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Full text of "Description of a new method of transmitting power by means of wire ropes"

TRANSMISSION 




OP 



POWER 



BY 



WIRE ROPES. 




IliiilH 
iB 




JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS, 
TRENTON, N. J., AND 117 LIBERTY STREET, N. Y. 

NEW YORK: 
D. VAN NOSTRAND, 

23 MURRAY STREET AND 37 WARREN STREET. 

1872. 






DESCRIPTION 



OF A 



NEW METHOD 



OF 



TRANSMITTING POWER 



BY MEAXS OE 1 



WIRE ROPES 



BY 

W. A.|ROEBLING, C.E., 

TRENTON, K J. 



THIRD EDITION, 



NEW YORK : 

D. VAN NOSTKAND, PUBLISHEB, 
23 MURRAY STREET AND 27 WARREN STREET. 

1872. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, iu the year 18G9, 
. BY D. VAN NOSTRAND, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the 
Southern District of New York. 



terent.rpml by LITTLE. RKNX!* .k Co , 
645 and &17 Broadwar. Now Yuife. 



INTRODUCTORY REMAKKb 



PART I. 

11 The use of a round endless wire-rope running at a great 
velocity in a grooved sheave, in place of a fiat belt running 
on a flat-faced pulley, constitutes the transmission of power 
by wire-ropes" 

The distance to which this can be applied ranges from 
50 or CO feet up to about 3 miles. It commences at the 
point where a belt becomes too long to be used profitably, 
and can thence be extended almost indefinitely. In point 
of economy it costs only one-fifteenth of an equivalent 
amount of belting and the one twenty-fifth of shafting. 

I'll is method was iirst introduced, both in Europe and 
America, about the year 1850. The development it has 
received in this country is but trifling ; in Europe, how- 
ever, it has been immense, numbering at the present time 
over 2,000 permanent applications, and as man}' more of a 
temporary nature. 

Visitors to the Paris exposition in 18G7 doubtless re- 
member seeing in the neighborhood of the iron lighthouse 
two slender ropes whizzing through the air high above 
their heads at the rate of a mile a minute, and passing in 
their course over the broad promenades, the garden and 
part of the artificial basin. Upon entering one of the 
buildings in which the ropes disappeared, they saw a huge 
centrifugal pump, raising a stream of water twelve inches 
in diameter from the reservoir below. In looking at the 
ceaseless flow, every one was impressed with the idea that 
the ropes formed some kind of a mysterious connection 



R M342500 



between this pump and a steam-engine working in a build- 
ing three hundred feet off; few, however, understood it. 

That was simply a transmission of power ly ropes. 
The entire force of a 50-horsc-power engine was thus con- 
veyed through the air by one endless half-inch rope, and 
was consumed in driving "M. Schneider's great pump. 77 

There is scarcely an establishment in existence where 
it would not be convenient at times to transfer power to 
some isolated building located at a distance, without going 
to the trouble or expense of putting up an engine. 

Here we have the ready means at command a meant 
which recommends itself by its cheapness of first cost, its 
economy of maintenance, and perfect reliability in regard 
to working. To enumerate all the instances where it can 
be applied would be too formidable a task, a few, how- 
ever, will be of interest, and will readily lead the reader 
to fill out the list for himself. 

Many valuable sites for water-power are lying idle in 
this country for want of building-room in their immediate 
vicinity ; and since the water can only be led down hill 
in certain directions, the cost of a canal or flume would in 
many cases come too high, and so the power remains unim- 
proved. By ropes, however, we can convey the power of 
a turbine or waterwheel in any direction, both up stream 
as well as down stream, to either side if necessary ; up 
an ascent of 1 in 8 or 10, or down a moderate slope as well. 
The power need not be confined to one factory, but can 
be distributed among a dozen, located so as to suit their 
particular business, and not to suit the oftentimes incon- 
venient location of a canal. If the water-power is on one 
side of the river and the factories on the other, it is an 
easy matter to transfer it across, by making one or two 
artificial stations in the river, which nature often supplies 
by a rock in place. (See Frontispiece.) 

In the neighborhood of Frankfort-on-the-Main, in Gcr- 



many, the power of a 100-horse-power turbine is conveyed 
for a distance of 3,200 feet, by means of a rope-transmis- 
sion, to a cotton factory located in the proper place for 
such a building. Wheels of 13J feet, making 114 revolu- 
tions per minute, arc used ; size of rope 5 inch, stations 8 in 
number and 400 feet apart. A nearer site for a building 
could not be found, and this was the only way in which 
the power could be made available for that purpose. 

At another establishment a powder-mill the various 
buildings were placed 400 feet apart along the circumfer- 
ence of a circle having a diameter of about 1,200 feet. In 
the centre a waterwheel supplied the power, which was con- 
veyed to each building by a rope-transmission. One man 
at the central building sets in motion the machinery of 
all the buildings, which on this account could be placed far 
enough apart to prevent the explosion of one from pass- 
ing to the other. 

In many factories, long counter-shafting with heavy 
bevel-gearing can be saved by using a rope ; the farther 
off the shaft we wish to drive, the better the arrangement 
will work. 

