JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS,
TRENTON, N. J., AND 117 LIBERTY STREET, N. Y.
D. VAN NOSTRAND,
23 MURRAY STREET AND 37 WARREN STREET.
BY MEAXS OE 1
W. A.|ROEBLING, C.E.,
TRENTON, K J.
NEW YORK :
D. VAN NOSTKAND, PUBLISHEB,
23 MURRAY STREET AND 27 WARREN STREET.
Entered according to Act of Congress, iu the year 18G9,
. BY D. VAN NOSTRAND,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the
Southern District of New York.
terent.rpml by LITTLE. RKNX!* .k Co ,
645 and &17 Broadwar. Now Yuife.
11 The use of a round endless wire-rope running at a great
velocity in a grooved sheave, in place of a fiat belt running
on a flat-faced pulley, constitutes the transmission of power
The distance to which this can be applied ranges from
50 or CO feet up to about 3 miles. It commences at the
point where a belt becomes too long to be used profitably,
and can thence be extended almost indefinitely. In point
of economy it costs only one-fifteenth of an equivalent
amount of belting and the one twenty-fifth of shafting.
I'll is method was iirst introduced, both in Europe and
America, about the year 1850. The development it has
received in this country is but trifling ; in Europe, how-
ever, it has been immense, numbering at the present time
over 2,000 permanent applications, and as man}' more of a
Visitors to the Paris exposition in 18G7 doubtless re-
member seeing in the neighborhood of the iron lighthouse
two slender ropes whizzing through the air high above
their heads at the rate of a mile a minute, and passing in
their course over the broad promenades, the garden and
part of the artificial basin. Upon entering one of the
buildings in which the ropes disappeared, they saw a huge
centrifugal pump, raising a stream of water twelve inches
in diameter from the reservoir below. In looking at the
ceaseless flow, every one was impressed with the idea that
the ropes formed some kind of a mysterious connection
between this pump and a steam-engine working in a build-
ing three hundred feet off; few, however, understood it.
That was simply a transmission of power ly ropes.
The entire force of a 50-horsc-power engine was thus con-
veyed through the air by one endless half-inch rope, and
was consumed in driving "M. Schneider's great pump. 77
There is scarcely an establishment in existence where
it would not be convenient at times to transfer power to
some isolated building located at a distance, without going
to the trouble or expense of putting up an engine.
Here we have the ready means at command a meant
which recommends itself by its cheapness of first cost, its
economy of maintenance, and perfect reliability in regard
to working. To enumerate all the instances where it can
be applied would be too formidable a task, a few, how-
ever, will be of interest, and will readily lead the reader
to fill out the list for himself.
Many valuable sites for water-power are lying idle in
this country for want of building-room in their immediate
vicinity ; and since the water can only be led down hill
in certain directions, the cost of a canal or flume would in
many cases come too high, and so the power remains unim-
proved. By ropes, however, we can convey the power of
a turbine or waterwheel in any direction, both up stream
as well as down stream, to either side if necessary ; up
an ascent of 1 in 8 or 10, or down a moderate slope as well.
The power need not be confined to one factory, but can
be distributed among a dozen, located so as to suit their
particular business, and not to suit the oftentimes incon-
venient location of a canal. If the water-power is on one
side of the river and the factories on the other, it is an
easy matter to transfer it across, by making one or two
artificial stations in the river, which nature often supplies
by a rock in place. (See Frontispiece.)
In the neighborhood of Frankfort-on-the-Main, in Gcr-
many, the power of a 100-horse-power turbine is conveyed
for a distance of 3,200 feet, by means of a rope-transmis-
sion, to a cotton factory located in the proper place for
such a building. Wheels of 13J feet, making 114 revolu-
tions per minute, arc used ; size of rope 5 inch, stations 8 in
number and 400 feet apart. A nearer site for a building
could not be found, and this was the only way in which
the power could be made available for that purpose.
