brewster's Edinburgh 

Encyclopaedia, ix. p. 57 , 1815. 
LiNN^us, C. (59). Systema Natune. (Ed. X., Holmife, 1759.) 
Lucas, II. F. (47). Forficesila annulipes, sp. n. (Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 

(2) V. p. Ixxxiv, 1847.) 

(49). Ilistoire Naturelle des animaux articules de I'Algerie. 

(Expl. Sci. d'Alg., Zool. iii. Orthopteres, 4 pis. Paris, 1849.) 
MoTSCHULSKY, V. VON. (63). Essai d'un Catalogue des Insectes de I'ile 

Ceylan. ii. Dermapteres. (Bull. Soc. Imp. Moscou, xxxyi. II 

p. 1, pi. XX., 1863.) 
Olivier, A. G. (72). Introduction a I'Histoire naturelle. (Encyclopedie 

methodique. Hist. Nat. yol. yi. Pari-^, 1772.) 
Pallas, P. S. (73). lieise durcli verschiedene Provinzen des Russ- 

ischen Reiches in den Jahren 1768-74, (St. Petersbur"-, II. 

Anhang, p. 30, 1773.) 
Rehn, James A. G. (05). Notes on Exotic Forficulides, or Earwios 

with Descriptions of New Species. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 

xxix. p. .501, 1905.) 
Saussure, Dr. H. de. (74). IlyTeiuecTBie bi TypKecTan-L; A. II. *e4'ic[u;o. 

(Fedchenko's Trayels in Turkestan, Orthoptera. MoscoAy, 1874.) 
Scudder, S. H. (70). Critical and Historical Notes on the Forfi- 

cularifB. (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xyiii. pp. 287 -.332, 1876.) 
Semenov, a. p. (01). PyccKie uiubi po^oob Anechura, 'Scudd. 

u Forficula (L.) Scudd., ii iixt. reorpa'tii'iecKoe pacnpe4li.ienie. 

(Russian species of the genera Anechura Scudd, it Forficula 

(L.) Scudd., and their geographical distribution). (Hora3 Soc 

Ent. Ross. XXXV. p. 185, 1901.) 

(02). Dermatopera KpiineaeHHbis H. A. 3apy4nbiMi iis'b nyTeuiecrnia 

1900-1901 IT. no BocTOfnoii nepciii. (Dermatoptera brought by 
N. A. Zarudny from his journey in 1900-1901 in Elistern 
Persia). (Horae Soc. Ent. Ross, x^xxyi. p. 192, 1902.) 
Serville, Atjdinet de (31). Reyue Methodique des Insectes de I'ordre 
des Orthopteres. (Ann. Sci. Nat. xxii. pp. 28, 1,34 & 262, 1831.) 

(39). Histoire Naturelle des Insectes Orthopteres. Suites a Buffon 

Paris, 1839. 



30 LITBRATUEE. 

Sharp, Dr. D. (95). The Cambridge Natural History, Vol. v. 

(London, 1895.) (ForJicvUdce, pp. 202-216.) 
Stal, C. (60). Fregatten Eugenies Rasa omkring Jorden. Insekten, 

Orthoptera. (Stockholm, 1860.) 
Stephens, J. Fr. (37). Illustrations of British Entomology, or a Synopsis 

of Indigenous Insects. Maudibulata, vol. vi. (London, 1837.) 
Terry, F. W. (05). Leaf Hoppers and their Natural Enemies. (Ent. 

Div. Bull. no. 1, pt. 5. Report of Work of Experimental 

Station of Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, 1905.) 
Theobald, F. V. (96). On some Hop-Pests. (Ent. Mo. Mag. (2) vii. 

p. 60, 1896.) 
Verhceff, Dr. K. W, (02'). Ueber Dermapteren. I. Aufsatz. (Zool. 

Anzeig. no. 665, p. 181, 1902.) 

(02-). Ueber Dermapteren. II. Aufsatz. (S.B. Ges. Naturf. Fr. 

Berlin, no. 1, p. 7,1902.) 
Westwood, J. O. (39). (Riizel's Himalayas, pi. ix. fig. 12, 1839.) 

(40). An Introduction to the Modern Classitication of Insects, 

II. (London, 1840.) 
- — (81). On the Earwig. (Tr. Ent. Soc. London, i. p. 157, 1881.) 
Xambeu. (03). Instinct de la Materuite chez le Chelidura dilatata, 

Lafresnave, Orlhoptere du groupe des Forticuliens. (Le Natur- 

aliste, Pcxris, ISjuin 1903, p. 143.) 
Yersin, Alexandre. (60). Note sur quelques Orthopteres nouveaux 

ou pen connus. (Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (3) viii. p. .509, pi. x., 

1860.) 



CLASSIFICATION. 



31 



DERMAPTERA. 



Table of Families. 

1. Last dorsal egment of abdomen produced 
between the forceps into a depressed and 
dilated lobe, formed by a fusion with the 
pygidiura. (Body very strongly de- 
pressed ; antennae with over 40 segments; 
elytra very weak at axillary angle, 

exposing a very prominent scutellum.) 1. Apachyidae, p. 31 
1.1. Last dorsal segment of abdomen not 
strongly produced and forming no 
prominent process. 
2. Second tarsal segment simple, not 
lobed, cylindrical. 
3. Last dorsal segment with posterior 
margin entire, not fused with the 
pygidium, which is free. 
4. Femora compressed and keeled, . 
4.4. Femora not compressed or keeled 
3.3. Last dorsal segment deflexed between 
the forceps, fused with the pygidium, 
which thus presents a vertical face 
2.2. Second tarsal segment lobed 



Pygidicranidae, p. 37. 
Labiidae, p. 110. 



Labiduridae, p. G7. 
Forficulidae, p. 129. 



Family I. APACHYID^. 

Apachyidse, Verhaff, (02^) p. 200. 

This family is well characterized. 

The body is uniformly depressed, extremely so in the dominant 
and typical genus Ajxichi/us, less so in DendroiJcetes ; the latter 
only differing from Apacliyus in the somewhat less depressed body 
and subquadrate pronotum . With the exception of these two points 
the common characters of the family, to save repetition, are given 
in the characterization of the genus Apachyus. 

There are a few species confined to the tropical regions of 
Africa, Asia, and jN'ew Guinea, but only three have as yet been 
recorded from British India. 

Owing to their remarkable appearance, they may be easily 
recognized, and the few Indian species cannot be confused. 



Table of Genera. 

1. Body very strongly flattened; pro- 
notum elliptical Apachyus, Serv., p. -32. 

1.1. Body less strongly flattened; ]iro- 

notum nearly square Dkndroiketes, Burr, p. 36. 



32 APAOHTID.!). 



Genus APACHYUS, Serville. 

Apachyus, Serville, (31) p. 35. 
Apachya, Serville, (39) p. 54. 

Type, Forfinda depressa, Pal.-Beauv. 

Entire body remarkably flattened and depressed. Antennae 
long, with from 30-50 segments, 1st segment stout and long, 2nd 
minute, remainder cylindrical or conico-cylindrical, 3rd long, 4th to 
7th very short, the remainder gradually lengthening. Head rather 
broad, triangular in front, truncate posteriorly, sutures distinct ; 
eyes prominent. Pronotum elliptical, angustate anteriorly, the 
sides convex and constricted quite near the posterior margin, 
which is truncate. Scutellum coriaceous, acutely triangular. 
Elytra ample and smooth ; costal portion very narrow ; humeral 
fold very faint. Wings ample and long, the coriaceous part with 
a nearly obsolete faint longitudinal ridge ; the folds of the mem- 
branous part well exposed along the suture. Prosternum parallel, 
widened posteriorly ; mesosternum ample, subquadrangular, 
truncate posteriorly, the posterior angles rounded. Metasternura 
ample, posterior margin sinuate. Eemora compressed, carinu- 
late, fairly stout ; tibiae slender ; first tarsal segment short and 
thick, second very minute, third long and slender, considerably 
longer than the first. Pulvillus present between the claws. 
Abdomen parallel-sided, very flat, generally smooth ; lateral tubercles 
not visible. Last dorsal segment ample in both sexes, subquadrate. 
Penultimate ventral segment produced posteriorly into a long 
acuminate lobe in both sexes. Last ventral segment visible at 
the sides of this pointed lobe. Anal process produced between 
the forceps from the last dorsal segment into a flat lobe, rounded, 
pentagonal or lanceolate. Forceps with the branches very similar 
in both sexes, flat, arcuate or incurved at an angle, without teeth. 

Eanrje. Tropical Asia, New Guinea and Africa. 

In the nymph the anal process is lanceolate ; the sixth ventral 
segment is produced to a pointed lobe, but still leaves the 7th and 
8th segments visible, and the 9th is visible as a triangular area on 
each side of the under surface of the anal process. 

This genus is easy to recognize, as all the species are very 
similar and the generic and family characters are very distinctive ; 
the very strongly flattened body, the form of the organs of flight, 
the elliptical pronotum, the anal process, and sickle-like forceps 
are very noticeable. 

Table of Species. 

1. Aual process with side angles not very sharp ; 
last dorsal segment granulose ; reddish 

chestnut fecc, Borm., p. 33. 

1.1. Anal process with side angles sharp; last 
dorsal segment rugose ; colour deep choco- 
late-brown pascoei, Kirby, p. 35. 



APACHYUS. 



33 



1. Apachyus feaB, Bormans* ^ (Figs. 1, 2, & 93.) 

^\o^r?. Jl^'^""'"*""' (^^^ P- -^3 ; ^"'-'V (05) p. 27, (07^) p. 508, 

c\3ZJ'7 /^'^'Vk r?''^^"', ^^'^' ^^^'^^^^*' ^b^«"^en reddish- 
chestnut, shaded ^vIth black ; legs testaceous, ^^-ings stra^A'-coloul•ed 

He r/ rf ? ?^""^'f ' '-'' ^^^^^'^"«' ^^- -«t dark chestnut.' 
Head dark chestnut, mouth-parts paler. Pronotum dark chest- 
nut, narrow and rounded anteriorly, the sides strongly convex 

thnlZT ^"Tl '^' P°'''"°^' "^"^'Sin, which is" truncate: 
thus the iormot the pronotum is a posteriorly truncate ellipse- 
median sulcus distinct, sides somewhat incrassate. Scutellum' 
dark chestnut; in the form of an isosceles triangle, the ape^ 
pointing posteriorly. Sternal plates pale yellowish. ElyU-a 
broad and ample, somewhat convex and obhque posteriorly 
smooth, dark chestnut. Wings ample, straw-coloured or testa- 
ceous ; eoriaceous and membranous parts scarcely differentiated 
Legs reddish testaceous Abdomen deep reddish chestnut, shaded 

n ?I.^ ?Jl ""^f ^% '''''' '^-^'^^''^' ''''^^ ^ P^^'' «f «^^iooth spots 
m the middle ot each segment. Penultimate ventral segment 
of the c? hidden by the 8th, which has a faint median sulcus 
and IS produced posteriorly into a rather short obtuse triangle not 
reaching the anal process ; it is hidden in the $ by the 6th the 
furrow IS obsolete, the hind margin produced into a very long narrow 
acuminate lobe extending almost to the apex of the anal procesl 
Las dorsal segment in the 6 ample, longer than broad, with a 
shallow median depression ; rough, with a mass of small tubercles • 
dorsal surface separated from the ventral by a row of minute 
sharp black tubercles; in the $ somewhat shiter, but struZr: 
and pattern similar. Anal process in the c^ pentagonal ; that is, 

he sides are at first convex, slightly ema^ginate at the base 
Itself; outer angles marked by a short point, thence convergino- 
to an apical point; the edge itself is shghtlv thickened and 
studded with minute tubercles; under surface smooth with a 
shallow median suicus ; upper surface somewhat smoother than 
the last dorsal segment ; m the $ lanceolate, that is, more strond v 
emarginate at the base itself so that the sides form' Tsha p a"! e 
near the base, beyond which they converge to form an acSe 
angle; edges studded with minute sharp t^ubercles, espSa ly ? 
the angles. Forceps with the branches deep red, darker at the 
apex with minute pittmgs ; in the d regularly arcuate in the 
basal hird, hen bent inwards at an obtuse angle and very 
distinctly thickened the inner margin straight and Lter marg n 
gently arcuate, rather blunt at the apex itself ; in the $ the 

1 Whenever a species is marked with an asterisk, it indicates that the tvn« 
ZsZ::sZ!''''' "'""^' '' '''' ^"^^^^ ■' '^' -^-^^^« -S-^y that a S3 ntj^: 



34 APACHYID^. 

branches are regularly curved and arcuate, sickle-sliaped, very 
slightly thickened at the apex itself. 

Length of body (without anal process) . . 40 mm. 29-39 mm. 
„ forceps (with anal process) . . 5-7 „ 4-7 „ 

Bhutan : Maria Basti (Paris 2Ius.) ; Sikkim (Lid. Mus., coll. 
Burr); AssAM (Brit. 3Ius.) • BuRMA : Karen-ui, Keba District, 
3000-3700 ft., May to Dec, 4000-4500 ft., Jan. (Genoa Mu^., 
Brii. Mus., coll. Burr) ; ToNKiN (coll. Gadeau, coll. Burr). 

Type in Genoa Museum. 

Larva. 

The author has examined three nymphs, one of which, being 
considerably larger than the others, may perhaps be in the penulti- 
mate instar. In this specimen the anal process is simply a long 
acute triangle, the tenth ventral segment only visible as a trian- 
gular area on each side of the base of the anal process, as in the 
imao-o ; the ninth ventral segment is obtusely rounded posteriorly ; 
the other segments have the posterior border truncate, except the 
basal three, which have it sinuate. The radiate structure of the 
wings is visible on the metanotum, which is deeply but roundly 
emarginate posteriorly ; the mesonotum is truncate posteriorly 
and anteriorly, the sides convex ; the forceps are gently arcuate 
and do not overlap. The total length of the body to the apex of 
the anal process is 38 mm. 

The two undoubted nymphs measure respectively 36 mm. and 
37 mm. ; the form of the mesonotum is the same as in the larger 
specimen, but the lateral convexity is more pronounced and 
distinctly suggests incipient elytra ; the radiating wings are 
distinctly visible on the metanotum, showing the first dorsal 
segment beyond it. 

The form of the anal process is almost that of the adult female. 

The ventral surface of one agrees with that of the larger 
specimen — that is, the eighth segment is convex posteriorly, 
only it is obtusely triangular rather than rounded. This specimen 
has therefore the full complement of dorsal segments behind 
this convex one, and is therefore probably a male. 

In the other specimen the eighth ventral segment, also the seventh, 
is gently rounded, and the sixth is very distinctly produced in the 
form of a triangular lobe passing over the seventh to the edge of 
the eighth ; the specimen is therefore probably a female, and in 
the imago this triangular lobe completely conceals the seventh, 
eighth and ninth segments. In both these specimens the ventral 
part of the tenth segment is the same as in the adult. 

I can find no other signs of sexual differentiation in either the 
anal process or forceps, which decidedly resemble those of the 



APACHYUS. 35 

adult female. The full number of dorsal segments is also visible 
in both. 

We may therefore conclude that, as this lobed ventral segment 
is far more acute and produced in the $ than in the d , it is more 
pronounced in the last instar, and consequently shows the sex at 
this stage better than any other part or organ. 

Variation. 

This species varies considerably in size. The following are the 
dimensions of a number of specimens iu different collections from 
various localities, measured from the mouth to the apex of the 
anal process. 

Burma (Genoa Mns.) 42 mm. 40 mm. 

Tonkin (coll. Burr) 43 „ 41 „ 

" 31 „ 

Bhutan {Paris Mus.) 30 „ 

It is easy to recognize by its usually great size and the form of 
the anal process and forceps. 



2. Apachyus pascoei, Kirhy* 

Apachyus pascoei, Eirby, (91) p. 521, pi. 20, fig. 1 ; (04j p. 3. 

Very closely resembles A.fecp,, Borm., the description of which 
applies well to this species, with the following points of distinction. 
The colour is generally decidedly darker, being a deep chocolate- 
brown ; the forceps are less coarsely pitted ; the abdomen is 
shorter and decidedly broader in proportion. The last dorsal 
segment is rugose rather than granulose, and the granules are far 
more densely crowded ; finally the anal process is more angular, 
owing to the fact that the projections at the edges, not only in the 
middle but at the sides, are more marked, and so emphasize the 
angles. J . 

6 

Length of body. . , 35 min. 

„ forceps 8 „ 

Assam : Sylhet {Brit. Mus.). 

Type iu the British Museum. 

This species has always been sunk as a synonym of A. fece, 
Borm., but a comparison of Kirby's type with authentic specimens 
of A. fece from de Bormans' own collection shows the distinctions 
as given above. It is consequently prudent to suspend judgment. 
and leave the final decision to collectors on the spot. 

d2 



36 APACHYID^. 

Genus DENDROIKETES, Burr. 
Deudroiketes, Burr, (09') p. 321. 

Type, Apacliyus cortichius. Burr. 

Kesembles Apachyus generally, but body less depressed ; head 
less flattened, occiput tumid. Antennae with about 30 segments ; 
first long and thick, third long and cylindrical ; fourth and fifth 
short and subcorneal, together not longer tlian third ; sixth and 
ninth slightly longer, subconical ; the rest more elongate, nearly 
cylindrical. Pronotum rectangular ; elytra and wings perfectly deve- 
loped ; femora somewhat compressed ; tibia? slender ; tarsi slender, 
first and third segments about equally long. Abdomen parallel - 
sided, depressed and smooth. Last dorsal segment of S and $ 
ample, slightly broader than long, densely granulated ; penultimate 
ventral segment of S convex, rounded and obtusely triangular, 
punctate ; in $ punctate, produced into a long, slender, sharp- 
pointed lobe. Anal process smoother, depressed, the margin itself 
finely crenulated, rounded in c^ ; iu $ parallel-sided at the base 
itself, then obtusely triangular. Forceps with the branches 
depressed, finely punctulate ; in 6 unarmed, incurved ; in $ 
straighter. 

Ilanr/e. Ceylon. 

This genus was founded for a single Singhalese species Avhich 
represents the passage from Apachyus to typical earwigs. 

It resembles Apachyus in its main features, especially in the form 
of the apex of the abdomen and the forceps, and in the penultimate 
ventral segment of the female, but in the less depressed body, 
rectangular pronotum, somewhat different tarsi, and penultimate 
ventral segment of the male it approaches the normal earwig. 

3. Dendroiketes corticiiiiis, Burr* (Fig. 3.) 

Apachyus corticinus, Burr, (08^) p. 51. 
Dendroiketes corticiuus, Burr, (09) p. 321. 

Of small size ; general colour greyish fuscous ; antennae with 
first three segments yellowish, the rest grey ; head smooth, 
yellowish, the mouth-parts darker; sutures distinct. Pronotum 
rectangular, nearly square, prozona tumid, median suture distinct, 
metazona depressed, sides reflexed ; scutellum obtusely triangular ; 
elytra narrow, not rounded at the shoulders, about twice as long 
as the pronotum, smooth, greyish brown ; wings very prominent, 
longer than the elytra, the scales of the same colour ; legs yel- 
lowish, the femoi-a with darker shading ; abdomen depressed, 
parallel-sided, yellowish brown, smooth. Last dorsal segment of 
cJ and $ ample, reddish brown, a little broader than long, coarsely 
scabrous, with a faint median depression. Penultimate ventral 
segment of (^ punctate, decidedly convex, obtusely triangular ; of 
5 produced into a long slender sharp-pointed lobe. Anal process 
smoother, depressed and prominent, the edge finely crenulate ; in 



DENBEOIKETES. 37 

S rounded, iu $ parallel-sided at the base itself, then obtusely 
triangular, with rather sharp points at each side. Eorceps de- 
pressed, finely punctulate, deep red ; in d sickle-shaped, unarmed, 
regularly arcuate ; in 5 with a blunt tubercle on the underside 
near the base, rather thick, straight and parallel near the base itself, 
then bowed inward at an obtuse angle, then straight, converging 
to the points, which are abruptly attenuated and slightly hooked. 

6 2 

Length of body 8-5 mm. ] mm. 

,, forceps 1-5 „ 1-5 „ 

Cetlon : Peradeniya, in October (coll. Burr). One larva from 
Ceylon (Vienna Mus.). 

Type in the author's collection. 

This species, the only known Singhalese representative of the 
Apachyidce, may be easily recognized by the generic characters. It 
was discovered by Mr. Green, who found a single pair. 



Family II. PYGIDICKANIDJE. 

The compressed and carinulate femora afford a convenient mesns 
of separating this family. 




Fig. 2. — Leg of Fygidlcrana siconensis, Dohrn. 

The elytra are weakly attached — that is, the anal angle is 
rounded, so that a triangular scutellum of var^'-ing size is exposed 
at the base of the elytra when closed. 

The antenna have numerous segments, the fourth and fifth 
shorter than the third, which is long. 



38 pygidicrajVid^. 

The abdomen is cylindrical and generally narrower near the 
base than at the apex, whieli is usually more or less dilated. 

No known Indian members of the family are apterous, but 
totally wingless forms occur in certain parts of the world. 

Two subfamilies are represented in India. 

Table of Subfamilies. 

1. Antennae with 15-25 segments, the fifth 

cylindrical, longer than broad. (Size [p. 38. 

small or medium, build fragile.) .... I. Diplatyince, 
1.1. Antennae with over 30 segments, the 
fourth, fifth, aud sixth short, globular, 
not longer than broad. (Size large or 
very large, build robust and powerful [p. 53. 

as a rule.) II. P>/gidicraiiince, 



Subfamily I. DIPLATYIN^. 

This subfamily contaius the single genus Dijilaiys, Serv., if we 
agree to sink Cylindrofj aster, Stal. 

Genus DIPLATYS, Serv. 

Diplatys, Servilh, (31) p. 33. 

Dyscritiua, Westioood, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lo7idon, 1881, p. 601 (larva). — 

Tt/2)e, D. longisetosa, JVestw. 
Nannopygia, Dohrn, (68) p. 60. — Type, N. gerstfeckeri, Dohrn. 

Type, Forficula macrocepJiala, Pal.-Beauv. 

Body glabrous or hairy. Stature small and slender. An- 
tennae with 16-20 rather thick segments, almost cylindrical ; 
first long and thickened at the apex, second very short, third 
longer, fourth about half as long as third, fifth a little longer ; 
the remainder gradually lengthening. Head rather broad, pen- 
tagonal, usually different in the sexes ; in the S globose, 
smooth, and tumid, with obsolete sutures, or more often tumid 
between the eyes and strongly depressed posteriorly, the two 
parts often sharply separated by the transverse suture ; sutures 
very distinct or obsolete ; posterior margin truncate or emar- 
ginate, somewhat reflexed into an incrassate transverse ridge 
which continues round the corners to the eyes ; a more or less 
sharp ridge often runs from behind the eyes to the posterior 
angles of the side ; sides of the head parallel or converging pos- 
teriorly, in which case the head is lanceolate ; median suture 
sometimes very distinct, sometimes replaced by a short keel ; in 
the $ the head is generally simpler, more approaching quadrate, 
smooth, not notably tumid or depressed, and somewhat broader. 
Prouotum small, narrower than the head, sometimes a little 
longer than broad, usually as broad as long, produced and narrowed 
anteriorly with a short neck ; sides parallel or convex ; posterior 
margin truncate, the angles rounded ; prozona usually tumid ; 



UU'LATTS. SO' 

sides and metazona flat ; in the $ usually more rounded and 
broader ; the pronotum extends shghtly over the elytra. Scu- 
tellum small and triangular. Elytra broad and ample, usually 
long and convex or truncate posteriorly, M-ith no humei'al carina. 
Wings generally long ; squamse generally pointed ; a triangular 
membranous patch often exposed ; rarely abortive. Femora feebly 
keeled ; first tarsal segment very long and slender, longer than 
second and third united ; second very short, rather broad ; third 
segment about half as long as first, a little broader; pulvilius 
present between the claws. Abdomen in the 6 slender and cylin- 
drical ; the segments distinctly separated ; lateral tubercles on 
segments three and four generally more distinct in the $ than 
in the 6 ; towards the apex a little broader, sometimes notably 
so. Last dorsal segment of d" ample, smooth, tumid, truncate 
posteriorly, sometimes very remarkably widened and quadrate. 
In the 5 the abdomen is usually broader and more depressed, 
not widened apically, but narrowed down the last dorsal segment 
which is sloping, long, and veiy narrow. Penultimate ventral 
segment in the d very ample, completely covering the last seg- 
ment, quadrate, angles rounded, posterior margin truncate or 
sinuate, or deeply emarginate. Pygidium not visible. Forceps 
of c? stout, straight, conical and contiguous, usually depressed, 
flat beneath and keeled above, dilated near the base to form a flat 
dilation recalling typical Fovficula or merely forming a flat triangular 
tooth, and then attenuate and arcuate so as to enclose an elliptical 
area. In the $ simple, straight, very short, and contiguous. 

Larvae depressed ; instead of forceps, having long segmented 
caudal styles, resembling antennae ; number of segments varying 
from about 15-30 ; segments cylindrical, gradually lengthening 
after the second, the basal segment equalling in length the next 
five or six segments. This long basal segment is the sheath of the 
future forceps. 

Eange. Tropical Asia, Africa and America. 

This genus is one of the most interesting and also one of the 
most difficult. In 'Das Tierreich,' de Bormans gave a table for 
the half dozen species which he knew, based entirely upon colour 
alone. It is consequently impossible to discriminate any species 
by means of that work. 

The inherent difficulty of the genus is complicated by the 
sexual dimorphism ; it is, at present at least, only possible to 
allocate females to their respective places by guesswork, as the 
form of the head and pronotum is usually different in the female 
from the same pai'ts in the male, and, of course, the anal parts 
differ also. It is accordingly particularly desirable that no new 
species of Diplatys be described from females only. 

It is also probable that there may be two different types of 
coloration in one species. It may eventually be proved that 
D. gersto'clceri, \2Lr. caUdasa is really a yellow variety of the large 
fuscous D. siva, and the same thing may occur in certain African 
species. 



40 



PYGIDICRANID.E. 



The name Di/scritina was proposed by Westwood (1881) for 
the larval form, with long segmented cerci, which proved to be 
identical with the insect described by Dohrn under the name 
Ncmnopygia gerstcBckeri. This is, of course, a true Diplatys, so 
Nannopygia must fall, although de Bormans describes Namio- 
pygia gerstceclceri and Diplatys loagisetosa, Westwood, as separate 
creatures in distinct genera. 



Table of Species, 

1. Forceps strongly depressed and dilated 
near the base. 
2. Last dorsal segment strongly dilated, 
much wider than the waist ; broad 
and flat part of forceps quite pro- 
minent. 
3, Elytra short, only li time as long 
as broad, rounded at apex ; wings 
abortive ; occiput not strongly 

depressed gladiator, Burr, p. 41. 

3.3, Elytra at least twice as long as 
broad, narrow at apex ; wings 

well developed; occiput depressed, falcatus, sp. n., p. 42. 
2.2. Last dorsal segment not strongly di- 
lated, but little wider than the waist; 
dilated part of forceps very short, 
scarcely visible from above. 
3. Penultimate ventral segment roun- 
ded, gently sinuate at hinder 
margin; forceps stout, very gently 

arcuate lefroyi, sp, n., p. 44. 

3.3. Penultimate ventral segment nar- 
rowed ; binder border produced 
to a small truncate lobe ; forceps 

more slender and arcuate angustatus, sp. u., p. 44. 

1.1. Forceps gradually attenuate. 

2. Penultimate ventral segment with 
posterior margin distinctly excavate 
or emarginate. 
3. Penultimate ventral segment with 

round emargination bormansi, sp. n.,p. 45, 

3.3. Penultimate ventral segment with 

one or more deep triangular 

emarginations. 

4. Penultimate ventral segment bi- 

emarginate (small Singhalese 

species). 

•5. Colour red (/ersfcscJieri, Dohrn, p, 46, 

5.5. Colour black ernesti, sp. n., p. 48. 

4.4= Penultimate ventral segment with 
three triangular emarginations 
(large North Indian species) . . siva, Burr, p. 49. 
2.2. Penultimate ventral segment entire or 
gently sinuate. 



DIPLATTS. 41 

3. Penultimate ventral segment very 

gently sinuate \ greeai, Burr, p. 50, 

3.3. Penultimate ventral segment trun- 
cate. 
4. Last dorsal segment scai'cely 
wider than the abdomen; forceps 
trigono-conical. 
5. Penultimate ventral segment 
rectangular, the angles not 

rounded rnfescens, Kirby, p. 5] . 

•5.5. Penultimate ventral segment 

with the angles rounded. . . . Jletcheri, sp. n., p. o'2. 
4.4. Last dorsal segment decidedly 
wider than the abdomen ; for- 
ceps depressed liberatus, sp. n., p. 62. 

4. Diplatys gladiator, Burr* 

Diplatys gladiator, Burr, (05) pp. 28 & 29, (OG^) p. 319. 

Pale testaceous or reddish ; elytra black. Antennae with 
14 segments, pale straw-coloured ; third segment not very long, 
fourth much shorter, and fifth a little shorter than the third, 
all cylindrical. Head tumid between the eyes, not remarkably 
depressed on the occiput, postocular keels nearly obsolete; sutures 
not very distinct ; there is a faint small ridge on each side of the 
median suture and parallel to it ; colour fuscous or reddish. Pro- 
notum of S and 5 as broad as long, subquadrate, with rounded 
sides and angles, truncate posteriorly, testaceous ; prozona tumid ; 
metazona and sides depressed. Scutellum pale, larger in the $ 
than in the S • Elytra black, short and broad, convex posteriorly ; 
in the $ the elytra slope away at the base and so expose a larger 
scutehum than in the J. Wings abortive. Legs pale and 
slender. Abdomen yellowish near the base, reddish or darker 
near the apex ; cylindrical in the S , rather depressed in the $ ; 
smooth lateral tubercles on the third and fourth segments distinct 
in both sexes. In the S the eighth and ninth segments are wider 
than the others but very short ; in the $ they are normal and 
somewhat narrowed. Last dorsal segment in the c? very ample, 
quadrate and smooth, the median sulcus nearly obsolete ; posterior 
margin subsinuate, shghtly convex on each side over the forceps; 
exterior angles depressed, prominent, and rectangular. In the $ the 
last dorsal segment sloping, narrow, normal. Penultimate ventral 
segment of d" as ample as the last dorsal segment, posterior margin 
gently rounded, angles rounded. Forceps of the c? with the 
branches very depressed and strongly dilated near the base itself, 
forming a flattened but sharp tooth, at which point the two inner- 
margins touch ; then suddenly and strongly attenuate and 
arcuate, enclosing an elliptical area : in the 2 straight, simple, 
and slender. 

(S 

Leugth of body 8-75 mm. 

„ forceps 1-5 „ 



42 PYGIDICRANIDiE. 

Bengal : Calcutta {Ind. Mus., coll. Burr). 
Tyije in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Larva. 

Antennae of same number of segments and form as adult. 
Pronotum almost circular, ample, anterior and posterior margins 
straight ; elytra present as free short rounded flaps ; legs very 
slender, depressed and rather broad ; lateral tubercles very dis- 
tinct ; lateral dorsal segment very small and narrow ; caudal 
setae very long, with 20-30 segments, considerably longer 
than the body ; basal segments very long, about equalling the 
next seven segments together ; the segments all cylindrical, rather 
long, gradually lengthening after the second. Head, elyti'a, 
apical half of abdomen and cerci, except at the very base itself, 
blackish, the rest of the body straw-coloured. Length of body 
5*5 mm., of basal segment of cerci 1"7 mm., total length of cerci 
7'75 mm. (The soft body is of course rather shrivelled.) 

This is a very distinct species, being the only one known in 
which the wings are abortive, and the elytra so short that they 
are almost square ; the coloration is also distinctive ; in the 
strongly dilated last dorsal segment of the male and the depressed 
and dilated forceps, it approaches D. fakatus, but in that species 
the inner margin of the dilated part is crenulate, and the forceps 
are bowed so that the outer margin is sti'ongly arched ; in 
D. gladiator the outer margin is almost straight. 

it has hitherto only been record(jd from Calcutta, where 
Dr. Aunandale found the larvae during hot weather under flower- 
pots, resting on stones. 



5. Diplatys falcatus, sp. n. (Fig. 4.) 

Size relatively great. General colour reddish brown. Antennae 
pale yellowish grey. Head blackish brown, broad, especially in 
the S , depressed, sutures strongly marked, postocular carina 
strong and sharp, occiput depressed. Pronotum of d suboval, a 
little longer than broad, a little narrower posteriorly than an- 
teriorly, the sides rounded; yellowish brown, M'ith indistinct 
blackish markings ; in $ , the prozona bi-own, the metazona pale 
yellowish, pentagonal, slightly longer than broad and narrowed 
posteriorly ; anterior margin roundly convex, sides and posterior 
margin almost straight. Scutellum yellowish, broader in the $ 
than in the J • Elytra ample, long and narrow, purplish black. 
Wings long and prominent, creamy, the scale blackish. Legs 
dirty yellowish, shaded or banded with brownish. Abdomen 
reddish brown, with stiff' reddish bristles at the sides ; long and 
slender and dilated posteriorly in the 6 , stouter and narrowed 
posteriorly in the $ ; lateral tubercles distinct. Last dorsal 



DIPLATYS. 



43 



segment of c? very large, ample and smooth, nearly square, much 
broader than the abdomen, yellowish brown ; sides somewhat 
converging posteriorly, posterior margin truncate ; in $ ample, but 
narrower than the abdomen, truncate posteriorly. Penultimate 
ventral segment of d" ample, somewhat narrowed posteriorly, the 
sides straight and converging ; posterior margin gently sinuate, 
with a triangular depressed area m the middle ; in 2 narrow, 
acutely convex. Forceps with the branches iu the cT strongly 
flattened throughout their length and almost sulcate above, 
strongly dilated at the base itself, this portion ending abruptly in 
a blunt tooth, as the branches are sharply attenuated near the 
base and diverging, then strongly arcuate, so as to enclose a 
slightly transverse oval area ; in the $ the branches are simple, 
straight, contiguous, tapering. 

6 2 

Length of body 13-5 mm. 11 mm. 

„ forceps 1 „ 1 „ 

Punjab : Simla Hills, Kasauli, about 6300 ft., 16.V.08 (Tnd. 
3IUS.) ; Lower Burma : Dawna Hills, 2000-3000 ft., 2-3.iii.08 
{Ind. II us.). 

Type in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 






Pig. 3. — Apex of abdomen of male, showing penultimate ventral segment 
and forceps, from beneath , of six species of Biplatys. 



A. D.falcatus. 

B. D. Irfroyi. 

C. D. anrjiisfatus. 



D. D. gersi(pchen. 

E. D. ei-)iesfi. 

F. D.flet chert. 



This is a fine species, which most nearly approaches the African 
D. macrocephala, but the penultimate ventral segment is of a 
diflferent shape, and the forceps are very strongly arched. 

Perhaps de Borraans included this species in his D. macrO' 
cephala from Burma. 



44 PTGIDICEANID.i:. 

6. Diplatys lefroyi, sp. n. (Fig. 5.) 

Eelatively large, General colour blackish brown, body reddish. 
Antennae brown, yellowish near the base, blackish towards the 
apes. Head black, the frous tumid and smooth, the transverse 
suture obscure ; postocular keels sharp and distinct ; median 
suture distinct only near posterior margin, which is depressed, as 
also the occiput. Pronotum of d about as broad as long, irregularly 
pentagonal, with rounded angles ; anterior margin roundly convex; 
posterior roargin truncate, sides gently converging so that the 
pronotum is somewhat narrower posteriorly than anteriorly ; 
prozona black ; metazona yellowish. Scutellum yellow. Elytra 
ample, smooth, black. Wings long, smooth, black. Legs yellow, 
banded with blackish. Abdomen blackish red, gently widening 
posteriorly. Last dorsal segment not very strongly dilated, about 
half as wide again as the middle of the abdomen, rather longer 
than broad, smooth, tumid, black with yellowish pubescence. 
Posterior margin simple, gently sinuate in the middle, the sides 
obliquely truncate. Penultimate ventral segment ample, rounded, 
the posterior margin gently sinuate. Forceps with the branches 
stout and trigonal, not very much depressed ; at the very base 
itself the inner margin is produced into a depressed triangular 
tooth, which is best seen from below, as it does not extend beyond 
the edge of the last dorsal segment, and so is not easily visible 
from above ; the branches are gently tapered, nearly straight or 
gently incurved, the points scarcely hooked ; the interior margin 
in the apical portion is denticulate ; the basal portion of the 
forceps is pale yellow, the apical portion black. 

6 

Length of body 12 mm. 

,, forceps ] "5 „ 

S. Bombay : Belgaum, 2000 ft., iv.OS (Pasa Coll.) ; Tratan- 
CORE : E. side of Western Ghats, Madras frontier, Shencottah 
{Ind. Mus., coll. Burr"). 

Type in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

This species is related to D. falcatus. The dilation at the 
base of the forceps is so short that it is not at first noticeable, 
and thus the forceps appear to resemble those of D. bormansi. 
The penultimate ventral segment also is different from that of 
D. falcatus, being rounded or sinuate, thus approaching the African 
D. macrocephala, but the last abdominal segment is very little 
broader than the abdomen. 



7. Diplatys angustatus, sp. n. (Pig. 6.) 

Size small, general colour black. Antennae black with a yellowish 
ring near the base ; IG segments, all cylindrical, third rather short. 
Head black, tumid ; occiput depressed, with sharp postocular 



DIPLAXiS. 45 

carinse and a pair of small keels in the middle of the posterior 
margin. Pronotum as broad as long, all margins gently convex ; 
black, with a narrow yellowish posterior border. Elytra and 
wings ample, black. Scntellum minute, black. Legs black, ringed 
with white at the base of the femora, the knees and base of the 
tarsi. Abdomen slender, black, the tubercles on second and third 
segments very distinct ; gradually widening towards the apex. 
Last dorsal segment tumid, but scarcely wider than the abdomen 
and about as long as broad. Penultimate ventral segment broad at 
the base but rapidly narrowing towards the apex, which is trun- 
cate. Porceps with the branches depressed at the base itself and 
so contiguous there ; then immediately and abruptly attenuate, the 
branches very slender, elongate and arcuate, enclosing an ellip- 
tical area. $ unknown, 

S 

Length of body 10-5 mm. 

„ forceps 1*75 „ 

N. Bengal : Purneah District, Bhogaon, 30.ix.0S (0. A. Paiva, 
Incl. 31 us.). 

Type in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

This species, based on a single male, approaches D. lefroyi in 
the form of the forceps and the last dorsal segment, but is smaller 
and more slender ; the forceps especially are far less robust. The 
form of the penultimate ventral segment is perfectly distinctive. 



8. Diplatys bormansi, sp. n. (Figs. 91, 91 a.) 

Diplatys macrocephala, Borm. {nee Beauv.) (88) p. 433, (94) p. 372, 

(OQi) p. 9 (text) (partim). 
Diplatys nigriceps, Burr, (04) pp. 279 & 284 (partim). 
Diplatys bormansi, Kirhij, (04) p. 1 (nomen nudum). 

Puscous varied with whitish, not very pubescent. Antennae 
with 14-16 segments, basal two fuscous, the remainder greyish 
testaceous. Head of J with transverse suture rather distinct, the 
tumid frontal part very distinct from the depressed occiput ; 
postocular ridges shorter than the diameter of the eyes, not very 
sharp ; median suture fairly distinct, with one or two faint ridges 
on each side ; in the 5 broader and flatter, the sutures more 
faint, so that the somewhat tumid part passes gradually into the 
depressed occiput ; postocular ridges rather more blunt ; black ; the 
eyes very prominent, especially in the male ; eyes sometimes white. 
Pronotum with median sulcus faint ; prozona tumid, brownish 
black, occupying the greater part of the disc ; metazona narrow 
and flat, white or yellowish, which colour extends forwards along 
the flat sides to form a crescent ; trapezoidal, nearly rectilinear in 
the 6 , the sides subconvex in the 5 , angles rounded in both 
sexes, slightly narrowed posteriorly, about as broad as long, but 
distinct] V broader in the $ than in the d*. Scutellum transverse 



46 rTGIDICBANID.E. 

in the S ; very small in the $ . Elytra smooth, ample, long, fuscous, 
with a distiuct purple sheen ; with a few stifi' bristles ; some- 
times with a pale transverse baud at the shoulders. Wings 
ample ; squamae long and narrow, pale and with a central fuscous 
spot. Legs pale, femora and tibiae with fuscous rings ; former 
with distinct carinulse. Abdomen of c? slendei-, shining purplish 
black, gently and slightly broadened towards the apex ; $ broader, 
somewhat depressed, angustate posteriorly, with a short thick 
yellowish pubescence. Last dorsal segments of c? quadrate, smooth, 
scarcely broader than the base of the abdomen ; in the $ sloping 
and narrowed. Penultimate ventral segment of <S parallel-sided, 
posterior margin rather deeply emarginate in the middle, with 
broadly rounded lobes. Forceps with the branches not depressed, 
stout, straight, subcontiguous, trigono-conical, acuminate and 
very slightly hooked at the apex ; in the $ cylindro-couieal, short, 
contiguous, straight. 

Length of body 10 mm. 9 mm. 

„ forceps 1 „ 0'75 „ 

Burma : Bhamo, April and August (coll. Burr, Genoa Mus.) ; 
Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft. {coll. Burr). 

Type in the author's collection. 

This species was confused by de Bormans with D. liberatus, Burr, 
under the name of D. macrocephala, which is a very distinct 
African species, and by the author of this work with D. nigrkejps 
and D. greeni. 

It differs from them all in having the penultimate ventral 
segment of the male emarginate in the middle ; in D. liheraius this 
plate is truncate ; in the true D. nigncejys from Hong Kong it is 
somewhat convex in the middle. 

Superficially it also resembles D. greeni. 

It is impossible to determine which of the localities quoted 
by de Bormans should be attributed to this species, and which 
to D. bormansi without an actual examination of each spe- 
cimen. Those quoted above are all represented in the author's 
collection. 



.9. Diplatys gerstseckeri, Dolim. (Pig. 7.) 

Nannopygia gerstseckeri, Dohrn, (63) p. 60 ; Scudder, (76) p. 326 ; 

Kirby, (91) p. 508 ; Bormans, (94) p. 372, (00-) p. 11. 
Dyscritina lougisetosa, Westioood, (81) p. 601, pi. 22, figs. 1, \a-i; 

'Green, (96) p. 229, (98) p. 383. 
Diplatys longisetosa, Burr, (98) p. 388, pi. xviii, figs. 4, 5 & 16 ; 

pi. xix, tigs. 9-14 ; Borm. (00') p. 10, fig. 6. 
Diplatys gerstseckeri, Burr, (01) p. 74, pi. A, figs. 4 & 5, (05) pp. 279 

&282. 



DIPL ATI'S. 47 

Diplatys gerstajckeri, var. calidasa, Burr, (04) pp. 279 & 282, (OG) 

p. 387, (07=) p. 508. 
Cylindrogaster rufesceiis, Burr {nee Kirhy)^ (00^) p. 48. 

Small and slender ; general colour reddish tawny shading to 
yellow with a few reddish bristles. Antennae with 15 segments, 
typical, testaceous. Head : in the S not very tumid between the 
eyes, this part passing gradually into the narrowly depressed 
occiput, owing to the transverse suture being obsolete ; eyes 
large, the postocular keels shorter than the eyes, a sharp hinder 
border somewhat incrassate, the median suture short but distinct, 
cutting the incrassate margin ; sides of the head converging 
posteriorly : in the $ the eyes smaller and postocular keels rela- 
tively a trifle longer and less sharp ; the head is somewhat 
broader and less tumid but otherwise it resembles the J , only 
the characters are weaker, sometimes nearly obsolete ; the colour is 
yellowish testaceous, sometimes shaded with darker. Pronotum of 
c5"as broad as long, subquadrate, posterior margin gently I'ounded ; 
very slightly narrower posteriorly than anteriorly ; prozona ample, 
tumid, metazona and sides flat ; yellowish or reddish testaceous ; 
in the 5 similar, but somewhat broader. Scutellum minute. 
Elytra reddish to golden yellow, sometimes shaded \^'ith fuscous ; 
ample, long and broad, obliquely convex posteriorly, with a few 
bristles on the shoulders. AViugs long, of the same colour as 
the elytra. Legs yellow, very slender; posterior femora with 
cariuulas almost obsolete. Abdomen reddish, in the (S slender and 
cylindrical, slightly broadening posteriorly ; in the $ somewhat 
depressed, a little broader apically. Last dorsal segment ample, 
tumid and smooth, quadrate in the S , and slightly broader than 
the abdomen ; in the § narrower, sloping and angulate posteriorly. 
Penultimate ventral segment in the 6 ample, as broad as long, 
the posterior margin deeply triangularly emarginate, tlie apex of 
the emargination produced posteriorly into a short sharp equilateral 
triangular lobe, so that the outline of the posterior margin forms 
a W ; in the $ longer and narrower, angustate posteriorly. 
Porceps of S with the branches short, depressed, narrow, tapering 
and quite straight, slightly hooked at the apex itself ; in the $ 
similar, but shorter and more slender. 

c? 2 

Length of body 7-4-14-75 mm. 7*5-8 mm. 

„ forceps 1-1-5 ,, 1-1-5 „ 

Burma : Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft.. May to Dec. 
(Genoa Miis.) ; Ceylon: Punduluoya (Brit. Mus., coU. Burr), 
Maskeliya (coll. Burr). 

Ti/pe in the Berlin Museum. 

Although a female of one of Mr. Green's original specimens of 
Dyscritina longisetosa has the head with the male characters almost 
obsolete, whereas another female from Maskeliya has them fairly 



48 PYGIDICRANIDiE. 

well developed, there are probably not two species in the Island 
of Ceylon, and the author therefore maintains his opinion that 
Dyscritina Jongisetosa of Westwood and Nannopygia gerstceckeri of 
Dohrn are identical. 



9 a. Diplatys gerstaeckeri, var. calidasa, Burr. 

This name was proposed for a few females, in the Paris 
Museum, from Northern India, which resemble the females of 
B. gerstceckeri in every respect but size. They are a great deal 
larger, their dimensions being as follows : — 

Length of body 12-12-25 mm. 

„ forceps 1-1-25 ,, 

It is possible that when the male is discovered it will prove to 
be a yellow variety of the large D. siva. 

Sikkim: Darjihng {Paris Mus.); Assam: Kurseoug {Ind. 
Mus.). 

Type in Paris Museum. 



10. Biplatys ernesti, sp. n. (Fig. 9.) 

Small and slender ; with long dense pale pubescence ; dark 
fuscous brown. Antennae with 16 segments ; yellowish, rather 
darker towards the apex, the second segment fuscous. Head 
black, S \vith the tumid frons not entirely replete, passing fairly 
sharply into the depressed occiput, but the transverse suture not 
distinct ; postocular keels rather blunt, shorter than the promi- 
nent eyes ; posterior margin with a short broad raised space in 
the middle, divided by the short but distinct median suture ; in the 
2 the tumid frons is replete, and passes gradually backwards, 
reaching the posterior margin itself, so that the occiput is not 
depressed ; the postocular ridges are short, blunt, and obtuse, 
capped with a low sharp crest ; as usual in the genus, the 
head is somewhat more quadrate posteriorly in the $ , and the 
eyes a little smaller. Pronotum dark brown, about as broad as 
long, decidedly convex anteriorly, gently narrowed posteriorly, 
slightly longer iu the $ than in the S , the sides straight, the 
posterior margin truncate, and the posterior angles rounded ; flat 
margin very narrow. Scutellum brown, relatively large. Elytra 
ample, broad, blackish brown, paler towards the shoulders. Wings 
blackish brown. Legs long and slender ; femora distinctly crenu- 
late, fuscous -, tibise pale, banded with fuscous ; tarsi pale. Abdo- 
men nearly black, relatively not very slender, very gradually and 
slightly broadening towards the apex in the c5' , almost parallel-sided 
in the $ . Last dorsal segment of S quadrate, sloping, scarcely 
wider than the abdomen ; narrowed in the 5 . Penultimate 
ventral segment of S quadrate, ample, deeply emarginate on the 
posterior border, the apex of the emargi nation produced again 



DIPLATTS. 49 

posteriorly into a short triangular lobe, so that the outline forms 
a W ; in the 2 narrow, triangular. Forceps with the branches 
very short, rather broad, depressed, straight and tapering in the d ', 
in the $ shghtly longer, more slender. 

c? 2 

Length of body 6-75 mm. 6 mm. 

„ forceps 0-5 „ 0-75 „ 

Ceylon : 'Peradeniysi (Green, coll. Bun-), Madulsima (Fletcher)- 

Type in the author's collection. 

In colour and in the gradually widening abdomen, this species 
resembles D. greeni and D. bormansi, but is smaller than either and 
more slender ; it differs from the former in the short depressed 
forceps, from the latter in the somewhat different pronotuin and 
shorter and broader forceps. It differs from both in the double 
triangular emargination of the penultimate ventral segment of the 
male, thus approaching D. gerstcecl-eri, which it also resembles in 
form and build, but the middle triangular lobe between the two 
excisions is much broader and less acute in this species than in 
D. r/erst(ecJceri. 

It is dedicated to Mr. Ernest Green. 



11. Diplatys siva, Burr* 

Diplatys siva, Burr, (04) pp. 278 & 283 ; (06) p. 387 ; (O?^) p. 508. 

Large; glabrous ; reddish fuscous. Antennae with 15 segments, 
typical, reddish fuscous. Head in the c? not very tumid on the 
f rons, nor very depressed on the occiput ; transverse suture fairly 
distinct and postocular ridges obsolete ; in the 5 the irons is still 
less tumid, the transverse suture marked by a vague shallow 
depression, and occiput normal. Pronotum : c? sub(iuadrate, convex 
anteriorly, sides parallel and posterior margin gently rounded ; $ 
slightly broader and truncate posteriorly ; prozona tumid, ample ; 
metazona flat and narrow in both sexes and median suture 
distinct. Scutellum smaller in d" than in 2 . Elytra and wings 
ample, smooth, fulvous brown, with a dense short yellowish 
pubescence. Legs brownish, long and slender ; posterior femora 
cannulate. Abdomen slender, not broadened postei'iorly. Last 
dorsal segment of the cJ rectangular, short, transverse, not broader 
than the abdomen, smooth, posterior margin oblique at sides,, 
truncate in the middle ; in the 2 sloping and strongly angustate. 
Penultimate ventral segment of the d ample, subquadrate, posterior 
margin with three deep triangular emarginations, forming thus 
two triangular lobes in the middle ; in the 2 narrow and rounded. 
Eorceps : in the cS with the branches rather depressed, rounded 
above, flat beneath, quite straight and unarmed, conical and tapering ; 
in the 2 shorter, stouter and conical. 



50 PIG1DICRA]S'ID^. 

Length of body 14 mm. 13 mm. 

„ forceps 1 "S „ 1 „ 

SiKKiM: Darjiling; Assam: Kurseong (^ njmph) {Ind. 3£us.); 
United Pkovinces : Kumaun, Bhim Tal, on flowei's of stinging 
nettles (Iiid. 3Iiis.). 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

This is one of the largest species of the genus ; it is distin- 
guished by its size, fuscous colour, and the form of the penultimate 
ventral segment of the male. 

In a larva, the length of tiie basal segment of the cerci was 
2-5 mm. ; the whole cercus 13 mm., composed of 15 segments ; 
the body measured 10-5 mm. 



12. Diplatys greeni, Burr. 

Diplatys greeni, Burr, (04) pp. i>80 & 2So ; Kirhy, (04) p. 2. 
Diplatys nigriceps, Burr, (nee Kirhy, uec Borin.) (98) p. 389, 

pi. xviii, tigs. 1-3 & pi. xix, figs. 6-8 & 15 ; (01) p. 76, pi. A, 

tigs. 1-3; Bonnans, (00") p. 10 (partim). 
Dyscritina longisetosa, Green, (96) p. 229 (partim). 
Dyscritina, n. sp., Green, (98) p. 383. 

G-eneral colour dark greyish brown, not very pubescent. 
Antennae with 16 segments ^ greyish brown. Head dark reddish 
brown, not very tumid between the eyes, this part passing 
o-radually into the depressed occiput, as the transverse suture is 
not very distinct ; median suture very short, with a few faint 
blunt short ridges on each side ; postocular ridges sharp, about as 
long as the diameter of the eyes. Pronotum a trifle longer than 
broad, broad anteriorly, narrow posteriorly, the sides straight and 
posterior margin truncate ; median suture distinct ; prozona 
tumid and occupying greater part of the area ; metazona flat, 
very short, sides flattened and somewhat reflexed ; dark greyish 
brown. Scutellum very small. Elytra long and broad, smooth, 
reddish-brown, convex at the posterior margin. Wings long and of 
the same colour (membranous part clearly hyahne). Legs with the 
femora fuscous, the carinulse obsolete, just perceptible on the pos- 
terior pair ; tibise and tarsi very slender, pale and typical. Abdomen 
browii, with a bronze sheen ; gradually increasing in girth towards 
the apex ; last dorsal segment large, scarcely broader than the 
abdomen, tumid, smooth, quadrate, the median sulcus faint; postero- 
external angles rectangular. Penultimate ventral segment ample, 
quadrate, posterior margin slightly emarginate, with a short 



1 Owing to the fragility of these organs, it is difficult to be certain what is 
the normal number of segments even in living specimens : the antennae often 
differ in this respect in the same individual. Green has counted as many as 17 
and as few as 13 segments ; probablj 16 is the normal number. 



DIPLATYS. 51 

median sulcus. Forceps with the branches not quite contiguous 
at the base, trigonal, very short, then suddenly and notably 
attenuate, the apical half very slender, cylindrical and tapering, 
gently incurved, thus enclosing an elongate elliptical area ; under 
surface flattened. 

S 

Length of body 8-5 mm. 

„ forceps 1 „ 

Ceylon: Puuduluoya (Brit. Mas., coll. Bwr), Peradeniya (coll. 
Burr). 

l^ype in the author's collection. 

This species was formerly confused with B. hormansi. Burr, 
from which it differs in the form of the penultimate ventral 
segment of the male, which is gently sinuate, having in D. hormansi 
a central round emargination. In D. greeni too, the forceps are 
stout at the base, and convex, cyliudro-conical, quickly attenuate, 
and slightly arcuate towards the apex ; in D. hormansi they are 
trigono-conical and almost straight. D. greeni as a rule has no 
white markings, which are commonly present in D. hormansi. 



13. Diplatys rufescens, Kirhg.* (Fig. 7,5.) 

Oylhidrogaster rufescens, Kirhy, (96) p. 524, pi. 20, fig. 2. 
Diplatys rufescens, Kirhy ^ (04) p. 2 ; Burr^ (0"') P- 508. 

Antennae yellowish, typical. Head with frons tumid and occiput 
depressed, postocular keels sharp ; chocolate-brown. Pronotum 
suboval, slightly longer than wide, well-rounded in front, the sides 
convex and posterior margin truncate ; chocolate-bro-vn in colour 
with an indistinct darker shade outlining the somewhat tumid 
prozona. Scutellum wide and pale. Elytra reddish chocolate-brown. 
Wings whitish, shaded with brown. Legs yellowisli, the femora 
shaded with brown. Abdomen clear brick-red, siiiooth, decidedly 
darker at the apex. Last dorsal segment decidedly wider than 
the abdomen, smooth, nearly square, but not dilated. Penultimate 
ventral segment of S ample, quadrate, feebly depressed in middle 
near hinder margin. Forceps straight, contiguous, conical, tri- 
gonal, the inner margin serrulate, apices slightly hooked. 5 un- 
known. 

6 

Length of body 12 mm. 

„ forceps ........ 1 „ 

Sikkim: Darjihng (7?»-i^. J/«s., Pcf/'ts J1/?(S.); ToNKijf. 
Tijpc in the British Museum. 

This species was wrongly considered by de Bormans as synony- 
mous with B. cjcrstaickeri, from which it is quite distinct. 



EL' 



52 PYGIDICBANID^. 

14. Diplatys fletcheri, sp. n. (Fig. 8.) 

Of small or medium size, colour reddish brown, varied with 
blackish. Antennae typical, greyish and yellow. Head dark 
brown, the frous strongly tumid ; the occiput depressed and 
postocular keels strong. Pronotum in J a little longer than 
broad, convex anteriorly, the sides parallel, rounded posteriorly^ ; 
in 5 a little shorter and broader, the sides gently rounded, the 
hinder margin straight. Elytra reddish bx'ovvn. Wings whitish. 
Legs reddish, shaded with brown. Abdomen reddish brown, 
darker apically; last dorsal segment in S dark brown, square, smooth, 
ample, distinctly broader than the abdomen M'hich widens gradually 
to it; in 2 narrow and sloping. Penultimate ventral segment in c? 
ample, broad, rounded, the hinder border straight, the angles well- 
rounded ; in 5 narrow, lanceolate. Porceps in cj with branches 
rather stout, short, trigouo-conical, the inner margin very crenu- 
late, almost straight, the apex hooked ; in $ simple, straight and 
conical. 

6 2 

Length of body 9-5 mm. 7 mm. 

,, forceps 0"75 „ 0-5 „ 

CEYLOjf : Madulsima, 1.07 & 1.08 (T. B. Fletcher, coll. Burr). 

Type in the author's collection. 

This f^pecies is founded on a pair sent me by Mr. T. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher, from Ceylon ; the male is darker than the female, and 
at first glance it looks like D. bormansi, or D. greeni, but the 
simple penultimate ventral segment distinguishes it from the 
former. The trigono-conical forceps are like those of D rufescens, 
but D. Jletcheri differs in the well-rounded penultimate ventral 
segment of the male. 

The female, from the same locality as the male, is redder in 
colour, but is referred with little hesitation to the same species, 
though it is probable that females of D. cierstceclceri may be easilj'' 
mistaken for it. 



15. Diplatys liberatus, sp. n. (Figs. 90, 90 a.) 

Nannopvgia gerst8ecl<eri, Borin., (nee Bwr, nee Kirhy) (94) p. 372 ; 
(04) p. 11 (partim). 

Dark brown, varied with whitish. Pronotum narrow and long, 
the sides straight, somewhat converging posteriorly. Abdomen 
gradually widening posteriorly^ so that the last dorsal segment, 
though not strongly inflated, is distinctly wider than the base of 
the abdomen. Penultimate ventral segment broad, truncate, the 
hinder margin entire. Forceps with branches short, depressed, 
bowed, contiguous, tapering. 

6 

Length of body 10-5 mm. 

,, forceps 1 „ 



DIPLATYS. — PYGIDICRA>rA, 53 

Burma : Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft., v-xii. 

T7j2^e in the British Museum. 

In the British Museum there is a single male, one of de Bormans' 
originals, although he only records females. 

It is quite distinct from D. gerstceclcerl from Cejdon, with which 
de Bormans confused it. In appearance it resembles D. nigriceps, 
but differs in the non-convex posterior margin of the penultimate 
ventral segment and the rectilinear pronotum (which also separates 
it from D. rufescens). In the short, broad, flat, straight forceps it 
approaches the African forms, D. raffragi and D. tethiops, thus 
differing also from D. jacohsoni. 

The non-emarginate penultimate ventral segment of the male 
distinguishes it from the allied U. bormanst. 



Subfamily II. PYGIDICRANIN.E. 

This subfamily comprises all the species which were formerly 
included in the capacious genus Pggidicrana, which is now sub- 
divided into five, all of which are represented in the Indian fauna. 

They are large and powerful insects, some being among the 
largest known earwigs. They all have a decided family likeness 
and cannot be confused with the members of any other group. 

Tahle of Genera. 

1. Elytra ample ; scutellum small and narrow. 

iJ. Pronotum oval ; (penultimate ventral [p. 53. 

segment of male ample) Pygidicrana, Serv., 

2.2. Pronotum rectangular. 

3. Penultimate ventral segment of 

male ample and broad Dicrana, Burr, p. 60, 

O.3. Penultimate ventral segment of 

male narrow. [p. 61. 

4. Head as wide as pronotum .... C'RANorYGiA, Burr, 
4.4. Head narrower than the 

pronotum Picrania, Burr, p. 63*. 

1.1. Elytra short ; scutellum broad, almost or 

quite as wide as the pronotum Pyge, Burr, p. 65. 

Genus PYGIDICRANA, Servilh. 

Pygidicrana, Serville, (31) p. 30. 

Dicranopygia, Biirm., Germ. Ent. Zeitschr. ii. p. 79 (1840). — Type, 
Pygidicrana Y-nigrum, Serv. 

Type, Pygidicrana V-nigrum, Serv. 

Size large. Antennse with over 35 segments, first segment long 
and thick ; second very small, cylindrical ; third decidedly shorter 
than first; the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh small, globular, hardly 
longer than second, and scarcely longer than broad ; the rest 
gradually lengthening and passing to cylindrical. Head depressed, 



54: PYGIDICEA>^ID.^. 

smooth; eyes prominent. Pronotum more or less ellipticai. 
Scutellum small, triangular. Elytra ample, long, rather narrow, 
depressed, not as a rule truncate at the apex, rounded at the 
axillary angle, so as to expose the scutellum ; costal fold strongly 
marked but not earinate, the costal area pressed inwards, very 
distinct from the dorsal area. Prosternum somewhat convex on 
the anterior margin, constricted posteriorly, Mesosternum about 
as broad as long, posterior margin straight, the sides rounded. 
Metasternum generally slightly longer than broad, the posterior 
margin of the lobe more or less sinuate. Wings generally pro- 
minent. Legs long ; femora compressed, keeled and rather broad 
tibiae slender ; tarsi (in Indian species) long and slender, the first 
segment longer than the third ; pad present between the claws. 
Abdomen almost circular in cross-section in the male, somewhat 
depressed in the female, narrowest near the base and somewhat 
dilated apically in the inale ; broadest just beyond the middle in 
the female. Last dorsal segment smooth and ample. Penulti- 
mate ventral segment of male ample and broad, rounded at the 
apex. Pygidium not prominent, but never fused with the last 
dorsal segment. Forceps stout, depressed, of various forms : 
always simpler in the female than in the male. 

Bange. Australia, Asia, Africa, South and Central America. 