A heavy punch or pair of shears, straightening- rolls, etc., 
may at times be more conveniently located out in the 
yard, near the metal which they are to work upon ; but in 
the ordinary way it would be rather troublesome to con- 
vey power to them, and so they are put up inside, and 
the metal is carried in and out at a heavy annual expense, 
all of which could be saved by this method. 

It can be profitably applied as a substitute for horse- 
power used at outdoor work by rolling-mills, furnaces, 
mines, and all sorts of contractors' building operations. 

Factories in cities are generally cramped for room. 
When neighboring property cannot be bought, perhaps that 
across the street can : yet the trouble and expense of dig- 
ging up the street to lay down a line of shafting is suf- 



ficient to deter one from the purchase. For such a case a 
remedy is here presented. A little endless rope passing 
through a couple of slits in the window-casing of an upper 
story, across to the story opposite, will do all the work, 
and none of the passers-by will be any the wiser for it. A 
belt would require protection from the weather, but the 
rope does not ; and can hang free in the air. 

From an engine in the basement, power can be readily 
conveyed to the upper stories ; it is necessary, however, 
that for a certain distance the rope should hang horizon- 
tally, in order to gain the required tension. 

As the largest example of a wire-rope transmission we 
may mention the great improvement at the Falls of the 
Rhine, near Schaffhausen, in Switzerland : advantage was 
taken of the rapids at one side and a number of turbines 
put in, aggregating in all GOO horse-power. Since the 
steep rocky banks forbade the erection of any factories in 
the immediate neighborhood, the entire power was trans 
ferred diagonally across the stream to the town, about a 
mile lower down, and there distributed, certain, rocks in 
the water being made use of to set up the required inter- 
mediate stations. There are, no doubt, hundreds of similar 
localities in our country which can be improved in this way. 

New England especially abounds with them. Coal 
being so expensive there, their value is all the greater. 
At the same time the rough and rocky nature of most of 
her river banks has in many cases proved a barrier to 
the erection of factories near by. Now, however, by the 
system of rope-transmission we can devote all this waste 
power to a useful purpose. 

For much of the material embraced in the following 
pages I am indebted to the Swiss brothers Him, who 
have been mainly instrumental in developing the system 
practically on the continent ; and also to Prof. F. Rculeaux, 
who treats of the subject in his " Constructeur." 



TABLE OF TRANSMISSION OF TOWER 
WIRE- ROPES. 



BY 



Diam. 
of 
Wheel 
in Feet. 


No. 
of 
Rev. 


Trade 

No. of 
Rope. 


Diam. 
of 
Rope. 


Horse 
Power. 


Diam. 
of 
Wheel 
in Feet. 


No. 
of 
Rev. 


Trade 
No. of 
Rope. 


Diam. 
of 
Rope. 


Horse 
Power. 


4 


80 


24 


-1 


3-3 


10 


80 


'9 

18 


1 44 


55- 
58.4 


4 


IOO 


24 


1 


4.1 


10 


IOO 


19 
18 


H4 


68.7 

73- 


4 


120 


24 


1 


5- 


IO 


1 20 


19 
18 


Hi 


82.5 
87.6 


4 
5 
5 


I4O 
80 
IOO 


24 
23 
23 


1 
A 
1V 


5.8 
6. 9 

8.6 


10 
II 


140 

So 


19 

18 

19 
18 


Hi 
-Hi 


96.2 

102.2 
64.9 

75-5 
















1 9 




Si. i 


5 


1 20 


23 


A 


10.3 


II 


IOO 


18 


1 44 


94.4 


5 


140 


23 


TV 


12. 1 


II 


120 


19 

18 


1 44 


97-3 
U3-3 


6 


80 


22 


if 


10.7 


II 


140 


19 
18 


1 44 


113.6 
132.1 


6 


IOO 


22 


41 


13-4 


12 


80 


18 


44! 


93-4 
99-3 


6 
6 
7 


120 
I4O 

So 


22 
22 
22 


41 

41 
44 


16.1 
18.7 
16.9 


12 
12 


IOO 

1 20 


18 
17 
18 
17 


Ul 
4i! 


116.7 
124.1 

140.1 
148.9 


7 


IOC 


22 


O 6 


21. 1 


12 


140 


18 
17 


ii ! 


163-5 
173.7 
















18 




112. 


7 


120 


22 


41 


25-3 


13 


80 


17 


44! 


122.6 


7 


140 


22 


4i 


29.6 


13 


IOO 


18 
17 


44 1 


I4O. 
153.2 


8 


80 


21 


4 


22. 






18 




168. 








3 




13 


1 20 


17 


44! 


183.9 


8 
8 


IOO 

1 20 


21 
21 


4 

4 


27.5 

33- 


14 


80 


\l 


\ I 


148. 
141. 








8 








17 


?m 


185. 


8 


140 


21 


4 


38.5 


H 


IOO 


16 


% 


176. 


9 


80 


20 
19 


4Jf 


40. 
41.5 


H 


120 


17 
16 


f 1 


222. 
211. 


9 


IOO 


20 
19 


4*1 


50. 
51.9 


15 


80 


17 
16 


1 i 


217. 
217. 


9 


120 


20 
19 


41 1 


60. 
62.2 


IS 


IOO 


17 
16 


I 3 


259. 
259. 


