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Full text of "Descriptive and historical catalogue of the pictures in the National gallery:"

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From the Lihrary of tKe 



of Art 



Fogg ^J^uscum 
Harvard University 



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I 



DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL 

CATALOGUE 

OF THB 

PICTURES 

IN 

THE NATIONAL GALLERY: 

WITH 



FOBEiaN SCHOOLS. 



ISfi Auttortts. 




EIOHTIETH EDITION, 

LONDON: 

PRINTED FOB HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFIOE, 

AND SOLD AT THE GALLERY. 



1906. 
Price One Shilling. 



27 Oav, y^ 

f06G MUSEUM LIBRART 
IMRVARD UNIViirxoinC 

« 



c 



^ 



■^ -^ 

-^ 



NOTICE. 



The National Gallery is open to the public ftte on Mondays 
Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays throughout the year 
daring the following hours : — 

January From 10 A.M. until 4 p.m. 
SffitT'^ { From 10 A.M. until dusk. 

April 1 

May 

jSr J^From 10 a.m. until 6 p.m. 

August I 
September J 

October 1 

November > From 10 a.m. until dusk. 

December J 

The Gallery is open to Students on Thursday and Fridays 
daring the above-mentioned months from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. in 
mmmer and 4 p.m. in winter, and to the public on the same days 
after 11 o'clock a.m. and up to the same hours by payment of 
nzpence. 

The Gallery is also open to the public ftM of charge on 
I Sundays from 2 p.m. to 5 or 6 p.m. (according to the season) 
from April to October inclusive. 

The Gallery is closed on Christmas Eve, Ohristmas Day, and 
Good Friday. 



5000 Wt 10896 9/1906 D & S 26 26640 a 2 




NOBTH TBariBtTLX— BirJp Italian 3choolt. 
L—Tutean SeHool (IKA J; \eih unf ortu). 
JL—3lenac School, Sk. 
III.-~IUKan Be/loot. 
IV.— BirlK FUmlih School 
Yr^Ferrarae i: Bolognea SehooU. 
VL—nmbrlan Scluiot, So. 
VtL —Vataiim A Bmelaa Sehooli. 
Vin.~Paduaa A Bvly Venetian Sdtoolt. 
a.—8lluiali ti Lombardi/ <(: Parma. 
X.—IhUeh t FUmUh Schools. 
Zl— DuM A Fltmlth School!. 
Xn.— Ddteh S lUntUh School) liiKiadtuB 

XIY^-^SumlfA ftiuMi: 

ly.—aermim SduxOt. 

IVt— French School 
TVU.— French School 
XVm.— 0!d BrUUh School 
XIX.— Old BrltUh School 
XX.—BrttUh School 
IXI. -Jfodem Britlth School 
XXl:.~Turner Collection. 
OOTAOONAL HALL— 7taltan Schools. 
F!ABT VEsnanLB— OU BrltUh AsAooI. 
WB9T VESraULS—Old BrUUh School 

PLAN OP THE NATIONAL OALT^ERT. 



( V ) 



THE 



NATIONAL GALLERY. 



The British National Gallery of Pictures was founded in 1824, 
during the administration of the Earl of Liverpool, by the 
parobase of the collection of the la^ John Julius Angerstein, 
Esq., which thus formed the nucleus of the present national 
collection. 

The establishment of a National Gallery had long been desired, 
and His Majesty George IV. is said to have been the first^ to 
suggest the propriety of purchasing the Angerstein Collection. 
Sir Gtoorge Beaumont, also, and the late Lord Dover, then the 
Hon. George Agar Ellis, took an active part towards the accom- 
phshment of this object. Lord Dover first l»*ought the subject 
before Parliament in 1823 ; f and Sir George Beaumont was so 
desirous to see a National GaUery established, that he offered to 
^ve his own pictures to the nation as soon as the Government 
should allot a proper place for their reception. 

The Angerstein Collection, consisting of thirty-eight pictures, 
was accordingly secured to tbe nation {, and a grant of Parliament 
of 60,0002., proposed by Government, was voted April 2, 1824, 

* Hansard, JParUamentary Debatet, speech of Sir O. Long. April 2, 1821 

t Hansard, Parliameniary Debate*^ July L 18:^3 ; Onnningnam, lAve* cf the mott 

SminetU British Painters^ Sre. ; Sir George Beaumont, voL vi. 
I The entire collection was not included in the Government purchase ; a few 

piotnres were excepted. See the Catalogue of the JHctures of J. J. Angersttin, 

itq^ with Mietarieal and Biographical NoUceSt oy John Young, f oL 1823, which 

eontains etchings of all the pictures. 



▼i THE NATIONAL GALLERY. 

to defray the charge of purchase and the expense incidental to 
the preservation and public exhibition of the collection for that 
year — 57,000/. for the pictures, and 3,0OOZ. for the incidental 
expenses.^ 

A National Gallery was thus established. It was opened to 
the public, in the house of Mr. Angerstein, in Pall Mall, 
May 10, 1824. 

In 1826, pending the erection of a suitable building, Sir George 
Beaumont, following out his promise, made over to the Trustees 
of the British Museum in trust for the National Gallery, sixteen 
valuable works by old masters ; and in 1831 the Rev. William 
ITolwell-Carr bequeathed thirty-five pictures by a similar arrange- 
ment. The last extensive bequest in the department of the 
" Foreign Schools " was that of Mr. Wynn Ellis, in 1876, com- 
prising ninety-four pictures. Other donations and bequests of 
great value, though numerically less important than those above * 
noted, have from time to time augmented the treasures of the 
conection.f In the department of the *^ British and Modem 
Schools" the largest additions as yet made to the Gallery by 
private munificence are the gift of Mr. Robert Yernon, in 1847, 
consisting of one hundred and fifty-seven pictures, and the bequest 
of Joseph Mallord William Turner, R.A., in 1856, embracing a 
hundred and five works in oil and an immense number in water- 
colours and pencil by his own hand. Special mention may also 
be made of those works by John Constable, R.A., which have been 
presented, or bequeathed, by the family of the painter ; as well 
as one splendid example presented by Mr. Henry Yaughan, who 
also bequeathed to the Gallery a large collection of pictures 
and sketches.! 

* Hansard, Parliamentary Debates, April 2, 1824; and the Beport from the 
Meet Committee on National Monuments and Works of Art, with the Minutes of 
Evidence and Appendix. 1841. Appendix. 

T See the tabular list of donations and beqnests appended to this catalogne. 

t See the tabular list of donations and bequests appended to the catalogue of 
the British and Modem Schools. 



THE NATIONAL GALLEAT. yii 

The xesouroes of the Gkdlery have been inoreaaed by the 
following pecuniary bequests for the purchase of pictures : — 

In 1864 from Mr. Thomas Denison Lewis - - 10,000 

„ 1878 „ Mr. Richard Charles Wheeler - 2,612 

„ 1881 „ Mr. Francis Gkrke - - - 23,104 

„ 1885 „ Mr. John Lucas Walker - - 10,000* 

In 1890, Messrs. N. M. Rothschild & Sons, Sir Edward 
Vainness, Bart, (now Lord Iveagh), and Mr. Charles Cotes, 
each contributed 10,0002. towards the purchase of three pic- 
tures from the Longford Castle Collection. 

In 1899 Mr. Alfred C. de Rothschild and Mr. John P. Heseltine 
each contributed 5001. towards the purchase of the two Rem- 
brandts from the Collection of Lord de Saumarez. 

In 1904, Mr. W. Waldorf- Astor, Mr. Alfred Beit, Lord Burton, 
Lord Iveagh, Mr. Pierpont Morgan, and Lady Wantage con- 
tributed the total sum of 21,000Z. towards the cost of the 
'^Daruley " Titian (No. 1944 in the National Gallery), purchased 
from Sir George Donaldson. 

In 1906, the National Art-Collections Fund precented the 
picture of " Yenus and Cupid," by Yelasquez. 

Without a continuance of State support, however, the National 
Gkdlery would have remained deficient as a representative col- 
lection, and wanting in some of its most important contents. 
Between 1825, after the purchase of the Angerstein pictures, and 
1855, a series of chosen works were added to the Gallery by means 
of special grants from the Government. In the latter year the 
establishment was reconstituted by a Treasury Minute, and a 
Board of Management was appointed consisting of a limited 
nmnber of Trustees and a responsible Director. To this Board 

* By the oonditions of the Lewis and the Olarke beqnesta the interest only 
on the invested capital can be nsed. 



viii THE NATIONAL G ALLEEY. 

waB entrusted the control of a subsidy to be annually voted by 
Parliament for the purchase of pictures. Under this>%ystem, and 
with such means at hand, the National Gallery has gradually 
taken its place abreast of the great continental institotleiis of its 
class. In more than one instance, howerer/ where the regular 
annual grant would not have sufficed for the purchase en bloc of 
some important cc^ection, or of some picture of .especial value 
the €k)Temment has stepped in, and recommended to Parlia- 
ment an advance in aid. Such happened in the case of the 
Peel Collection, in 1871, and in 1885, when the "Ansidei 
Baphael " as well as the equestrian portrait of Charles I. by 
Yan Dyck were acquired for the Gallery, and in 1890, when the 
Longford Castle pictures were purchased, and again in 1899 when 
the two Bembrandts from Lord de Saumarez*s Collection were 
purchased.* 

, la 1893 Mr. Henry Tate, who had long desired to present to 
the Nation his collection of Modem British pictures, generously 
offered to erect at his own cost a public Gallery for their recep- 
tion, on condition that Her Majesty's Government would provide 
a suitable site for the building. This offer was gratefully 
accepted. The site selected was in Grosvenor Boad, Millbank. 
Designs for the structure were prepared by Mr. Tate's architect, 
Mr. Sidney B. J. Smith, and in July 1897 the institution n^as 
formally opened by H.B.H. the Prince of Wales, under the title 
of the <* National Gallery of British Art.*' In November, 1899, 
the Building was enlarged by the addition of eight picture 
Galleries and a large Sculpture Hall, at the cost of the munifi- 
cent Donor of the Gallery. In addition to Sir Henry Tate's 
private collection, it now contains the pictures and sculpture 
purchased under Sir Francis Chantrey's Bequest, besides twenty- 



,*,m*ttm.^i^m 



* Tabular lists of all purchases made for the collection, whether in the' 
dBiiastDMnt of the lorvign or in that of t]>e"Biitiah flohoo^.wUl iM found 
appended to the respective catalogues of these schools. 



THE NATIONAL GALLERY. iz 

three piotnreB painted and presented by Mr. G. F. Watts, B.A.y 
and nearly 130 examples of the Modem British School transferred 
from the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square. 

The collection at Trafalgar Sqnare now consists of more than 
1,470 pictures, of which about 180 are on loan to other Depart- 
ments and to provincial institutions. 

The original portion of the present building was erected 
at the national expense, after a design by William Wilkins, 
B.A., architect, and was originally intended to accommodate 
both the National Gallery and the Boyal Academy. It 
was begun in 1832, and the east wing dedicated to the 
former institution was opened to the public April 9, 1838. 
In 1869, on the remoyal of the Boyal Academy to Burlington 
House, the entire building, as it then stood, was given up to 
the National Gtdlei^, but was already insufficient for the lodg- 
ment of the increased collection. In the year 1876 the new 
wing, erected from a design by the late Mr. E. M. Barry, B.A., 
was added, and the Yemon Collection, which had been tempo- 
rarily exhibited at the South Kensington Museum, was removed 
to this Gallery. 

In 1885-87 the Gallery was still further enlarged by the addi- 
tion of a new staircase directly accessible from the grand portico, 
and terminating in three vestibules, of which the central one. 
opens into the first of two large and three smaller new rooms 
communicating with those of Mr. Barry's wing. In the sub- 
structure, on the ground floor level, were provided two large 
studios or repairing rooms, and several smaller apartments 
together with store rooms and other offices. 

These last alterations were executed by Her Majesty's Office 
of Works, under the superintendence of Mr. (now Sir John) 
Taylor, of that Department. 



(xi) 



INDEX 



TO THE NAMES OP THE MASTERS OF THE PICTURES IN 
THE NATIONAL GALLERY, FOREIGN SCHOOLS, 

ASBAKOED ACCOBDINO TO THE NUMBEB8 OV THE PIOTUBBB. 



No. 

1 Luciani, Sehastiano 

2 OelWe, Claude 

3 VecelliO, Tiziano, School of 

4 Vecellio, Tiziano 

\ } GelWe, cw^tde 

7 Al\egn(fifter) 

8 Buonarroti, Michelangelo, 

School of 

9 CarraCOi, Annibale 
10 Allegri, Antonio 

11 Reni, Ouido 

12 Oell6e, Claude 

13 HurillO, BartolomS E, 

14 Oellto, Claude 

15 Allegri, Antonio 

16 Robusti, Jacopo 

17 Sarto, -^M^r^^ i«2 

18 Luilli, JSemardino 

19 aelUe, Claude 

20 Lnciani, Sedaetiano 

21 Allori, Chrietofano 

22 Barbierri, Giovanni 

23 Allegpri; -A»*<>»«o 

24 Lncianip Sebastiano 

26 CarraCCl, Annibale 

26 Caliari, -RwZa 

27 Sanzio, Baffaello 

28 Carracci, Lodovioo 

29 BarOCCi, Federigo 

80 OelUe, ^<»«^ 

81 Dnghet, Qaepard 



No. 

32 Veoellio, TUiano, Sehod of 

33 Parmigiano 
|g I TecelliOy J^i«»<> 

86 Dughet, Oaepard 

37 AllegriC*/^) 

38 Enbenfl, i«^ i*. 

|§ I PouBflin, iVw<>z«# 

41 Oariani* Giovanni Buei, 

Aecribed to 

42 IPoxiASiSk^ ^^olai 

43 Rembrandt van Ryn 

44 B.mBd^ely'^tMobvan 

45 Rembrandt van 

46 Rubens^ ^eter p. 

47 Rembrandt van 

48 Zampieri, -D<wiwn<<>o 

J§ I Dyck, Sir A. van 

51 Rembrandt van 

52 BjOky Sir A. van 

53 Cnyp, Aelbert 

54 Renibrandt van Ryn 

55 Oell^e, Claude 

56 Carracci, ^»»<*«i« 

57 Rubens, i'^*^ -P. 

58 (}elUe, Claude 

59 Rubens, i^^^r p. 

61 OelMe, Claude 

62 PousBin^ -^i^^?^ 

63 Carracci, Annibale 

64 Bourdon, Sebaetisn 



xu 



INDEX TO NAMES OF MASTERS. 



No. 

^^ ] Eubens, P^ter P. 

68 Duffhet, &aspard 

69 MoTa, Pi^ro Ih'ancesoo 

70 Y9X0ixA^ ^let9and/ro 

71 Both, Jan 

72 Rembrandt van Byn 

73 Orandi, ^ooie d% cnuiio 

Cemre 
74 MurillO, BartolomS E. 

76 Zampieri, J>omenioo 

76 Allegri, AiUonio (after') 

77 Zampieri, Domenieo 

78 ^er^iism^ Nieoias 

81 Tisio, Be/ivenuto 

82 U^zzoiino^ ^dovioo 

84 lELOBB,y Salvatore 

86 Zampieri, Doinenioo 
88 Carracci, ii»«*&«^<» 

91 PouSSin, Nioohu 

II I Carracci, ^«»^JaZ« 

95 Dughet, Oetspard 

97 Oafiari,^^^ 

98 Dughet, Q(M'pa/rd 

101) 

103 f I'^^cret, Niooloi 

104] 

126 Huysman, Jo^oh 

127 Canale, ^»*^w> 
184 Decker, Comelis O. 
136 Canale, ^»^^w 
187 Ooyen. J^^ '^^^ 

188 Panini, Oiovarmi A. 

140 Heist, -^« *«» ^^ 

146 Storck, Abraham 

Jl^ I Carracci, AgoHino 

149 I Velde, w^^W^w* m» <f^ {the 

160 f yowngm-) 



No. 

161 Soyen, •^<9^ ^'^^ 

152 Neer, Aart f>an der 
163 Maes, Nicolas . 

164 1 Teniers, Baoid (the 

166 J yofmger) 

166 Dyck, ^Sfw* ^. va/n 

157 Rubens, -P^^''^ -P. 

158 Teniers, Ba'dd (the 

younger) 

169 Maes, -ZViiJo^M 

160 Mola, Pietro Framesoo 
16r Dughet, Oaspard 

163 Canale, ^«^<M»tVi 

166 ^OVMlliy Nicoloi 

166 Rembrandt van Ryn 

,167 Peruzzi, BaXdassa/re 

168 Banzio, -B^/-^^^ 

169 Mazzolino, J^i«<^»*w 

170 Tisio, Benvenuto 

172 Amerighi, Michelangelo 

173 Ponte, Ja^opo da 

174 Maratti, ^^^^^^^ 

176 PlaaS. Van der 

176 Murilio, -S^^'^^^^w^ -2?. 

177 Reni, (^ido 

1^0 I Saibolini, Franceteo 

181 Vannucci, -Pm^*^<> 

184 Lucidel, N^ieolae 

186 Eyck, •^'^w ^'^'^ 

187 Rubens, -P<^*«^ ^. 

189 Bellini, Giovanni 

, 190 Rembrandt van Ryn 
191 Reni, Ouido 

192 DOU, Gerard 

193 Reni, Guide 

194 Rubens, -P^tf^ i'. 
196 German School 
196 Reni, ^i^ 
1197 Velazquez 

198 Carracci, AnmhaU 



INDEX TO NAMES OP MASTERS. 



199 Sehaleken, eoi^rUi 

200 Sasmferiato 

202 Hondeooeter, JfofcAivr de 

203 Herp, O^miam van 

204 BaUtnizen, l^oif 

SOS Dietrich, J-hann w. B. 

206 Orenze, J"*^ s. 

207 Mae8,A^woi(M 

208 Breenberr, B. 

209 Bottaa^Poelenbnrjf 

210 Qu&rdi, FramietBO 

211 Huclitenbnrgli, .'oftAnren 

212 Keyser, Tkama» da 

213 Sanzio, ai/aeKo 

214 Beni, 6'ut(2c 

111 I Oaddi, Taddeo, Sekoal of 

218 Peruzzi, Balda»mre 

219 Lombard School 

221 EembTandt van Bys 

222 Byckyanean 

223 Bakhmzen, i^»A>;/' 

234 VewUiOf^^ia'^i School of 

226 Pippi, 6''''i«' 

226 Pihpepi. School of 

227 Tuscan School 

228 Pont6, Jnoopo da 
Qon/Zurbaran, JVowjftfo 

234 Catena, Vineenzo 

235 Bibera, Jouf 

236 Vernet, a««^ ^. 

237 Rembrandt van Ryn 

238 Weenii, Jaw ((A« tottngm'} 

239 Heer, ^a^ r«« <2«r 

240 Bercnem, A'ieoia* 

242 Teniera, -Ofli'^'i (the 

younger) 

243 Bembrandt van Byn 

244 Eibera, J^e' 

245 Baldnng, ^otr 

246 Paeohia, Oirolamo del 



247 Matteo di OioTknni 

248 Liypi, Fra i^ipjM, 
LraeuodaSanSewiao 



German School 



Tlemieh School 

Lombard, Lambert 

Tsoa Caliarl, Paolo 

269 Barbarelli, Biorgw 

270 Veoellio, Tixia*o 

271 Rani, o«ido 

272 Italian School 
274 Hantoffna, Andm 

27fi Filipepi, AUmavdro 

276 QiottO, Sekoolaj 

277 Ponte, Jaeopa da 

1^1 j Rubens, P^ier P. 

280 Bellini, eweanni 

281 Baeaiti, ^"'■■n' 

282 Bertucci, 6iota.»niB. 

283 OoBBOli, ^ejwiio 

284 Vivarini, BartoloBimeo 
288 Uorone, Franeeteo 

286 TaOCOni, -Francewft 

287 Veneziano, ^■"-'"''nwoM 

288 Vannucci, i^fro 

289 Lundene, Oerrit 

290 Byok,*fen'"»« 

291 Cranach, Iako* 

292 PoUaioolo, Jtttmio 



XIT 



INDEX TO NAMES OF MASTERS. 



No. 
29S 
294 
295 
296 
29? 
298 
299 
SOO 
664 
565 
666 
667 
568 

669' 
670 

672 
678 
574 

576 
677 
678. 

679 
580 
581 
682 
688 
685 
586 
589 
590 
591 
692 
693 
694 
696 
596 
597 
598 
699 
602 



Lippi, f^ippino 
Caliari, P'mIo 

MaSSyS, QuiiUen 

Tuscan School 
fiomanino 

Borg;0|^OIie, Amhrogie 
Bonvicino, Meuandro 
Oima. Giovanni Sattista 

Margraritone 

Cimabne, ffiovanni 

Dnccio di Bnoninsegna 
Seg^a 

QiottO, Se?Mol of 



Croatia 



Gaddi, Taddeo, School of 

Landini, •'■««»?» 
Spinello Aretino 

Angellco, -JVa CHovaimi 

TTccello, Pttolo 
Umbrian School 
Hacohiavelli, zenoHo 
Lippi, ^» tuippo 

ZoppO, -Jforca 
GOBBOli, Benozxo 
Lippi, FUippino 
Credi, Lorenxo di 

Emmanuel 
Venetian School 
Palmezsano, ifareo 

COBSa, Franeeteo del 
Lippi, t'ilippino 

Beluni, Oiovanm 
CrivelU, Oarh 



No. 

623 
624 
625 
626 

627 
628 
629 
630 
631 

632 
633 
634 

635 
636 

637 
638 
639 
640 
641 
642 
643 
644 
645 

646 
647 
648 
649 
660 
661 

652 
653 
654 

665 
656 
657 
668 
669 
660 

661 



Oirolamo da Treviso' 

Pippi, tH»lio 
Bonvicino, AUiiandro 
Filipepi, AU$*andro' 

\ Buisdael, J<">ol van 

Costa, Lorenzo 
Schiavone, OregorUt 
Bissolo, Franeeteo, A»- 
eribed to 

\ Girolamo da Santa- 
) croce 

Cima, CHovanm Battitta 
I Yecellio, Tiziano 

Bordone, ParU 

Baibolini, Franeeteo 
Manteg^a, Franeetoo 
DOSSO Dossi, Oiovcmni 
Hazzolino, Ludomeo 
Tisio, Benvenuto 

I Binaldo Mantovana 
Albertinelli, Mariotto 

\ ITmbrian School 

Credi, Lorenzo da 

\ Bronzino, Angela di 
r Cotimo, eaUed 

Bossi, Franeetoo 

Flemish School 

Weyden. Bogier van der, 
Later School of 

Orley, Bomard van 

Gossart, Jan 
Cornelissen, Jaeoh 
German School 
Bottenhammer, Johann 

Cloaet, ^aneoi*. Alerted 
to ' 

SanziO, Baffadlo, Traeing 
from, by J. SekUtinger. 



INDEX TO NAMES OF MASTERS. 



XT 



No. 

663 Ang^elicOy -^^^ CHovanni 

664 Weyden, Rogier van der 

665 TnJiOWOtLj ^^i^o della 

gg^JLippi, FraFUippo 

668 Crivelli, ^Wo 

669 Ortolano,x* 

670 Bronzino, Angela di 

CoHmo, called 

671 Tiflio, Benven/uito 

672 Bembrandt van Byn 

673 Antonello da Messina 

674 Bordone, i'^'TM 

679 'Rol^ Ferdinand 

680 Dyck, 9ir a, van 

686 Hobbema^ Mdndert 

686 lILemlvnZySans 

687 German School 

690 SartOf Andrea del 

691 Spagna, -Z^* Ascribed to 

692 Lodovico da Parma 

693 PinturiechiOy Bernardino 

694 Catena, ViTioenzo 

696 Previtaliy Andrea 

696 Flemish School 

697 Moroni, Oiamhattitta 

698 Piero di Cosimo 

699 Lotto, Lorenzo 

700 Laniniy Bernardino 

701 Justus of Padna 

702 Umbrian School 

703 Pinturicchio, Bernardino 

704 Bronzino, AngeHo di 

CoHmo, called 

706|^aerman8cbool 

7(g ) Flemish School 
7M > Hemline, ^<>fl< 

710 ) Flemish School 
"J11 ) 




720 ( 

721/ 

722 

724 

726 

727 

728 

729 

732 

734 

736 

736 

737 

739 

740 

741 

742 

744 

746 

746 

747 

748 

749 

760 

761 

762 

763 

767 
768 

m\ 

768 



Mostert, «^«« 
BngelbertsB, Oomai$ 

Patinir, Joachim 

Bles, Herri do, Aicrihod 

to 

Scorel, •/'tf « van 
German School 

CJrivelli, Carlo 
Bellini, Oiovanmi 
Pesellino, ^ance$eo 
BeltralBo, Oiovan Ant, 
Foppa, yineenzo 
Neer, Aart van der 
Solario, Andrea da 

Morando, ^^lo 

Bonsignori, ^aneeeeo 
Buisdael, Jacob van 
Crivelli, Carlo 
Sassoferrato 
Velazquez, AeoHbod to 

Moroni, Oiambattiita 
Sanzio, Bafaello 

Velazquez 

Buisdael, Jacob van 
Memlinc, Sans,Aieribed to 

Girolamo dai Libri 

Oiolflno, Niooolb 
Bastiani, Laztaro 
Santi, Giovanni 

Lippo di Dalmasio 
Melone, Aitobeiio 

Melozzo da Forli 

Rembrandt van Bifn, 

School qf ^ ' 

Francesca, Pi»ro ddia 
Domenico Veneziano 

Vivarinl, Antonio 



IKDBX TO SAMB8 OP MASTBB8. 






769 FranceBoa, Pt»"> <*«''« 

770 Oriolo, eiovami 

771 Bonodarerrara 
1^1 j Tura, *^i«»™' 

774 yiemish School 

775 Eembraiidt van Efn 

776 PiBano, yatire 
•Jit Morando, i^«rfo 
778 Uartino da Udine 
?^ I Borgognone, Amirc^ie 

781 Taaoan School 

782 Pilipepi, -^'**''™'^ 
788 FlemUn School 
788 OriTelli, Ca/A" 

790 Buonarroti, ^icft'^MW*^'' 

794 Hooch, -P^*'"'^ 

796 HuyBtiin, •'«" •■"• 

797 Cuyp, ielbert 

798 Champaigne, Phaippe de 

802 Hontagna, Baa^olommeo 

1^ [ Marziale, Jf"^ 

805 Teniors, ^'"'^ (**« 

806 Boooaooino, Soccaceio 

807 Crivalli, O^'i* 

808 Bellini, av>tcmni 

809 Buonarroti, ^"^"'Ve'" 

811 Eosa, Salmtare 

812 Bellini, oi^ivami 

816 Cima, OiomnMii BMtista 

817 Teniers, DauW (*A» 

IJIlBakhuiBeii,^*^ 

820 Berchem,JVfeoi« 

821 CoqueB, a«nzaiet 

|i|}cnyp,^e'*«* 



825 Don, fflwwni 
827[jardln,-K«^*' 

829 Haokaert, ^-i" 

830) 

11^ ^Hobbema, Mei»dert 

833) 

^|[Hoooli,-Krt«-d, 

836 Koniaok, -PAWip* *> 

837 Lingelbach, Jok"^ 

|||(MetBii, «?»Wrf 

840 Mieris, *Vfl«i «»« 

841 MieriB, wuum nui 

848 Moucheron,-*W<Mrii(fa 

844 [ WetBcher, Catyar 
846 Ostade,-***"* ■'■""« • 

849 Potter, J^mJ« 

860 Rembrandt van Kyn 
851 RiCCi, SehaitiiHU 



RnbenB, »** J*. 



INDEX TO NAMES OF MASTERS. 



XTii 



No. 



V 



|§p } Bnbens, P^«r P. 




H I SniBdael, Jo^^oh van 
856 8teen,</^» 



Teniers, l>avid (the 

younger^ 



864 Terboreh, Gerard 

865 Oappelle, Jan van de 

866 Hoyden, J(^n van der 

\ Velde, Adriaen van de 




,Velde, W, van de (the 
younger^ 




Wonwerman, PAiZijw 

gg| I Wynants, Jan 

895 Piero di GoBimo 

896 Terborch, Oerard 

901 Looten, Jon 

902 Mantegna, Andrea 

908 Rigaud, Hyadmthe 

904 Schiavone, Oregorio 

905 Tura, Coeimo 
25640 



No. 

906 
907 

908 

909 

910 



} Criyelli, Oario 

Franeesoa, ^ero ddla 
Benvenuto da Siena 
Signorelli, I'^tea 

PintnricohiO, Bernardino 



911 

913 Cumbrian School 
914) 

915 Filipepi. Alestandro 

916 Tuscan School 

920 SB,Yerjy Boelandl 

928 Solano, ^^^Mt ^ 
924 Neeffs, Pieter 

927 Lijflfi, ^iffpino 

928 PoUaiuolO, Antonio, As- 

eribed to 

929 BmAOj Baffadlo (after) 

980 Barbarelli, Sehooi of 

931 Caliari,iW2(i 

932 Italian (xrz am*i»7) 

983 Varotari, Aleaandro 

934 Dolci, Carlo 

935 Boea, Salvatore 

936 BibieMy ^^dinando 

Canale and Tiepolcv 

Canale, Antonio 

Flemish School 
Marinas van Bomerswael 

Patinir, Joachim 

Oossart, Jan 
Flemish School 
RuhenSy P^er Paul 

[ TenierS, Bavid (the eldery 



xvm 



INDEX TO NAMES OP MASTERS. 



No. 

952 1 Teniera, l>^vid (the 

953 J younger) 

954 Hnyflmans, Comeiu 

955 VQ%\m}iyag}i^Corneliivan 

9561 
160) 

161 >Cuyp, AeiheH 

968 Ostade, i><^^ van 
964 1 

966 i Cappelle, J^n van de 

967) 

968 DOU, Gerard 

969 Neer^ -<i<^^ van der 

970 Metstt, fi'^^riei 

i?2 } ^y^*^^> -^"^ 

978 WouwermBJiy PhUipg 
974 Koninck, i'AiZtp* <fo 

i'i 1 Wouwerman, PhUi^ 

17'/ 

I Velde, TFtZ^^w van de 
(the younger') 



Vdlde, -^driaen van de 



985 Jardin, -S'^^^ du 
16 

Buisdael, •^'^<'* va/n 






12 i 

18 f Hdvdon •^'^^ <'<>^ ^^ 



1000 

1001 

1002 

1003 

1004 
1006 
1006 

1007 
1008 
1009 
1010 
1011 
1012 
1013 
1014 
,1015 
1016 
1017 
1018 
1019 
1020 

1021 

1022 
1023 
1024 

1026 

1031 

1032 

1083 

1034 

1036 

1036 

1041 

1042 

1046 

1047 



Hobbema, XMndert 

I^Sohalcken, Ooifriei 

Bakhaizen, iMidlf 
Havsnin. Jo^ f^ 
Walseappelle, Jo^ 
Fyt, •^<*« 

[ Berchem, N^^lae 

Wils, ^om 
Potter, Pieter (X) 

Potter, PauiuB 

Deelen, Birch van 
Coques, Oowudes 
Merian, Matth<Bue^ Jnr, 

Hondekoeter, Meiohior de 
Elsheimer, Adam 

08, Jan van 
Lely, Sir Peter 

Flemish School 
OelUe, c^ude 

I Qreuze, Jean B. 

Hals, Pra/M 

Moroni, Oiambattieta 

BonvicinO, AUua/ndro 
Savoldo, Giovanni B, 

Spagna, Lo 

Lippi, Pilippi^M 
Filipepi, Aleuandro 
Bigio, Pramda 

Flemish School 
Caliari, Paolo 

Hemessen, Catha/rvna V€tm 
David, Gheeraert 
Lotto, Lorenzo 



INDEX TO NAMES OF MASTERS. 



ziz 



No. 

048 Pnlzone, SeipioTte 

049 Oerman School 
.050 Bakhuizen. l^doif 

051 Bertucci, diovanni B, 

052 Milanese School 

053 Witte, ^Shnanuel de 

054 Guardi, Franeetoo 

J§J j Sorgh, Hend^h 

067 Vernet, Claude j. 

A59 I ^^^^^^9 Antonio 

060 Wouwerman, PhUijfs 

.061 Poel, Egbert van der 

062 Ferrarese School 
.063 Flemish School 
074 Hal8,i>w-A 

076 Vannucci, Pietro 

077 Borgognone, AmWogio 

J^§ } Flemish School 

080 Oerman School 

081 Flemish School 

082 Eatinir, Joachim 

083 Flemish School 

084 Patinir, Joachim 

085 German School 

086 Flemish School 

088 I ^^™^^^ School 

089 Flemish School 

090 Boucher, Francois 

092 Zaganelli, Bernardino 

da Cotignola 
098 Vinci, Leona/rdo da 
094 Mor, Antony, Ascribed to 

.095 Lievens, Jan 

096 'Weeuin^ Jan B, 

.098 Montagna, Bartolommeo 
.099 MengS, Anton Bqfael 

101 \ ^^e^h ^^^^^ 

25640 



1120 

1121 

1122 

1123 

1124 

1125 

1126 

1127 

1128 

1129 

1130 

1131 

1132 

1133 

1134 

1136 i 
1136 f 

1137 

1138 

11391 
1140 f 

1141 

1143 

1144 

1145 



Longhi, Pietro 

Fiorenzo di Lorenzo 

Manni, CHannicola 
Lotto, Lorenzo 
Mantegna, Pranceseo 

Niccolo da Fuligno 
Tuscan School iSienate) 
Niccold di Buonaccorso 
Lorenzetti, Pietro 

Coqnes, OotuoUs 

Grandi, Eroole di Oiulio 
Oesare 

Oima, Oiovanni Battiita 

Venetian School 

TheotOCOpuli, Domenioo 

Barbarelli, School of 

Lippi, FUippvno 
Mante^a, Aiudrea 
Filipepi, Alessandro 
Robert!, Creole di^ 

Simorelli, Lnoa 
Velazquez 

Bobusti, Jaoopo 
Pontormo, Jacopo da 
Steenwyck, Sendriek 

Sig^orelli, Luoa 
Liberale da Verona 

Veronese School 

00St,*^^<'^^a9» (the elder} 

Andrea dal Castagno 

Duccio di Buoninsegna 

Antonello da Messina 
Ghirlandaio, Ridoifo del 

Bazzi, Oio^annaTitonio 
Mantej^a Andrea 

o 2 



INDEX TO NAMES OF MA9TEES. 



1147 Lorenzetti, -i«»*"'ffw 

1148 Velazquez 

1U9 Kaico da Oggionno 
IIBO Pontormo, Jaeopo da. At' 
crihedto 

1151 aerman School 

1152 Piazza, Martmo 

1164 Greuae, >'<'"" Baptute 
1156 Matteo di OioTanni 

1167 Cavallino, Bernardo 

1169 Dughet, Oiup^rd 

1160 Barbarelli, Siorgio 

1165 BOEVioinO, Aleutmiro 

1166 Antonello da Meesiiia 

1168 Vliet, Willemvander 

1171 Banzio, «■"#'«"'' 

1172 Dyok, *'" -^nfA^wy *""» 

1173 Barbarelli, &A^ ^ 

illi \ U^oli^B ^ ^"°^ 
1190 Clouet, JVo'f'W'. -^»- 

ills 1 ^^<*l''< Oiora**i B. 
1194 Veniuti, Mwarfio 

1196 "BMyifSM, Peter P. 

J}§§ I Tuscan Sohool 
\|J5[Maoriiiod'Alba 

1205 Botiifazio VeroneM 
1203 Caiiani, Owvamni de' 

1206 Bosa, Sal'vatore 

1212 ( ''Orone, Domenieo 

1213 Bellini, Oe^aue 

1214 Micliele da Verona 
1216 Domenieo Veneziano 

1216 Spiuello Aretino 

1217 Roberti, -s^tode' 



12181 
12191 
1220 



1227 
1229 
1230 

1231 
1232 
1233 
1234 
1239 
1240 
1241 
1243 

1247 
1248 
1261 
1262 
1266 
1256 
1257 



Ubeitini, Franmeico 

Andrea di Loigi 

Fape, Abraham de 

Hondecoeter, MeUKivr 

de ' 

Yennsti, Slarotlle 
Morales, LitU de 
Ghirlandaio, Domtaieo 

del ' 

Mor, Antony 

Aldegrever, Heinrieh 

Bellini, Giovanni 
D0B8O D088i, Olaranai- 
■ MoCettOt Sirolamo 

Campana, Pe^o 
Heimbacb, Christ iam 

Wolfgang 
Uaes, Ificoiai 
Helflt, B. van der 
Hale, ^Wt'M 
Snyder 8, ^aa» 

Yelde, Jan Jansz van, de 

Steenwyok, Bkirman 

Mnrillo, BartdmtU E. 
Ohardin, J---B. Simian , 



[ . Maes, ^^cias 

1278 Pot, Sendrih 6. 

1280 Flemish School 

1282 Empoli, ^ CUmenti da- 

1384 Vivarjni, Aatmio 

1286 mail\a,BaTtelomiE. 



INDEX TO NAMES OP MASTERS. 



No. 

1287 Datch School 

1288 "Reel, ^'Winder 

1289 Cuj^a, Aelbert 

1291 YBlaes'Lealj J^n de 

1292 Bylert^ ^an van 

1293 KoleHMTy Jan Mieme 

1294 FoOTteiy Willem de 

1296 Oiovenone, Giroiamo 

1297 } ^*^' Giuseppe 

1298 Patinir, •ra0<TAim 

1299 Ohirlandaio, Domenieo 

del ' 

1300 MilanoBe School 

1301 Tuscan School 

1302 i Marmion, Simon, As- 

1303 ) eHhed to 

1304 Umbrian School 

1305 Donck, G. 

1308 Mazo, Martinez Juan 

JBatUUta del 

1309 Licinio, Bernardino 

1310 Cima, ^iov^TMit, ^af- 

tigia 

1311 Beerstraaten, J'^i^ 

1312 Victors^ ^«» 

1313 Bobusti, •/'^ep<' 

1314 Holbein, ^a»« 

1315 Velazques 

1316 Moroni, Oiambattista 

1317 Tuscan School iSienete^ 

1318 Caliari, i'iw/o 

1319 QelUe, Claude 

1320 i JanSSans, Cornelis van 

1321 ] Ceulen ' 

1323 Bronzino QAnaelo di 
QfsimoX called 

1324) 

1825 > Caliari, Paolo 

1826 » 

1827 Soyen, Jan van 

1829 Brekelenkam, Qniryn 

1330 Duccio di Buoninsegna 



I 



No. 

1331 
1332 
1333 
1334 
1335 
1336 

1337 
1838 
1839 
1340 
1341 
1342 
1343 
1344 
1345 
1346 
1347 
1348 
1352 
1353 
1376 
1376 

1377 
1378 
1380 
1381 
1383 

1886 
1387 
1390 
1393 
1397 
1399 
1400 
1401 
1406 

1409 
1410 

1411 



Fungai, Bernardino 
NetBCher, Ompar 
TiepolO, Oiovanni B, 
Longhi, Pietro 

French School,XF. cent, 
Liberale da Verona, 

Ascribed to 
Bazzi, CHovannantonio 

[ FabritiuS, Bemkard 

Boghman, RoeUmd 

Decker* Comelii o. 
Wet, J» de 

Dutch School 

Buysdael, Salomon vain 

Wouwerman, Jan 

Avercanip, HendHh van 
Ostade, £aak van 
Velde, Adriaen van de 

Moucheron, JMdMc de 
Ryckaert, MaHin 

I Velazquez 

Venetian School 
Steen, Jan 

Os, Jan van 

Mantegna, iVancesco 
Venneer, Jan 

I Duyster, i^uiem a 

Ruisdael, •/<^<'i «a» 

Vemet, Claude J. 
Aack, Johannes Ah. 
Terborch, Gerard 

Bembrandt van Byn 

SnyerS, Pieter 

Angelico, ^a Giovanni^ 
School of 

Cordelle Agii, Andrea 

BorgOgnone, Ambrogie 

Boberti, Ereole de' 



zxu 



INDEX TO NAMES OF MASTERS. 



No. 

1412 Lippi, Mlijfpino 

1416 DOU, Gerard 

1416 Mazzola, FUippo 

1417 Uantegna. Andrea 
1417a Italian School 

1418 Antonello da Messina 

1419 Flemish School 

1420 Berck-Heyde, OerrU A. 

1421 8teen,^«» 

1422 Le Sueur, JEmta^he 
1428 Ravesteijn, Jan A, van 

1424 Elsheimer, Adam 

1425 LeNain 
1427 Baldung, -HiiTM 

1429 Canale Antonio 

1480 Beccafumi, Domenioo 

1431 VannuCCi, JPietro, As- 
cribed to 

1482 David, OkeeraeH 

1488 Flemish School. 

1484 Velazquez 

1486 Pisano, VUtere 

1487 Barnaba da Modena 

1488 Milanese School. 

1489 Ruysdaelj Salomon van 

1440 Bellini, Giovanni 

1441 Vannucci, Pietro 

1442 Bakhuizen, •2^o(/' 

1448 Steenwyck, Hendrioh 

1444 Honthorst, Gerard van 

1446 1 ^^ysc^j ^"^^^ 

1447 Meulen, Adam F, van der 

1449 Champaigne, PhUippe de 

1460 Luciani, Sebagtiano 

1461 Berck-Heyde, GerrU a, 

1464 Ouardi, Prdnoesco 

1466 Bellini, Giovanni 

1466 Italian School. 

1467 TheotOCOpuli, Domenioo 

1469 Beckhout, Gerbrand van 
den 



No. 
1461 

1462 
1466 
1466 
1468 
1469 

1470 
1471 
1472 
1478 
1476 
1478 
1479 

1481 
1489 
1490 
1496 

1668 

1660 
1661 
1662 
1664 

1666 
1674 
1676 

1676 
1680 
1682 
1688 
1689 
1694 
1696 
1696 
1699 
1700 
1701 
1776 
1810 
1812 
1842 
1848 
1846 



Matteo di Giovanni 

Dubbels, HendHh 
Ferrari, Gaudenzio 

Orsi, ^^io 
Spinello Aretino 
Heda, WHlem x 
Weier, Jacob 

Ooya, Franeisf^ 

MeldoUa^ Andrea 
Mansuetl, Giovawni 
Avercamp, Sendrik 
Bega, Oor^liue P. 

I Venetian School 

Mazzolino, Ludovieo 

Vig6e Le Brun, 

Madame Elizabeth 
Werflf, A, van der 

\ PrediS, Arnbrogio de 

Chardin, J B. SmSan 

Predis, Ambroglo de 

I Rembrandt van Ryn 

Herrera, Francisco de 

Dutch School 
Francesco di Giorgio 

Cuyp, Aelbert 

Gossart, Jan 
Bartolommeo, ^a 
Venetian School 

Bellini, Giovanni 
Vermeer, Jan, Ascribed to 

Dutch School 
Bverdingen, Aiiart van 
Signorelli, Xw<?a 

Duchatel, Francois 
Spagna, ^i Ascribed te 

Tuscan School 

Bonfigli, Benedetto 
Bordone, Paris 



INDEX TO NAMES OF MASTERS. 



ZZUI 



No. 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1872 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1903 
19141 
1916 
1917 

1918 
1925 



Signorelli, i^o, 

Rag^neau, Abraham 

Pacchiarotto, Jaeopo 
Vivarini, AlvUe 
Jordaens, Jacob 
Saenredam, Pi^^r 
Lorenzo, -D<wi ill 

Monaeo) 
Pyt, Jan 

Heyden, Jam, van der 

Both, Jo/^ 

La Pargne, Paul Con- 

gtantvn 

Oranach, ^^^^ 



No. 

1930 Zorbaran, Franeiteo 
1987 Heist, Bartkolomeus ran 
der 

1988 Darer, Aibrecht 
1939 Prsncb School 
1944 Veoellio, Tiziaiw 

1961 Ooya, FraneUco 

1963 Bastiani, Lazzaro 

2057 Velaaques 

2068 Diaz de la Pena, 

Nareiue V, 

2062 Saftleven, ^<^ffwi» 

2069 %^XL%\Xi^ ^ffaello 



( XXT ) 



THE SCHOOLS OF PAINTING. 



The word '^School" has various significationB with writers on 
art : in its general and widest sense it denotes all the painters of 
a given country, without special reference to time or sub-divisions 
of style; as, the Italian School. In a more restricted sense, it 
refers to the characteristio style which may distinguish the 
painters of a particular locality or period ; as the Bolognese 
School. In its most limited sense, it signifies the distinctive 
style of a particular master ; as the School of Raphael ; whence 
it is also applied to the scholars or imitators of an individual, who 
are said to be of the School of such nuister. 

In the following table, the word is used in its wider senses. 
With regard to the chronology there observed, it must be 
apparent that it is impossible to fix with precision the commence- 
ment of any School. There are isolated facts of very remote dates, 
connected with the history of painting in many countries, but 
Bnch facts cannot be assumed to indicate the existence of a class 
of painters having a more or less common and definite style. It 
is only when such a class exists that a School can be said to be 
established ; and when there is evidence of the practice of painting 
m a more limited degree, yet tending to such development, the 
School may be said to have commenced. 



( xrvii ) 



LIST OF PAINTERS, 

ARRANGED ACCORDING TO SCHOOLS AND 

CHRONOLOGICALLY. 



soBoo&s or TvsoAmr. 

Margaritone of Aiezzo 1316-1293 

Cimabae, <^ioYaimi 1240 7-1802 r 

OiOttO 12667-1336 

Gaddi, Taddeo 1300 1-liffing 1366 

Orcagna, Andrea dl Ciome, called 1300 7-1368 

LandiniCJACOPOdiOASBNTINO) • - - isio 7-1390 r 

Justus of Padna 13... 7-1400 

Spinello Aretino 1333 7-i4io 

Lorenzo, H Monaco -.,..--- 1370 7-1426 

Angelico, ^^^ ^ioTanni, da Fieeole .... 1387-1455 

Andrea dal Castagno 1390 7-1457 

Hccello, Paolo 1397-1475 

DomeniOO, Venesdano 14...->H6I- 

Lippi, FRA FILIPPO 1406 7-1469 

Oozzoli, Benozzo 1420-1498 

Hacchiavelli, Zenobio 1418-1479 

Pesellino, Francesco 1422-1457 

PoUaiuolO, Antonio 14297-1498 

Filepepi, Aleasandro (SANDED BOTTICBLLI) - 1447-1510 

Qhirlandaio, Domenioo del - ' - - - * - 1449-1494 

Tinci, I^iuurdo da ....... 1452-1519 

Lippi, Filippino 1467 7-1504 

Credi, Loronzo di 1459-1537 

Piero di Cosimo 1462-1521? 



XXVIU 



LIST OF PAINTERS. 



Albertinelli, Mariotto - 
Buonarroti, MICHELANGELO 

Big^O, Francia ... 

Ghirlandaio, Bidoifo del - 

8arto, Andrea del (Andrea d'Agnolo) 
Pontormo, Jaoopo (Caruoci) da - 
Bronzino, (Angelo di Gosimo, called) 
B088i, Francesco de' (de* 8 AL VIATI) 
Yenusti, Marcello - . - - 
Empoli, Jacopo da - 
Allori, Criatofano - . - . 
Bolci, Carlo 



1474-1515 
1476-1564 
1482-1526 
1483-1661 
1486-1531 
1494-1557 
1502-1572 
1510-1563 
15... ?-15... ? 
1554 M640 
1577-1621 
1616-1686 



SXBWBSB SCBOO&. 

Duccio di Buoninsegna .... about i260-?m«^ 1339 
Segna di Buonaventura - - - - recorded noh u> u2Q 

Lorenzetti, Pietro 12...-1348 ? 

Lorenzetti, Ambrogio i2...-;m«^ 1345 

Ugolino da Siena -1339? 

Niccolo di Buonaccorso -isss 

Matteo di Giovanni 1436?-1496 

Pungai, Bernardino M616 

Benvenuto da Siena 1436-1518? 

Pacchiarotto, Jacopo 1474-1540 

Girolamo del Pacchia 1477-15... 

Peruzzi, Baldassare 1481-1536 

Beccafami, Domenico 1486-1551 



AND ROKAONO&B SOKOO&S. 

Francesca, Piero della 1415 7^1492 

Lorenzo da San Severino, painting in the early part of the 15th 

century. 
Bonfigli; Benedetto - 1420 ?-1496 



LIST OF PAINTERS. 



Niccold da Fuligrno (falsely ALUinifO) 
Fiorenzo di Lorenzo - 
Melozzo da Forli - - - - 

Santi, Giovanni . . - - 
Signorelli, Luca of Oortona - 

Vannucci, Fietro (il PBRUGHNO) 

Manni, Giannicola - - - - 
FinturicclLio, Bernardino Betto, 11 

Palmezzano, Marco 

Andrea di Lnigi (" L'ingegno ") - 

Lo Spagna, Giovanni, di Pietro, called 

Bertncci, Giovanni B. - - - 

SanziO, Baffaello (RAPHABL of Urbino) 

Ubertini, Francesco (II Bachiacca) 

ZaffanellL Bernardino (of and called OOTIONOLA), early 16th 
^ ' century. 



- 1430 7-1492 

- 1430 ?-16... 
1438-1494 
14.. .-1494 

. 1441 7-1523 
1446-1523 

—1644 

1454-1613 

1466 l-living 1637 

-painting 1484 

U...-after 1630 

early 16th century 

1483-1520 

1494-1557 



SCHOOZiS OT :L0KBA&DT and the BBKZXiZA. 

(MILANESE AND PIEDMONTESE.) 

Foppa, Vinoenzo 14...-1492 

SolariO, Andrea 1460 7-a/5t#r 1615 

BorgOgnone, Ambrogio da Foflsano, il - - - • 1455 7-1523 

Macrino D'Alba 14... 7-i6... ? 

BeltraffiO (or Boltrafflo), Giov. Antonio - . . 1467-1516 

Marco da Oggionno 1470?-1540? 

Luini Bernardino about U76^fter 1533 

Bazzi' Giovanni Antonio (il 80D0MA) • • • 1477-154^ 

Giovenone, Girolamo 14... 7-16... 7 

Ferrari, Gaudenzio 1484-164^ 

Lanini, Bernardino 1508 7-1578 t 

(CEEMONA.) 

TaCCOni Francesco .-.--- 14... l-livin^ 1490 
Melone Altobello - - U,..-painting in and after 1518 

BoCCaCCinO, Boccaccio .' - - ' painting Ud6-l51S 



XXX LIST OF PAINTERS. 

(LODI.) 
Piazza, Martino li,., -after 1526 

(PARMA AND MODENA.) 
Mazzola, Filippo - 14...?-1505 

Lodovico da Parma 14.. .-16 .. 

AUegri, Antonio (da OORRBOOIO) - - - . 1494-1534 
Parmigiano, Francesco Mazzola, il - - - - 1503-1540 
Orsi, I^elio. 1511-1587 

Barnaba da Modena - - - - second half of nth ceruufy. 



SCBOOZiS or VSNZCS and the VfiMSTZAM 



Vivarini, Antonio (of Murano) - - - - ^at«^t«^ 1 440-1464 
Vivarini, Bartolommeo (of Murano) - - painting 1450-1498-9 

Bastiani, Lazzaro 1425 M512 

Bellini, Gentile 1426-7 ?-1507 

Bellini, Giovanni - 1428 ?-1516 

Vivarini, Alvise - - painting 1461-1503 

Crivelli, CSarlo painting UeS-a/ter Udi: 

Antonelloda Messina 1444?- 1493? 

Basaiti, Maroo - . - - painting be/ore 1500-after 1521 
Montagna, Bartolommeo (of Bresoia and Yioenza) about 1450-1523 

Cariani, Giovanni de' Bufli 1480?-^1541 

Cima, Giovanni Batista painting 1489-1517 

Mansneti, Giovanni ' iw»iii*% /ram 1490-1500 

MocettO, Girolamo iwiii^% 1490-1514 

Uarziale, Marco painting U92-after 1607 

BisSOlo, Francesco painting U92-after USO 

Previtali, Andrea (of Bergamo) - - - painting 14.., ?-1528 
Cordelle Agii, Andrea 14... ?-15... ? 

Bonifazio Veronese -1540 

Martino da Udine (PELLBGBINO da SAN 

BANIIBLB) *^<w 1470-1547 



LIST OF PAINTERS. 



BarbarelU, c^iorgio caiOBaiOHB) 

Catena CVIKGBNZO DI BIAOIO, known m) 

Vecellio, Tiziano (TITIAN) - 

BavoldOy OioY. Girolamo (of BroBoia) 
Lotto, Lorenzo (of Treviao) 



Lnciani, Sebastiano (8SBAST. del PIOMBO) 

BomaniPO, Girolamo, of Brescia • 
Teneziano, Bartolommeo 

Girolamo da TreviBO - 

Bonvioino, Aleasandro (MOEBTTO) 

Girolamo da Santa Orooe - 

Licinio, Bernardino 
Bordone, Paris (of Treviso)- 
Moroni, Giambattista (of Bergamo) 

Ponte, Jaoopo da ( JAOOPO BAB8AN0) - 
Bobnsti, Jaoopo (il TINTORETTO) - 

Meldolla, Afidrea (oaUed SCHIAVONl) - 

CaUari, Paolo (PAOLO VBR0NE8B) - 
Varotari, Alessandro (il PADOVANINO) 

Bicciy Sebastiano (of Belluno) 
Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista - 

Oanale, Antonio (U GANALETTO) 
Longhi, Pietro - . - . 
Ouardi, Francesco - 
Zais, Giuseppe - - - 



W^yrt 1477-1611 

14..M531 

1477-1676 

1480 \-after 1548 

1480 t-abmd 1566 

- 1485 ?-1647 

- 1487 7-iii or about 1666 

painting 1506-1530 

1497-4644 

1498-1666 

painting 1620-1649 

painting between 1624-1641 

1600-1670 

16.. 7 -1678 

1610-1692 

1618-1694 

162^1682 

1528-1688 

1690-1660 

1669-60-1734 

1692-1769 

1697-1768 

1702-1762 

1712-1793 

17 . . W784 



(Vbnbtia). 



SchiaVOne^ Gregorio 14 ..?-.. .7 

Hanteg^a, Andrea 1431 1506 

Zoppo, Marco (of Bologna), see Bolognese ^YlooI, painting 1471-1498 
Kantegna, Francesco 1470 1-living 1517 



xxxii LIST OF PAINTERS. 

VB&ONA (Yenetia). 

Pisano, Vittore (PISANBLLO)- - - - 1380-U51 or 2 
Horone, Domenioo - - 1442-15 . . 

Liberale da Verona I46i-1536 

Bonsignori, Francesco 1455-1519 

Giolfino, Nicoolo pairaing 1486-1518 

Morone, Francesco- 1473-1529 

Girolamo dai Libri 1474-1556 

MorandO, Paolo (il CAVAZZOLA) - - - . 1486-1522 

Michele da Verona painting 1500 

Caliari, Paolo (see also Schools of Venice) - - - 1628-1588 



FBARAASSB SCBOOXi. 

Tura, Oosimo (or Cosmft) 1*20 ?-1495 

GoBSa, Francesco del 14 . -between 1480-85 

Bono da Perrara painting I46i 

Oriolo, Giovanni ^t«*«^ 1461 

Roberta, Broole de' 1*50 ?-1496 

Costa, Lorenzo 1*^0 ? -1536 

Grandi, Brcole di GiuUo Cesare 1460 ?-1531 

DOBflO DOBSi (Giovanni) - 1479 ?-1542 

MazzoIinO, Lndovico -.-.---- 1480 ?-1528 I 

TiBiO, Benvenuto (il QAROFALO) - - - - 1481-1559 

L'Ortolano 14 . . -flJ<mM525 



BOXiOaNfiSB SOBOOXi. 



Lippo di Dalmasio - 

Zoppo, Marco (see Paduan School) 
Raibolini, Francesco (il PRANCIA) 

Carracci, Ludovico - - - 



painting 1376-1410 

painting 1471-1498 

1450-1617 

1555-1619 



UST OF PAINTERS. 



XXZUl 



CarraOCi, A^oatino .-.-... 1557-1609 

Carracei, Anmbale - - . . , . 1560-1609 

Beni, Guido 1575-1642 

Zampieri, Domenico (U DOHXNIOHUfO) - - 1681-1641 

Barbieri, Giov. Franoeeco (il aUXBOnf 0) - - 1591-1666 

Mola, Pier Franoeeoo 1612-1668 

Bibiena, Ferdinando 1657-1743 



SOMJLV AND HBOPOIilTAjr SOBOOIi. 



Pippi, Oiniio caiULIO ROMANO) - 
Binaldo Mantavano - - - - 

Barocd, Federigo 

Pulzone, Soipione 

Amerighi, Midhelangelo 

Bibera, Giuseppe (lo SPAONOLITTO) 

Spanish School - - - - - 

Salvi, GioY. Battlsta (SASSOFBRRATO) 

Bosa, Salvatore (of Naples) - 
Cayallino, Bernardo (of Naples) - 

Karatti (or Maratta), Carlo - 

Fanini, Giovanni Antonio . - - 



painting 



also 



1492-1546 
1525-15 . . 
1528-1612 
1560-1600 
1569-1609 

1588-1666 
1606-1665 
1615-1678 
1622-1654 
1625-1718 
1695-1768 



SPAMXSB SOHOOXi. 

Campaia, Fedr - - 

Theotocopuli^ Bomenioo (eiaRIEOO, il GRBCO) 
Morales, Lnisde - - - - - 
Kbera, Joeef de (see also Roman School) 
ZorbaraHi Francisoo - 
Velasquez, l>on Diego de Silva y -- 
Mazo, Juan Bantista Martinez. del. 
llnrillo, Bartolomfe Bstlban - - - 
25640 



1503-1570 
1548-1625 
• . . ..—1586 
158&-1656 
1598-1662 
1599-1660 
f . . -1667 
1618-1682 
e 



LIST OP PAINTERS. 



Valdes Leal, Jnan de 
Goya, Pnuidsoo 



1630-1691 
1746-1828 



DVTCK SCBOO&S. 

Baveste^n, JanAnthonisz 157^1657 

Savery, Boelandt 1576-1639 

Hals, Prans 1680 or 81-1666 

Vliet, WiUem yen der 1684-1642 

Avercamp, Hendrik 1686- <»/l(0r 1663 

Poelenburgh, Oomelis van 1686-1667 

Hals, I^irk - - - ... -1656 

HontilOrst, Gerard van 1690-1656 

Janssens van Ceulsn, Comeiis - - - - - 1694-1664 1 

Heda, Wiltem K. 1694- after 1678 

Eeyser, Thomas de 1596 7-1667 

Goyen, Jon Joeefsz van 1596-1656 

Potter, Pieter 1697-1652 

Baenredam, Pieter 1697-1665 

Pot, Hendrik - - living 1600-1656 

Boghman, Boeland ...... 1597- living 1686 

Duyster, Willem Comelisz - - - - . . 1599-1635 

Breenbergh, Bartholomens • . . . . 1699- before 1659 

WynantS, Jan - painting 1641-1679 

Buysdael, Salomon van 1600 7-1670 

Oost, Jacob van (the elder) 1600 7-1671 

Ueer, Aart van der 1608-1677 

Bylert, Jan ▼»» - - - - , - - - - 1603-1671 

Rembrandt van Byn - - * - • • - 1606-1669 

Witte, Bmannel de 1607-1692 

Doncl^ Gt. Uving 1686 

Llevens, Jan ........ 1607-1674 

Delen, !>»<* van •-••-.. - I6O7 7-1673 7 

Steenwyck, Herman 16 • . 7-16 . . . 

Saftlevan, Herman 1609-1686 



LIST OP PAINTERS. xxxv 

Molenaer, Jan Mienfle b^are ieiO-lM9 

Ostsdd, Adriaan Jansz yan 1610-1686 

Wet,J-de painting 16$6 

Both,«^an 1610?-1662 

Poorter, Willem de 16... 1- living 1^5 

Sorgh, Hendrik - 1611-1669? 

Heist, BartholomenB Tan der 1611 <»r 12-1670 

Don, Gerard 1613-1676 

Herp, Guilliam or Willem van 1614-1677 

Bel, Ferdinand 1616-1680 

Tbrborch, Gerard (or TerbuTK) - - - - - 1617 7-1681 
Lely, Sir Peter (see German Sohoolfl) .... 1618-1680 

Looten, Jaii 1618?-1681 

KoEinck, Pli^PB de 1619-1688 

Wils, Jan 16... 1-hefore 1670 

Pabritinfl, Bemhard painting 1660-1672 

Pape, Abraham de ------- - -1666 

Wouwerman, Phiiipe I619-1668 

Decker, Cornells G. ?-1678 

Dnbbels, Hendrik ...--... 1620 ?-1676 

Berchem, Nicolas 1620 169 

CnypjAelbert 1620-1691 

Victors, Jan 1620-Ziriii^ 1672 

Bega, Cornelius P. 1620-1664 

Weier, Jacob ?-1670 

Poel, ^hert Tan der 1621-1664 

Weenix, Jan Baptist 1621-1660 

Ogtade, Isaak van 1621-1649 

EeckhOttt, Gerbrand van den 1621-1674 

Loudens, Gerrit U22-living 1677 

Velde« J«^ Jansz van de 1622- 

Beerstraaten, Jan Abrahamsz 1622-1666 

Jardin, Karel du 1622-1678 

Lingelbach., Jobann or Jan - - - -* - - 1623-1674 

Potter, Paulus 1625-1654 

Brekelenkam, Qniryn van .... between 1626-30-1668 



XXXVl 



LIST OP PAINTERS. 



Steen, Jan --'.----- - 1626 ?-1679 

Ruisdael, Jacob van - - - - - - 1628 0/- 9-1682 

Hackaert, Jan - - - 1629-1696? 

Wouwerman, Jan - - - - - - - 1629-1666 

MetSU, G^abriel 1630-1667 

Aack. Johannes Ab - - - - - ' " - 16..,?-......? 

Cappelle, Jan van de - - - - painting from IGoO to 1Q80 

WalSCappoUe Jan - - painting before 1667 until 1717-18 

Hooch (HoOgW, Keter de le^O-after 1677 

Storck, Abraham - - 1630 ?-1710 

Bakhuizen, Lndoif I63i-i708 

Venneer, Jan (or Van der Meer of Delft) - - - 1632-1675 

Maes (Maas), Nicolas - - 1632-1693 

Velde, Willem van de 163a-l707 

Moucheron, Fr6d€tic de - - - - 1633 w 4-1686 

Mieris, Frans van 1633-1681 

Velde, Adriaen van de 1635 or 6-1672 

Hondecoeter, Melchior de 1636-1695 

Heyden, Jan van der - - - - - - - 1637-1712 

Berck-Heyde, G^errlt Adriaensz - - - - - 1638-1698 

Hobbema, Meindert - - - - - - - 1638-1709 

NetSCber, Caspar - • 1639-1684 

Weenix, Jan (the Yonnger) - .... - 1640-1719 

Scbalcken, Godfried ..-.--. 1643-1706 

Hucbtenburgh, Johan van 1646-1733 

MieriS, WiUem van ------ - 1662-1747 

RuySCb, Rachel 1664-1750 

Snyers, Pieter 1681-1752 

Huysum, Jan van - ------- 1682-1749 

La Pargue, Paul Constantin -1782 

Os, Jan van - - - - - • ' • 1744-1808 



LIST OF PAINTBBB. xxxvfi 



r&SKISB SOBOO&S, ZV., ZVZ., AND zvzz. 



Byck, Jan van 1390 ?-1440 

Weyden, Rogier van der about 1400-1464 

Hemline, Hans r~1495 

David, Gheeraert 1460 ?-152S 

Massys CMATSTfi, MetsyB) Quinten - - before 14«0-1530 
SngelbortSZ, CoraeUs - ■ 1468-1633 

Gossart, (J»n) of Habose i*70 7-1641 

Mostert, Jan W^-^fter 1649 

Bles, Herri de (CIVBTTA) - - - - about liSO-t^fter 1561 

Patinir, Joachim 14 . . 1-in, or b^ore, 1524 

Orley, Barent (or Bernard) van - - - - abo^ 1491-1642 

Beorel, Jan van 1495-1662 

Hemessen, Catharina van 1600-1666 ? 

Gampana, Pedro 1603-1670 f 

Lombard, Lambert 1506-1566 

Mor, Antony 1512-1677 f 

Harinns van Romerswael . - - . pmntvng I621-I66O 

Cornelissen, Jacob jMimting 1558 

Heeflb, Pieter U77-S-after 1656 

Rubens, Peter Panl 1577-1640 

Bnyders, Frans 1579-1657 

Steenwyck, Hendriok, junr 1580-1649 ? 

Teniers, David (the Elder) 1582-1649 

Ryckaert, Martin 1587-1631 

JordaenS, Jacob 1698-1678 

Dyck, Sir Anthony van 1599-1641 

Teniers, l>avid (the Younger) 1610-1690 

Pyt, Jan - - 1611-1661 

Dnchatel, Frani^ois 1616-1694 

Coqnes (C!0CZ), Gonzales 1618-1684 

Menlen, Adam F, van der 1632-1690 

Hnysmans, Cornelia 1648-1727 

Hnysman, Jacob - 1666-1696 



XZXTIU 



LIST OP PAINTEES. 



OB&KAN SCBOOXi . 

William of Cologne (MEI8TBB WILHBLH) - Umrig 1380 

Loohner (or Loethener) (MBISTSB STEPHAN) - 13 . . ?-1451 
" Meister von Liesborn " - ■ • painting about 1445-1465 

*' Master of the Lyversberg Passion " - - painting 1463-90 
Westphalian School, Master of - - - about 1490-1500 

Diirer, Albrecht 1471-1528 

Cranach, Lucas 1472-1663 

Baldung, Hans 1476 ?-1546 

Holbein, Hans (the Younger) 1497-1643 i 

Aldegrever, Heinrioh -after 1555 

Lucidel, Nicolas 1527 ?-1590 ? 

Rottenhammer, Johann 1664-1623 

Blsheimer, Adam 1678-1620-21 

Lely, Sir Peter 1618-1680 

Heimbach, Christian Wolfgang 1613-1678 

Merien, Matthasus, junr. 1621-1687 

Dietrich, Johann Wilhelm Ernst 1712-1774 

MengS, Anton Rafael 1728-1779 



FAfiNCK SCBOO&. 



Marmion, Simon liviiig 1468 

Clouet, Francois (called JANET) - - - - 1510 ?-1572 

Le Nain 15 . . ?-i648 

PouSSin, Nicolas 1594-1665 

OelWe, Claude (CLAUDE LE LORBAIN) - - I6OO-I682 

Champaigne, PhiUppe de I602-I674 

Dughet, Gaspard (GA8PARD POUSSIN) - - 1613-1676 

Bourdon, Sebastien 1616-1671 

Le Sueur, Eustache ..... 1616-1666 



LIST OP PAINTEB8. xxxix 

Bigaad, Hyaointhe 166»-174S 

Lancret, Nioolas 1690-174S 

Chardin, Jean-Baptiste Simeon 1699-1779 

Boucher, Fran^ia 1704-1770 

Vernet, Clande Joseph 1714-1789 

Oreofle, Jean-Baptiste 1725-1806 

Tigto Le Bmn, Madame Eluabeth L. - - 1766-1842 

Diaz de la Pena 1809-1876 



BTZANTIMB SCKOO&. 
Anmanael ZVII. Centnry 



( xli ) 



EXPLANATORY REMARKS. 



The Catalogue is arranged in the alphabetical order of the 
painters' names, which answer to those inscribed on the picture 
frames. When the frame bears no painter's name but that of a 
school only, the picture will be found catalogued under the head 
of that school in the general alphabetical sequence, as : — Tuscan 
School ; Umbrian School ; Dutch School, etc. 

Dutch and Flemish painters are catalogued according to the 
initial letter of their surnames, irrespective of the prefixes 
**yan" and "de," when either of these was borne, as: — Yelde 
—not van de "Velde ; Dyck — not van Dyck ; Koninck — not de 
Eoninck. 

In the description of pictures the terms right and left are used 
with reference to the right and left of the spectator, unless the 
context obviously implies the contrary. 

The surface measure of pictures is given in feet and inches. 
The abbreviations h. and w. indicate height and width. 



26640 



CATALOaUE. 



(Jam van). 17th oentary. 

The picture described below is attributed to this artist, who is 
otherwise unknown, on account of the signature which appears at 
the foot of an engraving which is represented hanging on the wall 
in the^background. 

No. 1397* An Old Woman Setmng. 

Apparently of the peasant class. She wears a black gown, 
a blue apron, a large linen kerchief which falls in two points on 
her chest, and a close-fitting linen cap which conceals her ears. 

She sits in a rustic chair stitching linen over a cushion which 
lies on her lap. On the left is a cloth-covered table on which are 
a drinking-vessel, a knife, a half-peeled lemon, and a pair of 
scissors. On the right of the foreground is a basket containing 
linen and a cloth. On tho wall behind is the engraved portrait 
of a gentleman, bearing an inscription in which the name of 
Joannes Ab. Aack occurs, with the date 1655. 

On canyas, 3 ft. 6^ in. h, by 2 ft. 8^ in. w. 
Presented by Mr. Henry J. Pf nngst, F.SA., in 1894. 



Aan. See COBDS&ZiB AOIZ. 



AOMO&O (Andrea D'). See SARTO. 



(Mariotto), 1474-1515. 

A pupil of Gosimo Boselli, became the intimate friend and 
assistant of Fra Bartolommeo ; be was born at Florence 13th Oct. 
1474. When Fra Bartolommeo, under the influence of Savona- 
rola, gave up painting and took to a monastic life, Albeetinelli 
completed some of his unfinished pictures, and so thoroughly 
assimilated the style of the Frate that independent works of the 
pupil have often been ascribed to the master. The grandest 
effort of Mariotto is the Vintation, in the Uffizi ; the Trinity, in 
the Accademia, has great merits. He died at Florence 5th Nov, 
1515, the victim, says Vasari, of dissipation. 

No. 645. The Virgin and Child. 

^ The Child is seated on the Virgin*s knee, with the hand raised 
ui the act of blessing. 

On wood, 6 in. h. by 4 in. w. Purchased 18^. 
25610 A 



2 ALDEGBEYEB-ALLEGBI. 



(HisuiitiCH), FirabHall of 16th Century ; 
Died after 1555. 

Or Alde Grate, was bom either at Soest or Faderbom. After 
his period of study he settled at the totwaer plaoe, and practiE»d 
as painter, engraver, designer of ornament, and ffoldsqiith. 
His style was formed npon that of Albert Dnrer.^ He is beat 
known by his nnmerons original engravings of subjects biblical, 
mythological, allegorical, or taken from daily life. Of the last 
(lass are those festal aod naptial groups in which AldegreviSr 
loved to portray the rich German costumes of his time in male 
and female figures, unnsqally tall, though having a quaint gn^se. 
As a painter he is most oistiDguished in portraiture. Signed 
examples of his work in that branch of art are at Breslau in the 
KuDstverein (1535), in the Liechtenstein collection at Yienna 
(1543), arid in the Berlin Gallery (1551). ALDEaBBTEB died 
after 1555. 

No. 1232m Portrait of a Young Man. 

Under life-size, at half length, turned to the right, the hands 
seen, one of them holding a pink with two blossoms; The face 
is beardless, the hearl, with crisp yellow hair, is covered with a 
flat black cap. A gown of red watered silk, broadly turned over 
with streaked yellow and brown fur, allows the black sleeves of 
the jerkin to come through. The low-necked shirt is edged with 
embroidery. Background of dark green. 

On oak, l.ft. 1\ in. A. by 1 ft. 3 in. t(7 

Purchased out of the ** Walker Bequest," 1887. 



AXiIiBClAI (Antonio) da Oorrsqgio, 1494-1534^ 

Antonio Allegri, called il Correogio, from his birthplace, a 
snail town near Modena, and once the seat of a princely family, 
was born in 1494. His father, Pellegrino, was a cloth merchant 
and small proprietor. The youth of Antonio is involved in 
obscurity ; but Antonio Bartolotti, a native artist, is said to have 
been his first instructor in painting. Becent criticism has, 
however, shown with convincing force that in his early youth, 
his susceptible genius came within the influence of Ferrareae 
masters; and it is evident that it was not. untoached by the 
creations of Mantegna at Mantua. Already in 1514, when in hig 
twentieth year, his repute warranted the Minorite Priara of 



. 



ALLEORI. 3 

Coneggio in entrostiiig him with an 'important commission.^ 
Little is traceable of ALLEaai*8 oscapatioas between that time 
and his appearance in Parma in 1518, as an artist rising to 
distinction. There/ after having been employed by the Abbess 
of the convent of S. Paolo to paint her principal chamber with 
mythological subjects in grisailUf he, in 1521, entered into a 
contract with the Benedictines of S. Giovanni EvangeUsta to 
cover with frescoes the cupola and apsis of their cbnrch. This 
great work, of which now only the paintings in the dome remain 
m iitUy and a similar Ubonr in the cathedral, prove Allegri^s vast 
powers in the management of fresca. In these composition?, 
iriierein Cohkcggio breaks loose from all the traditions of Christian 
Art, the foreshortening of the figures is carried to a point which, 
while it displays the daring of the artist, too often transcends the 
limits of grace. Tet some of the h«i^ of the sweeping angels or 
genii ure of surpassing beauty. f It is in his oil paintings chiefly 
that we must now seek that charm which is associated with the 
happily appropriate name of Alleqri. These, executed between 
Ids twentieth year and the time of his death, are now, such of 
them as are traceable, scattered over Europe, chiefly in public 
galleries ; a few in private hands. They consist of altar-pieces,, 
smaller sacred subjects, and scenes taken from or suggested 
hy Greek mythology. The fame of the Dresden Gallery rests 
in great part on the possession of some of the finest in the 

* A large altar-piece on panel for their chnrch, now No. 168 in the Dresden 
Oalleiry. This early work, in which the Madonna sits enthroned with the 
infant on her knee, between St. Francis and St. Anthony of Palua on her right*, 
and St. John tite Baptist and St. Catherine of Alexandria on her left, bears 
onmifrtokeable proof of the sources of the painter's primal studies. Hie po8» 
and action of tne Virgin are clomly imitated from Mantegna's Jfodo/tna aella 
TiUoria^ then at Mantna (now in the Loavre) ; the draperies remind us of both. 
Costa and Francia ; the colouring recalls that of the Ferrarese School ; the St. 
John snggests renuniacences of Da Vinci, however, that may be explained. 
The filiation of Allegri to the schools of Bologna and Ferrara was first clearly 
demonstrated by **Lermolieff" (Senator Giov. Morelli) in Zeitaehrift far Bildenae 
Ktmtt, Jahrgang X, and Die Werke UalienUcher Meister In den Oalerfen von 
MSnehen Dresden and Berlin. 

t The subject in the cupola of S. Giovanni is the Glory of our Lord, witnessed 
Iff the Apostles, who are seated on clouds amidst angel& In the spandrils of 
the arches are tiie four Evangelists with their attributes, and the four Fathers 
of the Church. This work and the paintings in the apsis of the same church, 
vara 4X>mpleted about 1&24, The great fresco in the dome of the cathedral, 
though commissioned in 15'J2, was apparently executed between 152d and 1680. 
It represents the Assumption of the virgin, who is surrounded by crowds of 
rejoicing angels. Below stand the Apostles beholding the scene. A stupendous 
work, of which it is equally impossible to deny the power or to defend the 
taste. 

25640 A 2 



4 ALLEGBL 

first of these categories. The Gallery of Parma contains the 
Madonna^ with the Magdalen and St, Jerome^ the Madonna della 
Scodellaj and the Martyrdom of St. Placidus and St, Flavia ; the 
Louyre, the Marriage of S$. Catherine, Amongst the smaller 
class may be mentioned the Madonna, called La ZingareUd^ at 
Naples ; the Nativity^ in the Uffizi at Flc rence ; and in our gallery 
the exquisite little Vierge au pcnier, which is an epitome of 
CoRREGGio's art. In the division of mythological subjects the 
most famous are the Antiope in the Loayre, the Danae in the 
Borghese Palace at Rome ; the VenuSf Mercury, and Cupid, in our 
own gallery ; and the Leda at Berlin. 

In 1520, at Correggio, Amtonio married Girolama, the young 
orphan daughter of Bartolomeo Merlini, an esquire of the Duke 
>of Mantua.^ She bore him three daughters, and a son, 
Pomponio, who became a painter. Girolama died towards 1530 ; 
, after which Correggio returned from Parma to his native town, 
where, on the 5th of March, 1534, he ended a life but little longer 
-than that of Baphael. He was buried in the church of S. Fran- 
cesco. His parents, as well as his son, and his daughter 
^ranoesca, survived him. 

Correggio appears as an isolated phenomenon in Italian art. 
His aims differed widely from those of his predecessors and 
. contemporaries ; and we look in vain, after his earliest years of 
practice, for any tree affinity between him and other masters. 
Largen^s of style he shared with the greater Florentines and 
Tenetians of his time. It was a natural development of art as its 
resouroes-became more known, and the study of ancient sculpture 
and select nature advanced. But none before him had shown the 
capacity of painting to affect the imagination (irrespective of 
subject) by the broad massing of light and shadow, by subordi- 
nating colour to breadth of effect and aerial perspective, and by 
suggesting the sublimity of space and light. Herein he stood 
alone, adding a new science to art. But it was not solely in 
these more abstract qualities that Allegri's greatness showed 
itself. He could endow the offspring of his imagination with a 
vitality which is astounding. The sense of overflowing life in 

* ** Honestam mulierem dominam Hieronymam fll. q. Bartolome Merlini 
Armi geri." She was born March 29th, 1503. Her father was killed at the 
battle of the Taro in November of the same year. See docnments qnoted in 
Fungileoni. Memorie Storiche, Sse,, vol. ii., pp. 150, 151 Ed. 1818. 






ALLEaBI. 5 

h:s figmes carries qb away nniil we believe in their ezistenoe. 
Is 18 this creatiye power in Oobbeggio which disarms criticism ; 
yet no great genius has left himself more open to its shafts. The 
proportions of his figures are frequently fanlty. The graoe 
whbh fascinates n% tends to degenerate into affectation, and 
moyement into tamalt. Endued though he was with a fine sense 
of physical beauty, he is nevertheless apt to mar the loveUness of 
childhood by an aspect of implike rogaishness.^ Drapery, for 
him, is less a dignified or graceful covering than an auxiliary in 
producing the breadth of effect he sought. It often conceals or 
leaves nncertain, instead of finely revealing, the action of the 
body and limbs : at times it ia an unmeaning shred, fluttering: 
on the wind. CosREOaio was above all things a painter. In the 
management of the brush he has been equalled by few, and 
surpassed by none, and his mode of execution and his colouring 
are as peculiar to him as his other qualities. His flesh tones are- 
rich and warm, or cool and opalescent, with infinitely subtle 
modulations and transitions. The harjionies he sought differ 
from thoee of the great Venetians. Full colours he used with 
poverfnl effect in his oil pictures ; but he was fond of quiet 
tertiaries. His general abstention from green, which plays so 
conspicuous a part in the Venetian system of colour, ia. 
remarkable. 

Taking this great genius by himself, it is difficult to over- 
estimate his powers. But the influence he exercised upon later 
art was more baneful than otherwisa.f 

* Bven the DiyiDe Infant himself is not spared. In the otherwise enchantinf 
mctore called the Day at Farma» his aspect is that of a veritable Puck. Tet 
now well Ck>rreggio could catch the native charm of infancy is shown in onr 
own Vierge au panier, 

t AnthoritieB on Oorreggio, besides Vasari, are Gios. Ratti, Notizie st&riohe 
^kneere intomo la Vita e fe opere del celebre pittore Ant. Alleari da Carreggio, 
Finale 178L L. Pongileoni. Memorie storiche di Ant, Allegri, asc. : Parma, 1817- 
18-ai. €k>Trado Bicci, Ant, Allegri da Corregio, Translated bv Florence 
Simmonds, London, Wm. Heinemann, 1896. Ck}n8alt also Lanzi ana the works 
of Bophael Hengs, Kuffler, HandbooK &c. Italian Schools. Jacob Burckhardt, 
Ikr dcerone : Leipzig, Seeman, 1889, 3ter. Theil, Malerei ; and EuRlish traB»- 
lotion of same : Mnrray, 1875 (?). See also Ivan Lermolieff, as given above. 
An excellent notice of Oorreggio,in which all relevant authorities and opinions 
are brought together, by Dr. J. P. Bichter, will be found in Dohme^s Kunsi und 
Kunttler des MittelaUers und der Neuzcit : Leipzig. 1879. Band III. ToschiV 
fine engravlngB from the frescoes in the Cathedral of Parma are well known. 
Outlines of 11*680008 and oil paintings in Landon, Vie et aeuvres de» Peintres Ac. 



6 ALLEGBI. 

No. 10. Mercury instructing Cupid in the presence of 
Venus. 

Mercury, wearing only his winged cap (petasns) and sandals 
(tilariaV is seated on a bank, and is endeavoaring to teach 
Cupid nis letters, of whicb, according to a Greek myth, he was 
the inventor. The little god, standing by his side, appears to be 
paying due attention to his lesson. Yenus, here represented as 
winged, has taken temporary charge of Cupid's bow, which^she 
holds in her left hand, and appears to be entertained with the 
novel spectacle. The background of dark foliage contrasts finely 
with the well-rounded nude of the figures. Entire figures nearly 
of the natural size. 

Engraved on a large scale by Arnold de Jode, in 1667, ard in small, 
in 1786, by Le Villain, for the Galerie du Palais RoyaJ^ in which there 
was a duplicate of this composition. 

On canvas, 5 ft. 1 in. h, by 3 ft. to. 

This picture, one of Ooreggio's masterpieces, was formerly in the 
possession of Charles I., who purchased it of tiie Duke of Mantua with 
^the rest of that prince's collection in 1630. It was bought, after the 
•dispersion of the King's effects (it brought 800Z. at the sale), by the 
J>uke of Alva ; it was subsequently the property of the Prince of the 
Peace, in whose collection it was at the time of the occupation of 
Madrid by the French, when in 1808 it feU into tiie possession of Murat, 
afterwards King of Naples, and it was thus, after a lapse of two cen- 
iiuries, restored to Italy. Its next possessor was the Marquis of London- 
derry, who obtained it, together with the " Ecce Homo," No. 15 in this 
collection, of the ex-Queen of Naples, at Vienna; and both pictures 
irere purchased from the Marquis of Londonderry in 1834. 