The genus Pycjidicrana is now restricted to those species which 
have a more or less oval pronotum, with broad and ample elyti'a, 
and therefore a small scutellum. Even thus reduced, there are 
half a dozen species known in India., 



Table of h<pecies. 

1. Penultimate ventral segment of male with 
a depressed groove or canal in the middle 
of the posterior margin ; (dark fuscous, 

varied with tawny lines and bands) .... ^ncffc, Guer., p. 55. 
1.1. Penultimate ventral segment of male with 
posterior margin entire. 
2. Branche° of forceps of male contiguous, 

not arcuate or bowed ralula, Dohrn, p. 56. 

2.2. Branches of forceps of male arcuate or 

bowed, often enclosing an oval or 

elliptical area. 

3. Branches of forceps of male not 

elongate, strongly bowed, dilated on 

inner margin near apex; (pronotum, 

elytra and \\ings tawny ; legs 

speckled) ^j« //»/?};?» wi>, Haan, 

8.3. Branches of forceps of male elongate, [p. 57. 

arcuate, not dilated, but toothed just 
before apex. 
4. Size very great (44-47 mm.) ; bands 

of pronotum confluent behind .... eximia, Dohrn, p, 57. 
4.4. Size less great (20-35 mm.) ; bands 
of pronotum irregular or parallel. 



PYGIDIOBANA. 55. 

5. Size large (32-35 mm.) ; head 
black with au irregular tawny 

spot on the occiput '. mannoricrura, Sarv., 

5.5. Size medium (20-21 mm.) ; head [p. 58. 

tawny with a blaclv border .... siamensis, Dohrn, 

[p. 59. 

16. Pygidicrana picta, Guerin. (Fig. 10.) 

Pygidicrana picta, Guei: (38) p. 236, fig. 1 : Dohrn, (63) p. 50 ;. 
Scudd. (70) p. 329; Bonn. (00") p. 18; Burr, (00) p. 48, (01 )• 
p. 69, (00) p." 387, (08^) p. 384; Kirbi/, (04) p. 5. 

Size medium. Antennae with 35 segments, light brown, except 
the two basal segments which are testaceous. Head testaceous, 
the mouth-parts blackish, occiput bordered with black, with a black 
central longitudinal stripe which is sometimes broken in the 
middle. Pronotuni subovate, slightly longer than broad, roundly 
truncate posteriorly, testaceous, with two irregular broad blackish 
bands whicb vary in detail but converge about the middle, being 
broader anteriorly and straight posteriorly. Scutellum testaceous. 
Elytra ample, rather short, with a narrow testaceous stripe near 
the axillary and costal margins and a central stripe which may be 
broad or narrow, entire or broken into a series of spots, but does 
not extend much beyond half way down the elytra. Wings 
testaceous with a fuscous band. Legs testaceous^ with narrow 
fuscous stripes and sometimes with spots. Abdomen of c^ cylindrical, 
gently widened posteriorly; of $ more depressed, nearly parallel- 
sided ; blackish with a dense short pale pubescence. Last dorsal 
segment of S ample, scarcely wider than the abdomen, subquadrate, 
punctate, pubescent, the posterior margin rounded, posterior angles 
rectangular. Penultimate ventral segment broadly rounded in the c? ; 
narrow, triangular, and apically rounded in the $ . Forceps with 
the branches stout, trigonal, depressed ; in c? subcontiguous at the 
base, rather elongate, gently arcuate, enclosing a narrow elongate 
oval area, the inner margins crenulate ; meeting just before 
the apex, at a rather strong, blunt, dilated tooth, beyond which 
they are attenuate, converging, crenulate, acuminate and hooked at 
the apex ; in the $ subcontiguous, straight, regularly acuminate,, 
crenulate on the basal half of the inner mar<?in. 





6 


? 


igth of body . . . , 


24 mm. 


18-5-28 mm, 


„ forceps . . 


5-5 „ 


4-5- 5-25 „ 



S. India : Tinnevelli District, Kudiraimalai (Brif. Mus.) ; 
Bengal: Calcutta {Ind. Mus.); Assam: Kurseong {Ind. M%is., 
Brit. Mus., Brussels 3his.) ; Bhutan : Maria Basti (Madrid Mus.) ; 
Ceylon : Dedurin and Kurunegala ( Willey, December), Trincomali,. 
May 1908 (Brit. Mus.). 

Dr. Annandale tells us that this species is common in Calcutta 
among dead leaves at the foot of trees. It belongs to the group 



56 PYGIDICRANID^. 

of P. marmoricrura, and resembles that species generally in 
structure, but is somewhat stouter and smaller ; it is distinguished 
by the variegated pattern of the anterior portion of the body. 
The markings of the head, pronotum, elytra and femora vary 
consideriibly in detail, but always conform more or less to the 
pattern as described. 



1 7. Pygidicrana valida, Dolim. 

Pjgidicrana valida, Dohrn, (67) p. 344, S ; Scudd. (76) p. 328 ; 
Borm. (94) p. 375, (00^) p. 22; Kirhj, (04) p. 5; Burr, (08^) 
p. 385. 

Size large, stature powerful ; not very pubescent. Antennse 
entirely reddish testaceous. Head black, with a broad central 
yellowish spot. Pronotum oval posterior margin truncate, the 
others and all angles rounded ; equally wide anteriorly and 
posteriorly ; testaceous, with two broad black bands w hich unite 
posteriorly and reach the posterior margin ; anterior margin 
narrowly bordered with black. Scutellum small, testaceous. 
Elytra ample, long, nearly twice as long as the pronotum, blackish, 
with an oblique large yellowish spot on the disc near the shoulder. 
Wings prominent, testaceous. Legs testaceous, with a very narrow 
fuscous stripe on the femora. Abdomen dark reddish black, rather 
depressed in both sexes, very sliglitly widened posteriorly in the 
6 ■, parallel in the 5 ; with a tine, dense, short, yellowish pub- 
escence and a few bristles. Last dorsal segment quadrate, very 
finely granulate, angles rather sharp, posterior margin rounded 
alike in the two sexes, a little wider in the 6 than in the $ , with a 
faint lateral longitudinal keel. Penultimate ventral segment of S 
broad, rounded ; of $ triangular, rounded apically. Forceps stout, 
trigonal, and decidedly depressed ; contiguous along the inner 
margin ; in the S broad and flat, the inner margin crenulate in 
the basal half, which is neai'ly straight, but directed somewhat 
towaras the right; then half way down, both branches bent 
abruptly to the left, so that the inner margin of the right branch 
is concave and that of the left branch is decidedly convex ; then 
tapering and directed to the left, as far as the apex which is 
hooked ; the outer margin of the right branch is convex at the 
bend, that of the left branch decidedly concave ; in the $ the 
forceps are straight and rather elongate. 





6 


2 


Length of body . . . . 


27-25 mm. 


80-34-5 mm, 


„ forceps . . 


6-5-7 „ 


5-5-6 „ 



Madbas: Madura (coZZ. ^itrr) ; Burma: Karen-ni, Keba District, 
3000-3700 ft., May-Dec. {Genoa Mus.); Tonkin {coll. Burr). 

In the form of the forceps this species resembles Cranopygia 
cumingi ; in colour, build, and general structure it resembles 
P. imperatrix, from which it differs in the unarmed forceps. 



PYGIDICEANA. 57 

18. Pygidicrana pallidipennis, Haan. (Fig. 11.) 

Forficula (Pygidicrana) pallidipennis, de Haan, (42) p. 240, pi. 23, 

lio-. 8. 
Pygidicrana pallidipennis, Dohrn, (63) p. 50 ; Scudd. (76) p. 328 ; 

Bonn. (88) p. 433, (94) p. 375, (00") p. 18 j Kirby, (G4) p. o; 

Burr, {OS') p. 385. 

Large ; general colour tawny, the abdomen and forceps blackish. 
Antennae entirely tawny. Head tawny ; eyes, frons, and mouth- 
parts blackish. Pronotum tawny, with a few dark dots. 
Elytra darker tawny, somewhat paler in the centre of the disc. 
Wings tawny. Legs tawny, the femora speckled with numerous 
black dots. Abdomen shining reddish black, very finely 
riigulose. Last dorsal segment more strongly rugulose, very 
much wider than the abdomen, widened posteriorly ; posterior 
margin rounded and incrassate in the middle ; externo-posterior 
angles produced into a short rounded Fold. Penultimate ventral 
segment broadly rounded. Forceps in S with the branches strongly 
depressed, smooth, broad and nearly contiguous at the base, 
diverging and rapidly narrowing, then abruptly bowed inwards at 
an angle, thus enclosing a nearly equilateral triangular area ; then 
strongly broadened and incrassate so that they meet ; thence 
sti'aight, contiguous, attenuate aud unarmed towards the hooked 
apex. 

6 

Length of body 27"o mm. 

„ forceps 6"5 „ 

Burma : Kakhyen (Kachin) Hills, Aug.-Nov. ; Karen-ni, Keba 
District, ;^000-3700 ft., May-Dec, 4700-5000 fc, March-April 
{Genoa Mas.). 

Occui"s also in Borneo, Sumatra and Java, 

Tyjje in the Leyden Museum. 

This fine species is easily recognized by the dark speckling on 
the outer face of the pale legs. 



19. Pygidicrana eximia, Dohrn. 

Pygidicrana eximia, Dohrn, (65) p. 49; Scudd. (76) p. 328; Bonn. 
(00-) p. 18, fig. 11; Kirhij, (04) p. o; Burr, (05') p. 27, (08') 
p. 385. 

Very large, black, with orange-yellow markings. Antennae 
brown, the first two segments yellowish. Head black, with a 
yellowish-bi'own, irregular spot in the centre. Pronotum oval, 
a little longer than broad, yellowish with two black bands, which 
converge and meet posteriorly. Elytra blackish, with a long oval 
tawny spot occupying the greater part of the disc ; costal area 
tawny in the basal half. Wings tawny. Legs tawny, sometimes 
with dark lines. Abdomen black, elongate, parallel-sided in $ , 



58 PYGIUICRANID.i:. 

gradually widened to\^ards the apex in the c? • Last dorsal 
segment broad and ample, black, smooth, wider than the abdomen 
in the J , as wide in $ . Penultimate ventral segment rounded 
in d" , narrower in $ . Forceps with branches in the c5' subcon- 
tiguous at the base, which is rather broad, flat and dentate ; then 
gently arcuate, denticulate along inner mai*gin, with a tooth near 
the apex ; in 2 contiguous, depressed and straight. 

c^ 2 

Length of body 33-36 mm. 36-39 mm. 

„ forceps 11 „ 8 „ 

SiKKiM : Darjiling ; Madras : Berhampur (coll. Burr) ; Assam : 
Khasi Hills, Bangkok, 1000-3000 ft., vi.05 (Pusa Coll), Sylhet 
(Brit. Mus.). 

Type in the Stettin Museum (?). 

This fine species may be easily recognized by the build and 
pattern of coloration. 



20. Pygidicrana marmoricrura, Serville. (Fig. 12.) 

Pygidicrana marmoricrura, Serville, (t!9) p. 20 ; Dohrn, (63) p. 50 ; 
Smdd. (76) p. 328; Bormans. (00-) p. 19; Burr, (OO") p. 47, 
(01) p. 69, (02) p. 478, (07^) p. 509, (08') p. 385 ; Kirhy, (04) 

Forficula (Pygidicrana) marmoricrura, Haan, (42) p. 239. 
Pygidicrana marmoricauda, Sharp, (95) p. 215. 
Pygidicrana liugeli, S/iai-p, (95) pp. 202 & 215, fig. 102. 

Size medium, relatively slender. Antennae with segments one 
and two tawny, the rest greyish brown, with a thin darker band 
at the base of each segment. Head fuscous with a large central 
tawny spot (shaped like ++) which has a small fuscous dot in 
the middle ; the actual detail of the spot varies considerably in 
different specimens. Pronotum tawny, with two longitudinal 
broad fuscous bands, sometimes interrupted in the middle, some- 
times united posteriorly. Scutellum tawny. Elytra fuscous, 
usually with an oblique oval yellowish spot on centre of the dis- 
coidal surface. Wings prominent, tawny. Legs tawny, with 
irregular fuscous bauds and markings on the outer surface of the 
femora. Abdomen dark reddish black, relatively slender and 
cylindrical in the cJ , rather \^ider and depressed in the $ . Last 
dorsal segment of J ample, subquadrate, globose, sloping, and 
slightly widened posteriorly, with a distinct median sulcus, almost 
smooth, the posterior margin irregularly rounded, the middle 
part rather flattened and incrassate ; in the $ similar but the 
characters less marked. Penultimate ventral segment in c^" broadly 
rounded ; in 2 narrow, triangular, with the apex rounded. For- 
ceps with the branches in the <S elongate and depressed ; the basal 
part dilated, thick and with its inner margin strongly denticulate ; 



PYGIDICRANA, 59 

then depressed and slender, elongate and gently ai'cuate, so as 
to enclose an elliptical ai'ea ; in the apical quarter the branches 
meet, are thickened and strongly toothed on the inner margin, 
beyond which they are straight, contiguous, tapering, hooked and 
crossed at the apex ; in the § the branches are long and straight, 
unarmed, slender and contiguous, not depressed, almost cylin- 
drical, the apices hooked and crossing. 

d 2 

Length of body 23-27'5 mm. 28 mm. 

„ forceps 9-10-5 „ 7 , 

Ceylon (Bnt. Mm., Oxford Mus.)-, Bhutan: Maria Basti 
{Paris Mns,). 

The determination of the above specimens is not beyond 
reproach. This species is common in Java, but it is doubtful 
whether the true P. marmoricrura, of 8erville, occurs in India. 

One specimen in the British Museum is a fragment, with imma- 
culate elytra ; another is complete, but is a female ; it is probably 
a distinct species. 

Variation. — I have a specimen from the Tengger Mountains, in 
Eastern Java, in which the elytra are of a uniform fuscous, owing 
to the absence of the yellow discoidal spot, thus resembling P. cele- 
bensis. The star-shaped spot on the bead varies considerably in 
detail, but always resembles, more or less distinctly, a + + . 
The dark bands on the pronotum sometimes unite posteriorly, thus 
forming a dark V ; sometimes they are broken in the middle ; 
they vary also in breadth. The black marbling of the outer 
surface of the femora also varies considerably in detail but always 
consists of two or three more or less broken blackish bands. 

There is a single specimen, probably referable to this species, in 
the Hope Collection, Oxford, labelled " Thwaites, Ceylon." It is 
common in Java, and is to be found in most collections. In the 
" Cambridge Natural History," Sharp (I. c.) incorrectly calls it 
P. marmoricauda, and figures it under the name P. hugeli, calling 
it a "nondescript form," but giving it a nomen nudum, with no 
description beyond a ])assing reference to general characters. 



21. Pygidicrana siameiisis, Dolmi. (Fig. 13.) 

Pygidicrana siamensis, Bohrn, (63) p. 51 ; Scudd. (70) p. 329 ; Bonn, 
(94) p. 375, (00-^) p. 19 ; Kirbi/, (04) p. 5 : Burr, (08''j p. 385. 

Eelatively small. Antennje with two basal segments yellow: 
the rest reddish testaceous. Head yellowish, mouth-parts blackish, 
sides blackish with blackish markings on the posterior margin. 
Pronotum ovate, nearly circular, truncate posteriorly, testaceous, 
with two narrow stripes converging behind the prozona, almost 
meeting in the middle and diverging posteriorly. Scutellum 
small, testaceous. Elytra reddish brown, with a testaceous band 



60 PYGIDICRAIS^IDJ'. 

aloDg the costal margin ; a small testaceous spot at the shoulder 
and a clear testaceous spot in the basal portion of the disc. 
Wings 3'ellow, with an outer fuscous stripe. Legs testaceous ; 
femora with two narrow black lines and a number of blackish dots. 
Abdomen cylindrical, gently widened posteriorly, blackish brown, 
with a dense close yellowish pubescence. Last dorsal segment 
of S subquadrate, exceedingly finely rugulose ; posterior margin 
straight, the sides rounded, but slightly folded and not very 
pronounced. Penultimate ventral segment of d" broad, posterior 
margin straight, corners rounded. Eorceps with the brauches 
strongly depressed, subcontiguous, and rather dilated at the base 
itself, which is toothed on its inner margin ; then attenuate, elon- 
gate, arcuate, enclosing an elliptical area, with the inner margins 
creuulate and with a strong tooth before the apex. 

6 

Length of body 22"5 mm. 

„ forceps 5*25 „ 

Burma: Pegu, Palon, Aug.-Sept. ; Karen-ni, Keba District, 
4300-4700 ft., Febr.-March {Genoa 2Ii(s.); Penang ; Siam. 
Tf/pe in the Stettin Museum (?). 



Genus DICRANA, Burr. 

Dicrana, Burr, (08') p. 387. 
P^'gidicrana, Authors. 

Type, Pijgidkrana frontalis, Kirby. 

This genus differs from the preceding in the almost rectangular 
pronotum, and the broad penultimate ventral segment of the male 
distinguishes it from Cranopygia. It contains about half a dozen 
little-known African species, and also a few Oriental ones. The 
single known Indian species has strong affinities with Cranopygia 
in the form of the last dorsal segment and of the forceps, but the 
broad penultimate ventral segment of the male makes it necessary 
to place it here. It is unlike the other members of the genus in 
appearance. 

llange. Asia and Africa. 

22. Dicrana kallipyga, Dohrn. 

Pygidicrana kallip^'gos, Bohrn, (G3) p. 53 ; Scudder, (76) p. 328 ; 

Bol. (97) p. 283. 
Pyg-idicraua callipyga, Bormans, (00'-) p. 21, fig. 13 ; Kirby, (04) 

p. 5. 
Pygidicrana kallipyga, Burr, (07^) p. o09. 
Dicrana kallipyga, Burr, {06") p. 387. 

Dark blackish brown. Antennae tawny. Head brick-red, 



DICEANA. CBANOPYGIA. 61 

depressed, smooth, sutures not very distinct, Pronotum black, 
narrowly edged with yellowish, square, the angles rounded. 
Scutellum black, nearly equilateral. Elytra black, granulose, weak 
at the axillary angle, short, truncated apically. Wings abortive. 
Legs orange-red. Abdomen black, widened gradually towards the 
apex in the c? , nearly parallel in the 5 . Last dorsal segment 
in d very broad, smooth, but riigulose in the middle, the sides 
produced into strong crested folds; in 5 square, the exterior 
angles produced into rectangular folds but less strongly than in 
the c?. Penultimate ventral segment of c? broad and rounded; 
in 2 triangular and rounded at the apex. Forceps with the 
branches in (S very strong and broad, depressed, trigonal, subcon- 
tiguoiis, the upper and outer edge near the base is somewhat 
crested irregularly and asyrametricaJly sinuous, the right branch 
more strongly bowed than the left, both curved upwards at the 
tip ; in the 2 depressed, stout, trigonal and conical, contiguous, 
depressed, gently hooked at the apex. 

c^ ? 

Length of body 20 mm, 18-20 mm. 

„ forceps 5 „ 4 „ 

SiKKiM: Darjihng {Brit. Mus.); Madras: Kodaikanal (coll. 
Bolivar), Guynol, Nilgiri Hills [Pusa Coll.], Utakamand {Brit. 
Mus., coll. Burr). 

T>i2^e in the Vienna Museum. 

The strongly dilated and crested last dorsal segment and the 
upcurved, stout, dilated forceps readily distinguish this species. 



Genus CRANOPYGIA, Burr. 

Cranopygia, Burr, (08') p. 389. 
Pygidicrana, Authors. 

Typb, Pygidicrana cumingi, Dohrn. 

Pronotum subrecrangular, the angles themselves rounded. 
Penultimate ventral segment in d" narrow, lanceolate, the apex 
itself, rounded ; last dorsal segment in $ with the external angles 
on each side furnished with a compressed crested tubercle. 
Forceps of 6 depressed and contiguous. Otherwise agrees with 
the preceding genera. 

Range. Ceylon. 

This genus contains two Singhalese species characterized by the 
nearly square pronotum and narrow penultimate ventral segment 
of the male. 



62 PTGIDICRANID-i:. 

Table of Species. 

1. Forceps of S with a crested tooth 
above ; elytra reddish, with dark 
borders ; pronotum with two black 

bands cumingi, Dohrn, p. 62. 

1.1. Forceps of <5 unarmed above; elytra 
dark; pronotum dark testaceous 
with three pale lines niebieri, Dohrn, p. 63. 

:23. Cranopygia cumingi, Dohrn. (Figs. 14 & 94.) 

Pygidicrana cumingi, Dohrn, (63) p. o4; Scudd. (76) p. 328 ; Borm. 

■^(00-) p. 21; Bun; (01) p. 71, pi. B. fig-. 26 ; Kirby, (04) p. 5. 
Cranopygia cumingi, Burr, (08') p. 389. 

Size medium. Antennfe with two basal segments dark, the rest 
lighter reddish brown. Head black, with an ill-defined yellowish 
transverse spot in the centre of the occiput ; in the male there are 
distinct ocular keels. Pronotum longer than broad, nearly parallel- 
sided, anterior and posterior margins convex, the angles rounded 
orange-yellow, with two broad black longitudinal bands. Scutellum 
yellowish, small, especially in the female. Elytra rather stout, 
truncate apically, orange-yellow with a black border. Wings 
abortive. Legs orange-yellow, with long bristles. Abdomen not 
cylindrical, depressed in both sexes ; parallel-sided in the female, 
regularly Midening posteriorly in the male; blackish, with yellowish 
indistinct markings above near the base. Last dorsal segment 
ample ; in the 6 transverse, very wide, very finely granular like 
the rest of the abdomen, at each side raised into an irregular crest- 
like fold extending down to the postero-exterior angles, postei'ior 
margin rounded ; in the $ not wider than the abdomen, 
not transverse, sides not crested, and posterior margin rounded. 
Penultimate ventral segment of d rather narrow; in $ triangular, 
rounded at the apex. Forceps with the branches in the J 
broad and flat, armed near the base on the upper margin with a 
strong nearly vertical triangular tooth ; regularly tapering, both 
branches curved towards the left, the inner margins subcon- 
tiguous, the apices hooked ; in the 2 depressed, contiguous and 
straight. 

6 2 

Length of body 20-5 mm. 21 mm. 

„ forceps 5-5 „ 4 „ 

Variation. — The elytra are sometimes entirely black, with a faint 
reddish tinge in the centre. The wings are sometimes visible, in 
which case they are yellow, with a fuscous outer boi-der. The 
variety with fully developed wings and uniform fuscous elytra is 
also a little smaller. (Length of body 17-5 mm., length of forceps 
3 mm.) Por it the name var. greeni is proposed. 

Ceylon : Punduluoya (typ. form and var., coll. Burr); Watawella 
(var., coll. Burr). 



CRAXOPYGIA. PICRAIflA. 63 

Type iu the Stettin Museum (?) ; type of r/reeni in the author's 
collection. 

Mr. Green found this insect in the adult state in May, and 
from September to November, and larvas in June and July. 
It is found under stones and loose bark, and often comes into 
buildings. 

24. Cranopygia nietneri, DoJim. (Fig. 15.) 

Pvgidicrana nietneri, Dohni, (03) p. 53 ; Scudd. (76) p. 328 ; Bonn. 

'(00'^) p. 21 ; Bun; (01) p. 70; Kirhy, (04) ix 5. 
Cranopygia nietneri, Bun; (08') p. 389. 

Stature medium ; colour dark testaceous. Antennte dark testa- 
ceous, typical, with 31 segments ; each segment is fuscous basally 
and yellowish apically. Head reddish yellow, rather tumid, 
sutures distinct ; eyes black. Pronotum almost as broad as the 
head, rounded anteriorly, truncate posteriorly, the angles rounded, 
sides parallel ; dark fuscous, with whitish median line and borders. 
Scutelium rather long, fusco-testaceous. Elytra rather short, 
blackish. Wings abbreviated. Sternal plates yellow. Legs tes- 
taceous, slender ; tarsi very slender. Abdomen reddish, slender 
at base, widening gradually towards the apex ; with a dense fine 
yellowish pubescence. Last dorsal segment red, smooth, large, 
quadrate; the external angles are compressed into a blackened 
crest which is produced posteriorly to a point ; posterior margin 
black, convex, truncate in the middle. Penultimate venti-al seg- 
ment narrowly rounded at the apex. Eorceps with branches 
yellowish, darker at the margin, blacker at the tips ; subcon- 
tiguous at the base, depressed and wide through the first half of 
their length, then abruptly attenuate and arcuate, the right branch 
more so than the left and armed with a strong blunt tooth in the 
middle of the curve. 

c? 

Length of body 17 mm. 

„ forceps .... 8 „ 

Ceylon : Peradeniya (Brit. Mus., coll. Dolirn, coll. Burr), Diya- 
talawa, 12.ix.08 {Fletcher):, Watawella (C'o?Ze«). 

Type in the Berlin Museum. 

Somewhat resembles Dicrana Icallipyga., but differs in the colora- 
tion, the weaker armature of the last dorsal segment, and the less 
curved almost horizontal forceps. 

Genus PICRANIA, Bxirr. 

Picrania, Burr, (OS^) p. 390. 
Pvgidicrana, Authors. 

Type, Forficesila liturata, Stal. 

Agrees generally with the preceding genera, but the head is 
narrow, being scarcely as broad as, and never broader than, the 



64 PYGIDICEANID.^. 

pronotum ; the elytra are short ; the tarsi long and slender ; the 
abdomen narrow and nearly parallel-sided. 

Range. Ceylon ; S. Africa. 

The type of this genus is P. litiirata, Stal, from South Africa 
but P. aufjustata, from Ceylon, is placed here provisionally. 



25. Picrania angustata, Dohm. 

Pygidicrana angustata, Dohm, (63) p. o4 ; Borm. (00-) p. 23 ; Burr, 

'(01) p. 71; Kirhj, (04) p. 5. 
Picrania angustata, Burr, (OS-") p. 390. 

Small, dark, greyish, with yellowish markings. Antennso 
greyish yellow. Head smooth, globose, dark reddish brown, 
marhled with yellowish ; sutures distinct ; posterior margin 
truncate, not emarginate ; not broader than the prouotuin. 
Pronotum rather long, narrow, parallel-sided, pale yellowish tes- 
taceous, with two broad fuscous bands and a narrow dark line 
along the suture. Scutellum narrow, pale. Elytra short, 
greyish fuscous, with an oblique yellow discoidal spot and a narrow 
yellowish stripe along the basal half of the sutui'e and along 
the costa. Wings short, yellowisli. Legs short, pale, testaceous; 
femora rather broad, femora and tibiae with broken black lines. 
Abdomen rather slender, gradually widening posteriorly, dark 
reddish brown, marbled with yellowish ; the whole apparently 
grey owing to a short greyish pubescence. Last dorsal segment 
not pubescent, not inflated, very finely rugulose, deep chestnut ; 
posterior margin truncate, obliquely truncate at the sides. Penul- 
timate ventral segment of the 6 narrow, truncate posteriorly, the 
sides oblique ; of the $ trianq;ular, the apex rounded. Forceps 
of S with the branches deep red with an orange spot near the base 
above and beneath, depressed, rather slender, remote at base, 
elongate and gently arcuate, with onn or two teeth on inner margin 
about the middle and a stronger one near the apex ; in the 5 
broad, finely rugulose, trigonal, subcontiguous throughout their 
length, gradually tapering, erenulate along the inuer margin ; 
apices hooked. 





c? 


$ 


ength of body 


. 22 mm. 


16 mm 


„ forceps . . . 


. 5 „ 


3-5 „ 



Ceylon {Brit. Mus., Berlin Mus.). 

Type in the Berlin Museum. 

The approximately equal width of the head and pronotum, the 
narrow parallel-sided body, the gently arcuate and remote forceps, 
readily distinguish this species. It is so far only recorded from 
Ce>lon and appears to be rare. There are Dohrn's types, two 
females in the Berlin Museum, and one male in the British 
Museum. 



PYGE. Qo 

Genus PYGE, Bun: 

Pyge, Bun; (08') p. 390. 
Pjgidicrana, Authors (partim). 

Type, Pygidicrana modenta, Borm. 

Body narrow. Pronotum nearly square. Scutellum very 
broad, transverse, almost or quite as broad as tbe pronotum, with 
a median sulcus. Elytra short, excavate at the axillary angle so 
as to expose the scutellum ; the costal fold sometimes keeled. 
Wings rudimentary. Legs short ; tarsi short, rather thick ; 
the third tarsal segment as long as, or a trifle longer than, the 
first. Last dorsal segment ample. Penultimate ventral segment 
of the c? narrow, roundly acute ; branches of forceps in the J 
short, contiguous and depressed. 

Range. Asia and Australia. 

This genus is well characterized by the abbreviated elytra, with 
weak axillary angle, thus exposing an ample and broad scutellum. 
There is sometimes a distinct keel on the costal fold of the elytra, 
and the wings are abortive, sometimes represented by a pair of 
leathery flaps showing beneath the shortened elytra. 

The species are confined to the Oriental and Australian regions, 
but do not appear to be common. They are of relatively small size, 
and the colour is usually dull brown or black. The forceps are 
depressed, subcontiguous and asymmetrical. 

About half a dozen species are known, of which two are 
recorded from Burma. 

Table of Species. 

1. Scutellum as broad as pronotum ; last [p. 65. 

dorsal segment of J not crested modesta, Borm., 

1.1. Scutellum narrower than tbe pronotum; 

last dorsal segment of J with angles [p. 66. 

crested ophthahnica, Dohru, 

-0. Pyge modesta, Bormans.* (Fig. 76.) 

Pygidicrana modesta, Bonnans, (94) p. 375 (00-) p. 21 : Burr, 

(02) p. 477; Z/%, (04) p. 5. 
Pyge modesta, Burr, (08') p. 391. 

Antennae typical, tawny, with 2S-30 segments. Head smooth, 
pubescent, sutures distinct ; dull brown, with a reddish spot near 
each eye. Pronotum a little nari-ower than the head, rounded 
anteriorly and posteriorly, the sides parallel. Scutellum black, 
aimple, nearly equilateral. Elytra short, dull brown, feeble at the 
axillary angle, thus exposing the ample scutellum. Wino-s 
abortive. Legs yellow ; tarsi rather short and slender, the first 
and third segments equally long. Abdomen blackish i-ed, smooth, 
gradually widening in the S to the apex, which is twice as 
broad as the base ; in the 5 almost parallel-sided. Last 
dorsal segment of the S ample, smooth. Penultimate ventral 
segment of the S rounded but narrower towards the apex, where 

1" 



66 PYGIDICEANID^. 

there is a small emargination ; in the $ more strongly narrowed^ 
with no notch at the apex. Forceps : in the d" with branches stout, 
broad, trigonal, contiguous, asymmetrical, the left branch longer, 
arched outwards and hooked in\Aards at the apex, both arched to the 
left ; in the $ the branches are straight, trigonal, subcontiguous ; 
the inner margin is finely serrulate in both sexes. 

6 2 

Length of body 17'5 mm. 19 mm. 

„ forceps .... 3-3-3 „ 4 „ 

Burma : Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft,, v,-xii. (B7nt. 
Mus., Genoa IIks., coll. Burr). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

The powerful and strongly curved asymmetrical forceps dis- 
tinguish this species. 

27. Pyge ophthalmica, Dohm. (Fig. ITj.) 

Pygidicraua ophthalmica, Dohrn, (63) p. 55, (67) p. o44 ; Scudder, 
"(76) p. 328 ; JBormans, (88) p. 433, (94) p. 375, (00' ) p. 22 ; 
Kirhy, (04) p. 6. 
Pyge ophthalmica, Bun', (08') p. 391. 

Body pubescent. Antennae testaceous. Head black, indistinctly 
marked with yellowish, and two small yellowish spots between 
the eyes. Pronotum granular, dark brown, varied with yellow ; 
sides square, the angles rounded. Scutellum decidedly narrower 
than the pronotum. Elytra varying in breadth, but always narrow ; 
brown, shaded with yellow above, granular. Legs yellowish, 
marked with black. Abdomen brown, widened towards the apex. 
Last dorsal segment of the 6 ample, square, smooth, the sides 
marked by a crested ridge of tubercles separating the dorsal from 
the ventral surface. Forceps subcontiguous, depressed, trigonal, 
stout, hooked at apex, inner margin dentate near the base; the 
right branch more strongly bowed than the left. 

S 

Length of body 15 mm. 

„ forceps 4 „ 

Burma : Senmyingyan ( Genoa Mus.) ; Tenasseeim ( Genoa Mtis.) ; 
Madras : Madura {coll. Burr). 

Type in the Stettin Museum (?). 

Originally described from Moreton Bay in Australia ; it is very 
doubtful whether de Bormans's Burmese specimens are really to be 
referred to the same species. 

The above description is drawn from a male from Toowoomba 
in the British Museum, agreeing well with a poor specimen from 
Dohrn's own collection. 

Another specimen in the author's collection from ' Madura ' 
has no yellow spots on the head and the pronotum is orange- 
yellow, with tM'o irregular black markings on the prozoua. The 
coloration is very variable. 



LABLDUEID^. 



Family III. LABIDURID^. 

This family is well marked by the form of the pygidium. The 
essential feature is, however, rather difficult to describe and to 
illustrate ; the last dorsal segment is produced and folded down 
between the branches of the forceps, so that the end of the body, 
viewed from behind, has the appearance of a vertical triangular 
plate, apex downwards ; this is the pygidium, and it consequently 
does not assume the complex and varied forms of the same organ 
in. other groups, in some of tlie Lahiida'. and Forficulida;, for 
instance. It is practically invisible from above ; the fusion with 
the last doi'sal segment is sometimes so complete that no suture 
or ridge is visible. 

This is an extensive family comprising several well marked sub- 
families, of which six are represented in India. 

Tcible of Subfamilies. 

1. Body very strongly depressed and 

flattened 1. Palicince, p. 67. 

1.1. Body not strongly flattened. 

2. Metasternum with posterior margin [p. 69, 

sinuate: (body covered withbristles). 2. Echinosomatina', 
2.2. Metasternum with posterior margin 
truncate. 
3. Mesosternum rounded posteriorly . 3. Psalince, p. 73. 
3.3. Mesosternum truncate posteriorly. 

4. Antennae with at least 25 seg- [p. 90^ 

ments. Elytra well developed. 4. Labidurince, 
4.4. Antennae with not more than 15 

segments ; apterous forms. [p. 102. 

5. Last dorsal segment truncate. 5. Parisolabince, 
5.5. Last dorsal segment with 

posterior margin emarginate [p. 105. 

and bilobed 6. Brachylahince, 



Subfamily I. PALICIN^. 

This subfamily comprises at present a single monotypic 
genus which is very different in many features from the other 
members of the Lahklurida'. In general appearance and the 
strongly depressed body it so closely resembles the Sparattino' 
that the only species was described as a Platylabia. In the 
Labidurine antennae, and in the form of the tarsi, it approaches 
Mecomera, but the form of the pygidium, which is adpressed 

r2 



-68 LABIDURID.^. 

and fused with the last dorsal segment, shows beyond doubt that 
it must be ranked in the Lahiduridcp.. A new genus and new 
subfamily are consequently required for its reception. 



Genus PALEX, n. g. 

Entire body strongly flattened. Antennae with 19-20 segments, 
the first long and subeonical, second minute, third long and cylin- 
drical, fourth globular, fifth and sixth ovate, the latter a trifle longer, 
seventh cylindrical, longer, but shorter than third, the remainder 
cylindrical, gradually lengthening. Head smooth and depressed. 
Pronotum subquadrate, but convex anteriorly. Prosternum 
parallel-sided, scarcely constricted ; meso- and metasterna about as 
broad as long, more or less rounded, and truncate posteriorly. 
Elytra perfectly developed but rather short, rounded at the apex ; 
feebly developed at the axillary angles, thus exposing a small 
scutellum ; no keel. Wings short but usually visible. Legs not 
very long ; femora broad and compressed ; tibice short and 
slender; tarsi slender, first segment short, the third longer than 
first and second united. Abdomen strongly depressed ; no lateral 
tubercles. Last dorsal segment ample, simple. Penultimate 
ventral segment quadrate, triangular. Pygidium short, broad, 
adpressed, vertical, fused with dorsal segment and with no marked 
suture. Porceps remote at the base, broad, nearly straight at 
first, then bowed. 

This curious genus has no resemblance whatever to any other 
known Labidurine form, but owing to the build, coloration and 
strongly flattened body, may be easily confused with the 
Sparattince. 

The single known species, which is therefore the type, occurs 
in the Oriental Kegion. 

28. Palex sparattoides, Bonnans. (Fig. 77.) 

Platylabia sparattoides, Bonti. (OQi) j). 459 ; Kir/>tj, (04) p. 22. 

Brown or blackish, very strongly depressed. Antennte with 
20 segments, brownish, yellowish, paler towards the apex ; basal 
segment darker ; third segment cylindrical ; fourth only about 
half as long as the third ; fifth a little longer than the fourth ; rest 
longer, cylindrical. Head depressed, posterior margin sinuate. 
Pronotum with anterior margin decidedly convex, sides straight, 
posterior margin straight, angles rounded ; reddish brown. Elytra 
brown, coriaceous. Wings of same colour and texture as the elytra. 
Legs yellowish. Abdomen strongly depressed, chestnut, slightly 
widened towards the apex ; lateral tubercles absent. Last dorsal 
segment ample, in the c? quadrate, posterior margin truncate, flatand 
smooth ; a little narrower in the $ . Penultimate ventral segment 
in the 6 ample, rounded, very gently emarginate in the middle of 
\)Osterior margin. Pygidium: in the d" scarcely prominent, trans- 
verse, with a vertical face ; in the $ slightly larger, witn a minute 



PALEX. 69' 

tubercle at each angle. Forceps : in the (S with branches remote at 
the base, trigonal at the base itself, quite straight in the basal half, 
tapering, then abruptly bent inwards at a right angle, the points 
overlapping, the apical half thus forming a line parallel to the 
posterior margin of the last dorsal segment and at right angles with 
the main axis of the insect ; about half way down the straight 
part there is, on the inner margin, a short tooth : in the 5 the 
branches are elopgate, very gently sinuate, almost straight, 
incurved at the apex, with a sharp depressed tooth on the inner 
margin in the basal third, and strongly creuulated as far a» 
this tooth. 

c? ? 

Length of body 7*5-9 mm. 9-10*5 mm. 

„ forceps 1-1*5 ,, 2*25-3*5 „ 

Burma : Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft., v.-xii. (colL 
Bu7'r,JBnt. JIiis.); PuloPenaxg; Sumatra ((?e?ioa if ms.) ; Java; 
AjfNAM (coll. Burr). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

Although originally described by de Bormans, from Pulo- 
Penang and from Sumatra, the pair in the author's possession 
were from Pea's collection and came to him through de Bormans ; 
yet the latter never quoted this species from Burma. The only 
specimens from Karen-ni, May to December, quoted by de Bormans 
are referred by him to Platijlahia major, and perhaps, owing to 
the inconspicuous pygidium, he regarded them as identical with 
that species in 1894, but separated them in his later work in 
1900. 

The form of the forceps is quite characteristic and they are not 
likely to be confused with anything else. 

This species is totally distinct from any other known Labidurine 
earwig ; but it has so strong a resemblance to the genera Platij- 
labia and Sparatta, that the structure of the pygidium must be 
carefully examined. 



Subfamily II. ECHIN0S0MATIN.51:. 

Pronotum transverse, decidedly broader than long, elytra 
complete, with no lateral keels, entirely concealing the scutellum. 
Pemora not compressed or keeled. Abdomen short, broad, rather 
dilated, body clothed with short stiff bristles ; forceps short, 
cylindrical, remote at base in male, arcuate and unarmed. 

This subfamily includes only the old genus EcJiinosoma, which 
has close affinities with the Labidurhuc. 

The short, thick-set body, densely clad with stiff hairs and 
many obtuse thick bristles, gives these earwigs a very distinctive 
appearance. 



70 LABIDURID^. 

Genus ECHINOSOMA, Serv. 
Echinosoma, Serv. (39) p. 34. 

Type, Forfieula afra, Pal.-Beauv. 

Stout and small or medium-sized insects, the whole body covered 
with shoi't stiff bristles and long yellow hairs. Antennae with about 
30 segments ; third segment long and cylindrical, nearly as long 
as the first, the rest very short, fifth and sixth each a trifle 
longer than fourth, the rest gradually lengthening, the apical 
segments approaching cylindrical, fourth, fifth and sixth together 
scarcely longer than third. Head broad, flat and smooth. Pro- 
notum transverse, as broad as the head, subrectangular, hinder 
angles broadly rounded. Elytra broad, truncate, bristly. Wings 
generally prominent, bristly. Scutellum concealed. Prosternum 
broad, scarcely narrowed posteriorly ; mesosternum broad ; meta- 
sternum broad, the lobes slightly produced, the hinder margin 
gently sinuate. Legs short ; femora thick, not keeled. Abdomen 
short, broad. Last dorsal segment : in the cJ smooth, transverse ; 
in the $ somewhat narrower. Pygidium : in the (S almost con- 
cealed ; in the $ forming a short blunt tubercle. Foi'ceps with 
the branches in both sexes remote at the base, short, cylindrical, 
unarmed and arcuate, more strongly bowed in S , gently curved 
in $. 

Range. Asia, Africa, Papua. 

The members of the genus are easy to recognize owing to their 
short, rather thick-set build, the simple sickle- shaped forceps of 
the male, and especially the short, thick bristles with which they 
are densely clothed. 

About 14 species are known, inhabiting all the tropical countries 
of the Old World. The discrimination of the different forms is 
difficult, as the specific characters are not very well marked, and 
the coloration varies within certain limits. Only two species are 
known from India and these are easy to distinguish. They occur 
chiefly in rotten wood. 

Table of Sjyecies. 

1. Antennse with first segmeut light yellow ; 
segments of apical half of antennae 
slender, subcyliudrical or ovate ; size [p. 70. 

medium (12-14 mm.) sumatranum, Haan, 

3.1. Antennfe with first segment dark yellow 
or brownish : segments beyond seventh or 
eighth short, thick, pyriform or snb- 
conical ; size small (G-8 mm.) parvidum, Dohrn, p. 72. 

29. Echinosoma sumatranum, Haan. (Pig. 17.) 

Forficnla (Echinosoma) sumatranum, Haan, (42) p. 241. 
Echinosoma sumatranum, Dohrn, (63) p. 65; Scudder, (76) p. 310; 
Dubr. (79) p. 352 Bonn. (SS^ p. 433, (94) p. 377, (00'-) p 28 ; 



ECHINOSOMA. 71 

Burr, (OQi) p. 89, (02) p. 478, (05') p. 28, (073) p. 510 ; Kirby, 
(04) p. 8. 
Echinosomca westermanni, Dohrn, (63) p. 60 ; Scudder, (76) p. olO 
Duhr. (79) p. 352 ; Borm. (00-) p. 28 ; Kirby, (04) p. 8. 

Pronotiim broader than the head, depressed, transverse, anterior 
margin gently convex, angles rounded ; sides broadly reflexed ; 
prozona somewhat tumid, and with a strong sulcus ; metazona 
depressed, varying in colour from a uniform pale yellow to almost 
black, with a few dark markings. Elytra ample, rugulose and 
densely clad with dark bristles ; brown or blackish, sometimes with 
a small red spot in the middle. A\'ings usually prominent, but 
occasionally short and scarcely protruding, pale yellowish, with a 
dark spot at the tip. Legs pale yellowish, the femora and tibiae 
usually ringed with blackish. Abdomen dark brown to black, 
densely puuctulate and densely bristly. Last dorsal segment in the 
S transverse, with a median impression, posterior margin trun- 
cate, tumid over the roots of the forceps ; in the $ similar but 
narrowed. Pygidium: in the c? rectangular, very short and very 
broad ; in the $ conical. Forceps : in the d with branches remote 
and roundly trigonal at base, smooth, stout, nearly straight basally, 
then gently arcuate ; in the $ remote at base, straight at first, then 
arcuate, but less strongly than in 6 • 

c? ? 

Length of body 9-14 mm. 10-14 mm. 

„ forceps 1*5-2 „ 1-5-2 „ 

Bhutan: MariaBasti(P«r«s3/Ms.); Sikkim (/wc?. J/ms.) ; Assam: 
Khasi Hills, Sibsagar {Ind. Mus.); Burma: Metanja in April, 
Teinzo, Katha, in November, Bhamo in July, Shwegu in October, 
Palon in August and September (G-V/io«Ji«s.); Ceylo'S (Brit. Mus.). 
Widely distributed and abundant throughout the Oriental 
Eegion, extending as far as New Guinea and Northern Australia. 
A careful examination of numerous specimens, offering many 
differences of pattern, from all parts of India, Burma, Annam, 
Tonkin, Siam, the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea, fails to 
reveal any structural distinction, and consequently £. wester- 
manni, Dohrn, is sunk, as being based merely on coloration or 
wing-development. Tlie burden of proof lies with the advocates 
of separation. Perhaps the intensity of coloration depends upon 
the age and condition of the specimen when caught. 

The following variations are represented in the Burr col- 
lection : — 

I. Genei'al colour ranging from light brown (Java) to almost 
entirely black (Annam). 
II. Labrum blackish (Tonkin, Java, etc.) or yellow (Annam, 

Tonkin, Java). 
III. Pronotum uniform pale yellow (Java); more generally 
black, with yellowish markings at the sides and pos- 
teriorly. 



72 LABIDUIIID.I. 

IV. Elytra light brown or deep black (usual) or with a 
small not perfectly distinct red spot on the disc near 
the suture. 
V. Wings abbreviated, slightly developed or promiuent. 

VI. Tirown ring of femora faint or absent, especially in the 
anterior pair. 

There is presented nearly eveiy stage in the transition between 
each of these varieties ; that is why, in the author's opinion, it is 
necessary to sink E. westermmmi, Dohru (labrum yellow, wings- 
short, anterior femora not I'inged). 



30. Echinosoma parvulum, DoJim. 

Ecliinosoma parvuluiu, iJo/ini, (63) p. 66; Bonn. (00") p. 29; £nrr,, 
(01) p. 77; Jvirbij, (04) p. 8. 

Size small; colour dark brown, with dense, stiff, dark pubescence,, 
and numerous thick reddish bristles. Antennae with 19 segments, 
the first thick and dark yellow, second minute and pale yellow ; 
the rest grey-brown ; third rather elongate and perfectly cylin- 
drical ; fourth globular ; fifth, sixth and seventh subcylindrical 
and a little longer than the fourth : the rest pyriform, but 
none equalhng the third in length. Head dark brown, broad, 
depressed, with a few thick bristles ; eyes prominent, mouth- 
parts yellowish. Pronotum decidedly transverse and a trifle 
wider posteriorly than anteriorly ; prozona somewhat tumid and 
metazona flattened ; sides broadly reflexed, all angles rounded,, 
sides very slightly convex, dark brown, with a few scattered 
thick bristles. Sternal plates smooth, yellow. Elytra of the same 
colour, texture and clothing as the pronotum, the shoulders scarcely 
developed, truncate posteriorly ; in the short-winged form short, 
scarcely longer than the pronotum ; in the long-winged form quite 
double as long as the pronotum. Wings either abortive (short- 
winged form) or long and ample (long-winged form), in which 
case they protrude very prominently, the scale being even longer 
than the elytra, of a lighter brown colour, especially near the base 
and the suture, where the Avhitish membranous part is descernible ; 
densely clothed with short bristles. Legs yellow, the femora 
ringed with brown near the base. Abdomen broad and rather flat, 
nearly pai^allel-sided, ^itli a dense and close pubescence, and rows 
of yellowish, thick, short bristles ; ventral surface red, smoother. 
Last dorsal segment in the d strongly transverse, about three 
times as broad as long, of the same colour, texture and hairiness 
on the rest of the abdomen, truncate posteriorly ; in the 2 similar, 
but longer and narrowed posteriorly, the margin subsinuous. 
Penultimate ventral segment : in the ^ transverse, with a median 
depression, posterior margin with a round median emargination 
with thick yellowish pubescence ; in the 5 posterior margin 
straight. Pygidium: in the J rectangular, very short and very 
broad ; in the $ short and conical. Forceps with the branches in 



ECHINOSOMA. 73: 

the c? remote at the base, smooth, deep red, stout, and rather 
broad at the base, very slightly diverging at first, then strongly 
arched in a semicircular curve ; in the $ short, contiguous, straight, 
stout, conical, with a very blunt tooth near the base. 

^ 2 

Length of body 6-8-5 mm. 7-8 mm. 

forceps 1 „ 0-75-1 „ 

The larv£e resemble the female in the form of the abdomen 
and forceps ; the colour is light brown, with darker longitudinal 
bands. 

Ceylon : Peradeniya, in August and November (coll Burr). 

Type in Berlin. 

This species has hitherto been known only from Dohrn's 
description of the female. Mr. Green found it commonly at 
Peradeniya, in rotten Avood ; a larva was taken in a termite's 
nest. 

Of the specimens sent by Mr. Green, there is one male of each 
form, and four females of the short-winged form, which would thus 
appear to be commoner, though Dohrn's type is evidently winged. 
De Bormans incorrectly describes the first antenual segment as 
brown. 

Ow-ing to its small size, strongly bowed forceps and thick 
pyriform antennal segments, it is easy to recognize. 

Dohrn describes the sixteenth antennal segment as yellowish^ 
but this uncertain character is of no value. 



Subfamily III. PSALIN.E. 

The dominant genus of this subfamily is Amsohbis, but Psalis 
IS chosen as the typical genus because it is the oldest. It has 
many features in common with the Labidunnce, with which group 
it is closely allied. 

It is exceptional for the forceps to be slender or remote at the 
base, whereas the reverse is the case in the Labidurince. 

In this group we find a gradual transition from the fully 
winged Pscdis to the entirely apterous Anisolabis. 




Fig. 4. — Antenna of Psalis dolrni. 



The glandular folds of the third and fourth abdominal segments, 
which are absent in Labidnra, are often present in Anisolabis ; 
and Eehn (Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1903, p. 301) has 



74 LABIDURIDJE. 

shown that in the Neotropical species, l-'salis americana, Pal.- 
Beauv., these folds are present in the larvae and nymphs, but 
disappear when the creature attains maturity. This is evidence 
in favour of the view that these organs are useless as generic 
characters. 

The possession of fully developed elytra is the chief distinction 
between Psalis and AnisoJahis, so that immature specimens of 
the former are easily mistaken even for adult specimens of the 
latter genus. 

The Psalime are generally thick-set, dark-coloured earwigs, 
with stout forceps. 

Table of Genera. 

1. Elytra perfectly developed ; (abdomen 
subparallel-sided ). 
2. Antennse with 12-22 segments; sides 

of abdomen with no glandular folds . Psalis, Serv., p. 74. 
2.2. Antennae with 20-30 segments ; sides [p. 78. 

of abdomen with glandular folds . . Labidurodes, Dubr., 
1.1. Apterous forms; elytra entirely wanting 
or rudimentary. 
2. Abdomen dilated from the base to the 

apex. (Elytra absent.) Gonolabis, Burr, p. 79. 

2.2. Abdomen subparallel-sided, or slightly 
dilated about the middle. 

3. Iillytra entirely wanting Anisolabis, Fieb., p. 80, 

3.3. Rudimentary elytra present Borellia, Burr, p. 87. 



Genus PSALIS, Serv. 

Psalis, Serv. (31) p. 34. 

Carcinophora, Saidd. (76) p. 291. — Type,C robusta, Scudd. 

Type, Forficula americana, Pal.-Beauv. 

Body stout ; antennae with 12-22 segments ; basal segment very 
long and conical ; third segment cylindrical, half as long as the first ; 
third and fourth short, no longer than broad ; fifth a little longer ; 
sixth and others gradually lengthened, the sixth nearly as long as 
the third. The segments are nearly cylindrical, but in the Indian 
species they are almost clavate. Head convex, smooth and shining. 
Pronotum nearly as broad as the head, subquadrate, widened 
somewhat posteriorly (especially in Old World species) ; posterior 
margin convex. Mesosternum convex ; metasternum with the 
lobe produced between posterior coxae, truncate. Elytra and 
wings smooth, well developed, the former with no carina. Legs 
rather short, stout. Abdomen broad and depressed, last doi'sal 
segment quadrate in both sexes ; sides of the sixth, seventh, 
eighth and ninth segments acute ; no glandular folds in adults. 
Penultimate ventral segment of the c? broad, obtuse, rounded ; 
in the $ roundly triangular ; pygidium indistinct. Porceps with 



PSALIS. 75 

branches conical, stout, subcontiguous, gently curved in the d ; 
contiguous in the $ . 

Range. Asia, Africa, America. 

This genus was confused by the older authors with Lahidura. 
De Bonnans remarks that it ap])roaches nearer to AnisolaUs, and 
this is correct, for it is practically the same thing but with fully- 
developed organs of flight. 

The genus Carcmophora, Scudd., only differing from typical 
Psalis in the absence of wings, cannot stand, and must be absorbed 
in Psalis. 



Table of Sj)ecies. 

1. Wings perfectly developed ; forceps of 
male not contiguous at base ; (colour 
shining chocolate, vaiied with yellow- 

^^") femoralis, Dolirn, p. 75. 

1.1. Wmgs abortive; forceps of male con- 
tiguous at base. 
2. Elytra rectangular, showing no scu- 
tellum. 
3. Colour brilliant shining reddish 
black, with blue sheen on elytra, 

which are truncate posteriorly. . dohml, Kirby, p. 76. 
3.3. Colour reddish black, with no blue 

sheen ; elytra oblique posteriorly, h'froyi, sp. n., p. 77. 
2.2. Elytra strongly cut away at the 
axillary angle, thus being tri- 
angular ; exposing a small scu- 
tellum cnstetsi, Bonn., p. 77. 



31. Psalis femoralis, DoJim. (Fig. 18.) 

Labidura femoralis, Boltrii, (63) p. 321 ; Scudder, (76) p. 522 (nee 

Dubr.). 
Psalis femoralis, Bonn. (88) p. 434, (94) p. 378, (00^) p. 38 ; Burr, 

(01) p. 78, pi. B, fig. 3, (08-^) p. 29 ; Kirby, (04) p. 13. 

Stature small but robust ; general colour deep chestnut-brown, 
varied with yellowish and often with a bluish sheen. Autennje 
greyish yellow, the basal segments paler. Head shining deep 
dark brown. Pronotum chocolate-brown, shining, the sides some- 
what paler, longer than broad and broadeued posteriorly ; anterior 
and lateral margins straight; posterior margin subcouvex, the 
angles rounded. Elytra shining chocolate - brown, truncate 
apically, with a faint bronze sheen. Wings long, pale yellowisli 
at the base, of the same colour as the elytra at the apex. Le^s 
pale yellow, the femora banded with dark brown. Abdomen deep 
chocolate-brown, smooth and shining. Last dorsal segment quad- 
rate in both sexes, faintly rugulose posteriorly in the d" , with a 
median depression and a faint tumid tubercle over the insertion 



76 LABIDUBID^. 

of the forceps. Forceps : in the J flat beneath, convex above, stout,, 
tapering, subcoutiguous, straight, gently incurved at the apex, 
denticulate near base on inner margin ; in the $ straight, conical, 
contiguous. 

Length of body .... 8*5-9 mm. 10 ram. 
„ forceps.. l'25-l-5 „ 1*75 „ 

Burma : Metanja, viii. ; Teinzo, v. ; Bliamo, vi.-viii. ; Katha, 
ii.-vi. ; Rangoon, v. ; Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft., 
v.-xii. {Genoa Sf Brit. J/its.) ; Tenasseeim : Thagata, iv. {Genoa 
Mas.); Ceylon: Punduluoya, Gralagedara, Pei-adeniya {Green\ 
Amhegammoa {Willeij, coll. Burr), Diyatalawa {coll. Burr) ; Tonkin 
{Brit. 4' Paris Mus.). 

Type in the Stettin Museum (?). 

This species has no strong resemblance to any other, its shiny 
deep colour being very characteristic. Its nearest resemblance, 
perhaps, is to the African species of the genus. The bronze sheen 
is much more striking in some specimens than others ; this may 
be due to the age of the specimens, or perhaps the sex, season or 
locality in which they were caught. 



32. Psalis dohmi, Kirhy.^ (Fig. 19.) 

Namiopygia dohrni, Eirby, (91) p. -508; Bonn. (00*) p. 11. 
Labiduva femoialis, Dubr. (79) p. 353 (nee Dohrn). 
Carcinophora caeruleipennis, Borm. (00-) p. 40. 
Carcinophora dohrni, Burr, (01) p. 328, pi. B, fig. 8 ; Kirby, (04) 
p. 15. 

Small ; black, shading towards reddish black posteriorly, smooth, 
shining, with an oily lustre. Antennse with 17 segments ; the 
first three are yellowish, the rest greyish, except second and third 
(probably varying) before the apex, which are pale. Head very 
convex and smooth, shining black. Pronotum of same colour, 
someuhat longer than broad and broadened posteriorly. Elytra 
rather short, but longer than the pronotum, truncate at the apex, 
brilliantly shining with a bluish bronze metallic sheen. Legs 
pale testaceous, the femora strongly banded with black. Abdomen 
intensely deep chocolate blackish-brown, with brilliant oily lustre, 
of the same form as Psalis. Last apical segment as in Psalis. 
Forceps : in the S short, stout, trigonal, subcontiguous, tapering, 
attenuate and hooked at the apex ; in the 5 practically identical. 

62 

Length of body 10-12 mm. 

„ forceps 2-2*5 „ 

Ceylon : Galle, Kandy {coll. Bolivar), Peradeniya in May- 
Oct. {coll. Burr), Ambegammoa ( Willey, coll. Burr) ; Tkayancobe : 



PSALIS. 77 

North side of the Western Ghats, Tenmalai (lad. Mus , coll 
Burr). ^ ' 

T)ipe in the British Museum. 

This handsome little earwig can only be coufused with the 
follomng species. Its deep black colour, brilliant oily lustre, and 
blue sheen on the elytra are very distinctive, although'the latter is 
not always very strongly marked, at least in old specimens 

A record from Somerset, in Northern Australia, must almost 
certainly refer to a distinct species. 

33. Psalis castetsi, Borm. 

Carcinophora castetsi, Borm. apud Bol (97) p. 284; Borm. m^) 
p. 41 ; Kirhj, (04) p. 15. ^ ' 

Pitch-black, punctulate ; three basal segments of antenna? dark 
ye lowish; mouth-parts yellowish; pronotum with very narrow 
pale side border. Elytra short, truncate, excavate at axillary 
angle so as to expose a minute scutellum ; abdomen typical- 
forceps unarmed, typical. ' 

6 9 

Length of body 9-5 mm. 11 mm. 

„ forceps .... 1-75 „ 2 

Madeas: Trichinopoli, Kodaikanal {coll. Bolivar) 
_ According to deBormans this species differs from 'the preceding 
in the axil ary excavation of the elytra, which thus expose a 
minute scutellmn ; he also states that these organs are much the 
same as m the European Pseudochelklura sinaata. 

34. Psalis lefroyi, sp. n. (Fig. 20.) 

Of medium size, sturdy build, and deep reddish chestnut colour 
Antennae blackish, the apical segments white. Head shining 
blackish red. Pronotum black, slightly wider posteriorly thaS 
anteriorly, a little longer than broad, almost rectangular- 
posterior margin straight, very narrowly bordered with yellow' 
the sides reflexed ; prozona not tumid. Elytra blackish brown' 
ample, obliquely truncate at the apex. Wings abortive (in the 
type). Femora yellowish, with a broad black ring; tibL and 
tarsi yellowish Abdomen deep reddish chestnut, almost black, 
smooth. Last dorsal segment in the d smooth, transverse, genth' 
narrowed posteriorly. Forceps in d and o red, the branches 
subcontiguous, stout, trigonal, conical, straight. 

Length of body 9 ^im. 7-5^mm 

„ forceps 1-75 ^^ 2 

Bombay : Mahim, 2i^ii.04, "feeding on plantain roots" (Pusa 
<^oll.) ; Bengal : Pusa (Pusa coll.). ^ 

Type in the author's collection. 



78 LABIDURID.i). 

Dedicated to the Imperial Entomologist, Mr. Maxwell Lefroy, 
who has contributed some interesting material. 

This species is described from a single pair in poor condition. 
In general appearance it resembles P. femoralis, but differs in 
the pronotum, which is almost rectangular, in correlation with the 
abortive wings ; the forceps are contiguous and the femora ringed 
with black. The head is also larger. 

It might be confused with P, dohrni, but it is a more power- 
fully built and much broader insect ; the abdomen is decidedly 
broader and shorter and the elytra relatively shorter and truncate 
obliquely, that is the posterior margin is not quite at right angles 
to the median suture. The colour is less deep, redder and 
browner, and there is no blue tinge on the elytra. 

Probably the specimens recorded by the present writer from 
Ceylon under the name of Anisolahis brunneri, (01) p. 377, and 
from the Purneah District, (05'') p. 389, are nothing more or less 
than immature specimens of this species. They have certainly 
nothing to do with the true Anisolahis bninneri of Dohrn, from 
Australia, which is now a well-known and totally distinct species. 



Genus LABIDURODES, Duhr. 
Labidm'odes, Dubr. (79) p. 355. 

Type, Labidurodes robustus, Dubr. 

Allied to Psalis, but differs in having from 20-30 segments in 
the antenujB, and in having well-developed glandular folds at the 
sides of the second and third abdominal segments. 

Range. Pour species have been described, occurring in New 
Guinea, Siam and Madagascar, but more material is required to 
place this genus in a satisfactory condition. 

35. Labidurodes robustus, Duhr. 

Labidurodes robustus, Dubr. (79) p. 356 ; Bonn. (00") p. 39; Kirby, 
(04) p. 15 ; Burr, (05^) p. 28. 

Large and powerful. Head and pronotum shining black. 
Antennas brown, with 27 segments. Elytra and wings well 
developed, shining brownish black. Pemora short, brown ; base 
of tibia brown ; apex of tibia and tarsi yellowish. Abdomen and 
forceps shining dark brown. Porceps of the S with branches 
not contiguous, robust, trigonal in basal third, then rounded with 
the points strongly incurved ; the trigonal portion has three strong 
crenulations. 

6 

Length of body 23 mm. 

„ forceps 6 „ 

? Lower Burma ; Tavoy {Ind. Mus.). 