9 


140 


20 
IQ 


4*1 


70. 
72.6 


15 


120 


jj 


1 I 


300. 
300. 



PART II. 

ON the preceding page a table of horse-powers is pre- 
sented. It embraces every case that will ordinarily arise 
in practice, and one can readily select that combination 
which will suit his own case, especially if the driving 
machinery already exists. 

The first column gives the diameters of the grooved 
sheave-wheels, in which the rope runs, commencing with 
4 feet. Smaller wheels are but seldom wanted. 

Then knowing the number of revolutions which your 
shaft makes, the last column gives the horse-power cor- 
responding to a certain-sized wheel. 

Where there is a choice between a small wheel and 
fast speed, or a larger wheel with slower speed, it is re- 
commended to take the larger wheel. 

The horse-powers here given are a minimum, and can 
be relied upon under all circumstances. 

The Driving Ropes. 

The range in the size of wire-ropes is small, varying 
only from I in. to I in. diameter in a range of 3 to 250 horse- 
power. Full information concerning the strength, cost, 
etc., of the ropes is contained in the " Wire-rope table" on 
the last page of this pamphlet. The ropes are always 
kept on hand, and can be spliced endless at the factory ; or 
else a man is sent to splice them, whenever an endless 



9 

rope cannot be put on direct. Two wire-ropo transmis- 
sions can also be seen in operation at the factory. 

In regard to cost, they are the cheapest part of a trans- 
mission. For instance, a No. 22 rope, conveying say 25 
horse-power costs 8 cents per foot, whereas an equivalent 
belt costs about $1.40 per foot. Where a rope-transmis- 
sion has to be constantly at work, it is good policy to 
keep a spare rope on hand ready spliced, so as to avoid 
delay. Their duration is from 2 2 to 5 years, according 
to the speed. 

For the smaller powers it is advisable to take a size 
larger, for the sake of getting wear out of the rope ; al- 
though it must be borne in mind that a larger rope is 
always stiffer than a small one, and therefore additional 
power is lost in bending it around the sheave. An illus- 
tration of that is seen in the case of the 14-feet wheel in 
the table, where a I-rope gives less power than a l-rope, 
simply because it is so much stiffer. 

Ropes for this purpose are always made with a hemp 
core, to increase their pliability. 

Equivalent Belt. 

It is often required to convey the entire power of a 
certain shaft which is driven by a belt of a given size. 
In such a case, a simple rule agreeing with the average 
result of practice is, that 70 square feet of belt-surface 
are equal to one horse-power. 

Take, for example, a belt 1 foot wide running at the 
rate of 1,400 feet per minute ; then the 



Horse-power = '-^ = 20; 

and by referring to the table we find the diameter of the 
wheel corresponding to this horse-power, and making the 
same number of revolutions that the belt-pulley does. 



10 



Distance of Transmission. 

The foregoing table is intended for distances from 80 
up to 350 or 400 feet in one stretch. For a single 
stretch extended to say 450 feet, where no opportunity is 
presented for putting in an intermediate station, we must 
use a rope one size heavier ; and in a case where there is 
not sufficient head-room to allow the rope its proper sag, 
and it has to be stretched tighter in consequence, we must 
also take a rope one size heavier. 

Short Transmission. Whenever the distance is less 
than 80 feet, the rope has to be stretched very tight, and 
we no longer depend upon the sag to give it the requisite 
amount of tension. Here we must take a rope two sizes 
heavier than is given in the table, and run at the maxi- 
mum speed indicated : it is also preferable to substitute 
in place of the rope of 49 wires, a fine rope of 133 wires 
of the same diameter, which possesses double the flexibility, 
runs smoother, and lasts longer. In fact, the substitution 
of a fine rope for a coarse one can be done with advantage 
in every case in the table where the size admits of it. 

Splices. Both kinds of rope are spliced with equal 
facility. The splices arc all of the kind known as the 
long-splice ; the rope is not weakened thereby, neither is 
its size increased any, and only a well practised eye can 
detect the locality of one. 

Relative Height of Wheels. It is not necessary that the 
two wheels should be at the same level, one may be higher 
or lower than the other without detriment; and unless this 
change of level is carried to excess, there need be na 
change in the size of wheel or speed of rope : the rope 
may have to be strained a little tighter. As the inclina- 
tion from one wheel to another approaches an angle of 
45, a different arrangement must be made, as will be 
shown hereafter on page 21. 



11 



Deflection or Sag of the Ropes. 




In the above illustration the upper rope is the pulling- 
rope and the lower one the loose following-rope. When 
the rope is working, the tension T in the upper rope is just 
double that in the lower rope, hence the latter will sag 
mudli lower below a horizontal line than the upper one. 

When the rope is at rest, both ropes will occupy the 
position indicated by the dotted line, and will have a 
uniform tension. 

The best way in practice is to hang up a wire in the 
position the rope is to occupy at rest : that has to be clone 
in any case, in order to get the length of rope needed. 
Then hang it so that the deflection d, below the horizontal 
line, is about Ath of the whole distance from wheel tc 
wheel. The deflection d of the upper running-rope will 
then be about T Vth to -&Vth. 