Ho. 15« Christ presented by Pilot to the People^ called 
the « Ecce Honio:'* 

. . The greater part of the picture is occupied by the figure of our 
Saviour, behind whom, to the left, is Pilate, pointing with his 
riffht hand to Christ, and uttering ihe words which constitute the 
title of the subject. On the right is seen the head of a Boman 
soldier, and in the foregroutd, to the left, the Virgin Mary is 
represented in a swcon, Eupported by one of the Mar^s. Half- 
length figures, of the natural size. 

Engraved in 1587 by Agostino Carracd, of which print there are 
several copies ; more recently by P. Bettelini, and by G. T. Doo, R. A. ; 
and in small, in Jones's Kational Gallery, On wood, 8 ft. 2^ in. A. by 
2 ft. 7i in. tt>. 

> Et dicit eis: Ecce Hvino 1 in the woids of the Latin Vulgate, whence the 
oonBnott title of ** Ecce Homo " to a picture of this Bubject. 



ALLEGRL 7 

This picture, formerly in the poBseflrien of the Counts Prati of Farmk, 
mm enbeeqneatlj long in the Golonnft Palaoe in Rome, and it was, 
aooording to Bamdohr* the beet picture by Gorreggio in that dtj (in 
1784). It is noticed also by Mengs, who supposed it to be one of the 
painter*s earli^ works.t It was purchased of the Golonna family hr Sir 
aunon Clarke, who, being unable to moye it from Italy, sold it to 
Muxafe, then King of Naples, and, as already mentioned, it wss pur- 
ohaaed, with No. 10, from the Marquis of Londonderry, in 1834. 

No. 23> Tfie Holy Family. 

The infant Saviour is seated on the lap of the Yirffin, who is 
trying to dress Him in a little coat. In the bac^ronnd i^ 
St. Joseph occupied as a carpenter planing a board. In the fore- 

E>undy to the left, is a small toilet basket, whence this picture is 
own on the Continent as " La Yierge au Panier." 

Engraved by Dia^u Ghisi in 1577 ; by F. F. Aquila in 1091 ; and 
reoeutly by Q-. Faccioli ; by Gt, T. Doo, B.A., for the Atsociated En- 
gravers; and in Jones's National Gallery. 

On wood, 1 ft. \\ in. h. by 10 in. U7. 

Formerly in the royal collection at Madrid, from which it passed, by 
the gift of Charles lY., to Emanuel Godoy, Prince of the Peace. After 
falling into various hands during the French invasion of Spain, it was 
brought to England by Mr. Buchanan in 1813. Purchased, 1826. 



After AVTONXO A&&BORI DA GOA&BaaiO. 

No. 7- Group of Heads. 

Ten various views of heads, representing apparently part of a 
choir of angels. These are marked as being ^^afUr Oorreggio." 

Engraved in Jones's Hatumal Gallery, On canvas, 6 ft. h. by 8 ft. 
6 in. to. 

This picture and its companion. No. 37, were formerly in the poasss- 
sian of Christina, Queen of Sweden : they subsequently passed into the 
Orleims collection, with which they were brought to this countzy, and 
were purchased by Mr. Angerstein. They were probably ^en to 
Sweden as part of the plunder of Prague, when that dty was captured 
by the Swedes under Count Kouigsmark, July 15, 1618, and the pic- 
tores collected by the Emperor Rudolph II. were carried to Stockholm. 
Among these pictures were several by Correggio, which had been pre- 
seated to the Emperor by Federigo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, for 
whom tiiey had been originally painted.^ 

• Ua>er Malerei und Bildhauer arbeit in Bom, Ac, voL ii. p. 85. 
t Hinterkusne Werke^ vol. iil. p. 157. 
i Winckelmann, Werke, vol i. p. 70. 



8 ALLBGRI— ALLOEI. 

No. 37. Group of Heads and Figures. 

Nine yarious yiews of heads and figures, const itutiag probably 
ft part of the i^ame composition as its companion piece No. 7. In 
the lower part of the pictnre, to the left, is the head of a lamb. 

On canyas, 5 ft. 1 in. h. by 8 ft. 6 in. to. 

No. 76- GhrisVs Agony in the Garden. 

The effect of light in this pictnre is peculiar. The time is in 
the night, and our Saviour is lightei directly from Heaven, while 
the angel is illuminated by the light reflected from our Lord.* 
The angpl points with his right hand to a cross and crown of 
thorns lyin^ upon the ground, as emblems of the approaching 
consummation of the passion of Christ ; with the left he poinds to 
heaven, intimating the will of the Father. In the background, to 
the right, the three disciples are seen a8le3p, and beyond them is 
the Jewish crowd, led on by Judas. 

Engraved by B. Corti in 1640 ; by Volpato ; by S. Cousins ; and others. 

On wood, 1 ft. 2 in. h. by 1 ft. 4 in. to. 

This picture is an old copy of the original, now in the possession of 
the Duke of Wellingfton, which is said to have been painted by 
Oorreggio for an apothecary to whom he was indebted four send! ; it 
was sold shortly i^terwards for 500 scudLf It was subsequently in the 
royal collection at Madrid, and was presented by Ferdinand VII. to the 
first Duke of Wellington. The picture in this gallery formed part of the 
iUigerstein collection, with which it was purchased for the National 
Gallery in 1824. 



AIiXiORZ (Cristofano), 1577>1621. 

The son of Alessandro, was bom at Florence in 1577, and was 
sometimes called Bronzino, after his great uncle. He left his 
father to study under Gregorio Pagani, one of the reformers of 
the Florentine school, and a good colourist. Cristofano had a 
dislike to the anatomical school of Michaelangelo, to which bis 
father belonged. He was fastidious in his execution, and exceed- 
ingly elaborate ; his style was well suited to portraits, in which 
he was excellent ; he was also a skilful landscape painter, and he 
is said to have made some copies, with slight alterations in the 
backgrounds, of Correggio's Magdalen^ which have passed as 

* See MeQi?8, Werlce, iii. 156. 

^ Gandellini, NotisAe, Ac, degV Intagliator\ article— Oorti B. 



ALLORI— AMEBIGHI. 9 

doplicates by Gorreggio. His pictares are not numerons; among 
his masterpieces is the Judith with tJie Sead of HolophemeSf in the 
Pitti Palace, in which the Judith is said to have been painted 
from his own mistress, and the head of Holophemes from himself ; 
the picture was in the Loavre in 1814, and was engraved by 
Gandolfi for the " Mas^e Napol^u." Cristofano died at Florence 
in 1621.» 

No. 21. Portrait of a Lady. 

lo a white bodice with red sleevei^, and a head-dress richly orna- 
mented with gold : the red sleeves are relieved by a green cortam, 
which constitutes the back-groand. 

Engraved by M. A. Boutier ; and by J. Jenkins, for Jones's national 
Gallery, 

On panel, 1 ft. 11 in. h. by 1 ft. 6f in. w. 

From the collection of the Duke of San Yitale, at Parma, whence it 
Tras procured by Rev. W. Holwell-Garr, who bequeathed it, in 183), 
to the National Gallery. 



JlIiVITNO. See mCGOIiO DiL rVAIOXO. 



(Michael- Angelo), 1569-1609. 

Or Meri'gi, was bDrn at Caravaggio in the Milanese, in 1569, 
and on this account is generally known as Michaelangelo da 
Jaravagoio. His father was a mason. He maintained himself 
for about five years painting portraits at Milan ; he then went to 
Venice. From Yenice he proceeded to Borne ; but there, owing 
to his poverty, he could not procure the requisite materials to 
produce a picture ; he therefore entered the service of the Gavaliere 
Cesare d'Arpino, who employed him in painting fruit and flowers 
jmd other ornamental parts of his own works. Oaravaqgio at 
length produced the celebrated picture of II Oiuoco di Carte^ 
or the Cktrd^layerSf which was purchased by the Cardinal del 
Monte. He also painted about this time S3veral oil pictures for 



*Ba]dinxicci Notieie de Prcfeasori del Disegno, die, ; Lanzi, Staria pittarica Ao. ; 
Fiorino, Qtickiehte der Malerei in Jntcana^ voL i. 



10 AMEEIGHI. 

the Contarelli Chapel in the Ghnrch of San Luigi de* Franoesi. 
His first altar-pieoe in this chapel, St. Matthew loriting the Gospel^ 
was removed by the priests as too vulgar for snch a subject : 
Cabayaggio painted a second, which gave satisfaction, and the 
first was purchased by the Marchese Yincenzio Giustiniani. 
His masterpiece at Rome is The Pietd, or Deposition of Christy 
formerly in the Chiese Naova de' Padri dell' Oratorio, or Santa 
Maria in Yallicella, now in the gallery of the Vatican ; a copy 
was substituted in the church for the original, and there is a 
mosaic of it in the Chapel of the Sacrament in St. Peter's. 

Carayaqgio was now fully established ; but his temper was violent 
and his habits were peculiar. He was playing at tennis with an 
acquaintance, and became so violent in a dispute that he killed his 
companion. He immediately .fled to Naples, whence, after exe- 
cuting a few pictures, he proceeded to Malta, where he obtained 
the favour of the Grand-master Yignacourt, who sat to Carayaggio 
for two portraits, and made him a knight of the Cross of Malta. 
Here again his temper was his enemy ; he quarrelled with one of 
the knights, and was cast into prison ; he contrived, however, to 
escape, acd fled to Syracuse. He afterwards visited Messina and 
Palermo : having executed a few pictures in those cities, he 
returned to Naples, where, after a little time, he hired a felucca 
and set out for Rome, havirg by means of his friends at length 
procured the pope's pardon for the offence which caused his flight 
from that city. On his way, however, he fell in with a Spanish 
coast-guard, who arrested him, mistaking him for another person, 
and when he was at length liberated he found that the people of 
the felucca had gone off with all his property^ He wandered 
despondingly along the coast until he came to Porto Ercole, 
where, partJy from his disappointment and partly fromi the 
extreme heat of the weather, he was seized with a f eveir and died 
in a few days, in 1609, aged only forty .*^ 

Tl^e followers of Carayaggio have been called naturalists : their 
style, which was founded on a literal imitation of the model, was 
thus opposed to that more iiieal view of nature which is founded 
on selection. He had a host of imitators among th^ younger 
punters . of. the age ; even Guido uid Domenichino were rot 

^ ' ♦ Bellori, Vite d^ Pittort,'ScultoH, ed Archit^U imdernU *c, &om9,.ie73. 



AMERIGHI— ANDREA. 11 

exempt from the mflaenee. Guercino in part adopted hia style, 
bat Bartolomeo Manfredi, Spagnoletto, Carlo Saracino, Yalentin, 
and Gerard Honthoret (Gherardo della Notte) became his decided 
imitators. 

No. 172. Christ and the two Disciples at Emmaus. 

A composition of four half-length figures. Ohrist breaking 
bread is eeated between the two disciples at a table, on which is 
spread an Italian meal ; the fourth figure behind is the cook or host. 

On canyas 4 ft. 7 in. h, bj 6 ft. 5| in. w, 

Bellori mentions three pictures of this subject, which were painted 
by Garayaggio, all slightly different. The first, containing five figures, 
was paint^ at Borne, for the Marohese Patrizj ; the second was painted 
likewise at Rome, for the Cardiuil Scipione Borghese ; and the third 
at Zafs^arolo, near Falestrina, after Oaravaggio's flight from Bome, for 
the Duke Marzio Colonsa. The picture in this collection is the second 
mentioned ; it constituted part of the Borghese Gallery at Bome, until 
the great dispersion of pictures which took place in Italy in consequence 
of the FrencJi occupation of that country. It came eyentually into the 
possession of Lord Yemen, who presented it, in 1839, to the National 
Gallery. 



AMB&BA OAXi OASTAaXO, 1390-1457. 

Andrea was born about 1390. His father, a labourer named 
Bartolomm'eo, was the owner of a small piece of ground in the 
parish of Sant* Andrea a Linari, within the precinct of Florence. 
Left an orphan in his boyhood, Andrea herded the cattle of an 
uDcIe who dwelt in the hamlet called 11 Gastagno, in the 
Mngello ; hence his subsequent appellation Dal Gastagno. His 
dormant genius was awakened by seeing a wandering country 
painter at work on a rustic tabernacle, and he essayed to draw 
objects upon walls with cbarcoal or his knife, showing such 
ability as to bring him to the notice of Bernardetto de' Medici, who 
took the youth to Florence and placed him nnder proper tuition.^ 

* Such is Ya sari's acconnt The member of the Medici family introduced in 
it is no doubt Benmrdetto di Antonio who,iu common with his brothers, was 
not included in the proscription by which Cosimo de' Medici was exiled. After 
the return of Cosimo in 1434, Bernardetto was at various times employed on 
impbrtant dtidomatic missions. He was also present at the battle of AngMari, 
where the Florentine forces overthrew those of Francesco Sforza ; and on 
re-entering Florence he was received by the citizens with costly gifts. In 1447 
he was Gonfaloniere of the Bepublic. As he was about three years younger 
than Andrea it does not seem quite clear how he could have taken the latter 
at a ffouth-to Florence; or why, after having taken so much interest in the 
artist, he should have left him to contend with poverty. 



12 ANDREA. 

Tet notwithstanding this protection and bis own talents, it 
wonld appear that Akdrra had to struggle hard with adversity 
up to middle age.^ Afterwards he rose in esteem, and obtained 
sufficient employment to enable him to possess a house of bis 
own. In 1435 he had to perform the ghastly duty of depicting 
on the wall of the Palazzo del Potestil the gibbeted bodies of the 
Albizi, Peruzzi, and the others who were declared rebels on the 
recall from banishment of Cosimo de' Medici. After this he was 
familiarly known as '*Andreino degl* Impiccati." In 1445 he 
was enrolled amongst the painters who belonged to the Guild 
of Doctors and Apothecaries. Most of Andrea's works have 
perished. Of those which remain, and at Florence, may be 
mentioned one, at least, of two Crucifixions in the Monastery 
Degli Angeli ; a very important Last Supper in the Convent, of 
B. Apollonia ; the equestrian figure in monochrome of Niccol5 da 
Tolentino in the Daomo, now transferred to canvas and almost 
entirely repainted ; a S, Jerome^ in the Accademia ; and, lastly, 
nine colossal figures of historical and mythical personages, all 
that remain of a fresco series which once covered the walls of the 
great hall in the Villa Pandolfini at Legnaia. Transferred 
to canvas, they are now in the Museo Naztonale.f All these 
productions display a masculine, almost rude, force of conception 
and execution. The drawing is sufficiently correct, though the 
forms are heavy, and in the figures from Legnaia the perspective 
effect to suit their original position above the eye is carefully con- 
sidered. The heads of the various characters are well imagined* 
If the colouring is harsh, perhaps something must be allowed for 
the injuries of time and some patching. In short, the extant 
works of Andrea answer to the description given by Yasari of 
others existing in his time, and exhibit the painter as a strict 
realist, devoid of all feeling for beauty and grace, but not 
without a sense of rugged grandeur. He introduced portraits of 
contemporaries in many of his compositions, as, for example, in 
his (now lost) frescoes in S. Maria Nuova, executed in and after 

* In his tazine return in 1430 he represents himself as -without a fixed abode 
or movables in Florence ; and so poor, that in illness he had to take shelter ia a 
pnblio hospital (Milanesi, in Giomale Storico degli Archivi ToacanU republished 
m Opere di Vaaarit Gommentario alia Vita di A. del C.) 

t These represent, following their original order in the hall, Filippo Scolari. 
Farinata degli Uberti, Niccoi6 Aociaiuoli, the Oumsean SibyL Queen Esther 
Tomyris Queen of the Massagetn, Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio. 



ANDBEA. 13 

1451. There is nothing beyond Yasiri's assertion to show that 
Andrea learnt from Domenico Yeneziano the secret of using oil 
as a vehicU in painting.^ The latest work of Andrea was a 
L€t9t Supper in the refectory of the hospital of S. Maria Nuova, 
completed in May 1457. On August 8 of that year his wife died, 
and eleven days after he was himself laid in his grave in S. Maria 
de* Servi.f Yasari reckons amongst this master's pupils 
Piero del Pollaiuolo. 

No. 1138- The Crucifixion. 

In the centre our Lord hangs on the Cross, at the foot of 
which the Yirgin and St. John stand to the right and left in 
attitudes of resigned grief. Nearer the foreground are the two 
malefactors crucified. 

The figures are about 5 inches high. 

On wood, 11 in. h, by 1 ft. If in. w. 

Purchased at Florence, from Mr. 0. Fairfax Murray, in 1883. 



DZ &UZOZ C'lIngeqno*'). 

End of 15th and beginning of 16th century. 

Yasari names as the most promising disciple of Pietro 
Perugino " Andrea Luigi d'Ascesi ( Assisi), called l'Ingegno/' of 
whom he gives a short memoir full of contradictory statements. 
Andrea was an independent artist in 1484, working at Assisi ; so 
that he could not have been, as Yasari asserts he was, a fellow- 
pupil with Baphael under Perugino. It may, however, be true 
that Perugino occasionally availed himself of his assistance ; as 
it may also be true that Andrea became afflicted with decay of 
eyesight, though not at the early age at which, according to 
Yasari, he became totally blind. His name occurs in receipts 

*The story related with circumstantial details by Yasari, that Andrea, 
havinfr obtained the secret, and jeilons of the fame, of Domenico, assassinated 
him, was proved to be false by Qoetano Milanesi, who was able to show that 
Domenico survived his alleged murderer by nearly Ave years. See Milanesi in 
Giamale storieo degli Archivi ToicanU anno 1862, Qennaio-Marzo, pp. 1, seqq., or 
the same author's edition of tne Opere dl O. Vamri^ T. II., pp. 683-9. 

t Milanesi sasffests that both may have been victims of the plague which at 
that time had began to show itself in Florence. 



14 ANDREA— ANQELIOO. 

and registers from 1505 to 1511, and frequently in a malkkner that 
shows him to have been a man well versed in affairs. He 
appears as procarator, arbitrator, auditor to th^ magistracy, and 
finally as papal cashier at Assisi. Hence perhaps the appellation 
*' ringegno,'* adopted even by himself, as, in the signature to a 
receipt, ^^ Ingegno di Maestro Alloy isi/' Elsewhere he is called 
^'Magister Andreas Magistri Aloysdi/' The only work amongst 
those ascribed to him which can be authenticated with some- 
thing like certainty is the picture described below under 
No. 1220, which, taking its pronounced Perugian characteristics 
together with the initials A. A. inscribed upon it, suits no 
known painter of the Umbrian «chool but At9i>RSA* Accepting 
the attribution in this case, Andrea di Lcioi or Alovisi nray be 
assumed to have been a pupil of Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, and 
perhaps a fellow- worker with Finturicchio.^ 

No. ISJLOm The Madonna and Child. 

The Virgin, seen at three-quarter length, in a red robe, and 
blue mantle with green lining, sits at a balcony, holding on 
her lap the undraped Infant, on whom she looks. Behind her 
is a dark green curtain, on each side of which is seen a distant 
landscape with trees and houses. 

Signed on the left-hand, below the parapet, A. A. P. in gilt 
letters (Andreas Aloysii (or Assisiensls), Pinxit ?). 

On wood, 2 ft. 1 in. h. by 1 ft. 4| in. to. 

Purchased in 1886, from Lord Methnen, out of the " Walker Bequest." 



▲xrOB&ZCO (Fra Giovanni), 1387-1455. 
Fba Giovanni da Fiesole, commonly called from his great 

« ^^^■^^^■^■^^.^i— ^— ^^^— ^^^"^^^ ■ ■■■■■■ PM ■■■ I ■- . ■■ ^ ■■ . , ,1 n il I ■■■■■■ I - l^^^— ^1— 

* The question of the identity of Andrea di Luigi was first discussed with 
insight and learning by Baron von Bumohr in a contribution to the **Tiibingen 
Kunst-BlatC VoLX, Pt. 2, Nos. 73 and 74, 1821; and subsequently in his 
JtalicnUche ForsGhungen^ U , pp. 324-330. Bumohr's interesi; had been ezcitdd on 
seeing at Florence the picture referred to above, the initials upon which he 
recognised as signifying Andreas Aloysii. He exposed the slskring inoon* 
sistencies involved in Vasari's account of the painter, and cited the documents 
he had discovered at Assisi. Tue passage in Italienitelie Fifrsehungen is friyeo 
in Italian in the Le Monnier edition of yasari's Lives, Ao, Fart V. of the Oom- 
meiitary on the Life of P. Ferugino ; and in the same context in Milanesi'a 
Opere di O. Vasari^Yol. HI. It also appears in Crowe and Oavalcaselle's History, 
Ac, Vol .III., pp. 163-163, though somewhat at>ri€Ure(d, in English. 



ANGEUOO. 15 

piety, l'Angelico, and Ii* Bea:][o ^mbliqo,^ was bora near the 
Gastello di Yiociiio, in the Mugelio, in tS87 ; his secular name 
was Gnido or Guidolino. He joined the Order of the Predicants 
at Fiesole in 1407, and is said to have beffun his career in art as 
an illuminator of mann8cripts.f 

Fra Gioyanni left Fiesole :^i 1409, in the. pontificate of Alex- 
ander Y., and practised as a fresco painter for several years at 
Foligho, and at Oortona, where several of his best pictures are still 
preserved. In 1418 he returned to Fiesole, where he resided 
until 1436, when he was invited to Florence to decorate the new 
Convent of St. Mark, then assigned to the Predicants as tiieir 
abode» For this . conve9t Fha Giovanni executed his most 
important wcirks, which occupied him about nine years. 

• In^ 1445 he was invited to Borne by Pope Eugenias IV,, who 
employed him in the Yatiean, where he also painted a chapel for 
that pope's soocessor, Nicolas Y. While engaged for Nicolas Y., 
he wa& invited to Orvieto to paint the chapel of the Madonna 
di San Brizio, in the cathedra^ which he commenced in 1447, 
but l^t incomplete. He did not return to Orvieto after the 
autumn of that year. The work was completed many years 
afterwards by Luca Signorelli. 

Fba Oioyanmi returned to Rome in September, 1447, and 
remained there until his death, Mardi 18, 1455. He was 
buried in the Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva ; and the 
followiiig inscription was placed on his tomb : — 

Hic JACET Yen. PiCTOR Fb. Io. db Flob. Obd. P. mcoch:ilv4 

Fba Giovanni Anoelico, says Yasari, was a man of such 
fervent piety, that he never commenced painting without 
prayer. He is still well represented in the Convent of St. Mark 
at Floriejioe, aod the .Florentine academy possesses a fine coUec 
tion of his smaller works. Engravings from his paintings are 
numerous. 



* Tk6 beattfloation ot » deceased/ pemdn eminent tor piety is a solemn dis- 
tinction conferred by the Boman Churoh, and is second only to canonization. 

fThe mm^tnreB wtaicli have 'been 'attributed to him are by his schohir 
Zoiobi Strozzi. < • 

XYaaarL VUe ^ P>Uori, ^c. Kd. Le.^onnier, Flor. 1846, et seq. Harchese 
Memmie dei plU IrulQni Bttorf^ &e- Dom&nidani Florence, 1845 • aha San Marco 
CaiwinU dei IMri PrstUeatori in..iFi^nue iUtutrato' e inciso prinelpalmente ne 
d^iMi 4€l B. Qiaoa»ni AngeUca, ^e. Fotio, Flor^ 1852. The paintings in the 
ehap^ of Nicholas v. have been finely engraved for the Arundel Society. 



16 ANGELIOO. 

No. S89L Ths Adoration of tJie Magi; or^ the Wise 
Men's Offering. 

A rocky landscape with a small baildiag on the spectator's 
right, near which the Virgin is seated holding the child on her 
knees. Composition of maay small figares. 

In tempera, on wood, 7^ in. h. by 1 ft. 6J in. to. 

Formerly in the collection of Professor Rosini, at Pisa. Purchased 
from the Lombardi-Baldi collection, at Florence, in 1857. 

No. 663- Christ. 

With the Banner of the Resurrection in his left hand, in the 
midst of a choir of Angels, some blowing trumpets, others playing 
various musical instruments. On the two sides are kneeling a 
great crowd of the Blessed : — the Patriarchs ; the Prophets ; the 
Madonna; the Apostles; and the saints and martyrs of both 
sexes : at the extreme ends are the ^' Blessed " or Beati of the 
Order of the Dominicans, in their black robes. Altogether two 
hundred and sixty-six figares or portions of figures ; many with 
their names attached; **so beautiful,*' says Yasari, **that they 
appear to be truly beings of Paradise.*' 

In tempera, on wood, in five compartments-— each 12^ in. h. by 8| in. 
2 ft. 1 in. to. the sides respectively, and 2 ft. 4 J in. w. the centre picture. 

Formerly the Predella of an altar-piece in San Domenioo at Fiesole, 
and sold by the monks about 50 years since to Signer Valentini, the 
Prussian Consul at Rome. Purchased from h& nephew, Signor 
Qioaocdiino Valentini, at Rome, in 1860. 



SCBOOl^ or TSLIL aZOVAWNX AMOS&100. 

No. 1406a The Annunciation. 

In an arcaded porch or corridor, open to the air, and disclosing 
a flower garden in the middle distance, the Virgin, seatel 
on the right hand of the composition, before a curtain of gold 
tissue, with a closed volume on her lap, bends forward with 
a reverential gesture towards the Angel Gabriel, who entering 
the porch from the opposite side, dad in a rose-coloured robe 
diapered with gold, approaches her in an attitude of deep respect. 



ANGELICO—ANTONELLO. 17 

AboTe the Aogers head< hoTon the Holy Spirit in the form of a 
white doYo. 

The figures are abont half -life. size. 
On panel, 3 ft. 4f in. h, bj 4 ft. 7 in. to. 
Pnrohased from Meflsrs. Lawrie & Co., London, in 1894. 



TOira&&o DA. MassxvAy 1444-149?. 

Antonello degli Antonii, commonly called Amtonbllo da 
MsssiNA, is distinguished among the painters of the 15th century, 
chiefly as having been the means of introdacing into Italy the 
Flemish system of oil painting. Yarious writers, on both sides 
of the Alps, have had no diflKonlty in proving that the mere use 
of oil in painting was known at an earlier period in Italy as well 
as in the north. It is, however, no less certain that the earlier, 
partial practice of oil painting had so far failed to recommend it 
that even after superior examples of the Flemish method, by 
Van Eyck and Bogier van der Weyden, had been seen and 
admired in Italy, the Italian painters generally still continaed 
for many years to work in tempera. 

Yasari relates that Antonello, having first studied at Borne 
and then returned to Sicily where he acquired reputation, saw, 
on a Yisit to Naple?, a picture by John Yan Eyck, in which the 
brilliancy and fine fusion of the tints so struck him that he forth- 
with set out for Flanders, ingratiated himself with Yan Eyck, 
and learnt from him the secret of his method ; that on the death 
of his Flemish master he returned to Messina, and soon after 
settled at Yenice. Now as John Yan Eyck died in 1440, this 
story would necessarily imply that Antonello was bom at any 
rate early in the century, whereas Yasari subsequently states that 
he died in 1493, agei 49. Modern research corroborates the 
ktter statement, and fixes the birth of Antonello c. 1444. He 
could not, therefore, have known Yan Eyck, though he may 
have visited Flanders in order to learn the new method of painting. 
On the other hand, it is unnecessary to suppose such a journey to 
have taken place. Flemish pictures were well known and highly 
pfiied in Italy. Bogier van der Weyden spent some years of 
his life in the Peninsula, and without doubt was not the only 

25640 B 



18 ANTONELLO. 

northern painter who sought employment there. From one of 
thsse Antonello might have gained the knowledge he desired. 
Certain it is that the style, no less than the technique of almost 
all his known works proves his affiliation to the northern school. 
It is useless to inquire where he spent the chief part of his life. 
He must have attained celebrity in his native island, where, in 
the church of S. Gregorio at Messina, a triptych by his hand, 
signed, and dated 1473, still exists. In the same year, however, 
he was at Yenice, which city became his chief or exclusive place 
of abode until his death 20 years later.. The earliest of his 
Kigned works (No. 673 in this gallery) bears the date 1465. It 
has a markedly FJemish character, as have two other paintings 
of the same subject, the one in private possession at Genoa, the 
other in the gallery of Vicenza. An altar-piece of 1473 in 
S. Cassiano, Yenice, has long since disappeared. Later dates 
range from 1474 to 1478. The magnificent portrait in the Louvre 
is dated 1475, as is the small Crucifixion in the Antwerp gallery. 
A portrait in profile in the Casa Trivulzio at Milan is of 1476 : 
The Crucifixion (No. 1166, below), of 1477. Finally the very 
exquisite little portrait of a young man in the Berlin gallery is 
admitted to bear the date of 1478, although the two la^t 
numerals, which are somewhat obscured, were formerly read 
as 45. This work, however, has a strongly Yenetian stamp, and 
is justly held to exhibit the influence of the Bellini, who, on their 
part, were indebted to the Sicilian for their knowledge of the 
Flemish method of oil painting. But to Antonello and his 
Flemish education is due that type of portraiture which we find 
among the Yenetian and North Italian painters of his time, and 
which, under a southern sun, and in the hands of a Titian, 
:)xpanded itself in Ihe noblest form. What works Antonello 
may have produced in the last 15 years of his life, it is impossible 
to guess. Possibly some of them exist in collections under false 
designations. Not possessed of any great originality, Antonello 
may have so far succumbed to the influence of the more powerful 
spirits around him as to adopt their ideas and conform to their style. 

No. C73- Christ as the Saviour, " Salvator MundiJ*^ 

The right hand is raised in the act of blessing ; the fingers of 
tie left rest on the edge of a parapet. The inner dress is a dark 



ANTONELLO. 1» 

erinuon tmuc ; « portion of blje drap«ry croueH the Uft ahonldar. 
Bolt fienre, weii in front, snull life siie. In the lower pui of 
the new is nma what is called a penlimento or correction. The 
right hand and part of the tunic were originallj higher, and their 
famu, obliterated bj tbe piinter, have partly re-app«ared. • 

On wood, 1 ft. 4f in. A. bj 1 ft. f in. lo. iaoladlnff a black border abont 
aaineh wide. 

With a eart^liiw, iiucribed bb followa : — 



The ;ear 1465 curreepondB not with the eighth bat with the thirteentbi. 
indiotion. It ie therefore sappoeed either ^lat the p&inter wae miBiQ- 
tonned as to the ;ear of the indiction, or, which is more probable, that . 
the freely written V. wae origiiiallf croseed bo as to form X. 

Pondiaged in September, 1861, from the Cavaliers IboU, Qenoa. 

No, U41. Portrait of a Young Man. (Supposed to 
he the painter himself.) 

Boat length ; aboot two-thirds life size. He weari* a red cap, . 
and a broitn doublet, above the collar of which is seen the 
«dge of a lioen on ler-garment encircling the neck. The hair - 
of the head is short and tbe f Jce is shavea. Dark background. 

On iBuel, 1 ft. 1) in. ^ by 10 in. ui. 

Parchaeed at Genoa, from Signor 0. HolBni, from the interest of tbe - 
" lewis Fund," in 1S83. 

A piece of paper of the last century, glued to the back of this panel, 
contains a memorandum in now faded ink, in the handwritin^f of the 
great-grandfather of Signer Q. Hol&ui, to the following effect; — " Anto- 

" Hello of Hessina, a city of Sicily, a famons painter 

" And this ia his portrait, painted by himself, as wae to be seen by an 
" inBcription below it whi^ I, in order to reduce it (i.e., the picture) to 
'' a better shape, sawed away." Some ttaoee of further writing are 
now illegible. 

2GM0 B 2 



20 



ANTONELLO. 



No. 1166* The Cntcifixion. 

The dying tBavioar, from the woand on whose side Mood ui still 
flowing, hangs nailed to the Gross, at the foot of which lie human 
skalls and bones. On the left the Virgin, clad in a pIamK)oloared 
robe and blue mantle, with a white linen reil, which fi^s from her 
head to her knees, sits in an attitude of sorrowful resigoatioii. 
On the opposite side sits St. John, draped in a grey tunic and 
Ecarlet pallium, his face upturned towards his Master, with the 
hands extended as if in supplication. 

In the middle distance is seen a fortified town with many small 
figures, some on horseback. Beyond, a mountainous landscape. 

Signed on a carieUino below : — 






L 




On panel, 1 ft. 6 in. h, by 10 in. w. 

Purchased from Louisa, Ifarchioness of Waterf ord, out of the interest 
of the " Clarke Bequest," in 1884. 



No. 1418> St\ Jerome in his Study. 

The subject is enclosed by a large stone segmental-headed arch- 
way, which admits light into an apartment roofed with a Gothic 
vault and paved with tiles. A portion of this room is occupied 
by a wooden structure raised on a platform ascended by steps. 
On this platform tit. Jerome sits at a desk, turning oyer the 
leaves of an open volume. Behind and in front of him rise 
shelves filled with book?, pottery, and other articles. Towards 
the right of the picture St. Jerome's emblematical lion is 
seen in a vaulted corridor lighted by two windows with land- 
scape in distance. On the left^ at the end of a passaffe, is 
another wiLdow with a distant view of meadows and buildings. 
On a step in the foreground are a peacock and another bird, 
probably i a tended to represent a partridge. 

This picture is mentioned by the anonimo of Morelli as being 
in the pos8es::'on of Antonio Pasqualino in Venice in 1529, where 
it was variously attributed to Antonello, to Jan van Eyck, and 
to Memlinc. He himself considered it to be by '* Jaoomettoy'* 



ANTONELLO— AVBBOAMP. 2i 

raeamng piobaUy Jaoopo de' Barbari. There seems little doabt 
that the attribution to ADtonello da Messina is the right one. 

On panel, 1 ft. 6 in. A. by 1 ftw 2i in. tr. ^. 

Formerly in the oolleofeion of Sir Thomas Baring, at whose sale it 
was bought by Mr. Wm. Ck»ningham in 1848. It oame ultimately in^ 
the poBseeaion of the Earl of Northbrook, from whom it was pnrohased 
for the GkOlery in 1894. 



(Hendrik), 1585-after 1663. 

This painter was bom in 1585, the son of Baerend Avercamp,. 
a yonng Frisian, then a master in the high school of Amsterdam,, 
and of his wife, Beatrix, daughter of the rector, Pieter yah. 
Meerhout.^ The year after his birth his parents remoTed to 
Kampen. The boy, who wai inoarably dumb, and thenoe 
known throughout life as *'de Stomme," (the mnte)f, early 
showed his talent for drawing. As his malady unfitted him for 
most employments, he was probably placed with a painter at 
Amffterdam, where he would be oared for by his mother's 
relations. His master there is supposed to have been the lands- 
cape painter GUles van Coninxloo. At Amsterdam chiefly, but 
also at the Hague and perhaps elsewhere in Holland, Hendrijl 
Aysbcamp pursued his art until, at any rate, 1625. Afterwarda 
he withdrew to Kampen, where his widowed mother surrived, 
and where he himself died — ^after 1663. The subjects of most of 
his picturea are winter scenes. In these he bespreads the frozen 
water with a busy, motley throng of skaters and sledgers of both 
sexes, from the well-to-do, gaily-dressed burghers in pursuit of 
amusement, to the humbler villagers who glide along on their 
way to market. In the still, freezing air, under the thinly-veiled 
sky, all is life and motion. A riverside village or the skirts of 
a town lie in friendly nearness. The figures are sharply defined 
against the light, reflecting surface of the ice. The refined 

• See " Oad-Holland,'* Jaarffang III., 1835, p. 63. 

t Immorzeel (De Levens en Werken, &g. sub voce Avercamp"^, conjectures that 
Oira byname arose from the painter being of a taciturn disposition. But see 
the tonchin? death-bed memorial of Beatrix Avercamp to the Magistracy of 
Kampen respectinff her son Hendrik, Dec. 1633, and her will of the same date ; 
in the former of whi<di documents she repeatedly calls him her dumb and pitiable 
mm (haren stommen ende miserabelen soen), while in the latter she makes 
provision for his support^n order that he may not be a burden on his brothers 
and siiter, (J. Nanning t7iterdyk, in Obreen's ArcMif, tfcc., 2te deel, pp. 203-207.) 



22 AVERCAMP. 

modulations of tint, and the delicacies of aerial perspectiye, 
aimed at by painters of sacb scenes in the middle of the 17th 
century, are seldomer found in Avercamp's works. These retain 
traces, rather, of older views of art. His pictures, though of 
much less frequent occurrence than his drawingis, are to be 
found in several galleries. His signature is in most cases a 
simple monogram composed of the letters H and A ; occasionally 
the full surname appears. 

No. 134C A Winter Scene. 

In the foreground, towards the left, a leafless tree rises above 
humble tenements on the bank of a frozen canal. In the distance 
is a chateau with other buildings beyond. On the ice between 
the foreground and the chateau are numerous gaily-dressed 
persons skating. On the right, a sleigh occupied .by a pleasure 
party and drawn by a horse. Wintry sky. Signed. 



JAl 



T)n panel (circular), 1 ft. 3| in. diameter. 

Purchased in 1891 from Mr. Edward Habich, of Cassel. 

^o. 1479> A Scene on the Ice. 

To the right is a large red-brick house, apparently a farm, 
with outbuildings abutting on a wide river, wbich is frozen over 
and covered with groups of figures, among whom are men and 
women skating, a sledging party, and men playing hockey. In 
the distance the spires of a large town are seen over the trees, 
and beyond, the river stretches away to the horizon. 

Signed with the painter^s monogram on the water tank in the fore- 
ground : 



M/ 



On panel, 1 ft. lOi in. A. by 2 ft. lOf in. w. 

Purchased from Mr. J. St. Hens^ from the interest of the " Lewis 
Fund " in 1896. 



BAKHUIZEK. 



(LuDOLP), 1631-1708. 

Was born at EmdeD, Dec. 18, 1631. His father was a govern- 
ment secretary at Emden, and Ludolf acted as his clerk nntil 
1650, when he was placed with a merchant at Amsterdam, to 
learn commercial business. While thos engaged Bakhaiien 
commenced making drawings of ships from nature, for whick he 
soon found willing purchasers. He eventually studied painting 
under Albert van Everdingen, and he received also some instr ac- 
tion in the style which be had chosen from the marine-painter 
Hendrik Dobbels. 

Bakhuizin's favourite subjects were wrecks and stormy sew*, 
which he frequently sketched from nature in an open boat, at the 
great peril of himself and the boatmen. He engraved a few 
pieces : there are some etchings of the T,^ and other marine views, 
executed by him when old. He made also many constructive 
drawings of ships for the Czar Peter the Great, who took lessons 
of the painter, and frequently visited his painting-room. Among 
his other avocations, Bakhuizen also gave lessons in writing, in 
which he had introduced a new and approved method. He died 
at Amsterdam, November 17, 1708. Ludolf Bakhuizen, called 
the younger, a battle painter, was the nephew of ^he subject of 
this notice. 

No. 2i23> Dutch Shipping, 

A frigate, with a yacht saluting, a boat, and many small vessels; 
in a fresh breeze, off the Dutch coast. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 5^ in. k. by 3 ft 5| in. w. 

Bequeathed to the National Gallery by Mr. Charles L. Bredel, in 1851. 

No. 818* Coast Scene. 

The sea shore with small breakers falling on the sands. A 
group of figures in the foreground, and a fishing boat pushing off 
in the middle distance. Signed L. B. 

On wood, 13^ in. ^. by 1 ft. 6 i in. w. Engraved by Daudet in the Le 
Bran Gallery. 

Formerly in the collections of M. Lorrimer and M. De St. Victor. 
Purchased from Sir Robert Peel in 1871. 



* That part of the Zuider Zee on which Amsterdam is situated. 



it BAKHUIZEN. 

No. 819. Of the Mouth of the Thames. 

A gale and a stormy sea ; on the right, cliffs, and a small fishing 
harbour. An English schooner and two boats in the foreground ; 
a bark in the middle distance on the left, with mainsail and two 
foresails set. 

On canvas, 3 ft 2\ in. h, by 4 ft. 4 in. w. 

Formerly in the La Fontaine colleotion. Purchased from Sir Robert 
Peel in 1871. 



No. 1000. Shipping^ the Estuary of a River, 

A jetty, on which is a small shed for passengers by the boats ; 
the mast and sails of a vessel seen behind the jetty. A small boat 
with two men in front, another vessel to the right sailing towards 
a Dutch frigate at anchor in the middle distance. A dark cloudy 
sky casts a black shadow on the water. 

On oak, 13^ in. k, by 18 } in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest 1876. 



No. 1442. Ships in a Gale. 

A three-masted vessel and a logger are running before the 
wind with shortened sail, in a rough sea, off a hilly coast. In 
the foreground on the right is a fishing boat brought up in the 
wind in the act of going about. A large ship is seen on the 
horizon. 

On panel, 1 ft. 2i in. h, by 1 ft. lOf in. to. 

Lent by the Victoria and Albert Museum in exchange with several 
othera for a collection of water-colour drawings lent by the National 
Gallery in 1895. 



BALDtn^G. S6 

BALBUVa (Hamb). 1476 ?-li45. 

Wbo acqnited aiid adopted the by-name of Oeisn or GRirii,* 
was bom at Q-mfind, in fiwabia, in or about 1476. He settled 
at Strasshnrg in 1509, but two jears afterwards was attrsoted 
to Freibnrg-in-the-Breisgau, where he occnpied himself with 
important commissions until 1517. Thenoe he returned to 
StnuBburg, and renewed his lapsed right of citisenship. In 
1545 be became a senator of that free city, and in the same year 
died. Bis earlier works exhibit the influence of MatthsBus 
Granewald and Martin Schonganer. Of later date, and more 
enduring, was the powerful example of Albert Durer, with 
whom he stood on terms of friendship.f Hams Balduno, how- 
eyer, possessed b3th originality and imagination ; he was also 
a most able draughtsman, a sound if somewhat unequal painter, 
and a good colorist. In his twentieth year he produced the two 
altar-wings in the convent of Lichtenthal, near Baden-Baden, 
where they now form separate centres. His paintings are 
numerous in Qermany, Austria, and Switzerland ; now for the 
most part in public collections, as at Berlin, Darmstadt, 
AschafEenburg, Karlsruhe, Frankfort, Munich, Stuttgart, 
Vienna, Prague, and Basle ; in churches, as in that of Saint 
Mary in the Capitol at Cologne, and elsewhere. Dates found 
on some of these range from 1496 to 1539. Baldung's greatest 
work is the altar-piece (alluded to above) in the monastery of 
Freibnrg-in the-Breisgan, completed in 1516, the central 
subject of which is the Coronation of the Virgin, The wings 
contain, on the inside, figures of the 12 Apostles ; on the 
outside, four typical incidents in the life of Mary. On the 
reverse of the central panel is a large Orudfixion. Balduno 



* It has been suggested that this appellation owed its origin to Baldung's 
fondness for a peculiarly brilliant tint of green often found in his pictures. 
(Woltmann and Woermann. Oeschichte der Malerei, II. 440.) ThAl it was 
accepted by the artist himself is clear from his accustomed monogram, which 
is a oombination of the letters H and B, with a Q across the bar of the former. 

t Moritz Thausing supposes an earlv friendship between Dtlrer and Baldunf 
at Nuremberg, which time and distance left unimpaired. On the death of 
Dtirer, Baldun^ received a lock of his hair. This interesting relic, after the 
iapse of centuries, fell into the hands of the eminent painter, Eduaid Steinle 
of Frankfort. It is now in the library of the I. B. Acaaemy of Arts at Vienna. 
(M. Thausing, **IXirer" Ac, 1. 177, 2nd ed.,1884.) Diirer, in the ^ary kept during 
his journey in the Low Coxmtries. records his having sold several impressions 
of "Grun-Hans's" engravings, which he had apparently taken with him on 
commission. (Tagebuch, March and June, 1621.) 



26 BALDdNGh. 

sometimes tried allegorical and fanciful subjects. His portrait?, 
of which several exist, are highly individual, and fall of 
character. When unsigned they have sometimes passed for the 
work of Durer ; but they want his searching modelling. Hans 
engraved several copper-plates. Much more numerous, and 
belonging chiefly t<> the latest period of his life, are the 
woodcuts executed upon his designs ; they amount to over 130. 
Characteristic drawings by him are to be found in most great 
collections, particularly in those at Vienna, Berlin, and Basle. 
Oarlsruhe is fortunate in the possession of a sketch-book of his 
own, together with the silver style which he used in designing.^ 

No. 245. Biist Portrait of a Senator. 

An old man with a grey beard, in a purple robe with a fur 
collar, and a cap on his head, and on his neck a chain and order 
decoration ; a plain blue background, with the date 1514, and the 
monogram of Albert Diirer. 

On wood, 1 ft. 11 J in. A. by 1 ft. 7 in. m'. 



•15Ii- 



A 



The date is probably original ; the monogram is a forgery. 

Purchased for the National Gallery, in 1854, at the sale of M. Joly de 
Bammeville*8 collection. 



No. 1427. The Dead Christ; a Pietd, 

The figure of our Lord, supported by the Virgin and St. John, 
Is seen at half length above the edge of a red marble tomb ; 
behind the group stands Joseph of Arimathea. The background 
is gold with some clouds, from which the Holy Spirit, in the form 

* The designs in the sketoh-book have been published in fac-simile by Dr* 
Maro Bosenberg, Frankfort a-M. Keller , 1889. 



BALDUNG— BABBABELLI. 27 

of a dove, is deaoendin^. Below, in smidl, are kneeling figures of 
the Donor and his family, urith two coats of arms. 

Signed : — 

On panel, 3 ft. 7^ in. 7^ bj 2 ft. 10^ in. w, 

Pnrohased from Mr. George Donaldson from the interest of the 
** Lewis Fund " in 1894. 



(Giorgio) known as Giohgione. 

1477-1610. 

Commonly called, from his large and handsome stature, 
GlORGiONE, was born of parents in good drcamstances, near 
Gastelfranco, before 1477. He was the fellow-pupil of Titian 
with Giovanni Bellini at Tenice, and early distinguished himself 
for his beautiful colouring, and bis effective treatment of liglt 
and shade. He was further distinguished for truth of representa- 
tion, which he acquired by bis practice of referring to nature on 
all occasions. After having visited his native place, where be 
painted some pictures, Giorgione returned to Yenice, and by way 
of ezbibiting a specimen of bis ability, decorated the front of bis 
house with subjects in fresco : he was, in consequence, employed 
on other works of the kind. Like many aitists of the period, 
he was also in the habit of painting panels for various articles 
of ornamental furniture ; for these he generally chose his 
subjects from Ovid, encircling them with appropriate landscape 
backgrounds. The frescoes with wbich, in company with Titian, 
he decorated tbe fa9ade of the Fondaco de* Tedescbi at Yenico 
have perished, and the nature and character of these groups 
and single figures can now be judged of only from Zanetti*s 
etchings of the fragments which still remained in the middle of 
the last century.^ Many pictures have been and many still are 
assigned to Giorgione, on no authority but that of individual 
opinion. A very few are admitted on all hands to be bis work. 

•A. M. Zanetti. Farie Pitture a fresco de* principali Maestri VenizianU Ac^ 
Venezia. 1760. 



28 BABBABELLL 

Among (or perhaps as solely) these may be noted the Enthroned 
Madonna^ with SS, Francis and Liberate, in the parish ehnreh of 
Oastelfranco ; the small composition called La Famiglia di 
Giorgione, once in the Manfrin collection, and now in that left by 
the late Prince, Giovanelli at Yenica ; and the so-called Three 
Phihaophers in the Belvederd at Yienoa.^ 

This great piiiiter died in 1510, before the completion of his 
thirty-foorth year. Some of the greatest masters of the Yenetian 
and neighbouring schools were the scholars or imitators of 
GiORGiONE :— Sebastiano del Piombo, the great Titian himself, 
and many others. 

No. 269a A Knight in Armour. 

A small figure completely armed with the exception of the head; 
in his left hand he holds his lance. A dark background. 
On wood, 1 ft. 3^ in. h. by lOf in. w. 

This appears to be a study for the figure of San Liberale in the altar- 
piece by diorgione at Oastelfranco. The only difference is, that in the 
altar-piece the warrior wears his helmet, while in this picture he is bare- 
hcHEtded. From a MS. memorandum on the back of the picture, it appears 
that Mariette had also noticed the resemblance of this figure to the 
warrior in the Oastelfranco altar-piece, which, he obserTes, was said to 
represent Gaston de Foiz. In the Accademia at Venice is a picture by 
Falma Yecchio in which the same figure occurs bareheaded. 

Formerly in the collection of Benjamin West, P.R.A. Bequeathed to 
the National Gallery by Mr. Samuel Rogers, in 1855. 

No. 1160a The Adoration of the Magi. 

To the left of the picture the Yirgio, draped in .a large, blue 
mantle, sits on the threshold of a building holding on her knees 
the infant Christ (undraped). Beside her sits St. Joseph, clad in 
a blue tunic and yellow mantle, bearing in his hand a gilt orb 
or vessel which he has just received from one of the Ma^, who, 
in rich attire, kneels before the Holy Family. Near him, bat 
farther to the right, another of the Magi, also kneeling and 
bareheaded, presents his gift, attended by a page. Behind this 
group are otber figures (one in armour). To the right of the 

* To this meagre list the late eminent Italian critic, Sgr. Giovanni Morelli« 
has now added, with general assent, the Sleeping VenttSt No. 236 in the Dresden 
Oallerj, as a veritable work of Qiorgione's, and the prototype of Titian's 
celebrated picture in the **Tribuna" of the Uffizi at Florence. A few other 
works, in and out of Italy, may, without much danger of dispute, be ranked in 
the same category. 



BABSABELLI— SCHOOL OF BABBABEliLL 29 

picture are attendants and bprsea. Avftrage height of figures 
about eight inches. 

Bine sky, with a glimpse of landscape in the right-hand upper 
oomer. 

On pa^el, 12 in. h, by 2 ft. Sin.w. 

Purchased in London, at the sale of the Leigh Ck>nrt pictures, in 1884. 



SCHOO& or ozoaazo 8AaBAAB&&z. 

No. 930- The Garden of Love. 

A hilly landscape, a village in the background, and mountains 
in the distance. In the foreground a enml stream and cascade 
partly shaded by overhanging trees ; to the left a man standing 
with a fiddle in his hand ; behind him a woman with her right 
hand fall of roses ; at her feet two doves. Across the rivulet, 
towards the middle ground, a man in red suit and cap seated, 
and a woman reclining against him at his side, apparently asleep; 
a lute and some music lying in front of them. In the middle 
distance, two men accosting, and, still further, two other figures 
conversing. 

On canvas, 7 ft. 3 in. \ by 4 ft. 11 in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 1173- An Unknown Subject. 

In a garden enclosed by a shrubbery, a personage crowned 
with a cbaplet of wild olive, and clad in a dark green tunic and 
maize-coloured pallium, sits on a raised throne, above which is 
suspended a conical canopy of coloured stuff. Biefore him on 
the steps of the throne, stands a boy in a grey gown bareheaded, 
and holding a cap in bis hand. Behind kneels an attendant 
offering a dish filled with fruit, herbs, and grain (?), while a 
young man sitting on the right of the foreground, at the foot of 
the throne, plays on a mandolin. To the left a panther crawls 
over the herbage, and a peacock is perched on the dead branch 
of a tree. Behind rises a hich cliff of fantastic shape with a 
beetling summit. Beyond is a hilly landscape, with buildings, &o. 
Deer in the middle distance. 

On panel, 1 ft. 11^ in. h. by 1 ft. 7^ in. w. 

Purchased in London, at the sale of the Bohn Collection, out of the 
interest of the '* Clarke Bequest," in 1885. 



30 SCHOOL OF BARBARELLI— BARBIERI. 

No. 1123- Venios and Ado7iis. 

To the left of the foreground Adonis is seated by the siJe of 
Yenas, whom he caresses. Both figures are nearly nude ; Venus 
wears a chaplet of flowers in her hair. Behind her, Cupid aims a 
dart. Landscape background. In the distance are represented 
various incidents relating to the classic myth of Myrrha, including 
the birth of Adonis, her son. 

On sanvas, 2 ft. 6^ in. h. by 4 ft. i in. w. 

Formerly attributed to Giorgione, and still considered by some 
critics as a work of that master. 

Purchased in London, at the sale of the Hamilton Palace pictures, 
in 1882. 



(Giovanni Francesco) Zb OUBRCZNO. 

1591-1666. 

Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, Cavaliere, commonly called, 
from his squinting, Guercino, was born of very humble parents 
at Cento, near Bologna, Feb. 2, 1591 ; his father carried supplies 
of wood and faggots to the towns, and Guercino u^ to take care 
of his cart. He was self-taught : and after studying some time 
at Bologna and Venice, he repaired in the time of Paul V. to 
Rome ; he there made the acquaintance of Michelangelo da 
Caravaggio,* and became a decided imitator of his style ; but, 
in consequence of the impetuoas temper of that painter, soon 
avoided his society. Having executed several honourable com- 
missions at Rome, he returned to his native place after the death 
of his patron, Gregory XV. (Ludovisi), in 1623. 

Guercino remained at Cento for a space of twenty years, when, 
after the death of Gnido in 1642, he removed to Bologna, where 
he died in very affluent circumstances in 1666.t He is one of 
the principal masters of the class called Tenebrosi ; but in his later 
works, or thosa which he painted after he settled in Bologna, in 
which he appears to have endeavoured to approximate the style of 
Guido, he forsook the vigorous handling and treatment of his 
earlier pictures, and fell into an insipid manner. His master- 
piece is the great picture of Santa Petronilla,:{: in the Capitol of 

* See the notice of Garavaggio in this Catalogue under AMERIGHI. 

t Passeri, Vite d^ PittorU Ac ; Malvasia, Fehina Pittrice, A Life of GuercinO" 
was published by J. A. Calvi at Bologna in 1808. Notizie delta Vita, Ac., di Oio, 
Francesco Barbieri. 

t Santa Petronilla, or Perina, was, according to the legend, the daughter of 
St. Peter the Apostle. Guercino's picture has been engraved by Frey and by 
Dorigny. 



BABBIEBI— BAftNABA. 31 

Rome. It was painted for one of the chapels of St. PetjBr*8, where 
there is now. a mosaic copy of it : the body of the saint is beini^ 
deposited in the vanlt prepared for it in the Yia Ardeatina outside 
the walls of Borne : above is a vision of the Saviour, with angels^ 
receiving her soul. 

No. 22. Angels weeping over the Dead Body of Christ. 

The head and shoulders are supp'irted against a stone ; the 
figure is slightly foreshortened ; two angels kneeling complete the 
composition. 

Engraved by J. Cheesman ; by P. W. Tomkins ; and by S. in Free> 
man Joneses National Gallery. On copper, 1 ft. 2\ in. h. by 1 ft. b\ in. U7. 

Formerly in the Borghese Gallery at Rome. Ramdohr, in his account 
of that collection (1784), notices this picture as one of the productions 
of Guercino's best time.* It was bequeathed to the National Gallery^ 
in 1831, bv the Rev. W. Holwell-Carr. 



BA&NABA DA MODBNA, Second half of 14th century. 

This artist, as his surname implies, was born at Modena, but 
appears to have worked principally at Piedmont and at Pisa, to 
which latter place he was summoned in 1380 to finish the series 
of frescoes of the story of S. Banieri, in the Gampo Santo, 
begun in 1377 by Andrea di Firenze. In 1364 he had painted 
tb3 chapel of the Ducal Palace of Genoa ; in 1370 he did 
a Madonna for S. Domenico at Turin, which is now in the 
Turin Gallery. In the Staedel Gallery at Frankfort, and in the 
Gallery at Berlin, are pictures dated respectively 1367 and 1369. 
These are the only dates known in connexion with his career. He 
does not appear to have finished, or perhaps even worked, on the 
frescoes of S. Banieri, as these were afterwards given to another 
painter ; but there are in the Museo Civico at Pisa two pictures 
by his hand, taken from churches in that town. Babnaba was 
one of the good painters of his time ; his colouring was luminous 
and harmonious, and his Madonnas have much grace and charm, f 



* Malerei und Sildhatterarbelt in Bom, Ac. 
t See Crowe and Cavalcaselle. HisL of i 
the Catalogue of the Mmeo Olvico di Pisa by the Gav. J. B. Sapino, 18! 



t See Crowe and Cavalcaselle. Hist, of fainting in Italy, Y^^ 5*aP* 220-2, also 



32 BABNABA— BAEOpCI, 

No. X4i37i^ 1^ Deacmt of the Holy GhosL : 

In a room with a raftered ceiling are seated the Virgin Mary 
and the Apostles. Their hands are folded as in prayer, and the 
tongnes of flame are on their heads. All have gold iiimhL^ 
The lower part of the picture is occupied by a decorative 
parapet. 

In tempera, on wood, 1 ft. 8| in. ^ by 1 ft. 7^ in. w, 

Pnrchased in London from Mr. C. Simpson in 1895. 



BAROCCZ (Fedebigo), 1528-1612. 

Or Barocgio, was born at Urbino, in the Papal State, in 1523. 
His father Ambrogio Barocci, a sculptor, originally of a Milanese 
family, gave him his first instruction in design ; he was after- 
wards placed with the distinguished painter Battista Franco, 
who spent some time at XJrbino in the service of the Duke 
Guidubaldo II. After the departure of Franco, Babocci also 
left Urbino, and accompaoied his uncle Bartolomeo Genga, the 
duke's architect, who taught him perspective, to Pesaro, then 
under the dominion of the Dukes of (Jrbino ; his uncle procured 
him permission to copy some pictures by Titian in the ducal 
gallery there. In 1548, in his twentieth year, Barocci visited 
Rome, and remained there a few years, devoting his time chiefly 
to the study of the works of Raphael. Several pictures which he 
painted after his return to Urbino gained him great reputation. 
He confined himself almost exclusively to religious subject?, and 
executed several large altar-pieces, some of .which he etched 
himself — as the Pardon of San Francesco d^Aasiai, at Urbino, in 
1581 ; and The Annunciation, at Loreto, a few years later ; two 
of his masterpieces. In 1560, he returned to Rome,. and was em** 
ployed in the following year by Pius IV., with Fede^igo Zuccaro, 
in the Vatican. While there engaged, he was nearly poisoned, 
by some rival, as supposed. Though the attempt failed, it whoUj 



* It is noticeable that the drapery of the Yirsrin Mary is treated in the 
Hieratic or Byzantine manner, while that of the Apostles is in the natoralistio 
manner of Giotto. The same treatment may be observed in a picture by this 
master in the Museo Oivibo at Pisa (Boom V., No. 6) ; see also The Trarufigurxition 
by Dnccio di Bttoninsegna (No. 1330) in our own Gallery. 



BABOCCL 33 

incapacitated Baboogi for painting for foor yean, and afflicted 
him for the remainder of his life, fifty-two years, with a disease 
of the stomach which rendered work impossiUe for more than 
two hours in the day. From the period of this misfortune, with 
the exception of three years passed at Perngia, daring which he 
paid a short visit to Florence, Babocci spent the remainder of his 
long life at Urbino, where he died of apoplexy on the last day of 
September 1612, aged 84 : he was buried there in the church of 
San Francesco, M'ith all the ceremony due to his great reputation. 
Babocci is gaaerally said to have founded his style upon the 
works of Raphael and Corregio : his works have considerable 
resemblance to those of Corregio in delicacy of light and shade. 
In colouring he was peculiar ; Mengs^ has observed, that his 
works are deficient in yellow tints. Bellori has also pointed out 
the defects of his colouring, remarking that be used too much 
vermilion and too much ultra- marine.f Beynolds observes that 
he " falls under the criticism that was made on an ancient painter, 
' that his figures looked as if they fed upon roses." ':|: His style 
had considerable influence upon the painters of his time, both at 
Rome and Florence. Of all his followers, the moat distingaished 
was Lodovico Cardi, commonly called Cigoli, who, partly throagh 
the example of BABOCCf S works, became a reformer of the then 
degenerate Florentine school. 



i> 



No. 29. A ^^Holy Family. 

Known as "La Madonna del Gatto,*' from the circumstance 
of a cat being introduced into the picture. Though the subject 
is ostensibly holy, it is here treated merely as an ordinary domestic 
scene. The little St. John, leaning with his left arm upon the 
lap of the Virgin, is playfully teasing a cat, by holding up a little 
bird beyond its reach. The Ms donna is pointing with her right 
hand to the cat, as if to direct the attention of her infant son, who 
has just tnrned from the breas<', to the incident. Behind is 
Joseph, who, with his left hand resting upon a table, is leaning 
forward, and appears to be equally engrossed by the trivial 
circumsteince. 

• MengB, Hinterlassene Werft«, vol. i., p. 253. 

t Bellori, Vite di Httari^ ScuUorU ed Architetti modernU &c. Borne, 1672 
Baldioticci, NotizU d^ Profeaori del Diaegno da Oiniabtte in qua, Florenca 
1681-88. 

X Sir J. Beynolds* Not£8 on Du Fresno^g Art of Palniinot note ly. 

25640 C 



S4 BAROOOI— BARTOLOMMEO. 

Engraved by 0. Oort, in 1577 ; and by A. Cardon, and otihers* On 
' ouiras, 3 ft. 9 in. h. by 3 ft. to. 

A ^'Madonna del Gatto" is noticed by Bellori, and he appears to 
.allude to this picture, though he calls the little bird a swallow, and 
mentions that it is tied with a piece of string, which is not evident at 
present, and the bird is a goldfinch. Bellori terms the composition a 
scherzo (a playful piece), and adds that it was painted for the Count 
Antonio Brancaleoni. The picture above described was loug in the 
Cesarei Palace at Perugia, whence it was procured by Mr. Irvine for 
Mr. Buchanan in 1805, of whom it was purchased by the Rev. W. 
Holwell-Carr, who bequeathed it, in 1831, to the National Gallery. 
There are several old copies of it. 



BA.STO&OMKISO (Fba), 1475-1517. 

The proper name of this great Florentine artist' was Bar- 
TOLOMMEO Di Pagholo DEL Fattorimo, but he was better 
known as Baggio della Porta^ so called from his living near the 
Porta di San Pier Gattolino at Florence. He was early (at the 
age of nine years) apprenticed to Gosimo Roselli, in whose studio 
he formed a close friendship with Mariotto Albertinelli, with 
whom he went into partnership, and who was associated with him 
in many works until the partnership was foimally dissolved in 
1512. Bartolommeo was only twenty years old when he came 
under the influence of Savonarola whose preaching had a disastrous 
effect by his anathemas directed against all art which did not deal 
with sacred subjects, so much so that many painters in their zeal 
threw their beautiful works into the bonfires on the Piazza. 
Bacoio was foremost among these, and his early studies, on the 
ground of their being nude figures, were sacrificed in obedience to 
the influence of the narrow-minded fanatic. Baggio remained 
Savonarola's fast friend, and two portraits of the preacher by his 
hand are still extant. A naturally kind and gentle nature, and no 
doubt the influence of Savonarola, led him early to think of the 
retirement from the world which he ultimately adopted, and his 
inclination in this direction took a more definite form, when on 
the occasion of the Convent of S. Marco being besieged in 1498 
he made the vow that he would become a Dominican monk if he 
escaped the dangers of the assault ; he did not however, actually 
take the vows until the year 1500, when he entered the religious 



BABTOLOMMEO. 35 

order of the Dominicans ander the name of Fka Babtolomkbo, by 
wMch he is best known. He seems to have at firdt led a life of 
retirement and to have ceased the practice of his art for some years, 
but he returned to an active life aboat 1505, and from that time never 
ceased to work for the convent of S. Marco of which he was an 
inmate. His first work of importance was a fresco painting of 
the Last Judgment which he undertook for the cloister of Sta. 
Bfaria Kuova at Florence in 1493 ; this work was, however, left 
unfinished by the artist, probably because at the time he had made 
ap his mind to renounce the world for a religious life, and it wis 
completed by Mario tto Albertinelli.^ From the time that Fra 
Babtolommeo resumed the practice of his art he was continually 
engaged, principally in large altar-pieces, and produced his finest 
work between this time and 1512, — an altar-piece in the cathe- 
dral at Lucca painted in 1509, and the Marriage of the two 
S.S. Catherine of 1512, now in the Pitti Palace, being his master- 
pieces. In this and in other similar works he was assisted by 
Mariotto Albertinelli until the dissolution of their partnership in 
1512, already referred to. In the year 1514, Fba Bartolommeo's 
health i)ecame seriously impaired, due it is surmised to a sickness 
contracted during a visit to Rome at this time,f and he was sent 
into the country, to the Dominican hospital at Plan di Mugnone, 
to recruit. Here, and at a subsequent visit, he painted some 
frescoes, part of which have perished. On his restoration to health 
he returned to S. Marco and set to work with renewed energy, 
and in the course of the three succeeding years produced many 
large and important works, including a Resurrection in the Pitti 
Palace, and the Presentation in the Temple at Vienna, a vast 
composition of the Madonna della Miaericordia in the public 
gallery at Lucca, and numerous Holy Families, one of which, now 
in the Oorsini Palace at Rome, is a repetition done in 1516, with 
figures the size of life and the addition of a St. Joseph, of the 
picture in this gallery described below, but heavy in colour and 
black in the shadows, and less graceful in the movement and 
proportions of the figures. After 1514 the Prate's health, which 



* This fresco, the lower part of which, executed by Jktarlotto, has almost 
completely perished, was detached from the wall and transferred to canvas 
after it had becume almost ruined by damp and neglect It is now In the 
saUery of the Ufflzii in Florence, whither the pictures from Sta. Maria Nuova 
nave been recently transferred. 

t Kugler, however, tliinks it probable that this jcomey took place after 1514. 
25640 % 



36 BABTOLOMMEO. 

seems to have snfPered from his illness in that year, and from the 
incessant labour involved in the prodaction of many important 
works, frequently failed him, and he was sent to Pian di Mugnone 
and other places in the hope of receiving benefit. In 1517 he was 
seized with an access of fever, and he died at the convent of 
S. Marco at the age of forty-two. 

Fra Bartolommeo was strongly imbned throughout his career 
with the principles of Lionardo, and much of the blackness to be 
found, especially in his latter works, is probably due to his desire 
to enforce relief on those principles by strong contrast of light 
and shade. But he was also greatly influenced by Baphael, who 
was in Florence in 1504 and a^ain in 1508, to which latter date 
the Holy Family in this collection, which shows the influence of 
the great master in a marked degree, may probably be referred. 
On the other hand there is little doubt that the example of Fba 
Bartolomheo's large and grand style was a factor in BaphaeFs 
gradual emancipation from his early Peruginesque method, and 
the arrangement of the Dittputa del Sacramento in the Vatican is 
clearly traceable to the effect produced on him by the Frate'b 
fresco of the Last Judgment. His visit to Bome, where he went 
with the desire of seeing the great works of Michelangelo and 
Baphael, no doubt had also its influence on a master already 
distinguished for his breadth and his style and his mastery of 
composition. He was conspicuous for the ample cast of hia 
draperies, and is said to have been the first to use a jointed 
lay-figure. His figures combine grace with grandeur of form and 
gesture, and if his drawing is not always irreproachable it must 
be remembered that he was largely assisted by pupils. To Fra 
Paolino, the chief of these, are due many works, founded doubtless 
on the master*s sketches, which are still attributed to the master 
liiinself. 

No. 1694. The Virgin and Child and the Infant St. 
John. 

The Virgin, dressed in a rose-coloured tunic and a blue mantle^ 
is seated on the ground in an open landscape. With her left hand 
she holds the Infant Saviour, who is leaping forward to embrace 
the little St. John, who, holding the cross and with a cord round 
him to which hangs a pilgrim's bottle, kneels on one knee before 
Him, while the Virgin Mother with her left hand presses his head 
towards that of the Infant Christ. In the background is a town 



BABTOLOMMEO— BASAITL 37 

with ohnrches and towers backed by a rising eround, beyond which 
is a line of blae mountains delicately relieved against a tender sky. 
On the right are two slender trees. The composition is of the 
pyramidal form. The flesh is thinly and luminously painted and 
the whole picture is in a yery light key. The figures are two-thirds 
the size of life. Painted ak>out 1508-9. 

Transferred to canvas from wood, 2 ft. 10^ in. A. by 2 ft. 8 1 in. to. 

In the Gorsini Gallery at Borne is a repetition of this composition 
with the figures life-size reversed and with the figure of St. Joseph 
added to complete the pyramidal form of the group. 

Purchased in Rome, 1900. 



(Marco). End of 15th and beginning of 16th 
century 

A Venetian painter, was bom in Friuli, according to some 
writers, of Greek parents. He first appears in 1503, in the 
capacity of assistant to Alvise Yivarini. His pictures, several of 
which are preserved, are signed M. Bazit, Marcus Baxaiti, and 
Marcus Basaiti. He painted probably before 1500 and until 
after 1521. An alter-piece, representing the Calling of the Sons 
of Zebedee^ painted in 1510, formerly in the Gertosa, and now in 
the Academy of the Fine Arts at Venice, was once considered his 
masterpiece ; but another specimen in the same gallery — Christ 
in the Garden with his Disciples — is now justly preferred to it. 
Basaiti*b works, when well preserved, are brilliant in colour, and 
display great ability in the general management of the accessories, 
especially in the landscape backgrounds, which, according to 
Zanetti, he contrived to unite with his figures more skilfully than 
his contemporaries. A contemporary of Giovanni Bellini, he 
could not escape the influence of that great master, to whom 
many of his works have been ascribed. Amongst good examples 
of Basaiti's art, are the Assumption in S. Pietro Martire at 
Mnrano, a St, Sebastian in the Salute, Venice ; an exquisite 
variation on the Calling of the Sons of Zebsdee, dated 1515, in 
the Belvedere at Vienna, and a fine portrait, signed and dated 
1521 in the Bergamo Gallery. As one of the early Venetian 
oil-painters Basaiti may be regardei as having successfully 
adopted the delicacy and brilliaacy of the Flemish masters of 
the 15th century.^ 

• Zanetti, Delia HUura Veneziana, p. 73. Moschini. Ouiia per la Cittd di 
Venetla, voL 1, p. 11. 



38 BASAITI— BASTIANI. 

No. 2831b St Jerome reading. 

The saint is seated, reading a folio Tolume which rests upon 
his knee. A small figure in a rocky landscape, with a distant 
yiew of a fortified town. 

On wood, 18i in. h, by 18 in. m?. 

Purchased from M. Af aroovich, in Veniqe, in 1856. 



8ASSAHO (Jagopo). See FONTS. 



BA8TIANX (Lazzabo), about 1425-1512. 

The name of Lazzaro Bastiani, or Sebastiani, occnrs for the 
first time in th^ archives of Venice as a witness to a will of hia 
brother Marco, dated 5th April, 1449. At this time he was living 
near San Lio, in Venice, with his brother Marco ; later, and unti) 
his death, he occupied a house over against the large door of the 
church of San Baffaele Arcangelo, beyond the canal. In 1460 he 
was painting an altar piece for the church of San Samuele for the 
Procuratori di San Marco. Ten years later the brothers of the 
Scuola di San Marco ordered a picture of the story of David from 
him, and they promised him the saire payment as they gave to 
Jacopo Bellini, who had been working for them with his two sons 
Gentile and Giovanni. It appears, therefore, that at this time 
Lazzaro was as famous a painter as Jacopo himself. During 
1470 Lazzaro was inscribed in the Confraternity of San Marco, 
aid for this Scuola he painted two Sjories of their titular saint. 
Id 1474 a certain Antonio Corrardi, of Pera, Constantinople, wrote 
to hu cousin in Venice to order a picture from Lazzaro Bastiani 
of a half -figure of Jesus Christ, but, if the painter was already 
dead, '* Zuan Bellia " was to paint the picture, another evidence 
of the estimation in which Lazzaro was then held. This work 
was finished in 1474 by Lazzaro, and his nime continues to occur 
in the acts of his Scuola and other, documents until his death in 
1512. In 1508 his name is united with that of his most famous 
pupil Vittore Carpaccio in estimating the value of the work of 
Giorgione upon the facade of the Fondaco dei Tedeschi. In the 
same year, with another of his pupils Benedetto Dianft, he painted 
the banners for the Piazza San Marco. It is also on record that 



BASTLiNi. 39 

he painied twenty-fiTe several portraits of Doges of the height of 
a braciaand-ahalf for the Sala del Collegio in the Dacal Palaoe. 
Finally we find a notice of the painter's death in the registry of 
the Scnola di San Marco :— " 1512. Ser Lazaro Bastian pitor a San 
Rafael mori." 

The most important picture by Lazzaro Bastiaki is the signed 
altar piece " Santa Yenerand enthroned surrounded by saints and * 
angels," painted for the church of Corpus Domini, in Yenke, but 
now in the Academy at Yienna. Another signed picture repre- 
sents Saint Anthony of Padua seated between the branches of a 
walnut tree with two Franciscan saints, one on either side ; the . 
Cardinal Bonayentura and brother L^one. This work was paint dd 
for the altar of the Scnola di Sant' Antonio at the Frari and is 
now in the Yenioe Academy. After 1470, when Lazzaro was- 
inscribed among the brothers of the Scnola di San Gerolamo, he ' 
painted two pictures of the last Communion and the funeral of 
that saint, which are now in the Imperial Gallery at Yienna, and 
three predella pictures now in the Brera Gallery at Milan. About 
the year 1480 he painted the picture of the Doge Gioyanui 
Mooenigo kneeling before the Yirgin, in the National Gallery, and 
formerly attributed to his pupil Carpaccio. The first work of 
liAZZARo's that bears a date is the picture of Canonico Giovanni . 
of the Angeli kneeling before the Yirgin, of 1485, in the Duomo • 
of Murano. The picture of the Coronation of the Yirgin i9 the- 
Gallery Lochis, at Bergamo, is dated 1490. His large picture 
representing a Miracle of the Holy Cross, now in the Academy 
at Yenice, was painted for the Sala delle Sedute, called of the 
Holy Cross, in the Scuola di San Giovanni Evangelista, between 
the years 1486 and 1500, when Gentile Bellini was working for 
the same confraternity. Lazzaro painted several pictures of the 
Madonna and of the Annunciation for altar pieces and for organ 
shutters. The Madonna called ** with the beautiful eyes " in the 
Ducal Palace, at Yenice, was attributed to Giovanni Bellini in the 
eighteenth century. The Angel Gabriel, in the Maseo Civico, at 
Padua, is one of the shutters of the organ from the church of 
San Michele, in Padua. There is also an important picture of the 
Madonna kneeling before the Christ Child lying in a manger under . 
an elaborate canopy of joinors' work, and surrounded by four 
saints in a pastoral landscape, in the Yenice Academy, and a 



40 BASTIANI. 

solemn *' Pietk *' in the charch of Sant' Antonin, in Venice, that 
recalls the masterpieces of Giovanni Bdllini representing this 
subject. Lazzabo also designed two important mosaics near the 
chipel of Saint Clement in Saint Marks, Venice, representing 
Siiats Sergias and TecU.^ 

This artist was tie principal master of an eirlj Venetian school 
that differed from the more important schools of the Bellini of 
Padna and the Vivarini of Mnrano. His style was developed 
throngb the works of Jacobello del Fiord and Michele Giambsno 
from Byzantine art, and he was inflaenced bj the inspiring art of 
Jacopo Bellini in his larger and more important compositions, 
which may be compared with the drawings by Jacopo Bdllini in 
the books preserved in the Lou7re at Parip, and in the British 
Mnseam ; bat his great cUim to fama is thit he was the master of 
Tthe delightful painter Vittore Cwirpaccio. 

-No. 750. TJie Madonna and Child enthroned^ with Saints; 
and the Doge Giovanni Mocenigo\ in adoration. 

A votive picture in which the Doge, with banner in hand, 
kneels before the Virgin, supplicating her protection on the occa- 
^sion of the plague of 1478. The gold vase on the small altar 
before the throne of the Virgin is supposed to contain farmachi 
or medicaments, for which a blessing is invoked in favour of 
the city and Republic of Venice, according to the words of the 
inscription below, — Ubbem Bem : Venbtam sebva. Venbtdmq. 
Senatum. Et Mim Si Mebeor. Vibgo Supebna Aye.]: Behind 
the kneeling Doge is his patron saint, John the Baptist: on 
the opposite side of the picture, by the throne of the Virgin, is 
:8t. Christopher with his staff bearing the Infant Christ on bis 
shoulders. Landscape background, figures nearly life-size.§ 

• Vittore Carpaccio, La Vite e le Opere, by Q. Lad wig and P. Molmenti. 

t Oiovanni Mocenisro wa8 the seventy-nrst Doge ; he reigned seven years, 
1477-83. and died of the plague in 1485, aged 76. Be Vita Moribua et Bebna gestis 
Omnium Ducum Venetorum, Ac, 12mo., Frankf., 1574, a continuation of the 
original work of Ptetro Marcello with woodcuts of the armorial shields of the 
Dog-as. 

l^Hail Celestial Virgin, preserve the City and Bepublic of Venice, and the 
" Venetian Senate, and extend thy protection to me if I deserve it." For Aye 
possibly should be read Favb. 

i Bee Vasari, nte dei PUtori, &c Ed. Le Monnier, voL vi. The editors appear 
to have been unacquainted with this picture, as they give 1493 as the earliest 
date, showing the activity of Carpaccio. According to the records of the 
tamily of Mocenigo di Sant' Eustachio, this picture was commissioned in 1479, 
after the plague of the previous year, but was not completed till after the 
death of the Doge in 1485. It was commisdoned to be presented, according to 
the custom with reigning Doges, to the Ducal Palace, but after the Doge's 
death was redeemed or purchased by the family, in whose possession it 
remained. 



BASTIANI— BAZZI. 41 

. A photograph of a rare prinb of this piotnre was presented to the 
Gallerj by Dr. G. Lndwig ; it hangs in the small ootagon room. 

On canyas, 6 ft. h. by 9 ft. 8 in. tr. 

Porchased in Yenioe in 1865, from the Doge*s descendant Aloise 
Coimt Mocenigo di Sant* Enstachio. 

No. 19S3- The Virgin and Child. 

The Virgin, whose figure is seen at half-length, clad in a blue 
mantle and red robe, supports the Infant Gbrist as He kneels on a 
silk cnshion which rests on a marble sill, and holds in His hinds 
a fine cord which is attached to the legs of a dove. 

The background is formed by a dark chocolate-coloured curtain 
vith a festoon of fruit suspended uboye it. Beyond the curtain 
on either side are seen a river and wooded landscape with hills. 

On panel, 2 ft 8 i in. A. by 2 ft. 1 in. to. 

Presented by the National Ait-Collections Fund in 1905. 



(GlOVAKNANTONIO), 1477-1549. 

Commonly called II Sodom a, was born at Yercelli in Western 
Lombardy in 1477. His father, Jacopo de* Bazz*, was a shoe- 
maker by trade. Giovannantonio, when in his 13th year, was 
placed with a local painter named Martino Spanzotti ; but soon 
after the death of his father, in 1 497, he appears to have betaken 
himself to Milan, where Leonardo da Yinci was resident. There, 
if not under the direct teaching, at least within the sphere of 
the powerful influence of the great master, young Bazzi studied 
for two or three years. His talents must have become known, 
for in 1501 we find him at Siena, whither, as Yasari relates, Le 
was conducted by mercantile agents of the wealthy family of the 
Spannocchi of that city. In Siena his artistic gifts and his youth 
gained him friends. The native school there, which could look 
back to such founders as Duccio, the Lorenzetti, and Simone di 
Martino, had then for many decades vegetated rather than 
flourished. Little influenced from without, it still followed the 
traditions, and generally clung to the forms, of the 14th century, 
mto which it could no longer breathe life. Bazzf, therefore, had 
an open field before him in Siena and its territory. Within the" 



42 BAZZI. 

SIX' years ttist followed his arrival there he found ample emifloy- ^ 
men To this period of his life belong the large Descent from the 
Oro88j now in the town gallery ; the frescoes in the convent of 
S. Anna, near Pienza ; those in the castle of Trequanda in 
Yaldichiana ; and, greater by far, those execnted in 1505-6 in the 
Benedictine convent of Mont' Oliveto Maggiore, south of Siena, 
25 in number. These depict incidents in the life of Bt. Benedict, 
and complete the series begun by Signorelli. In 1507 the rich 
patrician banker, Agostino Chigi, domiciled at Bome, revisited 
Siena, his native city, and struck by the genius of Bazzi, invited 
him to Bome, and presented him to Julius 11. The result of this 
recommendation was a commission to adorn with frescoes the 
Camera della Segnatnra in the Vatican. But while the painter 
was still at his task on the vault of the chamber, his work waa 
cut short by the arrival in Bome of young Baphael, to whom 
the Pope transferred the commission, with liberty to efface 
what Bazzi had executed. However, the central composition, 
consisting of the escutcheon of the Pope supported by boy genii, 
was left entire ; while the finely designed borderings of the 
other subjects were destined to enclose the allegorical figures of 
Sanzio. Bazzi returned to Siena, where, in 1510, he married 
Beatrice, daughter of Luca de' G-alli, landlord of the imn " Alia 
Corona." He resumed work at Siena until 1513 or 1514, when 
(Leo X. having succeeded Julius), again invited to Bome by 
Chigi, he commenced a series of frescoes in a first-floor apart- 
ment of his patron's villa, afterwards the Villa Famesina. Of 
these the most striking is the Nuptials of Aleocander and Roxana^ 
a work of surprising beauty and vitality. The inspiration of 
SoDOMA in this instance was Luciaa*s description of a work by 
the Greek painter Aetion. Bazzi's composition could, of course, 
have nothing in common with that of the Greek, save the 
incidents of the story and the beauty of the presentment. But 
it may well be doubted whether the earlier master surpassed 
him of the Benaissance in the treatment of the theme chosen 
by both. The head of Boxana, with downcast eyes, is of a 
bewitching loveliness. The whole picture is a lyric, full of 
imagination and delicate fancy. In 1515 Sodom A returned to 
Siena, which then became his head-quarters for the rest of hiS: 
life ; although between the year just named and 1542 he moved 



BAZZI. 48 

much about ia TDBcany and Upper Italy, and donbtlew left 
prodncidons of his pencil in many localities. To 1518 belong the 
four fine frescoes in the Oratory of S. Bernardino in Siena, part 
of a series of which Beccafnmi and Girol. del Pacchia executed 
the rest. Within the two preceding years the Holy Family with 
8, Galixtu8j now in the chapel of the Palazzo Pnbblieo, had been 
produced.^ In 1525 date the frescoes which fill the chapel of 
S. Catherine of Siena, in S. Domenico. Here, the group of the 
saint supported by two attendant nans when, swooning, she 
receives the holy stigmata, is a masterpiece of unaffected grace 
and pathos. In the same year was painted the standard for the 
confraternity of S. Sebastian, showing on one side the martyr 
bound to a tree, and on the other the Madonna (now in the 
Uffizi, Florence) ; further, the Adoration of the Kings, foi 
S. Agostino. At intervals between 1529 and 1537 were executed 
the frescoes in the Sala della Balestre and in other parts of the 
Palazzo Pubblico. The colossal Madonna for that architectural 
gem, the chapel of S. Maria della Spina at Pisa, dates from 
1542.f Bazzi was now advanced in years, and he seems to have 
retired from active work. Attended in his decline by his wife, 
he died Feb. 14, 1549. 

