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Full text of "Descriptive account of the principal towns in Scotland: to accompany Wood's town atlas"

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DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT 



OP THE 



PRINCIPAL TOWNS 



*N 



TO ACCOMPANY 



WOOD'S TOWN ATLAS. 



EDINBURGH : 

SOLD BY W. & A. K. JOHNSTON, ENGRAVERS, & 

JAMES RITCHIE, STATIONER, HIGH STREET ; 

AND W. SWINTON, PRINCE'S STREET. 



1828. 



Price with Atlas, Bound, £5 i 5* 






' 






PREFACE. 



In submitting to the Public the accompa- 
nying Plans of the Burgh and other Towns of 
note in Scotland, the Publisher has been in- 
duced thereto by the solicitation of his Friends 
and a number of Subscribers, at whose sugges- 
tion a short account of each Town is added. 

The developement of knowledge naturally 
increases the desire to obtain it ; and amongst 
Other means of exciting additional interest, 
the knowledge of our own Localities, though 
frequently neglected, is certainly not the least 
important. Our own Island still affords suffi- 
cient materials for the Antiquary, and the 
northern portion of it especially, not only il- 
lustrates, by its more ancient features, many 



IV 

of the most remarkable events recorded in our 
historic annals ; but presents, in the striking 
improvements of modern times, a spectacle 
highly gratifying to the Philanthropist, and to 
all who are interested in the science of Politi- 
cal Economy. It is therefore hoped, that the 
present Collection of Engraved Plans, executed 
with such precision, that even the smallest 
Dwelling-house is laid down, will be found 
useful, both as indicating the situation and 
present condition of many of those ancient 
habitations, which occupy so conspicuous a 
place in the history of former days, and as ex- 
emplifying the progress of improvement during 
recent times. 

In a mercantile point of view, the work will 
serve the purpose of a Directory, by pointing 
out, not only the situation of such Towns as are 
distinguished for particular manufactures, but 
also, the precise spot where the manufactories 
are to be found ; while to those entrusted with 
the management of the Burghs themselves, the 
Plans will naturally suggest the best and most 
convenient mode of efFecting their future im- 
provement and extension. 



These Plans have been for some time before 
the Public in a detached form, and are now 
presented collectively, accompanied by a To- 
pographical description of each Town, stating, 
as far as could be done, in a very abridged 
form, the staple Manufacture and Trade of 
each — its Municipal Government — Revenue- 
Religious Establishments — Schools — Banks — 
Markets — Fairs, &c. and a brief notice of any 
remarkable circumstances in the several loca- 
lities, which might interest national feeling, 
as well as prove attractive to the general reader 
and Tourist. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



His Grace the Duke of Gordon, 

His Grace the Duke of Argyll, 

His Grace the Duke of Buccleueh and 

Queensberry, 
The Right Honourable Lord Montague, 
The Right Honourable the Earl of Rosslyn, 
The Right Honourable the Earl of Marr, 
The Right Honourable Lord Gwydir, 
The Right Honourable the Lord Chief Com- 
missioner, 
The Right Honourable Lord Minto, 
The Honourable General Hope, 
The Honourable Mr Maule, M. P. 
The Honourable Colonel Grant, M. P. 
The Honourable Admiral Fraser, 
Sir Walter Scott of Abbotsford, Bart, 
Sir David Monerieff, Bart. 



Vlll 



Sir John Hope, 

Sir Patrick Walker, 

Sir Robert Dundas, 

Sir Henry Jardine, 

Mrs General Carnegie, 

Major-General William Grant, 

Major-General Broughton, 

Lieutenant-Colonel Gordon of Cluny, 

John Hay, Esq. 

John Kerr, Esq. W. S. 

Norman M'Leod, Esq. 

Alex. Tulloch, Esq. 

William Innes, Esq. W. S. 

Barclay Allardiee, Esq. of Ury, 

John Low, Esq. of Hillton, 

Captain G. Pringle, R. N. 

Charles Hunter, Esq. 

Andrew Skene, Esq. Advocate, 

R. H. Moncrieff, Esq. 

James Innes, Esq. 

David Moncrieff, Esq. 

Alex. Brown, Esq. 

A. N. Macleod, Esq. 

Doctor Bannerman, 

T. Balfour, Esq. 

Henry Raeburn, Esq* 

Robert Stevenson, Esq. 

John Johnson, Esq. 

John Borthwick, Esq. Advocate, 






IX 

Adam Duff, Esq. Advocate, 
Thomas Grainger, Esq. 
Robert Ferguson, Esq. 
J. H. Rigg, Esq. 
William Clark, Esq. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Maclean, 
Norman Lockhart, Esq. W. S. 






CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Aberdeen, - - - - 1 

Annan, - - - 19 

Arbroath, - - 23 

Ayr, .--- SO 

Banff, 39 

Berwick, - - - - 4S 

Brechin, - - 55 

Crieff, - - - 61 

Cupar Fife, • 65 

Dalkeith, - - - 70 

Dingwall, - - 76 

DunbartorT, • - - 79 

Dundee, - - - - 83 

Dumfries, <• - - 91 

Dunfermline, - 99 

Dunkeid, - - « 105 

Edinburgh, - - -. . 1 1 1 

Elgin, - - . . . ]29 

Forfar, - - - -135 

Forres, - - 139 

Glasgow, - - - . 117 



Xll 



Greenock, - - - 171 

Haddington, - - - 181 

Hamilton, - - - - 185 

Hawick, - - - - - 191 

Inverary, - - 199 

Inverness, . * •> 203 

Irvine, - - - - * 211 

Jedburgh, - - * * 215 

Kelso, - - - - - 221 

Kilmarnock, • - 227 

Kirkcaldy - - - - 233 

Kinross, - - * * - 241 

Lanark, - * 247 

Leith, - - 253 

Linlithgow, - «• * - 265 

Montrose, - - - - 271 

Nairn, - 277 

Paisley, - - - 281 

Peebles, - - 291 

Perth, - * 297 

Portobello, - - 309 

Rothesay, - * - - 313 

Selkirk, - ■> , 319 

St Andrews, - 323 

Stirling, - ^ 331 

Stonehaven, * - 339 

Stornowav, ... Si-5 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



CITY OF ABERDEEN. 



EDINBURGH : 

PRINTED BY JOHN MOIE. 

1825. 



HISTORY OF ABERDEEN. 



Aberdeen, the Capital of the County of the same 
name, is situated in North Latitude 57° 5', and 2° 24' 
West Longitude, from the Royal Observatory at Green- 
wich. It is divided into the Old and New Town. 
What is called the New Town, however, is in reality 
Nc$ the most ancient of the two, and only acquired its pre- 
to sent distinctive appellation when rebuilt after its de- 
v . struction by the English in the year 1336. The New 
^| Town has in general a southern exposure, being situ- 
j ated on the north bank of the river Dee, at a short 
distance from its efflux into the sea. The Old Town, 
which may almost be regarded as a continuation of the 
New, stretches to the north. It consists of little more 
than one main street, and extends to the margin of a 
reach in the river Don, at the distance of nearly a mile 
from the sea. 

The name Aberdeen, in the Gaelic Obairreadhain> 
signifies a space of ground between the confluence of two 
rivers. This appellation corresponds exactly with the 
situation of the town in ancient times. The river Don, 
till the beginning of the last century, had its course 
through the Old Town links, emptying itself into the 
ocean on the south side of the Broad-hill, near the north- 
east corner of the boundary of the city royalty ; — 

A 



4 



and there is every reason to think, from the appearance 
of the ground, that at a remote period it joined the Dee 
a little to the east of the Castle-hill ; for existing docu- 
ments shew, that so lately as the reign of James V. the 
main channel of the Dee, unconfined by bulwarks as at 
present, skirted the high ground on which Castle-Street 
is built. 

Aberdeen proper, or what has latterly been termed 
the New Town, is a place of very considerable antiquity. 
It appears to have been known to the Romans, under 
the name of Devana, towards the close of the first cen- 
tury of the Christian era. The few huts, of which at 
that time it must have consisted, seem to have been si- 
tuated in the immediate vicinity of the street now desig- 
nated the Green. This, with Shiprow, is unquestionably 
the most ancient part of the town. In the course of 
time, the buildings appear to have gradually extended 
up the ridge now occupied by Broad-Street and Gallow- 
gate. The Castle-hill appears to have been occupied at 
a remote period as a fortress ; but there were no houses 
on the south side of Castle-Street till after the commence- 
ment of the 16th century, and the low grounds adjoin- 
ing the quay were not gained from the river till about 
the middle of the 17th century. The streets already 
mentioned, with the Upper and Nether Kirkgate, were 
all that the town consisted of till after the period of the 
Reformation. The others are comparatively of modern 
erection. Queen-Street, North-Street, the houses on the 
Quay, Marischal-Street, Belmont-Street, and the suburb 
of Gilcomston, were built during the latter part of the 
last century. The greater part of Footdee, and almost 
all the other streets, have been erected within the last 



"twenty years. The alterations and improvements which 
have taken place in the city of Aberdeen since the year 
1800 are truly astonishing. Many old houses, which 
were of wood, have been taken down, and replaced by 
handsome structures of stone. Three spacious ap- 
proaches to the town have been formed, and carried in 
direct lines to the very centre of the city, by means of 
which the inconveniences of the old, narrow, and circui- 
tous routes are now entirely avoided. That from the 
north-west by Geoi-ge-Street is spacious and regular. 
The approach from the north-east by King-Street is 
handsome, and even elegant. The grand approaches, 
however, from the south and west particularly attract 
the notice of the stranger. These meet at Union-Place, 
and are conducted thence in a straight line through Un- 
ion-Street to the Cross. This street is carried over others 
by three bridges, one of which can boast of an arch 132 
feet span, the largest and finest in Scotland. At the dis- 
tance of two miles, in each direction from the Cross, 
there are bridges over the rivers Dee and Don. The 
bridge of Don consists of a single Gothic arch, 67 feet 
span, and is romantically situated between two project- 
ing rocks which here confine the channel of the river. 
It was founded about the close of the 13th century, 
and the expence is said to have been defrayed by Bishop 
Cheyne, who then held the see of Aberdeen. The bridge 
of Dee was projected by the munificent Bishop Elphin- 
ston, the founder of King's College, and was finished by 
his successor Bishop Dunbar in the year 1520. It is a 
handsome and substantial structure of seven semi-circu- 
lar arches. Attached to each of these bridges, there was 
a chapel in the days of popery. Amongst the many im- 
provements connected with the city of Aberdeen, those 



which have been made upon the harbour are conspicuous. 
In ancient times the only quay was a small piece of arti- 
ficial work near the Shore-brae and adjoining to Shiprow. 
In the year 1623 it was extended thence to Footdee, by 
which a considerable part of the basin was cut off, and 
converted into building ground. About twelve years 
ago, the quay was extended much farther down the 
channel, with the view of joining it to the pier at the 
mouth of the river. This pier, at the entrance to the 
harbour, was begun in the year 1755, and twenty years 
after was extended 1200 feet- into the ocean. Another 
addition to it of 900 feet was made about ten years ago ; 
and the work, a most magnificent one, is now completed 
in that quarter. The object of this great undertaking 
was to prevent the mouth of the river from being filled 
with sand, which it formerly was, during the prevalence 
of storms from the north-east. A breakwater from the 
southern shore, of about 800 feet in length, has 
also been constructed, for the purpose of contracting 
and deepening the channel, and of protecting the en- 
trance of the harbour from south-easterly storms. It is 
in contemplation, agreeably to the plan according to 
which these works have been constructed, to convert the 
whole of the interior of the harbour into a wet-dock, 
with flood-gates at the entrance, and the ground on the 
opposite side into sites for warehouses. 

In connection with these details of the progressive ex- 
tension and improvement of Abebdeen, it will be satis- 
factory to ascertain the population of the city at differ- 
ent periods of its history. The earliest existing docu- 
ment which can throw light on this question, is a list of 



heads of families liable to public assessments about the 
year 1400, from which the total number of inhabitants 
has been estimated at 2800, or perhaps 3000, — a popu- 
lation of no inconsiderable magnitude when the state of 
the several towns of Scotland at that time is taken into 
view. Its rank and importance in these days may be in- 
ferred from its position in the roll of royal burghs ; ha- 
ving occupied, in the year 1357, the second, and, in the 
year 1367, the first place, next to Edinburgh. From 
the register of baptisms, which commenced in the year 
1572, the population of the city of Aberdeen proper, 
or the parish of St Nicholas, at that period, may be 
reckoned to have amounted to 3900, or 4000. The 
city appears to have increased rapidly, till the pestilence 
and the troubles in the reign of Charles I. arrested its 
progress ; for the register of baptisms shews a popula- 
tion, in the year 1603, of 6800 ; and in the year 1643, 
of 8900. From this last period the number of inhabitants 
appears to have gradually declined, till after the union 
of the kingdoms in the year 1707; which may be ac- 
counted for, both from the ungenial influence of a des- 
potic government, and the prevalence of pestilence and 
famine. In the year 1660, the population had decreased 
to 7800 ; in the year 1688, to 6900 ; and seven years 
subsequent famine reduced it, at the period of the union, 
to 5600. The above statements, however, do not in- 
clude the city of Old Aberdeen. In the year 1755, by 
actual enumeration, the population of the oity of Aber- 
deen proper was found to be 10,488 ; and if the sub- 
urbs and the Old Town be added, the whole may have 
amounted to 12,000 souls. The following is a statement 
of the progressive increase of the population of the city 
and suburbs since that period. 





Population in the year 


1770, 


1790, 


1801, 


1811, 


1821, 


14,400 
1,200 
1,500 


16,386 
5,000 
1,713 


17,597 
4,400 
1,715 


21,629 
6,500 
1,911 


26,484 
9,993 
2,063 






17,100 


21,099 


23,712 


30.340 


38,54 



In the three last of these statements, the sailors belong- 
ing to the town are not included. Including these, the 
population in the year 1821 may be estimated at 40,500 
souls. At the same period, there were, in the city of 
Aberdeen proper, 2113 houses, occupied by 6188 fami- 
lies ; in the suburbs, 862 houses, occupied by 2587 fa- 
milies ; and in Old Aberdeen, 322 houses, occupied by 
594 families : making a total of 3297 houses, occupied 
by 9369 families. Of the families, 330 were employed 
chiefly in agriculture, and 6952 in trade, manufactures, 
and handicraft occupations. 

Aberdeen is locally situated in two parishes, St Ni- 
cholas and St Machar. The former comprehends the 
city of Aberdeen proper, and in the latter the suburbs 
and the Old Town are situated. St Nicholas is of a very 
limited extent ; but St Machar embraces a large district 
of country to the north and west of the town, the popu- 
lation of which however is not included in the above 
statement. In the parish of St Nicholas there are eight 
churches and chapels connected with the national esta- 
blishment, the cure of which is served by ten clergymen. 
The value of their stipends may be estimated as follows, 



viz. one of L.290, one of L.240, two of L.230, four of 
L.200, one of L.180, and one of L.160 per annum. 

The religious establishment in the parish of St Ma- 
char consists of one church and one chapel of ease, the 
cure of which is served by three ministers, whose stipends 
may be estimated at L.340, L.300, and L.200 per an- 
num. These places of worship are capable of seating 
12,000 persons; but this accommodation is far from being 
adequate to the population belonging to the established 
church. Dissenters of almost every description are to 
be found in Aberdeen ; but some of their places of wor- 
ship are extremely small. The Dissenting Meeting- 
houses are as follows, viz. one Roman Catholic, two 
Scotch and one English Episcopal ; five Secession, three 
Congregational, one Relief, one Methodist, one Baptist, 
one Quaker, one Glassite, one Berean, and one non-des- 
cript. Besides these, there is a Seaman's chapel, where 
divine service is performed by the ministers of several 
religious denominations alternately. In ancient times 
there were many religious institutions in Aberdeen at- 
tached to the Romish hierarchy. The Old Town was the 
see of a Bishop, whose seat was transferred thither from 
Mortlach in the year 1136. Some of the Bishops were 
distinguished men, of whom Bishop Elphinston, the 
founder of King's College and University, in the Popish 
church, and Bishops Forbes and Scougal, in the days of 
Protestant Episcopacy, stand pre-eminent. There were, 
in all, 27 Popish and nine Protestant prelates. Previous 
to the Reformation there were also in Aberdeen monas- 
teries of the Trinity, Dominican, Carmelite, and Fran- 
ciscan friars, and a convent of the nuns of St Katha- 
rine, besides several hospitals ; there were likewise two 



10 

collegiate churches, one in the city, and one in King's 
, College. 

Aberdeen enjoys a great advantage above most of the 
provincial towns of Scotland by means of herhterary in- 
stitutions. The most important of these are the Univer- 
sities of King's and Marischal Colleges. King's College, 
which is situated in the Old Town, is the most ancient of 
the two. It was founded by Bishop Elphinston in the 
year 1494, in virtue of a bull from Pope Alexander VI. 
which was confirmed by King James IV. in 1497. The 
establishment consists, at present, of a Principal, Sub- 
Principal, and Professors of Divinity, Civil Law, Medi- 
cine, Oriental Languages, Humanity, Greek, Mathema- 
tics, Natural Philosophy, and Moral Philosophy : Lec- 
tures are also delivered on Chemistry and Natural His- 
tory. A Chaplaincy has also been recently instituted, with 
the sanction of the General Assembly of the National 
Church. Marischal College was founded in the year 
1593, by George Earl Marischal, and obtained almost 
immediately the sanction of the King and the Church. 
It is endowed for a Principal and Professors of Divinity, 
Oriental Languages, Greek, Mathematics, Natural and 
Civil History, Natural Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, 
and Logic, Medicine, and Chemistry. Latin is also 
taught ; and Lectures are delivered on Law, and on se- 
veral branches of Medical Science which are not strictly 
connected with the duties of the Professor of Medicine. 
Each of the colleges is governed by a Chancellor and 
Hector, the former chosen by the professors, and the 
latter by the students. The number of students attend- 
ing both is upwards of 600. In each of the colleges 
there is an extensive library, containing many valuable 



11 

books, and some rare manuscripts. The Museum of 
Natural History is by no means extensive ; but in Ma- 
rischal College there is an uncommonly fine apparatus 
connected with the Natural Philosophy department. 
For the support of students whose circumstances are 
moderate, there are many bursaries, some of them of 
considerable value. There is a grammar school, both 
in the Old and New Town ; the latter is endowed for a 
rector and three masters ; and both are attended by 
about 300 boys. Besides these, there are other semin- 
aries devoted to the instruction of youth in almost every 
branch of useful, scientific, or elegant education. Sever- 
al of these have permanent endowments, whilst others 
depend for subsistence merely on the taste of the public 
for the several departments of knowledge which they 
embrace. 

There are many charitable or benevolent institutions 
in the city. The most prominent of these are the Poor's 
Hospital, the Infirmary, the Lunatic Asylum, Gordon's 
Hospital for the maintenance and education of the sons 
of decayed burgesses and tradesmen ; the Bishop's Hos- 
pital, from the funds of which eighteen old men are sup- 
ported ; and Mitchell's Hospital, for maintaining five wi- 
dows, and five unmarried daughters, of burgesses of Old 
Aberdeen. There are also several foundations for char- 
ity schools ; and, besides, there are numerous voluntary 
associations for charitable purposes, both of a secular and 
religious nature. 

The city of Aberdeen has long been a place of 
considerable trade. Five or six centuries ago, the cur- 
ing and exporting of fish appears to have been a flourish- 
ing article of commerce ; Aberdeen fish were then ex- 
ported to several of the English towns, and also to the 

B 



12 



continent. About the beginning of the last century, an 
active trade was carried on with the Low Countries, when 
woollen stockings were manufactured in great quantities 
for sale in Holland. This branch of commerce only 
ceased on the subjugation of the Netherlands by the 
French. In the year 1766, the Aberdeen Banking Com- 
pany was established, which was productive of the most 
material advantage to the commerce of the place ; be- 
sides this, there are now two other banking establish- 
ments in the city, and two branches of banks from the 
metropolis. There are, at present, extensive woollen, 
linen, and cotton manufactories in the town and neigh- 
bourhood, which give employment to several thousand 
persons ; there are also establishments for the manufac- 
ture of tape, sail-cloth, carpets, paper, and pins ; several 
large breweries for ale and porter ; a nail manufactory, 
coach-works, brick-works, and founderies. The trade 
of ship-building is also carried on to a considerable ex- 
tent ; and the number of vessels belonging to the har- 
bour has of late greatly increased. In the year 1814 
there were connected with the town, exclusive of the ad- 
joining creeks, 160 ships, making 23,400 tons register, 
and employing 1,280 men ; at present there are about 
240^ships, making 37,000 tons, and employing 2000 
men. Of these, 14 vessels are engaged in the whale-fish- 
ery, with about 50 men to each. The trade in fish, for 
which the town was celebrated in ancient times, is still 
carried on. Findon-haddocks, so called from a village 
in the neighbourhood where they are cured, are regularly 
exported to Edinburgh and Glasgow, and many other 
places, where they are esteemed a great delicacy. Sal- 
mon are also caught in great abundance in the rivers 



IS 



Dee and Don, and form an article of very considerable 
demand in the London market. Another lucrative 
branch of commerce is the exporting of stones from the 
granite quarries which abound in the vicinity ; the streets 
of the metropolis are paved with this durable substance ; 
and one of the finest bridges over the Thames has been 
constructed of the same material. 

Several of the public buildings in Aberdeen are wor- 
thy of notice. Of the churches, the most venerable is 
the parish church of St Machar, which was formerly the 
cathedral. All that now remains is the nave, surmount- 
ed with two spires at the west end. The roof, which is of 
oak, finely blazoned with coats of arms and inscriptions, 
is justly admired. The central tower, which stood at the 
east end of the present building, fell about the close of 
the 17th century, and buried the transept and the choir 
in its ruins. The two parish churches of St Nicholas 
are adjoining to each other, being separated only by a 
cross aisle, over which is a tower and pyramidal spire 
140 feet in height. The East church is a plain Norman 
building, divided, like the church of St Machar, by two 
rows of pillars surmounted with pointed arches. The 
West church was founded about 70 years ago on the site 
of a fine old Gothic structure which had gone to ruin a 
short time before. It is a handsome structure in the 
modern Roman style, divided by two rows of piers, over 
which are semicircular arches. Here the magistrates 
have a gallery, and the seat of the chief magistrate is 
adorned with an elegant mahogany canopy. The wall 
behind is enriched with several scripture pieces on tapes- 
try, executed by a native of the city. None of the other 
churches or chapels on the establishment are remarkable. 



14 



The Dissenting meeting-houses are all plain structures, 
with the exception of the Scotch Episcopal Chapel, late- 
ly erected, the front and interior of which are in imita- 
tion of the Gothic. — Of the other public buildings, King's 
College is one of the most interesting ; it is in the form 
of a square ; the steeple is vaulted with a double cross 
arch, above which is a beautiful imperial crown, support- 
ed by eight pillars, and closed with a globe and double 
cross. A small spire rises from the centre of the chapel ; 
and at another corner of the court is a large square 
tower, built by contributions from General Monk and 
his officers when quartered in the city. In the chapel is 
the tomb of Bishop Elphinston, the founder of the col- 
lege. Remains of ancient carved work adorn the Avails. 
The south side of the quadrangle is a plain range of 
building, erected over an arcade. Marischal College is 
a very plain unadorned structure, consisting of a centre 
and two wings. One of these is surmounted by a tower, 
containing the College observatory, in which are several 
valuable astronomical instruments. In the halls of both 
colleges are numerous paintings, chiefly portraits of dis- 
tinguished characters. The Town- house is a large and 
substantial building ; over the old prison adjoining is an 
elegant spire 120 feet high ; the court room at the back 
is very elegant, and the Town-hall is a lofty spacious a- 
partment. Immediately opposite is the Cross, a hexa- 
gonal building, from the centre of which springs a fine 
Corinthian column, surmounted with an unicorn. Over 
the cornice are carved in relief the heads of ten of the 
Stuarts, with the royal arms of Scotland, and those of 
the city of Aberdeen. Gordon's Hospital is a handsome 
edifice, with a small spire in the centre, and a statue of 



15 



the founder over the entrance. The front of the Medi- 
cal Society's Hall is in the purest Grecian style, ornament- 
ed with a portico of the Ionic order. A similar, though 
larger portico, gives a fine appearance to the New As- 
sembly rooms. The Bridewell is very spacious, and is 
built in the castellated fashion. The only other build- 
ings calculated to attract notice are the bridges already 
mentioned, the Barracks, Trades' 1 Hall, and Lunatic 
Asylum. 

Abekdeen is one of the most ancient royal boroughs 
in Scotland. Before civic corporations were known in 
this country, King Gregory bestowed several special 
marks of royal favour on the inhabitants. The most 
ancient charter extant is from King William the Lion, 
in which he grants to his burgesses of Aberdeen the free 
enjoyment of their merchandise, after the manner in 
which their ancestors had exercised in the time of Mal- 
colm his grandfather. He gave two other charters, by 
which the burgesses were exempted from paying tolls 
and customs in any market or fair within the kingdom ; 
and at the same time established a mint, and erected a 
palace, in the Town. The constitution of the burgh was 
originally vested in an alderman and four bailies, with a 
common-council, elected with the consent and assent of 
the community assembled in the Guild Court. In the 
middle of the 15th century, an act of Parliament was 
passed ordaining the old council annually to choose the 
new. The spirit of this enactment has obtained ever 
since, although it has frequently excited opposition and 
complaint. At present, the magistrates and council 
consist of nineteen persons, fifteen of whom must vacate 
their seats at the end of the year. The office-bearers are 



16 



composed of a Provost, four Bailies, a Dean of Guild, a 
Treasurer, ten merchant councillors, and two trades- 
councillors. The Provost is high-sheriff and coroner, 
and the Bailies his deputy-sheriffs and coroners within 
the city and liberties. The Dean of Guild, besides hav- 
ing the power of marking and stamping all weights and 
measures, is custodier of the standard weights and mea- 
sures, not only within the city but also of the whole 
county of Aberdeen. In the burgh there are seven in- 
corporated trades, viz. Hammermen, Bakers, Wrights, 
and Coopers, Tailors, Shoemakers, Weavers, and Flesh- 
ers. A deacon, chosen annually, presides over each, and 
a deacon-convener over the whole. 

The paving, cleaning, and lighting of the streets of 
the city, and the supplying of the town with water, is 
under the superintendance of commissioners of police, 
chosen annually by the inhabitants agreeably to an act 
of Parliament. The expence is defrayed by assessment 
on the house-rents within the burgh. A regular night- 
watch has lately been added to the establishment. The 
whole has been productive of the greatest advantage to 
the public. 

Our limits will not admit of much historical detail re- 
specting the events which have distinguished the city at 
different periods. In addition to what has been stated, 
it may be observed, that Aberdeen was frequently a 
royal residence, not only in the time of William the Lion 
but also in that of the Alexanders. In the years 1244 
and 1264, the town was destroyed by accidental fire. 
In 1292 the castle was delivered up to Baliol, and gar- 
risoned by English troops, who afterwards plundered and 
burnt the town on. the approach of Sir William Wallace. 



17 

The citizens of Aberdeen were amongst the first that 
joined the standard of King- Robert Bruce. They de- 
feated a body of English near Inverness, and soon after 
took the castle by storm, and put the garrison to the 
sword. In the year 1336, the town was again pillaged 
by the English, and, being set on fire, burned for six 
days, till the whole was reduced to ashes. King David, 
on his return from France, assisted the citizens to rebuild 
these houses, and held his first Parliament in the town 
in the year 1343. Robert II. the first of the Stuarts, 
occasionally made Aberdeen his residence. In the be- 
ginning of the fifteenth century, the citizens marched out 
in battle array to oppose the Highland army under 
Donald the Lord of the Isles, when most of the principal 
burgesses, with the provost, were slain. During this 
century bloody conflicts often took place on the streets, 
and the citizens were frequently at war with the turbu- 
lent clans in the neighbourhood. At the period of the 
Reformation, in the year 1560, the monasteries of the city 
were destroyed ; and the interior furnishing of the choir 
of the cathedral, with the lead on its roof, as well as the 
altars in the church of St Nicholas, were removed. Du- 
ring the troubles in the reign of Charles I. the inhabi- 
tants at first manifested a disposition to oppose the cove- 
nant, which was then subscribed by almost all the nobi- 
lity, clergy, magistrates, and people of Scotland ; but 
the majority afterwards acceeded to this celebrated bond. 
Amidst the many conflicts which followed at this period 
the town suffered severely. The inhabitants were repeated- 
ly pillaged, the funds of the corporation were exhausted, 
and the ravages of the plague completed the work of de- 
vastation by carrying off 2000 persons. At the Revolu- 



18 

tion, several of the clergy of the city refused to conform ; 
and, being ejected from their livings, became Episcopa- 
lian dissenters. During the rebellions of 1715 and 1745, 
the great majority of the citizens, being Presbyterians, 
were faithful to the established government. The town 
was occupied by the rebels at both these periods, but 
no very daring acts of outrage were committed. On both 
occasions, however, the regular election of magistrates 
was prevented. The history of the city since that time 
is chiefly a detail of its progressive improvement. The 
magnificent plans for altering and ornamenting the town 
were unfortunately, a few years ago, the means of em- 
barrassing the funds of the corporation ; and, in the 
year 1817, owing to an irregularity in the annual elec- 
tion of the magistrates and council, the sett of the burgh 
was forfeited. The old council, however, were author- 
ized soon after, by a warrant from the Government, to 
elect a new ; and, during the few years that have elapsed 
since that period, the prosperity of the corporation has 
revived, and the funds of the city are once more in a 
flourishing condition. 



Printed by John Moir, 
Edinburgh, 1825. 



ANNAN. 



Annan is a Royal Burgh, in the parish of that name, and 
capital of the district of Annandale. It is 79 miles from 
Edinburgh, 89 from Glasgow, 16 from Dumfries, 43 from 
Kirkcudbright, and 9 miles west of Gretna Green. The 
Town is situated near the discharge of the river Annan into 
the Solway Firth. It is one of the most Ancient Towns in 
Scotland, having received its Charter from Robert de Bruce, 
who was Lord of Annandale before the accession of that 
House to the Scottish Throne. 

The houses are neat and well built, and the Town has 
been greatly improved of late by new streets opened in the 
east and north parts : and a number of good new houses 
built. At the east end of the Town is a fine new Church 
with a Tower and Spire, and at the west end are the Town 
House and Markets, with a Spire and Clock. The Acade- 
my is an elegant building, -with apartments for the Rector, 
and School Rooms, where Latin, Greek, and the French 
languages are taught, as also Mathematics, Writing, and 
Arithmetic. It is governed by the Magistrates and a com" 
C 



20 

mittee of the Heritors. There is a well conducted Sub- 
scription Library, and several benevolent Societies. 

Formerly Annan carried on a considerable trade in wine 
and the exportation of corn, — at present the principal trade 
is in cured bacon, hams, and the exportation of corn to the 
amount of 20 to 30,000 bushels annually. A manufactory 
for spinning cotton has been established by a Manchester 
Company, which has greatly added to the prosperity and 
population of the Town. 

The old bridge across the river Annan has been taken 
down, and a new one is now erecting on its site, towards 
the expence of which a grant of £3000 has been obtained 
from Government, and the remainder of the expence, sup- 
posed to amount to £4000. additional, will be defrayed by 
the County. 

The mouth of the river forms a good harbour, having 
water for vessels of 250 tons to within half a mile of the 
Town, where a commodious quay has been erected. 

Annan is governed by a provost, two bailies, fifteen 
councillors, a treasurer, dean of guild, and town-clerk. It 
possesses extensive burgh roods and commonties, the latter 
of which have been divided, and are in a state of high im- 
provement. The revenue of the Town, arising from Fishe- 
ries, Tolls, Feu-duties, &c. is about £600 per annum. It 
joins with Dumfries, Lochmaben, Sanquhar, and Kirkcud- 
bright, in sending a member to Parliament. 

Annan was a Roman station, and the veromum of the 
geography of Ravenna. It seems to have been held by the 
Britons after the departure of the Romans, till they were 
subdued by the Saxons of the Northumbrian Kingdom, 



21 

when it came to the Scotch. It afterwards became a prin- 
cipal port, and was granted with the territory of Annandale 
and Lochmaben to the ancestors of Robert Bruce, by some 
of whom a castle was built. This castle was in later times 
occupied as a church, but having become a ruin it was de- 
serted, and the original wall now forms part of the jail of 
Annan. 

By the accession of the Bruce family to the throne it 
became a Royal Burgh. Upon the death of David the 
the Second in 1371, this castle, Lochmaben, and the 
Lordship of Annandale came to Randolph Earl of Murray, 
who was regent during the minority of David, and, with his 
sister Agnes, it went to the Dunbars Earls of March. Af- 
ter their forfeiture it went to the Douglasses. The Dou- 
glasses also lost it by joining with the Duke of Albany, 
brother of James the Third, who had revolted against the 
King, and plundered the Fair of Lochmaben with 500 
horsemen on St. Magdalen's day, 22d July 1483, where 
they were defeated, when Douglas was taken prisoner, and 
Albany fled to England. After this period it remained in 
the hands of the King, and became the great key of the 
Western Border. It now belongs to the Earl of Hopetoun, 
and is a Marquisate in the family of Johnstone. 

The parish of Annan is about eight miles in length, and 
from one to three miles in breadth. The surface is mostly 
level, and the soil in general a rich clay. Potatoes are 
much cultivated here, which are of an excellent quality, and 
in great request for seed. The river Annan intersects the 
parish, whose banks are ornamented with belts of planting, 
as are also most of the elevated grounds. There is a valu- 



22 

able salmon fishing on the river. Coal is found in conside- 
rable quantity ; limestone, granite, and free-stone are abun- 
dant. 

The district of Annandale was a part of the Roman pro- 
vince of Valentia, and abounds with Roman Stations and 
Antiquities. Part of the Wall of Severus, the camp at 
Birrens, with that at Brunswark, and the remains of a mili- 
tary road, can be easily and distinctly traced. The ruins of 
the castle of Auchincass, once the seat of Randolph Earl of 
Murray, the Regent, covers above an acre of ground, and 
yet conveys an idea of the strength and extent of the build- 
ing. The ancient castles of Hoddum and Comlongan, are in 
a tolerable state of preservation ; but, with the exception of 
these two, most of the other old fortalices and towers, erect- 
ed on this part of the Border, are now taken down or in 
complete ruin. 

The market day of Annan is Friday, at which large quan- 
tities of pork are sold. There are annual fairs held on the 
first Thursday in February — on the first Thursday in May 
— the third Thursday in August — first Tuesday after the 
29th of September — on the third Thursday in October, and 
on the first Tuesday after the 11th day of November. 
Population, town and parish, 1811, 3341. 
Do. do. 1821, 4486. 



ARBROATH. 



Aberbrothock, commonly called Arbroath, is a Royal 
Burgh in the county of Angus or Forfar, it is distant 17 
miles from Dundee, 12 from Montrose, and 14 from Forfar 
the county town. Its name is descriptive of its situation, 
where the Brothock, a small stream, said to signify " the 
muddy water," discharges itself into the ocean. 

The town, which is now a thriving seat both of com- 
merce and manufactures, was celebrated at a former period 
for its stately and richly endowed Abbey, founded about 
the year 1178 by King William the Lion, and dedicated to 
Thomas a Becket of Canterbury, who was then esteemed a 
saint and martyr. 

The ground occupied by the Abbey and its adjoining 
garden was enclosed with a strong wall ; the length from 
north to south being 1150 feet, the breadth on the north 
side of the area 706, and on the south 484. The height of 
this wall was from 20 to 24 feet, with battlements at inter- 
vals. The tower at the north-west corner, which formed 
the regality prison, is still entire, being about 24 feet 



24 

square, and 70 feet high. The tower at the south-west 
corner of the garden, has, with the addition of a few layers 
of plain mason-work, and a paltry spire covered with slates, 
been converted into a steeple for the present parish church. 
The remains of the Abbot's house, converted into a private 
mansion, are still standing, and in good repair. The ruins 
of the Abbey Church occupy a considerable portion of the 
north side of the area. They exhibit a specimen of the 
early pointed style, with small lancet shaped windows. The 
great western entrance was of the- Saracenic order, with a 
circular window above. A similar window, though smaller^ 
appears in the north transept. 

The south wall of the church is all that remains entire j 
the north wall has altogether disappeared. Part of the east 
end of the church, where the high altar stood, has been 
preserved ; and the two towers at the west end present a 
mutilated aspect, the highest battlement or pinnacle re- 
maining being about 100 feet from the ground. The pil- 
lars that supported the roof are gone, and only their foun- 
dations can be traced. Four of these appear to have been- 
much larger than the rest, and probably sustained the 
weight of a central tower. 

The length of the church inside from east to west was 270 
feet/the breadth of the middle aisle 35, and of each of the 
side aisles 16,], making the breadth of the whole church 68 
feet. The length from the west end to the transept was 148 
feet, the breadth of the transept 45^ feet, and length from 
north to south 132 feet. The length from the transept to the 
east end of the church was 764 feet, and the height of the 
walls, judging from marks of the roof on the ruins, appears? 



25 

to have been about 67 feet. Adjoining to the church, to- 
wards the east end, stands the Charter house, in a state 
pretty entire, consisting of two vaulted apartments, the one 
over the other. The foundations of the cloisters may still 
be traced in the convent church-yard. 

Little is known respecting the early state of the town of 
Arbroath, as the records of the burgh were lost about the 
beginning of the last century. It is only, however, since 
the year 1760 that it began materially to increase in extent 
and population. About this period the town consisted only 
of the High Street, Market gate, Old Shore-head, Apple- 
gate, and Lordburn. There were no houses on the Abbey 
grounds, where fore and back Abbey Streets are now 
situated. There were no suburbs in the parish of St. 
Vigeans, nor were the streets within the royalty west of 
the Brothock then built. 

The first indication of any trade or commerce being car- 
ried on at Arbroath subsequent to the charter granted by 
King John of England in 1304*, may be dated from the 
year 1304, when an agreement was made between John 
Geddy, abbot at the time, and the Burgesses of the Town, 
binding himself and his successors in office to bear the 
greater share of the expense of building and maintaining a 
harbour, which vessels might enter, and where they might 
lay in safety, in consideration of a certain yearly duty to be 
paid by the townsmen out of every rood of land within the 
burgh. In 1725 the old harbour, which was situated at the 
foot of the High Street, was abandoned, and a new one 
constructed on the west side of the Brothock. Though 
small for the present state of the trade connected with it, 



26 

it is well executed, in the form of an oblong basin. The 
whole is artificial, and cased with stone work, having an 
outlet to the sea 31 feet in width. This entrance can be 
shut at any time against the violence of the waves, by 
means of wooden beams fitted to a groove, into which they 
are let down at pleasure. The number of vessels belonging 
to the harbour in the year 1780 did not exceed 18, mea- 
suring about 900 tons. In the year 1792 they amounted 
to 23 vessels, 1704 tons, at present (1827) the number of 
vessels is 67, registering 5628 tons. The principal foreign 
trade is to the Baltic, from which Flax is imported. This 
is spun into yarn at several mills in the town and neigh- 
bourhood, whose machinery is driven by steam. Three of 
these are extensive works, and give employment to many 
hands. The original manufacture carried on in the town 
was that of Osnaburgh linens, established before the middle 
of last century. This has since given place to the manu- 
facture of dowlas, sheetings, shirtings, and sail cloth. 

Besides the parish church there are two chapels of ease 
belonging to the Establishment, and dissenting meeting 
houses in connexion with the Secession, Episcopalians, 
Methodists, Glassites, Congregational Independents, and 
Bereans. 

The literary establishments of the town consist of an 
Academy, having a rector, and three other teachers. The 
branches taught are the Latin, French, and English lan- 
guages, with mathematics, arithmetic, and writing. There 
are also many private schools, in which the common 
branches of education are taught. 



27 

Arbroath cannot boast of any rich charitable endows 
ments. The most considerable is a mortification for the 
benefit of the widows of Shipmasters. There are two or 
three smaller ones for the benefit of poor householders, and 
for the education of a few poor children. 

Arbroath is generally said to have been erected into a 
royal burgh by King William the Lion, the founder of the 
Abbey. There can be little doubt that this monarch be- 
stowed peculiar privileges on the town ; although it may be 
fairly questioned whether royal burghs, in the sense in 
which the term is now understood, had any existence at so 
remote a period. Before the reformation, the town, as a 
burgh, appears to have been dependent in a great measure 
on the Abbot : the burgesses being under the government 
of two bailies, one of whom was chosen by the Abbot, and 
the other by themselves. The revenue of the burgh is 
about £2000 per annum, of which £900 arises from shore 
dues. The present charter is a nova dona from James the 
Sixth in the year 1599, in which, as a reason for the grant, 
it is stated that their old evidences of royalty had been ab- 
stracted by the Bishop of Murray. The town council can- 
not exceed 19 in number, amongst whom there are a Pro- 
vost, two Bailies, a dean of Guild, and deacon convenor. 
The power of the Magistrates is much the same as in other 
royal burghs in Scotland. There are seven incorporated 
trades, viz. Smiths, Glovers, Tailors, Weavers, Shoemakers, 
Wrights, and Bakers. 

The only public buildings in the town worthy of notice 
are the Town-house, which is handsome, the Trades-haU 
D 



28 

and the Academy. The parish Church, in the steeple of 
which is a peal of three bells, has by no means an attractive 
exterior, though the inside, with a double tier of galleries, 
has somewhat of a venerable appearance. The two Chapels 
of ease are neat, though plain, structures ; and there is a 
simplicity in that which has been erected in .the suburbs 
which pleases the eye. The Signal Tower for communicat- 
ing with the Bell-rock Light house, is worthy of the atten- 
tion of the stranger. It is both substantial and elegant in 
its aspect, and possesses every 'Convenience that can be de- 
sired in such an edifice. 

The general appearance of Arbroath is not such as to en • 
title it to be considered a handsome looking town. Market- 
gate, and the lower part of the High Street, are, at the same 
time spacious, and the latter, besides the Town -house and the 
Trades hall, which have ornamented fronts, contains many 
excellent houses. Most of the secondary streets, especially 
fn the suburbs, are rather mean looking than otherwise, 
owing principally, not to a deficiency in width but to the 
circumstance of the majority of the tenements being only 
one storey in height. Elegant houses, however, are occa- 
sionally to be met with in every quarter of the town. Most 
of the buildings are of a reddish coloured sandstone which 
is found in the immediate vicinity. The ruins of the Abbey 
form a picturesque object from whatever quarter they are 
viewed. Arbroath has a south east exposure, and the 
winds in that direction are often severely felt during the 
winter months. The surrounding country, however, is plea- 
sant, and well cultivated ; and the view of the estuary of 



29 

the Tay, and the coasts of Fife and East Lothian, which is 
enjoyed from the beach and every surrounding eminence, 
renders the situation agreeable. 

Population in 1811, 5380, Town and Parish. 
1821, 8970. 



AYR. 



Ayr is a Royal Burgh of great antiquity, and the County 
Town of Ayrshire, — the Circuit Court is held here, and it 
is also a Presbytery seat. The town is situated on a point 
of land between the rivers Ayr and Doon, near the junction 
of these rivers with the Firth of Clyde. Ayr is 77 miles 
west by south of Edinburgh, 12 south-west of Kilmarnock, 
12 south of Irvine, and 34 miles south-west of Glasgow. 

The old part of the town forms something like a crescent, 
and the houses in this quarter, including the principal street, 
are irregularly built in the ancient style, with their gables 
and corners projecting into the street, — the main street is 
broad and spacious with a row of houses on each side, and 
contains some handsome buildings. 

The other streets, like those in all old towns, are narrow ; 
but the inconvenience of their being ill paved and dirty, 
which has sometimes been complained of, is in a great mea- 
sure obviated by new pavings and other improvements, and 
they are now lighted with Gas. The obstruction of the 
Tolbooth and buildings connected with it in the High Street, 



31 

lias been removed, (1827) and a spacious Strjet opened 
from the New Bridge to Wellington Square. The old 
Spire is intended to be replaced by a handsome structure 
in a different situation. New Streets, too, are laid out, and 
new buildings are rising in all directions : many of these 
houses possess a very considerable degree of elegance. The 
New Square called Wellington Square rivals many in the me- 
tropolis for elegance — the west side of this Square is occu- 
pied by a noble building for a new County Hall, Court 
rooms, &c. erected at the joint expence of the Burgh and 
County, and cost £27,000. The front of this edifice is orna- 
mented with a handsome Portico, and within the square is 
a neat plot of ground laid out with gravel walks, inclosed by 
a cast iron rail. Behind the Town Hall are two Prisons* 
one for Debtors, and one for Criminals, commodiously ar- 
ranged for health and comfort. 

Ayr was erected into a Royal Burgh by William the 
Lyon, about the year 1202, and the privileges granted by 
that Charter are still enjoyed by the Burgh in the original 
form and extent. The name of the Town originates from 
that of the river. Ahre, the Celtic name signifying Shallow, 
which is descriptive of the river at this place ; in opposition 
to the Dohn or Doon, which is a deep and copious stream, 
falling into the Clyde on the south, at the distance of about 
a mile from the town. 

In ancient times it appears that the trade of Ayr was 
very considerable, the merchants then carried on an exten- 
sive commerce with France, by exporting Salmon, as well 
as corn, and other productions of the country, — importing 
in return the wines and brandy of France ; but from the ri- 



32 

valship of Glasgow, the foreign export trade of Ayr has 
much declined. The principal trade of this port is now the 
exportation of coal, of which article upwards of 60,000 tons 
are annually shipped to Ireland alone. The exportation of pig- 
iron, coal tar, &c. the produce of the iron works in the County, 
is also considerable, — the whetstone, called Water of Ayr 
Stone, deservesmentionalso, as an article of export. Besides 
the Salmon Fishings on the Rivers Ayr andDoon, there is an 
extensive White Fishery carried on here on the sand banks 
on the coast. Both these fisheries are valuable, and there 
are two companies with large establishments for the curing 
and exportation of their produce. In both the Ayr and 
Boon, the Salmon are plentiful ; and the fishings in these 
rivers produce a rental of upwards of £500. per annum. 

There are between sixty and seventy vessels belonging 
to the Port of Ayr, and their Importations consist of Hides, 
Tallow, &c. from South America, — Provisions, grain, &c. 
from Ireland, — Timber from America, and Hemp and Iron 
from the Baltic. 

The manufacture of Leather is carried on to a large ex- 
tent, and Soap making is on a large scale, — these are the 
two principal manufactures; but there are others, as, Can- 
dles, Ropes, Shoes, Hats, &c. 

The Academy, founded by subscription in 1798, is a most 
valuable institution. It is conducted by a Rector and five 
Masters and Assistants, — this Seminary was created a 
Body Corporate by the Crown, under certain directors, so 
it is properly a Royal Academy. Here are taught the 
English, Latin, Greek, Anglo-Saxon, French, Italian, Ger- 
man, and Oriental Languages, — writing, arithmetic, draw- 



ing, mathematics, navigation, geography, logic, rhetoric, 
botany, chemistry and natural philosophy. This Academy 
has acquired a high degree of celebrity from the abilities of 
its teachers, and the excellent system of Education which 
they have followed. The number of Pupils attending this 
seminary, average 500. 

The old Church was built in the year 1654-, and is still 
in good repair. In 1808 a new Church was built fit to 
contain about 1200 persons. Besides the Churches of the 
Establishment, there are two places of worship belonging to 
the Secession church, one to the Relief, one Moravian, one 
Methodist, and an Independent chapel. The Secession 
churches are properly in the adjoining parish of St. Quivox, 
as is also an elegant Roman Catholic chapel, newly finished. 
The Independent chapel is adjoining the parish of Newton, 
where there is also an Established church. 

The ancient church of Saint John the Baptist, is noted 
for being the place where the Scottish Parliament met in 
the year 1315, when they unanimously confirmed the title 
of Robert Bruce to the throne of Scotland, and settled the 
order of succession among the members of the family. This 
church was converted into a place of arms, and surrounded 
by fortifications during the protectorate of Oliver Crom- 
well, the ruins of which remain, and the tower or steeple of 
St. John's church still remains entire. 

There is a subscription Library upon an enlarged plan, 
containing many thousand volumes, in all the various de- 
partments of Literature and the Arts. 

Ayr possesses a number of charitable endowments, the 
chief of which is the Charity House, or Towns' Hospital, — 



34 

this house was built by subscription in 1756, and is capable 
of containing sixty paupers, though there is seldom so many. 
This establishment is chiefly supported by its own funds, 
arising from lands and donations, or from what is called in 
Scotland, mortifications. The Dispensary, supported by 
subscriptions, gives medicine and aid to the sick poor. The 
Sailors Society instituted in 1581, support their own dis- 
tressed members. The Merchant Society was formed in 
1655, with a fund for the support of decayed members, 
their widows and orphans. The Ayr Universal Society, 
and many other charitable and benevolent institutions, on a 
smaller scale, are ably conducted. 

It was in the town of Ayr that the heroic Sir William 
Wallace, the protector of Scotland, first commenced his op- 
position to the English under Edward the first, and here 
that monarch established one of his most powerful garri- 
sons. It is noted also, as being the birth place of Johan- 
nes Scotus, surnamed Erigena, who flourished in the ninth 
century ; celebrated throughout Europe for his learning, 
ready wit, and powerful elocution, exerted in the metaphy- 
sical disputations of his time. This town also gave birth to 
the Chevalier Ramsay, author of the travels of Cyrus, and 
other works. The more modern, but no less celebrated 
Robert Burns, the Scotch Poet, was born at Alloway in 
this neighbourhood, in a small cottage, now a public house, 
where the apartment in which he was born is shewn ; and 
near to this spot an elegant monument has been erected to 
his memory on the Banks of the Doon, amidst the scenery 
which gave inspiration to his muse. Alloway-kirk is on the 



35 

Banks of the Doon, and both the kirk and river are immor- 
talised in " Tam o' Shanter." 

The harbour of Ayr is formed by the river Ayr at its 
influx into the estuary of the Firth of Clyde, on the north 
side of the town. The entrance was formerly much in- 
commoded by a bar of sand being frequently formed across 
its mouth, by a north west wind, and having only twelve 
feet of water at spring tides. These inconveniences are 
now removed, and the harbour greatly improved, by car- 
rying out an extensive stone pier into the sea, which gives 
an additional depth of water, for vessels entering the har- 
bour ; and superior accommodation whilst within it. The 
harbour of Ayr is now preferable to any of its size on this 
coast, and when other contemplated improvements are com- 
pleted, will greatly increase the mercantile importance of the 
town of Ayr. 

The whole of Ayrshire abounds with inexhaustible Seams 
of Coal, Freestone, Limestone, Ironstone, and with several 
rich ores of Lead and Copper. None of these minerals, 
except Coal and Freestone, are in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the town ; but their proximity to Ayr, the 
principal seaport in the County, is an important advantage 
to the shipping interest of the town. Large quantities of 
grain are also shipped from the port of Ayr. From the 
low and level situation of the town on the shores of the 
Clyde the air is in general moist. This level tract of sandy 
soil, extends for more than a mile to the south and north 
of the town, affording to the Inhabitants the most commo- 
dious walks and rides, and extensive links or downs for the 
exercise of the favourite Scotch Game of Golf, 

E 



There are- many elegant seats: in the vicinity of the town 
of Ayr, on the romantic Banks of the Doom which present 
to the eye a succession: of the most beautiful and pictur- 
esque scenery. The distant views oir> the opposite side of 
the Firth are highly interesting. On a clear day is seen 
the island of Arran with its majestic cloud capped moun- 
tains, and" on the south the celebrated Ailsa Craig, is seen 
rising from the ocean to the height of 940 feet perpen- 
dicular. 

The establishments for private tuition in the town are 
conducted on the most respectable plans*. — every branch of 
modern education, and all those accomplishments which 
embellish society, are here to be procured. The town of 
Ayr has long been a gay and fashionable place. Its an- 
nual Horse Races, patronised by the Nobility and Gentry 
of Ayrshire, and the neighbouring Counties ; under the 
lately adopted name of the Western Meeting, are accom- 
panied by the usual amusements, and are numerously at- 
tended. It is also, at times, one of the places appointed 
for the meeting of the Caledonian Hunt ; and it has a small 
but neat, Theatre, occasionally opened to gratify the lov- 
ers of the Drama. 

The municipal government of the town consists of a Pro- 
vost, two Bailies, a dean of Guild, Treasurer, ten merchant 
and two Trades Councillors ; and along with Irvine, Rothe- 
say, Inverary, and Campbeltown, returns a member to 
Parliament. 

The principal market day is Friday, and a cattle market 
is held every Tuesday.* 



37 

The Ayr Bank is an aid and respectable establishment, 
and there is also a branch of the Bank of Scotland in the 
town. There is a considerable printing business carried an, 
and the Ayr Advertiser is a well conducted Newspaper. 

The population iof the town appears to have been m 
ancient times much more considerable than at a later period. 
In the beginning of the sixteenth century, a plague, is said 
by tradition, ±o have carried off two thousand of ithe In- 
habitants. 

The Population of the town and parish, as given by Dr. 

Webster in 1753 was 2965. 

By the census of 1801 5492. 

1811 6291, 

1821 7455. 

Newton-upon-AA'r, situated upon the north side of the 
river, opposite to Ayr, is an ancient Burgh of Barony ; and 
owes its erection and previleges to Robert Bruce, who es- 
tablished here a Lazar House called Kyle Case, for eight 
leprous persons, in consequence of himself having been af- 
fected with leprosy on his sleeping on the ground here after 
the fatigue of the chase. 

The town consists of one principal street, and some cross 
lanes, containing many good and substantial houses. It is 
governed by a separate magistracy consisting of two Bailies, 
a treasurer, and six councillors, who are chosen by its own 
Freemen, forty-eight in number ; every freeman having a 
vote, — but without parliamentary representation. It com- 
municates with the town of Ayr by a handsome bridge, and 
is a seaport of great antiquity. The harbour belongs en- 
tirely to the town of Ayr. 



38 

The principal employments of the Inhabitants, are wea- 
ving for the Glasgow Manufacturers, and Fishing. New- 
ton-upon Ayr is a small parish, about one and a half miles 
long, and one broad. The soil is mostly flat and sandy. 
The Population of the town and parish in 1801 was 1724-. 

1811 2809. 

1821 4027. 

Wallace-town is a thriving village adjoining Newton- 

upon-Ayr, the Inhabitants of which are also employed 

chiefly in the weaving trade for Glasgow. Population of 

this village about 1800. 

* The annual fairs were at this date (10th October, 1827.) 
altered to the times after mentioned, in consequence of the 
old periods interfering with other fairs in the county, viz. 
New-years day fair on Thursday and Friday immediately 
before the second Wednesday of January, being Glasgow 
New-years-day Fair. — Palm Fair, on the first Tuesday in 
April.— Midsummer Fair, on Thursday and Friday, before 
the second Monday of July, being Glasgow Midsummer 
Fair,— and Michaelmas Fair, on the second Thursday and 
Friday in October, all new style ; and of these Fairs where 
two days are mentioned, Thursday is for business in woollen 
goods, &c. and Friday for horses, &c. The cattle as before 
on the last Friday of April. 



BANFF. 