The deflection d" of the lower working-rope is on an 
average one-half greater than the deflection d' of the 
rope at rest. This is of importance, as we should know 
beforehand whether the lower rope is going to scrape on 
the ground or. touch other obstructions; in that case, 
we either have to dig a trench for the lower rope to 
run in or else raise both wheels high enough to clear. 

Practically, however, it is not necessary to be so par- 
ticular about this matter, on account of the stretch in the 
rope. Wire-rope stretches comparativel}- very little; 



12 

still there is some stretch, and it is well to allow for it by 
stretching the rope a little too tight at first ; after run- 
ning a little it will hang all right. When the rope is 
very long it is advisable to take up the stretch at the 
end of two or three months, as a slack rope does not run 
so steadily as a tight one. 

Whenever the direction of the motion of the driving 
wheel is not fixed by other circumstances, it is often 
advisable to make the lower rope the pulling-ropc, and 
the upper the follower, as here shown. In this way 
obstructions can be avoided, which by the other plan 
would have to be removed. The ropes will not inter- 
fere as long as the difference between the two deflec- 
tions d' and d" is less than the diameter of the wheel. 




These limits are of use whenever, on account of rocks 
or otherwise, we have to move the wheels closer to- 
gether, and the question is how far to have them apart 
with a certain deflection. 



Tlic Wieeh 



are generally made of cast-iron, with a stout hub, 8 
curved arms, and a deep, flaring groove. 
: On account of the great centrifugal force of a rapidly 



13 



revolving wheel, a wooden rim would not answer. The 
section here shown is for a single grooved wheel. The 
slope of the sides of the rim should be considerable ; it 
has been made as high as 45 in some instances, where 





the span was very long and the ropes were exposed to a 
high side-wind. But the half of this slope will answer 
in general. 

''A set of patterns of these wheels, single-grooved, from 4 feet 
to 12 feet diameter, is kept on hand at the wire-rope works in 
Trenton, N~. J., and castings can be furnished at short notice"* 

The bottom of the groove is made a little wider, to pre- 
vent the filling from flying out. The rope should always 
run on a cushion of some kind, and not on the iron, which 
quickly wears it out. A variety of material is used for 
this filling soft wood, india-rubber, leather, old rope 
tarred, and oakum. To use end wood the rim has to be 
constructed on a different plan from that shown here. 
The objections to it are, that it is liable to shrink and 
crack and fly out ; it is also more severe on the rope. 
India-rubber is a very good material ; strips of an inch 
square or less can be wedged in very quickly, and will 
last a long time. We use it now exclusively for the filling 
of our wheels. 



* See page 22 for price of wheels. 



The rubber is cut into short pieces, having a cross-sec- 
tion, as here shown, and is made larger 
than the groove, so that when once forced 
in, it cannot fly out. The adhesion of the 
rope is likewise greater on the rubber 
than on any other material. 

Leather has been used to some extent. 




It is durable, but tedious to put in, as the thin strips of 
leather must be set in on end. and several thousand are 
required for a large wheel. 

Again, by wedging the groove full of tarred oakum a 
filling is also obtained, nearly as good as leather, costing 
less, and not so tedious to put in. Another plan, which 
I have tried with success, is to revolve the wheels slowly 
and let a lot of small-sized tarred ratlin or jute-yarns 
wind up on themselves in the groove ; then secure the 
end, and after a day or two of running the pressure of 
the rope, together with the tar, will have made the iilling 
compact. This makes a cheap filling. 

The double-grooved wheels are filled in the same way. 

The rope will run on such filling without making any 

noise whatever, and soon wears in a round groove for 

itself. 

A section of the 
rim of a G-foot wheel 
is here shown with 
the dimensions 
marked. 

The diam. of the 
wheel is not reck- 
oned from the out- 
side of the rim, but 
from the top of the 
iilling, which corre- 
sponds to the circle 




15 

described by the rope. The hub is made of ample size, 
so as to admit of being bored out for shafts, varying from 
2 to 83 inches. 

"Special care must le taken to set the wheel-shaft at right 
angles to the line of the transmission, and also to set the 
wheel square with the shaft, otherwise the wheel will ivalble, 
and cause the rope to vibrate and jerk." 

In conveying power from one building to another at a 
single stretch, it is often most convenient to extend the 
driving-shafts through the wall and have the wheels and 
rope running free outside. See Plate II. The endless 
spliced rope can be laid on directly in this case, which is 
often an advantage. When this is not practicable, and the 
rope has to run through the wall or the side of the window- 
casing, narrow slits should be cut in, from 9 to 12 
inches high : these slits at the same time serve as guides to 
lead the rope to the centre of the wheel-groove. Another 
variation would be, to set up the wheels on the roof, 
where they are entirely out of the way. The rope while 
running requires no protection. If it has to stand still 
much, pour some hot coal-tar from a can on the rope in 
the groove of the wheel while running. 

Whenever there is no room for the sag of the rope, and 
it is inconvenient to raise the wheels higher, or a ditch 
cannot be dug, it may be supported by a roller in the 




middle. This supporting-roller must be in the centre of 
the span, and must be at least half the size of the larger 
wheels. 



LONG TRANSMISSIONS. 

SEE PLATE III. 