The works of Sodoma show that he issued truly from the 
school of Leonardo da Yinci. But he himself possessed an 
innate sense of youthful and feminine beauty and grace, while he 
could also impart to his figures dignity and energy. His colour 
is generally harmonious. His execution is very unequal, some- 
times most careless. Had he studied with only half the earnest- 
ness which Leonardo so strenuously enjoined, he might have 
taken rank amongst the greatest artists of his time. But although 
the more bitter of Yasari's accusations, which betray a strong 
hostile animus, may be regarded as probably calumnious, there is 
reason enough to believe that the temperament of Sodoma and his 
love of pleasure and ostentation sadly interfered with devotion to 
his art. However, his caprices and aberrations notwithstanding, 
he was a great artist, and his absence from the illustrious rolls of 



* It was painted for the altar of 8. Caliztus in the Buomo, and was thence 
transferred to the Pal. Pabhlico in either 1681 or 1704. (Private commnnlcatioD 
from Sgr. G. Milanesi.) 

t The late Senator Giovanni Morelli has seen reason for restoring to Sodoma 
many works which have long borne other attributions. 



44 BAZZI—BECOAFUML 

the later Benaissance would have left a sensible gap in the 
history of Italian painting. By his example the languishing 
school of Siena received an impulse such as the tamer art of 
Piuturicchio could scarcely have given to it. 

No. 1144. Tlie Madonna and Child with Saints, 

On a throne, canopied by a curtain which is raised by boy 
angels, sits the Virgin, clad in a red tunic and a blue mantle, 
and bearing on her knees the Infant Christ. He raises his hands 
to bless a kneeling monk, who is presented by St. Peter. 
St. Catherine of Siena stands on the right of the Virgin. 

On wood, 1 ft. 7 in. h. by 1 ft. 2\ in. w. 

Formerly in the Bossini Ooileotion at Pisa. 

Purchased at Florence, in 1883, from Mr. 0. Fairfax Murray. 

No, 1337. Head of Our Lord. 

A life-siz3 study ; bust length ; possibly part of a large pic- 
ture. The head of our Lord, inclined downwards, is crowned 
with thorns, from which thick clusters of brown hair fall on each 
side of the face. The eyes are downcast ; the hands raised in 
prayer ; the breast and shoulders are draped in white linen. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 2| in. ^. by 11^ in. vo. 

Purchased in 1891, from Mr. Edward Habich, of Cassel. 



(DoMENico), 1486-1551. 

According to Vasari this artist's nime was Mecherino, and he 
was caUed Beggafdmi after his first patron ; but Mecherino 
may be merely a diminutive of Domenico. His father, Pacio, 
according to the same authority, was a labourer on the estate 
of Lorenzo Beccafumi, the patron in question, who found 
Domenico drawing with a stick in the sand and had him 
educated in art. Another account, however, makes Pacio an 
artist of some distinction. Domenico was born in the neigh- 
bourhood of Siena in 1486. His style was first formed on 
Pietro Perugino, two of whosa pictures in Siena he copied. 
About the year 1510, when the ceiling of the Sixtine Chapel 
in the Vatican was completed, he went to Rome, and there 



BECCAFUMI 45 

devoted himself to the study of the works of Michel Angelo and 
Raphael and of the antique. He was at Siena again in 1512, 
and became for the time a close follower of Sodoma, who had 
recently arriyed in that city ; at which time he painted the facade 
of a honse belonging to the Borghesi in rivalry with Sodoma, 
who was executing a similar work for Agosiino Bardi. ThiF 
seems to have made his reputotion, as he was soon actively 
employed in painting altar-pieces for charches, among others 
one of St. CcUherine receiving the stigmata for the convent of 
Monte Oliveto, which is considered his best work. The frescoes 
of classical subjects which he painted for the house of Marcello 
Agostini still remain, and are described at length by Yasari ; he 
was also employed in the same class of decorative work for a hall 
in the Palazzo Pnbblico. In 1541 he went to Genoa in accordance 
with a request from Prince Doria that he would execute some 
paintings for his palace ; but he was never happy away from hift 
native town, and after having; done one painting he retamed to 
Siena^ stopping, however, at Pisa fcr a short time on his way 
home. His last paintings were for the apse behind the High 
Altar in the Daomo at Siena ; these seem to have occupied him 
from 1539 to 1544. 

The works, however, by which he is best known are the designs 
in chiaroscuro exetsuted in tinted marbles for the pavement of 
the Duomo. The first of these was done as early as 1517, and 
various other portions were carried out in 1521, 1525, 1544, and 
1546. Six of the cartoons for these panels and friezes are pre- 
served in the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Siena, where are also 
several of his pictures, including the altar-piece for Monte 
Oliveto alluded to above. Towards the end of his life he took 
to sculpture and executed eight angels in bronze for the Duomo, 
but died before he was able to complete a farther commission 
for the Twelve Apostles in the same material. His death tock 
place in May 1551 as is proved by an existing document giving 
the expenses of his funeral. Beccafumi was much influenced by 
the various painters of his time ; he was an excellent master in 
perspective, and as has been eeen, was, like so many other 
artists of the Renaissance, sculptor as well as painter. He was 
a man of retiring habits, and cccupied his leisure in cultivating 
a small property which he possessed outside the gates of Siena. He 
used to say that he could not work out of the air of his native city. 



46 BEOOA.FUMI— BEER8TRAATEN. 

No. 14s30. Esther before Ahasuerus. 

This is probably a fantastic treatment of Esther brought 
before Ahasueras, or possibly of the visit of the Queen of 
Sheba to Solomon. Under a dark arched building a female 
figure with others grouped round her is approaching a seated 
figure on a throne, and is introduced by a youth standing on the 
steps. Other figures apparently intended for Orientals follow 
in her train, and various groups in the foreground point with an 
appearance of interest to the scene taking place under the arch- 
way. On the right a lady ia emerging from a litter. The 
background is filled up with isolated buildings and ruins, behind 
which is seen a river crossed by a bridge with mountains in the 
distance. 

On panel, 2 ft. 5 in. A. by 4 ft. 6 in. vo. 

Presented by Mr. Geo. Salting 1894. 



aAVmr (Jan Abrahamsz), 1622-1666. 

This painter, the son of Abraham Jansz Beerstraaten, a coopef 
of Amsterdam, was baptized there May 31, 1622. In 1642 he 
married Magdalena, daughter of Antonie van Bronckhorst. 
She died in 1665, leaving four sons and a daughter f her husband 
survived her no more than about a year.f Nothing further is 
known as to his life, and, although he deserves a distinct place 
in the Amsterdam school his name is not mentioned by any 
nearly contemporary biographer. Beebstraaten, as the subjects 
of many of his pictures and drawings prove, journeyed in various 
parts of Holland. Whether he ever travelled further is ULcer- 
tain. His paintings of Mediterranean seaports might have been 
founded on local sketches by other Dutch artists ; but his 
drawings of similar scenes can less easily be so accounted for. 
Marine and coast views with shipping, often with a stormy sea, 
views in towns, winter landscapes peopled with skaters, and, 
occasionally, sea Jghts, were his chosen subjects. His manner 
of painting was vigorous. Delicate finish and precision of touch 

* For the facts above stated see VArt et let Artistes Jiollandais par Henri 
Havard. Paris, Qnantin, 1874-1881, m. 

tHe died in 1666. Bredins, Catal des JMntures du Musie de VEtat a 
Amsterdam : 2nd ed. 1888. The year of Beerstraaten's death has been accepted 
^ probably 1687. 



BEEBSTBAATEK. 47 

were leas his aim than freedom of handling combined with broad 
contrasts of tone, where the colour, of a subdued richness, shuns 
brilliancy and often loses itself in harmonies of grey. The 
best of the figures in his works were perhaps supplied by other 
bands than his own. The five pictures by Beebstraaten in the 
State-Museum at Amsterdam afford excellent examples of each 
class of subject treated by him ; the Town Hall of the 6ame city 
contains two specimens; some are in the Six and other private 
collections. The painter is also represented in the liouvre, in 
the G-alleries of Kotterdam, Berlin, Dresden, and Munich, and 
richly in Sweden. A great number of his drawings, executed 
for the most part in chalk and slight Indian ink or bistre wash, 
are extant.^ 

No. 1311a A Winter Scene ; The Castle of Muiden in 
the centre ; Skaters on the Ice, 

The castle, a massive square structure with round towers at 
the angles and high-pitched roofs, appears to be that of Muiden, 
between Amsterdam and Naarden.> A light wooden bridge 
supported on stakes connects it with an embanked causeway on 
the left, from which the frozen water, surrounding the castle 
and enlivened by skaters, extends to the extreme right and 
towards the distance, where the fortified village of Muiden is 
seen. On the left, far off, appears the Zuyder Zee. The country, 
interspersed with trees, lies uuder snow. The sky is obscured 
by masses of dark cloud which, low on the extreme left, transmit 
some lurid yellow light from the declining sun. Signed in the 
foreground I. Beerstraaten, 1658. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 1 in. h, by 4 ft. 2 in. t^. 

Parohaaed in London from Messrs. P. k D. Colnaghi, in 1890. 



* Hazard op. cit. gives a list of plctares and drawings by J. Beerstraaten. 

Certain pictures exist having the characteristics of those of the subject of the 
present notice, but signed A. Beerstraai«n. This initial A., long held to denote 
Alexander, then Abraham, is now believed to stand in all cases for Antonie on 
the evidence of two pictures which bear the last of these Christian names in 
faU. The painter was a contemporary and perhaps a brother of Jan, 
(Amsterdam Catalogues as above.) 



48 BEGA—BELLINI. 



(CORNELIS PlETERSZ). 1620-1664. 

Was a pupil of Adrian van Ostade. He was bom at Haarlem 
in 1620, and was tlie son of a sculptor. His works are of the 
same character as vhose of his master, bat are heavier in qnality 
and irather over-loaded in touch, but characterised by very high 
finish. He died of the plague in 1664. 



»> 



No. 1481. " The Philosopher. 

A man with spectacles in his hand is seated before an open 
book. Behind him is a globe. The room is encumbered with 
books, papers, clothes, and other objects, and has the appearance 
of a second-hand dealer's shop. The whole is executed with 
extreme care and finish. 

Signed :— 0. P. Bega, A*' 1663 

On panel, 1 ft. 2^ in. A. by 11 1 in. w. 

Presented by Mr. Martin Golnaghi in 1896. 



BS]bZiXNX (Gemtile), 1426-7-1507. 

Gemtile, elder brother of Giovanni,^ and son of Jacopo Bellini, 
was born about 1426-27. He was named after Gentile da 
Fabriano, under whom his father had studied. He learnt his art 
from his father at Padua. It was not until after his thirtieth 
year that he removed to Yenice, where he is first heard of 
in 1464, as commissioned to paint on the organ-shutters of 
St. Mark's, in tempera, colossal figures of Saints Mark, Theo- 
dore, Jerome and Francis. These remain in their original place, 
in all their dry severity. In 1465 he painted for the church of 
S. Maria delF Orto, in tempera on canvas, the figure of the 
Beato Lorenzo Giustiniani, first Patriarch of Venice ; an injured 
work, recently rescued from its obscurity in the magazine of the 
Accademia of Venice ; but interesting, as illustrating the severe 
training of the school of Jacopo. Eleven years later Gentile was 
employed by the State to renovate the frescoes by Gentile da 
Fabriano in the Hall of the Grand Council in the Ducal Palace ; 

* See Memoir of Qiovanni Bellini in this CataJosrue. 



BBLULVf. 49 

these having shown signs of decay; Gaining in repiitation, and 
in favour with the anthorities, hd was sheeted hy ihe Senatt^ to 
folfil the request of- the Ottoman Saltan ICahomet II. that a 
skSfol limner mig^t be sent him from Venice ; aod On the 
Srd of September 1479, Gentile sailed for Constantinople with 
two asMstanta;^ at the expense of the State. The Saltan, who 
was by no means a rigid mnssalman, sat for his portrait to the 
artist, and his example- was no donbt followed by many of the 
m?ignat>f)8 at court. * Gentile appears not to have stayed very 
long in the Turkish capital. On leaviog it he was rewarded by 
the Sultan with oriental munifioence, raised to the dignity <k 
knighthood, and invested with a richly- wrought chain of gold, 
equal in weight to 220 golden sondi. Returojed to Yenioe, he 
reoeiTed from the State an- annual salary of 220 scndi, settled 
on him for life. He rejoined his brother at their work in the 
ducal palace, and painted on canvas, for the Hall of the Grand 
Council, four subjects from the legend of Frederick Barbarossa*s 
visit to Tenice. Theee unhappily perished in the great fire'iit' 
the Palace in 1577.> Yasari, who had seen them, has left us an 
interesting description of them. It must have been about the 
year 1486 that Titian, as a boy of nine years old, entered the 
studio ofGEMTiLE. Two or three of the extant productions- of 
Gentile may here be mentioned. The moderately Hsized picture 
of a Mirctcle of the True Cross in the Venice Academy is well 
known. In this work the portrait of Caterina Cprnaro, quondam 
Queen of Cyprus, is said to be introduced among the kneeling 
dames who line the quay of the canal a ad witness the miracle. 
In the same collection is the large composition of the Procession 
of Corpus Domini f also illustrating a local miracle. Although 
sadly shorn of its oi:igiaal brilliancy by the ravages of time and 
the more regrettable assaults of clumsy restorers, it still 
retains matter enough to attract and fix the admiration of ^ the 
artist. The same remarks apply to the picture of St. Mark 



• The late Sir Honry Layard'scoUection at Venice contains a most interestine 
and valuable, thon^h somewhat impaired portrait of the great Ottoman 
conqneror, hy Qentile Bellini. It is no donht an autograph replica of the 



and delicacy. 
25640 



50 BELLINI. 

preaching at Alexandria, now in the Brera G&llery at Milan. 
The restorations in this case are observable chiefly in the group 
of white-veiled oriental women who sit on the ground in front 
of the Apostle. This important work was unfinished when 
Gentil£ died, and was completed, as his will enjoined, by 
Giovanni. An Adoration of the Magi in the late Sir Henry Layard*s 
collection at Venice (in oil, on canvas), belongs to an earlier, 
though late period of the painter's life. Ifc is an interesting 
work, with its trains of figures in varied eastern costume, and 
a proof of the freedom of pencil which the master gradually 
attained after he had adopted practice in oil.* Although he 
painted many portraits, few of those now ascribed to him can 
be authenticated. Gentile was married, but he left no children. 
He died February 23, 1507, and his remains were interred, as 
his will directed, in the church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo in 
Venice. 

No. 1213> (Supposed) Portrait of Oirolamo Malatiniy 
Professor of Mathematics at Venice. 

Half length ; life size. A man of about 70 years of age, with 
white hair and shaven face, dressed in a black gown and black 
berretta, holding in his left hand a large pair of compasses, and 
raising his right with a gesture of explanation. 

On canvas ; in oil, 2 ft. 3 in. h, by 1 ft. lOJ in. w. 

Purchased in 1886 from Dr. J. P. Bichter, out of the " Walker 
Bequest.** 



(Giovanni), 1428 ?-1516. 

OiOVANKi BBLLiNijf and his elder brother. Gentile, were the 
■bons of the Venetian Jacopo di Piero Bellini, an artist of great 
talent, and originally a pupil of Gentile da Fabriano, under 
whose tutelage he entered while the latter ^as at Venice, and 
whom he accompanied as apprentice to Florence. He afterwards 

* Mr. Ludwig Mood possesses a Madonna and Child, probably painted in oil on 
wood, signed **Opa8 Gentllis Bellini Veneti E^uitis. 
t In the Venetian mode, Giambellin, Zambellin, or Zuan Bellin. 



BBLLINL 51 

made Piadaa his chief place of abode.^ Of the cirounutanoes 
of Jacopo's marriage, and of the dates of his children's 
births, there is no record. His yoaager son Giovanni was 
bom about 1428, or po38ibl7 a year or tvro earlier. The sons 
stadied together in their father's school at Padua, and at the 
most impressible period of life must have seen the great works 
which Donatello was then executing in that city. There too they 
formed a friendship with the young Andrea (afterwards the 
great Mantegna), who was then emerging from the school of 
Sqnarcione, and who subsequently married their sister Nicolosa^t 
Without doubt the master mind of Andrea, and his serere 
tendencies in art, exercised a lasting influence upon the milder 
nature of Gian Bellini. This influence is very manifest in works 
of' his middle period ; notably in the large altar-piece painted for 
the church of S3. Giovanni e Paolo,! at Yeoioe ; and in the 
yet earlier and more beautiful work for the church of S. Giobbe, 
now in the Accademia. It may have been after 1460 that 
Giovanni settled at Venice, where he had to rival the established 
fame of the Yivarini. By his own talents and the aid of his 
brother, who had attained to great credit with the Signory, he 
gradually rose in esteem ; and in 1479, when Gentile departed on 
his famous mission to Constantinople, Giovanni was appointed in 
his place to carry on the series of pictures for the Hall of the 
Great Council, begun by his brother in 1474, at the instance of 
the Doge, Niocol6 Marcello. In consideration of this commission 
he received the promise of the first vacant senseria (broker's 
patent) in the Fondaco de' Tedeschi.§ On Gentile's retom the 
brothers worked together on those great canvasses, the destruc- 
tion of which by a fire in the Ducal Palace in 1577, has deprived 
us of the power of estimating their merits. 

In the course of a long life the style and method of Gian 
Bellini altered and developed greatly. His earlier works were 
executed in tempera. But the use of an oil medium was spreading 
itself over Italy, and, having been introduced into Venice by 

* He painted also at Verona, as well as at Venice, where he was employed in 
1430 ; as attested by an autographic inssription in his drawing book now in the 
British Mnseum. 

t See the memoir of Mantegna in this Catalogue. 

t Burned, together with Titian's famous "Death of 8. Peter, Martyr,** in the 
tre whioh broke out in the sacristy of that church on the 16th August, 1897. 

i Notes on the Bellini in Gazette det Beaux Arte^ vol. xz.. 1866, p. %L 
26640 D 8 



§2 ) BELLINI. 

""AntoneHo da MesBiaa, ^-wb& .gntdually adopted ' by ; the ^ native 
r^[iamters, GiOYAKki beiiig oike of tbe fiM to master tb^ new prao* 
^iaee, :whiehy ibefore theclose of his iafoorious career, he carried 
^toiwards that perfection fully giyen to it by the bftnds of his great 
pupils Giorgione and Titian; . 

• Giovanni's productions !are marked by dignity and gravity ; by 

a deep pathos, and often by a winning na%veU, A prophetic 

sadness veils the sweet faces of his Madonnas. But the solemnity 

of his mannen sometimes rises .to : grandeur. Hi9 drawing is true 

-fto natnre ; the cast of his drapery fine. His oolooring grew to be 

warm and histrons ; and although it wu aot^his aim to paint 

'flesh from the point: of view of Titian, his flesh-tones in h]» later 

'peiiod are rich, and glowing ; they form a part of idie general 

iiarmony. Witzh Titianithey ^become the key-note o£ the whole. 

In the management of hia. landscape backgrounds he equalled 

any^: and surpassed most, of his competitors, uniting breadth of 

treatment with^ the most loving finish in details. He .painted 

many portroits, amoiigst which those of the conten^omry 

Doges.* Taken idtogether, Giax Bellini was distinctly the 

greatest figure in thCi-Yenetian School in his time.' And that ho 

'Was still; acknowl^ged as, such towards^ the end of bis life we 

>haveproo{ in the testimony of Albert Dlirer, who» on his visit 

to Yeiiioe in' 1506, was so much impressed by the man aiid 

inOnenoed byr the! painter. We may stiU contemplate won- 

.deringly hi& masterly work in S. Zaccaria, executed in 1505 ; 

'and his glowing altar-piece in S. Giovanni Orisostomo, painted 

in ];5t3 ; and . may : witness with surprise the rejuv^n^escence 

^own'inithe ^ccoTiaZei^f the following year, where fine design, 

^em^jke .oolo,tir, and exquisite landscape, combine to exhaust the 

aims of the renaissance in. Art.f He died November 24th, 1516i, 

being lihehy if we adopt tbe lowest possible computation, in his 

-ninetieth year, and was .buried in the church of SS. Giovanni 

Paolo in the same tomb where his brother had lain since 1507. 

'A galaxy of great: painters owed the^ir more or less, direct 
teaching to Giovanni Bellini, such as Cima da Oonegliano, 
•L6ren«y' Lotto, Palma Yecchio, and those princes of the Art, 

* Giovanni Mocenigo, Marco Barbarigo, Agostino Barbarigo, and Leonardo 
Loredana. 

^ t N6%.ix]^ the possessSDft of . the. Dnke of Northmnb^riand at Alnwick Qastler 
Thi^.pdetTiz!&wasj however,, lelt unfinlBhedjat BeUini's d,ea1ih,and wa? 9omp^^«ft 
by Titian .],,:-.,;;;:.« .:i v ,.:■.:. ^•. ...i ;i. ;,.:^...4.- .:; . . • . -..■ 

'■• {* p' ■'• 



Oioi^one and TitiM ; to saj tKAhing vt k milibr Bofet'wttii l«n 
c&pacity for deTelopment, whoBo' worki, daring tbeir Uvea, 
reBected tbe images of their prototype. 



No. X89> Bust Portrait of the Doge Leonardo Loredano 
in his State Robes. , * , 

He died in 1521, having filled the oeSoe of Doge nearly 20 yeafa 
bom 1501.* Joannes BeUians ia written on an nofolded gorip of 
paper, or cartellino. 



On wood, 3 ft. A. by I ft. Ei in. w. 

This pictnra was formerly in the Qrimani Palaoe at Veaioe, whenoe 
it was bronglit to EngLmd by tha late Lord Cawdor. It piaaed sabae- 
qoently into the posseaaion of Hr. BaokCord, from whom it was p<uv 
abased for the National Gallery, in 1944. 



No. £80. Madonna and Child. 

The Virgin with tbe Child on her koee. In her left hand she 
holds an apple, on which the rii(ht haod of' the Child rests ; her 
light hand sopports the Child. Behind is enspended a gteen 
cnrtain with a red border. Lmdsoape back;^ronud. Iimcribed 
on an nbfolded scrip of piper, on a coloared marble scre3n b^low, 

J0ANNE3 BeLLIHUS, P. 




Francolnrtt ad Moenom. IGT^ 



SebM QMli OmHlum Buam Vmetonih Ac, Slttorla, 



54 BELLINI 

On wood, 2 ft. 11} in. h, by 2 ft. 1^ in. to. Engraved by L. Boscolo. 
Purchased from the Baron Galvagna, in Venice, in 1855. 



No. 599« The Infant Christ asleep on tlie Lap of the 
Virgin. 

The Virgin Mother is seated on the ground in a meadow and 
adoring the Child. Behind are some go its and cattle pasturing ; 
in the background is a convent on a hill, with mountains in the 
distance. On the left is an eagle perched on a dead or leafless 
tree, watching a contest between a stork and a snake at the foot of 
the tree.* 

On wood, 2 ft. 2 in. h. by 2 ft. 9 in. w. 

Purchased in Florence from Signor A.chille Farina, in 1858. 



No. 726> Ghrisfs Agony in the Garden, 

A rocky landscape in a warm twilight. In the fore-ground are 
the three disciples sleeping, while the Lord is praying on a hill a 
little way from them ; above, an angel appears holding a cup as 
the emblem of the Passion. In the distance beyond the brook 
Cedron, is seen Jadas approachin|f with a crowd of Jews. (See 
Luke, ch. xxii., and John, ch. xviii.) 

On wood, 2 ft. 8 in. h, by 4 ft 2 in. to. 

Purchased in London at the Davenport-Bromley sale in 1868. 



No. 808. St. Peter Martyr. 

Portrait of a Dominican Monk, holding a palm branch, with a 
knife in his head and a dagger in his breast. Signed in a car- 
tellino, Joannes Bellinnus, pinxit. 

On wood, 1 ft. 10| in. h. by 1 ft. 6^ in. w. 

From the collection of the Marqnis Pioenardi. Purchased in 1870 
at Milan, from Signor Giuseppe Baslini. 

* This picture has hitherto been attributed to Basaiti, from the time when 
it was first placed in the National Gallery. If, however, a picture, sifirned 
Qiovanni Bellini, in the OiovaneJli Palace at Venice, is really by that painter, 
there can be little doubt that the present work, which is identical in manner of 
painting, key of colour, and general effect, is by the same famous hand. It 
may be compared also with the Baptism of Christ by Giovanni Bellini, in the 
'Church of Santa Oorona at Vicenza, and with a Madonna and Child (No. 297) la 
the Brera Gallery at Milan ; and as regards the background, with No. 812 in the 
National Gallery. 



BELLINI 5ft 

^o. 8X& Landscape^ with the Death of St. Peter 
Marty7\ 1252, 

The Dominican and his companion are attacked by fwo armed 
men in a wood, on the road between Milan and Como. In the 
background are several laboarera at work in the wood ; a small 
town is seen in the distance. Sigaed, Joannes BelUnuSj/t. 

On wood* 3 ft. 4 in. 7i. by 6 ft. 4 in. w. 

Presented by Lady EasUake in 1870. 



No. X&33> The Blood of the Redeemer. 

A mystic subject. The risen Savioar, unclothed but for a 
linen loin-cloth, stands before us, encircling with his left arm the 
Cross, on which hangs the Grown of Thorns. Of the pierced 
hands, the left presses round the wound in the side, while the 
right is extended with open palm. His look and gestures seem 
to demonstrate that the blood which pours from the lance-wound 
is freely ^ven for the redemption of the world. The blooi is^ 
leceiTed m a chalice by a little kneeling angel, winged, anc^ 
wearing a long Tiolet-grey tunic. The figures are on a terrace., 
which is payed with squares of marble, white and black, ana 
enclosed by a parapet, decorated with antique reliefs modelled in 
gold on a black ground. Beyond this is a sombre landscape, 
with castellated buildings on the left, and ruins on the right ; 
near the latter are seen two small figures. Towards the hiffh 
horizon is a distant town amidst low hills. The streaky sky 
indicates early dawn. 

On wood, 1 ft. 6 in. h, by 1 ft. 1 in. w. 

Pnrohased in London from Mr. G. Fair&x Murray, out of the interest 
of the '* Clarke Bequest," in 1887. 



No. 1440. St. Dominic. 

« 

This head is a portrait of a mank in the character of St. 
Dominic. He wears the Dominican robe , and a black skull cap. 
The right hand, which alone is seen aboye the red marble 
parapet, holds the lily and a book in red binding on which is a 
small white label with the words Sanots Dominies. Behind is a 
green curtain with a pattern of daisies and red flowers. 



56 BELLINI. 

On the parapet is a «ar^Z/fffo witb the name i-^ ' ' 

ioAnis bellin op 

MDXV. 

and painted on the parapet is the following inscription (mnch 
effaced) : — 

Imago Fratris Theodori Urbinati.* 

On oanTas,|2 ft. A. by 1 ft. 7 in. w. 

Lent bj the Victoria and Albert Mnsenm in exchange with several 
others for a collection of water-colonr drawings by the National 
Gkdlery in 1895. 



No. 1455i The Circumciaion. 

The Infant Christ is supported by the Virgin Mother and 
Bt. Joseph on a table in the centre covered with a white damask 
cloth. On the left is the High Priest in a rich cope of white 
brocade with a broad coloured border of Oriental design, and a 
veil of a similar character over his head. Behind him a man with 
reddish hair and beard holds back the cope displaying its crimson 
liniing and the sleeve of the tunic beneath, also covered with rich 
Oriental embroidery of great beauty of design. To the right is 
St. Catherine in a dark mantle, with a head-dress of pearls partly 
<seen under a yellow veil which is wrapped round the head and 
i)h6ulders.f 

Bignei on tk cartelUfio :-^ 




BELUNW 



* The name of the Venble. Father Theodoras of Urbino as a member of the 
CJonvent of SS. Giov. e Paolo occurs in a document of the year 1514, discovered 
byDr. Gustav Ludwig. 

.t Beplioas of this picture are to be met with in public galleries in Italy, and 

gie was exhibited at the Venetian Exhibition at the New Oallery in 1893. The 
igh Priest is also to be found in other Venetian pictures of the same period, 
generally with the remarkable Oriental embroidery on the cope, as in the 
RretentaMon in the Temple by Bissolo in the Venice Academy. An earliflr 
example is in a picture attributed to Mansueti in the Museo Civico at Padua, 
but in this the cope is not embroidered. 



BELLINI-^BELTBAFFia 57 

In C^, oa ^^ood> 2 ft.. 4 in. A. by 3 f t. 4 in. tUL 
. Fkesented in 1895 bj the Earl of Carlisle. 

No. 1696- Virgin and Child. 

The Madonna Ib seated in front of a red hanging of the nsnal 
type holding the Infant Christ in her lap with m>th hands, which 
are crossed m front of Him. She wears a deep red tnnio and a 
pale bine mantle oyer the white veil which falls over her forehead. 
The blue has almost entirely faded from the mantle, and the 
picture has snfPered in many placefi, probably in being detached 
from the wall on which it was originally painted. 

Fresco paiTiting on plaster, 2 ft. 9} in. h. by 1 ft. 10} in. to. 

Presented by Lady Layard in 1900. 



(GiovAN Antonio), 1467-1516. 

Or BoLTRAFFio, was born at Milan of nob)e parents in 1467. 
He mnst fiave followed his artistic instincts eaHy in Hf e, although 
it was probably not until after Iieonardi da Vinci had settled at 
Milan that Beltbaffio, coming under his influence, determined 
to devote himself seriously to the study and practice of painting. 
He sat at fche feet of the teachef , lodged with him, and became 
one of his most ardent disciples. He sought with all reverence to 
follow the precepts and imbibe the spirit of his great master, but 
a strong intelligence saved him from becoming a mere imitator. 
Hia scope was not wide nor his imagina|iion powerful, but within 
the limits to which he confined himself, nothing could exceed 
the loving care which he bestowed upon faiis refined work?. His 
outline is pure and select, his modelling true, if wanting in the 
thoroughness and subtlety of Leonardo's, his colouring always 
pleasing. His portraits are so fine that we only regret their 
rarity. Of his works on a large scale, which are very rare, the 
most important is the altar-piece formerly in the church of the 
Misericordia, near. Bologna, but now in the Louvre. It contains, 
in a landscqpe^ the Virgin and Infant, SS. John the Baptist and 
Sebastian, and two worshippers (Qindamo and Oiacom^ Casio). 



68 BELTRAFFIO— BENVBNUTO. 

The feeling throaghoat is noble, althoagh the head of the Yirgin 
lacks the more classic type to be f oand in the pictare described 
below, and in the ezquii^ite small panel of the Poldi-Pezzoli 
collection at Milan. The Berlin Gallery contains a fine S. Barbara, 
The fresco in the convent of S. Ojofrio at Rome {Madonna and 
Child with a Worshipper), commonly ascribed to Da Yinci, is now, 
with much show of reason, given to his pupil. Some beantif al 
portrait studies in crayons, undoubtedly by the latter, though still 
attributed to his master, are in the Ambrosiana at Milan. 
Beltraffio appears to have been one of the friends who 
accompanied Leonardo to Rome in 1514. He died at Milan, 
June 15, 1516, three years before the decease of his master. 



No. 728> The Madonna and Child, 

The Child lying on its mother's lap, has just turned away from 
her breast and is lookin^f out of the picture. In the background 
is a landscape almost who'ly screened from view by a green and 
gold hanging. Figures life-size. 

On oheanut, 3 ft. h, by 2 ft. 2 in. to. 

Formerly in the Norbhwlck Collection. Purchased in London at 
the Davenport Bromley sale in 1863. 



BSirVfiNUTO DA SZBNA, 1436-1518? 

Benyenuto, of Siena, was bom on the 13th of September, 1436, 
and was the son of Giovanni di Meo del Guasto, a mason. He 
died in 1518 or 1519. 

Benyenuto executed some of the illuminations of the books 
of the choir of the cathedral of Siena, in 1482 ; and he designed 
portions of the pavement there in 1485 : — the Tiburtine Sibyly 
Albunea, and Jephtha^s Sacrifice* 

There are three small pictures by him in the Academy at Siena ; 
and at Yolterra is an Annundation painted in 1466, signed Opub 
Benyenuti Joannib de Sekib. 



BENVENUTO— BBRCHEM. 59 

By an inoome retara in 14B8, in which he complains of dearUi 
of work in Siena, it appears that the painter had three ions and 
three daughters. His son Girolamo di Benvennto, also a master 
of some position, was born in 1470, and died about 1524.^ 

No. 909- Madonna and Child, with Saints. 

An altar-piece in three compartments. 

On the centre jmnel is represented the Virgin, seated on the throne, 
placing a sprig of white roses in the hand of the divine Infant on her 
knees. Aboye and behind the throne are two angels playing on 
musical instruments. Beneath is the inscription : — R^ina ceh lettue 
Alleluia. 

On the side panels are represented St. Peter and St. Nicholas of 
Barl. Their names are inscribed beneath. Santns Petrus Apostolus ; 
aad Santus Nicholaus De Bari. 

In tempera, on wood. 

Centre panel, 5 ft. 6 in. h. by 2 ft. 1 in. w. 

Side panels, each 5 ft. 6 in. A. by 1 ft. 9 in. w. 

The centre panel was purchased in 1874 at the first sale of Mr. 
Alexander Barker's Collection, and the side panels at a later sale of the 
same collection in 1879. 



(Nicolas), 1620-1683. 

Was baptized at Haarlem, Oct. 1, 1620 ; and died at Amsterdam, 
Feb. 18, 1683. He had many masters, among whom were his 
father Pieter Claasze, Jan Van Goyen, J. B. Weeniz, and Jan 
Wil"!, whose daughter he married. Berchem painted in several 
styles — ^portrait, figure (large and small), battles, and landscape 
with cattle and small figures, in which last class he is chiefly 
distinguished. His pictures are remarkable for their composition, 
their careful finish, and at the same time freedom of handling ; 
and for their warm tone of colour and brilliant lighting. He is 



• MilaDesi, Doeumentlt Ac^ dell *Arte Senese, vol. iii., p. 79. Orowe and 
Cayalcaaene, Painting in Italy, &c^ vol. iii. 



eO IBBRCHEM, 

anppoged by some, from the nature of his gcenes, to haVe stacked 
in Italy. At the height of his repatation, in 1665, BfiRCHilM sold- 
his hibonTy from early morning until four in the. aft^mo6n, for 
10 florins a day : his wife is said to have suffered him to keep very > 
little money ; he appears to have been prone to spend it too freely 
on Italian drawings. At the sale of his effects after his death his 
pictures produced 12,000 florins, and his sketches 800. Bebchem 
also etched ; there are in all 56 plates attributed to him, chiefly of 
animals, which are very scarce. Berghem was a nickname or 
surname that originated with himself; it. is variously accounted 
for. 

No. 240. Crossing the Ford, 

'A hilly scene with clump of trees under a sunset sky ; in the 
fore-ground are figures and cattle, sheep, &c., crossing a stream. 

On wood, 111 in. h. by 1 ft. 5J in. w. 

Bequeathed to the National GtMerj by Lord Colbome in 186^. 
Signed :^ 



,i 



Jjerchtfn^ . Pinjp 



No. 820a Landscape with Buin, 

' A hilly country, evening ; some peasants and cattle are crossing 
a stream ; on the left is a rained arch. Signed Berghem. 

On wood, 1 ft. 6 in. A. 1>y 1 ft. 3 in.; to. Engraved in the PouUain 
Gallery. 

Formerly in the Braamoamp, FouUain, and Tolozan (Collections &o. 
Subsequently in Sir Simon Clarke's possession. Purchased witii the 
Peel Collection in 1871. 



No. 1004a Italian Landscape, 

^ A group of muleteers are resting with their animab in the 
scanty shade of some slender trees in the foreground, looking 
down over an extensive hilly country. The broken trees indicate 
an exposed situation. Sighed Berghem. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 7 in. h, by 4 f 1. 1 in. «;. . 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



BEECHlDM^fiEBQE-HBTDE. 61 

No. lOOS. Ploughingyv ' 

A hilly woody 'landaeape ;:«n a liting groond in front tra two 
men pjjogbing with a yoko of oattle ; dog and pitcher, &o. are 
grouped in the foregroand. Signed Bebghsm. 

On canTas, 15 in. h. by 20 in. w. 

The Wynn Elln Bequest. 1876. 

No. lOOC Landscape. 

With cattle and figures ; a man is playing a hardy gordy before 
a woman with a child in her lap ; she wears a blue gown. Signed 
Bebchem 165 +. 

On oak, 13^ in. A. by 15 in. to. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest 1876. 



. I • 

(Gebbit Ai>K^4i:Naz), 1638-1698. 

This painter was born at Haarlem in 1638, and was yoonger 
son of Adrian Joppe Berck-Heyde, a batcher in that town. His 
works are mostly views in Haarlem, Amsterdam, and the Hague ; 
tome pictares painted at Cologne are also mentioned in catalogues 
of sales in Holland. But his favourite subject was the Market 
Place of Haxirlem, of which several examples exist, one being the 
picture described below. They are in no sense copies or replicas, 
as they all vary in the point of view, and in the arrangement 
of the figures. Two of these views are in the possession of the 
Earl of Northbrook ; one of them is almost identical with the 
National Gallery picture, but does not include the^Doric portico 
in the foreground, and the figures are different; in. the other, 
taken from an opposite point, the portico appears at^e further 
end of the Market Plice. He worked sometimes in co-operation 
with his elder brother Job. .; The pictures of l^thfbrothers^re 
remarkable for. a hroad style of , painting,, foj brilliant] sunlight, 
and careful, l)ut not over elaborate, drawing of details, and the 
figures arc) invariably well grouped. JSe died at Haarlem in 1698. 



62 BEROK-HBYDB. 

No. 1420. A View in Haarlem. 

A view in bright sanlight of the public square or market-plaoe 
before the Groot Kirck, from the crux of which rises, in the middle 
distance, a lichly detailed belfry. On the right of the scene are 
several lofty brick houses surmounted by stepped gables. On the 
right of the foreground is seen part of a Doric porch or colonnade 
supporting a balustraded balcony. The square is enlivened by 
numerous figures— chiefly men — who walk or stand in conversation. 
On the left a cavalier and lady stroll towards the spectator, 
followed by a dog. 

Signed : — 






On canvas, 1 ft. 8^ in. /t. by 2 ft. 2 in. w. 

Purchased in London at the sale of Mr. Adrian Hope's Collection in 



1894. 



No. 1451- Interior of the Church of St. BavOj Haarlem. 

The nave of the church filled with people during sermon- 
time. The preacher is seen in the palpit against one of the 
columns on the right. The women are seated on chairs in the 
central part of the nave, and the men are in seats raised in tiers all 
round ; the men wear their hats. In the foreground are isolated 
figures. On the left an elderly man warns two children to be quiet. 
In the centre a boy is caressing a hound to which a woman is 
directing the attention of child dressed in white and holding a 
coral and bells. Others stand listening to the sermon. 

Signed on the pavement : — 

On panel, 2 ft. Of in. h. by 2 ft. 9 in. w. 

Purchased in 1895 at the sale of Lord Olif den's pictures. 



BEBTUGGL 63 

ItTVOOZ (GiOY. Battista da Fainza). 
Early 16th Centary. 

Bbrtucci was the nickname given to this painter, who was a 
native of Faenza, where moat of his works are to be fonnd. His 
most important work is a Coronation of the Tirgin in the 
Pinacoteca of that town, signed in full and dated 1506. Others 
attributed to this painter are in the same gallery and at Forll. 
His work shows the influence of Peragino and Pinturicchio, and his 
pietores have, until . recently, been variously named as by one or 
other of those painters, or, like the picture No. 282 described 
below, as by Lo Spagna. 

No. 2A2a The Olarification qf the Virgin. 

The Yinzin, holding in her left hand a lily, is seated in clouds, 
with the Child stan£ng upon her knee : she is surrounded by 
cherubim, two of which are supporting a crown above her head ; 
two others are holding lighted candles. On a marble platform 
below are two infant angels, seated ; one playing on a viol, the 
other blowing a flageolet. In the landscape background u*e seen 
a church, and distant mountains. 

On wood, 6 ft. 10 in. A. by 2 ft. 7^ in. to., oircolar top. 

Formerly in the Ercolani OoUection at Bologna. Purchased for tne 
National Gallery at the sale of the Earl of Orford's pictures, in 1866. 

No. 105 !• Our Lord^ SL Thomas and St. Anthony of 
Paduaf the Donator kneeling to the right. 

In the foreground, on a marble terrace, which is guarded 
behind by a low parapet, stands in the centre our Lord, dressed 
in a long crimson gown with full sleeves. He raises His right 
arm on high so as to display through an opening in the gown, 
the speair-wound in His side. On the left, the incredulous 
Thomas presses forward to thrust his finger into the wound. On 
the right, the Donator kneels in adoration encouraged by his 
patron St. Anthony of Padua, who bears a stalk of lilies. In the 
background, a hilly landscape. 

On wood, 3 ft. 5| in. h. by 5 ft. 5| in. w. 

Bequeathed by the Misses Solly in 1879. 



64 BIBIBNA^MGIO. 

{ .BIBXBNAi (Fbbbinand a), 1657-1743. 

The son of Giovaoni Maria Galli da Bibiena was born at 
Bologna in 1657, and was .taken care of and injst^racted by Gignani. 
He was painter and architect, and executed saveral works for 
Banaocio Farnese, Duke of Parma. His scenic ofEeeis were yery 
successful. He became blind, i^nd died.:in <1743. He left some 
works on perspective. 

« 

No. 936. The Teatro Farnese^ Parma. 



The pit and stage of a theatre, in which Qthello, is being acted ; 
the stage, seen by daylight, has a constructed scene, with entabla- 
tures and statues at intervals ; Othello is on the stage ; the pit is 
full of visitors, who are promenading about ; there are no seats. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 5| in. h, by 3 ft. 8^ in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest.. 1876. 



BZCIZO (Francia), 1482-1525. 

Francesco, the son of Cristofano di Francesco d'Antcmio (a 
^lilanese), and commonly called Francia Biaio,® was born at 
Florence in 1482, and died there oh the 14tli of January, 1525. 
He studied under Mariotto Albertinelli, and quickly rose to 
eminence. Subsequently he formed a strong friendship with 
Andrea del Sarto, and his first important work was produced in 
1513 in co-operation with tha,t painter, in the small cloister of Uie 
Servi.. It was here that the famous scene took place with the 
Friars, who, having uncovered Bigio's fresco of the Spoaalizio 
before the painter considered it finished, so enraged him that he 
defaced some of the finest heads in it with a mason's hammer, and 
would have destroyed the whole but for forcible intervention. 
Keither he nor any other psunter could be induced to riapaii; the 
injuries, which remain to this day. While Andrea, del Sarto was 
absent in France in 1518, ij^e.iphiarosouro jEr^j^oes commppced by 
him in the cortile of the ScfJ^zi.Tji^ere .c^ried forward by Francia 

* Francia was a dialectic abbreyiation of Francesco instead of the more 
familiar form Cecco. 



BIGIO— BISSO'LO. 66 

JBiGio. Soon afterwards both these (Mkinters, in conjanotion with 
Pontormo, were engaged in painting the History of Cicero and 
other subjects in the Yilla del Poggio at Gajano for Lorenso de' 
Medici Dnke of IJrbino, and his nephew Leo X. 

The small oil painting of Bathshehat now in the Dresden 
Chdlery, was completed in 1523, and formed one of a aeries in which 
Pontormo and Bacchiacca took part. Fbancia's style on the 
whole shows a strong affinity with that oC Andrea del Sarto. He 
was a laborious student in his art to the end ; and Yasari con- 
sidered him to have carried the process of fresco painting to a 
higher degree of refinement than any of his contemporaries. 
Fbakcia painted many portraits in oil, fine examples of which 
exist in the Pitti Palace, at Berlin, Windsor, and in the possession 
of Lord Yarboroagh. 

No, 1035> Portrait of a Young Man. 

In half length, with long hair, in black habit and 
cap ; bearing on his breast the cross of Malta. He 
holdis in his hands an open letter^ and looks 
towards the spectator. The background is a land- 
scape. On a ledge below is the inscription TAB : 
YBLIA : CHI : BIEK : EIM A.f at either end of 
which is the monogram of Francia Bigio.J; 

On panel, 1 ft. 11 1 in. h. by 1 ft. 6 in. w. 

Poichased, in 1878, from Mr. W. Fuller Maitland, M.P. 




iXO (Francesco). 
Painted from abont 1492-1530. 

Of the school of Giovanni Bellini, painted at Yenice in the early 
part of the 16th eentnry, about 1492-1580. Yery few of his 
pictures are known, but these are distinguished for delicacy of 

execution and a fine feeling for colour. The Yenetian Academy 

*- ■ ■ ■ . . ■ 

* The apparent text of this letter in not decipherable be^'ond the date :— 1514. 

t Slowly forgets he who loves welL 

X Composed of the letters F, R. A. 0. P., signifying Franclscus Chrlstophorl 
pinzlt 

25640 B 



^6 BISSO'LO-'BLES. 

posaesseB a fine picture of Christ replacing the crown of thorns of 
St. Catharine of Siena by a crown of gold; it is signed Franciscuf^ 
BiBsolo, and was formerly in the church of San Pietro Martire at 
Murano. In San Floriano, near Castel-Franco, is a picture by him, 
signed and dated mdxxviii.* 



Ascribed to 

No. 631. Portrait of a Lady. 

With blond hair confined in a net, and in a rich dress ol 
embroidered Byzantine stuff. Bust. 
On wood, U\ in. A. by 12 in. w. 
Purchased from Mr. Edmond Beauoousin, at Paris, in 1860^ 



(Sebki de), i4d0 ? - after 1551. 

Was born at Bouvignes, near Namur, about 1480 ; he is sup-* 
posed to have died at Liege after 1551. De Bles (or Henrik met 
de Bles, with the forelock,) was called also Giyetta by the' 
Italians, from his habit of placing an owl in his pictures ; his 
works are generally a combination of figures and landscape,, similar 
to those of Patinir. 

The following pictures are ascribed to him : — 

No. 718. Mount Calvary. Cfirist on the Cross. 

Three angels receiving in chalices the blood which pours from 
his wounds ; below are St. John, the Virgin Mary, the Magdalen, 
Longinus the Centurion, and another Roman soldier. In the 
background is a view of Jerusalem, to which the Jews are seen 
returning. 

On oak, upper angles out away, 3 ft. 1 in. A. by 2 ft. 2^ in. w. 

No. 719a The Magdalen. 

Richly dressed, holding a vase of ointment in her left hand, and 
lifting the lid with her right ; before her lies an illuminated 

* Zanetti, Dtlla Pittura Veneziana, Ssc. ; MoachinLGuida di ViTieeia. In somtt 
accounts Bissolo's ChriBtiao name i» given as Pier Franceico. 



BLES-'fiOOOACCINO. W 

manuBcript. Through sa ornamented archway is seen a diatant 
landscape with a view of the sea. Half-length figure. 

On oak, 20^ in. A. by 13f in. w. 

Both formerly in the Wallerstein Collection, in KenBinfcton Palaoe. 
Preeented, in 1863, by Her Majesty Qaeen Victoria, in folfllment of 
the wiehee of H.R.H. the Prince Oonaort. 



BOOOAOOZMO (Boccaccio), 14 . .?-1525. 

Was a natiye of Cremona, where several of his works are still 
preserved ; but of the circumstances of his life little is known. 
He died in 1525. His works bear dates from 1496 to 1518. If 
not of striking originality, they are always pleasing in character ; 
his females are remarkable for their tenderness and charm. A 
peculiarity of his heads is a very light grey eye rimmed with a-. 
dark line. Boccaccino worked at the frescoes in the Cathedral . 
of Cremona before and simultaneously with Altobello Melone and. 
others. His charming picture in the Academy at Yenice, The 
Mystic Marriage of St, Catherine^ is well known. In this Yenetiaa 
tendencies are visible ; but in some other works of his may be 
traced the influence of Perugino crossing his native Lombard 
manner. Garofalo studied with Boccaccino before visiting 
Borne, in 1500. He has signed his name Boo. Boccacinus,^ 

No. 806a The Procession to Calvary. 

A composition of many small figures, some on horseback, in a 
rocky landscape with a sea in the distance ; the two thieves ara 
seen led on in advance to the Calvary ; in the centre of the fore- 
gxoond is Christ bearing his cross, preceded by John. On the 
spectator's right, the Yirgin, fallen in a swoon, is being attendedL 
to by the two Maries and Salome. 

On wood, 4 ft. 4 in. A. by 4ft. 3^ in. w. 

- Formerly in the ohoroh of San Domenioo De* Frati Osservanti in 
Cremona, where it was seen, and was described by the Anonimo of 

* Paoni, Cremona^ p. 137 ; Zaist, PUtori GremoneM, dkc, 4to, Oremona, 1774. 
ToL L. p. 68, 

25640 E 2 



68 BOCC AOCINO - BOL. 

Morellil abont 1537 as a work bj fiocoaooino ; * snbseqneiitly in the 
ooUection of the Marquis Picenardi, Dear FiadeiDa. Pnrdhased is 
milan from Signor Giuseppe Baslini in 1870. 



BOL (Ferdinand). 1616-1680. 

Was born at Dort in Jane, 1616, and became the pnpil of 
Rembrandt at Amsterdam, where he acquired the rights of a 
burgess on the 24th of January, 1652. He is distinguished chiefly 
as a portrait painter and etcher, and his pictures are remarkable 
for a prevailing yellow tone. He died rich at Amsterdam, July 24, 
1680.f Hei^enerally signed Bol or Bolfecit^ the initial letter being 
intertwined with an F. 



No. 679- The Portrait of an Astronomer (?) 

Half-length seated before a table, on which are an open book 
and two globes. Signed, and dated 1652. 

On canvas, 4 ft. 1^ in. h, by 4 ft. 4) in. tv. 

Presented, in 1862, by Miss E. A. Benett. 




/<jr 



4 



• L'altra Palletta del CriRto tirato alia Orooe, dall' altro lato, fa da mano del 
detto Boccacino. Morelli, Notizia cFOpere di Disegno, &e. Scritta da un Anonifm 
di quel tempo. Bassano, IwK). 

t Houbraken, QrooU SeJiouburg, ftc. Scbeltema, Rembrandt Redevoering, Aa» 
p. 6 ; Freoch Translallon by Btirger, p. 53. 



BONFIGLI— BONI FAZIO. 69 



BOWnaUl (Bbhedbtto), 1420 ?-aftor 1493. 

Someiimee called Bqonfiqlio, was bom at Peragia about the 
year 1420. He was one of the early masters of the Umbriaa 
Schoaly bat was inflaenced to some extent by the scientific training 
of Piero della Francesca, especially in his stady of perspective. 
His colonring is sober and beautiful, and he revels in amusing 
details of contemporary life. His earliest known work is an 
Annunciation, formerly in the Orfanelli at Perugia, and now in 
the Pinacoteca Yanucci of the Palazzo del Municipio. His master- 
work is a series of frescoes in the Palazzo del Gonsiglio in thai 
city, representing the lives of St. Louis of Toulouse and St.. 
Hercalanus; they were begun in the year 1454 and were still 
unfinished in the year 1496, when Bonfigli made his will. There 
is also an Adoration of the Magi by him, said to have been 
painted in 1460, in San Domenico in that city. BoNyiQLi painted 
several processional banners, among them one painted for the 
brotherhood of San Bernardino, representing the deeds of their 
patron saint. Another was painted for the brotherhood of San 
Fiorenza, in 1476, in honour of the Virgin, who had been prayed 
to intercede for the cessation of the plague in the city. There is. 
also a Virgin of Mercy, painted in 1478 foi the church of the. 
Commenda di Santa Groce. 

No. 1843* The Adoration of the MagL 

The three kings, presenting vessels of gold, kneel before the- 
Yirgin, who is seated, with the Infant Christ on her knee, before 
the manger. On the right is a representation of the crucified 
Saviour. St. Joseph is beated on the left. 

On panel, 1 ft. 2| in. h, by 1 ft. 7} in. w. 

Purchased at Florence from Prof. Elia Yolpi, in 1901. 



BONZr AZXO VBaONBSB. Died 1540. 

Three painters bearing the name of Bonifazio practised at 
Yenioe in the 16th century. They seem to have been closely 
related, and to have belonged to a Yeronese family. It may.be 



70 BONIFAZIO. 

convenient to designate them as the Bonifazii senior and junior, 
and Bonif azio Veneziano, The last was probably the son of one of 
his older namesakes. The eldest of the three, whose name heads 
thfs notice, was a papil of Palma Yecchio, as Bidolfi informs ns ; 
and we may believe that during his apprenticeship he often 
assisted his mastei . It must be admitted that works assigned to 
the two elder men respectively have so much in common as not 
to be easily discriminated, and it is unnecessary to attempt the task 
here. Those pictures which all allow to be by the eldest of the 
family exhibit some diversity of style, inasmuch as the earlier 
examples show unmistakably the influence of Palma, whereas, in 
those of a later period, a fully developed and independent manner 
is apparent. Tvfo of the most striking productions of Bonifazio 
Teronesb the elder are : The Rich Man^a Feast (or Dives and 
Lazarus) in the Accademia at Yenice, and ^he Finding of Moses in 
the Brera gallery at Milan, the former remarkable for its dramatic 
suggestiveness, the other for the splendour of its colouring. The 
former indeed is the work of a man of poetic mind, who had 
observed keenly, and felt and thought deeply. The Finding of 
Moses is treated as &/ite champStrej in which the daughter of 
Pharaoh, in the guise of a 16th century princess, with her gay 
retinue of lords and ladies, hunters, and falconers, takes part. 
Wealth of colour is here carried to a pitch beyond which it 
could not go, in the rich garments which serve to support and 
set ofE the exquisite flesh tones. The groups are concentrated 
in the foreground, or scattered through the distance, of a charm- 
ing and diversified landscape. The picture of the Massacre of 
the Innocents^ and many other works at Yenice and elsewhere, 
illustrate Bonifazio's extraordinary power over colour as well as 
the cultivation of his mind. He died in 1540.^ 

No. 1202. The Madonna and Child with Saints. 

A composition belonging to the class called by the Italians 
*'Sante Conversazioni." The principal group occupies the fore- 
ground. In the centre is seated the Yirgin, in a pale red robe, 

* For the other two painters of the Bonifazio fanoily* the student may consult 
Giov. Morelli, Italian Mast&rs in the Qcdleries of Munich^ <fcc., Bnffllsh edition 
Bell, 1883 ralso the recent edition of Kugler's Handbook of Italian Fainting^ 
Murray. 1887. 



BONIP^ZIO— BONO. 71. 

light blae mantle, and white kerohief, sapporting on her knee 
the infant Christ, whose foot the little St. John bends to kiss. 
On the right sits St. Catherine, holding a fri^ment of her wheel 
of martyraom. To the left are seat^ St. James the younger, 
reading, and beyond him, St. Jerome. A rainons bnilding and 
8om3 small trees on an elevation, form a mass behind the gronp, 
leaving visible on either side an andalating coantnr with £stant 
castle-crowned hills and blue mountains. The figures in the 
distance have probably a symbolical meaning. On the extreme 
right a shepherd lies asleep near his flock ; more towards 
the centre, the sheep dog is seised by a lion, before whom 
three other shepherds flee for shelter to the baiiding. On the left, 
an armed cavalcade is partially lost to sight in the hollows of the 
ground. 

On wood, 2 ft. 4| in. h, by 3 ft. 9} in. w. 

There is a replica of this composition in the Aocademia at Venice. 

Porohased from the heirs of the late Signor Enrico Andreossi, of 
Milan, out of the " Walker Bequest/* in 1886. 



BONO DA rSBRAaA. Painting 1461. 

Was an excellent painter of the fifteenth century, of whom little 
is known ; he has been described as a scholar of Squarcione at 
Padua, and even of Mantegna, his contemporary. We learn from 
the inscription in the example of his work in this collection that 
he was the pupil of Yittore Pisano, the painter and medallist of 
Yerona, commonly called Pisanello. His style is precise in 
execution and effective in colour, similar to that of his very able 
master. We have a few dates fixing his time : in 1450, 1451, 
and 1452 he was painting at Migliaro and at Casaglia, near 
Ferrara. A Master Bono, painter, of Ferrara, was in 14G1 
engaged on work in the Cathedral of Siena.^ 

No. 771m St. Jerome in the Desef't. 

Seated on a* rock, holding in his left hand a rosary ; by his side 
reposes his lion. A small church is seen in the background, and 

* Count Laderchi, La PUtura Ftrrarete, Ferrara, 1850, p. 33. 



^ BONO— BONSIGNORI. 

in an upper part of the rocky landgcape behind, a deer is feeding. 
A bright sunset : the warm evening light is cast upon the rocka 
by means of gold hatchings. Signed Bonus Ferariensis Fisami 
DisiPULrs. 




In tempera, on wood, 1 ft. 8 in. h, by 1 ft. 3 in. to. 

Formerly in the Costabili Gallery, Ferrara. Parohased from the 
collection of Sir Charles Eastlake, P.B.A., in 1867. 



BOirSXaNORX (Francesco), 1455-1519, 

Was born at Yerona in 1455, and became the imitator of 
Mantegna at Mantua, where he settled. He died at Galdiero, near 
Yerona, where he went to drink the waters, on the 2nd of July,. 
1519. He was an excellent historical and portrait painter ; and 
was distinguished also for his knowledge of architectural! 
perspective, and for his power in portraying animals A fine 
altar-piece by Bonsionori, dated 1488, is in the chnreh of 
S. Bernardino at Yerona ; and in the Pinacoteca are three 
pictures by him, transferred fram churches ; large in style, 
and severe almost to rudeness. All these belong to his pre- 
Mantuan time. This painter is erroneously called Monsignori, 
by Yasari, who notices several admirable works by him, some 
of which are still preserved.^ 

* Yasari. F<t0, dee^^yoL iz., p. 187, ed. Le Monnier J863 : Maffei, Verona iUtuirata 
ilL c. vi.; Da Persico, Deserizlone di Verona, &c., 1820 ; Carlo D'Arco. DelF ArU s 
deqli Artefici di Mantiva^ 1867, vol. i. pi. 42 ft 43, p. 56, where lie in also incorrectly 
oalied Mon8i((Dori ; and a communication from Dr. Bernasconi. 



i 



BOSSIGNORI— BONVICINO. 73 

No. 736. Portrait of a Venetian Senator. 

In red dreM snd BtoU ; head. Signed en a Mrtellino— 
FrancUeut Boraignoriug VenmeatU, P. 1417. 



la tempera, on wood, 16} in. &. bj 11| in. to. 

Tonaerlj in the Capello HaBenin in Tenioe. Porohased at Terona, 
from Dr. Oerare Becnaaooni, in 1861. 

The original diawing for this portrait ii in the Albertina OoUeotiaii 
atTietuuk 



BOMTZOXlfO (Alessandbo). called MOSBTTO of 

BBBSOZA., 1498-1555. 

The latter ia the more nmal design3tiaD° of AlumandkO 
BoxviCINO, th« greatest and most self-dependent of the Brvscian 
■Hasten of the 16th century. Bom at Bresciif in 1498, he studied 
under and assisted Floriano Ferrsmols. Early in hia life h* 
farther profited bj the example of bis rather elder contemporary 
Romanino, and be perhaps leamt something from seeing works 
by Titian, though he never risited Tenioe. Bat whatever 
sttmalns he may have received on this side or that, bis innate 
geuina had already ahaped ont hia oareer. Even in 1621 when, 
at the age of 23, he painted beside Bomanino in the Oorpna 
Cbristi chapel in 8. Giovanni Evangelists at Brescia, he disoloaed 
facoltiee of the highest order, and showed himself the superior 
of bis brilliant oolleagne in dignity of conception, mastery of 
form, thoronghnees of eiecntiou, aud steady evenness of work- 
manship. There too be stmck some of those chords of colour, 
those original barmonies ot which he wa^ the discoverer, ae he 

* The paiotar adopted It hiauell alter the example ot his lather, aod ilsnsd 
Ub pictures ganerBlly " Aleiander MoTBttai, Brii." 
t Not at Bovato. See Fenaroli, AlaiandTa Baauldno, Ac, BreHoia, 1B76. 



74 BONVIOINO. 

ever remained the sole master of their secret. In the rarest of 
those qualities which go to the making of a great colonrist — 
tone — a quality which no teaching can evoke, he developed a 
subtlety of feeling peculiar to himself. In connexion with 
MoRETTO it is vaguely defined as "silvery." It pervades the 
works of his best period, whatever they may contain of brilliancy, 
force, or unexampled variety, of colour. The nature of the man 
himself is shown in the gravity of purpose, the nobility of 
presentment, and the unostentatious religious feeling manifest 
in hia sacred compositions. If in one or two of his great altar- 
pieces he seems to betray acquaintanceship (though of course 
only at second band) with some of BaphaeFs designs, the 
influence was fleeting ; the foreign graft scarcely produced an 
improved fruit. Although many of Bonyicino^s finest works 
h^ve departed from Brescia, that town and its neighbourhood 
still afford the best materials for studying the master and 
comparing him with himself. The churches, the Yescovado, the 
public gallery, and some private collections contain numerous 
altar-pieces and other productions by him. These are indicated 
in the guide-books : it is more to the purpose here to particu- 
larise some which are to be found elsewhere. The Brera at 
Milan can show a large altar-piece and some smaller works ; 
Sant* Andrea at Bergamo, S. Giorgio Maggiore at Yerona, and 
S. M. Maggiore at Trent possess important pictures ; but chiefly 
favoured is Yenice in owning the Christ in the house of the 
Pharisee, in S. M. della Pietk, a work as fine in composition as 
it is touching in pathos. On this side the Alps the most splendid 
of MoBETTo's altar-pieces is the Enthroned Madonna, with the 
four Doctors of the Church below, in the Staedel Institute at 
Frankfort-on-Maine. This grand and monumental work, splemn 
in feeling, and glowing with light, is one of the most gorgeous 
pieces of harmonious colouring in the world. The same 
collection is fortunate in possessing an Enthroned Madonna, mth 
S.S. Anthony and Sebastian. Of a different class, and almost 
more attractive in the exquisite refinement of its tones, and 
in loveliness of presentment, is the Santa Giustina in the 
Belvedere at Yienna.^ A noble altar picture. The glory of 

* It is many yean sinoe this surpasBing picture long ascribed to Pordenone, 
was restored to its rightful author. 



BONVICINO. 75 



Mary and Elizabeth^ is in the Berlin MuBenm. In this the 
white habits of the kneeling monks below form the principal 
miss of light, and the effect is original and striking. Two 
arched panels in the Lonvre, though containing bat a pair of 
figures each, are marvels of colour and tone produced by those 
simple means wnich genius alone knows how to use. Morbtto 
was no less distinguished in his portraits than in his sacred 
subjects. In the former the sense of dignity that belonged to 
him is ever apparent. Besides the two fine examples in this 
Gallery, there are the noble male portrait in the Brignola 
Palace at Genoa, the equestrian portrait in the Casa Martinengo 
at Biescia, and a man's portrait in the Pitti at Florence. A 
chamber in the Palazzo Martinengo della Fabbrica at Brescia, 
decorated in fresco from the crown of the vault to the skirting, 
is too little known. There Moretto has depicted, in it^e most 
charming landscape surroundings, eight beautiful women of 
the Martinengo family, two on each wall. The effect ia as 
bewitching as the conception is original. Mobetto died at 
Brescia in 1555. His greatest scholar was Giambattista Moroni 
of Bergamo the eminent portrait-painter. 

No. 299* Portrait of an Italian Nobleman. 

He is represented life-size seated at a table leaning his head 
upon his right hand. On the cap is a label inscribed 10^ A|AN 

noOO, meaning in its strict sense " Alas ! I desire too much ! ** 
thus explaining the pose selected by the painter with its upward 
longing look. But the motto as has been shown bv Mr. W. Fred 
Dickes has a punning reference to the name Julia, and in this 
sense may be read as two words lOTAlAN IXOOQ, '* I desire Julia,*' 
or with a farther pun on the word iTOeo as " Julia Pozzo.'' It is 
therefore reasonable to suppose that the personage represented 
is Monsignor Giacomo Gromo di Temengo, who mtimed Julia, 
t^e eldest daughter of Francesco dal Pozzo, third Marquis of 
Ponderano, and who at the time that the portrait was painted 
was an aspiring lover and wore in his cap his lady's favour.^ 

On canvas, 3 ft. 84 in. h. by 3 ft. 1 in. w. 

Formerly in the collection of Count Lechi, at Brescia, from which it 
passed into the possession of Mr. Henfrey, at Turin, from whom it 
was purchased for the National Gallery in 1858. When in the Lechi 
Gallery it was attributed to Moretto's scholar, Moroni. 

*See the article by Mr. W. Fred Dickes in the ** Athensnm " of June Srd, 
180S, where the evidence is given in full, for the probability of this view. 



76 BONVICINO. 

No. 625> SL Bemardiney of Siena. 

With St. Jerome, St. Joseph, St. Francis and St. Nicholas of 
Bari ; the Yirgin and Child, with St. Catherine and St. Clara, 
appearing in the clouds above. St. Bemardine is holding up in 
his right hand a disk containing the monogram of Christ, i.H.s.,^ 
in his left an open book, with the words, '* Pater manifestavi 
nomen tuum hominibus (Father I have manifested thy name to 
men) ;" at his feet are three mitre?, inscribed with the names of 
the three cities of which he is said to have refused the bishoprics 
— Urbino, Siena, and Ferrara. He was canonized in 1458. 

On canvas, 11 ft. 7 in. A. by 7 ft. 6 in. w. 

Formerly in the possession of Dr. Faccloli at Verona, from whom it 
passed in 1852 into the collection of Lord Northwick, at Cheltenham. 
Bought at the sale of the Northwick pictures in 1859. 



No. 1025- Portrait of an Italian NohUman. 

Of about 30 years of age, seen in front at full length, the head 
inclining to the left. The right arm rests upon a pedestal ; the 
left hand, ungloved, upon the sword-hilt. The dress is a brown 
doublet, with the sleeves richly slashed ; a black damask mantle 
and parti -coloured hose, of which one leg is brown, the other 
black. On the scarlet cap is a medallion in gold and enamel, with 
the device of the St. Christopher bearing the Infant Saviour. 
The background is architecture, with a castle on a hill. Dated 
below MDXXYI. No doubt a portrait of one of the Fenaroli 
family. 

On canvas, 6 ft. 6 in. h, by 2 ft. 11 in. w. 

Formerly in the Casa Fenaroli at Brescia. Purchased with three other 
portraits £romthe same palace, from Signor Giuseppe Baslini, at Milan, 
in 1876. 

No. 11C5> The Virgin and Child, tvith Two Saints. 

On the left St. Hippolytus, partially clad in armour but bare- 
headed, stands in a reverential attitude with face upturned, 
beariuff a palm branch in bis right hand. On the right St. 
Catherine, with a coronet on her head and a palm branch in her 
right hand, while her left is placed on the hilt of a sword, rests 
her left foot on the fragment of a wheel. Landscape, back^ound, 

* Interpreted both as Jesus (IH20T2). and as Jesus Hominum Salvator : Se« 
the inscription on the picture by Seflrna di Bnonaventnra, where they signify 
Jesu8. For the legend which makes this disk an attribute of St Bemardine see 
Mrs. Jameson's Legends cfthe Monastic Orders^ &c„ 1850, p. 306. 



BONVICIKO— BOBDONE. 77 

in which are seen the walls of a castle and a bridge, from beneath 
which a stream flows. In the foreground is the fra^ent of a 
stoce or marble plinth, which bears the following inscription : — 

MEBRIS DISSOLV{I) 

VOLVERVNT 

NE VINCVLI8 

DIVELLERETVR 

^TERNIS 

In the upper part of the pictare the Virgin, sitting on clouds, 
bends over the infant Christ, whom she holds in her arms. The 
principal figures are about three-quarters life-size. 

On canvas, with an arched top, 7 ft. 6^ in. A. by 4 ft. 4f in. to. 
Presented by Mr. Francis T. Palgrave, in 1884. 



BO&BOITB (Paris), Camliere, 1500-1570. 

OUbl ijoble faknily of Treviso, was born in 1500, and learnt 

painting foUa' short vhile.iuithe school of Titian at Tenice. He 

became one of the most splendid and luminous colourists of the 

Tenetian school ; but in respect of form and troth of action his 

works often leave something to be desired. His aim was above 

aU brilliancy and glow in the flesh-tints. He painted sacred 

subjects, mythological themes, genre and portraits : his fame in 

the last led to hlif being invited to the French court by 

Francis IL in 1558~9« where he spent some time, and where he 

was knighted by the King.^ His name indeed was known, and 

his works were sought, in many other countries. Two superb 

portraits by him are in the Brignola Palace at Q^noa ; a 

beautiful Madonna is in the Gasa Tadini at Lovere. But his 

masterpiece is the large picture in the Yenetian Academy, of 

The Fisherman presenting the Ring of St. Mark to the Doge; a 

triumph of gorgeous and harmonious colouring. Bordonb died 

at Yenice on;,the 19th of January, 1570, and was buried in the 

church of S Marziale. 



* Federioi, Memorie Trevigiane^ vol. 11. p. 42. 



78 BORDONE— BOBGOGNONE. 

No. 637* Daphnis and Chloe. 

A Greek shepherd and shepherdness, seated on a bank amongf 
some trees ; Chloe, who holds the pipes of Daphnis in her hand, i» 
about to be crowned by Oupid with a wreath of myrtle. From 
the Greek of Longus. 

On canvas, 4 ft. 5^ in. h. by 8 ft. 11 in. to. A copy, with some differ- 
ences, in the Imperial Gallery at Vienna, probably by a Flemish artist^ 
has been eng^ved by P. Lisebetias, in Tenter** Gallery of Archduke 
Leopold. 

Purchased from M. Edmond Beaucousin, at Paris, in 1860. 

No. 674:a Portrait of a Lady. 

Of the Brignole family of Genoa ; she has yellow hair, is dressed 
in a crimson gown with a low body and long sleeves, and has on a 
pearl necklace ; her right hand rests on her side, in her left she 
holds a chain ; in the back-ground is seen a portion of a hospital 
at Genoa. Inscribed ^tatis. su^. ana. xviiii. ; and lower down 
Pabis. B. 0. Front view, half length life size. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 5^ in. h. by 2 ft. 9 in. w. 

Purchased from the Duca dl Gardinale, at Naples, in 1861. 

PARIS -B 

•0 

No. 184S. The Light of the World. 

The Saviour, in a red tunic with a blue mantle, points upwards 
with His right hand, and in His left holds a scroll with the inscrip- 
tion ^^Ecce sum lux mundiJ* 

On canvas, 2 ft. 11 in. ^. by 2 ft. 4^ in. to. 
Presented by Mrs. Mary A. Wood, in 1901. 



BOAaOOMOMS (Ambrogio), 1455 ?~1523. 

Called also Ambrogio da Fossano, was bom at Milan, probably 
about 1455, and was doubtless educated in the school of Yincenzo 
Foppa. He was distinguished as architect and painter, and was 
employed on the fa9ade of the Certosa or Carthusian convent 



BOBGOGNONi:. 79 

near Pavia very early in his career, bat scarcely before 1475. The 
earliest known date on any of his paintings is 1490 : he appeals 
to have been engaged many years at Pavia, from about 1475 to 
1493. Lanzi, and others have assumed Ambrogio da Fossano the 
architect, and Ambrogio Borgognone the painter, to have beeo 
distinct persons, but existing signatures on pictures show thafc 
they are designations of the same artist : tbe altar-piece of the 
Orueifixionj io the Certosa of Pavia, by this painter, is signed 
Ambrosius Fosanus, pinxit 1490, Maij 14 ; a picture of the 
Baptism of Christ, in the sacristy of the church of Melegnano, 
is signed Ambrogio da Fosano BRaoaNONS ; and an Asiumption 
qf the Virgin^ in the Brera at Milan, is signed and dated 
Ambkosio boOGNj, 1522. In the Berlin Gallery is a MadcnmS' 
and Child enthroned, which was formerly in the Solly oollectioT, 
signed Ambrosij bERaoGNONr, op. There is no satisfactory accoun c 
of this artist by any early writer, Lomazzo merely mentioning 
him as a Milanese painter worthy of being celebrated, though he 
executed several considerable works at Milan, some of which aro 
still preserved, as in San Simpliciano, Sant' Ambrogio, San 
Satire, Sant' Agostino, and other churches. The Certosa n:ar 
Pavia, too, contains some fine altar-pieces by him. BoRaooNONB 
was a man of refined natnre and intense spiritual feelin^f. The 
presentment of divine or holy personages, in calm serenity or ia 
resigned suffering, accorded best with his temperament. Event 
his colouring partakes of the pervading sentiment ; the grey 
pallor of his heads is only modified, now and then, by the 
reddened eyelids of sorrow. Nothing can be more touchingly 
beautiful than the type and character of some of his mora 
youthful faces. In the Accademia at Pavia is a small picture,, 
recently discovered, representing Christ bearing his cross, and 
followed by some Carthusian Brothers, which in simple pathos 
and deep religious meaning is perhaps without its equal in art« 
Borgognone worked chiefly in tempera and fresco ; adopting the 
oil medium in some of his later works. He is i said to have; 
died at Milan in 1523. 

No. 298* Tfie Marriage of St. Catharine of Alexandria^ 

The Virgin is taking the hand of and presenting St. Catharine- 
of Siena to the Infant Christ, who, standing on his mother^tt 



80 BOBGOGNONE. 

knee, holds a ring in each hand. While placing one ring on the 
finger of St. Catharine of Alexandria, standing on his right, he 
extends the other towards St. Catharine of Siena, habited as a 
nnn, on his left. The Virgin is seated between the two saints ^ 
enthroned nnder a marble canopy of rich cinquecento archi- 
tecture. Fonr figures small life-size. 

In tempera, on wood, 6 ft. 7 in. h. by 4 ft. 8 in. to. 

Originally in the chapel of Rebecchino, near Pavia, and formerly 
nnder the mle of the Certoea : purchased out of that chapel from 
Signor Carlo Taddeo, of Payia, in 1867. 

No. 779-780. Family Portraits, 

On the spectator s left, a gronp of nine men, oh the right a 
morie numerous ^roup of women, in adoration, kneeling by the 
side of a tomb ? Busts, in profile, half the scale of life. Above the 
men is seen a hand, probably of some patron saint. 

On silk, attached to wood, each 2 ft. 1 in. k. by 1 ft. 4 in. w. 

Two fragments of a standard, formerly preserved in the Gertosa of 
Pavia ; a third fragment representing God the Father is in the posses- 
sion of the Cavaliere Bertini of Milan. All three portions were 
formerly in the collection of the late Cavaliere Molteni of Milan. 
Purchased at Milan from Signor Giuseppe Baslini, in 1867. 

No. 1077- Tlie Madonna and Child ; The Agony in the 
Garden ; and The Redeemer with His Cross. 

In the central panel the Virgin and Child enthroned. Two 
angels, standing on the arms of the throne, play on lutes. On 
the right panel the Agony in the Garden. On the left the 
Redeemer bearing his cross. 

In tempera, on wood. Central panel, 3 ft. J in. A. by 1 ft 10} in. w. 
Side panels, 3 ft. 8} in. A. by 1 ft. 6 in. to. 

Once in the collection of the Duoa Melzi d*Eril ; afterwards in that 
of the Duoa Scotti, in Milan. 

Purchased from Signor Baslini at Milan, in 1879. 

No. 1410. The Virgin and Child. 

The Virgin, whose figure is seen at half length, 'stands behind 
a parapet, supporting on it the Infant Christ draped in a short 
yellow tunic. They hold between them a rosary of red beads. 
On the coping of the parapet lies an open Service-book. The 



I 



BORGOGNONE— BOTH. 81 

nimbas which surroands the Madonna's head is iosoribed in gold 
with the words : 

AYE • MARIA . GRATIA . PLENA . DOM. 

In the background is a narrow chooohkte-colonred cartain, on 
the right side of which is seen the fa9ide of a boilding in a 
rainoas state, behind which is a large church. This may 
represent the old facade of the Gertosa of Pavia before it was 
completed. On the left are other bnildiags which appear to be 
part of a convent. In front of these Oarthusian friars in white 
robes are seen walking. 

On panel, 1 ft. 9| in. h, bj 1 ft. If in. w. 

Purchased in London at the sale of the late Lady Eastlake's OoUeo- 
tion in 1894. 



BOTH (Jan), 1610 ?-1652. 

Was born at Utrecht about 1610. He and his younger brother, 
Andries, or Andrew, both learnt the first rudiments of their art 
under their father, a painter on glass, who placed them afterwards 
with Abraham Bioemart. The two brothers visited France and 
Italy together, and spent some time in Bome. Jan was an ex- 
cellent landscape painter ; but being less skilled in the drawing 
of figures and cattle, these were generally inserted in his pictures 
by Andries. Andries Both is said to have been accidentally 
drowned in 1650 ; Jan returned to Utrecht^ and died there 
Aug. 9, 1652. 

No. 71. Landscape^ a Party of Muleteers^ ivith Laden 
Mules: Morning, 

Mountain scenery ; a dark picturesque rocky fore-ground, with 
a lake in the middle-ground, and blue mountains in the distance, 
contrasting forcibly with the fore-ground. 

Engraved by W. Byrne ; and by J. 0. Bentley, for Jones's yatUmal 
OdUery, 

On canvas, 3 ft. 9 in. K by 6 ft. 3 in. to. Signed, J, Bath, f. 
Presented to the nation, in 1826, by Sir George Beaumont. 

No. 209. Landscape with Figures. 

A rocky and woody landscape, with figures by Oornelis Poelen 
burg, representing the Judgment of Paris. 

25640 p 



82 BOTH. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 3 in. h, by 4 ft. 3^ in. w. Signed, J, Bath, 

Exhibited in 1829 at the British Institution when in the collection of 
Mr. Alexander Baring, M.P. 

Beqneatiied to the National G-allery, in 1846, by Mr. Bichard 
Simmons. Signed — 




No. 956> Rocky Italian Landscape, 

With goatherds and muleteers ; a cascade to the right, at which 
a man is drinking. Signed BOTH (the B being composed of a^ J 
and a B). 

On canyas, 3 ft. 3^ in. h, by 4 ft. 1 in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 957> Cattle and Figures. 

A cow with goats and goatherds, a pool of water on the right. 
Signed BOTH. 

On oak, 22| in. A. by 27 in. to. 
The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 958. Outside the Walls of Borne. 

On the banks of the Tiber. Signed BOTH/e, 

Oak, 16i in. h. by 21 5 in. w. 

Formerly in the Brentano Collection. The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 1917. An Italian Landscape. 

Groaps of trees with distant mountains, seen in a glowing 
euuaet light, form a pastoral landscape. A road leads up from 
tie left, and from the centre to the lef C again, along the shore of 



BOTH— BOUCHER. 83 

a lake in the middle distance. Some peasants on horseback are 
riding just bejond the turn in the road, and nearer the foreground 
is a bullock wagon loaded with household effects. Two men ate 
grouped by'the road-side in charge of some goats which are 
nibbling the bushes. Two craggy cliffs dose in the picture on 
either side, and the whole landscape is bathed in a golden base. 

On oanyas, 3 ft 11^ in. h. by 5 ft. 3 in. w. 

Bequeathed bj Lord Cheylesmore, in 19C2. 



WTTTCTSIMI (Alessamdbo) {See FX&ZPaPZ). 



BOUOBSa (FBAN90IS), 1704>1770. 

A French painter, born in 1704. He studied under Le Moine, 
whose daughter, Elizabeth, he afterwards married. At an early 
age he attained some note in Paris, and in 1725 went to Rome, 
whence, after a residence there of two or three years, he returned, 
utterly untouched by the great works of art he had seen. In 
his 30th year he became a member of the Academy, and a 
professor in it 10 years later. After the death of Carlo Yanloo 
he succeeded that artist as painter to the King, and later in life 
was appointed Director of the Gobelins. He painted in oil and 
in pastel, practised miniature painting, and engraved some of 
his own designs. There is no denying Boucher's cleverness and 
fertility ; his light and rapid execution, and his occasionally dainty, 
though always superficial colouring excited the admiration of 
Pari<«. He had a happy facility in grouping his figures, and 
taken altogether was the ablest decorative painter of his time ; 
bat that time was a bad one, and Boucheb's art entirely suited 
it. In the thoroughly artificial and corruptly frivolous life of the 
French capital under Louis XY., an art founded on nature, or 
having any high ideal, would have met with no favour, and 
Bon CHER was more than willing to pander to the general taste^ 
restrained by no manner of scruple. He had his reward in 
reaping considerable wealth by his productions, which, including 
drawings for the engravers, he poured forth in thousands. He 
ended a not very reputable life in 1770.* 

* Tlu by no means austere Diderot has left a piingent critioi sm o n the empty 
and meretricious art of his contemporary, Boucher. {(Euvres Vlll. pp. 114, llD 
and 473.) 

25640 F 2 



84 



BOUCHER— BOURDON. 



No. 1090. Pan and Syrinx. 

Syrinx reclines by the side of a companion nymph whose back 
is tarned to the spectator, her right arm resting on a vase from 
which water is flowing. Both figures are undraped. On the left 
hand Pan, whose form is half concealed by river reeds, steals 
towards them. Above the group hover two amorini. Rocky 
background. 

On panel, 1 ft. i in. A. by 1 ft. 4 in. w. 

Presented by Mrs. Robert Hollond, 1880. 

The following inscription is stamped on the back of this 
picture : — 



Ex Oollectione 
di ptri pfci 



Ar 



de Ghaftre 
de Billy 



OU&DON (Sebastien), 1616-1671. 