— •**•••««•— 



Banff is a roj^al burgh and sea port town, pleasantly sit- 
uated upon the western bank of the river Doveron, at its 
entrance into the Moray Frith, and lying upon the south- 
easterly declivity of a small hill, or rising ground, called the 
Gallowhill ; whose base is adjoining the mouth of the river, 
extending southwards along its banks, with a gentle ascent 
for upwards of a mile ; leaving as it recedes from the sea, 
some beautiful and extensive haughs, between it and the 
river, (formerly the property of the community.) On one 
of these haughs called the Daw-haugh, stands DufF-House, 
the princely residence of the Earl of Fife, surrounded with 
extensive gardens, policies, pleasure grounds, and thriving 
plantations ; said to be 14 miles in circumference. The 
ancient castle formerly a place of great strength, and occa- 
sionally a royal residence, is now converted into a modern 
mansion, the property of the Earl of Findlater. Part of 
the old wall remains, the moat, and entrenchments are 
still visible. A fine bridge of seven arches crosses the 
Doyeron. 



40 

Banff is situated in Latitude 57° 40' 58" and Longitude 
2° 31'. It is 165 miles N. by E. of Edinburgh, 43 N. by 
W. of Aberdeen, 70 E. by N. of Inverness, and 33 miles 
East of Elgin. It is a place of great antiquity, the county 
town of Banffshire, and the seat of the Courts of Law. Banff 
was spoken of as a royal burgh, in the reign of Malcolm 
Canmore, in 1 057, and was then endowed with an ample 
patrimony of lands, with the salmon fishings in the river 
and in the sea. To these grants were afterwards added the 
lands belonging to the Carmilites, which were nearly of 
equal extent and value. These grants were corroborated 
to the burgh, by Robert de Bruce, and subsequently con- 
firmed by Robert the Second, by charter dated 7th Octo- 
ber, J372, and endowing it with the same privileges as 
Aberdeen, and vesting its government in a provost, bailies 
and Council, like other royal burghs. Banff joins with El- 
gin, Cullen, Kintore and Inverary, in sending a member to 
Parliament. 

There are six incorporated trades, viz. Hammermen, 
Shoemakers, Tailors, Coopers, Weavers, and Wrights, be- 
longing to the burgh, who hold their privileges from the 
magistrates by contract, dated 8th October, 1680, by 
which contract, after conferring different privileges on the 
incorporations and giving them two votes in the town- 
council, the deacon of each trade is taken, bound " to con- 
vene his incorporation, with such armour as they have, to 
defend the magistrates, &c. and not to convene in arms, 
without the order of the magistrates and council, else to 
forfeit their burgess-ship," &c. 



41 

The town is of an irregular form, and although some of 
the streets and bye lanes are narrow, yet the principal 
streets are of tolerable width. Many of the houses, are 
good, and built with granite or freestone. The town-house 
was finished in 1798, it is 78 feet in front with a handsome 
spire and clock. This is a fine building, containing ele- 
gant assembly-rooms, rooms for the accommodation of the 
county gentlemen, Sheriff-Court and clerks office, town- 
chamberlain, and various other apartments for public busi- 
ness. It also contains an airy and secure debtors prison, 
and cells for felons, with two strong vaults underneath, 
which have been occasionally used as a prison, and in times 
of scarcity as a public kitchen. 

The church is a fine new building, and there is a hand- 
some English chapel containing a fine toned small organ. 
There are also large and commodious meeting-houses be- 
longing to the secession church, independents, methodists, 
congregational union, and a Roman catholic chapel. 

Public and private education are amply provided for in 
Banff. The academy has been long and justly celebrated 
as a seminary of learning. There are also several respect- 
able Boarding Schools, for young ladies, where the polite 
and fashionable branches of female education are taught 
with success, — many of the young ladies of Banff are not 
only acquainted with Spanish, Italian and French, but also 
with Latin, which they can read and translate (even the 
higher classics,) with ease and elegance. To the Academy 
there is attached a Charity School founded and endowed 
at the joint expence of the Heritors and Kirk Session, but 
there has been no separate teacher for some years. The 



42 

late Alex. Pirie, Esq. Merchant, founded a Charity School, 
vesting it in trust in the Town Council and Kirk Session, 
and endowed it with a salary of £40. per annum for the 
teacher, and £20. more for books and stationary for the 
scholars ; besides funds for the erection of a schoolmaster's 
house and school-rooms. The six incorporated trades have 
also founded a school for the children of the members of 
their incorporations, which is supported by them by sub- 
scriptions, and the fees of teaching. The school has been 
numerously attended and satisfactorily conducted. There 
is, besides, a charity school for girls and deserted children, 
supported by private contributions. 

The poor of the town are also amply provided for, ex- 
clusive of the ordinary weekly collections at the church 
doors. Alexander Cassie, Esq. a native of Banif, by will 
dated the 8th February 1S19, bequeathed the sum of 
£19,500 to the Magistrates and Council in trust, the inte- 
rest of which to be expended half-yearly towards the sup- 
port of poor aged and infirm persons of both sexes, incapa- 
ble of maintaining themselves by labour, born within the 
precincts of the burgh ; and helpless orphans and other de- 
serted children of both sexes, born as before, till they at- 
tain the age when they may be deemed capable of provid- 
ing for themselves. 

Miss Wilson, also a native of Banff, who died in 1825, 
left a considerable heritage, and a large sum of money afford • 
ing together an yearly annuity of £10. Sterling, to each of 
six decayed tradesmen, and six women who have never 
been married, and who have resided 20 years in Banff, 
maintaining irreproachable characters. 



43 



George Smith, late of the island of Grenada, (besides es- 
tablishing an academy at Fordyce, and endowing it with 16 
Bursaries of £20» each,) by his will, dated 29th November 
1789, bequeathed " One thousand pounds Sterling, or its 
equivalent in stock, to be deposited in the hands of the ma- 
gistracy of Banff, to be by them applied towards endowing 
an hospital, or infirmary, to be erected in any convenient 
place they shall be able to attain, either near Fordyce or 
Banff." This bequest has not yet been applied to its ori- 
ginal destination. 

Another very large sum bequeathed by the late James 
Wilson, by his will, dated 16th December 1799, for the 
benefit of the poor of Banff, also under the charge of the 
magistrates ; but which it is said has not yet been drawn by 
them, being life rented by the sister of the testator. 

The harbour of Banff is unsafe when strong northerly 
winds prevail, and is often choked up with sand banks 
which are constantly shifting in stormy weather. About 
the year 1817 or 1818, a new pier and bason was project- 
ed by the magistrates, which has turned out to be totally 
useless as a place of safety, after having expended upon it 
upwards of £22,000. — Last year (1826) several new ves- 
sels were wrecked in its bason while unloading, and the re- 
mainder of their cargoes either lost or destroyed. 

The trade and shipping interest of the burgh, have long 
been in a declining state, and both would be annihilated, 
but for the triffling commodities necessary for the use of 
the inhabitants and near neighbourhood ; and a few cargoes 
of corn and herrings annually exported from this port. To 
F 



44 

revive trade and commerce various attempts have been 
made within the last 20 years, but with little success. A- 
mong others, a company was formed under the firm of the 
London Shipping Company, who began to trade with four 
small vessels, but in a few years the Copartnery was dis- 
solved, with a considerable loss, over and above the Com- 
pany's stock. 

The next attempt was a Whale Or Greenland Shipping 
Company. The business was begun with one vessel called 
the Triad, and next year the Company purchased another 
vessel called the Earl of Fife— but she having been unfor- 
tunately wrecked on leaving the harbour for Greenland, on 
her second voyage, with all her stores and fishing imple- 
ments on board, the Company was dissolved, and the Triad 
sold, on her return in the end of the year 1 820, with a great 
.OSS to the Company, reported to have been 15 or £16,000. 

About the same time some spirited individuals started 
with two boats for the herring fishery, with much and en- 
couraging success; and in 1819, there were from 50 to 70 
boats, fully manned and equipped, from the port of Banff 
alone, independent of those from the neighbouring stations 
within the district. But from that time to the present day, 
the fishing has yearly declined, and the curers from other 
places who had come here to reside, have gradually left the 
place to establish themselves in the neighbouring stations, 
where there are no magistrates, and many of the towns-peo- 
ple have followed their example, so that the number of 
boats now (1827,) from the port of Banff, are not more than 
20 or 30, while the number from Macduff will be about 70, 



45 



and nearly an equal number from Whitehills, both these 
stations are about a mile from Banff. 

Notwithstanding, attempts are still making to renovate 
the shipping interest, and last year a new Company was 
formed for the London trade, who began with three fine 
smacks all of which have made uncommonly quick pas- 
sages, and done their duty with much satisfaction to the 
public. 

The neighbouring proprietors having now built safe and 
commodious harbours, with good warehouses and moderate 
shore and harbour dues ; it must require both time and per- 
severance to recover a trade long diverted into other chan- 
nels, where much encouragement and safety is given for its 
continuance. 

The harbour was formerly defended by a small battery, 
which is now converted into a station for the coast guard, 
for the prevention of smuggling. 

A stocking and thread manufactory was formerly carried 
on here to a considerable extent about 30 years ago, but 
the former was given up about the year 1804, and is now 
carried on to a very trifling extent, although Banff and its 
neighbourhood affords good accommodation, and many fa- 
cilities, for that branch of manufacture. 

A cast iron foundery has lately been erected at Banff by 
a spirited and respectable inhabitant, with every prospect 
of success and public patronage. The castings of every 
description rival the best works of the kind we have any 
where met with, and it will prove a most valuable accom- 
modation to the country. This foundry is the first esta- 



46 

blishment of the kind ever erected in the north, except a 
small one at Inverness, for common work, erected by the 
brother of this individual. 

The curing offish, and the exportation of salmon are the 
principal lucrative branches of commerce. Some kelp is 
made about Troop-Head. 

Besides the Quarter Sessions, a Justice-of-Peace Court 
is held on the first Monday of every month. 

There are four annual fairs held at Banff, viz, on the 7th 
of January, on the first Tuesday in February, the third 
Tuesday in May, O. S. and the third Tuesday in Decem- 
ber, O. S. and a weekly market on the Fridays for meal, 
butcher meat, butter, cheese, eggs, fish, &c. There is 
also a meal market, but which is little frequented, the 
town being principally supplied by private dealers. The 
weights and measures now in use, conform to the new im^ 
perial standard, except the coal measure, the old barrel 
being still in use, as it is narrow, and measures more coal 
from the same cargo than a vessel whose diameter is dou- 
ble the width, as prescribed by the new Act. 

Although the trade of Banff is limited in the mean time, 
yet the place affords some powerful facilities for an in- 
crease, there being no fewer than three branch banking 
establishments in the town, besides several money lenders. 

The parish of Banff, which is six miles in length, by 
two in breath, is beautifully diversified by gentle rising 
grounds, the soil in general is rich loam, limestone is 
abundant, but the want of coal, renders it of no use to 
the agriculturist. The coast on the west is bold and rocky, 



47 

but forms a fine sandy beach towards the river Boindie, 
from which river the name of the town and parish is sup- 
posed to be derived, as in some old charters it is spelled 
Baineffe, and BainefF. The famous Dr. Sharp, archbishop 
of St. Andrews, was a native of this parish. 

Population of the town and parish in 1821, was 3853. 



BERWICK ON TWEED. 






Berwick is a Borough on the borders of England and 
Scotland, situated on the north, or Scottish side of the 
river Tweed. It is a town of very considerable importance, 
and is distant from Edinburgh, south-east, 53 miles, — 15 
miles east of Dunse, — 22-i north-east from Kelso, — 63 
miles north by west of Newcastle, and 340 north by west 
of London. Longitude 1°58' west, Latitude 55°45' north. 

Berwick was originally a Scotch town, formerly the ca- 
pital of Merse, or March ; but became subject to England 
finally in the reign of Edward the Fourth. Though under 
the jurisdiction of the Supreme Courts in England in most 
matters, yet in others it has an exclusive jurisdiction and 
has some peculiar customs and privileges. A small district 
called Berwick Bounds, running about three miles north 
from the town on the sea shore, about the same distance 
up the Tweed, and a line drawn from these two extreme- 
ties on the north west, is the extent of these * Bounds,' 
attached to the town. 



49 

Berwick is pleasantly situated on a gentle declivity at a 
short distance from the sea, where the Tweed joins it. It 
is surrounded with high walls, having the river for a moat 
on the south, and a ditch on every other quarter. Till 
very lately it was regularly fortified. Some of the gates, 
and one draw bridge are yet standing ; but the Castle, 
which was formerly of great strength, is now in ruins. 
The cannon that formerly stood on several of the walls, 
were, in consequence of a ridiculous panic in 1818, remov- 
ed to Leith Fort, by government. The barracks form a 
large regular square, and can accommodate two regiments 
of foot. 

The town of Berwick is in general well built, — the an- 
cient part of the town is irregular, and the streets narrow ; 
but the more modern streets are wide, containing many 
neat and commodious houses, and are well paved, cleaned, 
and lighted. The Town house is a handsome structure 
with a lofty tower or spire, in which are eight bells and a 
fine clock, — this clock strikes the quarters of the hour and 
has four dials. The Church is a neat building, but has no 
steeple or bells ; the Inhabitants are summoned to divine 
worship by the bells of the Town house. The Rectory is 
in the Diocese of Durham, and belongs to the dean and 
chapter, — their Vicar serves the Church. There are two 
places of divine worship belonging to the Kirk of Scotland, 
one to the Church of England, two Secession Chapels, — 
one baptist meeting house, one relief, one methodist, and 
one Roman catholic chapel. There is an excellent charity 
school in Union Street, in which 40 boys are taught read- 
ing, English grammar, writing, and accompts. They are 



50 



annually clothed, and when of age go out to apprentice- 
ships or services. The free schools are six in number, and 
are supported at the expence of the oorporation,-^they 
consist of three reading schools, one for the Latin and 
Greek languages, — a mathematical school, and a writing 
school ; to all or either of which, the children of freemen 
have gratuitous access. 

The Town of Berwick has been the scene of many a 
bloody contest between the English and Scots, from the 
earliest period ; and as often has it changed masters. It 
is a place of very great antiquity, and always considered of 
the utmost importance. It was incorporated by David the 
First of Scotland. Its first English Charter was granted 
by Edward the First, and the Charter by which they now 
hold their liberties was granted by James the First. Ber- 
wick is mentioned in history as a place of great strength in 
the reign of Osbert, one of the last Kings of Northumber- 
land, — and is said to be the place where the Danes landed 
in one of their incursions under their leader Hubba, in the 
year 867. It continued for some time in the possession of 
the Saxons, and afterwards of the Danes, until it was ta- 
ken by assault in the year 904, by Gregory the Great, 
King of Scotland. 

In the reign of William the First of Scotland, surnamed 
the Lion, Berwick was given up to the English, on the fol- 
lowing occasion : — William was taken prisoner by stratagem 
at Alnwick in the year 1174-, carried before Henry the Se- 
cond, who was then in France — kept prisoner at Falaise in 
Normandy, and was obliged to deliver fifteen hostages, 
along with the castles of Roxburgh, Berwick, Edinburgh, 



51 



and Stirling ; and to do homage for the kingdom of Scot- 
land, as the price of his liberty. Richard, (says Buchanan) 
who succeeded his father Henry, in 1189, restored these 
castles, and sent back the hostages, " freeing William and 
his posterity from all covenants, either extorted by force, 
or obtained by fraud," and suffered him to enjoy the realm 
of Scotland by the same right, and within the same limits, 
as any of his predecessors had held it. William gave Rich- 
ard 10,000 merks in silver, to assist his preparations for an 
expedition to the Holy Land. During these contentions 
Berwick was repeatedly burnt down and rebuilt. It was 
here that Edward the First, on the 2d August 1291, held 
an Assembly of the States of England and Scotland, to 
determine the rival claims of the two competitors for the 
crown of Scotland, Baliol and Bruce ; when, after more 
than fifteen months conference, namely, on the 17th No- 
vember 1292, Edward, as it best suited his policy, favour- 
ed the claims of John Baliol. Berwick has been considered 
as belonging to England, since it was taken by Sir Thomas 
Stanley in the reign of Edward the Fourth. 

The town of Berwick, as already mentioned, stands on 
the north, or Scotch side of the Tweed, and is joined to 
England by an ancient stone bridge of fifteen spacious 
arches, supposed to have been built in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth. The length of the bridge is 947 feet, and only 
17 feet wide, — over each of the piers there is an outlet on 
either side for the safety of foot passengers ; a precaution 
rendered necessary from the narrowness of the bridge. The 
sixth pier on the Berwick side is the boundary which sepa- 
rates Berwick from the County Palatine of Durham. This 

G 



52 

pier is distinguished by sods placed upon; it*, and; forms the 
legal division of Scotland from England; 

A great part of the trade of Berwick is the exportation 
of salmon, taken hi the Tweed, for the London" market, — > 
■some of which are sent up alive> or packed in ice, fresh; 
but the bulk of the export of this article is in the pickled 
State. The fishing Commences on the 10th of January arid 
ends on the 10th of October, during which; period great 
•quantities are taken, sometimes, to the! number of 200 to 
300 at one haul. The fishings on the" Tweed, belonging 
to the town, comprehends a spacte of seven miles from the 
mouth of the river up to Norhattij* and. rent for upwards of 
£12,000 per annum. . . i i 

Besides the salmon taken in the Tweed,; the merchants 
rent, or contract, for a great part of the Salmon fishings 
throughout Scotland. Vast quantities of white fish, lobsters, 
&c. are also contracted for here, and sent to London ; and 
a considerable quantity of herrings are cured in the neigh- 
bourhood. Large cargoes of eggs are collected from all 
parts of the country, and sent to London for the use of the 
sugar boilers. - - - - - - 

The grain, chiefly grown in Berwickshire, shipped at this 
port, amounts to 80 Or 100,000 bolls per annum, exclusive 
of that sent inland to the markets of Dunbar, Haddington, 
and Dalkeith, which may amount to nearly the same quan- 
tity. Berwick is one of the principal ports in England for 
the exportation of corn;, meal, and flour. 

Some wool is also exported, and the imports of wood 
from Norway, and articles from the Baltic, are considerable. 



53 

The harbour is very good, and has lately been much im- 
proved by the erection' of a fine pier, extending 77iQ?ya wis 
into the sea,-^this pier is one of the most fashionable pro- 
menades of the inhabitants during the summer. 

Berwick is governed by a mayor, recorder,: to w»telei!k, 
coroner, treasurer, four bailies, and six constables,, chosen 
annually; r anil returns two: members to Parliament; The 
chief magistrate is the mayor, who with the recorder and 
aldermen, (that is, those who have served the office of 
mayor,) are constituted by charter, justices of the peace, of 
oyer and terminer, and gaol delivery. By these, at the 
quarter sessions, and gaol deliveries, all offences committed 
within the borough are tried. All actions for land or debt 
to any amount, within the liberties of the town, may be 
tried in the Court of Pleas, held every fortnight ; the mayor, 
recorder, and four bailies, are the judges. The corporation, 
under their charter, enjoy large estates in land, the rental 
of a great part of which is annually divided among the bur- 
gesses. 

The chain bridge of suspension over the Tweed in the 
neighbourhood was finished in 1820, and was the first of 
the kind in Europe. It is a singularly elegant production 
of science and art combined. 

Although Berwick is reckoned neither in Scotland or 
England, yet the English judges hold assizes in it. The 
" Town of Berwick-upon-Tweed," is separately mentioned 
in all Proclamations and Acts of Parliament relating to the 
empire at large. It is destitute of all kinds of manufactures 
although favourably situated for several of them. 



54 



A Banking Company, under the firm of the Tweed Bank, 
is established here, and also a private Bank. The market 
days are Wednesday and Saturday ; and fairs are held on 
the second Wednesday in May, for cattle and horses — on 
the first Wednesday before the 26th day of August, and on 
the first Wednesday in November. 

Population by the census in 1821, was 8723 ; viz. 3964 
males, and 4759 females, 



BRECHIN. 



Brechin is a royal burgh, in the parish of the same 
name, in Angus-shire, of which Forfar is the county town, 
and was anciently an episcopal see. It lies I3§ miles 
north east of Forfar, 8 west of Montrose, 25 south of Stone- 
haven, 26 \ north-east of Dundee, and 7H miles from Ed- 
inburgh. 

It is situated on a rising ground, (whence its name) 
which is washed by the river south Esk. It consists of 
one street up the face of the acclevity, another nearly at 
right angles, and it has a third from the west adjoining, 
with some bye lanes. The royalty extends from the cross 
about half-a-mile in every direction, and the suburbs a 
considerable way farther. To the south and east are the 
Tenements, which are two streets of some length, indepen- 
dent of the burgh of Brechin, being without the royalty, and 
held in feu of Sir James Carnegie of South Esk. 

Brechin is a well built town, and contains a number of 
good houses ; those lately erected are handsome. The 
town is well supplied with water, by means of leaden pipes. 



56 

At the lower end of the south, or Nether Tenements, is a 
stone bridge of two large arches over the South Esk. 
The town had many years ago been walled round, as the 
names of South, West, and North Ports, still indicate. It 
was twice destroyed by fire, by the Danes in the year 
1012, and again by the Marquis of Montrose, in 164-5. 

A bishop's see was founded here by David the First in 
114-0, richly endowed. That part of the cathedral which 
still remains, is an ancient Gothic pile, supported by twelve 
pillars, and having a door and window in the west end, of 
curious and beautiful workmanship. When entire it was 
166 feet long, and 61 feet broad. At the north-west cor- 
ner is a square tower, with a handsome spire, together 120 
feet high. The present parish church, occupies the west 
end of the cathedral, which was some time ago repaired at 
very considerable exper.ce, and makes an elegant place of 
worship. 

Adjoining to the church on the south-west, is one of 
those round towers, of which this and another at Aberne- 
thy, are all that remain in Scotland. Antiquarians have 
long been divided in their opinions, concerning the time 
when these towers were erected, and their use. One con- 
jecture is, that they were watch towers, several suppose 
them to have been belfries, whence the criers summoned 
the people to prayers, while not a few, knowing that similar 
towers are to be found in Ireland, named the land of sanc- 
tity, think that they must have been places in which peni- 
tents were confined till restored to the bosom of the church. 
This tower contains four openings or windows at the top, 
directed to the four cardinal points, and commands a tol- 



57 

erably extensive view. That at Abernethy overlooks the 
Firth of Tay, and part of the valley of Strathearn, and this 
at Brechin is directed towards the great valley of Strath - 
more. The conjecture that these were watch-towers, is 
but ill supported, the view from the tower of Brechin is 
very limited, extending only to Montrose on the east, and 
a short way into the valley of Strathmore, neither is the 
view from the tower at Abernethy very extensive. 

The tower at Brechin is a circular column of great beau- 
ty and elegance, 80 feet high, with a kind of spire or roof 
23 feet additional, of an octagonal form, making the whole 
height 103 feet, the diameter at the base is 1 6 feet. The 
building consists of 86 courses of stone, not regular in their 
depth, some of them measuring 24, some of them only 9 
inches, and the stones somewhat deeper at one end than 
the other, so that the courses bear some resemblance to a 
screw. This fabric has sustained little injury from time. 
The door is about 6 feet from the ground, 22 inches wide, 
and 6tj feet high, the sides are formed of large blocks of 
the same sand stone, of which the rest of the tower is built. 
Nearly in the centre of each stands a human figure on a 
kind of bracket, supposed to be one of the apostles, having 
a rod or staff in his hand. The lintel is another block 
of sand stone cut into a semicircular arch, over the centre of 
which, stands the figure of our Saviour stretched on the 
Cross, whence has arisen the probable conjecture' that this 
tower was built after Christianity had been introduced into 
Scotland. The sole is another block of the same kind of 
stone, on each end of which are the figures of two animals, 
conjectured to be a lion and a lamb, the whole entrance is 



58 

ornamented with two borders of small circles, which sur- 
round the figures described. 

In a lane at the upper part of the town, are some re- 
mains of the chapel of Maison Dieu, an hospital founded 
by William de Brechin, and confirmed by James the Third 
in 1477, part of the revenues of which are still applied by 
the magistrates^ its patrons, towards the support of the 
poor, and part to pay the salary of the master of the gram- 
mer school, called Preceptor of Maison Dieu. 

Near to the town stands Brechin Castle, the ancient seat 
of the family of Panmure, and residence of the honourable 
William Ramsay Maule. It was built in 1711, on the 
brink of a perpendicular rock overhanging the South Esk, 
and erected on the site of the old castle which sustained a 
siege of 20 days, in the year 1303, by the English army 
under Edward the First. Notwithstanding every effort 
used to compel the besieged to surrender, the brave gov- 
ernor, Sir Thomas Maule, held out till he was killedjjy a 
stone thrown from an engine, when the place was instantly 
given up. A descendant of this brave man was, in 1616, 
created Lord Maule of Brechin, and Earl of Panmure. 
The estates and title were attainted in 1715. While the 
property is again in possession of the family, the Peerage 
has not yet been restored. 

Brechin is governed by a provost, two bailies, a dean of 
guild, treasurer, hospital master, convenor of trades, a 
trades councillor, and five ordinary councillors. It has six 
incorporated trades, and joins with Aberdeen, Aberbro 
thick, Montrose, and Bervie, in returning a member to 
Parliament. Brechin is a presbytery seat. A town court 



59 

i 

* 

is held in it every Wednesday, and a Justice of Peace court 
on the first Wednesday of every month. 

Three new schools were erected a few years ago by sub- 
scription, one for the languages, taught by the preceptor 
of Maison Dieu, of which the crown is patron, another 
for the parochial school under the patronage of the heritors 
and magistrates, and the third for the mathematical depart- 
ment. 

Besides the church belonging to the parish there are in 
Brechin two episcopal chapels, two meeting houses belong- 
ing to the united associate synod, one for the anti-burghers 
who refused to unite, and one for a very few methodists. 

Two works have long since been established here, in 
which yarn is bleached on chemical principles, and these 
are carried on with such activity, that 10,000 lbs. are 
whitened at each, in the course of a week. Streams from 
the South Esk turn, at the lower extremity of the town, 
two mills for spinning linen yarn, one of which contains 16 
frames, and the other 26, besides flour and other mills. 

One distillery of considerable extent, established here, 
has attracted notice, by the superior quality of its whisky, 
and operations are about to be commenced in another. 

A porter brewery is also carried on here with success, 
and a tannage ; but the business which occupies far the 
the greater part of the working classes in this place, is the 
manufacture of coarse linens, the yarn of which has previ- 
ously been bleached. This branch of trade is managed 
here, in favourable times, as in the other towns in Angus, 
with great and increasing activity. 

H 



60 

A branch of the Dundee Union bank, and one of the 
Montrose bank, is established here. 

The weekly market is on Tuesday, and there are three 
great fairs held every year, viz, on the third Wednesday 
in April ; the second Wednesday in June, called Trinity 
fair, the greatest in the north of Scotland for sheep, cattle 
and horses ; and on the second Wednesday of August. Be- 
sides these, a market is held on the Tuesdays after each 
term of Whitsunday and Martinmas for hiring servants. 
There are horse markets on the last Tuesday of February, 
and all the Tuesdays of March, and cattle markets each 
Tuesday during winter. 

The population of the town in 1821, was 4520, since 
then it has considerably increased. 

Latitude, .56° 40' north, Longitude, 2 n 18' east. 
Population town and parish, 1811, was 5559. 

1821, 5906. 



CRIEFF. 



Crieff is a town situated in the county of Perth, and 
stewartry of Strathearn. It is about 17 miles west from 
Perth, and 22 north from Stirling. 

Some have supposed that it derives its name from the 
Gaelic term Crubba Cuoc, which signifies the side of the 
hill ; others from the word Craobb, a tree. 

This town is a place of respectable antiquity, — various 
notices of it occur in the Annals of Scottish History. Jus- 
tice Courts in air sat at Crieff at a period of a very distant 
date. It formed the head-quarters of the army of Mon- 
trose more than once during the civil wars of the ] 7th cen- 
tury, and in the two last eras of intestine commotion, it was 
traversed and occupied by the insurgent and royalist forces. 
In the year 1715 it was burned down by the Highlanders, 
and in all probability it would have undergone the same 
fate in 1745, if the Duke of Perth had not interfered to pre- 
serve it from destruction. 

Crieff stands on the slope of a hill, having a fine exposure 
to the south-east, south, and south-west. It would be dif- 



62 



ficult indeed, to convey by mere description, any adequate 
idea of the almost incomparable prospect of woods, rivers, 
vallies, and lofty mountains which the position of this town 
commands. The beauties of the surrounding scenery have 
justly become a theme of admiration to every intelligent 
traveller. 

The town takes the rank of capital of Upper Strathearn, 
and constitutes the central point of communication between 
the north-west Highlands and the Lowland Counties. The 
new line of road from Inverness to Edinburgh by Tay- 
bridge also passes through this town. 

From the salubrity of its atmosphere, Crieff has long been 
styled the Montpelier of Scotland. Lovers of the sublime 
and beautiful in nature, and persons of delicate health, fre- 
quently make it a place of sojourn. On every hand arise 
the magnificent seats of the nobility and gentry of this dis- 
trict — Drummond Castle, Strowan, Lawers, Clathick, Och- 
tertyre, Millearn, Ferntower, Mouzie, Cultoquher, Aber- 
cairnie Abbey, Inchbrackie, Dollerie, Castle Strathallan, 
Culdees Castle, Broich, and other elegant 'mansions adorn 
the country around Crieff, and several of them appear in 
the full view of the streets of the town. 

The greater number of these residences present attrac- 
tions of the most powerful interest to the eye of taste and 
genius. No portion of the kingdom can, it is presumed, ex- 
hibit so many romantic and splendid villas within a similar 
space. 

The Right Honourable Lord Gwyder, Anthony Murray, 
Esq. of Crieff and Dollerie, and Alexander xVJaclaurin, Esq. 



63 

of Broich, are the chief proprietors of the town. The 
ground is feued from the superiors at the rate £16 per acre. 

A large part of the inhabitants is employed in the manu- 
facture of cotton goods. The operations of brewing and 
tanning are also carried on to a considerable extent. On 
the streams in the vicinage, distilleries, corn, lint, oil, wool, 
paper, fulling, malt and bark mills, meet the eye in rapid 
succession. 

Crieff was from time immemorial the emporium of the 
North for the sale of black cattle, till about the year 1770, 
when the great annual trysts were removed to Falkirk. 

The former parish church was a Gothic building of a 
peculiar shape and size. At the pulling of it down in 1787 
many bright gold coins of Robert the First, each of them 
equal in breadth to a modern guinea, and in value to 5s. 3d. 
Sterling, were found deposited in a niche of the wall about 
six feet from the ground. These curious relics of the olden 
time came into the possession of some of the neighbouring 
gentry, 

The Steward of the Royal Demesne of Strathearn, kept 
his court at Crieff, till the Earldom was forfeited to the 
Crown, in 1320, by the treason of its heiress, Joanna, 
daughter of Malise, the last Earl. 

This lady married the English Earl de Warren. The of- 
fice of Steward afterwards became vested in the House of 
Drummond, who enjoyed it until the abolition of heritable 
jurisdictions in the year 174S. 

A baron bailie now exercises the authority of that ancient 
and noble family, in the name of Lord and Lady Gwydyr. 



64 

There is a public library in the town, originally founded 
by a donation of books from the Honourable Baron Sii 
Patrick Murray, Bart, of Ochtertyre, and since that time 
enlarged and supported by subscription. There is also a 
Coffee-room for newspapers and reviews. 

Mallet the poet, and Dow the historian of Hindostan, 
according to popular tradition, were educated at the school 
of Crieff. The late Dr. William Wright, an eminent phy- 
sician and naturalist, and Dr. Thomas Thomson, one of the 
living ornaments of science who now occupies a chair in 
the University of Glasgow, were natives of Crieff. The late 
Dr. John Barclay, the celebrated anatomist, though not a 
native of this town, passed his youth in its vicinity. 

A weekly market is held every Thursday, and a number 
of general fairs take place during the course of the year. 

The population of the whole parish in 1776 was 1977 ; 
in 1792 it was 2640 ; in 1811 it was 3300 ; in 1821 it was 
4216 ; and in 1S27 the inhabitants of the town itself might 
amount to about 3700. 



CUPAR OF FIFE. 



Cupar is a Royal Burgh, and the County Town of Fife- 
shire. It is 22 miles north-east of Kinghorn, 10 west of 
St. Andrews, 12 south-west of Newport on Tay, 10 east 
from Falkland, and 30 miles from Edinburgh. It is de- 
lightfully situated on a plain, having a dry soil, and south- 
ern exposure on the banks of the river Eden, at its junction 
with a small stream called the Lady-burn. Cupar is 6 
miles from Gairbridge, the nearest shipping place on the 
Eden ; and 9 miles from the junction of the river with St. 
Andrews Bay. 

Cupar is a burgh of very great antiquity, having been 
from the most remote period the place where the Thanes 
of Fife held their Courts of Justice. The names of com- 
missioners from Cupar are found in the Rolls of Parliament 
in the reign of David II. 

The Castle of Cupar is frequently mentioned in history 
as a place of strength and of great importance in trouble- 
some times, but no vestige of it now remains. Its site is 
occupied by a school house, and a small Theatre ; so that 



66 

this spot, which in former times resounded with the din of 
arms and the deeds of the mighty, is now become the 
peaceful seat of learning, and the scene of scaithless en- 
counters ! 

On the Play Field, adjacent to the Castle Hill, the plays 
of Sir David Lindsay of the Mount were exhibited. The 
' Satyr of the three Estates,' was acted here in the year 
1555. From a manuscript play of Sir David Lindsay, in 
the possession of David Garrick, it appears that the Play- 
field of Cupar in Fife was well known and frequented, and 
had been in use long previous to this period, — indeed few 
towns of note in Scotland were without them. The play 
of the Satyr of the three Estates is what may be considered 
as the origin of the Scottish Drama, or, of those plays call- 
ed Moralities, which were then first divided into acts and 
scenes, though representations of what were called Mysteries, 
or holy plays, were exhibited by the Clergy in Scotland 
long before this date. 

From the low situation of the town of Cupar, it is not 
seen at a distance ; it is seen from the east, but the point 
of view form whence it is seen to the greatest advantage is 
the north-west. The Streets are broad and spacious, and 
contain many elegant houses. The principal streets are 
the Bonnygate, the Millgate, or Waulker gate, the Cross- 
gate, and St. Catherines. The latter is a new and elegant 
street, in a line with the Bonnygate ; in this street is sit- 
uated the County Hall and Public Rooms, and an Inn of 
very superior architecture, affording every accommodation 
to the traveller. This street, particularly, may vie with some 
of the best streets in the metropolis. 



67 

This town, taken altogether, is one of the neatest, most 
regular, and best built county town in Scotland, — The an- 
cient part of the town, with all its irregularity, has dissappear- 
ed, and Cupar may almost be said to have been rebuilt within 
the last half century, and continues to extend its dimen- 
tions in every direction. It is noted for its well paved 
streets, which are kept remarkably clean, and well lighted. 

The Parish church, which is a colleigate charge, is a 
handsome modern building. The turret, which is detached 
from it, belonged to an ancient church, and has a beautiful 
eliptical spire, much admired for its light and airy appear- 
ance. The Episcopal Chapel is a beautiful building ele- 
gantly fitted up, and an ornament to St. Catherine Street. 

Cupar has been much and justly celebrated for the ex- 
cellence of its schools, and it possesses a valuable public 
library. About four years ago an Academy was established 
here by subscription. The town council gave over to the 
subscribers their two schools on the Castle Hill, and the 
Theatre, and also the salaries of the former schoolmasters. 
This very flourishing establishment is conducted by a rector 
and four masters, who teach English reading and elocution 
writing and drawing, arithmethic and mathematics, natural 
philosophy, astronomy, chemistry, and the Latin and 
Greek languages. There are about 300 pupils attending 
the different classes. There is no parish school, but there is 
about a dozen of seminaries for the ordinary branches of 
education in the parish, partly supported by subscriptions, 
but chiefly by fees from the scholars. 

There was a convent of Dominicans, or Black Friars, at 
the east end of the town with a fine chapel, founded by 



68 

the prior of St. Andrews in the year 1415; no traces of this 
edifice remain. The tower of the parish church already men- 
tioned, is the most interesting piece of antiquity in the 
town, the spire was built by Mr. William Scot, minister of 
Cupar, in the year 1642. 

The new prison erected on the south side of the Eden, 
is much more like an elegant modern mansion, than a 
prison, but it can only be admired for its outward appear- 
ance ; for the internal accommodations do not correspond 
with its exterior. 

The principal trade of the town is the manufacture of 
brown linen, which is here carried on to a large extent, — 
from five to six hundred thousand yards have been annually 
stamped. There are spinning mills on the falls of the Eden, 
and one is erected on the Lady burn. There are also 
manufactures of ropes, candles, brick and tyle works, tan 
works, and several breweries. 

The town is governed by a provost, three bailies, a 
dean of Guild, thirteen Guild councillors, and eight trades 
councillors or deacons, elected by the eight incorporated 
trades. It joins with St. Andrews, Dundee, Forfar and 
Perth, in sending a member to Parliament. The revenue 
of the town is about £500 per annum. Cupar being the 
county town, and head burgh of Fifeshire where the Courts 
of Law are held, and the public business of the county 
transacted, render it a place of great resort, and gay ap- 
pearance. The celebrity of the schools induce a great 
many families to reside here for the education of their chil- 
dren, and adds greatly to the general superior appearance 
of the town and its Inhabitants. 



69 

An extensive Printing Office has been long established 
here, conducted by a spirited individual (Mr. Robert Tullis, 
Printer to the University of St. Andrews,) who has printed 
many beautiful editions of the Classics ; under the revision 
of Dr. John Hunter of St. Andrews, which, for accuracy 
and typography, are not inferior to any editions hitherto 
produced in this country. 

The places of divine worship in Cupar, are, the estab- 
lished, or parish church, an episcopal chapel ; a relief, united 
secession, original burgher, and Baptist meeting houses. 
There is in Cupar an established branch of the British 
Linen Company, and another of the Commercial Bank of 
Scotland. 

There are eight annual Fairs held here, viz. on the first 
Thursday in January, — first Wednesday in February, O. S. 
— first Wednesday in April, — 10th day of May, N. S — 
and the last Wednesday in May, O. S.-^-25th day of July, 
O. S. — first Thursday in October O. S.— rand the 11th day 
of November, O. S. 

Population by the census of 1811, 4-758. 
1821,5892. 



DALKEITH. 



— ***»im**>— 



Damceitii is a considerable town in the parish of the same 
name, and shire of Edinburgh. It is 6 miles south-east of 
Edinburgh, and 18 miles north-west of Lauder, on the great 
south road from the capital. Dalkeith is situated on a 
narrow strip of land between the rivers North and South 
Esk, the banks of which are beautifully wooded and embel- 
lished with elegant seats of the most distinguished families 
in the county. 

The principal street, called the High Street, is handsome 
and spacious, and contains a great number of elegant build- 
ings, the cross streets of communication from the north 
and south of the town, are wide and handsome, and the 
whole of the town is neat, clean, well paved, and airy. 
The church stands on the north side of the High Street, 
and is a venerable Gothic fabric, founded by James Dou- 
glas Earl of Morton, in the reign of James the Fifth. Fac- 
ing this edifice, is the tolbooth, a plain substantial building, 
having two ducal coronets in the front, bearing an inscrip- 
tion, EC. FR.M.L.B. 1648. 



71 

The Grammar School of Dalkeith has long maintained a 
very high character for the abilities of its teachers, and 
many of the brightest ornaments of literature have here 
received the rudiments of their education. Besides the 
grammar school, there is a school conducted on the new 
system, for the education of children of both sexes, a large 
charity work house, or town's hospital, for the maintenance 
of the indigent belonging to the town, and several other 
benevolent institutions. There are several excellent inns 
in the town, a ball room elegantly fitted up, a mason 
lodge, &c. The rivers furnish numerous falls of water for 
driving machinery on their banks, and these falls are occu- 
pied by corn, flour, and snuff mills, skinneries, &c. in the 
immediate vicinity of the town. An iron mill and bleach- 
fields are in the neighbourhood. 

Dalkeith is a burgh of barony, and gives the title of Earl to 
the eldest son of the Duke of Buccleuch. The only magis- 
trate is the Baron bailie, appointed by his Grace. The 
town as to its police revenue, is under the management of 
15 trustees, (including the Baron bailie, who is considered 
preses) appointed by Act of Parliament. This act gives 
two pennies Scots on every Scots pint of ale or beer, brew- 
ed for sale, or vended within the town and parish, the 
monies arising from this ; the sweepings of the streets, and 
some small property ; is the only revenue of the town, 
which is small, yet by judicious management, much public 
good has been done. The Inhabitants are not burdened 
with any town's assessments, except the impost on beer as 
above mentioned. The town is about to be lighted with 



12 

gas, by a joint stock Company. The works (June 1827,) 
are proceeding rapidly. 

Dalkeith is an elegant and gay town, and the summer 
resort of parties of pleasure from the capital, drawn hither 
by the enchanting beauty of the scenery, as well as by the 
excellent accommodation afforded to visitants. From Edin- 
burgh to Dalkeith, by the villages of Roslin and Lasswade, 
forms one of the most pleasant, picturesque, and delightful 
tours in the neighbourhood of the capital. 

Dalkeith is one of the first markets for grain in Scotland. 
Monday is the market day for meal and flour, Thursday 
for grain. Very large quantities of oats are sold every 
market day, brought from the south country, viz. the up- 
per part of Berwickshire, East Lothian, and Teviotdale. 
Of the grain at market, it is not uncommon for the sales to 
amount to 5000 bolls on a market day, and may average 
S00O bolls per week, through the year, when the country 
produces a fair crop. This large quantity is all disposed 
of in a limited time, and for ready money, a matter of 
great importance to the farmer. On the ringing of the 
market bell, the sacks are opened, the carts as they arrive 
are placed in regular order on the High Street, or market 
place, and the sample sacks having been all ranged in rows, 
the bell rings at 12 o'Clock, and all is instantly bustle and 
activity — the samples are examined — the bargains made — 
the money paid, and the whole corn sold in the short space 
of a quarter of an hour ; at half past twelve the bell again 
rings, and a similar scene again takes place, as to wheat, 
barley, beans and pease. 



73 

Dalkeith contains a few thriving manufactories, but can- 
not be considered a manufacturing town. The established 
manufactures, are those of leather, candles, soap and hats, 
but the chief support of the town is its markets, and trade 
with the surrounding country. 

Adjoining to the town, is Dalkeith House, the principal 
seat of the Duke of Buccleuch, on the southern bank of 
the north Esk. This elegant and extensive building was 
erected about the beginning of the last century, by the 
family of Scott, upon the site of an ancient castle which 
had been long in the possession of the Douglas family, and 
was afterwards the frequent residence of the Regent Mor- 
ton, during the minority of James the Sixth, at which time 
it was significantly called the " Lion's den." This edifice 
consists of a main body and two wings, with ornaments of 
the Corinthian order in front. The hall, the grand stair 
case, and the several suits of rooms are large, and finished 
in the highest stile of elegance ; superbly furnished, and 
contain a fine collection of valuable paintings. The beau- 
ties of the situation are much heightened by the serpentine 
windings of the two rivers, which form a junction about 
half a mile below the House. The banks of both rivers 
are beautified by natural woods, and most romantic scen- 
ery, and art has added extensive walks, laid out with 
great taste. Within view of the house there is an elegant 
bridge of polished freestone, built within these few years 
as an ornament to the grounds, a cascade at this spot has 
a fine effect. The park, which is amongst the largest in 
the country, containing 800 Scotch, or 1000 English Acres, 



74 

is surrounded by a stone wall, and well stocked with deer ; 
it is adorned with a quantity of fine wood, and a number of 
venerable oaks. 

Smeaton or East Park House, within the inclosures, 
contains a menage and an aviary, the garden grounds 
are tastefully laid out, and kept in the highest order, 
these grounds contain a great variety of exotic plants, 
and are famed for the excellence of their productions. 
The Palace of Dalkeith was honoured by being the resi- 
dence of his Majesty, on his visit to Scotland in August 
1822. 

The market of Dalkeith is noted for its plentiful and 
excellent supply of all kinds of meat, particularly mut- 
ton, vegetables are abundant and cheap, and the town 
is in the immediate neighbourhood of extensive fields of 
coal. 

Besides the parish church, there are meeting houses, 
or places of worship belonging to the united associate 
synod, the relief, original burghers, independents, and me- 
thod ists. 

There are three bank branches in the town, one of the 
Commercial Bank of Scotland, one of the Leith Bank, and 
one of the National Bank of Scotland. The Leith Bank 
is the oldest of the three. 

The stables belonging to the Midlothian hunt are here, 
and the hounds are kept in the vicinity, and regularly hunt- 
ed in the neighbourhood. 

A fair is held here in May, on the first Tuesday after 
Rutherglen fair, but the principal fair, known by the name 



15 

of Dalkeith fair, is held on the third Tuesday in the month 
of October. 

Population, town and parish, in 1811, 4709. 

1821, 5169. 



DINGWALL. 






Dingwall is a Royal Burgh in the parish of that name, 
and County of Ross. It is 23 miles north by west of In- 
verness, 26 south-west of Tain, 20 south-west of Cromarty, 
10 north of Beauly, and 178 miles N. N. west of Edinburgh. 

The town is pleasantly situated on a fertile plain at the 
west end of the Firth of Cromarty, which is navigable for 
small vessels as far up as the town. It appears that the 
town of Dingwall was anciently much more extensive than 
at present, causeways and foundations of houses have been 
found some hundred yards distant from the present site of 
the town. The name was formerly Dingnaval, expressive 
of the richness of the soil of the low grounds. 

It was erected into a Royal Burgh by Alexander the Se- 
cond in the year 1226, which erection and privileges were 
confirmed by a charter granted in the reign of James the 
Fourth. By these charters Dingwall is entitled ' to all the 
privileges, liberties, and immunities possessed by the burgh 
of Inverness.' 



77 

The town consists of one neat well paved street, and se- 
veral lanes, the buildings are substantial, and many of them 
handsome. It is well situated for trade, but hitherto no 
particular branch of manufacture has been introduced. 

The municipal government of the town is vested in a pro- 
vost, two hailies, a dean of Guild, treasurer, and 10 coun- 
cillors ; and it joins with Tain, Dornoch, Wick, and Kirk- 
wall, in sending a member to Parliament. 

Near the town are the ruins of the Castle of Dingwall, 
the ancient residence of the Earls of Ross. It has been a 
regular fortification, surrounded by a deep ditch and glacis, 
where not defended by the sea, and stands close upon the 
shore. 

The Earl of Ross was the most powerful of the Scottish 
Barons, and proprietor of a great part of this country, pre- 
vious to the forfeiture of the last Earl. Many of the ancient 
families in Ross-shire held their estates from him by char- 
ters dated, ' apud castrum nostrum de Dingwall.' Near 
the church is an Obelisk which was erected by George, 
first Earl of Cromarty, Secretary of State for Scotland in 
the reign of Queen Anne. It stands upon an artificial 
mount, the bottom of which covers about two-thirds of an 
English acre. It is only six feet square at the base, and 
rises in a pyramidal form to the height of 57 feet. It was 
erected to distinguish the burying place of the family. A 
Mineral Spa, similar to that of Harrowgate, is situated 
about four miles to the west of the town. 

Dingwall is a post town, and the neighbourhood is orna- 
mented by a number of beautiful mansions. It has a good 
parish school, two English academies, and a young Ladies 



78 

Boarding School. Besides the parish church there is an 
episcopal chapel. 

The weekly market day is Friday, and two annual Fairs 
are held ; on the first Tuesday in July O. S. and on the 
Tuesday before old Christmas. 

The parish of Dingwall forms nearly a square of two 
miles. It occupies a fine valley, with part of the sloping 
sides of the hills which form the valley, — a great proportion 
of which is in a very high state of cultivation. There is 
but little waste land, and the whole parish forms a beau- 
tifully diversified scene of hill and dale ; wood and water, 
corn fields and meadows. The river Conan runs through 
the parish, and falls into the Cromarty Firth. It abounds 
with Salmon and Trout, and on it is a very productive 
Salmon fishery, — formerly pearls of great value were found 
near its mouth. 

The Population of the town and parish, as stated by Dr. 
Webster, was in 1775, 997, in 1791 it was 1379. 

in 1801, 1418. 
1811, 1508. 
1821, 2031. 



DUNBARTON. 



—*♦»#••«♦« — 



The Royal Burgh of Dumbarton, is in the parish of the 
same name ; and is the county town of Dunbarton-shire — 
it is 15 miles to the north-west of Glasgow, and 59 miles 
west from Edinburgh. It is situated on a low peninsula, 
almost surrounded by the river Leven, about half a mile 
above the junction of that river with the Clyde. 

This town is of very great antiquity, having received its 
first charter from Alexander the Second in the year 1221, 
by which it enjoyed very extensive privileges. This charter 
having been lost, all its ancient rights were confirmed by a 
charter of novo damus from James the Sixth in 1609. Bv 
these grants it possesses a large common of some miles in ex- 
tent, and the valuable privilege of salmon fishing in the river 
Leven, and on the Clyde, from Kelvin to Loch Long, — 
part, however, of these privileges, as to the Clyde fishing, 
have been lost by not using their rights. 

The town has one principal street, called the High 
Street, bending to the circular course of the river Leven. 
This street is broad and spacious, and well paved, contain- 



so 

ing a number of handsome modern houses — there are also 
several smaller streets, or lanes, and a large suburb stands 
on the west side of the river, in the adjoining parish of Car- 
dross, on the road leading to the village of Renton. In the 
neighbourhood of Dunbarton is the hunting seat of Robert 
de Bruce. Near the east end of the town, and fronting the 
High Street, stands a handsome church, with a spire and 
clock. The old town house, which included the jail, is 
now in ruins ; but an elegant building has recently been 
erected, containing a spacious court room and public offices 
for the use of the town and county. Immediately adjoin- 
ing stands a newly erected comfortable jail, surrounded by 
an extensive court. 

Besides the established church there is a burgher meet- 
ing house, and a Roman catholic ehapel. A little to the 
north of the town, on the bank of the river, are the ruins 
of a Collegiate church, founded by the Queen of Alexander 
the Second. 

Dunbarton has a grammar school under the patronage of 
the magistrates and council. It contains also a Sunday 
school, and others, for the education of children of both 
sexes; a public library, and several benevolent societies. 
There are two good inns, affording every accommodation to 
travellers. 

The municipal government of the town is vested in a 
provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and ten 
councillors, and has five incorporated trades. It joins with 
Glasgow, Renfrew, and Rutherglen, in sending a member 
to Parliament. 



81 

Some time prior to the year 1609, this town suffered 
greatly from an inundation of the rivers Clyde and Leveri. 
In that year the King and Parliament granted to Dunbar- 
ton, 37,000 merks Scotch, for raising bulwarks to resist 
any future inundations of these two rivers, — but these do 
not appear to have been completed, so as to reclaim the 
land lost, amounting to nearly 200 acres, which is almost 
overflowed every tide. The ruins of buildings are still dis- 
cernible. 

The suburbs are connected with the town, near to its 
west end, by a bridge of five arches over the Leven, built 
by government about 50 years ago ; the centre arch is 52 
feet span ; the whole length of the bridge being above 300 
feet. 

The estuary of the Leven forms a good harbour, where 
an extensive quay, and a capacious dock, has been con- 
structed. The latter is 220 feet long, and 35 feet broad, 
and is considered as one of the best docks on the Clyde. 
There are also two building yards, in which about 40 sail- 
ing vessels have been built within the last three years, of 
from 45 to 280 tons burden, and 30 steam vessels of from 
70 to 210 tons register. 

The Leven is navigable by coasting vessels to the town 
of Dunbarton, and there are nearly 2700 tons of shipping, 
registered and unregistered, belonging to the port. 

The resident burgesses of Dunbarton have the privilege 
of exemption from all river and harbour dues, payable at 
the port of Glasgow ; by virtue of a contract entered into 
with that City, and ratified by Act of Parliament in the 
year 1701. 



Dunbarton carries on a very considerable domestic trade, 
and the weaving of cotton goods for the Glasgow manufac- 
turers, employs a number of looms, besides several consid- 
erable printfields and bleachfields in constant employment. 
l>ut the principal manufacture of the town is that of crown, 
or window gkiss, bottles, &c. made here to a very large 
amount, this being the largest establishment of the kind in 
Scotland. 

These works employ a large portion of the shipping be- 
longing to the port of Dunbarton; and give work to upwards 
of 300 persons, and pay an annual Excise duty of nearly 
£120,000. Sterling. ; 

The less important manufactures of this town, are linen, 
linen yarn, leather, candles, hats, glue, excellent breweries, 
and several tan works. 

The chief imports are corn, meal, and timber; also kelp 
and sand for the use of the glassworks. The revenue of 
the town amounts to about £900. per annum, arising chiefly 
from the fishings on the Leven, the towns customs or dues, 
an extensive moor of upwards of 2000 acres, and other pro- 
perty belonging to the burgh. 

Dunbarton is the seat of a presbytery, belonging to the 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr. 

Dunbarton Castle, so famed in Scottish history, is situa- 
ted about half a mile from the town, on a point of land 
formed by the junction of the Clyde and Leven. It is 
placed upon the top of a basaltic rock, forming two remark- 
able craggy summits separated by a deep chasm. The 
sides of this rock are precipitous and irregular, composed 
of rude basaltic columns, of which huge masses have been 



83 

broken off, and fallen to the bottom. The buildings, con- 
sisting of the Barracks, Batteries, &c. placed upon the top 
of the rock, have a most imposing effect, and must have 
been impregnable in ancient times. The entry to the for- 
tress was anciently from the west, but now by a gate at 
the south-east corner, — and within the ramparts are the 
Governor's House, Officers lodgings, and Guard House. 
From hence the ascent is by a very long flight of stone 
steps, leading up through the chasm to the upper Batteries 
where there are a Barrack for the Soldiers, and a reservoir 
for water. This fortress, according to Boethius was possess- 
ed by the Caledonians, and resisted all the efforts of the 
Romans under Agricola to reduce it. It was the strongest 
fortification in the Kingdom in the time of the venerable 
Bede and deemed impregnable. It was, however, reduced 
by famine in the year 756, by Egbert, King of Northum- 
berland, — and was taken by Escalade on the 2d April, in 
the year 1571. 

The Sword of Sir William Wallace is preserved in Dun- 
barton Castle, a relict held in veneration by all Scotchmen. 

Many parts of the rock is said to be highly magnetic, af- 
fecting the compass at a considerable distance. The true 
Scots Thistle is found here in great abundance. 

The Castle of Dunbarton was once considered as com- 
manding the navigation of the Clyde and the key to the 
Western Highlands; it is consequently included in the arti- 
cles of union, as one of the four forts to be kept in repair. 

It is garrisoned by a governor, lieutenant-governor, a 
subaltern officer, and a party of invalids. The views from 
the summits are particularly grand, comprehending a distant 
L 



84 

prospect of the majestic Ben Lomond. The firing of a 
cannon from the Prince Regent's Battery resembles many 
peals of thunder, from the sound reverberating from one hill 
to another. 

The market days are Tuesday and Friday, and there are 
Fairs held on the third Tuesday in March ; on the second 
Tuesday and Wednesday in August, and a large cattle 
market is held on Carman -moor, distant two miles, on the 
first Wednesday in June. 