X the distance materially exceeds 350 to 400 feet, 
a rope-transmission should be divided into 2 or moro 
equal parts, by means of one or more intermediate 
stations. At each station there is a wheel mounted on a 
pedestal or other support, and provided with a double 
groove in the rim ; so that in place of one long continuous 
rope, we have 2 or more shorter endless ropes, extending 
from station to station. This is far preferable to support- 
ing-rollers in the middle, especially when the demand on 
the power is intermittent and jerks would thereby be 
caused in the rope. With the two-grooved wheel that 
cannot take place : moreover, the wear of the rope on a 
supporting-pulley is greater. The sketch on the adjoin- 
ing page gives a view of the arrangement. 

The whole system should be in a straight line from end 
to end. The number of stations can be extended 
indefinitely. 

Transmissions are in operation a mile in length. The 
loss of power from friction, etc., or bending of rope, does 
not amount to 10 per cent, per mile, and need not be 
taken into account at all for only one station.. No slip- 
ping of the rope in the groove ever occurs with a 
proper filling. With bearings of a sufficient length under 



17 

the shaft of the centre wheel, and by providing them with 
a self-feeding oil-cup, the axle-friction is reduced to a 
minimum. 

Compare this now with a line of shafting where a 
bearing has to be provided every 12 or 15 feet, whereas 
here we need a bearing only every 3 or 400 feet. Shaft- 
ing is simply out of the question in such a case. 

The cuts on pages 17 and 19 present three varieties of 
foundation or pedestal for the two-grooved wheel one of 
stone, one of cast-iron, and the last of wood. 

In this country it will generally be found cheaper to 
put up a wooden frame, bolted to a masonry foundation 
extending below the reach of frost. The frame should be 
braced from each side so as to maintain the wheel in a 
vertical plane : end-bracing is not required. The length 
of shaft from centre to centre of bearing should be a little 




18 

less than Lalf the diameter of the wheel. A collar must 
be put on the shaft on the inside of each bearing. 

It is not necessary, however, that the wheel should be 
set in the middle between a double frame or pedestal j we 
can just as well hang it free on the outside, as indicated 
in the dotted lines of the outer wheel Fig. 2, previous 
page. The great advantage this latter arrangement gives 
us, is, that we can mount a rope ready spliced, simply 
by laying it on from the side. In the other way, the rope 
has to be rove around, hauled taut by a fall, and the splice 
made at the spot. 

In a short transmission it is generally more convenient 
to put on the rope ready spliced ; but where there is a 
large number of stations and many ropes, the man in 
charge of them must learn to make his own splices. This 
is an easy operation, and can be learned in a few hours by 
anybody. The taking off of an old rope, and putting on 
the new one, including the splicing, should not take more 
than 1 or 2 hours. 

This is of importance when the whole motive-power of 
a factory is derived from ropes. 

Where ropes have to be often mounted it is convenient 
to use a short curved trough of angle-iron, first applied 
by Mr. Ziegler. This 
crosses the main groove 
at one end, and is secured 
to the rim and arms of the 
larger wheel by bolts or 
lashing. Upon turning 
the wheel in the direction 
of the arrow, the rope lays 
in itself. We can also 
ease the strain on the 
rope by putting under a light temporary support in tho 
middle. 




19 





20 

Plate III presents an illustration of a Turbine wheel 
with the driving-wheel above, on the outside of the building. 
This can be doubled by having a driving-wheel on the op- 
posite side also, from which the ropes can pass in a differ- 
ent direction if necessary. The sketch is a little out of 
proportion, as the distances between stations ought to be 
three-fold, according to a scale. 

It is required sometimes to change the direction of the 
transmission at some point in its course, either to avoid 
an obstacle, or for the purpose of distributing the power 
to a number of consumers. This could be done by means 
of horizontal sheaves, but the best method has been shown 
by experience to consist in the use of bevel- wheels. a$ 
shown in this sketch. 




21 

This is called a distributing-station ; a is the main 
driving-wheel ; the two wheels b and c convey the power 
in the direction of the arrows. 

We can thus reach any locality desired, or get around 
the corners of buildings, or any part of your neighbor's 
property without difficulty. By lengthening out the shaft 
d in one direction, we can branch out still further. 

When the power is to be conveyed nearly vertically, 
no good result is obtained by running the rope, say from a 
to 1) direct, as indicated by dotted lines in the figure below, 
since it would slip. Two carrying-sheaves, c and d, must 
be put up vertically above a, giving a horizontal stretch 
from c and d to b. This is necessary, in order to main- 
tain the required tension in the rope, which can be ob- 
tained in no other way. a, 5, and c, and even d, should 
be of the same size; yet d, which supports the following- 
rope, may be made smaller without damage. 




This arrangement must be borne in mind whenever 
the source of power is located in the cellar, and we 



22 

want to carry it to an upper story and distribute it hori- 
zontally. 

In buildings we are often so cramped for room thai 
pulleys beyond 18 inches cannot be applied ; these would 
be rather severe on a wire-rope, running fast, and a hide- 
rope might be preferable. 

On the last page will be found a Wire-rope table, 
giving the particulars of the ropes called for by the 
Horse -power table on page 7. 



PRICE OF WHEELS, 

FILLED WITH RUBBER AND BORED OUT. 