Was born at Montpellier in 1616. He was instructed by his 
^father, and exhibited great ability at a very early age ; he painted 
a ceiling in fresco in a chateau near Bordeaux in his fourteenth 
year. He studied afterwards at Paris and subsequently three 
years at Rome ; he obtained great reputation, in 1643, by his 
celebrated picture of the Crucifixion of St Peter^ which was 
originally placed in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, at Paris, but is 
now in the Louvre. Bourdon was a Protestant and, being anxious 
to avoid the troubles of the civil wars of the time, he went in 
1652 to Sweden, where he was appointed by Christina her principal 
painter. On the abdication of Christina he returned to France, 
4ind in 1663 again settled in Paris, where he executed many works 
in different styles, history, landscape, and genre^ by which he 
:added greatly to his reputation. He was one of the original 
twelve anciens of the old academy of painting established at 
Paris in 164? : he died rector of the academy May 8, 1671. 



BOURDON— BBBKBLEKKAM. 85 

The landscapes of Bourdon somewhat resemble those of BalTator 
Rosa, and have a wild melanoboly character. In his historical 
works colour and effect appear to have engrossed more of his 
attention than form ; his less finished works, says D'Argenville, 
are his best. Boubdon also exeoated many masterly etchings, 
the most celebrated of which are the " Seven Acts of Mercy." ® 

No. 04. The Return of the Ark from Captivity, 

A dark rooky landscape, intersected by a large river: in the 
middle-ground is the " great stone of Abel,*' and by the side of it 
is the dty Beth-shem^. The ark is represented in the fore- 
ground as hayicg crossed the riv^er ; the car having stopped near 
the '' great stone '' : the five lords of the Philistines are on the 
bridge over which the ark has passed : the Beth-shemites are 
rejoicing, and returning thanks for its restoration. 

Engraved by J. 0. Varrall, for Jones's National OaUery, 
On canvas, 3 ft. 5 in. A. by 4 ft. 5 in w. 

This picture was long in the possession of Sir Joshua Beynolds, and* 
was much admired by him. He instanced it, and a picture of ** Jacob's 
Dream " by Salvator Rosa, as happy examples of tde poeacai style of 
landscape, in his discourse on the character of (Gainsborough to the. 
students of the Boyal Academy in 1788. It was bequeathed by Sir 
Joshua to Sir G^rge Beaumont, by whom it was presented to the. 
nation in 1826. 



(QUIBYN VAN). 

Between 1625 and 1630-1668. 

Bbekelenkam was born at Zwammerdam, near Leyden, 
perhaps between 1625 and 1630. In 1648 he joined the guild of 
St. Luke at Leyden, in which town he seems to have resided up 
to his death in 1668. There, in the birth-place of Rembrandt, 
he worked contemporaneously with Gerard Dou, Metsu, Frans 
Mieris and Jan Steen. lie was indeed inferior to any of these 
masters in the higher qualities of his art ; less finely perceptive 
of character, less nice in observation of gesture than they. He 

• D'Argenvillej Ahrige de la Vie des plus fameux Peintres^ Paris, 1745-63. Qault 
de Saint Oermain, Les Trois SidcUi de la Peinture en France, Paiis, 1806. Robert 
Dnmesnil, Le Feintre-Qraveur Fran^aia, voL i. 1835, describes forty-four etohingi 
by Bourdon. 



86 BEEKELENKAM— BRONZING. 

iiffered from them, too, in respect of execution, which in his 
works is broad, but relatively loose and incomplete. His tone 
is generally warm ; his colouring subdued. In his pictures, the 
subjects of which are selected from humbler town life, nature is 
faithfully rendered not without quiet touches of humour. Taken 
on his individual merits, Bbekelenkam may be awarded a more 
than respectable place amongst the Little Masters of Holland. 
He is seen to advantage in the Byks-Museum at Amsterdam, 
Hnrhich contains, together with five other works of his, the 
admirable Tailor^ s Shop and the pleasing Chimney-corner . He 
is further represented in the galleries of Augsburg, Berlin, 
Dresden, St. Petersburg, and others. The Old Woman at break- 
fastf in Stafford House, London, is an excellent picture. 

No. 1329- An Interior with Figures. 

In a homely room, by the side of a fire-place where wood is 
burning, sit two figures. On the left, a man wearing a brown 
;Suit and broad-brimmed hat holds a lighted pipe in his mouth. 

Opposite him a peasant woman, or female servant, clad in a 
sage-green gown and scarlet bodice with yellow sleeves, raises a 
.stone flagon from a little table on which food and dishes are set. 
In the background are several articles of rustic furniture. Above, 
on the left, daylight streams in through a small casement. Signed 

On panel, l^ft. 8 in. A. by 2 ft. 3^ in. to. 

Purchased out of the " Walker Bequest ** from Mr. Horace Buttery 
in 1891. 



BaONZZWO (Amgelo di Gosimo, called), 

1502-1572. 

Was bom at Monticelli, in the neighbourhood of Florence, in 
1502. Having acquired the rudiments of bis art from an obscore 
painter, be became the scholar, first of Baffaellino del Garbo, and 
subsequently of Jacopo da Pontormo, some of whose works, left 



BBONZmO. 87 

anfinished, Bronzing completed. He executed several works, in 
fresco aud in oil, in the public buildings of Florence and its 
vicinity ; but is now, though not a good oolorist, most appreciated 
as a portrait painter, in which capacity he was much employed 
by the Grand Duke Cosmo I. Many of Bronzino*8 portraits of 
the Medici family are still preserved at Florence. Of his more 
important works now remaining, the picture of "Limbo," or 
The Descent of Christ into Hell, in the Gallery of the Hffizi at 
Florence, is the most celebrated. He was a devoted admirer of 
Michelangelo, and was also the intimate friend of Yasari. 
Bbonzixo died at Florence, on the 23rd of November, 1572, aged 
sixty-nine. He was both poet and painter, and was a member of 
the Florentine academy.* 

No. 64s9« Portrait of a Boy. 

In a crimson and black dress, holding in his left hand the hiit of 
his sword. Standing, full length, life-size.f 

On wood, 4 ft. 2| in. A. by 2 ft. w. 

Formerly in the collection of the Duke of Bnmswick. Pnrohased at 
Paris from M. Edmond Beaucousin, in 1860. 

No. 650. Portrait of a Lady. 

In the rich costume of the sixteenth century, holding up her 
hand before her ; she is dressed in a gold-quUted white patin 
bodice, with a blue velvet gown, the body and sleeves of which 
are embroidered with g)ld ; on her neck is a pearl necklace 
supporting a cros9. Three-quarter length, life-size. 

On canvas, 8 ft. 8 in. h. by 2 ft. 7 ^. to. 

No. 651- Venus f Cupid ^ Folly ^ and Time. An Allegory. 

Venus with the apple of Discord in her hand is reclining on a 
piece of blue drapery on the ground, and turning her head to kiss 
Capid, kneeling behind her ; Folly unconsciously treading on a 
thorn is preparing to throw a handf uU of roses at them ; a Harpy 

• See Vasari, VUe^ Ac, among the notices of the Aca4em!cians : and Borghini, 
II Siposo^ voL iiL, p. 79. Borghini mentions that some of Bronzino's burlesque 
pieces were published with the works of Berni in 1723, at Naples, but with 
Flonnce on the title page. 

t Always aBcribed to Pontormo, but more probably the work of Angalo 
Brmzixio. 



88 BRONZING. 

offering a piece of honeycomb in one hand is holding her sting 
behind her in the other : behind is Time about to cover all with 
a Teil. In one lower comer are some doves, in the other human 
masks. Seven figures, life-size. 

On wood, 4 ft. 9 in. h, hj 8 ft. 9^ in. w. 

Both these pictures were purchased from M. Edmond Beaucousin, at 
Paris, in 18C0. No. 661 was originally painted for Francis I. of France:* 
it was subsequently in the collation at Althorp. 

No. 670. A Knight of Saint Stephen, or S. Ste/ano, 

In bis robes, the red cross edged with yellow on his breast. 
Full length life-size, standing ; his right hand holding a book 
and resting on a table, richly carved in the taste of the sixteenth 
century in Italy (cinquecento). 

On wood, 6 ft. 9^ in. h. by 3 ft. 10^ in. w. 

Presented in 1861 by Ifr. George Frederick Watts, B.A. 

No. 704. Portrait of Cosmo /., Duke of Tuscany. 

Bust. 

On beech, 8^ in. k. by 6) in. to. 

Formerly in the Wallerstein Collection. Presented in 1863 by Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria, in fulfilment of the wishes of H.B.H. the 
Prince Consort. 

No. 13£3> Portrait of Piero de Medici (called "II 

6otOS80 "). 

Life-size : bust length : three-quarter face turned to the right. 
Clad in a plum-coloured gown, the front of which is overlaid 
with a breast-piece of crimson velvet bordered with ffold thread 
and seed pearls. The hair of the head is short and boshy ; the 
face clean shaven. His right hand, holding a glove, is laid upon 
his chest. Dark background. 

On panel, 1 ft 10^ in. h. by 1 ft. 6| in.'u;. 

Bequeathed to the National Gallery by Sir William Drake, in|1891. 



* See Yaaari, Vite^ ACm Ed. Le Monnier« vol. xiii, p. 164, where he describes It 
as a picture of singular beauty,— Quadro di singolare b€U€Zza, 



BUONACCORSO— BUONARRO'TL W 



BvoHAocomso. (S«e mooo&b.) 



BVOMAXHO'TZ (Micbelanqelo), 

1475-1564. 

Was bora at Oastel Caprese, in the diocese of Aresso in 
Tascany, March 6, 1475 :^ his father Lodovico Buonaeroti was 
governor of the castle of Caprese and Ohiasi. On the 1st of April 
1488, he was apprenticed by his father to the celebrated painter 
Domenico Ghirlandaio, for three years, during which period 
Michelangelo was to receive 24 florins for his services, an 
nnnsaal arrangement. 

Michelanqelo soon distingaished himself from the other pupils 
of Ghirlandaio, and evinced such superior ability in his drawings 
and models, made in the garden, or so-called academy, of Lorenzo 
de' Medici, near the church of San Marco, that that eminent 
patron of the arts took him under his especial protedtion, and 
employed him to execute several pieces of sculpture. After the 
death of Lorenzo in 1492, to avoid the disturbances which ensued 
upon the ascension of his son Pietro to the government of Florence, 
Michelangelo removed for a short time to Bologna ; he returned 
however to Florence in the following year, in 1494. Soon after 
this period, in consequence of the remarkable excellence of a 
Sleeping Cupid which he produced after his return to Florence, 
and which was sold at Rome as a veritable antique^ he was 
persuaded to try his fortunes in the papal capital : it was during 
this first visit to Rome that he produced his celebrated Pietd^^ 
a group of the dead Christ on the knees of the Virgin, which is 
now in the Church of St. Peter. 

He returned again to Florence about the year 1501, and there 
executed his colossal statue of David, placed in the Piazza del 

* This date is ooxnmooly giyen as 1474, because the Florentines oommeneed 
their year at that time with the 25th of March, the Annunciation day. This 

Sractioe was introduced by the Florentines abont the tenth century. See 
'Art de verifier le» Bates, 

t The representation of the Vii*gln Mary weeping over the dead Ohrist was 
called a Pietist as that of the enthroned Savionr or enthroned Virgin was called 
aJTottM. 



90 BUONARBO'TL 

Grandnca.^ About 1503 he received a commission from Soderini, 
then Gonfaloniere of Florence, to paiot one end of the Coancil 
Hall ; the opposite wall being intrusted to Leonardo da Yinci. 
Leonardo began but did not complete his picture. MiCHELANaELo's 
does not appear to have been commenced ; but his cartoon, well 
known as the Cartoon of Pisa^ was finished about the year 
1506 : it represented some Pisan soldiers, while bathing in the 
Amo, surprised by Florentines. Both designs presented so many 
various and masterly views of the human figure, that they became, 
to use the words of Benvenuto Cellini, " The School of the Worid."f 
During the progress of this cartoon, Michelangelo paid a second 
visit to Borne by the invitation of Julius II., recently elected to 
the papal chair, who commissioned him to make a design for a 
mausoleum which that Pope intended to erect for himself in the 
church of Saint Peter. Mighelanqelo, however, returned again to 
Florence in 1505, having taken offence at certain treatment from 
one of the Pope's servants ; but he was reconciled to the Pope at 
the close of the following year, at Bologna ; he there made the 
celebrated statue of Julius II., which was afterwards cast as a 
cannon, and used against the Pope by the Bolognese. In 1508 
Michelangelo returned to Rome; 

In this year he was commissioned by Julias to paint the ceiling 
oi the Sixtine Chapel, lie commenced this task very reluctantly, 
and mentioned Baphael, whose fame was already great, and who 
was then about to commence his series of frescoes in the Vatican 
Stance, as a more fit person to execute the work. Michelangelo 
commenced his designs in 1508, and the ceiling was finished on 
All Saint's Day (Nov. 1), 1512.J: The painting, says Yasari, was 
executed by Michelangelo alone, in the short space of twenty 
months : but it need not be assumed that these were consecutive 
months, especially as a writer quoted by Fea speaks of the ceiling 

* Now in the Accademia, whither it was removed in 1875. 

t Vita di Benvenuto Cellini, Milan, 1806, p. 31. Gaye, Carteggio, dec,, yoL ii., p. 90. 
Vasari, I/fe of Michelangelo, 

X There i» a document now in the British Museum, formerly in the possession 
of the Buonarroti family at Florence, v/hich purports to be an original contract 
made by Michelangelo with the Pop.), respectmgthe commencement of his 
designs for this ceiling ; it Is dated May 10, 1508. The whole work, therefore, 
occupied Michelangelo about four years, for his scaffolding was still not 
removed from the chapel by Christmas-day, 1512, as noticed in the Diary of 
Paris de Orassis, quoted by Pungileoni, Elogio Storico, <&c., p. 131 ; and by 
Pasaavant, Bafael von Urblno, U P. 167. See also the Kunmlatt, No. 105, 1844. 



BUONARROTI. 



LI 

[1 
T 

e 

r 

'f 

1 

> 



as already began in 1509.* In any view of the qnestion, tl 
greater part of the time above specified mast have been employe 
on the designs and cartoons. The frescoes represent the cre9.tiG 
of the world and of Man ; his Fall ; and the early history of it 
world, with reference to Man's final redemption and salvatioj 
These extensive frescoes necessarily caused Michelangelo i 
suspend his labours for the mausoleum of Julius ; and t 
the Pope died shortly after their completion, in 1513, tl 
monnment was never finished. During nearly the who) 
pontificate of Leo X., the successor of Julius II. (nearly nis 
years), Michelangelo was employed chiefly in the unworth 
occupation of procuring marble from the quarries of Pieti 
Santa, for the facade of the church of Saa Lorenzo at Florence 
he paid, however, three visits to Rome during this inter va 
in 1515-16-17.f During the pontificate of Leo's sncoesso 
Adrian YI., and part of that of Clement YII., he was employe 
on the works of the Medici Chapel in the Church of San Lorenz 
at Florence : in the tenth year, however, of Clement's pontificate 
1533, thirteen years after the death of Raphael, he commence 
his cartoons for the celebrated fresco of the Last Judgment, o 
the altar wall of the Sixtine Chapel. It was continued during th 
pontificate of Paul III., and was finished in 1541.| Michelangbl 
did little more in painting from this period ; the frescoes of th 
Cappella Paolina, built for Paul IIL, were his last works of th 
kind : they were finished in 1549, when he was seventy-four yeai 
of age. He had been appointed, in 1547, to succeed Antonio d 
San Gallo, as architect of St. Peter's, which, though the first ston 
had been laid by Julius II. in 1506, was still very little advanced 
the original architect was Bramaote. Michelangelo undertoo 
the responsibility without salary. He continued architect throngl 
out the pontificates of Paul III., Julius III., Marcellus IL, Paul lY 

* Franc, de Albertinis, Mrab. Somce^ lib. iii., Fea> NotizUt Ac^ p. 27. 

t See the Buonarroti MSS., British Museum. 

X This great fresco measures 47 feet in height by 43 in width. The Oappel 
Sistina, or ^ztine Chapel, was built by Giovanni di Pietro Dold of Florenc 
for SixtiiB IV., in 1473, whence its name of Sixtine. There are a ground pla 
and sections of the chapel in Appendix XIV. to the Third Report of the Oon 
missioners on the Fine Arts. The chapel is of an oblong shape, with a vaulte 
roof : is 133 feet long, 43 wide, and 58 high. It is reserved for the especial use ( 
the Iropes ; the church ceremonies of the first Sunday in Advent and of tfa 
Holy week take place in it. The scrutiny also of the votes for the papi 
dignity takes place in this chapel, when the cardinals hold their conclave i 
the Vatican. 



92 BUONARROTI. 

and Pius lY., until his death ; he carried the building to the base 
of the cupola. 

Michelangelo died at Rome, February 1 7, 1564 f his body was 
taken to Florence, and, on the 14th of March following, was 
buried in a vault in the church of Santa Croce. 

The opinions concerning Miohelanqelo are so uniform in their 
expressions of praise, and so well known, that to quote them would 
be superfluous ; that of Raphael, however, may be here recorded : 
this prince of painters is said to have often exclaimed, that he 
thanked God he was born in the days of Mighelangelo.-J* 

To his acquirements already noticed, Michelangelo added the 
caltivation of poetry.;]: As a painter he is almost exclusively 
known by his productions in fresco : he executed a few works in 
distemper, one of which, a Holy Family in the Gallery of Florence, 
painted for Angelo Doni, is well authenticated. 



No. 790> 2^e Entombment of our Lord, 

Composition of seven figures, small life size. An unfinished 
picture. 

Partly if not entirely painted in tempera, on wood, 5 ft. 3^ in. h. by 
4 ft. 11 in. to, 

St. John (or Nicodemus), Joseph of Arimathssa, and Mary 
Magdalen, are carrying the body of Christ, supported by a strap 
twisted sheet, up a winding flight of steps to the tomb prepared 
by Joseph among some rocks in the background. On the 
spectator's left is a female figure, Salome, seated on the ground 
with her right arm raised as if examining something in her hand 
not expressed in the picture : on the opposite side are two other 

* He lived 88 yean 11 months and 15 days, whence he mnst have been born in 
1475, for Vasari expressly states that he died February 17, according to the 
Florentine mode of reckoning, in 1563, but, according to the Boman, in 1564. 
Vita cU MiehelangelOt Vite^ pt. liL The Romans appear to have always com- 
menced their year with January. See the Kalendarium Qregorianum Perpetuum, 
Rome, 1582. 

t Gondivi, Vita di Michelangelo Buonarroti, <Sbc., § Ivii, Flor. 1746 (Ed. Prin« 
Rome, 1553). Duppa, Ufe of MicTielangelo, London, 1816. Anton Springer, 
Baffael und Michelangelo. 2d. ed. Leipzig, 1883. 

I His poems, chiefly sonnets, were first published bv his neat -nephew, 
lUchelangelo Buonarroti, at Florence, in 1623, and again by Bottari in 1736. 
Select specimens have been translated into English by Mr. J. B. Taylor, 
Michelangelo considered as a philosophic poet ; with translations, Ac.: 8vo., London, 
1840. A Ufe of Michelangelo by Mr. J. S. Harford was published in 1866; 
London, 2 vols., 8vo., with a folio of plates. 



BUONARROTI, { 

female figures, Mary, the wife of Oleophas, and the Virgin ; tl 
latter in ohscare outline only, and kneeling on the ground.^ 

The bare priming of the panel is left uncovered in several part 
especially in portions of costume. Condivi and Vasarif mentio 
that Michelangelo left several unfinished works in painting i 
well as sculpture, and among such unrecorded labours may b 
accounted the present Entombment. It was in the Collectio 
of Cardinal Fesch, and was stored with a vast number of otbc 
pictures in the basement of the Falconieri Palace at Rome, whenc 
it was removed with others to the Villa Paolina. In 1845 it wi 
sold by the Principe di Masignano to a Roman picture deale 
from whom, in 1846, it was bought by Mr. Robert Macphersoi 
with some other pictures, for a nmall sum ; the surface beinff t 
obscured by dirt that its qualities were not apparent. Vfhe 
washed, it was inspected by several Roman connoisseurs an 
artists, and pronounced a work of great value. Peter von Come 
lius, the eminent German painter, in evidence in an action brougb 
against the purchaser by the Roman dealer for its recovery 
declared it to be "una cosa preziosa-un vero originale c 
Michelangelo.*'^ 

Purchased in London from Mr. Robert Macpherson, in 1868. 



No. 809. The Madonna and In/ant Christy St. John th 
Baptist^ and Angels. 

The Virgin is seated in the centre, holding an open book, oi 
which the Infant Christ, standing by his mother's sioe, has place< 
his right hand ; bshind him is the little St. John ; on each sid< 
are two angels, one of whom is reading a scroll. Seven smal 
figures, unfinished. 

In tempera, on wood, 3 ft. 4| in. h. by 2 ft. 6 in. w. 

Formerly ascribed to Domenico Ghirlandaio. Exhibited at th 
British Institution in 1847 by Mrs. Bonar, the then proprietor of th 
picture, who sold it to the Bt. Hon. H. Labonohere, M.P., afterward 



* See John six., 23, 88, and Marh xv^ 41. 

t **yita di Michelangelo Buonarroti,'' Ac, Florence, 1748, Folio.— No. 65. d. 4{ 
Vasari, ** Vite. &c." Bd. Le Monnier. voL 12, pp. 213, »ri-276. 

tB.P. B. OiannelU—'^Bomana NnlUtatifl oontraotna, super Merito et supe 
examine Testium pro D. Vito Enei contra D. Bobertum Macpherson.** Bom« 
1868, p. IL 



94 SCHOOL OF BUOXARROTI—Ca'LIAEI. 

Lord Tannton, from whose execators it was purchased for the Kational 
Collection, in 1870. 



S0HOO& or BRCH&]^A.NaBIiO BVOarA.&&OTZ. 

No. 8> A Dream of Human Life. 

A naked £gure, seated, is reclining against a globe ; he appears 
to be roused by the soond of a trumpet which an angel is blowing 
immediately above him. Beneath his seat is a collection of masks 
illustrating the insincerity or duplicity of human dealings, and 
around him are visions of the many vices and depravities of 
mankind. 

Engraved by J. Bonasone, the contemporary of Michelangelo, also by 
others ; and in Jones's Natumal Gallery. 

On wood, 2 ft. 1 in. h. by 1 ft. 9 in. to. 

This picture, of which there are several repetitions, was painted from 
a design by Michelangelo, by one of his scholars, and was formerly in 
the Barberini Palace at Borne. It was bequeathed to the National 
Gallery, in 1831, by the Rev. W. Holwell-Garr. 



CAXiZARZ (Paolo), called PAObO VB&ONBSS, 

1628-1688. 

Paolo, whom we call Paul Ybronbse, was born at Verona, in 
the contrada di S. Paolo di Campo Marzo, in 1528. Bis father, 
Gabriele, was a stone-carver, of a family which for generations 
had practised the same vocation.^ Paolo was the fifth ohild and 
the third son of his parents. His inclination towards painting 
rather than sculpture was yielded to by his father, and in his 
14th year he was apprenticed to his uncle, Antonio Badiie, a 

* The name Oaliari (or Oagliari) is not found in the parinh reristers of S. 
Paolo although these contain notices of the father and mother of Gabriele, as 
. well as of his wife and children. The name of Gabriele's father there appears 
as'*Pieroq. Gabrielis lapicida detto Mechoto (Hiehelotto) de Brisson. (See 
Pietro Oauari Paolo Veronese, sua Vita e sue Opere. Boma, Forzari, 1888, p. 10.) 
It would seem, therefore, that this humble family, like many others in Italy at 
that time, owned no common surname, and that the name CaUari was first 
assumed by Paolo himself. 



rs blowing 
of maaks 
iinga, and 
avitiflB of 



National 



96 CALIARI. 

dignified men and beautiful women, infinite variety united to 
perfect harmony of colour, all combine to form a scene of festive 
splendour and enjoyment, in which the miracle, the main 
incident in the story, becomes an episode merely. The frank 
introduction of the costumes of the painter^s own time, clothing 
the fine race to which he belonged, gives to his pictures of this 
class a living interest that more than compensates for any 
anachronism. But Paolo, however naturalistic, was never 
vulgar ; and although he affected no devotional feeling, yet he 
could give to his sacred personages a human dignity of aspect 
far removed from the commonplace. His fault lay rather in not 
always allowing them due prominence in the composition. In 
the filling of architectural spaces with decoration he was a 
master judiciously combining strict proportion and balance 
with absolute freedom of design. He was eminent in portraiture ; 
the single portraits which he left suffice to give him a first place 
in that great department of art. Beside these may be noted 
his great portrait groups, where the members of some patrician 
family are presented as suppliants to the Infant Saviour on His 
mother's knee, or as playing some rdle in an historical event. 
Noble examples of this kind are the Guccina family, at Dresden, 
and the Pisani family, in our own gallery. In his colouring 
Paolo retained much of the tradition of the Veronese school. 
The silvery tone which differentiates his best works from the 
golden lustre of Titian was not gained in Venice, and under the 
lightsome skies of the Lagoons he was not tempted to alter it. 
Less *' magisterial " than Titian, less imaginative (though also 
less extravagant, and more equal) than Tintoretto, Paolo holds 
his place in the highest circle of the cinquecento painters. He 
died of pleurisy, on the 19th of April 1588 ; his remains were laid 
in the church of S. Sebastiano. An artist so great, and having 
so distinct a manner, had naturally many imitators. Such were 
his sons Gabriele and Carle t to, and his brother Benedetto, who 
was by ten years his junior. All three became his heirs, and 
continued, in union, the work of his studio, signing pictures 
which they produced in common : — " HsBredes Pauli Caliarii 
Veronensis fecerunt." Oarletto, the younger and by far the 
more gifted of the sons, died in 1596 at the early age of 26. A 
more distinguished follower, and an early associate of Paolo, was 
Giambattista Zelotti. 



CA'LIARL 97 

No. 26. The Gonsecration of St. NichoUiS^ Bishop of 
Myra^ Syria^ in the fourth century. 

The saint, surrounded by ecclesiftsdcs and other persons, is 
kneeling before the altar of a ehurch, and is consecrated by a 
bishop : an aagel brings him the mitre and oro«ier from above. 
Composition of ten figures of the natural size. 

Engraved by R. folding, for the Associated Engravers ; and by H. 0. 
Shenton, for iTones's NatioruU Gallery . 

On canyas, 9 ft. 5 in. h. by 5 ft. 9 in. w. 

Formerly in the church of San Nicool6 de' Frari at Venice. Presented 
to the National Gallery, in 1826, by the Govemors of the British 
Institution. 



No. 97. The Rape of Europa, 

Jupiter, enamoured of Europa, a Phoeaician princess, trans- 
formed himself into a white bull, and mingled with her father's 
herds ; the princess, struck by the beauty and gentle nature of the 
beast, ventured to seat herself upon his back, when the animal 
walked with her to the sea, and plunging in, swam with her to the 
island of Crete. Europa has just seated herself upon the bullf 
who kceels to receive her ; her attendant women are arranging 
her dress. She is again represented in the middle-ground about 
to enter the sea, and in the extreme distance the bull is swimming 
with her towards the island. 

Engraved by V. Le Febvre ; also by De Launay in the Oalerie du 
Palais Royal ; and by H. Femell, for Jones's NationaX QaXlery. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 11 in. K by 2 ft. 3 in. U7. 

This is the finished study of a large picture now in the Imperial 
Gallery at Vienna ; it is also very similar in composition to the mag- 
nificent picture of the same subject by this painter in the ducal palace 
at Venice. This study was formerly in the Orleans Collection, and sub- 
sequently in that of the Rev. W. Holwell-Oarr, who bequeathed it, with 
the rest of his pictures to the National Gallery, in 1831. 

No. Z68> Ihe Adoration of the Magiy or the Wise 
Me7i*8 Offering. 

The picture represents a mined building of Roman architecture, 
with pUlars, a portion of which is roofed with thatch, and has 
served as a stable. Under this roof, on the right of the spectator, 

25610 G 



9S OA'LIARL 

is seated the Virgin, somewhat elevated on some loose blocks, and 
holding in her arms the Infant, who is receiving the adoration 
of the three Wise Men ; the foremost is kneeling ; the second 
behind him is in the same attitude ; and on the extreme left of 
the spectator stands the third. A ray of light, with several winged 
cherubs hovering along its coarse, falls upon the Infant ; above is 
a group of Infant Angeh. The retinue of the Magi are behind, 
some bearing presents, others attending to their horses and camels. 
Some peasants are looking down from the ruins on the Divine 
Infant ; another figuie is seen on the right with some dogs. On 
the same side are the ox and the ass ; some young lambs placed 
below the Infant appear to be a shepherd's offering. The upper part 
of the back-ground, on the left, is formed by a stately archway, 
through which are seen distant mountains. Below, near the right 
. corner, is the date 1573. Composition of sixteen figures, life-size. 

Engraved by Carlo Saochi, 1649. 

On canvas, 11 ft. 7 in. h. by 10 ft. 7 in. w. 

Painted in 1573, and originally placed in the church of San Silvestro, 

in Venice. This church having, many years ago, required extensive 

repairs, the numerous pictures which it contained, comprising works by 

Tintoret, the Last Supper by Palma Vecchio, and the Adoration of the 

Magi, above described, were, in 1837, removed from the walls. The 

intention was to replace these works when the repairs of the buildings 

should be completed ; but it seems that in the course of restoration the 

internal design of the church was so much changed that not one of the 

larger pictures could be fitted to the new altars and compartments. 

After much delay, a Papal decree, together with an order from the local 

authorities, was obtained for their ssde. In August, 1855, they became 

%\lq property of Signor Angelo Toffoli, of Venice, from whom, in 

November, 1855, the Paolo Veronese was purchased for the National 

Collection. This picture is particularly mentioned in most of the guide 

"books and descriptions of Venice that have been published for the last 

two centuries. From the following passage in the often reprinted 

•" Forastiero Illuminato della Cittik di Venezia," it would appear that so 

lately as 1792 it was the most attractive picture in the church of San 

Silvestro : — " Many are the pictures (in this church) by Tintoretto, by 

•' scholars of Titian, by Palma Vecchio, by Antonio Bellucci, by Carlo 

-" Lotto, by Girolamo da Santa Croce, &c. But among them all the 

-" famous Adoration of the Magi by Paolo Veronese, which has been 

" engraved by Carlo Sacchi, deserves especial attention." Oiornata 

quarta, p. 277, Ed. 1792* Paolo Veronese often treated this subject ; 

the picture in Santa Corona at Vicenza most resembles the composition 

•above described. A copy of a portion of this composition at Hampton 

Court, attributed to Carlo Cagliari, was engraved by Gribelin in 1712. 



* For other notices of this picture the reader is referred to Bidolfl, Le Mara- 
viijlie delV Arte, 1648, p. 303, where it is spoken of in the highest terms ; to 
SanHovino, Venetla Cittd Nobilissima, &e., 1581. p. 65 ; to BoschinT, Biccfie Minere, 
:y. 253, Ed. 1664, p. 269, Ed. 1733, where it is called tbe **FamoBiasimo Quadro" 
jfcnd 'io Zanetti, Delia Pittura Voiezlana 1771, p. 185. 



OAXIARL 99 

No. 29.ft> The Family of Darius at the feet />/ 
Alexander^ after the battle of IssuSy B.C. 333. 

The royal captives having mistakea Hephsestion for Alexander, 
the qaeen mother Sisygambis implores pardon of the conqueror, 
who, pointing to his friend, tells her she has not erred, for that 
HephaBstion is another Alexander. The elder of the two daughtera, 
Statira, kneeling immediately behind her mother, became the 
wife of Alexander ; she was, however, subsequently put to death 
by Perdiccas, through the instigation of Boxana, the second 
Persian wife of Alexander. The captive family, presented to the 
king by one of the ministers of Darius, is kneeling in the centre 
of the picture, Alexander and his generals Hephaestion and 
Parmenio, being on the spectator's right. In the back-ground 
is a marble arcade, from the top of which many spectators aie 
looking down. The principal figures are portraits of the Pisani 
family.* 

On canvas, 7 ft. 8} in. k. by 15 ft. 6^ in. w. 

There is an inferior print by N. B. Cochin in the TabelUg selecta of 
C. 0. Patina, folio, Padua, 1691 ; in which work this picture is described 
aa the most celebrated of all the works of Paul yeroneBe.t 

Painted for an ancestor of the Count Pisani. D*ArgenvilleJ states, 
on the authority of the Procuratore Pisani of his time, that Paul 
Veronese, having been detained by some accidental circumstance at the 
Pisani Villa at Este, painted this work there, and leaving it in his room, 
afterwards informed the family that he had left wherewithal to defray 
the expense of his entertainment. 

Purchased at Venice from the Count Vittore Pisani, in 1857. 

* The following description is from the manuscript notes of Bumohr, author 
of the Italienische Forachungen, often quoted in this catalogue :— "ihe celebrated 
** picture of the wife of Darius mistaking Hepheestion for Alexander. In 
** excellent condition ; perhaps the only existing criterion by which to ebtimate 
** the genuine original colouring of Paul Veronese. It Is remarkable how 
" entirely the genius of the painter precludes criticism on the quaintnesfi of the 
** treatment. Both the incident and the personages are, as in a Spanish play, 
** romantically travestied. The princesses with laced bodices and full Venetian 
** gowns, have, nevertheless, a charming and becoming appearance, while the 
" male figures, in their picturesque attire, look chivalrous, refined, and noble. 
** The treatment of colour, espejially in the fiesh, and the excellence of the 
** execution, are such as to render us almost unjust to other great colourists. 
** In the presence of this work we forget for a time all other productions in 
- painting/' 

^ Inter eximia Pauli Veronensis opera, illud precipue apud venetosFroojres 
Pisanos emicat, in quo Alexander Magnus prostratas matrem uxorem et lib.\''08 
Darii benignissime excipiens exprimitur. 

t Abrigi delaViedes plusfameux Peintres, See. Paris, 1745, vol. 1, p. VS^ 
25610 a 2 



100 OA'LIARI. 

No. 931> The Magdalen laying aside her Jewels: 

She is kneeling at the feet of Christ, other women are attending 
her ; some men are looking on. Scene in an arcade in a court 
yard. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 10 in. h. by 5 ft. 4. in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 1041a SL Helena. Vision of the Invention of the 
Cross. 

The Saint (a life-sized figure) reclines on a marble window seat, 
in sleep or reverie, resting her head upon her right hand. Through 
the open window are seen two cherubim bearing a cross through 
the air. The design appears to have been taken from a small 
engraving by Marc Antonio supposed to be after a drawing by 
Raphael. (Bartscb, P.G., vol. xiv., No. 433.) 

This picture once formed the altar piece of a chapel dedicated 
to St. Helena at Venice. It afterwards belonged to the Great 
Duke of Marlborough, from whose possession it passed to that of 
the Treasurer, Lord Godolphin. The late Duke of Leeds, and the 
Hon. Percy Ashburnbam successively owned the picture, which 
was purchased at the sale of the Novar Collection in 1878. 

Engraved by Bonasoni and others. 

On canvas, 6 ft. 5^ in. h, by 3 ft. 9 in. w. 

No. 1318« ** Unfaithfulness.'^'' {An Allegorical Group.) 

A nude female figure, seated on a bank with her back turned 
to the spectator, extends her arm towards a bearded man, who, 
sitting under a tree, grasps her right hand, while her left is 
employed in furtively delivering a letter to a more youthful 
lover on the other side. Near the latter figure are two amorini^ 
one of whom supports the woman's foot. Life-size figures. 
Background of sky and foliage. 

Formerly in the Orleans Collection. 

On canvas, 6 ft. 3 in. A. by 6 ft. 2i in. w. 

Purchased from the Earl of Darnley, in 1890. 

No. 1324. ^^ Sco7mJ*^ (An Allegorical Groitp.) 

On a dislodged architectural fragment a male figure, nearly 
undraped, lies supine, with his head towards the spectator, raising 
his hands in playful deprecation as Cupid, placing his little 



OA'LIARI— OAMPaSa. 101 

foot on the man's «che8t, threatens to strike him with his bow. 
Towards the left two young women, seated hand in hand, look on 
with expression of indifference or contempt. In the background 
sky and foliage. Figures life-size. 

Formerly in the Orleans Colleotion. 

On canvas, 6 ft. 1 in. h. by 6 ft. 4 in. w. 

Purchased from the Earl of Damley, in 1891. 

No* 1325. " Respect^ (An Allegorical Group.) 

Towards the right of the composition a female figure lies 
undraped and asleep on a couch hung with crimson drapery. 
On the left, a man, clad like a Roman warrior, who seems to 
have entered on the scene unwittingly, raises his hand with a 
gesture of surprise, and is about to retire hastily, when he is 
detained by an amorino bearing a dart. Behind is another man, 
whose head alone is seen. In the background an arched opening 
reveals the sky. Figures life-size. 

Formerly in the Orleans Colleotion. 
On canvas, 6 ft. 1 in. h. by 6 ft. 4 in. w. 
Presented by the Earl of Damley, in 1891. 

No. 1326. ^^ Happy Union.^^ (An Allegorical Group.) 

On the left of the composition a female Diety, seated on or 
near the terminal of a plinth, bends forward to place a chaplet 
of leaves on the head of a youthful bride, who kneels before 
her, raising an olive branch in her left hand, while her husband 
standing by her side clasps the stem with his right. Below, a 
wingless cupid seeks to bind the wedded pair with a golden 
chain. In the corner of the picture a dog with its head upturned 
completes the group. Figures life-size. 

Formerly in the Orleans Collection. 

On canvas, 6 ft. 1^ in. square. 

Purchased from the Earl of Darnley, in 1891. 



CAKPAMA. (Pedro), 1503-1570? 

This painter, of whose name the Spanish form is most usually 
met with, was a Fleming, born at Brussels in 1503.* While yet 

*The name also appears as Campana. and Oampanna. Pierre Oampagne 
would probably be the native form. 



1(J2 CAMPAi^A. 

a yotiiig ixian he went to Italy, where he spent some 20 years 
of his life, diligently studying the works of her great masters in 
art, hut also painting portraits and small-sized compositions. 
His productions prove that he was acquainted with the mabter- 
pieces of painting in Rome ;^ and it was probably from Rome 
that he went to Bologna on the occasion of the coronation there 
of Charles Y. in 1530, when, a triumphal arch being erected for 
the Emperor's entry in state, CAMPASfA gained distinction by 
decorating it with appropriate paintings. His visit to Yenice 
may perhaps have speedily followed. At a much later period, in 
or towards 1548, he extended his travels to Spain, and achieved 
his highest celebrity during a prolonged residence at Seville, 
where many of the churches still retain works of his pencil. Of 
these the most remarkable is the great Descent from the Cro98 
(dated 1548), originally in the church of Santa Cruz, but now 
in the Cathedral. Before this picture, in Santa Cruz, Mnrillo 
was used to stand absorbed in admiration ; and in front of it he 
was entombed, at his own dying behest. CAMPAflfA engrafted his 
study of Italian principles and practice on his earlier Flemish 
manner which, however, maintained its influence over him more 
or less to the end. When old, he returned to Brussels, and 
dying there in 1570, or as some say in 1580, was honourably 
interred in the Nieuwe-Kerk. His son, Juan-Bautista, also a 
painter, continued to reside at Seville. 

No. 1241. Mary Magdalene led by Martha to hear 
the preaching of Christ. 

The interior of a place of worship, with a row of columns on 
either side in perspective, and an arched door-way in the end 
wall showing a view of buildings without. Towards the left 
centre, Jesus, facing to the right, is seated in a chair on a 
dais under a suspended canopy. He extends his right arm in 
addressing the congregation. His dress is a long, pale red tunic, 
and a brown mantle. Behind him, stretching from the further 
end of the dais to the immediate foreground, is an assemblage 
of male listeners. On the opposite side of the scene the 



* He is said, indeed, by Palomino (IL, p. S69) to have been a pupil of Baphael ; 
nnd Lanzi classes him as such. But this assumption, if meant to be taken 
literally, must be held inadmissible. Baphael died in 1631), when Campafia* 
then only 17 years of age, had pretty certainly not yet crossed the Alps. Uean 
Bermudez points out this error of his predecessors (1. 201). 



CAMPANA— CANALE. 103 

aadience consists chiefly of women of varioas ages, from childhood 
upwards. Amongst this group, in the foreground, the kneeling 
figure of Mary Magdalene is conspicuous. She is encouraged hy 
Martha, who points to the preacher. On the lower step of the 
dais is a small white and tan dog ; near him a small vase ; and 
more in front, on the marhle pavement, a smoking censer. 

On wood, in oil, 1 ft. 10 J in. w. by 11^ in. h. 

This picture corresponds to the description of one referred 
to by Lanzi in the following words : — '* He (Campanna) was 
^^ conducted to Venice by the Patriarch Grimani, for whom he 
'^painted various portraits and the famous * Magdalene led by 
*^ * St. Martha to the Temple to hear the preaching of Jesus 
" * Christ.' This picture, left by the Patriarch to one of his 
^^ friends, after many years passed into the possession of 
'*Mr. Siade in England." (Storia pittorica, II., iii., Firenze, 
1822.) The picture now in this gallery was acquired in England 
by Dr. J. P. Bichter, from whom it was purchased in 1888. A 
copy of it exists in the Borghese Collection at Bome. 



CANALS (Antonio), or OAMAIiBTTO, 

1697-1768. 

Antonio Can ale, commonly called Canaletto, was born in 
Yeniee, in 1697. His father, Bernardo Canale, was a scene-painter, 
and Antonio practised the same art for several years : he, how- 
ever, gave it up while still young, and went to Bome, where he 
devoted the whole of his time to the study of architectural views 
and ancient ruins. He was accompanied while at Bome by his 
nephew and pupil, Bernardo Bellotto, who painted similar 
pictures to those of his uncle, and is known by the same name ;^ 
whence the works of the two are often confounded together. 
After his return to Venice, Canale painted pictures of that 
city, one of the most remarkable of which is a view on the Grand 
Canal, in which he has substituted a design by Palladio for the 
Bialto instead of the actual scene ; he took also other liberties 

*To Bellotto, in point of fact, the diminntive title of '*I1 Caoaletto" was 
originally applied, in order to distinguish him from his uncle. But that 
appellation has in the course of time been so completely transferred to Antonio 
Canale himself, that it is likely to remain so, while Bellotto is now recognised 
by his proper name. 



104 CANALE. 

with the disposition of the buildirigs. Tiepolo occasionally 
painted the figures in his pictures. In 1746 he came to England, 
and remained bore two years. Walpole possessed an interior of 
King's College Chapel, Cambridsfe, by him. His nephew was in 
the same year made a member of the Academy of Dresden, wbere 
he was known by the title of Count Belotto. He painted many 
pictures there : twenty-five of them are still preserved in a 
distinct collection at Dresden. He died at Warsaw in 1780. 
Canale, the uncle, died at Yenice in 1768, aged 71. Many 
of his works have been engraved, specially his Venetian views, of 
which there are three sets, one by himself, another by Yicentino, 
and a third by Fletcher and Boitard. 

The two Canaletti painted so much alike that it is often difficult 
to distinguish their works. Bellotto being long the pupil of his 
unde, completely acquired his manner of execution. Canale's 
style is architectural portraiture, distinct in forms, individual in 
colour, and effective in light and shade ; it displays so much or so 
little of contrivance, tbat, as Lanzi has remarked, the common 
observer perceives nature, and the artist art in his works. He 
used the camera obscura, which he was the first to apply to its 
proper use, to the linear perspective only ; aerial effects he 
commonly painted from nature. 

No. 127. A View in Venice* 

In the foreground are the sheds and yard of a stone mason ; 
in the middle distance are a quay and a portion of the Grand 
Canal, with gondolas upon it ; beyond these are various 
buildings, the most conspicuous is a tall campanile, next to which 
are the old buildings of the Scuola della Carit^ erected in 1349, 
now much altered, and known as the Accademia delle BeUe Arti. 

Engraved by H. Le Kenx, in the series of prints published for the 
Aisodated JSngravers ; and by E. Challis, for Jones's yiutional Gallery. 

On canvas, 4 ft. A. by 5 ft. 4 in. w. 

Presented to the nation, in 1826, by Sir George Beaumont, Bart 

No. 13S- Ruins and Figures^ with the distant View 
of a Town. 

^ A rather heterogeneous composition. In the foreground is the 
ruin of a nondescript building, partly Gothic, with classical 



OANALB. 106 

slatiiary and gronpfl of fignres. A large town is teen in the 
distance. 

On canyas, 1 ft. 9^ in. h. bj 2 ft. &i in. w. 

Bequeathed by Lt.-Col. Ollney, in 1837. 

No. 163> A View on the Or and Canal^ Venice. 

The church, which is a principal feature in this picture, was 
built in the early part of the last century (1718-38), from the 
designs of GioTanni Scalfarotto ; it is dedicated to Saints Simon 
and Jnde, Apostles, and is known by the name of San Simeone 
Piccolo. 

On oanyas, 4 ft. 1 in. h, by 6 ft. 8| in. to. 

Bequeathed to the National Gallery, in 1888, by Charles Long, Lord 
Famborough. 

No. 937> The Scuola di San Rocco. 

The Scuola di San Rocco, and the ceremony of Gioyedi Santo 
or Maundy Thursday, when the Doge and officers of state with the 
fraternity of St. Hock went in procession to Uie church of 
St. Mark to worship the miraculous blood. 

The company issues from the church of San Bocco on the right, 
and is walking in procession under an awning ; many pictures are 
displayed around. 

The figures are by Gio. Batista Tiepolo. 

This Scuola is celebrated for the numerous works of Tintoretto 
which it contains.* 
On canvas, 4 ft. 10 in. h, by 6 ft. 6^ in. u). 
The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 938> Regatta on the Grand Canal. 

The great building to the left is the Balbi Palace, a work of 
Alessandro Yittoria, at the close of the 16th century ; and the 
variegated structure by its side is a temporary pavilion for the 
distribution of prizes. The competitors are seen in the centre of 

* The wealthy Fraternity of San Bocco was distimniiahed for the splendonr 
of its processions, especially for that of Maundy Thursday, says Sansovino. 
** Et spetialmente mel Giovedi Santo, ch' eUe vanno & Ran Marco ^ venerare il 
''aangue miracoloso." Veneiia citta nobilisHma descritta, Ac, Ven., 1663, p. 288, 
The pictures by Tintoretto are described in Buskin's Stones af Venittt vol. iH 



lOG CANALE. 

the canal, and the gila barges of the nobles are moored at the 
sides. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 10 in. h. by 6 ft. 1 in. vo. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 939> The Piazzetta of St. Marky Venice^ from the 
Quay. 

In front are the church of St. Mark and the Campanile, on 
the left the Zecca or Mint and Library, on the right the Ducal 
Palace. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 3^ in. h. by 3 ft. 6J in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Beqnest. 1876. 

No. 940. The Ducal Palace and the Column of 
St, Marky Venice. 

Further on, the bridge Delia Paglia, the prisons, and the Biva 
degli Schiavoni ; boats and other vessels at the quay. 

On canvas, 2 ft. k. by 3 ft. 3 in. to. 

The Wynn Ellis Beqnest. 1876. 

No. 941. The Grimani Palace, on the Grand Canal, 
Venice; known as the " Co* Grimani in San Luca^ 

A house and a palace on either side, and some gondolas in front. 
The Oasa Qrimani was built in the 16th century, from the design 
of M. Sanmicheli ; the upper part was not completed until after 
his death. 

On canvas, 12 in. A. by 15 in. \jo. 

Engraved in the Or cm TeatrOj S^c, di Vefiezia, fol. Yen. 1720, ii. 47. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 942. Eton College, 1 746. 

The chapel, seen from the further side of the Thames, forms 
the central feature of the composition. The river, on which 
are some boats with figures, crosses the picture from left to right ; 
and the near bank, with a tree on the left and some groups of 
figures, forms the foreground. 

On canvas, 2 ft. h. by 3 ft. 6 in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



CAJ^ALE-CAPPELLB. 107 

No. 10S8« View on the Canal Reggio^ Venice. 

On oanyas, 1 ft. 6 in. A. by 2 ft. 6^ in. w. 
Bequeathed bj the late Mr. John Henderson. 1879. 

No. 1059- San Pietro in CastellOy Venice. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 6 in. A. by 2 ft. 6} in. w. 
Bequeathed by the late Mr. John Henderson. 1879. 

No. 14sZ9- Interior of the Rotunda at Ranelagh in 
London. 

Showing the orchestra and mnsicians, and nnmerous gronps 
promenading. On the back of the oriffinal canvas was the 
following inscription in Canaletto's handwriting: — ^'Fatto nel 
** anno 1754 in Londra per la prima ed nltima volta con ogni 
^' maggior attenzione ad istanza del Cavalier Hollia padrone 
" mio stimatiss" — ^Antonio del Canal detto il Canaletto. The 
picture having been re-lined in 1850 this inscnption was covered up. 

Engraved by N. Parr in the 18th century. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 6^ in. A. by 2 ft. 5} in. u;. 

Purchased from Mr. Horace Buttery in 1894. 



(Jan van de), 

Painting from 1650 to 1680, 

Or Kappelle, a marine and landscape painter of Amsterdam, 
of great excellence, supposed to have been a scholar of Simon 
de Ylieger, but of whom scarcely anything is known. He 
received the freedom of the city of Amsterdam in 1653 on the 
occasion of his marriage, — a fact discovered by M. Scheltema. 
He etched a few plates. He painted as late as 1680, or perhapa 
1686. 

No. 865- Goa^st Scene. 

A calm, in shore at low water ; in the foreground, two fishing 
boats ; one with sails set, the other stranded on the beach. 
Several figures in a boat leaving the shore. In the distance some 
sails, and a jetty on the right. Signed «/. Vr, Cappelle. 

On canvas, 13^ in. A. by 18^ in. w. 

Purchased from the Peel Collection in 1871. 



108 CAPPBLLE— OARIAOT. 

No. 964. River Scene with many Sailing Boats. 

In the foreground near the bank, where are a few piles, is a boat 
with four figures in it. A village church is seen in the distance 
on the right. 

On canvas, 14 J in. h. by 19 in. w. 
The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 965- Biver Scene with State Barge. 

An officer^s boat in the foreground on the right. Signed and 
dated J. V. Oappellb, 1650. 
On wood, 2 ft. 9 in. A. by 3 ft 84 in. w. 
The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 966* Biver Scene. 

To the right a state barge, which an officer has just leift, in 
bis boat, in the centre of the picture ; the Dutch colours are 
floating at the stem of the boat. The barge is firing a salute. 
Other boats scattered about. Some piles in the foreground to the 
right. 

On oak, 3 ft. \ in. h, by 4 ft. 3 in. t^;. 
The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 967. Shipping. 

Dutch river scene with sailing boats and ferry boat. 
On canvas, 3 ft. 11 in. h, by 5 ft. w. 
The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



CA&AVAOOXO. {See AMB&ZOBX.) 



GA&ZAirZ (Giovanni de'Busi), 
1485 ?-1547 ?, 

. Was of the stock of the Busi, an ancient family of Fuipiano in 
the Valley of the Brembo (in the Bergamask territory), where he 
was bom about 1485. He is supposed to have become a pupil of 
Palma Yecchio. The earliest notice of Oariani occurs in 1508 ; 
the next in 1514, when he painted a Madonna for a church at 



CABIAKI. 109 

Lonno. This picture has disappeared. A fine groop of three 
nude and four female portraits, signed **Jo. Garianns," and 
dated 1519, is in the Casa Boncaili in Bergamo ; and in the Casa 
Baglioni is a Madonna and Child^ mth a kneeling toortkippery 
also signed, -and dated 1520. These are the only known pictures 
by this master which bear dsites. The Lochis-Garrara (Muni- 
cipal) gallery of Bergamo contains a very striking half-length 
portrait of Giov. Benedetto Garavaggio, philosopher and physician, 
signed ; a picture of fine colouring. A large composition, 
formerly in the church of S. Gottardo at Bergamo, but now in 
the Brera giallery at Milan, representing the Madonna in a hilly 
landscape, surrounded by saintly personages and angels, is an 
ambitious, but not attractive work. If the portrait group of a 
gentleman and two ladies, in nearly half-length, once in the 
collection of Gount Schoenborn at Pommersfelden, and now in 
that of the Grand Duke of Oldenburg, be, as M.M. Growe and 
Gavalcaselle believe, by Gariani, it conveys a high idea of bis 
capabilities as a painter and colourist. Unfortunately, the 
beautiful figure on the right has suffered from rude restorations. 
Gabiami*8 manner varied a good deal, and the attribution of 
many pictures reputed to be his rests very much upon individual 
opinion. Although most of his authenticated works are or were at 
Bergamo, Venice seems to have been his place of permanent 
residence. In 1537 he was a man of means, and he was still living 
in 1547. Of his personal history nothing is known. 

No. 1203- The Madonna and Child with Saints. 

In the centre of the foreground, the Virgin, whose figure is 
seen at half-length, sits with the Infant Ghrist on her lap. Her 
right hand rests on the shoulder of St. Mary Magdalene, who, 
clad in a robe and mantle of richly brocaded stuff, kneels in 
adoration on the left. Behind her stands St. Barbara (?), bearing 
a lamp and palm branch. On the right St. Joseph, wearing a 
maize-coloured pallium, rests on his staff, which is represented 
blossoming. Below kneels a boy, probably the youthful donor, 
in a black gown. The figures are about two-thirds life-size. 
Mountainous background, with the distant view of a Gampanile. 
and other buildings. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 9 in. A. by S ft. 9 in. w, 

Purohased f rom the heirs of the late Signor Enrico Andreossi of 
Milan, out of the '' Walker Bequest," in 1886. 



1 10 C ARIANI—OAE^ ACOI. 

Ascribed to CA&ZAMX. 

No. 41. The Death of Peter the Martyr. 

St. Peter the Dominican, a native of Teroua, was an active 
agent of the Inqnisitipn in the thirteenth century ; and having, as 
such, made many enemies, he was at length assassinated by one 
of these, named Oavina, at the entrance of a wood on the road 
from Milan to Como. He was attended by a single brother of his 
order, who is seen attacked by another assassin in the middle- 
ground to the right. 

Engraved in Jones's National Qallery, On canvas, 3 ft. 4^ in. h. by 
4 ft. 9i in. 10. 

Formerly in the possession of Christina, Queen of Sweden, and subse- 
quently in the Orleans Collection. Bequeathed to the National Gallery, 
in 1831, by the Rev. W. Holwell-Carr. 



CiLaRACCZ (Agostino), 1557-1602, 

Was born at Bologna of an old family of that place, in 1557.* 
His father Antonio was a tailor. He was placed first with a 
jeweller, then, by the advice of his cousin Lodovico, with Prosper© 
Fontana, the master of Lodovico, and afterwards with Domenico 
Tibaldi and Cornelius Cort, under whom he advanced greatly in 
engraving, an art with which he was always more occupied than 
with painting. He studied also some time at Parma and at 
Venice, and after his return to Bologna, in 1589, was the most 
active teacher in the celebrated school of the Garracci, then first 
established there. When Annibale was engaged on his frescoes 
in the Farnese Palace at Rome, Agostino joined him, and, for a 
time, assisted him : he executed the Triumph of Galatea, and the 



* Agostino's age and tbe date of his death are thus inscribed on a monu- 
mental tablet in the cathedral of Parma :— " OB. V. ID. MART. M.DOI. MT 
♦♦SU-ffl AN. XLHL" Bellori, who gives the whole inscription, writes bv 
mistake 1602. His transcript, which professes to be faithful to the marble 
tablet, is inaccurate in other respects. If the dates in that monumental record 
are to be regarded as infallible, the year of Agostino's birth, ostensibly quoted 
bv Malvasia from the baptismal register at Bologna, August 10, 1557, must be a 
misprint for August 16, 1558. Lanzi, Giordani, and others have followed 
Malvasia in this paJtlculM-. Bellori, X« Vite d^ FUtori, &c^ Boma, 1072, p, 113 : 
Malvasia, ftUina Fittricet Bologna, 1678, p. 455. *^ ' 



CAREACCL 111 

Gephalos and Anrora of that series. According to Malvasia, he 
was not only the painter but the designer of those compositions, 
and their success appears to have caused the separation of the 
two brothers ; it was reported that the engraver (for as such 
AaoSTiNO was chiefly known) had surpassed the painter in the 
Famese. This is said to have excited the- jealousy of Annibale ; 
differences arose between them, and Aqostino left Rome for Parma, 
where he entered the service of the Duke Ranuccio, brother of 
the Cardinal Odoardo Famese ; after painting a few pictures, he 
died there on the 22nd of March, 1602, in his forty- third year. 
He was buried in the Cathedral of Parma ; his funeral 
was, however, celebrated with great pomp at Bologna, by the 
artists of that school, and a description of it was published by 
Yittorio Benacci, in 1603.* Aqostino was painter, engraver, poet, 
and musician, and well versed in the arts and sciences generally. 
He is allowed to have been the most learned of the Carracci 
in the principles of art. His masterpiece is the communion 
of St. Jerome, formerly in the church of the Certosa, now in the 
gallery of the Academy at Bologna ; it is said to be the only 
picture on which he wrote his name.f He left an unfinished 
engraving of it, which was completed by Francesco Brizzio. 
Aa08TiN0*s prints are very numerous ; one of the earliest, largest, 
and best of them is The Crucifixion^ painted by Tintoretto for 
the Scuola of San Rocco in Venice. That engraviug, completed 
in Yenice in 1589, received the highest encomiums from Tintoretto 
himself. The print after the St. Jerome of Yanni is also one of 
AooSTiMo's earliest and best works.} 

No. 147- Cephalus and Aurora, 

Cephalas, while on a hunting expedition on Mount' Hymettus, 
is forcibly carried off by Aurora, who was enamoured of him. 



• Beprinted, without the cuts, in the Felsina PlUrice of Malvasia. 

t Giordani, Oatalogo dei Quadri nella Pinaeoieca delta Pontificia Aecademia di 
Belle Arti in Bologna, 1835. 

1 See, besides the works of Bellorl and Malvasia already quoted, the following 
works on engravings :—** Gandellini, Notizie latoricTie degV Intagliatori, Siena, 
1771 reprinted in 1808 ; Heineken, Dictionnaire des Artistes dont noiu avons des 
Estdmpes: avec une notice dStaillee de leurs ouvrages gravis, A^ vols. 8vo. to DIZ 
only, Leipzig, 1768-90 ; Bartsch, Le Peintre-Qraveur, Vienna, 1803-21. 



112 . OAREACGI. 

The aged TithonuS) her husband, is represented in the foreground 
sleeping.^ Figures larger than life. 

A oartoon, 18 ft. 4 in. w, by 6 ft. 8 in. h. 



No. 14s8a Galatea. 

The sea-nymph Galatea is borne on the ooean by Glaacus, or 
some other marine deity, preceded by a Triton blowing his horn, 
and surrounded by Nereids and Cupids on dolphins. Some of 
the Cupids, bearing torches and bow and arrow, are sporting in 
the air ; one of them, as if stunned by the noise made by the 
marine horn of the Triton, holds his hands to his ears. 

A cartoon, 13ft. 7^ in. w, by 6 ft. 8^ in. 

These cartoons, which formed part of the celebrated collection of 
drawings belong to Sir Thomas Lawrence, are the original designs made 
by Agostino Oarracci, for the frescoes of the two principal lateral com- 
partments of the vault of the Carracci Gallery, in the Eomese Palace at 
Bome. This Gallery has been engraved in whole and in part, several 
times. The first set of prints executed from it was by Carlo Cesio, 
published at Bome in 1667, in thirty sheets, and with the descriptions 
of Bellori, Qalleria nel Palazzo Farnege in Ronia, &c. It was subse- 
quently engraved by Pietro Aquila, GalericB Farriesiaruelcones^ &c., and 
by others. In the explanations accompanying Cesio's prints,t the 
principal figure is named Ghilatea or Yenus, but in the life of AnnilMvle 
Carracci, published fifteen years later, Bellori describes the subieot 
definitely as the Triumph of Galatea. Both cartoons were presented to 
the National Gallery, in 1837, by the Earl of Ellesmere, by whom t^y 
were purchased from Messrs. Woodbum. 



CAXSLAJOeX (AiiNiBALE), 1560-1609. 

The younger brother of Agostino, was born at Bologna in 
November 1560. His father intended to bring him up to his own 

• Ovid, lf<!<.vii. 701. 

t Argomento della Qalleria Farneae dipinta da Annibale Carracci^ diaegnuia ed 
intagliata da Carlo Ceaio, Nel quale spiegansi et riduconai allegorieamente alia 
moralitdt le Favole Poetiche in earn rappreaentaie. It is reprinted by Kalvasia in 
hiB Felwlna Pltiriae, 



CARBACGI. lis 

business, and employed him in his shop ; but his decided ability 
and taste for painting led him, with the aid of his consin Lodovico 
Garraooi, to adopt that art as his profession ; and Lodoyico, who was 
&v*i years his senior, was his first and oaly master in the art. In 
1580 he visited Parma, and studied the works of Oorreg^o there 
for abont three years. It seems that he was joined at Parma by 
his brother Agostino, who, however, left Annibale to go to Venice, 
where they again met, and dwelt a considerable time. Agostino 
did not return to Bologna until 1589 ; Annibale returned some- 
what earlier. The three Carracci opened their academy in 1589. 
After executing, together with Lodovico and Agostino, several 
public and private works in Bologna, Annibale was invited, abont 
1600, to Home, by the Cardinal Odoardo Famese, who, says 
Bellori, received and treated him as a gentleman — granting the 
usual table allowance of a courtier, for himself and two attendants, 
and a monthly salary. He was assisted in the frescoes of the 
Famese Palace, as already stated, by his brother Agostino, whov 
arrived shortly after Annibale at Borne, by Lanfranco and by 
Domenichino, then a very young man. The whole works of the- 
Farnese must have been completed before or about 1604 ; for^ 
according to a letter of Annibale*s intimate friend, Monsignore^ 
Agucchi, in whose arins he died, he painted scarcely anything 
{qtuisi niente) daring the last five years of his life. He died 
July 15th, 1609, and was buried near Baphael, in the Pantheon. 
Malvasia says that Annibale was assisted also by Lodovico in the 
Farnese ; but, as Lodovico was only a fortnight in Rome, from. 
May 31st to June 13, 1602, he could scarcely have afforded any 
great assistance beyond his advice. The altar-piece and frescoes 
of the chapel of San D^ego, in the church of Sin Giaoomo degli 
Spagnuoli, were probably also completed in 1604 ; they were all 
designed by Annibale, but he painted the altar-piece only ; the 
frescoes were executed by Albani. Annibale Carracci engraved 
a few plates. 

The Farnese gallery was preferred by Poussin to all the work& 
in Bome after those of Baphael. It is superior in form to those 
executed previously by the Carracci, bat is inferior in colour- 
to the works of the Sala of the Signori Magnani at Bologna.. 
Annibale's portrait, by himself, fro|n the Orleans Gallery, ia 
in the collection of the Earl of Carlisle, at Castle Howard, wherQ 

25640 S 



114 OARRACCL 

there «re also several other excellent pictares by him, from the 
same gallery.** 

No. 9- Christ appearing to Simon Peter after His 
Resurrection. 

St. Peter^ acoording to a legend of the Roman church, when 
flying from Rome to avoid persecution, was surprised on the 
Appian Way by a vision of Christ bearing his cross ; and on 
aiding " Lord, whither goest thou ? '* was answered, " To Rome, 
±0 be crucified again.'* Feeling thus rebuked for his own pusil- 
lanimity, he returned to the city, and was shortly afterwards 
crucified, about the year 64 or 65, during the reign of the Emperor 
Nero.f The keys are attached to the girdle of St. Peter. Soiall 
full length figures. 

Engraved by G. Chasteau ; in a large size by G. T. Doo, B.A., for the 
series of prints published for the Associated Engravers ; and, small, by 
J. W. Shaw, in Jones's National Gallery, &c. 

On wood, 2 ft. 6 in. h. by 1 ft. 9. in. w. 

A picture of this subject, which was often treated by the early Italian 
painters, is generally described under its Latin title as a " Domins, quo 
vadis ? " the words of the question of St. Peter to the Lord. Before the 
French Revolution, this picture was in the apartments of Prince ABgIo- 
brandini in the Borghese Palace at Rome, and ib described by Bamdohr 
in his account of the Paintings and Sculptures of Borne, in 1784. J It 
was brought to England by Mr. Day in 1800 and passed subsequently 
into the possession of Lord Northwick and of Mr. Hamlet, and was 
purchased from the latter for the National Gallery in 1826. 

No. 25- St, John in tlie Wilderness. 

** And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the deserts till 
the day of his showing unto lar&eV— Luke i., 80. 

A rocky picturesque landscape ; St. John is reclining upon a 
skin, and holds in his left hand the standard of the Lamb, the 
symbol of his mission ; while with his right he is catching water 
in a cup from a stream which flows from the rocks. Whole 
figure, less than life-size. 

^;* The Orleans Collection was brought to England in 1793, and was disposed of 
by private and pablic sales, in 1798, 1799, and 1800. The principal works con- 
tained in it are engraved in La Oalerie du Falais Royal, raris, 2 vols., foL, 1788. 
See the list of the Italian and French pictures in Mr. Buchanan's Memoirs of 
Painting^ &q. ; and in Passavant's Kunstreiae durch England, Ac. Dr. Wai^ren 
also has given a nearly complete catalogue of the collection in his Kun^werk§ 
and Kunstler in England, vol. i.. Appendix B. 

t Eusebius, Hist. Eccles., 1, ii. c. Ki 

t Von Ramdohr Ueber Malerei und Bildhauerarbeit in Horn Ao 



GABBAOCI. 115 

Engiaved by Le Oerf in the OdUHe du Palais Royal; also in Young's 
Catalogue of tfte Angerttevn Colleetion; and in Jones's Nationai Qallery, 

On canvas, 5 ft. 5 in. A. by 3 ft. 1 in. w. 

Formerly in the Orleans Collection, from which it passed, in 1799, 
into the possession of Mr. Angerstein, from whose son it was purchased 
for the nation in 1824. 



No. S6a Landscape, with Figures. 

A lake or river scene, with much foliage, and mountain? in the 
distance. On the water are parties of pleasure ; in the foreground 
are an angler and another figure conversing. 

Engraved by H. Wallis, for Jones's National Gallery. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 1^ in. A. by 4 ft. 44 in. to. 

Formerly in the collection of Prince Oellamare, at Naples, whence it 
oame into the possession of the Rev. W. Holwell-Carr, who bequeathed 
it, in 1831, to the National Gallery. 

No. 63- Landscape, with Figures. 

A rocky and woody landscape, with mountiins in the distance, 
and a party of figares on foot and on horsebapk ; supposed to re- 
present Prince Giustiuiant and attendants returaing from the 
chase : in the middle distanca, to the ri^ht, is a villa situated upon 
a rocky eminence. 

Engraved in Jones's National Gallery. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 5 in. h. by 4 ft. 5 in. to. 

Formerly in the Giustiniani Palace at Rome, whence it was procured 
by the Bev. W. Holwell-Carr, who bequeathed it, in 1831, to the National 
Cfellery. 

No. 88- Erminia takes refuge with the Sheplierds. 

From the story of Erminia, in Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, 

.Erminia, daughter of the King of Antioch, having disguised 
herself in the armour of the heroic Clorinda, leaves Jerusalem, 
and attempts to gain the tent of the wounded Tancred, but being 
discovered by some Christian soldiers, she is pursued, and escapes 
with difficulty, eventually taking refuge among some shepherds. 
The picture represents that part of the story when Erkninia, 
startled by the sound of pastoral music from the first repose which 
she had taken after her flight, rises, and attracted by the rustic 

25610 H 2 



116 CABBACOL 

strains, dis^oyers an old shepherd, whilst tending his flock, busy 
making card-baskets, and listening the while to the music of three 
children : — 

** Bisorge, e Ik s'indrizza a pass! lenti, 
E vede an nom canuto all* ombre amene 
Tesser flscelle alia sua greggia, accanto, 
Ed ascoltar di tre fanciuUi il canto." 

La Oeriualemmet G, Yii. bL 6, 

Engraved in Toang's Catalogtie of the Angerstein Collection^ and hj 
G. Presbnry, for Jones's Ndtional Gallery, 

On canvas, 4 ft. 10 in. h, by 7 ft. w. 

This picture was formerly in the Camuccini Collection at Borne, from 
which it was purchased by Mr. Irvine in 1804 as a work by Annibale 
Garracci, but while in the possession of Mr. Angerstein, it was attributed 
to Domenichlno ; upon the removal, however, of the collection into the 
present building, it was again assigned to Annibale Garracci. As Annibale 
occasionally employed Domenichino to execute some of his designs, both 
masters may have had a share in the painting of this picture.* It- was 
purchased with the other works of the Angerstein Collection, in 1824. 

No. 93* Silenus gathering Orapes, 

Two fauns are raising Silenns on a skin to enable him to pluck 
some grapes from a viue above his head: on each side is a strip- 
ling boy or young f^iun climbing the supports of the vine with 
a similar object. The autumnal colour of the leaves is assisted 
with gold leaf. 

Engraved by W. Bromley, for the series of prints published for the 
Associated Engravers ; and, on a small scale, by J. Mitchell, for Jones'a 
National Chdlery, 

On wood, 1 ft. 9} in. h. by 2 ft. 11 in. w. 

No. ft4. Pan teaching Apollo to play on the Pipes. 

Such is the title Lanzi gives to this picture. Bamdohr describes 
it as Bacchus playing to Silenus. Both figures are musicians, for 
the pipes of Silenus are hanging on the stem of a tree behind him ; 
and a double flute is suspended to the tree by the side of tiie 
younger musician, who has the pipes in his hands, and appears to 
be watching the effects of his notes upon his companion. 

Engraved by D. Gunego for Hamilton's Schola Italica ; and by J. 
Bolls, for Jones's National Gallery, 

On wood, 1 ft. 2 in. h, by 2 ft. 8 in. w, 

• Passeri, Vite di Pittari Ac, p. 12. 



CARRACCL 117 

These two pictures, purchased at Borne by Mr. Irvine for Mr. 
Buchanan in 1804, used to hang in the Lanoellotti Palace there, together 
wiUi the " Lot " and the " Susannah " of Guide, in this collection. No. 
94 is described both by Bamdohr and Lanzi as a painting a colla, or in 
distemper, but it is now saturated with oil. Bamdohr says, that the 
'* Silenns '* decorated the top of a harpiscord, and he supposed that the 
^' Apollo** of " Bacchus*' decorated the front of the same instrument. 
Lanzi speaks highly of the second picture,* which formed part of the 
Angerstein Collection, and was purchased by Parliament in 1824. The 
**' Silenus ** was in the collection of the Bev. W. Holwell-Oarr, and was 
added to the National Gallery, with the rest of that gentleman*8 
bequest, in 1831. 

No. 198. The Temptation of St. Anthony in the Desert. 

The Saint, tempted on each side by demons, is reclining on his 
l>ack, and appears engrossed at the moment by a vision above of 
the Saviour supported by angels. At his feet is a crouching 
iion. 

Engraved by G. Audran and by B. Far jat. 

On copper, 1 ft. 7^ in. h, by 1 ft. IJ in. w. 

This picture was formerly in the Borghese Gallery at Bome, where it 
was much admired by Mengs, who said of it, that with Italian compo- 
sition and drawing, it combined the execution of the Netherlands 
s<^ool.t It was some time in the collection of Lord Badstock, and was 
purchased for the nation, in 1846, of the Earl of Dartmouth. 



OARRACCZ (LoDOVico), 1555-1619, 

The founder of the eclectic school of Bologna, was bom at 
Bologna, in April 1555. He was placed with Prospero Fontana ; 
and while in his school his apprehension appeared to be so slow, 
that like Domenichino afterwards he was called by his companions 
the oz, il hue. He afterwards enterei the school of Passignano at 
Florence, and studied the works of Oorreggio and Parmigiano at 
Parma, those of Giulio Bomano at Mantua, and those of Titian 

* Bamdohr, Ueber Malerei und Blldfiauerarbeit in Bom. Ac. (1784), vol. iii., p. 75 ; 
Lanzi, Storia PlUorica delV Italia, vol. v., p. 76. The Marchese Melchiorri, in his 
Ouida Metodica di ^oma of 1836, appaxoDtly copying earlier acconntSi speaks of 
the Silenns as still in the Lanoellotti Palace. 

t Bamdohr Uebcr Malerei und Bildhauerarbeit in Rorn^ <!tc., vol. i., p. 294. 



118 OARRACCL 

at Venice. The works of these and other masters afforded the 
elements of the eclectic style of the Carracci, as expressed in the 
well-known sonnet of Agostino.^ 

The school of the Carracci was opened in 1589, and carried on 
by the cousins conjointly np to 1600, from which time it wa» 
conducted by Lodovico alone, until his death (Dec. 13th, 1619)^ 
which is said to have been considerably hastened by some errors 
in the fresco of the Annunciation, in the Cathedral of Bologna^ 
his last work. The frescoes of the Oonvent of San Michele 
in Bosco, from the life of St. Benedict, commenced in 1602^ 
after Lodoyico^s short visit ta Bome, and which were generally 
considered his masterpieces, have long since perished, though 
the designs are preserved in the prints of G. M. Giovannini, 
11 claustro di San Michele in Bosco di Bologna, &c., published in 
1694, with descriptions by Malvasia. There are thirteen pictures 
by LoDOViGO Garbaggi in the gallery of the Academy at Bologna, 
including some of his most celebrated works in oil.f 

The scholars of the Carracci produced a change in all the 
schools of Italy ; but the qualities of their works, in contradis- 
tinction to those of the great masters of the preceding century, 
are strictly technical or material. They remained as much below 
the great masters of Bome and Florence in expression, composi- 
tion, and character, as they surpassed them in general execution. 
The most distinguished masters of this school were Domenichino, 
Guide, Albani, and Lanfranco. 

No. 28* Susannah and the two Elders^ in the Garden 

of Joachim, at Babylon. 

Susannah is kneeling in the foreground, and is holding back her 
garment from the rough touch of one of the elders.-^ApocrypJud 
Book of Susanriah, 

* ** Let him who wishes to be a good painter acauire the design of Bome, 
" Venetian action, and Venetian management of shade, the dignified oolonr of 
" Lomhardy ; the terrible manner of Michelangelo, Titian's truth and nature, 
" the sovereign pnrity of Oorreegio's style, and the jnst symmetry of a Raphael ; 
** the decomm and well-groanaed study of Tibaldi, the invention of the leaniea 




Niccold del Abbate. This sonnet sumcientlv explains the principles of the 
eclectic school, and, at the same time, shows tneir mere technical tendency. 

t Malvasia, Felsina Pittrice: Lanzi, Storia Pitiorica, Ac. ; Belvisi. Elogio Jsorieo 
del Plttore Lodovico CaraccU 8vo., Bologna, 1823. Qiordani, CaUuogo dH Qmgri 
nella Plnacoteca di Bologna. 



GAERAOCI— CATENA. 119 

SDgzayed by J. H. Walt for the Auoeiated :Engraterjt;\BlBO by A. L. 
Bomanet in the Galerie du Palais Royal ; in Yonng's Catalogue of 
the Angergtein Collection ; and in Jones's National Gallery. 

On canvas, 4 ft. 8 in. A. by 3 ft. 7 in. w. 

Formerly in the Orleans Collection, from which it passed, in 1799, 
into the possession of Mr. Angerstein, from whose heir it was purchased 
for the nation, 1824. 



GARVOOX (Jacopo). (^See PONTO&MO.) 



OASBNTZMO (Jagopo di). (^See &ANBZNZ.) 



CATSVA (YiNCENZO DI fiiAGio, known as), 14 ?-1531. 

The painter known by the surname of Catena was born ai^ 
Treviso towards the end of the 15th century. One of his earliest 
works is a poor replica, in the Museo Givico at Padua, of * the 
Presentation of the Infant Christ to St, Simeon^ by. Giovanni 
Bellini, a composition often repeated, and of which there is a 
fine example, probably by the master himself, in the Museo 
Correr at Yenice. This picture shows that Catena early founded 
himself on Bellini, though it is not known that he was ever his 
pupil. Catena's style varied considerably during his life, 
according to the master whose methods were uppermost in his 
mind at the time, but the influence of Bellini is at first predomi- 
nant, while later it is evident that he has been much affected by 
Giorgione. His own style, however, developed largely in the 
direction of breadth and freedom of treatment. Thus the drapery 
in the well-known early picture, signed by him, in the Ducal 
Palace, representing St, Mark presenting the Doge Lorenzo 
Loredano to the Virgin and Childj is sharp, thin, and broken, 
and almost German in character, and the types are a direct 
imitation of Bellini ; while in the painting of the Glorification 
of Sta, Oristina, in the Church of Sta. Maria Mater Domini, at 
Yenice, we find the broad but angular folds which are more 



120 CATENA. 

generally characteristic of bis work, which he no donbt acquired 
from Giorgione. His signed pictures are not uncommon, and 
enable us to identify many which, bearing no signature, have 
been attributed to other masters. Among such works is the 
picture of the Kneeling Knight described below (No. 234). 
This, originally known as a Giorgione, and so catalogued in our 
collection, was in 1883 identified by Messrs. Crowe and Caval- 
caselle as a work of Yingenzo Catena, and there is no reason 
for withholding from Catena the credit of this superb work. A 
comparison with the Sta, Cristina mentioned* above renders the 
attribution a matter of certainty. The smaller picture of St, 
Jerome (No. 694), for some time attributed to Bellini, also 
exhibits the general characteiistics of Catena in so marked a 
degree as to leave little doubt that it is the work of this artist. 
He is supposed to have died at Venice in 1531. 

No. 234. A Warrior adoring the Infant Christ 

On the left is the Virgin seated, with the Infant Christ on her 
knees ; St. Joseph leans on a low wall behind. In the centre of 
the picture a knight in armour, with a kerchief round his head, is 
represented kneeling on a carpet in the act of adoring the divine 
inf&nt : in the background to the ri^ht, behind a parapet wall, is 
a servant holding the horse of the Knight, in the distance a hilly 
landscape, ^ith a church and probably a convent. Six figures, 
small life-size. 

On canvas, 5 ft. 1 in. h. by 8 ft. 7 in. w. 

Formerly in the collection of Mr. Samuel Woodbum, by whom, as 
well as by many others, it was attributed to Giorgione. It was ptir- 
chased for the National Gallery at the sale of Mr. Woodbum*s collection 
in 1853. 

No. 694. St. Jerome in his Stiuiy, 

The saint, dresaed in crimson and blue, is seated on a bench, 
reading at a de^k. On his right, in the background, are two 
open cupboards containing books, a flask, a candlestick, and other 
objects ; in the foreground are a sleeping lion, a partridge, a pair 
of slippers, and a cardinaFs hat, blue. Through an open window 
are seen the sea, some distant hills, and a convent. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 4^ in. k. by 3 ft. 2^ in. to. 

Formerly in the Manfrini Gallery at Venice, purchased from the pro- 
prietors of that collection in 1862. 



CAVALLINO— CHAMPAIGNE. 121 

GAVAXiXiINO (Bernardo), 1622-1654. 

A Neapolitan painter of the 17th century. He was a 
pupil of Massimo Stanzioni, who had himself been a scholar 
of Carracciolo. Gayallino treated both sacred and profane 
subjects with skill, in a manner which reflected the crossing 
influences of the eclectic and the naturalistic schools, and which 
was hardly capable of development into anything more exalted, 
even had the painter not shortened his life by intemperance. He 
died in 1654, in the thirty- second year of his age. 

No. 1187. 21ie Nativity. 

In the centre of the composition the Virgin, clad in a pale 
crimson robe and large blue mantle, which, wrapped over her 
head, conceals her hair, kneels in adoration before the infant 
Christ, who lies in a manger before her. Behind the Virgin is 
St. Joseph leaning on a staff. To the left of the manger are an 
ox and an ass. On the right of the picture a group of shepherds 
kneel or ^tand in various attitudes indicating respect or curiosity. 
In the foreground, on the left side, a female figure (St. Anna ?) 
kneels on a stone plinth, while a small white dog at her feet 
springs forward towards the ox. 

Architectural background, in which are seen portions of a 
half -ruined classical building. 

On canvas, 4 ft. 11^ in. A. by 4 ft. 2 in. tr. 

Presented by Mr. Woodford Pilkington, in 1884. 



CAVAZZO&A. {See MORAKDO.) 



GBAMFAIOIVB (PniLiFPE de), 1602-1674, 

Was bom at Brussels in 1602. In 1621 he visited Paris, and 
became the assistant of Nicholas Duchesne, whose daughter he 
afterwards married. On Duchesne*s death, Db Champaigns 
continued the decoration of the Luxembourg Palace for the Queen 
Marie de M^icis. He became one of the original members of 



122 OHAMPAIGNE. 

the French Academy of Painting, founded by Louis XI Y. in 1648, 
of which he was a professor and rector. He died at Paris August 
12th, 1674. Several of his best works are preserved in the Louvre ; 
among them a full-length picture of the Cardinal de Bichelieu, 
his patron, and a very celebrated portrait of his own daughter, 
a nun of Port-Royal. His style is apt to be somewhat dry, bnt 
in the museum at Brussels is a series of paintings of scenes in the 
life of St. Benedict, which show considerable force of colouring 
and richness of effect. He was the best portrait painter of his time 
in Paris.* 

No. 798- Three Portraits of Cardinal de Eichelieu. 

A full face and two profiles ; painted for the Boman sculptor 
Mocohi to make a bust &om, according to the following inscrip- 
tion on the back of the picture : — Bitratto del Gaidinale di 
Bichelieu, di Monsu Sciampigna da Brusselles. Lo f ece in Parigi 
per Boma, al Statnario Mocchi, quale poi fece la statua e la 
mand6 a Parigi. Over the profile on the spectator's right are 
the words, De ces deux profiles ce cy est le meilleur, 

Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal de Bichelieu, was First 
Minister to Louis XIII. of France, and died at Paris in December, 
1642, aged fifty-eight. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 11 in. h. by 2 ft. 4^ in. to. 

Presented by Mr. Augustas Wollaston Franks, in 1869. 

No. 144;9a Portrait of Cardinal Richelieu. 

The cardinal in the crimson silk robes of his office with the 
cross of the Order of St. Louis hung by a blue ribbon round his 
neck, and wearing a crimson velvet scull-cap, stands as if just 
risen from the chair of state behind him and about to move 
forward. His face is turned to the spectator, and he holds up 
the skirt of his robe with his left hand, showing the crimson cas- 
sock and white lace-bordered surplice beneath, and in his right 
hand which is stretched out- as if pointing, he holds his scarlet 
beretta. Behind is a massive curtain of dark material which 
throws out the figure in bold relief, and beyond is an open arch- 
way through which is seen part of a terrace with trees and sky 
behind. The central head in No. 798 was evidently used as a 
study for this picture. 