Population of the Town and Parish in 1811, 3121. 

1821, 3481. 



DUNDEE. 






Dundee is a large and flourishing sea port and a royal 
burgh, in the parish of that name, and county of Angus, 
seated on the north side of the river Tay, about 12 miles 
from the mouth of that river, where it falls into the German 
Ocean, Long. 3° 3' west of Greenwich, Lat. 56° 27' 23" 
north. It is 22 miles east from Perth, 18 miles south-west 
of Arbroath, 14. south of Forfar, and 40 miles north by east 
of Edinburgh. 

Dundee is a presbytery seat* It is. a large and well 
built town, consisting of four principal streets, diverging 
from the High Street; or Market place, which is a spacious 
square, 360 feet long, and 100 feet in breadth, with several 
cross streets and lanes. On the south side of this . square 
stands the Town House, an elegant structure, having a 
handsome front adorned. with piazzas, and a spire 140 feet 
high. This building was finished in 1734, from a plan of 
the elder Adams, and contains the Guild Hall, the Court 
Room, Town Clerk's Oifice, &C, with vaulted repositories 
for the Town's Records. The upper floors are employed 



86 



as a prison, and the under part is occupied as an office by 
the Dundee Banking Company. At the east end of the 
square the Trades Hall presents a conspicuous appearance, 
it is an elegant building with a front of Ionic pillasters, and a 
very neat cupola. The under floors are occupied as shops, 
above are rooms for the different incorporations, and a large 
hall for general meetings, which also serves the purpose of 
a Subscription Coffee Room. In Castle Street, so named 
from an old castle which stood there, stands an elegant 
episcopal chapel, and in the same street a very neat thea- 
tre. To the west of the High Street, is the old church, in 
which were originally four places of worship, and it has 
been, when entire, a very magnificent edifice. It has a large 
square Gothic tower or steeple, 156 feet high, at the west 
end ; said to have been erected by David Earl of Hunting- 
don, in 1189, in consequence of a vow made to the Virgin 
Mary, for his deliverance from shipwreck on his return from 
his third crusade. A new and elegant church is now built 
adjoining to this old church. 

The Sailors hall in Yeaman Shore, is a neat edifice, con- 
taining a spacious hall for general meetings, and smaller 
committee rooms, apartments for their records, and con- 
venient lodgings for their officer, in the ground floor. The 
Infirmary is a large plain building, opened in 1798, for the 
reception of the indigent sick. A dispensary previously 
established under the patronage of Lord Douglas, is now 
attached to this institution. About a mile from the town, 
on an eminence towards the Hill of Dundee, stands Dud- 
hope Castle, an ancient fabric, now converted into barracks. 



37 

Dundee contains many charitable and benevolent insti- 
tutions, a detail of which our limits forbid us to enter 
upon. Most of the streets are neat, clean, well paved and 
lighted with gas, and the houses, where they are not ele- 
gant, are well built and commodious. The Nethergate 
and Over, or Uppergate, strike off from the High Street 
to the west, and the Murray-gate, and Seagate to the 
eastward. The town is well supplied with water, every 
street has a public well, conveyed to the town in leaden 
pipes. 

The situation of the town is most delightful, command- 
ing a fine view of the opposite coast of Fife, the passage of 
the river, with the numerous vessels passing up and down 
the Tay. To the west of the burgh, the environs are orna- 
mented by the great number of the residences of the more 
opulent citizens, on the bank of the river. These man- 
sions are in beautiful situations, handsomely built, and many 
of them elegant, and adorned with planting and shrubery. 
Upon the whole this town seems to have a right to its an- 
eient appellation of " Bonny Dundee." 

The town of Dundee has long been famed for its semin- 
aries of education, and very early evinced a predilection for 
literature. The academy is an excellent establishment, 
where the ancient and modern languages, mathematics, 
natural and experimental philosophy, &c. are taught by 
able masters, the collection of philosophical apparatus is 
extensive. There is a public grammar school, and English 
schools, with many other seminaries for all the useful and 
ornamental branches of modern education. 



88 

The harbour is admirably situated for trade, admitting 
vessels of great burthen. It has been lately greatly en- 
larged, a wet dock and a graving-dock have been added, 
and a new pier is nearly finished. There are at present 
about 170 vessels belonging to the port of Dundee, 
measuring about 17,000 tons, manned by 14 or 1500 Sea- 
men. There are ten ships employed in the Whale fishery, 
about 70 in the foreign trade, and the remainder in the 
coasting trade. Of these coasters 12 are in the London 
trade alone, which sail regularly twice a week. Dundee 
is one of the first commercial ports in Scotland. The 
principal imports are flax from the Baltic, timber from A- 
merica, — West India produce, spirits, wines, &c. and coal 
and lime. The exports consist of manufacturing and agri- 
cultural produce. The chief manufacture is that of linen 
of all kinds, brown linen has always been a staple article 
of manufacture. Bleached linen has been introduced only 
of late years, and promises to do well, the articles manu- 
factured are imitations of the sheeting and duck of Russia, 
and the doulas and shirting of Germany. Sail cloth is a 
great article of Dundee manufacture. In the last war it 
amounted to the amazing quantity of 700,000 yards per 
annum, — now it is considerably less. Bagging of all kinds, 
both for home use and exportation, is extensively made. 
Dundee thread, coloured and white, has been long in great 
esteem, and still continues to be manufactured. 

The quantity of Flax annually imported amounts to 5 
or 600 tons, the whole of which is manufactured in the 
town and neighbourhood. There are several extensive 



89 

lint spinning mills in the vicinity, and some large bleach- 
fields. 

Ship building is extensively carried on, Sail making, 
Rope making, &c. Soap making, Sugar baking, Tanneries, 
Breweries, &c. are established here, as also a number of 
minor domestic manufactures. 

Dundee was erected into a Royal Burgh by King Wil- 
liam the Lion, but all the records having been carried off 
or destroyed by Edward the First, — Robert de Bruce, re- 
cognized the rights of the burgh, by granting a charter 
dated at Aberbrothick, June 22. 1326, — these rights were 
confirmed and enlarged by charters from succeeding prin- 
ces, and finally confirmed by a charter from Charles the 
First, and ratified by Parliament 1 4th September 1641. 

Dundee was burnt by Edward the First. It was taken 
and burnt by Richard the Second, again by the English 
in the reign of Edward the Sixth. It suffered greatly in 
the troubles of Charles the Second's reign, and during the 
usurpation of Cromwell ; being sometimes under one mas- 
ter, and again at the mercy of another. It was taken by 
storm by the Marquis of Montrose ; and was lastly stormed 
and completely pillaged by General Monk in 1651, when 
60 ships were captured in the harbour, and afforded to the 
captors a booty in plate and money, " exceeding" says an 
old author, " all the plunder they had attained in the 
wars throughout all the three nations," at this time every 
soldier in Monk's army had £60. Sterling of plunder to his 
share. 

The town is governed by a provost, four bailies, a dean 
of Guild, treasurer, and fifteen councillors, and joins with 



90 



Forfar, St. Andrews, Cupar, and Perth, in returning a mem- 
ber to Parliament. The revenues of the town amount to 
£4000. per annum. 

Besides the three churches belonging to the establish- 
ment, there are several dissenting churches, viz. two Scotch 
episcopal, one English episcopal, one burgher, one relief, 
three independent, two united secession, one antiburgher 
two baptist, one unitarian, one Gaeiic, one methodist, and 
one Roman catholic chapel. 

There are three Banking Companies in Dundee, viz. 
the Dundee Banking Company, Dundee New Bank, and 
the Dundee Union Bank. There is also a branch of the 
British Linen Company Bank, and a private bank. 

The market day is Friday, and annual Fairs are held on 
the first Wednesday after the 26th day of May (at Glam- 
mis,) on the second Tuesday in July (at Stobs,) the 15th 
day of August, 19th September, 22d October, and the first 
Wednesday after the 22nd day of November (at Glammis.) 

The Population of the town and parish by the census of 
1801, was 26,084. 
1811, 29,616. 
1821, 30,575. 



DUMFRIES. 



Dumfries is a Royal Burgh in the parish of that name, and 
the County Town of Dumfries-shire. It is delightfully si- 
tuated on the north bank of the river Nith, about nine 
miles above the confluence of that river with the Solway 
Firth. It lies 72 miles south of Edinburgh, 80 south by 
east of Glasgow? 20 miles north east of Castle Douglas, 
27 north east of Kirkcudbright, and 341 miles from Lon- 
don, by way of Manchester. The situation of the town, 
rising gradually from the river, is beautiful and advantage- 
ous. The town consists of one principal street, parallel to 
the river, of nearly a mile in length ; and eight cross streets 
and lanes, nearly one third of a mile in breadth. The 
houses, in general, are handsome, and the public buildings 
elegant. The town has a light and airy appearance, the 
streets are wide, well paved, clean, and lighted with gas. 
The High Street is nearly 100 feet wide, and in it are 
many superb shops and warehouses. The environs of the 
town are adorned by many neat houses and plantations — 
and the prospect, which is terminated at the distance of a 

M 



92 

few miles, by a continued chain of hills, covered with wood, 
or cultivated to their summits, exhibit a richness of scenery 
seldom exceeded. 

There are two handsome churches belonging to the esta- 
blishment, with spires and clocks, one relief, two united 
secession, one episcopal, one methodist, and one indepen- 
dent meeting houses, with a Roman Catholic chapel. The 
parish church, St. Michael's, is very ancient, and deserves 
notice for its cemetry, which contains many elegant, curi- 
ous and antique monuments. In the north-west corner of 
this church yard is interred the remains of the celebrated 
Robert Burns, the- Scots Poet, who died! in Dumfries on 
the 22d July 1796, in the 37th year of his age. A splen- 
did mausolem was erected to his memory by the admirers 
of the immortal bard, at an expence of £1500,- raised in ; a 
short time by public subscription. The foundation stone 
was laid on the 5th June 1815, and the body removed from 
the place where it was originally interred, on the 19th day 
of the following September. It is a beautiful sepulchral 
monument, which, for symmetry and chasteness of design, 
has scarcely its equal in any age or country. An appro- 
priate inscription, and a most classic marble sculpture, is 
placed in the interior of the edifice. It is surrounded with 
handsome iron pallisades — planted with evergreens , and is 
certainly a cemetry worthy of Caledonia's highly gifted 
Bard. 

The Infirmary is a magnificent building, founded in 1 776, 
at a period when very few charities of a similar kind were 
in Britain, and this is yet the only one in the south of Scot- 
land. It is under the management of governors, and is 



93 

supported by annual subscription, donations, &c. — there is 
a lunatic assylum connected with it. The poor's hospital is 
another praiseworthy establishment — it was founded in 
1753, by two brothers of the name of Moorhead, merchants 
in the town ; and is supported by collections at the church 
doors, legacies and donations. The greatest care is paid 
to the health, morals, and comfort of its poor inmates ; and 
the children of the destitute are taught to read and write. 
There are also many religious and benevolent societies in 
Dumfries, — among others, a ladies free school. 

The academy was founded in 1802, and stands upon one 
of the most healthy and delightful situations to be found in the 
town or neighbourhood — the entire expense of the building 
was defrayed by voluntary subscription. The magistrates are 
patrons, and, with the Town Council, have the appointment 
of the masters. There is a handsome theatre, with a pro- 
jecting portico, tastefully decorated internally, and illumin- 
ated with gas. It is well attended during the season, and 
can generally boast of superior performers. The town-house 
is a large and elegant structure, containing a very spacious 
court room, and other offices. Nearly opposite to the 
court room stands the jail ; from whence the prisoners to 
be tried are conducted through a subterraneous passage 
which communicates with the court room. There are two 
subscription libraries ; two subscription reading and news 
rooms, well supplied with the London and Provincial pa- 
pers, and magazines — in one of these rooms there is an 
excellent billiard table. 

Dumfries being the county town of the shire, and, as it 
were, the capital of the whole district of Galloway — pos- 



94 

sessing the advantage of an easy and frequent intercourse 
with the metropolis, and all the chief towns in Scotland, it 
becomes a place of resort for the nobility and gentry of the 
adjoining counties. Independent of those who have only 
amusement in view, many are attracted hither by its excel- 
lent seminaries of education, the cheapness of living, and the 
salubrity of the air. Thus, Dumfries possesses more elegance 
of manners, and greater gaity, than is to be found in any 
town of its size in Scotland. The proportion of the inhabi- 
tants, who are descended of respectable families, and have 
received a liberal education, is greater in Dumfries than in 
any other part of the island ; and these, in consequence, 
give a more elevated and polished tone to the manners and 
general character of the people. There are annual horse 
races in the month of October, and the Caledonian Hunt 
meet here every fifth year. 

The town is governed by a provost, three bailies, a dean 
of guild, treasurer, two town clerks, and twelve councillors, 
There are seven incorporated trades, with each a deacon 
chosen from among themselves, who elect one of their own 
number to be convenor, and another to be box master, 
these form what is called the grand committee of the seven 
trades. Dumfries, along with Lochmaben, Annan, Sanqu- 
har and Kirkcudbright, returns a member to Parliament, 
The revenue of the town is about £1600 per annum. 

The assizes for the County of Dumfries, and the Stewarty 
of Kirkcudbright are held here twice in the year, viz. in 
April and September ; it is also the seat of the Sheriff and 
Commissary Courts, and of the Presbytery and Synod. 



95 

A small Debt Court, and Borough Courts, are regularly 
held here. 

There are several excellent Inns where every accomoda- 
tion is found, and the utmost attention paid to the wants 
and wishes of the traveller. One of these (the Commercial 
Inn,) is most deserving of notice, for its having been the 
head quarters of the Pretender, Charles Stuart, in Decem- 
ber 1745. The town has a most active police, the com- 
missioners of which, have aided most effectually the spirit 
of improvement shewn by the Inhabitants, as to removing 
nuisances, and making alterations and amendments on the 
streets, new market places, a Umber bridge for foot passen- 
gers over the Nith, &c. &c. 

A new suit of rooms for balls and assemblies is in pro- 
gress, and a spacious quay is to be built on the banks of 
the river. The town is amply supplied with water by means 
of pipes, under the management of a water company. 
There are two stone bridges over the Nith, the lower bridge 
consists of nine arches, built in the 1 2th century, the other 
is an elegant structure built in the year 1800. In a square 
nearly in the centre of the town, stands a fine doric pillar, 
erected by the County of Dumfries, to the memory of the 
late Duke of Queensberry. 

Dumfries possesses no staple manufacture, although al- 
most every branch of mechanical and commercial industry 
is practised. The commercial advantages of this port have 
been greatly increased within a short period, by obtaining 
an act of Parliament, empowering a certain number of com- 
missioners to be annually chosen to conduct the shipping 
concerns of the river ; since which period, great and impor- 



96 

tant improvements have been effected. The dangerous 
sand banks in the Solway Firth have been made compari- 
tively safe, by placing buoys in the Scotch and English 
channels, obstructions of every kind have been removed, 
the river Nith has been confined by great and solid 
embankments, and stone jetties ; new cuts have been made 
where necessary, so that now most of the vessels may dis- 
charge their cargoes close to the town, which were obliged 
to unload at a considerable distance down the river. The 
consequence of all this has been, the vast improvement of 
the shipping interest. In the years 1808-9, the river dues 
from the shipping were only about £300 annually, now 
they are (1827) above £1000, — the tonnage of the vessels 
belonging to the port, amounts to upwards of 4000 tons. 

The chief imports are timber, iron, hemp, tallow, coal, 
slate, wine, &e. the exports consist of wheat, barley, oats, 
potatoes, wool, and freestone. Considerable business is 
done in the manufacture of hosiery, chiefly lambs-wool. 
Hats are made, and there are several tan-yards, extensive 
breweries, and a distillery. 

Dumfries was a place of some consideration in the twelfth 
century. It was in the Franciscan Church of this town that 
Robert Bruce slew the traitor Cumin who had betrayed 
liis secrets to Edward, on the 10th of February 1305. 
While England and Scotland were separate kingdoms, 
Dumfries was a place of strength where the Scots Borderers 
retired from the hostile incursions of the English. Since 
the beginning of the last century, it has made gradual and 
steady advances in wealth and population. Dumfries gives 
the title of Earl to the chief of the family of Crichton. 



97 

Many ancient customs, formerly observed in Dumfries, 
are now abolished, but one still exists, the shooting for the 
Silver Gun. King James the Sixth, in one of his journies 
to England, presented to the trades of Dumfries, a small 
silver tube like a pistol barrel, called the Silver Gun ; with 
his royal licence to shoot for it every year, as a prize to 
the best marksman among the incorporations of the town. 
This has now dwindled down to an exhibition once every 
seventh year, and the birth day of the reigning monarch is 
the day fixed for the celebration of this festival. The last 
took place on the 23d April 1824. 

The printing business is carried on in Dumfries, and 
there are two weekly news-papers published, both have an 
extensive circulation, and are respectably conducted. There 
are branches of the Bank of Scotland, British Linen Com- 
pany, Commercial Bank of Scotland, and the Galloway 
Bank. The market days are Wednesday and Saturday for 
domestic purposes, on Wednesdays the Cattle market i* 
the largest in Scotland, and during the season many thou- 
sand carcasses of pork are sold. Fairs are held on the first 
Wednesday in February, O. S. — this Fair is remarkable for 
the immense quantity of hare skins sold, in some years to 
the value of £6000. On the 26th day of May, or the 
Wednesday thereafter ; on the 25 th September, or Wed- 
nesday after ; and on the 22d November, or Wednesday 
thereafter. These are chartered Fairs, and a vast number 
of Horses are shewn, these are more resorted to than any 
Fairs in the South of Scotland. 

Maxwelltown, formerly the village of Bridge-end is now 
a Burgh of Barony, in- the Stewarty of Kirkcudbright, and 



98 

connected with Dumfries by the two bridges across the 
Nith. In no instance have the good effects of erecting a 
village into a Burgh of Barony been more conspicuous than 
Maxwelltown. The charter was obtained from the Crown 
in 1810, and since that time from being a poor village, 
notorious for disorderly conduct, for it was a remark of the 
late Sir John Fielding's, thut he could trace a rogue over 
the whole Kingdom, but always lost him at the Bridge-end 
of Dumfries, it has improved in the value and extent of 
houses, and increased considerably in the number and re- 
spectability of its Inhabitants. It is governed by a provost, 
two bailies, and Councillors. 

The Population of the town and Parish by the census of 

1801, was 7288. 

1811, 9262. 

1821, 11,052. 



DUNFERMLINE. 



Dunfermline is a royal burgh in the parish of that name, 
and county of Fife. It is situated in the western district of 
Fife-shire, about 3 miles from the Firth of Forth, on an 
eminence rising to 227 feet above the level of the sea, and 
commanding a most extensive, varied, and beautiful pros- 
pect. It lies 3 miles north of the port of Limekilns, 5 
miles south of Charlestown, 6 from the North Queensferry, 
7 north-east from Culross, 10 south by west of Kinross, 
and 17 miles north-west of Edinburgh. 

Dunfermline has one principal street, the High Street, 
extending from east to west, and continued westward by 
Bridge Street, and eastward by East Port Street. It runs 
along the face of the hill, and is crossed at right angles hy 
other streets, in which are many elegant and well built 
houses. The Town House is in Bridge Street and has a 
spire and clock. The Jail is in the same building. Near- 
ly in the centre of the High Street, stands the Guild Hall 
now private property, and occupied as an Inn. It contains 
assembly rooms, and apartments for meetings of public 
N 



100 

bodies, and has a steeple 132 feet high. Few old houses 
remain in the town to mark the taste of ancient times. 

The ground falls with a considerable declivity to the 
south, and the lower part of the town is called the Nether- 
ton. The size of the town is rapidly increasing by the feu- 
ing of the lands of Pittencrieff on the west of the burgh. 
This part of the town is joined to that within the burgh, 
by a bridge or rather an earthen mound, on which a street 
is formed (Bridge Street,) of 300 feet long. The water of 
Lyne passes from north to south, dividing the royalty from 
the suburbs of Pittencrieff. 

Dunfermline is the seat of a presbytery, and one of the 
most considerable manufacturing towns in the county. 
The manufacture of damask and diaper table-linen, has 
here been carried to the utmost state of perfection, and is 
the staple manufacture of the town. It has been so from 
a very early period, and now employs the bulk of the po- 
pulation. The introduction of machinery, so universal in 
all the branches of the weaving trade, has had a tendency 
to reduce the number of looms wrought by the hand, 
though there are still from 1500 to 2000 employed in the 
town and vicinity. There are several spinning mills and 
bleachfields in the neighbourhood of the town, soap works, 
tannaries, &c. 

The government of the town is vested in a provost, two 
bailies, dean of Guild, and twenty-two councillors, annually 
elected, and joins with Queensferry, Culross, Stirling, and 
Inverkeithing in returning a member to Parliament. The 
revenue of the town is about £1500. per annum. 



101 

The ingenuity of the inhabitants in weaving, appeared at 
an early period, — there is preserved in the chest of the in- 
corporation of weavers, a man's shirt wrought in the loom, 
more than a century ago, by a man of the name of Inglis ; 
which is without seam, or the least assistance from the 
needle. The button for the neck, alone, baffled his ingen- 
uity. A woman's shift, is also preserved, made at a later 
period, by a man named Meldrum, upon the same princi- 
ples. 

At a very early period Dunfermline became a royal re- 
sidence, Malcolm the Third, surnamed Canmore, who 
reigned from the year 1057 to 1093, resided in a tower or 
castle, built upon a peninsulated hill, formed by the water 
of Lyne, in a valley on the west of the town. He was also 
the original founder of the church, or monastery of Dunferm- 
line. A palace was afterwards built not far from the tower 
on the east, in a most romantic situation, the south-west 
wall of which remains a monument of the. magnificent fa- 
bric, of which it was a part. 

The monastery as mentioned, was founded by Malcolm 
Canmore, for monks of the order of St. Benedict, and was 
completed by his son Alexander the First. It continued 
to be governed by a prior till the reign of David the First, 
who raised it to the dignity ot* an abbey, and who in 1124, 
translated thither 13 Monks from Canterbury. The abbey 
was richly endowed, and derived part of its revenues from 
distant parts of the kingdom. It was a magnificent and 
extensive fabric, but fell an early sacrifice to the plunder- 
ing army of Edward the First in the year 1303. All that 
was. at that time saved of this magnificent, edifice, was. the 






102 

church, and a few cells of the Monks. These were demo- 
lished at the reformation— so that the remains of the abbey 
are inconsiderable. 

A part of the ancient abbey was occupied till within 
the last few years as the parish church. The old steeple 
remains, from the top of which there is a very rich and 
extensive view of the surrounding country, and of more 
remote districts of Scotland, comprehending altogether, it 
is said, not fewer than 14 counties. Here are interred 
Malcolm Canmore, and his Queen, Margaret, with seven 
other kings of Scotland, and five queens, besides many of 
the most eminent men of the kingdom ; Dunfermline having 
been appointed by Malcolm Canmore, to be the royal ce- 
metry of Scotland. 

In clearing the ground for the erection of a new church, 
the remains of that celebrated hero, King Robert the Bruce 
was discovered on the 18th February, 1818. On the 5th 
November, 1819, these sacred remains, after the inspection 
of the Barons of Exchequer, &c. were re-interred in the 
spot where they had been originally deposited in the year 
1329. The new church is erected over his grave, and the 
pulpit is placed directly over his ashes. 

The burgh held of the monastery of Dunfermline for 
more than two centuries, and became a royal burgh by a 
charter from James the Sixth, dated 24th May, 1588. In 
this charter, called a charter of confirmation, the king rati- 
fies sundry charters, donations and indentures, by John and 
Robert, abbots of Dunfermline, and in particular, one, dat- 
ed 10th February 1395, by which the abbot and convent 
renounce in favour of the eldermen and community, the 



103 



whole income of the burgh belonging to their revenue, 
with the small customs, profits of Court, &c. reserving, how- 
ever, the " power of punishment should any of the magis- 
trates be guilty of injustice in the exercise of their office." 
The present set of the' burgh was fixed by a decreet arbi- 
tral of the committee of the convention of royal burghs, 1 3th 
July, 1724. 

The high school in Queen Ann Street, is a commodious 
building, and the system of instruction ably conducted. 
There are other schools for the various branches of educa- 
tion, and some charitable establishments and institutions. 
Besides the parish church, there is a chapel of ease belong- 
ing to the establishment, three chapels in connexion with 
the united secession, one old burgher, one relief, one bap- 
tist meeting house, and a chapel belonging to the metho- 
dists. There is a branch of the Bank of Scotland, and one 
of the Commercial Bank of Scotland. 

The market days are Tuesday and Friday, the former 
is the corn-market day, and annual fairs are held on the 
third Wednesday in January, O. S. on the second Wednes- 
day in March, the fourth Wednesday in April, the first 
Wednesday in July, the first Tuesday in August, the fourth 
Friday in September, and the fourth Wednesday in Nov- 
ember. 

The parish of Dunfermline is about eight miles long from 
north to south, by six in breadth, the soil is fertile and 
mostly under tillage, but to the north of the town it is more 
barren and uncultivated. There are some lakes in the par- 
ish, and a good deal of planting. It abounds with valuable 
mines and minerals, coal of a very superior quality is found 



104 

in almost every part, great quantities of which are exported 
from the neighbouring sea ports of Inverkeithing, Lime- 
kilns, and Charlestown. Freestone is in abundance, of a 
fine quality, as is also whinstone for paving. Limestone is 
wrought to an immense extent, the Earl of Elgin's lime- 
works are the most extensive in Britain. Ironstone is found 
in abundance, and is exported in great quantities to the 
Carron Works. 

The Population of the town and parish by the census of 

1801, was 9,980. 

1811, 11,649. 

1821, 13,681. 
Of this population the royalty contains nearly one half*. 
The Town, including Pittencrieff suburb, above 1,1,000. 






DUNKELD. 



Dunkeld is an ancient burgh of Barony in the united 
parishes of Dunkeld and Dowally, and county of Perth ; 
charmingly situated on the north bank of the river Tay. 
It is 15 miles north of Perth, 20 south-east of Blair in 
Athol, 12 west of Blairgowrie, and 57 miles north of Edin- 
burgh. 

The scenery around Dunkeld has always been the ad- 
miration of visitors. Nature has been profuse in producing 
and combining every object that can form the grand, the 
picturesque, and the beautiful in landscape; and the taste 
of the noble proprietor has improved these beauties to their 
utmost extent. The scenery in this neighbourhood is no- 
where surpassed in Scotland. 

Dunkeld was the capital of ancient Caledonia, and had a 
monastery of Culdees founded in it by a Pictish king, about 
the dawn of Christianity. This monastery was converted 
into a bishopric by David the First in the year 1130, and 
ranked in his time as the first in the kingdom. The cathe- 
O 



106 

dral, which is about 200 feet long, and 60 wide, has been 
a fine building, though now much delapidated, the archi- 
tecture is partly Saxon, and partly Gothic. The choir is 
still entire, and used as the parish church — -it was built by 
Bishop Sinclair in 1350, who is buried here. It also con- 
tains the tomb of Alexander, Earl of Buchan, natural son 
of Robert the Second, commonly called the Red Wolf of 
Badenoch ; he was excommunicated for burning the town 
and cathedral of Elgin, but having made his peace with the 
clergy, was buried in holy ground. 

The bishopric was held by many men celebrated for their 
learning and abilities, amongst others, by Gavin Douglas in 
the year 1516. On the north side of the choir is the char- 
ter house, built by Bishop Lauder in 1469, the vault of 
which is now used as the burial place of the family of 
Athol ; and the upper room is occupied as a charter room 
by the Duke. The lower at the west end of the north aisle 
is remarkably elegant. 

Dunkeld is a flourishing little town, and the chief mar- 
ket town of the Northern Highlands. It carries on some 
manufactures of linen and yarn, and a considerable tannery 
is in full employment. The town lies to the east of the 
cathedral and parish church, and extends northward on 
both sides of the great Highland road. The houses in gene- 
ral are plain and well built ; the buildings in the new streets 
(Athol and Bridge Street) are more elegant. The Duke's 
Arms Inn is an elegant and commodious building at the 
Cross. It has a Grammar school, Mason lodge, &c. Be- 
sides the parish church, there is a Glassite chapel and a 



107 

missionary church. A magnificent bridge of seven arches 
has been thrown over the Tay, at an expence of £30,000, 
of which government gave £5000 — the remainder was paid 
by the Duke of Athol. One of the arches is a span of 90 
feet, two are of 84 feet, and two of 74 feet span — the other 
two smaller are land arches. This bridge was begun in 1805, 
and finished in 1 809. The construction of this bridge was in 
some degree novel — it was chiefly built on dry land, and 
the course of the river was then turned to answer the 
bridge. 

The government of the town is vested in a Baron Bailie, 
appointed by his Grace the Duke of Athol, who is the su- 
perior. Charles the Second offered it a charter of erection 
into a royal burgh, but the offer was declined. The town 
has been hitherto much circumscribed by the policies of 
the Duke on three sides, and by the river on the south ; 
but since the bridge has been finished, the delightful plain 
on the south bank of the Tay has been purchased, and 
feued out for building. Dunkeld was formerly much re- 
sorted to by invalids in summer, for the benefit of goat's 
whey — to this beverage, the salubrity of the air, the sereni- 
ty of mind produced by the contemplation of the charming 
scenery, with the moderate exercise thereby induced, could 
not fail to contribute most essentially to the cure. 

Dunkeld House, the principal seat of the Duke of Athol, 
stands a little to the north of the cathedral, and is a plain 
neat building, without any of that magnificence generally 
seen in a ducal residence. The gardens are extensive, and 
abound with fruit, which here arrives at great perfection. 



108 



The plantations have been much extended, and occupy 
above four thousand acres. The gardens, the cascade, the 
extensive pleasure grounds, and delightful scenery, are the 
objects which attract the notice of the Tourist, both foreign 
and native. 

Ossian's Hall, or Hermitage, on the small river Braan, 
from whence the cascade is seen to the best advantage, is 
described by Mr. Gilpin, as a scene the most interesting of 
the kind he ever saw. " The whole scene, and its accom- 
paniments," he observes, " are not only grand, but pic- 
turesquely beautiful in the highest degree. The composi- 
tion is perfect, but yet the parts so intricate, so various, 
and so complicated, that I never found any piece of nature 
less obvious to imitation, it would cost the readiest pencil 
a summer's day to bring off a good resemblance." 

In the year 1648, Sir James Galloway, master of re- 
quests to James the Sixth, and to Charles the First, was 
created Lord Dunkeld, — his grandson James being attaint- 
ed at the revolution, the title became extinct. 

The weekly market day is Saturday, and there are five 
annual fairs, viz. on the 14th day of February, N. S. and 
on the 25th, O. S., on the 20th day of June, should any of 
these days fall on Saturday, Sunday, or Monday, it is not 
held till Tuesday. On the 8th and the 31st days of Decem- 
ber, O. S. should any of these days be Sunday, it is held on 
the Saturday preceding. 

There is in Dunkeld a branch of the Perth Banking 
Company, and another of the Commercial Bank of Scot- 
land ; whose chief trade is in discounts for the extensive 



109 



tract of Highland country northward, where a very con« 
siderable traffic in cattle is carried on. 

Population of the Town and Parish, 1811, 1360. 

1821, 1364. 



EDINBURGH. 



This magnificent City, the Metropolis of Scotland, 
is situated in the northern part of the County of 
Edinburgh or Mid-Lothian ; and lies in 55° 5J' north 
latitude, and 3° 14' west longitude from Greenwich ; 
nearly a mile and a half south of the Firth of Forth, 
and about the same distance from Leith, the sea port 
of Edinburgh. It is 16 miles west of Haddington, 
42 east of Glasgow, 128 south S. west of Aberdeen, 
and 156 south of Inverness. It is distant 390 miles, 
north by west of London, and 92 \ miles from Car- 
lisle. 

This City is more than two miles long, is about 
the same in breadth, and the circumference of the 
whole is nearly eight miles, it is rapidly increasing in 
all directions. 

It stands upon three distinct hills or elevations. 
The old town occupies chiefly the centre elevation, 
extending, nearly in a straight line, from the perpen- 
dicular rock on which the Castle is built, at the wes* 



112 

tern extremity, to the Palace of Holyrood House on 
the east. 

The High Street occupies the flat surface of this 
central ridge, and measures from the gate of the Cas- 
tle to the Palace-gate, 5570 feet in length, and in ge-r 
neral 90 feet in breadth. From the High Street de- 
scend numerous lanes or dosses on the declivities, 
north and south of this central ridge. Parallel to the 
High Street, in the valley on the south, runs a street 
called the Cowgate, from 10 to 20 feet in breadth; the 
rising ground in this direction is covered with build- 
ings ; forming a mixture of the ancient and modern 
architecture, extending in streets, squares, and villas, 
to a distance of one and a half miles. 

The northern valley, called the North Loch, is laid 
out in ornamented grounds on the west, and the whole 
of this valley is in progress of being laid out in the 
same manner. 

A mound of earth crosses this valley to the west* 
ward, which was formed with the earth dug from the 
foundations of buildings in the new town, and is near- 
ly 1000 feet long, about 200 in breath, and SO feet 
high above the surface of the valley. At the north 
end of this mound, there has lately been erected a 
beautiful square building, appropriated to the Royal 
Institution for the encouragement of the Fine Arts. 
Near the eastern extremity of this valley, it is crossed 
by a beautiful Bridge, called the North Bridge, foun- 
ded in the year 1763. This Bridge consists of three 
great central arches of J2 feet each, with two smal- 
ler ones at each end. The length of the Bridge is 
1270 feet, the breadth 50 feet, and the height 68 feet. 
North Bridge Street is terminated on the north by 



J 13 

Princes Street crossing it at right angles, and the 
Register Office, one of the most elegant edifices in 
Edinburgh. 

The so.iithrrn valley is crossed by a Bridge called 
the South Bridge ; this Bridge was opened in I788, 
and consists of 22 arches, one of which only is visi- 
ble j which is the centre arch over the Cowgate. This 
bridge is on a line with the North Bridge, and crosses 
the High Street at right angles ; forming an elegant 
street of nearly equal length with the High Street, 
and dividing the old town into nearly two equal 
halfs- 

The New Town stands upon the horizontal ridge, 
on the north side of the old town, having an incon- 
siderable elevation on the south, declining to the sea 
on tbe north, and maybe divided into two parts, viz. the 
New Town designed in 1/67, which is completed ; and 
the other additional buildings, streets, and squares, 
erecting on the east, west, and north, of the former. 

Edinburgh is naturally divided by the North Loch 
into the Old and New Town, communicating by the 
North Bridge, and Earthen Mound. The New Town 
having been laid out on a regular plan in 17^7* is one 
of the finest cities in Europe. The whole has been 
built within the last 60 years, of beautiful free stone, 
superior to any in the kingdom. A plan for building, 
what may be termed an additional New Town be- 
tween Edinburgh and Leith, and on the east and west 
of Leith walk, is in progress and rapidly extending, so 
that in a few years Edinburgh will be joined to its an- 
cient sea port. Edinburgh being noted for learning and 
the fine arts, and from its general magnificent appear- 
ance has been justly called the Modern Atliem. 



J14 

Thii " Romantic Town," situated on three separat- 
ed and distinct rising grounds, is surrounded in all 
directions, except the north, by a succession of beau- 
tiful hills. In the immediate vicinity of the Town, on 
the east is the Calton Hill, ornamented by a lofty 
Monument to the memory of Nelson, the Observatory, 
Xew Jail, Bridewell, &c. and, there is laid the foun- 
dation of the grand National Monument. On the 
south side of this Hill, the Royal High School is 
building, and new streets are rising on the declivities. 
The whole of it is laid out in beautiful walks and ter- 
races. The various views from these walks are no- 
ble and extensive, commanding both the Old and New 
Towns, the Firth of Forth, and adjacent country, — 
the Shipping in Leith Roads, and the mouth of the 
Firth, with the German Ocean, and Fife Hills in the 
distance ; altogether presenting a combination of rich 
scenery, which has been compared to the famed view 
of the Bay of Naples. 

Near the City, on the east, rises Arthur's Seat, to 
the height of 822 feet above the level of the sea, and 
from its peculiar shape called the Lion. On the south 
side of this hill, is a perpendicular rock, exhibiting a 
grand range of Basaltic columns of a pentagonal or 
hexagonal form, 50 to 60 feet high, and five feet in 
diameter. Adjoining to this hill on the west, Salis- 
bury Craigs present to the city, a green slopping de- 
clivity, crowned by a lofty terrace with a front of bro- 
ken rocks and precipices, presenting one of the finest 
natural ornaments of this romantic town. The beau- 
tiful eminence of Corstorphine Hill, finely wooded, 
rising in the midst of rich vallies, rears its summit on 
the west ; near to this on the south-west, is the beau- 



115 

tifully wooded hill of Craig Lochart. The hills of Braid 
and Craigniillar are in the neighbourhood, on the 
south, and south-east ; and the extensive range of the 
Pentland Hills, at a distance of five miles on the south, 
rear their lofty summits to the height of 1450, to 1/00 
feet above the level of the sea. These hills form a 
magnificent amphitheatre, in which stands the Metro- 
polis of North Britain. 

The abundance of building materials found in the 
immediate vicinity of the City, particularly stone 
and lime of superior quality, have in an eminent de- 
gree, given a beauty and stability to the edifices of 
Edinburgh, no where excelled, and justifies the 
appellation bestowed upon it, of the " City of Pa- 
laces." From the facility afforded by the natural 
declivities of both Old and New Town, in making 
sewers, and underground works, for carrying off the 
soil, the former has now got free of its old reproach, 
and the latter is one of the cleanest Cities in Europe. 
In the year 1/53, Edinburgh occupied nearly the same 
extent of ground which it had done for centuries be- 
fore. Since that period, it has been enlarged to three 
times its bulk. During the last thirty years, parti- 
cularly the improvements both in the Old and New 
Town, have been astonishing. Streets, Squares, Chur- 
ches, and public edifices, have risen in rapid succes- 
sion ; old and inconvenient buildings have been re- 
moved, and replaced by elegant houses ; and the pave- 
ments and foot-paths improved and renewed. 

It would be superfluous to attempt a description of 
all the improvements and public buildings that have 
been made and finished within the last fifty years. 
The Regent Bridge is the most splendid of the re- 



cent' impfbvements in Edinburgh ; this bridge is 'M a 
Tine with Prince^ Street, and by a road cut into the 
rock on the east side of the Calton Hill, looking down 
upon the Old Town ; forms a new, elegant, and roman- 
tic approach to the City, from the east. This bridge 
was founded in 1819. fn this street are situated-, the 
Post Ofe, Stamp Oflrce, Waterloo Hotel, &e< built 
in the first style of architectural elegance, and afford- 
ing ah easy communication with the beautiful walks 
ant terraces, around the Calton Hill. The College 
when completed, will be for elegance and magnitude, 
superior to any building of its kind in the world . The 
new buildings for the accommodation of the Courts of 
Law, in the Parliament Square, are on a grand scale ; 
and when completed, by the additions intended to be 
made on the space left vacant by the great fires in 1824, 
will be the most magnificent suit of buildings in Edin- 



The venerable and stately Church of St Giles, 
forming t he north side of the Parliament Square, is 
also to b't* improved. The County Hall, Advocates' 
Library, &c. is an extensive and beautiful group of 
building 

Edinburgh is not a Manufacturing Town, in the ge- 
neral meaning of the term. It has a tew manufac- 
tures of Silk, Linen, Shawls, Stockings, &c— these 
may be stated as employing six to seven hundred 
looms. There are Several Cast Iron Foundries, 
Brass Founders, Mill Wrights, Machine Makers, &c. 
The Printing and Publishing of Books, are important 
branches of trade. — This trade, with its attendants of 
Book-binding, Bookselling, and Stationary, is now 
can ied on to a great extent. In the year Yfll&i the,! e 



117 



were only six Printing Houses in Edinburgh j the 
number of Presses row, are from 180 to 200 ; and 
the works executed here, are not surpassed in ele- 
gance and correctness by any in Europe. 

The Courts of Law, and the University, are the 
chief supports of the City, £nd the great resort of fa- 
milies from all parts of the island, attracted hither by 
the fame of its academies and schools, are the princi- 
pal dependance of the tradesmen, and shopkeepers. 

The commerce of Edinburgh, is not so considera- 
ble as might be expected in the metropolis of Scot- 
land ; yet from its being the resort of the opulent and 
gay from all quarters, the diffusion of the circulating 
medium is extensive, and its money transactions are 
numerous and important. There are five public 
Banking Companies, namely, the Bank of Scotland, 
the Royal Bank of Scotland, the British Linen Com- 
pany, the Commercial Bank, and the National Bank ; 
besides a number of private Banks of great respecta- 
bility. All the public Banks issue promissory notes 
of various value, but none under one Pound sterling, 
payable on demand, either in specie, or Bank of Eng- 
land notes. Two of the private Banks only, issue 
notes, viz. Sir William Forbes and Company, and 
Ramsay s, Bonars and Co. The other private banks, 
seven in number, discount Bills, and employ their 
capital in all the various branches of the banking 
business. 

No city of its size contains more literary men than 
Edinburgh, whose reputation stands pre-eminent in 
every branch of literature, and it has long been famed 
over the world, for its Medical School and establish- 



es 



118 

ments. ?t possesses also numerous Societies and 
Institutions, Religious, Philosophical, and Literary, 
and many for the improvement of the arts and scien- 
ces, and others which embrace every object of na- 
tional utility and interest. The education of the poor 
is amply provided for, by the many establishments 
for that purpose ; and in no city are charitable institu- 
tions more numerous ; these comprehend receptacles 
for the alleviation, or cure, of every form of human 
misery. 

The Royal Infirmary is a noble building, founded 
in 1738; and exclusive of its great utility as an hos- 
pital for patients, from both town and country, it has 
in an eminent degree, contributed to the celebrity of 
the Medical School of Edinburgh. 

The river, or Water of Leith, takes its rise in the 
Pent] and Hills, and after a course of fourteen miles, 
falls into the Firth of Forth, at Leith, forming the 
harbour of Leith at its junction. This being the on- 
ly river in the immediate vicinity of the metropolis, 
the natural beauties of its banks, have been increased 
by the erection of numerous elegant seats, and exten- 
sive plantations. Short as the course of this river is, 
yet within that distance, it gives motion to the machin- 
ery of upwards of one hundred mills, in its course to 
the sea. 

Besides corn, meal and flour, snuff, lint, and spin- 
ning mills, there are three large, and four smaller pa- 
per manufactories; Bleachfields, Distilleries, S^ - 
neries, Tan-works, and Saw-mills. The Water of 
Leith runs through a part of the New Town on the 
north, and is there crossed by two stone bridges* 
The river north Esk, at a distance of from 6 to 9 miles 



119 

of Edinburgh on the south, has also numerous falls 
occupied by machinery ; amongst others, there are 
nine extensive paper manufactories, for writing and 
printing papers. Almost all of these mills employ 
the new method, or patent, or web machine, by which 
three fourths of the former manual labour, is saved in 
the first formation of the sheet. The neighbourhood 
of Edinburgh, is the chief seat of the paper manufac- 
ture in Scotland, from whence large quantities are 
sent to the London market. 

The origin of Edinburgh is lost in the obscurity of 
ages. The etymology, and the early history of the 
City are involved in equal obscurity ; the most pro- 
bable conjecture, is that which derives the name from 
the compound Gaelic word, Dun-Edin, or Edwins- 
burgh ; a name by which it is still known in the High- 
lands of Scotland. The Castle of Edinburgh is men- 
tioned in Scottish history, as the place where Queen 
Margaret, widow of Malcolm Canmore, died in the 
year 1093. The first traces of Edinburgh as a Town, 
are found in a charter granted by David the First, in 
1128, in favour of certain Canons Regular, for whom 
he founded the Abbey of Holyrood-house ; where it 
is styled Burgo meo de Edwinesburg. The first 
Parliament held here, was in the year 1216. Edward 
the First having carried off, or destroyed the records 
of the country in 1295, render this period of its his- 
tory dark and uncertain. 

In the year 1392, Robert the First granted to Edin- 
burgh, the town of Leith, with its harbour and mills. 

The City of Edinburgh in the thirteenth century, 
was confined to a very limited space, around the Cas- 



120 

tie Hill, where the houses were crowded together, 
more for the sake of being under the protection of 
the Castle, than from choice of situation, and appears 
to have been extended gradually to the east and south 
west of the fortress. It was for the first time, sur- 
rounded by a wall in 1450, when James the Second 
granted the inhabitants a charter to fortify the Town ; 
and about the same time, presented the incorpofra- 
ted trades with a standard, which still exists, known 
by the name of the Blue Blanket ; this wall was again 
built, and the circuit extended, in 1571. All the 
houses in the old town are of a great height ; eight 
flats, or stories, as they are here called, are common, 
and some are ten, and even twelve stories high k This 
uncommon elevation seems to have arisen from the 
confined space on the middle ridge forming the High 
Street, and from the desire to be near to the Castle. 
The lands, or houses in the wynds or lanes, on the 
declivities on each side of this street, are also very 
high ; these lands have a common stair, giving access 
to the separate lodgings or flats, and it is not uncom- 
mon to find from 18 to 24 families in the same buil- 
ding ; thus rendering these crowded abodes, hot only 
Unhealthy and uncomfortable, but dangerous -from 
fife. 

The land in the neighbourhood of the capital ts in 
the highest state of cultivation, and rents high for gar- 
den ground and villas. The modern mansions and 
gentlemen's seats are numerous and splendid. In 
the immediate neighbourhood, may be noticed the 
houses of Bel mount, Beechwood, Clermiston, and 
others ; Coilinton House and Dreghorti, Red hall, 



121 

Hailes, and Spylaw $ Dal m ahoy, the principal seat of 
the Earl of Morton ; and Hatton, formerly belonging 
to the Earl of Lauderdale. To the east" of the me- 
tropolis is Prestonfield, and the House of Dudding- 
ston, the elegant mansion of the Earl of Abercorn. 
Duddingston Loch is a beautiful and romantic sheet 
of water, near this mansion, at the foot of Arthur's 
Seat. 

One of the most remarkable of the recent events in 
the history of Edinburgh, and in our national annals, is 
the visit of HisMajesty George the Fourth to Scotland, 
and honouring the Palace of his ancestors with his 
presence. On the 14th August 1822, the Royal 
George, having His Majesty on board, anchored in 
Leith Roads. While here His Majesty received the 
melancholy intelligence of the death of the Marquis of 
Londonderry. The weather being unfavourable His 
Majesty did not land till the 15th about noon. He was 
dressed in an Admiral's uniform, with a Thistle and 
sprig of Heath on his hat ; and a superb St Andrew's 
Cross, presented to him by Sir Walter Scott, in name 
of the Ladies of Edinburgh. This evening the town 
of Leith was most superbly illuminated. The pro- 
cession to Edinburgh by Leith Walk was magnificent ; 
and at Gayfield Place His Majesty was received by 
the Lord Provost and Magistrates, who, at a tempo- 
rary barrier, delivered to him the Keys of the City. 
The cavalcade, after traversing a part of the new 
town, arrived, by the Regent Bridge, Calton, and Ab- 
bey Hill, at the ancient Palace of the Scottish Kings ; 
which His Majesty entered, amidst the deafening 
shouts of triumph of apopulation remarkable forloyalty 



122 

and attachment to their Kings, — of discharges of cannon 
placed upon the the Calton Hill and the Craigs, on 
both of which the Royal Banner proudly waved, as 
well as by a royal salute from the Castle ; after a 
short stay, His Majesty went to Dalkeith House, 
which had been fitted up for his residence.* On the 
15th the King remained at Dalkeith House, where he 
repeatedly expressed himself highly delighted with 
his residence, with the reception he had met with on 
his landing, and the orderly and decorous appearance 
of his Scottish subjects, and the intellectual dignity of 
their manner. A most brilliant illumination took 
place in Edinburgh this evening, never exceeded on 
any former occasion. On Saturday the 17th His Ma- 
jesty held a Levee — the attendance on which was most 
numerous and splendid. The King, in compliment 
to the Country, appeared in complete Highland cos- 
tume, made of the Royal Stuart Tartan. The Com- 
pany of Royal Archers did the duty of Body Guards. 



• Dalkeith House stands about six miles south from Edinburgh, 
in the immediate vicinity of the Town of Dalkeith, on the site of 
an old Castle, once the property of the Douglas Family, which, when 
occupied by the Regent Morton, during the minority of James the 
Sixth, was called the Lion's Den. The park is much admired for 
its extent, and the beauty of its scenery ; the trees within it are 
large, venerable, and disposed in groups, that afford a shelter 
from the elements to the numerous animals inhabiting it, which 
enjoy a perfect immunity from every violence. The tw6 beautiful 
and christaline rivers of North and South Esk, after meandering 
through grounds the most classical and romantic, enter the park, 
the one in front, the other in rear of the palace, each flowing 
through a dell, exhibiting (every natural and artificial beauty, and 
uniting a little below the palace, roll their combined streams through 
the remainder of the grounds. 



123 

At the Levee not less than 2000 persons were pre- 
sented. On Monday the 19th His Majesty held a 
Court, and Closet Audience at Holyrood Palace, when 
many loyal addresses were presented. On the 20th 
the King held a Drawing Room, which was attended 
by about 500 ladies of the most distinguished rank, 
fashion, and beauty in Scotland. On the 22d His 
Majesty visited the Castle. On this occasion the 
streets presented a scene of extraordinary animation. 
The Regalia of Scotland (which had been previously 
removed to Holyrood from the Castle), was carried 
in procession, and afforded to the delighted populace 
a sight of their long lost Crown and Sceptre. The 
procession was most impressive, — it was splendid 
without being gaudy ; and while the variety of the 
different costumes was admirably calculated for ef- 
fect, the judicious mixture of the Clans with their tar- 
tan habiliments, and of the assembled troops, formed 
a happy relief to the official splendour which marked 
the other parts of the pageant. His Majesty was 
dressed in a Field Marshall's uniform. The King- 
ascended the upper platform placed upon the half 
moon battery, where he gave three cheers, waving 
his hat ; and was cheered by the immense multitude 
who occupied the Castle Hill, the streets, and the 
surrounding elevations. On the 23d His Majesty 
reviewed the whole Volunteer Cavalry and Yeoman- 
ry of the principal lowland districts, on the Sands of 
Portobello. Tn the evening the King attended a splen- 
did Ball, given by the Peers, in the Assembly Rooms, 
George Street. On the 24th His Majesty honoured 
the City by his presence at a splendid Banquet, given 



124 

by the Lord Provost, Magistrates, and Town Coun- 
cil, in the Parliament House. On Sunday the 25th, 
the King attended Divine Service in the High Church 
of St Giles. In his way from the Palace to Chorch, 
he was received by the populace of Edinburgh, with 
that reverence and respect which the Scotch pay to 
the Sabbath, — the people reverently took off their 
hats, but not a voice was raised to hail his appear- 
ance ! Oireat as their exultation most have been to 
behold their Sovereign in the midst of them, the sen- 
timent of piety alone predominated ; and of the great 
multitude collected, not one of them for a moment 
forgot the divine precept, to keep the Sabbath-day 
holy. On the 26th His Majesty paid a private visit 
to the Palace of Holyrood, for the purpose of inspect- 
ing its apartments ; — same evening he attended a 
Ball given by the Caledonian Hunt. On the 27th 
the foundation stone of the National Monument was 
laid on the Calton hill, with a splendid Masonic Pro- 
cession, by Commissioners representing His Majesty. 
On the same day the King visited Melville Castle, 
the seat of Lord Viscount Melville. His Majesty 
dined alone at Dalkeith House ; and in the evening 
visited the Theatre. 

On the 28th His Majesty entertained a large party 
at dinner in Dalkeith House, and on the 29th he took 
his departure from Port Edgar near Queensferry, 
after visiting Hopeton House, the princely mansion 
of the Earl of Hopeton. 

It would be difficult to determine, whether the re- 
ception which His Majesty met with, from his Scot- 
tish subjects, was more flattering to the King, or ho- 



tm 

nourable tp the, people. His Majesty remarked to 
Lord Lyndoch, after he arrived at the Palace, " that 
" he had often heard the Scotch were a proud nation ; 
" and they had reason to be so, for they appeared to 
" be a nation of Gentlemen \ he himself was proud of 
M them." The multitude who witnessed the memo- 
rable spectacle of His Majesty's landing, from all 
parts of the kingdom, was estimated at 300,000. 

Sir William Arbuthnot, Lord Provost of Edinburgh, 
was Knighted at the Banquet ; and Captain Adam 
Ferguson, and Mr Henry Raeburn, the celebrated 
portrait painter, were Knighted at Hopeton House 

The antiquities of Edinburgh and its vicinity, are 
numerous, and consist chiefly of the remains of re- 
ligious establishments ; from the number and varie- 
ty of these ruins, they cannot be described in a work 
like this. The Castle of Graigmillar is a ruin of 
great antiquity, abouttwo miles south from Edinburgh* 
it was founded in 1212, and was at times the resi- 
dence of Mary Queen of Scots, — it is seated on a 
rock 274 feet above the level of the sea, and com- 
mands a most extensive view. A small room in one of 
the upper turrets, is shewn here as Queen Mary's Bed 
room, and it is worthy of remark, that in all the places 
where she has resided, the rooms which she occupied 
are of very small size, this one is only seven feet by 
five, yet has two windows, and a fire place. A Vil- 
lage in the vicinity still retains the name of little 
France, from having been the residence of Queen 
Mary's French attendants. 
Although the increase of the population of Edinburgh, 
within the last 50 years, has been ^re&t and rapid, yet 

H 



136 

it has not kept pace with the increase and extent of 
the buildings, during the same periods This may be 
accounted for, by remarking the rapid strides of im- 
provement made in the comforts of life and refinement, 
demanding more domestic accommodation than was 
required half a eentury ago. To this cause may be 
added, the great and constant demand for lodgings, or 
temporary accommodation for students and occasional 
visitors to the City, — these lodging houses consist 
of a number of apartments, which must be rented, 
although they are only partially occupied, for a season ; 
or, may remain unoccupied for the whole year ; and 
there are many houses now possessed by one family, 
which, 50 years ago, would have accommodated a 
dozen. 
Edinburgh has fourteen Churches, and seven Chapels 
of Ease, belonging to the Establishment, and one 
Gaelic Chapel; there are six Chapels belonging to 
the Church of England. The Dissenters are very nu- 
merous, — -there are six places of worship belonging 
to the United Associate Synod, one to the Associate 
Synod, one Original Burghers, one Original Anti- 
burghers, four Relief Congregations, one Cameronian, 
two Independents, four Baptist, one Methodist, one 
Roman Catholic, one Berean, one Unitarian, one Glas- 
site, one Society of Friends, one New Jerusalem 
Temple, and one Jews' Synagogue. 

The population of Edinburgh, including the parishes 
of South and North Leith, is thus stated at the follow- 
ing periods. In the year 17^5, 57,220, in the year 
•1775, 69,039. These results were taken from a cal- 
culatipfi of the number of i families,, reckoning six as 



127 

the average of each family, But from an accurate 
survey made in 1791, the number of Families were 
founi to be 18,654, and the number of Inhabitants 
74,886, which gives an average of four to each family 
only ; this comes nearer to the truth, and agrees with 
the calculations of f)r Price, and those of the Statis- 
tical account of Scotland. In the year 

1801, the Population including Leith, was 82,560. 