G0>'OLABIS. 70 

This species is known only through Dubrouy's description. 
It is recorded from the Ply Eiver, New Guinea. An immature 
specimen in the Indian Museum, from Tavoy, is attributed to it, 
with considerable hesitation. 



Genus GONOLABIS, 5nrr. 

Gonolabis, Burr, (00") pp. 48 & 53; Borjn. (00') p. 451; Ei'rbi/r 
(04) p. 15. 

Type, Anisolabis javana, Bormans. 

Entii'ely apterous. Antennae ^\•ith less than 20 segments, third 
cylindrical, fourth and fifth globular, the rest longer, subpyriform. 
Head smooth. Pronotum square, as broad as the head or broader. 
Sternal plates as in Anisolahis. Elytra entirely wanting. Femora 
rather thick ; tibiae and tarsi compressed, the latter very slender; 
second segment very short. Abdomen in the c? narrow at the 
base, gradually broadened, attaining the greatest width at the apex. 
Last dorsal segment of the c? broad and rectangular ; of the 5 
broad, but narrowed posteriorly. Forceps of the c? stout, remote 
at base, arcuate strongly ; of the $ conical, contiguous, straight. 

Range. Asia, Africa, Australia. 

By the removal of certain non-Indian species, characterized by 
a strongly narrowed prosternum, this genus is now restricted to 
Old World forms. The genus is related to Anisolahis, but has 
fewer antennal segments ; the gradual widening of the abdomen 
from base to apex is very characteristic. 



36. Gonolabis electa, sp. n, (Fig. 21.) 

Small ; shining dark chestnut-brown. Antennae brown, basal 
segments paler, with 14-15 segments; third cylindrical, elongate, 
fourth and fifth globular, the rest gradually lengthening, passing 
from subcylindrical to ovate. Head tumid, smooth, shining, dark 
blackish brown. Pronotum as broad as the head, square or very 
gently widened posteriorly, flat, shining brown, the sides paler. 
Mesonotum short, about t^vice as broad as long. Entire thorax 
smooth, shining, deep brown. Legs testaceous, femora with darker 
shading. Abdomen of the same colour, gradually dilated in the c? 
from the base to the apex, which is about 1| times as wide as 
the base. Sides of the sixth to ninth segments produced back- 
wards to sharp points in the S only. Last dorsal segment : in 
the <S rectangular and about twice as broad as long, smooth and 
shining, with a faint median depression, posterior margin trun- 
cate ; over the roots of the forceps there is a slight tumid 
elevation, outside which is a depressed triangular area, so that 
the segment is bounded externally by a slight longitudinal fold or 
ridge which is continuous with the line formed by the points of the 
sixth-ninth abdominal segments ; in the $ trapezoidal, strongly 



•80 LABIDIJEIDJE. 

narrowed, otherwise formed as in the c? , except that the external 
depression and ridge are absent. Penultimate ventral segment in 
the c? ample, very broadly rounded ; in the 2 similar but less 
broadly rounded, more pronouncedly convex. Pygidium of cS and 
$ not protruding. Porceps with the branches in the c5" remote 
at the base, very stout and trigonal, the upper keel corre- 
sponding to the slight tumidity of the last dorsal segment, the 
outer surface being depressed in correspondence with the similar 
depressed area on the last dorsal segment, the outer ridge corre- 
ponding with the line of the points of the sixth-ninth abdominal 
segments and lateral ridge of the last dorsal segment ; the branches 
are straight at first, tapering rapidly; at about half their length they 
become abruptly attenuate, cylindrical and strongly bowed inwards ; 
the maximum breadth is over double the length. In the $ the 
branches are contiguous, stout, trigono-conical, straight and taper- 
ing, the inner margin crenulate. 

6 ^2 

Length of body 6-5-7 mm. 6-7 mm. 

„ forceps 1 ,, 1 r? 

Maximum breadth of abdomen : 2-5 mm. 
Minimum „ „ 1-5 mm. 

Ceylon : Peradeniya, A-pr'il' {Green, coll. Burr); Java {coll. 
Burr). 

Type in the author's collection. 

Easily recognizable by the apically dilated abdomen. It is re- 
lated to G. javana, Borm., and G. sumatrana, Bonn., but is smaller, 
more shining, and the abdomen much more strongly dilated. 



Genus ANISOLABIS, Fieber. 

Anisolabis, Fieber, (53) p. 257. 

Forcinella, Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit. xxiii. p. 226 (1862). 
Bracliylabis, Dohrn, (64) p. 292(partim). — Type, Forficula niaritima, 
Bon. 

Type, Forficula maritima, Bon. 

Body convex, rather elongate, generally stout. Head convex, 
longer than broad. Antennae with from 15 to 25 segments, formed 
as in Psalis, but the form and size varies within certain limits. 
Pronotum rectangular, almost or quite square ; mesonotum trans- 
verse ; metanotum with posterior border sinuate. Elytra entirely 
absent. Legs rather short, wide. Sternal plates rather narrow, 
longer than broad. Metasternum somewhat produced between 
posterior coxae ; the lobe generally truncate at the apex. 
Mesosternum rounded posteriorly. Abdomen depressed, rather 
broad, attaining its greatest breadth at about two-thirds of its 
length ; lateral tubercles sometimes distinct, sometimes obsolete. 



ANISOLABIS. 81 

The sides of the sixth and seventh segments of the male are 
convex, often produced into a sharp point, striate, rugulose or even 
carinate ; this feature is present on a feebler scale in the female. 
Last dorsal segment in the S ample, subrectaugular, but broader 
than long, less broad than the preceding segments ; in the 2 similar, 
but somewhat narrower. Penultimate ventral segment of cT ovate 
or roundly triangular ; broader in the $ . Branches of forceps in 




Fig. 5. — Sternal plates of Anisolabis maritima, Bon. 

the S of two types : (1) contiguous or subcontiguous, stout, nearly 
straight, tapering, or (2) remote, straight at first and strongly and 
abruptly bent inwards, the right branch often more strongly than the 
left. In the $ the branches are contiguous, straight, stout, tapering. 

Range. Cosmopolitan. 

After the removal of those forms now separated into Borellia- 
and the sinking of a number of names as synonyms, there are still 
about two dozen species left in this genus, occurring in all parts of 
the world. Their discrimination is often difficult, and it is- 
absolutely necessary to know the male before a species can be 
characterized or satisfactorily determined. 

Some species seem to have a very restricted distribution, though 
two, A. maritima and A. annulijjes, have become cosmopolitan. 

Immature specimens of various species of Psalis are often placed 
under this genus in collections, and sometimes may have beea 
described as species. 

Table of Sj^ecies. 

1. Posterior margin of metasternal lobe 
romided ; size great ; (forceps subcon- 
tiguous, straight ; legs and antennae 

unicolorous) colossea, Dohrn, p. 82. 

1.1. Posterior margin of metasternal lobe 
truncate ; size medium or small. 
2. Branches of forceps of c? remote at the 
base, strongly curved. 
3. Thorax with faint median line ; 
forceps of (5 abruptly bowed, with 
a rectangular internal projection 
on the right branch ] maritviut, Bon., p. 83^ 



82 LABIDUEID.E. 

3.3. Thorax with distinct median line ; 
forceps of J gently arcuate, with 

no rectangular projection kudagcB, Burr, p. 84. 

2.2. Branches of forceps of ^ subcontiguous 

or contiguous, nearly straight, curved 

at the apex. 

3. Sides of 6th-9th abdominal seffmeuts 

of cJ with longitudinal keel along 

the striations. (Antennae and 

legs banded ; size small) annulipes, Luc, p. 84. 

3.3. Sideslof 6th-9th abdominal segments 
of (S striate, rugulose but not 
carinate. (Size large ; head red ; 
legs long, clear yellow-brown) . . dubronii, Kirby, p. 85. 

Head red ; legs banded ; cJ unknown gaudens, Burr, p. 86. 

37. Anisolabis colossea, Dohm, 

Forcinella colossea, Dohm, (64) p. 286 ; Dubr. (79) p. 357. 
Anisolabis colossea, Bonn. (94) p. 379, (00-) p. 47 ; Kii-hy, (04) p. 19. 
Anisolabis colossea, var. minor. Burr, (02) p. 479. 

Size varying from 20 to 50 mm. in length. Build robust ; 
colour red-brown passing into blackish. Antennae brown with 4th 
and 5th segments almost globular, the rest pear-shaped. Pronotum 
quadrate, with a transverse depression. Prosternum truncate 
posteriorly. Metasternum long and narrow, lobe well produced 
between posterior coxae, and rounded. Mesosternum narrow, 
rounded posteriorly. Abdomen smooth, bro;id and flat ; sides of 
last two or three segments of c? & 2 convex, slightly rugulose. Last 
dorsal segment of S rectangular, broader than long, with a median 
impression, rugulose posteriorly ; in $ somewhat narrower. The 
penultimate ventral segment broadly rounded. Porceps in both 
S and 5 with branches subcontiguous at the base, stout and 
robust, trigonal, broad, gradually tapering, with the inner margin 
crenulate, perfectly straight as far as the apex, where the points 
are slightly incux'ved. 

Length of body 20-51 mm. 30-43 mm. 

„ forceps 6-8-5 „ 4-8 ,, 

Burma : Pegu, Palon, viii./ix. ; Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000- 
3700 ft., iv., xii. {Genoa Mus.). 

Type. Undefined, in Paris, Vienna or Stettin. 

T'his earwig appears to be the commonest in Australia where it 
attains an immense size ; the variety minor, however, is recorded, 
from New South Wales, and it is the form which de Bormans records 
from Burma. It is probable that the Burmese specimens belong 
really to a distinct species. The forceps of the large specimens are 
capable of giving a severe nip, and even of drawing blood from the 
human finger. 



ANISOLABIS. S3 

38. AnisolaMs maritima, Bon, (Fig. 22.) 

Forficula maritima, Bonelli, apud Gene, (32) p. 224. 

Forficula (Labidura) maritima, Fischer, (53) p. 68, pi. 6, fig. 4 a-d. 

Forficesila maritima, Serv. (39) p. 27. 

Forticula (Forficesila) maritima, Haan, (42) p. 240. 

Forcinella maritima, Dohrn, (G2) p. 226. 

Brachylabis maritima, Dolini, (04) p. 293. 

Anisolabis maritima, Fieb. (o3) p. 257; Scudder, (76) p. 303; 
Brunner, (82) p. 9, pi. 1, fig. 2; Borm. (88) p. 435, (94) p. 379 
(00-) p. 45 ; Kirby, (04) p. 17. ' v ; i' 

The references in literature to this species are very numerous. 
Tlie above are the most important. 

Black. Antennae and mouth-parts yellow. Thorax dull black 
smooth, with a few impressed points. Legs uniform yellow! 
Abdomen rather broad, all the segments recurved at the sides 
in the J, the sides regular and in some specimens forming a 
longitudinal keel ; in the $ the sides are merely convex and 
smooth. The whole of the abdomen is sparsely covered with 
impressed points. Last dorsal segment of (S rectangular, parallel- 
sided, broader than long, with a median impression, the posterior 
margin straight; similar in the $, but somewhat narrower. 
Branches of the forceps in the c? remote at the base; in the 
basal third stout, straight, trigonal and somewhat dilated, especially 
the right branch ; asymmetrical, the left branch being gently and 
regularly incurved and tapering, while the right branch is abruptly 
curved inwards, so that the apical third of the branch is at rif^ht 
angles to the longitudinal axis of the insect ; the outer margin 
presents a regular curve ; the inner margin is curved in a semicircle 
and shows a rectangular projection at the basal third where the 
attenuation is sudden. In the $ the branches are symmetrical, 
subcontiguous, trigonal, nearly straight, unarmed, and tapering. 

Length of body 15-23 mm. 21-23 mm. 

forceps 3-3-5 „ 3-5-4-25 „ 

Burma : Kakhyen Hills, viii./ix. ; Teistasserim : Mt. Mulaivit 
3300-6300 ft. (Genoa 3Ius.). ^ ' 

This species, apparently indigenous to the Pal^arctic 
Eegion, has been transported by shipping to all parts of the 
world and has quickly naturalised itself wherever possible. 

Its usual haunts are the banks of rivers and coasts of seas 
but it sometimes occurs on mountains at a considerable elevation' 
as in the above noted instances in Tenasserim ; and de Bormans 
records it from Mount Lebanon. It probably occurs also in the 
mainland of India in suitable localities. 

Although generally considered a stable species, A. maritima 
varies within certain limits, as Scudder first pointed out. That 
author refers to two males from South Carolina, with forceps 

g2 



84 LABIDURID^. 

simple as in the female ; occasionally the antennae have a pale 
ring. The posterior margin of the last dorsal segment of the 
male varies from almost smooth to rugose. 

39. Anisolahis kudagae, Burr* (Fig. 23.) 

Anisolabis kudagse, Burr, (01) p. 320, pi. B, fig. G ; Ktrbt/, (04) 
p. 19. 

Of medium size. Shining black, passing from deep chestnut^ 
through reddish black to deep black. Antenna? dark brown, 
basal and apical segments reddish. Thoracic plates with a well 
marked median line. Legs varying from light red to reddish 
black. Abdomen broad, from red to reddish black, shining, with 
exceedingly fine punctulations ; sides of apical segments convex, 
very finely striated in the c?, smooth in the $. Last dorsal 
segment in the cJ rectangular, broader than long, with a distinct 
median impression and a more or less indistinct tumid elevation 
on each side, over the insertion of the forceps a distinct oblique 
compressed crest on each side ; in the 5 narrowed and simple. 
Forceps with branches in the c5' remote and trigonal at the base, 
the upper ridge becoming obsolete in the basal third; rather 
depressed, tapering and bowed inwards, the apical third strongly 
so ; the right branch is curved more strongly than the left and 
lies aboAe it, but the asymmetry is not nearly so marked as in the 
last species. In the $ the forceps are subcoutiguous, straight, 
tapering ; the inner margin is finely crenulate in both sexes. 

6 $ 

Length of body 12'5-15*75 mm. 15 mm. 

„ forceps 2-3 „ 3*5 „ 

Ceylon : Kudaga, Hutton, vii. (coll. Burr), Maskeliya at 
light, Hakgala and Patipola in April and December {coU, Biirr). 

Tijpa in the author's collection. 

This species somewhat resembles A. maritima, but the forceps 
are more regular and less abruptly curved, the median line of the 
thorax is distinct, and the last dorsal segment has tumid elevations 
and folds that are absent in that species. 

The specimen from Maskeliya, sent by Mr. Green after the 
publication of the original description, is somewhat smaller 
than the type, and much lighter and redder in colour. It is 
found under stones and logs. 

40. Anisolabis annulipes, Lucas. (Fig. 24.) 

Forficesila anuulipes, Lucas, (47) p. 84. 

Forcinella annulipes, Dohrn, (64) p. 290. 

Forficula (Labidura) anuulipes, Fisch. (53) p. 69, pi. 6, fig. G a-c] 

Anisolabis annulipes, Sctidd. (7G) p. 302 ; Brunner, (82) p. 8 ; L'orm. 
(88) p. 485, (94) p. 378, (00-) p. 48; Burr, (01) p. 321, (05') 
p. 28, (06) p. 388, (07-) p. 209 ; lurbij, (04) p. 18. 



ANISOLABIS. 85 

Forcinella hottentotta, Dohrn, (G7-) p. 344. 

Anisolabis bormansi, Scudd., Bull. Mus. Harvard, xxv. p. 5, pi. i, 

%. 1 ; Bonn. (00-) p. 49. 
Forcinella antoni, Dohrn, (64) p. 289. 
Anisolabis antoni, Borm. (00") p. 49. 
Forcinella azteca, Dohrn, (62) p. 226. 
Anisolabis azteca, Scudd. (76) p. 302 : Borm. (00^) p. 49. 
Anisolabis antennata, Kirbi/, (91) p. 517. 

The references given above are the more important in the 
extensive literature and synonymy of this species. 

Medium sized, black, shining. Head black ; antennae with 
basal segment reddish ; the rest greyish brown, except the two 
penultimate segments which are whitish, Prouotum as broad 
as the head, sometimes paler in colour, quadrate ; elytra eii.tireiy 
absent. Abdomen with sides more or less parallel, with no 
tubercles upon the sides of the second and third segments ; sixth 
to ninth segments in the (S with sides acute-angled, striate and 
carinate. Last dorsal segment larger than the others, slightly 
impressed in the middle. Legs testaceous, the femora banded 
with black, as are also the tibice ; the depth and intensity of this 
banding varies very considerably. Branches of the forceps in the 
(5 subcontiguous at the base, stout, strongly incurved, the right 
branch crossing above the left at the apex ; in the 5 the branches 
are straight, conical, subcontiguous. 

Length of body 11 mm. 12-14 mm. 

„ forceps 2 ,, 3-35 ,, 

Bengal : Calcutta (Ind. Mus.), Purneah District (Ind. Mus.) ; 
Muzaffarpur, Behar, Sitamarhi and Pupri (Pusa coll.) ; Pusa 
{Pasa coll., coll. Burr) ; Bombay : Karachi (Paris Mus.), Bombay 
(coll. Bormans) ; Madras : Trichinopoli (coll. Bolivar) ; Burma : 
Metanja, viii. ; Teinzo, v. ; Shwegu, x. ; Bhamo, vii./viii. ; Man- 
dalay, xi.; Eangoou, v./xii. ; Karen-ni, Keba Distr., 3000-3700 ft., 
vi./xii. ; Karen-ni, Greku Distr., 4300-7400 ft., ii., iii., v. (Genoa 
Mus.) ; Ceylon : Punduluoya, Hutton, Kala Wewa, Madulsima 
(coll. Burr). 

A universally distributed species, vei'y abundant in the wild 
state and also under artificial conditions. 

41. Anisolabis dubronii, Kirhy* (Pig. 97.) 

Anisolabis lasta, Borm. (nee Gerst.) (SS) p. 435, (94) p. 379, 

(00-) p. 46 (partim). 
Anisolabis dubronii, Kirhy, (03) p. 68, (04) p. 19 ; Burr, (03) 

p. 270. 

Colour entirely dark reddish black except the head and legs. 
Head ferruginous, the sutures indistinct ; mouth-parts blackish, 
palpi testaceous ; antennae with 21 segments, typical of the genus, 
-dark brown. Pronotum subi'ectangular, longer than broad, slightly 



86 LABIDrEID.15. 

broader posteriorly than anteriorly, anterior and posterior margins 
straight, angles rounded, slightly tumid, the sides very shghtly 
elevated. Mesonotum subquadrate, simple, nearly as long as broad. 
Metanotum transverse, posterior border roundly emarginate. Legs 
uniformly testaceous. Abdomen extremely finely punctulated, 
almost smooth, the lateral tubercles very faint; sides of sixth to 
ninth segments rugulose and striate. Last dorsal segment large, 
square, also extremely finely punctulated, A^ith a very faint median 
longitudinal line. Penultimate ventral segment also very finely 
punctulated; obtusely triangular, rounded at the posterior margin, 
exposing the lateral corners of the last segment ; the rest of the 
venter quite smooth. Pygidium not apparent. Forceps with the 
branches stout, trigonal, blackish red, darker towards the apex, 
unarmed except for a few fine deuticulatious on the inner margin ; 
the right branch is strongly curved in above the left which is 
much less strongly curved. $ unknown. 

6 

Length of body 20-25 mm. 

,, forceps 4 ,, 

Tenasserim : Mt. Mulaiyit, 3300-6300 ft., in April (Brit. Mus.,. 
coll. Burr). 

Type in the British Museum. 

This handsome species is quite distinct from the E. African 
A. Iceta, with Mhich de Bormans confused it ; from other Indian 
species it may be recognized by its large size, red head, clear and 
long legs, and the form of the forceps. 

42. Anisolahis gaudens, Burr.* 

Anisolabis gaudeus, Bim; (04) p. 291 ; (08-) p. 30. 

Size medium; black, shining; antennae with 15 segments, blackish, 
the basal two red ; segments four and five nearly globular ; head 
clear brick-red, smooth; thorax and abdomen typical, black, shining, 
the thorax with a median impression ; last dorsal segment scarcely 
narrowed, smooth. Legs short, yellow, the knees black. Forceps 
stout, depressed, subcontiguous, convex above, straight, tapering, 
houked at the extreme apex. S unknown. 

Length of body 7 mm. 

„ forceps 3 ,, 

Bhutan : Pedong (Paris Mus.). 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

The value of the original description is vitiated by the error 
which was made in mistaking the sex of the type. Attention 
is now called to this, so that collectors may look out for the male, 
in order that the species can be ranged in its correct position and 
its true affinities be determined. The brick-red head recalls 
A. duhronii, but the banded knees constitute a difference. 



BORELLIA. 87 

The Paris Museum possesses another female, from Bhutan 
(Maria Basti), which resembles the type of A. gaudens, except 
that the head is black. Further material is urgently required to 
solv'e the question. 

Genus BORELLIA, Burr. 
Borellia, Burr, (09) p. 325. 

Type, Forficesila moesta, Serville. 

This genus differs from Anisolalns, Fieb. (q. v.) in the 
presence on the mesonotum of small rudimentary elytra. These 
are not generally contiguous at any point, aud are' usually soldered 
to the mesonotum. 

Range. Cosmopolitan. 

Table of Sjiecies. 

1. Elytra uarrow at the base, exposing' the 
mesonotum like a scutellum, dilated 
towards the apex aud contiguous at the 
end of the suture, covering- the base of 

the metauotum (/rceni, Burr, p. 87, 

1.1. Elytra narrow, only covering the sides 
of the mesonotum. 

2. Femora ringed with black stdli, Dohrn, p. 88. 

2.2. Femora not ringed aimandalei, Burr, p. 89. 

43. Borellia greeni, Burr. * 

Anisolabis greeni, Burr, (99) p. 257, (01) p. 319; Kirbfj, (04) 
p. 19. 

Of medium size ; the whole body exceedingly minutely punctu- 
lated and with a few long hairs ; black, the legs brick-red, the rest 
black, except the four apical segments which are pale. Pronotum 
rectangular, with a median impression. Elytra narrow at base, 
exposing a broad, short, transverse area of the mesonotum ; then 
suddenly and strongly dilated, so that the inner margins meet along 
the suture and cover the apical half of the mesonotum. Legs brick- 
red, the knees somewhat darker or all black. Abdomen deep 
reddish black ; last dorsal segment somewhat narrowed in both 
sexes, with a faint median impression, with two faint tubercles 
on posterior margin in the c? • Penultimate ventral segment tri- 
angular, the apex rounded. Forceps alike in both sexes, subcon- 
tiguous, stout, trigonal at base, rapidly tapering, straight, curved 
at the apex, more so in the c? than m the $ ; inner margin with 
a very faint tooth in the middle. 





S 


2 


Length of body . . , , 


. 11 •5-23-5 mm. 


1 7 mm 


,, forceps . 


2-3 „ 


3-25 „ 



88 LABIDURID^. 

Ceylon : Punduluoya, v. & x., under stones and in bungalows 
(coll. Burr), Madulsima, 13.viii.08 {T. B. Fletcher), Kala Wewa, 
12.xii.08 {Willey ; coll. Burr) ; NiLGlEI Hills {Brit. Mus.). 

Type in the authors collection. 

The form of the elytra is the characteristic of this species. 

The specimens taken by Mr. Green at Punduluoya are the typical 
form, as originally described, with bright brick-red legs affording 
a contrast to the jet-black body. 

The specimens taken by Mr. Fletcher at Madulsima are very 
different in appearance, as they are distinctly larger and the legs 
and antennae are entirely dull black. The males attain a maximum 
length of body (without forceps) of 23"5 mm., the forceps 3 mm 
In three of these males, the elytra are almost obsolete and 
their outline can scarcely be detected ; this may be an anelytrous 
variety or, more probably, the specimens are not fully mature. 

The dimensions of the various forms are as follows : — 

Typical specimen from Punduluoya : o X 

Length of body ll*o-13 mm. 17 mm. 

„ forceps 2 „ 3-25 „ 
Black specimens from Madulsima : 

Length of body 15-75-23-.5 „ 19-23 „ 

„ forceps 3-3'5 „ 3-5-4 „ 
Anelytrous specimens from Madulsima : 

Length of body 15"5-17 ,, 

„ forceps 3 „ 

These differences are not of sufficient importance to justify the 
establishment of a distinct species, and it is safer to regard these 
big black specimens from Madulsima as a local race or variety. 



44. Borellia stall, Bohm. 

Forcinella stall, Bohm, (64) p. 286, 

Anisolabis stSli, Scudd. (76) p. 308; Borm. (88), p. 435, (94) 

p. 378, (00-) p. 45 ; Burr, (02^ p. 479, (08^) p. 30; Kirhy, (04) 

p. 19. 

Small, black, shining ; antennae with basal two segments red, 
the rest black, except the two or three apical segments, which are 
whitish. Pro-, meso- and metanota typical. Elytra present as 
small ovate flaps on the side of the mesonotum ; they are as long 
as the mesonotum, but much narrower than long. Legs testaceous, 
the femora and tibiae ringed with blackish. Porceps of c? with 
branches not contiguous at the base, trigonal in basal half, straight 
at first and robust, tapering and cylindrical in the apical half, 
sharply curved in the apical third, the right branch curved more 
strongly than the left and above it ; in the $ the branches are 



BOBELLIA. 89 

robust, trigonal, straight, tapering, cylindrical towards the apex 
and gently hooked there. 

d 2 

Length of body 8-9 mm. 9-10 mm. 

,, forceps .... 1-2 „ 1-2-5 ,, 

Bombay: Bombay (coll. Bormans), Karachi (Paris Mus.); 
Madras : Pondicherry (Paris Mus.) ; Ceylon : Diyatalawa in 
August, Trincomali in July (coll. Burr). 

Type in Stockholm. 

Widely distributed through the Malay Archipelago and else- 
where in the Oriental Region, this species occurs also in Mada- 
gascar (Nossi-be), the Comoro Is., and Pemba, off the east coast 
of Africa, 

Superficially, it resembles the ubiquitous Anisolahis annulipes in 
size, colour and form, but may be at once distinguished by the 
presence of narrow, but perfectly distinct, lateral flaps on the 
mesonotum, the abbreviated rudiments of elytra. Immature 
specimens of these two species are probably indistinguishable. 

The specimens from Ceylon are a httle larger than tfie typical 
form (length of body, 13-5 mm.), the legs are of a uniform 
yellow colour, and the head is rather larger and more tumid. 



45. Borellia annandalei, Burr. * 

Auisolabis annandalei, Burr, (06) p. 389, (07-) p. 209. 

Head reddish, smooth and shining, darker in the centre ; sutures 
fairly distinct. Antennae with 10-17 segments, typical, the basal 
segments testaceous, the rest dark greyish brown. Pronotum 
ample, subquadrate, somewhat broader posteriorly than anteriorly, 
all borders straight, hinder angles rounded ; disc somewhat tumid, 
but metazona scarcely more flat than prozona ; median suture 
fairly distinct ; sides distinctly reflexed ; dark fuscous, varied 
M'ith testaceous, especially on the borders ; slightly longer than 
bi'oad. Mesonotum smooth, ample, transvei'se, bearing the elytra. 
Metanotum normal, posterior border sinuate. Elytra present 
as small, elongated, testaceous, oval flaps on each side of the 
mesonotum ; as long as the mesonotum and about one-quarter 
as broad. Legs yellowish testaceous, the femora and knees some- 
times marked with a narrow black band, which is often obsolete. 
Prosternimi oblong, scarcely attenuate posteriorly. Abdomen 
dark reddish black, shining, very finely punctulated ; somewhat 
flattened and broadened towards the apex (in the manner of typical 
Anisolahis maritima, Bon., (S ) ; sides of the segments, as seen from 
above, slightly recurved ; as seen from the side, pointed posteriorly 
and bearing a small longitudinal keel. Last dorsal segment ample, 
broader than long, very finely punctulated, with a deep median 



90 LABIDUKID^. 

impression ; hinder border roughened and truncate. Penultimate 
ventral segment very large, broad and ample, well rounded poste- 
riorly, entirely covering the last ventral segment. Last ventral 
segment almost entirely covered by the preceding, visible at the 
corners, where a longitudinal small keel is present. Pygidium 
scarcely visible, very small, short, blunt and rounded. Forceps 
with the branches remote at the base, stout and trigonal in the 
basal half, crenulate on the inner margin, straight ; in the apical 
half strongly attenuate, smooth, unarmed and incurved ; the right 
branch is a little more strongly curved than the left. 5 unknown. 

6 

Length of body 10-12-5 mm. 

„ forceps l'75-2 ,, 

Bengal : Comilla, Purneah District {Tnd. 3Ius.) ; a doubtful 
specimen from Ceylon: Halaoya ( TF?7?<??/ ; coll. Burr). 

Type in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

This species is stouter and broader than B. sicili, the legs 
are not banded and the colour is paler, more inchned to reddish. 
It also attains a larger size. 



Subfamily IV. LABIDURIN^. 

This is the typical group of the Lahidurida>, and is represented 
in every part of the world where earwigs occur. 




Fig. 7. — Antenna of Labidura. 



Fig. 6. — Sternal plates of Labidura 
riparia, Pall. 

Table of Genera. 

1. Sides of abdomen furnished with 
varying number of spines, hooks or 

crests FoRCiPULA, Bol., p. 91. 

1.1. Sides of abdomen smooth Labidura, Leach, p. 95. 



rOECIPULA. 91 



Genus FORCIPULA, Bol. 

Forcipula, Bolivar, (97) p. 283. 
Labidura (partim), Bohrn and authors. 

Type, Labidura qtuulrispinosa, Dohrn. 

Large or niedium sized insects with the general characters of 
Labidura, but certain abdominal segments are furnished with 
spines, crests or ridges at the sides ; the keels of the elytra are 
present at the shoulder only, not reaching posterior margin, or 
almost obsolete. The forceps of the male are long and slender, 
often as long as the body, undulating and often constricted in 
the middle ; those of the female are stouter, straight and toothed 
before the apex. 

liaufje. This genus is represented in the tropical parts of Africa 
and America, but attains its maximum development in the Oriental 
Region. 

live species are known in India. They have a characteristic 
appearance, and may be recognized at a glance. 

Table of Sjiecies. 

1. Segments 3-6 of abdomen of c^" with 

two spines on each side decohji, Borm., p. 91. 

1.1. Certain abdominal segments of S with 
one spine on each side. 
2. Segments 3-5 of S with spines .... frisjnnosa, Dohrn, p. 92. 
2.2. Segments 3-6 of c? with spines. 

3. Elytra nearly smooth : basal portion 

of J forceps straight and parallel, imgnax, Kirby, p. 93. 
3.3. Elytra granulated ; basal portion of 
d" forceps bowed. 
4. Colour dark chocolate ; spines [p. 94. 

simple qiiadrispinosa, Dohrn, 

4.4. Colour lurid ; spines rising out of 
compressed keels ; (forceps very 
long) lurida, Bol., p. 94. 

46. Forcipula decolyi, Borm** (Fig. 25.) 

Forcipula decolyi, Borjii. (OLV) p. 444; Burr, (04) p. 289, (Oo'V 
p. 27, (013) p. 388, (07-^) p. 207 ; Jurbi/, (04) p. 9. 

Dark chestnut-brown. Antennae and legs ochre-yellow ; elytra 
rather short ; wings abortive. Abdomen typical, segments three to 
six with double spines in the d ; the upper spine is much larger 
than the lower ; the spines on segments three to five large, those 
on second and sixth much smaller ; the milling on the posterior 
borders stronger on the hinder segments. Last dorsal segment 
srnooth, square, with a median depression. Forceps of the d" 
trigonal at the base, then cylindrical, gently arcuate, constricted 



92 LABIDUKIDA.. 

about the middle, then straight, parallel, hooked and crossing at 
the apices, sometimes with a tooth on the inner margin. Forceps 
of 5 trigonal as far as the middle, nearly straight, typical of 
the genus. 

Assam : Sibsagar {Ind. Mus.), Kurseong, at 5000 ft. (Brit, Mus., 
Ind. Mus., coll. Burr) ; Nepal : Soondrijal {Ind. Mus.). 

Also known from New Guinea (Borm.). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

The double spines and abbreviated wings render this a very 
distinct species. De Bormans gives the wrong segments in 
enumerating the spines. The milling of the segments is always 
stronger towards the sides and on the second segment shows the 
beginning of development into the spines ; on the sixth segment 
the spines are feeble, and show obsolescence back to the milling. 
The spines are blunt and recurved. 

Relative to this species, Dr. Annandale makes the following 
note : " . . . . imder stones at edge of mountain streams, 
practically in the vt^ater. When forced towards the stream, they 
swam rapidly on the surface, but they did not enter the water of 
their own accord. Their position must have rendered them liable 
to be submerged or washed away by sudden floods." 

47. Forcipula trispinosa, DoJirn. (Fig. 26.) 

Labidura trispinosa, Dohrn, (63) p. 310. 

Forcipula trispinosa, Bonn. (00") p. 30 ; Kirby, (04) p. 9 ; Burr, 

(04) p. 289, (053) p. 27, (07-) p. 207. 
Labidura moro.>a, Kirby, (91) p. 513 ; Borm. (00") p. 36. 
Forcipula morosa, Kirby, (04) p. 9. 

Of medium size ; general colour black, with dense yellowish 
pubescence. Antennae typical, tawny. Head black. Pronotum 
black, the sides tawny, square. Elytra exceedingly finely punctu- 
late, neai'ly smooth ; black, with yellowish pubescence. Wings 
smooth and black, the tips yellowish. Legs uniform tawny. 
Abdomen deep blackish chestnut, exceedingl}^ finely punctulate, 
posterior border of each segment milled ; sides of segments three 
to five in the S with a distinct sharp slender spine ; in the $ with 
two spines but no tubercles. Last dorsal segment squai'e, smooth, 
with a deep median impression ; posterior mai'gin truncate in S , 
simple but milled in $ , with a blunt tubercle over the root of 
each branch of the forceps. Penultimate ventral segment square. 
Forceps long, with branches in the S remote at the base, trigonal, 
straight for about two-thirds of their length, with a long sharp spine 
on the inner margin about the middle of the straight part ; at two- 
thirds of their length they are bent in and armed with a second 
sharp tooth ; beyond this they are sti'aight to the points, which 
are hooked inwards. In the $ the branches are subcontiguous, 
stout, trigonal, gradually tapering and 8traight, the inner margin 
crenulate, and a small sharp tooth just before the apex which is 
hooked. 

There is a form, occasioned by stunted growth or defective 



FORCIPULA. 93 

nourishment, in which the wiugs are not developed ; the forceps 
are nearly straight, merely gently undulated, the teeth obsolete, 
the first abdominal spine almost or entirely obsolete. To this we 
may give the name minor, though it is hard to say whether it is 
an ill-developed form of this species or of F. imgnax. 

Length of body. ... 20 mm. 21 mm. 10-14 mm. 
„ forceps.. 12 „ . 6 „ 5-5-6 ,, 

SiKKiM {Inch Mas.) ; Nepal : Chitlong, Pharping {Ind. Mus.) ; 
United Provinces : Kumaun, Bhim Tal {lad. Mus., coll. Burr) ; 
Bengal: Calcutta, at light (/nr?. Mus.). 

Var. minor, nov. 

Nepal : Soondrijal {Ind. Mus.) ; United Provinces : Kumaun,. 
Bhim Tal {Lid. Mus., coll. Burr). 

Type in Vienna Museum. 

According to Dubrony, this species occurs in Abyssinia, but 
the record refers to an African species, F. gariazzi, Borelli. 

48. Forcipula pugnax, Kirhy.* (Fig. 27.) 

Labidura pugnax, Kirby, (91) p. 510, pi. 12. fig. 1 ; Borm. (94) 

p. 377. 
Forcipula pugnax, Borm. (00^) p. 443, (00-) p. 30 ; Burr, (04) p. 287, 

Size large; colour deep chestnut-brown or blackish, with^a 
close yellowish pubescence. Antennae tawny. Head black. Pro- 
notum square, black, with yellow borders. Elytra dark chocolate- 
brown, exceedingly finely punctulate, pubescent. Wings of the 
same colour, smooth. Legs uniform tawny. Abdomen blackish 
brown, finely granulose, hinder borders of the segments milled ; 
sides of segments 3-6 in the J armed with recurved spines ; the 
one nearest the base is the biggest and they regularly decrease 
posteriorly. Last dorsal segment of J smooth, with a median 
impression, truncate posteriorly. Forceps of S «'ith branches 
remote at the base, reddish, trigonal, straight for about two-thirds 
their length, then abruptly bent inwards, with a blunt tooth on 
the inner margin at the angle of the bend, then straight, simple, 
hooked at the points. 

6 
Length of body. . . . 20-5 mm. 

„ forceps.. 12-14-5 mm. 

Punjab : Kangi*a Valley {Brit. Mus.) ; Bhutan : Maria Ba^ti 
{coll. Burr) ; AsSAM : Kurseong {coll. Burr) ; Burma : Eangoon,, 
v.-vii. {Genoa Mus.). 

Type in the British Museum. 

This species is closely allied to F. trispinosa ; it only differs in 
its browner colour, in having four abdominal spines instead of 
three, and in having no tooth in tlie middle of the forceps, and 
only a blunt one at the angle. 



94 LABIDURID-E. 

49. Forcipula quadrispinosa, Dohm. (Fig. 28.) 

Labidura quadrispinosa, Lohrn, (63) p. 311 ; Bonn. (88) p. 434, 

(94) p. 377. 
Forcipula quadrispinosa, Bol. (97) p. 283 ; Bortn. (00-) p. 30 ; Burr, 

(01) p. 323, (04) p. 289, (05^) p. 27, (073) p. .510. 

Large ; blackish chocolate. Antennae tawny. Head black. 
Pronotum square, black, sides tawny. Elytra rich chocolate- 
brown, very dark, finely granulose, not pubescent. AVings 
resemble the elytra. Legs tawny, often with darker shading. 
Abdomen black, finely granulose, hinder margins of the segments 
milled ; sides of segments 3-6 armed with thin spines. Last 
dorsal segment square, smooth, with a median impression, the 
hinder margin truncate. In the $ the spines are absent and the 
last dorsal segment is somewhat narrower. Forceps with the 
branches remote at the base in the d , trigonal, slender and 
elongate, bowed so as to enclose an elliptical area, nearly meeting at 
about two-thirds of their length at which point there is sometimes 
a blunt tooth; the apical tliird straight and the point hooked. 
In the 5 the branches are subcontiguous, stouter, straight, crenu- 
late along the inner margin near the base, with a strong blunt 
tooth on the inner margin near the apex. 





6 


5 


Length of body . . . . 


17-22 mm. 


22 mm 


„ forceps . . 


9-10 „ 


5 „ 



SiKKiM {Ind. Mus.) ', Bhutan : Maria Basti {coll. Burr) ; 
Bengal: Calcutta (Brussels Mus.); Madras: Tranquebar (cqU. 
Dohm); Travancore, Tenmalai (Annandale; Ind. Mus., coll. Burr); 
Ceylon (coll. Dohm) ; Btjema : Bhamo, viii., Katha, ii./vi. 
(Genoa Mns.). 

Occurs also in Siam, Cambodia and Annam. 

TyjJe undefined, in Paris or Berlin. 

50. Forcipula lurida, Bol. (Figs. 29 & 92.) 

Forcipula quadrispinosa, var. lurida, Bol. (97) p. 283 ; Bortn. (00^) 

p. 31. 
Forcipula lurida, Eirbi/, (04) p. 9. 

Resembles typical F. quadrispinosa, but is entirely lurid in 
colour, with a reddish oblique keel on the sides of the segments 
2-5 (fide Bolivar, 3-6?) of the abdomen of the males, the keels 
being produced into a tooth, which is crenulate beyond the middle. 
Forceps very long. 

6 

Length of body 23 mm. 

„ forceps .... 22 , 



LABIDURA. 95 

Madras : Madras {Oxford Mus.\ Trichinopoli {coU. Bolivar). 

A larva of Forcipula, sp., from Peradeniya, Ceylon (coll. Burr), 
may perhaps be referred to this species. 

Kirby is probably right in elevating this form to specific rank, 
as apart from the coloui*, the abdominal spines are of a different 
shape. 



Genus LABIDURA, Leacli. 

Labidm-a, Leach, (1815) p. 118. 

Forficesila, Serville, (39) p. 39. — Type, Forficula riparia, Pall. 

Type, Forficula riparia, Pall. 

Body rather elongate and depressed. Antennae with from 20 to 
36 segments; third segment near'y as long as the first, the fourth 
and fifth short, as long as the second ; sixth to ninth each a 
trifle longer, all cylindrical, the remainder gradually lengthening, 
but even the apical segment is barely as long as the third. Pro- 
notum more or less quadrate. Elytra always well developed, with a 
carina usually well developed, but sometimes obsolete before 
reaching the posterior margin. Wings well developed or rudi- 
mentary. Scutellum concealed. Prosternum constricted before 
the posterior margin which is truncate. Mesosternum quadrate, 
truncate posteriorly. Metasternum not produced beyond the 
posterior coxae, truncate. Legs rather long, slender ; first tarsal 
segment long and cylindrical, longer than the second and third 
united. Abdomen elongate, rather depressed, with no lateral 
tubercles or spines. Last dorsal segment of cJ large, subquadrate; 
narrower in the $ . Penultimate ventral segment of J narrowed, 
subtruncate at the apex ; in the 5 bluntly triangular. Pygidium 
concealed. Forceps of J with branches remote at base, elongate, 
rather slender, variously armed ; in the 5 subcontiguous, straight. 

liange. Cosmopolitan. 

This genus includes several species, but owing to the great 
range of variation of the typical species, the number of names has 
been enormously multiplied. 

The genus falls into two groups ; one including the larger 
species, riparia Pall., and beugalensis, Dohrn ; the other, the smaller 
species, lividipes, Duf., tenuicornis, Borm., and nepalensis., Burr. 

Once it is admitted that the innumerable varieties from all parts 
of the world are but different races of one and the same species, 
the discrimination offers no difficulty. 

It is important to bear in mind the fact that the presence or 
absence of wings, or rather their development or abbreviation, is 
of no value whatever as a systematic character. In L. riparia, 
specimens with abbreviated wings are very frequent, but this does 
not serve to separate them, any more than the varying intensity 
of the coloration. 



96 LABIDUETD^. 

Tahle of Species. 

1. Size small (7'5-13 mm.) ; pronotum 

somewhat longer than broad, rounded 

posteriorly ; colour dark blackish grey. 

2. Forceps of S dilated in basal half on 

inner margin nepalensis. Burr, p. 96. 

2.2. Forceps of J cylindrical lividipes, Dufour, p. 97. 

1.1. Size larger (14-25 mm.) ; pronotum 

subquadrate, truncate posteriorly with 

angles rounded; colour tawny, reddish 

chestnut, varied with blackish. 

2. Forceps of (S with two strong teeth 

on inner margin hengalensis, Dohrn, p. 98. 

2.2. Forceps of J unarmed or with one 

tooth riparia, Pall., p. 99. 



51. Labidura nepalensis, Burr.* (Fig. 30.) 
Labidura nepalensis, Burr, (07'-j p. 208. 

Stature small and slender ; colour dull black ; last dorsal seg- 
ment and forceps reddish black ; antennae greyish ; legs testaceous, 
femora and tibiae banded with blackish. Antennae typical of 
genus, 21 segments. Head smooth and convex, sTitures obsolete ; 
pronotum some\\hat longer than broad, anterior border straight, 
posterior border rounded ; prozona somewhat tumid, metazona 
flattened. Elytra long, truncate, granulate, carina sharp and well- 
defined; dull black. Wings long, same texture as elytra. Legs 
slender, typical. Sternum brown, typical. Abdomen dull chocolate- 
black, with a pale sparse pubescence, which is denser and longer in 
the 2 , apparently smooth, exceedingly finely punctulated, no lateral 
tubercles. Yenter dark brown, smooth, with fine yellowish pubes- 
cence ; penultimate ventral segment of S obtusangular, truncate 
apically ; rounded in $ . Last ventral segment almost hidden in both 
sexes, only the exterior angles visible. Last dorsal segment of S 
rectangular, reddish ])lack, with a longitudinal median sulcus, and 
a blunt tubercle on each side at posterior border ; in $ attenuate, 
with median depression. Pygidium in c^ or $ not apparent. 
Forceps with the branches of the S trigonal and stout at the base, 
inner margin depressed into a sharp flattened plate along one- 
third of its length ; this part terminated with a small sharp tooth, 
the edges contiguous, then strongly attenuate, unarmed, gently 
incurved, the underside of each branch deeply furrowed ; in the 
$ simple, straight, conical. 

6 2 

Length of body 7-5-9-75 mm. 8-5-11 mm. 

„ forceps.... 3 ,, 1-75-2 „ 

IS'epal : Soondrijal ; Pharping {R. Hodgari, Inch JLis.). 
Type in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 



LABIDURA. 97 

This is one of the group of smaller species, including L. lividipes 
and L. temiicomis. It is well characterized by the fattened and 
dilated forceps, resembling many species of Forjicula. 

It is interesting to note that two species very similar to this 
occur preserved in Baltic amber of Oligocene age. 

52. Labidura lividipes, Dufour. (Fig. 31.) 

Forficula lividipes, Dufour, (28) p. 340. 

Labidura lividipes, Bonn. (00") p. 36; KiTb\^, (03) p. 66, (04) 

p. 11 ; Burr, (01) p. 318, (02) p. 479, (05') p. 28, (06) p. 388, (07^J 

p. 209, (07^) p. 510 ; Annandale, (06) p. 391. 
Labidura clufourii, Scudd. (76) p. 322; Brunner (82) p. 7; Borm. 

(88) p. 434. (94) p. 378 ; Burr, (00-) p. 49, (01) p. 316. 
Forticesila meridionalis, Serv. (39) p. 26. 

Forficula (Labidura) meridionalis, Fisch. (53) p. 67, pi. vi, fig. 3 a-c. 
Forficula meridionalis, Fieb. (53) p. 255. 

Forficula pallipes, Dufour, (nee Fnbr.) (20) p. 316, pi. 96, fig. 7. 
Labidura pallipes, Dohrn, (63) p. 317. 
Forficesila vicina, Lucas, (46) p. 5, pi. l.fig. 2. 
Labidura vicina, Dohrn, (63) p. 318 ; Kirhy, (04) p. 12. 
Labidura lividipes, subsp. vicina, Borm. (00") p. 36. 

Small, dark chestnut or blackish grey; antennae with 25 segments. 
Head black, smooth, convex. Pronotum somewhat longer than 
broad and somewhat broadened posteriorly : anterior margin 
straight ; posterior margin rounded, the sides convex ; dark chestnut, 
with a pale yellowish or sometimes bluish border. Elytra yellowish 
brown, leathery, with complete keel. Wings of the same colour, 
developed or abbreviated. Legs dark greyish, the knees and tarsi 
generally yellowish. Abdomen almost smooth, blackish ; last 
dorsal segment of J transverse, ample, with an obtuse tubercle over 
the insertion of the forceps. Penultimate ventral segment obtuse,, 
truncate at the apex. Forceps of c5" vvith branches remote at the 
base, rounded, straight at the base itself, then bowed inwards at 
an angle, the branches themselves being straight, not arched ; in 
the apical third on the inner margin there is often a strong tooth, 
this is sometimes absent ; in the $ the branches are straight, 
cylindi'ical, simple and contiguous. 

cT $ 

Length of body 7-11 mm. 6-5-10 mm. 

„ forceps.... l*5-3-2„ 1-5-2 „ 

Bengal: Purneah District, Calcutta (Ind. Mus.): Pusa (Pusa 
coll., coll. Burr) ; BOMBAY (Ind. J\Jt(s.) ; Madras : Trichinopoli 
(coll. Bolivar) ; Ceylon : Punduluoya, Chilaw in October, at light, 
Peradeniya, Kala Wewa (Buda-Pesth Mus.), Ambegammoa, Batti- 
calloa, Galle, Aluttnuwara, Trincomali (coll. Burr) • Burma : 
Teinzo in May, Kyonk-Myaung in May, Bhamo in June, Katha 
in June, Sheunaja in June. Eangoon, June to December, Kokarit, 
January and November (Genoa Mus.). 

E 



98 LABIDUEID.i;. 

This species is easy to recognize by its relatively small size and 
grey colour ; the bend of the forceps is quite distinctive. The 
presence or absence of the tooth on the inner margin of the 
forceps of the male is not a sufficiently important character to 
justify a separate name, and vicina of Lucas is accordingly sunk as 
a synonym. 

This species is widely distributed throughout Southern Europe, 
Africa (as least as far south as Pretoria), and tropical Asia. 

In India it seems to be as common as it is M'idely distributed ; 
it is the subject of an interesting note by Dr. Annandale (see 
ante, p. 15). 

It is often found in rotten wood in company with EcJiinosoma 
( Green). 



53. Labidura "bengalensis, Dohm. (Fig. 32.) 

Labidura bengalensis, Dohm, (G.3) p. 309 ; Duhr. (79) p. 3-53 ; 
Borm. (00-) p. 16; Burr, (00-) p. 49, (01) p. 317, (05^) p. 27 
(06) p. 388, (072) p. 207 ; Kirby, (03) p. 64, (04) p. 9. 

Psalis bengalensis, Scudd. (76) p. 327. 

Dark chestnut -brown. Antennse greyish yellow. Pronotum 
brown, often A\ith a yellowish margin ; elytra dark chestnut- 
brown, often with a red band along the suture. Wings and legs 
yellowish. Forceps of S with the branches strong, keeled above, 
remote, with a strong tooth on the inner margin near the base and 
another about two-thirds down their length ; beyond the second 
tooth the inner margin is denticulate to the apes, the branches are 
gently curved inwards ; in the 5 near, but not coutiguous, almost 
straight, denticulate all along the inner margin. 

Length of body 32-45 mm. 

„ forceps 7-10 „ 

Bengal : Calcutta (Ind. 3Ius., Brussels Mus.), Berhampur, 
Chandpur, district of Tipperah (Tnd. Mus.) ; Madeas (Brit. Mus.) ; 
Ceylon : Galle, Watawella and Butiwa ( Willey ; coll. Burr). 

T)jpe undefined, in Vienna or Berlin. 

Its powerful build and deep colour give this species a distinctive 
appearance, which is difficult to express in words, but it can be 
distinguished at a glance from L. riparia once it is known. The 
forceps are differently curved and the teeth are more numerous. 
The strong denticulation of the forceps of the female is very 
distinctive, yet in some small specimens it is fully developed and 
these resemble some forms of L. riparia. 



LABIDUEA. 



54. Labidura riparia, FnUas. (Figs. 33 & 34.) 

[Tlie synonymy and literature of this species is very extensive. The 
following' are the more important notices of synonyms and references, 
which particular!}^ concern the Indian Fauna, or those which have 
interest from beinjj: hitherto unrecorded. More complete synonymj' is 
given by Scudder (76) and Kirby (03). In the latter paper, there are 
impoixant observations upon the diftereut forms and their distribution.] 

Forficula riparia, Pallas, (73) p. 50. 

Labidura riparia, Dohrn, (63) p. 313 ; Scudd. (76) p. 3:23 (giving 

full references up to 1876) ; Brunner, (82) p. 5 ; Bortnans, (88) 

p. 434, (94) p. 378, (00') p. 33 ; Bun; (00-^) p. 40, (01) p. 316, 

pi. B, tig. 4, (05=) p. 27, (06) p. 388, (07^) p. 207 ; Kirbi/, (03) 

p. 64, (04) p. 10. 
Forliculfi piiliipes, FaOr. (nee Diifour), (75) p. 270; Oliv. (72) 

p. 468. 
P Forticula dentata, Fabr. (75) p. 270. 
Forticula gigantea, Fabr. (87) p. 24 ; Gene, (32) p. 8. 
Labidura gigantea. Leach, {\o) p. 707; Stephens, (37) p. 8. 
Foriicesila (Labidura) gigantea, Fischer, (53) p. 65, pi. 6, fig. 1. 
Forticesila gigantea, Serv. (39) p. 23, pi. 1, fig. 2 ; Lucas, (46) p. 3 ; 

Fieber, (53) p. 252. 
Forficula (Forficesila) gigantea, Burm. (38) p. 751 ; Haan, (42) 
^ p. 243. 
Forficesila icterica, Serv. (39) p. 25. 
Labidura icterica, Kirby, (03) p. Q^, (04) p. 11. 
Labidura riparia var. inermis, Brnmier, (82) p. 5. 
Labidura marginella, Costa, (39) p. 50, pi. 1, figs. 1-2. 
Labidura mougoliea, Rehn, (05) p. 603, fig. 2 (n. syn.). 
Labidura dubrouii, Borg, (04) p. 565 (n. syn.). 
Labidura karschi, Borg, (04) p. 565 (n. syn.). 
Labidura distincta, Rodz. Wieii. ent. Zeit. xvi. p. 153 (1897). 
Forficula (Forticesila) bivittata, Burm. (38j p. 751. 
Forticesila terminalis, Serv. (39) p. 25. 
Uemogorgon patagonicus, Kirby, (91) p. 515, pi. 12, fig, 2, (04) 

p. 12. ^ 
Labidura pluvialis, Kirby, (91) p. 512, (03) p. GQ, (04) p. 11, 
Labidura granulosa, Kirliy, (91) p. 511, (03) p. 66^ (04) p. 11. 
Forticula (Forticesila) gigantea var. japonica, Haan, (42) p. 240. 
Forticula erythrocephala, Faljr. [wftcOlir.) (93) p. 4. 
Forficula (Forficesila) suturalis, Burm. (38) p. 752. 
Forficesila xanthopus, Stdl, (60) p. 300. 
Labidura servillei, Dohr», (^63) p. 316 ; Borm. (00-) p. 35 ; Kirby, 

(03) p. 66, (04) p. 11. 
Labidura suturalis, Kirby, (03) p. 66, (04) p. 11. 
Labidura clarki, Kirby, (91) p. 512, (03) p. 67, (04) p. 12. 
Labidura riparia, subsp. pallipes, pluvialis, japonica, erythrocephala, 

livida, Bonn. (00-) pp. 34-36. 

Reddish testaceous, dark chestnut or tawny. Antennae 
yellowish; head reddish. Elytra tawny, the suture banded with 
reddish ; keel of elytra well developed, but often obsolete in 

h2 



100 LA.BIDUIlIDiE. 

posterior half. Wings yellowish, well developed or rudimentary. 
Legs long, yellowish. Abdomen tawny, the dorsal surface reddish. 
Last dorsal segment ample, smooth, yellowish, quadrate ; 
posterior margin armed with two acute points (often absent). 
Penultimate ventral segment of c? obtusely triangular, the apex 
truncate ; in $ apex rounded. Forceps tawny, darker towards 
apex ; in the J the branches are remote at the base, elongate, gently 
and regularly curved inwards, cylindrical, with a keel above near 
the base ; towards the base on the inner margin there is often a 
tooth, sometimes very strong, sometimes obsolete. In the 2 
the forceps are subcontiguous, straight and denticulate along the 
inner margin, especially near the base. 

d 2 

Length of body 14-24 mm. 14-20 mm. 

forceps .... 3-25-12 „ 3-5 „ 

Sink : Karachi (Paris Mus., Brit. 3Jus., coll. Bxirr) : Uxitet> 
Provinces: Dehra Dun, Kathgodam ; Sikkim: Darjiling (i-'am 
Mus.) ; Bengal : Pusa, Berhampur, Calcutta, Comilla {Ind. IIiis.) ; 
Oeissa : Balasor (Paris 3his.) ; Mysore : Bangalore (Ind. 3Ins.) ; 
Bombay : (Paris Mus., Brit. Mtis., coll. Burr) ; Madras : Pondi- 
cherrv {Paris Mus.) ; Ceylon: Ambegamraoa and Kala Wewa 
(coll. Burr) ; BtJRMA : Teinzo in June; Kyonk-Myaung in April ; 
Bhamo in July to August ; Senmyingyan in February ; from 
Tenang to Mandalay in June; Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000- 
5000 ft., January to April (Genoa Mus.). 

Var. inermis, Briinner. 

Bengal : Calcutta, Berhampur, Purneah District, Pusa (IncL 
Mus.) ; Ceylon -. Hamhantota (very dark form, Fletcher). 

This cosmopolitan species is exceedingly plastic, numerous 
names having been given, as even the abridged synonymy will show. 
Whether these forms are " species " or not is a matter of personal 
opinion, or rather of convenience, but the names are now so 
numerous that it is difficult to assign the correct forms to them. 
The following are the main points of variation : — 

(i.) Size. This \^'ill be seen from the dimensions given. The form 
described by Kirby from Santarem (Amazons) has a total 
length of 51 mm. 

(ii.) Intensity of colour. The typical form of Pallas is evidently 
the pale Palsarctic type ; when alive this is almost white, but 
after death the specimen assumes that dirty ta^^•ny colour 
with \\ hich we are so familiar from cabinet specimens. Some 
from Japan, Russia, and the Philippines are nearly black, and 
others from Australia are of a uniform pale tawny. 

(iii.) Colour of the head. This varies from pale yellowish to 
black. 

(iv.) Colour of the pronotum. Varies from tawny to black, often 
with a pale border or median reddish stripe. 



LABIDURA. 101 

(v.) Texture of elytra. These may be quite smooth or of a leathery 

granulated texture. 
(vi.) Keel of elytra may attain the posterior border, or scarcely 

surpass the shoulder of the elytra, 
(vii.) Colour of elytra. From tawuy to black ; in the latter case a 

more or less narrow red baud is usually visible along the 

suture ; the commonest form in collections is reddish-tawny 

with a red band dowu the suture and a fuscous band down 

the disc of the elytra, 
(viii.) Development of wings. These are often prominent, often 

scarcely protruding, and often abbreviated, 
(ix.) Colour of wings. Eeddish-brown, pale tawny, or tawny with 

a black spot, 
(x.) Colour of abdomen. Tawny with indistinct dark dorsal stripe, 

or dark reddish chestnut, with or without the dorsal stripe, or 

almost uniform dull black, 
(xi.) Armature of last dorsal segment. Two short sharp spines 

generally present; occasionally only one; often both are 

obsolete, 
(xii.) Armature of forceps, d : a strong tooth may be present 

about the middle or near the apex, or may be entirely absent. 

5 : the basal denticulation varies in strength and is often 

nearly obsolete. 

As all these different foimis appear to occur irregularly in all 
parts of the world, so that specimens from widely separated 
localities are almost indistiuguishable, and extremes occur in the 
same neighbourhood, specific rank should not be accepted for them 
until it has been proved. 

It is true that certain forms are more or less restricted to 
certain areas. Thus Kirby has described as L. truncata the 
Australian form, in which the male forceps are strongly denticu- 
lated as far as a median tooth and there is a second tooth near the 
extremity, the anal points are wanting ; but even in this form 
there is colour-aberration, from uniform tawny to tawny and deep 
black ; the wings are long or short. Specific rank is hardly justi- 
fied, and yet it is undoubtedly convenient to know the Australian 
specimens as the " tmncata form," as they have an undoubted 
though ill-defined characteristic appearance. 

Some South American forms have a very distinctive appearance. 

A pale form, with no anal points and a small second tooth not 
quite at the extremity of the forceps, is identified by Kirby with 
L. icterka of Serville, from India, Ceylon and China. 

A very common form in India is probably identical with 
Brunner's variety inermis ; the size is small, the colour deep, the 
head, pronotum and elytra being almost entirely black ; the anal 
points are wanting; the forceps are relatively short and the 
teeth are almost obsolete. Specimens agreeing with this form 
occur in Japan and Java. 

In the present state of our knowledge, for the purposes of this 



102 LABIDUEIDiE. 



work, it is convenient to regard L. icterica, Serv., Kirby's Asiatic 
form, as a subspecies, variety or race of L. riparia, scarcely 
deserving a distinctive name ; and the dwarfed, dark, unarmed 
form, with no anal points, so common in India, as variety inermis^ 
Brunner. 



Subfamily V. PARISOLABIN^. 

This small group was formerly attached to the Brachylahhup, 
with which it has several features in common, such as the long 
slender tarsi, with long second segment, few antennal segments, 
and almost rectangular meso- and metasterna. 

The antennae are, however, longer than in that group, and this 
shows affinity with the Lahichmna', as also the convex, subparallel 
body, long tarsi, and absence of glandular folds. For these 
reasons, as well as the fact that the metasternum is truncate, it 
appears to be more nearly related to the Labidurina' than to the 
Psalime. 

Two genera are known ; one, Parisolahis, Yerh., contains a 
single species occun-ing in New Zealand ; the other, Pseudisolabis, 
with one species in New Zealand and two in India. 



Genus PSEUDISOLABIS, Bm;: 

Pseudisolabis, Burr, (08^) p. 254. 

Type, P. ivcdl-eri, Burr. 

Antennae with 15 segments, the fii-st long, strongly clavate; 
second minute, cylindrical; third cylindrical, long, but not so 
long as the first ; fourth minute and globular, not longer than 
broad ; fifth longer than fourth, a little longer than broad ; the 
rest gradually lengthening, but none equalling the third in length, 
rather thick, "cylindrical, but the joints distinctly constricted. Head 
not sharply triangular, rectangular posteriorly ; the occiput punctu- 
late and pubescent ; the frons smooth and tumid ; the frontal 
impressions obsolete. Pronotum subquadrate, the anterior and 
posterior margins parallel and truncate, slightly broader posteriorly 
than anteriorly and broader than long, a trifle broader than the 
head; sides straight, gently diverging posteriorly. Mesonotum 
transverse, parallel-sided, with no keels. Metanotum broader than 
the mesonotum, the posterior margin gently sinuate. Prosternum 
about double as long as broad, parallel-sided. Mesosternum trans- 
verse, posterior margin truncate. Metasternum transverse, the 
posterior margin truncate, Pemora rather thick, especially the 
anterior pair ; tibiae and tarsi slender, second segment of latter 



PSEUDISOLABIS. 103 

rather long and slender, about half as long as the third, the first 
about as long as the second and third united. Abdomen 
rather depressed, gently dilated about the apical third and 
very slightly narrower at the apex itself ; last dorsal segment 
short, transverse, truncate posteriorly ; penultimate ventral 
segment obtusely rounded ; last ventral segment visible as a pair 
of triangular lobes just protruding. Forceps remote at the base, 
trigonal at the base itself, tapering and short. 

BaiKje. India and Xew Zealand. 