'■' ■■■'■'■ ' • ■ ■ ,1.1 ^ 

* Mhnoires iniditt des Menibret de VAcadimie Boyale, Svo., Farib, 1864. 



OHAMPAIGNE— GHARDIN. 123 

Ph. de Ghampaigne painted several portraits of the great 
Cardinal. The one mentioned above closely resembles this, but 
there are some differences, notably in the position of the left 
hind. 

On canvas, 8 ft. 5| in. A. by 5 ft. 9 in. to. 

Presented by Mr. Charles Butler, in 1895, by whom it was booght for 
the pnrpose at the Lyne Stephens sale. 



(J.-B. Simeon), 1699-1779. 

Jean-Baptistb Simeon Ghabdin, the son of an upholsterer, was 
bom in Paris, November 2, 1699, and died there December 6, 
1779. He oooupiea a remarkable place in the French school of 
the 18th century. Uninfluenced by the example of his prede- 
cessors and contemporaries, he took the line of a frank realism, 
which with him was under the control of native refinement. His 
earlier practice was for the most part confined to subjects of stiU 
life : these he painted with a taste, a freshness, and a mastery 
which leave nothing to be desired, bh owing the finest sense of 
the beauties of coloar, texture and surface, and the keenest 
observation of the manner in which substances, opaque and 
translucent, are affected by the play of light. It is to the credit 
of the French Academicians of his time that they speedily 
recognised the rising talent ; and in 1728 Ghardin was elected, 
without effort on his part, a member of their body, as a painter 
of fruit, flowers and still life. He had already exhibited a few 
pictures in the class of genre ; and from middle-age onwards he 
followed principally that line of art, reproducing scenes from the 
domestic life of the people, in which he manifests a warm 
sympathy with his kind, and with children especially. Such 
subjects he depicted with sincerity, with no affectation of senti- 
ment, often with a delicate perception of the humorous, and always 
with a certain grace peculiarly French. They persuade us that 
the ways of the bourgeoisie may . have differed widely from those 
of the noblesse in the deplorable reign of Louis XY. But the 
unaccustomed apparition of genuine nature in art was welcomed 
by the better spirits in France ; it was at least something 
novel ; and Ghardin reaped the just reward of his honest labours. 



124 OHARDIN. 

Longibefore the close of his career, which terminated on the eve 
of the Revolution, he had achieved a high place in pablio esteem ; 
and if his reputation was afterwards temporarily eclipsed in that 
general overthrow of views and opinions on all subjects, which in 
the domain of art was succeeded by the rule of Jacques Louis 
David and his pseudo-classic compeers, it has since shone out, and 
Ohabdin is acknowledged as an artist of whom his countrymen 
have reason to be proud. Diderot, during the painter's lifetime, 
said of him — " Get homme est le premier coloriste du Salon, et 
peut-etre undes premiers coloristes de la peinture*'; an utterance 
not exaggerated if the French school of the period were alone in 
question. Late in life Ohardin tried crayon-painting, with great 
success. The Louvre, of right, possesses the largest single 
collection of his works, including two satirical subjects — the Ape 
as Antiquary and the Ape as Painter, Next in numerical richness 
come the Galleries of Stockholm, Garlsruhe, the Liechtenstein 
Collection at Yienna, the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, and the 
Munich Pinakothek. Some local museums in France (Angers, 
Cherbourg and Nantes) contain examples ; one is in the Dulwich 
Oallery ; and several are dispersed in private collections. 

No. 1288. Study of Still Life. 

A black bottle and a tumbler half filled with wine : a loaf of 
bread and a knife placed on the fragmept of a newspaper by way 
of a tablecloth. Signed by the painter and dated 1754. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 2\ in. h, by 1 ft. 5J in. w. 
Presented by Lord Savile, G.O.B., in 1888. 

No. 1664. '' La Fontaine:' 

In a kitchen or scullery, in which are a barrel, some logs of 
wood and various cooking utensils, a woman in a white cap and 
jacket, with a blue apron and striped skirt, is drawing water from 



CHABDIN--CIMA. 126 

a copper " f ontaine,** into a black jug. Through an [open door 
the figures of another woman and child are partly seen. 

On oanYBS, 1 ft. 2| in. h, hj 1 ft. 5^ in. to. 

Pnrohased from M. G. Sortais, in Parie, in 1898. 



GBIBI8NTI (Jacopo). (^See BMPOIU.) 



CZMAi (Giovanni Battista). Painting 1489-1517. 

GiAMBATTiSTA DA GoNEGLiANO, 80 Called from hiB native town 
in Friuli, has acquired in the history of art the name of Gima, 
although he does not appear to have used it himself, his signature 
being Ioannes Baptista merely, or with the adjunct Goneglia- 
NBNSis. He is reckoned generally amongst the followers of 
Giovanni Bellini^ but his earlier edacation may have been in the 
school of Murano. If his works exhibit points of contact with 
Bellini, they nevertheless bear the impress of a very distinct 
individuality. Their characteristics are good drawing and 
proportion, sympathetic types of countenance, carefully studied 
though somewhat angular drapery, fine and brilliant colour, 
force of light and shade, scrupulous fioidh and smooth impasto. 
To these may be added earnestness of feeling, untinged with 
asceticism. The country around or within easy reach of his 
birthplace s ipplied Gima with a landscape which he warmly felt 
and faithfully rendered. In the pose and attire of some of his 
severer figures he was evidently inspired by the monumental 
archetypes of the earlier and better Byzantine school ; witness* 
his majestic Redeemer in the Dresden Gallery. His earliest work 
bearing a date (1489) is a tempera on canvas in the gallery 
of Vicenza, presenting, in figures nearly half life size, the 
Enthroned Madonna and Child, St. James the Greater and 
8t. Jerome on either side ; a singularly attractive, though sadly 
injured, picture. All his other works, none of which is dated 
later than 1508, are in oil. One of the noblest of these is in 



126 OIMA, 

S. Maria dell' Orto, Venice. Here, St. John the Baptist, standing 
on a low pedestal, heneath a ruined portico, with upcast eyes in 
inspired meditation, is surrounded by Saints Peter and Mark, 
Paul and Jerome. The austere and embrowned form of the 
Precursor seen against the evening sky, the solemn groups close 
by, and the glowing depth of the colouring, produce a profound 
impression on the spectator. Very different is the great altar-piece 
of S. Giovanni in Bragora (1494) where the Baptism of Christ 
takes place in a landscape of wonderful and joyous beauty. In the 
Incredulity of St. Thomas in the Accademia, the head of the 
Saviour has great nobility, and the effect of the group against the 
broad expanse of serene sky and distant blue mountains is highly 
plastic and striking. The Enthroned St, Peter in episcopal 
vestments and tiara, between SS. John the Baptist and Paul, is 
one of the greatest ornaments of the Brera Gallery at Milan. At 
Parma (Gallery) are two charming works on a smaller scale. The 
Cathedral of Gonegliano still contains an Enthroned Madonna. The 
galleries of Berlin and Frankfort contain important pictures by 
OiMA. One of his best altar-pieces is now in the Louvre. In this, 
St. John the Baptist as a youth on the left, and St. Mary 
Magdalene on the right, adore the Infant Christ, whom the Virgin, 
seated before a lofty baldacchino, supports on her lap. Beyond is 
is a wide and charming landscape, with a winding river. Cima, 
according to Ridolfi, lived till 1517. His son. Carlo, followed the 
profession of his father. 

No. 300. The Infant Christ standing on the Knees of 
tJie Virgin. 

The Virgin on a marble seat holds the Child with her right 
hand, while she supports one of His feet with her left. A hUly 
landscape, with a town in the background. Inscribed Joannbs 
Baptista, p. in the lower corner to the spectator's right. 

<tIOANNESBAPTISTA^P (• 

On wood, 2 ft. 3 in. h. by 1 ft. lOi in. to. 
Furchased from L. Boussel, in Paris^ in 1858. 



CIMA. 127 

No 634. Madonna unth the Infant Christ standing on 
her Knees. 

The Infant Savionr holds a goldfinch in his hand ; in the back- 
ground is a hilly landscape, with the view of a town. Signed 

JOANES BaPTISTA. CoNEGLA*. P. 

(OAKES'BAPTISTA'CONEGLi? -P^ 

On wood, 1 ft. 8 J in. by 1 ft. 5 in. w. 

Purchased at Paris, from the collection of M. Edmond Beanconsin, in 
18(>0. Formerly at Powerscourt Castle, where it was known as the 
Madonna del Cardellino ; snbseqnently in the collection of Mr. William 
Goningham, M.P. 

No. 816« The Incredulity of St, Thomas. 

** And after eight days again his disoiples were within, and Thomas with 
them : then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst and said^ 
Peace be unto you. Then saith he to Thomas, reach hither thy finger, ana 
behold my hands ; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side : and 
be not faithless but believing. And Thomas answered and said unto him, My 
Lord and my Qod."-VoAn zz., 26-38. 

Composition of twelve figures, two-thirds the scale of life. In the 
background two open windows. Signed Joanes Baptista ConeglianesU 
optigj 1504. The inscription to the left of the signature, partly obliterated, 
gives the names of the officers of the Fraternity, when the picture was 
painted. 

On wood, 9 ft. 7 in. h. by 6 ft. 6 in. w. Circular top. 

This picture was ordered by the Fraternita del Battuti. in 1497, for 
the altar of their patron St. Thomas, in the church of San Francesco 
at PortogTuaro. The account of its cost, and of a law-suit instituted 
by the painter against the Fraternity, during the years 1502-1509, 
is still preserved in the archives of the hospital attached to the 
church of San Francesco. The picture remained for 328 years in its 
marble frame over the altar of St. Thomas (the first on the right on 
entering the ohuroh). In 1832 it was removed to the church of Bant* 
Andrea and in 1864 to the town-hall of Portogruaro. 

Purchased in 1870 from the Sindaco, and the director of the hospital 
of San Francesco, of Portogruaro. 

No. U20. St. Jerome in the Desert, 

At the base of a rock, to the right of the picture, St. Jerome, 
represented as an aged man with a long white beard, kneels 
before a rustic cross. The upper part of his figure is nude ; the 
lower partly covered with blue drapery which has fallen round 



128 OIMA— OIMABUE. 

bis loins. He raises a stone in his right hand, as if about to 
strike himself. Behind him couches a lion. On the branch of a 
tree above a hawk is perched, and a serpent crawls from beneath 
the rock on which the cross is placed. Landscape background, 
with a road winding round a hill to the right, and mountains in 
the distance. 

On panel, 12| in. h, by 9f in. w. 

Purchased in 1882 at the sale of the Duke of Hamilton's pictures, in 
the catalogue of which it was described (No. 397) as " from the Oollec- 
" tion of the Nuncio di Verona ; obtained at Venice in 1770 by Mr. 
" Strange ; afterwards at Fonthill." 



»» 



No. 131.0. ''EcceHomo. 

Life size, bust length. The head of Christ is crowned with 
thorns, and blood flows from the wounds on His brow. The 
eyes suffused with tears, and slightly parted lips, give an 
intensely pathetic expression to the face. The shoulders are 
covered with dark blue drapery. 

On panel, 1 ft. 2 in. A. by 11 in. w. 

Purchased in London at the sale at the Perkins Collection, in 1890. 



CIMABUS (Giovanni), 1240?-1302? 

Was born at Florence about 1240. Recent discoveries prove 
his name to have been Cenni.* Though not the first of the 
Italians to forsake the conventional habits of the Byzantine School, 
he was the most successful of the painters of the thirteenth century 
in combining the study of nature with the traditionary art of his 
time. The story, related by ^asari, of the early education of 
GiMABUE by Greek painters employed at Florence, is without 
foundation. That he executed some of the frescoes in the Upper 
Church of S. Francesco at Assisi, there is no reason to doubt- 
The style of these is grandiose, ideal, and inspired by 
antique traditions. Two well-authenticate 1 pictures by him 
are — the Madonna panel with Angels, in the Academy at 
Florence (formerly in the church of the SS. Trinitll), and the 

fj * Sgr. Gaetano Milanesi, however, drawB a distinction between Giovanni 
Cenni and Giovanni the master of Giotto, both of whom he says were surnamed 
Cimabue. 



CIMABnE-^-CLAUDE. 129 

coloBsal Madontia fttili in tto RucelliEd dispel, 'in the church of 
Santa Maria Novella at Florence. The last named is not only 
the "best of the remaining works ascribed to him, hot) com- 
pared with contemporary and even some later productions, has 
merits sufficient to entitle him to the dii^ttDga£lhed place which 
Vasari assigns to him. The tradition, preserfed by the biographer, 
that the Bucellai Madonna was carried in a procession with 
great festivity from the painter's house to the church, is sup- 
posed to have been embellished as regards some of the incidents ; 
but there seems no reason to doubt that such a work, intended 
for a religious purpose, should, at the time, have excited general 
enthusiasm. 

• CiMabue*s additional claim to distinction is that of having 
discovered and trained the superior abilities of Giotto. 

It appears that in 1302 he was occupied on the mosaics in 
the great tribune of the Duomo at Pisa, and as the work wai 
left unfinished, that date may with probability be assigned as the 
year of his death. 

No. 565« The Madonna and Child enthroned^ Angels 
adoring. 

The Virgin is seated, and holds the child sitting on her left 
knee : on each side, behind the throne, are three angels in 
adoration. Half -figures, larger than life. 

In tempera, on wood, with a gable top, 6 ft. 3 in. h. by 5 ft. 6 in. w. 

This picture is described by Yasari as having been attached to a 
pilaster in the choir of the chufch of Santa Crooe at Florence. It 
wae still' in its place in 1591 ;* but in 1677 it had been deposited else- 
where in the convent of Santa Crooe, in consequence of alterations in 
theohuioh ;t itremained in the convent until it came in the possession 
of the Signori Lombardi and Baldi, from whose collection, at Florence, 
it was purchased for the National Gallery in 1857. 



G&AUBS. (See OBXiXifiB.) 

. : ^ ■ t ml .1 ..« .f I . ... I 



• Bocchi, Le Bellezze della CUUi di liorema, p. 158. 

t CinelQ, Le ^lletze detla CUt&^di Ftrente dee. arhgpHate $d aceriscUUe,F\m*ilffn, 
p. S10. 



25640 



130 CLOUET— COQUES, 

G&01TBT (FEANgois), 1510?-] 572. 

Born in France, probably at Tours, about 1510, was the son of 
Jean Olouet, a Fleming settled in France, commonly called 
Jeannet, and his wife« Jeanne Boucault, a native' of Tours : 
Jeannet was painter and varlet de chamhre ordinaire to Francis I*. 
as early as 1518, but as he had never been naturalised, when h» 
died, in 1541, his property was forfeited to the king. Thi» 
property was restored to FBANgois Olouet, his heir, who had then 
the same rank as his father, in the month of November of 1541. 
FRANgois was the fourth painter of this family ; his grandfather 
Jean had also settled in France, at Tours, and an uncle (a brother 
of John) was painter to Margaret and Henry of Navarre, at a 
salary of 200 francs the year. They appear to have been all 
employed and distinguished as portrait painters. Francois died 
in 1572, 



Ascribed to GXiOUBT. 

No. 660. A Man's Portrait. 

In the costume of the sixteenth century. Small figure, bust. 
Dated 1543. 
On wood, 12 in. h. by 9 in. w. 
Purchased from M. Bdmoad Beauoousin, at Paris, in I860* 

No. 1190. Portrait of a Boy. 

Bust length ; life size ; head in profile. The complexion pale ; 
the hair red and bushy. He wears an olive brown coat, the 
collar of which is buttoned close round the neck. Background 
of Eage green. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 2| in. K by lOf in. vo. 

Presented by Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., in 1885. 



COQUfiS OR GOCZ (Gonzales), 1618-1684. 

Was born at Antwerp in 1618. He became at an early age 
the pupil of Peter Brueghel (the third painter of that name). 



COQUES. 131 

He was afterwards the scholar of David Byckaert the younger, 
whose daughter he married in 1643. Goques was received as a 
master of the Guild of Painters in 1640-41, and served as Dean 
twice, in 1665-66 and 1680-81. He died at Antwerp on the 
18th April 1684. He was an imitator of Yan Dyck, and is 
sometimes called the " little Yan Dyck." Flemish School. 



No. 82il« A Family Oraup. 

A gentleman in a black suit with a white lace collar, two ladies 
and five children, girls, in a garden before the entrance of a 
house ; the youngest child is being taught to walk by being placed 
on its feet in a go-cart, which is being pushed along by another 
child ; the oldest is playing the guitar. Two little dogs sporting 
in front. On the right is a fountain. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 1 in. h, by 2 ft. 9^ in. to. 

In 1826, in the collection of Mr. Mettepenning at Antwerp. 

Imported by Mr. C. i. Nieuwenhnys, who sold it to the late*^Sir.. 
Robert Peel. Purchased with the Peel Collection, in 1871. 

No. 1011a Portrait of a Lady. 

Half-length, in a white satin dress, with a red petticoat and^" 
blue shawl ; her right hand resting on the head of a lamb, her - 
left on the hilt of a sword. A triumphal arch io the back- ■ 
ground. 

On silver, 7 in. h, by 5^ in w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

The Five Senses, illustrated by five male figures seen 
at half length, and painted about one-fourth the size ol. 
life, viz. : 

No. 1114. Sight. 

A young painter, dressed in a Flemish costume of the ITth- 
century, with uncovered head and long dark hair, sits at a table, 
holding a sketch in his right hand and a palette and brushes in 
his left. The blue baldrick of his sword is seen across his 
breast. (Supposed to be a portrait of Robert Yan den Hoeck, 
painter and engraver, a contemporary and friend of Gonzaleii 
Coques.) 

25640 I 2 



132 COQCTES—OORDELLB AGn. 

No. 1115. Hearing. 

A middle-aged man, wearing a dress of the same period, aits 
playing the lute close to a table on which a music-book lies. 

No. 1116. Feeling. 

A younff man, who has just been bled in the arm, sits holding 
a staff in his left hand, while the l)lood flows from a lancet wound 
into a metal dish whicn he holds to receive it. 



No. 1117. Smell 

A man sits in an easy attitude on a chair, over the back of 
-which he has thrown his left arm, holding a long clay pipe, from 
which he is smoking. 



No. 1118. Taste. 

A young man stands before a table, on which a dish of oysters 
is placed. A white cloth or napkin is thrown over his left arm. 
In nis hand he holds a large .glass goblet, of which he is tasting 
■the contents. 

Each panel, 9^ in. A. by 7f in. to. 

These five sabjeots were pnrcdiased at Bmsselfl, in 1883, attiie sale of 
ihe collection of the Yioomte Bernard da Bos de Gisig^es. 



OOmDB&XiB AMtt OR GOmDBO&SJLCIBI (Andrba), 

14_?-16-? 

The painter who signs with this name lived abont the year 
1500 ; he was a pupil of Giovanni Bellini, and is supposed by 
Messrs. Crowe and Oavalcaselle to be the same as Andrea 
Previtali of Bergamo, who also signs himself a pvipil of that 
master. Morel li, however, considers this conjecture untenable,* 

• "ItaUanpainten," by Giov. Vorelli^ tranalated by Mias a Ffoolkea, LoDdoi^, 
1893. YoL IL, p. 237, in foot-note. 



OOBDELLE AOn-^OOBNELISSEN. 113 

and that he is a Yenetian painter, and this opinion «e6mB to be 
borne out by the pictnre deiieribed below, which is an almost 
exact repetition of a picture by Previtali in S. Giobbe at 
Yenice, but decidedly inferior in the drawing and expression 
of the heads. He is mentioned by Yasari as having painted 
numerous easel pictures. ' A few signed pictures by him are 
known, but the only dated pictnre is the one in this Gallery. 
Nothing has been ascertained as to the date of his birth or 
death. 

No. 1409. Tfie Mystic Marriage of St. Catharine. 

In the centre of the picture the Yirgin, seated, bears the Infant 
Christ, undraped, on her lap, and assists him to place a ring on 
the finger of St. Catharine, who, standing on the riffht, rever- 
ently extends her hand to receive it. St. John the Baptist 
stands on the left. Figures half length and about three-quarter's 
life size. The landscape background includes the view of a 
road winding through a hilly country. On the lower edge of the 
picture is a cariellino inscribed as follows : — 

i ^ * rot. 

On panel, 3 ft. 0| in. h. by 2 ft. 9^ in. to. 

Purchased in London at the sale of the late Lady Eastlake's Collec- 
tion, in 1894. 



COBNBIiXSSBN OB CO&WB&ZSZ (Jacob), 

1475 ?-1560?. 

Was bom at East Zaandam, in North Holland, about 1475- 
1480, and died, very old, at Amsterdam, about 1555-1560 ;' he 
was still painting in 1553. Yan Mander speaks of him as 
great painter, and mentions some altar-pieces by him : he -was 
the master of Jan Schoorel, and he had a son Dirk, who was 
likewise a good painter, especially of portraits, and' who died in 



134 COBNELISSEN— GOSSA. 

1567. Jabob Cobmelissen was also an engraver. There are still 
some prints preserved by him, the ** Life of Christ " and others, 
dated 1517 and 1518.<» 

No. 657> Portraits of a Dutch Gentleman and Lady. 

Probably the Donors of an altar-piece of which these two panels 
are the wings. 

They are kneeling with their patron saints, Peter and Paul, 
standing behind them. 

On wood, each panel 2 ft. 8 in. A. by 10^ in to. 

Purohased from M. Edmond Beauconsin, at Paris, in 1860. 



COaSSOOZO. (See AZiZiBO&Z.) 



GOSSA (Francesco del), 14— ?-1480?. 

A paint^ of Ferrara, born probably early in the second quarter 
of the 15th century. He and Cosimo Tura (whose biography see), 
his elder by a few years, issued from the same school, were 
subject to the same influences, and exhibit in their works close 
affinities of style. But while Tura was fantastic, and inclined to 
the lavish use of decoration, Gossa, with severer views of his art, 
sought to give dignity and grandeur to his figures, and kept 
ornamentation within its proper bounds. The earliest notice of 
this artist, dating in 1456, records him as associated with his 
father, Cristof ano del Oossa, in colouring the sculptured work of 
the high altar in the episcopal palace at Ferrara. He was after- 
wards one of the painters who shared in designing and executing 
the frescoes in the upper ball of the 8chifanoia palace. In 1470 
he removed to Bologna, where under the rule of the Bentivogli 
many painters of Ferrara found both a welcome and congenial 
employment. It is by his works there that Oossa is recognised. 
The finest of these is a large tempera on canvas, in the Pinaooteoa, 

* Van Mander, Set Leven der SchUdertt Ac voL 1, ed. 176^ 



COSSA. 135 

representing the Virgin and Child enthroned before a ronnd- 
arched niche, with the Bishop St. Petronius (tutelary of Bologna) 
seated on her right, and St. John the Evangelist on her left, and 
beyond the former the kneeling figare of Alberto de* Gatanei, 
one of the donors. Sarmoanting the cornice behind are seen on 
either side the small kneeling effigies of the Yirgin and the 
annoancing Angel, both of noble and graceful design. The 
whole is a work of singular grandeur, monumental in its severe 
simplicity, and highly plastic in the largeness of its forms and 
the perfect modelling within its broad light and shadow. The 
aged but vigorous head of St. Petronius is not surpassed in 
character and searching execution by the finest iconic terra cottas 
of Florence. The head of the Madonna, however, is unlovely, 
with its large round face, plebeian features, and contracted fore- 
head, resembling the types of Cosimo Tura.^ The Madonna del 
BarracanOf in the church of that name, is a fresco, which, till 
recently was shown only on certain feast days. Such parts of 
the original work as still remain (the heads of the Virgin and the 
Infant), are by Lippo di Dalmasio, or one of his contemporaries. 
The rest was repainted by GossA, who added the figure of a 
worshipper, and those of two angels holding candelabra, together 
with a singular landscape distance and appended his signature 
with the date 1472. In the Marescotti Chapel in S. Petronio are 
grandiose figures of the twelve Apostles, f and in the same church 
other works, all now ascribed to Cossa. Nor must a circular 
window in the west end of S. Giovanni in Monte be forgotten, a 
piece of resplendent glass-painting, in which is represented 
St. John in Patmos inspired by an angel while writing the 
Apocalypse ; nor a small quadrangular window in the same 
facade at the end of the north aisle, in which is depicted an 
enthroned Virgin and Child, with angels. Both these works bear 
the stamp, the former, it is said the monogram;): of Cossa. An 
■ 

* The flgnres exceed life size. The whole is mnch darkened, and generally 
flomewhat abraded, so that the threads of the canvas are visible. Otherwise 
its condition is not bad. 

t The Apostles are shown as the work of Lorenzo Costa, and this attribation 
was accented by Crowe and Gavalcaselle. The style in these figures is, 
however, larger than that of Costa, and Giovanni Morelli refers them to Cossa. 
X Giov. Morelli, Die Werke italieniseher Meister^ &c., p. 130, finds the monogram 
^gi From below, however, even through a good glass, it appears extremely 
^] obscure. But the style of the whole design undoubtedly reveals the 
^^ hand of Cossa. 



1^6 OOSSA. 

Atmunciathn, in ihe DreBdeb Gallery, formtf ly itttrilMlted, with 
doubt to Antonio Pollaiuolo, is now catalogued under the bead of 
GossA.^ This remarkable master appears to have died between 
1480 and 1485. 



No« 597» St. Hyacinth ; Dominican. 

Christ in glory above, surrouaded by angels bearing the 
instruments of the Passion. Below stands the Saint in the habit 
of his order, upon a hexagonal platform, which rests on short 
balusters, and is overlaid with a red velvet cloth. He looks 
upwards reverently, exhibiting an open book in his left hand, and 
pointing with the forefinger of his right towards a rosary which 
hangs from a bar connected with the pier and broken arches 
behind. Blue sky, and distant landscape of fantastic rocks and 
architecture, with some figures. 

In tempera, on wood, 5 ft. A. by 2 ft. 11 ^ in. w. 

This picture, once ascribed to Marco Zoppo, has hitherto so remained, 
provisionally. It is now recognized as the work of Coesa. It was tiie 
centre panel of an altar-piece, the two other parts of which, containing 
the figures of St. Peter and the Baptist, are in the Brera Gallery at 
Milan, and the predella, with stories of the life of St. Hyacinth, is in 
the Picture Gkillery of tiie yatioan.t 

Formerly in the collection of the Marchess Giovanni Costabili at 
Ferrara, out of which it was purchased for the National Oallery, 1658. 



* No. 43. Messrs. Orowe and Cavalcaselle {Painting in N, Italy, 1^ 5S7-8) had 
long since reco^ized in this picture a Ferrarese hand, and affinities with Tora 
and OoBsa. Giov. Morelli more definitely assigns it to Cossa himself, as does 
also the Director of the Dresden Gallery. 

t MM. Orowe and Cavalcaselle had already indicated the connexion between 
these three panels. {Painting in N. Italy, I., p. 5i8.) Dr. Gustavo Frizzonl and 
Hgr. Ad. Ventnri, in the course of investigations in the history of Ferrarese art» 
have succeeded in proving the entire triptych to be the work of Cossa. Dr. 
Frizzoni has moreover given good reasons for the conclusion that the personage 
in the central panel represents, not St.Dominick himself, as had been supposMU 
but Vincentins Ferrer, a Spaniard of Valencia, who in 1374, at the age of 17, 
entered the Dominican order, died in 14 19. a nd, on account of his extraordinary 
sanctity, was canonized by r. Calixtns m. in 1456. The painting now in this 
Gallery is therefore beyond doubt the same which Yasarl refers to a^ **quel]a 

(opera) di S. Vinoenzio nella cappella de' Griflbni" in S. 

Fietronio), and erroneously assigns to Lorenzo Costa. (G. Frizzonl, ** Znr 
Wiederherst«llnng eines altferraresischen Altarwerkes," in ZHttehrift fuf biUL 
Kumtt XXIII., p. 299, 1888.) 



GOSTA. 1S7 

OOSTA (LoREiczo), 14W?-15S5. ' 

Costa formed one of the main links that united the sohoola of 
Ferrara and Bologna. Bom in the former city in or before 1460,^ 
he probably came under the tutelage of Cosimo Tura and Fran- 
cesco Oossa. Yassari's report that Cocita, when young, Tisited 
Florence to study the works of Bennozzo Gozioli and other«i, needs 
confirmation. la 1483 he established himself at Bologna, where, 
patronized by the Bentivogli, he remained at least three and 
twenty years. Th^re many of his principal works still exist ; for 
example, frescoes in S. Giacomo Maggiore ; altar-pieces in the 
Cathedral (8. Petronio), S. Giovanni in Monte, and elsewhere. 
During this period he must have paid more than one visit to 
Ferrara, where he completed some frescoes for the d'Estes in the 
Schifanoia Palace. At Bologna he formed an intimate friendship 
with Francia (see under Baibolini), whom he would seem to have 
led to practise painting, and by whom he was surpassed in that 
art. They worked together, probably sometimes conjointly 
on the same subjects. On the expulsion from Bologna (1507) of 
the powerful and enlightened Bentivogli, Costa perhaps retired 
to Ferrara. But in 1509, invited by the Marquis Francesco 
Gonzaga, who^e wife was Isabella d'Este, he fixed bis abode at 
Mantua, and resided there till his death, March 5, 1535. Costa'b 
style varied during his long career. His earlier works bear signs 
of his filiation to Tura tbad. Cossa. In later productions we 
may^ trace more of the amenity of Umbrian att, and finally the ^ 
influence of his own pupil Francia. A gentle- graviiy marksi his 
style. Want of force mars what is meant for grace. His figure 
are seldom planted firmly on the ground ; a fault which he shared 
with Francia. The ill-understood folds of their garments obscure 
the form and trail upon the ground in meaningless tags. This 
insensibility on the part of Costa to one of the noblest means of 
expression in art is remarkable, inasmuch as the works of 
Francesco Cossa might have set him an example of draperies 
carefully studied, true to fact, and often grandly disposed. The 
landscape part of Costa^s compositions has been much lauded ; 

* The date of 1460 rests upon the evidence of a Mortuary Register of Mantua, 
which records the death ot Lor. Costa on March 5, 1595, at the age of 75. Bnt 
Laderchi (La Plttura Ferrarese, pp. 40-41) adduces good reasons for doubtine the 
accuracy of the statement of aga, and considers that Oosta must have been bom 
in or about 1455. 



138 COSTA—COTIGNOLA. 

and no doubt the background of the great alter-piece in S. Giov. 
in Monte is impressive. But there Umbrian influence suggests 
itself, and in most other cases the want of grasp which enfeebles 
this painter's work generally is no less painfully felt in his efforts 
to render the facts of nature. His best merits are a pious gravity 
and a sense of colour. Barruffaldi gives a long list of painters 
who issued from the school of Costa. The best of these, after 
Francia, are Ercole di Giulio Grandi, Dosso Dossi, and Mazzolini ; 
if this last was not rather a scholar of Dom. Panetti. 

No. 629- The Madonna and Child Enthroned with 
Angels. 

A large altar-piece in five panels. In the central arched com- 
partment is the Madonna enthroned on a high pedestal under 
which is seen a distant landscape. She holds the Infant Christ 
on her knee who raises His hand in the attitude of benediction. 
An angel bends forward in adoration on each side, and below on 
low seats are two angiolini playing musical instruments. In the 
lower compartments to the right and left are full length figures of 
St. John the Evangelist and St. Peter, and above are half length 
figures of St. Philip and St. John the Baptist. 

Transferred from wood to canvas,* in five compartments. Centre 
picture 5 ft. 5 J in. h. by 2 ft. 5 in. to. Side pictures 1 ft. 9^ in. and 
3 ft. 7 in. h, by 1 ft. 10^ in. w. Signed — 

LAVRENTiVS • COS FA • F • 1^05 

This picture was formerly over the principal altar of the Oratorio delle 
Orazie, at Faenza (now a post house). In 1780 it formed part of the 
Hercolani Collection in Bologna,t from which it passed, in 1837, into 
the possession of Mr. Wigram, at Rome. In 1848 it became the property 
of M. Van Cuyck, who sold it in the following year to M. Beiset, from 
whom it was purchased for the National Gallery in 1859. 



GOTZONO&A (Bernando da). See ZA.aAHB&&X. 

* It is paint'^d on fine linen, rmao^ which was attached to wood ; this renso ia 
now lined with canvas in the place of the original tavola; it was transferred at 
Antwerp in 1848. 

fit is described in the Hercolani Catalogue by OaJvi, Versi e Prote^ &c., 
Bologna, 1780, p. 10, as the best of Costa's pictures on wood (in Tavola) ; Calvi 
terms it uno stupore. This picture is noticed also as an admirable example of 
the master, by Kio, in his liie of Leonardo Da Vinci, Art Cfhretien, voL ii. 



OBANAGH. 139 

G&AMAGB (Lucas), 1472-1553. 

Lucas Sunder, commonly called Lucas Cranach, from his 
birthplace, was born Oct. 4, 1472, at Cronach, near Bamberg, in 
Bavaria. In 1495 he was appointed oonrt painter to the Elector 
of Saxony, and then took up his residence in the Electoral palace 
of Frederick the Wise at Wittemborg ; Cranach had accompanied 
that prince on his pilgrimage to the Holy Land two years 
previously. He served three Saxon Electors in the capacity of 
court painter, and he was so much attached to John Frederick, 
the Magnanimous, that when that prince was taken prisoner by 
the Emperor Charles Y. after the battle of Muhlberg in 1547, 
Cranach preferred sharing with him his five years* captivity at 
Innsbruck to accompany the Emperor to the ^Netherlands. 
They returned to Wittemberg in 1552, when Cranach retired to 
Weimar, where he died on the 16th of October in the following 
year. 

Cranach lived at an eventful period ; his principal works were 
painted between 1506 and 1540 ; he was the intimate friend of 
Luther and painted his portrait several times ; he is said to have 
brought about the marriage of Luther and Catherine Bora, of 
which he was one of the witnesses. Cranach was twice burgo- 
master of Wittemberg. After his death a medal was struck in 
his honour, with his portrait on one side, and on the other the 
arms granted to him by the Elector Frederick the Wise in 1508, 
viz., a crowned winged serpent on a gold ground. This device 
was the ordinary mark used by Cranach on his pictures and 
prints. He was not only a painter, but also an engraver on copper 
and wood, and an illuminator of manuscripts. His biographer, 
Heller, enumerates, as his accredited works, upwards of 800 prints, 
chiefly woodcuts.^ 

No. 231m Portrait of a Young Lady. 

In a red dress with slashed and puffed sleeves, gold chain, 
and necklace ; her gloves slashed for rings. Small figure, half- 
' length. 

On wood, 14 in. h, by 10 in. w. 

The painter's mark, the crowned serpent or dragon, is seen in the 

* Luras Cranach* 8 Leben und Werke. 2nd ed. Nlimburg, 1854. Bee also Lucas 
Oranaeli dea AeUerm Leben und Werke, by Ohristian Schuchardt 2 vols anaiXl 
Syo. Leipzig, 1851. 



140 CRANACH— CREDI. 

lower corner to the Bpeotetor*s left. Ptirdhttidd lit the sale at Alton 
Towers in 1857. 



nJV^ 



No. 1925a Portrait of a Man. 

An elderly man with thili fair hair and clean-shaven face. He 
wears a dress of black-cat velvet. His right hand rests on his 
hip, and the left is posed on a large pnrse with a steel clasp which 
hanffs from a black leather belt. Two coats of arms are shown 
on tne dark background to right and left at the top of the picture. 
Under the shield to the left is the painter's crest, the dragon with 
a crown, and the date 1 524. 

On panel, 1 ft. 8f in. A. by 10 J in. w. 
Presented by Mr. John P. Heseltine, in 1908. 



O&BDZ (Lorenzo di), 1459-1537. 

Was born at Florence in 1459,^ and was the fellow pupil of 
Leonardi da Yinci and Pietro Perugino, in the School of 
Yerrocchio. He owes his celebrity to his paintings ; it appears, 
however, that he was skilled in sculpture also, since his master, 
Yerrocchio, expressed a desire in his will (in 1488) that Lorenzo 
might be employed to finish the colossal equestrian statue of 
Bartolommeo Colleoni at Yenice, which Yerrocchio had' left 
incomplete. 

Lorenzo is distinguished for his careful execution and elaborate 
finish. But his works may be searched in vain for any trace of 
inspiration ; at best they manifest gontleness of feeling. The 
colouring tends to crudeness and hardness ; the flesh-tints are 
pallid and monotonous. When children are introduced (and most 
of Lorenzo's subjects necessarily include the " Bambino''), their 
forms, though studied with care, and almost painfully worked out 
in detail, are puffy and clumsy ; the heads crabbed, and wanting 
in infantile charm. Favourable examples of Lorenzo's art are 

* Lorenzo was the son of a certain Andrea, and grandson of Oderigo di 
Andrea di Oredi, a goldsmith. This is proved by various sxiEftlng dooumentB. 
amongst which are the wills of Andrea Yerrocchio and of Lorenzo hiw^aAK. 
Vasari's story that the name of Lorenzo's family was SciarpellonL seems to 
have no foundation. On the other hand, an entry in a ledger of the Hospital of 
8. Maria Nuova, dated 1486, and relating to the painter, terms him **Lorenao d* 
Andrea d' Oderigo Barduooi." See Overe di Q. Vatari, edited by O. mii^wm^ 
VoL IV., pp. 663-4, notes. 



CREDI— ORIVBLLI. HI 

the NaUmty in the Accademia at Florence, two similar snbjecta 
in the Uffizi, and two or three pictures in the Loayre. The 
first above mentioned is well composed on certain formal lines, 
and the figures are graceful and well rounded. But the whole 
leaves the spectator cold. Lobenzo di Cbedi died at Florence, 
on the 12th of January, 1537. 

No. 593- The Virgin and Child. 

Seated under a portico in a garden ; the Virgin holding the 
Child to her breast. Through the columns and arches of the 
Portico is seen a beautiful and fantastic landscape. 

On wood, 2 ft. 3^ in. A. by 1 ft. 7i in. w, 

Yoxmoxlj in the poeeossion of the Cavalieri Mandni of Flormee, 
Purchased at Florence from the Lombardi-Baldi Collection, in 1857. 

No. 64k8- The Virgin adoring the Infant Christ. 

, The Child is resting on a pillow on the ground ; the Virgin is 
kneeling before him in adoration. Landscape background, with a 
rain, and the angel appearing to the shepherds in the distance. 
On wood, 2 ft. 10 in. h, by 1 ft. 11^ in. w. 

Formerly in the Northwiok Collection, at Thirlstane House, Chelten- 
ham. Purchased from Edmond Beauoousin, at Paris, in I860. 



€BZ VBIiXiX (Cablo), 1430 ?-1493 ?. 

By descent and probably by birth a Venetian, Cablo Cbivelli 
was born early in the 15th century; about 1430, as is supposed. 
Little is known of his history ; but marked affinities of style 
connect him with the schools of Padua and Murano. Otherwise 
his own strong individuality gives him a uni(^ue position in 
Italian art. He settled, perhaps a little before 1468, at Ascoli in 
the Marches of Ancona, and in that neighbourhood seems to 
have spent the rest of his lifetime. His works must be seen in 
order that any notion may be formed of their singularity. In 
them may be found expressed, in quaint combination, morose 
asceticism, passionate and demonstrative grief, verging on cari- 
cature, true and touching pathos, occasional grandeur of con- 
ception and presentment, knightly dignity, feminine sweetness 
and tenderness mingled with demure and far-fetched grace ; infan- 
tile gravity or playfiilnewu The Virgin Mother is the robed and 



142 CEEVILLE. 

crowned " Begina Coeli " ; benign, gentle, gracious ; her connte- 
nance tinged with melancholy. These human characteristics are 
brought before the eye by an art where sharpness, not to say 
hardness, of outline is combined with exact modelling, and where 
resplendent and diverse colour, from the fullest primary tints to 
the most delicate tertiaries, is supported and harmonized by the 
use of gold and the introduction of gilt and silvered omamenta 
in high relief. Varied marbles, oriental carpets, fruit and flower* 
in canopies and festoons or scattered singly about enhance the 
richness and pomp of the whole effect. The brilliancy, seldom 
impaired by time, of pictures by Crivblli is due to the employ- 
ment of tempera, a medium to which he, like Mantegna, 
exclusively adhered. Of his dated works the earliest (1468) is 
the altar-piece in S. Silvestro at Massa near Fermo. After this 
come in succession the altar-piece of the Oapella del Sacramento 
in the Duomo of Ascoli (1473) ; the great altar-piece of 1476, 
once in S. Domenico at Ascoli, but now in this gallery ; two 
exquisite pictures of the Enthroned Madonna and Infant in the 
Lateran Gallery, Rome, dated respectively 1481 and 1482 ; a 
superb triptych of the latter date in the Brera at Milan ; lastly, 
the unrivalled Annunciation (1486) in our own Gallery. All these, 
and many others, undated, but doubtless painted before or shortly 
after 1486, bear, when signed, the name Carolvs CRiVELLys 
Yenetys. But in 1490 the painter was knighted by Ferdinand of 
Capua,^ and from that time he was careful to add to his signature 
the title of Miles, or Eqves Lavreatvs. One of his finer works, 
a Coronation of the Virgin^ in the Brera Gallery at Milan, is dated 
1493. It shows him still in possession of his highest powers. 
Later than this no date is found. The Brera contains four other 
paintings by him. In the Vatican is a passionately conceived 
** Pietk*' ; in the Berlin Gallery, an important and beautiful 
Madonna^ dte. (once in the Earl of Dudley's collection) and a 
Magdalen. But no gallery in Europe is so rich in Crivelli's 
productions as our own. Carlo had a brother, Vittore, who 
probably assisted in the studio, and of whom some independent 
but mediocre works, dated 1481-90, are extant. f 

The original document conferring the title is still preserved by thfr 
Mnnidpality of Ascoli 

tBldolflf Le Maraviglie, Sec; Orsini, Guida D^^«co2<, Perugia, 1790 Carboni, 
Memorie intomo i Lgtterati e gli Artisti Aacolani. Ascoli, 1830, p. 119 ; Bicd, Memoitm 
Storiche delle ArtU At delta Marca di Ancona^ Macerata, 1S34, vol. i., p. 228. 



GBIVfiLLL 14a 

No. 602. The Dead Christ, a Pietd. 

Two infant angels supporting the body of Christ, seated on the 
edge of the tomb. Half -figure. 

In tempera on wood, 2 ft. 4^ in. h, by 1 ft. 10 in. to. 

Part of an altar-pieoe, formerly in the ohnroh of Frati Oonventnali 
Biformati at Monte Fiore, near Fermo. Purchaaed at Rome, from 
Oa^diere Yallati, in 1869. Signed — 

CAROLVS- CR*VELLVSVENETVS-PfNStT«5. 

No. 6C8. The Beato Ferretti* 

Kneeling in a rocky landscape, in adoration ; a vision of the 
Virgin and Cbild, surrounded by the Mandorla or Vetica glory, is 
seen above ; on the ground before him is an open book. The* 
background to the right is a village street, and in the foreground 
to the left are two ducks on a piece of water, near which are lying 
a pair of clogs ; in the upper part of the picture is a festoon of fruit. 
On wood, in tempera, 4 ft. 7 4 in. h, by 2 ft. 104 ^ ^' 
Purchased from Mr. Alexander Barker in 1861. Signed— 



No. 724. The Madonna and Child enthroned^ with 
St. Jerome and St. Sebastian. 

Enriched with fruit and flowers. Known from the swallow 
introduced as the '' Madonna della Kondine." In a predeUa below 
are St. Catharine ; St. Jerome in the wilderness ; the Nativity of 
our Lord ; the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ; and St. George and 
the Dragon. 

In tempera, on wood ; altar-piece 4 ft. 11 in. h, by 8 ft. 64 in. to. ; pro- 
della pictures II4 in. A. by 84 in., 13 in., 144 in., 13 in., and 84 in. w. 
It is in its original frame. 

Formerly in the church of the Franciscans at Matelica. Purchased 
from the Conti Luigi de Sanctis, of that town, in 1862. 

Sigpied — 



'CAROLVS'CraVELLV^-VENETVS-MILES-PmXfT" 



* The late Pontiff. Pins IX., Oiovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti was of the family 
of the Beato Ferretti. 



144 CRIVELI^. 

No. 739> The Annunciation; 

An elegant house and iaterior conrt ; the Virgin is seen below, 
in her chamber, kneeling in prayer, on the spectator's right. A 
golden ray from a glory above, piercing the house wall, has struck 
her head, over which is hovering a dove, the symbol of the Holy 
Spirit. The Angel of the Annunciation is kneeling opposite the 
Virgin in the open court, and at his side is, also kneelini 
St. Emedius, the patron of Ascoli, with a model of the city in hi 
hand. The picture is rich in accessories, comprising several smal 
figures, a peacock, and other birds, fruit, vases of flowers, tapestry, 
&c. The architecture is rich, many of the ornamental portions 
being gilt. 

At the bottom of the picture are written in large letters, be* 
tween three coats of arms, the words Libertas Kgclesiastiga.^ 
the arms are those of the then bishop of Ascoli, Prospero Caffa- 
relli, of the reigning Pope Innocent VIII., and of the city or 
Ascoli. The painter has also inserted his signature, and the year 
of the painting ; Opds Karoli Crivelli Venbti. 1486. 

In tempera, on poplar, 6 ft. 10| in. k. by 4 ft. 10^ in. u,. 

It ^as originally painted for the convent of the Santissima Annmw^ 
aiata at Asooli, where it was^till preserved in 1790.* It formed more 
^ieeeBll^oae of l)he ^llj Collection, from which it passed, in 1847 into ^ 
the possession of Lord Taunton (then Mr. Labouchere), by whom it wn^ 
presented, in 1864, to the National Gallery, 

No. 788- The Madonna and Child enthroned^ sur-i 
rounded by Saints. 

An altar-piece in three stages, and thirteen compartmen^ts, 
painted in tempera, on wood. 

Lower Stage (five pictures). In the centre is the Madonna, with 
a jewelled crown, and seated on a marble throne, with the Infant 
Christ sleeping in her lap. Inscribed below the throne Opds. 
Karoli Crivelli Veneti 1476. 
* 4 ft. 3i in. h. by 2 ft. 1 in. mj., circular top. 

On the Virgin's right, next to her, is " St. Peter," in pontifical 
robes, with the triple tiara on his head, his costume being en- 
riched with portions in relief, and studded with imitation pearb 
and other jewels : in his left hand he holds his pastoral staff, and 
in his light a book and the two keys. 

Beyond St. Peter is *^ St. John the Baptist, in the Wilderness, 
with cross and scroll bearing the motto Ecee Agnus Dei. 



*• Osfos^Dnarixiom delle PUturet &e„ Delia Inslgne ClttH di Atcoll^ 8vo., Pertrfilir 
1790. 



CRIVELLI, 145 

On the left of the Yirgin is " St. Catherine of Alexandria,'* her 
right hand resting on a wheel, in her left she holds the palm of 
martyrdom. 

Beyond St. Catherine is *' St. Domenick," seen in profile, who 
holds in his left hand a book and a lily. 

Whole-length figures ; each of the four panels 4 ft. A. by 1 ft. 4 in. w.^ 
with dronlar tope. 

Second Stage (four pictures). Over the Baptist is *' St. Francis 
with the Stigmata ;" over St. Peter, *' St. Andrew the Apostle," 
with cross and book ; over St. Catherine, " St. Stephen," the 
protomartyr, with a book, and stones the emblems of his martyr- 
dom : and over St. Domenick is ** St. Thomas Aquinas,*' with book 
and the model of a church. 

Half-length figures, small life size ; each panel 1 ft. 11 in. h, by 1 ft. 
4 in w,j wiSi circular top. 

Third Stage , or Cuspidi (four pictures). Over the canopy of 
the Yirgin, in the centre, are V The Archangel Michael," tramp- 
ling on the Dragon, with a sword in Lis right hand and a pair of 
scales in the left, weighing a man and woman who are of light 
weight ; and St. Lucy with the palm of martyrdom in her right 
hand, carrying a plate containing her eyes in her left. On the 
right of this centre group is ** St. Jerome," in his cardinal robes, 
and carrying the model of a church ; on the left hand '* St. Peter, 
Martyr," with the sword of his martyrdom on his head. 

Small full-length figures, each panel 2 ft. 11 in. h, by 10^ in. «?., with 
circular top. 

The more important portions of this altar-piece were formerly 
in the old church of San Domenico, at Asooli. They are noticed 
by a traveller of the last century, who records their date, 1476.** 
The church of San Domenico was rebuilt in 1776, and Orsinif 
mentions some of the subjects as being in the sacristy in 1790. 
They afterwards came into the possession of the Cardinal Zelada, 
at Rome, who seems to have added the upper pictures by the 
same master, and thus formed the piesent large altar-piece. It 
was seen while in the collection of Cardinal Zelada at Rome 
by Seronz D'Agincourt, who has engraved the compartment of 
the Madonna and child.;]: It was subsequently in the Rinuccini 
Collection, in Florence ; from which it passed, in 1852, into that of 



* See Bicci, ** Memorie Storlche delle Arti, <frc.. della Marca di Ancona.** 1834 
vol. i, p. 211. 

t ;• DeBcrizione, Ac, deUa CittA dl Ascoli, 1790," p. 45. 

: D'Agincourt, Histoire de V Art par ses Monument^ Ac, pL 138. Ftris, 1823. 

25640 K 



146 CRIVELLL 

Prince Anatole de Demidoff, and was placed in the private chapel 
in his villa of San Donato, near Florence, where it was put into 
its present magnificent frame. 

Purchaaed at Paris, in 1868, from Mr. G. H. Phillips. The height of 
the whole altar-piece is 16 ft., the width 10 ft. 6 in. 

No. 807. The Madonna and Child enthroned. 

On her right St. Francis ; on the left St. Sebastian, pierced 
with arrows and tied to a pillar ; near the foot of St. Francis is 
a snail. The Donatrix, a small figure of a Dominican nun, is 
kneeling at the foot of the throne.^ Signed on a blue label, Opus, 
Caroli. Crinelli. Veneti. Miles. 1491. 

In tempera, on wood, 5 ft. 9 in. A. by 4 ft. 10 in. w. 

Purchased by the second Marquis of W.estminster, in 1841, at Borne. 
Presented, in 1870,^ by Elizabeth Mary widow of Richard, second 
Marquis of Westminster. 

No. 906. The Madonna in Ecstacy. 

The Yirgin, covered by a mantle of blue and gold, is standing 
in a marble recess, looking up to the Almighty and the dove, seen 
above ; two angels bear a scroll, and support a crown over her 
head ; in the scroll is written, Ut in mente Dei db initio coneepta 
fuij ita et facta sum, 

A rich piece of drapery is hung behind her ; and on her right 
hand is placed a painted majolica jug containing carnations and 
red and white roses, on the other side is a glass vase holding a 
lily. Signed and dated, Earoli Chriyelli Yeneti Militis Pinsit, 
1492. 

In tempera, on wood, 6 ft. 3 in. k, by 3 ft. w. 

Formerly in the chapel of the Malatesta family, in the church of San 
Francesco, at Rimini. Purchased at the sale of Mr. Alexander Barker's 
pictures in 1874. 

No. 907. St Catherine and St. Mary Magdalene. 

Small entire figures, with their attributes, standing in niches. 
In tempera, on wood, each panel 1 ft. 2^ in. h, by 7 J in. w 
Purchased at the sale of Mr. Alexander Barker's pictures, in 1874. 

* The following dedication to the Virgin, recording the considerable cost of 
the picture, is on a plinth below ^-ALM^ Consolationis Matri. MARIS : 
PRIOBES. POSTEROSQ^E MISERATA sues. ORADEA. JOAMNIS : iBBB PROPRIO 
NON IIODICO DICAVIT. 



CUYP. 147 

CUVP (Aelbert), 1620-1691, 

AsLBBRT, the son of Jacob G^rritz Guyp and his wife Aertken 

(van Coo ten, of Utrecht), was bom at Dort, his father's native town, 

in October 1620.^ He became a pnpil of hin father. Particalcra, 

of his earlier life are .wanting, bnt it is probable that be visited 

other parts of Holland before beginning to practice on his own 

aoconnt at Dort. On the 30th Jnly 1658 he married Cornelia 

(bom Bosman), widow of Johan van den Corpnt. She died ii) 

1689. Her husband sarvived her but two years, and was, buried 

at Dort, Nov. 6, 1691. Cuyp was many-sided in his art and 

ever taking nature as his guide and model escaped all reproach 

of mannerism. His meth')d varied daring a tolerably long 

career, and was also modified according to thq subjects which he 

handled and their size. But he rarely fails to impress by an 

originality attained without pretension or effort. An eye for 

composition and a fine sense of perspective prompted him to seize 

on those accidental combinations which are always at hand for 

him who can see them. His temperament led him to seek calm 

and sunny scenes, and his extraordinary mastery in rendering 

light, and the atmospheric effects of hazy morning, of glowing 

afternoon, and of golden evening has become proverbial. Dwelling 

on the banks of the placid Maas, he delighted to re^Hroduce the 

warm skies of summer or autumn reflected in an expanse of water 

overspread with marine craft. He wa«i equally at home amongst 

the near polders and meadows. The figures of men, horses, and 

cattle, which frequently occupy a chief place in his pictures, are 

well and vigorously executed. When in his earlier life, he 

painted groups of " still life/' as dead game, fruit, and the like, he 

showed a skill, a refinement, a feeling for texture and colour, and 

it may even be said, a sentimen*:, which place him ab^ve any of 

those artists who devoted themselves exclusively to such themes. 

Bat Cuyp seems to have met with but limited recognition in his 

*The statement of Hoabraken, that Aelbert was bom in 1603, was, until 
recently, implioitly accepted. It is now shown on dosomentary evidence to be 
erroneous, in like manner the birth of Jacob Gerritsz (<.«., OerritszDon— son of 
Gerrit), Aelbert's father, had been ante-dated by lu years. Jacob was, in fact, 
not bom until December, 1584, nor married until November, 1618. He died in 
1661 or 1652. He studied under Abraham Bloemart, and occupied himself 
chiefly with i>ortraiture. A thirti painter of the Ouvp family— Benjamin— 
(1612-1652), supposed to have been a nephew of Jacob Qerritz, also resided 
principally at Dort ; in his art he affected the style of Rembrandt. (See the 
yaloable communications on the Ouyp family by G. B. Veth, in " Oud Holland." 
Vol n., 1884, pp. 233. 234, 250, 256, seqq.) 

25640 K 2 



148 CUTP. 

day, and Holland ia not partioolarlj rich in his works. EngUnd, 
on the contrary, containn some of his finest ptodnotions, and 
hardly elsewhere ace to b« fonnd snoh examples of his art ai 
those, for instanoe, in the ooUeotiona of the King, Lord Ellea- 
niere, Mr. Holford, the Duke of Bedford, the late Sir Biohard 
Wallaoe, Lord Northbrook, and the National Gallery. Portraits 
by Aklbbrt Gdyp, of which there ate not many, are good in 
cbsraoter, sad as little conventional as his other work. 



No. 53a Landscape, witJi Cattle and Figures ,- Evening. 

A man dressed in a red coat, seated on a gray horse, conversing 
with a female, standing near him, and painting to the opposite 
side of the piatnre, ia a very prominent feature in this oompo- 
sition ; some cattle and sheep add to the beauty of the groap. 
The flgnrea are finely relieved by foliage, and a sloping hill 
behind, which is made to retire by the branches of a wide-spread- 
jng tree overhanging this part oE the picture. On the opposite 
«de is a pictaresqne sheet of water, on the further bank of which 
three horsemen are refreshing their steeds : the distance is 
bounded by low hills ; two dogs, a goat, and the stump of a tree 
occupy the fore-ground on this side. A snnny atmosphere 
pervades the whole picture. 



, On oanvaB, 1 ft 1 in. A. by 6 ft. 6 ii 



^l QOt 



toimeTlj in the coUeotioD ol Sir Lawrence Dondaa, and aobsequanely 
in that ot Ur. EDgerateiu, with whiob it waa pnndiased by Parliament 
in 1631. 



CUYP. .149 

No. 797. A Man^s Portrait 

Bast, life size ; a small skull-cap on his head. Signed /Etatis 
56, 1649. A. Cfuyp fecit. 

Aicwyj^.r'ccit. 

On wood, octagon, 2 ft. 3 in. h. by 1 ft. lli|in. w. 

Formerly in the collection of Mr. Bryan, who described it in his cata- 
logue, 1801, as a portrait of Ouyp himself. It then passed to Mr. 
Bulkeley Owen. Purchased from Mr. G. Nieuwenhuys in 1869. 

No. B2SL Horseman and Cows in^a Meadow ; Evening. 

The mounted man is conversing with a herdsman and a boy. 
To the left a dog, and a man lying asleep on the ground. Signed 
A, Ouyp, 

On canvas, 2 ft. 8| in. h, by 3 ft. 6i in. h. 

Formerly in the possession of Messrs. Woodbum. Purchased with 
the Peel Collection, in 1871. 

No. 823* River Scene with Cattle. 

A broad river, probably the Meuse ; a herdsman with cattle 
watering on the bank ; to the left a boat with two anglers ; 
several small sailing boats in mid stream. Signed A, Ouyp. 

On wood, 1 ft. 6 in. h. by 2 ft 5 in. w. 

Formerly in the possession of Mr. Joseph Barchard. Purchased with 
the Peel Collection, in 1871. 

No. 824. Ruined Castle in a Lake, 

In the background a lofcy hill, some figures on the opposite 
side of the lake. In the foreground to the right a horseman 
conversing with a shepherd. 

On wood, \2\ in. h, by 1 ft. 9 in. w. 

Formerly in the De Preuil and La Perrier Collections. 

Imported into this country by M. La Fontaine. Purchased with the 
Peel CoUection, in 1871.* 

* Smith's Catalogue Baitonni, v. 



160 OUYP. 

No. 960. The Windmills. 

Landscape, with the view of a town, in the middle fi^ronnd, of 
which three windmills are conspicuous objects. A milkmaid on 
the dyke and a man on horseback in the foreground ; to the left a 
river. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 8^ in. h, by 6 ft. 4^ in. w. 

Signed in fall. The Wynn EUSs Bequest. 1876. 

No. 961> Cattle and Figures. 

Evening, milking time. Four cows and a milkmaid with her 
cans in a meadow. The City o£ Dort in the background. Known 
as the " Large Dort." Four. figures. Sigued A. Uuvp. 

On canvas, 6 ft. 2 in. h, by 6 ft. 6 in. w. 

Formerly in the possession of Lord BristoL Purchased at the 
Coventry sale. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 4876. 

No. 962- Cattle and Figures. 

Evening. Five oows and a herdsman in a meadow, Dort in the 
distance. Known as the ** Small Dort.'' Signed A. Outp. 

On oak, 2 ft. 2\ in. A. by 3 ft. 3i in^ w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 1289« Landscape with Cattle and Figures. 

On a greensward, close to the shore of a river or canal, three 
cows are lying, while a fourth stands by their side. Beyond 
them a boy is mounted on a black horse. A shepherd and a 
peasant girl, standing on the right, complete the group. The 
opposite bank is occupied by low-lying land, above which on 
the left of the horizon is seen a lofty oastle. 

On panel, 1 ft 21 in. h. by 1 ft. 7f in. w. 

Bequeathed by Mr. John Staniforth Beckett, in 1889. 

No. 1C83- . Study of a Horse. 

A brown and white piebald hors3 is standing in the open, air 
relieved in light against a dark grey sky.- On the ground to 



CUYP— DAViD. 161 

the left in front of some log^ of wood are grouped the saddle and 
a curry-comb with a barrel and a tub and a wooden shoe. 

On panel, 1 ft. 1 in. h, bj 1 ft. 5 in. w. 

Lent by the Victoria and Albert Mnaenm, in exchange with several 
others, for a collection of water-colour drawings lent by the National 
GaUery in 1895. 



(Gheeraert), 1450?— 1523. 

Was the son of Jan, son of David of Oade water in Holland, 
where he was born about the middle of the fifteenth century. 
Towards 1484 he settled at Bruges and was enrolled at once as 
master painter in the Corporation of Saddlers and Painters, of 
which guild he gradually rose to be dean in 1501. In 1496 he 
married Cornelia, daughter of Jacob Cnoop, Dean of the Guild of 
Goldsmiths : iu 1508 became member of the Brotherhood of N. D. 
de FArbre Sec, and died in 1523. He was buried in N. D. de 
Bruges, beneath the tower, his gravestone being adorned with his 
own and his wife's armorial bearings. 

In his art David followed the styles initiated by Dirk Boats 
and Hans Memlinc. He takes a high rank in the Flemish School. 
His earlier works are remarkable : their landscape backgrounds 
were probably executed by Joachim Patinir. David was also 
distinguished as an illuminator, and was a member of the Guild 
of SS. John and Luke at Bruges. When he visited Antwerp in 
1515 he was made a member of the Guild of S. Luke in that city. 

The following are his best authenticated works. Two early 
paintings (1488-98) now in the Academy at Bruges, ordered by 
the magistracy, representing the terrible punishment inflicted by 
Cambyses on the corrupt judge Sisamnes and the installation of 
the delinquent's son in his place.^ A triptych of the BapHitn 
of Christ, the Madonna, and the donor with his family, 1508. A 
kiptych for the chapel of the Holy Blood in St. Basirs at Bruges. 
An altarpiece presented by the painter in 1509, to the convent of 
the Carmelites of Sion at Bruges ; now at Boaen. In this picture 
the Virgin with the Infant sits enthroned surrounded by angela 
and seated female saints. To these may be added the panel now 

* See Herodotus, Terpa zzy. 



152 DAVID. 

ID onr own Gallery (1045), one of David's very finest works, and 
its companion, which is not traceable. Many other works which, 
like those above mentioned, have been attributed to Memlinc and 
other painters, are now recognised as probably by the hand of 
David.® 

No. 1045- A GanoY). and his Patron Saints, {Formerli/ 
the right wing of the reredos of the altar of St. John 
the Baptist and St. Mary Magdalene in the Colle- 
giate Church of St. Donatian at Bruges,) 

This and the left wing, which has disappeared, were commenced 
in 1501 at the cost of Bernardino de Salviatis, canon of that church, 
the illegitimate son of a rich Florentine merchant who traded or 
resided in Flanders. In the foreground of a hilly and richly 
wooded landscape the donor kneels in adoration, turned toward 
the right. He is attired in a black cassock furred with sable, over 
which is his surplice of plaited lawn. Across his left arm hangs 
his canon's almuce of grey squirrel's fur. Immediately behind 
him standi his patron St. Bemardine of Siena, in the habit of the 
Friars Minor, extending his right hand in sign of protection, and 
holding in his left a large book knobbed and clasped with gold, 
having on its cover the Holy Name of Jesus in gold on a ground 
of blue enamel. To the left, in the rear of the donor, but a little 
nearer the spectator, stands St. Martin, wearing the alb and a cope 
of red velvet fringed with black, the broad border of which is 
wrought in gold and embroidered in colours with figures of St. 
Anthony (?), St. Donatian, St. Martin, St. Bernardino, St. John 
the Baptist, and St. Mary Magdalene. The embroidery on the 
hood represents the Adoration of the Magi. Upon the morse is a 
group in relief of St. Martin dividing his cloak with the beggar. 
The bishop's mitre, of red velvet, and its fillets, are richlv jewelled. 
His ffloves are white. With his right hand he makes the sign of 
benediction, and holds with his left his golden pastoral staff of fine 
design, having within its floriated crook a group of the Yirgin and 
Ohild with an adoring angel. In advance of the canon, to the 
right, and bending towards him in exhortation, is St. Donatian, in 
processional vestments, bearing an arcbiepiscopal cross of wrought 
gold, silver, and enamel, together with his attribute, a wheel set 
round with five tapers. His cope is of gold and black brocade 
lined with blue. On its superb morse are seen a group of the 

* For all that is known of Oheeraert David the world of Art is indebted to 
the researches of Mr. W. H. James Weale, the valoable results of which will be 
found in ** Le Beffroi " passim, and in Vols. 30 and 21 of the Gazette des Beaux Arts, 
See also Messrs. Crowe and Oavalcaselle, ** Early Flemish Painters," eh. xii. 



DAVID. 158 

Viigin and Child, with two Angels who eonnd mnnoal instraments, 
the whole ander a canopy of tabemaole work. His mitre is black, 
laden with pearls and precious stones ; his gloves pale rose colour. 
On the extreme left in the middle distance on a road issuing from 
the wood, a beggar limps with the aid of a crutch towanls the 
group, imploring alms. The picture is in pertect preservation, 
except that the head of St. Bernardine has been abraded and that 
of St. Donatiau very slightly damaged. 

On panel, 3 ft. 4^ in. h, by 3 ft. f in. w. 

It is unknown when this piotuie was taken from its original place. 
Bat in 1792 it was acquired by Mr. Thomas Barrett, of Lee Priory, 
Kent. At the sale of his collection in May, 1859, it was purchased by 
Mr. William Benoni White, of Brownlow Street, and by the terms of 
his will became, in July, 1878, national property. 

No. 1432- T?ie Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine. 

« 

The scene is laid in a fenced sarden with flowers, surrounded by 
a walled vineyard, beyond which are seen the buildings of a town. 
The Virgin is seated m the centre on a Throne covered with scarlet 
drapery between two columns of red marble. She is dressed in a 
d irk blue tunic lined with fur, and a mantle of the same colour 
with a narrow border of gold embroidery ; behind her hangs a 
cloth of black and gold brocade. The infant Chrtet is seated on 
her knee. He has a coral rosary round His neck, and with His 
right hand places the ring on St. Catherine's finger, who, kneeling 
on one knee, bends forward to receive it. She is dressed in crimson 
and gold brocade with ermine lining, and wears a beautifully 
designed crown of gold and jewels. On the right of the picture 
are seated St. Barbara holding an open book in her hands, and St. 
Mary Magdalene with the vase of precious ointment in her lap. 
In front of St. Catherine on the left kneels the Canon Richard 
van der Capalle, the donor of the picture, attired in a furred 
cassock and a lawn surplice, and accompanied by his greyhound, 
on whose collar is a shield bearing the canon's arms. Before him 
on a floor of rich marble lie a breviary of blue velvet and his 
cantor's staff.^ In the vineyard is an angel gathering grajies. The 

* This staff Is surmounted by a group representingr the Holy Trinity adored 
by a monk and a cardinal, and was painted from one of two driven to the 
church of 3t.Donatian by Canon Nicholas van Bonchont in 1338. The staff was 
melted down in 1678. It is exactly described in an inventory of the church 
property of 1539 : ** Duo baculi argentei, qulbus utuntur domini cantores in 
^soUennibus festis : in uno illorum est imaeo Sancte Trinitafcis, et adhuc due 
''adorantium argentei deaurate, (Stc." See the account of the picture written 
by Mr. W. H. James Weale in 1878, at the time that it was exhibited at a loan 
exhibition in Paris under the name of Hugo van der Goes, and contributed to 
the Academy of that year (Vol. XIV., p. 391). See also Mr. Weale's publication 
of the inventories of St Donatian's Ohurch in Le Befroi (VoL L, p. 937). See also 
** Qerard Davldjoainter and illuminator," by the same author in No. 24 of The 
Portfolio, Dec, 1895. 



164 DAVID— DELEX. 

details of this pictdre aire carried oat with marvellous care and 
finish, and the whole displays the utmost perfection of execution. 

On panel, 3 ft. 6} in. A. by 4 ft. 8| in. w. 

This picture was painted for Richard de Yisch van der Capelle, 
Canon and cantor of tilie Collegiate Church of St. Donatian at Bruges, 
and adorned the altar of St. Catherine in that church until 1793. It 
was bequeathed to the National Gallery, in 1895, by Mrs. Lyne Stephens. 



(Cornelius Gebritz), 16 . . ? -1678. 

A landscape painter of Haarlem who studied under Salomon van 
Buisdael, and entered the painters' guild of his native town in 
1643. He lived and died at EEaarlem, and was buried there the 
23rd of March, 1678. His pictures seem to be rare in Holland 
now, though they are to be found in many German collections, in 
the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, and elsewhere. 

No. 1341. Landscape^ with Figures. 

A woodland scene. On the left a shallow stream, forded in 
middle distance by a horseman. On the right rustic steps intersect 
a steep bank at the foot of a path leading to a cotti^e, outside 
which peasants are grouped under the shade of lofty oak trees. 
In the foreground, felled timber. Above, a blue sky, across which 
fleecy cloudbs are drifting. Signed : — 



C.9.>9 



On^joanvas, 2 ft. li in. h, by 2 ft. 6| in. w. 

Purchased, in 1891, from Mr. Edward Habich, of CasseL 



DB&BM (DiBGK VAN), 1607 ?-167d ?. 

An able architectural painter of the 17th century, was born at 
'Heusden about the yeiar 1607, and was a pupil of Frans Hals. He 
depicted on a limited scale with consummate skill and delicacy 



DELEK—DIAZ. 156 

exteriors and interiors of splendid palaces and rillas in the style of 
the late renaiasancey with costly marbles of rariona kinds gleaming 
in the walls, columns and ^floors. Terraces, flights of steps, trim 
gardens and alleys with fountains in fall play, inTite the footsteps 
of the wanderer through the brilliant sunshine and the cool shade. 
These imaginary abodes in Van Delen*s pictures are peopled with 
cavaliers and ladies by the pencils of Anton Palamede-s Yan Herp, 
Pieter Godde, Wouwerman, and Teniers. Van Delen settled at 
Amemuyden in Zeeland, of which town he became Burgomaster. 
He worked also at Haarlem, Delft, and Antwerp. Dates on his 
pictures range between 1627 and 1670. He died at Amemajden 
in or about 1673. 

No. 1010> Extensive Palatial Buildings in variegated 
marbles of renaissance architecture, adorned unth 
statues. 

In the foreground is a marble fountain, with yarious siatues, 
surmounted by a gilt bronze group of Hercules and the Hydra. 
On the left, the palace in the foreground is in shadow, the distance 
is in full sunlight. The figures are perhaps by Anton Palamedes 
(1601-1673). 

On oak, 18 in. A. by 24 in. U7. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



(Nabcisse Virqile), 1809-1876. 

Diaz was bom at Bordeaux of Spanish parents ; he was left an 
orphan at the age of ten, and was adopted by a Protestant 
clergyman at Belleyue. From bis earliest years he studied nature 
in the woods ; the loss of his left leg was caused by sleeping 
out on the gr&ss. He was placed with a porcelain manufacturer 
when he was fifteen, but left this work in order to study painting 
under Sigalon. At first he produced historical and pastoral works, 
which had not much success, and for several years he suffered 
poverty ; later he came under the influence of Bosseau^ the land- 
scape punter, and he followed him about through the Forest of 
Fontatnbleau, studying and painting kndaoapes that ultimately 
won fame. Diaz may be considered as one of the lesser lights of 



156 DIAZ— DIETRICH. 

the Barbizon Schoo^. He died at Mentone in 1876. Amongst his 
pictares in public collectioas are a Girl with Dogs ia the Yiutoria 
an i Albert Maseum, South Kensington, The Forest of Fontaivbleau 
ia the Bordeaux Museum, and four studies in the Luxembourgh 
Gallery, in Paris. 

No. 2058. Sunny Days in the Forest. 

A glade in the Forest of Fontainbleau. Two women are 
gathering faggots by a shallow pool near some trees lit up by the 
afternoon sun. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 3| in. h, by 1 ft. 9| in. w. 

Presented by the Executors of Mr. Charles Hartree, 1906. 



(JOHANN WiLHELM ErNST), 1712-1774. 

Was born at Weimar, Oct. 30, 1712, where his father, Johann 
Georg Dietrich, was court-painter. After acquiring the rudiments 
of his art from his father, he was sent to Dresden to pursue his 
studies under the celebrated landscape-painter Alexander Thiele. 
DiETBiCH was of such precocious talent, that he was appointed, 
when only in his eighteen+h year, court-painter to Augustus 11. 
King of Poland and Elector of Saxony. In 1741 he received a 
similar appointment from Augustus III., who, in 1743, sent him 
to Rome, in order that he might become acquainted with the great 
productions of Italian art. In 1746 he was appointed keeper of 
the celebrated Dresden gallery of pictures ; he was likewise one of 
the professors of the Academy of the Arts at Dresden, and director 
of the school of painting attached to the porcelain manufactory of 
Meissen. He died at Dresden, April 24, 1774. Dietrich painted 
almost all subjects, and was remarkable for the facility and fidelity 
with which he imitated any style or any manner. His pictures are 
very numerous, and there are likewise many etchings by his 
hand.** 

* Meusel, Mlscelkmeen artistischen InJialts, Erfurt, 1779 ; Heineken, Neue 
Inaehrichten von Kunstlem und Kunstsacheny Breaden, 1786 ; and his Dictionnaire 
des Artifttea dont nous avons des Eatampes^ vol. iv. Dietrich is said to have written 
his name Dietrici j after his visit to Italy in 1733. 



DIETRICH— DOLCI. 157 

No. 205a The Itinerant Musicians. 

An old man playing the fiddle, and a boy accompanying him 
on the bagpipes, are standing under a doorway, and entertaining 
a small rnstic audicDoe ; some rich foliage in the background. 

Etched by Dietrich himself ; admirably engraved by J. G. Wille in 
1761; also by J. F. Banse and others. 

On wood, 1 ft. 5^ in A. by 1 ft. 1 in. w. Signed and dated — 
Bequeathed to the National Gallery, in 1846, by Mr. Richard Simmons. 



BOXiOI (Cablo), 1616-1686, 

Born at Florence, May 25, 1616, is chiefly distinguished for the 
high finish of his works, the subjects treated being usually of a 
devout and sacred character. He was a pupil of Jacopo Yignali. 
Although Carlo Dolgi lived at a time when the true greatness 
of Italian art had departed, he nevertheless possessed powers 
which, in connection with him, it is now too common to leave 
without just recognition. No doubt very many of his works 
are chargeable with sentimentality, affectation and over-sweet- 
ness. But in the best may be found real feeling, grace, and 
in all delicacy and refinement. His drawing is beyond re- 
proach; and the extremities of his figures, the bands especially, 
are beautifully shaped, and perfect in their action. He had the 
fault of over-modelling tbe forms, and thereby losing breadth 
of surface : but it seems not improbable that in many cases the 
thin scumblingB, which he may have passed over his full and half 
shadows, have in process of time been absorbed, or obliterated 
by careless cleaning. His figure of Potsy in the Gorsini Palace, 
Rome ; his ^t, Cecilia at Dresden ; his large composition of 
St, Andrew in Prayer^ before his Martyrdom^ in the Pitti Palace, 
and a moderately sized Adoration of the Magi^ formerly at Blen- 
heim Palace, are sufficient to entitle their author to a place in art 



158 DOLCI— DpmSNIGO. 

more than respectable. His daughter Agnes imitated and copied 
her father's work. Oablo died at Florence,! Jan. 17, 1686. 

No. 934> Virgin and Child, 

The Yirgin presenting flowers from a basket to the DiTine 
Infant, who is standing nearly naked, with her hand round him 
holding a loose veil to his body. 

On oanvas, 2 ft. 6 J in. h. by 2 ft. ^ in. w. 

The Wynn EUis Bequest. 1876 



DOMBMXCBZNO. See ZaMPXBBX. 



DOMSMZCO VBNBZZAHO. 14 . .?-1461. 

Of this painter extremely little is known. Although he called 
himself a Yenetian, it is uncertain whether he was such by birth 
or by descent only.^ He was residing at Perugia in 1438, where he 
decorated the vestibule of the Gasa Baglioni with five-and-twenty 
figures of illustrious men. He next appears in Florence, whither 
he had probably been invited by Oosimo de' Medici, "il Yec- 
chio,"f and between 1439 and 1435 was painting in the chapel 
of Sant* Egidio in S. Maria Nuova. The works which he there 
executed no longer exist, a misfortune the more to be regretted 
seeing that they may have shown traces of the assistance of his 
distinguished pupil Piero della Francesca, as well as evidence of 
the use of an oil medium in Italy at that period. Yasari says, 
that before Dombnico's advent in Florence, both master and 
scholar had painted together at Loreto. But, if they really 
worked conjointly there (and nothing now remains to prove the 

* In an entry in the books of the hospital of S. Maria Naova he is styled 
Jf. Donienicho dl Sartolomeio da Vinezia. (Orowe and Oavalcaselle, History ^ Ac, 
IL,_p. 315, note 2.) The two works of his which remain are signed ** Dominicns 
de venetiis.** 

t Gave iCarteggio degli ArtUtU L, 136-8) gives a letter written by Domenico 
from Ferogia in April, 1438, in which he enu-eats Piero di Gosimo de' Medici to 
procnre him from Cosimo a commission for a certain altar-piece. 



DOMENICO. 159 

fact), it is more likely to have been after than before the 
completion of their labonrs in S. Maria Nnova. Two only of 
DoMENico*8 prodactions are known to be extant. One of these is 
an altar-piece, formerly in 8. Lnoia de*'Bardi, but now in the 
IJffizi. It contains the Enthroned Madonna and Childy with four 
attendant saints. It is extremely light and, in its present state, 
crnde; in tone.^ The drawing and workmanship are good and 
careful, but the style exhibits some remarkable inequalities ; 
for while the form of St. John the Baptist is thiok-set and com- 
mon, the figure of St. Lucy, on the opposite side, is one of much 
elegance, with a head in profile that recalls the types of Fra 
Angelico. The other existing work by Dombmico is ^e Enthroned 
Madonna in this gallery, described below (No. 1215). Here the 
figure of the Virgin has considerable majesty of mien. The head, 
though seen in nearly a front view, is distinctly of the type of 
that of St. Lucy in the Bardi altar-piece. Both these* 'viorks 
afford ample proof that Domenigo*s education was Florentine. 
His alleged association with Andrea dal Gastagno in the work 
in S. Maria Nuova, is invalid ited by the absence of any evidence 
that his labours there were prolonged beyond 1445 ; while those 
of Andrea were not begun before 1451. More direct testimony 
disproves the tale of his murder by Andrea.f Domenico died at 
Florence in May 1461, and was buried on the 15th of that month 
in S. Pier Gattolino. 



No. 766- Head of a Saint 

A monk, in black, with shaven crown and face. Blue back- 
ground. 

Portion of a fresco, 17 in. h, by 13 in. w. 



No. 767. Head of a Saint. 

A monk with a long grey beard in black ; looking down upon 
a closed book. Blue background. 
Portion of a freBOO, 16 in. ^. by 13 in. w. 



* Whether this altar-piece is in pnre tempera or not is a question npon which 
opinions differ, 
t 8ee the memoir of Andrea dal Oastagno this in catalogue. 



160 DOMENICO. 

These heads are from the niche or tabernacle which contained 
the subject described below under No. 1215. 

Purchased from the collection of the late Sir Charles L. Eastlake 
P.R.A., in 1867. 



No. 1215« The Madonna and Child enthroned. 

The Yirgin, a life-sized figure, clad in a diapered red robe and 
a blue mantle, is seated in a throne richly inlaid with marbles 
and mosaic, supporting on her knees the Infant Christ who. 
standing erect, makes the sign of benediction. Above, surrounded 
by a radiating glory, appear the head and outstretched arms of 
a figure representing the Almighty, from whom the Holy Spirit 
descends in the form of a flying dove. 

Signed on the step of the throne — 



The two letters I are joined by a bar, giving them the 
appearance of an H. 

Fresoo, transferred to canvas. 7 ft. 11 in. h, by 3 ft. 11^ in. vo. 

This fresco, said by Yasari to have called forth the admiration 
of Domenico's brother artists, was painted in a niche or 
tabernacle at the Canto de* Carnesecchi in Florence, where the 
V. de'Panzani and the V. de'Banchi converge. In 1851 it was 
detached from the wall by Bizzoli, a Bolognese expert, and ill 
restored by Antonio Marini. It beeome the property of Prince 
Pio, and was subsequently acquired by Alexander, Earl of 
Crawford and Balcarres (then Lord Lindsay, author of Sketches 
of the History of Christian Art), It was presented to the National 
Gallery by his son, James Ludovic, Earl of Crawford and 
Balcarres, in 1886. 

Since the acquisition of this fresco by the National Gullery 
the restorations made by Marini have been in great part 
remoyed. 



DOSSO DOBBi. 161 

D088I (Giovanni), 1479?-1542. 

Wboi^ i^niily lutme waa Lui;bbo,^ akhough in middle Age he 
adopted the app^Uatio^ gii^ea above, waa bora about 1479, and 
becaooe a gcbolar of the Ferraxvee Lorenzo Costa at Bologna. 
His educatioa in art, the main chaxactenatiea of his style, and 
hia loii^ rf^idence at Fernura, where he was atta^ed to the oourt, 
and wh^e he chiefly wo£ked, entitle him to a place in the 
Ferraxese school, of which indeed he waa the ablest representa- 
tive of his timjd. His Iriendahip wiibi Ariostof served without 
doubt to dey^op Uie highly romantic element that pervades his 
art, and shows iteell with unchecked force in subjects which, not 
being of a devotional character, left free play to his fancy. 
Buch a work is the Circe in the Borghese Gallery at Borne, in 
whi(^ the gcjrgeausly-clad soxceress, seated in a grove withia her 
magic oirde, aad surrounded by weird symbols of her power, 
perfoiw^s ^r incantations. In works for the church, which 
were assuredly less to his taste, Doesi still had ample scope for 
his love of splendour and rich colour. This is especially ex- 
emplified in his ambitious altar-piece, an Enthroned Virgin, with 
Scunts, painted for ih» church of Bant* Andpea at Ferraca, but 
now in the town gallery there; a work of imposing size, and 
magnificient by its force of colour and effect. Bui; though so 
impressive at first sight, ^ia picture hardly bears the test of 
calm criticism, which discovers in it want of repose, scenic 
display, grave faults of drawio^, ai\dj abjoye |ill^ a ap^e^V pogtr- 
ne39 in the heads of the personages rdpresented.| The masterly 
landscape distance n^ay pobsibjy be due to the pencil of B^Jitiata 

* fiis father was a certain Niccol6. The nawe pf Dq^o is ^upcpsed to derive 
iafxm tbe -village so called near Pieve di Cento. Dossi, late \h life, signed his 
pioUires w^th a sort pf xebus as a monograin, oonsisting of the letter D 
copabined wlUi a bone [os^oj. 

t Ariosto has celebrated the brothqrs Dossi in sqmewhat ex£^ggerated tern^s, 
bii^kp^in^ ti^elr pamos with those of the very greatest masters of Ms own and 
t^e pr^c^du^ generation- 
El qnei che f uro a' nostri d\ e son ora, 
. Leonardo, Andrea Ifantegna e Oian Be^no, 
Dne Dossi, e quel che a p^r soplpe e.cQtoxa, 
Michel piili che mortal An^el diyinp, 
Bastian, Baffael, Titian che onora 
l^qpoW?iOi^dq:^,o^ieqi^eiYwe3«iP,Urhinp ^^^ ^^ 

(Carlai^ JWrww), ^x^^ii.. 2.) 
X This work has, however, suffered irremediably fron^ t|i^ kroaseat maUraftt- 
metA. Wh«Ei fresh, the Poii|p of tts cqim>osI{icfn and the IiMti^ of its colour 
jocam have had an overwhelming effect. It is now ih sox^ pa^ hai64 s^lmoj^t 
(fo the pinming, in ethers coarsely patched. 