3 feet diain $fr each 

TC . "Ov~ 

5 " ^r " 

6 *& ' " 

7 " 95 " 

8 " 125 " 

9 CAST IN HALVES. 225 " 

10 " do. do. 300 " 

11 " do. do. 350 u 

12 " ' do. do. 400 " 

13 " 

14 (l 

15 " 

Special rates for large wheels. 



TABLE OF WIRE ROPE, 



MANUFACTURED BY 



JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS, 

TRENTON, N. J. 




24 



Directions for Making a Long Splice in an Endless Running 
Rope, of Half Inch Diameter. 

PLATE IV. 

Tools required : One pair of nippers, for cutting off ends 
of strands ; a pair of pliers, to pull through and straighten 
ends of strands ; a point, to open strands ; a knife, for 
cutting the core, and two rope nippers, with sticks to un- 
twist the rope ; also, a wooden mallet. 

First. Haul the two ends taut, with block and fall, until 
they overlap each other about 20 feet. Next, open the 
strands of both ends of the rope for a distance of 10 feet 
each ; cut off both hemp cores as closely as possible (see 
Fig. 1), and then bring the open bunches of strands face 
to face, so that the opposite strands interlock regularly 
with each other. 

Secondly. Unlay any strand, a, and follow up with the 
strand 1 of the other end, laying it tightly into the open 
groove left upon unwinding a, and making the twist of 
the strand agree exactly with the lay of the open groove, 
until all but six inches of 1 are laid in, and a has become 
20 feet long. Next, cut off a within six inches of the rope 
(see Fig. 2), leaving two short ends, which roust be tied 
temporarily. 

Thirdly. Unlay a strand, 4, of the opposite end, and 
follow up with a strand, /, laying it into the open groove, 
as before, and treating it precisely as in the first case (see 
Fig. 3). Next, pursue the same course with b and 2, 
stopping, however, within four feet of the first set ; next, 
with e and 5 ; also, with c, 3, and d, 4. We now have the 
strands all laid into each other's places, with the respective 
ends passing each other at points 4 feet apart, as shown in 
Fig. 4. . 



Plate- IV 



Fin. 1. 




c< b 




* 




-*! 



25 

Fourthly. These ends must now be secured and disposed 
of, without increasing the diameter of the rope, in the fol- 
lowing manner : Nipper two rope slings around the wire 
rope, say six inches on each side of the crossing point of 
two strands. Insert a stick through the loop, and twist 
them in opposite directions, thus opening the lay of the 
rope (see Fig. 5). Now, cut out the core for six inches on 
the left, and stick the end of 1 under a, into the place 
occupied by the core. Next, cut out the core in the same 
way on the right, and stick in the end of a in place of the 
core. The ends of the strands must be straightened before 
they are stuck in. 

Now loosen the rope nipper and let the wire rope close. 
Any slight inequality can be taken out by pounding the 
rope with a wooden mallet. 

Next, shift the rope nippers, and repeat the operation at 
the other five places. 

After the rope has run for a day, the locality of the 
splice can no longer be discovered. There are no ends 
turned under or sticking out, as in ordinary splices, and 
the rope is not increased in size, nor appreciably weakened 
in strength. 



Notice to the Trade. 



* 

It has recently come to our notice that a Mr. James 
Richmond, of Lockport, N. Y., claims certain patent rights 
in connection with the rubber filling of wheels, the trans- 
mission of power in different directions, etc. 

We hereby give notice that we agree to protect all of our 
customers against any claim Mr. Richmond may make 
for royalty, and warn them not to pay it. 

The filling of the wheel, whether by rubber, leather or 
gutta percha was patented as long ago as 1855 by F. 
Him in all the States of the continent and England, and 
has already expired through lapse of time. 
Previous to 1867, over one thousand Rope Trans- 
missions had already been put up in France, Germany and 
Switzerland, embracing every variety of arrangement 
now claimed by Richmond as his inventions ! 

On page 174 of a German Text-book (The u Construc- 
teur" by Reuleaux), edition of 1801, will be found full 
illustrations of rubber fillings, wheel sections, etc., iden- 
tical with those described in the American Patent 
No. 61,554 of Jan. 29th, 1867, in which Mr. Richmond 
bought a sixteenth interest for twenty dollars, and con- 
stituting the sole foundation upon which he proposes to 
collect a royalty from our customers. 

In the illustration of this same patent a chain of end- 
less buckets is shown as operated by two endless wire 
ropes. This identical arrangement was used already as 
far back as 1859 in dredging out the bridge foundations 
at Kehl over the Rhine, and is described in "Erbkam's 
Zeitschrift fur Bauwesen " for Jan. 1860. This dredge 



27 

never was successful, because the motion is slow, show- 
ing that the supposed inventor never understood the 
principle of Rope Transmission, which is speed. 

In the report of the U. S. commissioners to the Paris 
exhibition, 1867, vol. Ill, page 128 to 134, will be found 
a full description of " Hirn's " Wire Rope Transmission 
as there exhibited. 

Again, during the years 1862 to 7 66, the magnificent 
Wire Rope transmission at Schaffhausen on the Rhine 
was erected. Here 800 horsepower are distributed for a 
distance of two miles among fifty different manufactories, 
located in every imaginable position and embracing all 
arrangements of changing direction which Mr. Richmond 
thinks he has newly devise:!. A description of these 
works, with drawings and plans complete, was published 
in 1866 by J. H. Kronauer, of Winterthur, Switzerland. 