This genus differs from Parisolahis in being much less depressed 
and less dilated, and the last dorsal segment is by no means 
narrowed. It approaches more nearly to Anisolabis thau does 
Parisolabis, and represents the transition between the Bracliylahince 
and the Psalitue. 

In the form of the abdomen and the last dorsal segment Pseud- 
isolabis approaches Anisolabis, but the antennae have fewer segments, 
the second segment of the tarsi is longer, the posterior margin of the 
metasternum is scarcely produced between the posterior coxoe, and 
the metasternum is shorter, relatively much broader and truncate 
posteriorly. 

Two species occur in India ; a third, the type, occurs in New 
Zealand. 

Table of Species. 

1. Shining black ; forceps strongly bowed . . hurri, Borelli, p. 103." 
1.1. Dull brown ; forceps straight, only arched 

at the apex tenera. sp. n., p. 104. 



55. Pseudisolabis biirri, Borelli.**' (Fig. 35.) 

Pseudisolabis burri, Borelli, (09) p. 1. 

Rather small, smooth, scarcely pubescent and shining black. 
Antenna) dark bro\^n, with 15 segments, third cylindrical, fairly 
long, fourth very short, almost globular, fifth a little longer, subconi- 
cal, sixth about equal to third, subconical, the remainder subcorneal. 
Head tumid, smooth, black, shining, sutures almost obsolete. 
Pronotum rectangular, decidedly broader thau long. Meso- and 
metasternum transverse, with no trace of keel or elytra. Sternal 
plates typical of the genus. Femora rather thick, black, yellowish 
at the base and apex ; tibiee brown, yellow at the base and apex ; 
tarsi yellowish, slender, typical of the genus. Abdomen dull 
black, exceedingly minutely punctulated, hairless above (in the 
specimens examined), with a few long slender bz'istles at the sides, 
which in the sixth and seventh segments of the S are convex ; the 
abdomen of the J is gently dilated to about two-thirds its length 
and then slightly narrowed ; in the $ the dilation is shorter and 
the narrowing a little stronger ; penultimate ventral segment of cj' 
and 2 broadly rounded ; pygidium of <S not protruding, broad. 



104 LABIDURID^ 

vertical, tumid in the middle ; in $ similar but very narrow. Last 
dorsal segment of d very short and broad, somewhat inflated, with 
a median depression, posteriorly depressed, the margin truncate, 
subtuberculate over the insertion of the forceps : in $ similar, but 
narrower. Forceps of 6 with the branches remote at the base, 
verv obtusely trigonal at the base itself, almost immediately 
cylindrical, straight and diverging for about two-thirds their 
length, then strongly, but not angukrly, bowed inwards; in 2 
subcontiguous, trigonal, short, tapering, conical, very gently 
arcuate; in both sexes the forceps are black for about two-thirds 
their length, the rest red. 

Length of body 9 mm. 8 mm. 

„ forceps 2 „ 1 „ 

iS'.E. Kashmir : on the road from Srinagar to Grilgit, altitude 
about 6700 ft. (Turin Mus., coll. Burr). 

Type in the Turin Museum, 

This is an interesting species, being closely related to Ps. tvalkeri, 
Burr, from New Zealand, with which it possesses many characters 
in common. 

It differs in the somewhat smaller size, deep black colour and 
absence of dense pubescence (in the specimens examined) ; the 
last dorsal segment is gently inflated throughout in P. tvalkeri, but 
in this species it is depressed posteriorly and has a slight median 
depression which is absent in P. tvall-eri, as are also the faint 
tubercles over the roots of the forceps. The forceps differ in being 
red at the apex and being only faintly trigonal, and that only at 
the extreme base ; they are more strongly divergent, and strongly 
arched inwards, not abruptly nor angularly bowed. The female 
of P. ivaJJceri is unknown. 

56. Pseudisolabis tenera, sp. u. (Fig. 36.) 

Uniform dull red brown, with a few isolated bristles, but no 
close pubescence. Antennae with 17 segments; the first clubbed, 
third cylindrical and elongate, fourth very short, not longer 
than broad, fifth a trifle longer, sixth a little longer, but 
not so long as the third, all these are gently conical ; 
the rest are about as long as the third, subcylindrical, all 
dull brown, smooth. Head tumid, sutures obsolete. Pronotum 
a little broader than the head, and distinctly broader than long, 
rectangular, depressed ; median suture distinct in fore portion 
only ; prozona not distinct from metazona ; sides reflexed, smooth ; 
light dull brown. Mesonotum of the same colour, very short and 
finely punctulate. Metanotum of the same colour and sculpture, 
very short. Sternal plates smooth, light brown, the sides parallel, 
transverse ; metasternum truncate. Legs dull brown ; second tarsal 
segment nearly as long as the first. Abdomen subdepressed, dull 



I'SEUDISOLABIS. 105 

brown, very finely punotulate, svibparallel-sided, slightly narrowed 
apically ; glandular folds not developed. Last dorsal segment more 
than twice as broad as long, rectangular, posterior margin truncate 
in the middle, the angles obliquely truncate, slightly tumid over 
the roots of the forceps. Penultimate ventral segment transverse, 
very broadly rounded. Pygidium typical, somewhat tumid beneath. 
Porceps with the branches remote at the base, of circular cross- 
section, straight at first, incurved at the apex, quite simple. 

6 

Length of body 11 "5 mm. 

„ forceps To ,, 

Punjab : Murree (colL Burr). 

Type in the author's collection. 

This species closely resembles P. burn but is narrower in build, 
of a uniform dull red brown instead of shining black, and tlie 
forceps are quite straight for the greater part of their length, 
being only arcuate at the apex itself. 



Subfamily VI. BRACHYLABIN^E. 

The members of this family have all a very characteristic 
appearance and close superficial resemblance to each other. 

The old genus BracJiijlahis of Dohrn, as restricted by de Bormans, 
has been revised and split up, and Verhoeff's Isolabicke incor- 
porated. The genus Brach)/Iabis itself is not represented in the 
Indian fauna. 

The family is characterized by the total absence of organs of 
flight, long slender legs and tarsi, even the second segment 
being elongate, triangular head, cylindrical body, tapering at 
the apex, paucisegmentate antennae, long narrow pi-osternum, 
equally broad and lorig meso- and metasterna, broad and rounded 
penultimate ventra' segment, and sinuate, concave last dorsal 
segment, produce'^l into a short pointed lobe on each side ; the 
forceps slender, cylindrical, tapering, unarmed and arcuate. 

They are all very dark brown or nearly black insects. The 
surface is usually very densely pitted and punctulate, and often 
clothed with a dense pubescence, which is rapidly rubbed off and 
lost in cabinet specimens. 

A remarkable feature in some genera is the form of the eyes, 
which are elliptical and unusually large, reaching backwards 
almost to the posterior angles of the head, so that they are 
situated laterally instead of anteriorly. 

Table of Genera. 

1. Eyes normal, that is, small and an- 
terior ; mesonotum with tumid ridge, [p. lOG. 
but no sharp keels Nannisolabis, Burr, 



106 labiduridjE. 

1.1. Eyes large, elliptical, and lateral. Meso- 
notum with sharp keels. 
2. Third seg-ment of antennae elongate, 

twice as long as broad; fourth [p. 108. 

longer than broad Metisolabis, Burr, 

2.2. Third autennal segment scarcely 

longer than broad, the fourth glo- [p. 109. 

bular . . . Ctenisolabis, Verb., 



Genus NANNISOLABIS, n. g. 
Brachylabis & Leptisolabis (partim), Bun- (olim). 

Type, N. ivilleyi, Burr. 

Small insects ; head tumid ; eyes small, anterior ; antennse with 
short segments ; pronotum longer than Avide ; mesonotum with a 
transverse depression surrounded by a blunt tumid ridge. Abdo- 
men spindle-shaped, attenuate apically, especially in the $ . 
Lateral tubercles of third and fifth segments distinct ; last dorsal 
segment sinuate and produced on each side to a small pointed lobe. 
Forceps simple, arcuate and tapering. 

Range. Ce}'lon. 

Though somewhat compressed at the shoulders, the ridge of the 
mesonotum is not sharp. The following two species are the only 
ones known. 

Table of Sjpecies. 

1. Pronotum parallel-sided, densely punc- 

tulate philetas, Burr, p. 106, 

1.1. Pronotum widened posteriorly, smooth .... vnlleyi, Burr, p. 107. 

57. Nannisolabis philetas, Burr*' 

Brachylabis philetas, Btm; (01) p. 322, pi. B, fig. 7 ; Kirhy (04> 

p. 16. 
Leptisolabis philetas, Burr, (08') pp. 252 & 253. 

Size small ; colour black : the whole body punctulate, with 
a few stiff hairs. Antennte with 9 segments, 2nd reddish, 
7th and 8tb white, the rest black ; first long, second shorter, the 
rest quite round, as broad as long, gradually larger, the ninth a 
little smaller than the eighth, which is the largest. Pronotum 
broader than the head, elongate, the sides parallel and raised : 
mesonotum narrow, strongly impressed anteriorly, the posterior 
part being therefore slightly elevated, the sides keeled and the 
anterior angle slightly broader than the pronotum ; metanotum as 
broad as the mesonotum, and exposing only a small part of the 
first abdominal segment. Legs long ; tibiae and tarsi testaceous ; 
femora testaceous, with a strong broad black band ; first tarsal 
segment longer than the second and third together. Abdomen 
cylindrical, the lateral tubercles very distinct on the second and 



NAXMSOLABIS. 



107 



third dorsal segments ; last segment very small in both sexes. 
Forceps very short, slender ; in the cS the branches are remote at 
the base, slightly incurved, meeting at the apex, unarmed ; in 
the 2 subcontiguous, almost straight, crossing at the apex. 

Length of body 6 mm, 7-5 mm. 

„ forceps 1-25 ,, 1 „ 

Ceylon : Punduluoya, d and 5 in coita (coll. Burr). 

Type in the author's collection. 

The types are unfortunately broken, and only fragments 
remain. The mesonotum is preserved, and this, with the 
description and figure, leaves no room for doubt as to the generic 
position of the species. It differs from N. willeyi in the form and 
structure of the pronotum. 



58. Nannisolabis willeyi, sp. n. 

Small ; general colour dark reddish brown. Antennae with 13 
segments, brown, the apical segments paler ; all segments, except 
the first, very short, only the apical two or three being slightly 
longer than broad ; first segment about as long as third, fifth 
and sixth united. Head smooth, tunid, sutures distinct; eyes 
small, normal, anterior, Pronotum red-brown, smooth, decidedly 
longer than broad and widened posteriorly ; median line distinct ; 
sides strongly reflexed. Mesonotum with a transverse depression 
in anterior portion, surrounded by a short raised ridge which is 
somewhat compressed at the anterior angles, but is not sharp. 
The mesonotum is finely punctulate, Metanotum broader than 
the mesonotum, of the same colour and sculptui'e, the posterior 
margin strongly concave. Legs long and slender, dirty yello\\' ; 
the femora with indistinct darker shading. Abdomen red- 
brown, darker basally, finely punctulate, with a fine golden 
pubescence ; lateral tubercles of third and fourth segments very 
distinct ; decidedly «ider in $ than in the S . Last dorsal seg- 
ment transverse in c? , smooth, posterior margin nearly straight, 
slightly produced on each side over the forceps ; in 2 similar but 
narrower. Penultimate ventral segment of J' broad and rounded, 
more so in $ than in the S . Forceps of 6 remote at base, cylin- 
drical, straight at fii-st, strongly arcuate in the apical half ; in $ 
contiguous, gently arcuate from the base and overlapping. 

Length of body 8 mm. 6*5 mm. 

„ forceps 1 ,, 1'5 „ 

Ceylon: Patipola, 1907 (coll. Barr), Hakgala, l.ii.06 (Dr. 
Willey ; coll. Burr). 
Type in the author's collection. 
This species is alhed to N. pldletas, but is a little larger. The 



108 LABIDUEID^. 

prouotum is longer and differs in being quite smooth and 
distinctly widened posteriorly. The femora are blackish in 
iV. 2^hiletas^ but this is an untrustworthy character. The present 
species is peculiar among the BracJu/lahina' in having the pronotum 
quite smooth and also in its red-brown colour. 



Genus METISOLABIS, n. g. 

Brachylabis, Bolivar, Burr (oliDi). 

Type, Brachylabis voelzkowi. Burr. 

Agrees generally with the preceding genus, but the segments 
of the antennae are longer, not globular, all beyond the second 
being at least a little longer than broad ; and the eyes are large, 
elliptical, and nearly reach the posterior angles of the head ; the 
mesonotum is keeled. From the following genus it differs in the 
long antenual segments, agreeing in the structure of the eyes and 
mesonotum. 

Range. India and Madagascar. 

Two species are known to occur in India. 

TahJe of Species. 

1 . Legs uniform reddish ; abdomen with 
lateral tubercles on fourth segment 
only ; keels of mesonotum strongly 

converging posteriorly bifoveolata, Bol., p. 108. 

1.1. Femora banded with "black; abdomen 
with lateral tubercles on third and 
fourth segments ; keels of mesonotum 
gently converging posteriorly candeUi, Burr, p. 109. 

59. Metisolabis bifoveolata, Bol. 

Brachylabis bifoveolata, Bolivar, (97) p. 285, pi. 10, fig. 1; Bonn, 
(00-) p. 53; Kirbi/, (04) p. 16 ; Burr, (08^) pp. 250 & 251. 

Pitch-black, entirely punctulate, and with reddish pubescence ; 
basal segment of antennae reddish, the rest up to the twelfth 
black. Mesonotum heart-shaped, with lateral keels. Legs reddish 
testaceous. Third abdominal segment Mith no lateral tubercles ; 
fourth segment with a strong blunt tubercle on each side ; the 
fifth segment impressed at the sides. Forceps of S with branches 
short, trigonal, gently curved. 

Length of body 12-14 mm. 

„ forceps 2 „ 

Southern India : Trichinopoli (coll. Bolivar). 

Bolivar's description is brief but good, and so is bis figure. 



METISOLABIS. — CIENISOLABIS. 109 

Without seeing the insect it is easy to place it in its true position. 
It differs from B. caudelU in the uniform reddish legs, in the 
more strongly convergent keels of the mesonotura, which is thus 
more strongly narrowed posteriorly, and in the absence of the 
lateral fold on the third segment of the abdomen. 



60. Metisolabis caudelli, Burr* 

Brachyliibis punctata, i?o?-?«. (88) p. 436, (94) p. 37o, (GO") p. o3. 
Bracliylabis caudelli. Burr (nee Duhr., nee Kirby), (OS-*) p. 251. 

Colour, texture, form, and pubescence typical. Antennae with 
15 segments, black with a pale ring before the apex ; the segments 
rather long ; the third segment about twice as long as broad ; the 
fourth more than half as long as the third ; the fifth quite as 
long as the third, if not a trifle longer; almost cylindrical. 
Mesonotum with the keels gently bowed at the shoulder and 
gently converging posteriorly. Femora black, yellowish towards 
the apex ; tibiae brownish yellow, tarsi pale. Abdomen typical, 
third and fourth segments with lateral tubercles. Forceps stout 
at base, rapidly tapering, gently arched, not contiguous in the S , 
contiguous in the 2 . 

S 2 

Length of body 11 mm. 12 mm. 

,, forceps 1'5 „ 1 „ 

Burma : Teinzo, v., Prome, xii. (Genoa 4' Brit. Mus.); Meetan, 
iv., Karen-ni, Keba Distr., 3000-3700 ft., v.-xii. ; Pegu, Palon, 
viii./ix. (Genoa Mtis., coll. Burr). 

Type in the author's collection. 

Apparently common in Further India. This species was con- 
fused by de Bormans with B. punctata, Dubr., from Java, but 
that species has no keels on the pronotum and falls into Leptiso- 
labis, Verh. 



Genus CTENISOLABIS, Verh. 

Ctenisolabis; Verh. (02^) p. 11. 
Brachylabip, Burr (olim). 

Type, Ct. togoensis, Verh. 

This genus agrees with Metisolabis in the form of the eyes and 
keeled mesonotum, but differs in the short, almost globular, 
antennal segments. With Nannisolahis it agrees in the form of 
the antennae, but has a keeled mesonotum and lateral eyes. 

Range. Three species are at present placed in this genus ; one, 
the type, Ct. togoensis, Verh., is African ; the other, Ct. nigra, Scudd., 
occurs in South America ; the third in Ceylon. 



110 LABIID^. 

61. Ctenisolabis fletcheri, sp. u. (Fig. 79.) 

Small, black, puuctulate. Aiitennse with 13 segments, all short 
after the first ; third about as long as broad, fourth and fifth 
globular, the others slightly lengthening, but the apical seg- 
ment is only a little longer than broad ; from the third towards 
the apex all the segments become gradually thicker. Head 
typical : the eyes large and prominent, but not reaching so near to 
the posterior margin of the head as in some species. Pronotum 
wider than the head and still wider posteriorly, distinctly longer 
than broad, with a distinct neck in front, which carries the head. 
Mesonotum ample, the keels distinct but blunt, bowed outwards 
at first and arched gradually inwards, dying out just before 
reaching the posterior margin. Metanotum ver}^ ample and very 
strongly sinuate. Legs typical. Femora black, tipped with 
reddish, tibiae and tarsi reddisli. Abdomen typical; tubercles 
on third and fourth segments not very distinct, smooth spot on 
fifth segment distinct. Last dorsal segment gently sinuate. 
Penultimate ventral segment very ample, rounded. Forceps con- 
tiguous, simple, overlapping. 

Length of body 10 mm. 

„ forceps 1 „ 

Ceylon : IVIadulsima, 13,viii.08 {T. B. FletcJier; coll. Burr). 

Tifpe in the author's collection. 

The keels of the mesonotum are very blunt and thus represent 
a passage to Leptisolahis. 

It may be distinguished by its generic characters from the only 
species with which it is Hkely to be confused. 



Family IV. LABIID.E. 

This family contains a number of heterogeneous forms, and is 
in great need of revision.^ A considerable number of species are 
known, but relatively few are recorded from India, representing 
five genera. 

The discrimination between the smaller forms of Spongiplwra 
and larger ferms of Labia is rather subtle, and the generic 
characters must be examined with care. 

Only one subfamily, the Labiince, is known to be represented 
in India ; but it is quite probable that sonie member of the 
Nesoyastrince may be discovered, probably towards the eastern 
bounds of the area. 



^ For this reason, the generic definitions in tliis family must be regarded as 
purely provisional. 



SPONGIPHORA. Ill 

Subfamily I. LABIIN.E. 

Tahle of Genera. 

1. Body not stronj^ly depressed. 
'2. Antennae with 15-20 segments; the 
fourth about half as long as the 
third, fifth also shorter than third. 
3. Penultimate ventral segment of S 

subrectangular ; tirst tarsal seg- [p. 111. 

ment decidedly shorter than third. Spongiphora, Serv., 
'A.'-'). Penultimate ventral segmentample, 
rounded ; tirst tar^ial segment 

about equal to third Euotesis, n. g., p. 114. 

2.i2. Antennse with 10-15 segment;?; fourth 
and fifth almost or quite as long as 
third; (penultimate ventral segment 
of (S rounded ; first and second 

tarsal segments about equal) Labia, Leach, p. 115. 

1.1. Body strongly depressed. 

2. Antennae with 10-15 segments ; third 

and f iHutli rather long (as in Labia). [p. 1 24. 

Abdomen with no lateral folds. . . . Platylabia, Dohrn, 
2.2. Antenufe wath 15-20 segments. Ab- 
domen Avith lateral folds on second [p. 127, 
and third segments Sphingolabis, Borm., 

Genus SPONGIPHORA, Serville. 

Spongiphoi-a, Serv. (31) p. 31. 
Spongophora, Agasaiz, Nom. Zool. p. 439 (1846). 
Psalidophora, Serv. (39) p. 29. — Type, Spongiphora croceipeniiis, 
Serv. 

Type, Sponglpliora croceipennis, Serv. (Brazil). 

Anteunae with 15-20 segments ; the first long and pear-shaped ; 
second quite small ; thu'd long, cylindrical, more than half as long 
as the first ; fourth and fifth small, not half as long as third ; the 
remainder gradually lengthening, hecoming more slender. Pro- 
notum subquadrate, more or less rouuded posteriorly. Elytra 
smooth, with no keels, perfectly developed. Wings well developed 
or abbreviated. Prosternum parallel-sided. Mesosternum rounded 
posteriorly, Metasternum truncate posteriorly, not produced 
between the posterior coxfe. Legs not very long, the femora 
rather thick ; first tarsal segment decidedly longer than the 
third, the second cylindrical, not remarkably short ; tarsi strongly 
pubescent beneath. Abdomen depressed, rather long, with distinct 
lateral glandular folds. Last dorsal segment of S rectangular, 
narrowed posteriorly in the $ . Penultimate ventral segment rect- 
angular in c? , shghtly narrowed in § and more or less rounded. 
Forceps in S with branches remote at base, depressed, rather 
slender and elongate ; in $ subcontiguous, straight, lon<T, 
unarmed. 

Serville replaced his original name, Sjjonriiphora, by Psalido- 
pliora because the latter is more appropriate ! Psalidophora was 



112 . labiidtE. 

accepted by Dohru and all authors until Scudder restored the 
former name, uith the amended orthography proposed by 
Agassiz ; de Bormans retains the original spelling. 

There is a strong resemblance between the smaller species 
of this genus and the larger ones of Labia, and in the smaller 
species the generic characters are often difficult to observe. 

Table of S2)ecies. 

1. Pygidium hidden ; (elytra uniform brown ; 
forceps of (J with 2-3 teeth on inner 

margin) lufea, Borm., p. 112. 

1.1. Pygidium prominent. 

2. Elytra and wings unicolorous ; pygidium [p. 112. 

trapezoidal, narrowed, truncate at apex, nitidipennis, Borm., 
2.2. Elytra and wings sfjotted ; pygidium 

broad, lanceolate, bifid at apex with [p. 113. 

pointed lobes , semijlava, Borm., 

62. Spongiphora lutea, Bormans** 

Spongophora lutea, Bonn. (94) p. 386. 

Spongiphora lutea, Bonn. (00-) p. 60 ; Kirhy, (04) p. 30. 

Shining brown ; antennae with 15 segments ; pronotum as 
broad as the head and a trifle longer. Elytra short, hardly 
longer than the pronotum, rounded posteriorly. Wings abortive. 
Last dorsal segment of both d and 5 rectangular, twice as broad 
as long ; pygidium hidden. Forceps with the branches stout ; 
in the 6 long, remote at the base, nearly straight, with three teeth 
on each side on the inner margin ; in 2 shorter, subcontiguous, 
unarmed. 

6 2 

Length of body 6-8 mm. 6-5-10 mm. 

forceps .... 2-5-3 „ 2-2-5 „ 

Burma -. Palon, in August and September ; Karen-ni, Geku 
Distr., 4300—1700 ft., in Februarv and March ; Karen-ni, Keba 
Distr., 3000-3700 ft., from April to December, 4000-4300 ft. 
(^Genoa 3Iiis.). 

Type in the Greuoa Museum. 

This species is very distinct. The rather stout build and yellow 
colour render it easy to recognize ; the wings appear to be 
always abbreviated. 

63. Spongiphora nitidipennis, Bonnans.* (Fig. 80.) 

Spongophora nitidipennis, Bonn. (94) p. 382. 

Spongiphora nitidipennis, Bonn. (00') p. 454, (00-) p. 58 ; Kirby, 

(04) p. 30. 
Chnetospania Jupiter, Bun-, (00'^) p. 94 (n. syn.) ; Kirby, (04) p. 22. 

Size medium ; general colour dull brown, pubescent. Antennae 
brown, with 15 cylindrical segments, the fourth nearly as long as 



SrONGIPHOllA. "^ 113 

the third. Head depressed, rather broad; eyes prominent. 
Pronotum longer than broad, sides parallel, gently narrowed 
posteriorly. Elytra and wings ample; the latter paler at the 
base. Legs brown ; tarsi paler, long and slender, first and third 
segments equally long. Abdomen dull brown, finely rugulose. 
Last dorsal segment of (S ample, smooth, nearly square ; narrow 
in $ . Pygidium of c? forming a prominent rectilinear plate, 
narrowed towards the apex which is truncate ; in 2 square, 
faintly emarginate at apex. Porceps of c? remote at base, 
depressed, long and nearly straight, sometimes with a strong 
depressed triangular tooth near the base and several small teeth 
beyond ; in 5 not contiguous, straight, short at base then 
tapering, denticulate. 

d 2 

Length of body .... 8-12 mm. 10-5-11-5 mm. 
„ forceps . . 3*5-8 „ 35-6 „ 

Burma : Karen-ni, Keba Distr., about 3000 ft. (Genoa JTus.). 
Occurs also in Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 
2i/pe in the Grenoa Museum. 

Easy to recognize by the uniform dull brown colour and the 
form of the pygidium and forceps. 

04. Spongipliora semiflava, Borm. (Pig. 37.) 

Spongophora semiflava, L'.onn. (94) p. 385. 

Spongiphora semiflava, Bonn. (00^) p. 59 ; Klrby, (04) p. 30. 

Small ; antennae with 15 segments, brown, paler near the base. 
Head dark brown. Pronotum brown, trapezoidal, widened 
posteriorly. Elytra ample, brown, with a long discoidal yellow 
band and clothed with short stiff bristles. Wings brown, with a 
large yellow spot. Base of femora brown ; rest of legs yellow. 
Abdomen blackish chestnut. Pygidium of S broad and flat, 
rapidly narrowing towards the apex which is bifid, with sharp 
lobes. Porceps of S with the branches testaceous, remote at 
the base, long and straight, rather depressed, the inner edge 
near the base is dilated in the form of a flattened plate • in the 
$ shorter, contiguous at the base, nearly straight. 

Length of body S mm. 8 mm. 

„ forceps .... 3-5 ,, ]-75 „ 

Burma : Karen-ni, Keba Distr., 3000-3700 ft., v.-xii. ; Karen- 
ni, G-eku Distr., 4300-4700 ft., ii./iii. {Genoa Mas.) ; Thagata, iii., 
Bhamo, viii. {coll. Burr). 

Also recorded from Sarav\"ak. 

Tt/pe in the Genoa Museum. 

Apart from the distinctive coloration, the form of the pygidium 
of this species renders it unmistakable. 



114 LABIID.I. 



Genus EROTESIS, u. g. 

Ttpe, Sjwnrjiphora sphiiuv, Burr (Sarawak). 

Antennae with about 20 segments, slender and cylindrical ; 
third segment rather short, the fourth much shorter ; fifth a 
little shorter than, or about as long as, the third ; the sixth 
a little longer, the rest gradually lengthening. Pronotum rather 
long and narrow, gently widened posteriorly. Head depressed, 
smooth. Elytra well developed, long and smooth. Wings well 
developed. Prosternum long and parallel-sided, scarcely con- 
stricted. Mesosternuni and metasternum truncate. Abdomen 
depressed, nearly parallel-sided, second and third segments with 
distinci; pliciform tubercles. Legs slender ; tarsi rather short and 
broad, the first and third segments about equally long, second 
segment small and cylindrical. Last dorsal segment of both d" 
and 5 iimple, quadrate. Penultimate ventral segment broad and 
well rounded in both sexes. Forceps of c? with branches slender, 
remote at the base, elongate and arcuate ; in the $ straight and 
simple. 

liange. Oriental Region. 

This genus is evidently allied to Sponciipliora, but differs in the 
well-rounded penultimate ventral segment of the male and the 
shorter first tarsal segment. 



65. Erotesis decipiens, Kirh>f* 

Labidura ? decipiens, Kirhy, (91) p. 511. 

Labidurodes decipiens, Bonn. (00^) p. 39 Kirby, (04) p, 15. 

Orange-red and yellowish. Antennae wdth 21-22 segments, 
brownish. Head yellowish, shading to reddish above. Pronotum 
narrow, with a vague dusky median band and clear yellow sides. 
Elytra yellow, with the dusky band of the pronotum continued 
down the suture to the tip of the wings, which are otherwise 
yellow. Legs yellowish. Abdomen reddish ; pliciform tubercles 
of the third segment very distinct. Last dorsal segment with 
four tubercles in the middle of the posterior margin and a few 
smaller ones at the sides, Porceps of 6 with branches remote 
at the base, slender, gently and i-egularly arcuate and meeting at 
the apex ; there are two or three small but sharp teeth about the 
middle on the inner margin and a stronger one just before 
the apex. 

6 

Length of body 11 mm. 

„ forceps 3 „ 

Assam {Brit. Mus.). 
Type in the British Museum. 

Kirby first placed this species, with a query, in Lahidura, but it 
is more nearly related to tSpongipliora ; in appearance it resembles 



LABIA. 115 

Proreus simulans and P. hulelcingi, and also, as de Bormans 
suggested from the description, Apterygida erythrocepTiala -, it 
also recalls Elaunon bipartitus. For this reason it is important 
to examine the tarsi, as the simple cylindrical second segment 
will at once remove all idea of its identity with any of the 
above-named species. 

Perhaps the doubtful Apterygida cingalensis, Dohrn, should be 
referred here. 



Genus LABIA, Leach. 

Labia, Leach, (15) p. 118. 

Copiscelis, Fieb. (5o) p. 2b7.—Type, Forficula minor, Linn 

Type, Forficula minor, Linn. (Palisarctic and Ethiopian). 

Small insects. Antennae with 10-15 segments ; the first long 
and pear-shaped, the second very small, the third long, almost as 
long as the first, fourth nearly or quite as long as the third, 
the rest gradually lengthening, cylindrical or cylindro-conical. 
Pi'onotum as broad as the head. Elytra always, wings usually 
well developed; former with no keel. First tarsal segment 
hardly longer than the third, the second very small ; the tarsi 




Fig. 8.— Tarsus of Labia pygidiata, Fig. 9.— Antenna of Labia airvicauda, 
Diibr. Motsch. 

not strongly pubescent beneath. Abdomen depressed, some- 
times rather widened in the middle. Last dorsal segment 
transverse. Penultimate ventral segment rounded in both sexes. 
Pygidium prominent or concealed. Forceps various, but generally 
remote at the base in the (S , elongate or short, nearly straight 
or strongly curved, unarmed or toothed ; in the $ simple, short, 
straight. 

Range. Cosmopolitan. 

About fifty species, from all parts of the world, are at present 
included in this genus ; but it requires subdivision, and some 
members at least will be removed to other groups. A good many 
species are unrecognizable owing to insufficient description. 

i2 



116 LABIID.E, 



Tahle of Species. 

1. Forceps ot J contiguous. (Pygidium 

hidden.) nigrella, Dubr., p. 117. 

1.1. Forceps of <S remote at base. 

2. Branches of forceps of S short and 
strongly curved. Pygidium not pro- 
minent. 
3. Forceps of S strongly arched at 

apex, not dilated luzonica, Dohrn, p. 117. 

3.3. Forceps of r^ dilated near base, then [p. 118. 

bent inwards at a right angle .... curvicaiida, Motsch., 
2.2. Branches of forceps elongate. 
3. Pygidium long and narrow. 

4. Pygidium tongue-shaped or lanceo- 
late miicronata, Stal, p. 11 9. 

4.4. Pygidium broad at base, long, nar- [p. 120. 

rowed apically, and truncate. . . . pilicornis, Motsch., 
3.3. Pygidium short and broad. 

4, Pygidium star-shaped pygidiata, Dubr., p. 122. 

4.4. Pygidium not lobed. 

5. Pygidium square ridens, Borm., p. 121. 

5.5. Pygidium narrowed posteriorly, 

the apex sinuate arachidis, Yers., p. 123. 



The following supplementary key may be useful : — 

1. Small, unicolorous species. 
2. Brown or chestnut, with dilated and [p. 118. 

bowed forceps curvicaiida, Motsch., 

2.2. Reddish yellow, with ring - shaped 

forceps in S luzonica, Dohrn, p. 117. 

' 2.2.2. Testaceous ; pygidium narrowed pilicornis, Motsch., 

1.1. Variegated species. [p. 120. 

2. Elytra banded. 

3. Elytra with pale transverse shoulder 

stripe nigrella, Dubr., p. 117. 

3.3. Elytra with a longitudinal band .... mucronata, Stal, p. 119. 
£.2. Elytra unicolorous. 

3. Pygidium of J short and broad ; 
elytra always short, usually black, 
sometimes brown, smooth; wings 

always absent arachidis, Yers., p. 123. 

3,3, Pygidium of S square or star-shaped ; 
elytra long, dark ; wings usually 
long. 
4. Pronotum yellow ; wings blackish ; 

legs yellow ridens, Borm., p. 121. 

4.4. Pronotum brown ; wings with 
yellowish band ; legs with darker 
shading lyygidiata, Dubr., p. 122. 



LABIA. 117 

66. Labia nigrella, Dubromj* (Fig. 81.) 

Labia nigrella, JDubr. (79) p. 370 ; Borm. (OO'J) p. 68 ; Kirbt/, (04) 

p. 26. 
Labia fasciata, Bor77i. (94) p. 387, (00') p, 71 ; Kirby, (04) p. 25. 

Small ; blackish, not hairy. Antennae with 11 segments, all 
leather short and thick ; third short, gently clavate : fourth much 
shorter, oval, the rest gradually lengthening, fifth almost as long 
as third ; first 5 or 6 yellowish, the rest dark. Head smooth, 
tumid, black, the sutures indistinct ; eyes greyish. Pronotum 
a trifle narrower than the head, truncate anteriorly, the sides 
parallel ; posterior margin rounded, about as long as broad ; 
blackish brown, with an irregular whitish border, broadening out 
into a triangle in the middle. Elytra rather long and narrow : 
dull brown, usually with a transverse greyish -white band across 
the shoulders. Wings prominent, greyish. Legs short, blackish 
brown ; the knees and first two tarsal segments rather paler. 
Abdomen typical, chestnut. Forceps with the branches alike in 
both sexes, but a little longer in the $ than in the d" , chestnut, 
short, rather stout, trigonal, almost contiguous and straight as far 
as the points, which are slightly curved inwards and upwards. 

Length of body 5-5 mm. 5 mm. 

„ forceps .... 0-5 „ 0-65 „ 

BuEMA: Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft., v.-xii. (Genoa 
JItis.) ; Tenasserim : Thagata, iv. (Brit. Mus., coll. Burr). 

It also occurs in Java. 

Type in the Genoa Museum, 

This little earwig is easily recognizable by its simple form, 
tumid and globose head, small build, greyish-black colour, the 
very distinct transverse whitish stripe or broad spot usually 
present on the elytra near the base ; the stripes on the elytra 
in earwigs are almost always longitudinal. It has a superficial 
resemblance to an ant, 

67. Labia luzonica, Dohm. 

Labia luzonica, Dohm, (64) p. 427 ; Bonn. (88) p. 439, (94) p. 386, 
(00^) p. 70 ; Kirby, (04) p. 26. 

Small, orange-yellow, pubescent. Antennae brown, with 15 
segments ; third cylindrical, short ; fourth not longer than 
bi'oad ; the others all short, scarcely longer than broad, cylin- 
drical. Head tumid, smooth, chestnut ; the suture obsolete, 
Pronotum orange, subquadrate ; the posterior margin convex. 
Elytra ample, orange, darker along the suture. Wings of the 
same colour, hairy. Legs short, golden yellow ; femora rather 
thick. Abdomen dark reddish chestnut, hairy. Last dorsal 
segment emarginate posteriorly, narrow. Forceps with the 
branches unarmed in both sexes, deep reddish chestnut, short, 



118 LABIID.'E. 

«tout, and trigonal at the base ; in the c? subcontiguous, straight 
and strongly tapering towards the points, which are strongly- 
incurved ; in the $ straight, conical, contiguous. 

Length of body 6'5 mm. 

,, forceps 1 „ 

BuEMA : Bhamo, viii. {Genoa Mus.). 

Occurs also in Borneo and the Philippines. 

Eecognizable by its small size, simple form, and reddish-orange 
colour. 

It is included in the Indian list on the strength of the single 
female reported by de Bormans from Burma ; but further 
collecting will doubtless prove it to be fairly common in Further 
India, and its distribution is probably more extensive, as it is an 
indistinct little earwig which might be easily overlooked. 

68. Labia curvicanda, MotscJndshj. (Fig. 38.) 

Forficesila curvicanda, Motsch. (63) p. 2, tab. 1. fig. 1. 

Labia curvicauda, Bohrn, (64) p. 428; Biibr. (79) p. 364; Bonn. 

(88) p. 440, (94) p. 387, (00-') p. 70 ; Burr, (01) p. 325, (08") 

p. 33 ; Kirby, (04) p. 26. 
Platylabia guineensis, Bohrn, (67) p. 348 ; Bor7n. (00-) p. 75 ; 

Eirby'iOA) p. 22. 
Platylabia dimidiata, Bohrn, (67) p. 348; Borin. (00") p. 74 ; Eirhy, 

(04) p. 22. 
Platylabif. camerunensis, Borg, (04) p. 570, pi. 26. fig. 4. 
Platylabia bibastata, Bory, (04) p. 572, pi. 26. fig. 5. 
Platylabia dimidiata, Bohrn, var. guineensis Sf var. camerunensis, 

Borelli, (07) p. 382. 

Size small. Colour blackish brown or reddish chestnut, some- 
times varied with yellowish. Antennae blackish or reddish brown, 
with some segments pale or yellow ; first segment clubbed ; third 
cylindrical, not very long ; fourth about equal to third, and a 
little thicker ; fifth a little longer than fourth, the remainder 
gradually lengthening ; ? 14 segments. Head rather tumid, 
gently emarginate posteriorly, black or dark brown. Pi'onotuni 
longer than broad, narrower than the head, convex anteriorly, 
the sides parallel, rounded posteriorly; black, brown, or light 
yellow. Elytra black or deep brown, with a purplish sheen, 
pubescent. Wings prominent, of the same colour as the elytra. 
Legs testaceous, the femora usually ringed with blackish. Ab- 
domen reddish-chestnut or blackish ; rather elongate, depressed; 
parallel-sided in the S , broad about the middle and narrowed 
apically in the 5 . Last doi'sal segment of cJ transverse, with a 
median longitudinal depression ; narrowed in 5 , the depression 
less marked. Pygidium of S depressed, short and broad, nearly 
square, truncate posteriorly, not always very prominent ; of $ 
hidden. Porceps of 6 remote at base, straight, dilated on inner 



LA.BIA. ^^^ 



anar^in in basal half, then abruptly and strongly curved inwards 
ZoTt at a right angle; in $ contiguous, trigonal, straight, 
tapering, simple. 

6 2- 

Length ot body • 5-5 mm. 

,, forceps 1 V 

Ceylon: Nuwara Eliya, Galle (oo/?. Bor.u.^s), Peradeniya (co^- 
Burr); Bubma : Shwegu, vi ., Katha -\- {^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^' 

yiii. (coll. Burr) ; Karen-ni, Keba ^^'^f^-^^^V.?; 4^01 4700 ft 
4000-4300 ft., xii., i.; Karen-ni, Geku District, 4300-4/00 tt., 
W /\u cryenoff J/ms.): Tenasseeim: Meetau, IV. 

All the names mentioned under this species are probably 
SY^oVlusTough this cannot yet be said to be proved. The 
snecTenppears to be as widespread and consequently as variable 
as ?he uKsal LaUdura ripcn-ia itself. There are various dis- 
?Lctions quo ed, but these Ire not sufficient to 3^«tafy specific 
rani Pxobably'if PlatylaUa r7-«-n-^. Dohrn as understood 
C de Bormans,"has its pubescence worn and rubbed off, it becomes 
pI .?S1, Dohrn.' To Borelli belongs the ci^^ of fir^^^ 
fu^o-esting, at least in part, this synonymy, and in hi woik on 
West A nkn earwigs he discusses these two so-called species, 
ZfJoPrJLJensis of Borg. PI hihastataol Borg may be 
dSnct^ as the form of the pygidium is somewhat different, but 
tTclrJon of the anteuL as a character has no value 

"\nTbe'same way, the relative abruptness of the -rv^t-e of 
the forceps of the male is a notoriously variable feature it 
requres but little experience to make the Dermaptenst sceptical 
as to the value of an/ species based upon shght differences in the 

armature of the forceps. . T3,i,.mn 

In the author's collection there are specimens from Bmma, 
Cevh>n Java, Madagascar, Brazil, West Indies, and the Seychelles 
and he cani'iot find any satisfactory --- /-' ^f ^^^^^^^.^^ 
of them as specifically distinct; at the best t^^y offer but^slight 
variations of colour and armature which ^^e even less marked 
than would be expected over so extensive a distribution. 

69. Labia mucronata, Stal. (Fig. 39.) 

Forficula mucronata, -Sic?/, (60) p. 303. , , .-m « q^i • 7),aA,- 

(01) p. 324, (02) p. 481. 
Of medium size. General colour blackish, varied with tawny. 
AntennrS 14 segments, rather slender, light brown, darker 
totrdTtCapex; segments cylindrical; fourth about half as 
lon^as third; fifth alio shorter than third ; sixth about equal 
to tibial Head black and smooth, sutures indistinct. Pronotum 



120 xabiidjE. 

narrower than the head apically but about as wide posteriorly, 
being noticeably dilated posteriorly ; it is a trifle wider than long; 
the prozoaa tumid, the metazona broadly depressed, black, the 
sides all straight, the posterior angles rounded. Elytra ample, 
long, smooth, chocolate-brown, with a broad longitudinal yellow 
or orange dorsal band. Wings long, smooth, yellow, with a dark 
band along the suture. Femora stout, blackish brown, the knees 
yellowish ; tibiae yellowish, with a fuscous ring : tarsi pale. 
Abdomen smooth, deep chocolate-brown, elongate, parallel-sided 
in the c5' , somewhat narrowed posteriorly in the 5 . Last dorsal 
segment of c? transverse, simple, truncate posteriorly ; in 2 
narrowed. Pygidium of S prominently produced, generally 
lanceolate, pointed at the apex but sometimes blunt ; in 5 not 
prominent, black. Forceps red or black ; in the cJ the branches 
are remote at the base, slender, elongate and gently curved 
inwards towards the apex, with a long strong and sharp tooth 
pointing downwards on the inner margin near the base. 

6 2 

Length of body 3-5*5 mm. 7 mm. 

„ forceps 1-2 „ 1-5 „ 

Ceylon : Colombo and Matale (coll. Burr) ; Burma : Bhamo ; 
viii. ; Shwegu, x. ; Karen-ni, Geku Distr., 4300-4700 ft. {Genoa 
Mus.) ; Tenasserim : Meetan, Thagata, iv. ; hills between the 
rivers Meekalan and Khyeat, 3700-4700 ft., iii. {Genoa Mus.). 

Type in the Stockholm Museum. 

This species is abundant throughout the Oriental Region ; it is 
easy to recognize by the orange spots on the elytra and wings, 
by the long-pointed pygidium, and by the slender forceps with 
the long sharp tooth pointing downwards near the base. 

70. Labia pilicornis, Motscli. (Fig. 40.) 

Forficula pilicornis, Motsth. (63) p. 2. 

Labia piUcornis, Dohni, (04) p. 437; Borm. (00-) p. 72; Burr, 
(01) p. 326; Eirlij, (04) p. 26. 

Small, greyish or yellowish brown. Antennae with about 15 
segments ; third elongate, cylindrical ; fourth and fifth nearly as 
long as third, subcylindrical, the rest slender, pyrifoi'm. Head 
smooth or tumid, sutures faint ; brown or blackish. Pronotum as 
broad as the head and as broad as long, anterior margin and sides 
straight, posterior margin rounded ; prozona somewhat tumid, 
metazona depressed. Elytra ample, smooth, greyish brown. 
Wings long, of the same colour. Legs slender, light brown. 
Abdomen reddish, sometimes passing to blackish ; parallel-sided 
in c? 1 narrowed apically in $ . Last dorsal segment of S trans- 
verse, rectangular ; strongly narrowed in the $ . Penultimate 
ventral segment of <S very ample and broadly rounded. Pygidium 
of (S depressed, rather broad at the base, about twice as long as 
the greatest breadth, suddenly narrox^ed before the apex, which is 



LABIA. 121 

truncate ; in 5 not prominent. Forceps with the branches in 
the c? remote, slender, nearly straight, gently arcuate, the inner 
margin crenulate ; in 2 short, conical, contiguous, and nearly 
straight. 

Length of body 3-5-4 mm. 

„ forceps .... 1m 

Ceylon : Peradeniya {E. E. Green ; coll. Burr). 

This species, one of the smallest of the earwigs, was described 
by Motschulsky from a single female ; so its true affinities 
remained unknown till Mr. Green found two males at Peradeniya 
which are undoubtedly referable to this species and were in 
company with the female. 

It is at first glance almost indistinguishable from the common 
European Labia minor, L., but differs in the perfectly parallel- 
sided pronotum, and quite distinct, though small, pygidium, which 
resembles what is often mistaken for the pygidium in L. minor, 
but is really a spine on the penultimate ventral segment. 

71. Labia ridens, i>or?».** (Pig. 42.) 

Labia ridens, Borm. (94) p. ^88, (00') ]■. (!() ; Kirby, (Oi) p. 20. 
Labia ridens var. cyclolabia, Borm. (9J) p. 38 >, (Ooj p. 60; Kirby, 
(04) p. 26. 

Ihe whole body thickly pubescent, with long yellowish hairs 
and bristles. Kelatively large ; orange red, with blackish head 
and elytra. Antenna? brown, with apical segments pale ; third 
segment rather short, subclavate ; fourth segment rather thicker, 
as long as third; fifth as loi)g as fourth. Head black or very 
dark brown, rather depressed, sutures not very distinct. Pronotum 
orange-yellow, nearly squai-e, almost as broad as the head ; anterior 
margin convex, sides parallel ; posterior margin rounded. Elytra 
ample, long and broad, blackish brown, coriaceous ; apical margins 
obliquely truncate. Wings long, prominent, of tlie same colour 
and consistency as the elytra. Legs yellow. Abdomen orange- 
yellow, elongate and parallel-sided, lateral tubercles strongly 
marked ; sliglitly dilated in the middle in the $ . Last dorsal 
segment ample,' rectangular, transverse, smooth, with a pair of 
obsolete tubercles in the middle of the hinder margin. Pygidium 
of 6 and $ prominent, depressed, forming a nearly square 
flattened plate ; posterior margin truncate, the angles tuberculi- 
form, the sides parallel. Porceps with the branches orange-red, 
remote at the base, depressed and elongate ; of the S there are 
two forms : — 

(a) macrolahia, var. n. Branches very elongate, straight, gently 
curved inwards at the apex, the inner margin depressed and 
produced into an elongate, crenulate, flattened plate, terminating 
in a sharp tooth about two-thirds the way down. 

(b) cyclolabia, Borm . The branches short, very gently diverging 



122 LABIIDiE, 

in basal third, then sharply bowed inwards at an obtuse angle, 
attenuate and straight, converging to the points which are gently 
hooked ; the inner margin near the base depressed, produced into 
a flattened triangular projection which terminates at the end of 
the pygidium. In the $ the branches somewhat similar, but 
shorter ; the flattened plate is present but decidedly shorter, has 
no teeth, and the crenulations are very feeble. 
macrolahia. cyclolahla. 

6 S 2 

Length of body ... . 10-11 mm. 6-6-5 mm. 7"5-9-5 mm. 
„ forceps . . 4-5 „ 2-2-5 ,, • 3 -3-5 ., 

Burma : Rangoon, v./xii. (var. cyclolahia ; Genoa Mus.) ; Karen- 
ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft., v./xii. (both forms, Genoa 
Mus.). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

Easily to recognize by the relatively great size, the form of the 
pygidium, and of the forceps, which differ in the two forms only 
in degree, the macrolahia being the result of the elongation of the 
cifdolabia, which is probably the original and normal form. 

72. Labia pygidiata, Buhr.** (Fig. 41.) 

Labia ? pygidiata, Dubr. (79) p. •'564, fig. in text, S 2 • 

Labia pygidiata, Borm. (94) p. 387, (00-) p. 65 ; Kirhy, (04) p. 26. 

Relatively large ; chocolate-brown. Antennae with 15 segments, 
brown, the third segment rather short and subclavate ; fourth 
pear-shaped, almost as long as the third ; the rest about the same 
length, all pear-shaped. Head tumid, black, sutures indistinct. 
Pronotum chocolate-brown, a trifle wider posteriorly than an- 
teriorly, sides straight, hinder border gently rounded, the angles 
rounded. Elytra ample, purplish brown, densely pubescent, 
coriaceous, about three times as long as the pronotum. "Wings 
prominent, of the same colour and texture as the elytra, but with 
a transverse pale yellow band just beyond apex of the elytra. 
Legs yellowish, banded with brown. Abdomen elongate, parallel- 
sided, reddish brown, lateral tubercles distinct ; slightly wider in 
the middle in the $ . Last dorsal segment of S large, square, 
smooth, with two tubercles at the roots of the forceps and a 
longitudinal median impression. Pygidium cf <S large, broad 
and prominent, narrow at the base, then strongly widened, 
terminating in four depressed sharp triangular points ; the 
median portion is tumid, the edges depressed ; in the $ the 
pygidium is less prominent and quadrangular. Forceps of 6 
with the branches remote at the base, rather strong, depressed, 
elongate, gently arched, the inner margin with a double edge 
and with a sharp tooth just beyond the middle ; in the $ the 
branches are also straight, elongate and remote at the base, the 
inner margin being slightly dilated in the middle to form an 
obsolete tooth ; in colour the forceps are reddish or yellowish. 



LABIA. 123 

Length of body 7"5 mm. 7 mm. 

„ forceps 2-5 „ 1'5 ,, 

Burma : Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft., vi./xii., i./xii. 
(Genoa 3Jus.). 

Also recorded from Java, Oahu (coll. Burr), and Hawaii (Ferlcins, 
Brit. Mus., coll. Burr). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

L. pygidiata is recognizable by the star-shaped pygidium, but 
probably two species are confused under one name. The Hawaiian 
specimens have the elytra much lighter in colour, and very deci- 
dedly shorter and the wings shortened, so that the transverse 
yellow band is hidden by the elytra, the pronotum is half yellow, 
the fifth antennal segment is more clubbed and the other seg- 
ments more pyriform : the forceps of the female have the inner 
margin denticulate throughout their length. This is perhaps an 
insular form, an incipient species, which we may soon be able 
to discriminate accurately when we can critically examine more 
material from its entire geographical range. 

73. Labia arachidis, Yersm. (Fig. 82.) 

Forficula arachidis, Yersin, (60) p. 509, pi. x, figs. 3.3-35 ; Scudder, 

(76) p. 311. 
Chelidura arachidis, Brunner, (82) p. 21. 
Aptervgida arachidis, Burr, (00^) p. -52, (01) p. 330, (07^) p. 209; 

Borm. (00-) p. 117 ; Kirhy, (04) p. 44. 
Forficesila nigripeunis, Motsch. (63) p. 1 ; Dohrn, (65) p. 89. 
P'orficula wallacei, Dohrn, (65) p. 88 (tvpe iu Dohru's collection); 

Dubr. (79) p. 337 ; Scudder, (76) p. 318. 
Forficula (Apterygida) gravidula, Gerst. (73) p. 50, pi. 3, fig. 9. 
Labia gravidula, Borm. (84^) p. 197. 
Apterygida gravidula, Borm. (00-) p. 117. 
Sphiiigolabis wallacei, Bor^n. (88) p. 448. 
Sphingolabis arachidis, Borm. (94) p. 406 ; Bol. (97) p. 286. 
Sphingolabis gravidula, Borm. (93) p. 407. 

Dark brown or castaneous, hairless. Antennae with 12-13 
segments. Pronotum square, with the lateral mai'gins paler, 
and the posterior margin straight. Elytra free, black or reddish, 
the hinder margin truncate. Wings abortive. Legs testaceous. 
Femora sometimes with a blackish band near the base. Abdomen 
glabrous, each segment with a very short pubescence at the hinder 
margin ; segments 5-8 in the male, and sometimes also the forceps, 
slightly punctulated. In the male the anal segment is sub- 
quadrate, impressed in the middle, with no tubercles ; the forceps 
have the branches remote at the base, short, slender, cylindrical, 
gently incurved, with a very small tooth on the inner margin at 
the base itself and another in the apical third. In the female 
the anal segment is the same as in the male ; the branches of the 
forceps are short and curved in towards the apex. 



124 LABIID^. 

S 2 

Length of body 8 ram. 8 mm. 

„ forceps 2-25 ,, 1-75 „ 

Bengal : Calcutta (Brussels 3Jns.) ; Madras : Trichinopoli ; 
Bombay : Surat (coll. Burr) ; Ceylon : Nuwara Eliya ; Burma : 
Teinzo, iv./v., between Prome and Mandalay, iii,, Eangoon, 
vi./viii, Bhamo, iii. (Genoa 2his.); Texasserim : Meetan, iv. 
(Genoa 3Jus.). 

This species is absolutely cosmopolitan and exists in swarms, 
under artificial conditions, in almost every part of the world. It 
is numerous in collections from all parts of tropical Asia, and if 
this is not its original home, it has at least become very effec- 
tually naturalized. It varies to some extent in intensity and 
shade of colour, as is to be expected, and consequently has been 
described under a variety of names, but they are all here referred 
with little hesitation to the same species. 

De Bormans placed tliis species in Aiyteryglda, but its affinities 
are entirely with Labia, ia which Gerstajcker and Scudder placed it. 
De Bormans maintains that the second tarsal segment is lobed, 
but this structure is so minute that it cannot be regai'ded as a 
true bilobed forficuline tarsus. 



G-enus PLATYLA.BIA, Dohrn. 

Platylabia, Dohrn, (67'-) p. 347. 

Labidopliora, Scndil. (76) p. 297. — Type, PLatylabia major, Dohrn, 

Type, Platylahia major, Dohrn. 

(Scudder suggested the name Lahidophora, as he considered 
Platylabia to resemble too closely P/(//^/7rt6«s,"\Vesmael, in Hymeno- 
ptera ; but of course this objection does not stand, and Dohrn's 
original name holds good.) 

Antennae with 10-13 segments ; third segment elongate and 
subclavate ; fourth almost as long, ovate or pear-shaped ; the rest 
ovate or elongate pear-shaped. Head depressed but smooth, 
sutures obsolete. Pronotum narrower than the head, more or 
less narrowed and convex anteriorly ; sides parallel and hinder 
margin rounded. Elytra very flat and well developed. Wings 
prominent. Legs moderately long ; first and second tarsal seg- 
ments about equally long. Abdomen strongly flattened, elongate, 
parallel-sided, lateral glandular folds not present. Last dorsal 
segment ample, subquadrate, smooth. Penultimate ventral seg- 
ment ample, rounded. Pygidium generally prominent in both 
sexes. Porceps elongate, variously armed ; those of $ also 
elongate, generally dilated or laminate. 

Range. Oriental Eegion. 

Allied to Labia ; differs in the strongly flattened body and the 
obsolete lateral abdominal folds ; the pronotum is narrowed 
anteriorly, the fore-border being almost produced into a neck. 



PLATYLABIA. 125 

The colour is invariably bright orange or black ; these two 
shade into one another insensibly or interchange, and so no 
weight can be attached to colour in this genus. 

At first glance the single known species of Palex closely 
resembles this genus, owing to the black and chestnut coloration, 
build, and strongly depressed body. 

The genus needs revision and a thorough comparison of types. 

Table of Species. 

L Pygidium not prominent major, Dohrn, p. 125. 

1.1. Pygidium of c? prominent. 

2. Pj'gidiumof S broad, bilobed at apex . gestroi, Dubr., p. 125. 
2.2. Pygidium of S elongate, more or less 
rectangular. 
3. Pygidium of S with one point at 

apex thoracicn, Dohrn, p. 126. 

3.3. Pygidium with 8 points at apex. . . . nigriceps, Kirby, p. 127. 

74. Platylabia major, Dolvm. 

Platy labia major, Do^rM, (67^) p. 347; Dubr. (79) p. 371; Borm. 

(94) p. 380, (002) p_ 74 . Xirby, (04) p. 22 ; Bun; (00^) p. 50. 
Labidophora major, Scudder, (76) p. 321. 

Head, pronotum, elytra and wings deep jet-black, the rest o£ 
the body orange-yellow. Pygidium not prominent. Branches 
of forceps of S flat, with a strong depressed tooth just before the 
middle of the inner margin. 

S 

Length of body 10 mm. 

„ forceps l'75-2 „ 

Burma: Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft., April to 
December {Genoa Mus.) ; Ceylon {Brussels M us.). 

According to de Bormans, this species is distinguished by the 
short pygidium of the male, which is not very prominent. It is 
recorded from Ceylon (Brussels Mus.), but the identification is 
doubtful ; it is also recorded from Celebes and from Java. 

75. Platylabia gestroi, Duhr. 

Platvlabia gestroi, Dubr. (79) p. 372, fig. in text : Borm. (88) p. 436, 
(94) p. 380, (00-) p. 74 ; Burr, (04) p. 300 ; Kirby, (04) p. 22. 

Relatively large, with dense dark pubescence. Antennae with 
13 segments, the eight basal segments brown, the rest yellow ; all 
cylindrical. Head black, posterior margin somewhat emarginate, 
sutures indistinct. Pronotum black, nearly as wide as the head 
and a little longer, posterior margin gently rounded ; prozona 
tumid, sides and metazona flat. Elytra twice as long as the pro- 
notum, black, finely punctulate, truncate posteriorly. Wings 
long, of the same colour and consistence as the pronotum. 
Femora fairly stout; legs yellowish, varied with fuscous. Abdo- 
men reddish chestnut. Last dorsal segment ample, broader than 



126 LABIIDiE. 

long, smooth, with a faint median impression, and a pair of small 
tubercles over the roots of the forceps. Ventral surface clear red. 
Penultimate ventral segment ample, quadrate. Pygidium broad 
and iiat, prominent, depressed, posterior margin with a shallow 
emargination, the angles produced outwards into blunt triangular 
lobes. Porceps with branches dark brown, remote at the base, 
nearly straight, elongate and trigonal, taj^ering and recurved 
towards the apex ; about one-third the way down, the inner 
margin is abruptly dilated to form a flat plate with a straight edge, 
which disappears just before the apex. 

2 resembles the male ; pygidium of the same form, but forceps 
simpler, without the dilated plate. 

BiTRMA: Bhamo, A'iii. {Genoa M^is.); Tenasserim : Thagata, 
viii. {Genoa Mns.). 

Also recorded from New Guinea and doubtfully from Diego 
Suarez. 

Tyj^e in the Genoa Museum. 

Distinguished by the broad bilobed pygidium and the flattened 
straight-edged plate inside the forceps. Dubrony's figure, though 
marked a c? , might well be a § , and pi-obably the type of P. gesiroi 
is only the $ of PI. thoracica or PI. nigriceps. 

76. Platylabia thoracica, Dohm. (Pig. 83.) 

Platvlabia thoracica, Dohru, {Cu-) p. 348 ; Dvbr. (79) p. 371 ; Bonn. 

(88) p. 436, (94) p. 380, (00^) p. 73 ; Burr, (01) p. 76, (02) p. 482 ; 

Kirby, (04) p. 22. 
Labidophora thoracica, Scudd. (76) p. 322. 

Brown and black. Antennae brownish, paler towards the apex. 
Head reddish brown. Pronotum brown and yellowish. Elytra 
and wings blackish brown. Abdomen reddish. Pygidium of c? 
quadrate, flat, posterior margin with a point in the middle; 
of $ similar, but posterior margin gently emarginate. Forceps 
of (S elongate, remote at the base, depressed and nearly straight : 
the inner margin armed with a strong tooth about the middle ; 
of 2 ^ik® ^^^^ °^ ^^^ ^ 1 ^^^^ without the tooth, the inner margin 
rather dilated and depressed. 

Ceylon: Punduluoya and Peradeniya {Green', coll. Burr)-., 
BuKMA : Teinzo, v. {Genoa Mus.) ; Tenasserim : Kokarit, i./ii. 
{Genoa Mus.). 

Also recorded from Penang, Sumatra, Aru Is., and Celebes. 

The distinguishing feature of the male of this species is the 
rectangular pygidium with a single point in the middle of the 
posterior margin. Attributed to it are the females which have 
the inner margin of the forceps dilated and the pygidium with 
the posterior margin gently emarginate. There is nothing to 
distinguish these from the females of PI. nigriceps, and very 
probably PI. nigriceps is nothing more or less than a variety of 
PI. thoracica, from which it appears to differ only in the presence 
of three points in the pygidium of the male. 

It may be that the same type of female forceps and pygidium is 



PLATYLABIA. SPniXGOLABIS. 127 

common to the two species, if they are distinct, for we find ahnosfc 
identically the same form in the females of SpMngolahis {Cha'to- 
spania) volcana. Burr (Madagascar), and an approach to it in 
several species of Sjutratta and an allied genus. 

77. Platylabia nigriceps, Xirh>/.* (Fig. 43.) 

Platylabia nigriceps, Kirbj/, (91) p. 518, (04) p. 27 ; Borm. (00-) 

p. 74. 
Platylabia faUax, Bonn** (94) p. 380 ; Kirby, (04) p. 22. 

Head blackish brown. Elytra and wings well-developed, shining 
black, coriaceous. Abdomen reddish chestnut. Pygidium of d" 
long and narrow, very prominent, posterior margin straight, with 
three little tubercles, one at each angle and one in the middle ; 
2 similar to the d" , but the apex is emarginate and only the 
tubercles at the angles remain. Branches of the forceps of 
the c? trigonal and remote at the base, nearly straight ; just 
beyond the middle on the inner margin is a strong sharp tooth 
directed apically. In the $ the bi-anches are parallel, the inner 
margin dilated into a flat plate, with a crenulated edge extending 
from one quarter of the length to about three-quarters. 

.^ 2 

Length of body 7*5 mm. 7"5 mm. 

„ forceps 2-5 „ 2-25 „ 

Burma : Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft., v./xii. (Genoa 
3Ius.). 

Also recorded from New Guinea. 

Tijj^e of nigriceps in the British Museum ; of fallacc in the 
Genoa Museum. 

De Bormans at first discriminated P. fallax from P. nir/)-l,cep)s, 
but afterwards admitted their identity. The latter is here included 
as a distinct species because the case is not yet quite proven in 
favour of its inclusion as a varietal form of P. ilioracica. From 
the description and from syntypes of P. fallax (=mgriceps) in the 
author's possession, it is impossible to discriminate the females 
of P. nigriceps from those of P. thoracica. The pygidium difters 
so little in the males, that it is almost certain that P. fallax 
and P. nigriceps are synonyms of P. thoracica, and very likely 
P. gestroi is the female. 