25640 L 



162 DOSSO DOSSI. 

DoBsi, who was a proficient in landscape painting, and is said to 
have frequently assisted his elder brother. Other works are in 
the same collection. A striking altar-piece in the Dresden 
Gallery is the Four Fathers of the Churchy with a vision above of 
the Eternal in the act of blessing the Virgin. Here also the 
colouring is powerful ; but the want of symmetry in the 
composition is disturbing, and the half-averted posture of the 
Virgin, though not in itself ungraceful is inappropriate and 
trivial. Some good examples of Dossi's art are to be found in 
the Duomo, in S. Pietro, and in the gallery at Modena. In the 
Milan Gallery is a S, Sebastian, long ascribed to Giorgione. In 
Borne there are works by him in the Doris Palace, and some 
in the Borghese, besides the Circe already mentioned.^ Dossi 
painted excellent portraits. His colouring is much admired, and 
justly, for its force, brilliancy, and novel harmonies ; but it 
would be a mistake to class it with that of the great Venetian 
masters who had a profounder knowledge and a purer ideal of 
colour. Dos3i*s death took place in 1542. His brother Battista 
survived him by six years. 

No. 640> Ths Adoration of the Magu 

The scene is a hilly landscape, with trees in the background, 
the star of the Epiphany above. 

On wood, arched top, 17 in. K by 12^ in. w. 

Purchased from M. Edmond Beauoousin, at raris, in 1860. 

No. 1234. A Muse instructing a Court Poet (f) 

This subject was probably part of the decoration of a vaulted 
ceiling. Two figures, bust length, on a background of sky. 
The Muse (?), crowned with a ^rland of jasmine, and wearing a 
cream-coloured striped body, with a green gold-bordered mantle, 
seems to point towards the right, while she turns her head with 
an air of passionate exhortation towards a man beside her. He, 
resting his right hand on her shoulder, gazes steadily in the 
direction indicated. His gown and cap are black ; his beard is 
shaven, save just before the ear, where a sprig of jasmine is tied. 
This head is evidently a portrait. 

On wood, 1 ft. 9 in. h. by 2 ft. 5^ in. to. 

Purchased from Mr. 0. Fairfax Murray, in London out of the intereet 
of the '* Ohirke Bequest," in 1887. 

• The penetration of '*Lermolieff"(Oioyanni Morelli) has restored to Doasi 
m^nv works whioh passed under other attributions. See Llitzow's ZeUtehr^t, 
AOn vo]. Z. ; and Die Wierke ItaUmiBcher MHsteTt ftc, passim. 



DOU. 163 



nOV (Gerard), 1613>1675. 

One of the most celebrated of the Datch ^enrtf-painters, was 

bom at Leyden, April 7, 1613.^ His parents were married in 

NoTember 1609, and he had an elder brother, named Jan. His 

father was a glass painter, and Gerard was at first tangbt by 

him, by Bartholomens Dolendo, and by Pieter Conwenhom, but 

afterwards entered the school of Rembrandt at Amsterdam, and 

remained with that painter three years. He attained wonderful 

mastery in delicate execution ; his works are remarkable at once 

for high finish and for lightness of handling. He was bnricd at 

Leyden, Febraary 9, 1675 ; not, however, before he had reaped 

ample fruits from his great reputation. An amateur of the name 

of Spiering paid the painter a thousand florins annually for the 

privilege of having the first choice of his pictures, which have 

steadily increased in value up to the present time. He was twice 

absent for some years from Leyden, between 1651 and 1658, and 

between 1668 and 1673. Gerard Don stands at the head of the 

Leyden school. Schalcken, Frans van Mieris the elder, and 

Metsu, were pupils of his.f 

No. 192> The Painter's own Portrait. 

He holds a pipe in his hand. Signed G. DOY, that is DOU. 
On wood ; an oval, 7^ in. h, by 5| in. w. Signed — 



G)ov. / 



Formerly in the collection of M. Paigpion Dijonval, at Paris. Pur- 
chased for the National Gallery, at the Eude of Mr. J. Harman*s Collec- 
tion, in 1844. 



* Ab this date appears to be certain, the inscription on the ** Femme Hydro- 
pique" in the Louvre should be read "1668 G.DOV.OVT 55 JAB B^" instead of 
1663 and 66, as printed in the French catalof^ue. 

t Houbraken, Qroote Schouburg. Ac. ; Immerzeel, Leveru en Werken der Hoi- 
landtehe Kunstachilders, dsc. ; Oh. Kramm, De Levena en Werhen der HolUmdache en 
VlianueJie KunsheMlders, Ac., Amsterdam, 1858. 

25640 L s 



164 DOU. 

No. 825> The Poulterer's Shop, 

Through the arched window of the shop a young woman hold- 
ing a bright tin pail which cotntains a skian^d rabbit is cheapening 
a hare ii^ith the shopwoman ; two other figures are seen in the 
background. On the window sill are a dead peahen, a fowl, and a 
duck ; above, on the left, is hanging a birdcage ; outside the shop 
i^ a cock in a basket feeding. The lower front of tbe ^op is 
elaborately decorated with a ba8-r» lief represe&ting some children 
E^orUng with a goat. Signed G. Dou. 

On wood, 1 It. 11 in. h, by 1 ft. 6 in. w. Engraved in tdie Choiaeiil 
Gallery. 

In 1754, in the posseRsion of the Marquis de Yoyer. Sabaequently 
in the Choiseul, De Conti, and Chabot Collections, &c. Afterwards, 
till 1823, at FontMU Abbey. Sold by Mr. John Smith to the late Sir 
Bobert Beel, with whose collection it was purchased in 1871. 

i. 

No. 968. The Painter's Wife : bust. 

She is in a green dress trimxaed with white fur, a white dkamk- 
settei, and a pearl necklaee and earris^ Signed : — 

Cx>ov- 

On oak, oval, 5i in. Aw by 4 i in. w. 
. The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 1415- Supposed Portrait of Anna Maria van 
Schurman, 

Miniatare ; seen to the waist ; three-quarter face. Glad in a 
brown velvet gown trimmed with white swansdown, over a 
chemisette of plaited Hnen. On her head she wears a large 
muslin cap, the sides of which conceal the ears and most of the 
hair. 

An old inscription on the back ot the panel states that this 
picture la a portrait of Anna Maria van Schurman ; but it 
will be obaervied that 1^ porirait by Jan Lie'VieBt (No. 1,095 ia 
this Collection) supposed to represent the same lady difBara 
.in the colour of ihe hair, and haa other pointa of vadation whioh 
preolade the pocaibilitj <^f both faaviiig been painted icom. the 
«am» person. 

- jOn panel, & in. A. by 5 in. w. 

Purchased from Mr. Horace Butteiy, in 1894. 



DUBBBLS— DUCCIO. 165 

BVBBB&S (Hendbik), 1620?-1676. 

But little is known reepeoting thui painter who lived at 
Amsterdam at the end of the 17th oentary. There were three 
artists of the name, Hendaik, Dibk, and Jan^ bat in what way 
they were related to each other is unknown. Jan was living in 
1715. The initials on the barge-board of one of the boats in the 
picture mentioned below identify the painter with Hendbik. He 
was bom at Amsterdam in 1620 or 1621.^ His interment in the 
Noord Kerk at Amsterdam on the 9th Jane 1676 is reoorded.f 

No. ];4#A. A Sea piece with Shipping, 

Various vessels are distributed over a calm sea. On the loft 
a barge is lying on a sand bank, with figures grouped about it. 

Signed on the barge-board, I. H. D. 

On tbe panel, 1 ft. Of in. h. by 1 ft. 4| in. w. 

Pzeeented by Mr Arthur Eay, 1895. 



D1JGCZO DZ BVONZVSBOir A, 1260 ?'1339?. 

Whilst the genius of Giotto was revolutionizing the arts of 
design in Tuscany, and more or less throughout Italy, Duccio 
was infusing new life into the Sienese school without entirely 
abandoning Byzantine traditions. Duccio was bom at Siena 
about 1260, and lived, at least, until 1339. The earliest 
authentic record of his activity is a contract made in 1285 to 
paint a Madonna for a chapel in S. Maria Novella at Florence. 
This work, if ever executed, has disappeared. The greatest 
effort in bis career was the famous MoMtd for the cathedral 
at Siena. It oonsisted of many parts forming ose giest 
altar-piece, 14 ft. long, by 7 ft. in height, exclusive of the 
pinnades, and painted on both sides. On the front was t^fae 
Madonna enthroned, holding on her left knee the infant Saviour, 
who was fully clad, after the Byzantine manner. Twenty angels 
surrounded the throne. Figures of the Apostles, and of four 
kneeling bishops, tutelaries of Siena, completed this side of the 

* Aoeovdinff'to Dr. Woeraaan, see the Oatalofftm €fthe Dresden OaUerVt VBt. 

t See Oud Holland, Vol ni., p. 141. 



166 DUOCIO. 

altar-piece. On the reverse, which faced the chancel, various 
scenes of the life and passion of Christ were depicted in 26 small 
compositions, of which two, the Entry into Jerusalem and the 
Crucifixion, exceeded the rest in size. There was, further, 
a predella, containing many subjects from the lives of Christ and 
the Virgin. This important work was commissioned in October 
1303, and was not wholly finished till about three years later ; 
although on June 9, 1310, what we must suppose to have been 
the front panel only, was carried to the Duomo with solemn 
pomp, in which the Archbishop, the Great Magistracy, and in 
fact, the whole population civil and religious, took part, with 
lighted tapers, amidst the clangour of trumpets, drums, and the 
church bells.^ 

Of other works of Duccio, said to have been in Siena, Florence, 
Pisa, and Pistoia, none now remain, save two in the Accademia 
delle Belle Arti of Siena. As scholars of Duccio have been 
reckoned Segna di Buonaventura, Simone di Martino, the two 
Lorenzetti, and possibly, Ugolino da Siena, f 

No. 566. A Triptych. 

Tn the arched centre panel is the Madonna with the Child, with 
four angels at the sides. In the tympanum above the arch seven 
half figures, of David and six prophets, look down on the group 
enthroned beneath. On the doors to the right and left are 
St. Catherine of Alexandria and Sc. Dominic. AH are on a gold 
background. 

In tempera, on wood, 2 ft. h, by 2 ft. 7 in. w. 

Formerly in a G-allery at Pisa. Purchased at Florence from the 
Lombardi-Baldi Collection, in 1857. 

* This altar-piece cost 3,000 florins of gold, out of which Duccio's pay was bat 
16 soldi per wortLiDg day. But the materials were furnished him. In 1506 it 
was removed from the high altar (which was at the same time thrown further 
back in the church) to make way for the present bronze tabernacle, the work 
of II Vecchietta, and became so completelv lost to sight and memory that 
Vasari, about 60 yean later, was unable to discover it. It was, however, 
brought to light again in the 17th century, when the front and back panels 
were sundered and otherwise deranged, and finally set up on side altars in 
either transept, where they are ill seen. Eighteen of the subjects of the pre- 
della and ^nnacle^ long preserved in the sacristy, are now in the Opera del 
Duomo (Office of Works) close by. The altar-piece, as it now exists, was 
engraved in a series of outlines by B. Bartoccinf, published by Emil Braun. 
Borne, 1847. 

-i^or fuller accounts of Duccio and his works, see Milanesi, Opere di O, Vaacai, 
Florence, 1878-85, YoL I, and Orowe andCavalcaselle, RUtory if Painting in Italy ^ 
Vol. IL 



DUCCIO— DUCHATEL 167 

No. 1139- I%e Annunctattan. ' 

v^Under an arcaded poroh or cloister, the Yirgin, standing on th« 
right hand and bearing a book of devotions, turns towards the 
Angel, who, with a gesture of salutation, approaches from the 
left hand. Gold background. 

In tempera, on wood, 1 ft. 4^ in. A. bj 1 ft. 4 in. tr. 

No. 1140. Christ healing t?ie Blind. 

In the centre of the picture, onr Lord, followed by His 
Disciples, extends His right hand towards a blind man, who 
standB before Him, while another seems to return thanks to 
heaven for a previous miracle. In the background are buildings. 

In tempera, on wood, 1 ft. 4i in. h, by 1 ft. 5} in. to. 

Purchased, together with the preceding subject, from Mr. 0. Fairfax 
Murray, at Florence, out of the interest of the ** Olarke Bequest," in 
1883. 

No. 1330. The Transfiguration* 

On the summit of a rocky hill, the Saviour, clad in a dark 
robe, the folds of which are indicated with g^old lines, standa 
raising His right hand in benediction and bearing in His left a 
closed volume. At a little distance on the right and left of our 
Lord appear Moses and Elias in attitudes of reverence. At the 
foot of the mount, in the foreground, three disciples kneel, ganng 
upwards with gestures of surprise. Gold background. 

On panel, 1 ft. 5 in. h. by 1 ft. 6^ in. to. 

Presented by Mr. Robert H. Wilson, in 1891. 



DVCBATBIi (Fbancoib), 1616>1694. 

A Flemish painter whose works are not commonly met with. 
His works are mostly portraits, or subjects including portraits, 
such as the picture in the Museum at Ghent, representing the 
Inauguration of Charles U., King of Spain, as Count of Flanders 



t68 DUCHATED-DIWS^HET. 

in 1666. In the Picthre Gallery at Brawels is a cbftnaaing por- 
trait group of two little girls. He was born in Brussels, and is 
Btad to bave been a pnpil of Teniers, and is also supposed to 
bave worked in Paris with Van der Menlen. He died in 1694. 



No. 1810. Portrait of a Boy. 

A boy, about 12 years old, seen at three-quarter length, richly 
dressed, stands holding a rose in his right hand. He has long 
brown hair flowing on his shoulders, and wears a gold brocade 
▼est, with open sleeves, over a full white shirt, with lace collar, 
and a short black kilt over red hose, richly adorned with eoloured 
ribbons. A black velvet cloak bangs from his left shoulder, and 
behind is a crimson curtain looped up with a gold tassel. 

On canvas, 3 ft. h. by 2 ft. 1 in. w. 

Bequeathed by Mr. Henry Yaughan, in 1900. 



DUaHST (Gaspabd) called OASi^mB POirSSnV, 

1613-1676. 

Gaspard Duqhet, born at Rome of French parents in 1613, and 
by his sister^s marriage brother-in-law to Nicolas Poussin, had 
the eminent good fortune to come under the artistic tutelage of 
that illustrious painter, who was Gaspard's senior by 19 years. 
Through this double bond of relationship the name of PovssiK 
came to be shared by the pupil ; though in FTance he is 
familiarly known as ^*Le Guaspre" simply. Nicolas Poussin 
took a deep interest in' the edocation of the young man, whose 
abilities he fully recognized, and, seeing that Gaspaud leaned 
towards landscape -painting, encanraged him to cultivate that 
branch of art, without neglecting the study of the human and 
other living forms. Before Dughet had completed his 20th 
year he was already established as an independent painter, and 
from that time his works were eagerly sought by lovers of art 
near and far. Rome remained his place of residence ; but he 
made excursions in the Papal States, as well as in Tuscany, 
Lombardy, and the kingdom of Naples. He rented houses 
at Frasoati and at Tivoli, and found in the grand scenery 



DUGHBT. 161 

around both the snbjeots of bis finest conpoAitiont. The nobility 
of style cultivated and inonlcated by bis gretA brotber-in-Iaw was 
maintained by Gaspakd ; lonng perhaps on the epic to gain on 
tiie ic^Uic side. Something he may have owed to Claude ; bat 
throughout he remained himself, saw with his own eyes, aad was 
at home with nature equally in her placid and her wilder moods. 
He painted in fresco, tempera and oil. In the first-named 
method are the wall-paintings in tbe church of S. Martino ai 
Monti, at Bowft, wh«re tbe stories of Elijah and Elisba affoirded 
Gaspabd an excuse for exercising bis powers in landscape. These 
grand compositions are now sadly decayed. Next to them may 
be mentioned the frescoes in a ground-floor room on the Palazzo 
Golonna. In tempera on canvas are the 12 great compositions 
in the same palace. Still richer is the Palazzo Daria, which 
eontaiBfi not only an immense numbers of works in tempera but 
also a series of 25 huge canvases in oil.^ Easel lectures in 
of various sizes are found in several of the great European 
galleries, and as many are in private collections. Gaspabd 
painted with uncommon ease and rapidity, but none of his 
works show a trace of carelessness. Many of his oil pictures 
have darkened in tone, in consequence, no doubt, of the use of 
the dark red ground, which was much employed by Italian 
painters in the 17th century. Numbers of his works have been 
engraved. He produced several etchings himself. Gaspabd 
DuGHET died at Borne, May 25, 1675. 

No. 33Lm A Landsca/pe with Figures representing 
Abraham and Isaac going to the Sacrifice. 

In the elevated fore-ground ia a broad rocky and woody glen, 
overhung by large forest- trees on each side ; an detenu ve country, 
bounded by the sea, appears in the distance, with mountains on 
the extreme left. Abraham and Isaac are seen on the right 
ascending the mount to the sacrifice ; Isaac bears the wood, his 
Either follows with a lighted torch. In the middle-distance below, 
the two servants of Abraham are awaiting his return. 

Eng^ved by Giuseppe Ounego ; by P. Parboni ; by J. Pye ; and by 
W. Badclyffe, for Jones's National Oallery, 

1 I ■ ■ ■ . r ■ 

* These, by reason of their errand severity of style, have been ascribed to 
Nicolas Poussin. On the other band some eztrrnal evidence seems to confirm 
the traditional belief that they are really from the pencil of Qaspard. See 
Woltmann and Woermann, Oetchichte der malereiy Bd. lu., p. 3S2, note 2. 



170 DUGHET. 

On canyas, 5 ft. 3 in. A. by 6 ft. 6 in. w. 

ThiB pictnie, by some coneidered the painter^s masterpiece, remained 
in the Colonna Palace, at Borne, to the period of the French Bevolntion, 
when it was brought to this country by Mr. Day. It was subsequently 
in the Lansdowne Collection, from which it passed to that of Mr. 
Angerstein, and was purchased with the rest of the Angerstein pictures, 
in 1824. 

No. 36. A Itand Storm. 

Mountain scenery ; shepherds seeking refuge for their flocks. 
A winding road at the outskirts of a forest occupies the fore- 
ground ; an oak in the middle of this part of this picture has just 
been snapped asunder by the storm, and lies prostrate on the 
ground. The effect of the strong wind is forcibly expressed 
throughout the whole scene. In the middle-distance a lone 
building very beautifully lighted from the bright streaks of sky 
in the horizon, is effectively relieved by the more distant mountain 
behind it. The partial light of the distance contrasts powerfully 
with the dark driven clouds above, and with the general gloom 
which pervades the picture elsewhere. 

Engraved on a large scale by Yivares ; and small by S. Lacy, for 
Jones's National Gallery, 

On canvas, 4 ft. 11 in. h» by 6 ft. w. 

Purchased at Rome by Mr. Irvine for Mr. Buchanan in 1803. Subse- 
quently in the Delm^ and Lansdowne Collections, afterwards in that of 
Mr. Angerstein, with which it was purchased for the nation, in 1824. 

No. 68> A Woody Landscape ; Evening. 

A view near Albano. In the fore-giound a shepherd boy is 
leading home his flock : on the right is a thick forest of oaks ; on 
the left a steep bank, under the shade of which two figures are 
reposing. 

Engraved by J. B. Allen for Jones's Noitional Gallery. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 7 in. h. by 2 ft. 2 in. w. 

Formerly in the Corsini Palace at Bome : subsequently in Mr. Ottley's 
Collection, sold in 1801. Bequeathed, in 1831 bytheBey.W.Holwell-Carr. 

No. 95. Landscape^ with Dido and JEneas taking shelter 
from the Storm. Virgil, JEneis^ iv. 119. 

A pitchy cloud ahall cover all the plain. 

With bail and thunder and tempoBtuous rain ; 

The fearful train shall take their speedy flight 

Dispersed and all involved in gloomy night *, 

One cave a grateful shelter shall afiFord 

To the fair princess and the Trojan lor^—Dryden, 



DUGHET. 171 

This is the moment represented in the picture — ^iEneM and 
Dido are just visible at the entrance of the cave, above which are 
two hovering Cupids ; a third, at a little distance before it, ia 
holding the bridle of the " lofty coarser ^' of the qoeen. In the 
donds is the goddess Jono, accompanied by Yenns and Hymen, 
promoters of the storm. 

Engraved by J. 0. Yarrall, for Jonee*s National Gallery, 

On canvas, 4 ft. 10 in. \. by 7 ft. 4 in. u), 

Formerly in the Falconieri Palace at Borne. Bequeathed to the National 
Gallery, in 1831, by the Rev. W. Holwell-Carr. 

No. 98> View of La Ricciay or Ariccia, 

A small town, situated on a rock, fourteen miles south-east 
of Rome. Horace spent the first ni^ht st this place on Ms journey 
from Bome to Bruudasium ; it still preserves its ancient name, 
Aricia. The view is from the south : tbe little town and its 
picturesque rock occupy a large portion of the picture. Three 
figures and a dog are seen on the winding road in the foreground, 
and in the distance is a view of the Boman Campagna, bounded 
by the Appenines. A solitary tree in the foreground to the 
right gives expanse to the scene. 

Engraved by A. Smith, for Jones's National Gallery, 

On canvas, 1 ft. 7 in. h, by 2 ft. 2 in. w. 

Companion to No. 68. 

Formerly in the Corsini Palace at Rome : subsequently in the Ottley 
Collection. Bequeathed to the National Gallery, in 1831, by the Rev. 
W. Holwell-Carr. 

No. 161- An Italian Landscape. 

Mountain scenery, with the v^ew of a town on the slope of a 
hill, and a cascade in the mfiddle ground ; pnow is visible on the 
distant mountains. Some figures and a couple of dogs are seen 
in the foreground, to the left of which is a rocky bank covered 
with trees. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 4 in. h, by 6 ft. 5 in. w. 

Formerly in the Oolonna Palace at Rome. Bequeathed by Charles 
Long, Lord Famborough, in 1838. 

No. 1159. The Galling of Abraham, 

A landscape, with figures on a small scale. On the left a group 
of lofty trees, the branches and foliage of which are violently 
agitated by the wind. Below them a winged Angel, standing 



172 DUGFBT— DUREB. 

by the side oi a road which winds towards the foreground, 
accosts Abraham, pointing upwards as be does so to a figure 
representing the Almighty seated in the clouds above. 

In the middle distance is a river which, falling in a cascade 
flows towards the right. Beyond is a large plain, bounded by 
wooded hills, on which various buildings are seen. Sky storm 
with a gleam of sunshine on the horizon. Monntams in the 
distance. 

On canvas, 6 ft. 7^ in. ^. hy 5 ft w. 

Purchased at the sale of the Leigh Court Oollection in London, In 1884. 



(Albeecht), 1471-162a 

Albert DUreb, the great artist of Germany, was of Hungarian 
descent ; his ancestors lived, as he himself tells us, *'by tending 
oxen and sheep.'' His father, Albreeht the elder, deserted this 
patriarchal calling and became a goldsmith. After passing some 
time in the Netherlands, he came to Nuremberg in 1455, where he 
worked with a maFter-goldsmith named Hieronymus Helper whose 
daughter, Barbara, he married in 1467, taking up about the same 
time his rights as burgher and master- goldsmith in the city. 
Albert D&ber was the third of the eighteen children of this 
marriage, most of whom died in infancy. " When £ had learnt 
to write and read," says Albert D(^rer in his brief chronicle, 
** my father took me from school and taught me goldsmith's work; '* 
but, he says, " my inclination carried me more towards painting.*' 
In 1486 bis father bound him apprentice to Michel Wolgemut, the 
best painter in Nuremberg of his time, to serve with him for 
three years. " During this time," writes DOrer, *^ God gave me 
diligence so that I learnt well, and, when I had served my thne, 
my father sent me away, and I was absent four years, until my 
father required me back, and, as I set out in 1490 after Easter, so 
I returned in 1494 after Whitsuntide.'* These wander years were 
probably spent in Germany, but some think that he crossed the 
Alps and spent Eome lime in Italy. " When I reached home," he 
continues, "Hans Frey treated with my father, and gave me his 
daughter Agnes, and he gave me with her two hundred florins, and 
the marriage was celebrated on the Monday before St. Margaret's 
day in the year 1494." This is all Dt^siR tells us about his wife. 



DUBBB. 178 

who was meBtiooad by DObbr*s fmnd, Pirkheiner, ia 1630^ in a 
latter to Jobaon Tioherte in sooh unflattering terras that Fran 
Agnes has baen thonght to be a aecoad Xantippe. We know, 
however, that she continued to Uv«e with her husband in hk 
father's boose, that Di^RBB eften drew her portrait, and that she 
accompanied bim on his famous journey to the Necherlaads, 
sharing his triumphs. Between the years 1494 and 1505 DOaSR 
engraved seyeral of bis larger copper-plates ^TA^ Adcun and Ekfe^ 

1504 ; The Nativity^ 1504 ; The Great Horse, and The LitUe Horae, 

1505 ; The Prodigal Son and the series of fifteen large woodcuts, 
The Apoc€Uy»8ef 1498 ; which mark an epoch ia the history of 
eagraving. DD£EB*s first known painting is The Adoration ofAe 
Magij dated 1504, now in the TJffisi, at Florence. An important 
event in Dubeb*8 ]ife was his visit to Venice in the Antuttu of 
1505 ; he received a commission from the German merobanto in 
Yeaus& to paiat a picture for their new Exchange, the Foalaco 
dei Tedeschi, upon the mural decoration oC wbiek Giorgione anl 
Titian were eQga;^d. As soon as he arrived h6 began the piotnre, 
called The Feaet of the BotseGarlandSf which is now in the 
Monaatery of Strahow, near Prague. DObeb wrote nine letters^ 
still extant, to bis friend Pirkheimer during bis stay in Yeoioa, 
which lasted until the beginniug of 1507. On hii reiorn to 
Nuremberg be painted several large altar pieces, the two single 
figures of Adam and Eve^ now in the Prado, at Madrid ; The 
Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand Christians, 1508, and The Ad^ra- 
iion of the Trinty^ 1511 ; both in Yienna. In this year be published 
the series of twenty woodcuts illustrating the L\fe of the Visrgin, 
seventeen of wfaidi had been finished before his journey tto 
Yeniee ; and the two series known as The GruU Faisian and Tht 
Litlle Fassion, his :be8t known aeries of woodcuts ; tihirty-five of 
the original blocks are in the Bri'.iah Museum. The eariieat 
copper-engravings signed by DCbeb are The Holy Family with the 
Locust and The Love Offer, of about 1495 ; but bis noblest plates 
belong to a later date— T^c Prodigal Son, The Arms qf Death, 
1505 ; Adam and Eve, 1504 ; 2%e Nativity, 1504 ; KMght Death 
and the Devil, 1513 ; M^anchoUa and St. Jerome in his Chamber, 
m4 ; The Greai Fortune, and the St. Euetace. The boautiful 
flcsica jof The Ptndmtf on oapper, date fr«m 1508 to 1513. In 
IfillK SMJBIB Jbagaa -to work for the Bosperor Maxlmiltan and eon. 
4iDu:d to do so imtO bis patron'« death in 1519. Amongst these 



174 DURER. 

works were the huge woo5cat of the Triumphal Arch and the 
Maximilian Prayer Book for the Order of St. George. DOrek 
drew the Emperor's portrait at the Diet of Augsburg in 1518, and 
made a picture and a woodcut from the drawing. In 1520-2^ 
DOrer undertook a jouruey to the Netherlands^ apparently to get 
a ratification from Charles Y. of the pension granted him by 
Maximilian. He has left us a detailed account of his travels, 
which has been translated into English in the lives of D6rcr by 
Mrs. Heaton and W. B. Scott. 

DOrer wrote several treatises, including one oa Proportion^ 
published after his death, which occurred on the 6th of April, 
1528. His last great work had been the painting of the Four 
Apostles, Saints Peter, John, Paul, and Mark, typifying the four 
temperaments, which he presented to bis native city in 1526. 
They are now in the Munich Gallery. 

Luther and Melanchthon were amongst the number of DOrer's 
friend?, the latter testifying to his worth by saying " His least 
merit was his art." His work is characterized by his imaginative 
thought fulness and by the inexhaustible patience of his technical 
powers. He opened a door, which was his coat of arms, between 
Italy and the north, and so spread the ideas of the renaisance in 
art over Europe. 

DOrer painted on panel and his pictures are rare ; besides those 
already mentioned there s^re^The Virgin and Child with Saints 
Anthony and Sebastian, The Crticifixion, 1508, aid the portrait of 
Bernard van Orley, 1521, in Dresden ; The Portrait of his Father 
in the Uffizi, Florence ; the Vtrgin Crowned by Two Angels, 1506 ; 
and the portraits of a Lady, of Hieronymus Holzschaher, and 
Jacob Muffel, 1526, in Berlin ; the portraits of Oswald Erell, 
1499, and Michael Wolgemat, 1516, at Munich ; and Madonnas at 
Augsburg, Berlin, and Vienna.^ 

No. 1938- Portrait of the Painter's Father, 

Half length of full size. His face, close shaven and turned 
nearly full to the spectator, is seamed with wrinkles ; the hair, 
rather long and curly and hardly grizzled, falls from under a black 
cap with turned-up ears. Over a black undervest he wears a loose 
coat of a golden brown olour lined with black Cur. The hands are 
almost entirely concealed under the loose sleeves. Red background. 

* Bryan's DictlonaiV of Painters and Engravers, 1903. 



DUBEB^-DUTOH SOHOOL. 175 

Along the top of the panel U the insonption : --1497 ALBBEO HT 
THYBEB DEB ELTEB YND ALT 70 lOB, thinly painted in 
white on the red ground. 

On panel, 1 ft. 8 in. h, hy 1 ft. 4| in. w. 

Pnrchased in London, from the Marqneas of Northampton, in 1904. 



OUTOB SOBOOIi. ZVZI. OBMTUmT. 

No. 1287. Interior of an Art Gallery. 

A lofty room, the panelled walls of which are lined with pictures, 
is lighted by tall casement windows. On the left is a table 
roand which a group of cavaliers stand or sit examining articles 
of virtu. Further to the right four other gentlemen stand near a 
diair, on which is placed a picture. 

On panel, 3 ft. 14 in. h, by 4 ft. 4 in. to. 

Bequeathed by Mr. John Staniforth Beckett, in 1889, 

No. 1680. Portrait of a Young Man. 

A young man with a slight moustache and long fair hair curled 
and falling to the shoulders, is seen nearly fall-face, looking with 
a Tivacious expression out of the picture a little to the right of the 
spectator. He wears a light brown cloth coat open in front and 
slashed on the sleeve showing the white cambric of his shirt 
underneath. His large white collar, bordered with lace is tied at 
the neck by two tasselled cords. Bast length. 

On the background is the partly-effaced signature J. Karel du 
Jardin, which has some appearance of having been added after- 
wards. 

On canvas, 2 ft. | in. h. by 1 ft. 8| in. w. 

Pnzchaaed in London from Mr. Horace Buttery, in 1899. 

No. 1700> Portrait of a Gentleman. 

The picture represents an elderly man with face seen in three- 
quarter view turned over his right shoulder, He has long hair 
and moustache and imperial. His left arm leans on a pedestal 
and he holds a glove in his hand. His right hand lies across his' 
chest and he is pointing to the left, apparently at some person or 
object behind him. 



17« DUf CH SCHOOL— DUYSTER. 

Ob oanvfie, 3 ft. Si in;. A. by 2 ft. 7| in. w. 
Bequeathed by Miss Filbrow, in 1900. 



(William Cornelisz), 1599-1635. 

Was born at Amsterdam in 1599, and became a pupil of Pieter 
Codde. Ooe of his pictures, repx^seBtiog A Pariy of Soldiers 
playing at Tric-TraCy is in the Gallery of the Hermitage at 
St. Petersburg. Another, entitled Soldiers Fighiiv.g over the 
Division of Booty, is in th3 Royal Gallery at Dresden ; while a 
third is preserved in the Bijks Museum at A^isterdam, having 
been presented to that institution by Dr. A. Bredius ia 18B7. The 
recognissed works by Duyster a^ scarce. Rf^ dj^4 an4 was 
buried at Amsterdam in 1635. 

No. 1386> Sold%>er$ qtiarreUing over their Booiy. 

The spoils are spread on a table and on the floor of $i biarn in 
which the conflict id taking place. Towards the right of the 
foreground a sword encounter is being ctirried on between an 
officer, who wears a white satin doublet, large felt hat, and wbite 
feather, and bis oppeoiient, elad in a le^^tber jerkin and scarlet 
breeohea. Nea,r the latter, in the oeir^er of t^e piotuse, is 
another soldier e:sLaiaiiniQg the fuse of his n&attchlaQk. On the 
left of the picture a second officer, dse^^ in 9, fl9^iBe-c:>lo\irf^ suit 
and leather boots, stands bfu^eheadkkd, gu^sping his sword. Oloae 
to him a soldier, shouldering a long gun, is ticking aim acr<>ss the 
table, behind which are several other men e^aged in various acts 
of violence. 

Signed-— 



v^^/ 



^'-t 



On panel, 1 ft. 2 in. h, by 1 ft. 10 in. w. 



DUY8TEE— DYOK. 177 

No. 1387. Players at Tric4rac. 

On the le£t of the pictare is a i»ble covered with a Tarkey 
rag, at which the players sit, viz., a lady attired in a brown 
silk dress, black bodice, and red sleeves, a large starched mif, 
and white apron. Opposite her sits a cavalier wearing a blue 
satin jacket slashed with white, a large felt hat, and blue feather. 
Behind the players stand two male companions, one in the act 
of removing a piece from the board, and the other lighting a 
pipe. In the background another man sits smoking. 



\^C.J)VyST£R, 



On panel, 1 ft. Sf in. h, by 2 ft. 2 in. to. 

Purchased in London, together with the preceding pictare, from Mr. 
Eomer Williams in 1893. 



DTC& (Sib Anthony van), 1599<1641. 

Amtqont van Dyck was born at Antwerp, March 22, 1599. Hit 
father, Frans van Dyck, was a merchant in that city, and AMTOljrT 
was the seventh of a family of twelve ; his mother, Maria Capers, 
died when he was only eight years old, in 1607. He became the 
pupil of Hendrik van Baleu so early as .1609 ; bat Yan Dyck*8 
great instructor was Rubens, with whom he lived about foor 
years. He was still acting as Ruben's assistant in 1620, although 
he had bee J admitted a master of the Antwerp Corporation of 
Painters early in the year 1618, before his twentieth birthday. 
Having attained sufficient proficiency as a painter, he by the advice 
of Rubens, visited Italy in 1623 ; he spent about five yean in that 
country, dividing his time between Genoa, Venice, and Rome * 
he paid also a short visit to Palmero. Shortly after his return 
to Antwerp, in 1628, he painted a picture of St. AtigusUn for 

96640 M 



178 TyreK. 

the church of the Augnstinians of 'that ctty which eatablished his 
celebcity as one of the fir^t masters of his age ; this was followed 
by a still more celebrated work, the Crucifixion^ for the church 
of St. Michael at Ghent ; and he soon acquired an unrivalled 
i:eputatlon as a portrait-painter. About the year 1630-31, Yan 
Dtck appears to have visited England, but not meeting with 
the reception which he had anticipated, he returned after a 
short time to his own country ; he had already visited England 
before," in 1621, previous to his journey to Italy. In 1632, 
ho\ir6ver, Charles li, who had seen a portrait of Nicolas Laniere, 
his chapel-master, by Yan Dtck, s^^nt an express invitation to 
the painter to come to England, and, on this occasion, he was 
most courteously received. He was lodged by the kiog at 
Blackfriars, was knighted in the following year, and was granted 
a pension of £200 per annum for life with the title of painter 
to his Majesty. Yan Dygk settled for the remainder of bis life 
in England where his very successful career as a portrait-paintei 
\Aiabled him to^ live in great stylo. He had a country house at 
Eltham in Kent, where he spent a portion Of the summer ; he 
kept great state when in town ; *' he always went magnificently 
dressed, had a numerous and gallant equipage, and kept so good 
a table in his apartment that few princes were more visited or 
better served."® Yan Dyck died in London, December 9, 1641, 
in the forty-third year of his age, and was boned in the old 
church of St. Paul, near the tomb of John of Gaunt. He left 

".aidaughter, his- only child, by his wife Mary RuthTen, grand- 

'daughter of the unfortunate Lord Buthven, Earl of Gowiie. 

NotwithstandiDg his expensive style of llTiog, Yan Dyck left 

property to the value of abouc £20,000 sterling. 

Scnne^4>f Yan Dygk*s earlier productions are seavcely to be 

^dustinglrished from- those of Rubens. There are cases, indeed, 
in which dogmatism as to authorship would be hazardous. 
Differentiation is fiist visible in a greater precision, a slenderer, 
it might ' be ^soid a more- wiry, touch, and a cooler colouring^ on 
Ihepart of^ithe pupil. When Yan Dygs travelled and painted in 

'Italy he'^as influenoed by the works of Titian,^wfaich, «Mnhined 

. ii4th'4he ««oiHhmrn Gom]^exion> of diis -fikter, led.him*tcvadopt a 



•*■*• 



• Gftttem. Esaav towaaU an EnglUk School,»Uhe^nd of the TeanitattCMI ofrTt 
Piles. LondcD,l706» 



'.■iiv 



DYCK. .m 

r, deeper, and more glowing colour. This he retained for % 
'VJBom iaftor bisretitra io the mvtb, and in- mom» degree dneing tfa^ 
earlier part of his rendenceiff England. GradaaU^r hcl -i^st^^i^ • 
and wifch it something of bis sense of harmony. At the last 
he became less careful. A routine practice, the pressure of 
'Migagemients, Inxonecs liTing, decaying healtb, .and the 'indis- 
pensable employment of assistaiits oonspired cto lessen the 
intrinsic value of his work. The sacred and other free compo- 
aitiona painted by Van Dyck bdlong to the period of his greatest 
asecutive power. In freshness, force, aod yigour of . handling 
they are -unsurpassed. Bat they interest less th^n.do his noble 
{koartt^ts. In these he stands a master among masters ; aud^ 
happily, many still remain, for the most part veil preserved, 
witnesses of the renown that attends the name of Yan Dtck. 
He produced. several etchings, masterly works in theifkind.'* 



No;^'4k9. Portrait of an Artist {?) 

t Half 'length, standings leaning with, his ieft.aznv on. arable ; his i; 
Tight hand by his side, but brought to the frontj'Witb; open: palm>,». 
as if to emphasize the discourse he is addressing to apetsonr on bis ^ 
left, who leans forward listening respectfully. This person, and 
a negro, whose head is seen between, point to a marble statuette 
which they appear to suf^ort on the. table. Golmnnsi behjtldj afi^, 
to the left an open distance. 

Engraved by J. H. Robinson, for the 'Aisoeiated^ 'Mn§r4tver$ f^ and^ by 
W. HoU, for Jones's National Gallery, . . i 

On canvas, 3 ft. 9 in. each way. 

The principal personage in thifl group has been supposed to reprint 
Bnbens. But although the upper part of the head bears a certain" re- 
semblance to Rubens, the mouth and all the lower postion \Bhew.,i«»e. 
iThe beard, too, is scanty tokd.clairsgifn^e; whezaas Eubezxs, at the eaili^t 
^mriod of Yan Dyck's career to which, thia: picture /could baUamg, wis 
about 42 years of age, and, as is evident from his own fKvtsaits by .him* 
self, had a thick moustache and beard. 



IMi Ac, For a liOT of his plctoreff aee ^^]ui|h'B Oa<a<«9u« AaiiMna^,«£;e4 



;k ■ 



26640 'Mi 



180 DYCK. 

This piotnre was formerly in the possession of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
by whom it was much prized. It passed subsequently into the Anger- 
itein GoUeotion, with which it was purchased in 1824. 



No. 50. The Emperor Theodosius refused admission into 
the Church by St, Ambrose. 

The Emperor Theoiosius, after the massacre of Thessalonica in 
the year 390, was placed under the ban of the Church, and on his 
attemping afterwards to enter the Cathedral of Milan was 
repulsed at the door by the Archbishop Ambrose.^ Composition 
of four principal figures, and seven others. 

Engiaved by B. W. Sievier ; by J. H. Robinson, for the Associated 
Engrmvers ; and by S. Freeman, for Jones's National Gallery, 

On canvas, 4 ft. 10 in ^. by 3 ft. w. 

Reduced copy, with some alterations,t of the great picture by Rubens 
in the Imperial Gallery at Yienila, of which there is a large print by' 
J. M. Schmutzer. Van Dyck*s copy was formerly in the possession of 
the Earls of Scarborough, from which it passed into that of Mr. Anger- 
stein, and was purchased by Parliament for the nation, with the rest of 
that geutleman*s pictures, in 1824. 



No. S2. Portrait of Comelit^ vander GeesL 

It has been generally supposed to represent Caspar Gevaerts, 
or Qevartius, the intimate friend of Bubens ; but from a published 
portrait after Van Dyck, engraved by P. Pontius, it is evident that 
the picture represents Cornelius vander Geest.^ 



* Gibbon, DeeUne a^d Fall^ c. xzvii. 

f Svbens for instance, has given a full beard to his finely-conceived head of 
Theoiosius. But Van Dyck, having no donbt consulted medals of that 
Empevor, corrected the pictaresqne error, with more truth to fact than 
advantage to pictorial effect. 

♦ Oasuar Qevartius was bom in 1693 ; and if the picture represented this 
Derson it could not have been painted by Van Dyck, as the age of the original 
when this portrait was taken must have been about sixty' The Canon John 
Gevartlus cRed in 1623, when Van Dyck was quite a young map, and in Italy. 
See Waagen, Kunstwerke und Kunatler in England. Cornelius vander Geest waa 
an amaj^ur of the arts and an intimate friend oi Bubens. 



DYOK. 181 

Bngraved by Sieyier ; by T. Woolnoth ; by G. T. Doo, R.A., for the 
Associated Engravers; and by J. Rogers, for Jones's Natiawd Gallery, 

On wood,* 2 ft. 7 in. A. by 2 ft 2 in. to. 

Formerly in the Angerstein Golleotion. Porohased by Parliament for 
the nation in 1824. 

No. 15C A Study of Horses. 

In the upper part of the picture is the sketch of a cephyr*8 
head. The punter intended to represent in this stady the horses 
of Achillea, Xanthns and Balias, the offspring of Zephyr. EqtM 
AchilliSf and some other words now illegible, are written on a 
scroll in the lower corner of the picture to the left. 

On wood, 3 ft. 6 in. A. by 2 ft. 11 in. to. 

Formerly in the Delm^ Collection ; afterwards in that of 8ir Joshua 
Reynolds. Bequeathed to the National Gallery, in 1838, by Charles Long, 
Lord Famborough. 

No. 680. The Miraculous Drat^ht of Fishes. 

Composition of eleven nmnll figures, with two boats. 

*' Cast the net on the right side of the ship, and ye shall find. They oast 
therefore, and now they were not able to draw it for the multitude of flshes.** 
•~John xxi., 6. 

"And Jesns said unto Simon, Fear not ; from henceforth thou shalt oatoh 
men,"— Luke v., 10. 

On paper, 1 ft. 9} in. h, by 2 ft. 9^ in. to. Engrayed the same sise by 
S. Bolswert. 

Painted by Van Dyck from the large picture by Rubens at Mechlin* 
for the engraver Bolswert to work from. Bought from the Cay. Raffaele 
Carelli, at Naples, in 1861. 

No. 877. Portrait of the Artist. 

^Painted when he was about twenty. He has long fair hair 
curling over his forehead, and displays his hand in a somewhat 
affected attitude. 

On canyas, 1 ft. 10^ in. h, by 1 ft. 7 in. to. 

Purchased from the collection of Sir Robert Peel, in 1871. 

* The head, which is painted upon some other material and fixed upon or in 
the wood, is supposed by some critics to have been painted byBubens. and the 
dress only by van Dyclc. See Passav^nt, Kujutreite, JiCt tuad Waagen, I, 



18» DTX3K. 

'Sc.B77Am TlieCrHcifi^gion. 

At the foot of the Cross, .and clmging^ to it, standa 8t. 2fary 
Magdalene. On the left are the Yir^n and St. John. On the 
right, two mounted soldiers. Another- man raises^^ihe'spKmge' on 
a reed towards the dying Saviour, near whom 'hover' youthfvtl' 
angels. 

In bistre, on white paper, 2 ft. 1^ iD.^.iby 1 ft. .5^ in. w. 
Purchased with the Peel Colleotion, in 1871. 

NjO.' 8776. JUnaldd and Armida^ with Cupids, 

Under the branches of a ragged tree Rinaldo lies on the 
ground, with his head in the lap of Armida, while amorini sport- 
around. Landscape backgroundi . 

In: sepia and white, in oil, on paper, 1 ft. 10 in. A. by 1 ft. 4 in w, 

PtSCrohased with the Peel OoUectioB, in 1871. 

No. 1172. An Equestrian Portrait of Charles /., King 
of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The King,, bare-headed, but otherwiss in armour with buff 
boots, is seen nearly in profile, mounted on a dun-coloured 
Spanish . horee (jineta), advancing to the left. He holds the 
bridle in his left hand, while his right rests on a marshaFs haUm. 
ClosiBlyvfodlowiiDg the horse is Sir Thomaa Morton, the King's 
equerry (whose figure is only partly seen) bearing a plunied. 
hal|ni»t. In>the baokcxoand, to the right, is a large tree, on the 
trunk of which is hung a tablet inscribed with the worda — 

OABOLYS .1.. BEIXMAGN^^BBITANI^. To the left, is 
a idistaat Wdscape* 

On canvas, 12 ft. A by 9 ft. 6 in. w. 

Purchased for the National Gallery from the Duke of Marlborough 
by a speoifd Parliamentary vote, in 1885. 

This picture is, beyond reasonable doubt, the equestrian portrait of 
Qbarles which was sold for 150Z. amongst the effects of the Crown after 
hit death.* It was afterwards seen and purchased at Munich by the 

* On the same occasion VaD Dyck's great portrait of Charles, now at Wfaidsor, 
in which the King on a grey horse advances towards us through an archway, 
■old for 200L and the fine group of the King, Queen, and children, also at 
Windsor, for 1502. ; while the noble Entombment of Our Lord^ by Titian, now one 
of the mostprecious pictures in the Louvre, was bought by the dealer Jabach 
fbr-lSO^.- These- figures, however, represented at that period a value many 
times greater than they do now. The memorable sale above referred to 
disperaed over the Continent the princf pal gems of the masniflcent ooUeotion 
formed by the King. 



DTGKt-^ESOKBOUT. 1(3 

great Dnke of Marlboiongh. One repetition of it on a small eoale is 
in the Royal Ckdleotion at Buckingham Palaoa, another is in the poses- 
sion of the Earl of Clarendon ; each maintained to be Van Dyok's com- 
pleted stndy for this picture. A fine water-colour sketch by Van Djck 
tar the trees in the background is inthe British Museum, where is klso 
a small study of the horse on .gzey paper, in bistre pen and wash 
heightened with white. The picture itself was exhibited at the British 
Institution in 1816, and had been preyious to that time in Marlbordugh 
House, St. James's. It was afterwazds remoyed to Blenheim Psflaoa 
It was slightly etched by Briggs, and also by Sir Jan^es Stuaort^ of 
Allanb—k^ from a study by thi lato Mr, W, H. Carpenter/ 



(GSRBRAND VAN DBM), 1621-1674. 

Was the son of a goldsmith of Amsterdam aiid wm bora on 
the 19th August, 1621. He was one of the first who entered the 
School of oembrandt, and of all the pupils formed in that 
School Eegkhout was his closest imitator. His first picture 
was a portrait of hie own father the skill of which surprised 
Rembrandt himself. He was best in portrait, as in his historicid 
and biblical compositions he merged all originality in a close 
imitation of his master, missing, howeyer, the profound depth of 
reeling and the poetical imagination which yiyifies the work of 
the great Rembrandt. His works «re to be found in moat of the 
principal galleries abroad. He died on the 22nd Jnly 1674. 

No. 1459. The Whie Contract, 

This group represents the four chiefs of the Wine Guild of 
Amsterdam seated in conyersation oyer some deeds which are 
spread out on a table in the centre. They are dl drassed in 
black, and three of them wear their hats. A pug dog is tMated 
on the floor by the side of the figures on the left. Signed^ 








In oil, on canyas, 5 ft. 3 J in. h, by 6 ft. 5} in. to. 
Putohased from Mr. Martin Colnaghl, in 1895. 



* This, and several of the other particulars given above, are taken from the 
Oatahffm Baigenni of the Pictures at Blenheim Palace by Mr. George Boharf 
London, Dorrell and Son, 1862. 



184 ELSHEIMER. 



(Adam), 1578-1620-21. 

Was the son of Anthony Elsheimer, a tailor, who bad settled 
and married at Frankfort-on- Maine. Adam was baptized there 
on the 18th of March 1578. At an early age he was placed with 
the painter Pbilipp XJffenbach, and in his nineteenth year was 
an independent artist with a pupil of his own. Like many of 
the young German and Flemish painters of that period, he felt 
himself drawn towards the south, and in 1600 was already in 
Rome, whither he had probably made his way by Yenice. In 
Rome he married, and spent there and in its neighbourhood the 
rest of Ids short life, which ended in 1620-21. Elsheimer painted 
almost exclusively on copper, his pictures being extremely limited 
in scale. He inherited with his northern blood an intense love 
of nature and her varied aspects. Upon this he engrafted a 
careful study of the human form, and in Italy he profited by the 
example of the great masters of preceding generations. Thus, 
aided by a certain homely imagination, he formed a style of his 
own, combining landscape and figure in such a manner that 
each was the necessary complement of the other, and that 
subject and situation were in perfect harmony. The lonely, 
and at that time, wooded, depressions of the Roman Gampagna, 
and the hills of Albano and Tivoli, were his favourite baunts, 
and in their scenery his imagination placed events in biblical or 
mythological story. He loved especially to paint the strange effects 
produced by diverse sources of illumination. The novelty of his 
aims, the beauty of his execution and the geniality of his dis- 
position gained him admirers and friends ; but his fastidiousness 
over his work prevented him from rising above need. His 
etchings are well known, and the vogue they obtained led to 
many forgeries. Drawings by him are in several collections. 
The Stadel Institute, in his native town, possesses a rich series 
of 179 of his designs, which appear to have been brought together 
by a Dutch connoisseur in the 17th century.^ 

* The most appreciative and disctiminatlng account of Elsheimer and his 
work will be found in Dr. W. Bode's Studien zur Oeschichte der HollandUehen 
Malerei, pp. 233 to 811. Much new light is there thrown on the painter's hfo 
and his position in art, and the digression is explained and Justifled by the 
succeeding chapter of the same work o **The Dutch Painters under the 
influence of Elsheimer.** 



ELSHEIMSR—EMMANITEL. 185 

No. 1014. The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, 

He is being undressed before an image of the Emperor, behind 
which is seen the Roman standard. The fire and gridiron are 
being prepared in the background. Over the head of the saint is 
an angel with a pahn branch in his left hand, and pointing 
npwai^ with his right. 

On copper, 10| in. h. by 8 in. to. 

The Wynn Ellis Beqneet. 1876. 

No. 1424* Tobias and the Angel. 

In a thickly-wooded land.^cape disclosing a distant view of 
hilly country, Tobias, on the n^ht hand of the picture, walks 
barefoot and bareheaded, dragging the fish after him (Tobit, 
chap. vi.). He is closely followed by the Angel, who, dressed in 
a blue robe and maize-coloured mantle, bears a staff in his liand. 

Etched by Count Gondt, in 1613. 

On panel, l\m.h, by lOf in. to. 

This picture has passed through many collections, beginning with that 
of Count Gondt. It was afterwards Mr. Beckford*s of Fonthill.* 
Bequeathed by Mr. Samuel Bandars, in 1894. 



BMKAlfUBIi. 17th Century. 

A Oreek priest and painter. He signs himself in the example 
of his work in this collection Emmanouel^ priest of Tzane. Lanzi 
refers to a picture, dated 1660, by Emmanuel, a priest, who lived 
at Venice, in the 17th century, and who is apparently the same 
painter.f 

* See Waagen, Art Treasures, Tom. ii., p. 239. 

t The period of a Byzantine picture cannot always be ascertained from its 
Btvle, as the Greek Christian Art is purely conventional, and has been practised 
without material alteration from about the tenth oentmy to the present time. 
This singular constancy in the practice of an art is thoroughly explained in the 
Ottide or Manual of Fainting, 'EpfitfVila rris ^uypa^iKTic printed by M. Didron, 
from a MS. of the eleventh century, procured by him from Mount Athos. and 
pnblished at Paris in 1846, under the title, Manuel d* Iconoffraphie Chretienne, 
Qreeque et Latins, avee une Introduction et des notes. Traduit du MS. Byzantin, ** Le 
Ouitk de la Peinture,** par U Dr. Paul Durand. 

There is also a German Translation by Dr. Schafer. Das Sandbuch d^r Maleret 
vom Berge Athos, Ac, Svo., Trier, 1865. In this remarkable guide are given, not 
only the subjects to be represented, and their orthodox treatment, but even the 
costume, age, and lineaments of the characters introduced ; it is as indispensable 
to tiie Greek painter as his palette and brushes. 



lafif EMMANUSL-^EliBOLL 

No. 594. Saints Commas and Damian/ua^ rece&yiiig the* 
Divine blessing, according to the Greek rite.* 

The Lord surronnded by the Vesica Piscis^ or Ichikys^'\ is repre- 
sented above. Inscribed 'O 'A Koir/iac, o *A Aafuavoty and signed 
Xdtp *EfiftavovrjiK itpkot^ rov T^dve. — The haad of Emmanuel, the 
priest son of John.:): 

In tempera, on wood, 2 ft. 2 in. A. by 1 ft. 9 in. to. 

Formerly in the possession of Sig. Nardi, of Florence. Punshased in 
Florence from the Lombardi-Baldi Collection, in 1857. 

XcVp eiYlYiaNOVHA 

iePGCOC TOV tSong- 



SKPOLZ§ (Jacopo da). 1554?>1640. 

Born at Florence about 1554, was the son of a certain Chimenti, 
a cloth merchant, called da Empoli perhaps because either he or 
his father had come from that town. Jacopo learned the arts of 
design in the school of Tommaso da S. Fridiano, but at the same 

* In the Qreek mode of blessing the hand attempts to form the monogram 
of Christ 10. XO, or the first and last letters of the name of Ohrist, *lfiaevt 
XpiifT6t ; the first finger is straight, the second slightly curved, the thumb 
holding down the thirdf, forming the X, and the fourth slightly curved. See the 
Greek ^ G uide." German translation, p. 418. 

t See Margaritone, note, for the explanation of the Ichthya, 

t For a correction of the interpretation of the mediaval Greek of this inscrip- 
tion which had hitherto been given in successive editions of this Gatalogne, 
thanks are due to M. Jean Gennadius, Envoy Extraordinary in England of the 
Hellenic Kingdom. 

The Saints Oosmas and Damianus, martyrs of the fourth century, are called 
from their practising. medicine gratuitous^ly, oi dyioi dvdpyvpoi^'Oie unmer- 
ceaary -8aint& They are represent^ always together and in three 'difleireiit 
modes, m Greek art— one mode bei^ peculiar to two saints of Rome, July Ist, 
another to two of Asia (Minor f), November 1st, and a third to two of Arabia, 
October 7th. The saints of this picture are the Roman pair. See the Gtirman 
translation of the Greek ** Guide ^' before mentioned, p. 3^. 

9 The application to this painter of his father's Ohristian name Olmnenti 
(— Olemente) as a surname fs modern and incorrect. In an inscription on a 
picture in the Louvre (No. 131) he calls himself Jacobiu Empoli .... Clementis 
filing: on the picture in the Vienna Gallery the signature is Jacopo EmpolU 
Baldmucci, too, his fellow-townsman and almost his contemporary calls him 
Jacopo da Empoli, or, simply, TEmpoli 



EMPOLl. 187 

time diligently stodied and copied the works of Andrea del Sarto, 
particularly, it is said^ the- noble isMn8e»*iii:;tha hum cloister of 
the Annnnziata. His extraordinary skill and fidelity as a copyist 
soon brought him into notice : and even in aftAF yean, when he 
had become on independeBt painter, he was often employed to> 
ceprodttoe .worka of Frs Bartolonmeo, del Sarto and Pontonno^ 
Favoored by the prinoes of the house of Medioi, he obtained 
c^ebrity. The Church patronized him largely. Baldinucci gives 
an extensive list of altar-pieces executed by Jacopo for churches 
and monasteries in Florence, in the Terra d'Empoli, in Prato, 
Pistoia, and other localities in Tuscany, and mentions many 
pictures of devotional or secular subjects . f rrnished to private 
citizens. A nearly fatal fall from a scaffolding, when once in his 
earlier days he was painting on a wall in the Certosa, caused him 
thenceforth to abjure fresco-painting, to the practice of which his 
facile pencil would seem to have been well adapted. He* was «n 
admirable dranghtman, and his manner in the use of the bnuh was 
free and masterly. The heads in his compositions are generally 
well chosen and sufficiently individualized. Two exceptionaUy 
fine works secure to this painter an eminent place in that later 
Florentine school which, amidst the many capricious phases 
assumed by eclecticism in Italy, remained truest to its proper 
traditions. These are A Miracle of San Carlo Borromeo in 
S. Domenico at Pistoia, and SanV Yvo as protector of orphans now 
in the Uffizi. The latter, painted in 1616, is distinguished by 
stateliness of composition, force of colouring and refined adaptations 
of the costume of the period to the subject treated. Jacopo*8 
pictures are for the m?Bt part still in Tuscany. On this side the 
Alps may be found in the Belvedere at Vienna a Suwinnah 
prtparing for the bathy dated 1600, and in the Louvre a Madonna in 
glory J an early work of 1579. The painter livei till 1640. 

No. \2ASLi San Zenabia restoring to life a Dead Child. 

The Saint, clad in episcopal vestments, and attended by eccle- 
siastics, stands on the left of the composition, extending his hands 
in pray^ over the child, who lies at his feet, already showing signs 
of retuming<animation ; while the boy's mother kneels by his side 
in*a supplicating attitude* Iq th3 background are other figures. 

On canvas, 6 ft. 9 in. A. by 5 ft. 3| in. w. 

Presented by Mr. George Salting, 1889. 



183 ENGELBEBTSZ— EYEBDINGEK. 



(CoRNELis), 1468-1533. 

^Was born at Leyden in 1468. Ho was one of the first who 
praotised oil-painting in that city, and is said to have been^the 
master of Lucas of Leyden. where Engelbertsz died in 1533. 
Few of the circnmstancev of his life are known, and mosi; of his 
more important religions works were destroyed by the Dntck 
iconoclasts of the sixteenth century. 

No. 714. Mother and Ghild^ in a Landscape. 

The mother, dressed in pale blue, is seated under a tree ; the 
Child in its mother^s arms, naked, has just turned from her breast. 

On oak, 13^ in. A. by 10^ in. w. 

Formerly in the WaUerstein Collection. Presented, in 186S, by Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria, in fulfilment of the wishes of H.B.H. ^the 
Prince Consort. 



BRCOXiB DA FSa&ASA. (See O&AVDX.) 



SVXS&DZNaSN (Allabt van), 1612-1675. 

A landscape painter who depicted as a rule the wilder aspects 
of nature. He was born at Alkmaar, and was a pupil of Boelandt 
Sayery and afterwards of Pieter Molyn. His subjects are mostly 
scenes of rock, forest and waterfall, which an involuntary visit to 
Norway, caused by his being shipwrecked on that coast, gave him 
the opportunity of studying. He was the precursor of Jacob 
Buysdael in this respect. He also painted, more rarely, sea-piecet 
and rocky coasts with effects of storm. Of these perhaps his best 
example is iiPthe museum at Ohantilly. His pictures are numerous 
in the principal galleries of Europe. He died at Amsterdam 
in 1675. 



EVEBDINGBN— EYOK. 189 

No. 1701. Landscape unth Water-mill. 

T 

By the side of a torrent which rashes through rocky ground in 
the centre of the picture U a saw-mill telling light against the 
dark hackground ; some timher is arranged to the left. On the 
further side of the torrent to the right ar a houses and sheds amongst 
trees hacked hy rocky heights ; beyond are low hills in deep 
shadow under a grey cloudy sky. In the foreground which is aU 
in shadow are seen a peasant woman and some sbesp. 

On panel, 1 ft 5| in. h,. by 1 ft. 11| in. w. 

Presented by Mr. G. H. Boughton, B.A., in 1900. 



L (Jan van), 1390?-1440. 

Was born probably at Alnden Eyck, or Maas Eyck, on the Maas, 
about 1390, the exact date being doubtful. His. elder brother, 
Hubert, was born, according to Van Mandcr, in 1366 : this leaves 
a long interval between the births of the two brothers. There is 
sufficient historical evidence to show that John was many years 
younger than Hubert : in their portraits in the Oallery of Berlin, 
on one of the wings originally belonging to the altar-piece of the 
Adoration of the Lamb, in St. Bavon't*, at Qhent, Hubert looks at 
least old enough to have been John*s father ; and according to 
Markus van Yaernewyck, in his ** History of Belgium," published 
in t565, John van Etck was still young when he died. Making 
<lue allowance for the diversity of opinions as to when a man ceases 
to be 3 oung, it may be assumed that he was not much more than 
£rty at his death ; and as it is now established that he died at 
Bruges on the 9th of July 1440,^ he may have been born Efhortly 
hefore 1390, but harJly later. His brother Hubert died at Ghent, 



* See the docnments published by W. H. James Weale in hia Notes sur Jean 
Van Ji7i/<;ft, Ac, Londree, Barth^s and Lowell, t861 ; rectifying some mistakes in 
^e Abb6 Carton's work, Lea Trais Freres Van Eyck^ Scc.^ Bruges, 1848. The 
following publications (anterior to the discovery of facts now established) may 
t)e consulted for other particulars. Dr. Waagen, Kunstblatt, 1869, No. 25. De 
Bast, Mesaoffer des Sciences et des Arts, Gand, 1824. The KunstblattA8l26, No. 78, Ac. 
Pasaavant, Kuwtreiae dureh England und Bekfien, Frankfort, A.M. 1833. Bath- 
•gebrar, AnnaUn der Niederliindischen Malerei^ <kc., Qotha, 1842. Michiels, Peintres 
Bntffeois, 1846 ; Sir O. L. Eastlake's Materials for a History of Oil Painting, 1847 ; 
And Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Qtschichte der Niederlandisehen Malerei, Leipziir. 
1875. p. 30-139. 



H19D BYCfK. 

September 18, 1426, and^was Iniriedin the TRnk of Jadooad Yydt 
in St. Bayon's. The third brother Lambert tarvived John some 
years. 

The Van Eycks resided chiefly at Ghent and Bruges, where they 
foasded a great school. Both Habert and John were granted 
the freedom of the profession by the Corporation of Painters of 
Ghent, in the year 1421.^ They are particularly distinguished as 
the inventors (or improvers) of Oil painting ; general repute 
gives the credit of this discovery to John; but from all theciroum- 
stances, Hulert appears "to %ave a better claim to the invention. 
The whole of the upper part of the interior of the Adoration of 
the Lamb, their masterpiece, except perhaps the wiug containing 
the ^^ Singing Angels,'' was painted by Habert, who was thus 
evidently complete master of the metLod ; and at the date at 
which Van Mander fixes the discovery, 1410, -Hubert was already 
forty- four years of age, while John was still but a youth. 

This celebrated picture, painted for Judoous Vydt, was finished 
by John in 1432, six years . after the death of his brother, and in 
the inscription on the work i^e oliief merit is given to Hubert 
who is called the greatest in art, while John is styled the second, f- 
Ther external pictures representing the Annunciation, St. John the 
Baptist, St. (John the Evangelist, and the donors, are by John. 

Yasari's general statement that John van Eygk was . the 
inventor of oil painting, or literally varnish painting, was formerly 
much impugned, as it was known that the mere immixture of oil 
with colours was practised in Germany and elsewhere long< before 
the time of Yan Eyck. Yasari, however, in his Life of Agnolp 

• Bnsscher, Notice sur L'Anclenne Corporation des Peintres et Sculpteurs a Qand 
Brussels, 185B. 

t The inscription is as follows, the last line containing what is termed a 
chronogram, the Boman capitals making together, accordmg to their value as 
nnmerals, the date 1432, on the sixth of May of which year the pioturo was 
fixed in its place :— 

Pictor Hubertus e Eyck, major quo nemo repertxu 

Incepit : pondusque Johannes arte secundus 

Frater perf ecit, Judoci Vyd prece f retus 

VersV seXta maI Vos GoLLoOat aCta tUeri. 
" The two central divisians of this picture are all th«t bow nmain io'tiie 
ehtirch at Ghent. The «ight wingsj with the exception of tbe> flgnrea oi .Adam 
and Eve, are in the Gallery of Berlin. The figures of Adam and five (Iha/lntter 
not the -most fortunate of the upper series, though extolled by Albert Ltirer) 
were, in 1880, plaiced in the GTallery at Brussels. Th& attar^eca is^aanaved in 
outline in Paseavant's Kum^reise^ &c., in Crowe and Qavaloasetie's MarhfJ^wtith 
Paintersy London, 1657, and in Waasen's BcmdHmch der JkuttieTtenMiA Ntmhr^ 
Wtndidchen MalerschuUn. Stuttgart, 1862. It was odpied by.'Mlehael^ClASBlii'for 
Philip II; of Bpain, in 1569 ; it occupied him two*7eaPB,and he awi t e A lyMO 
florins for his labour. 



EYCK. 



191 



£tas{di, intimates that oil painting,' though* lometimes adopted hy 
the eairlier masters, was not emplojed bj them for fignrep, brat 4or 
■4ecoffatfv6 pttrpeses • osly .^ 

'No/^186- Portraits of Jean Amoifini and Jmrnne-'de 
Chenany his wifej\ 

Standing in the middle of an apartment with their hands joined. 
in the back-ground are a bed, a mirror, and a window partly 
open ; the objects in the room, and even beyond that portion of it 
represented in the pictare, — for a door and two additional figores 
may be distinguished, — are distinctly reflected in the mirror. A 
branch brass chandelier hangs from the ceiling, with a candle still 
burning in it ; in the fore-ground is a small poodle. In the frame 
of the mirror are ten minute circular compartment?, in which are 
painted subjects relating to the Passion of Christ ; immediatelv 
above the mirror is written '^Johannes de Eyck fait hie/' with 
the date 1434 below.f 




^ 






)!A 



On wooJ, 2 ft. 9 in. h, by 2 ft. \ in. to. 

This pictare belonged, in 1516, to Margaiset of Austria, to whom it 
^a^prasented by Don Diego de Guevara ; it was also in her possession 
'in 1524 ; thepictsreorigiBally had shutters, on the outside of which 
the arms of Don Diego were painted.^ Altevwards, aocording. to Van 

rinto.the pe o is o sicMa of.»l9AEber*sB^eoa at. Bruges, who 



—-*-* _ A -^ I 



*- « ObmiiBi^Tttie litfe tt^AntotrtlUMia^Mo s oi a i l In 41ds Oatailoffiie. 
t^ealeTHro^eo; Ac, {i. 27. 
i John Van Ey^ was bwe. 



192 EYCK. 

presented it to the then Regent of the Netherlands, Mary, the sister of 
GliArles v., and Queen Dowager of Hungary. This princess valued the 
picture so highly, that she granted the barber-surgeon in return a pen- 
sion, or office worth 100 florins per annum.* The picture belonged to 
her in 1556 ; it is even included in the list of valuables which she 
carried with her to Spain. Its subsequent history, however, shows that 
it either did not go to Spain or returned again to Flanders : there it 
must have passed into obscure hands ; it was discovered by Major-Gen« 
Hay, in the apartments to which he was taken, in 1815, at Brussels, to 
recover from wounds he had received in the battle of Waterlocf He 
purchased the picture after his recovery, and disposed of it to the 
British Gk)vemment in 1842, when it was placed in the National 
Gallery. 



No. 22i2> A MarCs Portrait. 

In a cloak and fur collar, with a red chaperon twisted round the 
head like a turban. 

On wood, lOJ in. h, by 74 in. «?. 

This picture was apparently, from the incription on the back — " Ex 
CoUectione Arundeliana *' — formerly in the Arundel Collection : it was 
lately in that of Viscount Midleton, at Pepper-harrow. It was painted, 
according to an inscription on the lower part of the frame, Oct. 21, 
1433.| Purchased for the National Ghillery, from Mr. H. Farrer, in 
1851. 



No. 290a Portrait of a Man, 

Wearing a dark red dress, and a green chaperon or hood with 
its long dependent tippet; iu his hand he holds a paper with 
writing upon it. The lower part of the picture represents a stone 
parapet, on which is inscribed in Greek characters what appears 
to be meant for Ti/itfOsoc: Timothy ; below is written Leal 



* Van Mander, Ket Schilder Boeck, 1618, p. 120. 

1 0. 1. Nieuwenhnys, Description de la Oalerte des Tcibleavx de 8.M,Le Boi des 
J^iys-Bas. Bruzelles, ) 843, p. 4, note. Eugler's Hand' hook, &c., revised by Waageo, 
liondon, Murray. 1800, vol i., p. 70. 

t The oriffinal inscription, a facsimile of which is ffiven on the following page, 
is Joh'es + de + Eyck + me + fecit + anno + MOOOO + 33 -f 21 Octobris. C)n the 
upper paJrt of the frame are the three words ALS IZH XAN (als ich kanX 
signifying, as well as I can,— which appear from several examples still extant 
to have been often written by Van Eyck on the frames of his pictures ; they 
are the first words of an old Flemish proverb,— As I can, but not as I wilL— 8e« 
I'Abb^ 0. Oarton, Let troit Fr&ea Van Eyck, p. 73, Bruges, 1848. 



J 



EYCK— FABRITIUS. 193 

SoijyiSNiR, aad under this the piinter^s signature as .follows ; — 
Pactu ano. Dm, 1432. 10. die Ojtobris. a Joh. de Eyoh,^ 

On wood, 13^ in. h. by 7^ in. to. 

Pnrdiafled from Hemn Carl Boas, at Mnnioh, in 1857. 



(Bernhard). Painting 1650-1672. 

There were two Datch painters named Fabritins, Karel, of 
Delft, and Bernhard, the subject of the present notice. The 
former was, the latter is assumed to have been, a scholar of 
Bembrandt. A few facts only of Bernbard^s life are known. 
He bough c a house at Leyden in 1657, entered the guild of 
painters there, and some time after departed thence. A study 
of his works leaves no room for doubt that he had stood to 
Bembrandt in the direct relation of pupiL Not that he was a 
mere imitator of the great master, but on the contrary an inven- 
tive spirit, possessed of much feeling and fancy. The earliest 
date found on any work of his (a small one in the Stockholm 
Museum) is 1650. His Peter in the house of Cornelius in the 
Brunswick Gallery, dated 1653,> while in many respects reminiscent 
of Bembrandt, seems to show in the quaint formality of its 
composition a cross reflex of old Netherlandish art. If this 
picture be accepted as a relatively youthful production, it may 
afford hints of influences under which the painter was developing. 
At any^te signs of a familiarity with works of a former time 
are not wanting in other pictures of his. He liked, for instance, 
to put on his figure8*eostume3 of the period of Lucas van Leyden. 
His general tone of colouring is cooler than that of Bembrandt. 
But he loved warm hues and chords of red. Peculiar to him is 



* The ^nothers Van Eyek appear to have resided in Ghent while they weiw 
employed on the altar-pieoe of St Bavon. After the death of Hubert, John 
van Eyck remained in that city till May, 1432, when the work was completed. 
In Ausrnst of the same year (as is proved by a document) he had returned to 
Bruges. A picture by him in the possession of Mr. Weld Blnndell, of Ince Hall, 
near Liverpool, is supposed to have been the first work painted by the master 
after his return: it has the date 1432, with the adfiition BrugU, The portrait 
Above described, dated October, 1432, ranks next or possibly before it in chrono- 
logical order. Weale, Notes, Ac, p. 9. note. In the Kunstblatt, October 19, 1854 
there is a careful description of this picture by Dr. E. Fdrster. More than one 
eopy of the portrait exists, whence it may be inferred that the personage 
represented was of some note. 

26640 N 



I- 



ia4 



EYCK, 






R 



§ 

O 



I 

I 

I 



to. 




O 

3 









FABRITIUS. 196 

a leaning towards violaceous grey in the shadows of the flesh. 
In execution he is aneqoal and not always thorough. There is a 
sympathetic character even in the weakest of his works ; in his 
best he is a singukrly attractive master. Of his signed and dated 
pictures, besides the two above mentioned, two are in the Staedel 
Institute at fVankfort, one in the Byks Museum at Amsterdam, 
one in the Copenhagen Gallery, while the Suermondt (prifvate) 
collection at Aix-la-Chapelle contains five, representing the 
Senses.^ The dates range from 1650 to 1672. Unsigned works 
identified by their style are in the Galleries of DresdMi^ Munich 
and Darmstadt. 



No. 1338a The Adoration of the Shepherds. 

On the left of the composition the Virgin, draped in a pale 
crimson robe, blue mantle, and white linen head veil, kneels by the 
side of the manger in which the infant Christ lies. Near her 
stands St. Joseph. At the foot of the manger kneel the sh^herds 
in adoration. Behind them, towards the right, are other rustics. 
Above their heads an opening in the roof discloses a peep of 
landscape in the light of early dawn. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 2 in. h, by 1 ft. 1 If in. to. 

Porchased, in 1891, from Mr. Edward Habich of Cossel. 



No. 1339- The Nativity of St. John. 

In the interior of a humble room the infant saint lies in a. 
"wicker cradle, at the foot of which sits St. Elisabeth, who offers 
au apple to another child standing by the side of its ttarse or 
mother. To the right of the picture St. Zacharias, seated, write 3 
on a tablet. On the left a wood fire is burning. In the shade of 
the background are seen three other figures. 

On panel, 1 ft. 2^ in. h, by 1 ft. 6^ in. to. 

Purchased, in 1891, from Mr. Edward Habich, of Oassel. 



* To the list of signed pictures by B. Fabritins should be added the Mercury^ 
Argus and lo, in the Cassel Gallery ; unique amongst the painter's work in that 
its subject is mytiiological. It is dated 1662. 

25640 ^' 2 



I9S FEERARESE SCHOOL— FERRARI. 



SCBOO&. Early XYI. Century. 

No. 1062. A Battle Piece. 

In the centre a king or general in armour, on a white horse, 
raises his curved sword as if to encourage his followers. Other 
horsemen are engaged in fight on each side, their horses rearing 
over the bodies of the dead and wounded. 

On wood, 2 ft. 4 in. h, by 3 ft. 1 in. to. 

Purchased at the sale of the collection of the late Mr. W. Benoni 
White, in 1879. 



(Gaudenzio), 1481 ?-1547 ? 

TThis most indefatigable painter was born at Yaldaggia in the 
Duchy of Milan, probably about 1481.^ He is said by Lomazzo 
with some probability to have studied under Stefano Scotto, a 
painter of whom little is known, but who is said by Lomazzo to 
have excelled in arabesques, in which, however, his pupil 
'Gaudenzio surpassed him. No doubt in the early part of his 
life he was much under the influence of a group of painters 
working at the end of the 15th century at Yercelli and in the 

'neighbourhood. He began to paint at a very early age, being 
employed at that time at the Sacro Monte at Yarallo, where he 
^was afterwards to give so many and such splendid examples of 
4)i8 talent ; but of the numerous works done there at that time 

' but little remains. He frequently signed his works in his earlier 
years Gaudentius Vincius, it is supposed from the family name 

' of his mother ; this has led to a supposition that there was a 

. painter of that name distinct from Ferrari, and works so signed 
have been attributed to that unknown artist.t Early in the 
16th century Gaudenzio appears to have gone to Milan and to 
ba\e come under the influence of Luini, and to have adopted 
with surprising ret^ness the principles of the new school founded 

* In the life of Gaudenzio Ferrari by Giuseppe Oolombo, from which this 
-short account is mostly derived, reasons are given for supposing this the most 
-probable date, (jfito ed opere di Gaudemto Ferrari eon ooeumerM inediti, per 
OiUMppe Colombo Bta. Torino. Fr. Boeea, 1881.) 

t See the work by Giuseppe Oolombo, cited above, pp. 41, 42. 



FBRBABI. 197 

by Leonaido da Yind. Among works supposed to be executed 
during this period of irausition from his earlier manner to his 
full development are four pictures in the Royal Gallery at 
Turin, and some much injured frescoes in the Cappella della 
Piet^ at Yarallo. In 1508-9 he was working at Yeroelli, where 
he produced numerous pictures and frescoes with his usual 
activity ; amongst them the fresco of the L(ut Supper in the 
refectory of the convent of S. Criotoforo, believed to have been 
painted at this period.^ The date of many of, these works, 
however, is difficult to &Xy for he was at Yeroelli for many years 
at a later period of his life. A fancied resemblance to the- 
works of Perugino and RafEaelle gave rise to a belief that he wa» 
at one time a pupil of Perugino, and to a still more drcumstantialf 
story that he went to Rome and worked with Raifaelle as his 
assistant in the Yatican and the Farnesina Palace, but the facts- 
advanced rest on no evidence whatever, and may indeed be dis- 
proved by a comparison of dates.t Gaudenzio next went to- 
Arona in 1510, where he painted an altar-piece in six compart- 
mentis for the parish church, the contract for which dated 
February 25th is in existeace. The centre compartment of this- 
altar-piece, one of his most beautiful compositions, representing 
the Nativity with the Virgin adoring the In/ant Christy he 
repeated with variations more than twenty times,^ and ia the. 
course of the two years he spent in the neighbourhood of the Lago 
Maggiore he did many other works. After this he was again at. 
Yarallo, where he acquired a permanent residence, and heres 
received the commission to paint the great wall in the Madonna^ 
delle Grazie, which he divided into twenty compartments, with 
scenes of the Passion, completing the whole work in the years 
1512 and 1513. He also covered the roof with the arabesque 
paintings for which he is so extolled by Lomazzo and Bordiga, 
those in the chapel of Sta. Margherita bt* ing the only ones 
remaining. In No vara in the next year he painted the ancona 
of the great altar in S. Gaudenzio, at which time he had as his 
pupil Guiseppe Giovenone, brother of the better known Girolamo 

* TUB with most of the works mentioned in this account is engraved by 
1*ianazzi in his book Le Opere del Pittore^ (fee. Oaud. Ferrari^ disegnate ed incise da 
SUvettro Pianazgi, dirette da Sand. Bordiga^ Milano^ 1835. 

t See the work by Qiuseppe Oolombo, cited above. Chapters IV. and IX. 

X One of these is in the oolleotion belonging to Capt. fiolford in Dorchester 
House. 



198 FEBBABL 

G-ioyenoDe.^ From 1514 to 1526 do certain date can be pat 
to any of his works ; we only know that he was in Novara in 
1515 and at the end of 1517 ; and again in 1521, in which year 
he was also at Teroelli. About 1524 he went to Yarallo, and 
from that time to 1528 he painted in the Sanctuary of the Sacro 
Monte the famous work by which he is perhaps best known, 
namely, the Crucifixion in the chapel of that name. Here he 
•enhanced the dramatic effect of the great fresco by a group of 
twenty-three life-sized figures modelled in plaster and coloured 
by his own hand, which form the foreground to the picture. 
The other equally famous fresco in the Chapel of the Magi, 
which is treated in the same way with groups of modelled 
figures, was probably done ten years later. Many works done at 
Yalduggia, his native place, at this period of his life, are now 
lost. 

In the year 1528 he moved to Yercelli, where he remained 
till 1535 or 1536. Here he painted many important works in the 
Church of S. Cristof oro in which he was assisted by Bernardino 
Lanino, who became his pupil in 1528. In 1535 he went to 
Saronno, where he painted the dome of the Madonna de* Miracoli 
with choirs of angels adoring the Almighty, one of his most 
exquisite conceptions. It is supposed that he left Yercelli and 
settled in Milan in 1536 ; it is known that he sold his house in 
Yarallo in 1539. It is impossible to enumerate all the works 
done by Caudenzio during his life in Milan ; among them is a 
Last Supper in the charch of the Passione ; but the best known- 
is the celebrated but somewhat over-rated picture of the 
Martyrdom of St, Catherine in the Brera Gallery, painted 
between 1540 and 1545. He went again to Saronno and painted 
the lower part of the dome mentioned above) and did his last 
work in the Chapel of Sant* Anna della Pace in Milan. There 
is no mention of him after 1545, and he is supposed to have 
died in 1547, Lomazzo mentioning him as already dead in 1548. 
Contrary to the statements of earlier writers, who said that 
Gaudenzio remained a bachelor, he was twice married. 



* It was falsely asserted, on the strenjsth of an inscription on the baek of a 
picture by Qandensio, that Qirolamo Oiovenone was his flrst master, and the 
SMertion was repeated without inquiry by a host of writers. Oiovenone, 
however, was born 10 or 11 years after Gaudenzio. 



FEBBABI. 199 

This great pftinter, who in the comae of hit life of 67 yean 
stands almost alone for the immense amount which he produced, 
is the subject of almost extravafifant encomium by Bordiga and 
Colombo and other writers ; and he cannot be denied great 
power and facility in combining numbers of figures in vast 
coinpoeitions, and an amazing skill of execution. Besides thefe 
he was a master of the higher qualities of expression and of 
grace, with a charm of varied colour ; his angels especially are 
llrequently of exquisite beauty. But a calmer judgment must 
allow that in these qualities he was excelled by Luini, in whom 
the feeling for nature is mcHre genuine. Gaudenzio*s grace 
frequently degenerates into affectation, especially in his figures 
of old men, who sometimes have the affected airs of girts, and he 
is to apt to repeat the same faces, ba indeed must necessarily be 
the result of so enormously a facility and fertility in production. 
His compositions are sometimes overcrowded and confused ; 
often the draperies are involved and unnatural, and the actions 
of his figures extravagant to grotesqueness, more especially in 
his later works, as may be seen in the Martyrdom of St Catherine 
referred to above, where the exaggerated attitudes and expres- 
sions are enhanced \yj bad drawing and preposterous costumes, 
the face of St. Catherine alone having the sweetness which we are 
accustomed to find in Gaudenzio at his best time. 