1811, 102,987. 

1821, 138,235. 

Edinburgh has a weekly market on Wednesday, 
for Corn, Cattle and Horses, and an annual Fair, held 
on the second Monday of November, called All Hal- 
low Fair. 









. 






ij 









E L G I N. 



Elgin is a Royal Burgh, and the County Town of 
the shire of Elgin, or Moray. It is 190 miles north 
of Edinburgh, 63 north-west of Aberdeen, 9 west of 
Fochabers, 12 east of Forres, and 42 miles east-north- 
east of Inverness. 

The municipal constitution of the Town consists 
of a Provost, 4 Bailies, and 12 Councillors. It has 
a Dean of Guild, and six Incorporated Trades, and 
joins with Banff, Gullen, lnverary, and Kintore, in re- 
turning a Member to Parliament. The revenue of 
the Town is about £JQQ, and is at present very eco- 
nomically and judiciously disposed of. 

Elgin boasts of a very high antiquity. It is said to 
have been built by Helgy, General of the army 
of Sigurd, the Norwegian Earl of Orkney, who con- 
quered Caithness, Sutherland, Ross, and Moray, a- 
bout the year 927- At what time this town was erec- 
ted into a Royal Bargh, is quite uncertain. The old- 
est charter extant, is from Alexander the Second in 
123 I, who grants to the Burgesses of Elgin* a Guild 



130 

of Merchants, with as extensive privileges as were 
enjoyed by any other Burgh in Scotland. Charles 
the First in 1633, establishes and confirms all the 
grants of his royal predecessors. In 1620, James the 
Sixth granted to the Town of Elgin, the hospital of 
Maison Dieu* formerly a popish establishment ; the 
revenue of which, now goes partly to the support of 
schools, and partly to provide four poor men with a 
house, garden, gown, and four bolls of barley to 
each. 

The trade of this burgh is not extensive, being en- 
tirely dependant on the population of the agricultural 
district, by which it is every where surrounded. One 
Woollen manufactory, belonging to Mr Johnston (at 
present, 1827,) ma y D ^ s &id to be the only species of 
manufacture carried on. An important Freestone 
Quarry has lately been opened on the property of the 
Earl of Fife, in the Quarrelwood, near Elgin, by an 
Aberdeen Company, who propose to send the stone 
to Edinburgh, London, &c. &c. The colour is beau- 
tiful, and the surface and grain of the stone, is the 
finest in the island. It rises in vast blocks and mas- 
ses, some of them 34 feet long, and four feet square, 
and slabs have been got 12 feet by 10, and six inches 
thick. From this and the adjoining Quarry, all the 
stone with which the public buildings in Elgin have 
been erected, and which are so highly and justly ad- 
mired, has been taken ; for ornamental Architecure, 
there is no stone that we are acquainted with, so per- 
fectly adapted. 

Elgin is pleasantly situated on the banks of the 
Lossie, about five miles above its influx into the Mo- 
ray Firth. It consists of one principal Street^ about 



131 



one mile in length, running east and west, and having 
six or seven cross Streets and lanes. At the east 
end of the Town stands its noble Cathedral, founded 
in 1221, and richly endowed ; magnificent and elegant 
though in ruins. It was in the olden time, called the 
'*• Lanthorn of the North," and is at present the most 
beautiful of all the Scottish Cathedrals. In the mid- 
dle of the High Street, a new Church has been just 
erected, on a Grecian plan, with a portico at the west, 
and a handsome tower at the east end. This is one 
of the most commodious, best arranged, and neatest 
churches, probably in Scotland. It is formed of po- 
lished ashler from the adjoining quarry, and does 
great credit to the architect, Mr Simpson, and the buil- 
der, Mr Fiaser. Proceeding westward in the High 
Street, we find the new Assembly Rooms, built of 
the same beautiful material, for the Trinity Lodge of 
Free Masons, under the direction of Mr Burns of Edin- 
burgh ; and distinguished for their convenient arrange- 
ments and just proportions. At the extreme west end, 
stands, on a gentle eminence, " Gray's Hospital," fel- 
ine sick poor of the town and county of Elgin, and 
forming an admirable vista to the High Street, and 
the surrounding country. In the vicinity of the Town 
are scattered, with no unsparing hand, a great variety 
of elegant cottages of the most tasteful forms, embel- 
lished with a profusion of shrubbry, and excellent 
fruit gardens ; giving to Elgin a minuature resemblance 
of the celebrated Cheltenham. At the extreme east 
end of this Town, is intended to be erected a noble 
institution for the support of the aged poor, male and 
female, and for the support and education of poor 
children, until the age of 14. 



132 

The funds for this purpose, amount to the splendid 
sum of «£70 } 000, and were appropriated by the late 
Major General Anderson, who, from a very humble 
station in the Indian Army, rose by his talents and 
conduct, to that rank, and to the acquisition of this 
princely fortune. When *' Anderson's Institution" 
is completed, we do not know a small Town in Scot- 
land which will possess so many and such elegant pub- 
lic buildings as Elgin. 

Situated in the midst of a rich and fertile country, 
blessed with the finest climate in the kingdom ; and 
possessing one of the best regulated and well attended 
Academies, and several excellent Female Boarding 
Schools ; having cheap and plentiful markets, and 
good Society at a moderate expense ; Elgin is natur- 
ally drawing to itself, all the spare population of the 
surrounding country, whose objects are the educa- 
tion of families, early associations, or personal com-: 
fort. 

Besides the Church belonging to the Establish- 
ment, there is an English Chapel, two meeting houses 
in connexion with the Secession, one Independent, 
one Methodist, and one Roman Catholic Chapel. 

There are branches of the Aberdeen Banking Com- 
pany, and British Linen Company. 

Elgin has two weekly markets, on Tuesdays and 
Fridays, and annual Fairs are held on the first Tues-s 
day and Wednesday after the new moon, following 
the 18th day of February, on Thursday in Passion 
week, the last Tuesday and Wednesday in May, the 
first Tuesday and Wednesday after the 24th July, 
the first Tuesday and Wednesday in October, and 

t9 



139 

the first Tuesday and Wednesday in December, all 

old stile, except the last. 

The Population of the Town and Parish irf 

1811, was 4602, 
1821, 5308, 

And since then has considerably increased. 



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FORFAR. 



Forfar is a Royal Burgh of considerable antiquity, 
in the Parish of Forfar ; it is the County Town of 
Forfarshire, and is the seat of a Presbytery. 

It is 14 miles North of Dundee, 12| South West 
of Brechin, 15 West of Arbroath, and 56 miles North 
by East of Edinburgh. The ground on which the 
Town is situated is uneven, and the streets, as in most 
old towns, are irregular. 

The Town has been greatly extended within these 
few years, and the new Houses have much improved 
its appearance. The Church, which is situated nearly 
in the centre of the Town, is capable of containing 
2000 persons,- — an elegant spire was added to the 
Church in 1814, and forms the principal ornament of 
the Town. 

Besides the Parish Church, there are three other 
places of worship in the Town, viz. a Scottish Epis- 
copal Chapel, a United Secession Church, and an In- 
dependent Meeting House. 

The Sheriff Courts are held in the Town. A Court 
Room, and other accommodations necessary for public 
business, have been recentty erected at the expense 
of the County. The Building is elegant* and well a- 

3 



1*6 

dapted for the object of its erection. The Town 
Hall and the Prison are connected with the new 
Building. 

On the North side of the Town is an eminence, on 
which stood the Castle of Forfar, the occasional resi- 
dence of Malcolm Canmore. To mark this spot, the 
Magistrates several years ago, removed to it the an- 
cient Cross of Forfar. 

The Loch of Forfar lies to the West of the Town ; 
it is about two miles in length, the breadth does not 
exceed, at any part of it, one fourth of a mile. 

The government of the Town is vested in a Pro- 
vost, Two Bailies, a Treasurer, Eleven Merchant 
Councillors, and the Deacons of the Incorporated 
Trades, Forfar joins with Perth, Dundee, St An- 
drews, and Cupar in Fife, in returning a Member to 
Parliament. 

The inhabitants of Forfar are principally employed 
in tbe manufacturing of Osnaburghs and Linen Sheet- 
ings. The goods made in the Town have long main- 
tained a high character in the Market ; and this ch> 
cumstance has contributed to the increase of the trade 
of tbe town. The distance of any sea port, and the 
price of coals, which are all sea borne, are inconve- 
niences which have been much felt, and surveys have 
been made to ascertain the practicability and expense 
of making a Canal, or a Rail-way to Arbroath or Mon- 
trose. The execution of either of the plans, would 
prove of incalculable advantage, pot to Forfar alone, 
but to the district of Strathmore. 

The weekly Market is held on Saturday, and Fairs 
are held on the last Wednesday in January, the first 
Wednesday in May, O. S., the 26th June, the first 



137 

Tuesday in July, the first Tuesday in August, the 
last Wednesday in September, the 29th day of Octo- 
ber, and the first Wednesday in November, some of 
which are well frequented. 

Dundee New Bank, Dundee Union Bank, and Ar- 
broath Bank, have branches established in Forfar. 

There is a commodious Parish School Room in the 
Town, besides a neat building and ample play ground, 
for the Burgh Schools. This Building was erected, 
and the Salaries of the Teachers are paid by the 
Town-Council. 

The Parish of Forfar is about five miles in length, 
from north to south, and nearly five miles in breadth. 
The general appearance is level, with the exception 
of the Hill of Balmashanar, and the Hill of Lawer. 
The soil in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
Town is light and sandy, but clayey towards the south 
of the Parish. The Loch of Restennet has been 
drained, to obtain the Marl found in its bed. At Res- 
tennet, which lies to the East ol the Town, there was 
a Priory ; the ruins of which still exist, and shew it 
to have been of considerable extent. Freestone is 
found in the Parish. 

The Population of the Town and Parish was, in 

1801,5167. 

1811,5652. 

1821, 589/. 
By a Census made since that period, the population 
exceeded 6000, — the population of the Town and 
Burgh-lands is about 5000. 



rr 



: ' 






; 

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- 

........ 



- 

: 



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■ 



FORRES. 



Forres is a Royal Burgh, in the Parish of that name, 
and County of Moray or Elginshire. It lies 12 miles 
west by south of Elgin, 11 east by north of Nairn, 20 
miles east of Fort George, 32 north east of Inverness, 
90 north west of Aberdeen, and 156 north by west of 
Edinburgh. 

The situation of the Town is very delightful, cover- 
ing the crest and sides of a low ridge, which, sloping 
to the north and south, shows numerous gardens, in- 
termingled with the houses, its abrupt termination 
being crowned by the ruins of a Castle, from whose 
Terrace the whole of the surrounding country is visi- 
ble, stretching around in a rich plain, bounded by 
Wooded or fertile banks, above which rise the distant 
mountains. A rivulet, issuing from the woods, near 
Sanquhar House, winds round two sides of the Town. 
It is crossed by three handsome Stone Bridges, lead- 
ing from the different outlets. 

The High Street, which extends about three-fourths 
of a mile east and west, presents many handsome pri- 
vate buildings. The Jail and Town Houss in the cen- 



140 

tre, fs remarkable fur its Tower and Cupola of curious, 
but not inelegant Architecture. Further to the east a 
building is in progress of erection, for the joint purpose 
of the St Lawrence Lodge of Masons, and Assembly 
Rooms, which, for interior arrangement, extent, and 
the elegance of its Facade, ma} 7 challenge competition 
with most buildings in the north of Scotland. Still 
farther to the east stands Anderson's Institution, bufft 
of polished free stone, with a handsome spire. To 
the west is situated the Parish Church, which, when 
a proposed Tower is added, will further embellish 
the Town. There are also two handsome and com- 
modious Chapels for the Members of other religious 
professions. The comfort and cleanliness of the 
place is much improved by means of common sewers r 
which extend under the High Street, and are carried 
along some of the larger Streets or Lanes, which 
branch from it. 

It is unceitain when Forres was erected into a Roy- 
al Burgh, but ancient records mention it as a Town 
of considerable importance so early as the thirteenth 
century. But before that period, it must have been a 
place of some consequence, since, in the tenth century, 
King Duffus brought robbers, from Ross, and Caith- 
ness, to be there executed. 

The Town is governed by a Provost, three Bailies, 
a Dean of Guild, and eleven other Councillors, mak- 
ing in all sixteen. It joins with Fortrose, Nairn and 
Inverness, in returning a Member to Parliament. 
Besides the Established Church, this Town contains 
a Meeting House in connexion with the the United 
Secession, and an Independent Chapel. There is a 
Parochial Grammar School, where Latin, Greek, &c. 



141 

are taught, as also Geography, Mathematics, &c. 
There is a seminary under the patronage of the Ma- 
gistracy for the Education of young Ladies. 

Some years ago, John Anderson, Esquire, late of 
Glasgow, and a native of a neighbouring Parish, 
(Kinloss,) left considerable funds for building and en- 
dowing a School for the Education of the children 
of the poor of the Parishes of Kinloss, Rafford, 
and Forres, This building was finished in 1S24, 
and is called Anderson's Institution. Some legal diffi- 
culties have prevented the full designs of the Testa- 
tor from being carried into execution, but they are 
nearly overcome, and a further benefaction to the 
same Institution gives promise of an extension to the 
Establishment, so that Teachers of eminence may give 
such a celebrity to it, as to attract a number of families, 
whom, but for the want of such a seminary, would 
have long since taken advantage of the cheapness of 
living, the salubrity of the air, and the beauty of the 
neighbourhood. 

There are several Charitable Societies, the most 
valuable is that for the Relief of Indigent and Aged 
Widows, established and administered by some be- 
nevolent Ladies of the place. There are two Ma- 
son Lodges ; and an annual Meeting is held, called the 
Trafalgar Club, of which the Duke of Gordon is Pa- 
tron and President. 

The Manufactures of Forres are very limited. 
Linen yarn was formerly exported in great quantities, 
but that branch of Trade has almost entirely fallen off, 
and the Trade of the Town is now chiefly domestic. 

There is a branch of the British Linen Company 
Bank. 



142 

The Market days are Tuesday and Friday, when 
there is an excellent supply of Meat^and Poultry, 
with Fruit and Vegetables in their various seasons. 
There is an abundance of Fish carried from the vil- 
lage of Findhorn, situated at the mouth of the Bay 
and River of the same name, about five miles distant. 
Findhorn is the Port of Forres, from which Coals, 
articles ot Merchandise, &c. are brought, and from 
which Packets for London and Edinburgh, sail every 
fortnight. 

Fairs are held on the first Wednesday in February, 
second Wednesday in April. 25th and 26th days of 
June,the 10th day of August, or the Wednesday there * 
after, second Wednesday and Thursday in November, 
all old stile, and on St John's day, if on a Wednesday, 
Thursday or Friday, otherwise it is held on the 
Wednesday thereafter. 

The Parish of Forres, is about four miles long, by 
two and a half in breadth ; the soil is generally arable 
and fertile to the West and North, and is let at the 
rate of from 5 to £] per acre, — but it is poor, and co- 
vered with heath, to the South and East. The Town 
lies nearly in the centre of the Parish, and the river 
Findhorn, which abounds in Salmon, forms its northern 
boundary. The Fishings, which were formerly pro- 
ductive and valuable, have of late years become less 
so. The river, though navigable for small boats, to 
within two miles and a half of the Town, is seldom 
used for transport. There is one Quarry of Lime- 
stone in the Parish, and one of a hard stone applica- 
ble to building, but none of Freestone have as yet 
been found suited to such purposes. 

There are several gentlemen's seats in the Parish, 



143 

of which Tannachy, on the plain to the north of the 
Town, and Sanquhar House to the south, are the 
most remakable ; the latter, embowered in wood, looks 
through a noble vista on the Town, the view stretch- 
ing far and wide over the Moray Firth, and the moun- 
tains of Sutherland and Ross. 

The environs of Forres, even within the Parish, af- 
ford many beautiful rides and walks, and if extended 
beyond its bounds, the banks of the Findhorn, towards 
its source, offers some of the finest river scenery in 
Scotland. But the chief attraction as a promenade, 
are the Cloven, or Cluny Hills, which arise to some 
considerable height, immediately behind the Town to 
the south. The highest of these Hills, which, as their 
name imports, rise in an isolated cluster, is crowned 
by an octagonal Tower, dedicated to the memory of 
Admiral Lord Nelson. To this, by personal labour, 
and pecuniary contribution, the Inhabitants of Forres 
have carried roads, which, sometimes winding around 
a shoulder, at others, forming Terraces, by embracing 
a whole hill, finally meet near the Tower, amidst 
thriving plantations, which cover the greater part of 
them. It is almost impossible to describe with effect, 
the splendid view from the summit ; it comprises all 
the elements of grand and picturesque scenery, plain 
and wood, sea and mountain. It must suffice to say, 
that part of nine Counties are distinctly visible, as the 
more distant propect ; whilst a home view of twelve 
gentlemen's seats, circle within a small radius round 
its base. 

When Alexander, Earl of Buchan, natural son of 
Robert the Second, better known by the name of the 
Wolf of Badenocb, burnt Forres, in the four!eenth 

T 



144 

century , no mention is made of a Castle. It is there- 
fore probable, that the ruin which at present stands 
on the Castle Hill, is not an edifice of a remote date j 
a supposition strengthened by its style of architec- 
ture. According to Buchanan, Culenus, successor 
to King Duffus, destroyed the Castle, and put the go- 
vernor to death, for the foul murder of that King in 
the tenth century, within its walls. It is probable 
therefore, that no other building was erected on its 
site, until the one at present covering it. 

About a quarter of a mile from the Town, on the 
Elgin Road, lies a stone clasped with iron,— a species 
of repulsive interest is attached to it, from marking 
the spot where Witches were executed. 

The most remarkable of the Danish Monuments, 
is Sweno's Stone, or Pillar, near Forres. It is ad- 
mitted by all Tourists, to surpass in elegance and 
grandeur, all the other Obelisks in Scotland; and 
is said to be the finest Gothic Monument in Europe. 
It is thus described by Mr Pennant. "It is three 
"feet ten inches broad, and one foot three inches 
*' thick ; the height above ground, is twenty three 
" feet ; below, as is said, twelve or fifteen. On one 
" side, are numbers of rude figures of animals, and 
ft armed men, with colours flying ; some of these men 
" seem bound like captives. On the opposite side 
" was a cross, included in a circle, and raised above 
" the surface of the stone. At the foot of the cross, 
" are two gigantic figures, and on one of the sides is 
" some elegant fret- work.'' Mr Cordiner in his let- 
ters on the Antiquities and Scenery of the North of 
Scotland, has exhibited a fine drawing of this monu- 
ment. He supposes it to have been erected in me- 



145 

mory of the Peace, concluded between Malcolm the 
Second, and Canute the Great, in 1012, upon the fi- 
nal retreat of the Danes from the Province of Moray, 
of which they had long been in possession. 

There is however, a difference of opinion on that 
head ; some Antiquarians supposing it to have been 
placed there, to commemorate the death of King Duf- 
fus, and the execution of his murderers on that spot, 
and the tenor of the sculpture on the east face, gives 
strength to the supposition. 

Some years ago, when the monument threatened 
to fall, Lady Anne Campbell, late Countess of Moray, 
caused it to be set upright, and supported with se- 
veral steps of Freestone. 

It is on a Moor in this neighbourhood, where 
Shakespeare places the meeting of Macbeth with the 
Weird Sisters. 

The Population of the Town and Parish, in 1801, 

was 3114. 

1811, 2925. 

1821, 3540. 

Of this Population, there are in the Town about 2500. 



GLASGOW. 



Glasgow is a large and populous City, in the Ne- 
ther Ward of Lanarkshire, on the banks of the River 
Clyde, west longitude 4° 16', and north latitude 55° 
53'; it lies 44 miles west of Edinburgh, 22 east of 
Greenock, 34 north of Ayr, and 28 miles south-west 
of Stirling. 

Glasgow is one of the most ancient towns in Scot- 
land ; there is no authentic record in existence, by 
which the date of its origin can be ascertained. Ma- 
ny conjectures have been formed, but fortunately 
tnese speculations are more a matter of curiosity than 
utility. It is certain, that in the year 560, a Bishop- 
ric was founded here by St. Mungo, or St. Kentigern, 
who died in 601, and was buried at the east end of 
the ground where the Cathedral now stands, and 
where his tomb is yet to be seen ; if this date be as- 
sumed as the probable origin ot the Town, it may 
surely satisfy the most stubborn stickler for the an- 
tiquity of the place. This Bishopric was erected into 
an Archi-episcopal See in the year 1484. 

Glasgow is said to have been erected into a royal 
burgh, by William the Lion in 1 172. It however ap- 
pearsj from an old document extant, that this Town 



148 



was governed by a provost and magistrates in the 
year 1268, and that they then held Courts of Justice. 
In 1611 the City received a Charter from James the 
Sixth, and another from Charles the First in 1636, — 
these Charters were confirmed by Parliament in 1661, 
and 1690. 

The Trade and industry of the City at a very early 
period, seems to have been confined chiefly to the 
produce of the Fishery in the Clyde ; so early as the 
year 1420, this trade was conducted to a considerable 
extent, by exchanging with France, their cured Sal- 
mon and Herrings, for Wine, .Brandy, and Salt ; and 
they possessed some Shipping so early as 1546, which 
made captures of the ships of England. In 1667 a 
Company was formed for the prosecution of the Whale 
Fishery ; and the Soap manufacture was introduced 
about the same period. 

About the year 1680, we find that the merchants 
of Glasgow continued to export considerable'quanti- 
ties ol cured Salmon and Herrings to France ; this 
commerce must have been carried on in hired vessels 
from some of the English ports, as, previous to the 
Union (1/0/) the town possessed no Shipping of their 
own, and Bunbarton was their harbour, — then Gree- 
nock and New Port Glasgow. The first vessel built 
on the Clyde, the property of Glasgow, which cros- 
sed the Atlantic, was in the year 1718, from which 
period may be dated the rise of the Tobacco trade. 

The Union of the kingdom had laid open the trade 
to America arid the West India Islands ; and a small 
trade to Virginia and Maryland was begun, by send- 
ing out goods for the use of the Colonies,, and return- 
ing with cargoes of Tobacco. The great increase of 



149 

this trade into the Clyde for a number of years, had 
raised the jealousy of the merchants of London, and 
other English ports engaged in the same trade, who 
accused the Glasgow merchants of fraud upon the re- 
venue ; this accusation was followed up by a number 
of new restrictions and vexatious regulations being 
laid upon the trade, — these impositions were the cause 
of a considerable falling off in the importations to the 
Clyde, till the year 1735. 

The commerce with America continued to advance 
till the year 1/50, when a new system commenced, 
by opening warehouses in the New World, managed 
by partners in the mercantile establishments of Glas- 
gow ; this plan not only increased the extent of their 
transactions, but opened up new sources of trade, so 
that before the unfortunate war which separated these 
colonies from the mother country, the trade of Glas- 
gow with America had attained its greatest height, — 
the annual importations of Tobacco were from 35 to 
45,000 hogsheads. In the year immediately pre- 
ceding the war, 57,143 hogsheads were imported, of 
which 12,000 only were for home consumption. 

Such was the extent of the imports of Tobacco into 
the Clyde, as to engross more than the half of that 
article imported into Britain. In one year, out of 
90,000 hogsheads imported, Glasgow alone engros- 
sed 49,000. 

The American war was a severe blow to the trade 
of Glasgow and Greenock — it unfortunately happen- 
ed that the balances due by America to Glasgow were 
uncommonly great ; and as this trade then employed 
nearly the whole of the capital and enterprise of the 
City, many of the most opulent merchants were ruined, 



150 

who had every reason to believe themselves indepen- 
dent of the fluctuations of commerce. 

But although the favourite commerce of the City- 
was thus for a time destroyed, the spirit which had 
been successfully roused was not extinguished, — new 
sources of trade and industry were sought for, — the 
West India trade, partially begun in 1732, was ex- 
tended and vigorously prosecuted, — the Continent of 
Europe presented a wide field for exertion, and this 
partial cheque given to commerce was amply com- 
pensated by the great increase of Manufactures which 
had been on the advance for years past, and to which 
the loss of Trade, gave an additional stimulus. 

The Trade of Glasgow with America, and the 
West Indies, is now equal in extent to that of any 
Port in the Kingdom. The coasting Trade is also 
very great, and their commerce with the continent of 
Europe, and with all quarters of the Globe, corres- 
pond with the wealth, enterprise and spirit of the in- 
habitants of the western Metropolis of Scotland. 

The Manufacture of Linen, Lawns, and similar ar- 
ticles were introduced into Glasgow, about the year 
1/25, and continued to be the staple Manufacture, un- 
til almost superseded by the introduction of that of 
Cotton, about the beginning of the war with Ameri- 
ca ; since which period this Manufacture has made the 
most rapid improvement, and has been prosecuted 
with vigour, attended with the greatest success, and 
now unrivalled in any part of the Kingdom. The ca- 
pital employed in the Cotton Trade is immense ; Ma- 
chinery has been introduced into every department, 
and new inventions, and improvements have rapidly 
followed each other. Every Article of Cotton Ma^ 



151 

nufactureis made here ; the Muslins, Printed Calicoes, 
Shawls, and Policates of Glasgow, are known and 
admired in every quarter of the Globe, for beauty, 
variety of pattern, and cheapness. The late inven- 
tion of the Power Loom, has given a facility to the 
Manufacture of the coarser species of Cotton Goods 
hitherto unknown. These Looms are numerous, and 
occupy many large and elegant buildings in the City, 
and are driven by Steam. In 1827, there are 11,000, 
Hand Looms. In the early stage of the Cotton Ma- 
nufacture, the principal Spinning Mills were in the 
country, where falls of water could be obtained, some 
of them at very considerable distances ; but since the 
application of Steam Engines, to the purpose of driv- 
ing machinery, these works have been transferred to 
the City and Suburbs, and Steam Engines, from two 
to fifty Horse Power, are now universally employed 
wherever machinery is required. 

The extension of the Cotton Manufacture naturally 
led to the Establishment of Bleachfields, Printfields, 
Dye-Works, &c, and these works have kept pace 
with the rapid increase of that Trade. The Incle 
weaving was introduced into Glasgow in the year 
1732, having then been surreptitiously obtained from 
Harlaem, and was the first of these machines in Bri- 
tain. 

The manufacture of green glass Bottles was esta- 
blished on a very limited scale in the year 1730, and 
that of Flint Glass, &c. about 50 years afterwards — 
a small manufactory of Pottery ware, the first in Scot- 
land, was carried on here about the same period.- — 
The first Printfield in the vicinity of Glasgow was es- 
tablished at Pollock-shaws about the year 1745 ; and 

U 



152 

Brewing at this period was chiefly confined to private 
families. Type-founding was early established in 
Glasgow, and the Types of this manufactory have long 
been famed over Europe and America for their neat 
and elegant formation. The manufacture of Cudbear, 
a Dye stuff prepared from a species of lichen, or rock- 
moss, is carried on here to a great extent, and un- 
equalled perfection. 

The Staple Manufacture of Glasgow (Cotton), gives 
employment to a number of Chemical Works, Dye 
Works, Calendering Works, &c, and the great quan- 
tity of Machinery necessary in the construction of the 
numerous Spinning Mills, Power Looms, Steam En- 
gines, and other works in the City and neighbour- 
hood ; besides the making of Machinery, for all parts 
of the kingdom, employ a vast number of Mill- 
wrights, Engineers, Boiler-Builders, Iron and Brass 
Foundries, Smiths, Plumbers, &c. 

The Sugar Refining is here an extensive business ; 
the Distillation of Spirits, is carried on in the vicinjty 
on a very large scale ; and the Breweries are many 
and extensive. 

To the various articles belonging to the Cotton 
Manufacture, may be added those of Linen, Damask, 
Carpeting, Hats, Leather, Shoes, Saddlery, Gloves, 
Glass and Pottery Ware, Bricks, Tiles, Tobacco- 
Pipes, Ropes and Twine, Wire drawing and Wire 
work, Hair Cloth, Soap and Candle making. The 
Silk Manufacture has recently been introduced into 
Glasgow, with every appearance of success. There 
are several Paper Mills in the vicinity of Glasgow, 
where Writing, Printing, and coarse Papers are ma- 
nufactured. Printing in all its branches is carried on, 



153 

and the Book Trade is extensive. — Book- binding-, 
Book-selling and Stationary, are principal articles of 
trade. 

The Exports of Glasgow consists of every descrip- 
tion of Cotton Goods, Shawls of Silk and Cotton, and 
of Cotton only ; Silks, Glass, Whisky, Soap, Sad- 
dlery, and the various Manufactures of this City, and 
Paisley. The principle Imports, are Sugars, Rum, 
Cotton, Coffee, &c. the produce of the West India 
Islands, Wine, Brandy, Fruits, &c. Tallow, Hemp, 
Iron, Timber, &c. from the Continent of Europe, and 
all the various productions of the United States of A- 
merica, the British settlements of Canada, and Nova 
Scotia, the Continent of South America, and the East 
Indies. 

The City of Glasgow is chiefly built upon the 
North Bank of the Clyde, on an aclivity rising gently 
to the north, the River skirts the south side of the Ci- 
ty. The Suburbs are very extensive, of these, the 
Barony Parish, extending a considerable distance a- 
round the City, except on the south, where it is 
bounded by the River, is the most populous. The 
Suburbs on the south side of the River, forming the 
Parish of Gorbals is also extensive ; these Suburbs 
contain nearly one half of the population of the City, 
and a large portion of the Manufacturing Establish- 
ments and public works. The communication with 
the southern Suburb is by two elegant Stone Bridges, 
and a wooden one ; the most ancient of these Stone 
Bridges has eight, and the other seven Arches ; the 
Wooden Bridge supplies the place of a Stone one, 
which was destroyed in the great storm of 1792. 

To describe the City of Glasgow cannot be at- 



154 

tempted in a short account like the present ; this is 
rendered superfluous by aTeference to Cleland's An- 
nals of Glasgow, which furnish the most complete 
and minute details of the rise and progress of this 
City. 

Glasgow, although reckoned the second City in 
Scotland, is first in point of population and Manufac- 
turing interest, as well as Trade. The principal 
Street, running east and west, acquires the names of 
the Gallowgate, Trongate, Argyle Street, and An- 
derson's Street, and extends in length one mile and 
three quarters ; the principal Street running north and 
south, called the Salt-Market, High Street, Kirk 
Street, and Castle Street, is nearly one mile long ; 
a fine Street runs parallel to the first mentioned, on 
the north, called Duke Street, and George Street, 
nearly a mile in length ; and from all these Streets a 
number of others branch off to the north and south. 
From Argyle Street, and the Trongate, three Streets 
lead to the Bridges, and River-Side, viz. the Salt 
Market to the Wooden Bridge ; Stockwell Street to 
the Old Bridge ; and Jamaica Street, to the New 
Bridge. The houses in all the Streets, are substan- 
tially built, with fronts of Hewn Stone ; the Streets 
are spacious and well paved, kept clean, with foot 
paths on each side ; the City and Suburbs are abun- 
dantly supplied with water, and the Streets and Shops 
are lighted with Gas. There are three large Squares, 
the largest is George's Square, in which stands the 
Statue of General Sir John Moore, a native of this 
City, who fell at Corunna in 1809. St Andrew's 
is a spacious Square, in the centre of which stands 
the elegant Church of that name ; St Enoch's Square, 



155 

encloses St Enoch's Church. The City and Suburbs 
occupy a space of ground of nearly 700 acres. The 
Green of Glasgow is on the north Bank of the River, 
to the east of the Town ; this public park is of essen- 
tial benefit to the inhabitants, and adds much to the 
beauty of the City. This beautiful Green is laid out 
with gravel walks, and has always been a favourite 
promenade of the inhabitants, and the admiration of 
strangers ; this Park contains upwards of 100 acres, 
and is certainly one of the finest public parks in the 
Kingdom ;* here stands a monumental obelisk erect- 
ed to the memory of Lord Nelson, in 1806 ; and here, 
on the Bank of the River, is situated the Humane So- 
ciety House, where an apparatus for restoring sus- 
pended animation is kept, with boats, drags, &c. in 
case of accidents on the River. On the Green stands 
the public Washing House, an extensive establish- 
ment, where upwards of one hundred persons can be 
employed in washing at the same time ; there are two 
other similar establishments in the north quarter of 
the City. 

Glasgow possesses numerous magnificent public 
buildings. The Cathedral or High Church, deserves 
to be first mentioned, it was founded by John Achaius, 
Bishop of Glasgow, in the reign of David the First, 
in whose presence it is said to have been consecrated. 



• A Ride and Drive round the Green, two and a half miles in 
length, is now in course of finishing, under the direction of Mr. 
Cleland. The Sweeps in the interior of the Park, and on the 
Banks of the River Clyde, are beautiful, and do great credit to his 
taste. This bids fair to be one of the finest Rides in the kingdom, 
connected with a great Town. 



156 

This magnificent and venerable edifice stands on the 
high ground at the upper, or north end of the High 
Street, and is one of the most elegant and entire spe- 
cimens of Gothic Architecture in this country, — it had 
been intended to be finished in form of a cross, but 
the transverse part has never been built. It is 284 
feet long from east to west, 65 broad, and 90 feet 
high within walls, with two large towers, on one of 
which, near the centre, a Spire was built about the 
year 1 420, ascending to the height of 220 feet,— it is 
lighted by 157 windows, and supported by 147 PV- 
lars. This building is occupied as two parish church- 
es, the Inner and Outer High Church — in the Choir 
are some remarkable ancient monuments ; below the 
Inner Church is a vaulted Cemetry, used as a place 
of worship for the Barony Parish, till the year 1801, 
when it was converted to its original purpose. The 
Cathedral is surrounded by an extensive Burying 
Ground. This noble monument of the taste and 
splendour of the Romish Church, made a narrow 
escape from the destructive rage of the Goths and 
Vandals of the Reformation. — The Magistrates had 
received orders to pull down all the monuments of 
idolatry, — workmen were assembled by beat of drum, 
to raze the Cathedral, but it was saved by the spirit- 
ed opposition of the deacons and craftsmen of the 
City, whose names ought to be recorded, and rever- 
ed, while a stone of this beautiful structure remains. 

There are many other Churches, whose names on- 
ly can be mentioned here ; they are all of them hand- 
some buildings, and most of them in an elegant stile of 
^Architecture. Blackfriars, or College Church, was 
built in 1699, the Tron Church erected in 1794, upon 



157 

the site of the Old Church of that name, built in 163/, 
the Steeple of which remains ; the Rams -horn Church, 
built in 1720, St Andrew's Church, an elegant build- 
ing erected in 1756, St Enoch's, built in 1780, the Bar- 
ony Church, built in the year 1798, St George's, an ele- 
gant Gothic fabric, with a fine Steeple 162 feet high, 
built in 1807, Gorbals Old Church, built in 1729, and 
GorbalsNew Church, built in 1800, St John's Church, 
a chaste Gothic building, with a Tower 138 feet high, 
erected in 1819, and St James's Church built in 1816. 
A neat Episcopal Chapel was erected in the year 1751 ; 
an elegant Catholic Chapel was erected in 1815, on 
the banks of the Clyde, which cost £13,000. 

Glasgow supports the following places of Divine 
Worship. Besides 12 Churches, and 6 Chapels of 
Ease, belonging to the Established Church, there are 
8 Relief Meeting-Houses, 8 Chapels belonging to 
the Secession Church, 4 Gaelic Churches, two Scotch 
Episcopal Chapels, 2 Baptist Chapels, 1 Cameronian, 
3 Independent, 2 Original Burghers, 1 Reformed 
Presbyterian, 1 New Jerusalem, 3 Methodist, 1 Sea- 
men's, 1 United Chapel, and 1 Catholic Chapel. 

The City of Glasgow has long been renowned for 
its numerous and valuable establishments for Litera- 
ture and Education. In no city in the world has su- 
perior attention been paid to the acquirement of use- 
ful knowledge, the study of Literature, and of all the 
arts and sciences, which improve or adorn society. 
The University of Glasgow, next to that of St An- 
drews, is the oldest in Scotland. This celebrated 
seminary was founded in the year 1450, by "William 
Turnbull, Bishop of Glasgow, and the same year 
Pope Nicholas V. granted a Bull of Constitution at 
the request of James the Second, who, in the year 



158 

1453, conferred upon it many immunities, besides be- 
ing amply endowed by the founder. The Reforma- 
tion in Religion in 1560, almost annihilated the Col- 
lege ; the members who were ecclesiastics dispersed 
themselves to avoid the fury of the populace, and it 
thus continued in a low state till James the Sixth 
granted a new charter of erection, and bestowed upon 
it some valuable property ; from that time it increased 
in reputation, until it has attained its present celebri- 
ty. In this University there are a Lord Chancellor, 
Lord Rector, Dean of Faculty, Principal, and Pro- 
fessors of Divinity, Church History, Logic, Anatomy, 
Mathematics, Theory and Practice of Physic, Moral 
Philosophy, Natural Philosophy, Civil Law, Practical 
Astronomy, Natural History, Greek, Humanity, Sur- 
gery, Chemistry, Botany, Oriental Languages, Mid- 
wifery, and Materia Medica. The College is a vener- 
able building, and its antique Gothic ornaments to- 
wards the Street, present a singular contrast to the 
modern buildings in its vicinity. It is divided into four 
courts, with ample accommodation for the Professors 
and Class Rooms, &c, and occupies a space of nearly 
10.,000 square yards. 

The number of Students average about twelve 
hundred annually, attending the different classes. 
The Library contains a large and valuable collection, 
to which all the students have access. In the Park 
or Gardens of the University, which are of large ex- 
tent, stands the Observatory, well fitted up, and 
largely supplied with the most improved Astronomi- 
cal Instruments, for the use of the Professor of that 
science. 

The Hnnterian Museum is a most noble acquisi- 



159 

tion to the College, — it was bequeathed by the cele- 
brated Dr. William Hunter of London. The building 
for its reception was erected in the College garden in 
1805, — it is in the form of a Grecian Temple, in the 
purest stile of that Architecture, with a colonade in 
front. The Collection consists ot rare Books and 
Manuscripts in every department of Science, but par- 
ticularly Medicine ; an invaluable collection of Ana- 
tomical preparations, — of Coins, Medals, rare Paint- 
ings, Birds, Quadrupeds, and Reptiles ; and a large 
collection of natural and artificial curiosities. 

This bequest also contains the collection of the late 
Dr. Fothergill, who died in I78O, and by whom a 
large collection of Shells, Insects, Corals and Fossils 
was made, and purchased by Dr. Hunter. The Col- 
lection of Coins contains those of every age and coun- 
try, some of them struck eight hundred years before 
the Christian sera ; the Medals consist of a series in 
gold, silver, and copper, of all countries and states, 
ancient and modern, — many of them are unique, and 
this collection is considered to be the most complete 
in Europe, — they are valued at upwards of £40,000. 

The Andersonian Institution was founded in 1796, 
by the late Mr. Anderson, Professor of Natural Phi- 
losophy in Glasgow, who left to Trustees his valua- 
ble Apparatus, his Library and Museum, and other 
property. — From his funds, aided by a liberal public 
subscription, a handsome building was erected, con- 
taining a lecture-room and other apartments. The 
intention of the founder was to afford the means of 
instruction in Natural Philosophy and Chemistry, to 
Mechanics, and others, who do not intend to enter 
any of the Universities. Popular Lectures are regu- 



160 

larly delivered on Natural and Experimental Philo- 
sophy, Chemistry, as applicable to the useful arts, — 
Botany and Natural History. 

From the Andersonian Institution, the Mechanics* 
Institution is certainly derived. — This establishment 
commenced in the year 1824, and is solely appropri- 
ated to the purpose of instructing the operatives em- 
ployed in the various branches connected with the 
staple trade of the City. In this institution, Lectures 
on Chemistry and Mechanics are regularly deliver- 
ed ; and occasional Lectures on other branches of 
science. — The fees are so trifling, that attendance on 
these Lectures is within the reach of every one. The 
utility of such establishments were speedily apprecia- 
ted, and have become general over the kingdom. A 
complete knowledge of Chemistry and Mechanics are 
essentially necessary in every manufacturing City ; 
and it may be affirmed, that in no city in Europe is the 
knowledge of these branches of science more univer- 
sally diffused than in the City of Glasgow. 

The Public Grammar School is of very ancient ori- 
gin, — it is known to have existed previous to the 
University. The present Schools are large and com- 
modious, in which are taught Greek and Latin, Gram- 
mar, Geography, Writing and Arithmetic ; the esta- 
blishment consists of a Rector and four Masters, and 
there are in general about 600 pupils. The acade- 
mies and seminaries, established for private tuition, 
Boarding Schools, &c, are numerous and respecta- 
ble ; there are several public Libraries, a Literary 
and Philosophical Society, and many other literary 
and scientific establishments. Among the many gra- 
tis establishments for the education of the children of 



161 

the poor, may be named the General Session's 
School, for the educating 300 boys and girls in read- 
ing, writing and accounts ; and the Glasgow High- 
land Society Schools, for the education of 340 boys, 
descendants of Highlanders, — 30 of whom are an- 
nually apprenticed to trades, and clothed for the first 
three years of their apprenticeship ; and three other 
schools, supported by the same Society, for children 
of both sexes. The number of children educated at 
the Charity Schools, Sunday Schools, and other simi- 
lar institutions, within the royalty, amount to up- 
wards of 10,000. 

Islo city in the kingdom is more distinguished than 
Glasgow for liberality to the indigent, and for its 
charitable institutions, — the Town's Hospital, or Poor 
House, built in 1/33, for the maintenance and sup- 
port of the aged poor, the funds support about 1600 
Paupers ; — Hutchison's Hospital, is a beautiful build- 
ing with a Spire and Clock ; this Hospital, was found- 
ed in 1639, by George Hutchison, a Writer, and 
Thomas Hutchison, a Preacher, in Glasgow, for 12 
poor Men, and 12 Boys. From the increase of the 
funds by donations and otherways, the number of 
Pensioners on the funds are upwards of 200, and 80 
Boys are clothed and educated. 

The Trades have an Hospital for the maintenance 
of their poor, and the different incorporations have 
also established funds for the support of their decayed 
members and widows. 

The Royal Infirmary is an elegant building, situ- 
ated on a large and well aired spot of ground to the 
north-east of Kirk Street, near the Cathedral, on the 
site of the Archbishop's palace. It was erected in 



162 

17&4, by public subscription. The management is ex- 
cellent, and the arrangements are commodious and ap- 
propriate. The Lunatic Asylum was built by sub- 
scription in 1810, it stands on an eligible situation, 
about half a mile west of the Infirmary, it is on an 
excellent plan, and has apartments for 136 patients, 
besides other rooms. Near this is the Magdalene 
Asylum, built by subscription in 1812, for the reception 
of unfortunate females, who are employed in washing, 
dressing, and needle-work. In the class of benevo- 
lent institutions, must be ranked as none of the least, 
the Deaf and Dumb Institution ; this philanthropic esta- 
blishment was commenced inl816, upon a small scale; 
since which time, buildings have been erected by sub- 
scription on a piece of ground near the Monkland 
Canal Basin, which accommodates 50 Pupils, who are 
taught Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic, and their 
proficiency is equal to the most sanguine hopes of the 
projectors- In this class also must be placed the Lock 
Hospital, Dispensary, and many other similar esta- 
blishments on a smaller scale. 

From the abundance of Free Stone in the immediate 
vicinity of Glasgow, and other building materials, all 
the houses are handsome, and the Public Buildings 
have an elegance of Architecture, not inferior to many 
in the Metropolis of Scotland, even those buildings 
erected solely for manufacturing purposes, are sub- 
stantial, and many of them elegant. Among the pub- 
lic buildings worthy of notice, may be narrated the 
Town Hall, built in 1636, Assembly Rooms, Ex- 
change Buildings, the Coffee Room, the most elegant 
jn Britain, Tontine Hotel, Merchant's Hall, Trades 
Hall, Custom House, Bonding Warehouse, Weigh 



163 

House, Post Office, elegant Barracks for 1000 men, 
Cavalry Barracks, the New Court House and Jail, 
which cost £34,000, and is considered the most ele- 
gant building in the City, Bridewell, Police Office, 
&c. the public Markets and Bazaar, the new Theatre, 
built in 1804, at an expense of £20,000, is one of the 
largest provincial Theatres in the kingdom, the old, 
or Minor Theatre, Concert Room, Circus, the Bota- 
nic Garden, Willow Bank Baths, the Dairy of 200 
Cows, perhaps the largest in the kingdom, the Glas- 
gow Gas Company, and two Water Companies, large 
establishments. The stupenduous Aqueduct Bridge 
over the river and valley of Kelvin, is a little to the 
north of the city, and is worthy of the attention of the 
traveller. 

The City of Glasgow being situated nearly in the 
centre of Scotland, and communicating with the Ger- 
man Ocean, by the great Canal, and with the Atlan- 
tic by the Clyde, enjoys extraordinary advantages as 
a sea-port Town, and at the same time, conveniently 
situated for an extensive inland trade. The commer- 
cial relations of the city, with every quarter of the 
Globe are important, and the manufacturers have es- 
tablishments in London, most of the principal Towns 
in England, and almost in every country in Europe. 

The larger vessels belonging to the City, load and 
discharge their cargoes at the sea-ports ol Greenock 
and Port Glasgow, from, and to which, heavy goods 
are conveyed by lighters, dragged by Steam Ves- 
sels up and down the river. The Quay at the Broomie- 
law is the place or birth of these lighters, as well as the 
rendezvous for the numerous Steam Boats, which ply 
regularly for passengers and goods, to Ireland, Li- 



lt)4 

verpool, and the north of Scotland, and its Islands ; 
as also, for the sailing vessels, or regular traders, 
from the Irish Ports, the west coast of England, and 
for the shipping from the Islands and western coast 
of Scotland. Port Dundas is the station for Passage 
Boats, and Trading Vessels, to, and from the Frith 
of Forth, &c. by the Canal ; it has two commodious 
Basins, with extensive warehouses for Grain, &c, a 
Custom-House, and Shore dues office. The Maritime 
affairs of the river, are managed by an officer appoin- 
ted by royal Charter, in 1636, with power to exercise 
a civil and criminal jurisdiction, from the bridge of 
Glasgow, to the Clough, near the mouth of the Clyde, 
26 miles below the Town. 

The municipal government of the Town, is vested 
in a Lord Provost, three Merchant Bailies, and two 
Trade's Bailies, a Dean of Guild, Deacon Convener, 
Treasurer, Master of Works, twelve Merchant Coun- 
cillors, and eleven Trade's Councillors, annually elec- 
ted at Michaelmas. There are fourteen incorporated 
Trades, viz. Hammermen, Tailors, Cordiners, Malt- 
men, Weavers, Bakers, Skinners, Wrights, Coopers, 
Masons, Fleshers, Gardners, Barbers, and Dyesters. 

Glasgow joins with Dunbarton, Renfrew, and Ru- 
therglen, in returning a Member to Parliament. The 
Magistrates have the aid of a well regulated find ac- 
tive Police. The Barony Parish has a separate ma- 
gistracy, consisting of a Provost, four Bailies, a Trea- 
surer, and Dean of Guild, annually chosen. The 
Gorbals is also a burgh of Barony, and governed by 
a Provost, two Bailies, and four Councillors, chosen 
annually ; both of these burghs have a separate Po- 
lice Establishment. 



165 

Nothing has contributed more to the rapid increase 
of this City, than its favourable situation in the midst 
of an extensive Coal country, and the consequent 
cheap and abundant supply of that indispensible arti- 
cle in a manufacturing district ; add to this, the local 
advantage of communicating directly by water car- 
riage, with almost every quarter. These favourable 
circumstances, have made Glasgow one of the very 
first manufacturing Towns in the kingdom ; and there 
is not, perhaps, another that has extended so much, 
and doubled its population, in the short period of 
twenty years. 

Glasgow has three Banks belonging to the City, — 
the Glasgow Bank Company, the Thistle Bank, and 
the Ship Bank ; and Branches of the Bank of Scot- 
land, British Linen Co., Commercial Bank, and Royal 
Bank oi Edinburgh, and fifteen branches of nearly all 
the Provincial Banks of Scotland ; a branch of the 
Belfast Bank, and an Exchange and Deposit Bank. 

The Market days are Wednesday and Saturday, 
and annual Fairs are held on the second Monday in 
January, Thursday before Easter, Monday after 
Whitsunday, second Monday, and five following days 
of July, and Wednesday after Martinmas. 



POPULATION of the CITY AND SUBURBS. 

For Statistical details, Glasgow is now conspicuous 
in Europe, Mr. Cleland having published several Sta- 
tistical works, some of which have been translated in- 
to foreign languages. The following is taken from 
them. 

Population in Glasgow. 
Year. Souls. Year. Souls. 

At 1560 4500 At 1763 28,300 

1610 7644 1780 suburbs included 42,832 

1660 14,678 1785 do 45,889 

1688 11,948 1791 do 66,578 

1708 12,766 1801 do 83,769 

1712 13,832 1811 do 110,460 

1740 17,034 1819 do 147,197 

1755 23,546 1821 do 147,043 

In 1819, Mr Cleland published an Enumeration of 
the inhabitants of this City, classified into Ages, 
which has since been followed in the Government 
Census for 1821. 



167 

The following are some of the Results drawn from 
the Enumeration of 1819. 

Families 31,445 

Married Men 21,473 

Widowers and Bachelors 2,440 

Widows and Spinsters 7>^32 

Wives residing with their husbands 21,473 

Males under 12 years 23,099 

Females do 22,006 

Males from 12 to 18 years 8,176 

Females do. do. 8,033 

Males, 18 and upwards 4,692 

Females, do. » 5,917 

Male Servants 845 

Female do 6,870 

Male Lodgers 8,269 

Female do. 8,372 

Belonging to the Established Religion ... 80,319 

Dissenters 58,633 

Roman Catholics 8,245 

Scotch 129,917 

English 1,797 

Irish 15,208 

Foreigners 2J5 

Houses , 31,445 

Apartments Jl^SS 

Houses unoccupied 1,331 

Apartments in do > 3,655 

Tenements Building ». 155 



168 

Total Males ... ... ... ••• • 68 ' 994 

Ditto Females 78,203 

Total Persons 147,197 

Average number of persons in each family 4 and ■£&? 
The Married Men are to all the other Males as 

21 ,473 to 47,521. 

The Married Women are to all the other Females 

as 21 ,473 to 56,730. 

The Children under 12 years of age are equal to 
one-fourth and.^^ of the whole population. 

For every apartment there are 2 persons and T ^§^ 
to occupy it. 

There is one Changerhouse, or place where spiri* 
tuous liquors are sold, for every 20 families of all 
descriptions. 

In 1821, there were registered, Baptisms 2661 

Marriages 1465 

Burials 3686 

Children of the Poor Vaccinated 1288 

Sittings in the Churches on the Establishment, 26,150 
Reformed Presbytery 1,100 



United Secession 
Original Burghers 
Pyelief ... ... 

Relief Independents 

Independents 

Methodists 

Episcopalians 

Roman Catholics ... 

Unitarians 



8,816 

2,750 

10,010 

950 
3,120 
4,110 

721 
2,200 

600 



169 

Sectaries, whose Worship is conducted by 

Lay Elders ' 3,352 

Five places of Worship Building, suppose 6,121 

70,000 

Number of Poor in the Town's Hospital 347 

Number on Nursing Wages • 540 

Families on Meal 468 

Total on the Funds of the Hospital 1,355 

Cost of each in the House £8 : 3 : 6. 

Quantity of Meal given weekly, 28 Bolls 10 Pecks. 

Price of Meal per Boll 16s. 8d. 

Rate of Assessment per £100. 4s. 6d. 

Valuation of Property on which Assessment 

is made - - £5,582,600 

Amount of Annual Assessment 12,560 17 

In the Government Enumeration volume, for 1821, 
the following tribute is paid to Mr Cleland. 

" It would be unjust, not to mention in this place, 
that Mr Cleland has transmitted printed documents, 
containing very numerous, and very useful Statistical 
details, concerning the City and Suburbs of Glasgow ; 
and that the example has produced imitation in some 
other of the principal Towns in Scotland, though not 
to the same extent of minute investigation, by which 
Mr Cleland's labours are distinguished." 

Since that period the University of Glasgow has 
conferred on him the Degree of Doctor in Laws. 



GREENOCK. 



Greenock is a large Town and Sea Port, in the 
Parish of the same name, in Renfrewshire ; 22 miles 
west of Glasgow, 35 north-east of Irvine, 15 from 
Paisley, 3 from Port Glasgow, and 66 miles from 
Edinburgh ; it is situated on a narrow stripe of land, 
between a high Bank on the south, and the Frith of 
Clyde on the north. This Town is unrivalled in 
point of situation, commanding all that is grand and 
picturesque in scenery, combining wood, water, and 
mountains ; among the latter, the majestic Ben-Lo - 
mond, looks down from his towering elevation upon 
his humbler compatriots. 

The location of Greenock, is also favourable for 
Trade and Commerce. 

Greenock was erected into a Burgh of Barony, by 
Charles First, in the year 1642, with the privilege 
of a weekly Market, on Friday. The Municipal Go- 
vernment consists of two Bailies, and nine Council- 
lors. The revenue is about £13,000, per annum, 
including that of the Harbour. 

The Town contains one principal Street, extending 



172 

nearly a mile, and running from east to west, bend- 
ing with the curve of the River, with several parallel 
Streets along the Quays, intersected by cross Streets. 
The west end of the Town, contains the most ele- 
gant and commodious Houses ; the east end is more 
crowded and confined ; but of late years, rapid im- 
provements are making in this direction. 

In the centre of the Town is a large Square, in 
which is situated the new Church, an elegant build- 
ing, with a lofty Spire ; and the Town House, is on 
the west side of the Square. — Among the many ele- 
gant public edifices in Greenock, the Custom-House 
deserves particular notice, as a grand National Struc- 
ture, and most appropriately situated, the grand front 
faces the River, having a large open space to tne 
Quay ; the Architecture is of the Grecian order, and 
in the highest stile of elegance ; it is so extensive as 
to afford accommodation to both the departments of 
Customs and Excise ; the north front towards the 
River, being the entry to the Custom-House, and 
the east front the entry to the Excise Office ; both of^ 
these fronts are ornamented by four lofty Doric Pil- 
lars, supporting a handsome pediment, admirably exe- 
cuted. The Assembly Rooms in Cathcart Street, 
are in the same stile of Architecture, as the Custom 
House, and the Rooms are splendid and elegant ; in 
the lower parts of this edifice, are the establishment 
of the Greenock Bank, the Subscription Library, 
and Commercial Coffee Room, and Reading Room, 
elegantly fitted up, and well supplied with the Lon- 
don and provincial Newspapers, Magazines, &c. 
Another very elegant Reading Room, has lately been 
built near the Square ; and a monument for the eele- 



173 

boated James Watt, who was a native of Greenock, 
ha§ been subscribed for, and about to be erected. 

There is also in Greenock a well conducted Infir- 
mary, a Bridewell and Jai|, a neat Theatre, an esta- 
blished Grammar School, and a School for Mathe- 
matics, <%c. patronised by the Town ; besides many 
private seminaries, where every branch of modern 
Education is taught. There are several Charitable 
and Religious Institutions, and many Benefit and 
Friendly Societies. The Police establishment is ex- 
cellent, and the Streets are well paved, lighted and 
cleaned. 