At another establishment a powder-mill the various
buildings were placed 400 feet apart along the circumfer-
ence of a circle having a diameter of about 1,200 feet. In
the centre a waterwheel supplied the power, which was con-
veyed to each building by a rope-transmission. One man
at the central building sets in motion the machinery of
all the buildings, which on this account could be placed far
enough apart to prevent the explosion of one from pass-
ing to the other.
In many factories, long counter-shafting with heavy
bevel-gearing can be saved by using a rope ; the farther
off the shaft we wish to drive, the better the arrangement
A heavy punch or pair of shears, straightening- rolls, etc.,
may at times be more conveniently located out in the
yard, near the metal which they are to work upon ; but in
the ordinary way it would be rather troublesome to con-
vey power to them, and so they are put up inside, and
the metal is carried in and out at a heavy annual expense,
all of which could be saved by this method.
It can be profitably applied as a substitute for horse-
power used at outdoor work by rolling-mills, furnaces,
mines, and all sorts of contractors' building operations.
Factories in cities are generally cramped for room.
When neighboring property cannot be bought, perhaps that
across the street can : yet the trouble and expense of dig-
ging up the street to lay down a line of shafting is suf-
ficient to deter one from the purchase. For such a case a
remedy is here presented. A little endless rope passing
through a couple of slits in the window-casing of an upper
story, across to the story opposite, will do all the work,
and none of the passers-by will be any the wiser for it. A
belt would require protection from the weather, but the
rope does not ; and can hang free in the air.
From an engine in the basement, power can be readily
conveyed to the upper stories ; it is necessary, however,
that for a certain distance the rope should hang horizon-
tally, in order to gain the required tension.
As the largest example of a wire-rope transmission we
may mention the great improvement at the Falls of the
Rhine, near Schaffhausen, in Switzerland : advantage was
taken of the rapids at one side and a number of turbines
put in, aggregating in all GOO horse-power. Since the
steep rocky banks forbade the erection of any factories in
the immediate neighborhood, the entire power was trans
ferred diagonally across the stream to the town, about a
mile lower down, and there distributed, certain, rocks in
the water being made use of to set up the required inter-
mediate stations. There are, no doubt, hundreds of similar
localities in our country which can be improved in this way.
New England especially abounds with them. Coal
being so expensive there, their value is all the greater.
At the same time the rough and rocky nature of most of
her river banks has in many cases proved a barrier to
the erection of factories near by. Now, however, by the
system of rope-transmission we can devote all this waste
power to a useful purpose.
For much of the material embraced in the following
pages I am indebted to the Swiss brothers Him, who
have been mainly instrumental in developing the system
practically on the continent ; and also to Prof. F. Rculeaux,
who treats of the subject in his " Constructeur."
TABLE OF TRANSMISSION OF TOWER
ON the preceding page a table of horse-powers is pre-
sented. It embraces every case that will ordinarily arise
in practice, and one can readily select that combination
which will suit his own case, especially if the driving
machinery already exists.
The first column gives the diameters of the grooved
sheave-wheels, in which the rope runs, commencing with
4 feet. Smaller wheels are but seldom wanted.
Then knowing the number of revolutions which your
shaft makes, the last column gives the horse-power cor-
responding to a certain-sized wheel.
Where there is a choice between a small wheel and
fast speed, or a larger wheel with slower speed, it is re-
commended to take the larger wheel.
The horse-powers here given are a minimum, and can
be relied upon under all circumstances.
The Driving Ropes.
The range in the size of wire-ropes is small, varying
only from I in. to I in. diameter in a range of 3 to 250 horse-
power. Full information concerning the strength, cost,
etc., of the ropes is contained in the " Wire-rope table" on
the last page of this pamphlet. The ropes are always
kept on hand, and can be spliced endless at the factory ; or
else a man is sent to splice them, whenever an endless
rope cannot be put on direct. Two wire-ropo transmis-
sions can also be seen in operation at the factory.
In regard to cost, they are the cheapest part of a trans-
mission. For instance, a No. 22 rope, conveying say 25
horse-power costs 8 cents per foot, whereas an equivalent
belt costs about $1.40 per foot. Where a rope-transmis-
sion has to be constantly at work, it is good policy to
keep a spare rope on hand ready spliced, so as to avoid
delay. Their duration is from 2 2 to 5 years, according
to the speed.