No. 1469. The Resurrection. 

The figure of our Lord holding the banner in His hand, and 
with an ample white drapery floating about Him, is rising from 
the tomb, which is in the form of a sarcophagus of purplish 
marble. The background is a simple blue sky with mouutains low 
down on the horizon. 

In oil, on wood, 5 ft. k. by 2 ft. 9 in. w. 

Thi&.picture formed the centre compartment of an altar-piece in a 
church ac Magianico, near Lecco, on the Lake of Como. It passed from 
thence to the gallery of the Cav. Scari)a, at Motta, near Treviso. 

Farcbaeed, in 1895, at the sale of the Scarpa Collection at Milan. 



200 . FILIPEPI. 



(Sandro, called Botticblli), 
1447-1610 

Alessandbo, or Sandbo, the son of Mariano Filipepi, was 
V»om at Florence in 1447. The agnomen of Botticelli he adopted 
(says Yasari) from the goldsmith to whom he was at first appren- 
ticed.^ His master in painting was Fra Filippo Lippi, who was 
much attached to him, and whose style long impressed itself upon 
the youthful pupil. Sandro was a man of singularly inventive 
genius, endowed with an ardent and highly poetic tem- 
perament, which often betrayed him into an excess of phantasy. 
Bat the sense of life which glows through all his productions 
extenuates the frequent fault of over-vehement action in his 
figures. If he seldom attained the dignity of his master in pose^ 
and generally fell short of him in majesty and simplicity of 
drapery, as well as in refinement of colour, he nevertheless reached 
a high degree of excellence in both of these last qualities. Where 
Fra Filippo was all repose, Sandro was all movement. His range 
of subjects was immense, according to the calls of his patrons 
and the untamable energy of his own nature. It extended from 
great scriptural compositions, as in his fie^coes in the Sixtin^ 
Chapel, and large altar-pieces treated with gr jat power, through 
the most touching scenes in the life of the Virgin, to events in 
classic history, including allegorical and mythological subjects. 
All these he treated in a form which was the natural outcome of 
the renaissance, but with a verve, naivete, and pathos peculiar to 
himself. He was a profound student of Dante, whose Divine 
Comedy he illustrated,*)' and even annotated ; and there can be 
little doubt that the Convito was suggestive to him in many of 
his conceptions. He became a follower of Savonarola, and no 
doubt suffered in consequence. The contemporaneous reputation 
of Botticelli stood high, and Yasari reckons him as the best 
painter in Florence after the death of Fra Filippo. The same 

* In reality this name was borne by the painter's brother Giovanni, after 
whom Sandro was called Del Botticello ; it does not appear to have been 
attached to any Florentine goldsmith of that period. 



t In 1882 the Pmfisian Government purchased from the Dnke of Hamilton 
the Sutherland manuscripts. The pearl of this collection was a series of eighty- 
eight drawings by Botticelli in illustration of the IHvina Commedia, executed id 



5ILIPEPI. 201 

writer makes him the insirnctor of Filippino LippL Haying been 
a man of careless habits as regards money, and erratic in his -work, 
he finally fell into a state of poverty, and was supported in his 
declining days by the Medici and other friends, until bis death, 
May 17, 1510.^ He was buried in a tomb, constrncted by his 
father, in the church of Ognissanti, Florence. His extant worka 
are numerous, although many bearing his name can only be 
considered as having issued from his hottega. 

No. 275* The Virgin and Cht'ldy St John the Baptist 
and an Angel. 

The Tirgin richly dressei in gold brocade, is holding the 
Child to her bosom. St. John and the Angel are standing one on 
each side, a little behind the Virgin, in the act of adoring the 
Divine Infant. Half -figures, small life-size. 

In tempera, on wood, circular, 2 ft. 9 in. in diameter. 

This picture appears to have originally belonged to the celebrated 
architect Giuliano da San Gallo ; hut name, in the manner and ortho* 
graphy of the 16th century, is written on the back — ^M. Giuliano da San 
Ghsdlo. In the last century it was the property of tiie Abate Carlo 
Bianooni, Secretary of the Academy of the Arts at Milan, who died in 
1802, when the picture passed into the possession of Professor Gio. 
Giuseppe Bianconi, of Bologna, from whom it was purchased for the 
National Collection in October, 1855. It is mentioned in Bassani'a 
Gnidajper Bologna^ 1816, as a work of Ghirlandaio. 

No. 62i6> Portrait of a Young Man, 

Bust length : clad in a close brown dress and a red cap ; full 
face. 

Once ascribed to Masaccio, but without good foundation. 

On wood, in tempera, 14 in. A. by 11 in. w, 

Puxchased at the sale of the Northwick pictures, in 1859. 

f 

No. 78JL Tiie Madonna and Child. 

The Infant Christ is embracing the Mother, who is seated at 
an open window. 

In tempera, on wood, 2 ft. 9 in. h, by 2 ft. 14 in. w, 

Formerly in the collection of Count Galli Tass, at Florence. Pur- 
Ghased, with the PoUaiuolo, No. 781, from Signer Giuseppe Baslini, 
Florence, in 1867. 

* LOni d^ Morti of Florence ; cited by Milanesi, Le Opere di O. Vasari, III., 
Pk821«oote. 



20% FILIPEPI. 

No. 91S> Mars and Venus. 

The goddess robed in white and gold, with a jewel on her neck, 
is reclining on the spectator's left, with her right arm supported 
on a crimson cushion. Mars lies oa the other side asleep ; 
four young satyrs are playing with his arms and armour, one 
attempting to rouse him by blowing a shell. 

In tempera, on wood, 2 ft. 3^ in. h, by 5 ft. 8 in. to. 

Purchased at the sale of Mr. Alexander Bizkeir's piotuzes, in 1874, 

No. 1034. The Nativity of the Saviour. 

Beneath a thatched penthouse fronting an opening in some 
white rocks, with a background of distant trees, the Yirgiu 
Mother kneels in prayer over the Child, who, reclining against a 
pack-saddle, looks up towards her. St. Joseph is crouched near, 
as if asleep. Behind are an ox and an ass feeding from a wicker 
crib ; on the left the three Magi ; on the right three shepherds 
kneel in adoration, attended by angels. Three angels kneel 
on the thatch of the shed singing from a book held by the 
central one. In the rocky foreground three long-robed young 
linen crowned with myrtle, and three angels, embrace in joy ; 
whilst demons seek to hide themselves in the crevices of the 
rocks. High above, the heavens open in a golden glory, and 
a choir of twelve angels htnd-in-hand wheel round in exultant 
dance, singing, and bearing olive branches and banderoles, with 
crowns dependent from them. The subject is conceived in a 
manner highly mystical and symbolical, expressive of the effects 
of the Advent upon the good and the evil. The colour of the robes 
and wings of the angels, alternately red, green and white are 
symbolical. Above the picture, on a grey ground, is the following 
inscription in Greek characters. 

TAYTHN • rPA*HN * EN ' TQI ' TEAEI • TOY ' XSSSSS ' ET0Y2 * EN 

TAIS • TAP S • TH2 ' ITAATAS* AAE;^ANAP0S • EPQ * EN ' TQI 

META • XPONON ' HMIXPONQI * EFPA^ON * HAPA ' TO/^N AEKATON 
TOY • APIOY • lOANNOY * EN * TQI • AHOKAAY^EOS ' BQ/ 'OYAI " EN 
THI • AY2EI • TQN * T • * AI • HMISY • ETQN ' TOY * AIABOAOY ' EHBITA 

AESMOBHSETAI * EN * TQI * IBQI * KAI ' BAE'i'OMEN * HA 

NON • OMOION • THI . TPA^Hl * TAYTHI. 

" » ~^ 

Note.— The Greek of this inscription is base ; and portions of it have been 
er«S6d by accidental injury. For a valoable and interesting commentary on 
this picture, its significance, and the Greek inscription attached to it, see Prof. 
fl!ldxiey.Calziii'8.fiS8ayinthBPortfQlio^ebraar7«lS79» . .... 

On eaOfVas, 3 ft. 6i in. h, by 2 ft. 5^ in. u?. 

Furchased from Mr. W. Fuller Maitland, M.F. in 1878. 



FILIPEPI. 208 

No, 1126> The Assumption of the Virgin. 

High in the npper and celestial portion of the composition is 
seated the Sayioar in glory, having on his knee an open volume 
inscribed with the mystic letters A and Q. To his right kneels 
the ascended Virgin, towards whom he makes the sign of bene- 
diction. On either side is a band of Ghernbim and Seraphim, 
in whose ranks are seen St. Peter, St. John the Baptist, and 
St. Mary Magdalene. Lower down are two great zones of figures 
comprehending the Angelic Hierarchy, together with the Patriiurchs, 
Prophets, Apostles, Evaogelists, Martyrs, Cobfeasors, Doctors of 
the Church, and Virgins. 

In the terrestrial and lower part of the picture the Apostles are 
gathered round the Virginia tomb, out of which liilies have 
sprung. To the left kneels the Donor, Matteo Palmieri ; to the 
right, his wife. Beyond, the widespread landscape reveals the 
Valley of the Arno, the City of Florence, and the town of 
Prato (?), with mountains behind. 

Of this picture, which is now attribnted by critics of the modem 
school to Botticini, a painter of whose life little is known, Dr. H. 
Uhlmann, in his " Sandro Botticelli** writes : — " It may well be that 
Botticelli had had from Palmieri the commission for this picture of 
' The Assumption,' and have designed only the composition, and left the 
working out to Botticini, with whom, having probably known him at 
some former time in Verocchio*s studio, he worked in the year 1470. 
The great af&oity of the art of Botticelli with that of Botticini speaks 
for a close relation between the two.*'* 

On wood, 7 ft. 5 in. h, by 12 ft. Z\ in. w. 

Purchased at the sale of the Hamilton PsJace pictures, in ISS^.f 

* Sandro Botticelli^ by Hermann Uhlmann, Munich, 1898, p. 77. 

t The history of this painting is remarkable. It was executed, perhaps about 
U73. for Hatteo Palmieri, and placed in the family chapel in S.lHetro Magffiora 
Florence. Palmieri was a man of distinction and learning, who rendered 
important diplomatic and other servioes to the Republic. A profound theo- 
logian, and an earnest student of Dante's works, he composed a poem somewhat 
on the model of the ** Divina Commedia," in which he supposes himself con- 
ducted by tfaeCumeean Sib^'l through the Elysian fleldsto Heaven, the** Oity 
of Life." After his death and honourable burial in or after 1475, this poem, 
which had not been circulated previously, became suspected by invidious 
critics of containing some unorthodox views as to the nature of angels. This 
was brought to the notice of the Church authorities, and. pending inquisition, 
the picture, which was supposed to reflect in some way the surmised doctrine 
in tne poem, was covered, and the chapel in which it stood closed to public 
worship. Finally, after some lapse of time, the book vras declared innocuous 
and the chapel was re-opened. Meanwhile, however, the question of Falmieii's 
Sceresy had been so violently debated in Florence that the story spread through 
Europe, giving rise by degrees to inaccurate and extravagant reports which 
were variously recoumed by ecclesiastical writers, some of whom stated that 
PaJmiert bad been burnt alive for heresy ; others, that his body had been 
disinterred, and burnt, together with his poem. Yasari, in his Life of Botticelli 
accurately describes the picture, adding tnat the painter, no less than Palmieri, 



204 FILIPEPI— FIORENZO. 



(Sandro), called Botticelli, SCHOOIj OF. 

No. 226* The Virgin and Ghildy St. John the Baptist 
and Angels. 

The Yirgin is seated in a garden, with the Child on her knees ; 
two Anj^els are holding a crown over her head. St. John, kneel- 
ing by her side, is adoring the Divine Infant. Five figures, small 
lifenrize. 

In tempera, on wood, circular ; S ft. 8^ in. in diameter. 

This picture, formerly 'ascribed to Botticelli, is a copy of the original 
by that Master in the Rospigliosi Palace at Rome. It was in the 
possession of the Polli family, at Florence, where it was purchased for 
the National Collection of Mr. J. H. Brown, in 1855. 



rzoasNzo dz ZioaBNZo, 1430 ?-i5— ?. 

A Perugian painter of great feeling and ability, born towards 
the middle of the 15th cantary, and contemporary with Pietro 
Perugino. Very little is known of his history. He may have 
studied under Bonfigli, or Niccol5 da Foligno. In his works 
Florentine affinities are perceptible, especially with Benozzo 
Gozzoli, though the assumption of a direct pupilage of Fiorenzo 
to that master would scarcely comport with dates and facts. In 
1472 he was already of sufficient age and local distinction to 
hold the office of a Decemvir in his native town ; and in the 
same year is dated the earliest notice extant of his artistic 
activity. This records a contract to paint a double altar-piece 

was induded by the malevolent in the charge of heresy. The painting hears 
evidence of intentional injury, the faces of the donor and his wife having been 
■cored through : an attempt to restore them was subsequently made. At some 
uncertain period it was removed to the Villa Palmieri, the country seat of the 
family, near Florence. On the death of the last heir, within this century, the 
picture fell into the hands of a Florentine dealer, and still later became the 
property of the llth Duke of Hamilton. The original draft of Falmieri's poem« 
entitled **La Cicta (Oitta) della Vita." is in the Magliabecchian Library at 
Florence ; a copy is or was in the Strozzl Library ; the Ambrosian Library at 
Milan contains the only other known copy. Lor a minute account of the 
posthumous persecution of the author, and the circumstances which attended 
it, see Padre Gius. Bicha, Notizie istoricne delU Chiese florentine, etc^ Firenze, 1754, 
Tom. L Lezione XL, and for a more recent survey of the whole qaestionjan 
article by Diego Angeli in the Archivio Storico delC Arte for 1896, p. 68. Th* 
picture seems to have been still in its original position in Bicha's tixne. 



FIORENZO. 206 

for the church of S. Maria Nuova, the principal parts of which 
may now be seen in the Pinacoteca of Perugia. That gallery 
contains several other works of his, Tarioas in merit, bnt all 
possessing many points of ezoellenoe. A Nativity^ in particular, 
is marked by great tenderness of feeling, by the charm of the 
angelic attendants, and by the character shown in the figares 
of the adoring shepherds. Eight remarkable compositions of 
small size in the same collection, illastrating legends of 
S. Bernardino, and painted in dry tempera on linen, are now, 
on internal evidence, generally ascribed to Fiorenzo. Although 
the validity of this attribution is open to no reasonable doubt 
the painter here presents himself in a phase Cor which his altar- 
pieces would hardly prepare us ; but the difference is no greater 
than may often be found between a monumental altar-piece 
and its predella, wherein a greater freedom of treatment was 
allowable, and even inevitable. One of the series is dated 1473, 
when Fiorenzo may have not yet reached his thirtieth year. 
These works may consequently be looked upon as indicative of 
his tendency ; and their character awakens speculation as to 
his teaching, and his share in the development of the Umbrian 
school. A fresco at Diruta, near Peragia, is essentially Umbrian. 
The Berlin Gallery contains an interesting Madonna and Child 
on a gold ground, dated 1481. Other dates on this painter's 
works are 1475, 1485, and 1490. He was still living in 1521, 
when he and Tiberio d'Assisi were called upon to value a 
picture by a third painter. Typical of the Madonnas and angels 
of Fiorenzo are their highly arched eyebrows, a peculiarity 
which his scholar Pinturicchio repeated to some extent in 
fdmilar figures. 

No. 1103* Portions of an Altar-piece. 

In the central panel the Virgin sits enthroned with hands 
crossed on her breast adoring the Infant Saviour, who 
lies across her lap. Below, on each side, St. Francis and 
St. Bernardino, kneeling, recommend to her intercession a 
worshipper who kneels between them, and is represented on 
a smaller scale than the other figures. Four angels flank 
the throne of the Virgin. The compartments containing the 
figares of St. John the Baptist and St. Bartholomew were 
originally at one side of the central panel, bat have been placed 



206 FIORENZO— FLEMISH. 

on each side for symmetry, the corresponding twin pianels 
being lost. The background throughout, ia of gold, engrayed 
with a rich and beautiful patiern. 

On wood, in tempera. Oentral panel 3 ft. 11^ in. ^. by 9 ft. 74 in. to. 
Side panels, each 8 ft. 11 in. k. by 1 ft. 6f in. w. 

Purchased, together with No. 1104, in 1S81, from the Marchese Perolo 
Monaldi of Perugia. 



F&BMZSB I Z V. JA.ND BARZiT XVX. OaWTV&IBS. 

No. 264. A Count of Hennegau (Hainault) with his 
patron Saint ^ Ambrose. 

The count is represented as a Cistercian monk praying, in 
abbot's robes, with the crosier on his arm, and a richly ornamented 
mitre by his side. On the front of the mitre is embroidered the 
Crucifixion, with the Yirgin and St. John by the side of the cross. 
Behind the kneelins; fiffure is the Saint, in a richly-embroidered 
stole, and wearing the bishop's mitre, holding a cross in his left 
hand, and a scourge in his right. The execution of the costume, 
jewellery, &c., is extremely elaborate. Small figures, half-length. 

On wood, 2 ft. 4^ in. h. by 9 in. w. 

Purchased for the National Gallery with other pictures in the colleo- 
tion from Herr ErUger, of Minden, in 1854. 

No. 265. The Virgin and Child. 

The Yirgin with a book in her hand, the child blowing bubbles 
with a straw. Seated half length, small life size, gold ground. 

On wood, 2 ft. 8^ in. h, by 1 ft. 8 in. w. 

Purchased for the National Gallery with other pictures in the colleo- 
tion from Herr KrUger, of Minden, in 1854. 

No. 653a Portraits of a Man and his Wife. 

The man wearing a red hood, his wife with a white kerchief 
on her head and a wimple. Busts, life size. 

On wood, eadh panel 16 in. h. by 11 in. w. 

Purchased, in Paris, from M. Edmond Beanoonsin, in 1860 



■ 

i 



FLEMISH. 207 

No, .696-, Portrait of Marco Barbarigo^ Venetian 
Consul in I^ondon in 1449. 

• He holds in his hand a letter addressed to him in London^ 
Half length. He was' elected Doge in 1485, and died in I486, 
aged 72. 

On oak, 9| in. h. by 6^ in. w. 

Formerly in the Manf rini Q«llery, Venice ; purchased from the pro- 
prietors of that collection in 1862. 

No. 708> The. Madonna and Ohild;^ 

Half-fignres ^ in ' the baek-gf onnd a riohly brocaded damask 
curtain. 

On oak, 7f in. 7i, by 6| in. to. 

Formerly in the Wallerstein Collection. Presented, in 1863, by Her 
Majesty Queen Yictoria, in fulfilment of the wishes of H.B.H. the 
Fimce Consort 

No. 710* Portrait of an EcclesiastiCj 

Or Dominican Monk, with his hands clasped as if in prayef : in 
the back-ground a church tower. Half -figure, small. 

On oak, 13 1 in. h, by 10^ in. w. 

Formerly in the Wallerstein Collection. Presented, in 1863, by Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria, in fulfilment of the wishes of H.B.M. the 
Prince Consort. 

No. 774L The Madonna and Child enthroned. 

On her lisht kneels St. Peter holding an open book, on which 
the Virgin has placed her hand ; on her left kneels St. Fanl, 
offeriug a pink to the Infant Christ. .Gothic architectare ani 
stained windows on one side behind the throne, a landscape on 
the other side. 

On wood, 2 ft. 3i in. A. by 1 ft. 8i in. w. 

Formerly in the Zambeccari 0allery, Bologna. Purchased from the 
collection of the late Sir Charles Eastlake, P.B.A., in 1867. 

No. 783- The Exhumatton of St. Hubert, Bishop of 
Liege, in the eighth century. 

The action takes place in the choir of a handsome Oothic church ; 
over tie altar is a statue of St. Peter, and on the altar is the shrine 



203 FLEMISH. 

of St. Hubert. The body of the saint in his robes, and with the 
mitre on his head, is supported by two monks just above the 
opening of the grave ; at his head kneels a bishop, and another 
bishop is incensmg the body at his feefc. On this side also is 
standing the Prankish King holding his crown in his hand. On 
each side and behind the rails of the choir are many spectators. 

On wood, 2 ft. 114 in. h, by 2 ft. 8 in. to. 

This pictnre may be by Albert Ouwater, a Netherlands painter of the 
the 15th century. It very closely resembles the ^^ Raising of Lazarus,** 
by that painter, in the Berlin Gallery. 

Formerly in the collection of Mr. Beckford, of Fonthill, where it was 
described as the burial of a bishop, by John van Eyck. Purchased from 
the collection of the late Sir Oharles Eastlake, P.B.A., in 1868. 

No. 943- Portrait of a Man. 

Nearly fall face, with thin brown hair, and beardless. In a red 
cap and gown, but showing the hands one laid over the other. To 
the left an open window, with a view of the country. This picture 
was formerly in the possession of Samuel Rogers, and was 
assumed to be a portrait of Memlinc by himself, in the costume of 
the Hospital of St. John at Bruges. 

On oak, 12} in. h. by 8 in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 94s7. A Man^s Portrait, 

A full face bearded, a gold chain round his neck, dressed in 
black ; his gloves in his left hand, and a paper roll in the other. 
A small black cap on his head. 

On oak, 15 in. h, by 11 in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 1036- A Manx's Portrait. 

Half length. Ao attenuated man, of intellectual aspect, without 
beard. He is dressed in a cap and close vest of black velvet, with 
a dark mulberry-coloured gown lined with black damask. The 
right hand rests upon a skull, the left holds a pansy of two blosso ns ; 
green background. 

On wood, 10} in. h, by 8^ in. to. 

Purchased from Mr. W. Fuller Maitland, M.P., from the interest of 
the « Lewis Fund," in 1878. ' « ^^ 



FLEMISH 209 

No. ±093m Bitst Portrait of a Yoxing Man. 

Iq a black dress, bare headed ; his hands joined as in Prayer. 
On wood, 9 in. h, by 7 in. w, 

Onoe, apparently, in the possession of Mr. Beckf ord, at Fonthill Abbey. 
Purchased at the sale of the collection of Mr. J. H. Anderdon, in 1879. 

No. 1078- TJie Deposition from the Cross, 

The body of our Lord in a sitting posture is supported by the 
Virgin, who clasps it in her arms, and by St. John who stands 
behind it. Mary Magdalene, with the jar of ointment, kneels at 
the feet anointing them. St. Anna and two other female saints 
comi)lete the group. In the background is a rocky eminence, in 
the side of which the Sepulchre is hollowed. Beyond, to the left, 
a landscape. 

On wood, 2 ft. I in h, by 2 ft. \ in. w. 

Bequeathed by the late Mrs. Joseph H. Green, in 1880. 

No. 1079- The Adoration of the Kings. 

To the left of the picture, the Virgin with the Infant Christ on 
her knees sits on a stone trough in a partly ruined building. At 
her feet is one of the kings in an attitude of prayer, another 
kneels behind him holding a golden casket. A third king of 
dark complexion richly attired enters on the right bearing 
a gold vessel in one hand and a turban in the other. Behind him 
are grouped other figures. In the background is a mediaeval 
building with angle turrets and machiolated walls, beyond 
which is seen a village. 

These two pictures (1078 and 1079), if a larger altar piece in St. 
Bavon, at Ghent, is rightly attributed to Gerard van der Moire, may 
possibly be by that master, as they closely resemble it in style and 
colouring. 

On wood, 1 ft. Hi in. h. by 1 ft. 10| in. w. 

Bequeathed by the late Mrs. Joseph H. Green, in 1880. 

No. 1081* Portrait of a Man in an attitude of 
prayer. 

Half length figure (about two-thirds life-size) dressed in 
black, with an opan book before him. Probably the donor o£ a 

25640 O 



210 FLEMISH. 

triptych of which this picture formed one compartment. Land- 
scape — background with trees, cottages and rocky heights in the 
distance. 
On wood, 2 ft. 2^ in. h. by 12} in. w, 
Be(|aeathed b^ the late Mrs. Joseph H. Green, in 188(K 

No. 1083- Christ Crowned with Thorns. 

Half length figure, nearly life size, wearing a crimson robe, but 
otherwise undraped. The hands upraised showing the sacred 
wounds. Gold background. 
On wood, 1 ft. 6| in. A. by 1 ft. 2| in. w. 
Bequeathed by the late Mrs. Joseph H. Green, in 1880. 

No. 1085- The Virgin and Child, with other Figures^ 

A triptyi^h. 

In the central compartment the Virgin, with uncovered head 
and loDg flowing hair, is seated reading from a book which she 
holds in her hand. At her feet is the Infant Christ undraped 
and seated on a cushion. Attendants and angels are grouped 
around, the latter playing musical instruments. In the rear is a 
stone fountain, into which water is flowing from a richly wrought 
brass or copper bisin, supported on a pedestal of the same 
material. In the background is the facade of a mediaeval 
church and part of the tower with cypress trees to the right. 
In the left compartment is a kneeling figure (St. John the 
Baptist ?), with sheep and a background of trees. In the rights 
hand compartment St. John the Evangelist kneels bearing a 
chalice. Landscape background. 

On panel, central compartment, 2 ft. 2\ in. h, by 1 ft. 5^ in. w. Sider 
compartments, each 2 ft. 2\ in. h, by 7 in. w. 

No. 1086- Christ appearing to the Virgin Mary after 
His Resurrection. 

Our Lord, clad in a scarlet robe, but otherwise undraped,, 
approaches the Virgin, who is seated with a book on her knees at 
an open casement in a dwelling room. He raises his handa 
showing the sacred wounds. His mother turns towards Him with 
a gesture of surprise. A half -opened door in the background 
reveals a garden with the Holy Sepulchre. Through the open 
window is seen a landscape. Figures about one-third life size. 

On wood, 4 ft. 4 in. h, by 2 ft. 4 in. to. 

Bequeathed by the late Mrs. Joseph H. Green, in 1880. 



FLEMISH. 211 

No. 1089. The Virgin and Childy unth St. Elizabeth. 

The Virgin with uncovered head and long fair hair, clad in a 
dark-coloured robe and pale-blue mantle, sits in a garden holding 
the Infant Christ on her lap. By her side is St. Ellizabeth, also 
seated, with an open book on her knees, offering fruit (?) to the 
Child. Landscape — background, with trees and a cottage. 

On wood, 1 ft 31 in. h, by 1 ft. w. 

Bequeathed by the late Mrs. Joseph H. Green, in 1880. 

No. 1280. Christ appeaHng to the Virgin Mary after 
His Resurrection. 

The Virgin, clad in a blue mantle, sits at the foot of a large 
bed hung with rose-coloured curtains. On the pavement, by her 
side, lies an open service book. On the left of the picture our 
Lord, draped in a red robe, and bearing an emblematical cross, 
sits with upraised hands, revealing His wounds. Behind, is a 
crowd of kneeling figures who have entered an arched doorway 
leading to the apartment. 

On panel, 8^ in. h. by 6^ in. w. 

Purchased in London, from Professor Attwell, out of the " Walker 
Bequest," in 1889. 

No. 1419. The Legend of St. Giles. 

On the right band of the picture the Saint, clad in hermit^s 
robes, sits on a rocky bauk surrounded by shrubs and wild 
flowers. He is tenderly protecting a hind which has fled from 
a hunting party towards him, and his right hand is transfixed by 
an arrow which was intended for the animal. Kneeling before 
St. Giles, as though to implore forgiveness for the misadventure, 
is a young man richly clad in a green velvet mantle faced with 
scarlet and gold brocade. He is attended by a companion draped 
in a crimson mantle who stands by bim, and who is supposed by 
Mr. Weale, in his catalogue of the Flemish portion of Lord 
Northbrook's Collection, to represent the painter r>f the picture. 
An ecclesiastic kneels on the other side. In the imme- 
diate foreground is a group of irises, and to the right a. 
plant of mullein, finished with great delicacy of execution. In 
the middle distance are seen retainers and huntsmen — one 
mounted on a white horse — near the trunk of a large tree« 
Beyond is a rocky landscape with the distant view of a town and 
hilly country. 

25640 O 2 



212 FLEMISH—FOPPA. 

This picture formed part of a diptych, of which the companion pic- 
ture, representing St. Giles elevating the Host before a jg^oup of wor- 
shippers, belonged formerly to the Earl of Dudley, from whose 
oolieotion it was bought at Ohristie's, in 1892, by Mr. Edward Steinkopff . 

On panel, 2 ft. K by 1 ft. 6 in. w. 

Exhibited at the Burlington Eine Arts Club in 1892, and at the Boyal 
Academy Winter Exhibition of Works by Old Masters in 1893-4. 

Formerly in the collections of Mr. Th. Emerson and of Mr. Webh 
Purchased for the G-allery from the Earl of Northbrook, in 1894. 

No. 1433- Portrait of a Lady. 

She wears a transparent starched muslin head-dress which, 
coming down as low as the eyebrows and covering the ears, yet 
allows the forehead and ears, and a high cap of gold and white 
brocade to be seen through its thin texture. She holds her, 
hands folded in front of her and wears a brown cloth dress with 
dark green lapels, confined at the waist by a leather belt, and 
open in front to show a crimson velvet [stomacher and a white 
muslin guimpe. 

On panel, 1 ft. 2 in. h. by lOf in. to. 

Bequeathed, in 1895, by Mrs. Lyne Stephens, 



rZiBMZSB I XVZX. CBNTU&T. 

No. 10 17. A hilly woody Landscape. 

. In the middle distance a village ; in the foreground a formal 
flower garden with labourers at work to the right, and a bridge 
with an avenue beyond it in the centre ; a festive parfcy and other 
figures, some playing musical instruments, in the front. Signed 
D. D. v., 1622. 

On canvas, 4 ft. 7 in. h, by 5 ft. 11 in. to. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



(ViNCENZo) 14 . .?-1492. 

May be looked upon as the founder of that school of painting 
which prevailed in the Milanese before and up to the time of 



FOPPA. 213 

Leonardo da Yinci. He seems, however, to have been bom at 
Brescia,^ and as may be conjeotnred within the first quarter of 
the 15th oentary. Yasari, who makes honourable mention of him 
more than once, though under the erroneous name of Yincenzio di 
Zoppa, says, on the authority of Filarete and Girol. Campagnuola, 
that he had been a pupil of Squarcione at Padua. There is 
certainly much in the style of some of Foppa's productions to 
remind us of the school out of which came Mantegna and Pizzolo. 
Unhappily the greater number of his works have disappeared, as, for 
instance, the frescoes executed in the palace at Milan which was 
presented by Francesco Sforza to Cosmo de* Medici, and those 
painted in the Great Hospital with which Sforza endowed that 
city ; those of the Carmine at Pavia (1465), and in the neigh- 
bouring Certosa, and many other works once at Milan and 
elsewhere. Amongst those which still remain more or lees 
unscathed are the great altar-piece (1489) in many sections, 
partly the work Brea, now in S. Maria di Castello at Savona, but 
formerly in the Duomo there ; the Four Doctors of the Church 
(frescoes) in S. Eustorgio in the same city ; a similar series in the 
Carmine at Brescia ; at Milan, again, in the the Brera Gallery, 
the disjointed panels of an altar-piece once in S. Maria delle 
Grazie at Bergamo, together with a fresco, the Martyrdom of 
St. Sebastian^ saved out of an otherwise destroyed series once in 
S. Maria di Brera, and some fresco fragments in the Archaeo- 
logical Museum. Two small panels in the Carrara Gallery at 
Bergamo, a S. Jerome and a Crucifixion, both signed, and the 
latter dated 1456 (the earliest date found), must also be men- 
tioned as illustrative of Foppa's path in art. When at Pavia, 
FopPA married. Late in life, after many years of absence, spent 
chiefly at Milan, he returned to his native town, where he 
received a renewed grant of citizenship and a stipend of 100 lire 
yearly. There he died in 1492, and was buried in S. Barnaba.t 

*It is, nevertheless, certain that an artistic family of the name of Foppa 
existed in the 14th, 15ih, and 10th centuries, and early -writers are not quite in 
agreement as to Vincenzo's birthplace. See Q. L. Calvi, Dei Professori, (fee, 

Et IL, 56 ; also Crowe and Gavalcaselle, Painting in N. Italy, Tl^ 2. But Yasari's 
iformation led him to conclude that Vincenzo was a Bre8cian,and the painter's 
own signature on the little Oruciflxion at Bergamo, whichever way it may be 
read, seems to conflrm that inference. See Lermolieff, Die ItaUenischen Meister^ 
&c.t p. 439, and Calvi, as above, pt. IL, 59. 

t There was a younger Vincenzio Foppo, whose works have often been 
ascribed to the elder, but whom it is needless to mention further here. 



214 FOPPA— FBANOESCA. 

To the pupils of Foppa are reckoned, with greater or less 
show of probability, and as in nearer or farther affinity to him, 
Buttinone, Zenale, the Horgogoni, Bevilacqua, Bramantino 
(B. Saardi), Giverchio, G?ov. da Montorfano, Bernardino de' 
Conti, and the Piedmontese Macrino d'Alba. He is said by 
Lomazso to have written on perspective. 



No. 729. The Adoration of the Kings, 

The Virgin is seated on the left by the side of a ruined stable ; 
in the centre are the three kings, with their attendants, offering 
presents. In the background are seen the star and the city of 
Bethlehem, with horsemen and other travellers proceeding &om 
one of the gates. Whole figures, small life-size ; some of the gold 
ornaments and stones are in relief. This picture was long 
attributed to Bramantino. 

On poplar, 7 ft. 10 in. A. by 6 ft. 11 in. u)» 

Formerly in the Fesch Collection. Purchased in London at the 
Davenport-Bromley sale, in 1863. 



rORXiZ (Melozzo da). {See MS&OZZO.) 



FAAirCBSCA (PiERO DELLA), 1415?-1492. 

Or, with more correctness, Dei' Franc bsghi, so called after 
the family name of his mother, was born at Borgo San Sepolcro 
about 1415. He received at first a scientific education which 
appears to have influenced his subsequent tendencies in art. At 
the age of fifteen he turned his attention to painting, and 
ultimately became one of the most distinguished of the Umbrian 
masters. He practised the new method of oil painting which 
he probably acquired from Domenico Yeneziano. His earliest 
productions are no longer to be traced. In 1439 he assisted 



FBANCESCA. 215 

Domenico Yeneziano in some wall paintings in the charch of 
Santa Maria Nuora in Florence. In 1450, and probably for 
some time preyiously, he was occupied with the same master at 
Loreto, and in 1451, independently, at Bimini, where a fresco 
by him with that date still exists. His maturer works in his 
native city of Borgo Sao Sepolcro, appear to have been executed 
dnring a period comprehending the years 1460-8.^ Among those 
works, a fresco of the Besarrection, still preserved in good state 
in the Palaszo de* Gonservatori, is justly extolled by Yasari. 
Pietro was subsequently in Urbino : the portraits of Federigo 
di Montefeltro and Battista Sf orza, now in the Gallery of the 
Uffizi in Florence, must have been painted after 1460, in which 
year the marriage of those personages took place. The age of 
that lady in that picture indicates a later period as its date ;f 
and the presence of Pietro in Urbino in 1469, when he appears 
to have been the guest of Giovanni Santi,| may possibly coincide 
with the time when that work and another, still preserved in 
the sacristy of the Duomo at Urbino,§ were executed. The 
period when he was employed by Duke Borso of Ferrara in the 
palace of Schifanoia in that city, and the date of his visit to 
Bome, when he painted for Pope Nicholas Y. two frescoes in 
the Yatican which were afterwards destroyed to make room 



* A fresco of San Lodovico, ascribed to Pietro, in a hall of the Tribunale in 
Borgo San Sepolcro, has the date 1460. Dragomanni, Vita di Pietro della Francesca, 
Firenze, 1836, p. 22. In 1467 he painted in this city a " gonfalone " in oil colours 
<lavorato a oguo) for the Nunziata of Arezzo, for which he received the balance 
of 22 florini d'oro on the 7th November, 1468, having been paid 10 florinn, in 
advance, December Slst, 1466. See Milanesi, Giornale Storico, &c., 1862, vol. vi., 
p. 12. 

t Battista Sforza was only thirteen at the time of her marriage, she died at 
the age of twenty-five in 1472. Dennistoun, Memoirs of the Dukes of Urbino, 
London, 1861, vol. i., pp. 86, 114, 204. At p. 207 will be found an accurate 
engraving of the portraits. 

tPassavant, BapTiael d^Urhin^ Paris, 1860, tome 1, p. 392; Pungileoni, Elogio 
Storlco di Giovanni Santi, Urbino, 1822, pp. 12, 76. In the extract from a docu- 
ment dated April 8, 1469, with an account of disbursements for Pietro by 
Giovanni Santi, it appears that the former was to have painted an altar-piece 
for the Confraternity of Corpus Domini ; Pungileoni adds that the picture 
was, for some unknown reason, not executed ; thus the painter's visit to 
Urbino in 1469 would have had no apparent result unless we suppose that the 
portraits and the small picture in the Duomo were painted about that time. 

J The subject of the last-named picture is partly allegorical. On the left of 
the spectator, in the middle distance under a portico, is represented the Flagel- 
lation of Christ. In the foreground, on the other side, stand three personages 
of distinction ; the motto "convenerunt in unum" is inscribed near them. 
Passavant (BaphaeU Ac, i.. p. 389) concludes that they represent three princes 
or leaders who were hostile to Federigo. The picture bears the inscription 
Opus Petri db Buaao Sci Sbpulchbi. 



216 FEANCESCA. 

for the works of Raphael, cannot be precisely defined.* His 
frescoes relating to the history of the Cross, in the church of 
Sin FrarcBSCo at Arezzo, are also of uncertain date, although 
the magnitude of the series indicates a residence of some years.-f- 
Accoiding to Yasari, he was blind after the age of 60 ; but 
this fttatement probably ante-dates the fact. He died in 1492. 
Among his scholars Yasari names Pietro Perugino, and Luca 
Pacioli was his pupil in geometry and in scientific investigations 
generally. The mathematical studies of this remarkable painter, 
wbich appear to have been prosecuted occasionally during his 
life, and to which his latter like his early years were exclusively 
devoted, led him to give his attention to some branches of art, 
such as the effects of perspective and light, which were imperfectly 
practised when he began his career, and in these respects he 
undoubtedly contributed to prepare the way for the more 
accomplished masters who succeeded him.:^ 

No. 665* The Baptism of Christ in the Biver Jordan. 

Christ is standing in the river, under the shade of a pome- 
granate tree receiving the water on his head from the cup of 
the Baptist ; the dove is descending upon bim. On the spectator's 
left are three angels witnessing the ceremony ; other figures are 
on the banks .of the the river, in the background. Composition 
of six principal figures. 

* Borso succeeded to the sovereignty of Ferrara in U53. In 1469 an alteration 
in the Schifanoia palace is supposed to have involved the partial destruction of 
Pietro's frescoes which it seems were on the walls of the lower story. The two 
dates include the period of his residence in Ferrara. See Laderchi. Sopra i 
dipinti del Palazzo di Schifanoia, Bologna, 1840. The years 1447, 1455, the limits ol 
the pontificate of Nicholas V., define the period within which Pietro's Boman 
labours must be placed. In the life of Baphael, Vasari speaks but of one fresco 
in the Vatican by Pietro ; in the life of Pietro himself, he alludes to two. and 
informs us that they occupied the places where Raphael's frescoes of the 
Deliverance of Peter and the Mass of Bolsena now are. 

t Luca Pacioli, in his *' Divina Proporzione," speaking generally of Pietro's 
works in painting, adds "especially in the ciiy of Arezzo.' According to 
Vasari, the order of Pietro's principal works, as defined by that of the places 
where he successively resided would be Urbino, Ferrara, Borne, Borgo San 
Sepolcro, Loreto, Arezzo. The inconsistency of this, in point of chronology, is 
apparent, more especially as the biographer supposes Pietro to have beoD 
employed in Urbino by Duke Guidobaldo, who succeeded his father Federigo 
in 1482 at the »ge of ten. It is, however, not impossible that the aged artist 
may have painted for Guidobaldo, the date of Pietro's blindness being 
nnuertain* 

X A drawing by Pietro for one of the frescoes at Arezzo (once in the Lawrence 
collection) in which the angel descends by night to Constantine, is so powerful 
And original in its light and shade, that it was pubUshed by Ottley as me work 
of Giorgione. Compare Vasari's description of the fresco. 



FBANCESOA. 217 

In tempera, on wood, 5 ft. 5^ in. h, by 3 ft. 9} in. w. 

Formerly the principal altar-pieoe of the Priory of St. John the 
Baptist, at Borgo San Sepolcro. When the priory was suppressed in 
1807 the picture was removed to the sacristy of the Cathedral, where it 
formed the centre portion of an altar decoration, the remainder of 
which was l^ another hand.* It was bought by Mr. J. 0. Robinson for 
Mr. Usielli, at whose sale it was purchased for the National Collection, 
in 1861. 

No. 7S8. Portrait of a Lady. 

Said to be a Oontes^a Palma, of Urbino. A bast in profile, life 
size. 

In tempera, on wood, 5 ft. h. by 1 ft. 4 in. to. 

Formerly belonging to the Counts Pancrazi, in Ascoli. Purchased 
from Signer Egidi, in Florence, in 1866. 

No. 769* St. Michael and the Dragon. 

The Archangel is standing fall-length and nearly life-size, 
clothed in a coat of bfue and gold armour, and he ban large white 
wings ; on his feet are red socks, open in front. He stands on 
the slain beast or serpent, the detached head of which he holds 
in his left hand ; in his right he has his bloody sword. Inscribed 

ANQELrS POTENTIA DRI LUGHA. 

On wood, 4 ft. 4 J in. h. by 1 ft. 11 in. to. 

Formerly in the possession of Signer Fidanza, at MHan. Purohaaed 
from the collection of Sir Charles Eastlake, P.B.A., in 1867. 

No. 908. The Nativity of our Lord. 

The child is lying on the ground on the corner of the mantle of 
the Virgin, who is kneeling in adoration ; five angels are singing, 
or playing on musical instruments. In the background is a 
rained shed or stall, in which are seen an ox and an ass. Joseph 
is seated behind the Virgin on the ass's saddle ; near him are 
two shepherds. In the distance a hilly landscape and the view 
of a town. Unfinished. 

On wood, 4 ft. ^ in. h. by 4 ft. w. 

Formerly in the possession of the Marmi-Francheschi family, of 
Borgo San Sepolcro, descendants of the painter, who entrusted it for 
sale into the hands of the Cavaliere Ugo Baldi,-in Florence, where, in 
1861, it was bought by Mr. Alexander Barkec Purchased for the 
National Gallery at the Barker sale, in 1874. 

* Pragomannl, Vitu di Pietr.o deUa Francuca^ Ac, Florence. 18S6. 



218 FEANCIA— FRANCESCO DI GIORGIO. 



FRAXCZA.. ('S^^ RAZBOZiZirZ.) 



r&ANCZA 8ZOZO. (See BZaZO.) 



PAANOBSOO DZ aZO&aZO, 1439-1502. 

This Sienese artist is sapposed, from the peculiarities of his 
style, to have studied under Lorenzo di Fietro, called Yecchietta. 
In his early days he was associated with Neroccio di Bartolommeo di 
Landi in painting and sculpture, but he was distinguished rather 
as an architect and engineer than as a painter, and was much 
employed in the designing of fortresses, for which he was cele- 
brated throughout Italy, and is said to be the first who used the 
mine as a means of attack. After 1475 he seems to have almost 
given up the practice of the arts, and devoted himself entirely to 
architectural and engineering works ; his paintings, therefore, are 
not numerous. They are characterized by a certain originality of 
treatment, with curious affectations. The small picture noticed 
below shows novelty in the treatment of the well-worn theme of 
the Madonna and Child, with much grace in the movement and in 
the easy fall of the draperies. 

No. 1682. Virgin and Child. 

This quaint little picture represents the Virgin in the attitude 
of walking, leading the Infant Saviour by the hand. She wears a 
white dress, shaded blue, with a small gold pattern delicately 
painted upon it, and a rose-coloured mantle lined with dark green, 
and holds in her right hand a branch of roses. The drapery falls 
with much grace, and she looks down with a sweet expression to 
the child, who is dressed in a light orange-red tunic bordered with 
black and gold, from beneath which appears an under dress of blue. 
He wears light grey shoes and stockicss, and holds a small basket 
of flowers in His left hand. The background is gold with a 
atamped border, above a marble floor. The nimbi are stamped on 
the background. 

On panel, 1 ft. li in. A. by 8| in. to. 

Purohased in London, from Messrs. T. Agnew & Sons, in 1899. 






FRENCH SCHOOL— FUNGAL 219 

r&SHCK SCKOOIi I XV. CBITTVBT. 

No. 1335- The Madonna. 

Bnst length : about three-quarters life size : nearly full face. 
The head of the Virgin is covered with a hood of blue material 
(bordered with gold thread and pearls) which falls to the 
shoulders. Underneath the hood is a white linen veil, concealing 
the hair. The eyes are downcast and the expression pensive. 
Gold background, on which a large and elaborate nimbtta is 
stamped or engraved. 

On panel, 1 ft. 1} in. h, by 9f in. to. 

Purchased in London, from Miss Sorel, out of the interest of the 
" Clarke Bequest,** in 1891. 

No. 1939- The Virgin and Child with Saints. 

The Virgin, holding the Infant on her knee, and clothed in 
a rose-coloured mantle, is seated on a turf-co\ered stone bench, 
from which flowers are springing, in a small garden, ** bortus 
oonclusus." Her leet rest on a rich cushion of black and gold 
brocade. At her back is a battlemented wall, behind which are 
gathered three male and three female saints. 

To the left is a Gothic Chapel, in the door of which the donor, 
richly dressed in gold brocade, is kneeling?. Columbines and other 
flowers spring from the grass at the Virgin's feet, and a small 
basket and bowl with fruit are placed on the turf-covered bench to 
the left. The background is an open landscape with a town and 
towers. Two minute aogels, all blue, hold a crown over the 
Virgin's head, and close to the top of the picture are two very 
small figures of St. Michael driving out Satan. 

On panel, 10^ in, A. by 7f in. w. 

Purchased in London, from Messrs. T. Agnew & Sons, out of the 
interest of the " Lewis Fund," in 1904. 



rUNOAX (Besnabding), 14 . . ?-1516. 

This Sieneae painter died in 1516, at what age is not known 
FuNGAi, treading in the footsteps of Matteo di Giovanni, 
Benvenuto di Giovanni, and others of the same class, continued 
with no real signs of development from within, the style 
prevalent in the School of Siena during the 15 tb century. Such 
variations from native habitudes as his works exhibit are due to 



220 FUNGAI— FYT. 

Umbrian example. In his infantile heads he took after Perugino ; 
in his landscape backgrounds he imitated Finturicchio. The 
picture described below displays the home and foreign elements 
in combination. Fungai may best be studied now in the 
collection of the Accademia of Siena. There, amongst many 
specimens removed thither from churches, a large Assumptiony and 
an Enthroned Madonna and Child with attendant Saints, favour- 
ably represent the painter. The fresco of the Coronation of the 
Virgin^ behind the high altar in the church of Fontegiusta at 
Siena, still ascribed locally as well as by some writers to Funoai, 
has been long since shown by Milanesi to be the work of 
Girolamo, the son of Benvenuto di Giovanni. 

No. 1331a The Virgin a-nd Child surrounded hy 
Cherubim, 

The Virgin clad in a robe of crimson and gold brocade and 
a white mantle enriched with a large gold diaper, sits holding on 
her knees the Infant Christ, who raises his right hand in bene- 
diction. Bound the sacred group hover six cherubim. In the 
middle distance, on the right, is seen a cavalcade (the Procession 
of the Magi ?) descending a zigzag path over a rocky height. On 
the left is a ruined building, near which Joseph and Mary kneel 
adoring the Infant Jesas, who lies on the ground near a manger. 
In the background, mountainous and wooded landscape. 

On panel (circular), S ft. 9| in. diameter. 

Presented, in 1891, by Mr. William Gonnal, junr. 



(Jan), 1611-1661. 

One of the ablest of the Flemish animal painters, was^baptized 
at Antwerp, March 16, 1611. He studied painting first under 
Jan van den Berch, and afterwards profited by the tuition ot 
Frans Snyders. In 1629 he was admitted master in the corpora- 
tion of St. Luke in his native city. In 1632-33 he set out on a 
journey through France to Italy, where he appears to have 
tarried some seven years before returning home. His sojourn 
at Bome had rendered him eligible for election into the guild 
of '^ Bomanists " at Antwerp. He entered it in 1650, while Jan 
van den Hoecke was Dean of the Guild, and succeeded to ^thai 



FYT— GADDl. 221 

dignity himself within two years. In 1654 Ftt married Joanna 
Tan den Zande, by whom be bad four children. He died 
September 11, 1661. Fyt*s work is perfect in its kind, exhibiting 
the finest observation of nature, and an execution, which unites 
the greatest mastery with the utmost delicacy. His composition 
is unconstrained, and the colouring and tone of his pictures are 
most pleasing. His spirited etchings of animals, &c., are well 
known. 

No. 1003- DeadBirdSy 

Two partridges and other small birds before the stump of a 
tree ; an open country to the left, and a carriage to the right, in 
the background. Signed : — 

On canvas, 16| in. A. by 22^ in. «?• 
The Wyim Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

Ko. 1903- Landscape with Dogs and Game, 

A dog is seated under a bank keeping guard over a heap of dead 
game. Another is partly seen over a rising ground on the right, 
beyond which is a distant open country. An owl is sitting on 
a red perch in the upper lef c hand corner. 

On canvas, 3 ft. Sf in. h, by 4 ft. 4i in. w. 

;^. Presented by Sir Edward Duming-Lawrence, Bart.,*in 1902. 



a ADDS (Taddeo), school OF {XIV. CENTURY,) 

Taddeo, the son of Gaddo Gaddi, was born at Florence, accord- 
ing to Vasari, in the year 1300. He was the godson and pupil of 
Giotto, with whom he lived twenty-four years ; and he became 



222 GADDL 

the most eminent of that painter's numerous scholars. He 
enlarged somewhat upon the style of Giotto, though he preserved 
its general character ; he surpassed his master, says Yasari, 
in colour, and, in some of his works, even in expression. 
Taddeo, however, adhered strictly to the prevailing sym- 
metrical disposition of the figures which, in altar-pieces at 
least, characterizes the compositions of the early Italian masters. 
He executed many works at Florence, hoth in fresco and in 
tempera, but few are now preserved. The best of those that remain 
are the frescoes of the Giugni (formerly Baroncelli) chapel, in the 
church of Santa Croce at Florence.^ Bat his most extensive 
works were the frescoes of the Cappella degli Spagnuoli^ 
in the church of Santa Maria Novella, now much decayed. 
Taddeo was equally distinguished as painter and as architect ; 
he built the present Ponte Yecchio, and also the old Ponte della 
Trinita, which was destroyed by a flood in 1557. Taddeo Gaddi 
died in 1366. He amassed considerable wealth, and was the 
founder of the distinguished Florentine family of the name. 
He left two sons, Giovanni and Agnolo, who both followed 
tbe arts, but the former died young : Aguolo became an eminent 
painter, and was the master of Ceunino Gennini. 

No. 21S- Various Saints, 

Apparently St. Ambrose, St. Stephen, St. Francis, St. Paul, 
St. Gathferine? St. John the Baptist, St. Matthew, and St. 
Benedict ? 

On wood, 5 ft. 11 in. h. by 3 ft. 4^ in. w. 

No. 21 6> Various Saints. 

St. Gregory, St. Philip? St. Lawrence, St. Thomas? St. 
Dominick ? St. John, St. Peter, and St. Uomuald. 

On wood, 5 ft. 10 in. h. by 3 ft. 4^ in. w. 

These pictures, painted in tempera, appear, from the corresponding 
symmetrical disposition of the figures, to have formed the wings of an 
altar-piece. They were presented to the National Gallery, in 1848, by 
Mr. W. Ooningham, by whom they were purchased at Rome ; one was 
formerly in the collection of Gar(Unal Fesch, the other had been taken 
from Florence to Rome on speculation. 

• They are engraved by Carlo Lasinio in his Affreschi celebri del xxiv., t*. xv. 
Secolo, Firenze, IMl. 



GADDl— GELLEE. 22$ 

No. S79* The Baptism of Christ in the River Jordan. 

In the centre picture is St. John baptising Christ ; above 
which subject is an angel ; on the spectator's left is St. Peter, on 
the right St. Paul. 

In the predella pictures, — the angel announcing the birth of 
St. John the Baptist to Zaccharias ; the birth of St. John ; hi? 
death ; the feast of Herod ; Herodias receiying the head of the> 
Saint from her daughter ; and at the extreme ends, St. Benedict, 
and St. Bomuald ; in all, eleven subjects. 

Altar-piece in tempera, on wood, 11 ft. h, by 6 ft. 7 in. to. Of th» 
principal pictures, the centre 5 ^t. 3| in. h. by 2 ft. 6 in. tr., the side* 
4 ft. ^ in. A. by 1 ft. 2\ in. w. ; of the upper pictures, the centre, 2 ft. 1 in» 
A. 1^ 10 in. ti7., the sides, 1 ft. 11 in. h, by 10 in. w. ; the predella pictures. 
1 ft. 1 in. A. l^ 2 ft. 8 in. w. 

According to an inscription, now partly obliterated, on the principal 
picture, this work was painted for Filippo Neroni, in 1387. Formerlj- 
in; ^e Abbey del Sasso di Oamaldoli, in the Gaeentino. Purchased at 
Florence from the Lombardi-Baldi Collection, in 1857. 

No. 579a. The Almighty j The B. Virgin^ and St. Isaiahs 

The cuspidi or upper pictures of the above ; in the centre, ther 
Almighty ; on the left, the Yirgin ; on the right, Isaiah holding a. 
scroll containing the words Ecce virgo concipiet. 

In tempera, on wood. Central panel, 2 ft. 1 in. A. by 10^ in. w. ; sid* 
panels, 1 ft. lOf in. A. by 10 in. w. 



aASOFAbO. See TXSXO. 



(Claude), called Le Lorrain. 1600-16821 

Claude Gelle'e or Gille'e, called Claude de Lorrainkt^ 
or Le Lorrain, and also Claude Lorrain, was born at 
Chamagne, near Charmes, department des Yosges, in the year 
1600. His parents were poor, and as Claude showed little 
disposition to learn to read or write he was placed with a baker 
and pastry cook. The cooks of Lorraine were then celebrated, 
and according to his friend and biographer, Sandrart, Claudk 



224 GELLEE. 

travelled to Borne in the company of some of these cooks, to 
seek) like them, .employment there. He found it with Agostino 
Tassi, and the circamstance of his master being a painter gave 
a stimulus to Claude's innate fondness for art. Tassi was a 
good landscape painter (he had been the pupil of Paul Bril), and 
with this painter Claude engaged himself as an ordinary 
domestic servant. He prepared his master's meals and ground 
his colours for him, but soon became his pupil in art.^ 
How long Claude was engaged in the humbler capacity is 
uncertain. Tassi's principal works were those of the Lancellotti 
and Quirinal palaces, executed duriug the pontificate of Paul Y. 
(1605—21), and it is certain that Claude was already acting as 
his assistant in 1617.f About 1625 Claude, by that time 
ripened in practice, revisited his native soil, probably with the 
intention of making it his abode ; at Nancy in Lorraine he put 
himself under Deruet, a decorative painter of some celebrity, 
to learn figure painting. Apparently dissatisfied with his 
experiences in France he returned to Italy in 1627, overtaking at 
Marseilles Charles Errard, who was bound in the same direction, 
and who in after years was the first to hold the office of Director 
of the French Academy at Rome. Be-settled in the Papal 
capital Claude ere long fell in with the German painter 
Joachim Sandrart, a man ot sympathetic spirit, who, attracted 

* Sandrart, from whose TeutscTie Academte^ Ac, or Accademia Tedescc^ the above 
account is taken, was the intimate companion of Claude, and his work vis 
published durinjr Claude's lifetime (1675) ; it is therefore most probably correct, 
or at least must be of more authority than the account in the posthumous 
volume of Baldinucci. who lived at Florence, and was probably not even 
acquainted with Claude. This subject is noticed here, as Baldinucci {Notizie 
dei Profesaori del Disegno, &c.) has been represented as contradicting Sandrart's 
account of Claude's origin. Baldinucci does not contradict Sandrart ; he 
merely gives a different account of Claude's journey to Borne. He states that 
Claude, after the death of his parents, who died when he was twelve years of 
age, joined an elder brother in Alsace, who was a wood-engraver, and subse- 
quently accompanied a lace merchant, his relation, to Rome. This may have 
taken place after Claude had been some years with the pastry-cook with 
whom ne was placed by his parents, according to Sandrart. But Claude's 
history was too remarkable for Sandrart not to have heard it from his own 
mouth when in Bome during their repeated intercourse and sketching excur- 
sions together (Lebenslauf Joachims van Sandrart, &c., p. 12, and in the second 
volume of the Academia Tedesca, p. 332). In the Latin translation of Sandrart, 
which was published in 1684, nine years after the original work, there is a 
misprint in tne text of pictori for pistorU by which Sandrart is made to say that 
Claude^s master was a painter of pies instead of a baker of pies (pictori curiam 
artoereatum) ; the same mistake occurs in the marginal note, and in the index, '1^*1 

and a few recent writers have been led into error by it. The misprint, however, 
is quite evident merely from the context. 

t A document proving this fact wa,s discovered by M. Eug. Mtintz, and is 
published by Mrs. Mark Pattison (Lady Dilke). Claude Lorrain^ Ac^ p. 201. 



OELL^. 225 

bj the talent and the perBonal qu&Iitieg of the jonag Frenehman, 
beoame his most intimate friend, and in their freqaent 
wanderingB in the neighboarhood of Bome impreMed' npon him 
the neceflsit; of atndjing direct from nature. EarneBtaees of 
purpose and patient labour bronght their reward, and Clauds 
became appreciated. One of the earliest of his frienda appears 
to have been M. de BSlhnne the French Ambassador at Bome.* 
Cardinal BoepigUosi (afterirards Pope Clement IX.) aod dtrdinal 
Bentivoglio, who introduced the painter to Urban YUt., were 
also amongst those who helped to bring him into notice. 
Thenceforward he must have fonnd it difficnii to satisfy the 
nnmerons demands made npon him. In 1630 he appeared as an 
engraver ; of th« several etchings ascribed to him t^ut one-lialf 
be«r datw from 1630 to 1663,t the reat are without datee. Hia 
earliest picture of note may hare been painted from abont 1630 ; 
the best, fifteen or twenty jears later. He was in the hahit of 
preserving sketches of his pictures in a portfolio or book ; and on 
the backs of some of these drawings he wrote the dates of the 
completion of the pictures, and the names of the purchasers. 
This remarkable collection of drawings, known as " Lil>er 
Verilatis," or the Book of Truth, is now in the posscssian of the 
Duke of Devonshire.^ Beoides this book, a lai^e number of 
drawings, amounting to over 500, chiefly studies from nature, 
are preserved in various European collections, public and private ; 
the British Museum possessing more than half of them. Clauds 
was extremely slow and careful in his execution. Sandrart says 
that he often painted for a week or a fortnight on one part 
of a picture without showing any progress. He always had 
great difficulty in painting or drawing, men or animab, though 

• Hra. Mark Pattlaon, Claude Lorrain, « VU et sa (Euiires. Paris, 1884. This 

I Claode. In an Appendti to'it Is Jlven a 
eserved ia mtueums and piivala eoUeatloa& 
're-Qravtw I'ranfali, describfa torty-two 
itmlliH o[ elghtesa ol bii itlanutureB. no two 
is chrletlun mime generttlly la the lUtlian 
the Latin form -Claudius. His aurname Is 
ie Heem9 Ut be the most [reqnent, 
Tlom. for John Boydell. ander the rallowlne 
ion of Two Hundred Prlntj ufler the original 
ColUatim of hit Grace the Duke of Devonahire, 



226 GELLl^E. 

« 

he drew much from the life and attended the Academy of 
Home many years. Hq generally procured the assistance of 
F. Lauri, J. Oonrtois, A. Both and others, in executing this 
part of his pictures. Claude's chief excellence is in aerial 
perspective and in the management of light generally. He died 
^t Bome in 1682, and was buried in the church of La Trinita 
de* Monti. The two Poussins and Salvatore Bosa were his 
'-contemporaries at Bome.^ 



"No. 2. Pastoral Landscape^ with Figures^ illustrating 
the reconciliation of Cephalus and Procris. 

The principal feature of this picture is a large cluster of trees in 
Hhe centre ; at the left is a stream, with cattle wading through it ; 
u bridge through which the stream flows and forms a smaU cas- 
cade, and a castellated height behind it, constitute the background 
on this side ; on the other is a distant view of a champaign 
country, bordered by mountains. To the right, Cephalus is 
receiving from Procris the presents of Diana, the hound Lelaps, 
jBind the fatal dart with which she was subsequently killed. 

'Engraved by R. Earlom, in the Liher Veritatis, No. 91 ; by J. Browne, 
'for Boydell, in 1779 ; by J. Pye, for the series of prints published for 
the Auociated Engravers ; and small, in Jones's National Gallery, 

On canvas, 3 ft. 4 in. A. by 4 ft. 5 in. u;. 

Painted, according to the date upon it, in 1645, for some person re- 
siding in Paris. It was brought to England by Mr. Delahante, formed 
fubeeqnently part of the Angerstein Gallery, and was purchased, with 
^ that collection^ in 1824. Signed— 




IV- ROMR. 

! ^f 5"' 



• Randrart VAccademia Todesca : or, TeutaeJie Aeademie der «<*/«« ^^w-^^Jt^i" 
MW2>?5.i^;f/^4 vSTtoUo, Ntirnbirr; 1675-79 ; Pascoli, Vite d^ mtorL ScuUoH, 
fd^r1hmuk^?X B^me^im ; Danville, Alyrigide to VU dej Pg" /««»f^«5 
S<n«r«! Paris. 1745. C. A. Eegnet, Clav^ Lorrain, in Dohmea Kunst und 
Kunstler, Mrs. Mark Pattison, as above. 



GELLJfiE. 227 

No. 5. A Seaport at Sunset. 

A composition. On the left are masses of Italian architecture 
in perspective ; on the extreme right a few ships are lying at 
anchor : in the foreground are several figures, variously occupied. 
Towards the middle of the picture, the declining sun is already 
nearly level with the horizon. 

Engraved in the Liber Veritatu, No. 28 ; in Jones's National Gallery; 
and hy E. Q-oodall, for the series of prints published for the Atsooiated 
Engravers, 

OiT canvas, 3 ft. 3 in. h, by 4 ft. 3 in. w. 

This picture is dated 1644 : it was painted for the Cardinal de 
Medici. It was imported into this country by Mr. Delahante, and 
formed part of the Angerstein Collection, with which it was purchased 
for the nation, in 1824. Signed — 



No. 6« Landsoapey with Figures, 

Supposed to represent David at the Gave af AduUam. Also 
called Sinon brought before Priam. 

On the right, behind the principal figures, is a broken rocky 
height, thinly covered with email trees and bushes ; opposite this, 
towards the left, is a very prominent group of trees, constituting 
with its foreground the principal dark mass of the picture, and 
giving distance to the woody castellated eminence in the middle- 
ground behind. Immediately before the trees two warriors are 
hastening to join the assemblage around David. The distance is 
an extensive and varied country. Several groups of small figures 
are interspersed about the picture. Signed Glaudio Gillee i.y. 
BoM^, 1658. 

Engraved in the Liber Veritatis^ No. 145 ; and by J. C. Yarrall, for 
Jones's National Gallery, 

On canvas, 3 ft. 9 in. h, by 6 ft. 2^ in. w. 

This picture, called the Chigi Claude, was painted, in 1658, for 
Agostino Chigi, and was, up to the time of the French Bevolution, in 
the Chigi Palace at Rome, from which it passed into the possession of 
Mr. Sloane, an English banker there ; after his death it was sent by his 
family to England. It came subsequently into the possession of the 
Rev. W. Holwell-Carr, who bequeathed it, in 1831, to the National 
Gallery. 

25640 P 2 



228 GELLEB. 

« 

No. 12. Landscape^ with Figures^ representing the 
marriage festival of Isaac and Rebecca, 

^^ A broad river with a picturesqae water-mill on the left hand, 
and a more distant bridge leading to a town on the opposite side, 
constitute the centre of the picture : the scene is bounded by 
mountains. On each side are lofty spreading trees, behind 
those on the left is seen a waterfall : in the foreground is a bridge 
of a single arch with cattle drinking from the stream which flows 
under it ; to the right are the figures celebrating the marriage 
festival of Isaac and Rebecca according to the inscription on the 
picture itself — " Manage d'hac avec R^ca" 



4 

.CWQlO-GtL' ^^ 

* 

Engraved in the Liber Veritatis, No. 113 ; by J. Mason, in 1748 by 
E. Goodall, for the series of prints published for the Associated 
Engraxers ; and small, in Jones's National Gallery, 

On canvas, 4 ft. 11 in. h, by 6 ft. 7 in. w. 

This picture, which, with the following, was painted, in 1648, for the 
Duke de Bouillon, at Paris, is a repetition, with considerable variations 
in the details, of the celebrated Doria or Panfili Claude, known as 
'* Jl Molino" or Claude's Mill, and is of the same dimensions. There is 
a print of the Doria picture by F. Vivares, engraved in 1766, and another 
by F. W. Gmelin, engraved in 1804. The picture above described was 
subsequently in the Angerstein Collection, with which it was purchased, 
in 1824.* 

*Some connoissenrs have pronounced this picture a copy of the Doria 
Claude, bnt a comi>ari8on of the above-mentioned prints will show that there 
are considerable Tariatious in all parts of the two pictures. The flsrores are 
very different. 



G£LLEE. 229 

No. 14. Seaport^ with Figures, representing the em' 
harkation of the Queen of Sheba^ on the occasion of 
her visit to Solomon. 

The time appears to be the early morning, as the san is repre- 
sented only a little aboye the horizon ; on the left in the fore- 

g round, and occupying the whole height of the picture, is a 
orinthian rain, behind which is seen some shipping ; on the 
right, extending back towards the centre of the picture, is a pile 
of Italian architecture partljr relieved by foliage ; the queen and 
her attendants are descendmg a broad flight of steps on this side 
to enter a boat which is waiting to receive them. A ship is lying 
at anchor near the entrance of the port. Several figures to the 
right, and a boat in the centre occupy part of the foreground. 
The words La Reins de Saba va trover Salomon, nearly obliterated, 
are written in the right comer of the picture. 

La^ Reincde-SABa va- 
TRov E B.' ►Salomon* 

Engraved in the Liber Veritatis, No. 114 ; by J. 0. Yarrall, for Joneses 
Natumal Gallery ; and by J. Pye. 

On canvas, 4 ft. 11 in. h, by 6 ft. 7 in. w. 

This picture is known as the Bouillon Claude, from the Duke de 
Bouillon, whose name is inscribed in the left comer, for whom it was 
painted, together with No. 12, in 1648. Both pictures remained in the 
possession of the Bouillon family until the French Revolution, when 
they were brought to England, and were bought by Mr. Angerstein, 
with whose coUecticoi they were purohased for the nation, in 1824. The 
insoription referred to is«- 

Cl/VDE Cll* IV FAICT.pOYR.-SON ALTESSE-LE.^VC-DE 

•BvIllON* AROMA* l^^^* 

No. 19. Landscape^ with Figures^ representing the story 
of Narcissus and Echo. 

This picture is almost equally divided into two principal masses ; 
dark shady foliage occupying the whole left is separated from the 
bright sky of the rest of the picture by a castellated eminence 



230 GELLEE. 

and more distant foliage in the middle-ground. The distance to 
the right represents a bay of the sea, with a small town on each 
side, and is bounded by mountains. There is also a small cluster 
of trees to the right of the picture. The foreground is occupied 
by a transparent shady pool, on the farther side of which Narcissus 
is admiring his image in the water ; above him, to the left, are 
two nymphs, almost hidden by the trees, watching him. The 
nymph, lying at the extreme left on this side of the pool, is 
apparently the disconsolate Echo, pining for the love of Narcissus. 

Engrayed in the Liber VeritatU, No. 77 ; by F, Yivares, in 1743 ; and 
by W. B. Cooke, in Jones's National QalXery, 

On canvas, 3 ft. 1 in. A. by 3 ft. 11 in. w. There is an obscure inscrip- 
tion in the left comer. 

Aocordirg to the lAher Veritatis, this picture was painted for England 
in 1644. It was formerly in the possession of Mr. P. Delm^, from whose 
collection it was purchased by Sir George Beaumont, who presented ife^ 
with other pictures, in 1826, to the National Gktllery. 



No. 30. Seaport^ with the Embarkation of St. Ursula. 

The water in this picture is a small basin or harbour ^. on the 
left side is a perspective view of a rich pile of architecture, on the 
other are harbour works and foliage, and the ships about to 
convey St. Ursula and her followers on their pilgrimage. The 
i^aint, with a long train of virgins, is descending a flight of steps 
to the boats, which are ready to convey them on boai3 the ships. 
In the foreground are various figures busily occupied, some with 
merchandise, others with boats. ^^ The effect of the breeze upon 
the water and upon the trees, and the freshness of the momins 
atmosphere, in this picture," says Mr. Ottley,* "are expressed 
with a closeness of imitation bordering on illusion.*' 

Engraved in the Liber Veritatis, No. 64 ; also by Dominique Barriere,. 
at Borne, in 1665 ; by J. Fitler, in 1787 ; by H. Le Eeuz, for the series 
of prints published for the Associated Engravers ; and small, in Jones's 
National Gallery. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 8 in. h, by 4 ft. 11 in. w. Signed, but the signature 
is not legible. 

This picture was painted for Cardinal Barberini, in 1646, and 
remained in the possession of the Barberini family until 1760, when it 
was purchased by Mr. Lock, of Norbury Park. It formed subsequently 
part of tiie Angerstein Gallery, and was purchased with the other worka 
of that collection, in 1824. 

• Descriptive Catalegue of the Pictures in the National Gallery^ Ac. London, 1832. 



GELLEB. 231 

No. 55. Landscape^ with Figures^ r^resenting the death 
of Procris. 

The scene is in a forest ; the snn is still high. In the middle- 
ground, among the trees, may be discerned a town on the border 
of a small lake ; a deer is also very prominently introduced de- 
scending a hill which leads towards the lake. In the foreground 
Procris lies pierced by the fatal arrow from the hand of her 
husband Cephalus, who, followed by his hound, is hastening to 
her assistance. 

Engraved in the Liber VeritatU^ No. 100 ; of the full size, by J. 
Browne ; and small, in Jones's Nati4J!nal Gallery, 

On canvas, 1 ft. 3 in. A. by 1 ft. 7 in. w. 

Presented to the nation, in 1826, by Sir George Beaumont, Bart. 

No. S8* Landecapey tvith Ooaiherd and Ooate. 

Sometimes called a study of trees. A large open duster of trees 
constitutes nearly the whole picture : in the foreground is a goat* 
herd, playing the pipes while tending his goats. 

Engraved by G. A. Ghocame for Jones's National Gallery, 

On canvas, I ft. 8^ in. A. by 1 ft. 4 in. to. 

Presented to .the nation, in 1826, by Sir G^rge Beaumont, Bart. ^ 



No. 61- Landscape^ with Figtjires, 

Supposed to represent either the Annunciation or the Angel 
appearing to Hagar. The figures are in the foreground to the 
left ; on each side of the picture is foliage, that to the right cover- 
ing a great portion of the picture. The middle-ground is occupied 
by a broad winding river, over which a single arch conducts to a 
high rock, occupyiug the centre of the middle distance, and which 
is surmounted by a castle or town. The view is bounded by low 
mountains. 

Engraved in the Liher Veritatis, No. 106 ; by J. Pye, for the series of 
prints published for the Associated Engravers ; and by J. 0. Vairall, in 
Jones's Nati&nal Qallery. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 8 in. A. by 1 ft. 5 in. w. 

Presented to the nation, in 1826, by Sir George Beaumont, Bart, with 
whom, however, this picture was so great a favourite that he requested 
permission to have it returned to him for his .lifetime ; upon Sir 
George's death it was restored to the National Gallery, ^j his widow, 
Lady Beaumont, in 1828. 



232 GELL^E. 

No. 1018b A Classical Landscape. 

On the right hand Tarions buildings, including some temples ; in 
front two trees, a palm and another, with some ships at anchor in 
the harbour. 

A road and a bridge in the foreground, with various figures and 
animals, and six large figures to the right. A part of the inscrip- 
tion, which is illegible, contains the names Anchises and iElneas, 
And h&s the date 1673. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 4 in. h, by 4 ft. 5 in. w. 

Originally painted for M. Du Passy le Gout. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

INo. 1319. Landscape and View in Rome. 

On the right of the composition an ancient Ionic portico (seen 
from the side) and a statue of Apollo surrounded by trees. On 
the left a wooded slope, beyond which, in the middle distance^ is 
seen the chutch of Sta. Trinita de'Monti and other buildings. 
In the foreground, a group of figures ; among them a peasant 
woman receiving alms. Above, a serene blue sky crossed by light 
•clouds. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 11^ in. A. by 2 ft. 7^ in. w, 

Purchased from the Count St. Martin d*Agli6, in 1890. 



lOia&MJLN SOBOOZiSs XZV.-XV. CBNTlraT. 

Under this general he.id are now brought together a number of 
works, a few of which have hitherto borne specific attributions 
too precise to be retained. By this arrangement the multipli- 
cation of headings is avoided, and reference to the catalogue 
facilitated. The history of the early German schools of art 
remains as yet very obscure ; and efforts to connect recorded 
names with extant works, even when tbese display striking 
merits, often encounter serious difficulties. The schools of Lower 
Germany were at first independent in aim and style ; but early in 
the XV. century they fell more or less under the influence of 
rising Flemish art. 



GERMAN SOHOOIiS : XIV.-XV. OBNTUBY. 238 

SCHOOL OF COLOGNE. ZZV.-XV. CBHTVmT. 

The painters of Cologne were early celebrated.^ The leading 
representatives of the school are known as — the traditional — 
^' Master William/' and the better identified "Master Stephen.*' 
The works generally classed under the name of the former are 
purely ideal in aim, fall of tenderness and sweetness, and 
beautiful in their simple colouring. In those assigned to Master 
Stephen, of which the noblest example is the celebrated triptych 
in Cologne Cathedral (date about 1426), is recognised an art 
more developed and realistic, richer and more splendid in colour, 
but still retaining the tender grace of the earlier style. Italian 
art has seldom produced a group so beautiful as that of the 
crowned Madonna with the infant on her lap to whom the Kiugs 
present their offerings in tbe central panel of the altar-piece at 
Cologne. The first of the two folio wixig subjects belongs to the 
earlier school ; the second may be a minor work by Master 
Stephen himself. 

No. 687. The Santa Veronica^ or Holy true Image of 
our Lord. 

St. Yeronica is represented holding before her the SnDABiUM,f 
a white cloth bearing the miraculous portrait of the Saviour, 
according to the church legend, with a golden nimbns inaoribed 
Xpc ifiQ (Christ Jesus). Head, life-size. Gold ground. 

In tempera, on wood, J 1 ft. 9| in. A. by 1 ft. Ij in. w. 

Formerly in the Lorenz-Eirche at Cologne ; purchased at Oologne, at 
the sale of the pictures of Mr. J. P. Meyer, in 1862. 



* Wolframb of Eschen'bach, writing in the thirteenth century, says in his 
** Faj-oiyaJ," speakins of the Enight—that no painter of Cologne or Maastricht 
could have made abetter picture than he appeared on horseback. And in an 
old chronicle of Limbnrg is written,— *• Eoaem tempore, 1380. Goloniae erat 
'* pictor optimns, cni non fnit similis in arte sn^ dictns fuit Wilhblkus, 
"depingit enim homines quasi viventea"~Fioriollo Oesehichte der Zeichnenden 
KUntte in Deutaehkmd, 1815, vol. 1, p. 418 : compare Passavant, Kunstreiu, (fcc, 
p. 408 ; Schnaase, Oesehichte der Bildenden KunaUt (fee, vol. vi., p. 423. 

t The legend of the Sancta Veronica^ of Edessa, is told by John Damascenus 
De Fide Orthodoxd^ iv., 16; the miracnlous ** image** itself is first noticed by 
EvagriUB. Two of these miracnlons cloths are mentioned ; that carried from 
Chriftt by Ananias to Abgams, King of Kdessa, now said to be preserved in the 
church of San Silvestro in Capite, at Bome ; and the other, the handkerchief 
given by a woman (St. Veronica) to the Saviour to wipe his face with, while 
carrying his cross in the procession to Calvary, said to be in San Bartolommeo 
at Genoa. 

X On the tempera employed by the Cologne painters, see Sir Charles Bastlake's 
" Materials for a Hittory of Oil Painting,'* mi, p. 101. 



«84 GERMAN SCHOOLS : XIV.-XV. CENTURY. 



Ascribed to 

No. 705- Three Saints. 

Matthew, Catharine of Alexandria, and John the Evangelist. 
Small full-length figures, with their attributes — the angel, the 
wheel, and the eagle, &c. Gold background. 

In tempera, on linen attached to oak, 2 ft. 2\ in. h, by 1 ft. lOf in. w. 

Formerly in the Wallerstein Collection. Presented, in 1863, 1^ Her* 
Hajeety Queen Victoria, in fulfilment of the wishes of H.B.H. the 
Frinoo Consort. 



No. 706« The Presentation in the Temple. 

Composition of many small figures, on a gold ground ; in the 
centre is a Gothic ali^r, with illustrations from the stories of 
Samson, Abraham, and Noah, before which is standing Simeon 
in the robes of a priest, receiving the child from its mother. 
Luke ii. 28. 

On linen attached to oak, 2 ft. 8^ in. h. by 3 ft. 6 in. w. 

Formerly in the Wallerstein Collection. Presented, in 1863, by Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria, in fulfilment of the wishes of H.B.H. the 
Prince Consort. 

The nameless painter of this picture is known as the Master of thb 
** Ltybrsberg Passion." The work so called consists of a series of 
eight scenes, from the story of our Lord's passion. These were formerly 
in the collection of Town-councillor Lyversberg, of Cologne, but . are 
now in the Museum there. By the same hand are six subjects from the 
Life of Mary in the Pinacothek at Munich, a seventh is in the Grerman 
Museum at Nuremberg, and the picture described above forms the 
eighth of the series. One of the Lyversberg pictures bears the date 
1480. All manifest Flemish infiuence, and the progress of realism in 
the school of Cologne, which, however, continued to cling to the tra- 
ditional gold ground. 

* Stephan Lochener, commonly called Meister Stephan, was a native of 
Oonstanz, but settled, in Cologne, where he pur.chased a house in 1442 ; he 
served in the Town Oouncil in the years 1448 and 1461, in which last year he 
died poor, it is said in a hospital, leaving his widow unprovided for. J. J. Herlo, 
Naehrehten von dem Leben und den Werken Kolniseher iTundtZ^r, 1850-62 ; Schnaase, 
QescMchU der Bildenden Kunste, vol. vi., 1861 ; Muller, Katalog des Mweums 
Wallraf-Bichartz in Kdln. 1862. Besides the famous '*DombiId" mentioned 
above, a snmll ajid exquisite picture oalled the '* Virgin in the Rose-bower," 
now in the Cologne Museum, is ascribed to Master Stephen, as are also several 
figures of Saints in the Munich Gallery. The Dombild has been published in 
cbromolithography by the Arundel Society ; the small Madonna is engraved 
in Sohnause's sixth volume. 



GERMAN SCHOOLS : XIV,-XV, CENTURY. 235 

No. 707. Two Saints, 

Peter and Dorothy, the former holding in his right hand the 
gold and silver keys, in his left a pair of spectacles ; the latter a 
basket of roses and other flowers. In the background a richly 
ornamented screen, with some hill-tops and the sky. 

On the back of this panel is a painting of two saints, a yonng 
man holding a chalice ^ith a serpent in it in his hand, and a qaeen 
with a naked child in her arms and a pear in her hand. 

On oak, 4 ft. 1^ in. h, by 2 ft. 3^ in. w. 

A part of an altar-piece. Formerly in the Boisser^ and WallerateiB 
Collections. Presented, in 1863, bv Her Majesty Queen Victoria, in 
fulfilment of the wishes of H.B.H. the Prince Consort. 

Here the Cologne School is seen in a further stage of developmenty 
towards the close of the XY. century. The painter of the above group 
and of three similar panels, Noe. 48, 49, and 50 in the Munich Gallery, 
is identified with the master of a triptych in the Cologne Museum, 
having for its subject the Crudfizion. The painter is, therefore 
generally known as we Masteb of the Coloonb Cbuoifixion. 



SCHOOL OF THE LOWER RHINE. 

No. 1080. The Head of St John the Baptisty with 
mourning Angels. 

The head of the Saint lies on a gilt cushion in a niche enriched 
with decorative painting of small figures. Above hover seraphim 
and boy angels in attitudes of grief. 

On panel, 10^ in. h. by 7 in. to. 

Bequeathed by the late Mrs. Joseph H. Green, in 1880. 



WESTPHALIAN SCHOOL. XV. CBMTUBT. 

The << MBZSTJaR Ton AIBSBOSar.*' 

(Master of Liesborn) is the designation given by the Germans 
to an unknown painter of Westphalia who executed some con- 
siderable works, about the year 1465, for the Benedictine Abbey 
of Liesborn near Miinster. The principal work of this master 



236 GERMAN SCHOOLS : XV. CENTURY, 

was the Crucifixion, formerly the high altar-piece of the second 
convent church of Liesborn ; it was sold and out in pieces in 
1807, when the convent was suspended, and Napoleon established 
the modem kingdom of Westphalia. Some of the pieces were 
afterwards lost, some were obtained by different collectors, while 
others, which were acquired by Herr Kriiger of Minden, have 
DOW found a place in this gallery. This altar-piece was a work 
in several compartments ; in the centre was represented Christ 
on the cross, with four angels receiving this blood from the 
hands, side, and feet in golden vessels ; by the side of the cross, 
on a field of flowers, were standing St. John, St. Scholastica, 
St. Benedict, St. Cosmas, St. Damianus, and the Yirgin Mary. 
On either side were represented, in four compartments, — the 
Annunciation, the Nativity, the Adoration of the Kings, and 
the Presentation in the Temple ; the Resurrection, the Ascension, 
the Descent of the Holy Ghost, and the Last Judgment. These 
are painted on canvas primed with chalk and stretched on wood ; 
they seem to be executed partly in tempera and partly in oil 
colours.* 

No. 254. Three Saints. 