Exclusive of three Churches and a Chapel of Ease, 
belonging to the establishment, there are in Green- 
ock, a Gaelic Chapel, an English Chapel, two United 
Secession, an Original Burgher, Relief Congregation- 
al, Baptist, Methodist Meeting Houses, and a Roman 
Catholic Chapel. 

Greenock enjoys from its situation numerous ad- 
vantages, as a place of Trade and Manufacture ; and 
these advantages have been fully appreciated. 

It appears that this Town carried on a small Trade 
with the Baltic, and other Ports of Europe, previous 
to the Union in 170?* — From the latter period, a brisk 
Trade was successfully prosecuted with America, 
and the West Indies, through this Port, chiefly bv 
Shipping, belonging to Glasgow. Greenock, as well 
as Glasgow, suffered very considerably by the disas- 
ters of the American War, which put an end to this 
Trade, but not to the energies of its inhabitants ; new 
sources of Trade and Commerce were sought for, 
and established. The formation of the great Canal, 
in 1790> by opening a communication with the Forth 



174 

and Clyde, or from the Western to the Eastern Seas, 
gave facility and expedition, for an extensive Trade, 
to the Eastern Coasts of the Kingdom ; and from 
this time, the increase of the Trade, and Shipping of 
Greenock, may be dated. 

The Mercantile and Shipping Trade of Greenock 
is now very considerable, comprising in its Foreign 
Trade an extensive importation of Rum, Sugar, and 
other West India produce ; Timber, Naval Stores, 
&c, from America ; Wines, Fruit, &c, from Spain 
and Portugal ; many Ships are also employed in the 
Baltic Trade, and in the Fisheries of Nova Scotia, 
Newfoundland, Greenland, and Davis Straits. The 
Trade with Ireland employs a number of vessels, 
and those employed in the Coasting Trade are many, 
and to all parts of the kingdom ; and a number of 
vessels now trade to the East Indies. The Herring 
Fishery is also prosecuted on an extensive scale. 

The Harbours of Greenock are large and commo- 
dious, capable of containing 500 sail of Shipping- 
That part of the Harbour, to the eastward of the old 
one*, has been lately completed at an expense of 
£60,000, and they have depth of water sufficient to 
float ships of great burthen. The Quays are spacious, 
and have convenient sheds, supported by iron pillars, 
for the security of goods on the transit. There are 
Dock-yards fit to receive ships of any size, and three 
extensive Ship-building yards. There is a Sand-bank, 
which extends from Dunbarton to a short distance to 
the westward of the Harbour, which narrows the 
Road for vessels opposite the Town ; but at the tail 
of this bank there is deep water and anchorage for 
the largest vessels. About a mile to the west of the 



375 

Town* close to the south bank of the Clyde, there is 
a Battery of 14 Guns, but no Barracks have been 
erected, and no troops are quartered in the Town. 

Greenock derives the most important advantages 
from its Steam Vessels ; besides the number of these 
vessels regularly navigating the Clyde, to and from 
Glasgow, and the intermediate ports on its banks, 
where they land and take in passengers ; there are 
many large and elegant Steam Boats, fitted up in a 
superb style, for passengers, which sail at stated pe- 
riods, with the utmost regularity, for Belfast, Lon- 
donderry, Liverpool, Inverness, Campbeltown, the 
Islands, &c, including all the principal places in the 
Highlands, on their route to and from Greenock. It 
may with justice be added, that there is no port in 
the kingdom which affords such facilities to the tra- 
veller, by this mode of conveyance, as Greenock. 

Besides the extensive trade of Greenock, this Town 
possesses many important Manufactures. — There are 
here five establishments for the Refining of Sugar, 
four Rope Works on a large scale, and some smaller 
ones ; the largest Tan-work in the country, and three 
other Tanneries ; three Distilleries on an extensive 
scale, two Breweries, three Foundries, a Pottery, a 
Flint Glass Manufactory, a Bottle Work, three ex- 
tensive Ship-building yards, where vessels of 800 
tons have been built, and many large Timber yards. 
The Cotton Manufacture has not hitherto been intro- 
duced, but it is probable, from the enterprising spirit 
of its inhabitants, and taking advantage of a stream 
of water in the immediate neighbourhood., which has 
lately been brought round a space of 8 miles, and 
falls introduced, to drive and accommodate 50 Mills } 



176 

that this Town will soon participate with Glasgow 
and Paisley in this branch of manufacture. 

In the* seventeenth century, Greenock was only a 
small village, inhabited chiefly by Fishermen, and 
without a Quay or Harbour. The increase Of the 
Town since the Union, has been rapid, and it is now 
considered as one of the first Ports in Scotland ; new 
Streets and Squares have been planned in every di- 
rection, particularly to the West end of the Old Town;, 
and these streets are filling up with rapidity. 

The public Markets are clean and commodious^ 
and well supplied with Butcher Meat, Fish and Vege- 
tables, having the luxuries, as well as the convenien- 
cies of life. The Shops are handsome, decorated with 
taste, and abundantly filled with goods Of every de- 
scription. 

The village of Crawfords Dyke, or Carts Dyke, 
adjoining to Greenock on the east, is a Burgh of 
Barony, erected by Charles I. in the year 1633, and 
may therefore be reckoned co-equal in point of anti- 
quity with Greenock, from which it is separated by a 
small burn, and is no way divided from the Town, 
but by its municipal separate government, — it has a 
small Harbour and Quay. In this village are situa- 
ted the Glass and Bottle Works of Greenock. 

There are many pleasant bathing villages in the 
neighbourhood of the Town. The village of Helens- 
burgh, on the opposite side of the Frith, is a neat ba- 
thing village, delightfully situated on the north bank 
of the Clyde, and much resorted to by the inhabitants 
of Greenock, in the summer season. The village ot 
Gourock is no less commodious, and Dunoon surpas- 
ses them bpth ? for a summer residency. Helensburgh 



forms a striking and picturesque object, from the 
Quays of Greenock, distant six or seven miles, to, and 
from which, Steam Boats pass daily, during the ba- 
thing season. 

There are here two Banking Houses, the Greenock 
Bank, established in the year 1785, and the Renfrew- 
shire Bank, in 1802. A Gas Work has lately been 
introduced, and its lofty stalk, with those belonging 
to the different Sugar Houses, add much to the pic- 
turesque appearance of the Town, from the water. 

The weekly Market is on Friday, and annual Fairs 
are held on the first Thursday in July, and on the 
fourth Tuesday in November. 

The Population of Greenock and Crawfords Dyke, 
are thus stated in the year 1695, at 1651, — in 1755, 
3858,— in the year 1 782, at 1 2000,— in 1 81 1 , at 20,000, 
and in 1821, at 25,000, besides Mariners at sea, or a- 
broad. 



HADDINGTON. 



Haddington is an ancient Royal Burgh, in the Pa- 
rish of Haddington, and the County Town of East Lo- 
thian; lying on the great Post Road, from Edinburgh 
to London. 

It is distant' from Edinburgh \J miles east,— H 
wefet of Dunbar, — 10 south of North Berwick, and 38 
miles north-west from Berwick-upon-Tweed. It is 
situated on a plain of great extent, on the banks of 
the river Tyne, and consists chiefly of four Streets, 
which intersect each other. The High Street, which 
is a continuation of the road from the metropolis, is • 
spacious, <jlean, and well paved, containing a num- 
ber of good modern buildings ; and here are to be 
found many elegant and well furnished shops. The 
other streets are neat and airy, well paved and lighted. 
The Tolbooth in the High Street, is an old erection, 
with a cupola and clock ; attached to this edifice are 
the County Rooms, Assembly Rooms, and Sheriff 
Court Rooms. An additional building has recently 
been added to this ancient fabric, consisting of a large 
and splendid Town Hall ; above this, there are three 
convenient rooms for Debtors, and underneath the 
Town Hall, are cells for criminals. Many new and 
elegant houses have been built in the Town, within 



180 

the last thirty years, and it has in consequence, lost 
much of its antique appearance, and may now be styled 
a handsome Barough Town. An ancient cross still 
stands in the High Street. 

There were temporary Barxacks for 2000 foot, and 
500 Horse, with Artillery Barracks, erected in the 
vicinity of the Town, during the late war. 

The Town is joined by a Bridge of three arches, 
across the Tyne, with the Nungate, which is without 
the Royalty. 

'The date of the erection of Haddington into a 
Royal Burgh, cannot now be ascertained, as all its 
ancient records are lost. It is certain, that a Nun- 
nery was built about a mile below the Town, on the 
north ; bank of the Tyne, in what is now called the 
Nungate, by Ada, Countess of Northumberland, and 
mother-of Malcolm the Fourth, and William the 'Lyon ; 
for Nuns of the Certertian Order, in the year H78. 
In^he charter of erection, it is stated as being near 
meum Bur gum 4e Hadinton. The side walls of this 
building are much delapidated, but the gables, with a 
vestige of the roof still remain. 

The Prioress conveyed a way the lands belonging 
to this house, to William Maitland, younger of Le- 
thington, in the year 1567. ^ft was in this Abbey 
that the Parliament was convened, Jth July 1548, 
during the siege of Haddington, which gave consent 
to the carriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, with the 
Dauphin, and for her education at the Court of 
France. 

The Town of Haddington was destroyed by fire, 
in 1216, upon King John penetrating into East Lo- 
thian, who burnt 'Dunbar and Haddington. It was 



181 

again consumed by fire in 1244. In 1296, Eve, Pri- 
oress of Haddington, submitted to Edward the First, 
and had her rights restored. In the year 1306, Ro- 
bert the BrUce, gave to his Town and people of Had- 
dington, a renewal of the grant of their liberties, both 
Political and Commercial. In 1355, it was burnt by 
Edward the Third. Adam de Haddinton, and Adam 
de Congalton, Were appointed by the Town of Had- 
dington, in the year 1357, to meet with the other 
Burgesses, for treating of the liberation of David 
the Second, who had been taken prisoner at Dur- 
ham, by the English, and kept captive in England 
for twelve years. On Christmas eve, 1358$ a most 
extraordinary inundation nearly destroyed the Nun- 
nery, the river, swollen by excessive rains, swept 
away Houses, Villages, and Bridges, and num- 
bers lost their lives in attempting to save their 
property. Henry the Fourth, having entered Scot- 
land with a great army, arrived at Haddington, 
on the 15th of August 1400, where he celebra- 
ted the Assumption of the Virgin, and remained 
there three days, previous to his departure for Leith* 
On St Ninian's day, 1421, this Town suffered greatly 
by an inundation of the river, and in 1432, again was 
nearly depopulated by a pestilence, which then afflic- 
ted the land. It was set fire to, by the English, when 
they evacuated the Town, on the 1st October 1549 ; 
and was totally consumed by fire, 1598. On the 4th 
October 177^> the Tyne rose 17 feet perpendicular, 
and laid half the Town under water, and continued so 
for several hours. 

There is a Brass Plate at the corner of a street, 
commemorative of this event, bearing this inscription, 
Quod non noctu, Deo gratias, nemo enim periit. 



182 

On the north side of the Town, stands the Church 
of the Franciscans, founded in the year 1214; it is 
210 feet in length from east to west, 110 feet broad 
in the transept, and 65 feet broad in the choir. The 
west end of this church, was repaired at an expense 
of five thousand pounds, in a stile of great magnifi- 
cence in the Gothic taste, and is now used as the Pa- 
rish Church ; the rest of this ancient fabric, with the 
tower, is an unroofed ruin. This Church was an- 
ciently called the " Lamp of Lothian," for its magni- 
ficence. In a corner of this edifice, is the burying 
place of the family of Lauderdale, who for many ages 
possessed Lethington, in Haddington-shire, now the 
property of Lord Blantyre. In the Aisle, are many 
marble statues of the Lauderdale family, as large as 
life, reclined on beds of state. 

1 John Knox, the celebrated Reformer, was born in 
the suburbs of Haddington, and the house where he 
was born, is still pointed out^ in the Gifford-Gate. 
The village of Gifford, four miles from Haddington, 
also claims the honour of giving birth to this distin- 
guished character. 

The Town is governed by a Provost, two Mer- 
chant, and one Trade's Bailie, Dean of Guild, Trea- 
surer, and Town Clerk, the Convener, and nine Dea- 
cons of the Incorporated Trades, sixteen Merchant, 
and two Trade's Councillors. The revenue of the 
Town, amounts to about £1, 500 per annum ; and it 
joins with Dunbar, North Berwick, Jedburgh, and 
Lauder, in returning a member to Parliament, 

A Justice of Peace Court is held here, on the first 
Thursday in each month, for the dispatch of business ; 
-^small Debt Court, &c. and the Sheriff holds a Court 
every Thursday. Circuit Courts were formerly held 



183 

here, but for some years past, all criminal cases are 
sent to Edinburgh. Haddington gives the title of 
Earl to a branch of the Hamilton Family. 

The principal Trade of Haddington is in corn ; 
it is indeed the chief Grain Market in Scotland, and 
regulates all the other grain markets in the Country. 
There are no great Manufactures in the Town or 
neighbourhood ; a small quantity of coarse Woollen 
Cloth, and Blanketing is made, though these Manu- 
factures were formerly much more considerable. 
There are some large Tan- works, and the Hadding- 
ton Distillery, is upon an extensive scale ; there is 
also a Distillery in the Nungate, besides Breweries ; 
but the principal dependance of the Town, is upon its 
markets. The Butcher-Market is neat, clean, and 
well contrived for shelter, and abundantly supplied 
with choice meat of all kinds ; it may also contest the 
palm for quality, with any Market in Scotland. 

There are several charitable Institutions, for relief 
of the destitute, as well as for the education of the 
poor, and some benefit Societies, of the most respec- 
table kind. The Grammar School is well conducted 
by able Masters, as are also other Schools for Eng- 
lish, Writing and Accounts, and an Academy for 
Mathematics, Geography, and the higher branches of 
Education. The Boarding Schools for young Ladies, 
are of the most respectable description. The Town 
possesses a valuable Library. 

The Parish of Haddington comprehends nearly a 
square of six miles, in general arable, well enclosed, 
and in the highest state of cultivation ; abounding in 
Coal, Lime Stone, and Free Stone. The River Tyne 
intersects the parish, in which are numerous elegant 

A A 



184 

■eats. Amisfield, a seat of the Earl of Wemyss and 
March, is a beautiful modern house, of 109 feet in 
length, by 77 m breadth. The Gallery contains 
many capital paintings by the first masters, of these 
only a few can be named here. — Vertumnus and Po- 
mona, by Rubens, the Crucifixion, by Imperiali, the 
Sacrifice of Iphigenia, by Pompeio, Venus and A- 
donis, by Baracci, the Flight into Egypt, by Murillo, 
and the Baptism by Poussin, &c. 

The park contains nearly 700 acres, in which is one 
of the finest gardens in Scotland. The beautiful 
estates of Lethington or Lennox Love, Stevenston, 
Clarkington, and Letham, as well as Amisfield, are 
all in the immediate vicinity of Haddington. 

Besides the Parish Church, there are two Chapels 
belonging to the United Secession Church, one to 
the Original Antiburghers, one to the Independents, 
and one Episcopal Chapel. There is a branch of the 
Bank of Scotland, and one of the British Linen Com- 
pany's Bank. The Market-day is Friday, for Corn 
and Barley, at half past Twelve o'clock, and for 
Wheat, at One o'clock. There is a Tryst held on 
the first Friday, after Rutherglen Horse-Market in 
May, a Fair on the second Thursday in October, and 
a Tryst on the Friday before Edinburgh Hallow 
Fair, in November. 

The population of the Town and Parish in 

1801, was 4049. 

1811, 4370. 

1821, 5255. 

And of this population the Town contains about 3500; 



Hamilton is an ancient Town, in the parish of 
Hamilton, and middle-ward of Lanarkshire. It is 
delightfully situated in a beautiful and highly cultiva- 
ted country, watered by the rivers Clyde and Avon. 
The Town lies 11 miles south-east of Glasgow, 15 
west by north from Lanark, 8 miles south of Airdrie, 
and 37 miles west by south of Edinburgh. 

The Town is handsome, though irregularly built 
along the bottom of a rising ground, extending near- 
ly a mile in length. The Town formerly stood 
clustering around the palace — the residence of the 
Duke of Hamilton, — but the lower part of the Town 
having been removed for the purpose of exten- 
ding the pleasure-grounds in that direction, it has 
stretched to the south and west, and left the palace 
entirely detached. There is a neat Town-house and 
Jail, and a very commodious Market-place. The 
Parish Church, situated on a rising ground above the 
Town, is an elegant building of modern appearance, — 
it is a Collegiate charge of a very ancient date, having 
originally been made Collegiate by Sir James Ha- 



186 

milton in the year 1451, for a Provost and Prebenda-s 
ry. Hamilton is the seat of a Presbytery. 

It can boast of several Benevolent and Friendly 
Societies, Sabbath Schools, and other Charitable In- 
stitutions. There is an Hospital founded by the fa- 
mily of Hamilton, for the reception of 8 Old Men, — . 
another called Robertson's Hospital for 9 Old Men, — 
and Aikman's Hospital for 4 Old Men. 

The Town of Hamilton is very ancient, and was 
erected into a Burgh of Barony in 1 456. In the year 
1548 it was made a Royal Burgh by Queen Mary; 
but the rights and privileges thus acquired from the 
Crown, were resigned into the hands of William, 
Duke of Hamilton, after the Reformation, who, in 
1 670, erected it into a Burgh of Regality, dependant 
upon him and his successors, in which state it still 
remains. 

Hamilton Palace is a large edifice, till lately form- 
ing three sides of a quadrangle, and appears to have 
been built at different periods — the greater part of it 
in 1690. Three years ago, very extensive additions 
to the ancient edifice were begun, which are now 
(182/) in a state of considerable forwardness, and 
promise, when completed, to render the Palace one 
of the most splendid ducal residences in our country. 
Several of the rooms are large and lofty, and the su- 
perb Gallery contains the best collection of Paintings 
in Scotland. Daniel in the Lion's Den, and a paint- 
ing of Lord Denbigh going a hunting, both by Rubens ; 
are very fine, particularly the first mentioned, which 
is considered one of the best pictures of that great 
master. The Marriage Feast, by Paul Veronese, is 
much admired, with many other valuable paintings by 



187 

the first masters. His present Grace has added to 
the collection many valuable specimens of the Art, 
besides a considerable number of Cabinets, Vases, 
&c, of great beauty and value. There Is also a 
marble statue of Venus Genetrix, dug from the ruins 
of Herculaneum, purchased by the late Duke when 
on his travels. The park and pleasure-grounds are 
extensive. 

In the middle of the park, and on a rock overhang- 
ing the west bank of the Avon, stand the ruins of 
Cadzow Castle, the ancient manor-house, when the 
district was known by the name of Cadzow. It re- 
tained this name till it was given to Sir Gilbert de 
Hamilton by King Robert the Bruce, who gave it 
the name of Hamilton. Opposite to these ruins, on 
the other side of the Avon, is a building, said to be 
a model of the Castle of Chatelherault in Normandy, 
from which the family of Hamilton have the title of 
Duke of Chatelherault, conferred originally upon 
James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, the Regent, during 
the minority of James the Sixth. The park contains 
some of the stateliest oaks in Scotland, and is well 
stocked with Fallow-deer, and with cattle of the an - 
cient Caledonian breed. A little below Cadzow are 
the remains of Barncluith, affording a beautiful pro- 
spect of the wooded banks of the Avon, and a rare 
specimen of the terraced style of gardening in the pure 
Dutch fashion. 

A fine square of extensive and elegant Barracks 
for Cavalry, stands about a quarter of a mile from the 
Town, on the road to Glasgow. 

Hamilton was long famed for the Spinning of Linen 



188 

Yarn, and theg Manufacture of Thread Lace, — both 
are now much declined. The weaving of Cotton 
goods has succeeded these, and is carried on to a 
great extent — nearly one thousand looms being em- 
ployed in this branch of business by the Glasgow and 
Paisley Manufacturers. 

Besides the established Church, there are two 
Chapels belonging to the United Secession Church, 
and one to the Relief Church. Hamilton is a great 
thorough-fare, in consequence of the daily resort of 
strangers, especially during the summer months, to 
witness the delightful scenery in the direction of 
Lanark, and in the neighbourhood of that ancient 
Town. 

There is a branch of the British Linen Company 
Bank, and one of the Paisley Union Bank, establish- 
ed in Hamilton. The Market day is Friday, and an- 
nual Fairs are held on the last Tuesday in January, 
O. S. onthe second Thursday in February, on the First 
Friday after the 15th day of May, O. S. the last 
Thursday in June, O. S. the second Thursday in 
July, the second Thursday in August, O. S. and the 
second Thursday in November, O. S. 

The Parish of Hamilton is about six miles long, 
and as many broad, it is watered by the Clyde and 
Avon, over which there are three Bridges ; one of 
these over the Clyde, called Bothwell Bridge, is re- 
markable for the defeat of the Covenanters by the 
Duke of Monmouth, in the reign of Charles the Se- 
cond, on the 21st day of June, 16/9. The land is all 
arable, and the soil is rich and fertile, particularly on 
the extensive meadows and holms on the Banks of 



189 

the Clyde. The Banks of the Avon are steep, and 
covered with natural wood ; and there are some ex- 
tensive plantations in the parish. 

Coal is found in every part of the parish, and 
wrought in several places, in the immediate vicinity 
of the Town. Lime Stone abounds in the upper part 
of the parish, where it has been wrought in one place 
for more than a century. Iron Stone, and Free 
Stone are abundant ; and there are many Chaly- 
beate Springs. Fuller's earth, and fine clay, fit for 
the potter, is found in several places of the parish. 

The late celebrated Dr. William Cullen, was born 
here, and received the first rudiments of his education 
in Hamilton, where he practised for some time as a 
Surgeon, till called to a Medical Chair, in the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow, and from thence to Edinburgh. 

The Late Mr. John Millar, Professor of Law, in 
the University of Glasgow, was also a native of this 
Parish. 

The population of the Town and Parish in 

1801, was 5302. 

1811, 6453. 

1821, 7613. 

And the Town contains about three-fifths of the 
whole population. 



Hawick is a thriving Town, in the Parish of that 
name, and County of Roxburgh, on the great road 
from Edinburgh to London, by Carlisle. It lies 49 
miles south of Edinburgh, 44 north of Carlisle, 20 
west of Kelso, 10 west by north of Jedburgh, and 1 1 
miles south of Selkirk. 

The Town stands chiefly upon the east bank of the 
river Tiviot, where the water of Slitridge falls into 
that river, and consists principally of the High Street, 
which runs nearly parallel to the Tiviot, about half a 
mile in length, with a large market-place at the south 
end of the Street. The other parts of the Town lie 
upon the south and west sides of the Slitridge, over 
which, there are two stone Bridges of communication — 
one of which is very ancient ; over the Tiviot, a hand- 
some Bridge forms the communication with the coun- 
try to the north. The High Street is broad, regular, 
and spacious, and contains many good and handsome 
buildings, the south-west part of the Town, is more 
irregular. The Town Hall in the High Street, is a 

E B 



192 

commodious plain erection, in which are apartments 
for transacting the municipal business of the Town, 
Justice of Peace Courts, &c. A very handsome 
building in Buccleuch Street, called the Subscription 
Rooms, was finished in 1821, and is a great ornament 
to this quarter of the Town. The Academy at the 
west end of the Town, will be a handsome and com- 
modious building, and is most appropriately and de- 
lightfully situated, for th? purpose of an extensive se- 
minary of education. The Parish Church stands be- 
tween the southern and western banks of the Slit- 
ridge, on a beautiful circular eminence, formed by a 
turn of that river, at the south end of the High Street, 
or market-place, near to the two Bridges, which 
cross that water, and form the junction of the two 
divisions of the Town. The Crescent is on the eas- 
tern bank of the Slitridge water, in this quarter of 
the Town, and is a beautiful row of elegant modern 
houses. 

Besides the Parish Church, there are in Hawick, 
two Churches belonging to the United Secession, one 
Relief, one Baptist Meeting House, and a very neat 
plain Meeting House, in Buccleuch Street, belonging 
to the Society of Friends. 

Hawick is a Burgh of Barony, independent of the 
Lord of erection, and appears to have existed free 
from a very early period. But the rights and docu- 
ments of the Burgh, having been either lost or de- 
stroyed, during the inroads of the English Borderers, 
a charter was granted in 1 545, by James Douglas, 
Comes de Drumlanark, confirming to the Burgesses^ 
such rights and lands as they formerly possessed. 
This charter was confirmed, in toto, by another, gran- 



193 

ted by Queen Mary, in the month of May, of the same 
year. In consequence of these charters, the Burges- 
ses elect their Magistrates annually, viz. two Bailies, 
and two representatives of each of the seven incorpo- 
rated trades, which, with fifteen standing Councillors, 
elected for life, manage the affairs of the town. Ha- 
wick possesses all the immunities and privileges of a 
Royal Burgh, except that of sending Members to 
Parliament. The revenue of the Town, amounts to 
4 or £500 per annum. The whole of the Town is 
well paved and lighted, and is most abundantly sup- 
plied with excellent spring water, conveyed to every 
part of the Town by leaden pipes. 

Hawick carries on a very extensive manufacture of 
Stockings, which employ between five and six hun- 
dred Stocking Frames. In the Spinning and Carding 
of Wool, chiefly Lamb's Wool, much business is done. 
There are eight or ten Carding and Spinning Mills, 
some of them on a large scale, wrought by water, and 
containing Machinery of the most improved construc- 
tion. It is computed, that from eight to nine hundred 
thousand pounds weight of wool, is annually carded 
and spun into yarn, and that of this quantity, one half 
is made into Hose in Hawick, and the remainder sold 
in Glasgow, and other manufacturing towns in Eng- 
land ; Carpets, and Blankets, are also manufactured 
here, to a considerable amount. The Tanning of Lea- 
ther, and the Dressing of Sheep and Lamb Skins, are 
important branches of trade, and the making of Gloves 
and Thongs, employ a number of hands. Corn and 
Flour Mills, are on the banks of the rivers, and there 
is a large Brewery in the Town. A Branch of the 



194 

British Lirieti Company's Bank, has 'been long esta- 
blished here. 

Inhere are two pitblic Libraries itt Hawick, and two 
Reading-Rooms, amply supplied with the London 
and provincial Newspapers. A Mechanic's Institu* 
tion, or School of Afts, has been lately established, 
which promises to be of the utmost utility. The A- 
gricuTtural Society, or Farmers Club, instituted here 
in 177^5 was among the first establishments of the 
kind in Scotland. Hawick may be considered as one 
of the first Trading and Manufacturing Towns in the 
South of Scotland. 

Hawick and its environs are the admiration of every 
stranger. The Banks of the Tiviot ate extremely 
picturesque and delightful, and the approach to the 
Town from the south, can no where be surpassed in 
beauty. The extensive nursery grounds, which are 
in the immediate vicinity of the Town, contain 
a most extensive collection of all the Fruit, and Fo- 
rest Trees, Flower Plants, Roots, Sec. which have 
been naturalized in this Country. These extensive 
grounds, add much to the embellishment of the sur- 
rounding romantic scenery. 

The parish of Hawick is extensive, and the general 
appearance is hilly, but none of any considerable ele- 
vation, — all of them are green, affording the finest 
sheep pasture. There are severaltraces of military 
stations in the parish, both circular and rectangular ; 
and hear the south side of the Town, there is one of 
those ancient moats, or laws, where the baronial 
jurisdiction was exercised in Feudal times. 

The Fanners, or Winnowing Machine, which may 



195 

be said to have been the first attempt to abridge A- 
grieultural manual labour, by machinery ; was the in- 
vention of Andrew Rodger, a farmer in this parish, in 
the year 1737> and at that period met with great op- 
position, as setting aside the good old ivay ! what 
would our grand-fathers have said, had they seen the 
country covered with Thrashing- Mills ! 

The celebrated Gavin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld^ 
the Scottish Poet, and translator of Virgil, was Rector 
of Hawick. He died in London of the plague, in 1522. 

The weekly market day is Thursday, and four an- 
nual fairs are held here, viz. on the 17th day of May, 
17th of July, 21st of September, and the 8th day of 
November. A Cattle Tryst is held on the third 
Tuesday in October, to which immense numbers of 
Black Cattle are brought for sale, in passing from 
Falkirk Tryst, to Carlisle and Newcastle Fairs. 
Population of the Town and parish, by the census of 

1801, was 2798. 

1811, 3&88. 

1821, 4387. 



Inverary, (in Gaelic, In-ar-aoreidh), is a Royal 
Burgh, in the Parish of that name, and the County 
Town of Argyleshire. It is ^2 miles !N . N. East of 
Campbelltown, — 30 south-east of Oban, — 60 north- 
west of Glasgow, and 103 miles west by north of 
Edinburgh. 

Inverary is situated on a small Bay, near the head 
of Loch Fyne, where the river Aray, over which there 
is an elegant stone Bridge of two arches, falls into 
that arm of the sea. It is a small, but increasing 
Town, consisting chiefly of one street, and a row of 
houses facing the Bay, built with great uniformity. 
The houses are substantial, and all covered with 
slate. The old Town was, in the 14th century, a 
small ill-built village, situated on the north side of 
the Bay, and was removed to its present situation, 
by His Grace the Duke of Argyle ; the greater part 
has been built by His Grace, who is proprietor of the 
whole Town. 

About the beginning of the 14th century, Inverary 
was fixed upon, by the Argyle family, as the place of 



198 

their residence ; and as the hereditary jurisdictions 
of Sheriff and Justiciary were vested in that family, 
it became of course, the seat of the Courts and the 
County Town. 

In the principal street, stands a handsome Church, 
in which, divine worship is performed, both in Gaelic 
and English. On the Shore, is the Court-Honse and 
Jail, a very neat substantial building, which adds 
much to the noble appearance of the Town, as seen 
from Loch Fyne. There is an excellent Grammar 
School, supported by His Grace the Duke of Argyle, 
and a Female Charity School, endowed by Her Grace 
the Duchess. There are two good Inns, which af- 
ford every accommodation to the traveller and visitor. 

Inverary was erected into a Royal Burgh, by a 
charter from Charles the First, dated at Carisbrook 
Castle, in the Isle of Wight, on the 28th January 
1 648, — and probably the last charter granted by that, 
unfortunate Monarch, who was beheaded 30th January 
1649. The municipal government of the Town, is 
vested in a Provost, two Bailies, a Town Clerk, 
Treasurer, Sheriff-Substitute, Dean of Guild, Water 
Bailie, and a Council. It joins with Ayr, Irvine, 
Rothesay, and Campbelltown, in returning a mem- 
ber to Parliament. 

The revenue of the Town arises from the petty 
customs, and the rent of a common ; these together, 
produce about £100 per annum. The late Duke Ar- 
chibald, added to the revenue, a perpetual grant of 
£20 per annum, secured upon his estate. 

There are some small manufactures of Linen, 
Woollen, and other domestic articles carried on ; but 
the chief support of the Town, is the Herring Fishery ^ 



199 

which appears to have existed from time immemorial. 
The Merchants of France, were in use to come here, 
and barter their Wines for Herrings. A point of 
land, still called the Frenchman's point, is said by- 
tradition, to have been the place where this traffic 
was carried on. The Arms of the Town, are a nett 
with a Herring, and the motto " Semper tibi pendeat 
halee." About the year 17^4, a Lancashire Com- 
pany erected a furnace for smelting Iron Ore in the 
neighbourhood of the town, by means of wood char- 
coal, but this establishment has been lately broken up. 
The surplus of the Herring Fishery, is now sent to 
the Clyde Market. 

At a short distance from the Town, at the extremi- 
ty of the bay on the north, stands the Castle of In- 
verary, the princely residence of the Duke of Argyle. 
It is a square building, with a round tower at each 
angle, and a high glassed Pavilion or Cupola in the 
centre, — it is built of a gray coloured Stone, the 
sombre hue of which harmonizes well with the sur- 
rounding scenery. The Architecture of this noble 
mansion is highly finished Gothic, and the site parti- 
cularly beautiful and commanding. From the southern 
front there is an extensive view for many miles down 
Loch Fyne, — from the lawn the scenery is grand be- 
yond conception, — the Aray with its beautiful cas- 
cades, — the expanse of Loch Fyne, — the hill of Duni- 
coich, rising like a pyramid to the height of 700 feet, 
clothed to the summit with a thick wood of ornamen- 
tal trees, and surmounted with a Gothic watch-tower 
or observatory, — the banks of Essachossan, with the 
distant hills and mountains, forms such an assemblage 
&f the grand, beautiful, and sublime, as rarely meet 

€ C 



200 

jn one view. The Hall is hung round with Arms, 
and other antique ornaments, suited to the grandeur of 
a Highland Castle, but the rest of the house is superb- 
ly fitted up in the modern stile, with exquisite taste. 

On entering the Bay, the Castle has a very majes- 
tic appearance, and the rising wood, which, for a con- 
siderable distance, adorns the domain, give to the 
Town an appearance of superior grandeur ; every 
stranger is struck with the neatness of the Town s 
which, though small is well built, and some of the 
houses may be denominated elegant. 

The enchanting scenery of Inverary and its neigh- 
bourhood, together with the comfortable accommoda- 
tion of its Inns, attract a throng of genteel visitants 
in the summer season. From a convenient part oi 
the Town, a well built Quay projects so far into the 
Bay, as to enable Vessels of considerable burthen to 
load and unload at low water. 

The parish of Inverary, is about 18 miles long, and 
3 in breadth, the general appearance is hilly, and 
even mountainous, interspersed with several tracts of 
flat ground, particularly about the Town, and the 
Vale of Glenshira, which is nearly 5 miles long. A 
considerable part of the flat ground is arable, with a 
deep rich soil, but the rest is shallow, and not natural- 
ly fertile. 

An improved system of Agriculture is followed on 
many farms, and here a species of drying barns, are 
in use ; a contrivance of the utmost utility in a coun- 
try subject to wet and protracted harvests. The pa- 
rish lies along the coast of Loch Fyne, and is water- 
ed by the Rivers Aray and Shira, which fall into 
that arm of the Sea, near theTown ; the latter in its 



201 

course forms an expanse of water, called Loch Duah, 
(( or the black Loch," from the darkness of its bottom, 
or its depth. In very high tides the sea flows up to 
this lake, and it is common to take Herrings, and 
other Sea-fish in the same draught-net with Trout and 
Salmon. The plantations in the parish are extensive 
and valuable, and indeed every glen not fit for culture, 
and almost every mountain, is adorned with trees. 

Among the objects of attraction to the visitor of 
Inverary may be mentioned, Glenshira, Duncoich, 
the falls on the river Aray, Essachossan, the Mar- 
riage Tree, and the Cemetry, about a mile from the 
Town. 

Races are occasionally held for Horses bred in the 
county, — Fairs are held on the 26th May, or the last 
Friday in that month, and first Wednesday in June, 
for Wool, &c. and in October for Black Cattle and 
Horses ; there are nominal Markets on Tuesdays and 
Fridays. There is a branch of the Renfrewshire 
Bank established in Inverary, for conducting the mo- 
ney transactions of the place. 

The population of the Town and parish by the Census 

1811, was 1113. 
1821, 1137. 



INVERNESS. 



Inverness is a Royal Burgh, in the parish of that 
name ; and is the County Town of Inverness-shire. 
It is 19 miles S. S. W. of Cromarty, 38 miles west of 
Elgin, 115 west-north-west of Aberdeen, and 156miles 
north of Edinburgh. Longitude 4° 5' west, Latitude 
5J° 30' north. 

Inverness is pleasantly situated on both sides of 
the river Ness, where it discharges its waters into 
the Moray Frith. It is a large and well built Town y 
having many elegant houses, and consists of four prin- 
cipal streets, namely, Church Street, East Street, 
Castle Street, and Bridge Street, with many smaller 
streets and lanes branching off from the main streets. 
The principal streets are spacious, well paved and 
lighted, and kept remarkably clean. It is the Capital 
of the North Highlands of Scotland, and derives much 
importance from being the County Town, and the 
seat of the Courts of Justice, as well as the seat of a 
Presbytery ; and when to these we add, the elegance 
of its appearance as a Town, and the great respecta- 
bility of its inhabitants, it may justly claim the dis- 
tinction of a Capital. 

Nearly in the centre of the Town stands the Court 
House, a large modern building ; connected with this 



204 

is the Tolbooth or Jail, having a handsome tower, 
terminated by a very elegant spire. The Northern 
Meeting Rooms, for Assemblies, &c, is an extensive 
and elegant erection. The Exchange is a modern 
building appropriated for business. — Opposite to this 
edifice is the Athenseum News Room, to which all 
strangers are liberally admitted, — it is abundantly 
supplied with the London, Edinburgh, and Provincial 
Newspapers, Magazines, &c. The Academy, erect- 
ed in 1790, is a spacious and elegant building situated 
in New Street, — it contains a large hall, besides 
school-rooms, and apartments for the Rector and 
Masters— it has a large pleasure-ground in the rear, 
for the recreation of the Scholars — is conducted upon 
the most liberal principles, and is in fact, a college 
without the name. The Infirmary is situated on the 
west bank of the Ness, and forms a prominent feature 
among the public buildings of the Town. It consists 
of one large central front, with four elegant pillasters, 
and two wings ; the whole enclosed in a spacious area 
with iron pallisades, The Parish Church is a large 
plain building ; near to it is the Gselic Church, — the 
Chapel of Ease, in New Street, is a large handsome 
building. The English Chapel is a neat building 
surmounted by a cupola. There are many other 
Public Buildings, on a description of which our limits 
do not permit us to enter. 

Inverness is a Royal Burgh of great antiquity, hav- 
ing got its fast charter from Malcolm Canmore, which 
charter had been renewed by successive sovereigns, 
down to James the Sixth, when the constitution or 
Sett of the Burgh, was finally settled. 

It is p-ovcined by a Provost, four Bailies, a Dean 



205 

of Guild, and Treasurer, assisted by fourteen Coun- 
cillors, composing a Town Council of twenty-one 
persons. The old Council annually elect a new, and 
the new Council elect their Office-bearers. There 
are four incorporated Trades, two of whose Deacons, 
and the Convener, are Members of the Council. It 
joins with Fortrose, Nairn, and Forres, in returning 
a Member to Parliament. 

From the date of their charter from James the 
Sixth, to the Revolution in 1688, the inhabitants of 
Inverness were industrious and enterprizing, — they 
carried on a considerable trade in Corn and Skins,— > 
the greater part of the Town consisted of Granaries, 
Kilns, and Malting Barns. They exported Grain to 
France and Holland, and all the home consumption 
of Malt, in the shires of Inverness, Ross, Sutherland, 
and Caithness, — the western and Orkney Islands, 
were supplied by the Corn Merchants of Inverness. 

After the Revolution, the Town from various cau- 
ses, suffered a gradual decline, so much so, that at 
the period of the Rebellion in 1745, it appeared little 
more than the ruins of what it had been. In the cen- 
tre of the Town, there were many ruinous uninhabi- 
ted houses, and in other parts of it, every step exhi- 
bited the ruins of a Kiln, a Granary, or other buil- 
ding. In the year 1746, the Town began to revive 
and the spirit and industry of the inhabitants, to re^ 
sume their wonted vigour, and from that time to the 
present, its improvement has been progressive ; parti- 
cularly for the last fifty years it has been rapid ; and the 
many new and elegant buildings, which have risen in 
all parts of the Town, are convincing proofs of the in- 
crease of its mercantile affluence. The old parts of the 



206 

Town, aTe now almost wholly rebuilt, and its bounds 
are yearly extending in all directions. There is a 
fine Stone Bridge of seven arches, leading from Bridge 
Strest, over the Ness, uniting the two parts of the 
Town, of which the south part is by far the most po- 
pulous and extensive, and where the principal busi- 
ness is transacted. A little above this Bridge, and 
nearer the Frith, an extensive Wooden Bridge has 
been erected, which also crosses the Ness, for the 
conveniency of foot passengers. Immediately above 
this Bridge are the Quays, which are commodious 
and well constructed, and admit vessels of 200 tons: 
to load and unload. 

The Harbour is safe, spacious, and commodious, 
and vessels of 500 tons may ride in safety in the 
Frith, — about a mile from the Town, nearly opposite 
the Quay, on the west side towards the Ferry, a small 
Quay has been constructed, where ships of great 
draught of water, are enabled to discharge their car- 
goes. 

The Shipping belonging to the Port, are chiefly 
employed in carrying to London, the produce of the 
Salmon Fishery of the Ness, which is very considera- 
ble ; as also the skins of Deer, Otters, and other ani- 
mals caught in the County. The imports in return, 
consist of Hardware, Haberdashery, Wine, Groceries, 
&c. from London. Coal, Iron, Lime, &c. are impor- 
ted coastways. The chief Manufactures, are those 
of Hemp and Flax. — Some attempts have been made 
in the Cotton and Woollen manufactures, to no great 
extent. There are several Tan-works, Candle-works, 
Brick and Tyle-works, &c. carried on. 

The domestic trade of the Town is very great ; the 



207 

retail trade, commanding the supply of an extensive 
district, of which Inverness is the Capital, the com- 
munication with which is facilitated, by the excellent 
roads which branch off in every direction, from this 
centre point. The Shops are handsome and well 
supplied with almost every fashionable article of luxu- 
ry and use, — more money is circulated here than 
could be supposed, in so remote a part of the Island. 

The coast abounds with Seals, but no regular es- 
tablishment has hitherto been formed for taking ad- 
vantage of this species of fishery, which might prove 
a source of wealth, and give employment to a number 
of hands. 

The environs of Inverness are extremely romantic, 
and the land in a high state of cultivation, — the river 
Ness forms a grand object in the picturesque beauty 
of the surrounding scenery. Not far from the Quay, 
on the south, stands the ruins of a Fort, built by O- 
liver Cromwell, now called the Citadel. At a short 
distance to the west of the Town, stands Tom-na- 
houriek, " the hill of faries," a beautiful insulated hill, 
covered with trees. It is of a singular shape, nearly 
resembling a Ship, with her keel uppermost. Its 
base, is a parallelogram, the length of which is 1984, 
and the breadth 176 feet, from which it rises to the 
height of 250 feet, above the level of the river. 

Near this mount is the Hill of Craig-phatric, a 
steep and rugged hill, 1150 feet above the level of the 
Ness, which runs at its foot, — it is noted for the re- 
mains of one of those fortifications, which, from the 
vitrified appearance of the stones, and the marks of 
fusion which they exhibit, have received the name of 

D D 



208 

vitrified Forts. They have been found in other parts 
of the island, but this is by far the most complete and, 
extensive of these remarkable fortifications to be seen 
in Britain. The fall of Foyers, near the Generals 
Hut, where that river falls into Loch Ness, is one of 
the most tremendous falls known to exist. Dr. Gar- 
net in his Tour, thus mentions it, " This is undoubt- 
edly one of the highest falls in the world, and the 
quantity of water is sufficient to give it consequence, 
— the scene is awful and grand." The height of the 
fall is 212 feet ; " though an immense body of water 
falls down the Niagara, in North America, yet its 
height is not much more than half the height of this, 
being only 140 feet." 

About three miles south-east of Inverness, is Cul- 
loden Moor, memorable for the fatal defeat of the re- 
bel army, on the 16th April 1/46, by the King's 
Troops, under the Duke of Cumberland, which put 
an end to the attempts of the Stuart Family, to regain 
the British Throne. Near this spot is Culloden 
House, the seat of the Forbes's of Culloden, where 
Prince Charles lodged the night before the battle. 

The language generally used by the common peo- 
ple is the Gaelic, — but the English language is spo- 
ken by the superior classes, with a purity of pronoun- 
ciation not to be equalled in any part of Scotland, 
The Gaelic is also spoken here in its utmost purity — 
both languages are so familiar, that it is common to 
hear children at play, put a question in Gaelic, and re- 
ceive an answer in English. 

Besides the churches and chapels already mention- 
ed, there are Meeting Houses belonging to the fol- 



209 

lowing Dissenters, viz. one to the United Secession, 
one Methodist, one Independent, and one Roman 
Chatholic Chapel. 

The weekly Market day is Friday, and there are 
five annual fairs, namely, Candlemas Fair, held on the 
first Wednesday after the 14th day of February, or on 
the 11th O. S. if on a Wednesday ; St Andrew's, the 
first Wednesday after the 18th July, N. S. Marymas, 
the first Wednesday after the 15th August, O. S. or 
on the 26th N. S. if on a Wednesday, the first Wed- 
nesday after 11th November, O. S. 

Cattle Markets are appointed by the Inverness- 
shire Farming Society to take place on the 18th A- 
pril, the 19th May, on the Friday after the Strath- 
garre Market, or Fair in August, the 28th day of 
September, the third day after the Beauly Market 
in October, and on the 18th day of November. The 
Milch Cow Market is held on the Wednesday pre- 
ceding the Auldearn Market. 

There is a branch of the Bank ot Scotland, one of 
the British Linen Company, and one of the Perth 
Banking Company, established in Inverness. 
Population of the Town and parish, by the Census of 

1801, was 8732. 

1811, 10,757. 

1821, 12,264. 



IRV r INE. 



Irvine is a Sea-port Town, and Royal Burgh, in 
the Bailiwick of Cunningham, and County of Ayr, 
seated at the mouth of the river Irvine, on the Firth 
of Clyde. It lies 7 miles east by south-west from 
Saltcoats, — 11 1 miles north of Ayr, — 25 south of 
Glasgow,— 7 weg t of Kilmarnock, — and 67 miles west 
by south of Edinburgh. 

The Town is situated upon a rising ground, on the 
north bank of the river, the estuary of which forms 
the Harbour, which is commodious, having ten or 
twelve feet of water on the bar at spring tides. The 
situation is dry and healthy. The principal part of 
the Town consists of one broad and spacious Street, 
stretching from south-east to north-west. Betwixt 
the Town and the river, on an eminence, stands the 
Parish Church, a very handsome building, with a Spire 
and Clock, which, from its situation, exhibits a beauti- 
ful object of itself, and commands an extensive view 
of the Firth of Clyde, and the lofty mountains of the 
island of Arran. An Academy was erected at the 
north end of the Town in the year 1814, the expense 
of which was defrayed in part by public subscription, 
and a part by the Town of Irvine. It is a very hand- 



212 

some building, and an ornament to this end of the 
Town ; in this Academy are taught the English, La- 
tin, Greek, and French languages, Mathematics, and 
other useful and ornamental branches of modern 
education. A free School supported by subscription, 
affords instruction to about one hundred and twenty 
children, — there are likewise several Sabbath Schools, 
and Friendly Societies. 

The Town-House stands in the centre of the Town ; 
it is an ancient fabric, the date of its erection is un- 
known. There is a commodious News-Room, re- 
gularly supplied with the London, Edinburgh, and 
Provincial Papers ; and a Library on a large scale, 
affords a fund of instruction and amusement to its nu- 
merous subscribers. 

On the south side of the river, and connected by a 
Bridge, there is a row of houses on each side of the 
road leading to the Harbour, built on an uniform 
plan, inhabited chiefly by sea-faring people. A si- 
milar row of houses are built upon the road leading 
to Ayr. Neither of these suburbs are within the 
royalty, but are locally situated in the parish of Dun- 
doneld. 

It is uncertain at what period Irvine was erected 
into a Royal Burgh, but a Charter is extant which 
was granted by Alexander the Second, confirming the 
grants of former Sovereigns. It appears that Irvine 
was a place of considerable consequence so early as 
the year 1205. 

The govei nment of the Town is vested in a Pro- 
vost, two Bailies, a Dean of Guild, a Treasurer, and 
twelve Councillors ; and it joins with Ayr, Rothesay, 
Campbelltown, and Inverary, in returning a member 
to Parliament. The Magistrates of Irvine, formerly 



215 

possessed a very extensive jurisdiction over the Ba- 
rony of Cunningham and Largs, now abolished. The 
revenues of the Town are extensive, arising from the 
customs, and a large tract of land, belonging to the 
community. 

The principal trade of Irvine is the Shipping of 
Coal for Ireland, of which, from 28 to 30,000 tons are 
annually shipped to that quarter alone. There is a 
Ship-building yard, Rope-works, Tan-works, &c. and 
numbers are employed in the Weaving of Cotton 
Goods, for the Glasgow and Paisley Manufacturers. 

The imports into Irvine, consist chiefly of Grain 
from Ireland, of which, from 8 to 10,000 quarters are 
annually imported, besides large quantities brought 
coastways, from Galloway. Iron, Timber, Slates, 
Lime Stone, are also considerable articles of importa- 
tion. The Shipping belonging to the port of Irvine, 
amounts to 80 or 90 Sail, employing about 600 Sea- 
men. Formerly an extensive Herring Fishery was 
carried on here, but it, has been superseded by the 
Coal trade. 

Exclusive of the Established Church, there is a 
Meeting House for those in connexion with the Unit- 
ed Secession, one Relief, and one Baptist Chapel. 
There is a branch of the Ayr Bank, and another of 
the Paisley Banking Company. 

The environs of the Town of Irvine are embel- 
lished by the beautiful seat of the Earl of Eglingtown, 
with the extensive pleasure-grounds, and the delight- 
ful mansion of Bourtree-Hill. The religious sect 
named Buchanites, took their rise in this place, from a 
woman of the name of Simpson, (Mrs. Buchan) ; their 
principal tenets were, the community of goods, and 
that true believers had no occasion to die. This woman 



214 

possessed a most persuasive eloquence, and made a 
number of proselytes, many of whom were possessed 
of considerable property. This sect made a great 
noise for some time, which induced the magistrates to 
expel them legally from Irvine. 

To a place called New Cample, near Thornhill in 
Dumfries-shire, Mrs Buchan with her followers ulti- 
mately retired ; and here their ridiculous frenzy got 
leave to evaporate in peace and quietness, — and here 
the New Jerusalem expedition terminated in the cul- 
tivation of the ground, and an application to honest 
industry. 

Irvine is the seat of a Presbytery. The Market- 
day is Tuesday, and Fairs are held annually, on the 
second Wednesday in May, and the third Monday 
and Wednesday in August. 

The parish of Irvine extends about two miles along 
the river Irvine, or Irwine, which separates it from 
the parish of Dundoneld, and its breadth is no more 
than two miles. On the coast, and on the banks of 
the river, the surface is flat and sandy ; but about the 
Town the soil is a light loam, and abundantly fertile. 
The face of the country is beautified by clumps and 
belts of planting, affording at once both shelter and 
ornament. In this parish is an old castle belonging 
to the Eglingtown family, said by tradition to be the 
remains of a Nunnery, where there was a chapel, a 
church-yard, and a village. But of these no vestige 
remains but the walls of the castle. 
The Population of the Town and Parish by the census 

of 1801, was 4584. 

1811, 5750. 

1S2I, -7OO7. 

Of this population the Town contains 5000. 



JEDBURGH. 



Jedburgh is a Royal Burgh, in the Parish of the 
&ame name, and the County Town of Roxburghshire. 
It is 45 miles south of Edinburgh, 1 1 west of Kelso, 
10 east of Hawick, and 12 miles north of the English 
Border. 

The local situation of Jedburgh is delightful ; it is 
situated on the banks of the river Jed, from whence 
its name, on the declivity of a Hill, and surrounded 
on all sides, by hills of a considerable elevation. It 
is a very ancient Burgh, and was a place of some im- 
portance, in the year 1165, as appears from a charter 
of William the Lyon, granted upon founding the Ab- 
bey of Jedburgh, or Jedwarth, as it is there sometimes 
called. It has the honour of Parochial precedency, 
being the oldest Parish in Scotland, of which any 
historical record has been transmitted to posterity. 
Jedburgh continued to be a place of considerable im- 

E E 



216 

portance, and early in the seventeenth century, was 
one of the principal Towns on the English Border. 

There are four principal Streets in Jedburgh, which 
cross each other, at right angles, terminating in a 
large Square or Market-place ; the High Street runs 
parallel to the river, and that from the Castle Hill to 
the New Bridge, is broad, well paved, and clean. 
Within these few years, many new houses, in a fine 
style have been built, and many other improvements 
made, which have added greatly to the beauty of the 
Town. The County Gaol and Bridewell, built about 
three years since, is a fine building, it stands upon the site 
of the old Castle, and is called Jedburgh Castle. The 
arrangements and accommodations of the interior of 
the building, are well suited to the purposes for 
which it was built, and from its elevated situation, 
forms a grand object in the approach to the Town. 
The Town Hall, founded by the Marquis of Lothian 
in 181 1, is an elegant and spacious building. It con- 
tains rooms for transacting the business of the Burgh 
and County, the Sheriff and Justiciary Court Rooms, 
&c. The English and Grammar Schools, under the 
patronage of the Magistrates and the Heritors, are 
conducted upon the best principles, and supplied with 
able Teachers. There are also three public Libra- 
ries. A Dispensary was here established in the year 
1810, which has been a great benefit to the Town and 
County. 

Jedburgh, like the other Border Towns, suffered a 
temporary decline, in consequence of the Union of 
the two kingdoms in the year 1707- Previous to this 
period, the Town of Jedburgh, as well as all the Bor- 



217 

der Towns, carried on an extensive contraband trade 
with England, by introducing various articles, such as 
Malt, Skins, and Salt, which at that time, paid no du- 
ty or tax in Scotland, and were therefore advanta- 
geously exchanged for English Wool, which they ex- 
ported from the Firth of Forth to France, and the re- 
turns from thence yielded a very great profit. The 
loss of this source of gain, was followed by the de- 
population and consequent decay of the place to a 
considerable extent ; and it is only of late years, by 
the introduction of a few manufactures, particularly 
those ot Woollen, that the Town has revived. At 
present, the manufacture of Narrow Cloths, Carpets, 
Flannels, Blankets, and Stockings, are carried on to 
a very considerable amount, and are upon the increase. 
The Tanning of Leather, and the Dressing of Sheep 
Skins, are also considerable branches of trade. But 
the want of Coal, is an insuperable obstacle to the ex- 
tensive introduction, and progressive advance of ma- 
nufactures in the Town and neighbourhood of Jed- 
burgh ; there is no coal nearer than Ryechester, 
twenty miles distant on the English Border ; and the 
nearest coal field to the north, are in the Lothians, 
at double that distance from the Town. There are 
several large Peat-Mosses in the neighbourhood, 
which supply the inhabitants with fuel, who are una- 
ble to purchase coal, an article that sells here at a 
higher price, than in any other place in Scotland. 

Besides the Parish Church, there are three places 
for divine worship, belonging to dissenting Congre-* 
gations, viz, two to the United Secession, and a Re* 
Jief Chapel. 



21! 



A bra^n ch pf the British Linen Company's .Bank, was 
established here in the year 1791> and from that pe- 
riod, may be dated the rapid enlargement of the Tpwn ? 
and. the increase of manufactures. A Bank for the 
Saying of the Poor, was established in 1816, under 
t^e management of a Committee^ which has been e- 
minently successful, and done much good to the low- 
er glasses, by inducing habits of industry and econo? 
my, by furnishing the means of securing and accumu- 
hMx\& their small savings, upon a principle heretofore 
unknown,. 

Jedburgh is governed by a Provost, four Bailies, 
a P.ean pf Guild, and a Treasurer, assisted by a se- 
lect Council of the principal citizens, and along wjjth 
Lauder, North Berwick, Haddington, and Dunbar ? 
returns a Member to Parliament. 