For the smaller powers it is advisable to take a size
larger, for the sake of getting wear out of the rope ; al-
though it must be borne in mind that a larger rope is
always stiffer than a small one, and therefore additional
power is lost in bending it around the sheave. An illus-
tration of that is seen in the case of the 14-feet wheel in
the table, where a I-rope gives less power than a l-rope,
simply because it is so much stiffer.
Ropes for this purpose are always made with a hemp
core, to increase their pliability.
It is often required to convey the entire power of a
certain shaft which is driven by a belt of a given size.
In such a case, a simple rule agreeing with the average
result of practice is, that 70 square feet of belt-surface
are equal to one horse-power.
Take, for example, a belt 1 foot wide running at the
rate of 1,400 feet per minute ; then the
Horse-power = '-^ = 20;
and by referring to the table we find the diameter of the
wheel corresponding to this horse-power, and making the
same number of revolutions that the belt-pulley does.
Distance of Transmission.
The foregoing table is intended for distances from 80
up to 350 or 400 feet in one stretch. For a single
stretch extended to say 450 feet, where no opportunity is
presented for putting in an intermediate station, we must
use a rope one size heavier ; and in a case where there is
not sufficient head-room to allow the rope its proper sag,
and it has to be stretched tighter in consequence, we must
also take a rope one size heavier.
Short Transmission. Whenever the distance is less
than 80 feet, the rope has to be stretched very tight, and
we no longer depend upon the sag to give it the requisite
amount of tension. Here we must take a rope two sizes
heavier than is given in the table, and run at the maxi-
mum speed indicated : it is also preferable to substitute
in place of the rope of 49 wires, a fine rope of 133 wires
of the same diameter, which possesses double the flexibility,
runs smoother, and lasts longer. In fact, the substitution
of a fine rope for a coarse one can be done with advantage
in every case in the table where the size admits of it.
Splices. Both kinds of rope are spliced with equal
facility. The splices arc all of the kind known as the
long-splice ; the rope is not weakened thereby, neither is
its size increased any, and only a well practised eye can
detect the locality of one.
Relative Height of Wheels. It is not necessary that the
two wheels should be at the same level, one may be higher
or lower than the other without detriment; and unless this
change of level is carried to excess, there need be na
change in the size of wheel or speed of rope : the rope
may have to be strained a little tighter. As the inclina-
tion from one wheel to another approaches an angle of
45, a different arrangement must be made, as will be
shown hereafter on page 21.
Deflection or Sag of the Ropes.
In the above illustration the upper rope is the pulling-
rope and the lower one the loose following-rope. When
the rope is working, the tension T in the upper rope is just
double that in the lower rope, hence the latter will sag
mudli lower below a horizontal line than the upper one.
When the rope is at rest, both ropes will occupy the
position indicated by the dotted line, and will have a
The best way in practice is to hang up a wire in the
position the rope is to occupy at rest : that has to be clone
in any case, in order to get the length of rope needed.
Then hang it so that the deflection d, below the horizontal
line, is about Ath of the whole distance from wheel tc
wheel. The deflection d of the upper running-rope will
then be about T Vth to -&Vth.
The deflection d" of the lower working-rope is on an
average one-half greater than the deflection d' of the
rope at rest. This is of importance, as we should know
beforehand whether the lower rope is going to scrape on
the ground or. touch other obstructions; in that case,
we either have to dig a trench for the lower rope to
run in or else raise both wheels high enough to clear.
Practically, however, it is not necessary to be so par-
ticular about this matter, on account of the stretch in the
rope. Wire-rope stretches comparativel}- very little;
still there is some stretch, and it is well to allow for it by
stretching the rope a little too tight at first ; after run-
ning a little it will hang all right. When the rope is
very long it is advisable to take up the stretch at the
end of two or three months, as a slack rope does not run
so steadily as a tight one.