Genus SPHINGOLABIS, Bormans. 

Chfetospania, A'«rsc/?, (8G) p. 87 (nov;. syn.). — Ti/pe : Ch. inornata^ 
Karsch (Madagascar). 

Type, Sphingolahis farcifer, Borm. (84^) p. 194 {= Sparatta 
semifidva, Borm.). 

Body depressed. Antennae with 12 segments ; third segment 
gently clavate, fourth ovate, nearly as long as third, the rest 
pear-shaped. Head smooth, rather depressed, sutures obsolete. 
Pronotum nearly square. Mesosternum transverse, truncate. 



128 LABIID.^. 

MetasterDal lobe narrow, truncate. Elytra and wings well 
developed. Legs moderately long, slender ; third tarsal segment a 
trifle shorter than the first. Abdomen depressed, parallel-sided, 
with lateral tubercles. Last dorsal segment ample. Penultimate 
ventral segment ample, rounded. Pygidium various. Forceps 
elongate, various. 

Banf/c. Tropical Asia and Africa. 

Approaches PJatylahia in the form of the antennte and the 
depi'essed body, but the depression is not so strougly marked, 
and the lateral abdominal tubercles are distinct. There are 
about a dozen species, but the genus needs a thorough revision. 

S. furcifer, Borm., the type of the genus, is the male of 
Sjxiratta semifulva, Borm., which is congeneric with Chcvtospania 
inornata, Karsch, so the genus Chcetosj^ania coincides with Spliin- 
golahis. 

78. Sphingolabis feae, Borm** (Fig. 44.) 

Chsetospania fese, Bormans, (94) p. 390, (00'^) p. 76 ; Kirby, (04) p. 22. 

Eeddish testaceous, with long pale bristles. Antennae with 12 
segments, fuscous, the apical segment paler. Pronotum black, as 
broad as the head, a little longer than broad, subrectangular, with 
rounded angles. Elytra ample, black, coriaceous. Wings of the 
same colour and texture. Legs yellowish. Abdomen reddish 
shaded with blackish ; lateral tubercles prominent ; rectangular 
and parallel-sided in the S , slightly dilated in the middle in 
the $ . Last dorsal segment ample, rectangular, with an in- 
distinct triangular median depression and blunt tubercles over 
the roots of the forceps ; posterior margin truncate. Pygidium 
of cS produced, of varying length, parallel-sided, with a deep 
triangular incision at the apex ; in the $ quadrate, not so 
prominent. Forceps with the branches in the d' remote at 
the base, trigonal, depressed, elongate, nearly straight, gently 
curved inwards at the apex, with a sharp tooth a little beyond 
the middle on the inner margin ; in the $ broader, thicker 
and shorter, nearer together than in the d", the inner margin 
somewhat dilated and crenulate. 



d 


2 


6-7*5 mm. 


6-5 -7'5 mm 


2-25-3-25 „ 


1-75-2-25 „ 



Length of body .... 
,, forceps . . 

Burma : Karen-ui, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft., v./xii., 4000- 
4300 ft., i. ; Karen-ni, Geku District, 4300-4700 ft. ii./iii. 
(Genoa Mus., Brit. Miis., coll. Burr). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

This species resembles some forms of Platylabia, especially in 
the female, but the body is less depressed and the form of the 
pygidium of the male is quite characteristic. 

It occurs in Lombok and probably also in Java. 



FOBFICULIDiE. 



]29 



Family V. FORFICULID^. 

This important and extensive family contains the highest 
developed earwigs. It is well characterized by the form of the 
second segment of the tarsi, which is never simple, but invariably 
lobed, though the form of the lobe varies to some extent. 

In the Glielisochincn it is as narrow as the other segments, but 
is produced into a slender long lobe beneath the third segment. 

In the other subfamilies it is broadened, dilated on each side, 
so as to assume somewhat the shape of a heart. 



Table of Suhfamilles,^ 

1. Second tarsal segment narrow, pro- 
duced into a lobe beneath the third. 
1.1. Second tarsal segment broad, dilated to 
form heart-shaped lobe on each side. 
2. Meso- and metasternal plates de- 
cidedly broad and transverse. 
(Abdomen broad, widest about 
the middle and narrower at the 

apex) 

2.2. Meso- and metasternal plates not 
decidedly transverse, subquadrate 
and naiTow. 
3. Abdomen more or less depressed ; 
(last dorsal segment trans- 
verse) 

3.3. Abdomen convex, little de- 
pressed : (last dorsal segment 
often tapering) 



[p. 129. 
ChelisocJiince, 



[p. 148. 
AnecJiurince, 



3. Forficulhia', p. 162. 

[p. 175. 

4. OjpistJiocosmiina;, 



Subfamily I. CHELISOCHIN.E. 

This subfamily contains at present nine genera, of which all 
but two are known to be represented in British India. 




Fig. 10. — Antenna of Forficida 
hechehiib. Burr. 



Fig. 11.— Tarsus of Ext/pnus 
■jndchripeiinis, Borm. 



The characteristic of the family is the form of the second tarsal 
segment, which is not simple and cylindrical, as in the preceding 



1 Some of these definitions and distinctions are only provisional, as the 
classification of this group is still incomplete. 



130 



roiiFicrLiD.D. 



families, but is provided with a long narrow lobe, which is prodaeed 
beneath the third segment. In the following subfamily, the Forji- 
culino', the second tarsal segment is also lobed, but in a totally 
diilerent manner, being broad and dilated on each side, and not 
produced beneath the third segment. In the Chelisochina' this 
character is not visible from above, as the tarsus is uniformly 
narrow, but can only be distinguished from the side, and in the 
smaller species the lobe is often marked by a dense pubescence. 

The Chelisochina' are, as a rule, moderately sized insects, but 
some forms are quite large. 

There are two general types of coloration : Proreus and Hamaxas 
are generally brown or reddish, varied \'\ith black, while Cheli- 
soches, Chelisochella, Exijiinns, and AdiatheUis are black or dark 
brown, often with a metallic lustre which is sometimes veiy 
brilliant. 



TaUe of Genera. 

1. Elytra with a sharp keel running from 

theslioulder to the apex; (legs long- and [p. 131. 

slender ; elytra broad and rounded) . . Chelisochella, Verb., 
1.1. Keel of elytra absent or present only at 
shoulder, dying out long before reach- 
ing the apex. 
2. Tibife flattened and furrowed above in 
the apical half. 
3. Tarsi and tibia3 long and slender: 

(elytra and wings metallic) .... ExYPNrs, Burr, p. 132. 
3.3. Tarsi and tibiiB short. 

4. Antennae with fourth segment 

clubbed or conical ; (medium- [p. 134. 

sized and dark species) Chelisoches, Scudd., 

4.4. Antennfe with fourth segment 

cylindrical or ovate ; (size 

medium or small ; brown or 

reddish). 

5. Wings deA'eloped ; abdomen 

rather depressed and dilated ; 

forceps depressed and strongly 

toothed ; elytra not excavate 

at basal angle n reus, Burr, p. 136. 

5.5. Wings abortive ; abdomen cy- 
lindrical ; elytra rounded off 
at basal angle, exposing a 
small scutellum ; forceps long 

and very slender SoLENOSOMA,Burr, p.l40. 

2.2. Tibife smooth above, not furrowed, 
flattened only at the apex itself. 
3. Stout insects, dark or metallic in 
colour ; pronotum trapezoidal, 

widened posteriorly ADiATHETTJS,Burr,p.l41. 

3.3. Weaker insects ; colour never me- 
tallic ; forceps rather slender ; 
pronotum ovate, not widened 
posteriorly Hamaxas, Burr, p. 147. 



CHELISOCHELLA. 131 



Genus CHELISOCHELLA, VerJmff. 

Chelisochella, Verhcef, {02') p. 190. 
Lobophora, Serv., (39) p. 32 (pars). 
Chelisoclies, Scudder, (76) p. 295 (pars). 

TrPE, Lohopliora superha, Dohrn. 

Large, powerful ; segments 4 and 5 of antennae equally long,, 
together longer than 3. Head tuuiid, sutures deep. Pronotum 
as wide as the head, not broadened posteriorly. Elytra ample, 
very broad, smooth and shining, with a distinct keel running the 
whole length of the costal fold. Wings long and prominent. 
Legs long and slender ; tibia* compressed, smooth above, not 
flattened or furrowed ; tarsi long and slender. Abdomen stout, 
broad and depressed ; last dorsal segment of J large, smooth, and 
tuberculate. Pygidium small in both sexes. Porceps stout, 
depressed, elongate, toothed. 

Range. Oriental Region. 

This genus is very inaptly named by Verha3fF, who gives it a 
diminutive tei-mination, though it includes the largest species of 
the family, and one of the largest known species of earwigs. It 
is characterixed by the broadened elytra with a sharp and distinct 
keel running the entire length of the costal fold. 

It would appear that Verhceft' was familiar only with the typical 
species, as it must have been by guess-work that he included 
Chelisoches pyulcliripennis, Borm., and Ch. ghmcopterus, Borm., on 
the strength of their metallic coloration. As a matter of fact, 
those two species have only a very short keel on the elytra, and 
so are excluded from the genus by Verhcefi's own characterisation. 

The genus is monotypic, for the reception of Lohopliora superha, 
Dohrn, of which Chelisoches dorice, Borm. is evidently the male. 

This is not the only member of the family in which the female 
has highly developed "forceps, having all the appearance of a male. 

79. Chelisochella superha, Dohrn. (Pig. 89, a & b.) 

Lobophora superba, Dohrn, (65) p. 71 ; Dubr. (79) p. 37S. 
Chelisoches superbus, Scudd. (76) p. 309 : Borm. (00") p 83 • Burr 

(08') p. 115. K , f , y 

Chelisochella superba, Verh. (02^) p. 196 : Burr, (05) p. 28. (07M 

p. 128 ; Kirhy (04) p. 35. ' \ ' v > \ ) 

Chehsoches doria;, Borm. (00'') p. 463; Burr, (OP) p. 95, (08') 

p. 115. 
Chelisochella dorife, Kirhy, (04) p. 35. 

Large and powerful ; black with a purple sheen. Antennje 
blackish brown, wit h(?) 23 segments ; the iifteenth or sixteenth seg- 
ment often pale ; third segment subclavate, fourth half as lono- as 
third, sixth equal to third. Head black, broad and depressed, 
somewhat sinuate posteriorly, sutures distinct ; frons tumid! 
Pronotum purplish black, as broad as the head, longer than broad, 
anterior margin truncate, sides parallel, posterior margin rounded, 
reaching well over the elytra ; prozona somewhat tumid, with 

k2 



132 FOUFICULIDJE. 

a median sulcus, and an impression on each side ; metazona 
depressed. Sternal plates brown. Pronotum long, constricted 
posteriorly ; mesosternum transverse, truncate posteriorly ; meta- 
sternum with lobe short, broad and truncate. Elytra black 
with a shining purple sheen ; ample, long, very broad, well 
rounded at the shoulders, the costa rounded, the apex truncate ; 
a distinct keel runs the whole length of the costal told from the 
shoulder to the apex. Wings prominent, shining purple-black, 
with an orange spot at the apex. Legs long, rather compressed, 
black ; tibiie smooth above, depressed only at the extreme apex 
«n the upper margin. Abdomen broad, rather depressed, reddish 
black. Last dorsal segment of c? ample, transverse ; posterior 
margin depressed in the middle, with a crenulated, transverse, 
crested tubercle on each side over the roots of the forceps, and 
the exterior angles produced to a point ; in the $ as in the 6 , 
but the tubercles more tumid, less crenulate. Penultimate 
ventral segment of cf and $ ample, broad and rounded. Pygidium 
of c? very short, almost hidden; of $ short and broad, with a 
short quadrangular lobe on the posterior margin. Porceps with 
the branches reddish black, remote at the base, depressed, trigonal, 
elongated and robust; in the J bent somewhat downwards and 
gently arcuate, enclosing an elongate oval area, with a pair of 
strong conical teeth near the base on the inner margin and a 
blunt crested tooth just beyond, then crenulate as far as a strong 
sharp tooth just before the apex ; in the $ the branches are 
even more elongate, scarcely arcuate, gently converging, with a 
strong conical tooth near the base, another conical tooth at a 
quarter the length and another about half-way down the forceps ; 
beyond this crenulate to the apex, which is hooked ; the forceps 
-are even more strongly depi*essed in the apical than in the basal 
half. 

d 2 

Length of body .... 21-24 mm. 25-27 mm. 
„ forceps . . 10"5-11 „ 11-13 „ 

SiKKiM (coll. Burr). 

Also from Johore, Mentawei Island, Sumatra, and Borneo. 

The original specimens are quoted as being in Dohrn's col- 
lection, Westermann's, and in the Berlin Museum. It is un- 
certain which is the true type. 

This very fine species is easy to recognize from its great size, 
«,part from the form of the forceps and the generic characters. 

In 1900, de Bormans separated Ch. dorice, but this is nothing 
more or less than the male of C7i. superha, Dohru. 

Genus EXYPNUS, Burr. 

Exypnus, Burr, (07') p. 128. 
Chelisochella, Verh. (02^) p. 196 (pars). 
Chelisocbes, Scudder, (76) p. 295 (pars). 

Type, Chelisoches pulchripenjiis, Borra. 



EXYPNUS. 13;5 

In general appearance resembles tlie preceding genus. An- 
tennae with about 20 segments ; third equal in length to fourtli 
and fifth united. liead tumid, sutures distinct. Pronotum as 
broad as the head, rounded but not dilated posteriorly ; sternal 
plates as in Chelisochelln. Elytra broad, rather rounded, with a 
short costal keel only present at tlie shoulder. Wings well 
developed. Legs long and slender; anterior and middle tibi» 
flattened and furrowed above in the apical third. Pygidium 
short. Forceps depressed, arcuate in J , straight in $. 

Ramje. Oriental Kegion. 

This genus is also monotypic, and was erected for the reception 
of a species which has been referred to CheJisochella and Chelisoches. 
It was included by Yerhoeif in the former, but probablv w'thout 
seeing specimens, since it has not the entire keel on the elytra, 
which is the essential character of that genus as defined by Verhoeff 
himself. 

80. Exypmis pulchripennis, Borm** (Fig. 84.) 

Chelisoches pulchripennis, L'orDi. (83) p. 78, pi. .3. fig- 1~), C88) 
p. 441, (94) p. 392, (00^) p. 84; Bun; (00') p. 90, (02) p. 484: 
Kirhij, (04) p. 3:]. 

Chelisochella pulchripennis, Verh<rff, (02') p. 190. 

Exypnus pulchripennis, Bwr, (07^) p. 128. 

Of medium size ; brownish black, with a purple sheen. An- 
tennae brown, with about 20 segments ; third cylindrical, fourth 
and fifth thickened, ovate, the remainder slender, clubbed at the 
apex. Head with frons tumid and occiput rather depressed, 
brownish black, sinuate posteriorly. Pronotum as broad as the 
head, parallel-sided, truncate in front, rounded posteriorly; blue- 
black ; prozona tumid with a median sulcus and two impressions ; 
metazona depressed. Elytra black with a brilliant purple sheen, 
broadened and rounded along the costal margin ; keel on costal 
margin developed at the shoulder only. Wings long, purple-blue, 
with an orange apical spot. Legs long, slender, rather compressed, 
black, the tarsi paler; the tibiaj depressed and sulcate in the 
apical third. Abdomen parallel-sided, reddish black. Last dorsal 
segment of S rectangular, ample, slightly broader than long ; 
posterior margin depressed in the middle, with a transverse, 
crested, crenulate tubei-cle on each side over the root of the forceps ; 
in the 5 narrowed posteriorly, the tubercles more feebly de- 
veloped. Pygidium of S very short and broad, hidden ; of $ very 
short and obtuse. Forceps with the branches in the S depressed, 
remote at the base, but with a strong depressed bifid tooth at the 
base itself, the points of which almost meet ; then rather bent 
downwards, gently arcuate, enclosing an elongate oval area, 
crenulate along the inner margin with a sharp tooth at the apical 
third ; in the 5 depressed, nearly straight, elongate, crenulate 
along the inner margin. 

<S 9- 

Length of body .... lG-5 nun. 16 mm. 

„ forceps . . 5 „ 6 „ 



134 rOEFICULID^. 

Burma : Senmyingyan, ii. {Genoa cf- Brii. 3fus.), Karen-ni, 
Keba District, 3000-4300 ft., v/xii. {Genoa JItts.); Tenasserim : 
Thagata, iv. 

Also from Sarawak, New Guinea. 

I'l/pe iu Genoa Museum. 

De Bormans reports an aberration of the male, in which the 
forceps are only of half the usual length and unusually thick and 
strong, with the powerful basal tooth situated at one third of the 
way down the forceps. In the author's collection, there is one of 
the females taken by Fea in Karen-ni in which the head is brick- 
red, the body orange-red, the forceps red, and the posterior 
femora orange. This is probably a form of xanthochroism due to 
deficient nourishment, as the forceps are weak and one branch is 
atrophied. 

This species resembles a diminutive Chelisochella superha, but 
the keel on the elytra is very short, and the forceps of the 
female are quite simple. Otherwise the form and colour are 
almost exactly the same. 

In the female the segments of the antennae are less markedly 
clavate than in the male. 

Genus CHELISOCHES, Smdder. 

Clielisoclies, Scudder, (76) p. 295. 

Lobophora, Serville, (-"iO) p. 32 (preoccupied iu Lepidoptera, 
Curtis, 1825). — Type, Forticula morio, Fabr. 

Type, Forficula morio, Fabr, 

Size medium ; antennae with 15-20 segments ; third fairly long, 
fourth clubbed or conical, about half as long as the third ; fifth 
longer than fourth ; fifth and fourth united slightly longer than 
third, the rest elongate, subconical. Head tumid, sutures fairly 
distinct. Pronotum as broad as the head, truncate anteriorly, the 
-sides gently diverging as it is widened posteriorly ; posterior 
margin broadly rounded. Elytra ample, smooth, no costal keel. 
Wings well developed. Prosternum parallel-sided, slightly con- 
stricted near the base. Mesosternum nearly square, truncate 
posteriorly. Metasteimum ti-ansverse, truncate posteriorly. Legs 
rather short ; femora not very stout ; tibiae flattened, furrowed 
in the apical half above ; tarsi very short, very pubescent, rather 
broad. Abdomen parallel-sided, rather depressed, lateral tubei'cles 
distinct ; last dorsal segment of d" transverse, rectangular ; in 
the 2 shghtly narrowed. Penultimate ventral segment broadly 
rounded in both sexes. Pygidium of J small, of $ larger, but not 
very prominent. Forceps with the branches in the cJ depressed, 
remote at base, generally stout, more or less elongate, depressed, 
simple. 

Range. Tropical Asia and Australia. 

As now restricted this genus only contains about half a dozen 
species of which only one is known to occur in India. 



CIIELISOCIIES. 135 

81. Chelisoches morio, Fair. (Fig, 45.) 

ForHcLila morio, Fabi: (7o) p. 270, (81) p. 341, (87) p. 22-j, (93) p. o ; 

Oliv. (92) p. 4(38 ; lionu. (ofS) p. 7-52. 
Lobophoi'a morio, Dohrn, (Oo) p. 71 ; TJu.br. (79) p. 374. 
Clielisoches morio, Scudder, (76) p. 308; Borm. {><'ri) p. 440, (94) 

p. 391, (00-) p. 8o; /)V/v, (00-) p. ol, mi) p. 327, (02) p. 484 ; 

Kirby, (04) p. 33; Ternj, (0-3) pp. 104-171, pi. viii, iigs. 1-0, 

pi. ix, tigs. 1 -t). 
ForMcula rutitarsis, Serv. (39) p. 33. 
Forticula (Psalidophora) rutitavsis, Harm, (42) p. 241. 
Lobophora nigronitens, !Stal, (UOj p. 305. 
Lobophora tartarea, Stal, ((iO) p. 30o. 
Lobophora cincticornis, Stal, (00) p. 305. 
Labidura uigricoruis, Kirbi/, in P. Z. S. 1888, p. 546. 
Chelisoches uigricornis, Kirby, (04) p. 34. 
Chelisoches comprimens, !Scudd. (70) pp. 252 & 308 ; Kirby, (04) 

p. 32. 
Chelisoches stratioticus, ReJm, (05) p. 509 (n. syn.). 

Of medium size ; jet-black, varying to dull brown or umber. 
Antennae with 20-21 segments, black, with a pale ring before the 
apex. Head, pronotum, elytra and wings dull black, smooth, 
shading to reddish-brown in some specimens. Legs black, the 
tarsi orange or yellowish. Abdomen umber, brownish black or 
jet-black, dull or feebly shining, the entire dorsal surface punctu- 
late, the lateral tubercles distinct ; whole of the ventral surface 
of the same colour as the dorsal surface, punctulate ; last dorsal 
segment of S smooth, transverse, rectangular, the posterior margin 
depressed in the middle with a pair of small compressed tubercles 
in the depression ; leather tumid over the insertion of the forceps ; 
in 2 similar, but the tubercles less strongly marked. Pygidium 
of S short, stumpy, broad, barely distinguishable ; of 5 more 
prominent, broad, short and tumid, the posterior margin produced 
into a rectilinear lobe, slightly dilated, the apex of which is 
greatly sinuate and each angle terminated in small tubercle or blunt 
point. Forceps of <S of two types: (1) branches remote at base, 
stout, rather short, very broad and flat, with strong prominent 
irregular teeth on the inner margin near the base or in the 
basal half ; beyond this, gently arcuate with a few small teeth or 
smooth ; (2) flattened, but less broad, and elongate, with a broad 
and flat denticulated dilation near the base on inner margin, 
beyond which gradually incurved, the inner margin smooth, with 
one or more small teeth ; in the $ the branches are less depressed, 
subcontiguous, trigonal, elongate, nearly straight at first, then 
gently incurved, the inner margin crenulate. 

The larvae are black, with pale legs, and pale bands on the 
thoracic plates. 





S 


? 


Length of body . . . . 


12-17"5 mm. 


14-18-5 mm. 


„ forceps . 


. 8-7-5 „ 


-^8 « 



136 rOKFICULIDiE. 

Bengal: Calcutta (Dmssels 31us.); Madras; Travancore (var. 
stratiotkus ; coll. Burr), Trichinopoli {coll. Bolivar) ; Ceylon : 
Kottanda {Willey; coll. Burr), Galle, x. (Fletcher; coll. Burr); 
Burma : Bhamo, viii.; Karen-ni, Keba Distr., 3000-3700 ft., v./xii. 
(Genoa Mus.). 

This species is abundant throughout tlie Oriental Region ; it 
is continually reported from islands in the Malay Peninsula, and 
has extended its distribution, doubtless through shipping, to the 
east coast of Africa and New Zealand ; it has even been taken at 
Kew Gardens in Enghand. 

It varies considerably in size and in colour, and intermediate 
forms are continually met with. The large, umber-coloured 
form has been described as distinct by Kebn under the name 
stratioticus. 

Ch. morio is abundant in wet districts in the sugar plantations 
in the JSandwich Islands, and an interesting account is given by 
Terry in the report of the work of the Experimental Station of 
the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association (05) (see Introduction, 
p. 16). It is an extremely active species and appears to be 
diurnal, Terry describing it as running over the leaves in search 
of insect food during the hottest part of the day. In Hawaii it 
abounds in the moist mountain ridges and valleys and also in 
many of the elevated plantations. It is scarce in the dry and 
irrigated cane-areas. 



Genus PROREUS, Btirr. 

Troreus, Burr, (07^) p. 129. 
Chelisoches, Scuddcr, (7(j) p. 295 (pars). 

Ttpe, Forficxda simulans, Stal. 

Closely related to Chelisoches, but the antennas are more slender, 
and the fourth segment is ovate or cylindrical, and not thickened 
or clubbed. The species are smaller and weaker, and the colour is 
almost invariably some shade of red or brown. The forceps are 
of the same type as in Chelisoches, but in the typical species the 
branches are slender. 



7\thle of Sj^ecies. 

1. Forceps elongate and slender. 
2. Head brick-red ; el3^tra yellow, 

with fuscous stripes simulans, Sta.1, p. lo7. 

2.2. Head blacldsh ; elytrn tawny . . mel(niocephahis, Dohrn, var., 
3.1. Forceps short, broad and flat. [p. 138. 

2. Head blackisli ; elytra tawny . . 'inclanocephahis,T)o\\vn,'^.l'i9>. 
2.2. Head and elytra uniform dull 

brown ritscmcp, Borm., p. 139. 



PROREUS. 



137 



82. Proreus simulans, Stdl. (Fig. 85.) 
Forficula simiilans, «/!5/, ((50) p. .",02. 

Chelisoches simulans, Scudd. (76) i^. .'509; i^ar^n. (^«) P- ,4^0' (?f 
p. .391, (00'^) p.^S7 ; i?«/v, (02) p. 484, (07^) p. 209, (08») p. 116 ; 

Chelisoc'hes ludekingi. Burr, (nee Dolirn, nee Borm.) (00^) p. 51. 

Forficula modesta, i^tSl, ((50) p. .302.^ 

Lobopliora modesta, Dohni, ((!.",) p. 74. 

Chelisoches modestu.s, -VcMfW. (7(5) p. .'50b ; 7ur/>//, (04) p. o-j. 

Chelisoches simulans, snbsp. modestus, Bonn. (00') p. 88. 

Proreus simulans, i/wrr, (07') p. 1..51. 

Of medium size and slender build ; general colour orange-red 
varied with tawny. Antennae brown, slender, with i:0 segments ; 
third long and cylindrical, fourth decidedly shorter than thu-d, 
cylindrical; fifth almost as long as third, the rest long, all cy- 
lindrical and slender. Head clear brick-red, smooth, tumid, the 
sutures distinct. Pronotum a little narrower than the head, 
truncate anteriorly, slightly widened posteriorly, hinder margin 
broadly rounded; prozona somewhat tumid, orange-red; side.? 
and metazoua depressed, clear yellow. Elytra long, rather narrow, 
smooth, clear orange-yellow, with a narrow dark band along 
the suture and the costal fold. M^'ings prominent, of the same 
colour as the elytra (abortive in the var. modestus). Legs rather 
short, orange-yellow ; tibia) furrowed only in apical third. Abdomen 
broad, depressed and parallel-sided, deep cliestnut-red, darker near 
the base ; lateral tubercles distinct ; finely punctulate. Last dorsal 
segment of 6 ample, rectangular, smooth, clear red, postenor 
margin truncate and darkened, with two small compressed tubercles 
in the middle, and crenulated obtuse tubercles on each side ; m the 
2 similar but somewhat narrowed, the tubercles obsolete. Penul- 
timate ventral segment of d broadly rounded. Pygidium of both 
sexes very short, obtuse, transverse, not prominent. Forceps with 
the branches in the d remote at the base, depressed but not dilated, 
rather slender, with a sharp triangular tooth on the inner margin 
at one-third from the base (occasionally obsolete) and sometimes a 
second smaller tooth near the apex ; elongate and gently arched 
inwards ; in the 2 remote at base, almost straight, the whole of 
inner margin crenulate. 

Length of body 10-12 mm. 8-5-10 mm. 

,, forceps 3 „ «5 ,» 

Bombay : Pusa (Pusa coll.) ; Be>.'Gal : Calcutta, "at light," xi. 
(Annandale, Ind. Miis.) ; Burma: Kokarit, i./ii., Eangoou, xu. 
(Fea, Genoa Mus.). 

Widely distributed throughout the Oriental Eegion. 

Type in the Stockholm Museum. 



138 FOEFICULID.E. 

Easy to recognize by the colour of the forceps. P. ludel-ingi, 
Dohrn, is a Malayan species that may occur in India; it resembles 
F. simidans, but has a pale ring on the antennte and the tooth of 
the forceps is A\eaker aud nearer the apex ; it may be a A^ariety or 
race of P. simulans. De Bormans separates P. modestus as a sub- 
species ; in this the wings are abortive and the tooth of the 
forceps often obsolete. 



S3. Proreus melanocephalus, Dolim. (Fig. 86.) 

Lobophora melanocepbala, Dohrn, (05) p. 75. 

Chelisoches melanocephalus, Sciidd. (76) p. 308 ; Bonn. (88) p. 440, 

(94) p. 392, (00-) p. 89 ; £nrr, (99) p. 258 (nee Ayin. Mag. X. H. 

(6) XX. p. 315, 1897), (05') p. 28, (07^) p. 209; Burr, (08^) 

p. 116 ; Kirhy, (04) p. 33. 
Proreus melanocephalus, Burr, (07') p. 130. 

Of small size ; general colour tawny. Antennae with (?) 15 
segments, brown, sometimes paler near the base ; segments rather 
thick ; third not very long ; fourth half as long as third, cylindrical ; 
fifth shorter than third ; sixth equal to third ; all cylindrical. 
Head very dark brown or black ; smooth, i-ather depressed, 
sutures fairly distinct. Pronotum slightly longer than wide, 
truncate anteriorly, sides straight, hinder border broadly rounded, 
slightly broader posteriorly than anteriorly ; deep orauge-yellow. 
Elytra ample, long, smooth, tawny. Wings long, smooth, tawny. 
Legs tawny ; tibite with upper surface flattened and furrowed 
about the apical third. Abdomen smooth, blackish red, lateral 
tubercles distinct. Last dorsal segment of S transverse, posterior 
margin truncate and finely crenulate ; in $ narrower, smooth. 
Penultimate ventral segment of S and $ broadly rounded. Pygi- 
dium of S very short, transverse, depressed, posterior margin 
incrassate, darkened and gently emarginate in the middle ; in $ 
short, obtuse. Forceps with branches reddish tawny ; in the S of 
two types : («) short, broad, depressed, gently incurved and blunt 
at the points, with a sharp tooth in the middle ; (6) more slender 
and elongate, with a short conical sharp tooth quite near the base ; 
straight at first, then gently arched inwards, with a blunt tooth 
in the apical third ; in the 2 simple, straight and contiguous. 

d 2 

Length of body 8-9 mm. 8 mm. 

„ forceps 1-2-5 „ 1 -5 „ 

Teanquebae; Bombay: Mahim, "under plantain roots" {Pihsa 
coll.); Bengal: Barisol, Munshiganj, Pusa, "in roots of a cane, 
6/ii./05 " {Pusa coll.) ; Sikkim : Darjiling {Paris Mus.) ; Uppee 
Assam : {Ind. 2Ius.) ; Buema : Teinzo, v. {Genoa Mus.). 

The type was in Westermann's collection ; where it is now is 
not certain. 

Differs from its congeners in its small size and uniform tawny 



PROREUS. 13^ 

coloration with black head. Superficially resembles Uamaxas fece 
Borm. In the small size and coloration and short antennce it 
approaches Hamaxas. 

84. Proreus ritsemse, Bonnans* (Fig. 87.) 

Chelhochesrlisem^, Bonn. (84') p. ISo, (04) P: -9\ W P- §6 ; 

Burr, (99) p. 254, (02) p. 484, (08') p. 116; Kirbrj, (04) p. 34. 
Proreus ritsemee, Burr, (07^) p. 130. 

Of medium size ; general colour dull earthy brown. Antennre 
dull brown, with about 20 segments ; third not very long, fourth 
only a little shorter, fifth about equal to third, fourth is rather 
ovate, the others gradually lengthening; all rather thick, cy- 
lindrical. Head tumid, dull chestnut. Pronotum rathfer short, 
crently widened posteriorly, dull yellowish brown. Elytra and 
win^s prominent, well developed, dull yellowish brown. Legs 
dull yellowish brown; femora rather thick; furrow on tibiae 
quite distinct. Abdomen deep brown-red, finely punctulate. 
Last dorsal segment of 6 ample, quadrangular, punctulate, with a 
median posterior depression, and a pair of compressed tubercles in 
the middle, tumid over the root of the forceps ; m the $ simdar 
buc less developed. Pygidiuin of d short, transverse, truncate ; ot 
2 short, transverse, obtuse, with, a rectangular truncate lobe on 
posterior margin. Forceps of J with branches stout, depressed 
and broad, rather short, straight ; armed on the inner margin near 
base with one or two strong conical teeth or a denticulate strong 
depressed projectiou, and often another tooth nearer the apex ; 
in the $ simple, slender, nearly straight, with a conical tooth near 
the base, denticulate along inner margin. 

6 2 

Length of body 9-5-12 mm. 12-5 mm. 

„ forceps 2-25-4: „ 4 „ 

Burma: Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft., April to 
December, v./xii. {Genoa 2[us.). 

Type in Ley den Museum. 

The uniform dull brown colour of this species, together with 
its sturdy build, and the powerful strongly toothed forceps of the 
male, render it easy to recognize. The details of the dentition 
of the male forceps vary a good deal ; sometimes there is a pair 
of stout conical teeth near the base, and sometimes they are fused 
into one dilated and depressed projectiou, having a strongly 

In the sturdy build, rather thick antennae and strong forceps, 
this species approaches Gh. morio. 

It is widely distributed throughout the Oriental Eegion. 

F. fascipennis, Haan, from Borneo and Sumatra, appears to be 
related to it, and is perhaps only a race or variety, but the forceps 
are weaker, the head is red, and the antenna) have a pale ring. 



140 ronrictJLiD.?;. 



Genus SOLENOSOMA, Burr. 

Solenosoma, Burr, (07') pp. 126 & 131. 
Auclienomus, Bormans, (nee Karsch) (88) p. 436. 
C\ie\\&Qc\\ft^, Bonnans, (00") p. 82 (pars). 

Type, Auclienomus hirmanus, Borm, 

Body slender and cylindrical. Antennae with (?) segments ; 
the first long and swollen in the apical half ; third long and 
slender, fourth half as long as third, subovate ; the rest elongate 
and cylindrical (11 segments remain in the type). Head 
depressed, hinder margin truncate. Pronotum narrower than 
the head anteriorly, somewhat wider posteriorly, rectilinear, with 
rounded* angles. Elytra short, truncate, with no costal keel; 
humeral angle not rounded ; axillary angle rounded off, thus 
exposing a small triangular scutellum. Wings absent ; sternal 
plates narrow. Legs rather short, slender ; tibiae flattened above 
in the apical third, not strongly furrowed ; second tarsal segment 
slender, short and cylindrical, produced into a narrow lobe beneath 
the third, which is a little over half as long as the first. Abdomen 
slender, depressed, parallel-sided and elongate ; lateral tubercles 
distinct ; last dorsal segment square ; penultimate ventral segment 
of c? ample and square. Pygidium small. Porceps of S very long 
and slender. 

Range. Burma. 

This geuus is monotypic and was erected in 1907 for the 
aberrant form described by de Bormans under the name of 
Auclienomus hirmanus. In the very slender body and long slender 
forceps it approaches Auclienomus, but the anteriorly truncate and 
trapezoidal pronotum separates it readily. In the rather long gently 
widened pronotum and in the sti'ucture of the legs, it approaches 
ChelisocJu's and Proreus. The complete disappearance of the wings 
is emphasised by the I'eduction of the elytra, which are short and 
truncate, and the axillary angle is rounded off, so as to expose a 
scutellum, an unfailing sign of the degeneration of these organs, 
as are also the narrow shoulders. There is a more or less distinct 
humeral angle in all normally winged forms, but in this genus 
the outline is an unbroken line from the side of the pronotum 
down the costal fold of the elytra to the abdomen. 

85. Solenosoma birmanum, Borm.* 

Auchenomus hirmanus, Borm. (88) p. 426, (94) p. 391. 
Chelisoches hirmanus, Borm. (0U-) p. 85 ; Kirby, (04) p. 33. 
Soleuosoma birmanum, Burr, (07^) p. 131. 

Deep reddish chestnut. Head a little paler, depressed, longer 
than broad, sutures distinct ; hinder margin truncate, sides gently 
diverging anteriorly. Eyes small. Pronotum with sides 
nan-owly pale ; trapezoidal, rectilinear, decidedly longer than 



SOLENOSOMA. — ADIATHETUS. 141 

broad, narrower than the head anteriorly, as wide as the head 
posteriorly ; posterior angles gently rounded. Elytra quite 
smooth, red-brown. Legs testaceous. Abdomen parallel-sided, 
finely punctulate, lateral tubercles distinct. Last dorsal segment 
smoother than the abdomen, quadrangular, decidedly broader than 
long, the hinder margin sinuate with a row of small compressed 
tubei'cles. Pygidium small, thick and obtuse, with a short, narrow, 
parallel-sided lobe terminating in two short sharp pomts. Forceps 
with the branches remote at the base, depressed and slightly dilated 
at the base itself, then attenuate, bent gently downwards and elon- 
gate, very slender, almost straight, slightly converging and gently 
hooked at the apex ; the inner margin near the base has a few 
minute denticulations. The female is unknown. 

6 

Length of body 9-10 mm. 

„ forceps 4-5-G „ 

Assam : Silicuri, in Cachar (1 cJ, Tad. Mus.) ; Burma : Bhamo 
(1 S ■, Genoa Mas.). 

Tyjye in Genoa Museum. 

This is a rare insect, and the two specimens, quoted above, both 
males, are the only ones known to exist in collections. 

It can be recognized at a glance by its dark red chestnut colour, 
elongate and slender build, the very long and slender forceps, and 
the form of the elytra, taken in conjunction with the form of 
the legs and pronotum, which show that its proper place is in 
the Chelisochince. 

The type has only 11 segments left in the antennae, and the 
specimen in the Calcutta Museum has lost both the antenuEe. 



Genus ADIATHETUS, Buvr. 

Adiathetus, Burr, (07^) pp. 126 & 132. 
Chelisoches, Bonn., {OQi^) p. 82 (pars). 

Type, Chelisoches shelf ordi, Burr. 

Size medium or large. Antennae with 20 segments, the third 
long, but shorter than the fourth and fifth united ; fourth half as 
long as third, clavate ; fifth clavate, nearly as long as third; the 
rest elongate, subcorneal. Head tumid, sutures distinct. Pronotum 
nearly square, slightly wider posteriorly than anteriorly. Elytra 
ample, with no keel on the costal fold, smooth or granuloue, 
often metallic. Wings like the elytra. Legs rather slender ; 
tibiae not flattened nor furrowed above except at the extreme apex. 
Abdomen convex, parallel-sided, lateral folds distinct. Last dorsal 
segment of c? ample, smooth, often with some strong tubercles ; 
in the $ ample, simpler. Pygidium of 6 and $ various. Eorceps 
of (S stout, depressed and broad ; of § elongate and less stout. 

lianc/e. Oriental Region. 



142 rOEFICULIDyE. 

This genus is formed for the reception of those species hitherto 
included in ChelisocJies, which ai"e characterized by the smooth upper 
surface of the tibial ; otherwise the species agree \a ith true 
CheUsoches. 

It is noteworthy that in this genus the female often has well- 
marked characters in the pygidium and forceps. 



Table of Species. 

1. Last dorsal segment of S with two 
strong prominent crested tubercles ; 
forceps of 5 elongate, with two sharp 

teeth shelfordi, Burr, p. 142. 

1.1. Last dorsal segment of J with no 
prominent tubercles ; forceps of $ 
without strong teeth. 
2. Pronotum parallel - sided ; head 

strongly sinuate posteriorly dravidius, sp. n., p. 143. 

2.2. Pronotum widened posteriorly ; 
head not strongly sinuate pos- 
teriorly. 
3. Elytra and wings with brilliant 
green metallic sheeu ; pygidium 

of 5 lanceolate, acute (jlmicopterus, Borm., p. 144. 

3.3. Elytra and wings dull black ; 
pygidium of 2 truncate or bifid. 
4. Pygidium of 5 bifid at apex . . nic/rocasfaneus, sp. n., p. 145. 
4.4. Pygidium of $ truncate at apex tetiebrator, Kirby, p. 146. 



86. Adiathetus shelfordi, Bun: 

Chelisoches slielfordi. Bun; (00') p. 96, pi. 4. fig. 4, (05) p. 496. 
Chelisochella shelfordi, Kirby, (04) p. 35. 

Chelisoches hercules, Bun; (00^) p. 97, pi. 4. figs. 2, 2 a, (08^) p. 116. 
Adiathetus shelfordi. Bun; (07^) p. 133. 

Large and robust ; general colour reddish black ; the whole 
body clad with a golden pubescence ; the elytra bright purple. 
Antennae with 20 segments ; third almost cylindrical ; fourth 
ovate, about half as long as third; fifth cylindrical, as long as third ; 
the rest gradually lengthening ; black, with two or three yellowish 
segments before the apex. Head quadrate, tumid, sutures fairly 
distinct ; reddish black. Eyes prominent, black. Pronotutu 
almost square, anterior margin and sides straight, hinder margin 
rounded, brownish black ; prozoua tumid, with an impression on 
each side and a median sulcus ; metazona depressed, with a faint 
median line. Sternal plates brown, rather broad, truncate pos- 
teriorly. Elytra ample, strongly rounded at the shoulders, finely 
granulose, with a brilliant purple sheen. Wings like the elytra 
in texture and colour. Legs long and slender ; femora and tibiae 
dark brown, the tarsi paler ; tibiae smooth above ; tarsi long, third 



ADIATHETUS. 



143 



segment nearly as long as the first; lobe of second segment 
long and proininent ; all the legs strongly pubescent. Abdomen 
parallel-sided, convex, deep chestnut-brown, very finely punctulate: 
lateral tubercles distinct. A'enter brown. Last dorsal segment 
of 6 ample, smooth, nearly square ; in the middle of the posterior 
margin there is a pair of strong, parallel, compressed, prominent 
tube!i-cles, obliquely truncate at the apex, directed up\\-ards and 
Txickwards and densely hairy : in the $ shorter than in the J and 
slio-htly narrowed, with a tumid tubercle over the root of the 
forceps. Penultimate ventral segment of J and $ broadly rounded. 
Pygidium of d stout, obtuse, almost hidden, bifid at the extremity ; 
thai; of 2 short and thick, the posterior margin emarginate, the 
ano-les pi-oduced into obtuse triangular tubei-cles. Eorceps : branches 
in the d very strongly flattened and broadened in the basal 
half, the inner margin of this part being strongly serrate ; half- 
way down the dilation disappears and the apical half is attenuate, 
but still robust and gently incurved, denticulate on the inner 
maro-iu ; in the $ the branches are remote at the base, rather 
depressed and trigonal, sinuously elongate with a prominent 
sharp tooth one-third the way down, and another at two-thirds ; 
the double edge in the trigonal basal part on the inner margin 
is crenulate. In both sexes the forceps are dull reddish brown, 
and densely clad with thick golden pubescence. 

d ? 

Length of body 15-5-21 mm. 18-5-21 mm. 

„ forceps .... 4-5 „ 11-12 „ 

SiKKiM (coll Bolivar) ; Borneo {coll. Ban-). 

Type in the Sarawak Museum. 

A very striking species ; the brilhant purple elytra, the dense 
o-olden pubescence, and the remarkable form of the forceps in both 
sexes make this earwig unmistakable. 



87. Adiathetus dravidius, sp. n. (Fig. 46.) 

General colour deep brownish black. Antennae with 17 segments, 
black, the basal segments brownish ; third not very long, cylindrical ; 
fourth about two-thirds as long as the third, a little thicker, ovate ; 
the remainder regularly lengthening. Head smooth, brownish 
black, shinijig, the frons very tumid ; sutures deep and well marked ; 
occiput depressed in the middle, tumid on each side behind the eyes ; 
posterior margin decidedly sinuate. Pronotum smooth, brown- 
black, anterior margin convex in the middle, the angles rectangular ; 
sides parallel, posterior margin rounded ; prozona tumid, metazonu 
depressed, sides reflexed. Elytra smooth, dull blackish brown with 
a bright orange spot on the posterior margin. Wings long, black, 
with a bright orange basal spot, being the continuation of the spot 
on the elytra. Legs uniform dull greenish brown ; tarsi long, the 
first segment longer than the third. Abdomen parallel -sided, 



144 rORFICULID.E. 

brownish black ; lateral tubercles of third and fourth segments very 
distinct. Last dorsal segment of c? transverse, smooth, shining, 
brownish black, depressed in the middle, tumid over the roots of the 
forceps; in the $ similar, but less tumid and furnished with a short, 
blunt, compressed, oblique ridge or crest at the exterior angles. 
Penultimate ventral segment ot J bi'oad, rounded, gently emarginate 
in the middle of the posterior border ; in the $ shorter, the posterior 
margin rounded and entire. Pygidium of cS short, quadrangular, 
obtuse, the sides slightly concave and posterior margin slightly 
convex; in the 2 ^ little longer, depressed, tapering in basal 
half, rectangular, posterior margin slightly emarginate. Forceps 
of d with the branches remote at the base, stout, depressed, rather 
long, straight at first, arcuate apically, with a strong tooth near 
the base and another beyond the middle ; in $ a little less stout, 
elongate, nearly straight, very gently curved inwards near apex, 
the inner margin crenulate. The forceps are yellow or reddish. 

c? $ 

Length of body 9-11 mm. 13-13-5 mm. 

,, forceps 3"5-4-5 „ 6-5 „ 

Madras : Travancore ; Tenmalai, on the AVestern sides of the 
Western Ghats, xi. {Dr. N. Annandale, under rotten wood, Ind. 
Mus.). 

Type in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

This species approaches A. nifirocastaneus^ Burr, and A. glauco- 
pterus, Borm., but differs from both in the strongly sinuate posterior 
border of the head, the parallel-sided pronotum, and the longer 
tarsal segments. 

It also differs in colour. In A. glaucopterus the elytra and wings 
are of brilliant metallic green-black, with a minute yellow spot at 
the apex of the latter. In A. nigrocastaneus the elytra and wings 
are black, the latter having a broad yellow band along the suture. 
In A. dravidius the elytra and wings are black with a bright 
orange-yellow spot common to the apex of the elytra and base of 
the wings ; also the legs ai-e uniform dull greenish brown and 
the antennae not ringed. 



88. Adiathetus glaucopterus, Borm** (Fig. 47.) 

Chelisoche8 glaucopterus, Borjti. (88) p. 441, (94) p. 392, (OO^) p. 84 ; 
Eirhy (04), p. 33; Burr, (05=) p. 28, (07^) p. 129, (08^; p. 115. 

Size medium ; general colour metallic green and bright chestnut- 
red. Antennae with 16 segments (? or more), black, with a pale 
ring before the apex ; third segment gently clavate ; fourth sub- 
clavate, about half as long as the third ; fifth ovate, longer than 
fourth but shorter than third ; sixth about equal to third ; the 
rest elongate, subcylindrical. Head dull black, smooth and tumid, 
especially posteriorly ; occipital suture well marked ; eyes small. 



ADIATHETUS. 145 

Pronotum black with a copper-green lustre, nearly square, very 
slightly broader posteriorly than anteriorly, anterior margin gently 
convex, posterior broadly rounded and sides straight ; prozona 
tumid with a faint median sulcus and an impression on each side ; 
metazona depressed. Elytra ample, well rounded at the shoulders,' 
broad, gently emarginate at the apex, with no keel on the costal fold ; 
perfectly smooth, of a brilliant, lustrous, metalhc green. Wings 
prominent, of the same colour as the pronotum, with a small orange 
spot at the extreme apex. Legs blackish ; the tarsi somewhat 
paler ; tibiae with the upper surface only flattened and furrowed 
at the apex itself. Abdomen bright chestnut-red, shaded with 
blackish, lateral tubercles distinct ; the whole surface puuctulate ; 
venter shining, deeper red. Last dorsal segment of d ample, smooth' 
black, shaded with red, somewhat broader than long, posterior 
margin tumid over the roots of the forceps, depressed in the 
middle, with a pair of small tubercles in the depression ; exterior 
angles sharply rectangular ; in the $ similar but a trifle narrowed 
and the tubercles less developed. Penultimate ventral segment of 
c? and 2 broadly rounded. Pygidium of c? very short, transverse 
and obtuse ; of $ very prominent, red, acute, lanceolate. Forceps 
with the branches red, depressed, rather broad, and remote at the 
base ; m the d rather short, stout, gentlv arcuate, with a strong 
tooth on the mnei% margin in the basal third ; in the $ elongate, 
nearly straight, gently curved inwards at the apex, the inner margin 
denticulate. 

d 2 

Length of body 10-14-5 mm. 10-12 mm. 

forceps.... 2-5-3 „ 5-8-75,, 

Upper Assam (Ind. JIus.); Burma: Kachin Hills, viii 
Karen-ni, Geku District, 4300-4700 ft., v. (Genoa Mus.) • Ten- 
ASSEEiM : Meetan, iv. {Genoa Mus.). ' 

Also recorded from Tonkin (Paris Mus., coll. Burr). 

Tif2}e in the Genoa Museum. 

The contrast between the brilliant green elytra and bright red 
abdomen and forceps renders this a very handsome and conspicuous 
species, which is not likely to be confused with any other, except 
perhaps the following. The details, shading and armature' of the 
forceps are of course variable features. 

Verhceff" ranged this species in ChelisocheUa, evidently by 
guess-work, for if he had ever seen a specimen he would have 
noticed the absence of the costal keel of the elytra by which he 
himself characterizes that genus. 

89. Adiathetus nigrocastaneus, sp. n. (Pig. 48.) 

Of medium size ; black, varied with chestnut. Antennse with 
19 segments, black, with two pale segments before the apex - the 
third not very long and second shorter than the third, ovate ;'fiftb 



146 FORFICULIDiE. 

a trifle longer, but not equal to the third, ovate ; sixth equal to 
the third in length but a little thicker, elongate ovate ; the rest 
more slender and long. Head smooth and black, tumid, the sutures 
deep. Pronotum black, with a distinct median suture and an 
impression on each side in the prozona ; about as broad as long, 
truncate anteriorly, rounded posteriorly, scarcely if at all broader 
posteriorly than anteriorly. Prosteruum rather long, constricted ; 
mesosternum truncate ; metasternum with lobe short, scarcely 
passing the posterior coxse, broad, truncate. Elytra smooth, jet- 
black, broad, with no keels. Wings prominent, clear orange, with 
a fuscous outer margin. Legs not very long ; femora reddish 
chestnut, blackish at the base ; tibiae blackish, smootli above, 
depressed only at the apex itself ; tarsi not very long, with dense 
golden pubescence. Abdomen broad and depressed, parallel-sided, 
blackish chestnut, lateral tubercles strong. Last dorsal segment 
of c? transverse ample, smooth, with a short folded ridge at each 
angle, tumid over the insertion of the forceps, depressed in the 
middle, with two parallel compressed longitudinal ridges ; in the $ 
narrower, the ridges and elevations feebler than in the d . Venter 
tawny. Penultimate ventral segment of (S ample, broad, the 
posterior margin rounded, with a slight median excision ; similar 
in the § but not emarginate. Pygidium of c? not prominent; in 
the $ produced into a depressed plate, slightly widened apically 
and deeply emarginate, thus forming a pair of triangular lobes. 
Forceps reddish in both sexes ; in the d short, stout, remote at 
base, depressed, straight, incurved apically, blunt, with three small 
teeth on the inner margin ; in the $ depressed, elongate, and 
nearly straight. 

c? 2 

Length of body 9*5 mm. 8'5 mm. 

„ forceps 2 „ 2-75 „ 

Bombay : Kanara, August {Pusa coll.). 

Type in the Pusa Collection. 

This species closely resembles A. glaucopterus, but diifers in the 
bright orange wings, with only the outer border blackish, in the 
dull black elytra with no metallic sheen, in the chestnut legs, and 
blacker abdomen ; the last dorsal segment and forceps of the 
male are almost exactly similar, but the pygidium of the female is 
totally different, being much shorter, somewhat broadened apically 
and deeply fissured, thus forming two triangular lobes. 



90. Adiathetus tenebrator, Kirby* 

Chehsoches tenebrator, Kirby, (91) p. 521, pi. 12. fig. 5 ( $ ), (04) 
p. 33 ; JBorm. (00'^) p. 85 ; Bun; (07^) p. 129. 

Size medium ; colour blackish brown. Antennae with 15 
seo^ments, with a pale ring before the apex ; fourth little over half 



ADIATHETCS. HAMAXAS. 147 

as long as third, fifth about equal to third, the rest elongate, all 
cyliudrical. Head depressed, sutures distinct, tumid behind the 
eyes. Pronotum gently widened posteriorly. Elytra and wings 
ample, blackish brown, smooth ; no costal keel to elytra. Legs 
short ; tibia flattened only at the apex itself tarsi long, pale, 
strongly pubescent. Abdomen gently dilated, densely punctulate, 
lateral tubercles distinct ; segments smooth at the posterior margin 
except the seventh ( § ) which is crenulate. Last dorsal segment 
ample, transverse, smooth, depressed in the middle, with a pair of 
small tubercles in the depression, and tumid over the forceps. 
Pygidiumdeflexed, triangular, with the apex truncate and reflexed, 
and a small tubercle on each side. Forceps with the branches 
remote at the base, trigonal, nearly straight ; incurved at the 
apex itself, the inner margin with a strong tooth near the base and 
a small tooth beyond the middle. 
The J is unknown. 

^2 

Length of body 17 mm. 

„ forceps .... 9 „ 

India (Bt-it. Mus.). 

Txjpe in the British Museum. 

This species has a strong superficial resemblance to CJielisocJies 
morio, but the pygidium is different, the fourth, fifth and sixth 
segments of the antennae are longer and cylindrical ; the tibise are 
not depressed or sulcate above except at the extreme apex, and 
the tarsi are long and compressed instead of short and depressed. 

On'ing to the structure of the tibise it is here placed in Adiathetus, 
but it is highly desirable that the male be discovered and its true 
affinities defined. 

The only known specimen is Kirby's type in the British Museum. 



Genus HAMAXAS, Burr. 

Hamaxas, Burr, (07i) pp. 126 & 133. 
Chelisoches, Bor)n. (94) p. 393, (00-) p. 86 (pars). 

Type, Chdisoches fecc, Borm. 

Size small ; colour red, varied with black. Antennae with 19 
segments ; third rather short, subconical ; fourth and fifth ovate, 
together equalling third ; tlie rest elongate, subconical. Head 
smooth, depressed, sutures obscure. Pronotum as broad as the 
head, a little longer than broad, subovate, not broadened posteriorly, 
all margins subconvex or rounded. Elytra and wings well 
developed ; the former with no costal carina. Legs short, very 
pubescent ; tibiae smooth above. Abdomen pubescent, depressecl, 
parallel-sided, lateral tubercles distinct ; last dorsal segment of c5' 
ample, of $ narrow. Pygidium of S and $ very small. 
Eorceps depressed, arcuate ; straight in the $ . 

lianye. Burma, Malay Archipelago, and New Zealand. 

l2 



148 rOEFICULID^. 

This genus includes four species, all small in size and red or 
black in colour. It is well separated from Chelisoches by the 
smooth tibiae, ovate pronotum, and shorter antennoe. 

The only known Indian species is the type of the genus, H. fecf, 
Borm. 

91. Hamaxas feae, Borm** (Fig. 88.) 

Chelisoches fete, Bormans, (94) p. 393, (00") p. 86; Burr, (99) p. 260 

(02) p. 484 ; Kirhy, (04) p. 33. 
Hamaxas feae. Burr, (07') p. 134. 

Small; black, shading to orange; pubescent. Antennae with 
19 segments, black with a pale ring before the apex. Head black, 
Pronotum black, the sides narrowly bordered with orange. Elytra 
ample and long, well rounded at the shoulders, very finely and 
densely punctulate, black. Wings of the same colour and texture 
as the elytra. Legs tawny orange ; tibiae smooth above. Abdomen 
dark red, shading to blackish. Last dorsal segment of S transverse, 
smooth, with a transverse oval depression near the posterior 
margin, rugulose ; in $ narrowed. Pygidium of S short, transverse, 
tumid, posterior margin sinuate, the angles pointed; in the $ 
scarcely visible. Forceps with branches reddish ; in the S remote 
at the base, slender, elongate, gently arcuate, with a short sharp 
tooth near the base ; in $ short, simple, straight, and contiguous. 

Length of body 8 mm. 7-9 mm. 

., forceps .... 3*5-4-5 mm. 1-25-1-75 mm. 

Burma : Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft., v./xii. {Genoa 

Mus.). 

Also known from New Guinea, Xew Zealand, and Mentawei Is. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

This species may be recognized by the uniform black of the head, 
pronotum, elytra and wings, with rust-red body. It is only the 
distribution of the colours which separates the four species of the 
genus, and very likely it will be necessary to unite them into one. 

H. fece has a superticial likeness to Prorens melanocepJiahis, from 
which it differs in the form of the forceps, among other things. 



Subfamily XL ANECHURIN^. 

This group contains a number of sturdy mountain-loving 
earwigs, "with broad sternal plates, dilated abdomen, forceps remote 
at the base and often curiously curved and twisted. Most of the 
genera are confined to the Old "World (except Australia) but 
some aberrant forms occur in America. 



ALLODAHLIA. 



Tahh of Genera. 



149 



1. Elytra with a strong keel along the costal [p. 149. 

fold Allodahlia, Verh., 

1.1. Elytra not keeled. 

2. Second tarsal segment long, scarcely 

dilated ; (pronotum widened po.s- [p. 155. 

teriorly) IIomotages, Burr, 

2.2. Second tarsal segment short, strongly 
dilated. 
3. Elytra ovate ; penultimate ventral ^ [p. 157. 

segment of S gently rounded. . . . Pterygida, Verh., 
3.3. Elytra parallel-sided ; penultimate [p. 159. 

ventral segment of S convex. . . . Anechura, Scudd., 



Genus ALLODAHLIA, VerK 

Allodahlia, Verhaf, (02') p. 194. 

Anechura, (partim) Scudder, (76) p. 289.— Ti/pe, Forficula hi- 
puuctata, Fabr. 

Type, Forficula scahriuscuh, Serv. 

Antenna with 13 segments ; the first stout, clubbed ; third sub- 
coiiical, shorter than the first; fourth and fifth shorter than third. 
Head with sutures distinct. Pronotum short, broader than long, 
truncate or concave anteriorly, rouuded posteriorly, often crescent- 
shaped. Elytra ample, broad, the shoulders prominent ; costal 
margin convex, with a strongly marked keel running the entire 
length of the elytra; surface of the elytra rough, granulose or 
punctulate. Wings generally prominent, sonielimes smooth, 
sometimes resembling the elytra in texture ; sternal plates broad 
and short. Legs long and slender. Abdomen depressed, dilated 
about the middle, and narrowed again at the apex ; lateral tubercles 
very distinct. Last dorsal segment of S very short and broad ; 
of $ narrowed. Pygidium of J short, transverse, tumid, often 
armed with a spine ;' of $ short, tumid. Forceps with the branches 
in the c? remote at the base, slender, elongate, often sinuate in 
the ventral plane and variously armed ; in the $ simple, straight, 
slender. 

liuwje. Oriental Kegion. 

This genus was erected by Verhoeff for Anediura hurjeli and 
hrachynota ; a separate subfamily was actually formed for its 
reception, which is not justifiable, as the keel of the elytra is the 
only true character which really distinguishes it from Anechura. 

AH the known species occur in India. 

Tahle of Species. 

1. Elytra scabrous; pygidium of S with a _ [p. 150. 

spinule at each angle ; (all dull black) . . scabriusctda, Serv., 
1.1. Elytra rugose, or coarsely or finely 
punctate ; pygidium of S with a single 
central spine. 



150 rORFICULID.T. 

2. Anterior margin of pronotumsubsinuous; 
tubercle at angle of last dorsal seg- 
ment of J prominent; all black or 
brown ; (entirely coarsely punctate ; [p. 151. 

forceps strongly undulating) ^naci-opycja. "VVestw., 

2.2. Anterior margin of pronotum truncate ; 
tubercle at angle of last dorsal segment 
of ^ feeble ; colour black and red. 
3. Elytra rugose ; abdomen punctulate ; 

forceps of S strongly diverging [p. 153. 

at base and undulated coriacea, Borm., 

3.3. Elytra finely punctulate ; abdomen 
more finely punctulate ; forceps of 
c? horizontal and nearly straight . . ahrimcnies, Burr, p. 154, 



92. Allodahlia scabriuscula, Serville. (Fig. 49.) 

Forficula scabriuscula, Serv. (39) p, 38 ; Scudd. (76) p. 317. 
Anechura scabriuscula, Borm. (88) p. 444, (94) p. 402, (00-) p. 103 , 

Sharp (95) p. 207, fig. 108; Burr, (00') p. 99, (00^) p. 52, (02) 

p. 486, (083) p. 118; Kirhy, (04) p. 41. 
Forficula brachvnota, Haan, (42) p. 243, pi. 23, fig. 10 ; Scudd, 

(76) p. 312; 'Dohrn, (65) p. 94 ; (nee Dubr. (79) p. 383). 
Allodahlia scabriuscula, Terh. (02') p. 194; Burr, (05) p. 28. 

Stature large, strongly built, legs aud forceps slender. Colour 
darl; dull blackish chestnut, glabrous, the whole body more or less 
scabrous. Antennae witli 12 or 13 segments, black, rather elongate. 
Head tumid, convex, punctulate, sutures very distinct, posterior 
margin sinuate. Pronotum transverse, anterior margin sinuate, 
anterior angles sharp and produced for\^ards, sides and posterior 
margin broadly rounded, sides slightly reflexed ; prozona uith five 
blunt longitudinal tubercles ; the Miiole disc densely punctulate. 
Elytra ample, strongly rounded at the shoulders, convex, posterior 
margin sinuate ; the exterior carina is very sharp and distinct, 
dying out just before the posterior margin ; the disc of the elytra 
is covered with a dense mass of small tubercles and a few scattered 
larger points, so that it is entirely rough and scabrous ; the lateral 
portion is densely rugose without the larger points. "Wings 
rugose and scabrous. Tarsi elongate, with dense reddish pub- 
escence beneath ; femora punctulate. Prosternuni somewhat 
attenuate posteriorly. Abdomen somewhat flattened, constricted 
at the base, dilated about the middle and attenuate apically ; the 
whole dorsal surface is densely and finely punctulate, the ventral 
surface still more finely ; lateral tubercles distinct, the posterior 
pair very strong ; segments six to nine somewhat convex at the 
sides ; in the $ the apical attenuation is stronger and more 
marked. Last dorsal segment of 6 short, transverse, slightly 
sloping ; posterior margin incrassate and slightly reflexed and 
smooth ; the exterior angles produced, the margin itself gently 
and obliquely truncate over the base of the forceps ; in the $ 



ALLODAHLIA. l^^ 



attenuate, hinder margin convex, angles obsolete. Pygidium of 
J short and transverse, posterior margin truncate, very obtuse, 
with a small blunt tubercle at each corner, terminating in a short 
sharp point; in the $ the pygidium is a short obtuse tubercle 
Forceps o£ d with the branches very remote at the base and 
trigonal there, not very stout, diverging strongly at the base itselt 
and almost immediately bowed inwards, elongate, slender and 
gradually converging ; the inner lower margin is finely denticulate 
near the base ; somewhat flattened, with a strong, rather long, 
sharp tooth on the inner margin about two-thirds from the base ; 
the apices are gently incurved ; in the $ subcontiguous, straight, 
slio-htly excavate at the base itself to admit the pygidium, quite 
straight and parallel for two-thirds of their length, then suddenly 
attenuate and very gently arcuate, the points crossing. 