Jedburgh is the seat of a Presbytery ; and the 
Courts, of the Southern Circuit of the Lords of Justi? 
ciary, and the Lords ppmmisipners of the Jury Court, 
are held here. The Southern Circuit, includes the, 
Counties of Roxburgh, Berwick^, Selkirk, and Peebles., 
and are held in the months of April and September. 
T he Sheriff Qourt is, held here pnce, a fortnight, the 
Justice of Peace Court, fpr the Jedburgh district, is. 
held on the first Tuesday pf every month, and thp 
Magistrates hold a Court eye^y Satexday. 'The ge- 
neral Quarter Sessions pf the, Peace are aj&o hekl 
here. 

The river Je& takes, its rise on the Carter Fell, and 
runs along the sputh-east sjldp of the. Town. ; there are 
seven Bridges unpn this river, within a rnite pf th$ 
Town of Jedburgh. The Town is abundantly s.uppl{edy 



219 

with excellent water, conveyed to it by leaden pipes. 
The neighbourhood of the Town, is noted for its fine 
Orchards ; and excellent Free Stone is abundant in 
the Parish. 

The old Castle of Jedburgh, situated on an emi-* 
nence at the Town head, (now occupied by the new 
Goal), was a place of great strength and consequence 
in ancient times, it was retaken from the English in 
1409, by the Duke of Albany, who demolished it ; the 
Keys of this Castle, were lately found, in digging near 
to the spot on which it stood, 

The Abbey of Jedburgh, founded by David the 
First, for Canon Regulars, is situated on the banks of 
the Jed, on the south side of the Town, and has been 
a large and magnificent fabric, in form of a cross. Part 
of the west end is fitted up for the Parish Church, 
Which has a fine circular window in the gable. It 
runs from east to west, and appears to have been ori-< 
ginally three stories high, — in the first and second; 
stories there are nine arches in each. The west end 
from the steeple, and the south front are the most 
entire parts of the ruins— the steeple is also nearly 
entire, and about 120 feet high. To preserve, as fa? 
as possible, this venerable fabric from total ruin, a 
subscription was set on foot, to repair the Abbey in 
such a manner as not to interfere with* or alter the 
original Gothic,-^- a strong pr^»of of the good; taste of 
the projectors of this praise-worthy undertakings For 
a number of years past, the lofty pile of quadrangular 
building, or tower, had been observed, to discover 
symptoms of serious, decay, whicb if not checked, 
might one? d«y pFOve fetal to the whole st$uct«r<\ 



220 

To provide against this, the gaps have been filled up, 
and huge iron bars, have been employed to unite 
more firmly the opposite sides of the quadrangle, and 
to impart a greater degree of strength to the whole 
fabric. The ancient narrow stair, which reached 
from the bottom to the top of the Tower, but which 
from its decay in some parts, rendered the ascent ra- 
ther perilous, has been repaired, so that now (1827,) 
the visitor has it in his power to enjoy from a great 
elevation, a most interesting view, as the country a- 
round abounds with rich and romantic scenery. The 
ancient Chapel, where the service of the Catholic 
Church was wont to be performed, and which was 
appropriated to the interment of the more remote an- 
cestors of the Marquis of Lothian, has been covered 
in. The effect of the whole repairs is such, as fully 
realizes the expectations of the original projectors, 
and to compensate for the labour and expense which 
has been bestowed upon this venerable pile. 

There was also a convent of Franciscans in this 
Town, founded by the citizens in 1513, but besides 
their houses, they had no revenues, being mendi- 
cants. 

The Market-day is Tuesday, and there are four 
annual Fairs, namely, the first Tuesday after Whit- 
sunday, the second Tuesday in August, O. S. on the 
25th of September, and the first Tuesday in Novem- 
ber, O. S. There are also two public hiring mar- 
kets, on the Tuesday immediately before the 26th 
day of May, and the 22d day of November. 

In the year 1755, Dr Webster calculated the popu- 
lation of the Town and Parish of Jedburgh, at 4000, 



221 

but there is no date referred to, by which this calcula- 
tion was made. In the year I775, the inhabitants 
were numbered with great accuracy, and found to be 
short of 2000. The Population of the Town and Pa- 
rish by the Census, taken by order of Government in 

1801, was 3834. 

1811, 4454. 

1821, 5?5l. 



KELSO. 



Kelso is a considerable Town in the parish of the 
same name, in the county of Roxburgh, 42 miles 
South by East of Edinburgh, 23 from Berwick upon 
Tweed, 60 from Carlisle, 9 West of Coldstream, 1 1 
east of Jedburgh, and 9 miles north of the English 
Border. It is pleasantly situated on an extensive plain 
on the north side of the River Tweed, opposite the 
junction of the Tiviot with that river, and is surround- 
ed on all sides by hills covered with wood, which 
form a beautiful amphitheatre. 

The Town is built in the Flemish stile. The 
principal street runs in a direction parallel with the 
river, at the southern extremity of which is a spacious 
Square or Market-place, from which diverge four of 
the principal Streets at equal distances. Within the 
last two years, the north side of the Square has been 
nearly all rebuilt, and elegant houses erected ; this 
Square also contains the principal shops. A new 
Street has also been opened from the north-east cor- 
ner of the Square, parallel with Roxburgh Street, at 
present the principal entrance to the Town from the 

r f 



224 

north. Another new Street is being formed to con- 
nect WesUand East Roxburgh Streets. 

On the east side of the Square an elegant Town 
House was erected in the year 1816, containing a 
handsome and lofty hall for Town and County meet- 
ings, with other apartments for the transaction of the 
public business. In the hall the Justice of Teace Courts 
are held on the first and third Fridays of every month, 
for the recovery of small debts of not above £5 ; for 
punishing petty offenders, and settling disputes be- 
tween master and servant, &c. ; the hall is adorned 
with a very fine portrait of the late Duke of Rox<« 
burgh. The Buiiie of the Duke of Roxburgh also 
holds a Court in it every Saturday, to determine dis-* 
puted debts not exceeding forty shillings, and for mi- 
nor offences. 

Kelso is a Burgh of Barony, and is governed by a 
Baron Bailie, appointed by the Duke of Roxburgh, 
and fifteen Stent-masters ; seven of whom are no- 
minated by the Duke, the others are elected by the 
Merchants, and the five Incorporations. These have 
the power of imposing a Cess upon the inhabitants, 
according to their circumstances, for defraying the 
necessary expenses of the Town ; and by the excel- 
lent regulations that are generally adopted, it is ren- 
dered one of j;he most clean, comfortable, and respect- 
table towns upon the Border. 

On the south side of the Town are the venerable 
remains of Kelso Abbey, founded by David the First 
in 1 1 28, for the Monks of Tyronenses, and had ma- 
ny Churches and lands belonging to it. King James 
the Sixth granted this Abbey to Sir Robert Kerr of 
Cessfprd in 1605, upon the forfeiture of Francis, Earl 



225 

of Bothwell, when the Town was erected into a Burgh 
of Barony. During the recent repairs of this monu- 
ment of ancient magnificence, on removing the rub- 
bish at the base, the fragment of a Bell was found, 
which is calculated to have been about three feet in 
diameter, and of the weight of one and a half tons. 
The ancient stone Cross was also found in tolerably 
good preservation, which has been replaced in its pro- 
per situation upon the pediment over the large door- 
way leading into the transept. Several years ago, in 
digging in the ruins of the Abbey, a stone coffin was 
found, supposed to have contained the remains of the 
first Abbot in Kelso Abbey, — this precious relict was 
for some years deposited in the Abbey ; but some 
years ago, was taken for a watering trough on the 
public road. 

Roxburgh Castle is an ancient ruin, situated on an 
isthmus formed by the Tweed and Tiviot, equally ad- 
mired for its strength as a fortress, as foi* the beauti- 
ful prospects it affords. It has been in a ruinous 
state since the reign of James the Second. 

Opposite to the old Castle of Roxburgh, on the 
north side of the Tweed, stands the princely mansion 
ofFleurs, the magnificent seat of the Duke of Rox- 
burgh. In front of the house, on the banks of the 
river, is a Holly-tree, to mark the spot where James 
the Second was killed by the bursting of a cannon at 
the seige of Roxburgh Castle in 14G0. 

A fine new Bridge of five large arches crosses the' 
Tweed, this Bridge is extremely handsome, and whe- 
ther we contemplate the elegance of the design, or the 
solidity of the structure, it is not surpassed by a simi- 
lar work in the island. The old Bridge stood about 



226 

fifty yards farther up the River, and was carried away 
by a flood in 1798. 

Besides the Parish Church, which is of an octagon- 
al figure, there are five other places of worship be- 
longing to different denominations of Dissenters. 
There are three public Libraries ; an excellent Gram- 
mar School, conducted by a Rector ; a Society for the 
Education of Poor Boys ; and a most praise-worthy 
Establishment for the Education of Females on the 
Lancasterian principle. Among the Benevolent In- 
stitutions in Kelso, may be enumerated the Dispen- 
sary, fitted up with Hot and Cold Baths, and which 
admits a limited number of patients into the Esta- 
blishment ; the Spinning Society; two Societies ©f 
Gardners ; and two Mason Lodges. 

The Manufactures of Kelso are chiefly those of 
Blankets, Plaidings, Stockings, and Linen ; but the 
principal trade is the Tanning of Leather, and the 
Dressing of Sheep and Lamb Skins, which is carried 
on to a great extent ; also a Distillery and a Brewery. 
The town being situated in the centre of a populous 
country, carries on a good inland trade. The Royal 
Mail has lately run through this town, which will be 
of advantage to it, — a railway fvom hence to Berwick 
is about to be formed, and a Company has been or- 
ganised for lighting the town with Gas. 

Kelso is a place of great gaiety and respectability:; 
the inhabitants are people of polished manners ; and 
in no town in Scotland will a stranger meet with a 
more respectable society. It is often the seat of the 
Caledonian Hunt, and has well attended races, which 
take place every Spring and Autumn. The races are 
confessedly superior to any in Scotland. The course 



m 

was formed at an immense expense, with an elegant 
stand, by the late Duke of Roxburgh. 

The variety of charming prospects which the neigh- 
bourhood of Kelso exhibits, renders selection a diffi- 
cult task. The views, however, presented from the 
Castle of Roxburgh, and from Fleurs, deserve parti- 
cular notice. The scene from Kelso Bridge, partakes 
so much of the picturesque and elegant, that it calls 
forth the admiration of every spectator. 

From the Town is seen the majestic ruins of the 
ancient Abbey, and the handsome modern fabric of 
Ednam House, — at a short distance to the north-west, 
the lofty building of Fleurs, between the rivers the 
remains of Roxburgh Castle, and near to this, Spring- 
wood-Park. Towards the east, Pinnacle-Hill and 
Wooden ; at a distance of a few miles, the Eilden 
Hills rising in perspective, the ruins of Home Castle, 
the Hills of Stitchell, and Mellerstain. Add to these 
prospects, the winding course of the rivers before their 
junction, with an Island in each, — the banks covered 
with wood, — the steep precipices of Maxwell and 
Chalk-heugh, and a variety of other grand objects. 
This scenery, taken from any point of view, forms 
such an assemblage of the beautiful and sublime in 
landscape, as is seldom equalled. 

The weekly Market-day is Friday, chiefly for Corn ; 
and the annual Fairs are held on the second Friday 
in July, and on the 2d November, for Cattle,- — and 
large Cattle Markets, for Horses, Sheep, Black Cat- 
tle, &.c. are also held on the second Fridays of De- 
cember, January, and February, — every Friday in 
March, and the second Friday in April and May. 
Population of the Town and Parish, 1811, was 4408. 

1821, 4800 



KILMARNOCK. 



Kilmarnock is a large and populous Town in the 
County of Ayr, and district of Cunninghame ; seated 
in a valley on both sides of a rivulet of the same name, 
which falls into the river Irvine about half a mile be- 
low the Town. 

It is 12 miles distant from Ayr, 21 1 from Glasgow, 
and 65 1 miles from Edinburgh, by Glasgow. 

Kilmarnock is a burgh of Barony — the first charter 
in its favour was granted to Thomas Lord Boyd in 
1591, which was renewed and enlarged by a Charter 
granted to William Earl of Kilmarnock, and ratified 
by Parliament in 1 672. Upon the attainder of that 
family in 1745, the superiority of the Burgh became 
vested in the Crown. It has since devolved on his 
Grace the Duke of Portland. 

The name of the place is said to be derived from 
the Cell of Marnock, or St Marnock, a Bishop who 
died and was interred here, A. D. 322. The Town 
is governed by two Bailies, a Treasurer, and Six- 
teen Councillors, and has a well regulated Police 
Establishment. 

Kilmarnock stands in a pleasant situation, — the old 



230 

part of it is irregularly built, few of the streets being 
laid out on a uniform plan — but along with the extend- 
ed manufactures of the place, the Town has increas- 
ed in magnitude and elegance. The new part of the 
Town has been laid out on a regular plan, the streets 
are wide and spacious, well paved and lighted with 
Gas, the houses are handsome, and many of them 
elegant. The Town has lately been extended in a 
south-easterly direction, to the Water of Irvine, by a 
Building Society, which has for its object, to furnish 
each Member with a. house at a period of years, by 
paying for the same by monthly instalments. 

Kilmarnock was lately divided into two Parishes, 
viz. the High and the Low Church Parishes. The 
Low Church is a Cullegiate charge, the Clergymen 
of which officiate every alternate Sabbath. Besides 
these Churches, there are two belonging to the United 
Secession, one Relief, one Original Burghers, one 
Reformed Presbyterian, one Independant, and a few 
Methodists and Baptists. 

Half a Century ago, Kilmarnock was a small 
straggling Town, known chiefly for the Manufacture 
of a peculiar Night-Cap, distinguished by the name of 
Kilmarnock Cowl, and the well known Scottish Blue 
Bonnet, Tartan Plaid, &c. Since that time it has 
become the largest manufacturing Town in Ayrshire. 
The adjoining Village of Riccarton, though in a dis- 
tinct Parish, may also be considered as forming a part 

film 

oi the Town. 

The manufacture of Woollen goods is carried on here 
on a very extensive Scale, of which species of goods, 
Carpeting forms by far the most prominent branch. 
The Carpets here have become successful rivals to 



231 

the famed Brussels, and Kidderminster Carpets, and 
others ot. English Manufacture ; and are made here 
from the most expensive fabric and pattern, down to 
the lowest priced and plainest patterns. The Scotch 
Bonnet and Military Cap form still a very considera- 
ble article of the Kilmarnock Manufacture. These 
Manufactures are managed with spirit and industry — 
the capital employed is great, and in no part of the 
Island has the spirit^of enterprize and improvement 
displayed itself in a more conspicuous manner. The 
wealth and Population of the Town have kept pace 
with the extension of manufactures. To these alrea- 
dy mentioned, large, and still increasing branches of 
the Woollen Manufacture ; must be added, that of 
Silk, Cotton and Worsted Plaids and Shawls, Silks, 
Muslins and Calicoes, in an endless variety of pat- 
tern and fabric. To these staple Manufactures we 
have to add several extensive Tanning and Leather 
Dressing Establishments, Large Dye Works, Cali- 
co Printing and Bleaching to a great extent ; Spin- 
ning Mills, Breweries, Saddlery, Shoes, &c. &c. and 
several extensive Nursery Grounds, occupying above 
50 acres of ground. The Glove Trade, which flou- 
rished here about 30 years ago, and afforded abun- 
dant employment to the Female Population, is now 
completely annihilated ; although the inducements 
to carry it on are as numerous as formerly. The 
Leather Dressers send about 60,000 Skins annually to 
London, fit only for the above purpose, which could be 
sold here at a lower rate, and Manufactured into 
Gloves at less expense than in England. There are 
several very extensive Collieries in the immediate vi- 
cinity of the Town, and here that most valuable Coal 

G G 



232 

for Malting, has been found in abundance. This Coal 
is better known by the name of Blind Coal, having 
little or ho smoke, yet a much greater heat than any 
other Coal. Immense quantities of both Fire and 
Blind Coal, are conveyed by a Railway, which has 
lately been constructed by his Grace the Duke of 
Portland, between this Town and the commodious 
harbour of Troon, where they are shipped for Ire- 
land, &c. 

There is a branch of the Ayr Bank, and one of the 
Commercial Bank of Scotland, established here. 

The Academy is a large and commodious building, 
in a healthy situation. Here all the branches of use- 
ful education are taught, as also the Languages, and 
higher accomplishments of Polite Literature. It has 
proved a very fertile nursery for the Universities. 
There is a Charity School for the education of the 
poor, with several Sunday Schools, and other chari- 
table and benevolent institutions. 

An institution on the principal of the Mechanics' 
Institution of Glasgow, was formed in 1825. It con- 
sists now of nearly 200 members,- — is conducted by 
a Preses, Vice-preses, Secretary, Treasurer, and Six 
Directors ; their Library consists already of 500 vo- 
lumes, and some experimental apparatus. 

Besides a monthly Lecture delivered by rotation by 
a few of the members, a Course of Lectures is pro- 
vided for from the Funds of the Institution, annually. 

An excellent Fublic Library, by Subscription, was 
instituted in 17^/, which contains about 3000 well se- 
lected volumes. 

The Town Hall, built in the year 1805, is a hand- 
some edifice, containing the Court Rooms and Public 



233 

Offices. The Justice of Peace Court is held every 
alternate Monday, and the Magistrates hold a Court 
every week. An elegant Public Reading Room was 
built by Subscription in 1814, near the centre of the 
Town, which is well supplied with the daily London, 
Edinburgh, and Provincial Newspapers, Periodicals^ 
&c. — it is well lighted with gas, and is a place of ge- 
neral resort. The Merchant Society, which has for 
its object to provide for decayed members, has lately 
built a very elegant Inn and Hotel, (The George), 
which is one of the principal ornaments of the Town. 
This, and several other respectable Inns, are well 
frequented, as Kilmarnock is the great thoroughfare 
from Glasgow to Ireland, as also to England by Dum- 
fries and Carlisle, 

About half a mile north-east of the Town, stands 
the ancient edifice of Dean Castle, formerly the resi- 
dence of the noble, but unfortunate family of Kilmar- 
nock, It was destroyed by fire in 1735, and remains 
a monument of fallen grandeur and magnificence. In 
the south-west of the Town stands an old building, 
called Kilmarnock House, once occupied by the noble 
family of Glencairn, with its pleasure grounds in a 
very neglected state, — though they still form one of 
the most delightful walks near the Town. The 
house is now occupied as a dwelling-house and sew- 
ing school. 

The Duke of Portland is the principal proprietor, 
and takes the lead in the improvements of the Town. 
Soulis' Cross which gives name to a quarter of the 
Town, is a stone pillar 8 or 9 feet high, erected to 
the memory of Lord Soulis, an English nobleman who 



234 

was killed on this spot in the year 1444, by one of 
the Kilmarnock family. 

An excellent Observatory has been constructed and 
fitted up by Mr Thomas Morton, an extraordinary 
self-Instructed artist, who has been of great utility in 
promoting the improvement of the Carpet Manufac* 
ture. 

A <£as Company was formed in 1823, under a well 
regulated system of management, by a committee of 
12, and a sub-committee of 4. The shops and streets 
are lighted by Gas, as well as most of the public es- 
tablishments. 

The weekly Market-day is Friday, and annual 
Fairs are held in February, (Fasten's Eve), on the 
first Tuesday of May, O. S., the third Wednesday in 
July, O. S., and the third Wednesday of October, 
O. Si To these may be added, the first Friday after 
the Terms of Whitsunday and Martinmas, which get 
the name of J)iids-day Friday, from servants purcha- 
sing their necessary apparel, &c. on these days. 
These Fairs, as well as the weekly Markets, are nu- 
merously attended, as Kilmarnock is the centre of the 
most highly cultivated and populous part of Ayrshire. 

The Population of the Town and Parish in 177^» 
by Dr Webster, was 4403. J3y the Census of 1791, 
677&. — 1801, 8079.— In 1811, it was 10,148, and in 
1 821 , 1 3,769. It is now ( 1 827) calculated to amount 
to 18,000. 



KIRKCALDY. 



Kirkcaldy is a Royal Burgh, and Sea-port, in the 
parish of that name, and County of Fife. The Town 
consists of one principal Street upwards of a mile in 
length, and stretching along the foot of a bank, from 
south to north, with a few parallel and cross streets, 
diverging from either side of the main street. 

It lies on the north side of the Firth of Forth, close 
upon the beach ; the road to Dundee, Perth, &c. pas- 
ses through it. Kirkcaldy is three miles east of 
Kinghorn, thirty-one miles south from Dundee, and 
thirteen miles north from Edinburgh. The street is 
very irregular and crooked ; in some places it is of 
a good width, and in others very narrow — the houses 
in general mean, and built without regard to regulari- 
ty. It contains, however, some good houses ; and 
many new and elegant houses have recently been 
built, in which, uniformity of plan has been attended 
to, particularly in the new laid down streets ; and 
many judicious improvements have been made on the 
>ld parts of the Town. 

The Parish Church, situated on the rising ground 
at the back of the Town, was built in 1S07, after a 
design by the late Mr Elliot, having the ancient stee- 



236 

pie of a former church attached to it. The Town 
House and Jail, which formerly projected considera- 
bly upon the Street, was, in 1825, pulled down to re- 
move the obstruction, and an elegant building, with a 
handsome spire, has been since erected, after a design 
by Mr Angus, Artchitect, Edinburgh, containing thir- 
teen Prison Rooms, besides ample accommodation 
for Courts, public business, &c. with airing ground 
and other conveniences. This building cost about 
£5,000, of which upwards of £600, was subscribed 
by individuals, and the remainder paid from the cor- 
poration funds of the Burgh. 

There is an elegant Coffee -Room, and News-Room. 
A Subscription Library was formed in 1800, which now 
contains some thousand volumes, in general well se- 
lected. In 1818, a building was erected by subscrip- 
tion, containing Assembly-rooms, Library-room, &c. 
In 1825, a Market-place, with Granaries above, was 
erected for the sale of Corn in Stock, on Saturdays, 
weekly, which is well attended, and considerable 
business done. There are several Charitable Esta- 
blishments, Sunday Schools, Benevolent Societies, 
&c. Kirkcaldy being a principal thoroughfare, it 
contains several good Inns, affording every accommo- 
dation to the traveller. 

Besides the Parish Church, there are Meeting 
Houses in connexion with the United Secession, Ori- 
ginal Burghers, Relief, Baptists, an Episcopal Chapel, 
and a Tabernacle. 

The Town is governed by a Provost, two Bailies, 
Dean of Guild, Treasurer, and a Council of twenty- 
one Members, of whom ten are Mariners, eight Mer- 
chants, and three Craftsmen, It joins with Dysart, 



237 



Kinghorn, and Burntisland, in returning a Member to 
Parliament. The revenue of the Town, about twen- 
ty years ago, did not exceed £300 per annum, but 
such has been the increase of business, particularly of 
the Shipping at the Port, that the revenue now (1827,) 
amounts to about £1500 per annum. 

The date of the origin of Kirkcaldy as a Town is 
unknown, there being no traces of its history prior to 
the year 1334, when David the Second, made it over 
to the Abbots of Dunfermline, as a Burgh of Regali- 
ty. It continued in their possession till 1450, when 
the commendator and convent disponed to the Bailies 
of Kirkcaldy, and their successors for ever, the Burgh 
and Harbour, with all the Customs, Immunities, and 
Privileges. It appears soon afterwards to have been 
erected into a Royal Burgh, and all its privileges 
were ratified and confirmed by a charter from Charles 
the First in 1644, and the Burgh created De Novo, 
into a free Royal Burgh, and free Port, with new and 
enlarged immunities. 

Kirkcaldy took an active part in the civil wars of 
this period, and in consequence thereof, the Town 
was nearly ruined. In the year 1673, the Shipping 
belonging to the Port, was reduced from a hundred 
sail, to twenty-five ; and nine years after this, the 
Town applied for relief to the Convention of Royal 
Burghs. 

The trade of the Port again revived after the Re- 
volution ; but the Union with England, which fettered 
the trade of Scotland, with so many restrictions, a- 
gain caused a great decline. So much so, that about 
the middle of last century, two sloops which went as 
passage boats to Leith, constituted the whole Ship- 



238 

ping belonging to the Town. It was not till the year 
1763 # that the trade of the Town began to flourish. 

The Harbour, which is at the north-east end of the 
Town, is safe and commodious, being well sheltered 
from north winds, by the high ground above it. It 
consists of an outer and inner Harbour, and has been 
much improved lately by a judicious extension of the 
eastern pier, and by deepening the interior ; by 
which the Shipping is better accommodated, and the 
depth of water is now about thirteen feet in spring 
tides. There are about fifty square-rigged Vessels 
belonging to the Port, and four Whalers; three 
Smacks about 130 tons each, trade regularly to ILon- 
don, and three of a smaller size to Leith, besides 
small Craft ; Kirkcaldy is one of the Passage Boat 
stations to the Lothians. It is the seat of a Custom- 
House, whose jurisdiction extends along the coast 
from the mouth of the River Leven to the Harbour of 
Aberdour. It carries on a considerable Baltic and 
Dutch trade. The tonnage at present (1827) he* 
longing to the Port is 6,808^-f tons. 

The Manufactures of Kirkcaldy are those of Striped 
Hollands, Tickings, and Checks of all descriptions, 
which are made here to a large amount, and are the 
Staple Manufacture of the place. Some Linen, Stock- 
ings, and Cotton (ioods, are also Manufactured. 
There are several Flax Spinning Mills in the Town 
and vicinity, and extensive Bleachfields. Two Foun- 
dries have been long established here, which turn out 
all kinds of Cast Iron work, equal to any made in the 
country., A Distillery on a large scale is carried on, 
and there are several extensive Breweries. Ship 
building is carried on to a small extent, Rope mak- 



259 

ing, &c. There are two large Tan-works, and three 
Salt Pans constantly at work. There is a Pottery 
which makes white and brown Earthen Ware, Brick 
Works, &c. ; and Coal is wrought in the skirts of the 
Town. 

There is a branch of the Bank of Scotland in Kirk- 
caldy, one of the Commercial Bank of Scotland, one 
of the Glasgow Bank, and one of the National Bank 
of Scotland, — the latter has lately erected a handsome 
House for an Office and Agent's House, upon the site 
of the old Jail, after a design by Mr Hamilton, Ar- 
chitect, Edinhurgh. 

The Parish of Kirkcaldy is about two and a half 
miles long, and one mile broad, — the surface rises 
gradually from the coast to its northern extremity, — 
the soil is in general a fertile black loam. The beau- 
tiful Bay in front of the Town, and the extensive 
pleasure grounds of Dunnikier, the seat of Sir John 
Oswald, in the back ground, the house of Raith, with 
its beautiful ground and Observatory in the distance, 
present a rich scenery in the rear of the Town ; while 
the constant succession of Vessels passing up and 
down the Firth in front of the Town, give animation 
to the delightful prospect. 

This Parish has produced many eminent men — 
Michael Scott of Balwirie, who flourished in the thir- 
teenth century, was so learned in Languages and Phi- 
losophy, that like Friar Bacon, he was esteemed a 
Magician ; wonderful are the stories told of Balwirie, 
even to this day. In the last century, this Parish 
gave birth to three of the most celebrated Scotch- 
men, — Dr J. Drysdale, the well known Patriot and 
Statesmen, the late Mr Oswald of Dunnikier, and 

H II 



240 

Dr Adam Smith, the author of the " Theory of Moral 
Sentiments/' and the « Wealth of Nations," who de- 
serves to be ranked among the foremost of our Philo- 
sophers. It is said that Dr Smith got the first idea 
of the division of labour from observing the Nailers 
at work in the adjoining village of Path-head, who 
were for ages famed for their superior Manufacture of 
nails. The room in which Dr Smith composed his 
immortal work " The Wealth of Nations," is still to 
"be seen, a mark on the wall caused by leaning his 
head against it, while he dictated to his amanuensis, 
was carefully preserved for a number of years, but it 
is now obliterated by the room being repainted. 

The Revenue of the Post Office, Kirkcaldy, is up- 
wards of £2000, per annum. 
Population of the Town and Parish in 1801, was 3247- 

1811, 3747. 

1821, 4452. 

This last number consists of 2064 Males, and 2388 
Females. The Town contains above 4000 of this 
population. 



KINROSS. 



Kinross is an ancient Town, in the parish of Kin^ 
ross, and the County Town of Kinross-shire ; delight- 
full}' situated on a fertile plain, at the west end of Loch 
Leven, on the great north road from Edinburgh. 
It lies 15 miles south from Perth, 13 miles north of 
Inverkeithing, 19 west of Cupar, and 2/ north by 
west of Edinburgh. 

Kinross is rather a straggling Town ; the old part 
is irregular and mean, but of late years the appearance 
of the Town has been much improved by the erection 
of a great number of new houses, built in a good stile ; 
the Streets paved, and a more modern appearance 
given to the whole of the Town. The old Town 
House, or Prison, situated near the middle of the 
Town, is a very old building, and about to be super- 
seded by a new edifice, erecting at the north entrance 
into the Town, on an elegant plan, to contain the 
County Rooms, Sheriff Court Rooms, &c. There 
are three excellent Inns, where the traveller will meet 
with every accommodation. 

Kinross was formerly noted for its cutlery ware, 



242 

and a Manufacture of brown Linen ; both of these 
have gradually given way to the weaving of Cotton 
Goods, carried on here to a considerable extent, by 
the means of agents, for the Glasgow Manufacturers. 

A Sheriff-Court is held here every Tuesday for ex- 
pediting the business of the County, and a Justice of 
Peace Court eveiy first Monday of the month, for de- 
termining causes under the Small Debt Act, and other 
offences. 

Kinross is a place of considerable antiquity, but 
more remarkable for its vicinity to Loch Leven ; this 
is a noble sheet of water, situated at the foot of the 
westernmost of the Lomond Hills ; it is about twelve 
miles in circumference. In this expanse of water 
there are four islands, the largest of which is St Serf, 
on the south east side, containing an area of forty 
acres, on it formerly stood the ancient Priory of Loch 
Leven, dedicated to St Serf, or Servanus, said ^o 
have been founded by Brude, King of the Picts, who 
made a grant of this island to the Culdees. In the 
reign of David the First, this island was bestowed on 
the Clergy of the Church of Rome. Andrew Win- 
ton, author of the Loch Leven Chronicle, who died in 
the reign of James the First, was Prior of this place. 

The Castle of Loch Leven, anciently a royal re- 
sidence, stands on another island in the north-west 
part of the Loch. This island is about two acres in 
extent, and the Castle stands nearly in the middle of 
it, encompassed by a rampart of stone. This Castle, 
according to tradition, was the seat of Congalus, 
son of Dongartus, King of the Picts, who is said to 
have founded it about the year 452. It was granted 
by Robert the Third, to Douglas, Laird of Loch Leven, 



243 

—it was formerly a very strong place, and could ac- 
commodate a numerous garrison. The principal 
part that remains of this building is a square tower, 
which stands upon the northern part of the rampart. 
But the circumstance, however, which renders this 
place conspicuous in Scottish History, is its having 
been the place of confinement of Mary Queen of 
Scots. After the fligh^ of Bothwell, and Mary's 
surrender to her rebellious subjects at Carberry Hill, 
the Scottish Nobles resolved that she should be eon- 
fined during her life, in the Fortress of Loch Leven, 
and they subscribed an order for her commitment. 
The Lords Ruthven and Lindsey, were appointed to 
inform her that they were commanded to put in exe- 
cution the order for her commitment ; they charged 
her women to take from her all her ornaments and 
her royal attire ; a mean dress was put upon her, and 
in this disguise they conveyed her with precipitation 
to the prison appointed for her ; here she was kept 
under the care of the Mother of the Earl of Murray, 
(soon after made Regent of Scotland,) who had been 
married to Douglas of Loch Leven, and who treated 
her with great indignity and barbarity. Mary here 
suffered all the miseries of a rigorous captivity of 
eleven months ; here, too, she was forced to sign the 
resignation of her Crown, to her infant Son, and the 
appointment of Murray as Regent during his minori- 
ty. She was liberated from this captivity by George 
Douglas, her keeper's youngest brother, a youth of 
eighteen years of age, who stole the keys of the Cas- 
tle from his brother, released the royal prisoner, and 
conveyed her from the island to the opposite shore, 
at seven o'clock in the evening of the 2d May 1568, 



244 

where she was received with great joy by some of 
her most zealous adherents A bunch of keys, sup- 
posed to be those of the Castle, which Queen Mary 
threw into the Loch when she made hey escape, 
were found a few years ago, and are now in the Mu- 
seum of the Antiquarian Society of Edinburgh. The 
place where the Queen landed on the south-west 
side of the Loch, is still pointed out by the inhabi- 
tants of Kinross, to the numerous visitors of this in- 
teresting spot. 

Loch Leven abounds with fish, among which are 
Pike, Perch, Char, Eels, and very fine Trouts of a 
peculiar delicacy. The fishing is rented at one hun- 
dred pounds per annum, by a fish-monger in Edin- 
burgh. The other two smaller islands are only of 
note as tending to heighten the picturesque and beau- 
tiful scenery. Around the Castle are some ancient trees, 
whose moss grown trunks announce their antiquity, 
and whose shrivelled tops scarce afford shelter to a 
few solitary crows, now the only tenants of this soli- 
tude. 

Kinross House, in the vicinity of the Town, is a 
large and elegant structure, built in 1685, by the cele* 
brated Architect, Sir William Bruce, for his own re- 
sidence. The neighbourhood of the Town is delight- 
ful ; and besides Kinross House, there are several 
gentlemen's seats on the borders of the Loch, remark* 
able for the beauty of their situation. 

The Parish of Kinross is nearly 3| miles long from 
north to south, and nearly the same at its greatest 
breadth. Lime Stone and Coal are found, but none 
further north than Kinross ; and Iron Stone is found 
jn the County. The surface is flat, and the soil is 



245 

chiefly a rich loam on a bottom of gravel. It is wa- 
tered by three small streams, the north and south 
Quiech, and the Gairney, which empty themselves 
into the Loch. Agriculture, in this district, is in a 
great degree of forwardness, and the County is in a 
high state of improvement. 

Besides the Parish Church, there is a meeting 
house belonging to the United Associate Synod. Fairs 
are annually held on the third Wednesday in March, 
the first of June, the third Wednesday in July, and on 
the 18th day of October, all old style. 
The Population of the Town and parish, in 

1801, was 2124. 

1811, 2214. 

1821, 2563, 

And of this last number, the Town contains about 
1600. 



LANARK. 



Lanark is a Royal Burgh, in the Parish of that 
name, and the County Town of Lanark-shire. It is 
situated on a gently rising ground, within half a mile 
of the river Clyde, about 650 feet above the level of 
the sea. Lanark is 25 miles south-east of Glasgow, 
15 miles east by south of Hamilton, and 32 miles west 
of Edinburgh. 

The Town contains one principal street, nearly 
half a mile long, bending from the east to north-west, 
and another street parallel to this, called the north Ve- 
nal. The Wellgate is w a handsome street running south 
from the High Street, and the Bloomgate, and Cas- 
tle Street, stretch from the centre of the Town to the 
west, or Castle Hill. The Town is neat, well paved, 
and clean, and contains many good buildings. The 
Parish Church, in the High Street, is a large and ele- 
gant edifice ; the Town Hall and Jail are also in the 
same street. The Grammar School is a commodious 
and well conducted seminary ; there is a Charity 
School, and a Subscription School, for the education 

I I 



248 

of the children of the poor. There is a Relief Cha- 
pel, and a Meeting House belonging to the United 
Secession Church. The Town has several good Inns, 
where the best accommodation is afforded to the tra- 
veller. There is an elegant and well conducted Li- 
brary, and News-room, supported by Subscription. 
A Justice of Peace Court, is held here on the first 
Monday in every month, and Quarter Sessions are 
also held here. This Burgh has the custody of the 
Standard Weights of Scotland. 

Lanark is a Royal Burgh of great antiquity, and 
appears to have been very early a place of eminence, 
for here, Kenneth the Second, who died in 863, held 
the first Assembly or Parliament, mentioned in Scot- 
tish History. It received a charter from Alexander the 
First, which with subsequent ones, from Robert the 
Bruce, and James the Fifth, were finally ratified by 
Charles the First, on the 20th February 1632. The 
Castle of Lanark, was situated on an eminence to the 
west of the Town, where the Bowling Green now is, 
and was a place of strength, having sustained several 
sieges in the wars with England. It was burnt down 
in the year 1244, and no vestige of it now remains. 

The Town is governed by a Provost, two Bailies, 
a Dean of Guild, thirteen Merchant Councillors, and 
the seven Deacons of the incorporated trades. It 
joins with Linlithgow, Selkirk, and Peebles, in re- 
turning a Member to Parliament. There was a Mo- 
nastery of Franciscans, or Grey Friars, founded by 
King Robert the Bruce in 1314* and an hospital, de- 
dicated to Saint Leonard — the lands belonging to which 
are now the property of the Burgh. A little to the 
east of the Town are the ruins of a very ancient church. 



Lanark is also remarkable, as being the scene of 
the first great military exploit of the celebrated Wi^ 
liam Wallace ■ that Patriot having here commenced 
his glorious career, by the defeat and death of William 
de Hesilrig, or Hesilope, the English Sheriff of La- 
narkshire. Wallace had married a lady of the name 
of Bradfoot, the heiress of Lamington, and lived with 
her in privacy, in the Town of Lanark ; while here, 
he with a few friends, had a fray with a party of Eng- 
lish, when Wallace was overpowered, and fled to 
Cartlane Craigs ;- on this the Sheriff seized his lady, 
and put her to death. To revenge her death, it is 
said, that Wallace having collected his friends, at- 
tacked the Sheriff in the night, killing him with 24Q 
Englishmen. 

The chief trade of Lanark is the making of Shoes, 
a few Stockings are also made ; but the Cotton ma- 
nufacture employs the bulk of the population. Wil- 
liam Lithgow, the celebrated traveller, was born, 
died, and buried in this Parish. The scenery around 
Lanark is particularly interesting ; the banks on both 
sides of the Clyde, are precipitous and rocky, beau- 
tifully wooded, and the romantic scenery at the ce- 
lebrated " Falls of Clyde," are visited and admired 
by all travellers. 

About a mile south of Old Lanark, in a deep valley, 
on the northern bank of the Clyde, is situated the 
beautiful Village of New Lanark. This village was 
begun in 1785, for the accommodation of the work 
people, employed at the Cotton Mills here, erected 
by the late David Dale, Esq. of Glasgow. This 
spot was almost a morass, when feued by Mr Dale, 
from the late Lord Brax field, and had no other re- 



250 

commendation, than the very powerful command 
of the water of the Clyde. A subterraneous 
passage through a rocky hill of nearly 100 feet, is 
the means of affording abundance of fall, and an 
almost unlimited command of water, for driving Ma- 
chinery. These Mills are the most extensive Cotton 
Spinning Mills in the island ; there are four Spinning 
Mills, each 130 feet long, the whole Machinery of 
which is driven by the water, conveyed by the same 
aqueduct ; the other requisite buildings are many, and 
form a large assemblage of stately edifices. The 
village is regularly built according to a plan, is neat, 
and the greatest attention paid to the streets, &c. 
being clean, by the constant employment of two scaven- 
gers. There is a large washing house, and bleach- 
ing green, for the use of the community. The great- 
est attention is paid to the morals of the children and 
others employed at these works ; there is a public 
day-school for those who can attend, and an evening 
school for those who are employed during the day, and 
all are taught gratis. The village of New Lanark, 
with its lofty mills, and their busy inhabitants, with the 
wild and woody scenery around, arrests the attention 
of every stranger. 

"We cannot do better than give a summary of the 
remarks of a deputation sent from Leeds in 1819, to 
inspect Mr Owen's establishment at New Lanark, 
and who speak of it in the highest terms of commen- 
dation. 

" New Lanark, (they say,) consists of a population 
of 2293 individuals, of which 483 are children under 
ten years of age ; these are all in schools, learning 
reading, writing, accounts, music, and dancing. The 



251 

next class of the population comprises the boys and 
girls between ten and seventeen years of age. These 
are regular in business, and mild and engaging in their 
manners. The adult inhabitants of New Lanark are 
clean, healthy, and sober. Intoxication, the parent 
of so many vices, and of so much misery, is almost 
unknown ; the consequence of which is, that they are 
all well clad, and well fed, and their dwellings are 
clean and inviting ; and in this well regulated colony, 
where almost every thing is made, wanted by either 
the manufactory ox its inhabitants, no cursing or 
swearing is any where to be heard. There are no 
quarrelsome men, nor brawling women." 

The parish of Lanark is between 4 and 5 miles in 
length, stretching along the northern bank of the 
Clyde, and about three in breadth. The greatest 
part is flat and capable of culture, but in the vicinity 
of Lanark, extremely undulated into ridges and hal- 
lows. For more than three miles along the Clyde, 
the banks are high, precipitous, and rocky, fringed 
with natural wood, and forming, with the falls of the 
river, the most picturesque scenery. The arable soil 
is various, partly light, and partly clay loam, on va- 
rious bottoms. Coal, Lime-stone, and Free-stone, 
are every where to be found. 

A description of the " Falls of the Clyde*' is not 
our province, they have often been powerfully deli- 
neated, — suffice it to say here, that the Clyde, as a 
commercial river, is the first in Scotland, and yields 
to none in beautiful views and picturesque scenery ; 
among the majestic and romantic, must always be 
included the Falls of Bonyton, Stonebyres, and Corra 
Linn, in the neighbourhood of Lanark. From the 



252 

most remote corners of the kingdom, stranger^ daily 
arrive to gratify their curiosity, in viewing these 
charming scenes, and will doubtless continue to do 
so, while a taste for all that is beautiful and grand 
prevails in Britain. 

The weekly Market-day is Tuesday, and it has 
nine annual Fairs, viz. on the last Tuesday of Febru- 
ry, the last Wednesday of April, the last Wednesday 
of May O. S. the first and second Tuesday in June, 
the last Wednesday in July O. S. the last Friday in 
August O. S. the fourth Friday in October, the first 
Wednesday in November O. S. and the last Tuesday 
in December. There is a branch of the Commercial 
Bank of Scotland established in Lanark. Lanark is 
the seat of a Presbytery. 
Population of the Town and Parish, including 
New Lanark, 1 81 1 ,-^-5667 

1S21,— 7085. 



LEITH. 



Leith is a large Town, in the County of Edinburgh, 
anciently called Inverleith, and the Sea-Port of Edin- 
burgh. It is about two miles north-east of the Me- 
tropolis, on the banks of the Water of Leith, at its con- 
fluence, with the Firth of Forth, which forms the Har- 
bour, and divides the Town into the two districts of 
North and South Leith. Although the distance from 
Edinburgh is two miles, yet the splendid road to it, 
on both sides, is so much covered with elegant Build- 
ings, that it appears rather an extensive street, than 
the road to the Port. 

The old streets in Leith are narrow and confined, 
and the houses inconvenient, but on the Shore there 
are now many elegant Buildings, though the street is 
inconveniently narrow for the traffic now carried on. 

The two districts of North and South Leith are 
joined by two elegant Draw Bridges across the Har- 
bour, one built in I788, and the other in 1800 ; and a 
Bridge to the West of the Harbour forms a junction 
with the new Streets and Buildings of North Leith, 
the Docks, and with Leith Walk. 

Within the last fifty years, Leith has made rapid 
improvements in its Buildings and Trade, — from a 
place of comparatively small consequence it has arisen 



254 

to be a Port of the first rank for Foreign Commerce 
and domestic Trade. The ancient parts of the Town 
have been nearly renovated, and a number of elegant 
edifices, public and private, have been built within 
this period. 

We can only mention briefly the most eminent of 
the Public buildings, stating, that in general, Leith 
contains many new, elegant and handsome dwellings, 
and that what is new, will stand a comparison with 
any similar modern structures. 

The Exchange Buildings, one of the largest Public 
edifices in Leith, are a very handsome suit of build- 
ings, containing an elegant Coffee-Room, Assembly 
Rooms, Sale Room, Subscription Library, and Hotel ; 
these buildings are three stories high, ornamented in 
front by four Ionic columns — the stile of Architec- 
ture is Grecian. 

The Assembly Rooms are lofty and spacious, splen- 
didly fitted up, and have seven beautiful lustres, illu- 
minated with Oil Gas. The Coffee-Room is also in 
the first stile of elegance. The Custom-House and 
Excise Office is a large and handsome building, erec- 
ted in 1812, at an expense of 12 to 13,000 Pounds, 
and stands on the North side of the Harbour. The 
Trinity House in the Kirkgate was built in 181 7, and. 
is a very handsome building in the Grecian stile, 
built upon the site of the old Trinity House, erected 
in 1555. The expense of this edifice was £2500. 
Nearly opposite to this building stands King James's 
Hospital, founded by the Kirk-Session of Leith in 
1648, for the reception of aged women. 

The Grammar or High School, which stands in an 
airy and healthy spot, in the south-west part of the 



255 

Links, was built by subscription in 1805. It is a 
neat building surmounted with a small spire and Clock; 
tHe Class Rooms are large and commodious ; and the 
different classes are taught by able masters. 

The Old Church of North Leith was founded in 
1493, by Robert Ballantine, Abbot of Holy rood House, 
and William, Archbishop of St Andrews. This ve- 
nerable fabric was, in 1826, converted into a Granary, 
after having been dedicated to the purpose of Reli- 
gion for upwards of 330 years ! A new and elegant 
Church for North Leith was founded in 1814, after a 
design by Mr William Burns. It is in the Grecian stile 
of Architecture, a large and beautiful fabric, with a fine 
portico, supported by columns, surmounted by a hand- 
some Spire 158 feet high, and a Clock,— it contains 
2000 Persons, and cost £12,000. 

South Leith Chureh was founded in 1496, built in 
the Gothic stile, with a 'Steeple and Clock. It was 
anciently called St Mary's Chapel, and the Steeple 
was added to it in the year 1674, — tradition says that 
Cromwell used it as a stable for his horses. A con- 
venient Chapel of Ease was erected in 177^j which 
accommodates 1500 people. There Is a very neat 
Episcopalian Chapel, erected in 1816, called St 
James's, in Constitution Street. Besides these 
Churches, there are several neat Meeting-houses be- 
longing to the United Secession Church, I Methodist, 
1 Relief, and 1 Independent Chapel. 

The New Jail was built in 1826, on the site of the 
Old Jail, in the Tolbooth Wynd— it is in the Saxon 
stile of Architecture. The Old Jail, now taken down, 
was the original, or first Jail erected in Leith, and was 
built inthe year 1556, in the reign ot Queen Mary, 

K K 



256 

who, on the application of the inhabitants, granted 
them liberty to build a Jail. An elegant suit of Baths 
were erected at Seafield, a little to the east of the 
Town, in 1813, at an expense of £8000. This ele- 
gant building has fronts to the north and west, with 
a handsome porch. It contains on the under floor, 
Hot, Tepid, Cold, Pump and Shower Baths, seven- 
teen in all ; besides a large Plunge Bath, — the rest 
of the building is occupied as a Hotel. 

To mention all the public buildings, and others de- 
serving of notice in Leith, would carry us beyond the 
limits of our plan ; these details are to be found in a 
recent work, " Mr Campbell's History of Leith ;" 
a work of great merit, wherein the particulars are to 
be found which we cannot give. Few Towns in Scot- 
land can exhibit a greater number of ancient buildings 
than Leith, or of houses, in whose history are involv- 
ed a greater number of Antiquarian notices. In all 
the struggles for civil and religious liberty, Leith 
has borne a prominent part, from the earliest history 
of the Town. In 1329, Robert the First made over 
the Harbour and Mills of Leith, to the citizens of 
Edinburgh, for the yearly payment of fifty-two merks ; 
at this period the adjacent grounds belonged to Lo- 
gan of Restalrig ; and in 1398, the Town Council of 
Edinburgh, were obliged to purchase these grounds 
from Logan, at an exorbitant price, for their own ac- 
commodation. It appears that the Town Council of 
Edinburgh employed every means to destroy t\e 
trade of Leith ; they purchased the exclusive privilege 
of carrying on every species of traffic in the Town, of 
keeping warehouses for the reception of merchandize, 
and of keeping Inns for the entertainment of stran- 



257 

gers. The Magistrates of Edinburgh, their superi- 
ors, even went so far, in 1485, as to prohibit, under 
severe penalties, the taking of a Leither into partner- 
ship ; and that none of the revenues of Edinburgh 
should be farmed by an inhabitant of Leith. 

To relieve themselves from these oppressions, the 
inhabitants of Leith, purchased from Logan for £3000 
scotch, the superiority of their Town, and it was e 
rected into a free Burgh of Barony, by Mary of Lor- 
raine, who promised to erect it into a Royal Burgh ; 
this however was never done ; and her daughter, 
Queen Mary, in violation of the rights of the people 
of Leith, sold the superiority of the Burgh to the 
Town Council of Edinburgh ; to whom it has since 
been confirmed by the grants of successive sovereigns. 
About this time, the inhabitants of Leith were di- 
vided into four classes, viz. Mariners, Maltmen, 
Trades, and Traffickers ; who were erected into Cor-, 
porations by the same charter ; of the Incorporations, 
the Mariners are first ; the second class are Maltsters 
and Brewers ; the third class consists of Hammer- 
men, Wrights and Masons, Baxters, Tailors, Cor-! 
diners, Weavers, Fleshers, Coopers, and Barbers ; 
the fourth class are Merchants. These classifications 
continue to this day. 

The most ancient record in which Leith is named, 
is in a charter of foundation of the Abbey of Holy- 
rood, in the year 1128, by David the First, where 
Leith was granted, with other places, for the support 
of that Abbey. In 1467, i n the reign of James the 
Third, Leith had become a place of considerable note, 
and Ship building was then earned on. During the 

reign of James the Fourth, in the year 151 1, an ejs:^ 

• 



258 

traordinary Ship of War was built at Leith, of di- 
mensions so great, says an old chronicle, as to ex* 
haust all the woods in Fife ! 

It appears that the Town and Shipping of Leith 
were burnt in 1313, in 1410, and in 1522. In 1544, 
Henry the Eighth sent an army into Scotland, who 
burnt the Town of Leith, and the Abbey of Holy- 
rood-house, when a captain, under the Earl of Hert- 
ford, carried off the Brazen Font from that Chapel, 
arrogantly dedicating it in his own name, to the 
Church of St Albans in Hertfordshire. Leith was 
again burnt in 1547, with all the Shipping belonging 
to the Town. 

Leith sustained a severe siege in 1 559-60, by the 
French, during the regency of Mary of Lorraine. 
Mary Queen of Scots landed at Leith, from France, 
on the 20th August 1561, James the Sixth, with his 
young Queen, landed here from Denmark in 1590. 
A plague desolated Leith, in the year 1580, and the 
same pestilence carried off 3000, or nearly three- 
fourths of the inhabitants, between the months of A- 
pril and December 1645. The Town was laid under 
contribution by Cromwell in 1650, and here he built 
fortifications and established a powerful garrison. 
At this period many wealthy English families settled 
in Leith. 

Amongst the memorabilia of Leith, we must not 
omit the landing of His Majesty George the Fourth, 
on the 15th August 1822, a period that will long be 
remembered by the inhabitants of Leith ; the prepara- 
tions for this august ceremony, were conducted with 
al 1 the shew and magnificence which the occasion de- 
manded, and which the people, at all times remarka* 
ble for loyalty, could exhibit. 



259 

The Harbour of Leith has nine feet water at neap-, 
and sixteen feet at spring tides, but the Roads, which 
lie about a mile from the mouth of the Harbour, af- 
ford excellent anchoring ground for ships of any size. 
In the beginning of the last century, the Town Coun- 
cil of Edinburgh improved the Harbour at a great ex- 
pense, by carrying out a stone Pier a considerable 
way into the sea, at the extremity of which is a light 
house, and their is another at Inch Keith, a small is- 
land in the middle of the Firth of Forth, — and in 1777> 
they erected a new Quay on the north side, widening 
and deepening the Harbour at the same time,— -the 
old Harbour has two dry Docks for building and re- 
pairing ships. 

In the year 1799, an Act of Parliament was obtain- 
ed, authorizing the Magistrates to borrow £160,000, 
for the purpose of enabling them to execute part of a 
range of Docks designed by John Rennie, Esquire, 
Civil Engineer. The eastern Wet Dock, next to the 
tide Harbour of Leith, was begun in 1800, and finish- 
ed in 1806. The middle Wet Dock was begun in 
1810, and finished in 1817- Each of these Docks are 
Two Hundred and Fifty yards long, and One Hun-* 
dred yards wide, covering an area equal to ten and a 
fourth English Acres, and sufficient to contain 150 
vessels of the ordinary classes which frequent the 
Port. On the north side of these, are three graving 
Docks, each 136 feet long, and 45 wide at the bottom, 
and 150 feet long, by 70 wide at the top, the width of 
the entrance is 36 feet. 

The two Wet Docks cost about £175,000, the three 
Dry Docks, £18,000, the Draw Bridges, £11,000 
odds ; and the ground occupied by the Docke and 



260 

Warehouses, £80,500, making a total of £285,000, 
exclusive of £8,000, the expense of the Bridge over 
the water of Leith. The proposed Dock, to the west 
of those already finished, is to be 500 yards long, by 
100 wide, extending to the deep and spacious tide 
Harbour of Newhaven. This however, with the ex- 
tensive improvements on the Pier and Harbour, &c. 
are for the present suspended ; the cost of these im- 
provements is estimated at above £300,000. 

The Shipping interest of Leith is very great, — an 
extensive Foreign Trade is carried on with Russia, 
Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Hamburgh, Holland, 
France, and Spain ; the Ports of the Mediterranean, 
the West Indies, America, and Van Dieman's Land. 
Several Vessels are employed in the Whale Fishery, 
and the Trade is very extensive. The number of 
Vessels, Foreign and Coasters, arriving at the Port 
of Leith in 1826, was 3628, and the sailings for the 
same year, 2056. The Shore dues in 1826, were up* 
wards of £12,000. There are a number of Shipping 
Companies. The London Trade alone, employs 21 
Smacks, which sail regularly at stated periods, three 
times a-week, besides four Steam Vessels in the same 
trade, which sail twice a-week, during the summer 
season, — all these vessels are commodiously and e- 
legantly fitted up for passengers, and afford a facility 
of communication between the two Capitals of the Is- 
land hitherto unknown. There is also a Liverpool, 
Hull, Hamburgh, &c. Shipping Companies ; and ves- 
sels employed by various other Companies, in the 
coasting trade with all parts of Scotland. An Aus- 
tralian Company was formed in 1822, who have four 
vessels of about 400 tons each, employed in conveying 



261 

Goods and Passengers to New South Wales, and 
Van Dieman's Land. 

Ship Building, Sail Cloth Manufactories, Rope 
Making, &c. are carried on on a great scale ; and 
there are several Saw-Mills, on the Water of Leith. 

The Ferry to the opposite coast of Fife, employs 
a number of Sailing and Steam Boats. There are 
seven Glass Houses which make Bottles, and Crown 
Glass, and one where Crystal only is Manufactured 
and Cut. Bottles have been made here since the year 
1/07. There is also Soap Works, Candle Works, 
Distilleries, Breweries, Iron Foundries, a Card Ma- 
nufactory, and many other domestic Manufactures. 
Printing is also carried on. 