Whenever the direction of the motion of the driving
wheel is not fixed by other circumstances, it is often
advisable to make the lower rope the pulling-ropc, and
the upper the follower, as here shown. In this way
obstructions can be avoided, which by the other plan
would have to be removed. The ropes will not inter-
fere as long as the difference between the two deflec-
tions d' and d" is less than the diameter of the wheel.
These limits are of use whenever, on account of rocks
or otherwise, we have to move the wheels closer to-
gether, and the question is how far to have them apart
with a certain deflection.
are generally made of cast-iron, with a stout hub, 8
curved arms, and a deep, flaring groove.
: On account of the great centrifugal force of a rapidly
revolving wheel, a wooden rim would not answer. The
section here shown is for a single grooved wheel. The
slope of the sides of the rim should be considerable ; it
has been made as high as 45 in some instances, where
the span was very long and the ropes were exposed to a
high side-wind. But the half of this slope will answer
''A set of patterns of these wheels, single-grooved, from 4 feet
to 12 feet diameter, is kept on hand at the wire-rope works in
Trenton, N~. J., and castings can be furnished at short notice"*
The bottom of the groove is made a little wider, to pre-
vent the filling from flying out. The rope should always
run on a cushion of some kind, and not on the iron, which
quickly wears it out. A variety of material is used for
this filling soft wood, india-rubber, leather, old rope
tarred, and oakum. To use end wood the rim has to be
constructed on a different plan from that shown here.
The objections to it are, that it is liable to shrink and
crack and fly out ; it is also more severe on the rope.
India-rubber is a very good material ; strips of an inch
square or less can be wedged in very quickly, and will
last a long time. We use it now exclusively for the filling
of our wheels.
* See page 22 for price of wheels.
The rubber is cut into short pieces, having a cross-sec-
tion, as here shown, and is made larger
than the groove, so that when once forced
in, it cannot fly out. The adhesion of the
rope is likewise greater on the rubber
than on any other material.
Leather has been used to some extent.
It is durable, but tedious to put in, as the thin strips of
leather must be set in on end. and several thousand are
required for a large wheel.
Again, by wedging the groove full of tarred oakum a
filling is also obtained, nearly as good as leather, costing
less, and not so tedious to put in. Another plan, which
I have tried with success, is to revolve the wheels slowly
and let a lot of small-sized tarred ratlin or jute-yarns
wind up on themselves in the groove ; then secure the
end, and after a day or two of running the pressure of
the rope, together with the tar, will have made the iilling
compact. This makes a cheap filling.
The double-grooved wheels are filled in the same way.
The rope will run on such filling without making any
noise whatever, and soon wears in a round groove for
A section of the
rim of a G-foot wheel
is here shown with
The diam. of the
wheel is not reck-
oned from the out-
side of the rim, but
from the top of the
iilling, which corre-
sponds to the circle
described by the rope. The hub is made of ample size,
so as to admit of being bored out for shafts, varying from
2 to 83 inches.
"Special care must le taken to set the wheel-shaft at right
angles to the line of the transmission, and also to set the
wheel square with the shaft, otherwise the wheel will ivalble,
and cause the rope to vibrate and jerk."
In conveying power from one building to another at a
single stretch, it is often most convenient to extend the
driving-shafts through the wall and have the wheels and
rope running free outside. See Plate II. The endless
spliced rope can be laid on directly in this case, which is
often an advantage. When this is not practicable, and the
rope has to run through the wall or the side of the window-
casing, narrow slits should be cut in, from 9 to 12
inches high : these slits at the same time serve as guides to
lead the rope to the centre of the wheel-groove. Another
variation would be, to set up the wheels on the roof,
where they are entirely out of the way. The rope while
running requires no protection. If it has to stand still
much, pour some hot coal-tar from a can on the rope in
the groove of the wheel while running.
Whenever there is no room for the sag of the rope, and
it is inconvenient to raise the wheels higher, or a ditch
cannot be dug, it may be supported by a roller in the
middle. This supporting-roller must be in the centre of
the span, and must be at least half the size of the larger
SEE PLATE III.