Length of body H-U mm. 11-13 mm. 

„ forceps .... 8-15 „ ti-/ i» 

Bhutan: Maria Basti (Paris 31us.); Sikkim • Mungphu, 
Dunsiri Valley (Ind. iMus.) ; Darjihng (Brit. Jli.ts.) ; Afe^SAM : 
Sibsagar (Iml. Mus.); Burma: Kachin Hills, vni.-xu {Genoa 
Mus.f; Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-4300 ft., v.-xu. (Genoa 
Mus.) ; Tenasserim : Thagata, iv. . 

Also recorded from Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Southern China 
and Tonkin. 

Type in the Vienna Museum. _ , •,. i n 

This is an exceedingly well-marked species, owing to its dull 
black colour, strongly concave anterior margin of the prouotum, 
with its sharplv projecting angles, and the exceedingly coarse texture 
of the well-rounded elytra. It is moreover the only species in 
which the pygidium of the male has a minute spinule at each 
angle, instead of a strong spine in the middle. 

93. AllodaWia macropyga, ^yestlvood* (Fig. 50.) 

Forficula macropvoa, Westwd. (39) p. 53, pi. 9, fig. 12 ; Dohrn, (6o) 

p. 93 ; 'S'cMriJ. (76) p. 315. 
Forficula hugeli, Dohrn,* (G5) f. Q2 ; Scudd. (/b) p. 314; Rirh;/, 



(04) p. 41.' 
Anechura hugeh, VerJi. (02^) p. 194. 




445, (94) 



AllodahUa ancylura. Burr, ',070 P- 209 

Anechura macropyga, Borm. (00^ p. 103; Eirhy, (04) p. 4i. 

Colour dark reddish browai. Antennae . , . ? Head convex 
smooth, black, sutures distinct. Pronotum transverse, about 
II times as broad as long, anterior margin subsinuate, the anterior 
an'^les slightly produced ; lateral margins somewhat incrassate, 



152 rORFICULID^. 

subcouvex ; posterior margin slightly convex ; the sui-face is 
depressed and finely rugulose, the prozona not tumid, the median 
hne obsolete, with no impressions at the sides. Elytra dark 
reddish chestnut, not dilated, finely puuctulate, the carina ex- 
tending almost to the posterior margin, which is truncate. 
Wings resembling elytra in colour and texture, but more finely 
punctulate. Sternal plates smooth and black ; prosternum dis- 
tinctly narrowed posteriorly, the posterior border itself incrassate 
and bounded by a transverse impression. Legs fairly long ; femora 
and tibise with a few bristles, apical part of tibias and tarsi 
pubescent. Abdomen depressed, somewhat dilated towards the 
apex, with upper surface punctate ; lateral tubercles distinct ; 
ventral surface smoother and shining, punctation much finer. 
Last dorsal segment short and transverse, hinder margin 
thickened, with a slight and shallow emargination in the 
middle, so that the hinder border forms two very obtuse rounded 
lobes ; external angles produced outwards into a conical pointed 
fold. Pygidium short, obtuse, thick, conical, the apex being 
produced into a sharp and slender compressed spine. Forceps 
with the branches widely remote at the base, rather stout and 
compressed at the base itself, bent near the base slightly outwards 
and strongly upwards ; at a third of their length bent abruptly 
downwards as far as two-thirds ; then the under margin is 
thickened and ai'med with two strong teeth ; the apical third is 
again bent sharply upwards and the points also inwards ; seen 
from the side the branches are very strongly undulated; seen 
from above bowed outwards and then gently inwards. 

c? 2 

Length of body 10-13 mm. 9-5 mm. 

„ forceps 5-6 „ 5 „ 

Thibet : Tsekon (Paris 21iis.) ; Punjab : Simla ; United 
Pbovinces : Bhim Tal in Kumaon, 4500 feet, ix., " feeding on 
the flowers of stinging nettles " (Lid. Mus., coll. Bun') ; Sikkim : 
Darjihng (Paris Mus., coll. Burr) ; Bhutan : Pedong (Paris 
3Ius.) ; Assam : Nongpoh in Khasi Hills, 3000-5000 ft. (Pusa 
coll.) • Naga Hills (Tnd. litis.) ; Burma : Bhamo, iv., Teinzo, v., 
Karen-ni, Keba Distr., 3000-3700 ft., v.-xii. (Genoa j\his.); 
Tenasserim : Mt. Mulaiyit, 3300-6000 ft., v. (Genoa 3Ius.). 

Also occurs in China. 

Type in the University Museum, Oxford. 

Dohrn's type of A. ancijlura not having been examined, it is not 
possible to discriminate it from the earlier described A. macropyga 
of Westwood, but Dohrn's type is recorded from the Philippines 
and is therefore probably distinct. It is probable that de Bormans' 
Burmese specimens are referable to the true A. macropyga of 
"Westwood, whose type in the Oxford Museum has been lent to 
me, thanks to the courtesy of Professor Poulton, and compared 



ALLODAHLIA. 153 

■with Dohrn's type of A. liugeli in the Yieima Museum. Tliere 
is no doubt that de Bormans was right in sinking A. hugeli as a 
synonym of A. macrop;i(ja. The various Indian specimens which 
have been examinee! are not specifically distinguishable from 
Westwood's type, and so are all referred to A. macropyga. 

The sculpture of the body, the coarseness of the punctulation, 
the depth of the sutures of the head, and of the sulcus of the pro- 
notum all vary to a certain degree, but not enough to justify the 
separation into species. De Bormans records a variety from 
Burma in \^-hich the forceps are nearly horizontal, armed with a 
single tooth, and the wings are smooth and clear yellow. In the 
Paris Museum there is also a male of this variety from Bhutan. 

The anterior margin of the pronotum is far less strongly con- 
cave than in the preceding species, the colour deeper and richer, 
often with a greenish sheen, the elytra punctate and not sca- 
brous, and the pygidium with a strong central spine. 

From the two following species it differs in the absence of any 
red coloration, the punctate elytra, and concave anterior margin 
of the pronotum. 

The forceps seem to be peculiarly liable to malformation and 
ill-developed specimens are quite common. 



94. AUodaWia coriacea, Bormans** (J^'^g- 51.) 

Anechura coriacea, Bormans, (Q^) p. 403, (00") p. 102, fig. 37 ; Burr, 

(001) p_ 99^ (0:2) p. 486 ; Kirhj, (04) p. 41. 
Foi'ficula brachynota, Dubromj, (79) p. 383 (nee Haaii, nee 

Dohrn). 
AUodahlia coriacea, Burr, (07^) p. 209. 

Size large ; stature not very robust. Colour dark chestnut, 
varying from all dull black to reddish black ; clear red in parts. 
Antennae black, sometimes with one or two segments pale 
yellowish, with stift', short bristles ; segments long and nearly 
cylindrical. Head clear brick-red, blackish red, or all black, tumid 
and convex, the sutures very distinct ; posterior margin sinuate. 
Pronotum reddish black, rectangular, somewhat broader than long, 
anterior margin truncate, anterior angles rather sharp ; lateral 
margins quite straight, gently reflexed, very slightly converging 
posteriorly, so that the pronotum is very slightly narrower pos- 
teriorly than anteriorly ; posterior margin very faintly convex ; 
prozona tumid, with an impressed spot on each side of the median 
line, which is visible as a faint carinula in the metazona; the 
metazona is flattened and coriaceous. Elytra ample and broad at 
the shoulders, dai'k reddisli black, often clear red at the shoulders ; 
humeral carina very distinct and continued to the posterior margin, 
which is truncate. Wings with punctulation almost obsolete, 
a:lmost smooth ; black with a yellowish spot at the apex. Legs 
long and slender; femora brick-red, smooth, with a black band at 



154 FOEFICULID.I. 

the apex ; tibiae dark red, pubescent tow ards the apex ; tarsi long 
and slendei% reddish testaceous, with dense yellowish pubescence. 
Abdomen black, somewhat depressed, the whole surface densely 
and finely punctulate : lateral tubercles very distinct ; ventral 
surface almost smooth ; in tlie female slightly, in the male more 
strongly, dilated about the middle, narrower towards the apex. 
Last dorsal segment very short, transverse, strongly punctulate, 
sloping, the posterior border somewhat incrassate, reflex and 
convex in outline ; external angles thickened into a crest-like fold, 
rather acute. In the female this segment is attenuate and 
narrow, sloping, the posterior margin incrassate, but the external 
angles not produced. Pygidium of d" short, transverse and rect- 
angular, with a median longitudinal impression and somewhat 
tumid on each side, produced in the middle of the posterior 
margin into a short, compressed, protruding lobular fold ; in 
the 2 short and obtuse. Forceps with the branches in the 
(? very remote at the base ami trigonal there, not very stout, 
diverging at first and dii'ected upwards and outwards, then suddenly 
bent rather strongl}'- downwards, attenuate, slender, smooth and 
unarmed ; armed on the under surface, at about two-thirds from 
the base, with two teeth, the first short and blunt, the second longer 
and sharp ; then nearly horizontal and arched inwards ; in the 
2 the branches are subcontiguous, excavate at the base on the 
inner margin to admit the pygidium, nearly straight, elongate, 
simple and unarmed, the apices crossing. 

6 2 

Length of body 12-14 mm. 14 mm. 

„ forceps 7 ,, 7 „ 

United Provinces : Bhim Tal, 4500 ft., in Kumaun, ix., 
" feeding on flowers of stinging nettles " (Ind. 3Lis.) ; Bhutan : 
Maria Basti {Paris Mus.) ; Burma : Karen-ni, Keba District, 
3000-3700 ft., v.-xii. {Genoa Mus.) ; Tenasserim : Mt. Mulaiyit 
{Brit. Mm.). 

Also occurs in Tonkin and Borneo. 

Type in Genoa Museum. 

This species resembles A. scahriuscida in general appearance, but 
the colour is quite different; the elytra are uniformly punctulated 
and coriaceous, and lack the little tubercles which characterize that 
species ; the elytra are also wider, the forceps less stout and less 
abruptly curved ; in A. scahrlusmla the forceps have one tooth, but 
in A. coriacea they have two. 

95. Allodahlia ahrimanes, Burr.* (Fig. 98.) 

Anechura ahrimanes, Burr, (00^) p. 79, pi. iv, fig. 5 ; Kirby, (04) 
p. 41. 

Head deep red ; eyes black ; sutures indistinct ; antennae dark 
red (seven segments remain). Pronotum black, broader than the 



ALLODAIILIA. — HOMOTAGES. 155 

head ; anterior margin straiglit, posterior margin rounded ; the 
sides parallel ; nearly quadrate, slightly hroader than long ; pro- 
zona tumid. Elytra broad, finely punctulated ; deep red, shaded 
with black towards the apex and the margins, obHquely truncate 
at the apex ; humeral carina distinct and complete. Wings 
prominent, black, with a yellow spot near the base. Legs deep 
red, the knees and tibiae darker or black ; tarsi darker. Abdomen 
deep dark red, somewhat dilated in the middle, narrowed towards 
the extremity; lateral tubercles black, very distinct; the whole 
abdomen is finely punctulate ; last dorsal segment transverse, 
hinder margin straight, with a faint median depression, a reddish 
blunt elevation over the insertion of the forceps and a small 
tubercle on the outside angles ; penultimate ventral segment of S 
ample, rounded. Pygidium of d strongly depressed, triangular ; 
two small pale obtuse lobes are visible below the apex of the 
pygidium, projecting beyond the border of the produced penul- 
timate segment, and visible from below. Torceps of 6 with the 
branches slender, long, remote at the base and tricarinate there, 
slightly diverging at first, then subsinuate until the apices meet 
and cross ; there is at the end of the first and second third of the 
total length a strong triangular depressed tooth ; the forceps are 
red at the base, darker towards the apex ; the inner margin of the 
basal third is finely creuulate. $ unknown. 

6 

Length of body 12-14-3 mui. 

„ forceps 9 ,, 

SiKKiM {coll. Bun-) ; Assam : Kurseong. 

Ty^je in the author's collection. 

This handsome species resembles the preceding in colour, but the 
elytra are more strongly shaded with red ; they are also finely 
punctulate and not rugose, and the forceps are nearly straight, 
horizontal, with two strong teeth which are not near each other. 



Genus HOMOTAGES, Burr. 

Honiotao:es, Burr, (09) p. 327. 
Anechura, Bormans (partiin). 

Type, Anechura few, Borm. 

Antennae with 15 segments (?), fourth subconical, more than 
half as long as third, which is subconical, the rest elongate, 
becoming cylindrical. Head smooth, sutures obsolete. Pronotum 
trapezoidal, sides straight and angles rounded, broader posteriorly 
than anteriorly. Elytra ample, not strongly rounded at the 
shoulders, smooth and with no keel. Wings ample, smooth. 
Sternal plates truncate, less broad than in the other genera. Legs 
long, slender : tarsi long, first segment equal to the other two 
united ; second long, scarcely dilated, more than half as long a» 
the third, Pygidium of S nearly rectangular. Forceps of <S 



156 FORFICULID.f. 

remote at the base, elongate, siuuous and strongly toothed ; simple 
in the $ . 

Bange. India and Burma. 

This genus is monotypic. It is well characterized by the form 
of the tarsi ; in the form of the pronotuin and tarsi it approaches 
the CTielisochince. 



S6. Homotages fesB, Bonncms** (Fig. 101.) 

Anechura feae, Bormans. (88) p. 44-5, (94) p. 34, (00-) p. 104 ; Kirby, 

(04) p. 41 ; Bun; (07^) p. 209, (08^) p. 118. 
Homotages fese, Burr, (09) p. 327, fig. 7. 

Size medium, variable ; not very robust. Colour deep black or 
dark reddish black, elytra and forceps reddish. Antennae with 
15 segments, which are rather short and nearly black. Head 
smooth and convex, quite black, posterior margin truncate, sutures 
obsolete ; eyes black. Pronotum transverse, broader than long, 
broader posteriorly than anteriorly, all margins straight, posterior 
angles rounded, sides slightly reflexed; prozona tumid, with 
median sulcus and impressions on each side very distinct ; meta- 
y.ona flattened, smooth, dull black. Elytra ample, smooth, dai'k 




Fig, 12. — Tarsus of Homotages fes, Bonn. 

reddish black, with a clear but ill-defined bright red spot at the 
shoulders. Wings long, black. Legs rather long, black, paler 
towards the apex ; apical part of tibiae and the tarsi with yellow 
pubescence. Prosternum angustate posteriorly ; sternal plates 
smooth and black. Abdomen convex, slightly dilated posteriorly, 
dark chocolate-black ; basal segments smooth, apical segments 
■with an extremely fine rugulose sculpture. Ventral segments 
blackish red, smooth in the middle, striated towards the sides; 
sides of the dorsal segments convex and striated. Last dorsal 
segment of 6 large, smooth, transverse, posterior margin sti*aight, 
with a tumid elevation over the roots of the forceps ; in the 2 
more attenuate, the tubercles nearly obsolete. Pygidium of S 
nearly rectangular, in the form of a nearly vertical plate, posterior 
margin truncate, the angles produced into a spine ; in Lhe 5 
horizontal, depressed, angustate posteriorly ; the posterior margin 
slightly emarginate and the angles sharp. Forceps of S with 
the branches rather stout, elongate, but slightly incurvate ; viewed 
laterally, strongly sinuate downwards, then upwards ; armed on 
the inner margin beneath with a pair of strong sharp teeth (one 
sometimes obsolete); about the apical third there is another 
strong sharp tooth beneath, beyond which the branches are 
straight, unarmed, incurved at the apex itself. In the $ the 



HOMOTAGES. — PTEEYGIDA. 157 

branches are remote, elongate, nearly straight, gently sinuate, not 
contiguous. 

Length of body .... 10-5-14 mm. 12-13 mm. 
,, forceps . . 4-8 ,, 3-3-5 „ 

SiKKiM : Darjiling, vi, {Paris Mus., colls. Burr <S,- Gadeau) ; 
Nepal : Chitlong {Ind. Mm.) ; United Pkovinces : Kumaun, 
Naiui Tal, 6400 ft., x. {InJ. Mus.) ; Tekasseeim : Thagata, iv. 
{Genoa Mus.). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

In the type of coloration this species resembles AUodahlia 
coriacea and A. ahrimanes, but differs in tbe generic characters. 

The species is easy to recognize as it does not closely resemble 
any other species ; its general dull black colour with reddisli 
elytra and forceps are quite distinctive, apart frooi the peculiar 
form of the pygidium and the armature of the forceps. 

Variation. 

This species varies considerably in size, and also in the form and 
armature of the forceps. The description as given above refers to 
the typical well-developed form ; but in the author's collection 
there is a small male (length of body 10 mm., of forceps 4 mm.) 
in which the forceps are quite horizontal when viewed laterally, 
gently converging, with one small tooth near the base, and a 
nearly obsolete tooth about the middle : this is from Nepal ; in 
another male, from the same locality, the posterior tooth is strong 
but there is only one basal tooth and that is weak ; this appears 
to be the case in the majority of specimens : the largest specimen 
seen is also from Nepal (see dimensions as given above), and in 
this there are two teeth in the basal half on each branch of the 
forceps. This discrepancy does not warrant a separate varietal 
name, nor justify the use of the term dimorphism ; it is probably 
due to accidental conditions affecting the growth of the individual. 



Genus PTERYGIDA, VerJueff. 

Pteiygida, Verhcef, (02i) p. 197. 
Anechura, Scudder, (76) p. 289 (pars). 

Type, Forficula jar/or i, Dohru. 

Body broad and depressed. Antennae with third segment long 
and cylindrical, fourth the same and nearly as long as third, the 
rest elongate, cylindrical. Head depressed, truncate posteriorly. 
Pronotum slightly longer than wide, anterior margin truncate, 
posterior margin rounded. Elytra ample, broad, costal margin 
not keeled, dilated and well rounded at the shoulders. Wings 
long ; coloured. Legs rather long and slender. Abdomen strongly 
depressed and dilated about the middle, oval and narrowed towards 
the apex. Last dorsal segment of the male transverse, short. 



158 FORFICULID.i:. 

Pygidium transverse. Forceps of 6 with the branches horizontal, 
elongate, slender and arcuate. 

Range. India and Philippines. 

This genus is characterized by the depressed body, dilated elytra, 
oval dilated abdomen ; the elytra have no costal keel. Two species 
are known, both Oriental, one of which occurs in India. 

97. Pterygida circulata, Dohrn. (Pig. 96.) 

Forficula circulata, Lohrn, (Go) p. 95 ; Scudder, (76) p. 313. 

Aptervgida circulata, Bormans, (00^) p. 116. 

Pterygida circulata, Verhoeff, (02') p. 196 ; Klrhy, (04) p. 44. 

Stature medium, strongly flattened and dilated. Colour dark 
chestnut ; elyti'a and wings yellowish. Antennae . . . ?, segments 
dark brown. Head depressed, black, posterior margin truncate, 
sutures obsolete, somewhat tumid between the eyes, with two 
small impressions. Pronotum black, somewhat longer than broad, 
slightly broader anteriorly than the head, anterior margin truncate, 
posterior convex ; prozona somewhat tumid ; metazona flat. Pro- 
sternum somewhat narrowed ; sternal plates smooth and black. 
Elytra yellowish chestnut, ample and broad, with no keel, widened 
at the shoulders and narrower posteriorly, quite smooth. Wings 
ample ; the scale is of the same colour as the pronotum ; the 
membranous portion is of a yellowish colour in the basal third, 
with a very broad smoky blackish band occupying almost the 
whole of the remainder, except the margin itself which is 
lighter but smoky. Femora black; anterior pair rather thickened; 
middle and posterior pair more slender and longer ; tibife and 
tarsi slender, elongate, reddish brown. Abdomen flat and broad, 
oval, reddish black ; finely granulate ; the sides of the segments 
somewhat convex ; latei'al tubercles not very pronounced ; ventral 
plates paler, reddish ; the penultimate segment ovate, with a 
median fold at the posterior margin. Last dorsal segment very 
short, transverse, rectangular, smooth, with a broad, very obtuse, 
tumid, smooth shining tubercle at each side. Pygidium short, 
transverse, obtuse, with a median sulcus, dividing into two very 
obtuse lobes \\ hen viewed from above. Force])s with the branches 
widely remote at the base, slender, unarmed, brownish red, 
regularly bowed, enclosing a regular oval area. 

6 

Length of body 14-14'o mm. 

J, forceps 6 ,, 

NoRTiiERisr India {Brit. 2Ius., coll. Burr) ; Madras ( Vienna Mus.). 

Type in the Vienna Museum. 

This species is easy to recognize by the shape and by the 
slender and arcuate forceps of the male. 

In the Oxford L^niversity Museum, there is a specimen with wings 
expanded, and these have the scale of the same colour as the pro- 
notum ; but the membranous portion is yellowish near the basp, 
the rest occupied by a broad smoky black band, the apex itself 



ANECHUBA. 159 

being clearer. This specimen is labelled in Westwood's 
handwriting " F. rufipennis, Westw.", but this appears to be a 
manuscript name that was never published. 

Genus ANECHURA., Scmlder. 
Anechura, Scudder, (76) p. 289. 

Type, Forficula bipunctata, Fabr. (Europe). 

Size medium. Antennae with about 1:3 segments ; third long 
and subcylindrical, fourth about two-thirds as long as third, fifth 
nearly as long as third, rather thick and cylindrical. Head tumid, 
sutures indistinct. Pronotuni broad, truncate anteriorly, convex 
posteriorly, the sides straight. Elytra ample, smooth, broad, 
rounded at the shoulders but the sides parallel : no keel. AViugs 
smooth, often abbreviated. Sternal plates transverse. Legs long 
and slender ; second tarsal segment distinctly lobed ; first longer 
than second and third united. Abdomen depressed and dilated 
about the middle, narrowed again before the apex. Last dorsal 
segment of 6 transverse, with tubercles ; of $ simple, narrow. 
Penultimate ventral segment of d broadly rounded ; round in $ . 
Pvgidium of c? very short and broad ; in 2 very small, obtuse. 
Porceps of c? with the branches remote at base and strongly 
bowed, sinuous and undulating, variously toothed ; simple in the 5 . 

Bange. Europe, Northern and Central Asia. 

This' genus, as now restricted, contains a few European atid 
Asiatic species, of which two are known to occur in India. 

Table of S^iccies. 

1. Colour black aud red ; forceps simply 
arcuate ; last dorsal segment of S 
■with two large pointed mammiform 

tubercles calciatii, Bor., p. 159. 

1.1. Colour chestnut or pale yellowish ; 
forceps variously bowed and strongly 
undulating ; last dorsal segment of 
J with a short conical tubercle at 
each angle zubovskii, Sem., p. 160. 

98. Anechura calciatii, Borflli.** (Fig. 9-5.) 
Anechura calciatii, Borelli, (09) p. 3. 

General colour black. Antennae with 11 segments, black or 
brown, sometimes tinged with reddish ; third cylindrical, slightly 
swollen near the apex ; fourth about two-thirds as long as third 
subcorneal ; fifth as long as, aud remainder slightly longer than, 
the third, subconical passing into cylindrical. Head clear brick- 
i-ed, shaded with blackish on the frons, tmnid and smooth, sutures 
faint. Pronotum brownish black, broader than long, anterior 
margin straight, sides parallel and gently reflexed, posterior margin 
£;ently rounded ; prozona slightly tumid, with an impression on 
^ach side; median suture very faint. Elytra smooth, dull black, 



160 rORFICLXID.l-. 

with no keel. Wings abbreviated, scarcely visible beyond the 
elytra. Sternal plates black ; pronotum rather broad anteriorly 
and strongly constricted before the base ; meso- and metasterna 
broad, rounded posteriorly. Legs long and slender ; femora 
yellowish red, black towards the apex ; tibise and tarsi yellowish ; 
the latter long and slender, second segment short and broad, first 
about as long as second and third united. Abdomen dull reddish 
black, smooth, naked above, with bristles at the sides ; tubercles 
of third and fourth segments distinct ; rather broad, slightly 
broader about the middle, and narrowed apically in 2 . Last 
dorsal segment of d smooth, transverse, reddish in basal half, the 
rest black, inflated basally, depressed posteriorly, posterior margin 
straight; on each side, above the forceps, there is a large, mammi- 
form, conical tubercle, terminating in a sharp point ; in the $ 
narrowed, depressed posteriorly, the tubercles obsolete. Penul- 
timate ventral segment of d and $ broadly rounded. Pygidium 
of (S prominent, in the form of a broad, short, transverse plate ; 
the posterior margin slightly refiexed, the edge itself creuulate ; 
in 2 narrow and blunt. Forceps of c? with the branches remote 
at the base, somewhat depressed, elongate and regularly arcuate, 
with a strong sharp tooth on the under surface near the base ; 
in the 2 the branches are subcontiguous, stout, straight, tapering, 
incurved at the apex itself, the inner margin depressed, the 
forceps reddish (clear red in the d ) and darker a])ically. 

d 2 

Length of body 12'5 mm. 13 mm. 

„ forceps. ... 4 ,, -f ,, 

N.E. Kashmie : road from Srinagar to Gilgit, v., about 8000 ft 
{Turin 3Ius.). 

Type in the Turin Museum. 

This handsome species is well characterized by the sharp pointed 
mammiform tubercles of the last dorsal segment of the 6 , and 
the simple arcuate forceps. Its nearest ally perhaps is A.japonica, 
Borm., which, however, has a prominent laminated tooth on the 
forceps. The pj'gidium coloration is also quite different. 

99. Anecliura zubovskii, Sem. (Fig. 52.) 

.f Forficula biguttata, var., Sanssvre, (74) p. 4 (partim). 
Auechm-a zubovskii, Setnetiov, (01) p. 188; Jacohsun S)- Bianchi,{Qb) 
p. 25; Borelli, (09) p. 4. 

Autenn{e with (?) 12 segments, typical. Head tumid, smooth, 
black, the sutures fairly distinct. Pronotum transverse, truncate 
on anterior margin, convex posteriorly, the sides parallel ; black 
with yellowish sides. Elytra rather short, not surpassing and 
scarcely equalling the posterior femora in length, dull brown ; 
pale straw-yellow outside the costal fold (not visible from above) 
and marked with a pale straw-yellow spot on the disc; this spot 
is relatively small and does not extend backwards beyond the 



ANECHUEA. 



161 



middle of the elytra. Wings not projecting more than half the 
length of the elytra, pale straw-yellow, with fuscous margin and 
apex. Abdomen yellowish brown, with darker shading towards 
the base, very broad and depressed in the d' • Last dorsal segment 
short and transverse, black basally and fulvous apically ; at each 
exterior angle armed with a strong conical tubercle pointing out- 
wards. Pygidium of 6 short and obtuse. Forceps of S w'ith the 
branches very remote at the base, rather stout, roundly trigoual, 
with a short conical tooth near the base on the upper margin ; 
they are directed at first gently upwards and outwards, and then, 
at one quarter of their length, bowed strongly downwards ; at 
about three-quarters of their length, horizontal and almost parallel 
as far as the points which are gently hooked ; in colour reddish 
tawny ; at the point where their direction changes from the down- 
ward to the horizontal on the under margin there is a very blunt 
projection (this represents a sharp tooth in another form). 

<S 2 

Length of body 9*5-11 mm. 11-13 mm. 

„ forceps 5 "5-6 ,, 3*6-4 ,, 

Kashmir : Ladak, A-^allev of the River Dras, between 9000 
and 10,000 ft., vii. (coll. Semenov); Scinde Valley, at 7000 ft. 
(Brit. Mtis., coll. Biirr) ; road from !Srinagar to Grilgit, at 8300 ft., 
V. (Turin Miis.), 

Tijpe in the collection of Mr. A. P. Semenov Tian-Shansky, 
St. Petersburg. 

The specimens from Tibet, in the British Museum, are probably 
to be referred to this species. 

This is the only known Indian earwig that has this peculiar 
form of forceps and yellow-spotted elytra, and so cannot be 
confused with any other species. 

It is really the local race of A. hipimctata, which is essentially 
paljearctic in distribution ; the typical form occurs in the mountains 
of Europe, in the Pyrenees, Alps and Balkans ; as its distribution 
extends westwards (Asia Minor, Urals) it tends to pass into the 
variety orientalis of Krauss (nee Semenov), which is recorded from 
the Crimea, Persia and Caucasus (de Bormans' record from Tibet 
refers probably to A. zubovsJcii, which had not yet been discrimi- 
nated). This variety overlaps A. asiaiica, Sem. ( = A. orientalis, 
Sem.), which occurs throughout Northern and Western Asia, as 
far egst as the Urals and lower reaches of the Volga, and as far 
south as Persia. 

These four forms are nothing more or less than local races of 
what we might call " overspecies," but as they have all been 
treated as species by Semenov, it is more convenient to continue 
to regard them as such, rather than to reduce them to the rank of 
varieties. 

It may be useful to give the distinguishing characters. 

M 



162 



FOEFICrLLD^. 



bipunctafa, vav. orientnlis, 
Krauss {nee Sem.). 



1. Head pale, at least on tlie occiput ; 

femora dark only at the apex ; body 

broader and stouter. 

2. Colour dark ; spots orange red ; 

forceps strongly sinuate and 

stout biptmctata, Fabr, 

2.2. Colour paler ; spots yellower ; head 
testaceous ; wings paler ; spot on 
elytra larger ; forceps more 
slender, less strongly sinuate . . 
1.1. Head all dark; femora with dark 
spots, but not dark at the ends ; 
body rather louger. 
2. Length of elytra equal to that of 
posterior femora ; pale spot of 
elytra large, extending beyond 
middle of disc; tooth beneath 
ferceps beyond middle sharp .... 
2.2. Length of elytra less than that of 
posterior femora; light spot on 
elytra not passing middle of the 
disc ; tooth of forceps nearer the 
middle and very obtuse or obso- 
lete zuhovskii, Sem. 



asiatica, Sem. 



Subfamily III. FORFICULIN^. 

This subfamily contains few genera, but one is the typical 
genus of the Deimaptera, namely For/ictda, Linn., which contains 
about 40 species and is represented throughout Europe, Asia, and 
America. 




Fig. 13. — Tarsus of Forjicula lucad, Dobrn. 

The typical species is Forjicula auricularia, Liun., the common 
earwig of Western Europe, which has now established itself in 
New Zealand and the United States. 



'Tahle of Genera. 

1. Abdomen of d" almost parallel-sided; 
forceps of c? not dilated or depresed 

near base Elaunon, Burr, p. 163. 

1.1. Abdomen of cS more or less dilated about 
the middle and narrower towards the 
apex ; forceps of cT strongly dilated 
and depressed near the base Foeficula, Linn., p. 164. 



ELAUNOX. 163 

Genus ELAUNON, Burr. 

Elauuon, £irrr, (07') p. 123. 
Forticula, Dohvn, Sciidd. (partim). 
Sphingolabis, Kirhy (partim). 
Apterygida, Bonn., Burr (partim). 

Type, SphinrjoJahis h'lpartita, Kirby. 

Body depressed. Abdomen almost parallel-sided ; fourth an- 
tennal segment transverse ; tarsi short, first segment rather 
broad, but little longer than the third. Eoi'ceps of S slender. 

Range. India and Africa. 

Owing to the presence of a flattened triangular tooth near the 
base of the forceps, the single Indian species of this genus has 
somewhat the appearance of Forficula, but the almost parallel- 
sided abdomen and short tarsi distinguish it. 

Originally formed for E. hipartita only, the genus should also 
include the African species E. erijthrocephala and E. honchampsii, 
formerly ranged in Diaperasticus. 

100. Elaunon bipartitus, Kb-hy.* (Figs. 53 & 102.) 

Sphiugolabis bipartita, Kirhy, (91) p. 526, (04> p. 46. 

Apterygida bipartita, Bonn. (00") p. 112; Burr, (01) p. 331, (0-3) 

p. 29, (08^) p. 119. 
Apterygida bipartita, var. macrolabia, Burr, (07-) p. 209. 
Elaunon bipartita. Burr, (07^) p. 123. 

Chestnut and yellow ; slender ; not very hairy. Antennas 
brown ; fourth segment nearly as long as the third, all cylindrical. 
Head deep orange, smooth, tumid. Pronotum orange, the sides 
paler ; truncate anteriorly, rounded posteriorly, sides parallel, 
rather flattened, about as broad as long. Elytra long, narrow, 
parallel-sided, smooth, bright straw-yellow, with a narrow in- 
distinct fuscous band down the suture and costal margin. AVings 
long, clear yellow. Legs j^ellow, rather short. Abdomen parallel- 
sided, elongate, reddish chestnut ; lateral tubercles darker, well 
developed ; finely and densely puuctulate. Last dorsal segment 
of (5 rectangular, transverse, puuctulate; posterior margin straight, 
depressed in the middle, with tumid elevation on each side over 
the roots of the forceps. Penultimate ventral segment of S and $ 
obtusely convex. Pygidium of S short, blunt. Forceps with 
branches in the J depressed, elongate, nearly straight, the inner 
margin near the base itself dilated to form a tooth-like broad 
triangular projection, the point of which is sometimes acute, 
sometimes blunt, sometimes truncate ; beyond this projection very 
slender and elongate, almost straight, gently hooked at the apex ; 
in § short, simple, straight, contiguous. 





S 


$ 


Length of body 


9-11 mm. 


7-9 mm 


„ forceps . . , 


2-7o-6'75 ,, 


2-25-3 ,. 
m2 



164 rOEFICULIDjE. 

United Peovinces : Mussoorie {Pusa coll.) • Madras : Banga- 
lore (Ind. Mils.) ; Ceylon : Punduluoya and Ambegammoa (coll. 
Burr); Madulsima, xii. {T. B. Fletcher; coll. Burr). 

Also in Annam (Paris Mus.). 

Type in the British Museum. 

This elegant species is easy to recognize by the clear yellow 
colour of the organs of the anterior half of the body. It appears 
to be common in India and Ceylon, though it was not taken by 
Pea in Burma. Mr. Green commonly took it at light at Pundul- 
uoya, and to one of his specimens attached a note, that it " when 
handled, gave oiF a pungent odour like that of the Bombardier 
Beetle." 

The mcicrolahia form, with very long forceps, appears to be more 
numerous than the cyclolabia form. 



Genus FORFICULA, Linn. 
Forficula, Linn. (1758) p. 423. 

Type, Forficula auAcularia, Linn. 

Body convex. Head smooth, tumid, sutures fairly distinct. 
Antennae with from 10 to 15 segments ; third long, nearly as long 
as the first, gently clubbed or cylindrical ; fourth generally shorter 
than third, often much shorter; fifth a little longer than fourth ;. 
the rest gradually lengthening ; all the segments almost or 
entirely cylindrical. Pronotum more or less rectangular ; truncate 
anteriorly ; posterior margin truncate or rounded, the hinder 
angles rectangular or rounded. Elytra well developed ; smooth, 
ample, with no keel. Wings prominent and abbreviated or 
abortive. Legs moderately slender. Abdomen rather depressed, 
broader about the middle ; gently narrowed apically in the 6 , 
more strongly in the 5 > lateral tubercles distinct. Last dorsal 
segment of d transverse, posterior margin smooth or tuberculate ; 
in 2 simple, narrowed. Pygidium of c? small and globose or 
strongly produced and prominent. Branches of forceps of cT always 
depressed and always dilated in the basal portion, beyond which 
attenuate and arcuate ; dilated basal portion short or long and 
variously armed ; in $ simple, straight, contiguous. 

Eanr/e. This is a large and homogeneous genus, containing 
about forty species distributed throughout Europe, Africa, and 
Asia ; it is well represented in India, but it is not known to 
occur in the Malay Archipelago. 

The dilation of the forceps near the base in the male is the 
chief generic character, and the extent and armature of this dila- 
tion offers valuable specific characters. The length of the forceps 
varies remarkably, and the appearance of the macrolabia forms ^is 
often very different from that of the cyclolabia forms. 



roEncuLA.. 165 

Tahle of Species. 

(Males only.) 

1. Pronotum trapezoidal or rectangular, 
evidently broader than long. 
2. Forceps dilated only quite near the 
base. 
3. Forceps strongly bowed, generally 

broader than long ; (colour dull [p. 166. 

black) schlaginticeiti, Burr, 

3.3. Forceps nearly straight mogul, Eurr, p. 167. 

2.2. Forceps dilated through at least one- 
quarter of their length. 
3. Pronotum strongly rounded pos- 
teriorly ; dilated part of forceps 

ending in an obtuse tooth beelzebuh, Burr, p. 167. 

3.3. Pronotum gently rounded poste- 
riorly ; dilated part of forceps 

ending in a sharp tooth aceris, Burr, p. 168. 

l.l. Pronotum as broad as long or slightly 
transverse, crescent-shaped or sub- 
quadrate, generally rounded pos- 
teriorly. 
2. Pronotum crescent-shaped, sides not 
parallel, strongly rounded posteri- 
orly. (Size small, elytra spotted.) 
3. Strongly pubescent ; forceps feebly 

dilated and gradually attenuated, ornata, Borm., p. 169. 
3,3. Nearly hairless ; forceps strongly 

dilated and abruptly attenuated . (/reenij Burr, p. 170. 
2.2. Pronotum subquadrate, .sides parallel 
(except in F. interroyans), hinder 
margin straight or gently rounded. 
3. Forceps dilated near base only .... ambigua, Burr, p. 171. 
3.3. Forceps dilated through at least 
one- third of their length. 
4. Elytra and wings with big pale 

spot lucasi, Dohrn, p. 172. 

4,-l. Elytra and wings not spotted, 
5. Pronotum large, well produced 
over elytra ; (elytra and 
wings long, testaceous ; dila- 
tation of forceps ending in 

sharp tooth) celens, Burr, p. 172. 

5.5. Pronotum short, scarcely pro- 
duced over elytra. 
6. Abdomen nearly parallel- 
sided ; forceps nearly 

straight interrogans, Burr, p. 173, 

6.6. Abdomen dilated about 
middle; forceps strongly 
bowed jjlanicollis, Kirby, p. 174. 



166 rOEFICULID^. 

101. Forficula schlagintweiti, Burr* (Fig. 54.) 

Anechura schlagintweiti, Burr, (04) p. '313, (08^) p. 118. 
Forficula schlagintweiti, Burr, (07i) p. 110. 

Stature rather stout, large. Colour entirely deep black, smooth 
and shining. Antennae Avith 12 segments, fourth segment not 
very much shorter than third, the fifth equal to third ; remaining 
segments subcylindrical, elongate. Head quite smooth, tumid, 
the sutures obsolete. Pronotum nearly 1| times as broad as long, 
anterior margin truncate, lateral and posterior margins subrotun- 
date, very slightly convex ; general outline rectangular, but the 
angles themselves rounded ; prozoua somewhat tumid, with clear 
median sulcus, metazona and sides flattened. Elytra ample, quite 
smooth, the humeral fold well marked, but no trace of a keel. 
Wings long, quite smooth. Legs intense black, including even 
the tarsi, which are clothed with a dense reddish pubescence ; 
femora rather long ; tarsi long, the first segment as long as the 
other two united, the second segment longer than usual, but very 
distinctly lobed. Abdomen quite smooth, broadest about the 
middle; lateral tubercles fairly distinct. Anal segment of 6 
smooth, transverse, short, depressed, the posterior margin truncate 
and somewhat reflexed, with a tumid tubercle over each root of 
the forceps ; in the 2 similar but angustate. Pygidium of c? 
forming a very short blunt tubercle ; similar in $ . Forceps of S 
with the branches flattened throughout their length, but only 
dilated at the base itself, with a strong depressed prominent 
blunt tooth ; strongly diverging at first, then halfway down 
strongly bent inwards ; in the $ simple, straight, attenuate." 

d 2 

Length of body 9-1G-5 mm. 12-14-5 mm. 

,, forceps .... 3- 3*75 ,, 3"5 ,, 

SiKKiM : Darjiling (Paris Mus., coll. Burr) ; Tibet : Lahol 
(Schlfigintiveit, coll. de Bormans). 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

This species varies to a considerable extent in stature and 
curvature of the forceps ; the author possesses a small male from 
Sikkim in which the body is only 9 mm. long ; the forceps are 
proportionately longer than in the typically well developed forms, 
as they are less bowed and only gently arched ; they are 3-75 mm. 
long, but their greatest breadth is only 2 mm. In the finest male 
the forceps are only 3 mm, long, but they attain a breadth of 
5-5 mm. In the small variety, the basal tooth of the forceps is 
absorbed by the dilated portion, which extends considerably 
further down the arms of the forceps ; this form more nearly 
resembles the pattern of typical Forficula, but there exists every 
gradation up to the extreme form, which seems to represent a 
transition towards the Anechnrince, especially as the fourth au- 
tennal segment is somewhat longer than is usual in Forficula. 



FORFIC'ULA. 



167 



The species is easy to recognize by its intense uniform black 
colour, with no variation from" the tip of the anteunse to the tarsi 
and the forceps. 

102. Forficula mogul, Burr* (Fig. 55.) 

Forficula mogul, Burr, (04) p. 321, (07^) p. Ul, (08^) p. 121. 

Stature large and robust. General colour dark reddish casta- 
neous. Anteunce (?). Head depressed, the sutures distinct, pos- 
terior margin somewhat sinuate ; ferruginous, varied with blackish. 
Pronotum transverse; the four sides parallel and straight, the 
angles rounded; deep blackish chestnut, the sides translucent 
yellow; prozona somewhat tumid, with fairly distinct median 
sulcus ; metazona flattened ; sides flat. Elytra smooth and ample, 
deep chestnut brown. Wings long and smooth, dark brown, 
shaded with blackisli towards the apex where there is a minute 
yellowish dot. Legs brown, rather slender ; tarsi slim and elon- 
gate. Abdomen deep chocolate-brown, very finely punctulate, 
the posterior margins of the segments somewhat iucrassate in 
the J ; ventral surface paler and smoother ; lateral tubercles 
distinct. Anal segment of d rectangular, distinctly broader than 
long, smooth ; posterior margin truncate and tumid over the 
insertion of the forceps ; in the 5 similar, but slightly narrower 
apically. Pygidium of 6 depressed, obtuse, parallel-sided, very- 
small. Porceps of d with the branches depressed throughout 
their length, but only dilated near the base, this dilated part short 
and gradually dying out ; inner margin denticulate near the base, 
then attenuate, very long, almost straight and unarmed ; in the $ 
simple, straight and unarmed. 

6 ? 

Length of body 16 mm. 16 mm. 

,, forceps .... 11 „ 4 „ 

SiKKiM : Darjiling (Paris 3Ius.). 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

This species somewhat resembles F. ruficoUis from the western 
shores of the Mediterranean, but the head is not entirely black, 
the pronotum not so broad, the wings well developed, the elytra 
not spotted, and the dilated part of the forceps shorter and not 
ending abruptly, but gradually. 

103. Forficula beelzebub, Burr** (Fig. 56.) 

Ohelisoches beelzebub, Burr, (02^) p. 51 ; Kirb)/, (04) p. 33. 
Forficula beelzebub, Burr, (04) p. 322, (Oo) p. 29, (07') p. Ill, (07') 
p. 210, (08=^) p. 121. 

Stature smaller and more slender. Colour uniform, deep 
blackish red. Anteunse blackish brown, the segments propor- 
tionately short. Head smooth, convex, sutures obsolete, pos- 
terior margin truncate ; clear red or almost black. Pronotum 



168 FOBFICULIDiE. 

transverse, anterior margin truncate, sides straight, posterior 
margin gently rounded ; tiat, the prozona scarcely tumid. Elytra 
and wings well developed, smooth, shining, uniform blackish 
chestnut. Legs rather short, blackish. Abdomen densely punc- 
tulate, the posterior margins of the segments milled in the <S ; 
lateral tubercles fairly distinct. Anal segment of c? rectangular, 
broader than long, rather smoother than the abdomen ; posterior 
margin truncate, with no tumid elevations over the forceps ; in 
the 5 similar, but attenuate and narrow. Pygidium of c? 
elongate, depressed, parallel-sided, truncate at the apex ; in $ 
similar but shorter. Forceps elongate ; dilated on inner margin 
in first third, this dilated part ending suddenly in an obtuse 
tooth ; unarmed, elongate and slender beyond this part; in the 5 
simple, straight. 

c? 2 

Length of body ...... 9-11 mm. 10 mm. 

,, forceps.... 4-5-8 „ 3 „ 

Nepal : Chitlong and Katmandu (Ind. JIus.), Nagorkote (coll. 
Burr) ; SiKKiM : Darjiling {Ind. 3Ias., Paris Mus., colls. Burr <^ 
Gadeau) ; Assam : Kurseong {Brussels Mus.). 

Type in the Brussels Museum. 

This species is easy to recognize by the uniform red-black 
colour, combined with the elongate truncate pygidium and the 
form of the forceps. The blacker forms have a certain superficial 
resemblance to Chelisochcs morio, Fabr. 

104. Forficula aceris, Burr.* (Fig. 57.) 

Fordcula aceris, Burr, (05) p. 30, (07^) p. Ill, (07^), p. 210. 

Stature moderate. Colour dark reddish chestnut, blackish in 
places. Antennse nearly black ; fourth segment nearly two-thirds 
as long as the third ; the segments not proportionately short. 
Head smooth and globose, sutures obsolete ; deep red, shaded 
with blackish. Pronotum pale, much broader than long ; 
anterior mai-gin truncate, posteinor rounded, sides straight; 
reddish black ; flat ; sides reflexed. Elytra and wings deep 
blackish chestnut, long. Legs deep blackish brown. Abdomen 
blackish red, covered with a dense punctulation, which becomes 
more dense and coarse towards the apex ; edges of segments 
not milled. Anal segment of d" punctulate, transverse, rect- 
angular, binder margin truncate, with a tumid elevation over 
root of the forceps. Pygidium of cS elongate, parallel-sided, de- 
pressed, truncate at the apex. Forceps of S with the branches 
elongate ; dilated part fairly long, its inner margin crenulate, 
terminating abruptly in a strong sharp tooth, directed apically; 
then attenuate, unarmed and elongate. 

6 

Length of body 8-5 mm. 

„ forceps 8"5 ,, 



lORFICULA. 169 

SiKKiM : Mungphu {hid. Mas.), Darjiliug (coll. Burr) ; United 
Provinces : Mussoorie (Ind. Mus.). 

T(/pe in the Indian Museum. 

This species closely resembles F. beelzebnb, but may be easily 
■distinguished by the stronger sculpture of the abdomen, the more 
reddish colour, somewhat longer segments of the antennae, and 
especially by the form of the dilated part of the forceps of the 
male, which is crenulate along the inner margin and terminated 
by a prominent sharp tooth. The pygidiura almost exactly 
resembles that of F. beelzebub, and the two form a natural group 
together. 



105. Forficula ornata, Bormans.** 

Forficula ornata, Bormans, (84') p, 192, (88) p. 448, (94^ p. 408, 
(00-) p. 124; Bol. (97) p. 286; Kirbi/, (04) p. o3 ; Bun; (07^ 
p. Ill, (08^) p. 120. 

Stature small, densely pubescent. Colour reddish varied with 
testaceous. Antennae with 12 segments, pale, the segments rather 
thick and short. Head tumid, smooth, sutures obsolete ; reddish 
testaceous ; posterior margin somewhat sinuate. Pronotum semi- 
circular ; anterior margin truncate ; lateral and posterior margins 
together strongly rounded ; dark brown in the centre, yellowish 
at the edges ; flat, the prozona slightly tumid. Elytra long, 
fuscous, with a broad, rather long, paler yellowish baud" down the 
disc. Wings long, testaceous, faintly banded with fuscous. 
Abdomen dark reddish, parallel-sided, densely punctulate and very 
hairy ; lateral tubercles distinct. Last dorsal segment short and 
broad, scarcely tumid in the d , hinder margin truncate ; in the 
2 similar but narrowed. Pygidium of c? and $ exceedingly 
small, short and obtuse. Forceps of c? with the branches rather 
convex and stout, subcontiguous, nearly straight, crenulate along 
the inner margin, attenuate towards the apex, where they are very 
gently arcuate ; in the $ conical, simple, straight, contiguous. 

Length of body 7-75-8-25 mm. 10-5 mm. 

„ forceps 2-5 -2-75 „ 2-2-5 „ 

Madras: Trichino^oli (coll. Bolivar); Burma: Kachin Hills, 
yiii./xi. (Getwa iMtis.) ; Tenassbuim : Mt. Mulaiyit, 6000-6300 ft.^ 
iv. (Genoa JIus.). 

Also occurs in Sumatra and Tonkin. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

This species with the two following form a natural group 
characterized by the small size, semicircular pronotum, and pale 
colouring. 

F. ornata is remarkable for its strong pubescence and the form 
of the forceps of the male, which are scarcely different from those 
of the typical females of this genus ; they are scarcely depressed, 



170 rOEFICULID^. 

so that the dilated portion consists only of a considerable 
strengthening near the base, which gradually disappears as the 
branches become more slender. The forceps of the two sexes are 
very similar ; in the male they are very slightly bowed towards the 
apex, and are crenulate along the inner margin ; in the female they 
are perfectly straight and not crenulate. 



IOC. Forficula greeni, Bwr.'^ (Fig. 103.) 

Chelisoches pulchelhis, Hkj-)- (nee Gerst.], (01) p. 327; Kirby, (04) 

p. 32 (partim). 
Forficula greeni, Burr, (07' j pp. Ill & 113. 

Small, rather stout. Colour dark reddish castaneous, passing 
into blackish ; elytra and wings with large pale spots. Antennae 
with 12 segments, pale, the segments short. Head globose, 
smooth, clear red and shining, sutures obsolete ; posterior margin 
truncate ; eyes black and prominent. Pronotum semicircular, 
anterior margin truncate ; sides and posterior margin strongly 
rounded, forming a single curve ; reddish chestnut, the sides 
paler; disc scarcely tumid. Elytra ample and smooth, fuscous, 
with a large clear pale yellowish spot in the centre. Wings long, 
clear straw-}ellow. Legs short ; femora rather stout ; tarsi very 
short, yellowish. Abdomen parallel-sided, deep reddish black, ex- 
ceedingly finely pnnctulale and shining; lateral tubercles distinct. 
Last dorsal segment quadrate, rather broader than long, posterior 
margin truncate, tumid over the insertion of the forceps ; in the $ 
rather sloping, somewhat narrowed and less tumid over the forceps. 
Pygidium of 6 very short, obtuse ; hidden in $ . Porceps of S 
with the branches depressed, dilated in the basal third, with the 
inner margin of this part denticulate or crenulate ; the dilation 
ends rather gradually and then the branches are elongate, 
attenuate, unarmed, smooth and gently incurved ; in the 5 
the branches are depressed, rather stout, straight, unarmed and 
contiguous, the inner margin finely crenulate. 

6 2 

Length of body 9 mm. 8 mm. 

,, forceps .... 2 „ 1*5 „ 

Ceylon : Punduluoya and Ambegammoa (coll. Burr), Tala- 
wakelle ( Willej/ • coll. Burr). 

Tyjie in the author's collection. 

This species seems to be fairly common where it occurs. 
Mr. Green has sent several specimens from Punduluoya, but the 
females outnumber the males, only one of the latter being sent, and 
that was taken inside a hollow gall on Antklesma at Punduluoya 
in February ; the other specimens are dated February and 
December. 



rOEFICULA. 171 

This species was originally confused with CheUsoches pulcliellvs^ 
Gerst., and reported as such in a paper on the Earwigs of Ceylon ; 
some specimens were sent to de Bormans, who also identified 
them as Gh. pulcliellus. That West-iVfricau species was then, 
however, not properly known, and the name has since been shown 
to be synonymous with Elaunon erytliroceplialns, Oliv. 

F. r/reeni, which is dedicated to Mr. E. E. Green, resembles 
F. ornata, Borm. in build and colour, but differs in the less 
pubescent body and more strongly dilated and abruptly attenuated 
forceps of the male. It is easy to recognize by the dark colour 
and the straw-coloured wings and spot on the elytra. 



107. Forficiila ambigua, Bun-."^ (Fig. 58.) 

Forticula ambigua, Burr, (04) p. 321, (07') p. 112, (08'^) p. 121. 

Size small, rather slender. Colour castaneous, elytra and wings 
testaceous. Antennae with fourth segment comparatively long 
and subconical. Head deep red, globose, smooth, sutures nearly 
obsolete. Pronotum quadrate, anterior margin truncate, sides and 
posterior margin very slightly convex ; dark castaneous, the sides 
paler and flat, scarcely reflexed ; prozona slightly tumid, median 
sulcus obsolete ; metazona flat. Elytra and wings ample, long, 
smooth, testaceous. Legs short, clear testaceous. Abdomen 
parallel-sided, dark reddish chestnut ; each segment darker basally 
than apically : very finely punctulate. Last dorsal segment of 6 
quadrate, rather sloping,"sHghtly wider than long, posterior margin 
truncate, impressed in the middle and tumid on each side ; 
typically angustate and simpler in the $ . Pygidium of d very 
short, conical. Forceps of 6 \vith branches not very depressed, 
dilated at the base for a short distance, this part crenulate then 
attenuate, elongate, gently arched and unarmed ; in the $ short, 
typical. 

6 $ 

Length of body 9-5 mm. 8-25-9 mm. 

,, forceps . . 2'5-3 „ 2 „ 

SiKKiM : Darjihng (Paris Jhis., colls. Burr 4' Gadeau). 

Also occurs in Tonkin. 

Tijj^e in the Paris Museum. 

This species resembles two other species which also occur in 
Northern India ; one is F. planicoUis, Kirby, \\hich is smaller, 
more thick-set, darker, with more bowed forceps, less flat pro- 
notum, and more dilated abdomen ; the other is F. interrogans, in 
which the forceps are much shorter and stouter, the dilated part 
relatively longer, and the attenuated part straight, stouter and 
shorter. 



172 fobficuliDjX:. 

108. Forficula lucasi, Dohm. (Fig. 59.) 

ForlicLila lucusi, Dohrn,(6o) p, 98 ; Scudd. (76) p. 315; de Bormans, 
(88) p. 448, (94) p. 408, (GO-) p. 121 ; Kmuss, (95) p. 99, fig. 2 ; 
Jacobson ^- Bianki, (03) p. 27 ; Sevmiov, (02) p. 195 ; Kirby, (04) 
p. 51; Burr, (07^) p. 113, (08^) p. 120. 

Size medium, fairly stout. General colour deep reddish 
chestnut ; the head, pronotum, discal spot of elytra, and wings 
reddish or yellow. Antennae with 11 segments, rather thick, 
brownish yellow. Head tumid, posterior margin of occiput some- 
what emargiuate, smooth, reddish or yellowish, sutures indistinct. 
Pronotum slightly broader than long, the anterior margin truncate, 
sides straiglit and posterior border widely rounded ; red or yellow ; 
depressed, with no distinct prozona; sides flat. Elytra ample, 
truncate apically, deep red with a large oval pale yellow, or pale 
reddish, spot on the disc. Wings long, yellow or reddish. Legs 
testaceous. Abdomen reddish chestnut, exceedingly minutely 
punctulate. Last dorsal segment of S transverse, rectangular, 
finely punctulate, not granulose, the hinder border incrassate in 
the middle ; that of $ typical, angustate. Penultimate ventral 
segment of 6 strongly convex, rounded. Pygidium of 6 very 
short, blunt, tubercular. Forceps of c? with the branches reddish, 
shaded with black, strongly depressed, elongate ; dilated part 
extending for half the length, the iinier margin quite straight, 
finely denticulate, terminated with a small, blunt, almost obsolete 
tooth ; beyond this strongly attenuate, regularly arcuate, the 
apices meeting ; in the $ contiguous, straight, unarmed, incurved 
at the apex. 

Length of body 12-14 mm. 11-12 mm. 

„ forceps 5-6 „ 2-5-3-5 „ 

Burma: Teinzo, v. {Genoa Mus.). 

Also occurs in Persia, Syria, Arabia, Egypt, and the Sahara. 

Type undefined, in Paris or A-'ienna. 

In the Oxford Museum there is an undoubted male of this 
species labelled, obviously incorrectly, " Brazil " and " Forficula 
himacidata, Fal.-Beauv.=eh'gans, Burm." The colour of these two 
earwigs is the same, but the forceps etc. are totally different. 

109. Forficula celeris, Burr* (Fig. 60.) 
Forficula celeris, Burr, (05) p. 31, (07') p, 113. 

Size small, but rather stout. General colour dark reddish 
castaneous ; the elytra and wings uniform testaceous. Antennae ?; 
the first five segments reddish brown. Head tumid, smooth, dark 
red, sutures fine but distinct. Pronotum slightly broader than 
long, ample, black, edged with reddish ; anterior margin truncate ; 
sides straight and parallel, reflexed ; posterior margin widely 
rounded ; prozona somewhat tumid ; metazona flattened. Elytra 



rOEFICULA. 173^ 

long and ample, uniform testaceous. Legs dark red ; femora 
somewhat stout. Abdomen deep red, finely punctulate. Last 
dorsal segment transverse, rectangular, punctulate, posterior margin 
truncate, with a tumid elevation on each side. Forceps of c? 
with the branches straight ; dilated part extending halfway 
down the forceps, the inner margin quite straight and denti- 
culate, the dilated part ends abruptly, the angle itself being 
almost a small tooth, somewhat incrassate and sharp ; beyond this 
elongate, straight, almost parallel, only slightly incurved at the 
apex itself; in the $ straight, simple, elongate. 

^ 2 

Length of body 9 mm. 8 mm. 

„ forceps .... 4 ,, 2-25 „ 

Assam: Khasi Hills (Lid. Mus.). 

Type in the Indian Museum. 

The type of this species is unfortunately in rather bad con- 
dition ; the species somewhat resembles F. ambigna, but is stouter 
in build, and the dilated part of the forceps is different. Unfor- 
tunately the specimen is not in sufficiently good condition to 
admit an examination of the pygidium, which is important.'^ The 
females of these two species are barely distinguishable ; in this 
species the branches of the forceps of the female are some\Ahat 
longer and more gradually attenuate ; in F. ambigna they are 
more suddenly attenuate near the base. 

It also somewhat resembles F. clavidi, but is smaller ; the 
pygidium may be different ; the dilated part of the forceps is 
proportionately shorter in F. davidi and ends gradually, sloping 
gently, whereas in this species it ends in an abrupt angle ; the last 
dorsal segment in F. davidi is smoother. 

The pronotum is almost of the same shape in all three species. 

110. Forficiila interrogans, Bvrrt* (Fig. 61.) 

Forficula iuterrogaDS, Bun; (05^) p. 85, (07^) p. 114, (08'0 p. 12i>. 

Size small. General colour dark chestnut and testaceous. 
Head dark reddish, smooth, tumid, sutures indistinct. Pronotum 
with anterior margin truncate, sides and posterior margins broadly 
rounded ; dark reddish chestnut ; prozona somewhat tumid, meta- 
zona flat. Elytra and \\ings long, ample, dark testaceous. Legs 
testaceous. Abdomen parallel -sided, dark reddish chestnut, 
blackish at the base, densely punctulate ; lateral tubercles black 
and distinct. Last dorsal segment of (S rectangular, transverse 
and somewhat sloping ; simple, the elevations scarcely formed ; 
posterior margin straight. Pygidium of d" very short, conical, 
obtuse. Forceps of S with the branches short and straight, dilated 
for half their length ; inner margins of this part straight, unarmed 
and very finely crenulate, gradually dying out ; beyond this 
attenuate, straight, rather stout, very gently incurved apically, not 
meeting at the apex. 



174 lORFICULID.!. 

Length of bod}^ '. . . 7'5 mm. 

,, forceps 1'5 ., 

SiKKiM: Darjiling {Pm'is 2Ins.). 

Tijpc in the Paris Musenm. 

Eesembles the common European F. auricularia in colour, hut 
different in structure and much smaller. The nearly straight 
forceps with the straight unarmed dilated part distinguish it. The 
antennae are missing in the unique type specimen. 

111. Forficula planicollis, Kirhy.^ 

Forficula planicollis, Kirby, (91) p. 526, (04) p. 63; Burr, (04) 
p. 230, (07') p. 115, (07^) p. 210, (08^) p. 121. 

Small and not stout. General colour dark castaneous and black. 
Antennte dark fuscous, with 12 segments, the fourth not very 
short. Head dark reddish or black, smooth, tumid and shining; 
sutures indistinct. Pronotum slightly transverse, anterior margin 
truncate, sides parallel, posterior margin rounded ; smooth, median 
sulcus fairly distinct ; prozona tumid ; metazona flat ; black, the 
sides paler. Elytra and wings long and ample, the latter nearly 
as long as the former ; dark testaceous. Legs reddish testaceous. 
Abdomen fairly broad, densely punctulate, dark chestnut ; lateral 
tubercles black and distinct ; narrowed tow ards the apex in the S , 
typical in the $ . Last dorsal segment of S short, transverse, 
rather narrowed apically, depressed, with the tumid elevations 
depressed and indistinct. Penultimate ventral segment convex. 
Pygidium indistinguishable. Eorceps of S with the branches 
flattened but not sulcate ; dilated part short, only extending 
through a quarter the length of forceps, the inner margin straight 
and unarmed, ending gradually as the branches are attenuate, 
then strongly arched : the brandies are bowed from the base itself, 
the apices meeting ; in the $ typical. 

^S 2 

Length of body 7"9 mm. 7*9 mm. 