There is a " Leith Bank," built in 1805 ; previous 
to this date, there was only a branch of the British 
Linen Company Bank ; but from the increase of trade, 
these establishments have grown with the prosperity 
of the Port, so that now (1827,) there are five Bank- 
ing Establishments, viz. the Leith Bank, and branches 
of the British Linen Company, the Bank of Scotland, 
the Commercial Bank, and the National Bank of 
Scotland. — Leith has a Merchant Company, whose 
exertions have been of the greatest advantage to the 
Shipping trade of the Port* There is a Company of 
Solicitors, Insurance Companies, &c. 

Leith is governed by a Baron Bailie with the title 
of Admiral of Leith, appointed by the Magistrates of 
Edinburgh, with three deputies, who have the title of 
resident Bailies, with an Assessor and Town Clerk, 
who hold Courts for the punishment of petty offences. 

Leith was first walled round and fortified in 1549, 
by D'Esse ; these walls which were probably only of 



362 

earth, were demolished in part, in the year 1560, after 
the expulsion of the French, and the remainder about 
the middle of the seventeenth century. The Citadel 
In North Leith was built by Monk, soon after Leith 
had been taken possession of by Cromwell's army. 
It consisted of live bastions of a pentagonal form, with 
a gate to the east ; it was demolished after the re- 
storation of Charles the Second, who bestowed it on 
his favourite Lord Lauderdale, who sold it afterwards 
to the Town Council of Edinburgh for £6000. The 
gate is the only part that remains. 

A bastion is built close by the New Docks, — and 
the Harbour is defended by a Martello Tower rising 
from the Sea, at the Black Rocks, about three-quar- 
ters of a mile from the present Pier, — it was built by 
government at an expense of £17,000. 

On the 16th September 177^, Paul Jones, the noted 
pirate, made his appearance in the Firth of Forth, with 
three Ships only, with the intention of destroying the 
Shipping in the Roads and Harbour of Leith. Provi- 
dence so ordered it, that he was blown out of the 
Firth, without accomplishing his design. Soon after 
this period a Battery of nine Guns was erected to 
the westward of the Citadel, between Leith and 
Newhaven, which has now become the Head Quar- 
ters of the Royal Artillery in North Britain; two 
Companies being here stationed under the command 
of a Field Officer. The Barracks can accommodate 
250 Men, and 150 Horses. 

In many of the old parts of Leith, there are houses 
still inhabited by the lower classes, which appear at 
one time to have been possessed by the Nobles of the 
land. One house bearing the date of 15/9, is proba- 



S63 

My the oldest in Leith, as the whole Town was burnt 
in 1544, by the Earl of Hertford. 

The house where King Charles the Second, lodged 
on the night of his arrival in Leith, when invited hither 
by the Scottish Parliament in 1650, is still inhabited. 
Mary of Lorraine had a dwelling in Leith for some 
time, and Cromwell had lodgings here ; the honour 
of which is claimed by many an antique fabric. A 
handsome old house in the Shirra-Brae, is said to 
have been the residence of the Logans of Rest al rig, 
it bears a stone with the initials I. L. and the date 
1636. Logan having been concerned in the Goury 
conspiracy, his oldest Son, Robert Logan, was cited 
for High Treason, 15th February 1609, and his Fa- 
ther not appearing, (being dead,) his bones were, in- 
compliance with a barbarous custom of that age, 
brought into the Parliament house, condemned for 
High Treason, and the whole Estates of the Logans, 
real and personal, were forfeited, and their posterity 
rendered incapable of succeeding to, or of holding of- 
fices, honours, or possessions. 

Leith possesses many valuable institutions. The 
chief of the charitable establishments is, the Trinity 
House, or Mariner's Hospital, founded in 1555, by 
Mary of Lorraine, Queen Regent of Scotland ; and 
supported by a small poundage on Seamen's wages, 
and on the Tonnage of the Shipping. There is a 
Society for Relief of the Destitute Sick, a Female So- 
ciety for Indigent Sick Women, a Sympathetic Socie- 
ty, Leith Boy's Charity School, Female Charity 
School, several Missionary and Bible Societies, 
Friendly Societies, <&c. There are two public Li- 

L L 



264 

braries, and a Reading Room, a Literary Society, in- 
stituted in 1814, Society of High Constables, &c. &c. 
In 1771» an Act of Parliament was obtained, ap- 
pointing certain persons Commissioners of Police, 
and authorizing a levy of sixpence per pound, upon 
the valued rent of the Town. Since that period vast 
improvements have been made in paving, cleaning* 
and lighting the streets, (ultimately with Oil Gas,) 
removing nuisances, &c. The Town has now an a- 
bundant supply of water. The Police are vigilant, 
and the whole of this department is well conducted, 
and judiciously executed. In 1819, a neat and com- 
modious suit of markets were built, remarkably ele- 
gant and spacious ; they are of an octagonal form, 
having three different entries ; the stalls are around 
the area, neatly fitted up and lighted with Gas. They 
contain Butcher, Fish and Vegetable Markets, all 
connected, and plentifully supplied with every Article 
in Season. 

Newhaven is a Village about a mile west of Leith, 
which of late has been considerably extended ; it is 
much frequented in Summer for Bathing Quarters. 
It has a convenient Pier for the accommodation of the 
Passage Boats to the Fife Coast. 

The elegant Chain Pier at Trinity, immediately to 
the west of Newhaven, was projected and executed 
by Capt. Brown, and is supported by chains suspend- 
ed on wooden piles ; it projects 600 feet into the Sea, 
affording depth of water sufficient for the larger Steam 
Vessels to receive and discharge passengers at all 
times of the tide. 

Population of Leith 1811, was 20,363. 
1821, 26,000. 



LINLITHGOW. 



Linlithgow is a Royal Burgh, in the parish of 
Linlithgow, and the County -town of Linlithgow-shire 
or West Lothian. It is 16 miles west from Edin- 
burgh, 31 miles east of Glasgow, 8 east of Falkirk, 
and 3 miles south of Borrowstounness. 

It is delightfully situated on the nothern slope of a 
hill, on the banks of a Loch, and surrounded with 
hills. The Town consists of one Street, half a mile 
in length, and some bye lanes ; the Street is broad 
and spacious, except, where a little to the west of the 
Cross, it narrows considerably. The Town, till of 
late years, had an old and antiquated appearance ; but 
most of the old houses have been rebuilt, and this 
Town now assumes a more elegant and modern as- 
pect. The Town-house is an elegant building, erect- 
ed in 1668, — it has got an addition in front of seven 
Cast Iron Arches, of neat workmanship, which form 
Piazzas. The public School-rooms are behind this 
edifice. 

Linlithgow is a Burgh of great antiquity, but the 
date of its erection is unknown ; it was constituted one 
of the principal Buroughs in the Kingdom, in the reign 
of David the First ; it has since received many char* 
ters, whiclj were all confirmed by a charter of novs, 



%66 

damus, from James the Fifth, in 1540, by which the 
government of the Burgh is vested in a Provost, four 
Bailies, Dean of Guild, Treasurer, twelve Merchant 
Councillors, and eight Deacons of Crafts ; and joins 
with Selkirk, Peebles, and Lanark, in returning a 
Member to Parliament. The revenue of the Burgh 
is about £/00 per annum. 

Linlithgow is the sixth in rank of the Scottish But 
roughs, and has the custody of the Dry Measures of 
Scotland. This Town was the scene of many remark- 
able transactions in Scottish History, and was for 
many centuries the seat of royalty. The Royal Pa- 
lace qf Linlithgow, stands on the north-side of the 
Town, on an eminence, the site of a Roman Station. 
It is a large quadrangular building, with towers at 
each corner, having a court in the interior, in the cen- 
tre of which was a fine well with jets d'eau, — it over- 
looks the Lake to the north, and was one of the no- 
blest residences of royalty in Scotland. The parks 
and pleasure-grounds are extensive, and yet, contain 
many lofty trees, This Palace contained a large and 
lofty Hall for the Meetings of Parliament, and in the 
front is the Chapel royal. At the north-west corner, 
is the room in which the unfortunate Mary Queen of 
Scots was born, on the 8th day of December 1542 ; 
and adjoining to it is the royal closet. This magni- 
ficent palace was burnt by the royal army in 174(3, on 
their march to the battle of Falkirk. It is now roof- 
less, but exhibits a most majestic appearance, even in 
ruins. It was greatly embellished by James the 
Fifth, and his grandson James the Sixth rebuilt the 
north side of the court. The Earls of Linlithgow 
were heritable keepers of the palace, previous to their 



267 

forfeiture in 1715, at that period, the keeping of the 
palace was given to the family of Hamilton. At the 
south-east corner of the palace, almost adjoining it, 
is the Church, the founder and age of which is un- 
known. It is a noble piece of Gothic Architecture, 
182 (eet long, 100 broad, and 90 feet high, with a fine 
Spire at the west end, ornamented with an imperial 
crown ; it has withstood the ravages of time, and 
most wonderfully escaped the destroying fangs of the 
mob of the reformation, who were satisfied with pul- 
ling down the monuments of idolatry that were on the 
outside of the fabric only ! — It was in St Mary's aisle 
of this church, where James the Fourth, saw an ap- 
parition in the shape of a venerable old man, who 
warned him of his fate at the fatal battle of Flodden. 
The Church is dedicated to St Michael, the patron of 
the Town, and in it is the seat formerly reserved for 
the Kings of Scotland. The west- end of this church 
was once used as a burial-place, but Cromwell re- 
moved the Grave-stones, and made it a stable for his 
dragoon horses. It has been repaired in a stile suit- 
able to the grandeur of the fabric, at an expense of 
£4000. 

Opposite the Town-House, is the Cross Well, 
originally built in 1620, of singular and beautiful ap- 
pearance ; it was rebuilt in 1807, after the ancient 
model. It is of a hexagonal figure, ascended by steps, 
the water descends from the highest part of the foun- 
tain, and is received into a basin, from whence it is 
spouted out of the mouths ol six grotesque figures in- 
to a larger basin, with curiously ornamented sides, 
from this basin it again issues through the mouths of 
six other imaginary beings into another basin, still 



268 

more capacious, which is surrounded by full length 
human figures, male and female, dressed in various 
ancient costumes. Here all the streams concentrate 
themselves, pass unperceived through a pillar, and 
make their final exit through another mouth, in a 
large stream, from which the inhabitants are supplied 
with water. The whole of this Architectural curiosi- 
ty was planned, and the richest parts of the orna- 
ments executed, by a mason of Edinburgh, Robert 
Gray, who had only one hand ! the whole of this ex- 
traordinary structure is crowned by a lion, support- 
ing the royal arms of Scotland. 

Several other fountains of plain masonry, are met 
with in various parts of the Town, insomuch, that 
Linlithgow is famed to a proverb for its Wells. 

Some of the more remarkable occurrences which 
have taken place in Linlithgow, deserve to be men- 
tioned in an account of the Town. In the reign of 
Robert Bruce, one Binnock took the Castle, then held 
by an English Garrison, by introducing a wain of 
Hay, which concealed a number of armed men ; they 
killed the Garrison, and razed the Castle. At Lin- 
lithgow Bridge, a battle was fought between the 
Earls of Arran and Lennox, during the minority of 
James the Fifth. In a house on the south side of the 
street, a little west of the cross, Hamilton of Both- 
well-haugh, shot the Regent Murray, from a balcony 
on the 23d January 15/1 ; and here, the famous so- 
lemn League and Covenant was burnt with great 
formality in 1662, with every mark of dishonour and 
indignity, which the Court party could invent. It 
was also the place where the Scottish Parliament fre- 
quently met. 



269 

The staple trade of Linlithgow, is the Tanning of 
Leather, and Shoemaking, both on a very extensive 
scale. It has a Brewery, and several Distilleries are 
in the neighbourhood. About a mile from the Town 
is a large Printfield, and Bleachfield. 

The Union Canal passes close by the south side of 
the Town ; an extensive Basin of capital mason work, 
affords accommodation to the numerous vessels tra- 
ding on the Canal. 

The Aqueduct Bridge over the river Avon, is un- 
rivalled in the United Kingdom ; it stands upon twelve 
arches, and adds greatly to the interesting scenery in 
the vicinity of Linlithgow. 

Besides the Established Church, there is an Inde- 
pendent meeting house, and two Churches belonging 
to the United Secession. Friday is the weekly mar- 
ket day, and Fairs are held annually, on the first Fri- 
day after the second Tuesday in January, the 25th 
February, third Friday in April, second Thursday in 
June, the second day of August, and first Friday in 
November. 

The population of the Town and Parish by the Census 

of 1801, was 2557. 

1811, 4202. 

1821, 4692. 



MONTROSE. 



Montrose is a Royal Burgh, and Sea-port Town, 
in the County of Angus, or Forfar, seated in a flat 
sandy peninsula, formed by the German Ocean, the 
river south Esk, and a large expanse of water, called 
the Bason. It is 13 miles north of Arbroath, 22 south 
of Stonehaven, 21 east by north of Forfar, S east of 
Brechin, and 94 miles from Edinburgh, on the great 
northern road. 

The Town is neatly built, consisting of a fine spa- 
cious main street, with other streets diverging from 
it. The houses, though not elegant, are in general 
well built and regular. Many houses in the south 
end, or old part of the Town, have their gables to the 
street, in the Flemish style ; but the new erections 
in the streets lately laid out, are in a higher degree 
of elegance and taste. 

The Parish Church is a handsome building, ele- 
gantly finished, 98 feet in front, by 65 feet over walls ; 
but the old steeple to which it is attached, and its 
confined situation, render it inconspicuous. The E- 
piscopal Chapel on the Links, to the eastward of the 
Town is a very neat building, elegantly fitted up, and. 
has a very fine Organ, 

M M 



273 

The Academy is also on the Links, or Downs, and 
is a handsome erection with an elegant dome. The 
Lunatic Asylum was erected in 17/9? in a most eligi- 
ble situation. It is a plain commodious fabric, and 
can boast of being the first institution of this kind in 
Scotland. Since its first erection it has been enlar- 
ged to answer the purposes of an hospital for the in- 
digent sick, and of a dispensary for the relief of out- 
door patients. A large building has been lately e- 
rected on the Downs, by subscription, where there is 
an establishment for the relief of unfortunate sufferers 
by Shipwreck, &e. 

The Town House, in the centre of the principal 
street, is a neat plain building of two stories, with an 
arcade below, and rooms for public business above. 
A public Library was established by subscription in 
the year 1 785. It is conducted on a most liberal plan, 
and now contains many thousand volumes, by the best 
authors. A Mechanic's Library has also been form- 
ed, it already contains a valuable collection. 

The enumeration of the public buildings and esta- 
blishments of the Town, would far exceed our limits. 

Montrose has been long distinguished for the ex- 
cellence of its Academy and public Schools, where 
every branch of liberal education is taught, in a man- 
ner not inferior to any part of the kingdom. These 
schools have attracted notice, not only for the excel- 
lent accommodation of the pupils, but from the high 
character they have acquired, from the mode of con- 
ducting these seminaries, and the eminence of the mas- 
ters. Private establishments are numerous, and af- 
ford the means of acquiring every genteel and mo- 
dern accomplishment. 



273 

Montrose is a Town of much gaiety and splendour ; 
it has its Theatre, Balls, Monthly Assemblies, and va- 
rious other places of amusement ; and has of late, been 
distinguished for its well attended Races. It justly 
deserves to be accounted one of the first provincial 
Towns in the Island, for its size, and not less emi- 
nent for being the residence of persons of opulence 
and fashion, than for the spirit for commerce, and the 
industry of its inhabitants. 

In point of antiquity, Montrose ranks among the 
foremost, as a Royal Burgh. It has enjoyed exten- 
sive municipal privileges for upwards of six hundred 
years, having obtained its first charter from King 
David the First. The Government of the Town 
consists of a Provost, three Bailies, a Dean of Guild 
Treasurer, Hospital Master, Eight Merchant, and 
four Trade's Councillors ; the Councillors are annu- 
ally elected by open poll of the Guildry and Trades. 
The revenue of the Town, arising from Fisheries, 
Shore dues, &c, is about £3000 per annum ; it joins 
with Aberdeen, Aberbrothock, Bervie, and Brechin, 
in returning a Member to Parliament. Montrose gives 
the title of Duke, to the chief of the noble family of 
Graham. This title was first conferred by King 
James the Fourth, on David, Earl of Crawford. 

The Harbour is formed by the mouth of the river 
south Esk, and an arm of the sea ; it is large and 
commodious, affording a safe retreat for vessels in 
tempestuous weather, and the river affords safe ancho- 
rage below the town. Light-houses have been erect- 
ed by voluntary subscription, at a great expense, 
Which are of the utmost utility to the shipping fre- 
quenting this port. The Quays are built on a most 



274 

judicious plan, substantially executed^ and correspond * 
with the great trade of the Port. 

Montrose is a Custom House Port, comprehending 
within its bounds, the coast from the lights of Tay on the 
south, toBervie Brow, or the Tod Head, on the North. 

An extensive wooden Bridge was, in 1/93, thrown 
over the South Esk, taking advantage of the small is- 
land of Inch Brayock, to the westward of the Har- 
bour, which opens up a free communication with the 
south part of the country, and supersedes the Ferry 
Boat hitherto in use, at all times a troublesome and 
precarious passsage. 

The commissioners on this Bridge, are now en- 
deavouring to raise funds for the erection of a Chain 
Bridge of suspension, which, if executed, according to 
the plan proposed, will be one of the most magnificent 
structures in the island. The present Bridge is 800 
feet long, and 33 feet broad, having a stone arch at 
each end, the timber part alone is 411 feet long. 
The river is here very deep, having 35 feet water at 
spring tides, and 20 feet at low water in ordinary 
tides, and so rapid, that during ebb, it runs at the 
rate of six miles an hour. The building of this Bridge 
cost ,£13,000, and leads to an elegant new Street, 
opening into the centre of the Town, obtained by cut- 
ting through a considerable Hill, called Fort Hill, on 
which the ancient Castle of the Constable stood ; 
the Bridge allows a communication with the river 
above, by means of a draw. 

The Shipping trade of Montrose is very considerable ; 
a great number of Vessels are employed in the Baltic 
trade. The coasting trade is extensive, and there 
are four large Vessels employed in the Whale fishery. 



275 

The exportation of pickled Salmon, and the produce 
of the Cod and Ling fishery,, forms a large portion of 
the trade ; but the trade in Corn is by far the most 
important branch of the export trade. The traffic in 
grain, from the port of Montrose, exceeds that of any 
other port in Scotland. 

The Manufactures of the Town, are chiefly those of 
Osnaburghs, Sail Cloth, and coarse Linen, which are 
made here to a great extent. The Tanning of Lea- 
ther, forms a considerable branch of the Manufactures 
of the Town ; there are several extensive Rope-works, 
besides many other Manufactures of less importance. 
The Links, or Downs of Montrose, between the 
Town, and the Sea, are the most extensive of any in 
Scotland, comprehending a circuit of two miles ; this 
large extent of fine smooth surface is well adapted 
for the exercise of the ancient game of golf, (a game 
peculiar to Scotland,) which is here greatly practised ; 
on these Downs also is the race-ground, inferior to 
none in Scotland. 

Exclusive of the Established Church, this Town 
contains an English and a Scotch Episcopal Chapel, 
and Meeting Houses belonging to the Burghers, 
Secession, Baptists, Glassite, United Secession, Con- 
gregationalists, and Methodists. 

The Banking Establishments are, the Montrose 
Bank, Branch Banks of the British Linen Company, 
Dundee Union, and one private Bank. 

The Market day is Friday, and two annual fairs 
are held, on the first Wednesday after Whitsunday, 
and Martinmas, old style. 
Population of the Town and Parish 

in 181 1. 8955. 

1821, ; 10,338. 

The Population of the Town in 1828, was 1 1 ,000 



NAIRN. 



Nairn is a royal Burgh, in the parish of that name, 
and the County-town of Nairn-shire, situated upon 
the coast of the Moray Firth, where the river Nairn 
flows into that arm of the Sea. The Town is plea- 
santly situated on the bank of the river, near the shore, 
and consists chiefly of one neat Street. 

Nairn lies 21 miles north-east of Inverness, 18 
miles west of Elgin, 100 north-west of Aberdeen, 
and 164 miles north of Edinburgh. 

The Town and County Jail, in the centre of the 
Town, is an elegant edifice, containing the County 
Rooms, Court-Rooms, &c. The County-Room is re- 
markably fine, spacious, and elegant, and is frequent- 
ly used for balls and assemblies. The whole struc- 
ture is in an elegant stile of Architecture, built of 
beautiful Free-stone, and surmounted by a very 
handsome spire. The Town is neat and clean, and 
in general the houses are good and substantial ; the 
Harbour though small, is convenient ; and considera- 
ble improvements have of late been made upon H, 



278 

by the erection of a handsome Stone Pier, and other 
additions ; the expense was defrayed by subscription, 
aided by Government. 

At the west end of the Town, a neat monument 
has been erected to the memory of Mr John Straith, 
who was forty years school-master at Nairn, as a tri- 
bute of respect by his numerous scholars. There are 
several benevolent, and other societies of a very re- 
spectable description ; there is a Subscription Library 
and News-Room, the latter of which is open to the 
admission of strangers. 

The date of the erection of Nairn into a Royal 
Burgh is unknown, as the oldest charter in existence 
is one from James the Sixth, dated in 1589, being a 
renewal of one granted by Alexander, probably the 
First of that name, King of Scotland. 

That charter was confirmed by one from Charles 
the Second in 1661, by which the government of the 
Town is vested in seventeen persons, viz. a Provost, 
three Bailies, a Dean of Guild, Treasurer, and 
eleven Councillors, nine of whom to be a quorum. 
The Gentlemen of the County are eligible to any 
of these Offices in the Burgh, except Bailie, Dean 
of Guild, and Treasurer. The whole trades form 
only one Incorporation. Nairn joins with For- 
trose, Inverness, and Forres, in returning a Mem- 
ber to Parliament. The funds of the Town 
were formerly very considerable, but have been 
much delapidated by time. The white fishing 
on the coast is carried on to a considerable extent, 
and employs about 12 or 14 boats ; the Salmon fishing 
in the river is also productive. The Herring Fishery 
bus of late years been prosecuted with great spirit 



279 

and success, and the quantity cured, amounts from 
17 to 18,000 barrels per annum. 

The exports of Nairn consist chiefly of the pro- 
duce of the different Fisheries, and of Fir wood, from 
the extensive woods and plantations of the county. The 
imports are Coal, Lime-stone, and Merchant goods. 

The Town of Nairn has undergone some local chan- 
ges ; it was originally situated about half a mile from 
the spot where it now stands, and was defended by a 
castle ; the ruins of which are now covered by the 
sea, so that only the foundation of it is visible in neap 
tides. This ancient castle was a royal fort in the 
reign of Malcolm the First. 

Nairn formerly gave the title of Baron to the family 
of Nairn, attainted for their concern in the rebellion 
in 1745. 

The weekly Market-day is Friday, and there are an- 
nual Fairs on the 1 8th day of February, on the first 
Tuesday in March, the first Friday in June, on the 26th 
day of July, if on a Wednesday, the first Friday after 
the 28th of September O. S., on the 10th day of Oc- 
tober O. S., and on the first Tuesday after Inverness 
Martinmas Market. 

Besides the Established Church, there is a meeting 
house belonging to the Secession, and an Indepen- 
dent Chapel. 

The Parish of Nairn is eight miles long from north 
to south, and six broad from east to west. Along the 
coast the soil is sandy, and clay on the banks of the 
river Nairn ; and the southern district is a rich heavy 
mould. From the coast of the Moray Firth, the 
ground rises gradually to the south, terminating in the 
hill of Urchany, which is 500 feet above the level of 

N N 



%e ige$. Qd the north side of the hill of 4*eddes, Is 
an old Castle, called Finlay's Cas#e, which bas been 
a place of strength; and on the east side of the same 
hill, are the remains of 4he Castle of .Rait, said to 
have been a residence of the powerful family Of 
Corayn. 

The Populationof the Town and parish, by the Census 

of 1801, was 2215, 

1811, 2504. 

1821,- — 3228. 



PAISLEY. 



Paisley is a large Manufacturing Town, in Ren- 
frewshire, seated on the banks of the river White 
Cart, about three miles above its junetion with the 
river Clyde. 

It was anciently noted for one of the richest Ab- 
bacies in Scotland ; but since the year 17^0, it has ac- 
quired greater celebrity, as being the seat of most ex- 
tensive and flourishing manufactures. Paisley is 7* 
miles west from Glasgow, 16| south-east of Gree- 
nock, 3 south of Renfrew, the County Town, and 51 1 
miles west from Edinburgh, Long. 4° 20* west of 
Greenwich, Lat. 55 52' north. 

This very flourishing Town, distinguished as one 
of the principal seats of Scotch Manufactures, has on- 
ly of late years risen to importance. In the begin- 
ning of the last century it is mentioned in a history of 
Renfrewshire, as an inconsiderable Town, consisting 
of one street about half a mile long, with some bye 
lanes branching from it, with a population less than 
two thousand souls. It is now (1827,) the fourth in 
rank as to population, of the Towns in Scotland. The 



282 

Burgh, or old Town oi Paisley, stands on the west 
bank of the river Cart, and runs in a direction from east 
to west, upon the southern slope of a ridge of hills, affor- 
ding a delightful prospect of the City of Glasgow, and 
the adjacent country. The New Town, consisting ot 
many streets, occupies a level surface on the eastern 
side of the Cart ; it is laid out on a regular plan, and 
contains a great many handsome buildings. To the 
east, west, and north of the Town, are suburbs with 
distinct names, as Williamsburgh, Charleston, Max- 
wellton, &c. 

Besides the Abbey Church, to be afterwards men- 
tioned, Paisley contains four other churches belong- 
ing to the Establishment, viz. the High Church, on 
the Oxshaw Head, a large and elegant fabric, with a 
spire 161 feet high ; from this steeple is a most exten- 
sive prospect of the surrounding country. The Mid- 
dle Church, St George's Church, a new and elegant 
building, and the Geelic Church. It contains also pla- 
ces of worship belonging to the following Dissenters, 
viz. an English Chapel, three Churches of the United 
Secession, two Relief, one Reformed Presbytery, 
three Independent, one original Burgher, one Me- 
thodist, and one Roman Catholic Chapel. 

The Charity House is a large building opposite to 
the Quay, in an open situation, supported by a small 
assessment on the inhabitants. The Castle is an ex- 
tensive public building. It is a large turreted and 
embattled fabric, containing spacious and elegant 
rooms for County and Burgh meetings, Public Offices, 
#c, a County Jail, a Debtor's Jail, a Bridewell, and 
Prison Chapel. The Coffee Room at the Cross, is 
an elegant building ; here also stands the steeple of 



283 

■the former Town House. The public Coffee Room 
is a most elegant apartment, beautifully lighted with 
Gas, amply provided with all the London and Provm* 
cial Newspapers, Magazines, and other periodicals ; 
this elegant room is liberally thrown open to stran- 
gers. 

The Public Buildings and Institutions in Paisley 
can only here be mentioned, as they are too numerous 
to describe. Besides the Town's Hospital, there is a 
House of Recovery, a Grammar School, which is a 
Royal Foundation, four established Schools, Hutchi- 
son's Free School, and four Charity Schools, support- 
ed by Legacies and Subscriptions. There are three 
public Subscription Libraries, one of them entirely 
Theological, a Philosophical Institution, a Mechanic's 
Institution, with an extensive Library, Medical and 
Surgical Societies, a number of Sabbath Schools, a 
Roman Catholic School, several Bible Societies, and 
other benevolentinstitutions. There are many Friend- 
ly Societies, and a Merchant, and an Episcopalian 
benevolent Society. 

Near the centre of the New Town, the Earl of 
Abercorn, built, at his own expense, one of the lar- 
gest and most commodious Inns in the kingdom. 

The Abbey of Paisley, of which the Abbey Church 
and the Aile are almost the only remains, was found- 
ed in the year 1160, by Walter, great Steward of 
Scotland, as a Priory for Monks of the order of 
Clugni. It was afterwards raised to the rank of an 
Abbey, and the lands belonging to it were, by Robert 
the Second, erected into a Regality, under the juris- 
diction of the Abbot. After the Reformation, the 
Abbey was secularized, and in 1588, erected into a 



284 

temporal Lordship, in favour of Lord Claude Hamil- 
ton, third son of the Duke of Chatelherault, who was 
created Lord Paisley. This family is now represent- 
ed by the Marquis of Abercorn, who takes bis second 
title of Baron Paisley from the Townw The build- 
ings of the Abbey were greatly enlarged and beauti- 
fied in 1484, by George Schaw,then Abbot, who sur- 
rounded the whole precincts with a noble wall of 
hewn stone. This wall stood till 1781» when the gar- 
den being feued by the late Earl of Abercorn for build- 
ing upon, the wall was used by the fuers in the con- 
struction of their houses. It had a stone with ,an in- 
scription in uncouth rhyme, stating that it was built 
by Abbot George Schaw, in the year 1484. Part of 
this wall remains, and the stone having the inscrip- 
tion, is preserved in the front of one of the houses in 
Lawn Street. 

The Abbey Church is one of the most interesting 
public structures of which Paisley can boast, and 
what remains of the Abbey shews it to have been a 
magnificent gothic edifice. The Nave exhibits three 
tier of arches in the interior, and is neatly fitted up, 
and serves as the Parochial Church of the Abbey 
Parish, it contains many ancient monuments, and se- 
pulchral inscriptions. The choir is levelled to within 
a few feet of the ground, but the north transept is 
more entire, and exhibits in its large northern win- 
dow, a venerable relic of ancient ecclesiastical magni- 
ficence. It is thus mentioned by Pennant, " The 
great north window is a noble ruin, the arch very lof- 
ty, and the middle pillar wonderfully light and entire, 
only the chancel now remains, which is divided into 
h middle and two side aisles, by very lofty pillars, 



285 

with gothic arches ; above this is another range of 
pillars much larger, being the segment of a circle, and 
above, a row of arched niches from end to end, over 
which the roof terminates in a sharp point. The 
outside of the building is decorated with a profusion 
ot ornaments, especially the great west and north 
doors, than which, scarce any thing lighter or richer 
can be imagined." This church was repaired about 
thirty five years ago. At the south-east corner of 
the church is an Aisle, probably the private oratory 
of the Monks, now the burying place of the family 
of Abercorn ; it is 48 feet long, by 24 broad, and in 
the opinion of Mr Pennant, " is by much the greatest 
curiosity in Paisley ;" this he says in allusion to its re- 
markable echo, which was in his time one of the fin- 
est in the world, and has been noticed by most topo- 
graphers in a stile of enthusiasm. Much of this echo 
is now lost, partly from the rebuilding of a large tomb, 
consecrated to the memory of Margery Bruce, (the 
daughter of King Robert Bruce, wife of Walter, great 
Steward of Scotland, and mother of King Robert the 
Second, from whom descended the royal line of Stew- 
art,) and partly from laying open the brick work 
which filled up the interstices of a beautiful window. 
Near to this monument are the graves of Elizabeth 
Muir, and Euphemia Ross, both consorts of Robert 
the Second. 

The revenues of this Abbey were the richest in 
Scotland, comprehending a great deal of property in 
every part of the Kingdom, besides the tythes of 28 
different parishes. The Chronicon Clugniense, or 
the Black Book of Paisley, so often referred to in 
Scottish History, was a chronicle of public affairs and 



286 

remarkable events, kept by the Monks of this Abbey. 
It is thought to have afforded Fordun the materials 
for his Sjotichronicon, which agrees with it in every 
remarkable particular. 

The Municipal Government of the Town is vested 
in three Bailies, a Treasurer, Town-Clerk, and seven- 
teen Councillors, annually elected. The Bailies are 
ex officio Justices of the Peace. The revenues of the 
Burgh, are about £8000 per annum. 

Paisley enjoys all the privileges of a Royal Burgh, 
except that of parliamentary representation ; the free- 
dom of the Town is more easily procured than in 
Royal Buroughs, which is one great cause of its as- 
tonishing increase and rapid extension. One peculiari- 
ty may be noticed, that the Streets have in general, 
names descriptive of the various Manufactures of the 
Town, as Silk Street, Gauze Street, Cotton Street, 
Lawn Street, &c. 

It received its first charter of erection, from James 
the Fourth, in the year 1488, having at that period 
been erected into a Burgh of Barony, under the su- 
periority of George Schaw, the Abbot of the Monas- 
tery, and his successors. There is a well regulated 
Police Establishment for both old and new Town, 
and many distinguished improvements have lately 
been introduced ; the lighting of the Streets with gas 1 
was effected in 1824, and a more full supply of water 
for the Town, by means of pipes, is in progress. 

The river White Cart, on the banks of which Pais- 
ley is situated, runs from south to north, and falls into 
the Clyde, after joining the rivers Gryfe and Black 
Cart at Inchinnan Bridge, about three miles below 
the Town. From come obstructions in the river, 



287 

which could not be removed, it was found necessary 
to construct a small Canal to obviate these incon- 
veniences. This work was completed in 1/91 , at an 
expense of £4000, and so great has been the advan- 
tages of this Canal, that Vessels of from 40 to 50 
tons burthen can come up to the Town, where there 
are two commodious Quays. The Ardrossan Canal 
passes along the south-side of the Town, and has a 
Basin and Wharfs, it crosses the White Cart, about a 
mile above Paisley, by a beautiful aqueduct Bridge 
of one arch. 

Paisley has been long celebrated, particularly for 
its Manufacture of all kinds of fancy goods, and at 
this period is the acknowledged and unrivalled seat 
of this Manufacture. In delicacy of texture, — variety 
and elegance of pattern, the goods of Paisley, have 
no competitor in the market, and are well known and 
appreciated all over Europe. To enumerate these 
would be to reckon up and to follow all the changes 
of fashion daily taking place, and to describe the ma- 
terials of which these never ending changes are made ; 
suffice it to say, that every conceiveable fabric of Silk, 
Cotton, Wool,&c. and admixtures of these materials, 
are here made in endless variety, and to a boundless 
extent. 

Soon after the Union of the Kingdoms, the trade of 
Paisley began to be considerable, in the Manufacture 
of Bengals, coarse Checks and Handkerchiefs, which 
found a ready market, and were much esteemed in 
England ; at this time the trade was chiefly managed 
by Pedlars. About the year 1760, these articles 
were succeeded by the Manufacture of Muslin, Lawn^ 
Linen, Gauze, and White Thread. About tne sam,e 

o 



288 

period the Silk Manufacture was introduced ; since the 
decline of this last article, about the year 1784, the Cot- 
ton Manufacture has been carried to an extent unknown 
before. The Cotton Spinning Mills are numerous, and 
Weaving by Hand and Power Looms, employs a 
great proportion of the population. The Calico Print- 
ing works, Bleachfields, and Dye-works, are many ? 
and upon a large scale ; there are two large Distil- 
leries, Breweries, Tan-works, Soap, Allum, and Co- 
peras works, &c. &c. 

The inhabitants of Paisley are ingenious, and among 
the working classes, there is a degree of intelligence 
and a taste for literature, seldom met with ; a proof 
of this is the numerous Reading-rooms, and Libraries 
supported by this class, as well as the many institu- 
tions solely adapted to the improvement of Mechanics* — 
and a proof of their ingenuity is to be found in the 
many valuable improvements made upon the Loom 
and its appendages. The annual value of the Manu- 
factures of Paisley have been estimated at one and a 
half millions sterling. 

The country around Paisley is beautifully diversi- 
fied by gentle eminences ; opposite to the Town 
the ground is hilly, one of the heights called 
Stanley -brae, rises to 680 feet above the level of the 
Sea. On the north-side of the Town, the ground is 
remarkably level, having formerly been a morass, but 
now cultivated. Coal, Lime-stone, and Free-stone 
are abundant in the Abbey Parish of Paisley, and 
there are still some remains of the ancient " Forest 
of Paisley." 

There is a great quantity of Printing and Book- 
work carried on in Paisley ; there are two well con- 



389 

ducted Weekly Newspapers, the Paisley Advertiser, 
and the Renfrewshire Chronicle, and lately, small 
periodicals have been printed and issued in shoals 
from the Paisley Press. Wilson, the celebrated 
American Ornithologist, and Tannahill, the Lyric 
Poet, were natives of Paisley. There are two Bank- 
ing Companies in the Town, viz. the Paisley Banking 
Company, and Paisley Union Banking Company, and 
a branch of the Commercial Bank of Scotland. The 
weekly market-day is Thursday, and annual fairs are 
held on the third Thursday in February and May, 
on the second Thursday in August and November. 
St James's Fair of Paisley is the greatest of these 
Fairs, and each of them is held for three days succes- 
sively. 

Perhaps no Town in the kingdom has made such 

a rapid increase in the number of its inhabitants as 

Paisley, within the same period. 

The population of the Town, and the Abbey parish, 

in 1755, is stated to have been 4290, 

1792, 24,592, 

1801, by the Census.. .31,179, 

1811 do 36,722, 

1821, do 47,006, 

And now, 1827, ^ ma y fairly be stated at .50,000, 



PEEBLES. 



Peebles is an ancient Royal Burough, and the Coun- 
ty Town of Peebles-shire, delightfully situated on a fine 
plain on the northern bank of the river Tweed, over 
which is an ancient Stone Bridge of five arches, suppos- 
ed to have been built in the reign of Malcolm Canmore 
A little to the west of this Bridge, the Tweed is join- 
ed by the Eddlestone or Peebles Water, from the 
north, (over which there is also a bridge,) which di- 
vides the Old, from the New Town. 

Peebles lies 22 miles south of Edinburgh, 6 west 
of Innerleithen, 2"] east from Lanark, 50 east from 
Glasgow, and 54 miles north from Dumfries. 

The Town consists of one principal Street, and the 
Northgate. The public buildings are handsome 
structures, and elegant beyond what is often met with 
in small towns ; indeed, the whole of the houses in 
Peebles, are neat, commodious, and well built. Some 
of the public buildings deserve notice. The Church 
erected in the year 1782, on the site of the old Cas- 
tle, stands on an eminence at the west end of the 
High Street, it is built of hewn stone, and has a lof- 
ty Spire. The Town Hall contains commodious a- 
pavtments for the Sheriff Court, County Meetings, 
&c. The Tontine is a handsome buildins; of modern 



292 

date, and has~ a spacious Assembly Room, fitted up 
with great taste. 

The Jail, Mason's Lodge, two meeting houses 
belonging to the Secession Church, and the Grammar 
Schools, are likewise handsome buildings, the latter, 
facing a large green, which is common to the inhabi- 
tants, and affords an excellent play ground. 

Of the ancient buildings of Peebles, there remains 
the ruins of the Church of St Mary, with its steeple 
entire, standing in the centre of the Church-yard, and 
the ruins of Cross-Kirk, built by Alexander the Third, 
in 1257, dedicated to the Holy Cross, and Saint Ni- 
cholas ; the steeple of this church is also entire. Alex- 
ander built a house contiguous to this church, for him- 
self, which continued for ages to be a royal residence. 
It was here the Poem of " Peebles to the Play" was 
written, in which is described, many of the diversions 
and festivals of the times, by James the First. 

The approach to Peebles from the north, is by the 
street called the Northgate, leading into the High 
Street, which lies at an angle turning to the west. 
Eddlestone water, leaving its southerly course, winds 
to the west before it joins the Tweed. This river 
runs along the south side of the Town on the east, 
and its junction with the Tweed, forms an angular 
point of land, which is the termination of the New 
Town to the west. This peninsula is laid out in or- 
namental grounds, and a large bowling green ; here 
stands the Parish Church, Jail, and Town Mills. 
The High Street runs to the east from this point, which 
is very spacious, clean, and tastefully paved. 

The Old Town is also situated on the northern 
bank of the Tweed, divided from the new Town by 



293 

Eddlestone water. It was a royal residence, from the 
time of Alexander the Third, in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, down to the accession of James VI. to the throne 
of England. 

Peebles-shire is a pastoral County, but the Haughs 
on the banks of the Tweed, and Peebles water are 
rich and fertile ; the Town is situated in the centre of 
the Parish, on a large and beautiful plain, almost sur- 
rounded by hills, forming an extensive amphitheatre. 
At a short distance from the Town, is Nidpath Cas- 
tle, the property of the Earl of Wemyss and March ; 
and the romantic ruins of Horsburgh Castle, stand a 
few miles below the Town. 

In the more immediate neighbourhood of Peebles, 
are the elegant modern mansions and extensive plan- 
tations of King's Meadows, Hay Lodge, the beauti- 
ful villa of Alexander Campbell Esq. Kerfield, Ven- 
law, Rosetta, Minden, and Langside. 

Sir John Hay Bart, of Smithfield and Hayston, is 
the principal proprietor in the parish. A few years 
ago, Sir John erected an elegant Wire Bridge over 
the Tweed, in a most romantic Glen, about a mile 
below the Town, which facilitates the communication 
with his estate, lying on both sides of the river, and 
is at the same time, a much admired ornament to the 
grounds. 

There is no charter extant, by which the date of 
the erection of Peebles into a Royal Burgh can be 
ascertained, but the probability is, that it was early 
in the reign of Alexander the Third, the munificent 
patron of this Town. 

So late as the reign of the James's, there was a 
Mint here, where Scotch gold was coined to a con- 



294 

siderable amount. The site of the Mint is still dis- 
tinguished by the name of the Cunzie Neuk, i. e. 
money corner. On a hill about half a mile east from 
the Town, called Janet's Brae, are the remains of two 
ancient British Camps. 

The Government of the Town is vested in a Pro- 
vost, two Bailies, a Dean of Guild, a Treasurer, and 
twelve councillors, annually chosen on the first Mon- 
day after the 29th of September. The revenue of 
the Town amounts to about £700 per annum, arising 
from land rents, mills, and other public property. It 
joins with Lanark, Linlithgow, and Selkirk, in return- 
ing a Member to Parliament. 

Peebles is a Presbytery seat, and Sheriff Courts 
are held on the Tuesday of every week. The Free- 
holders of the County, meet annually on the 30th 
April, and on the 30th of September, for the dispatch 
of public business ; and the Lieutenancy, meet here 
annually in the month of September, for filling up, 
and correcting the Militia Lists of the County. 

The Town of Peebles has been long and deserved- 
ly celebrated for the excellence of its Schools, and 
still maintains its reputation. The healthy situation 
of the place, remote from the contamination of a great 
town, the superior abilities of the teachers, and the 
excellent accommodation for the boarders, have oper- 
ated in rendering the Boarding Schools of Peebles, 
the best seminaries for the education of youth, of any 
within an equal distance of Edinburgh. 

The Manufactures of Peebles consist chiefly of 
Stockings, and a number of Weavers are employed 
by the Glasgow Manufacturers. There is an exten- 
sive Brewery in the vicinity of the Town, long fa- 



295 

mous for the excellence of its Ale. There is a well 
managed Library, seven Benefit or Friendly Societies ; 
and a thriving Bank for Savings, under the manage- 
ment of the Magistrates. 

The Royal Company of Archers, or King's Body 
Guard for Scotland, meet here annually, to contend 
for the prize of an ancient Silver Arrow, given to the 
best marksman, by this Burough. 

The weekly Market is held on Tuesday, and an- 
nual Fairs are held on the second Tuesday in Janu- 
ary, on the first Tuesday in March, the second Wed- 
nesday in May, the first Tuesday in July, the Tues- 
day before the 24th day of August, the first Tues- 
day in September, the 17th day of October, and 
the first Tuesday before (he 12th day of November. 

Population in the year 1811, 2485. 
1821, 2705. 



P P 



PERTH. 



Perth, or St Johnston's, is a large and very ancient 
Royal Burgh, the capital of Perthshire, and the an- 
cient capital of Scotland. It is situated on the west 
bank of the Tay, at the opening of an extensive plain, 
surrounded in the vicinity by the most picturesque 
hills, to the south and west, and having in the distance 
to the north, a view of the sublime amphitheatre of 
the Grampians. It is 43£ miles north of Edinburgh, 
by Queensferry, 21 J miles west by south of Dundee, 
61 miles north by east of Glasgow, and 15 miles south 
of Dunkeld. Longitude 3° 2J west of Greenwich, and 
Latitude 56° 22' north. 

Perth is more regularly built than any old Town 
in Scotland ; it has four principal Streets, running east 
and west, Mill Street, High Street, South Street, and 
Canal Street ; these are crossed by others at right 
angles, but the principal Streets from south to north 
are Princes Street, St John's Street, and George 
Street, which leads to the Bridge. The extensive 
grounds anciently belonging to the Monastery of 



298 

Black Friars, has been laid out within the last thirty 
years, on a regular plan, for a New Town, and is 
rapidly filling up with handsome houses. Rose Ter- 
race is a beautiful range of buildings, in the centre of 
which is the Academy, with the river and north Inch 
in front ; the Crescent, Athole Place, and Charlotte 
Street, are all in this quarter, and distinguished for 
elegance of Architecture. To the south of the old 
Town, new Streets are also laid out ; Marshall Place, 
fronting the South Inch, contains several elegant houses. 

The City of Perth is regularly and substantially 
built, the principal Streets are broad, well paved, 
cleaned, and lighted with Gas. The public buildings 
are all handsome, and many of them posses^ a high 
degree of architectural ornament. Most of {he Very 
old part's of the Burgh have recently been rebuilt, 
and the Streets improved and embellished by the 
erection of handsome modern houses. In fact, the 
City of Pet th is the neatest, and most regular built 
Town in Scotland, if we except the New 1 Town of 
Edinburgh ; the Town occupies a space of about one 
and a half miles in circumference. 

The Church of St John the Baptist* situated be- 
tween the High Street and the South Street, is a 
very ancient structure, originally built in the form of 
a cross ; it has been almost entirely rebuilt at different 
periods, but the remains of the primitive fabric evince 
that it was once an elegant structure. It has a high 
tower and a clock ; in the tower, there is a set of mu- 
sical bells, covered by a portico, and an antique spire 
surmounts the whole. This Church is fitted up for 
three places of worship, called the east, west and 
middle churches. It was in this Church that John 



299 

Knox, preached his first Sermon against idolatry, be- 
fore some of the Nobles of the land, on Thursday the 
11th May 1559 ; and by theindiscretion of a Priest, a 
mob was raised which destroyed all the Monasteries 
and religious houses in the Town and neighbourhood. 
A weekly Sermon has been regularly preached upon 
Thursday ever since that time. At the west end of 
the High Street, stands a very elegant Chapel of Ease, 
called St Paul's Church ; these four Churches, with 
the Gaelic Chapel, belong to the Establishment. Be- 
sides these Churches, there is a Meeting House, be- 
longing to the Independents, two in connexion with 
the United Secession, two Relief, one Associate Sy- 
nod, one Original Burgher, one Methodist. The 
English Chapel in Princes Street, is a small, but neat 
building • the interior is handsomely fitted up, and has 
an excellent organ. 

The Academy in Rose Terrace, is a large and ele- 
gant building, adorned with massy pillars in front ; 
here are taught Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, 
Chymistry, Arithmetic, Geography, Logic, and the 
principles of universal Grammar ; these are taught 
by the Rector and his assistant, and there is a Teach- 
er for the French, Spanish, Italian, and German 
Languages ; another for Writing, and Book-keeping, 
and one for Drawing and Painting ; all these branches 
of education are taught by Masters of the first emi- 
nence, and have acquired a celebrity that will not be 
soon lost. The Grammar, or High School has long 
been a renowned Seminary of classical education, not 
inferior to any in the kingdom, and has produced 
some of the first scholars of the age. There are three 
English Schools, the Masters of which have salaries, 



300 

and are appointed by the Magistrates. There are 
also a number of private schools ably conducted, and 
several Boarding Schools, for young Ladies, of the 
most respectable description. 

The new County-rooms, and Jail, are among the 
most prominent of the public buildings of Perth ; this 
large structure stands at the east end of the South Street, 
on the west bank of the Tay, near the spot where 
Gourie House stood ; the architecture is Grecian, and 
the front to the river is considered as one of the 
most handsome in Scotland. It is ornamented by an 
elegant portico in the centre, having twelve massive 
fluted pillars, which support a beautiful pediment; 
this edifice is a standard of correct, simple, and digni- 
fied architecture, sufficiently ornamented, and chaste- 
ly elegant ; the whole is built of beautiful Free Stone. 
From the entrance-hall a passage leads off to the 
County -hall, a splendid room 68 feet by 40, which oc- 
cupies the south wing. The centre contains a spa- 
cious semi-circular roorn^ appropriated purposely for 
the Justiciary Hall, with a gallery capable of contain- 
ing 1000 persons; adjoining, are retiring Rooms for 
the Jury, Witnesses, &c. On the same floor, are the 
Sheriff's Court, and Clerk's Rooms, and an arched 
fire-proof room, for security of the Town's records, &c. 
Above is an elegant Assembly or Ball-room. The 
whole of the arrangements are excellent, and do ho- 
nour to the Architect. 

Immediately to the westward, and in the rear of 
this edifice, is the new Prison House ; it contains two 
Jails ; the southern division is fitted up as a Debtor's 
Jail, with suitable conveniences ; the northern division 
is appropriated for a Felon's Jail, embracing all the 



301 

late improvements in prison discipline. The Gualer's 
house is at the entrance gate, from which a subter- 
raneous passage conducts the prisoner to the bar of 
the Court Room. The total expense of these build- 
ings has been nearly £30,000. 

The Exchange Coffee-room is situated in George 
Street ; it is a very spacious room, elegantly fitted up, 
and beautifully illuminated with Gas. It is liberally 
supplied with the London, Edinbargb, and Provin- 
cial Newspapers, Magazines, Reviews; and Periodi- 
cals. 

The Free-mason's Hall, built in 1818, on the site 
of the old Parliament House in the High Street, is a 
handsome building, containing a very large room oc- 
casionally used as an Auction Mart, as well as for 
the meetings of the Brethren. An elegant little thea- 
tre has been lately erected in Athole Street ; it is 
neatly and appropriately fitted up with great taste. 

At the top of George Street, near the Bridge, 
a most elegant monument has been recently erected 
to the memory of the late worthy Provost Marshall 
of Perth. It is of a circular form, with an elegant 
Ionic portico surmounted by a dome, said to be a mo- 
del of the Pantheon at Rome. The interior contains 
the public Library rooms, and the Museum of the Li- 
terary and Antiquarian Society ; this building was e- 
rected by private subscription. The Royal Lunatic 
Asylum is a large oblong building, begun in 1823. 
This Asylum is now (1827,) °P en for the reception 
of patients. It is situated in a park of twelve acres, 
on the aclivity of Kinnoul hill, with a delightful view 
of the Grampians, the Tay, and the surrounding eoun- 
try. The house consists of three floors, laid out on 



302 

an improved plan, for the division and classification of 
patients. It is plain chaste Doric architecture, and 
from its superior internal arrangements, is probably 
one of the most complete receptacles of its kind in 
t\ie kingdom. The funds for its erection, was be- 
queathed b^y a Mr Murray, a native of Perth, and 
will contain one hundred patients. The Town's 
Hospital, of Poor House, situated near to the west 
end ot South Street, was founded and endowed by 
King James the Sixth, by charter under the great 
seal, dated 29th July 1587, ou ^ °f the lands, houses, 
and duties, belonging to the Popish religious esta- 
blishments ; it stands upon the site of the ancient Car- 
thusian Monastery. There are three charitable es- 
tablishments, called the Lethendy mortifications ; the 
first in 1G60, provides for the maintenance of four 
persons of sixty years of age, belonging to the Burgh 
of Perth ; the second in 1686, to support one poor per- 
son of the name of Jackson, failing a poor relation of 
the Lethendy family ; and the third is a burthen on 
the same lands for special purposes. Exclusive of 
these, the City of Perth contains several other valua- 
ble and well supported charitable institutions, viz. 
the Perth Dispensary, a Society for the education of 
the Deaf and Dumb, a Destitute Sick Society, a Fe- 
male Society for the relief of indigent old Women. — 
Perth Bible Society, was begun in 1812. There is also 
several Male ami Female Schools, for educating the 
children of the Poor, all conducted on liberal and en- 
lightened principles. 

Perth is among the first Provincial Towns in Scot- 
land, for Literature and the Fine Arts. There are 
nianv valuable institutions for these purposes, of the 



303 

most respectable description. The " Literary and 
Antiquarian Society of Perth/' was founded in 1784, 
for the purpose of promoting antiquarian research, as 
well as every subject connected with Philosophy, 
Belles Letters, and the Fine Arts. The Society pos- 
sess a large collection of valuable coins, medals, and 
manuscripts, besides a variety of natural curiosities ; 
their cabinet of minerals is uncommonly rich. 

The bridge of Perth forms the communication with the 
Burgh of Kinnoul, commonly called Bridge-end, from 
its local situation. This Burgh contains many of the 
most beautiful seats in the immediate vicinity of Perth, 
both on the sides of Kinnoul hill, and on the banks of 
the river. 

The Palace of Scoon, which lies on the banks of 
the Tay, above Perth, was the ancient residence of 
the Scottish Kings, the place of their coronation, and 
the scene of many splendid actions. Here formerly 
stood an Abbey, founded by Alexander the First in 
1114, dedicated to the Holy Trinity. Scoon is said 
by some historians to have been the ancient capital 
of the Picts, but it certainly was the chief seat of the 
Scottish Monarchs, as early as the time of Kenneth 
the Second, who began his reign in 843. Here was 
the famous stone seat, used as the coronation chair 
of the Pictish Monarchs, prior to the reign of Kenneth 
the Second, who brought it to Scoon, where it re- 
mained as the coronation chair of the succeeding 
Scottish Kings, till 1290, when Edward the First car- 
ried it to England. The Palace of Scoon is a large 
modern building, and contains many spacious apart- 
ments, with many old Paintings, Tapestry, &c. — The 

Q Q 



304 

village of Scoon is neat, and contains about 500 in- 
habitants. 

The Bridge was begun in 1766, and finished in 
1772, it eonsists of ten arches, one of which is a land 
arch ; the whole length is upwards of 900 feet, its 
breadth is 22 feet ; it is founded upon piles of wood, 
ten feet below the bed of the river. This noble 
bridge was completed at an expense of £30,000, de- 
frayed partly from the forfeited estates, and the 
City of Perth ; and partly by subscriptions, and finally 
by a tolL 

At the west end of Athole Street, are the Barracks, 
built in 1795, fitted up originally for 200 Cavalry, 
but now converted into infantry Barracks, capable of 
containing a regiment of 1000 men. They form a 
large square, are built of free-stone, and enclosed by 
a high wall. 