X the distance materially exceeds 350 to 400 feet,
a rope-transmission should be divided into 2 or moro
equal parts, by means of one or more intermediate
stations. At each station there is a wheel mounted on a
pedestal or other support, and provided with a double
groove in the rim ; so that in place of one long continuous
rope, we have 2 or more shorter endless ropes, extending
from station to station. This is far preferable to support-
ing-rollers in the middle, especially when the demand on
the power is intermittent and jerks would thereby be
caused in the rope. With the two-grooved wheel that
cannot take place : moreover, the wear of the rope on a
supporting-pulley is greater. The sketch on the adjoin-
ing page gives a view of the arrangement.
The whole system should be in a straight line from end
to end. The number of stations can be extended
Transmissions are in operation a mile in length. The
loss of power from friction, etc., or bending of rope, does
not amount to 10 per cent, per mile, and need not be
taken into account at all for only one station.. No slip-
ping of the rope in the groove ever occurs with a
proper filling. With bearings of a sufficient length under
the shaft of the centre wheel, and by providing them with
a self-feeding oil-cup, the axle-friction is reduced to a
Compare this now with a line of shafting where a
bearing has to be provided every 12 or 15 feet, whereas
here we need a bearing only every 3 or 400 feet. Shaft-
ing is simply out of the question in such a case.
The cuts on pages 17 and 19 present three varieties of
foundation or pedestal for the two-grooved wheel one of
stone, one of cast-iron, and the last of wood.
In this country it will generally be found cheaper to
put up a wooden frame, bolted to a masonry foundation
extending below the reach of frost. The frame should be
braced from each side so as to maintain the wheel in a
vertical plane : end-bracing is not required. The length
of shaft from centre to centre of bearing should be a little
less than Lalf the diameter of the wheel. A collar must
be put on the shaft on the inside of each bearing.
It is not necessary, however, that the wheel should be
set in the middle between a double frame or pedestal j we
can just as well hang it free on the outside, as indicated
in the dotted lines of the outer wheel Fig. 2, previous
page. The great advantage this latter arrangement gives
us, is, that we can mount a rope ready spliced, simply
by laying it on from the side. In the other way, the rope
has to be rove around, hauled taut by a fall, and the splice
made at the spot.
In a short transmission it is generally more convenient
to put on the rope ready spliced ; but where there is a
large number of stations and many ropes, the man in
charge of them must learn to make his own splices. This
is an easy operation, and can be learned in a few hours by
anybody. The taking off of an old rope, and putting on
the new one, including the splicing, should not take more
than 1 or 2 hours.
This is of importance when the whole motive-power of
a factory is derived from ropes.
Where ropes have to be often mounted it is convenient
to use a short curved trough of angle-iron, first applied
by Mr. Ziegler. This
crosses the main groove
at one end, and is secured
to the rim and arms of the
larger wheel by bolts or
lashing. Upon turning
the wheel in the direction
of the arrow, the rope lays
in itself. We can also
ease the strain on the
rope by putting under a light temporary support in tho
Plate III presents an illustration of a Turbine wheel
with the driving-wheel above, on the outside of the building.
This can be doubled by having a driving-wheel on the op-
posite side also, from which the ropes can pass in a differ-
ent direction if necessary. The sketch is a little out of
proportion, as the distances between stations ought to be
three-fold, according to a scale.
It is required sometimes to change the direction of the
transmission at some point in its course, either to avoid
an obstacle, or for the purpose of distributing the power
to a number of consumers. This could be done by means
of horizontal sheaves, but the best method has been shown
by experience to consist in the use of bevel- wheels. a$
shown in this sketch.
This is called a distributing-station ; a is the main
driving-wheel ; the two wheels b and c convey the power
in the direction of the arrows.
We can thus reach any locality desired, or get around
the corners of buildings, or any part of your neighbor's
property without difficulty. By lengthening out the shaft
d in one direction, we can branch out still further.