,, forceps .... 2-2-75 „ 2 „ 

Bhutan : INIaria Basti (Paris IIus.) • Sikkim : Sandakhu, 
11,900 ft. (Lul. Has.), Darjiling (Paris Mus.) ; United 
Pkotinces : Bhim Tal, Ivumaun, 4500 ft., "feeding on the 
flowers of stinging nettles" (Lid. Mas.). 

Tifpc in the British Museum. 

Kirby's type is in poor condition ; the small size and black head 
help to distinguish it ; the rather broad body, simple last dorsal 
segment of the male, and above all, the simple and strongly bowed 
forceps, which are quite unarmed, with short dilated part, also 
easily distinguish it. 

Dr. Annandale took this species sweeping in grass and low 
herbage, at an elevation of 6000 feet at Darjiling, in September. 



OPISTIIOCOSMIIJf.E. 175 



Subfamily IV. OPISTHOCOSMIIN^. 

This subfamily was originally erected by Verboeff and included 
only two genera — Opisthocosmia and Cosmiella ; it was recast 
iu 1907 by the author, but was too much split up and the genera 
too scattered. The last dorsal segment of the male is narrowed in 
the majority of cases ; but it so happens that in the type of 
Opisthocosmia it is transverse, and consequently this is not a true 
character of the group. Nor can the length of the leg be 
sufficient, as in some forms undoubtedly related these are quite 
short. The relative length of the third and fourth segment of the 
antennae is not sufficiently constant to be of more than specific or 
generic value. 

It is therefore accordingly now proposed to include in the 
subfamily those earwigs in which the abdomen is scarcely or not 
at all depressed, so that the surface is convex and a cross-section 
circular. It will therefore absorb the subfamilies EparcJiince, 
Neolohophonnce, Sl-endijUnce, and Eudohrnince, regarded as of sub- 
family rank by the author in 1907. Under this new arrangement 
the subfamily contains about sixteen genera, represented in all 
parts of the world. There are two well-marked groups, charac- 
terized by the presence or absence of a distinct keel down the 
costal fold of the elytra. 

The carinate genera are five in number, of which three are 
American and the rest Oriental, two being represented iu India. 
Of the non-carinate genera, those with narrow pronotuiu are 
represented in India by Cordax, as true Opisthocosmia is so far 
only known in the Malay Archipelago. 

The forms with broad pronotura fall into two groups, according 
to the length of the first tarsal segment : of the long-legged 
genera one is American, the other three are represented in 
India ; of those with short tarsi, apart from the three Indian 
genera, there is one in America (Sarcinatrlc) and one in Java 
{Rhadamanthus). Eudohrnia is well characterized by the tri- 
carinate basal segment of the antennae. 

A peculiar group consists of Cordax ceijlonicus, Ohelura (two 
species), Si/ntomis (one species), and Sonda.v (one species), all of 
which have a strong superficial resemblance, although they are 
rather widely separated by the structure of the elytra, pronotum, 
tarsi, and last dorsal segment. They are discussed iu the 
observations on Sondax repens (p. 177). 



FOB¥ICULIl)yE. 



TahJe of Genera} 

1. Entirely apterous (resembles Obelura and 

Syntonus) Sondax, n.g., p. 177. 

l.L Elytra present, sometimes abbreviated. 

2. First segment of antenna) bicarinate; 

(pronotum broad; elytra -with a very [p. 178. 

short keel ; tarsi long) Eudohbnja, Burr, 

2.2. First segment of antennaj smooth. 

3. Elytra with keel on costal margin. 

4. Elytra perfect, free ; wings abor- [p. 180. 

five Emboros, Burr, 

4.4. Elytra rudimentary. 

5, Last dorsal segment of male 

very wide at base, strongly [p. 181. 

narrowed at apex Lipaeuba, Burr, 

5.5. Last dorsal segment of male 

narrow at base itself, slightly [p. 183. 

angustate. almost square .... Obeluea, Burr, 
3.3. Elytra not keeled (but well deve- 
loped). 
4. Pronotum narrower than the head, 

longer than broad Cohdax, n.g.,p. 184. 

4.4. Pronotum as broad as the head or 
as broad as long. 
5. First tarsal segment twice as 
long as the third. 
6. Abdomen not very strongly 
convex, the sides of the 
segments, seen from above, 
recurved ; forceps of male 
horizontal, not contiguous 
at the base, unarmed on the [p. 187. 

upper surface Hypurgus, Burr, 

6.6. Abdomen decidedly convex ; 
sides not recurved ; forceps 
of male undulating, con- 
tiguous at base and toothed [p. 190. 

or crested above Epaechijs, Burr, 

6.5. First tarsal segment equal to 
third or scarcely' longer. 
6. Abdomen dilated beyond the 
middle and attenuate towards 
the apex. 
7. Last dorsal segment of male 
transverse, nearly rect- 
angular ; anterior femora [p. 194. 

thick TiMOJiENUS, I3urr, 

7.7. Last dorsal segment of male 

strongly attenuate ; ante- [p. 199. 

rior femora slender Syntonus, u. g,, 

6.6. Abdomen of male scarcely [p. 200. 

dilated, almost cylindrical . . Kosmetor, Burr, 

1 Tlie geuu3 Liiiodes (p. 203j cannot yet be ranged in this table. 



SONDAX. 177 

Genus SONDAX, n. g. 

Type, S. repens, sp. n. 

Entirely apterous ; build slender. Antennae cylindrical. Head 
broad, smooth and tumid. Pronotum as broad as the head, broader 
than long, slightly wider posteriorly than anteriorly; sides all 
straight, almost rectangular. Mesonotum smooth. Legs slender 
and long ; first and third tarsal segments about equally long. 
Abdomen with glandular folds prominent, dilated before the apex 
and then narrowed. Last dorsal segment sloping, trapezoidal^ 
strongly narrowed posteriorly. Forceps with branches contiguous 
at the base, long and slender. 

Range. Madras. 

This genus is founded on a single male in the Oxford 
Museum. It has a strong superficial resemblance to Ohelura, 
Syntonus, and Cordax ceylonicus, but differs from all known 
Opistliocosmiince in the entire absence of any discernible vestige of 
elytra. 

In the form of the last dorsal segment it approaches Syntonus, 
but the pronotum is much broader. 

112. Sondax repens, sp. n. (Fig. 63.) 

Small, slender, of a uniform light reddish ochraceous. Head 
reddish, smooth and tumid. Last dorsal segment strongly sloping 
and strongly narrowed postei'iorly, smooth ; posterior margin 
with a slight tumid elevation on each side. Penultimate ventral 
segment rounded. Forceps with the branches very slender and 
long, contiguous at the base with a vertical spine or tooth directed 
somewhat backwards, then slender, elongate, and arcuate, enclosins 
a long elliptical area. 

6 

Length of body 7 mm. 

„ forceps 4 „ 

Mabeas (Oxford Mus.). 

Type in the Oxford University Museum. 

This remarkable species may be at once distinguished by the 
entire absence of elytra and the very broad pronotum. In 
the form of the last dorsal segment, of the tarsi and of the 
forceps (excepting the vertical tooth) it approaches Syntonvs 
neolobophoroides ; the forceps resemble those of Cordax ceylonicus, 
and, to a certain extent, those of Ohelura asiatica and 0. tamid. 
In build and colour all these species have a strong superficial 
resemblance. The structure of the pronotum, elytra, legs, and 
last dorsal segment, however, is so important that it seems to point 
to a converging specialisation from different sources, giving a false 
appearance of close relationship. The general form of the forceps 
is very similar in all these cases, and the differences between them 
are less than is often the case in several species of one genus. In 
Ohelura tamul and S. neolobophoroides we see the beginnings of the 



178 rOEFICULIB^. 

erect crested tooth which is so well developed in C. ceylonicus and 
S. repens ; a similar structure occurs in some American forms. 

This particular artificial group is, so far as is at present known, 
confined to Southern India and Ceylon, no similar species having 
been recorded from any other countries. 



Genus EUDOHRNIA, Burr. 

Eudobrnia, Burr, (07^) p. 97. 
Forficula, Dohrn (partim). 
Anechura, Bonnans, Kirby (partim). 

Type, Forficula metalHca, Dohrn. 

Body cylindrical, elongate. Antennae rather strong ; the first 
segment strong, cylindrical, long, and distinctly bicarinate ; third 
segment elongate, rather clubbed at the apex ; fourth rather long 
and thick ; fifth longer, the rest gradually lengthening, sub- 
conical. Head smooth, globose, the sutures obsolete. Pronotum 




Fig. 14. — Basal segments of antenBa of Eiidohrnia metalUca, Dohrn. 

nearly square, rounded posteriorly. Elytra rugulose, with a 
fairly sharp costal keel, which is, however, very short. Wings 
and legs long. Abdomen cylindrical. Last dorsal segment of 
(S smoother than the abdomen, short, broad, impressed in the 
middle, scarcely tuberculate : in $ narrow and sloping. Pygidium 
of (S short, broad ; in $ narrow and small. Branches of foz'ceps 
of c? elongate, horizontal, nearly straight, slender; in $ similar 
but shorter and simpler. 

Range. Northern India and Burma. 

This genus, which is monotypic, is weW characterized by the 
cylindrical body and bicarinate compressed basal segment of the 
antennae. 

113. Eudohrnia metallica, Dohrn. 

Forficula metallica, Dohrn, (65) p. 90 ; Scmld. (76) p. 315. 
Anechura metallica, Borm. (88) p. 444, (94) p. 402, (00^) p. 104, 
figs. 39, a-c ; Kirby, (04) p. 41 ; Burr, (05^) p. 29. 

Stature large but not stout. Colour reddish chestnut, the 
pronotum and abdomen metallic bronze-green ; not pubescent. 
Antennae reddish chestnut, with long, cylindrical, very slightly 
conical segments ; basal segment bicarinate. Head large, smooth. 



EUJDOHRNIA. 179 

bright reddish chestnut; the sutures distinct ; eyes black. Pro- 
notum metalhc greenish bronze ; anterior margin truncate, the 
anterior angles incrassate and sharp ; posterior margin very 
obtusangular ; lateral margins straight, so that the whole pro- 
uotum is pentagonal ; prozona somewhat tumid, as is also the 
metazona, separated by an indistinct transverse impression ; in 
the prozona the lateral impressions are distinct ; median suture 
obsolete ; the surface of the pronotum faintly punctulate. Elytra 
ample, dull reddish chestnut, fairly strongly and very densely 
punctulate ; lateral carinas very short ; hinder border truncate. 
Wings ample : the wings themselves are smoky black ; the scales 
are metallic greenish bronze with sparse punctulations, the apices 
paler. Legs long and slender, dark red, the joints darker ; tarsi 
with a yellowish pubescence, which extends a short way up 
the tibiae ; the tarsal segments are long and slender. Abdomen 
elongate, cylindrical, greenish metallic bronze, coarsely punctulate ; 
lateral tubercles very distinct. Last dorsal segment of (^ transverse, 
punctulate, somewhat attenuate in the $ , transversely impressed, 
rectangular ; the hinder border somewhat convex, tumid over the 
insertion of the forceps. Sternum black, very finely punctulate. 
Pygidium of c? short, transverse, smooth, with a short blunt tubercle 
at each posterior angle ; each tubercle terminated by a sharp 
point : in $ short, blunt. Forceps of d" with the branches remote 
at the base, very long and slender, nearly straight ; trigonal at 
the base itself ; the nearly obsolete keels covered with a row 
of small tubercles ; inner margin denticulate ; halfway down there 
is a small but sharp and distinct tooth, beyond which the branches 
are unarmed, nearly straight, smooth, and incurved at the apex ; 
the whole forceps are faintly punctulate ; in the $ the branches 
are subcontiguous, excavate at the base itself on the inner 
margin to admit the pygidium, then nearly straight, very gently 
sinuate, elongate, unarmed, and smooth. 

6 2 

Length of body 13 -18 mm. 12-16 mm. 

„ forceps .... 8-5-17 „ 6- 7 „ 

Bombay: Bombay (Pusa coll.) ; Ukited Pbovinces : Bhim Tal, 
4500 ft. ; Nepal : Sundrijal, Gauchar, Nagorkoti, " feeding on 
flowers of stinging nettles " (Ind. Mus.) ; Sikkim : Darjiling 
{Brit. Mus.) ; Assam : Khasi Hills, Dumpel to Cherapunji, 3000- 
5000 ft., Gauhati, Shillong (Pusa coll.), Kurseong (Ind. Mus) ; 
BuEMA : Karen-ni, Keba Distr., 3000-3700 ft., v.-xii. (Genoa 
Mus., coll. Burr) ; Tenassebim : Thagata, v. (Brit. Mus., Genoa 
Mus., coll. Burr). 

Occurs also in Tonkin. 

Syntyins in Bex'lin and Dohrn's collection ; actual type un- 
certain. 

This striking species is easy to recognize, apart from the 
characteristic first antennal segment, by its elongate form, lone 
slender forceps, and bronze-green metallic lustre. 

n2 



180 rOBFICULID^. 



Genus EMBOROS, Bm-r. 

Emboros, Bt(rr, (07i) p. 103. 
Opistlaocosniia, Dolirn (partim). 
Cosmiella, Terhaff, Kirby (partim). 

Type, Opisthocosmia duhia, Borm. 

Small and slender. Antennae with 10 segments, cylindrical ; 
fourth relatively long. Head smooth and tumid. Pronotum 
slightly narrower than the head and decidedly longer than hroad, 
rectangular. Metasternal lohe transverse, rectangiilar. Elytra 
complete and free, with a keel running the whole length of the 
costal fold, rather short. Wings abortive. Legs not very long ; 
tarsi rather short, first segment hardly longer than the third. 
Abdomen of J but slightly dilated, convex, second pliciform tubercle 
very strong. Last dorsal segment of d" a little longer than broad, 
but shghtly angustate. Penultimate ventral segment of S rounded, 
transverse. Porceps of S with branches not contiguous at the base, 
cylindrical, nearly straight. 

Banrje. Burma and Diego Suarez, 

This genus is characterized by the keeled elytra and short tarsi, 
together with the long narrow pronotum, thus differing from 
Liparura, Lij>odes and Obelura, the only other known Indian genera 
with keeled elytra. 



114. Emboros dubiiis, Bonn. 

Opisthocosmia dubia, Bonn. (94) p. 399, (00-) p. 98 : Burr, (OS^) 

p. 117. 
Cosmiella dubia, Verh. (02i) p._195 ; Ktrbt/, (04) p. 38. 
Opistliocosmia (Cosmiella) dubia, Burr, (04) p. 303. 
Emboros dubius, Bni-r, (07i) p. 104. 

Dark chestnut, small and slender. Antennse with the five basal 
segments greyish testaceous. Head shining chestnut. Pronotum 
chestnut-brown, shining, a little narrower than the head, a little 
longer than broad ; posterior margin rounded, rather convex ; 
prozona and metazona separated by a transverse depression ; two 
impressions on prozona ; sides straight, pale testaceous, reflexed. 
Elytra dull brown, one and a half times as long as the pronotum, 
well rounded at the shoulders, sides parallel, posterior margin 
truncate. Wings absent. Legs long and slender, greyish testa- 
ceous, apical half of femora darker. Abdomen dark chestnut, 
shining, oval, dilated at about three-quarters of the length. Last 
dorsal segment about twice as broad at the base as at the apex, 
strongly sloped. Pygidium not discernible. Porceps reddish 
testaceous, unarmed, slender, elongate, trigonal, nearly straight, 
not, contiguous but very nearly so, points curved in. 

$ 

Length of body 7*5 mm. 

„ forceps 3-5 „ 



EMBOROS. LIPARURA. 181 

Burma : Kareu-ni, Geku District, 4300-4700 ft., ii./iii. (Genoa 
Mtis., 1 $ ). 

Ti/pe in the Genoa Museum, 

G'he above description is adapted from the original text of 
de Bormans. In the Paris Museum there is a pair of earwigs 
from Diego Suarez which have been referred to this species, as 
from the description above they cannot be distinguished from the 
Burmese specimen ; but it is probable that the two are distinct, as 
their localities ai'e so widely separated. 

The genus Emboros was erected for de Bormans' 0. duUa, but 
characterized from that pair from Diego 8uarez. This charac- 
terization agrees in every particular with the description of 
de Bormans, except that he does not refer to the keel of the 
elytra. As he never luade use of this character in any of his work, 
it is probable that he overlooked it, and there is little doubt that 
the specimens from Diego Suarez belong to the same genus as 
E. dubia, but it is likely that they will be shown to be specifically 
distinct when the true male of the latter is discovered. In order 
to settle this point, collectors in Further India should look out for 
a small dark Opisthocosmiiue earwig with long narrow pronotum, 
keeled elytra and no wiugs. A careful comparison with the male 
from Diego Suarez will then probably show a specific distinction. 

In these circumstances it is advisable to give a brief account 
of the features of this male : — 

It agrees in every respect with the description of E. dubius 
except where the sexual characters are involved. The abdomen 
is not very strongly dilated and consequently the last dorsal 
segment is not very strongly angustate, being only slightly nar- 
rower posteriorly than at the base ; its length is about equal to its 
smallest width ; it is smooth and sloping, but not remarkably so ; 
the posterior margin is gently convex, and tumid over the roots 
of the forceps ; the latter are rather strong, horizontal, swollen at 
the extreme base but not contiguous, cylindrical and converging 
in the basal third, where they almost meet, and then straight 
as far as the apex which is hooked ; the inner margin is very 
finely denticulate, otherwise they are unarmed ; in colour deep 
reddish black. The pygidium is just visible as a small obtuse 
tubercle. Length of body, 8 mm.; forceps, 2-5 mm. 

Of course, should the true Burmese E. dubius prove to be 
specifically distinct, this pair from Diego Suarez will require a 
new name. 

Genus LIPARURA, Burr. 
Liparura, Burr, (07') p. 119. 

Type, L. jmnctata, Burr. 

Size medium or small. Antennie unknown. Head smooth 
and tumid, but sutures distinct. Pronotum square, nearly as 
broad as the head. Elytra trapezoidal, not free, weak at the 
axillary angle, exposing a transverse scutellum ; anal mai'gin of 



182 rORKICULIDiE. 

elytra short ; posterior marp;in oblique ; costal fold witli an entire 
and strongly-marked keel. Wings absent. Legs long and slender ; 
iirst tarsal segment longer than the second and third united. 
Abdomen strongly dilated and strongly attenuate at the apex. 
Last dorsal segment short, small, and transverse, gently attenuate 
and strongly sloping. Penultimate ventral segment broad, rounded. 
Pygidium not distinct. Forceps of d" with the branches subcon- 
tignous, rather depressed at the base, elongate ; simple in the $ . 

linage. India. 

This genus is based on a pair of earwigs from Northern India 
which are related to Ohelnra tumid, Burr, from Ceylon, and to 
0. asiaiica, Borm., from Southern India. But the keel of the 
elytra, with the square pronotum and long tarsi, are very dis- 
tinctive features. 



115. Liparura punctata, sp, n, (Fig. 04.) 

Neolohophora asiatica, Burr, (08^) p. 117. 

Liparura asiatica, Burr, (07') p. 119 (nee Borm,, nee Kirbi/,. 

Size small, deep reddish chestnut. Antenna) unknown. Head 
tumid, sutures feeble. Pronotum about as broad as the head, 
square; prozona tumid, with a median suture and impression 
ou each side ; metazona depressed, sides strongly reflexed. 
Scutellum short, as broad as the pronotum, rounded posteriorly, 
smooth. Elytra abbreviated, trapezoidal, the posterior margin 
being oblique, so that the axillary (sutural) margin is much shorter 
than the costal margin ; costal keel very sharp and well defined. 
Legs very long and slender. Abdomen punctate, strongly dilated 
and convex in both sexes. Last dorsal segment of cJ trajjezoidal, 
narrowed posteriority, sti'ongly sloping; in $ similar, but still more 
strongly sloping. Penultimate ventral segment of c? transverse, 
rounded. Pygidium of c5" and $ indistinguishable. Forceps of c^' 
witli the branches subcontiguous at the base, slender, elongate, 
somewhat compressed, almost crested above, contiguous and nearly 
straight through half their length, then attenuate and gently 
arched, enclosing an elongate ellipse, the points meeting; in the 
5 the branches are slender, subcontiguous, straight, elongate, only 
meeting at the apex. 

c? 2 

Length of body 7*5 mm. 75 mm. 

„ forceps 4-5 „ 2-75 „ 

SiKKiM : Darjiling (Paris il/»s.) ; Bhutan : Pedong (Paris Mns.). 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

There is nothing in de Bormans' description of Neolohophora 
asiatica which excludes the two specimens in the Paris Museum, 
but the entire omission of any reference to the strongly punctu- 
late body and the fact that his typcj was from the south of India 
— whereas these are from Darjiling and Bhutan, a difference 
especially important in apterous forms such as these — render it 



0BI3LU11A. 



183 



probable that these are not identical with de Borraans' specimens, 
which would appear to fall into the genus Obelura with 0. tamul. 

Accordingly, the remark that K asiatka is the type of Liparura 
(Burr, Tr. Ent. Soc. London, p. 119, 1U04) must be read as re- 
ferring to these specimens, then regarded as J^. asiaiica, and not 
to the true N. asiatka of de Bormans. 



Genus OBELURA, Burr. 

Obelura, i?Mn-, (07') p. 11«. 
Neolobophora, Burr (partim). 

Type, Neolohoplwra tamul, liurr. 

Size small ; build slender. Antennae as in OjnslJiocosmia. Head 
smooth. Pronotum as broad as the head, square. Elytra rudi- 
mentary, trapezoidal, keeled along the outer margin ; inner margin 
shorter than the outer, thus forming a small scutellum ; hinder 
margin obliquely truncate. Wings abortive. Legs long and 
slender. Abdomen with lateral tubercles very distinct, smooth ; 
last dorsal segment very narrow, smooth, sloping. Forceps with 
branches subcontiguous at base, very elongate and slender. 

Rawje. Southern India and Ceylon. 

Thetwo known members of this genus are easy to recognize by 
their slender build, uniform testaceous colour, rudimentary elytra, 
and long slender forceps. 

Table of Species. 

1. Elytra with axillary margin very sliort, 
thus exposinf^ a broad scutellum ; 
pt'nultimate ventral segment of S 

with a .s])ino on each side asiatiai, JJorm., p. IB.'l 

1.1. Elytra with axillary marf;;in scarcely 
shorter tlian co«tal margin, scutellum 
very small ; penultimate ventral seg- 
ment of c? unarmed tamul, Burr, p. 184. 

IIG. Obelura asiatica, Borm. 

Neolobophorit, asiatica, Borm. a])ud Bolivar, (i)7) p. 285, pi. 1, fig. 2; 

Borm. (()()•-) ]). 100 ; Kirhi/, (04) p. 20. 
Liparura asiatica, Burr, (07 'j p. 119. 

Reddish chestnut, shining, all the legs dirty testaceous. Frons 
depressed, occiput convex, almost circumvallate. Elytra small, 
nearly triangular, showing a scutellum. Wings absent. Abdomen 
convex, dilated a little beyond the middle. Last dorsal segment 
strongly narrowed posteriorly, especially in ? , and sloping. 
Penultimate ventral segment of S with a sharp spine at each side. 
Branches of the forceps of J subcontiguous at the base, depressed 
and compressed, with an erect tooth on the upper surface ; cylin- 
drical as far as a strong sjjine, directed backwards, situated about 



184 rOEFICULIDJE. 

the middle ; then gently arcuate, slender ; in $ long, slender, nearly 
straight, unarmed and contiguous, points hooked. 

d $ 

Length of body 7 - 9-25 mm. 3'5-7"5 mm. 

„ forceps .... 8-5-10-5 „ 3'5 „ 

S. Madras : Kodaikanal. 

The above description is adapted from that of de Bormans, 
given by Bolivar. 

Workers on the spot must decide the true relations between 
this and 0. tamul. 

117. Obelura tamul, Bim-:'^ (Fig. 65.) 

Neolobophora tamul, Burr, (01) p. G7, pi. B, fig. 1 ; Kirby, (04) 

p. 29. 
Obelura tamul, Burr, (07^) p. 120. 

Slender and small ; entirely testaceous. Antennae with twelve 
very slender segments. Head rather broad, smooth, and tumid. 
Pronotum square, as broad as the head, flat. Elytra trapezoidal, 
rudimentary, not free ; costal fold sharp, forming a keel ; hinder 
margin truncate ; axillary angle rounded off, thus exposing a 
short, transverse, triangular scutellum and rendering the anal 
margin (along the suture) shorter than the costal margin. Legs 
slender, not veiy long; tarsi rather short. Abdomen smooth, 
dirty yellow. Last dorsal segment very narrow, longer than 
broad, smooth, sloping, simple. Forceps with the branches 
slender and cylindrical, dirty yellow, contiguous at the base 
(oMdng to the narrowness of the last dorsal segment), rather 
compressed and straight in the basal quarter, then very long and 
slender, gently diverging and arched in to form a long ellipse, 
which is not complete as the points do not meet ; about the 
middle, on the inner margin, thei-e are three or four small sharp 
teeth. $ unknown. 

6 

Length of body 6*75-9 mm. 

„ forceps .... 5-7 „ 

Ceylon : Nuwara Eliya. 
Type in the author's collection. 

The species cannot be confused with anything except 0. asiatlca, 
from which it may not really be specifically distinct. 

Genus CORDAX, n. g. 

Opisthocosmia, Dohrn, (65) p. 76 (partim). 

TxPE, Forficida armata, Haan. 

Build slender and graceful. Antennae with 10-12 segments, 
all long, slender and cylindrical ; fourth a little longer than 
third, and fifth than the fourth. Head tumid, sutures distinct. 



CORDAX. 



185 



Pronotum narrow and long, not so broad as the head. Elytra 
smooth, well rounded at the shoulders, with no keel. Wmgs 
generally well developed. Legs long and slender ; femora scarcely 
thickened; tibiae compressed, first tarsal segment longer than 
second and third united. Abdomen convex, rather dilated beyond 
the middle, then tapering to the apex ; lateral tubercles well 
developed. Last dorsal segment attenuate and sloping in both 
sexes. Pygidium indistinct. Porceps of S long and slender, the 
branches remote or subcontiguous at the base, straight or sinuate, 
variously armed ; in $ straiglit, simple, contiguous. 

Range. Oriental Region. 

This new genus is erected for those species in which the pro- 
notum is long aud narrow, as in OpistJiocosmia, but the last dorsal 
segment narrowed and sloping, as in liyimrgm. The narrowing 
of this last segment has always been regarded as the chief dis- 
tinctive character of Opistliocosmia, but unfortunately in the type- 
species, 0. centurio, this segment is very decidedly _ transverse. 
Numerous species, formerly included in Ojnsthocosmia, are now 
consequently removed to the newer genera, Cordax and Hyinirgus. 

Table of Species. 

1. Elytra orange or red, with narrow dark 

band; size medium (15 mm.) annatiis, Ilaan, p. 185. 

1.1. Elvtra testaceous, indistinctly banded 

■with fuscous ; size small (12-5 mm.) . . ceylonicus, Motsch., p. 186. 

118. Cordax armatus, Haan. (Pig. 6G.) 

Forficula armata, Haan, (42) p. 243, pi. 23 fig. 12. 
Opisthocosmia armata, Dohrn, (65) p. S\; borm (^o P- ^*f' 
(94) p. 394, (00-) p. 96; Burr, (99) p. 260, (04) p. 304, (O/i) 
p. 100 ; Kirby, (04) p. 39. 
General colour dark reddish chestnut ; abdomen red ; elytra and 
wings red, with narrow dark bands. Antennae with (?) 10 seg- 
ments, dark fuscous ; segments 8-9 whitish, very slender. Head 
dark reddish, somewhat tumid, especially between the eyes. 
Pronotum narrower than the head and longer than broad, dark 
chestnut, smooth; anterior border truncate, sides subparallel; 
hinder border and hinder angles rounded; prozona distinctly 
tumid; metazona flat; sides distinctly raised. Elytra ample, 
broadly rounded at the shoulders, the costal fold strongly marked, 
almost forming a ridge ; brick-red, with a narrow dark band along 
the costal margin, narrowed apically; hinder border subemar- 
ginate. Wings long, of the same colour as the elytra. Legs very 
dark, long and slender, the tarsi somewhat paler. Abdomen dark 
red, blackish near the base and the apex ; very narrow at the 
base and very convex, strongly attenuate near the apex ; phci- 
form tubercles black, very strongly marked. Last dorsal segment 
smooth, typical, sloping and attenuate. Forceps with the 



186 rORFICULIDJS. 

branches in the c? subcontiguous at the base, long and slender ; 
dark chestnut ; subtrigoual near the base ; seen from the side, 
horizontal and straight ; seen from above, gently sinuate for 
the first half of their length ; on the upper margin, at the end 
of the basal third, there is a compressed short sharp tooth ; from 
this point gently diverging, with a small sharp tooth on the inner 
margin ; then gently arcuate, slender and unarmed, enclosing an 
oval area, the points meeting. 

Length of body 10 - 11 mm. 

„ forceps 6-75- 7*75 „ 

BuEMA : Metanja, viii., Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft., 
v./sii. (Genoa Mks.). 

Also occurs in Borneo, Sumatra, the Celebes, and Macassar. 

Tyjye in the Ley den Museum. 

The slender and elongate build, brick-red elytra and long 
slender forceps, taken in conjunction with the narrow pronotum 
and angustate last dorsal segment of the male, render this elegant 
species unmistakable. 

In " Das Tierreich," deBormans describes the elytra as "braun- 
gelb " (p. 96), and again as " ganz gelb." This is due to the fact that 
the original manuscript was written in French and translated into 
Grerman, for in every specimen seen by the author the elytra are 
brick-red, with a narrow dark band down the suture and down 
the costal margin ; the original manuscript is in the author's 
possession ; " braungelb " is a translation of " fauve " which 
might be applied to this colour ; " ganz gelb " is a translation of 
" enticrement fauve," but the author has yet to see a specimen to 
which this remark applies. 



119. Cordax ceylonicus, MotscJi. (Fig. 67.) 

Labia ceylonica, Motachuhky, (63) p. 4. 

Opisthocosmia cevlonica, Dohrn, (65) p. 83 ; Boron. (00-) p. 96 ; Burr, 
(01) p. 335, (04) p. 305, (07') p. 100 ; Kirby, (04) p. 38. 

Small, slender, brown. Anteunse with 12 segments, brown. 
Pronotum narrower than the head, hinder border rounded, anterior 
border straight, the sides strongly reflexed, shining brown. Elytra 
twice as long as the pronotum, uniform brown, truncate at the 
apex. Wings projecting well beyond the elytra, brown, with a 
faint yellow spot on the outer side at the base and at the apex 
of the suture. Abdomen darker brown, the glandular folds very 
prominent, black. In the S the antepenultimate dorsal segment is 
armed on each side with a short tooth, the penultimate and ultimate 
segments are narrowed, the latter with a deep impression in the 
middle ; the penultimate ventral segment semicircular, covering 
only half the last segment. The forceps are long, with the branches 



1 RT 
COEDAX.— HTPURGUS. 



the body, and the forceps of the 6 pubescent. 

^ 5 o 

,. 1 1 T-ps mm 7'5 -8 mm. 

Length oi body '^^^''^- ^ . 

„ forceps ^ '■■> 

Ceylok : Pundulaoya, Peradeniya, iv./v., Maskeliya (oo7L 5un-) 
Mr. Green found females of this spec.es ^^^^^^^^J^ f .^^f^'j," 
bungalows, and also in bamboos, but the males appear to be less 

TtT;-be easily recognized by the slender and delicate stature, 
and the narrow pronotum and last dorsal segment. 

Genus HYPURGUS, Burr. 

Hypurgus, i?Kr/-, (07^) p. 101' 
Opisthocosmia, Burr (partiiu). 

Type, OpistJwcosmia humeralis, Ivu-by. ^ 

dS se^; nt of c? and'? ample, longer than broad deeded y 
attemiate and sloping. Pygidium not d.stmot fretFme" sth y 

St:rre"«:!e3ot;:;:Sb:^^^^^^^^^^ 

tXnoteeZon upper surface; those of ? subcont.gaous, s,mple. 
straight and slender. 



188 FOEFICULID.E. 

Range. Oriental and Ethiopian Eegions. 

The species Avere formerly included in the comprehensive 
genus OjnstJwcosmia, but their pronotum is by no means narrow 
and long, and the last dorsal segment is decidedly sloping and 
narrowed. 

There are about half a dozen species, all occurring in the 
Oriental Eegion. 

In the recurved abdominal segments of the male, the somewhat 
less convex abdomen, and the generally bowed forceps, this 
genus shows the beginning of a transition towards the ancistro- 
gastrine type. 



Fig. 15. — Tarsus of Hypurgus humemlis, Kirby. 



Table of Species. 

1 . Elytra with an orange spot at the slioulders ; 

forceps of J with a strong tooth before [p. 188. 

the apex humeralis, Kirby, 

1-1. Elytra uniform reddish; forceps of S ^^'itli [p. 189. 

one blunt tooth, often obsolete simplex, Borm., 



120. Hypurg,us humeralis, Kirby.* (Fig. 68.) 

Opisthocosmia humeralis, Kirby, (91) p. 623, (04) p. 38 ; Borm. (94) 

p. 400, (00'') p. 95 ; Burr, (01) p. 3-33, pi. B, fig. 9, (04) p. 334. 
Hypurgus humeralis. Burr, (07^) p. 102. 

Size small ; build rather stout ; general colour deep chestnut 
with orange-red spots. Antennae with 11 segments, all cylin- 
drical and slender; third and fourth rather short, about equal 
in length, the fifth and following distinctly longer ; dark brown, 
the tenth segment often pale. Head shining orange-red, smooth. 
Pronotum about as broad as long, a trifle wider in the c5' than in 
the $ , anterior border truncate ; sides parallel or very gently 
convex, posterior border broadly rounded ; deep reddish brown, 
the sides broadly orange. Elytra ample, smooth, well rounded at 
the shoulders, truncate posteriorly ; deep brown, with a prominent 
oval orange spot at the shoulders. Wings prominent and long, 
basal half of scale bright orange-red, apical half deep bi'own. 
Legs deep yellow, rather long, slender ; first tarsal segment longer 
than the second and third combined. Abdomen deep red-brown, 
broadest about the middle and narrowed apically, especially in the 
$ ; lateral tubercles very distinct ; in the S the sides of segments 
five to nine, seen from the side, are convex, seen from above, 
acute. Last dorsal segment ample, smooth, sloping and narrowed 



HYPUilGUS. 189 

posteriorly, especially in the 5 ; posterior margiu straight, angles 
rounded, tumid over the roots of the forceps. Penultimate ventral 
segment of (S and $ broad, ample, gently convex. Pygidium hidden 
in the c5' , short, sharp and conical in the $ . Forceps with the 
branches in the c? nearly contiguous at the base, stout, rounded 
but rather depressed in the basal third, which is straight and 
crenulate along the inner margin ; then attenuate and arched gently 
inwards to a sharp strong tooth on the inner margin ; beyond this 
tooth strongly tapering and hooked ; the area enclosed before 
the tooth is pear-shaped ; in the 2 the branches are contiguous, 
simple, very slender, and rather long ; yellowish red in both 
sexes. 

c? 2 

Length of body 7-10 mm. 6"5-8 mm. 

„ forceps 2'5-3 „ 2 ,, 

Ceylon : Peradeniya, Kandy, x. (coll. Burr) ; Burma : Palon,^ 
viii.-ix. {Genoa Mus.). 

Type in the British Museum. 

This species is apparently common in Ceylon, where Mr. Grreen 
took it flying round a lamp, and under stones. 

It is easy to recognize by the very characteristic coloration and 
the form of the forceps. 

121. Hypurgus simplex, Bonn.** 

Opisthocosmia simplex, 5o?-m. f94) p. "96,(00") p. 3Q ; Bol. (97) 

p. 286 ; Burr, (01) p. 334, (04) p. 306 ; Kirby, (04) p. 39. 
Hypurgus simplex, Burr, (07^) p. 102. 

Size rather large ; general colour brown-red. Antennae ^ith 1 1 
segments, brown, the apical or anteapical segment pale ; all slender 
and cylindrical, the fourth a trifle shorter than the fifth ; fifth 
about equal to third. Head smooth, red, with darker shading. 
Pronotum longer than broad, about as wide as the head ; anterior 
margin straight, the angles sharp, somewhat produced ; sides gently 
rounded, posterior margin well rounded ; dull red-brown, the sides- 
paler. Elytra ample, smooth, well rounded at the shoulders, with 
a row of short stiff bristles down the costal fold (but no keel) ; 
dull dark chestnut-red, with an ill-defined light red band down 
the costal fold. Wings prominent, dark chesnut-red, with a 
prominent orange-red spot at the base of the scale and a smaller 
light red spot at the apex of the suture ; these two spots are some- 
times almost confluent. Legs brown, long and slender. Abdomen 
smooth, dull, brown-red, stouter in the c5' than in the 2 ; sides of 
segments five to nine in the S , seen from the side, roundly convex, 
seen from above, recurved and sharp. Last dorsal segment trape- 
zoidal, narrowed towards the apex, strongly sloping, especially in the 
$ , smooth, posterior margiu straight and angles rounded, tumid over 



190 roRFicuLiD.i:. 

the roots of the forceps. Penultimate ventral segment of S and $ 
broad, transverse, very obtusely convex. Forceps with the branches 
in the J subcontiguous at the Joase, rather stout, rounded, somewhat 
depressed ; gently diverging at first, the inner margin at the base 
itself convex and denticulate; gently tapering ; just before halt 
their length bowed inwards at an obtuse angle and thickened on 
the inner margin ; from this point straiglit, converging, finely 
crenulate on the inner margin, tapering, hooked at the points ; in 
the 2 simple, slender, subcontiguous and straight ; red-brown in 
colour. 

J 2 

Length of body 11-14 mm. 10-11-5 mm. 

„ forceps 4"75-5-5 ,, 4-4-o „ 

Burma: Karen-ni, Keba District, 4000-4300 ft., i., Greku 
District, 4300-5000 ft., ii.-iv. (Brit. Mm., Genoa Mus.) ; Madras : 
Trichinopoli ; Ceylok (one mutilated female, referred with doubt 
to this species, Oxford Mus.). 

Also from Mentawei in the Malay Archipelago. 

Tjipe in the Genoa Museum. 

This species resembles the preceding but is decidedly larger and 
the elytra are not spotted. 

The thickening on the inner margin of the forceps of the male 
represents an obsolete tooth, which is discernible in some 
specimens. 

Genus EPARCHUS, Burr. 

Eparchus, Burr, (07^ p. ^20. 
Opisthocosmia, aiictt. (partim). 

Type, Forjicula insignis, Haan. 

Antennae with 12 segments, slender and cylindrical ; third and 
fourth segments of about the same length. Head smooth. Pro- 
notum about as broad as long, as broad as the head, truncate 
anteriorly, and generally rounded posteriorly. Elytra ample, 
smooth, no costal keel, well rounded at the shoulders and tapering 
apically. Wings prominent. Legs long and slender ; tarsi 
slender, first segment longer than second and third united. Ab- 
domen spindle-shaped, narrow at the base, dilated about the middle, 
strongly convex and attenuate apically ; fifth or sixth to ninth 
segments not recurved (viewed from above) but often provided with 
tubercles at the sides. Last dorsal segment longer than wide, 
decidedly narrowed. Forceps of d" contiguous at the base (owing 
to the narrowness of the last dorsal segment), slender and cylin- 
drical, elongate, more or less arcuate, and more or less undulating 
in a vertical plane, variousl}'- armed, but almost always with a 
strong vertical process or tooth on the upper surface near the base ; 
in 2 simple, slender and cylindrical. 

Range. Oriental Eegion. 



EPARCHUS. 191 

This geuus was formerly separated by the relative length of the 
fourth and third segments of the antennae, but further study has 
shown that this character is inconsistent and untrustworthy. 

It agrees with Hypurgus in the narrowing of the last dorsal 
set^ment, and in this and the nearly square pronotum it differs 
from Opisthocosmia. The long tarsi and slender femora separate it 
from Timomenus, and the subquadrate pronotum from Gordcuw 

It differs from Hypurgus in appearance, owing to the more 
strongly convex abdomen and consequently more strongly sloping 
and narrowed last dorsal segment of the male ; the sides of the 
abdomen, as seen from above, are not recurved and sharp, as in 
JJyjmrgus, but are sometimes furnished with tubercles. 

We find a totally different type of forceps ; instead of the hori- 
zontal, rather stout forceps of Hypurgus, not contiguous at the 
base and unarmed above, we find undulating slender branches, con- 
tiguous at the base and armed on the upper surface with a strong 
tooth or other projection. 

Table of Species. 

1. Forceps of S very strongly undulating ; 
vertical tooth obsolete ; (sides of ab- 
domen tuberculate) dux, Borni., p. 191. 

1.1. Forceps of S undulate, but gently and 

only near the base ; upper surface with 

prominent teeth or projections. 

2. Forceps of ^ with rounded clubbed 

tubercles above ; (sides of abdomen 

tuberculate) insignis, Haan, p. 192. 

2.2. Forceps of cJ with sharp tooth above ; 

sides of abdomen not tuberculate . . tenellus, Haan, p. 193. 



122. Eparchns dux, Borm. 

Opisthocosmia dux, Borm. (94) p. 895, (00^) p. 98 ; Burr, (02) 

p. 485, (04) p. 305 ; Kirby, (04) p. .39. 
Eparchus dux, Btirr, (07^) p. 121. 

Size medium ; build slender ; general colour chestnut with 
yellowish markings. Antennae with 10 segments, dark with a 
pale ring before the apex. Head tumid, brown, shading posteriorly 
to red ; depressed posteriorly. Pronotum chestnut-brown, the 
sides paler, as broad as the head, nearly semicircular ; anterior 
margin straight, with sharp angles ; prozona tumid, metazona 
and sides depressed. Elytra ample, smooth, well rounded at the 
shoulders, chestnut-brown. Wings prominent, chestnut-brown, 
with a round yellowish spot at the base, and a little narrow yellow 
line at the apex. Legs long and slender, clear chestnut. Abdomen 
smooth, chestnut, strongly dilated, lateral folds very distinct ; sides 
of fifth and sixth segments produced into a strong obtuse triangular 
lobe ; the seventh segment has a long spine at the side, the point 



192 rOEFIOULIDiE. 

of which is recurved. Last dorsal segment trapezoidal, strongly 
narrowed and sloping, smooth, the sides finely denticulated. Last 
ventral segment transverse. Pygidium hardly discernible. Forceps 
with branches rounded, nearly contiguous at the base, slender, 
strongly undulating in a vertical plane ; in the basal half they 
are strongly curved upwards and meet about the middle ; then 
they abruptly become horizontal ; from this angle they diverge 
and gradually thicken down to two-thirds of their length ; here 
they are curved in a short oval and taper to the sharp hooked 
points which almost meet. $ unknown. 

6 

Length of body 13 mm. 

„ forceps 7 „ 

Buema: Karen -ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft., v./xii. ; 
Karen-ni, Geku District, 4600-4900 ft., iii./iv. (Genoa 2Ius^. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

This species may he known by the unarmed strongly undulating 
and sinuating forceps, and the armature of the sides of the 
abdomen in the male. The female has not been described. 



123. Eparchus insignis, Maan. (Fig. 99.) 

Forficula insignis, Haa?!, (42) p. 243, pi. 23. fig. 14. 

Opisthocosmia iusignis, Dohni, (65) p. 81 : Dubr. (79) p. 377 ; 

Bonn. (88) p. 444, (94) p. 394, (00^) p. 9(3; Sol. (97) p. 286; 

Bun; (00^) p. 53, (02) 485. (04) p. 305, (08«) p. 117; Kirbi/, (04) 

p. 39. 
Eparchus iusignis, Burr, (07^) p. 121. 

General colour dark reddish chestnut, somewhat varying to 
almost black. Head smooth, sutures very faint ; traces of obso- 
lete tubercles just visible on posterior margin, which is truncate. 
Antennae with 12 segments, loug, thin, and cylindrical ; segments 
nine or ten often much paler. Pronotum about as wide as the head, 
slightly longer than broad ; anterior border truncate, sides almost 
parallel, and posterior border broadly rounded; prozona fairly 
stron^-ly elevated and metazona depressed ; sides raised ; chestnut 
or very dark reddish. Elytra broad, well rounded at the shoulders, 
chestnut, generally paler and reddish at the shoulders, or almost 
testaceous. Wings long and prominent ; yellow with brown 
markings, sometimes almost obsolete, sometimes strong and pro- 
nounced, in the form of a dark band crossing obliquely from the 
base of the suture to the extreme ai)ical corner ; if very broad the 
yellow colour is only seen as a pair of small round spots. Legs 
blackish red. Abdomen black or very dark reddish brown, some- 
what paler in the middle of the dorsum ; strongly dilated about the 
middle and strongly attenuated basally and apically ; phciform 
tubercles strong and black; at the sides of segments six, seven, 
eight, and sometimes also of five, there is a strong conical stout 



EPARCHUS. 193 

tubercle, projecting at right angles to the body ; those on segments 
six and seven are always the strongest ; in the female there are no 
traces of these tubercles. Last dorsal segment of c5' typical, 
strongly attenuate, very strongly sloping, smooth, with two blunt 
elevations above the roots of the forceps. Penultimate ventral 
segment almost entirely covering the last ventral segment, 
rounded. Pygidium of S short, blunt, obtuse. Porceps of cj' with 
the branches subcontiguous at the base, fairly stout, and gradually 
converging; quite near the base, on the upper surface, there is 
on each branch a vertical knob, blunt and rounded at the apex 
and thicker there than at the base; from this point, the 
branches curve outwards and then inwards, thus enclosing an 
oval space ; the inner margin is finely crenulate and towards the 
apex there is a sharp short tooth ; in the $ simple, straight, 
slender, and unarmed. 

Length of body 9o-ll-75 mm. 9-1 1-5 mm 

„ forceps .... 4-5-75 „ 3-75- 4-5 „ 

Madras : Trichinopoli (coll. Bolivar) ; Burma : Kachin Hills, 
viii./xi. ; Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-4300 ft., Geku District, 
4300-5000 ft. (Br'it. JIus., Genoa Jhis.). 

Also common in Java, Borneo, Sumatra, and Celebes. 

Type in the Leyden Museum. 

Variation. — There appear to be two well-marked forms of this 
species; in one, apparently the typical form, the general colour is 
deep dark red, \^■ith the wings almost entirely yellow, with very 
faint dark markings, or with none, the abdomen having three 
lateral tubercles on each side, and the autenniB with a paler ring 
near the apex. This is the form described by de Bormans from 
Burmese specimens. In some specimens taken in Java by Eouyer, 
the whole colour is black, the dark oblique band of the wings has 
swamped the yellow, leaving only a tiny orange dot at the base of 
the suture and exteruo-apical corner of the wing ; the elytra are 
very deep red, almost black, but always paler at the shoulders. 

Sometimes the antennae have one or two pale segments before 
the apex. 

The species is easy to recognize by the vertical processes on the 
upper surface of the forceps of the male, near the base ; these are 
clubbed and perfectly round on the top. 

124. Eparchiis tenellus, Ilaan. (Pig. 100.) 

Forficula tenella, Haan, (42) p. 243. 

(Jpisthocosuiia tenella, JDoltrn, (65) Siett. Ent. Zeit. xxvi. p. 82 

(1865); Dubr. (79) p. 377; Bonn. (88) p. 444, (94) p. 394; 

(002) p_g7 . jiurr, (99) p. 260, (04) p. 305; Kirhy, (04) p. 39. 

Size small ; build slender ; colour black, varied with yello^^•ish 
markings. Antennae with 10-12 segments, brown, cylindrical 
and slender ; one or two segments before the apex pale : third 

o 



194 roEncuLiD.'E. 

segment not very long, fourth as long or longer, the others longer 
still. Head smooth, black, tumid, sutures obsolete. Pronotum 
about as broad as the head and about as long as broad ; anterior 
margin truncate, posterior margin broadly rounded, black, the 
sides yello\^ish. Elytra ample, smooth, well rounded at the 
shoulders, tapering posteriorly, black, with an ill-defined, often 
obsolete, reddish spot, very variable in size, at the shoulder angle. 
AVings long, black, with a yellowish stripe down the suture. 
Legs long and slender, blackish, the base of the femora, apex of 
the tibise, and the tarsi yellowish. Abdomen black and slender at 
the base, strongly dilated about the middle, decidedly convex and 
tapering towards the apex ; sides of the segments unarmed. 
Last dorsal segment of d and 5 longer than broad, ample, smooth, 
slender, black, strongly sloping and decidedly narrowed posteriorly, 
especially in the female ; posterior margin straight, tumid over 
the roots of the forceps. I'orceps of both sexes with the branches 
slender , cylindrical, black, contiguous at the base ; in <5' straight ; 
seen from the side, curved gently upwards in the basal third, at the 
end of which, on the upper surface, there is a long, strong, sharp, 
vertical tooth ; beyond this tooth the forceps are horizontal, 
unarmed and gently arcuate ; in the $ straight and simple. 

c? ? 

length of body 7"5 mm, 8-9 mm. 

„ forceps 4*r-5 „ 2 „ 

BuHMA : Bhamo, vi. {Genoa Mus.). 

Also recorded from Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes. 

7)/pe in the Leyden Museum. 

The slender build and peculiar forceps easily distinguish this 
elegant little earwig. It is only likely to be confused with 
E. hurri, Bonn., Mhich is common throughout the Malay Archi- 
pelago, but has not yet been recorded from India, though it will 
probably be discovered in Burma. E. hurri is a little larger, but 
the coloration is the same and the forceps are very similar; 
there is this difference, that in E. hurri the branches are quite 
decidedly arcuate and have a sharp tooth on the inner margin 
at the base of the oval enclosed area. 

The females of these two species are practically indistinguishable. 

Genus TIMOMENUS, Burr. 

Timomenus, Burr, (07^) p. 96. 
Opisthocosmia, Burr (olira) (partim). 

Type, Opisthocosmia oamies. Burr. 

Build rather stout and stroug. Antennae with 12-13 seg- 
ments ; first segment long, thick, clubbed, remaining segments 
thinner, rather long, cylindrical, fourth about as long as third, the 
fifth distinctly longer. Head tumid, smooth. Pronotum rather 
broad, truncate anteriorly, strongly rounded posteriorly ; pro- 
zona tumid, distinctly standing up against the flattened metazona. 



TIMOMENUS, 195 

Elytra smooth and ample, shoulders strongly rounded. Legs 
rather short ; femora rather thick, especially the anterior pair; 
tibite rather thick, straight, somewhat flattened above in the 
apical portion, especially in the anterior and middle pairs ; tarsi 
rather short, but second segment broad, flat, and rounded ; third 
segment equal to the first, which is short and rather broad. 
Abdomen convex, robust, slightly dilated near the apex and then 
narrowed ; lateral tubercles distinct; sides of seventh, eightii, and 
ninth segments convex in d . Last dorsal segment of c? rectangular, 
transverse. Pygidium of c? short and tumid. Forceps of d" with 
branches remote at base, elongate, stout, or slender, cylindrical and 
variously armed. 

Range. Oriental Region. 

This genus includes a few Oriental earwigs of robust build, 
with thick femora, strong straight toothed forceps, and a strongly 
dilated second tarsal segment. 



Table of Species, 

1. Colour dull red or black. 

2. Forceps straight and stout onnnes, Burr, p. 195. 

2.2. Forceps arcuate and slender csscidapiiis, Burr, p. 196. 

1,1. Colour black with brilliant lustre ; 
build graceful and forceps slender. 

2. Lustre brilliant green 7ievil/i, Burr, p. 197. 

2.2. Lustre brilliant blue-black lugens, Borm., p. 198. 




Fig. 16. — Tarsus of Thnomenus Iwjens, Borm. 

125. Timomeniis oannes Bvrr* (Figs. 69 & 104.) 

Opisthocosmia oannes, Burr, (00^ ) p. 85, (05^) p. 29, (04) p. 306 ; 

Kirby, (04) p. 38. 
Timomeuus oannes, Burr, (07') p. 93, pi. iv, fig. 1. 

Size medium ; general colour reddish and black. Antenna) with 
13 segments, the basal segment black, the rest reddish ; elongate 
and cylindrical, not very thick, fourth segment equal to third. 
Head black, shining, smooth, tumid, sutures indistinct. Pro- 
notum as broad as the head, almost semicircular, black with clear 
tawny margin. Elytra ample, smooth, uniform reddish orange 
or with two indistinct blackish bands. Wings reddish orange,^ 
bordered with blackish. Legs black, tibiae and tarsi inclining to 
reddish. Abdomen punctulate, black or blackish chestnut, the 

o2 



196 FORFICULTD.IE. 

sides of the seventli, eighth, aud ninth segments convex in c? and 
strongly punctuhite. Last dorsal segment transverse, rectangular, 
narrower than the abdomen, tumid, depressed in the middle, tuinid 
over the roots of the forceps, hinder border straight. Pygidium 
very short, transverse, obtuse, Forceps with branches remote 
at base, rather stout, cylindrical, nearly straight, elongate, gently 
arched inwards towards the apex ; on the upper surface in the 
basal third there is a strong conical tootli directed upwards and 
on the inner margin, about two-thirds from the base, there is a 
smaller sharp tooth. $ unknown. 

6 
Length of body ...... 12 -14 mm. 

,, forceps. ..... 4-5-7 ,, 

Assam : Khasi Hills (Tad. 2Ius., coll. Burr). 

Also occurs in Tonkin (coll. Burr). 

Type in the author's collection. 

Eecognizable by the red-black colour, with red-orange wings, 
sturdy build, and the form of the forceps. 

The only closely allied species is 2\ komaroivi, Sem., from 
Korea. T. biciispis, from Java, is easily distinguished by the 
uniform black colour and the presence of a pair of long spiny 
processes on the last dorsal segment of the male. 

12G. Timomenus assculapms, Barr.* (Fig. 70.) 

Opisthocosmia iBsculapius, Burr, (05^) p. 236. 
Eparchus sesculapius, Burr, (07^) p. 121. 

Of medium size, graceful build, and reddish-brown colour. 

Antennae with 12 segments, red-brown ; basal segment very thick, 

clubbed ; the rest slender and cylindrical ; fourth segment slightly 

shorter than third, fifth equal to the third. Head smooth and 

tumid, sutures obsolete. Prouotum about as broad as the head 

and about as broad as long or a very little broader ; anterior 

margin straight, somewhat convex at the middle, angles roundt^d ; 

hinder margin somewhat narrower than anterior and rounded ; 

prozona tuinid, with a well-marked suture ; metazona depressed. 

Elytra ample, smooth, broad, dull. Wings long and smooth. 

Legs rather short ; femora thick, especially the anterior pair ; tarsi 

with first segment rather broad, no longer than the third, which 

is very slender; second strongly dilated. Abdomen typical, smooth ; 

sides "of segments six to nine produced into small, depressed, 

recurved, hooked tubercles. Last dorsal segment subquadrate, 

smooth, ample, strongly sloping, slightly narrowed ; posterior 

margin truncate. Pygidium short, obtuse, truncate. Forceps 

with the branches subcontiguous at the base, rather slender, 

rounded but somewhat depressed in the basal third which is 

crenulate along inner margin ; seen from the side, the branches 

are undulating in the basal third, at the end of which on the upper 

surface there is a strong, sharp, compressed vertical ti-iangular 



TIMOMENTJS. 197 

tooth ; beyond this tooth the branches are horizontal ; seen from 
above, the branches diverge regularly from the base and are 
arcuate in the apical half ; beyond the middle there is a short 
sharp tooth on the inner margin. $ unknown. 

Length of body 11 mm. 

„ forceps 7 ,, 

Bhutan : Maria Basti. 
T)jpe in Madrid. 

127. Timomenus nevilli, Burr* (Fig. 71.) 

Opisthocosmia nevilli, Bun; (04) pp. 305 & 309, (08^) p. 117. 
Eparchus nevilli, Burr, (07^) p. 121. 

Size medium or large ; build slender and elongate ; colour 
varying from deep brown to rich brilliant shining greenish blacii. 
Antennae with 12 segments, brown or black, elongate and 
cylindrical, the fourth almost as long as the third. Head tumid, 
shining, brown or black, with a green lustre ; sutures not very 
distinct. Pronotum brown or shining black, with a green lusti'e, 
about as broad as long, anterior margin truncate, rounded pos- 
teriorly ; prozona tumid, metazona flat, sharply distinct ; median 
suture distinct. Sternal plates rather broad ; lobe of metasternum 
quite short, rectangular, transverse. Elytra ample, well rounded 
at the shoulders, smooth, reddish brown, not shining, with no 
costal keel, smooth, rather short and broad, truncate posteriorly. 
Wings prominent, shining, greenish black, with an orange spot at 
the apex of the suture. Anterior femora short and thick ; 
posterior pair rather long and slender ; tibiae proportionate to the 
femora, smooth above ; tarsi short ; first segment rather thick, 
about as long as the third ; second segment very broad. Abdomeu 
dark brown, with a green metallic lustre ; finely punctulate, lateral 
tubercles distinct ; sides of segments four to nine convex, produced 
into a short depressed obtuse triangular tubercle ; in 5 simple. 
Last dorsal segment of <^ transverse, sloping, slightly narrower 
posteriorly than anteriorly, smooth, posterior margin straight, 
tumid over the roots of the forceps ; narrower and more strongly 
sloping in the $ . Penultimate ventral segment of 6 broadly 
rounded ; of 2 a little less broad. Pygidium indistinct in 
both sexes. Forceps of d* with the branches subcontiguous 
at the base and cylindrical, rather slender, very long, horizontal, 
almost straight, gently curved in at the apex ; the inner 
margin is denticulate in the basal quarter, at the end of which 
there is on the upper margin a sharp compressed triangular tooth ; 
about two-thirds from the base there is a short sharp tooth on 
the inner margin ; in the 5 the branches are nearly straight, sub- 
contiguous, simple, cylindrical, elongate, and denticulate all along 
the inner margin. 



198 FOBFICULID.E. 

Length of body ... . ll*5-15-5 mm. 10-1 2-5 mm. 

„ forceps.. 8'5-ll'5 ,, 6- 7 „ 

Bhutan : Maria Basti (Paiis 2Ius.) ; Sikkim (coll. Bolivar). 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

This is a fine species and easy to recognize by the green lustre 
and elongate forceps ; in structure it approaches T. lugens, but 
the lustre is green, not blue ; the female somewhat resembles that 
of Eudolirnia metallica, but may be at once distinguished by the 
smooth elyti'a, these organs being granulated in that species. 

A female in the Paris collection is almost entirely dull red in 
colour, with little or none of that brilliant metallic sheen which is 
so characteristic in all the other specimens. 



128. Timomenus lugens, Borm.* (Fig. 72.) 

Opisthocosmia lugeus, Borm. (94) p. .398, (00-) p. 98 ; Kirby, (04) 
p. 38, nee Burr, Ann. Mag. N. H. (7) vi. p. 101 (1900) ; Burr, 
(04) p. 305 (nee (OQi) p. 101). 

Eparchus lugens, Burr, (07^) p. 121. 

Size medium or lai'ge ; build slender and elongate ; colour 
brilliant lustrous blue-black. Antennas with 13 segments, black, 
"with two pale segments before the apex ; segments long, slender 
and cylindrical, the fourth almost equal to the third. Head 
tumid, sutures indistinct, lustrous blue-black. Pi'onotum lustrous 
blue-black, slightly narrower than the head, very slightly narrower 
than broad, anterior margin truncate, strongly rounded anteriorly ; 
prozona tumid, sharply distinct from the depressed metazona. 
Sternal plates rather broad ; lobe of metasternum rectangular, 
short, transverse. Elytra ample, smooth, well rounded at the 
shoulders, with no costal keel, broad, not very long, truncate at 
the posterior margin, dull black. "Wings shining blue-black, with 
a yellowish spot at the apex of the suture. Legs shining jet- 
black ; anterior femora thick and short, posterior pair long and 
slender; tarsi short; first segment broad and short; second very 
broad, third as long as the first. Abdomen smooth, black with a 
brilliant blue-black lustre ; sides of the segments, five to eight in 
the S , convex, and produced into short, obtuse, depressed, triangular 
lobes ; in $ simple. Last dorsal segment of S transverse, sloping, 
posterior margin straight, tumid over the roots of the forceps. 
Penultimate ventral segment of S rounded, broad. Pygidium 
hidden. Forceps of S with the branches elongate, subcontiguous at 
the base, cylindrical, gently diverging at first, then gently arcuate ; 
points curved inwards ; seen from the side, curved gently up- 
wards in the basal quarter, then straight ; the inner margin is 
denticulate in the basal quarter, at the end of which on the upper 
surface there is a strong, sharp, triangular, compressed tooth ; 



TIMOMENUS. — SYNTONUS. 199 

a little beyond the middle there is a second tooth, short and 
small but very sharp ; in the $ almost straight, gently diverging, 
denticulate along inner margin, then gently curved in at the 
points. 

6 2 

Length of body. . . . 10-13 mm. 10'5-11'5 mm. 

„ forceps.. G-11 „ 6- 7 „ 

Burma : Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-4300 ft. (Genoa Mus., 
coll. Burr) ; AssAM : Nongpoh, in Khasi Hills {Ind. Mas., coll. 
Burr). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

This handsome earwig is very closely related to T. nevilli. 
Structurally it agrees almost exactly ; in both the whole body 
is black with a brilliant lustre, but whereas this is green in 
T. nevUU, it is blue-black in this species, and tliis very brilliant 
blue-black lustre renders it unmistakable. In both species the 
elytra are dull, and in both the forceps are very similar; but in 
T. neviUi the latter organs are perfectly horizontal, while they 
are undulate near the base in T. lugens; they are also more 
strongly arcuate in the latter and the first tooth is larger, higher 
and sharper. 

Genus SYNTONUS, n. g. 

Opisthocosmia, Burr (dim). 

Type, Opisthocosmia neoJohoplioroides, Burr. 