We first introduced the system of Rope Transmission 
into this country in 1867, solely with a view to benefit 
American manufacturer^, and have carefully abstained 
from hampering the thing with patents, in order to ex- 
tend its use as much as possible and make it free to all. 
Among others so benefited was Mr. Richmond, whom we 
furnished with a set of wheels and rope for an 800 foot 
Transmission, about a year after the first issue of this 
pimphlet. 

Finding that it proved perfectly successful, he at once 
turns around and attempts not only to appropriate the 
labors of others to himself, but even to deprive them of 
the fruits of their own labor designs that could only 
be accomplished through the want of information among 
the examiners at the Patent Office. 

JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS. 



ROEBLINtfSWIRE ROPE FASTENINGS. 

l 1 



. JEyc vriifi .sister luwks 

^-~-^.__. 




IT 
ROEBLING'SWIRE ROPE FASTENINGS. 



Fastening for oil wU fool* / J2/ 




Fitgtau/iat iiuuh- MM? /nit on <tt cost i>iw- . 
, ?iuiclc to.vrcltT. 




STORE AND BRANCH OFFICE, 117 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK. 



IRON. 



HOISTING ROPE^ 19 WIRES. T^ THE STRAND. 



STEEL. 



I 

2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 



Circumfere 
Inches. 



Breakin 
Tonsof 



- 7 uf 
I# 



74 
65 
54 
44 

35 

27 

20 

16 

8.64! 

5-'3i 
4.27 

3-48 



15 
13 

9 

7 

s 

4 
3 



Circumfere 
Ilemp Ro 
Equal Stre 



12 






11 



r. 



100 

86 

58 
45 
37 



28 
26 

i 25 



Tiller Rope, | in. Diameter, 



28c per Foot. 

23C " 



.1 ? 

1 1 

M ' 
107 

97 

78 



39 
3 
24 
20 

7 
5 



Circumfer 
Hemp R 
Equal Str 



S 



#3 



22 
20 
18 

ii 

9 
6 

5 

4 

\3 

2 



Min. Size of 
or Sheare In 



I | 
I I 
| 





164 
144 
124 

106 
90 
74 

57 
46 

38 
34 
33 
3 2 



All Kinds of Shackles, Sockets, 
Swivel Hooks, and Fastenings, 
put on, Splices made for Belt- 
Ropes. 



IRON. Rope wih 7 Wires to the Strand. STEEL. 









~ 


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36 


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60 


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12^ 


74 


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12 


4^ 


13/8 


10 


3 


7 /^ 


52 


12 


43 


10 


64 


12 


13 


3^ 


'# 


9^ 


2 5 


5i 


45 


10% 


36 


9 


55 


13 


14 


33/8 


1/8 


8 X 


20 


5 


39 


9 


29 


7 


47 


14 


15 


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7^ 


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32 


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23 


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15 


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2$/8 


fi 


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12.3 


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7 /^ 


18 


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23/8 


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OOPPEB LiaHTNINS EODS of aU Varieties, 




. 


/ 


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, 




MADE TO ORDER. 


22 


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We keep on hand a full assortment 
















of Rubber Lined, Cast Iron Trans- 


24 


I 


/> 


2 /i 


1.38 




7 


mission Wheels, for transferring from 


2 5 


iN 


# 


i 2 


1.03 




6J5 


5 to 300 horse power any distance 
from 100 feet to 2 miles. 


26 


^ 


%* 


ilk 


.81 




6 


Send for pamphlet on "Transmission 


2 7 S /8 


?4 


i^ 


-56 




5^ 


of Power." 



STEEL CABLES 

FOR 

SUSPENSION BRIDGES. 


Diameter 
in 
Inches. 


Ultimate 8t'tli 
in Tons of 2000 
Lbs. 


Weight 
per 

Foot. 


Price per Foot 
in 
Cents. 


25/6 


200 


15 


1 


2}4 


160 


II 




23/8 


120 


8-5 




2l A 


107 


7-4 




2 


9 6 


6-5 




ij/o 


88 


6 




I ^ 


75 


5^ 




2 


61 


2 





IRON, COPPER AND TINNED 


SASH CORDS. 


6 
EH 


Diameter. 


1 


1 


Tinned. 


25 


X 


Price per Foot. 


6^ 


J 3 


7 


26 





6 


II 


6% 


27 


3 /6' 


5^ 


9 


6 


27^ 


8/- 


4 


6 


5 


28 


ji 


3 


4^ 


4 


2 9 -.: 


' . % 


2 


3>^ 


3 



7 WIRES TO THE STRAND. 


12 WIRES TO THE STRAND. 


aS 




3 


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2 S 


d 




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|| 


| 




8 


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o 




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CM 


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1st 


Breaking 
in Tons of 


(2 

1 


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||j 


bO <N 

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1 

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, <s 


6in. 


3 olb 


i2in. 


50 


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3 olb 


i2in. 


50 


"~iT^ 


6in. 