When the power is to be conveyed nearly vertically,
no good result is obtained by running the rope, say from a
to 1) direct, as indicated by dotted lines in the figure below,
since it would slip. Two carrying-sheaves, c and d, must
be put up vertically above a, giving a horizontal stretch
from c and d to b. This is necessary, in order to main-
tain the required tension in the rope, which can be ob-
tained in no other way. a, 5, and c, and even d, should
be of the same size; yet d, which supports the following-
rope, may be made smaller without damage.
This arrangement must be borne in mind whenever
the source of power is located in the cellar, and we
want to carry it to an upper story and distribute it hori-
In buildings we are often so cramped for room thai
pulleys beyond 18 inches cannot be applied ; these would
be rather severe on a wire-rope, running fast, and a hide-
rope might be preferable.
On the last page will be found a Wire-rope table,
giving the particulars of the ropes called for by the
Horse -power table on page 7.
PRICE OF WHEELS,
FILLED WITH RUBBER AND BORED OUT.
3 feet diain $fr each
TC . "Ov~
5 " ^r "
6 *& ' "
7 " 95 "
8 " 125 "
9 CAST IN HALVES. 225 "
10 " do. do. 300 "
11 " do. do. 350 u
12 " ' do. do. 400 "
Special rates for large wheels.
TABLE OF WIRE ROPE,
JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS,
TRENTON, N. J.
Directions for Making a Long Splice in an Endless Running
Rope, of Half Inch Diameter.
Tools required : One pair of nippers, for cutting off ends
of strands ; a pair of pliers, to pull through and straighten
ends of strands ; a point, to open strands ; a knife, for
cutting the core, and two rope nippers, with sticks to un-
twist the rope ; also, a wooden mallet.
First. Haul the two ends taut, with block and fall, until
they overlap each other about 20 feet. Next, open the
strands of both ends of the rope for a distance of 10 feet
each ; cut off both hemp cores as closely as possible (see
Fig. 1), and then bring the open bunches of strands face
to face, so that the opposite strands interlock regularly
with each other.
Secondly. Unlay any strand, a, and follow up with the
strand 1 of the other end, laying it tightly into the open
groove left upon unwinding a, and making the twist of
the strand agree exactly with the lay of the open groove,
until all but six inches of 1 are laid in, and a has become
20 feet long. Next, cut off a within six inches of the rope
(see Fig. 2), leaving two short ends, which roust be tied
Thirdly. Unlay a strand, 4, of the opposite end, and
follow up with a strand, /, laying it into the open groove,
as before, and treating it precisely as in the first case (see
Fig. 3). Next, pursue the same course with b and 2,
stopping, however, within four feet of the first set ; next,
with e and 5 ; also, with c, 3, and d, 4. We now have the
strands all laid into each other's places, with the respective
ends passing each other at points 4 feet apart, as shown in
Fig. 4. .
Fourthly. These ends must now be secured and disposed
of, without increasing the diameter of the rope, in the fol-
lowing manner : Nipper two rope slings around the wire
rope, say six inches on each side of the crossing point of
two strands. Insert a stick through the loop, and twist
them in opposite directions, thus opening the lay of the
rope (see Fig. 5). Now, cut out the core for six inches on
the left, and stick the end of 1 under a, into the place
occupied by the core. Next, cut out the core in the same
way on the right, and stick in the end of a in place of the
core. The ends of the strands must be straightened before
they are stuck in.
Now loosen the rope nipper and let the wire rope close.
Any slight inequality can be taken out by pounding the
rope with a wooden mallet.
Next, shift the rope nippers, and repeat the operation at
the other five places.
After the rope has run for a day, the locality of the
splice can no longer be discovered. There are no ends
turned under or sticking out, as in ordinary splices, and
the rope is not increased in size, nor appreciably weakened
Notice to the Trade.
It has recently come to our notice that a Mr. James
Richmond, of Lockport, N. Y., claims certain patent rights
in connection with the rubber filling of wheels, the trans-
mission of power in different directions, etc.
We hereby give notice that we agree to protect all of our
customers against any claim Mr. Richmond may make
for royalty, and warn them not to pay it.
The filling of the wheel, whether by rubber, leather or
gutta percha was patented as long ago as 1855 by F.
Him in all the States of the continent and England, and
has already expired through lapse of time.