Small and slender. Antennae with 12-13 segments, slender 
and cylindrical, the fourth segment relatively long. Head 
smooth, tumid, sutures indistinct. Pronotum slightly narrower 
than the head, nearly square, rectangular. Metasternum pro- 
portionately narrower than in most allied genera ; posterior lobe 
rounded. Elytra short and broad, no humeral angle. AVings 
rudimentary. Legs not very long, slender; femora not thickened ; 
tarsi short, the first segment only as long as the third. Abdomen 
wWa first pliciform tubercle very weak ; the second ver}'' pro- 
minent, decidedly convex, dilated about the middle and narrowed 
apically ; less convex in the 5 . Last dorsal segment of S 
narrow, longer than broad, decidedly narrowed posteriorly, and 
distinctly sloping, forceps of S contiguous at base, then arcuate, 
very slender ; those of $ cylindrical. 

Rancje. Ceylon. 

This genus is characterized by the short tarsi together with 
the square pronotum, dilated convex abdomen, and strongly 
angustate last dorsal segment. 

Superficially there is a resemblance to Obelura, but the free 
and perfect though short elytra and the short tarsi distinguish it 
at a glance. 



200 FORFICULID.i;. 

129. Syntonus neololDoplioroides, Burr* (Fig. 62.) 

Opisthocosmia neoloboplioroides, Burr, (01) p. 335. 
Cosmiella neoloboplioroides, Sirby, (04) p. 38, 

Of small and graceful build; general colour yellowish red, 
shading to darker. Antennae very slender ; fourth segment a 
little shorter than third. Head smooth, rather broad, reddish or 
blackish. Pronotum slightly narrower -than the head, almost 
square, anterior margin truncate, sides parallel, posterior margin 
truncate, rather tumid in the middle, the sides depressed ; pro- 
zona not separated from metazona, median suture faint ; brown, 
the sides paler. Elytra short, not rounded at all at the shoulders, 
hardly longer than broad, truncate posteriorly, yellowish brown, 
smooth ; axillary angle weak, so that a very short transverse 
space is visible as a small scutellum between the base of the 
elytra and the pronotum. Wings abortive. Legs slender, 
yellowish. Abdomen smooth, shining, reddish brown ; pliciform 
tubercles black. Last dorsal segment smooth ; posterior margin 
straight, tumid over the insertion of the forceps. Forceps of c5' 
with the branches contiguous at the base, and for the first quarter 
of their length slender and somewhat depressed, with a small 
obsolete crested tooth on the upper surface ; then very slender, 
elongate and gently arcuate, unarmed, with a few obsolete 
denticulations on the inner margiu ; in the $ simple, straight 
and cylindrical. 

d 2 

Length of body 7-2o mm. 8 mm. 

„ forceps.... 4-35 ,, 3 „ 

Ceylon: Kudaga, Hatton, vii. (coU. Burr), Hakgala {Willey, 
coll. Burr). 

Type in the author's collection. 

Superficially like Obehtra tamul and Sondax repens, but easily 
recognizable by the short but complete and free elytra, and by th& 
generic characters. 

Genus KOSMETOR, Barr. 

Kosmetor, Burr, (07') pp. 120 >Sc 122. 
Opisthocosmia, Burr (olim). 

Type, Opisthocosmia annandahi, Eurr. 

Size medium ; form elongate ; stature slender. Antennae with 
about 12 segments ; third rather short, subclavate to subcylindrical ; 
fourth a little thicker than third and almost as long ; fifth cylin- 
drical, elongate. Head smooth, tumid. Pronotum about as wide 
as the head, nearly square, truncate anteriorly, rounded posteriorly. 
Elytra long, smooth, parallel-sided, well rounded at the shoulders. 
Wings long. Legs not very long, tibia? not sulcate above ; tarsi 
rather short, third segment nearly as long as the first. Prosternum 
rather broad ; mesosternum short, transverse, truncate. Abdomen 



KOSMBTOE. 201 

elongate, slender, scarcely depressed, almost cj'lindrical, gently 
widened at about two-thirds of its length ; lateral tubercles 
distinct. Last dorsal segment of cJ transverse or subquadrate, 
scarcely sloping or narrowed. Pygidium of c? short, obtuse, 
not prominent. Forceps of d with brandies remote at base, 
very slender, elongate, nearly straight, armed with one or more 
pairs of sharp teeth ; in 5 contiguous, slender, straight, simple. 

liange. Oriental Eegion. 

The members of this genus have a slight superficial resem- 
blance to some Ojjisthocosmiino', and in other respects approach 
the Forficulinci' . 

It is recognizable by the elongate and graceful body, almost 
cylindrical and scarcely dilated abdomen, and long thin toothed 
forceps of the male. 

Of the five kno\\n species all are Oriental, and three are known 
in India. 

Table of Species. 

1. Forceps of S with two pairs of teeth , . tcmora, Burr, p. 201. 
1.1. Forceps of J with one pair of teeth. 
2. Forceps almost straight ; elytra black ; 

head orange hrahma, Burr, p. 202. 

2.2. Forceps of S forming an elongate 
ellipse ; elytra yellowish - brown ; 
head brown vishiu, Burr, p. 202. 



130. Kosmetor temora. Burr.* (Fig. 73.) 

Opisthocosmia temora, Burr, (04) pp. .307 & 312 : (08') p. 117. 
Kosmetor temora, Burr, (07') p. 123, pi. iv. fig. 10. 

Blackish brown. Anteunce (5 segments remain) brown ; basal 
segment very long, gently clavate ; third segment scarcely more 
than half as long as the first, cylindrical ; fourth equal to third, 
cylindrical. Head shining blackish brown, sutures distinct. 
Pronotum slightly narrower than the head, almost square, gently 
rounded posteriorly, the anterior border and sides quite straight ; 
blackish brown, the sides somewhat paler. Elytra yellowish 
brown. AVings prominent, dull yellow, shaled with brown. 
Legs dark testaceous. Abdomen smooth, black; very slightly 
dilated about the seventh segment. Last dorsal segment about 
as broad as long, sloping downwards to the posterior margin 
which is simple, somewhat iucrassate, truncate in the middle and 
obliquely truncate at the angles ; depressed in the middle, but 
tumid over the roots of the forceps. Penultimate ventral 
segment broadly widened. Pygidium indistinguishable. Forceps 
with branches gently bowed in the basal third, then nearly 
straight to the points which are hooked ; two pairs of sharp, 
upward-pointing teeth on the inner margin divide the length of 
the forceps into three equal parts ; the branches are slender, 
cylindrical, black and hairy. $ unknown. 



202 rOKFICULID^. 

Leugth of body 9-7 mm. 

,, forceps 6 „ 

Stkkim : Dai-jiling (Paris Mus.). 
Type in the Paris Museum. 

The type is unique, but other specimens ought to be found and 
recognized without mucli difficulty. 

131. Kosmetor brahma, Burr* 

Opisthocosniia brahma, Burr, (04) p. 310, (08'') p. 117. 
Kosmetor brahma, Burr, (07 'j p. 123, pi. iv, fig. 12. 

Blackish brown ; head and legs yellow ; slender. Antenna) 
with 12 segments, fourth as long as third ; brown, with two pale 
segments before the apex. Head smooth, depressed, sutures 
indistinct, yellowish brown. Pronotum about as wide as the head 
and about as long as wide ; anterior border truncate, sides parallel, 
posterior border rounded; prozona tumid; metazona depressed, 
brownish black, the sides reflexed and clear testaceous. Elytra 
smooth, parallel-sided, long, black. Wings long, smooth and black, 
with a small yellowish spot at the apex of the suture. Legs 
rather short, slender, yellowish. Abdomen punctulate, deep 
blackish chestnut, gently dilated before the apex. Last dorsal 
segment of S transverse, almost rectangular ; posterior margin 
straight; the corners distinctly rectangular, with a pair of low 
tumid elevations over the roots of the forceps. Pygidium forming 
a short stumpy tubercle. Forceps with the branches remote at the 
base, cylindrical, elongate and nearly straight, very gently sinuate, 
incurved at the apex, armed at the middle of the inner margin 
with a flattened, strong, sharp tooth directed posteriorly. $ 
unknown. 

6 

Length of body 11-12 mm. 

„ forceps .... 5-5-6 „ 

SiKKiM : Darjihng {Paris Mus.) ; Bhutan : Maria Basti 
(Paris Mks.). 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

The straight slender forceps with a strong sharp tooth in 
the middle are very characteristic, and the species is easy to 
recognize. 

132. Kosmetor vishnu. Burr* (Fig. 74.) 

Apterygida vishnu, Burr, (04) p. 319, (08') p. 119. 
Kosmetor vishnu, Burr., (07') p. 123. 

Slender, dull chestnut -brown. Antennae black, with 10 seg- 
ments ; fourth a little shorter than third ; fifth equal to third. 
Head smooth, brown or blackish, sutures indistinct. Pronotum 



KOSMETOn. — LIPODES. 203 

as broad as the head, slightly broader than long, anterior margin 
truncate, sides parallel, posterior margin rounded, black or deep 
brown, sides testaceous. Elytra yellowish brown, ample, smooth. 
Wings orange, with a big fuscous spot. Legs rather longer than 
in the other species of the genus, slender, dark brown or black. 
Abdomen deep chestnut, punctulate, spindle-shaped, gently 
tapering to the apex in 6 as well as in 5 . Last dorsal segment 
of d rectangular, transverse, punctulate, with a pair of low tumid 
elevations over the roots of the forceps ; exterior angle sharply 
marked ; in $ similar but narrowed to\\ards apex. Pygidium in 
the form of a short stumpy tubercle in both sexes and less distin- 
guishable in 2 than in the J. Forceps of S with branches 
remote at the base, elongate, cylindrical and very slender, gently 
arched to form a regular elongate ellipse, with a very distinct 
tooth in the middle; in the 5 contiguous, straight, elongate, 
hooked at the apex. 

Length of body 8-5-10 mm. 10-5 mm. 

„ forceps 5-8 „ 3-5 „ 

SiKKiM: Darjiling {Paris JIus.). 
Type in the Paris Museum. 

This graceful species resembles the preceding, but the regular 
ellipse of the forceps of the male is very distinctive. 

Genus LIPODES, Burr. 

Lipodes, Burr, (07') p. 100. 

Type, Lipodes vivax, Burr. 

Build robust ; antennae missing. Head broad ; sutures very 
deep, dividing the head into three wide, markedly tumid portions ; 
the frons deeply impressed. Pronotum ample, as broad as the 
head, anterior border truncate, sides gently converging posteriorly, 
posterior margin rounded, about as long as broad. Prosternum 
short, broad, hardly longer than wide. Mesosternum broad, 
rounded. Metasternum transverse, its entire width being greater 
than its length : lobe short, transverse, truncate, nearly four 
times as wide as long, rectangular. Elytra ample, granulose, with 
a costal keel. Legs missing. Abdomen broad, depressed, smooth, 
broadest about the middle, lateral tubercles very distinct. Last 
dorsal segment narrower than the body, transverse, rectangular. 
Pygidium prominent. Porceps elongate, remote at the base, 
cylindrical. 

Ban<je. India. 

This genus is monotypic; its true affinities cannot be satis- 
factorily determined until more material is forthcoming. ]n 
general appearance it seems related to Hyimryus, but the antennae 
and legs are entirely missing in the unique specimen. The form 
of the sternal plates is peculiar, as also are the deep sutures of 
the head and the granulose elytra. 



204 roRncuLiD.i:. 



133. Lipodes vivax, Burr* 

Opisthocosmia vivax, Burr, (05^) p. 30. 
Lipodes vivax, Burr, (07^) p. 101. 

Large and robust ; general colour tawny bro\\n. Pronotum with 
very distinct median suture; prozona tumid, deeply impressed on 
each side. Elytra ample, well rounded at the shoulders, truncate 
posteriorly, darker behind. Abdomen smooth, with hinder edges 
of segments friuged with pale hairs. Pygidium parallel-sided, 
prominent, with a deep triangular incision at the apex, the 
lobes pointed. Forceps remote at base, punctulate, cylindrical, 
elongate, gently sinuate, inner margin denticulate, incurved at 
the apex. 

?sex. 

Length of body IS mm. 

„ forceps Q-5 ,, 

India : Dikrang Valley, Nanangs {Lid. Mus.). 

Tyjye in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

In spite of the broken abdomen, missing antennse and missing 
legs, this cux'ious earwig has such well-marked characters th4t its 
identity can be established by the description, though its affinities 
cannot yet be determined. On account of the abdomen being 
broadest about the middle and the forceps simple, it would appear 
to be a female, but the characters are so distinctive that it might 
equally well be a male. 

Further material is urgently needed. 



Species of Uncertain Position. 
Forficula? pulchripes, Borm. 



Forncula? pulcnnpes, Borm. 

Forficula? pulchripes, Bor7n. (94) p. 408, (00-) p. 128; Kirbi/, (04) 
p. 63. 

General colour dark chestnut, varied with black. Antennae 
with 12 segments, typical [? of Forficulci], brown, with the 
exception of the tenth which is pale. Head shining dark 
chestnut-brown. Mouth parts yellow ; palpi brown. Pronotum 
nearly square, the angles blunt, posterior margin rounded, some- 
what convex anteriorly, bright shining black, with pale yellowish 
sides. Elytra smooth, dull chestnut, four times as long as the 
pronotum, the shoulders rounded, sides parallel, truncate pos- 
teriorly. Wings one and a half times as long as the pronotum, 
bright orange-yello\\\ with an irregular black, oblique band passing 
from the base of the suture to the apex of the exterior margin. 
Legs typical [? of Forficula'], orange-yellow, the apical half of the 



rouFicuLA ? 205 

femora and basal third o£ the tibise black. Abdomen chestnut, 
rather dull, punctulate, elongate, attaining the greatest width at 
the base of the last dorsal segment. Last dorsal segment trape- 
zoidal, about twice as broad at the base as at the apex, strongly 
sloping to the apex, with a median depression near the posterior 
margin which is rugose and sinuous. Pygidium globular, not 
prominent. Forceps with the branches clear chestnut, not quite 
contiguous at the base, nearly straight, slightly diverging as far as 
the apex where they are arched inward, the points meeting. 

2 

Length of body 1 1 mm. 

,, forceps 8"5 ,, 

Burma : Karen-ni, Keba District, 3000-3700 ft., v~\i\.(Gmoa 

Tt/pe in the Genoa Museum. 

This is a good instance of the disadvantage of describing new 
species from females alone. De Bormans remarks : — " This species 
seems to me so well characterized by its coloration that I describe 
it here, though a solitary female, hoping that it will be easy to 
associate its male with it, if discovered later, and then its genus 
can be determined." 

It is to be hoped that collectors in Burma will keep a sharp 
look-out for the male and note the characteristic coloration given 
in the above description, translated from de Bormans. 

The pattern seems suggestive of the genus Adiathetus, somewhat 
approaching A. nigrocastaneus and A. dravkUus, but de Bormans 
makes no reference to Chelisochine tarsi, which he would hardly 
have overlooked. 

Forficula? cingalensis, Dohrn. 

Forficula ciugalensis, Dohrn, (65) p. 89; Bonn. (00-) p. 128. 
Apterygida cingalensis. Burr, (01) p. 332. 
Sphingolabis cingalensis, Kirhy, (04) p. 46. 

Golden yellow, the abdomen less brilliantly coloured ; the 
prothorax and elytra posteriorly dilated, with the sides not 
deflexed; forceps almost straight, the branches remote at the 
base, with an obsolete tooth on the inner margin beyond the 
middle. ? . 

Long. S|, lat. 2.4, fore. long. ?>h mill. 

Head arched without impressed lines, shining ; the antennce with 
15 segments, yellow. Hinder margin of the head slightly emarginate 
in the middle. Pronotum narrower anteriorly, as broad as the 
head, posteriorly broadened, the sides not retlexed, transparent 
horn colour ; hinder border round, shining, smooth. Elytra 
scarcely longer than the prothorax, slightly broadened posteriorly, 
the hinder border rounded, smooth and shining like the head and 
prothorax. Abdomen slightly narrowed posteriorly, the tubercles 



206 



FORFlCULIDvK. 



of the second and third segments very small, the last dorsal 
segment fairly large, with a central line, the penultimate ventral 
segment entirely covering the ultimate. Branches of the forceps 
slightly separated, nearly straight at the base, incurved at the 
apex, with a blunt tooth on the inside beyond the middle. 
Abdomen and forceps reddish brown, pubescent. Sternum yellow. 
Legs like the head, fairly long, the femora and tibi» slightly, the 
tarsi strongly pubescent ; the first and third tarsal segment of the 
same length, the second very short, barely lobed." 

Ceylon (Metner ; Berlin Mus.). 

The type is recorded as being in the Berlin Museum, but 
the author was unable to find it on the occasion of a visit in 
1907, and so Dohru's description is quoted in detail. Dohrn 
includes it in his section of Forjtcula which corresponds to 
Apterygida, but until the male is discovered it is impossible to 
locate its position with accuracy ; the most noticeable points in 
the description are the form of the forceps ( $ ), the pronotum 
and elytra more or less dilated posteriorly, the absence of wings, 
and the small size of the glandular folds. 



APPENDICES. 



A. 

On Collecting- and Preserving Earwigs. 



The ordinary methods for collecting beetles and such creatures 
may be generally applied to Earwigs. As may be seen in the 
chapter on Habits (ante, p. 14), they occur almost everywhere. 
When found, they may be best seized in the fingers, care being 
necessary to avoid crushing them, for they are delicate insects. 

The most convenient instrument for catching them is a s\\eep- 
net ; a few vigorous strokes in nettles, grass, rough herbage, or 
any suitable situation, will often bring several specimens into the 
net. The ordinary sweep-net, as generally sold by dealers, is 
not usually a satisfactory instrument ; the handle is nearly always 
too rigid, and quickly breaks under the severe strain to which it 
is exposed ; a slightly flexible strong cane handle is preferable. 
The material is usually too coarse, and so is quickly torn into 
holes ; a dense heavy canvas or jean, preferably glazed, makes a 
suitable net ; this should be attached to the metal ring in such a 
way that the wearing edge of the ring itself is subjected ; otherwise 
the exceedingly rough use to which it is exposed quickly wears 
out the material, however strong, if bound round the ring ; the 
best form of ring is a flat strip of elastic metal, with a series of 
holes punched in it ; the material may then be sewn on to the 
rinf^ by these holes in such a way that the cutting edge of the 
metal is exposed to the grass or shrubs ; this not only increases 
the efficiency, but greatly prolongs the life of the net. 

Earwigs may be killed in an ordinary cyanide killing-bottle, or by 
dropping them into boiling water ; perhaps the most convenient 
way is to drop thetn into tubes of spirits of wine ; any alcohol, 
such as brandy, whiskey, or gin, will do for this purpose. 

Earwigs may be preserved wet or dry. The former is more 
convenient for temporary purposes, and has several advantages 
for permanent preservation, but the latter is generally preferable 
for a collection. 

A 3 per cent, solution of formalin preserves most colours but 



208 APPENDICES. 

hardens the specimens. Alcohol {Go per cent.) preserves these 
insects well, without hardening them too much, but, after some 
time, bleaches the colours ; it also distends the body, so that 
the segments of the abdomen tend to become detached. 

For dry presex'ving, the fresh insects may be pinned or staged 
and placed directly into the cabinet. In larger specimens the pin 
is generally driven through one of the elytra ; long pins are pre- 
ferable to short ones, in order to allow space for labels beneath. 
Small specimens may be attached with fine silver or nickel pins 
to a stage of pith or card, which in its turn is held by a strong 
long pin which carries the labels. 

Tt is necessary to arrange them on the pins or stages so that 
the ventral surface may be examined, ou account of the important 
characters afforded by the sternal plates and ventral surface of 
the anal region. 

Dry earwigs are among the most fragile of insects, the heavy 
abdomen constantly tending to fall off. Very frequently the 
forceps and last dorsal segment fall olF together ; in such cases, 
care must be exercised in repairing them, as it is quite common 
in Museums to see the forceps and last dorsal segment cemented 
on upside down. Serville, indeed, founded a genus upon such a 
specimen. 

It is iuaportant that the antennae and legs be extended to permit 
easy examination of these important organs. 

Every possible information should of course be given on the 
labels which should be attached to each specimen. 

For packing, it is best to keep the specimens in little tubes of 
alcohol ; the delicate organs nearly always break off when they 
are packed in papers like butterflies. 

Finally, the general principles which experience teaches in 
dealing with other insects, such as Coleoptera or Ehynchota, 
apply equally well to Dermaptera. 



B. 

Authors referred to and their Abbreviation. 



Annandale, Ur. jS". 
Baer, G. A. 

Bolivar, Dr. Ignacio. Bol. 

Borelli, Dr. Alfredo. Bor. 

Borg, Hjalmar. 

Bonnans, A. de. Bonn. 

Brunner von Wattenwyl, Dr. Hofrath Iv. Br. 



AUTHOES HEFEEBHD TO. 

Burmeister, H. Burm. 

Burr, M. 

Dohrn, Dr. H. 

Dubrony, A. Dubr. 

Dufour, Leon. D\xL 

Fabricius, J. C. Fabr. 

Fieber, ¥i:X. l^i^b. 

Fischer, L. H. Fisch 

Gadeau de Kerville, H Gadeau. 

Geer, Baron Carl de. 

Gene, Giuseppe. 

Gerstsecker, A. Gerst. 

Green, E. Ernest. 

Guerin-Meneville, F. E Guer. 

Haan, Dr. W. de. 

Jacobson, G. G., & Bianki, V. L Jacobson. 

Karsch, Dr. F. 

Kirby,W.F Kirb. 

Krauss, Dr. H ]jj.^ 

Leach, W. 

Linnaeus, C. I^iu^^ 

Lucas, H. F. j^u^^ 

Motschulsky, Victor Motsch. 

OUvier, A. OUv. 

Pallas, P. S. Palj 

Eehn, J. A. G. 

Saussure, H. de Sauss. 

Scudder, J. H Seudd. 

Semenov Tian-Shansky, A. P Sem. 

Serville, Audinet Serv. 

Sharp, Dr. D. 
Stal, C. 

Stephens, J. Fr Staph. 

Terry, F. W. 

Verhoeff, Dr. K. W Verb. 

Westwood, Prof. J. O Westw 

Yersin, Alexandre. Yers. 



209 



210 APPENDICES. 

c. 

GLOSSARY. 



Abbreviated. — Of the •wings, when tbey do not project beyond tlie elytra in 

repose. 
Abm-tive. — Of the wings or elytra, when only pi'esenf, as rudiments. 
Anterior. — Generally speaking, that part of the body, or any organ, which is 
situated forwards, regarding the mouth as the front of the insect. 
Contrasted with jiosterior. 
Apex, apical. — Generally speaking, that part of an organ which is most 

remote from the centre of the body. In contrast to base, basal. 
Base, basal. — Speaking generally, that part of an organ which is neai*est to the 

centre of the body ; contrasted with apex, apical. 
Bifid. — Applied to the pygidium, or to a lobe, when cleft, divided, or forked. 
Carina. — A sharp ridge or keel. 
Carinatc. — Having a carina. 
Caudal setcB. — The segmented processes occupying the position of the forceps 

in larvse of Biplatys and certain other genera. 
Centre. — For the conventional centre of the insect, to which the terms 
anterior, posterior, base, apex, etc. are relative, it is convenient to 
take the scutelluni or base of the suture of the elytra, or, in apterous 
forms, the uiesonotum. 
Clavate. — Shaped like a club, i.e., abruptly thickened at or near the apex. 
Compressed. — Applied to lateral compression only. 
Conical. — Applied to segments which gradually increase in thickness from 

base to apex where the maximum thitjkness is attained. 
Costal. — The costal margin is that edge of the elytra which is in front when 

the wing is expanded, and external when in repose. 
Co-type. — The same as syntyjie, q. v. 
Crenate. — Furnished with a row of teeth like a comb. 
Crenulate. — Similar to crenate, but finer. 

Crest. — An elevated compressed fold or ridge in the integument. 
Ct/clolabia.— Term applied to the shorter forms of forceps when these organs 

are of variable length. 
Ben fate. — Tooth ed . 
Benticulate. — Having fine teeth. 
Bepressed. — Flattened, in a horizontal plane. 
Bisc. — The flat dorsal portion of the elytra. 

Borsal. — Applied to the upper surface of the body or of an organ. 
Emarginate. — Applied to the edge of a plate when the outline is broken or 

excavate. 
Entire. — Applied to the edge of a plate when not broken. 
Fold. — See " glandular folds." 

Erons. — That part of the head which is situated between the eyes, in front of 
the transverse suture (p. 2). 



GLOSSARY. 



211 



Fuscous. — Applied to a coloiu- approaching a smoky, dirty black or brown. 
Glandular folds.— 1^ lime souietimes applied to the projecting orifices of the 

stink-glands at the sides of the third and fourth abdominal segments in 

some genera. 
Gmnulose. — Applied to a snrface covered with minute lumps or granules. 
Length.— The length of the body is measured from the mouth to the end of the 

last segment of the abdomen ; the length of the forceps is the actual 

length of the exposed portion of these organs. 
Lobe. — An appendage or short prolongation, rounded or pointed. 
Longitudinal. — Parallel to the longer axis of the body, i. e. from Jiead to 

forceps ; contrasted with transcei-sc. 
Macrolabia.— Term applied to the longer forms of forceps where these organs 

are of variable length. 
jMetazona. — The posterior portion of the pronotum (p. 3). 
Obsolete. — As conventionally used by Dermapterists : obscure ; of a tooth or 

spine, only just descernible ; nearly absent. 
Occiput. — The posterior portion of the head, behind the transverse suture, 

(p. 2). 
Ovate. — Egg-shaped ; the arc at one end being larger than that at the other. 
Faratype. — A specimen which has been compared with the type of a 

species. 
Pos/erjon— Generally speaking, applied to that part of an organ or of the 

body which is situate behind, i-egarding the mouth as the front of the 

insect. Contrasted with anterior. 
Prozona. — The anterior portion of the pronotum (p. 3). 
Pnlvillus. — A small pad sometimes present between the claws of the tarsi. 
Punctate. — Covered with small depressions ; pitted. 
Pwnctulate. — Similar to -punctate, but finer. 
Pygidium. — A horny, chitinous organ, of very diversified shape, situate 

between the last dorsal and ventral eclerites, between the branches of 

the forceps (p. 8). 
Pyriform. — Pear-shaped ; applied to segments which are slender at the basal 

end and gradually become thicker towards the apex which is rounded, 

so that the maximum thickness is attained just before the apex. 
Quadrate. — Approximately square. 

Remote.— Ot the forceps, when the branches are not contiguous or sub- 
contiguous. 
Rugose. — Covered with small irregular wrinkles. 
Rugulose. — Covered with finer wrinkles. 
Scabrous. — Very rough. 
Scales. — See " squamcB." 
Scutellum.—A. small, hardened, chitinous portion of the mesonotum, which is 

sometimes exposed between the elytra, wheu in repose, at the anal 

angle or base of the suture (p. 6). 
Segment. — A unit of a jointed organ or member ; applied to the abdomen, 

antennffi, feet, etc. 
Serrate. — Having an edge like a saw. 
Setce. — See " caudal sette." 
Sinuate. — Of a margin, gently concave. 
SquamcB.— The horny, chitinous part of the wings, often protruding like flaps 

beyond the elytra in repose. 



212 APPJCNDIOES. 

Squamopygidium. — A name sonutiiiK^H eii)j)l<)y(d for anal process. 

Striate. — Ilaviti;; a Horice of finely iriiproHHcd linos. 

Striolatc- .Siniiinr to slriuic, bul. liaviiif^ finer lines. 

Sub. — A prefix liaving a (liniin\itive Uyfca ; e.g. suh-contiguous, nearly con- 

tiguouB. 
Sulculus. — A Hinallor furrow. 
Sulcus. — A furrow. 
Sutural. — The Hutural margin of t.ho elytra and wingB is that n)argin along 

which, ill repose, the elytra and wings arc more or less in contact. 
Suture. — Literally, a seam ; a lino marking the division between two ])latet or 

Beginenls; the line of jmietion of the elytra and wings when in repose. 
Syntypc. — All tlio specimens, except the tinic, upon whicii a Bj>ecie8 is based 

and described. 
J'fstaceous.- A coloiir-t(!rm loosely applied by various authors for (liffereiit 

shades of orange, yellow, or ochre, assumed by many yellowish tints 

on drying. 
Transversal. — At right angles to tlio long axis of the body; in contrast to 

longitudinal. 
Transverse. — Broader than long, or at right angles to tlio long axis. 
Trapezoidal. — liaving four sides, of which two are obviously unequal. 
Tricarhiate. — 1 hiving three keels. 

Irigonal. — Having tlirco edges, i.e. having a triangular cross-section. 
Truncate. — Abruptly cut ofl". 

Tubercle. — An elevated lump, knob, or projection ; more or less blunt. 
Tuberculatc. — Furnished with tubercles. 
Tumid. — Swollen. 
Type (if a genus. — The first described species of a genus, or else the first 

sjiecies specially designated by any author, as the type of the genus. 
Type of a species. — One individual specially designated by the author as the 

original specimen upon which a species is based and described. 
Ventral. — Tho undcT surface of the body or of an organ. 
Wing-scales. — See " si/uainm " (also p. (i). 

Wings. — The posterior jiair of the organs of (light ; generally speaking applied 
only to tho wing-scales or squantw. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



(Names marked * arc synonyms.) 



iiceris (Forficiila), 168. iintoni (Anisiilabis), 8.^». 

Adiatlictus, 141. ^aiit.oni ( KurcinoUa), 85. 

*a'sciila[)ius (Eparclius), ^Apacliya, .'}2. 

]'.)(■). Ai'ACiiYii).«, 31. 

*a;s(!iilapiu8 (Opisflio- Aijacliyiis, .'}2. 

C()8iiiia), I'.V). Apterygida, If),'}, 

a^sculapius (Timo- *ara(;liidis (Apterjgida), 

inonus), 19(i. 12."{. 

alirimanes (AUodahlia), ^aracliidis (Oliclidura), 
154. 12:}. 

■*ahriii>ane.s (Anoeluira), *araolii(ii8 (Ki)rlicnla), 



1.54. 
Allodalilia, 141). 
ainbigua (Korficula), 
171. 
*imfyliira (Allodalilia), 

151. 
♦jiiifjl'Ta (.Anecliiira), 

151. 
■*ancylura ( Koificida), 
151. 
Aneeliura, I4il, 155, 157, 

159, 178. 
A.NKciiuKiN.i;, 148. 
angii.stata (Diplatys), 

44. 
angustata (Picrania),64. 
*angu8tata (Pygidi- 
crania), (>4. 
Anisolabis, 7!), 80. 
*annandak!i (Anisolabis), 
89. 
annandalei (Borellia), 

89. 
annulipes (Anisolabis), 
84. 
*anniilipc8 (Forcinella), boiigaloiisis (Labidura), 

84. 98. 

*annulipe8 (Forficesila), ^bcngaiensis (Psalis), 

84. 98. 

^annidipos (Labidura), *biroveolaf,a (Bracliy- 

84. labis), 108. 

*antennata (Aniyolabin), bifovcolafa ('Mctiso- 
84, 85. labi.s), 108. 



12;!. 
araeliitlis (jjabia), I2.'>. 
■*ara<;liidis(SpliirigolabiH), 

12;5. 

arniiita ( l^'orficuia), 

185. 

*arma(a (Opistbocosniia), 

185. 

ariiiatiis (Oordax), 185. 

asiatica (Anccliuraj, 

h;i. 

^asialica (Lipanira), 182, 

18:5. 
*aHiat,ica (Noolobopliora), 
182, 18;{. 
asiatica (Obeliira), IS.'j. 
*.\ n(4i(!noinu8, 140. 

a/.tcca (Anisolabis), 8.">. 
*aztoca (l<\)rcinclla), H5. 



■^bfclzebiib (Clielisocbes), 
Jt)7. 
bfiolzobub (Forfinila), 

h;7. 



*bigiittata (Forficula), 

KIO. 

*biha8tata (Platy labia), 

118. 

*bipar(,ita (Apterygida), 

1H3. 
*bipartita (Spliiiigolabis), 

bipartitus (Klaniion), 

i(;;{. 

bipiinct.ata ( An('(rliiira), 

1(11. 
biruianum(SolenoH()ma), 
140. 
*biriiiaiiU9 (Auoiiono- 

niiiH), I 10. 
*birmaniis (Oliclisoches), 
140. 
bivitiala (Forficula), 

99. 
Borellia, 87. 
*burnian8i (Anisolabis), 
85. 
bormansi (Diplalys), 

45. 
15KA(;iiYiiAniNyi:, 105. 
*ljr;i(-liylabis, 80, IOC,, 

108, 109. 
■*bracl)ynota ( Forficula), 
150, 153. 
bralniia (Koanietop), 

202. 
*braliina(Opi8tlioco9inia), 

202. 
bnrri (Pseudisolabis), 
lO.'J. 



*ca;rnleipenni8 (Oarcino- 

phora), 76. 
calciatii (Anecbura), 

159. 
calidnsa (Diplatys 

gerstiuckcri, var.), 48. 



214 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



*callipyga (Pygidicrana), 

60. 
*cainerunensis (Platy- 

labia), 118. 
*Carcinopliora. 74. 
*castet.si (Carcinophora), 
77. 
castetsi (Psalii?), 77. 
*cauclelli (Bracbylabis), 
109. 
caudelli (Metisolabis), 

109. 
celeris (Forficula\ 
172. 
"*ceylonica (Labia), 186. 
*ceylonica (Opistbo- 
cosmia), 186. 
ceylonicus (Cordax), 
186. 
*Ch£etospania, 127. 
Chelisocbella, 131, 132. 
Cbelisocbes, 131, 132, 
134, 136, 140, 14], 
147. 

CllELISOCHTN.E, 129. 

*cinctieornis (Lobo- 
pbora), 135. 
cingalensis (? Forficula), 
205. 
*ciDgalensis(Apterygida), 

205. 
"cingalensis (Sphingo- 

labis), 205. 
*circulata (Apterygida), 

158. 
■^circulata (Forficula), 
158. 
circulata (Pterygida), 

158. 
clarki (Labidura), 99. 
coloesea (Anisolabis), 
82. 
*colossea (Forcinella), 

82. 
*coinpriniens (Cbeli- 
socbes), 135. 
*Copiscelis, 115. 
Cordax, 184. 
coriacea (Allodahlia), 
153. 
*coriacea (Anecbura), 

153. 
*corticinu8 (Apacbyus), 
36. 
corticinus (Dendroi- 

ketes), 36. 
Cosmiella, 180. 
Cranopygia, 61. 
Cteuisolabis, 109. 
cuiniDgi (Cranopygia), 
62. 



*cuniingi ( Pygidicrania), 

(12. 
■•^curvic-auda (Forficesila), 

118. 
curvicauda (Labia), 

118. 



decipiens (Erotesis), 
114. 
*decipieiis (Labidura), 

]14. 
*decipiei)S (Labidurodes), 
114. 
decolTi (Forcipula), 

91.' 
Dendroiketes, 36. 
*dentata (Forficula), 99. 
Dicrana, GO. 
Dicrauopygia, 53. 
*dimidiata (Platylabia), 
118. 

DiPLATYIN.E, 38. 

Diplatys, 38. 
*distincta (Labidura), 

99. 
*dobrui (Carcinophora) , 

76. 
*dobrni (Nannopygia), 
76. 
dobrni (Psalis), 76. 
*doria2 (Chelisocbella), 

131. 
*doria; (Cbelisocbes), 131. 
dravidius (Adiatbetus), 
143. 
*dubia (Cosmiella), 180. 
*dubia (Opisthocosmia), 
180. 
dubius (Emboros), 180. 
dubronii (Anisolabis), 
85. 
*dubronii (Labidura), 

99. 
*dufouri (Labidura), 97. 

dux (Eparcbus), 191. 
*dux (Opisthocosmia), 

191. 
*Dyscritina, 38, 50. 



Echiuo8oma, 70. 

ECIIINOSOMATIN.E, 69. 

Elaunon, 163. 
electa (Gonolabis), 79. 
Emboros, 180. 
Eparcbus, 190. 
ernesti (Diplatys), 48. 
Erotesis, 114. 
erythrocepbala (Forfi- 
cula), 99. 



Eudobi-nia, 178. 
eximia (Pygidicrana), 

57. 
Exypnus, 132. 



falcatus (Diplatys), 42. 
*fallax (Platylabia), 127. 
*fasciata (Labia), 117. 
*fea3 (Anecbura), 156. 
fete (Apacbyus), 33. 
*feae (Cbaitospania), 

128. 
*t'ea; (Cbelisocbes), 148. 
feaj (Hainaxas), 148. 
feffi (Honiotages), 156. 
feae (Spliingolabis), 
128. 
*fenioralis (Labidura), 
75, 76. 
femoralis (Psalis), 75. 
rtetcheri (Ctenisolabis), 

110. 
fletcheri (Diplatys), 52. 
■^F'orcinella, 80. 
Forcipula, 91. 
*Forficesila, 95. 
Forficula, 163, 164, 
178. 

FoUFIClILID.E, 129. 

FouFUOLix.t:, 162. 



gaudens (Anisolabis), 

86. 
gerstackeri (Diplatys), 
46. 
■'•■gerstiBckeri (Nanno- 
pygia), 46, 52. 
gesti-oi (Platylabia), 
125. 
*gigantea (Forficesila), 

99. 
*gigautea (Forficula), 

99. 
*gigantea (Labidura), 
99. 
gladiator (Diplatys), 

41. 
glaucopterus (Adiatbe- 
tus), 144. 
*glaucopterus (Cheli- 
socbes), 144. 
Gonolabis, 79. 
granulosa (Labidura), 
99. 
*gravidula (Apterygida), 

123. 
*gravidula (Labia), 123. 
^gravidula (Sphingo- 
labis), 123. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



215 



*greeni (Anisolabis), 87. 
greeni (Borellia), 87. 
greeni (Cniuopygia 
cuiniiigi, var.), 0'2. 
greeni (Diplatys), 50. 
greeni (Forficula), 170. 
*guineeiisis (Platylabia), 
118. 

Hamaxas, 147. 
*hercules (Chelisoches), 
142. 
Houiotages, 155. 
*hottentotta (Forcinella), 

85. 
*liugeli (Anecbiira), 1.51. 
*hugeli (Forficula), 151. 
*hugeli (Pygiclicrana), 
58. 
humeralis (Hvpurgus), 
188. 
*liunieralis (Opistho- 
cosmia), 188. 
Hypurgus, 187. 

^ieterica (Forficesila), 

99. 
*icterica (Labidura), 99. 
*inermis (Labidura ri- 

paria, var.), 99. 
insignis (Eparcbus), 

192. 
*insignis (Forficula), 192. 
^insignis (Opistbo- 

cosmia), 192. 
interrogans (Forficula), 

173. 

japonica (Anecbura), 

160. 
*japonica (Labidui'a), 

99. 
*jupiter (Cbretospania), 

112. 

kallipyga (Pvgidlcraua), 
60. "^ 

*kallipyg08 (Pygidi- 

erana), 60. 
*karscbi (Labidura), 99. 
Kosnietor, 200. 
kudagsB (Anisolabis), 
84. 

Labia, 115. 
*Labidopbora, 124. 
Labidura, 95. 
l.\bidurid,e, 67. 
Labidurix.e, 90. 
Labidurodes, 78. 
Labiid.t;, 110. 



Lariin.t:, 110. 
*la!ta (Anisolabis), 85. 
lefroyi (Diplatvs), 44. 
lefroyi (Psali.s)"; 77. 
*Leptisolabis, 106. 
libera ta (Diplatys), 52. 
Liparura, 288. 
Lipodcs, 203. 
*livida (Labidura), 99. 
*lividipes (Forficula), 97. 
lividipes (Labidura), 97. 
*Lobopbora, 131, 134. 
*longisetosa (Diplatys), 

46. 
*longisetosa (Dyscritina), 
46, 60. 
lucasi (Forficula), 172. 
*ludekingi (Chelisocbes), 

137. 
*liigens (Eparcbus), 198. 
*lugens (Opisthocosmia), 
198. 
lugens (Timomenus), 

198. 
lurida (Forcipula), 94. 
*lurida (Forcipula quad- 
rispinosa, var.), 94. 
lutea (Spongipbora), 
112. 
*lutea (Spougopbora), 
112. 
luzonica (Labia), 117. 



*macrocepbala (Di- 
platys), 45. 
macropyga (AUodablia), 

151. ' 
*ujacropvga (Anecbura), 

151.' 
*niajor (Labidopbora), 

125. 
major (Platylabia), 125. 
*raarginella (Labidura), 

99. 
maritima (Anisolabis), 

83. 
^maritima (Bi'achylabis), 

83. 
*inaritinia (Forcinella), 

83. 
*njaritinia (Forficesila), 

83. 
*uiaritinia (Forficula), 83. 
*inaritiuia (Labidura), 83. 
*marn)oricauda (Pygidi- 

crana), 58. 
marnioricrura (Pygidi- 

crana), 58. 
*melauocepbaIa (Lobo 

phora), 138. 



melanocepbalus (Cheli- 
socbes), 138. 
nielanoceiilialus (Pro- 
reiis), 1.S8. 
*nieridionalis (Forfice- 
sila), 97. 
^■'meridioaalis (Forficula), 

97. 
*nietallica (Anecbura), 
178. 
luetallica (Eudobrnia), 
178. 
*metallica (Forficula), 
178. 
Metisolabis, 108. 
*modesta (Forficula), 

137. 
*modesta (Lobopbora), 
137. 
modesta (Pyge), 65. 
*niodes(.a (Pjgidicrana), 

65. 
*niodestu3 (Chelisocbes), 
137. 
mogul (Forficula), 167. 
*niongolica (Labidura), 
99. 
morio (Chelisocbes), 
135. 
*morio (Forficula), 135. 
*morio (Lobopbora), 

135. 
*morosa (Forcipula), 92. 
*morosa (Labidura), 92. 
*mucronata (Forficula), 
119. 
mucronata (Labia), 119. 

Nannisolabis, 106. 
*]N'annopygia, 38. 
*Neolobophora, 183. 
*neolobopboroides (Cos- 

miella), 200. 
*neolob()])horoides (Opis- 
thocosmia), 200. 
neolobophoroides (Syn- 

tonus), 200. 
nepalensis (Labidura), 
96. 
*nevilli (Eparcbus), 197. 
*nevilli (Opisthocosmia), 
197. 
nevilli (Timomenus), 

197. 
nietneri (Cranopvgia), 
63. 
*nietneri (Pygidicrana), 
63. 
nigrella (Labia), 117. 
*nigricep3 (Diplatys), 45, 
50. 



216 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



nigriceps (Plarylabia), 

127. 
*nigricornis (Cheliso- 

ches). 135. 
*nigricornis (Labidura), 

135. 
*nigripennis (Forfice- 

sila), 123. 
nigrocnstaneiis (Adia- 

thetus), 145. 
*nigroniteiis''Lobopbora), 

135. 
nitidipennis (Spongi- 

pbora), 112. 
*nitidipennis (Spongo- 

pbora), 112. 



*oannes (Oijistliocosmia), 
195. 
oannes (Tiniomenus), 

195. 
Obelura. 183. 
opbthalmica (Pyge). 66. 
*opbtbalmica (Pygidi- 

craiia), 66. 
«Opisthoeosmia, 180, 184, 
187,190,194,199,200. 
Oi'isTiiocosMii.v.i:, 175. 
orientalis (Anechura), 

161. 
ornata (Forficula), 169. 



Palex, 68. 
Palicin.b, 67. 
pallidipetmis (Pygidi- 
crana), 57. 
*pallipes (Forficula), 97, 

99. 
*pallipes (Labidura), 97, 
99. 
Parisolabin^, 102. 
parvuliiiu (Ecbinosoina), 

72. 
pascoei (Apachyiis), 35. 
*patagonicus (Demogor- 

gon), 99. 
*philetas (Brachylabis), 

106. 
*pbiletas (Leptisolabis), 
106. 
philetas (Nannisolabis), 

106. 
Picrania, 63. 
picta (Pygidicrana), 55. 
*pilioornis (Forficula), 
120. 
pilicornis (Labia), 120. 
planicoUis (Forficula), 
174. 



Platylabia, 124. 
*pluvialis (Labidura), 99. 

Proreus, 136. 
*Psalidophora, 111. 

PSALIN,-E, 73. 

Psalis. 74. 
Pseudisolabis, 102. 
Pterygida, 157. 
pugnax (Forcipula), 93. 
*pugiiax (Labidura), 93. 
*pulcbellus (Chelisocbes), 

170. 
*pulchripennis (Clieliso- 

chella), 132. 
*pulchripennis (Clieliso- 

ches), 1.32. 
pulcbripennis (Exyp- 

nus), 132. 
pulchripes (? Forficula), 

204. 
*punctata (Brachylabis), 

109. 
punctata (Liparura), 

182. 
Pyge, 65. 

pygidiata (Labia), 122. 
Pygidicrana, 53, 60, 63, 

65. 
Pygidicranid.*;, 37. 
Pygidicranin.e, 53. 



quadrispinosa (Forci- 
pula), 94. 
*quadrispinosa (Labi 
dura), 94. 



repens (Sondax), 177. 
ridens (Labia), 121. 
*riparia. var. inerniis, 

(Labidura), 99. 
*riparia (Forficula), 99. 
riparia (Labidura), 99. 
*ritsem£B (Chelisocbes), 
139. 
ritsenise (Proreus), 139. 
robustus (Labidurodes), 
78. 
*rufesce.ns (Cyliudrogas- 
ter), 47, 51. 
rufescens (Diplatys), 51. 
*rufitarsis (Forficula), 

135. 
*rufitarsis (Psalido- 
phora), 135. 

scabriuscula (AUodah- 
lia), 150. 
*scabriuscula (Anechura), 
150. 



*scabriuscula (Forficula), 

1.50. 
*schlagintweiti (Ane- 
chura), 166. 
schlagintweiti (Forfi- 
cula), 166. 
semiflava (Spongiphora), 
113. '' ^^ '' 
*sennflava (Spongo- 
phora), 113. 
.seryillei (Labidura), 99. 
shelfordi (Adiathetus), 
142 
*sbelfordi (Chelisochella), 

142. 
*shelfordi (Chelisocbes), 
142. 
siamensis (Pygidicrana), 

59. 
simplex (Hypurgus), 
189. 
*siniplex (Opisthocos- 

mia), 189. 
*siniulans (Chelisocbes), 

137. 
*simulans (Forficula), 

137. 
*simulans (Lobopbora), 
137. 
simulans (Proreus), 137. 
siva (Diplatys), 49. 
Solenosoma, 140. 
Sondax, 177. 
sparattoides (Palex), 68. 
*sparattoides (Platy- 
labia), 68. 
Sphingolabis, 127. 163. 
Spongiphora, 111. 
*Spougophora, 111. 
*stali (Anisolabis), 88. 

stall (Borellia), 88. 
*8tali (Forcinella), 88. 
*stratioticus (Cheliso- 
cbes), 135. 
suinatranum (Ecliino- 

souia), 70. 
superba (Chelisochella), 
131. 
*superba (Lobopbora), 

131. 
*superbus (Chelisocbes), 

131. 
*suturalis (Forficula), 99. 
*suturalis (Labidura), 99. 
Syntonus, 199. 

*taniul (Neolobophora), 

184. 
ta.nul (Obelura), 184. 
*tartarea (Lobopbora), 

135. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



in< 



temoiM (Kosnietor), 201. 
*teaiora (Opisthocosmia), 
201. 
tenebrator (Adiathetus), 

146. 
*tenebrator(Chelisoche8), 

146. 
*tenplla (Forficula), 193. 
*tenella (Opisthocosmia), 

193. 
tenellus(Eparchus), 193. 
tenera (Pseudisolabis), 
104. . 
*terininalis (Forficesila), 

99. 
*l.lioracica (Labidoph- 
ora), 126. 



thoraoica (Platvlabia), 

126. 
Timomenus, 194. 
trispiiiosa (Forcipula), 

92. 
*triispino8a (Labidura), 

92. 

valida (Pygidicrana), 
56. 
*vicina (Forficesila), 97. 
*vicina (Labidura), 97. 
*vicina (Labidura livi- 

dipes, var.), 97. 
*vishnu (Apterygida), 
202. 
vishiiu (Kosmetor). 202. 



vivax (Lipodes), 204. 
*Tivax (Opisthocosmia), 
204. 

*vvallacei (Forficula), 12.3. 
"*wallacei (Sphiiigolabis), 

123. 
*westermanni (Echino- 

soma), 71. 
willeyi (Nannisolabis), 

107. 

■*santhopu3 (Forficesila), 
99. 

zubovskii (Anechiira), 
160. 



Printed bv T.wr.ou and Fr!\xris, Red l.inn Court. Fleet Street. 



PLATE I. 

Fig. 1. Apachyusfece, Borm., d* . Burma ; p. 33. Anal process and 
forceps, from above, x 1|. 
1 a. Id. from below, x 1|. 

1 b. Id. Tarsus. 

2. Aiiachyus fecc, Borm., $ . Anal process and forceps, from 

above, x l^- 

2 a, Id. from below, x 1|. 

3. Dendi'oihetes corticinus, Burr, S • Type. Ceylon ; 

p. 36. X 2|. 

3 a. Id. Penultimate ventral segment and forceps, from 

beneath, x 4|. 

3 h. Id. Tarsus. 

4. Diplatys falcatus,l^\xvY, S' Type. Punjab; p. 42. x 3. 

4 a. Id. Penultimate ventral segment and forceps, from 

below. X 3. 

5. Diplatys lefroyi, Burr, cJ • Type. Bombay p. 44. x 4. 

5 a. Id. Penultimate ventral segment and forceps, from 

below. X 6. 

6. Diplatys ang:istatus, Burr, cS . Type. Bengal ; 

p. 44. X 3. 

6 a. Id. Penultimate ventral segment and forceps, from 

below. X 4. 

7. Diplatys gersto'cl-eri, J) ohvn, J. Ceylon: p. 4G. x 4^. 

7 a. Id. Penultimate ventral segment, from below, x 6. 

8. Diplatys fietclieri. Burr, S • Type. Ceylon ; p. 52. x 4|. 

8 a. Id. Penultimate ventral segment, from below, x 4.^. 



PLATE I. 




E. Wilson, Cambridge. 



PLATE II. 

Fig. 9. Diplatys ernesti, Burr, (5' . Type, Cej'lon ; p. 48. x 4|. 
9 a. Id. Penultimate ventral segment, x 7h 

10. Pi/c/idicrana picta, Gner., (J. India; p. 55. X ]|. 

10 o. Id. Penultimate ventral segment, x 1|. 

11. Pi^igldic)'cmapciUidipenms,'Kfi^n,S' Java ; p. 57. xl^. 

11 a. Id. Penultimate ventral segment, x 3. 

12. Pi/gidicrana marmoncyura,Serv., (^ . Java; p. 58. x 1. 

13. Pygidlcraim siamensis, Dohrn, d . Peuang ; p. 59. x 1^. 

14. Cranopycjia cunnngi^'Doh.va, S . Ceylon; p. 02. xlg. 
14 cr. Id. Penultimate ventral segment, x Ig. 

15. Cranopygia nietneri, Dohrn, c? . Ceylon ; p. 63. x 2. 

16. Pyge ojjJithalmica, Dohrn, c? • Madras; p. 66. xl|. 

17. Echi jiosom a sumatmnum, liafm, 2- Java; p. 70. x 3. 
17 (f. Id. Apex of abdomen from below, x 3. 

17^. Id. Tarsus, x 7|. 



PLATE 




E Wilson Cambridge. 



PLATE III. 

JFig. 18. Psalis femoralis, Dohrn, J- Ceylon p. 75. x 3, 

19. Psalis dolirni, Kirby, S . Ceylon ; p. 76. x 2|. 

20. Psalis lefroyi, Burr, S . Bombay ; p. 77. X 4. 

21. Gonolahls electa, ^wvv, S . Type. Ceylon; p. 79. X 4|. 

21 rt. Id. Apex of abdomen from below, x 4|. 

22. Anisolabis maritima, Bon., cS . Japan ; p. 83. x 2. 

22 rt. Id. Tarsus. 

23. Anisolahis kudar/ce, Burr, J . Type. Ceylon ; p. 84. 

X 21. 

24. Anisolahis annulijjes, Luc., S • Europe ; p. 84. x 2^. 

25. Forcipida decohjij'Bovm., S- Bengal; p. 91. X 14. 

25 a. Id. Abdominal spine. 

2(3. Forcipula trispinosa, J) ohvn, S- Nepal: p. 92. x 14. 

26 rt. Id. Yar. minor, Burr, S . Nepal. Apex of abdomen. 

X U. 
26 b. Id. Abdominal spine. 

27. ForcijJida2>i'^gnax,Kirhy, J. Bengal; p. 93. X 14. 



PLATE III 




E. AVilson, Cambridge 



PLATE IV. 

Fig. 28. Forcijmla quadrisjnnosa, Dohru, cS ■ Aunam ; p. 94. 
X 2. 

28 rt. Id. Apex of abdomen, 5. x I5. 

29. Forcijyida lurida, Boh, d" . Madras; p. 94. X 1|. 

29 a. Id. Abdominal spine, 

30. Labidura ncpalcnsvi, Burr, J . Type. Nepal ; p. 96. 

X 3. 

31. Lahidaralividipes,'Du.i., S. Africa; p. 97. X 3. 

31 rt. Id. Var. vicina, Luc, c? ; apex of abdomen, x 3. 

32. Labidura benffalensis, Dohru, cJ . Bengal ; p. 98. (Nat. 

size.) 

32 rt. Id. 2 ; apex of abdomen, (Nat. size.) 

33. Labidura riparia, Pall., S • East Africa ; p. 99. (Nat. 

size.) 

33 rt. Id, 2 i ^pex of abdomen. (Nat, size,) 
33 b. Id, Tarsus, 

34. Id. Var, inermis, Brunner, S - Bengal ; p, 101, x 3. 

35. Pseudisolabis burri, Borelli, 6 • Syntype. Kashmir ; 

p. 103. X 3. 
35 rt. Id. Tarsus. 
35 b. Id. Antenna. 

36. Pseudisolabis fenera, Burr, cf • Type. Punjab ; p. 104. 

X 3. 



PLATE IV. 




E. Wilson, Cambridge. 



PLATE V. 

Fig. 37. Sjjongiphora se7nijlava, Borm., c? . Burma ; p. 113. x 4|. 
37 a. Id. Apex of abdomen, x 6. 

38. Labia curvicauda,'Motsch. , c? . Burma; p. 118. X 6. 

39. Labia mucronata, Stal, ^ . Annam ; p. 119. x (>. 

40. Labia pilicornis, Motsch., c? . Ceylon ; p. 120. x (J. 

41. Labia jii/gidiata, Borm., cJ . Sandwich Is. ; p. 122. x 4|. 

42. Labia 7-idens, Borm., \ar. cychlabia, Borm., J. Syntype. 

Burma; p. 121, x 4|. 
42 ff. Id. Y ar. mac7-olabia,Buvv . Forceps, x 3|. 

43. Plafylabia nvjriceps, Kirby, J . Sumatra ; p. 127. X f). 

44. Spliingolabis fece,Bovm., cJ . Burma; p. 128. x 4. 

45. Chelisoches morio, Fabr., J • Java ; p. 135. x 2|. 

45 o. Id. Yar. stnUioticus, Eehn, J. Java. End of 

abdomen, x 2. 
45 b. Id. 5 ; end of abdomen from below, x 3. 

46. Adiathetus dravidius, Burr, J . Type. Travancore ; 

p. 143. X 21. 

47. Adiathetus glaucoj)ter us, Borm., c? • Tonkin; p. 144. 

X 2-1. 
47 a. Id. 5 ; end of abdomen, x 2. 



PLATE V. 




E. Wilson, Cambridge. 



PLATE VI. 

Pig. 48. Adiatltetus nigrocastcoieus, Burr, J . Type. Bombay : 
p. 145. X 2i. 

49. AllodaJdiascabrmscula,Sery.,(S. Borneo; p. 150. x2^, 

50. AUodaJdia macropyr/a, Westw. , c^ . Bengal; p. 151. x 2^. 
50 a. Id. J forceps, from side. 

51. Allodaldia coriacea, Bonn., d" . Tonkin; p. 153. x 2. 

52. Aneclmra ziihovskii, Sem., c? . Kashmir; p. 160. x 2. 
52 a. Id. c^ forceps, side view, x 2. 

53. Elaunon hipartitxis, Islvhj, S • Ceylon ; p. 163. x 3. 
53 «. Id. Tarsus, x 9. 

54. Forjicida scMaginhveiti, Burr, c? . 'Sikkim; p. 166. X 1|. 
54 a. Id. Var., forceps, x Ik. 

55. Forficula mogul, lixiXY, S ' Type. Darjiling; p. 167. x 2. 

56. ForJlcida heelzehuh, Burr, macrolahia form, ^ • Darjiling 

p. 167. X 21. 
56 a. Id. Porceps of cyclolahia form, x 2. 



PLATE VI. 




56a 

F, Wilson, Cambric 



PLATE VII. 

Fig. 57. Forficida aceris, Bnvr, <S . Type. India; p. 168, x 2|. 

58. Forjicula ambigua, J^ni'v, cS . Tonkin; p. 171. X 3. 

59. Fo^i/icida lucasi, Dohvn, S' Syria; p. 172. x 2\. 

60. Forficula celeris,'R\xvT, 6- Type. Assam ; p. 172. x 3. 

61. Forjicula inten'or/ans, BnvT, J. Type. Darjiling ; p. 173. 

X 3. ' 

62. Syntonvs ncolohojiJioroides, Burr, S • Tvpe. Ceylon ; 

p. 200. X 4. 

63. Sondax rej^ens, Burr, cJ . Type. Madras ; p. 177. X 4|. 

04. Liparura ininctata,^WT\\ S- Type. Darjiling; p, 182, 
X 3. 

Qb. Obelura tamvJ, Jiurr, c? • Type. Ceylon; p. 184. x 3. 

60. Cordao: armatus, Haan, J. Celebes; p, 185. x 2|. 

67. Cor d (uv ce)/7onicus, Motsch., d" , Ceylon ; p. 186. x 3. 



PLATE VII. 




E. Wilson, Cambridge. 



PLATE VIII. 

Fig. 68. Hi/purgus humeralis, Kirby, (S . Ceylon ; p. 188. x 4. 

69. Timomenus oannes, Burr, d • Type. Sikkim ; p. 195. 

X 3. 

70. Timomeni^s cesculajpius, Ijnvr, (S . Type. Bhutan; p. 196. 

X 21. 

71. Timomenus nevilU, Burr, c? • Type. Bhutan ; p. 197. 

X 2i. 

72. Tiynomenus h(gens,BoYm., d. Assam; p. 198. x 2i. 

73. Kosmetor temora, Burr, S- Type. Darjiling; p. 201. 

X 8. 

74. Kosmetor vishnu, Burr, d' . Type. Darjihng ; p. 202. 

X 3. 

75. D'lplaiys rufescens, Kirby, c?. Type. N. India; p. 51. 

X 21. 
75 «. Id. Penultimate ventral segment from beneath. x4|. 

"J Q. Pyrjemodesta, 'Qovin., 6 ' Syntype. Burma; p. 65. x 2. 

77. PuJex sparattokles, Borm., c?. Java; p. 08. x 3. 
77 a. Id. Pygidiura from above, x 6. 

78. Nannisolabis ivilleyi, Burr, d • Type. Ceylon ; p. 107. 

X 3. 

79. CtenisolaUs fleicheri, Burr, d. Type. Ceylon; p. 110. 

X -4. 



PLATE VIII. 




E. Wilson, Cambridge. 



PLATE IX. 

Fig. 80. Sponr/iphora nit'idipeiinis, Borm c^ . Sarawak; p. 112. 
X 2i. 

81. Labia iiigrella, Dubr., var. fasciata, Borm., 5 • Burma ; 

p. 117. X Ih. 

82. Labia aracJiidis, Ters., c? . Java ; p. 123. x 3. 

83. Platylabia tlioracica, Dohrii, c? . Sumatra ; p. 126. x 4. 

84. Exypnus puJchripennis, Borm., S . Borneo ; p. 133. 

X 2. 
84 a. Id. Tarsus, x 5. 

85. Proreus siimdans, Stal, ^ . Malacca ; p. 137. x 3. 

86. Proreus melanocephalus, Dohrn, J . Bengal ; p. 138. x 3. 

87. Proreus ritsema:, Jiovva., cS . Sarawak; p. 139. x 3^. 

88. Hamaxas fecP; Borm., 6 • Sumatra; p. 148. x 3. 

89. Chelisocliella superba, Dohrn, (S . Sarawak; p. 131. 

X 1|. 
89 a. Id. ? forceps, x Ih. 

89 b. Id. Tarsus. 

90. DiplaU/sliberatus,'Bnvr,(S. Type. Burma ; p. 52. x2|. 

90 a. Id. Penultimate ventral segment, x 6. 

91. DipJat>/s bormansi, Burr, d . Type. Burma; p. 45. x 4|. 

91 «. Id. Penultimate ventral segment and forceps, from 

below. X 7. 



PLATE IX 




E. Wilson, Cambridge. 



PLATE X. 

Fig. 92. Forcipula Inrida, BoL, d • Madras ; p. 94. (Nat. size.) 

93. Ajxi chy ns fece, Hovm., d- Burma; p. 33. (Nat. size.) 

94. Crun(ypytjia aimingi, Dolirn, c5' . Ceylon ; p. 62. (Nat. 

size.) 

95. AnecJmra calciatii, Bor., c? • Syntype. Kashmir ; 

p. 159. X 2. 

96. Pterygida circidata, Dohrn, J . Northern India ; p. 158. 

(Nat. size.) 

97. Anisolahis dubronii, Kirby, d • Type. Tenasserim ; 

p. 85. (Nat. size.) 

98. Allodahlia a7n'imanes,Bnvr, d". Type. Sikkim ; p. 154. 

X 2. 

99. E2nircJms insiynis, Hann, J. Burma; p. 192. x 2. 

100. EparcJnis tenellus, Haau, cf • Java; p. 193. x 3. 

101. Homotages feae, Borm., c? . Nepal; p. 156. X 2. 

102. Elaumn bipariihis, Kirby, J . Ceylon ; p. 163. x 2. 

103. Forjimla greeni, Burr, d" . Type. Ceylon ; p. 170. 

x 2. 

104. Timomenns oannes, Burr, J • Type. Assam ; p. 195. 

X 2.. 



PLATE X. 





..■^W«-0WM 



















r'7 

^4,