5^ 


26 


ii 


43 


" 


26 


ii 


43 


*- 


5^ 


5% 


24 


10^ 


40 


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1*38 


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22 


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35 


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33 


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33 


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18 


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30 


" 


18 


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4^ 


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16 


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4^ 


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23 


15 


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2^ 


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SEIZING STUFF, 


2 


3^ 


4 


7 


I Oy^ 


ALL SIZES, 


1# 


2^: 


3/2 


5 


I 7 ^T 


SIGNAL STRAND FOR R. R. USE, 


I/^ 


2^ 


3 


3/& 


Z 9/^ 


' 












GALV. FENCING STRAND. 


T /i 


i^ 


2*4 


2)4 


21 




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x 


2 


* 


2 3 





NOTES ON RIGGING. 

Galvanized Wire Rope for shrouds and stays is now universally superceding 
hemp rope for the following reasons: it is, much cheaper ; more durable; 
and will not stretch permanently under great strains, as is the case with hemp 
rigging, thus saving much labor in setting up ; and it is fully as elastic as hemp 
rope of equivalent size. The great economy of using wire in place of hemp 
rigging is the large reduction in size and weight. The bulk of wire rigging is 
only one sixth that of hemp, while the weight is only one-half. The advantages 
of lightness are apparent to every^seaman ; it offers less resistance to the wind, 
and the removal of several tons of weight from the height occupied by the 
standing rigging , increases both the steadiness and stability of the ship. 

All vessels in the U. S. Navy are now rigged with Roeblings Wire Rope 
exclusively, it having proved the best in the test made by the Government at the 
Was/iington Navy Yard. 



Two kinds of wire rope are manufactured. The most pliable variety contains 
19 wires in the strand and is generally used for hoisting and running rope. 
The ropes with 12 wires and 7 wires in the strand are stiffer, and are better 
adapted for standing rope, guys and rigging. Orders should state the use of the 
rope and advice will be given. Ropes are made up to 3 inches in diam., both 
of iron and steel, upon special application. * ? 

For safe working load allow one-fifth to one-seventh of the ultimate strength, 
according to speed, so as to get good wear from the rope When substituting 
wire rope for hemp rope, it is good economy to allow for the former the same 
weight per foot which experience has approved for the latter. 

Wire rope is as pliable as new hemp rope of the same strength ; the former 
will therefore run over the same sized sheaves and pullies as the latter. But the 
greater the diameter of the sheaves, pulleys or drums, the longer wire rope will 
last. In the construction of machinery for wire rope it will be found good 
economy to make the drums and sheaves as large as possible. The minimum 
size of drum is given in a column in the table. 

Experience has demonstrated that the wear increases with the speed. It is 
therefore better to increase the load than the speed. 

Wire rope is manufactured either with a wire or a hemp centre. The latter 
is more pliable than the former and will wear better where there"is short 
bending. Orders should specify what kind of centre is wanted. 
*^Wire rope must not be coiled or uncoiled like hemp rope. When mounted on 
JL reel, the latter should be mounted on a spindle or flat turn-table to pay off the 
r^ppe. When forwarded in a small coil without reel, roll it over the ground like 
'; a: wheel, amFfun off the rope in that way. All untwisting or kinking must be 
^ "avoided. ^_ 

X.. 4 To preserve wire rope, apply raw linseed oil with a piece of sheepskin, wool 
inside ; or mix the oil with equal parts of Spanish brown or lamp-black. 

-To preserve wire rope underwater or under ground, take mineral or vegetable 
tar, add I bushel of fresh slacked lime to I barrel of tar, which will neutralize 
the acid, and boil it well, then saturate the rope with the hot tar. To give the 
mixture body, add some sawdust. 

In no case should galvanized rope be used for running rope. One day's use 
scrapes off the coating of zinc, and rusting proceeds with twice the rapidity. 

The grooves of cast iron pulleys and sheaves should be filled with well 
seasoned blocks of hard wood set on end, to be renewed when worn out. This 
end wood will save wear and increase adhesion. The smaller pulleys or rollers 
which support the ropes on inclined planes should be constructed on the same 
plan. When large sheaves run with very great velocity, the grooves should be 
lined with leather, set on end, or with india rubber. This is done in the case of 
all sheaves used in the transmission of power between distant points by means 
of ropes, which frequently run at the rate of 4000 feet per minute. Full inform- 
ation will be given, on the size of rope and the size and speed of sheaves to be 
used for transmitting power. 

Steel ropes are to a certain extent taking the place of iron ropes, where it is a 
special object to combine lightness with strength. . 

But in substituting a steel rope for an iron running rope, the object in view 
should be to gain an increased wear from the rope rather than to reduce the 
size. 

Send for Painnlet on "Transmission of Power by fire Rone." 



WIRE ROPE 



OF 



IRON, STEEL, BRASS, 



O O 



INCLINED PLANES, SUSPENSION BRIDGES, FER- 
RIES ; FOR MINING, AND ALL KINDS 
OF HEAVY FOISTING. 



Small Cords for Window Sashes, Signal Ropes, etc. 



SPECIAL ATTENTION GIVEN TO 

PLIABLE HOISTING HOPES 

FOR ELEVATORS. 



Address 



JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS, 

TRENTON, N. J. 



YLORD BROS. Inc. 
Syr.cu.e, N. Y. 
Stockton, Calif.