Previous to 1867, over one thousand Rope Trans-
missions had already been put up in France, Germany and
Switzerland, embracing every variety of arrangement
now claimed by Richmond as his inventions !
On page 174 of a German Text-book (The u Construc-
teur" by Reuleaux), edition of 1801, will be found full
illustrations of rubber fillings, wheel sections, etc., iden-
tical with those described in the American Patent
No. 61,554 of Jan. 29th, 1867, in which Mr. Richmond
bought a sixteenth interest for twenty dollars, and con-
stituting the sole foundation upon which he proposes to
collect a royalty from our customers.
In the illustration of this same patent a chain of end-
less buckets is shown as operated by two endless wire
ropes. This identical arrangement was used already as
far back as 1859 in dredging out the bridge foundations
at Kehl over the Rhine, and is described in "Erbkam's
Zeitschrift fur Bauwesen " for Jan. 1860. This dredge
never was successful, because the motion is slow, show-
ing that the supposed inventor never understood the
principle of Rope Transmission, which is speed.
In the report of the U. S. commissioners to the Paris
exhibition, 1867, vol. Ill, page 128 to 134, will be found
a full description of " Hirn's " Wire Rope Transmission
as there exhibited.
Again, during the years 1862 to 7 66, the magnificent
Wire Rope transmission at Schaffhausen on the Rhine
was erected. Here 800 horsepower are distributed for a
distance of two miles among fifty different manufactories,
located in every imaginable position and embracing all
arrangements of changing direction which Mr. Richmond
thinks he has newly devise:!. A description of these
works, with drawings and plans complete, was published
in 1866 by J. H. Kronauer, of Winterthur, Switzerland.
We first introduced the system of Rope Transmission
into this country in 1867, solely with a view to benefit
American manufacturer^, and have carefully abstained
from hampering the thing with patents, in order to ex-
tend its use as much as possible and make it free to all.
Among others so benefited was Mr. Richmond, whom we
furnished with a set of wheels and rope for an 800 foot
Transmission, about a year after the first issue of this
Finding that it proved perfectly successful, he at once
turns around and attempts not only to appropriate the
labors of others to himself, but even to deprive them of
the fruits of their own labor designs that could only
be accomplished through the want of information among
the examiners at the Patent Office.
JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS.
ROEBLINtfSWIRE ROPE FASTENINGS.
. JEyc vriifi .sister luwks
ROEBLING'SWIRE ROPE FASTENINGS.
Fastening for oil wU fool* / J2/
Fitgtau/iat iiuuh- MM? /nit on <tt cost i>iw- .
, ?iuiclc to.vrcltT.
STORE AND BRANCH OFFICE, 117 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK.
HOISTING ROPE^ 19 WIRES. T^ THE STRAND.
- 7 uf
Tiller Rope, | in. Diameter,
28c per Foot.
Min. Size of
or Sheare In
All Kinds of Shackles, Sockets,
Swivel Hooks, and Fastenings,
put on, Splices made for Belt-
IRON. Rope wih 7 Wires to the Strand. STEEL.
a a a
5 *5 K
4 s /
OOPPEB LiaHTNINS EODS of aU Varieties,
MADE TO ORDER.
We keep on hand a full assortment
of Rubber Lined, Cast Iron Trans-
mission Wheels, for transferring from
5 to 300 horse power any distance
from 100 feet to 2 miles.
Send for pamphlet on "Transmission
2 7 S /8
in Tons of 2000
Price per Foot
IRON, COPPER AND TINNED
Price per Foot.
2 9 -.:
' . %
7 WIRES TO THE STRAND.
12 WIRES TO THE STRAND.
S o "S>
in Tons of
i r i^
I 7 ^T
SIGNAL STRAND FOR R. R. USE,
GALV. FENCING STRAND.
NOTES ON RIGGING.