Near the entrance of the Town from the south, at 
the head of the south Inch, stands the depot, built for 
the reception of prisoners of war, in 181 1-12. " The 
Depot of Perth, is situated at the south-east end of 
the south Inch, upon the east side of the high road, 
before entering the Town. This extensive edifice 
deserves mention, as being one of the most complete 
buildings, in this species of architecture, in the king- 
dom. It consists of five large buildings of stone, 
three stories high, placed in a semi-circular form, 
with an Hospital, and separate Prison, of rather smal- 
ler dimensions. Within the square, and before en- 
tering to the prison yards, are the houses for the 
Governor, Surgeon, and others belonging to the es- 
tablishment ; Guard-houses, Store-houses, &c, the 
whole surrounded by a strong wall, on which are pla- 



305 

ced the sentry-boxes for the guards, divided off from 
the prison yards, by a dry ditch and interior low wall, 
with an iron rail. Inside of this rail, and open to 
the prison yards, is a Canal of running water, for the 
use of the prisoners, besides an abundant supply of 
spring water. The interior of the prison flats, are 
divided longitudinally into three spaces, by rows of 
cast iron pillars, with two horizontal rails of the same 
metal, which serve as supports for the Hammocks, 
each prisoner having one ; the middle space is the pas- 
sage through the house. These pillars and rails are 
hollow tubes, with openings at certain distances, for 
carrying off the heated air ; the whole communicating 
with the external air, by means of pipes. Besides 
these means of ventillation, and the windows in each 
flat, there are large ventilators in the roof of each pri- 
son house. Each of the five prisons contain with 
ease, 12 to 1300 men, exclusive of the separate pri- 
son and hospital. The situation is airy and healthy, 
the rear overlooks the river Tay, of which it is with- 
in a few hundred yards. It was built by Govern- 
ment, at an expense of upwards of one hundred and 
twenty-five thousand pounds, easily contained, and se- 
cured nearly 7000 prisoners. The discharge of the pri- 
soners at the peace, and consequently of the military, 
who guarded them, was sensibly felt by the Town of 
Perth, as at least the supply of provisions, &c. for 
9000 mouths, was cut off in the course of two months*" 
The Town is governed by a Provost, who has the 
title of my Lord, and who is also Sheriff and Coroner, 
a Dean of Guild, three Merchant, and one Trades 
Bailie, Treasurer, eight Merchant Councillors, four 
Trade's Councillors, the, eight Deacons of the Incor* 



306 

porated Trades, Town Clerk and Chamberlain. The 
Town court sits every Tuesday and Saturday, and 
the Town Council meet on the first Monday of every 
month. The revenue of the Town is nearly £5000 
per annum. Perth joins with Forfar, Dundee, Cupar, 
and St Andrews, in returning a Member to Parlia- 
ment. 

Perth is the second in rank to the metropolis, and 
the seat of a Synod and Presbytery. It was erected 
into a Royal Burgh, by William the Lion ; the char- 
ter is dated at Stirling, 10th October 1210. This 
charter expressly. confirms the privileges which the 
Burgh enjoyed in the time of his grand-father, King 
David, who died in 1153, and adds new privileges 
thereto ; at that period it was reckoned the capital 
city of the Scottish Kingdom, and it is called the City 
of Perth, in several public documents in the reign of 
James the Sixth. 

Prior to the reign of the Stuart Family, Perth 
was the usual residence of the Scottish Monarchs. 
It has been the scene of many important transactions 
on record in the history of the country ; fourteen Par- 
liaments were held here between the years 1210, and 
1459. In 1298, its walls were rebuilt by Edward 
the First, who made it the residence of his deputies, 
till they were expelled by Robert the Bruce. King 
James the First was murdered here, in the Monastery 
of the Black Friars, on the 21st February 1437, D y 
Robert Graham, who gave him 28 wounds, and his 
Queen two, in defending him. In 1545, five men, 
and a woman, were burnt here for heresy. In 1644, 
Perth was taken by Montrose, after the battle of 
Tippermuir, and it was the Head-quarters of the pre 5 



507 

tender, and the Earl of Matt*, in 1/15. It was also 
occupied for some time by the army of Prince Charles, 
in 1745. 

The tide from the German Ocean, flows up the 
Tay, two miles above the Town. At spring tides, 
Vessels of 100 tons burden can come up to the quay. 
The Shipping interest is very considerable, and upon 
the increase ; Ship-building is carried on, Rope-mak- 
ing, &c. There are several Shipping Companies, 
whose Vessels are engaged in the coasting trade 
with Glasgow, Dundee, Leith, and Newcastle, eight 
of these Vessels are in the London trade. Perth is 
a port of the Custom House. 

Great improvements are projected upon the river, 
by forming a Basin and Canal to convey Goods to 
the Town ; when the state of the river, from swells 
or low tides, prevents the regular approach, — as also 
by deepening the river, and removing obstructions. 
These improvements are much wanted. 

The Salmon Fishings on the Tay, in the vicinity of 
Perth, are extensive, producing an annual rent of 
£"000, of which, about a sixth part belongs to the 
community ; the Salmon are sent to London, either 
packed in ice, or pickled, the latter method is most 
common ; a Vessel sails every third or fourth day 
for London, during the Fishing season. 

Linen was formerly the staple Manufacture of 
Perth, but has of late years given place to that of 
Cotton ; nearly 3000 Looms are employed on Ging- 
hams, Shawls, Muslins, and other Cotton fabrics, ex- 
clusive of those Looms employed in the neighbour- 
hood, whose produce are sold in the Perth market. 
There are several large Manufactures of Leather, 



308 

Boots, Shoes, and Gloves ; for which articles Perth 
has long been eminent. There are several Manu- 
facturing Villages in the vicinity, where there are 
Bleachfields, Printfields, and Spinning Machinery. 

Next to Edinburgh and Glasgow, the printing 
trade is no where in Scotland, carried on to a greater 
extent than in Perth. A Newspaper called the Perth 
Courier, was begun here in 1810, and continues to 
maintain its reputation. 

There are two Banking Companies in Perth, — the 
Perth Bank, and the Perth Union Bank, besides 
branches of the Bank of Scotland, and the British Li- 
nen Company. The weekly market-day is Friday, 
and a Cattle market is held on the South Inch, same 
day, from the third Friday in December, to the mid- 
dle of June. A Horse market is held also on the 
South Inch, on the first Friday of May annually. 
Fairs are held on the first Friday in March, the first 
Friday in April, first Friday in July, first Friday in 
September, the third Friday in October, and the se- 
cond Friday in December. 

Population by the Census of 1801, was 14,878. 

1811, 16,948. 

1821, 19,068. 

Of this last N umber there was 87/5 Males. 

and 10,293 Females. 



PORTOBELLO. 



Portobello is a considerable village, in the pa- 
rish of Duddingston, three miles east of Edinburgh, 
on the coast of the Frith of Forth. 

It derives its name trom a Cottage still standing, 
so denominated in commemoration of the taking of 
Portobello on the Spanish Main, by Admiral Vernon 
in 1/39. For many years, it could boast of only a 
few scattered houses, erected chiefly for the workmen 
employed in the manufacturing of Brick and Tyle, for 
which there is abundance of fine clay adjoining the 
village on the west. 

This village is situated in a beautiful surrounding 
country, sheltered from the west by Arthur's Seat 
and Salisbury Craigs, which have a gradual slope to 
the sea. The agreeable softness of the sandy beach, 
the purity of the air, the convenient distance from 
Edinburgh, the advantage of a post three times a-day, 
and the facility of communication by means of the nu- 
merous coaches constantly passing and re-passing, 
have rendered it one of the most desirable places of 



310 

resort for summer fashionables, as well as for the 
valetudinarian. It has accordingly been much fre- 
quented for sea-bathing ; and, of late years, the de- 
mand for Lodgings, which are well suited for the ac- 
commodation of Bathers of all ranks, has been on the 
increase. 

What may be called the old part of Portobello, 
contains many handsome houses, with neat plots 
of shrulrry in front, and garden ground in the rear 
of each tenement. The houses range along the Mus- 
selburgh road, from which there are three principal 
streets, besides others not yet completed, extending 
to the sea-shore. The streets lately formed, running 
south and west, present many spacious buildings, not 
much inferior in elegance to any in the Metropolis, to 
which, by a new line of road, they are intended to ap- 
proach. Another line of road is also projected, to 
intersect the one now mentioned, on the west of the 
village, which, when finished, will open up a direct 
communication with the great South Road, of consi- 
derable importance to this neighbourhood. 

The building for Hot and Cold Baths is very com- 
modious, and well adapted for the purpose to which 
it is appropriated. A neat Chapel belonging to the 
Established Church, was erected in 1810; and recent- 
ly, there have been added, two Episcopal Chapels, 
: nd a Chapel in connexion with the United^ssociate 
8ynod, all lundsome edifices. 

Exclusively of the Brick and Tyle works already 
noticed, there are manufactories for Earthen-ware, 
various \ reparations of Lead, Blacking, Varnishes, 



311 

Mustard, &c. At Joppa, in the immediate vicinity, 
there are Salt-pans, on an extensive scale, where are 
also produced Epsom Salts of a superior quality. 

The stationary population, which, in 1821, was 
1912, has since increased, and, with the addition of 
Summer residents, may be reckoned upwards of 
3000. 



B R 



'S 



Rothesay, or Rothsay, is a Royal Burgh, in the 
parish of Rothesay, in the Island and County of Bute. 
The Town is excellently situated for trade, having a 
fine harbour at the bottom of an extensive Bay (Rothe- 
say Bay), on the north-east side of the Island, in 
which there is safe anchorage. The local situation of 
the Town is most peculiarly advantageous for carry- 
ing on an extensive Herring Fishery, which are plenty 
in the Bay, and all round the Island. 

Rothesay lies 22 miles north by east of the island 
of Arran, 12 miles from the great and small Cumbrae, 
52 miles west by south of Glasgow, and 95 miles west 
by south of Edinburgh. Latitude 55° 50' north, Lon- 
gitude 5° 17' west. 

At a very early period of its history, Rothesay ap- 
pears to have been a considerable town, and much 
more populous than in after times, if a judgement may 
be formed from the number of ruinous, delapidated, 
and uninhabited houses which were to be seen so 
lately as the year I76O. By the Statistical account, 
the population in 1/66 was only 1158, both town apcj 



5 14 

parish. The town seems to have been gradually on 
the decline since the demolition of the castle in 1685. 

About the year 1/60, a Herring Fishery was es- 
tablished here, and carried on for many years with 
great success, in consequence of which, the ruinous 
houses were rebuilt, and several new streets were 
added. Abdut the year 17^0, the town possessed 
only one decked vessel of inconsiderable burden, but 
in the course of the following thirty years, they had 
accumulated shipping to the amount of 4246 tons. 
][Jnder the fostering care of the Earl of Bute the indus- 
try of the inhabitants has been exerted ; and by vi- 
gorous perseverance, and the aid of their public spi- 
rited and noble proprietor, Rothesay has become a 
place of consequence. The town remained stationary 
for a number of years, till lately, when it became 
a fashionable watering place ; many fine streets 
have been laid down, and some elegant houses have 
been built, in consequence of the rapid demand for 
genteel accommodation. These new streets stretch 
out from the old town, to a considerable distance on 
the north and east sides of the Bay. 

The erection of the Government Custom House, 
and the establishment of a large Cotton Spinning-mill, 
in the year 177^j gave a new impulse to the industry 
of the inhabitants, by affording employment to the 
young, and to those who could not be employed in 
the more active business of the Fishery. 

This Manufactory employs about four hundred per- 
sons, and the Weaving by Power Looms, lately in- 
troduced, with a number of other branches of the 
Cotton Manufacture, connected with the spinning and 
weaving trade, will give employment to many more, 



315 

The Herring Fishery, Caring, &c. employ the bulk 
of the population of Rothesay, and indeed, of the whole 
island of Bute. They have a few vessels employed 
in the carrying trade to Glasgow aud other ports. 
From Glasgow the town is supplied with coal ; there 
are indications of coal on the island, but none have 
been found worth working. Peat is found on the 
island, which supply the inhabitants of the parishes 
with fuel, though coal is chiefly used in the town. 
The natives of the island are represented as being 
fond and partial to a sea-faring life. The English and 
Gaelic language are spoken indiscriminately by the 
inhabitants. 

Rothesay is the County Town of Bute-shire, where 
the courts of law are held for the trial of minor offen- 
ces ; all criminal cases are sent to Inverary. The 
shire of Bute includes the islands of Bute, Arran, the 
Great and Little Cambrays, Inchmarnock, and the 
small Island of Pladda. 

The government of the town is vested in a Provost, 
two Bailies, a Dean of Guild, a Treasurer, and twelve 
Councillors, annually chosen ; and unites with Ayr, 
Irvine, Campbelltown, and Inverary, in sending a 
Member to Parliament. This shire, and that of 
Caithness, return a Member alternately. 

Rothesay is a very ancient Royal Burgh, having 
received its first charter from Robert the Third, in 
the year 1400, when its castle was a royal residence ; 
and its privileges were further confirmed and extend- 
ed, by a charter of James the Fourth, in 1585. The 
town is more immediately under the patronage of the 
most noble the Marquis of Bute, under whose auspi- 



416 

ces the harbour has been rebuilt and improved, at an 
expense of four or five thousand pounds. 

The Island of Bute was from very early times, a part 
of the patrimony of the Stuarts — large possessions in it 
were granted to Sir John Stuart, son of King Robert 
the Second, and it has continued in that line to the 
present time. There are several Danish Towers in 
the island ; but the most remarkable remains of anti- 
quity are the ruins of Rothesay Castle, with a Fort, 
Barracks, and Draw Bridge, which was formerly a 
residence of the Kings of Scotland. . 

This Castle is supposed to have been built in the 
end of the tenth, or beginning of the eleventh cen- 
tury, and stands nearly in the centre of the old part 
of the Town of Rothesay, the ruins of which are so 
completely covered with Ivy, that very little of the 
walls can be seen. Here is still pointed out, the bed 
chambers and banqueting rooms of Robert the Se- 
cond, and of Robert the Third, who was the last of 
the Scottish monarchs who inhabited this venerable 
pile. The Castle was in succeeding ages the princi- 
pal residence of the Stuarts, ancestors of the present 
family of Bute, long the hereditary constables of the 
kingdom. It continued to be their residence, until it 
was burned by the Duke of Argyle, in the intestine 
troubles of 1685. The Earl of Bute retains the title 
of hereditary keeper of the Palace, or Castle of Rothe- 
say. Rothesay gives the Scottish title of Duke, to 
the heir apparent of the Crown ; this title was first gi- 
ven to the oldest son of King Robert the Third, about 
the year 1398. 

The Castle of Rothesay is mentioned in history, 



317 

in 1258, when it was besieged by Husbac the Nor- 
wegian, and Olave the Dane, King of Man ; and ta- 
ken after a stout resistance. It was taken by the 
Scots after the battle of Largs, in 1263 ; this was the 
]ast invasion of the Norwegians and Danes, in which 
they were so totally routed, that the King of Norway, 
Haquin, or Haco, died of grief for the loss of his ar- 
my, soon after, in Orkney. The Scotch army at the 
battle of Largs, in the fourteenth year of the reign of 
Alexander the Third, was commanded by i^lexander 
Stuart, great grandfather of Robert the Second, the 
first of the royal line of Stuart. The Castle of Rothe- 
say was taken by the English, during the reign of 
John Baliol, (1294,) and surrendered to Robert Bruce 
in 1311. Edward Baliol, son of John Baliol, took 
the Castle and fortified it in 1331, but it was soon af- 
ter taken by Bruce, the Steward of Scotland. Robert 
the Second resided in the Castle, in 13/6, and again 
visited it in 1381 . Robert the Third died in Rothe- 
say Castle, (of grief occasioned by the death of his 
son, Prince David, first Duke of Rothesay, and the 
captivity of his next son, James I., who was taken 
prisoner by the English,) in the year 1406. 

Mount Stuart, a seat of the Marquis of Bute, from 
whence he takes his second title, is an elegant house. / 
situated three miles east of Rothesay, and about two 
hundred yards from the east shore of the Bay, com- 
manding an extensive view of the Firth of Clyde. A 
forest of fine old trees surround the house, and the 
pleasure grounds are extensive. The natural beau- 
ties of the place have been much increased by the 
fine taste of the noble proprietor. The Marquis is 
Admiral of the Countv of Bute, in virtue of acommis- 



318 

sion from His Majesty, and is independent of the 
Lord High Admiral of Scotland. 

Besides the Parish Church, there is a Chapel of 
Ease, belonging to the Establishment, and an Anti- 
Burgher meeting house. 

A branch of the Greenock Bank,, and another of the 
Renfrew Bank, is established here. The market-day 
is Wednesday, and fairs are held on the first Wed- 
nesday in May, on the third Wednesday in July, and 
On the first Wednesday in November, all old style. 
The Population of the Island of Bute, is above 7000. 

The Population of the Town and parish of Rothesay, 

by the Census 181 1, 3544. 

1821, 4107. 

Of which there are I774 Males, and 2333 Females. 



SELKIRK. 



Selkirk is a Royal Burgh of great antiquity, and 
the County-town of that district of Tweeddale, to 
which it gives its name. It is 36 miles south from 
Edinburgh, 11 north from Hawick, 7 west from Mel- 
rose, and 22 miles from Peebles. 

Selkirk is pleasantly situated on a rising ground, on 
the south bank of the river Ettrick, commanding an 
extensive prospect in every direction. Formerly the 
Town was but meanly built, and could convey to a 
stranger, no idea of its ancient importance. It has of 
late been greatly improved, the Streets have been le- 
velled and paved ; and many large new houses have 
been built, some of them elegant. A new Town- 
house, containing apartments for the Sheriff Court, 
Town's Courts, and for public and other meetings ; 
and a good Library-room, has lately been built, 
adorned with a handsome Spire and Clock. 

The old Jail, which stood in the middle of the 
Street, has been taken down ; and a new Prison has 
been built in a more eligible situation, on the north 
side of the Town, surrounded by a high wall, enclose 
ing an area, in which the prisoners have liberty to 
walk. 

Selkirk is governed by two Bailies, who With a 

S S 



Dean of Guild, and Treasurer, are elected annually, 
and form its Magistrates. The Town Council con- 
sists of these Magistrates, of the four old Magistrates, 
ten Merchant Councillors, five Deacons, and five Col- 
leagues to these Deacons, elected by the Trade's, 
(the former from Leets shortened by the Council,) 
and five Trade's Councillors, elected by the Council, 
— in all S3 persons. 

Formerly, like other Royal Burghs, the Town had 
a Provost, but has had none for more than a Century. 
John Riddell of Haining, was, in December 1687, 
nominated Provost by a commission from King James 
the Seventh, and his privy Council ; and though he 
only continued in office till the Revolution, yet, short 
as his reign was, it had been one of such terror and 
misrule, that the Town never again elected a Provost. 
The Council, when they gave an account of their sett 
to the convention of Burghs, in 1709, stated, that since 
their last Provost, Haining's time, they had contented 
themselves with two Bailies. Selkirk joins with Pee- 
bles, Lanark, and Linlithgow, in returning a Member 
to Parliament. The revenue of the Town is very con- 
siderable, amounting to upwards of £800 sterling per 
annum, arising from the rent of three large commons, 
Mills, Feus, &c. Its last charter was granted by 
James the Fifth, in the year 1538. 

The name of this place, is derived from the Celtic, 
JSheleck-grech, signifying the Kirk in the wood, ex- 
pressing the situation of the place itself, and the state 
of the surrounding country. 

The citizens of this Burgh, like the other inhabi- 
tants of the Sheriffdom of Ettrick Forest, rendered 
themselves famous by adhering to the fortune of their 






Sovereign, James the Fourth. Of 100 citizens who 
followed that Monarch to the unfortunate field of 
Flodden, a few only returned. Of the trophies of that 
day, there yet remains in the possession of the Incor- 
poration of Weavers, a standard, taken from the ene- 
my, by a Member of that body, a man of the name of 
Fletcher, and of whom there are still lineal descen- 
dants in the Town. The sword of William Brydone, 
the Town Clerk, who led the citizens to battle, and 
who was knighted for his valour, is yet in the pos- 
session of his descendants. 

The desperate valour of the citizens so exasperat- 
ed the English, that they reduced their defenceless 
Town to ashes ; but their grateful Sovereign James 
the Fifth, shewed his sense of their services, by a 
grant of an extensive tract of Ettrick Forest, — the 
trees for rebuilding their houses, and the property as 
a reward for their heroism. 

Selkirk is well situated for the Establishment of 
the Woollen Manufacture on a large scale ; but hi- 
therto, the making of Stockings, and the spinning of 
Woollen Yarn, to a considerable extent, have been 
the only attempts in the Woollen Manufacture. An 
Inkle Manufactory has been long established here ; 
and a Tan-work, which does a great deal of busi- 
ness. 

The river Ettrick, and Yarrow, form a junction, 
and empty their w T aters into the Tweed, about a mile 
to the east of the Town. The beautiful Villa of 
Bowhill, belonging to the Duke of Buccleugh, the 
stately ruins of Newark Castle, standing upon a pe- 
ninsula, cut out by the surrounding stream ; the many 
elegant mansions in the neighbourhood, together with 
the Burgh of Selkirk, the fertile stratlre, and the ser- 



322 

pentine windings of the two rivers ; these form a 
beautifully romantic, and highly diversified landscape, 
which is much heightened by the wild grandeur of the 
scenery around Newark Castle. This is supposed 
to have been the birth place of the celebrated " Mary 
Scott, the Flower of Yarrow." The intrepid Afri- 
can Traveller, Mungo Park, was born at Foulshiels, 
four miles from Selkirk, on Yarrow Water. Selkirk 
gives the title of Earl to a branch of the family of 
Douglas. 

Besides the Church belonging to the Establish- 
ment, there is a Burgher meeting-house in the Town ; 
a Sabbath Evening School has been long in opera- 
tion. There is a public Library, a Bank for Savings, 
and a Benefit or Friendly Society. 

The Justice of Peace-Court is held on the first 
Tuesday of every month, for the recovery of debts 
under £10 sterling, as well as for other public busi- 
ness. A Town Court is held by the Magistrates, on 
Tuesdays and Fridays, for managing the business re- 
lating to the Burgh, and to award for the recovery of 
debts under £5. 

The Lieutenancy of the County hold their annual 
Meetings here, for preparing the Militia Lists of the 
County. 

The weekly-market is held on Wednesday, and 
there are six Fairs in the year, held on the first Wed- 
nesday in March, on the 5th day of April, the 15th 
day of July, the 21st day of August, the 31st day of 
October, and the 19th day of December. 
Population of the Town by the Census of 

1821, was 1804. 

Town and Parish in 1811, 2466. 

1821,-2728. 



ST ANDREWS, 



St Andrews is a Royal Burgh of great antiquity, 
in Fife-shire, and was once the Metropolis of Scot- 
land, sometime the seat of regal government, long an 
archiepiscopal see, and still the seat of the oldest 
Scottish University ; it lies in 56° 19 7 north latitude, 
and 2° 50' west longitude, from Greenwich ; 39 miles 
N. N. E. of Edinburgh, 9 east of Cupar, 10 N. W. 
of Crail, and 10 miles north of Anstruther. 

St Andrews is about a mile in circuit, pleasantly 
situated on a ridge of rocks, projecting into the sea, 
at the bottom of the Bay, to which it gives its name ; 
the rivers Eden and Kinlowie, empty themselves in- 
to this Bay. The Town has a southerly exposure, 
and the ridge on which it stands, terminating in an 
abrupt precipice to the N. E. and N. W., gives the 
Town an appearance of great elevation and grandeur. 
The Town consists of three principal streets, and 
some cross streets, or lanes ; South Street, extending 
from the Cathedral on the east, to the West Port, is 
straight, broad and spacious, and contains a number of 
elegant modern houses, though many old ruinous 



324 

houses still remain ; Market Street occupies the cen- 
tre of the Town, and here the Town House and Jail 
are placed in the middle of the street ; North Street 
is broad and spacious ; in this street stands St Sal- 
vador's College, the houses are generally mean and 
ruinous. There was formerly a street to the north 
of this, called Swallow Street, said to have been the 
residence of the Merchants, but of this street no trace 
remains. 

The Town was erected into a Royal Burgh, by 
David II. and a confirmation of its privileges, granted 
by a charter of Malcolm II. is still preserved in the 
Town House, where the silver keys of the city, and 
the axe which decapitated Sir Robert Spottiswood, 
and other loyalists, are still to be seen. The muni- 
cipal government of the Town is vested in a Provost, 
four Bailies, a Dean of Guild, a Treasurer, and Coun- 
cil ; it has seven incorporated trades, and joins with 
Cupar, Dundee, Perth, and Forfar, in returning a 
Member to Parliament. 

It is evident, from the ruins of houses widely scat- 
tered in every direction, particularly to the north of 
the Town, that St Andrews must have contained at 
one time a very large population, not only from its 
being the seat of an archbishop, and his courts, but 
as containing the University, Abbeys, Priories, and 
religious houses attached thereto, of the first seat of 
learning in Scotland. 

It was likewise a place of commerce, and enjoyed 
an extensive foreign trade ; even so late as the reign 
of Charles the First, not less than SO or 40 vessels 
belonged to the port of St Andrews. 

The Harbour is safe and commodious, but of diffi- 



325 

cult access in strong easterly winds. An elegant 
light-house lately erected, adds much to the value of 
the other improvements made of late years on this 
harbour, and is also of great importance to vessels 
engaged in the coasting trade at large. About 10 or 
12 vessels, at present belong to this port, chiefly 
employed in the coasting trade. The manufactures 
consist principally of the weaving of coarse Linen, 
Osnaburghs, and Sail Cloth. But the chief support 
of this ancient royal Burgh, is the University. A 
suit of commodious Baths are erected to the west of 
the Castle, and this Town has become a resort for 
company, during the bathing season. 

The celebrated university of this city, was founded 
in 1411, by Bishop Wardlaw, and the next year he 
obtained from Benedict XIII, the bull of confirma- 
tion, it consisted originally of three colleges. St Sal- 
vador's college in North Street, was founded in 1455, 
by the celebrated Bishop Kennedy, the buildings form 
three sides of a square, with a handsome steeple and 
spire 156 feet high, over the gateway, in which there 
is a clock. The chapel of this college, is in use as a 
church, to the parish of St Leonard's ; it had a fine 
gothic roof, which was removed about JQ years ago ; 
at which time the beautiful tomb of the founder, was 
much injured by the ignorance of those who conduct- 
ed the repairs. In this tomb were discovered, in 1583, 
six silver maces of very elegant workmanship, one 
was presented to each of the Universities of Glasgow, 
Aberdeen, and Edinburgh, and three remain here, 
one of which is a model of the tomb, and of much su- 
perior workmanship to the others. In this college 
are preserved two silver arrows, which were annually 



326 

shot for, a century ago, with a great number of me- 
dals appended, on which the names of the victors are 
engraved. 

St Leonard's College, founded in 1512, by Prior 
Hepburn, stands at the east end of South Street. 
These buildings have been converted to other purpo- 
ses, since the union of this college with St Salvador's, 
in the year 1747 ; an d the two thus united, go by the 
name of the United College. In the United College, 
there are a Principal, and Professors of Greek, Lo- 
gic, Natural and Moral Philosophy, Humanity, Civil 
History, Mathematics, and Medicine. This college 
is patron of eight parish churches. 

St Mary's College is situated in South Street, and 
was established by Archbishop Beaton, in 1538. A- 
bout the year 1579, the university was completely re- 
modelled under the direction of the celebrated George 
Buchanan, and St Mary's College being appropriated 
to the study of Divinity alone, was afterwards called 
Divinity or New College. It has a Principal, and Pro- 
fessors of Divinity, Church History, and Oriental 
Languages. By the Act of Parliament, passed in 1747* 
which united St Salvador and St Leonard, these two 
colleges have the Library in common, and are under 
one Chancellor, with a principal to each. 

Adjoining to St Mary's, on the east, is the Univer- 
sity Library, a room J6 feet long, 28 feet broad, and 
28 feet high, it contains upwards of 30,000 volumes. 
Immediately below the Library, is the room where 
the Parliament met, that condemned to death, Sir Ro- 
bert Spottiswood, and five other royalists, after the 
battle of Philip-haugh, in 1645. 

The Town Church was built about the year 1 1 12„ 



227 

and almost entirely rebuilt in 1797; it is a large heavy 
looking edifice, with a Steeple and Clock, commodi- 
ously fitted up. In the south aisle of this church is the 
magnificent tomb of Archbishop Sharp, who was as- 
sassinated, in Magus Muir, 3d May 1679; it bears a 
very flattering epitaph, and is a piece of most exqui- 
site workmanship. 

The ruins of the Chapel, and Tower of St Regulus, 
is by far the most ancient structure in the place ; it is 
more than a thousand years old ; the Chapel is 31 feet 
by 25, the walls are still entire, but it has no roof; 
the Tower is of the same dimensions as the breadth 
of the Chapel, 25 feet square, rising to the height of 
108 feet, there is a stair inside by which it is ascend- 
ed with ease. The Cathedral was founded in 1159, 
by Bishop Arnold, and finished in 1318, by Bishop 
Lamberton,-— 160 years after its foundation. Its length 
from east to west, was 370 feet within walls, and 65 
feet broad, the transept 180 feet from north to south ; 
at the distance of 230 feet from the west end, it had 
six high Towers, one on each corner of the Church, 
one on the south gable of the transept, and one on 
the centre of the church. Three of these towers still 
remain, each 100 feet high, that in the centre must 
have been considerably higher. This magnificent 
structure was demolished by the reformers, in 1559. 

The Augustine Priory, was situated to the south- 
west of the Cathedral, and founded in 1120, by Bi- 
shop Robert, in the reign of Alexander First. All 
that remains of this large edifice, is a vault or two,*-, 
part of the gate and the wall which surrounded the 
premises is still nearly entire ; it has sixteen round 
and square towers, and extends 870 yards in length 
22 feet high, and encloses a space of 18 acres, 

TT 



The Dominicans had a convent in this City, with- 
out the west-port of the north-gate, founded by Wil- 
liam Wishart, Bishop of that See, in 1274 ; nothing 
now remains of this edifice, but a part of the garden wall. 

The Grey-friars had a convent in South Street, 
founded by Bishop Kennedy, and finished by his suc- 
cessor Patrick Graham, about the year 1478, and de T 
dicated to St Francis. The only remains of these 
buildings is a small fragment, with an arched roof, in 
the Gothic stile, extremely elegant, supposed to 
have been the north cross aisle of the Chapel, There 
was another religious house, called the Provostry of 
Kirk-heugh, situated on the high ground, above the 
harbour, said to be the most ancient religious esta- 
blishment in St Andrews, now wholly destroyed. 

To the north of the Town stands the ruins of the 
Castle, said to be buijt by Bishop Roger, about the 
year 1200. It was repaired and enlarged by Bishop 
Lamberton, about 1328. It sustained several sieges 
in the wars with England, and continued in a ruinous 
state, until it was repaired by Bishop Trail, about 
the end of the fourteenth century, who died here in 
1401. It appears to have been a quadrangular build- 
ing, surrounded by the sea, on the east and north, and 
defended on the land side by a fosse. Cardinal Bea- 
ton resided in this Castle, and the window is still 
shewn, out of which he glutted his eyes with the mar- 
tyrdom of George Wishart, on the 1st March 1545, 
attended with circumstances of peculiar barbarity ; 
and in this castle, the Cardinal met a deserved death, 
from the hands of the Reformers, on the 29th May 
1546. 

Many of the most remarkable events recorded in 
the History of Scotland, have been transacted in St 



229 

Andrews, and the numerous venerable ruin3 of its 
former grandeur and magnificence, impress strongly 
upon the mind, a very high idea of the ancient splen- 
dour Of this ecclesiastical city. 

So early as the beginning of the sixth century, tra- 
dition states St Andrews to have been the seat of 
the Culdees, or first Christian Priests of the country ; 
and it yet remains, after the revolutions of ages, one of 
the first seats of learning in Scotland. It was also, 
from a very remote period, a place of trade, with 
foreign countries, by bartering the produce of its 
herring and white fishery, for articles of luxury, then 
probably in great demand for the religious establish- 
ments of the city. 

The University of St Andrews can boast among 
the names of its professors, many of the most distin- 
guished characters of former times ; and still continues 
to produce from its seminaries in modern times, many 
able and distinguished individuals, in every branch of 
science and literature. 

In addition to the Churches belonging to the Es- 
tablishment, there is an Episcopal Chapel, and a 
Burgher, and Independent Meeting-house. 

A branch of the Bank of Scotland has been long 
established in the Town. 

The market-day is Monday, and annual Fairs are 
held on the second Thursday in April, 23d day of 
May, the first Tuesday in July, the first day of Au- 
gust, and on St Andrew's day, the 30th November, 
all old stile, except the last one. 
Population of the Town and Parish in 181 1 , was 431 1 . 

1821, 4899. 



STIRLING. 



Stirling, (or as it was anciently written, Strive- 
line, the place of strife or contention), is an ancient 
town, and capital of the County of Stirling-shire, si- 
tuated upon the south side of the river Forth, on a hill, 
which, rising from the east, terminates abruptly in a 
steep rock upon the west. It lies 35 miles north-west 
of Edinburgh, 28 north-east of Glasgow, 7 miles north 
of Denny, 7 miles west of Alloa, and 33| miles from 
Perth, by Auchterarder. Stirling holds the fifth rank 
among the Royal Burghs of Scotland ; it is the seat 
of a Presbytery, and a Circuit Court is held here. 

In the Council Chamber of the Burgh is kept the 
Jug, appointed by Act of Parliament, 1618, to be the 
standard for liquid measure in Scotland. Longitude 
3° 59' west of Greenwich, Latitude 56° 6' north. 

The situation of Stirling is beautiful and romantic ; 
the site of the Town and Castle strongly resembles 
the old town of Edinburgh, standing upon the sloping 
ridge of a rock, on the precipitous west end of which 
stands the Castle. The High Street on the summit 
of the hill, is broad and spacious; the other streets 
are narrow and irregular, and the buildings bear the 



232 

marks of antiquity. The whole of the streets are, 
however, clean, well paved and lighted. The Town 
House, in the High Street, is a large edifice, having 
a lofty tower with a clock, and a set of music bells. 
In this building are apartments for conducting the 
business of the Burgh. Behind this edifice is the 
Jail, upon an excellent plan, containing also a spacious 
and elegant Hall for the Circuit and Sheriff Courts, 
&c. There are two churches, called the East and 
West Kirk, — the former is a very fine building, erect- 
ed by Cardinal Beaton, the latter was founded by 
James the Fourth, in 1594, as a chapel for a monas- 
tery of Franciscans. 

Besides the Established Churches, there are three 
meeting houses in connexion with the United Seces- 
sion Synod, one Baptist, one Burgher, one Indepen- 
dent, and one English Chapel. One of the meeting 
houses belonging to the Secession, was the first Se- 
ceding Church in Scotland ; and a monument is erect- 
ing to the memory of the Rev. Mr. Erskine, the first 
Seceding Minister, whose remains were interred with- 
in its walls. 

The Athena?um is an elegant building, with a Spire 
120 feet high, — -having a Clock with four Dial-plates ; 
the ground floor is occupied as Shops, and the upper 
flats are the Reading and News Rooms, with a Library, 
consisting of some thousand volumes of ancient and 
modern literature, well selected and arranged. The 
front of this building is circular, at the head of two 
streets, and is a very striking ornament to the town. 
Near to this structure is the Corn-market, a large and 
commodious building, where much business is done ; 
and adjoining it is the Butcher-market. 



253 

In the Castle Wynd stands Argyle's Lodgings, 
ibuilt in 1633, by Sir William Alexander of Menstrie, 
Secretary to Charles the First. It afterwards came 
into the Argyle family ; and here Duke John resided 
in 1/55. It is now occupied as the Military Hospi- 
tal. At the top of the High Street stands Marr's 
W-ark, begun in 1572, during the Regency of that 
nobleman, but never finished. On the north side of the 
town several new streets have been laid out, and contain 
many elegant modern houses ; and great improvements 
are making in the old part of the town. The town is 
abundantly supplied with water, brought in pipes from 
Gillies Hill, at a distance of three miles. 

Stirling is a town of much gaiety and elegance, con- 
taining many genteel families of moderate fortune, 
who reside here, and who contribute much to enrich 
and enliven the place ; attracted thither, not only by 
the beauties of the town, but by the fame of its Aca- 
demy and Schools. The Academy, the Grammar 
school, and the English schools are all large and com- 
modious, placed in airy and agreeable situations, and 
taught by masters of the first respectability The 
private schools for ornamental education are of a su- 
perior class. Stirling gave birth to Robert Rollock, 
the first Principal of the College of Edinburgh, 1583, 
— Dr John Moore, author of Travels in France, &c. 
and many other literary characters. 

There are three Hospitals, or Alms-houses, in 
Stirling. The first was endowed by Robert Spittal, 
Tailor to King James the Fourth ; it was built in 
1530, for the support of poor tradesmen ; the revenue 
of this house is about £550 per annum. He also built 
the Bridges of Doune and Bannockburn, and executed 



234 

several other works of great utility. The second was 
founded by John Cowan, in 1639, for twelve decayed 
Guild Brethren ; this Hospital is situated to the south 
of the church, and has a steeple and bell ; it has apart- 
ments for the meetings of the Guildry ; the revenue 
is £3000 per annum. The third was founded by John 
Allan for the maintenance and education of the chil- 
dren of decayed tradesmen. The revenues are about 
£486 per annum. In the year 1808, Alexander Cun- 
ingham, Merchant, left the sum of £3000, as a fund 
for educating the children of poor Freemen Mechanics, 
and for the purpose of augmenting the pensions to 
their widows. There are other minor charitable and 
benevolent institutions in the town ; but none in which 
disease can find a refuge. 

The municipal government of the town is vested in 
a Provost, four Bailies, a Dean of Guild, Treasurer, 
and fourteen Councillors — in all 21 ; 14 of whom are 
Merchants, and 7 deacons of the incorporated Trades. 
There is a singular bye-law in this corporation, by 
which the members of the council bind themselves by 
oath, to take nothing from the burough in considera- 
tion of their services. Stirling unites with Dunferm- 
line, Inverkeithing, Queensferry, and Culross, in re- 
turning a Member to Parliament. The Tevenue of 
the town, arising from the Salmon Fisheries, Shore- 
dues, Markets, &c. amount to about £g500 per an- 
num. 

Besides the ordinary jurisdiction in civil causes, the 
Magistrates have also an extensive criminal jurisdic- 
tion, equal to the power of Sheriffs, within their own 
territories. 

Stirling is a plaoe of very gTeat antiquity. It ia 



335 

mentioned by Buchanan in the ninth century. The 
most ancient of the Town charters, is one by Alex- 
ander the First, dated at Kincardine the 18th August 
1 120, but this evidently appears to be, not a charter 
of erection, but only confirming some additional privi- 
leges formerly conferred on the Burghers and Free- 
men. 

About the middle of the twelfth century, it became 
a Royal residence. David the First kept his Court 
in it, probably that he might be near to the Abbey ot 
Cambuskenrieth, which he had founded. The pa- 
lace is within the walls of the Castle, but it does not 
appear to have been fitted up in a magnificent stile, 
till it became the favourite residence of James the 
First. It was the birth place of James the Second ; 
and here, he murdered with his own hand, his kins* 
man William Earl of Douglas, in the month of Fe- 
bruary 1452. 

James the Third was very fond of this palace, and 
built a noble hall fori the meetings of Parliament, 
which is now converted into barracks. Adjoining to 
the Parliament House, is the Chapel Royal, erected 
by James the Sixth, in 1593, for the baptism of his 
Son, Prince Henry. This Chapel has also under-? 
gone a similar reverse of fortune, being converted in- 
to a store-room and armoury. James the Fifth was 
crowned here, and the palace as it now remains, was 
the work of that Prince, It is a stately building in 
the form of a square, with a court in the centre ; ex- 
ternally, it is very richly and curiously ornamented 
with grotesque figures standing upon pedestals. It is 
now used as barrack wards, for the soldiers of the 

U U 



336 

garrison, and affords a house for the Governor ? and 
apartments for the inferior Officers. 

The Castle, situated on the western extremity ot 
the rock, on which the Town is built, is at least 
coeval with the Town itself. In 1009 it was the 
place of rendezvous of the Scotch army, during an in- 
vasion of the Danes. In the twelfth century it was 
one of the most important Fortresses in the king- 
dom, and was one of the four strong holds given up 
to the English, as part of the ransom of William the 
Lion, who had been taken prisoner by them, in the 
year 1174. During the usurpation of Edward the 
First, it was several times taken and retaken by the 
English and Scots ; in the former of whose hands it 
remained for ten years, until retaken by Robert 
Bruce, after the battle of Bannockburn, in 1314. It 
was a short time in the possession of the English in 
1333, and was lastly taken by General Monk, in the 
year 1651. It was besieged by the rebels for a short 
time in 1746. 

Stirling is one of the Scottish Forts, which by the 
articles of Union are always to be kept in repair. 
There are 36 Guns mounted on the ramparts, and it 
is commanded by a Governor, Deputy Governor, 
Fort Major, and three Subalterns. Upon the rock 
on the south-side of the Castle, is a flat enclosed 
piece of gound, which was the place where the Tour* 
naments were held ; and on one side is a spot of 
ground, where the Ladies sat to witness the combats, 
still called the Ladies' rock. 

Tbeprospect from the Castle Hill is delightful, as well 
as extensive ; the view to the east js particularly beau- 



337 

tiful, embracing the tortuous windings of the Forth, 
the interesting ruins of Cambuskenneth Abbey, the 
Abbey Craig, and the City of Edinburgh in the dis- 
tance. Indeed, the fine views from all parts of the 
town, and the approach to it from all quarters, are 
truly grand, equalled by few, and exceeded by none 
in Scotland, if we except that from Edinburgh Castle. 
The rock is Basaltic, composed of jointed pillars, of a 
pentagonal or hexagonal form. Around the Castle 
is a beautiful walk, carried from the town, cut in ma« 
ny places out of the solid rock, which exhibit to advan- 
tage, the composition of the pillars, of which the mass 
is formed. 

Stirling has a considerable inland trade, and some 
foreign trade, chiefly to the Baltic ; vessels of 60 to 
70 tons, can come up to the Quay, but the navigation 
of the Forth from Alloa, is circuitous, and no wind 
can possibly be a fair one, either going up or down, 
blow from what quarter it will, owing to the remar- 
kable turnings and windings of the river. An idea of 
this navigation may be formed, when it is mentioned, 
that the distance from Alloa to Stirling by land, is 
only six miles, while by water, it is no less than 
twenty-four. 

So early as the year 1600, Stirling manufactured a 
considerable quantity of Shalloons, &c. for exporta- 
tion, but this trade has declined. It has long been 
celebrated for its Tartans and Carpets, the latter of 
which is the principal manufacture of the place. The 
Woollen manufacture employs the bulk of the popu- 
lation, though a good many cotton goods are also 
made. Since the visit of His Majesty to Scotland, in 
1822, the demand for tartan has greatly increased, as 



338 

at that time, it became a fashionable article of drees, 
from the example of Royalty ; and since that period 
many Societies have been formed, who wear the an- 
cient garb of old Gaul. 

The Stirling Bank is an old establishment, and 
there is also a branch of the Bank of Scotland in the 
Town. 

The Market-day is Friday, and Fairs are held an- 
nually, on the first Friday in February, on the last 
Friday in May, the first Friday in August, the third 
Friday in September, the first Friday in November, 
and the second Friday in December. 

The population of the Town and Parish, (which is 
confined to the Burough, and a small territory round 
it, including a small village, called the Abbey,) was 

by the Census, in 1801, 5271. 

1811,—- 5820. 
1821,- 7314. 



STONEHAVEN, 



Stonehaven, or Stonehive, is a sea-port Town, 
in the parish of Dunnottar, in Kincardine-shire, situa-. 
ted on that part of the coast, where the river of Car- 
ron, and the water of Cowie, pour their joint streams 
into the German Ocean. It lies 15 miles south by west 
of Aberdeen, 22 miles south by east of Montrose, 13 
north-east of Laurencekirk, 67 north-east of Perth, 
and 116 miles north-east of Edinburgh, by Dundee 
and Perth. 

It consists of an old and new Town. The old town 
stands upon the south of the Carron, and is a strag- 
gling and irregularly built place, adjoining the Har- 
bour ; containing two streets of houses, built on ground 
originally fued by one of the Earls Marischal. The 
parish church of Dunnottar, is built on a picturesque 
and sequestered spot, about a mile and a half from 
the harbour. 

The Harbour is a natural Basin, sheltered on the 
south east, by high rocks, and protected from the sea, 
by a stone pier on each side ; which renders it ex- 
tremely convenient for loading and discharging car- 



340 

goes, as it has at all times a great depth of water. 
The southern pier was completed in the summer of 
1827, an d adds greatly both to the size and safety of 
the harbour. 

The new Town, lying on the northern side of the 
Carron, is locally situated in the parish of Fetteresso, 
on grounds feued by Barclay of Urie. It is laid out 
upon a regular plan, of wide streets and squares, on a 
level peninsula, formed by the waters of Cowie and 
Carron. The principal streets run south and north r 
and are parallel with the sea-shore, by which they 
are bounded on the east. Allardice Street, and Bar- 
clay Street, are filled up with handsome slated houses ; 
and the buildings in the other streets are going on 
rapidly. In the centre of Barclay Square, is a very 
commodious market-house, surmounted by a Toweiv 

The new church lies at a short distance to the 
north-west of the town, in the parish of Fetteresso. 
There is an Episcopal Chapel in the old town ; a neat 
meeting house, in Mary Street, in the new town, be- 
longing to the United Secession ; and a small chapel, 
in connexion with the Wesleyan Medothists, was 
founded in the year I827. The County Hall, and 
Jail, &c. form three sides of a square,, and are situa- 
ted in the old town. There are two Lint Spinning- 
Mills, an extensive Brewery, and a Rope walk. The 
Bank of Scotland has a branch established in Stone- 
haven. 

The trade of Stonehaven is limited ; notwithstand- 
ing its fine situation, the manufacture of brown Li- 
nen, which has been introduced, is the only article 
which is doing well. Some white fish are cured, and 
a good dpai of oil is made, obtained chiefly from the 



34 1 

■dog fish, which are abundant on the coast. Of late 
years, a. spirit for trade lias shewn itself, and the com- 
merce of the town is rapidly increasing. Within the 
last ten years, Stonehaven has acquired a busy and 
-eheerful appearance, and is the residence of many re- 
spectable families. 

Stonehaven is a Birgh of Barony, the jurisdiction 
of which, by the charter, is vested in Magistrates, 
chosen by the superior, and feuars. The Sheriff 
Courts for the County, are held here every Wednes- 
day and Friday, and a Justice of Peace Court is held 
on the first Monday of every month, for the recovery 
of small debts, &c. The turnpike road to Aberdeen, 
passes through the Town, and another road goes di- 
rectly to Perth, through the valley of Strathmore. 

The ancient Castle of Dunnottar, upon the beach, 
at a short distance from Stonehaven, exhibits one of 
the most majestic ruins in Scotland. It is situated 
upon a perpendicular rock, rising 150 feet above the 
level of the sea. The top of this rock is a plain of 
three acres in extent, and is connected with the main 
land, by a narrow and precipitous isthmus. The 
ruins that remain, still occupy one half of the ground ; 
the whole top of the rock, appears to have been co- 
vered with buildings. The entrance into the Castle, 
is flanked by a square tower of great strength, and 
defended in its interior, by several sally-ports, which, 
before the invention of Artillery, must have rendered 
it impregnable. 

This Castle was the seat of the Marischal family, 
who were attainted in 1715, and is now the property 
of Sir Alexander Keith, of Ravelston and Dunnottar> 
the descendent and representative of that family. It 




342 

withstood all the efforts of Cromwell, and at last made 
an honourable surrender. It was built during the 
contest between Bruce and Baliol, by an ancestor of 
the Marischal family ; and so great was its reputation 
lor strengh and security, that in 1651, it was made 
the depository of the Regalia of Scotland, to secure 
them from the English army. In the summer of 
1685, a body of non-conforming Presbyterians, were 
confined in a vault of this Castle, (still known as the 
" Whig's Vault,") in consequence of which, a number 
of them died, and two who attempted their escape by 
the window, fell over the precipice, and were dashed 
to pieces. A stone in the church-yard of Dunnottar 
marks the place of interment, both of those who died 
in captivity, and of the unfortunate individuals who 
^perished in the " forlorn hope" of effecting their libe- 
ration,* 

The Market-day is Thursday, and particularly for 
cattle, and grain, on the Thursdays from Martinmas 



" The Grave Stone above alluded to, has recently acquired addi- 
tional interest, from its having been, above thirty years ago, the 
scene of a rencountre between Sir Walter Scott, and that remarka- 
ble character, now so familiarly and widely known, under the name 
ol "Old Mortality." This circumstance is mentioned by the great 
Novelist himself, in his preface to the Chronicles of the Candidate, 
in the following words. «' It was Mr Train who recalled to my 
" recollection the history of Old Mortality, although I myself had 
" a personal interview with that celebrated wanderer, so far back as 
" about 1792, when I found him on his usual task. He was engag. 
*• ed in repairing the grave stqnes of the covenanters, who had died 
•• while imprisoned in the Castle of Dunnottar, to which many of 
" them were committed prisoners at the period of Argyle's rising, 
«* Their place of confinement is still called the Whig's Vault." 



343 

to Candlemas ; and annual Fairs are held on the first 
Thursday before Christmas, O. S. the first Thursday 
before Candlemas, O. S. the second Thursday in 
June, second Thursday in August, and the first Thurs- 
day in November. 

The parish of Dunnottar is of a triangular figure, ex- 
tending about four miles each side. It is situated on 
the coast ; and the Strath, called the How, or Hallow 
of the Mearns begins here, and running through the 
parish, divides it nearly into two equal parts. The 
surface is generally uneven, but there are no risings 
which deserve the name of hills, except the Gram- 
pians, which are the boundary of the parish on the west. 
Towards the coast, the soil is a clay loam, but as it 
recedes inwards, it degenerates into a wet gravelly 
moor. The coast is bold and rocky, and there are 
many deep caves in the rocks frequented by sea fowl. 
The new Town of Stonehaven, is in the parish of 
Fetteresso, which bounds Dunnottar, on the north. 
This parish is about ten miles'long, and six broad, of 
which one third is arable, the rest is moor and moss ; 
the richest part lies between the rivers Carron and 
Cowie. This parish is rapidly improving in agricul- 
ture, through the spirited example of the patriotic 
Mr Barclay of Urie. The sea-coast continues to be 
bold and rocky. Near Stonehaven, the ruins of the 
Thane of Cowie's Castle, are still to be seen. On a 
hill called King's Dikes, the vestiges of a rectangu- 
lar encampment are very distinct. 
The Population of the Town and Parish 1811, 1886. 

1821, 1797. 
X X 



. 



STORNAWAY. 



Stornaway is a considerable thriving Town, in 
the Island of Lewis, in the Parish of that name, and 
shire of Ross. The old part of the Town is situated 
at the head of the Loch of Stornaway, on a point or 
nessofland jutting into it; the newer parts of the 
Town, stretch to the north and south of this point, 
along the margin of the Loch. It stands upon the 
north-east side, of the northern division of the island. 
Longitude, 6° 24', Latitude 58° 10'. 

The Town is well built, and consists of Point 
Street, regularly laid out, and crossed by bye lanes ; 
this Street terminates on the west at the Pier Head. 
Dempster Street, and Bay Head Street, stretches a- 
long the beach to the north ; and other Streets range 
to the south-east of the Bay. Kenneth Street, runs 
parallel to Dempster Street, facing the Harbour. 
Church Street, which crosses from the last mentioned 
Street, and Kenneth Street, leads to the church, a 
little east of the Town. 

Stornaway is a Custom-house port, the building ap» 
propriated to this purpose is neat and commodious* 



546 

The Town-house, at the corner of north Beach Street, 
is a plain substantial building ; the Mason Lodge in 
Kenneth Street is a handsome building, occasionally 
used as an Assembly Room, and for public amuse- 
ments ; the church is an elegant edifice of an oblong 
square form, handsomely and commodiously fitted up ; 
and there are two. good School Houses. Many new 
Roads and Streets are laid out, and some of them al- 
ready built upon. 

Stornaway was, within the last twenty years, only 
a small fishing Village, but from the spirited and pa- 
triotic exertions of Lord Seaforth, the proprietor, and 
the grant of irredeemable feus for building, it has be- 
come a place of considerable importance as a Fishing 
station. It has a Post Office; and a packet sails re- 
gularly once a week with the Mail and Passengers. 

No place in the north of Scotland, and in an insu- 
lated situation also, has made more rapid strides at 
improvement, both in a domestic and commercial 
point of view, than Stornaway. The fisheries, espe- 
cially for white fish, is conducted on a large scale. 
The number of boats fitted out annually for that fish- 
ery, amount upon an average to 120 ; the Herring 
fishery has of late been on the decline. The whole 
coasts of the Island of Lewis, and its numerous Bays, 
afford great quantities of Shell Fish, and are well a- 
dapted for the white and Herring fisheries. The 
river also abounds with Salmon and Trout, 

The inhabitants of Stornaway and the coast, are 
chiefly employed in the fisheries ; those of the inte- 
rior, in the rearing of Sheep and Black Cattle, which 
are here, as in the other northern islands^ of a small 
size, , . - 



347 

The Parish of Stornaway is of great extent, form- 
ing an isoceles triangle, two of the sides of which 
measure about ten miles, and the third about seven 
miles long. The general appearance is a flat moor, 
with a small extent of cultivated land ; on the coast, 
the soil is generally a mixture of moss and sand, to- 
lerably fertile. 

The extent of sea coast is about 35 miles, and the 
shores are partly sandy, but general rocky, present- 
ing many Bays or inlets, the chief of which, are Broad 
Bay, South Bay, Loch Stornaway, and Loch Grim- 
shader ; all these Bays afford anchorage for Vessels 
employed in the fisheries; but Loch Stornaway is par- 
ticularly excellent ; Ships of any burden have sufficient 
water, good ground, and no heavy sea can enter it. 

On an elevated situation, on the north-west side 
of the Harbour, stands Seaforth Lodge, the occasion- 
al residence of Lord Seaforth ; around this mansion 
are small plantations of Birch and Hazel, almost the 
only wood to be seen in the parish ; though from the 
number of roots of trees, which are every where dug 
up, it would appear, that in former times, the island 
had been covered with wood. 

There are numerous monuments of antiquity to be 
found here, as Duns, Fortified Castles, Druidical edi- 
fices, Cairns, and upright Stones. The most remark- 
ble of what is generally denominated druidical circles, 
is to be seen near the village of Cullernish, in the 
neighbouring parish of Uig. The circle consists of 
twelve stones or obelisks, each about seven feet high, 
and distant from each other about six feet. In the 
centre is an obelisk of a larger size, 13 feet above 
ground. Directly south from the circle, stands three 



343 

obelisks, running out in a line, another similar to the 
west, and one to the east. Towards the north, there 
are two straight ranges of obelisks, reaching by way 
of an avenue, to an opening between two of the stones 
which form the circle. Each of these ranges consist 
of six stones placed in a regular manner, one exactly 
opposite to another ; all the stones stand on end, and 
are in the same rough state, as taken from the shore. 

The Island of Lewis, also contains one of the most 
entire Danish Forts, or Duns, to be found in Scotland, 
It is circular, with a double wall of dry stone, 30 
feet high, very broad at the base, and narrowing to 
the top, like the frustum of a cane. 

In the Parish of Stornaway is a remarkable cave, 
into which the sea flows at high water j it is a noted 
resort of Seals, — many of which are killed in it. 
The population of the Town and Parish in 

1801, was 2974. 

1811, — 350a 
1821,— 411& 






FIJVIS. 



Turnbull and Sons, Printers, Edinburgh, 



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