Galvanized Wire Rope for shrouds and stays is now universally superceding
hemp rope for the following reasons: it is, much cheaper ; more durable;
and will not stretch permanently under great strains, as is the case with hemp
rigging, thus saving much labor in setting up ; and it is fully as elastic as hemp
rope of equivalent size. The great economy of using wire in place of hemp
rigging is the large reduction in size and weight. The bulk of wire rigging is
only one sixth that of hemp, while the weight is only one-half. The advantages
of lightness are apparent to every^seaman ; it offers less resistance to the wind,
and the removal of several tons of weight from the height occupied by the
standing rigging , increases both the steadiness and stability of the ship.
All vessels in the U. S. Navy are now rigged with Roeblings Wire Rope
exclusively, it having proved the best in the test made by the Government at the
Was/iington Navy Yard.
Two kinds of wire rope are manufactured. The most pliable variety contains
19 wires in the strand and is generally used for hoisting and running rope.
The ropes with 12 wires and 7 wires in the strand are stiffer, and are better
adapted for standing rope, guys and rigging. Orders should state the use of the
rope and advice will be given. Ropes are made up to 3 inches in diam., both
of iron and steel, upon special application. * ?
For safe working load allow one-fifth to one-seventh of the ultimate strength,
according to speed, so as to get good wear from the rope When substituting
wire rope for hemp rope, it is good economy to allow for the former the same
weight per foot which experience has approved for the latter.
Wire rope is as pliable as new hemp rope of the same strength ; the former
will therefore run over the same sized sheaves and pullies as the latter. But the
greater the diameter of the sheaves, pulleys or drums, the longer wire rope will
last. In the construction of machinery for wire rope it will be found good
economy to make the drums and sheaves as large as possible. The minimum
size of drum is given in a column in the table.
Experience has demonstrated that the wear increases with the speed. It is
therefore better to increase the load than the speed.
Wire rope is manufactured either with a wire or a hemp centre. The latter
is more pliable than the former and will wear better where there"is short
bending. Orders should specify what kind of centre is wanted.
*^Wire rope must not be coiled or uncoiled like hemp rope. When mounted on
JL reel, the latter should be mounted on a spindle or flat turn-table to pay off the
r^ppe. When forwarded in a small coil without reel, roll it over the ground like
'; a: wheel, amFfun off the rope in that way. All untwisting or kinking must be
^ "avoided. ^_
X.. 4 To preserve wire rope, apply raw linseed oil with a piece of sheepskin, wool
inside ; or mix the oil with equal parts of Spanish brown or lamp-black.
-To preserve wire rope underwater or under ground, take mineral or vegetable
tar, add I bushel of fresh slacked lime to I barrel of tar, which will neutralize
the acid, and boil it well, then saturate the rope with the hot tar. To give the
mixture body, add some sawdust.
In no case should galvanized rope be used for running rope. One day's use
scrapes off the coating of zinc, and rusting proceeds with twice the rapidity.
The grooves of cast iron pulleys and sheaves should be filled with well
seasoned blocks of hard wood set on end, to be renewed when worn out. This
end wood will save wear and increase adhesion. The smaller pulleys or rollers
which support the ropes on inclined planes should be constructed on the same
plan. When large sheaves run with very great velocity, the grooves should be
lined with leather, set on end, or with india rubber. This is done in the case of
all sheaves used in the transmission of power between distant points by means
of ropes, which frequently run at the rate of 4000 feet per minute. Full inform-
ation will be given, on the size of rope and the size and speed of sheaves to be
used for transmitting power.
Steel ropes are to a certain extent taking the place of iron ropes, where it is a
special object to combine lightness with strength. .
But in substituting a steel rope for an iron running rope, the object in view
should be to gain an increased wear from the rope rather than to reduce the
Send for Painnlet on "Transmission of Power by fire Rone."
IRON, STEEL, BRASS,
INCLINED PLANES, SUSPENSION BRIDGES, FER-
RIES ; FOR MINING, AND ALL KINDS
OF HEAVY FOISTING.
Small Cords for Window Sashes, Signal Ropes, etc.
SPECIAL ATTENTION GIVEN TO
PLIABLE HOISTING HOPES
JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS,
TRENTON, N. J.
YLORD BROS. Inc.
Syr.cu.e, N. Y.