St. Ambrose, St. Exuperius Martyr, and St. Jerome. Full 
length, half -life size. 
In tempera and in oil. 
On canvas stretched on wood, S ft. 10| iii. k, by 2 ft. 2 in. i6. 

No. 2S5a Three Saints. 

St. Gregory, St. Hilary Martyr, and St. Augustine. Full length, 
half -life size. 

In tempera and in oil. 

On canvas stretched on wood, 3 ft. IO4 in. h. by 2 ft. 2 in. to. 

No. 256> The Annunciation. 

The Virgin, with a gold nimbas, and the Angel Gabriel, on 
whose sceptre is a band with the words Ave gracia plena, Dominus 

*PaB8avant, Kttnstnise dureh England und Belglen, Svo., Frankfurt, 1833; 
Kuiutiblatt, No. 90, 1843, No. 6, 1847 ; the latter number containing a comprehen- 
Bive notice of the Westphalian school by Dr. E. FOrster. See also VerzeichniM 
der Oemaeid&'Sammlung det Qeheimm Begierung^-Rathet Kruger ssu Minden^ 8vo., 
ph., Mindon, 124& 



GEBMAN SCHOOLS : XV. CENTURY. 237 

tecum. The backsroand shows a rich interioirof the Gothic period, 
fumitare, stainea glass with armorial beariDgs, and a floor of 
elaborately orDamented tiles. Two small entire figares in rich 
costume. 

In tempera and in oil; On canvas stretched on wood, 3 ft. 1} in. h, 
by 2 ft 3 in. tt>. 

No. 2S7« The Purification of the Virgin and the 
Presentation of Christ in the Temple. 

The Virgin is placine the Infant in the arms of St. Simeon, who 
is dressed in a rich gold brocaded dalmatic. An attendant brings 
* the offering of dovoi}. A gothic interior with a rich flooring of 
tiles. Eight small figures or portions of figures. 

In tempera and in oil. 

On canvas stretched on wood, 3 ft. 1| in. A. by 2 ft. 3 in. to. 

No. 258. The Adoration of the Kings. 

The Infant Christ and heads of two Kings only. A fragment of 
a side compartment of the Liesborn altar-piece. 

On canvas stretched on wood, 9 in. h, by 1 ft. 2} in. w» 

No. 259a Head of Christ on the Cross. 

With the letters I.N.B.I. A fragment of the centre compart- 
ment of the Liesborn altar-piece. Small life-size. 

In tempera and in oil. 

On canvas stretched on wood, 13 in. ^. by 11^ in. w» 

No. 260. Three Saints. 

St. John the Evangelist, St. Scholastica, and St. Benedict. Busts, 
small-life size, gold ground. 

No. 261. Three Saints. 

.St. Cosmas and St. Damiadas, martyrs^ and the Virgin Mary ; 
the martyrs holding vessels of ointment. Busts, small-life size, 
gold ground. 

Companion pieces ; in tempera and in oil. 

On canvas stretched on wood, 1 ft. 10 in. A. by 2 ft. 4 in. w. 

Purchased by the Ctovemment from Herr Kriiger, of Mlnden, in 1854. 



238 GERMAN S0H00L8 : XV. CENTURY. 

OF THE SCHOOL OF THE MEISTER VON 

LIESBORN. 

No. 262. The Crucifixion of Christ. 

In tbe form of a predella or decoration of the base of the 
altar-pieoe. In the centre is Christ on the Cross ; on either side 
are f oar Saints ; on the left St. Scholastica, Mary Magdalen, St. 
Anne with the Virgin in her arms, who holds the Infant Christ ; 
and the Virgin. On the right St. John the Evangelist, St. Andrew, 
St. Benedict, and St. Agnes with the Lamb. In the background 
is a representation of Jerasalem ; here a little Westphalian town. 
Nine small figures. 

In tempera and in oil. 

On canyas stretched on wood, 15 in. h. by 8 ft. 10} in. to. 



TBB KSISTSa VON WB&DBN. 

The Meister Von Werden (Master of Werden), or the painter of 
the following four pictures, found in the old Abbey of Werden, 
near Dfisseldorf , is otherwise unknown. 

No. 20 Oa Four Saints. 

St. Jerome, St. Benedict, St. Giles, and St. Romuald(?). Entire 
figures, half life scale. 
On wood, in oil, 4 ft. h. by 2 ft. 8i in. w. 

No. 251- Four Saints. 

St. Augustine, St. Ludger, St. Hubert, and St. Maurice. Entire 
figures, half life scale. 

No, 252. The Conversion of St. Hubert. 

The Saint is represented in the foreground, on his knees, before 
the miraculous apparition of the Stag with the crucifix between its 
horns. Behind is his servant holding his horse. A hilly landscape, 
gold ground. 

On wood, in oil, 4 ft. h, by 2 ft. 8i in. to. 

No. 253. The Mass of St. Hubert. 

Interior of a chapel : eleven small figures, half life scale, gold 
ground. 



GERMAN SCHOOLS : XV.-XVI. CENTURY. 289 

The Saint, in bis canonicals, is represented bending before the 
altar : an angel from Heaven is descending with the stole, according 
to the legend. 

On wood, in oil, 4 ft. h. by 2 ft. 8} in. to. 

The above four pictures, which probably formed folding wings of an 
altar-piece, were originally procured from the Abbey Chnrchof Werden. 



(?) WESTPHALIAN SCHOOL. XV. OBITTU&T. 

No. 1049a The Crucifixion. 

The figare of Christ, attenuated and lifeless, hangs upon a 
cross of dark wood between the crucified thieves, whose bodies 
are violently contorted as in the agony of death. At the foot of 
the cross stand the Yirgin Mary and St. John in attitudes of 
resigned grief. Mounted soldiers, with a crowd of other figures, 
are near. In the background are represented other incidents of 
the Passion. Beyond a mountainous landscape, with trees and 
buildings. 

On wood, in oil, 8 ft. 5^ h. by 8 ft. 11^ in. w. 

Presented by Mr. E. Shipperdson, in 1847. 



Of other OBRMAN SOBOOXiS. 
ZV.-ZVX. OSMTURT. 

Nu. 658. The Death of the Virgin. 

The Yirgin, having received the last offices of the Church is 
lying in a bed surrounded by the twelve Apostles attending on 
her ; above is the Deity supported bv angels about to receive her 
soul. A composition of many small figures in a chamber with a 
window looking out upon a square. 

On wood, 15 in. h, by 13^ in. w. 

Engraved by L. Fleming in the Gazette des Beaux Art9^ 1859. 

Formerly in the collection of the King of Holland. Purchased at 
Paris from M. Edmond Beaucousin, in 1860. 

This littie masterpiece has hitherto been allowed to retain its always 
doubtful ascription to Martin Schonganer. Latterly it has been 
attributed by many to Hugo van der Goes. That it is the work of a 



240 GERMAN SCHOOLS : XV.^XVf. CENTURY. 

painter of the Netherlands is indeed highly probable. But until deoi- 
siye proof of its trne origin oan be addnoed it may provisionally take its 
plaoe here under the general title of German. An anoient oopy of the 
composition, of about double the size, different in colouring, and cold in 
tone, is in the Sciarra Palace, at Rome. 

No. 722. Portrait of a Lady. 

She wears a large white cap, on which a fly has settled, and 
holds in her right hand a sprig of forget-me-not. Her maiden 
name of Hoferin is inscribed on the picture. Bust life size. 

On deal, 1 ft. 8f in. A. by 1 ft. 3^ in. w. 

Formerly attributed to Sigmund Holbein. It is, at any rate the work 
of a painter of Upper Germany, ^d in point of date belongs to the last 
years of the XY. or the earliest of the XYI. century. 

Formerly in the Wallerstein Collection. Presented, in 1863, by Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria, in fulfilment of the wishes of H.R.H. the 
Prince Consort. 

No. 1087. The Mocking of Christ. 

A crowded composition. The Saviour wears a grey mantle 
thrown back over the shoulders and revealing a figure un- 
draped except round the loins. Behind Him stands an officer or 
attendant bearing a long white reed. In front kneels a turbaned 
figure in a derisive attitudie. In the background is the vaulted 
porch of medisBval building, richly decorated with canopies and 
statues. Under the porch are represented other incidents of the 
Passion. The figures in the foreground are about one-third life 
size. 
^. On panel, 3 ft. ^ in. h, by 1 ft. 4^ in. to. 

Bequeathed by Mrs. Joseph H. Green, in 1880. 



Painted on the lines of a Composition by BEA&TXN 

SCBONOAVSa, 

No. 1151. The Entombment. 

|tln the foreground St. John the Evanfflist kneeling and the 
Yirgin standing b^r the side of the Sepulchre watch the body 
of Our Lord as it is lowered into the tomb by Jogeph of 
Arimathea and ' attendants standing on the other side. Land- 
»cape background. 

On wood, 6^ in. h. by 4^ in. to. 

.Purchased at Milan, in 1S83. 



GERMAN SCHOOLS : XVI. CENTUEY. 241 



asaxAN I xvx. cbhtvrt. 

No. 195. Portrait of a Medical Professor. 

His left hand rests apon a skull. Half-length. 
On wood, 3 ft. 2 in. h, by 2 ft. 5^ in. w. 
PuTdhased for the National Qallery, in 1845. 

No. 1088- The Crucifixion. 

A picture in three compartments. In the centre Our Lord on 
the Gross, with the Virgin Mary and St. John standing on either 
edde in attitudes of grief. Angels and seraphim hover on clouds 
above. In the background i^ a landscape, including the distant 
view of a town. On the side panels are two figures, probably the 
donor and his wife, each koeeliug at a prie-dieu. On a hill at the 
back of the female figure is represented the Resurrection. 

On panel, central compartment, 2 ft. 4f in. A. by 1 ft. 7\ in. w. Side, 
oompartments, each 2 ft. 4| in. A. by 8| in. w. 

Bequeathed by Mrs. Joseph Green, in 1880. 



(DOMENICO DEL), 1449-1494. 

Bom in 1449, was the son of Tommaso de' Bigordi a broker- 
of Florence. Domenigo was apprenticed to a goldsmith^ but 
after a time abandoned the puisuit for which he had been 
destined and studied painting under the direction, as is said, 
of Alesso Baldovinetti. However he may have learnt that art, 
he rose, amidst the great influences around him, to be one of its 

* As were also his younger brothers, I^&vid and Benedetto. Hence the - 
appellation **del Ohirlandaio" (in the Florentine dailect Grillandaio), which 
became common to the brothers after they adopteck paintint;, and was per- 
petuated in their descendants. In Florence, in the 14th and Isth centuries, a 
goldsmith— orcj/o, or orefice—wsA often more familiarly termed ghirlandaio^ as 
one of his chief occupations was the manufacture of those rich coronals- 
(ffhirlande) then in favour with tho unmarried and newly wedded ladies of that 
city. Vaeari, accepting the quasi patronymic form of the term in a sense toe - 
direct, supposed that Tommaso Bigordi was himself the goldsmith from whom 
the sons derived it. This error of the biographer has been exposed by the 
discovery of documents in the Florentine archives. (See Goetano Milanesi, iot 
Miscellanea Fiorentina di erudizione e storia^ pubblicata da lodoco del Bad- a. Anno 
I., No. 3, Marzo, 1886.) 

26640 Q 



242 GHIBLANDAIO (JDIomenico del). 

most eminent representatives. The Renaissance movement was 
then in fall swing in Florence, and one of its signs was the 
gradual development of a healthy realism in art. Even in the 
preceding centary portraiture had made its way into religious 
art, though at first timidly and in humble guise. Proud rulers, 
spiritual or temporal, appeared only as devout suppliants (often 
of pigmy size) before the divine and sainted personages whose 
grace or intercession they invoked. But as the scope of art 
widened, perhaps too as devotional awe declined, the donors 
and their families gradually assumed a part in the scene either 
as reverent spectators or as subordinate actors. This innovation, 
to which . Masacoio greatly kelped to pave the way, was further 
developed by Ghirlandaio, who thus, at the instance of his 
patrons and of his own good will, filled out many of his great 
fresco compositions with portraits of eminent men and beautiful 
women of Florence, enframed his groups in the graceful domestic 
architecture of the time, and so, in subjects taken from sacred 
story, has left us an exalted picture of life as it presented itself 
to him in that day. As. early as 1475 Ghirlandaio was called to 
Bome, whither his brother David accompanied him as assistant, 
to paint in the Siztine Chapel. Of two subjects which he 
executed there, only one femains intact to bear witness by its 
noble conception and treatment to the early maturity of the 
master's powers. On this would seem to have followed the 
frescoes over the tomb of Francesco Tornabuoni's wife in the 
, Minerva. A little later the painter was at Passignano, executing 
a Cenacolo in the monastery. In 1480 he laboured in the 
Ognissanti at Florence where still may be seen his fine St. Jerome 
in hi$ Study and a noble Last Sapper, In 1481 the Majesty of 
S» Zanohio and other mural paintings in the Palazzo Yecchio 
were produced. In 148& were completed the fine frescoes of the 
Sassetti Chapel in Sta. Trinitii, and the same year saw the 
oommenoement of the splendid series in the choir of Sta. Maria 
NoveUa« GH4Sb«NDiiiO'» maeter^w^ivk^ finished' in"- 1490. Here ai« 
represented ^many members of the Tomabuoni family as assisting 
in scenes from the historieth of the Virgin and S. John the 
Baptist. D uring these years were painted , with the aid of Bastiano 
Mainardi, the frescoes of the chapel of Sta. Fina in the Collegiaia 
at flangimignano. This general list of the master's works in 
fresco alone is far from exhaustive, while in tempera he left many 



GHIRLA'NDAM (DoMENico DEL). 243 

important altar-pieces and other pict*ires.^ Of these may be 
mentioned the grand Adoration of the Magi in the Innooenti 
(1488) ; the Madonna in the Uffizi ; a Coronation in the town hall 
of Narni ; the Visitation in the Louvre once in Sta. Maria degli 
Angeli at Florence (1491) ; the cbarmiag Presepio in the 
Accademia ; the round Adoration of the Magi in the Uffizi. In 
mosaic is the Annunciation over the north door of the Daomo. 
DoMENico had many pupils, the chief of whom were his younger 
brothers Divid and Benedetto del Ghirlandaio, his brother-in- 
law, Bast iana Mainardi,t Francesco Granacci, and Michael- Angelo 
Buonarroti. He was twice marriedi first to Oostanza Nucci, 
who bore him Bidolfo, and died in 1485, and afterwards to 
Antooiia, daughter of Ser Paolo di PaolL He died of plague 
fever, January 11, 1494, in his 45th year, and was buried in 
Sta. Maria Novella. 

No. 1230. Bust Portrait of a Girl. 

Under life sise, three-quarters fjice, turnei to the right. The 
dress is a scarlet bodico laodd in froat, overlaii with a trans- 
parent gauze chemisetto ; green sleeves. Tae fiir hair ripples 
down the sides of the fa'je, and is altogether dressed as in the 
female portraits in the frescoes of S:a. Maria Novella. Dirk 
background. 

On wood, in tempera, 1 ft. 4 in. h. by 10} in. to. 

Purchased (out of the " Walker Bequest **) in London, in 1887. 

No. 1299- Portrait of a Youth. 

Bust length, life-size ; nearly full face. Olal in a blnish-gre^ 
doublet with a narrow black collar. A dark green mantle is 
thrown over the left shoulder. His short bushy hair is partly 
<sonoealed by a purple berretta. Background of blae sky. 

Oniponel, Ift. 10]in. A* by 1 ft^^^ in. w< i 

Purchased at^Floranoe frdm Sigi^->Stephatt0^BMrdinl, in 1880. 



MMAMnHM. 



* Domenico never adopted the method of oil painting, then ooming into nae 
in Italf, and practised in Florence hif the PollaiitQli,' Verroeobio, and dtbera. 

t Bastiano mainardi, who was. a native qt Sa,ngixuignano, married Aletf^apdra, 
sister of the brothers Ghirlimdaio. ~ ' ^' ' '■ ^^^^ 

25640 Q 2 



230 GELLEE. 

• 

and more distant foliage in the middle-groand. The distance to 
the right represents a bay of the sea, with a small town on each 
side, and is bounded by mountains. There is also a small cluster 
of trees to the right of the picture. The foreground is occupied 
by a transparent shady pool, on the farther side of which Narcissus 
is admiring his image in the water ; above him, to the left, are 
two nymphs, almost hidden by the trees, watching him. The 
nymph, lying at the extreme left on this side of the pool, is 
apparently the disconsolate Echo, pining for the love of Narcissus. 

Engraved in the Ziber Veritatis, No. 77 ; by F, Vivares, in 1743 ; and 
by W. B. Cooke, in Jones's JVatiofuU QaZlery, 

On canvas, 3 ft. 1 in. h. by 3 ft. 11 in. to. There is an obscure inscrip- 
tion in the left comer. 

AocordiDg to the Liber VeritatU, this picture was painted for England 
in 1644. It was formerly in the possession of Mr. P. Delm6, from whose 
collection it was purchased by Sir Qeorge Beaumont, who presented % 
with other pictures, in 1826, to the National Gallery. 



No. 30. Seaport^ with the Embarkation of St. Ursula. 

The water in this picture is a small basin or harbour 'y. on the 
left side is a perspective view of a rich pile of architecture, on the 
other are harbour works and foliage, and the ships about to 
convey St. Ursula and her followers on their pilgrimage. The 
Eaint, with a long train of virgins, is descending a flight of stepa 
to the boats, which are ready to convey them on board the ships. 
In the foreground are various figures busily occupied, some with 
merchandise, others with boats. '^ The effect of the breeze upon 
the water and upon the trees, and the freshness of the morning 
atmosphere, in this picture,*' says Mr. Ottley,* "are expressed 
with a closeness of imitation bordering on illusion." 

Engraved in the Liber Veritatis, No. 64 ; also by Dominique Barriere,. 
at Rome, in 1665 ; by J. Fitler, in 1787 ; by H. Le Eeuz, for the series 
of prints published for the Associated Engravers ; and small, in Jones's 
National Oallery, 

On canvas, 3 ft. 8 in. h. by 4 ft. 11 in. w. Signed, but the signature 
is not legible. 

This picture was painted for Cardinal Barberini, in 1646, and 
remained in the possession of the Barberini family until 1760, when it 
was purchased by Mr. Lock, of Norbury Park. It formed subsequently 
part of the Angerstein Gallery, and was purchased with the other worl^ 
of that coUection, in 1824. 

• Descriptive Catalegue cf the Pictures In the National Gallery ^ Ac. London, 1832, 



GBLLEB. 231 

No. 58« Landscape^ with Figures, representing the death 
of Procris, 

The scene is in a forest ; the sun is still high. In the middle- 
ground, among the tre^ mftj be discerned a town on the border 
of a small lake ; a deer is also very prominently introduced de- 
scending a hill which leads towards the lake. In the foreground 
Procris lies pierced by the fatal arrow from the hand of her 
husband Gephalus, who, followed by his hound, is hastening to 
her assistance. 

Engraved in the Liber VeritatU^ No. 100 ; of the full size, by J, 
Browne ; and small, in Jones's National Gallery, 

On canvas, 1 ft. 3 in. A. by 1 ft. 7 in. to. 

Presented to the nation, in 1826, by Sir Qeorge Beaumont, Bart. 

No. .58. Landscape, with Ooaiherd and Goats. 

Sometimes called a study of trees. A large open olaster of trees 
constitutes nearly the whole picture : in the foreground is a goat- 
herd, playing the pipes while tending his goats. 

Engraved by G. A. Ghocame for Jones's National Gallery, 

On canvas, 1 ft. 8) in. h. by 1 ft. 4 in. w* 

Presented to the nation, in 1826, by Sir Qeorge Beaumcmt, Bart. '- 



No. 61- Landscape, with Figt9res. 

Supposed to represent either the Annunciation or the Angel 
appearing to Hagar. The figures are in the foreground to the 
left ; on each side of the picture is foliage, that to the right cover- 
ing a great portion of the picture. The middle-ground is occupied 
by a broad winding river, over which a single arch conducts to a 
high rock, occupying the centre of the middle distance, and which 
is surmounted oy a castle or town. The view is bounded by low 
mountains. 

Engraved in the Liber Veritatis, No. 106 ; by J. Pye, for the series of 
prints published for the Associated Ikgravert ; and by J. 0. Varrall, in 
Jones's National Gallery. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 8 in. h. by 1 ft. 5 in. w. 

Presented to the nation, in 1826, by Sir George Beaumont, Bart., with 
whom, however, this picture was so great a favourite that he requested 
permission to have it returned to him for his .lifetime ; upon Sir 
George's death it was restored to the National Gallery, hj his widow. 
Lady Beaumont, in 1828. 



232 GELLEE. 

No. 1018b A Classical Landscape. 

On the right hand yarious baildings, including some temples ; in 
front two trees, a palm and another, with some ships at anchor in 
the harbour. 

A road and a bridge in the foreground, with various figures and 
animals, and six larjj^e figures to the right. A part of the inscrip- 
tion, which is illegible, contains the names Anchises and ^neas, 
And has the date 1673. 

On canyas, 3 ft. 4 in. h. by 4 ft. 5 in. w. 

Originally painted for M. Du Passy le Gout. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

^o. 1319. Landscape and View in Borne. 

On the right of the composition an ancient Ionic portico (seen 
from the side) and a statue of Apollo surrounded by trees. On 
the left a wooded slope, beyond which, in the middle distance, is 
seen the church of Sta. Tfinita de'Monti and other buildings. 
In the foreground, a group of figures ; among them a peasant 
woman receiying alms. Above, a serene blue sky crossed by light 
clouds. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 11^ in. h, by 2 ft. 7^ in. to, 

Purohased from the Count St. Martin d*Agli6, in 1890. 



^Oia&MAN SOBOOXiSb XXV.-XV. CSNTiraT. 

Under this general head are now brought together a number of 
works, a few of which have hitherto borne specific attributions 
too precise to be retained. By this arrangement the multipli- 
cation of headings is avoided, and reference to the catalogue 
facilitated. The history of the early German schools of art 
remains as yet very obscure ; and efforts to connect recorded 
names with extant works, even when these display striking 
merits, often encounter serious difficulties. The schools of Lower 
Germany were at first independent in aim and style ; but early in 
the XV. century they fell more or less under the influence of 
rising Flemish art. 



GERMAN SCHOOLS : XIV.-XV. OENTDBY. 238 
SCHOOL OF COLOGNE. XIV.-XV. OXlTTUmT. 

The psinten of Cologae wer« earlj' celebrated." The leading 
representative! of the school are knovro as — the traditaonal — 
" Master William," and the better identified "Uaater Stephen." 
The works generallj oleswd nnder the name of the former are 
pnrelr ideal in aim, fall of tenderness and sweetness, and 
beautiful in their simple colouring. Id those assigned to Mas'tor 
, Stephen, of which the noblest example is the celebrated triptych 
in Cologne Cftthedral (date abont 1436), is recognised an art 
more developed and realistic, richer and more splendid in colour, 
bnt still retaining the tender grace of the earlier style. Italian 
art has seldom prodnced a group so beautiful as that of tbe 
crowned Madonna with the iofant on her lap to whom the Kings 
pMseat their offerings in the centnl panel of the sltar-pieoa at 
Colf^^e. The first of the two follovriiig subjects belongs to the 
earlier school ; the second may he a minor work by Maater 
Stephen himself. 

No. 687. The Santa Veronica, or Holy true Image of 
our Lord. 

St. Teronica is represented holding before her the BuDABi0M,t 
■ white doth bearing tbe miraculous portrait of the Savionr, 
acoording to the church legend, with a golden nimbns inscribed 
Xf>£ Itit (Christ Jesus). Head, life-sice. Oold ground. 

In tempers, on wood,^ I ft. S( in. k. b; 1 ft. l\ in. to. 

Formerly in the Lorent-Kirohe at Cologne ; purchased at Cologne, at 
the sate of the pictures of Mi. J. P. Meyer, in 1862. 

vrnKa ceatnrr, nyg In hli 
ir or Oolope or Maa^toht 

oa horBebook. And in oa 
ipore. laaO. Ootanlas eiat 
, dlctns fult WlLHBLKOS, 
I Getchlehit der Zebthrutidm 

FasasvanL Xiuufrvln!, dec, 

told by John Damasoniu 



h see Bir Oharles Bostlake'i 



234 GERMAN SCHOOLS : XIV.-XV. CENTURY. 



Ascribed to 

No. 705> Three Saints, 

Matthew, Catharine of Alexandria, and John the Evangelist. 
Small fnll-length figures, with their attribates — the angel, the 
wheel, and the eagle, &o. Gold background. 

In tempera, on linen attached to oak, 2 ft. 2\ in. h, by 1 ft. lOf in. vo. 

Formerly in the Wallerstein Collection. Presented, in 1863, 1^ Her* 
BTajesty Queen Victoria, in fulfilment of the wishes of H.R.H. the 
Prince Consort. 



No. 706a The Presentation in the Temple. 

Composition of many small figures, on a gold ground ; in the 
centre is a Gothic altar, with illustrations from the stories of 
Samson, Abraham, and Noah, before which is standing Simeon 
in the robes of a priest, receiving the child from its mother. 
Luke ii. 28. 

On linen attached to oak, 2 ft. 8^ in. h. by 3 ft. 6 in. w. 

Formerly in the Wallerstein Collection. Presented, in 1863, by Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria, in fulfilment of the wishes of H.B.H. the 
Prince Consort. 

The nameless painter of this picture is known as the Master of thb 
<* Ltybbbbebo Passion." The work so called consists of a series of 
eight scenes, from the story of our Lord's passion. These were formerly 
in the collection of Town-councillor Lyversberg, of Cologne, but , are 
now in the Museum there. By the same hand are six subjects from the 
Life of Mary in the Pinacothek at Munich, a seventh is in the G^erman 
Museum at Nuremberg, and the picture described above forms the 
eighth of the series. One of the Lyversberg pictures bears the date 
1480. All manifest Flemish influence, and the progress of realism in 
the school of Cologpie, which, however, continued to cling to the tra- 
ditionaJ gold ground. 

* Stephan Lochener, commonly called Meister Stephan, was a native of 
Oonstanz, but settled, in Cologne, where he pur^chased a house in 1442 ; he 
served in the Town Council in the years 1448 and 1461, in which last year he 
died poor, it is said in a hospital, leaving his widow tLnprovlded for. J. J. Herlo, 
Naehrehten von dem Leben und den Werken Klilnisrher fun«t2^, 1860-62 ; Schnaase, 
Oeschichte der Bildenden Kilnste, voL vi., 1861; MUller, Katalog des Museums 
Wallraf-Bichartz in Kdln, 1862. Besides the famous "Dombild" mentioned 
above, a small and exquisite picture called the "Virgm in the fiose-bower," 
now in the Cologne Museum, is ascribed to Master Stephen, as are also several 
figures of Baints in the Munich Gallery. The Dombild has been published in 
ohromolithography by the Arundel Society ; the small Madonna is engraved 
in Schnaaee's sixth volume. 



GERMAN SCHOOLS : XIV.-XV. CENTURY. 235 

No. 707. Two Saints. 

Peter and Dorothy, the former holding in his right hand the 
gold and silver keys, in his left a pair of spectacles ; the latter a 
basket of roses and other flowers. In the background a richly 
ornamented screen, with some hill-tops and the sky. 

On the back of this panel is a painting of two saints, a yoang 
man holding a chalice j^ith a serpent in it in his hand, and a qaeen 
wibb a naked child in her arms and a pear in her hand. 

On oak, 4 ft. 1^ in. h, by 2 ft. 3^ in. w, 

A part of an altar-piece. Formerly in the Boisser^e and Wallersteiii 
GoUeotions. Presented, in 1868, by Her Majesty Queen Victoria, in 
fulfilment of the wishes of H.B.H. tiie Prince Consort. 

Here the Cologne School is seen in a further stage of deyelopment, 
towards the dose of the XY. century. The painter of the above group 
and of three similar panels, Nos. 48, 49, and 50 in the Munich Qallery, 
is identified with the master of a triptych in the Cologne Museum, 
having for its subject the Crucifixion. The painter is, therefore 
generally known as the Master of the Cologne Cbuoifixion. 



SCHOOL OF THE LOWER RHINE. 

No. 1080> The Head of St. John the Baptist^ tvith 
mourning Angels. 

The head of the Saint lies on a gilt cushion in a niche enriched 
with decorative painting of small figures. Above hover seraphim 
and boy angels in attitudes of grief. 

On panel, 10^ in. A. by 7 in. to. 

Bequeathed by the late Mrs. Joseph H. Green, in 1880. 



WESTPHALIAN SCHOOL. XV. OaNTVAT. 

The << aEaZSTB& yob XiZBSBORir.n 

(Master of Liesbom) is the designation given by the Germans 
to an unknown painter of Westphalia who executed some con- 
siderable works, about the year 1465, for the Benedictine Abbey 
of Liesbom near Munster. The principal work of this master 



250 GIROLikMO' dai LIBBI. 



OZROZiAMO DAI XiX&RZ, 1474-1556, 

Was born at Yerona, in 1474. His only known surname of Dai 
LiBRi he inherited from the occupation of his father, who was an 
illuminator of manuscripts, and known as Francesco dai Libri. 
GiROLAMO was one of the most distinguished masters of his time at 
Yerona, not only as an illuminator or miniature painter, but for 
his altar-pieces also ; in style and in colouring he adhered to the 
traditions of his native school, being little Influenced by the freer 
execution of his immediate Yenetian contemporaries. A charming 
fancy pervades his works, in which he loved to introduce birds 
and other animals. Several of Girolamo's principal works are 
still preserved in the churches and in the Gallery of Yerona : 
a miniature of the Adoration of the Shepherds, by him, is in 
the Sambonifacio gallery there ; and there are some pictures of 
saints in the church of SS. Nazaro and Celso. In San Giorgio 
Maggiore is the Madonna enthroned, with saints, and some angels 
playing musical instruments below, which is considered the 
painter's masterpiece ; it is signed ^' MDXXYI Men. Mar. 
xxviiii. HiERONYMUS A LiBRis PiNXiT.'' GiROLAMO*s friendship 
with Francesco Morone is on record ; both painted together on 
.the organ doors of Sta. Maria in Organo. He was the instructor 
of Giulio Glovio in miniature painting. He left a son Francesco 
dai Libri the younger, who was also a distinguished illuminator. 
GiROLAMO died in 1556. 

No. 748. The Madonna^ In/ant Ghristj and St. Anne 

St. Anne is seated in a garden under a lemon tree holding 
the Yirgin in her lap ; the Yirgin holds in her arms the naked 
Child who is standing, supported on her left hand by his mother ; 
at her feet is the slain dragon. On each side is seen a trellis of roses ; 
below are three angels playing musical instruments. In the 
middle ground are some trees and a river, beyond which is a 
town with a rocky landscape in the distance. On a cartellino, 
of which the inscription is partly defaced, is the signature^- 

HlERONYMUS A LiBRIS. F. 

On canvas, 5 ft. 2 in. h, by 3 ft. 1 in. to. 

Formerly in the church of Santa Maria della Scala, in Yerona. Pur- 
chased there, in 1864, from the Counts Monga. The picture is noticed 
by Yassari. 



GIBOIiAMa i>^ SAiNTACBOOE. 2&1 

CHaO&ABKO DA SAMVAOmOOa, Painting 1520-1649. 

A relation perhaps, and apparently a younger associate, of 
Francesco Rizo of Santacroce, which is a village in the valley of 
the Brembo not far from Bergamo, was a painter who followed 
for the most part in the track of the school of Giovanni Bellini, 
but who, having little originality, was open to influences from all 
sides. Dates on his pictures range from 152Q to 1549. Works 
by him are in Bergamo, Venice, Burano, Capo d'Istria, and 
elsewhere : many small productions in ^orth Italian galleries. 
They are often pleasing, if little more can be said in their favour. 

No. 632. A Sainty reading. 
Full length, small life size. 

No. 633- A Saint 

Holding a white standard with a red cross in one hand, and in 
the other a Monastery or Fortress. Full length, small life size. 

On wood, each picture 3 ft. 11 in. A. by 1 ft. 7 in. w. 

Formerly the doors of an altar-piece. PurohaBed from Mr. Edmond 
Beauoonsin, at Paris, 1860. 



aZSObAKO DA TaBVZSO, 1497*-1544. 

* 

The son and pupil of Piermaria Pennacchi, was born at Treviso 
in 1497. He painted chiefly in Bologna, Venice and Genoa ; was 
an imitator of Raphael, and a good portrait painter. He left 
Genoa on account of the too powerful rivalry of Perino del Vaga, 
and finally came to England, where he entered the service of 
Henry VIII., as architect and engineer. There are a few works 
by GiBOLAMO still preserved at Bologna, but his pictures are very 
scarce. The picture of the Adoration of the KingSy No. 218 in 
thi3 gallery (^see under "Peruzzi"), may probably be the copy 
made by Girolamo from a drawing by Baldassare Peruzzi, 
presented to the gallery by Lord Vernon, and numbered 167. 
GiROLAMO was killed by a cannon ball in 1544. near Boulogne, 
while acting as an engineer in the service of Henry VIII., when. 
in his 47th year only. 



262 GIROLAMO da TREVISO-^aOSSART. 

No. 023- The Madonna and Child enthroned, 

'^Under a canopy, with Saiats Joseph, James, and Paul ; the last 
is presenting the donor, the patron of the Boccaferri chapel, to 
the infant Christ ; behind the throne are some angels playing 
musical instruments. The view of a town in the background. 

On wood, 7 ft. 5^ in. A. by 4 ft. 10 in. w. Engraved on wood by Gmo. 
Gandini 

Pff Signed leronimus TreviHus P., and mentioned by Vasari as the best 
of the painter's works — " la Migliore delle cose sue" (vol. iv., p. 52, ed. 
Le Monnier). It was forhierly the altar-piece of the Boccaferi Chapel 
in San Domenico, in Bologna, from which it was sold and removed to 
Imola between 1706 and 1733. It passed subsequently into the Sollv 
Collection. Purchased at Gheltenluun, at the sale of the Northwiok 
pictures, in 1859. 

lEROPlIMVS •TREVISIVS' f • 



OOSS AAT (Jam) of KABUSB, 1470 ?-1541. 

^ Jan Gossabt was born about 1470 at Maubeuge, or Mabuse, in 
Hainault ; hence his more usual appellation of Jean de Mabuse, 
or, simply, Mabuse. His own form of signature was generally 
Johannes Malbodius. In the earlier part of his career he 
adhered to the style of arb then prevalent in Flanders. The 
finest example of his pencil at this period is the Adoration of the 
Kings at Castle Howard, a picture which, if it is not informed 
with the depth of feeling of Memlinc, or the religious sentiment 
of Gheraert David, yet rivals the work of either in conscientious 
and elaborate finish, in daylight freshness, and in warm and 
brilliant colouring. It is remarkable, too, for the discrimination 
of character shown in the heads. To the same period must be 
ascribed the small Enthroned Madonna at Palermo, and the 
Madonna by the Fountain in the Ambrosiana at Milan. Mabuse 
removed to Antwerp in 1503 \ but ^xe years later he went to 
Italy in the train of Philip, the Bastard of Burgundy, and there 
endeavoured to commingle with his native style those forms of 
Italian art which captivated him most The result was not 



GOSSABT. 25S 

altogether happy. From that time his works, ihoagh always 
execated with the greatest care, lose any deeper interest ; and 
like those of every northern painter of that century who tried to 
Italianize, exhibit the futility of attempting to change what 
race, habit of thought and early association have engrained in 
the nature. Nevertheless, Mabuse continue to produce works 
of striking merit in their way, as, for example, the remarkable 
altar-piece in the cathedral of Prague, wherein, in a palatial 
interior of renaissance architecture, St. Luke is seen drawing 
the portraits of the Virgin and the Infant Saviour.^ Other 
works of his are at Yienna, Berlin, Munich, Antwerp, and 
elsewhere. He was one of the illuminators of the famous 
Grimani Breviary, preserved in the Library of St. Mark at 
Yenice. His portraits are good, though not equal to the best of 
his time. Besides the two in this gallery may be noted the 
group of the children of Christian II., King of Denmark, at 
Hampton Court, and the likeness of Cardinal Carondelet, in the 
Louvre. After his return from Italy, Jean de Mabuse was much 
employed throughout the Low Countries. Finally he returned to 
Antwerp, where he died in 1541. 

No. 6S6. Portrait of a Man dressed in black tvith fur 
over hts shoulders. 

He has a rosary in his hand, and appears to be standing in 
church. Architectuial background. Half-length, under life size. 

On wood, 2 ft. 3 in. h. by 1 ft. 7 in. w, 

Puxohased at Paris, from Edmond Beauoousin, in I860. 

No. 94iC- A Man*s Portrait. 

Small half length, holding his gloves in his left hand, his right 
resting on the table. Ue has on a gown furred with sable, and a 
flat cap. On the back of this picture is the brand of Charles I., a 
crown with C.B. 

On oak, 9^ in. h, by 6^ in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Beqnest. 1876. 



* The attribution of this work to Mabuse is, however, disputed. 



254 GOSSART— GOYA Y LUCIENTES. 

No. 1C89. Portrait of a Man and his Wife. 

To the left is the portrait of an elderly man seen nearly to the 
'waist with long grey hair. He looks upward with a somewhat 
grim and argumentative expression. With his right hand ha 
grasps the fur collar of his coat and his left hand holis a staff of 
which the chased silver top is aeen. He wears a black cap on 
which is a small medallion of Adam and Eve. Black nbbons are 
attached to the cap and hang below his chin. Over a black coat 
with a red collar he wears a loose over-coat of purple brown cloth 
which shows the sleeves of the black under-coat and is bordered 
richly with fur. To the right and somewhat behind him is his 
wife who looks downwards with a severe expression. Her hair is 
concealed by a' white coif of white ciimbrio, and she *wear» a black 
dress with a narrow border of fur crossed over ih» bosom and a 
little open at tne neck. The figures, which are ab^ut two-thirds 
the size of life, are relieved against a dark blue background. 

This master-piece combines with a high perfection of finish and 
modelling— every detail being finished with the utmost care, even 
to the stubble of the man's beard -^great breadth of effect and 
a beautiful quality of light and shade. 

In oil, on vellum, 1 ft. 6 in. h. by 2 ft. 2% in. to. 

Formerly in the collection of Oaptain A F. Dawson, of Barrow Hill, 
Uttoxeter. 

Purchased in London, from Mr. Ayerst H. Buttery, in 1900. 



dOTA T &UCXBHTBS. (Frastcisco Jos£ de), 

1746-1828. 

This artist was born at Fuentetodos in Aragon in 1746, and his 
peculiar geniue showed: itsalf^ in* a>' great nomher and Tamtj of 
productions. He painted portraits, scenes of contemporary life 
(these generally in the form of decorative, designs), and scenes 
of " diablerie '' and witchcraft ; and he was an etcher of great 
ponrar' and imaginaftion. tAwong bis prineipal works was a series 
of'.fofrty-'five^designs-^or^atleftti^ made' for the Palace of -the 
Escurlai, forty of which are preserved in a gallery apart in 
the Museo del Prado at Madrid. They are mostly scenes of 
country life designed in the somewhat artificial -taste of the time 
and coarse in colour, but vigorously painted. A. number^of 
decorative paintings of the same character, until recently in the 
collection of the Dake of Ossuna, hardly, riae .ia^r'tMite and 



QOYA, Y LUdENTEa 256 

treatment above tbe usoal caf ^ decorations of the better sort, bat 
they are painted with much dash and freedom. He was a 
prolific portrait painter, with the capacity for producing fine woiks 
of this class when it suited him, but they are often coarse and 
slovenly in workmanship, and many of them are commonplace aud 
insipid, without style or character* Bat he ooald, when he chose, 
produce a remarkable work ; the portrait of* his father-in-law, the 
painter Don Francisco Bayeux, in the museum at Madrid, is 
refined in colour and painting and life-like in character. This and 
others, notably a full-length portrait of a man in a three-cornered 
kat in the palace of the Duke Fernan-Nu&ez, to a certain extent 
justify the position whieh, with some want of discrimination, has 
of reeent years been bestowed on him by a certain school of 
French critics. Mooh exaggerated praise has, for instance, been 
bestowed on the two pictures called " La Maja " in the academy 
of San Fernando at Madrid, where he has painted his mistress, in 
one in an Oriental costume, and in the other without clothes in 
the same attitude. He was a man of a coarse and violent nature, 
which betrays itself in a certain vulgarity in his productions, and 
in the pleasure which he took in horrible and repulsive scenes. It 
is in his etchings and aqua-tints, such as his *' Capricho$" and the 
eighty plates of " Los deaastres de la Gtierray* and in other imagi- 
native compositions, that the force and originality of his genius 
best display themselves, but always in tbe di/ection of the startling, 
the grotesque, or tbe horrible. He died at Bordeaux in 1828. His 
portrait by Lopez, in the museum at Madrid, showi a coarseness 
of type which goes far to account for the character of his work. 

The two small pictures described below, from the Osuna collec- 
tion, are typical examples, the one representing him as a decorative 
painter in the French style of the eighteenth cedtury in somewhat 
better form than is usual with him, and the other as a painter of 
diabolic subjects in his least repulsive mood. The portrait, 
No. 1473; is perhiips as good an example as could be found of tbe 
brillianc;^ of ^ecution and' vivid portrayal of charalcter which 
characterizes hini at his best. 

No. 1471- The Pic-nic {Lorfnerienda campestre). 

A party of people in the Spanish costume of the time are 
picnicking in the open -eountry* A whiter doth with a repast ia 



-266 GOYA Y LUCIBNTES— GOYEN. 

spread on the grass under the trees. A lady is seated on the left 
with whom a man, in a three-cornered hat, is conversing. On the 
right a man is lying on the grass apparently sufPering from the 
effects of a bottle of wine which lies upset by his side. Other 
figures are seated behind. In the background are trees and 
mountains. 
On canvas, 1 ft. 4^ in. A. by 10 in. w, 

Pnrohased in Madrid, at the sale of the Duke de Osuna's Golleotlony 
in 1896. 

No. 1472a The ^^BewitcTied" (^El hechizadoporfuerzd). 

The scene is taken from a play by Don Antonio Zamora. A 
man in the dress of a priest is frightened by demons in the forms 
of a goat and jackasses. In the play they are merely people 
dressed up. The priest is pouring oil into a lamp held by the goat. 

On oanvas, 1 ft. 4^ in. A. by 1 If in. to. 

Purchased in Madrid, at the sale of the Duke de Osuna's Collection, 
in 1896; 

No. 1473- Portrait of Dona Isabel Gorho de Porcel 

Portrait of a handsome woman in a roso-ooloared satin dress 
almost covered by a black mantilla. She holds her hands on her 
hips, and is looking round with an air of great vivacity. 

Engraved by G. A. Manchon in the Oaxette des JBeaux Arts^ January, 
1897. 
On canvas, 2 ft. 8 in. h. by 1 ft. 9| in. to. 
Purchased in Madrid, from Don Andres de Urzaiz, in 1896. 



No. 1951. Portrait of Dr. Peral. 

He is shown at half lengoh seated on a straight-backed wooden 
chair, nearly full face, but with the head turned sliffbtly to the 
right. His light brown eyes look at the spectator, and his lips are 
slightly parted. He is clean shaved, and his long hair, which is 
touched with grey, is brushed bick from the temples. He wears a 
light grey satin coat, and his right hand is thrast into the front of a 
light striped and flowered waistcoat. His throat is covered to the 
chin with a white muslin cravat. His left elbow is bent, with the 
hand resting on the hip. 

On canvas, 3 ft. \ in. A. by 2 ft. ^ in. w. 

Presented by Sir George Donaldson, in 1904. 



GOYEN. 267 



OOTBN (Jam Josefbz yam), 1596-1656. 

Datch landscape-painter, was born at Leyden April 13, 1596. 
Before he entered his twentieth year he had had at least three 
instmctors in succession — Conraed Schilperoorts and Isaack Tan 
Swanenburgh at Leyden, and WiUem Gerritz at Hoorn ; though 
from these he acquired probably little more than the essential 
rudiments of his art. After a visit to France in 1615 he com- 
pleted his years of pupilage under Esaias van de Yelde at Haarlem. . 
If his stay with this master was of short duration, its effect on 
Tan Goyen was not transient. Returning to Leyden, he married 
in 1618 Annetje van fiaelst, and began his professional career. 
Small works of this period show his remarkable proficiency, and 
at the same time his dependence on his latest master, whose style 
they closely resemble. Van Goyen remained at Leyden about 
thirteen years, gradually gaining confidence in himself, and 
developing that form of art by which he is best known. In 1631. 
he removed to the Hague, where he resided until his death in 
April, 1656. Jan Steen, a Leydener also, became his pupil and 
son-in-law. The subjects chosen by Van Goyen were those 
common to many Dutch landscape-painters ; but his mode of 
treating them after he had liberated himself from the ways of 
Es. Van de Velde was thoroughly his own. This evolution was 
manifested chiefly in the gradual subordination of colour to tone, 
a refinement which, if it leaves this painter open to the charge 
of mannerism, yet invests his work with a special charm. 
Whether in more or less placid marine scenes, where tall craft 
float lazily on the water, or in quiet river-side perspectives, or in 
quaint village views, or in large sketches of flat country, or in 
undulations of the grey dunes, no heavy dark, no bright colour 
disturbs the dreamy monotone. The light foliage and the herbage 
partake more or less of brown or grey. The trees have great 
elegance of outline ; the perspective, linear and aerial, is perfect ; 
the figures are well placed. Writers on Dutch painting distinguish 
three periods in Van Goyne's art ; a division which, however 
Qsef ul for the purpose of study, must not be too implicitly 
accepted. His works are frequent in the public gaU^n^f an^- 
private collections north of the Alps. 

25640 S 



268 GOYEN--GOZZOLI. 

No. 137- Landscape with Figures, 

A cottage on a heathy with a few small figures dispersed abont. 
A doudy sky. 

On wood, 1 ft. 4 in. k, by 2 ft. u?. 

Beqnesdihed by Lieat,^Gol. Ollney, in 1887. 

No. 151. A River Scene, 

In the centre of 'the composition, the 8pire>crowned tower of 
a village church rises above ih0 roofs of rustic houses lying on 
the bank of a river. On the left a ferry filled with peasants^ and 
a waggon is pushing o£P from the wooded shore; Oa the right , 
boats and boat me a, with a sailing barge in mid-distance. The 
immediate foreground is occupied by eattle. 



Signed— > 



vcr<m^ /SifS 



On panel, 2 ft. 1^ in. ri, by 3 ft. 1 in. uj. 
Bequeathed by Mrs. Hodges, in 1852. 

No. 1327. A Winter Scene, 

A frozen river, on which a number of parsons are skating. 
In the centre of the foreground are rustic sledges filled with 
peasants, who gossip with their friends while their horses rest. 
On the right is a raised quay or rampart surmounted by a 
building. Below, fishing vessels and b)at3 lie alongside of a 
jetty. On the left a party of men are playing a game resembling 
golf on the ice. In the distance a ruined castle and windmills. 
Above,. a covey of wjJd ducks fly across a wintry sky. 
^ Signed — 

On canvas, 6 ft. 9 in. %. by 4 ft. 10 in. «?. 

Purchased in London, from Messrs. P. & D. Colnaghi, from the 
interest of the " Lewis Fund," in 1891. 



OOZZO&I (Benozzo), 1420-1498, 
Was bom at Florence in 1420 ; he was the son of Lese di Sandro, 
and the scholar of Fra Angelico da Fiesole, whom he assisted in 
some works in the Cathedral of Orvieto His style, for some 



GOZZOLL 259 

time, nearly resembled that of his o^aster ; bat in his later works, 
as in the Campo Santo at Pisa, his own natural talent displayed 
itself, which was decidedly objective as Fra Angelico's was 
guhfeptive. flis known works extend over a period of thirty-eight 
years, from 1447 to 1485. He painted much in IJmbria for some 
years, and then returned to Florence where, in 1459, he 
executed the charming frescoes that coyer the walls of the 
chapel of the old Medici (afterwards Riccardi) Palace. His last 
are his greatest worics^-r-the extenarve series of froscoes in the 
Campo Santo, commenoed in 1469, representing twenty-four 
scenes from the Old Testament, from the time of Noah to the 
▼isit of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon. These frescoes he con- 
tracted to paint, three a year, for the moderate remuneration of 66 
lireor about ten ducats each ; a sum, however, then worth peihaps 
about £190 of our present money. Bekozzo displayii the most 
varied resources in these works, in the rich landscape backgrounds, 
in the architectural accessories, and in the introduction of all 
kinds of birds and animals, especially dogs. The Drunkenness of 
Noah^ the Marriage of Rebecca, and Moses in ike Wilderness, are 
perhaps the best of all the Campo Santo frescoes.** The works of 
Masaccio in the Brancacoi Chapel seem to have been his models 
in the style of his figures, which are often graceful and natural 
though inferior in dignity to the earlier works of the Brancacci 
Chapel. Benozzo evidently delighted in the beauty of the 
material world ; his landscapes are more varied and circum- 
stantial than any previous representations of their class, and hii 
scenes are filled with charming and natural incidents. The 
painter gave so much satisfaction to the authorities during the 
progress of these frescoes, that they presented him in 1478 with a 
tomb that- his body might repose amidst the glorious achieve- 
ments of his life ; and the commemorative inscription led to the 
error that' Benozzo clied in that year : — Hie tumulus est Benotii 
FlorenUni, qui proxime has pinxit historias, Hunc sibi Pisanorum 
donavit humanitas, MCCCOLXXVIII. The tomb was a personal 
gift to the painter in that year.f The true date of the painter's 
death, at Pisa, is 1498. 

* See the engravings in Oarlo Lasinio's Pitture a fresco del Campo Santo di PiM 
large oblong folio. Florence, IB 12. 

t vasari, Opere. Ac, Ed. Milanesi, Florence, 1878-1887, Vol. III., p, 53 ; Bumohr, 
ItaUenUche Forsehungen ; Gaye, Oarteggio Inedito d Artisti. 

25640 R 2 



260 GOZZOLI. 

No. 283. T^ Virgin and Child enthroned. 

Behind and above the throne are ^ve angels with extended 
wings. On the right of the Virgin are St. John the Baptist, and 
St. Zenobias dressed in an embroidered cope ; on the left St. Peter 
and St. Dominic ; in front St. Jerome and St. Francis kneeling ; 
ail the saints have their names inscribed. Two small birds, 
^IdfincheSf are represented on the step of the throne. Compo- 
sition o{ thirteen figures, small life size.^ 

In tempera, on wood, 5 ft. 2^ in. h. bj 5 ft. 7^ in. to. 

The original contract for this picture, dated 23rd Oct., 1461, is still 
preserved ; it was published in Florence in 1865.t The figure of the 
7irgin is in this contract specially directed to be made similar in mode, 
form, and ornaments to the Virgin Enthroned, in the picture over the 
high altar of San Marco, Florence, by Fra Giovanni de Fiesole, and 
now in the Academy there. It is also directed, " that the said Benozzo 
shall, at his own cost, prepare with gesso^ and diligently gild the said 
panel throughout, both as regards figures and ornaments ; and that no 
other painters shall be allowed to take part in the execution of the said 
picture, neither in the PredellaJ nor in any portion of the same.'* Then 
follows the description of the picture. 

The painter engages to complete the work within a year from the 
date of the contract. 

This picture was originally the altar-piece of the Gampagnia di San 
Marco, Florence. It is mentioned by Yasari, 1550 ; and is noticed by 
Richa, in 1757, as being in the refectory of the Spedale del Melani or 
de* Pellegrini, in Florence. It became eventually the property of the 
Binuccini family, and was purchased in Florence for the National 
Gallery, from the agent of the heirs of the Binuccini estate, in 1855. 

No. 591. The Rape of Helen. 

A rocky landscape with an inlet of the sea ; on the spectator's 

^ight is a small temple in which is seen a gilt statue of one of the 

^reek dieties. From this temple, Helen the beautiful wife of 

Menelaus, king of Lacedsmon, and the ladies of her court, are 

>being carried off to a ship, by the Trojan Paris and his 

companions. 

The panel on which this painting is executed may not improbably 
have formed the cover or end of some box or oMsettoT^ef such as were 

• On the hem of the Virgin's mantle is written, ** AVB Rboina Oelobum 
: JIATBB ANOBLORUM. SANCTA ES QUA MTTNDO LUX KST OBTA" 

t Aleuni documenti artistici non mat stampatl, isc. Florence, Le Monnier, 1865, 
:,p.l2. 

t This portion of the altar-piece, afterwards more particularly described in 
the contract, has disappeared. 



GOZZOIJ— GBANDI. 261 

used for wedding gifts. Oompositioii of inanj small figures in the 
coetaxne of the fifteenth oentnzy. 

In tempeiE, on an octagonal panel, 1 ft. 7^ in. A. by 2 ft. to. 

Formerly in the possession of the Marcheee Albergotti, of Arezzo. 

Porohased at Florence, in 1867, from the Lombardi-Baldi Collection, 
in the catalogue of which it was called ** The Rape of the Venetian 
Brides." 



(Ebcolb di Giulio Cesabb), 1460?-1531. 

Little is known of the life of this painter beyond the facts that 
it was partly spent in the service of the dacal hoase of Este at 
Ferrara, and that it ended in 1531. Much difficulty in identify- 
ing his works has arisen through an error on the part of Yasari, 
who, unaware that two painters of the Grandi family had borne 
the name of Eroole, classed the works of both under one head.^ 
There can now be no doubt that the painter stated by Yasari to 
have been a pupil of Lorenzo Costa, was in reality Ercolb the 
younger, son of Giulio Gesare de' Grandt. At the same time 
it must be confessed that if certain pictures confidently assigned 
to this master by some modem writers be all truly by him, his 
style must have varied in a manner quite without example in 
the history of art. Amongst those pictures which may with 
safety be ascribed to Ebcole di Giulio are the series of eight 
temperas on canvas formerly in the Gostabili collection at Ferrara, 
the two beat of which. The Departure of Moses from the Land of 
Egypt, and The Israelites gathering Manna, are now in the collection 
of the late Sir Henry Layard. All these works are characterized 
by a peculiar refinement, and by great grace in the female figures. 
The scholar or associate of Costa is revealed in the altar-piece 
described below (No. 1119), a picture which, while at Ferrara, 
was attributed to Costa himself, although it differs from that 
painter's productions in some essential particulars.f The figure 

* See the notice under Ercole BobertL 

t The attribution of this work to Ercole di Giulio has been arrived at by a 
pioceBS of elimination not mmsoal in critical research. The opinion expressed 
Of an eminent Italian writer on art has been imhesitatingly accepted in this 
case as ofFering the only plausible solution of a problem which presented many 
difficulties, ^e Giovanni Morelli, Italian picture* in Qtrman gallerie»t English 
edition. - '^ 



262 GRANDI. 

of St. John the Baptist is no doubt one which Costa might hav<l 
produced, and the small coloured compositions which serve to 
adorn the Virgin's throne and the areh behind it might equally 
be his. But Costa would have been unable to design a figure so 
finely drawn and so firmly balanced as that of the Infant Saviour 
who stands erect on his mother's k;Qee ; nor could the almost 
classical reliefs in monochrome on Ihe throne well have emanated 
from that painter. 

No. 73. The Conversion of Saint Paul. 

Confused groups of men and horses, with the Saviour in the 
clouds, and a view of Jerusalem in the background. 

Engraved in Jones's National Gallery, 

On wood, 1 ft. 11 in. h, by 2 ft. 3 in. u7. 

Formerly in the Aldobrandini Collection, at Kome. Bequeathed to 
the National Gallery, in 1831, by the Bev. W. Holwell-Oarr. 

No. 1,119. The Madonna and Child with Saints. 

The Yirgin enthroned. On her right knee stands the Infant 
Saviour looking towards the spectator, and raising his hand in 
benediction. The octagonal base of the throne is adorned with a 
device in grisaille on a gold mosaic ground of 4>dam and Eve by 
the Tree of knowledge. Below this are subjects from scripture, 
alternately in colour and grisaille. Behind and rising above the 
tl^one, is a richly-decorated semicircular archway on the face of 
which, on each side, is a composition in colour. To the left of the 
throne below St. John the Baptist, with his reed cross, looks up 
piously to the Infant Christ, and seems to present the Book of 
the Prophets. On the opposite side stands firmly the youthful 
St. William, with his long hair uncovered, but otherwise clad in 
armour, resting his left hand on the hilt of his drawn sword. 
The pavement oil which these two figures stand is composed of 
squares of marble, white and brown. 

On wood, 8 ft. 1 in. h, by 4 ft. 5J in. w. 

This picture appears to have been originally in the Church of the 
Oonoesione, at Ferrara, whence it was removed to the Convent of S. 
Gristoforo degli Esposti (the Foundling Hospital), out of which it was 

Surohased by the Strozzi family. Purchased, in 1882, from the Marcheee, 
trozzi, of Ferrara. 



GBEUZE. 263 

(JsAK Baptistb), 1725-1806, 

Was bom at Tonmas, near Micon, in Bargandy, 2l8t Aagast 
172S. He was at first the papil of Grandon or Gromdon, at 
Lyons ; he studied afterwards in the Academy at Paris, and at 
Borne. He was elected an agrii or associate of the French 
Academy of Painting in 1755 ; but as he was placed in the class 
of genre painters when he was elected a member in 1769 he 
considered it a degradation and retired altogether from the 
Academy. He died in Paris, in very poor circmnstances, 
March 21, 1805. 

Gbeuze was a portrait and genre painter ; he executed only one 
historical pictare — Severus reprimanding his son Caracalla, which 
is now in the Lourre. Bis fayourite subjects were illustrations 
of the affections or domestic duties, the observance or violation 
of them. He is unique in the French school, and is sometimes 
termed the Lachaus^e of Painting, and sometimes, but very in- 
appropriately, the F'rench Hogarth. Among his most celebrated 
pieces are— The Village Bride (L'AceordSe de ViUage) ; The Broken 
PitcJisr (La Cruche Oaseiti) ; The Little Girl mth the Dog (La 
Petite Fille au Chien)^ and others : the two former are in the Louvre, 
and the last is considered by some the painter's best picture : 
there is a print of it by Ch. Porporati. Grbuze etched a few plates.^ 

No. 206. The Head of a Oirl. 

Om wood, 1 ft. 2f in. h, by 1 ft. 5^ in. w» 
^ Bequeathed to the National Gallery, in 1846, by Mr. Richard Simmons. 

No. 1019> Head of a Girl looking up. 

A blue ribbon round her hair ; she is dressed in white. 
On canvas, 18 in. h, by 15 in. vo. 
The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 1020. Oirl with an Apple^ which she holds in her 
left hand, resting on a red cushion. 

Dress white and blue, hair blond. 
On canvas, 16 in. h, by 12^ in. w. 
The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



* Oault de Saint-Germain, Lcb troU Sidles de la Peinture en France^ 1806 ViUet 
Notice des Tctbleaux expotSs dans les Qalerie* du Louvre, 1861 ; Baudiconr, Le 
PHntre-Qraveur Francis continui, 1859. 



264 GREUZE— GUABDI. 

No. 1154. A Young Oirl carrying a Lamb. 

An unfinished study. Life size : bust length : three-quarter 
face turned to the left. Her chestnut-coloured hair is bound 
round the head by a fillet. She wears a white dress which is 
falling from her shoulders, and she bears the lamb in her arms. 

On canyis, 1 ft. 9 in. h. by 1 ft. 5 in. w. 

Presented, in 1883, by Mme. Helmholtz, in conformity with the wish 
of the late Mme. Mohl. 



OVAaDZ (Francesco), 1712-1793, 

Born in Venice in 1712, was the scholar and imitator of 
Ganale, but remained far behind him in the accuracy of his 
architectural details, and was careless and sketchy in the execution 
of his figures ; his works are, however, rich and forcible in their 
colouring. They are occasionally on a tolerably large scale, 
though more frequently of very small cabinet size ; the number 
of the latter description scattered over Europe in public and 
private collections almost baffles calculation. Guabdi died at 
Venice in 1793. 

No. 2X0> View of the Churchy Campanile, and Piazza^ 
of San Marco, at Venice. 

The building of the church was commenced in the tenth and 
finished in the eleventh century ; the campanile, which was 
commenced in the ninth, was not completed until the fourteenth 
century. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 4 in. h, by 3 ft. 11 i in. w. 

Bequeathed to the National GkJlery, in 1846, by Mr. Richard Simmons. 

No. 1054. View in Venice, 

In the foreground is a small piazza, with numerous figures in 
the exaggerated costume of the period. On the right is a canal 
on which is a group of gondolas, and which run9 through the 
centre of the picture between high houses connected by a bridge. 
To the left is a church tower and a garden with cypresses. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 2^ in. A. by 1 ft. 9 in. w. 

Bequeathed by the late Mr. John Henderson, in 1879. 



GUABDI— HAOKAEBT. 26{^ 

No. 1454b A Gondola. 

Sketch of a gondola on the lagoon at Yenioe, rowed by two 
rowers and with a small party seated in the ^ felse.*' The shore 
(probably the Lido) with a tower and indications of other build- 
ings is seen in the middle distance, and the open sea beyond. 

On oanyas, 11| in. A. by 1 ft. 5| in. to, 

Forohased, in 1895, at the sale of Lord Clif den's pictTres. 



aUB&CZirO. (See 8AaBZ8»S.) 



OUZDO. (See RBITZ.) 



BACXAB&T (Jam) 1629-1696? 

Was born at Amsterdam in 1629 and died there about 1696. 
He travelled much in Switzerland, Germany and Italy between 
1653 and 1658. The figures of his pictures are said to have 
been inserted by Philips Wouwerman, Adrian Yandevelde, Jan 
Lingelbach and Nicholas Berchem. The subject described below 
affords a good notion of Hagkaert^s tendency, and his method 
of treating landscape. 

No. 829- A Stag-hunt 

Flooded ground within the skirts of a forest, seen by an 
evening light ; a stag is being chased through by hounds followed 
by two gentlemen and a lady on horseback. On the right a man 
is ruaning forward sounding his hunting horn. The figures are 
attributea to Nicholas Berchem. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 3 in. h, by 3 ft. 11) in. w. 

Formerly in the posBession pf Earl Granville. Purchased with the 
Peel Collection, in 187i. 



266 HALS (Dirk). 



(Dirk), . . . .?-1656. 

Dirk Hals would seem to have been born several years later 
than his brother Frans . (see the succeeding memoir), and at 
Haarlem. He doubtless acquired a knowledge of painting under 
the tuition of his elder brother, whose method of handling the 
brush ho adopted in works of small dimensions. He was the 
leader in that class of subject treated by Palamedes, A. le Due 
(or Duck), and Pieter Godde ; though Dirk Hals confined 
himself chiefly to the representation of convivial parties, 
where cavaliers and ladies are seen enjoying themselves 
without much reserve at table, in the dance, or with music. 
His light pencil, his brilliant colour^ laid on thinly over a 
greyish ground, and sharply accentuated, suited the themes and 
the small scale of his pictures. These date from 1620 to 1653 ; 
but there is no doubt that some may be referred to still earlier 
years. His works are now more numerous in German collections 
than elsewhere ; in Holland they are rare. Many of them have 
been erroneously assigned to Palamedes or le Due ; but the 
resemblance in the productions of all those painters lies rather 
in the subjects they in common affected than in the mode of 
treatment. Dirk and his elder brother were elected honorary 
members of the Society of Rhetoricians (Bhetorykerkamer) at 
ECaarlem in 1617, and botb belonged to the Burgher Guard. 
Dirk Hals died in the middle of May 1656. 

No. 1074L A merry party of Cavaliers and Ladies at 
table. 

Four of the party are seated. One of the cavaliers stands, 
leaning over the back of a lady's chair, to the left. On the right 
is a waiter, or tavern keeper. At the back is an open door. On 
the architrave above it is the signature, D, Hals^ and the date, 
1626. 

On panel, 11 in. h, by 1 ft. 3 in. w, 

jPuxdhased from Mr. E. 0. Hill, in 1879« 



HALS (Franb). 267 



(Frans), 1580 or '81-1666, 

Was born 1580 or 1581* at Antwerp of parents who wertf 
then temporarily resident there, but who belonged to an old 
patrician family of Haarlem. They seem to have returned to 
Haarlem within the century; and Fbans became the pupil of 
Karl '"Van Mander, an eminent painter and art - historian. 
He was twice married, the second time in 1617. He led 
an irregular and improvident life, and in his old age was 
supported by the communal magistracy ; he left his widow a 
charge upon the poor-rate. Tet his fellow-citisens seem to have 
looked leniently upon his eccentricities. He died in 1666^ and 
was buried on the 1st of September in the church of St. Bavon. 
He left four sons, all painters. Fraks Hals was one of the 
greatest masters in portraiture of his own or of any time. Of 
the host of distinguished painters in that branch of art who 
piiactised in the Netherlands in the first half of the XTIL 
century, he stands forth as the first — ^Rembrandt only excepted. 
His portraits haT« not the gravity and intensity of Rembrandt's ; 
yet they cannot be termed superficial. The temperament of 
Hals led him to view life rather from its lusty, joyous side ; and 
he entered fully into the spirit of his countrymen, who in his 
earlier years had but recently achieved their national freedom, 
portraying them with a keen zest f o): their idiosyncracies, and a 
sharp but sympathetic sense of humour. The mode of execution 
which he made his own was admirably a|>propriate ;f light, free, 
vigorous, and rapid, it reproduced the impression of vitality 
with more than the truth of iotstantaneous photography. 
Nowhere are his powers more strikingly brought to view than in 
the series of portrait groups in the Haarlem Museum, where the 
officers of the burgher guards are seen assembled to celebrate 
some anniversary. These magnificent compositions were painted 
between 1616 and 1639. Frans is seen at his very best in that 
which is dated 1633, representing the officers of the corps of 
St. Adrian gathered round their stout old colonel Jan Clases 
Loo, who sits in the midst. The grouping here is perfect ; the 

• **Omne8 snperat innsitato pingendi xnodo, quern pecnliarem habet." 
Schreyeliiis ; cited by W. Bode. Studien zur Oeschiehte der HoltSndUchm Malerei^ 
p. 40. Braunschweig. 1883. This work contributes importantly to the history 
of the Hals family. 

t A. Bredius, Ckxtmlogue det Fdnturet du Musie de Vitat d Amsterdam, 1888^ 



?68 .HALS (FBAifs). 

colouring, in freshness, harmony, and force, rises to the highest 
point ; the sense of life in the heads is astonishing, and no less 
striking is their individuality. In the Amsterdam Gallery, the 
group of Hals and his second wife, Lysbeth Beynier, is a 
wonderful piece of character* In his later years the painter fell 
gradually into a less agreeable style ; his sense of colour failed 
him ; the freshness and purity of his tints degenerated into 
monotone, and black, shadows, rouglily dashed in, took the place 
of all more delicate modulations. It would be impossible here to 
particularize even the finer works of Hals existing in the public 
and private collections of Holland, Belgium, Germany, Austria, 
Bussia, France and England. Many copies or imitations of his 
works pass for originals with the uncritical ; yet the imposture is 
not difficult of detection. 

No. 1021- Portrait of a Woman. 

Small half-length, in black, with her hair combed back, a white 
cap, a large white ruff and wristbands, her hands crossed before her. 

Signed with the painter's monogram, here reproduced in hcJI-sise. 




On oanvas, 24i in. h, by 18^ in. vo. 

Purchased from Mr. F. A. Eeogh, from the interest of the " Lewis 
Fund," in 1876. 

No. 1251. Portrait of a Man, 

Bust portrait, turned to the right, in a sitting posture, looking 
out at the spectator, A fresh-coloured man of about 40 } ears of 
age, with short brown hair, moustaches and chin-tuft, in a black 
satin doublet and voluminous ruff. Light warm grey back- 
ground, on which is inscribed 

fLT AT. SV/^ 



HALS (Frans)-'HEIMBACH. 269' 

The numerals giving the age must have been oat away in 
remounting the picture. 

On oanyas, 2 ft. 1 in. h, by 1 ft. 7| in. w 

Presented, in 1888, byMisa E. J. Wood, in aooordance with the wish 
of her onole, the late Mr. Deoimns Barton. 



(WiLLEM KI4AA8Z). . 1594— after 1678.- 

Was a good painter of fruit, and flowers, and still- life. He 
was bom at Haarlem in 1594, and was still living in 1678, when 
at the age of eight-four, his portrait was painted by Jan de 
Bray. 

Pictures by this painter are to be seen at Munich, Dresden, 
and Schwerin, and in other galleries abroad. The subjects 
are mostly of the kind illustrated by the picture described below. 

No. 1469. A Study of Still-life. 

On a table partly covered with a white cloth are various 
flagons and a large glass beaker. A crab and a peeled lemon 
with metal and china plates make up the group. The whole is 
painted with caief ul finish. 

On panel, 1 ft. 84 in. A. by 2 ft. 4| in. w. 
Presented by Mr. Henry J. Pfungst, F.SA., in 1896. 



lAiOB (Christian WoLFOAMa). 1613-1678. 

A German painter and deaf mute, of whom little is known, was 
bom in 1613 at Oevelgonne, near Pinneberg, as a subject of the 
Count of Oldenburg, and flourished from 1637 to 1675. He 
visited Holland, Italy, and Denmark, and lived at the latter country 
for some time, eventually becoming attached to the Court there. 
He chiefly painted small portraits and pictures of candle-light 
scenes* In 1667 he returned to Oldenburg, and died in 1678. 
Examples of his work are at Brunswick, Cassel, and Hanover. 



No, 1243> Portrait of a Young Man. 

A young maa, facing to the right, but looking at the spectators, 
dressed in a black doublet and mantle, and wearing a broad- 
leaved steeple-crowned hat ; behind him a reddish curtain 



270 HEIMBACH— HELST. 

between whioh and a pillar on the extreme right is seen the 
distant sea, with a ship, and a fortress on a hill. On the low 
window-sill is the inscription * — 



w 




t 



On woodi eVaa, 1 ft. 7 in. \, by 1 ft. 1 in. W. 
ForohaBed from Mr. M. Boberts in London, in 1898. 



(Babtholomeus van deb). 1611 or 12-1670. 

One of the most distinguished of the Dutch portrait-painters, 
was born at Haarlem in 1611 or 1612. He is supposed to have 
removed to Amsterdam while yet young and there to have 
become the pupil of Nicholas Ellas, an eminent master in the art 
of portraiture.^ Portraits by Yan deb Helst are faithful tran- 
scripts of nature, and full of character. He bestowed special care 
upon the hands of his subjects, nor was he less attentive to the 
discrimination of stuffs, while his skill in reproducing the lustre 
and shimmer of jewellery or gold embroidery, and the delicacy 
of the lace-worker's art has never been equalled. His painting 
is solid and firm, verging on excess of precision ; pastose, though 
without any overloading of colour Splendid examples of his 
work, both in sinjgle figures and in large group?, are in the 
Museums of Amsterdam and Rotterdam. The Hermitage at 
St. Petersburg contains some fine family groups. The great 
composition called the SchiUtersnMtaltydf jn the Museum, at 
Amsterdam, is one of the most remarkable productions of the 
Dutch School of Painters. It contains twenty-five figures of the 
natural size, twenty-four of which are named on the picture, and 
represents a banquet given by a company of the civic guard of 
Amsterdam, in commemoration of the peace of Miinster in 1648 ; 
the Spanish Ambassador is present at the feast. Sir Joshua 
Beynolds considered this work to be "perhaps the first picture 
of portraits in the world.*' Undoubtedly it is a startiiog piece 

• Nicolas Ellas, or, more correctly, Nicolas Eliasz Pickenoy; was born at 
Amsterdam in 1580-81, and died between 1646 and 1656. Many excellent worka 
of bifit ^oth single and gi^uped portraits, are in the Amsterdam Gallery. 



HELST. 271 

of realism, and the sense of yitajity in the heads i9 impressiye. 
But it is somewhat wanting in subordination, and in perfect 
harmony of oolour. Many would prefer the group of Thefowr 
Symdics yel the same ccAlectimir a less ambitious ipork,. but 
containing more of the higher qualities of art. Eqiial, if not 
superior to the latter, is the comparatively small pictare in the 
Louvre, representing, round the table, four captains of the dvio 
guard of arquebusiers with other, persons,- displaying the various 
costjy prizes gained in shooting ; a masterpiece o| portvaitore, 
composition, depth of colouring and finish ; it is dated 165B 
Yah dbr Helst married in 1686. He died at Amsterdam, where 
he had continued to reside, and where he was buried Dec. 16, 
1670. His son Lodewyk was also a portrait painter. 

No. 124s8. Portrait of a Ytmng laidy. • ' 

Life size, half length, facing towards the left, and regarding 
the spectator. A young girl with dark grey eyes and liffht 
brown hair, dressed in a goi^n and stomacher of white and blue 
figured satin guarded with gold embroidery ; the shoulders 
covered with a broad falling eoUar of fine lace ; broad cuffs of 
the same ; a long pendant of precious stoaes is suspended from 
the throat beneath a necklace of large pearls ; strings of pearls 
hang from the centre of the bos Dm to the left shoulder, and 
others snrroimd the wrists ; large delicately- wrought ear*rinffs 
and a jewelled finger ring complete the rich attire. The Mt 
hand rests in front on the wsist ; the right holds a fan of 
ostrich feathers tinged with blue. Dark oaokground. In the 
upper left-hand corner is the inscription B. van der Heist, 
1645, here reproduced in half size. 

Ad. -^ 

On canvas, 2 ft. 5 in. h* by 2 ft. 1^ in. w. 

This picture, said to be the porfcrait of a lady3^f the house of 
Braganza, was formerly JLn the collection of Mr. Beckf ord, at FonthiH 
Abbey. It was purchased for the National Gallery, at the sale of 
Oolonfil Everett's pictures, in 1888, out of the interest of the *' Clarke 
Bequest." 



m HELST— HEMESSEN. 

No. 1937« Portrait of a Lady, 

Three-quarter length, standing. She is slightly tamed to her 
right, her dark brown eyes looking oat of Uie picture. In her 
right hand she holds a closed fan, and with her left she holds 
tl^ lower end of her stiff bodice. On her head is an open lace cap 
showing the hair which hangs loosely down each side of her face. 
She wears a black satin dress with full sleeves, with broad white 
collar and cuffs bordered with rich lace and open in front, showing 
a white and silver brocade stomacher and black satin skirt. Bands 
of black lace cross the stomacher in front, and her collar is 
fastened at the neck by a small bow of blue and yellow, and silver 
passementerie ; a similar bow is attached to the handle of the fan. 
Pearl earrings, necklace, and bracelets complete a very rich and 
tasteful costume. Dark background. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 4 in. ^. by 2 ft. 5 in. ti;.' 

Puzchased in London from the Marquess of Northampton, in 1904. 



(Cathabina van). 

Was the daughter and pupil of Jan van Hemessen or Heemsen, 
a painter born near Antwerp in 1500, who painted for the most 
part religious subjects. 

Cathabina, the dates of whose birth and death are not recorded, 
painted portraits of small size. She was married to Ohristinan'^, 
a musician of repute in the Low Counties, and with her husband 
was taken to Spain by the Queen of Hungaty,^ who, when dying 
left them both a provision for life.f Cathabina acquired much 
celebrity and favour at the Spanish Court through her ability in 
portraiture. 

No. 1042> Portrait (three-qtuirter length) of a Man. 

Of about five and thirty, with blond hair and beard, attired in 
a black bonnet, and close doublet of the same colour slashed on 
the body and adorned with golden studs and black galloon. 
The sleeves f aJl behind from the shoulder, showing the white satin 
sleeves of the under dress. His right hand grasps the hilt of his 
sword, the left rests on the hip, and has on the forefinger a ring 

* The Dowager Mary, sister of the Emperor Charles V., and widow of Louis, 
KiDg of Hungary and Bohemia, who was slain at Mohacz in 1526. In 1630 she 
was appointed Qovemess of idl the Netherlands, and ruled there in Charles's 
name until his abdication in 1556, when she retired with him to Spain. 

t Lodov. Guiooiardini, Jktcrizlane di ttUti i Paesi Bassi, Ac, foL, 1588, p. 130. 



HEMESSEN— HEBBEBA. ' 273 

with armorial baaringB in enamel. The shirt is embroidered with 
red, and the red oorcb of the mff depend on the breast and are 
fastened feo a ring-like jewel. 

Signed:— 

CAIHANNA'FILIA 
JOANNIS DEMHES 
SEM TUfGBMT 

On panel, 14} in. h. hy 11} m. to. Porohafled from Mr. James 0. 
Wallace from the interest of the " Lewiff Fund," in 1878. 



(Francisco db) tub YOUNasR. 1622-1685. 

There were two painters of this name, father and son. The 
latter, to whom the picture noticed below is attributed^ was born 
at Seville, and studied under his father, whose temper was so 
violent that his pupils fled from him, and among them the subject 
of this memoir, who escaped to Bome and stayed there until his 
father's death in 1656. He began by painting still life pictures or 
" bodegones," but oo his return to Seville was employed in large 
compositions for the churches in that town. Later, he went to 
Madrid where he painted altar-pieces and frescoes in the churches, 
and was appointed by Philip lY. painter to the king, and under 
his son, Charles II., was promoted to be master of the royal 
works. He died at Madrid in 1685. 

No. 1676> Christ disputing with the Doctors. 

The figure of the youthful Saviour is on the right in the 
attitude of argument with one of the Pharisees, an elderly man^ 
with a grey beard who leans towards Him, his face completely in 
shadow. Othera of the Doctors stand around, and the figures of 
Joseph and Mary are seen in the centre in the mid-distance. The 

^5640 B 



274 HBRRERA— HEYDBN. 

figures are grouped in the porcb of a building ; another building 
and open sky form the background. The personages are rather 
larger than life and are seen to the waist. 

On canvas, 3 ft. lOJ in. A. by 5 ft. 3 in. w. 

Bequeathed by Mrs. Alexander Lang Elder, in 1899. 



(Jan van deb), 1637-1712. 

Was bom at Gorkum in 1637, and is distinguished for his 
street views, — ^in which the figures were inserted by A. van do 
Velde and Eglon van der Neer. Yan deb Hetden was at first 
apprenticed to a glass-painter, with whom he remained for a 
short time. He then studied architectural drawing, and be- 
taking himself to Amsterdam practised that branch of art in 
which he attained honourable distinction in the ranks of the 
*' Little Masters " of the Dutch School. He had the finest sense> 
of perspective, linear and aerial, and the delicate minuteness of 
detail in his pictures is always kept in subordination to the 
general effect. He occasionally painted subjects of still life. 
Heyden had a strong turn for mechanics ; he invented the fire- 
engine, and introduced the use of street lamps. He visited 
England for a short time. His death occurred at Amsterdam^ 
S^pt. 28, 1712. 

Ko. 866> A Street in Cologne. 

On the right in the background is seen the unfinished tower 
of the cathedral, surmount^ by the old crane. The figures are 
attributed to Adrian Yan de velde. Signed J. V. D. H. 

On wood, 11 in. h, by 17 in. w. 

In 1826 in the posseBsion of Mr. J. Barohard. Sold to the late Sir 
Robert Peel by 1&. 0. J. Nieuwenhnys. Purchased with the Peel Collec- 
tion, in 1871. 

No. 99£> Architectural Scene, 

Gothic and classic buildings, among which a triumphal arch is 
conspicuous, with figures ; a lame mendicant is asking alms ; an 
old tree to the right. Signed J. Y. D. Heydb. 

On oak, 1 ft. 8 in. h, by 2 ft. 1 in. w. 
Formerly in the collection of M. (^eldermeester. 
The Wynn Ellis Bequest 1876. 



HETDBN. 276 

No. 993« Landscape. 

A house among trees ; a pool of water in the f oregroond ; some 
cows and sheep on the further bank. 
On oak, 8^ in. A. by 11^ in. to. 
The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. ' 

No. 994. A Street in a Town. 

A church or other large Gothic building to the left, casting a 
shadow over the foreground ; a few trees and Tarious figures 
scattered over the scene. Signed : — 



We 



u^ 



*.< 



eua€^ 

On oak, 20^ in. A. by 16 in. w. 
The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 1914s> A Royal Chateau in Holland, 

The ''House in the Wood,'* near the Hague, where the ffisf- 
Peace Conference was held. In the centre is a large palatial > 
building of plain brick, in front of which is a garden seen over a 
clipped hedge. A broad walk, divided into three by low cut hedges • 
and pedestals, leads up to the central door, and is intersected by 
another leading right and left, and at the point of intersection are 
four marble statues on high brick pedestals. Down the pathway a 
group of ladies and gentlemen is coming forward, and a man . 
is working in the garden to the left. On the right is a high 
obelisk of lattice work for training roses, and two similar ones.* 
stand in front of the Chateau. 

On panel, 8 in. A. by lOf in. w, ^ 

Bequeathed by Sir James Carmichael, Bart., in 1902. 

No. 1915> A Dutch Church and Market Place. 

A Gothic Church with a tower of classic architecture, occupies' 
the centre of the picture, and on the left is a Gothic building 
which appears to be a Cbapel. In front is an open space, with 
some trees and a building on the right, and other buildings are 
seen beyond. 

Figures are disposed in groups about the open ground. 

On panel, 8 in. h. by lOf in. w. 

Bequeathed by Sir James Carmichael, Bart., in 1902, 

25640 S 2 



276 HOBBEMA. 



(Meindert), 1638-1709. 

Appears to have been born at AmBterdam in 1688, and to have 
been the scholar of Jacob Buysdael in landscape . painting. 
Buysdael was the witness at Hobbema's marriage to Eeltie Yinck 
in the reformed church at Amsterdam on the 2nd of October, 1668, 
when HoBBEMA recorded his age as thirty.^ The city of Haarlem, 
the town of Koeverden and the village of Ididdelhamis, in 
Holland, are each said to have been his birthplace ; but he 
resided in Amsterdam, and may from the marriiage r^^ter be 
assumed to have been born there. f The earliest date on hifl 
works is 1650 ; the year 1663 is inscribed on two of his finest 
pictures, one lately in the Dudley Gallery, and the other in the 
collection of Mr. Holford, at Dorchester House. The latest 
acknowledged date is 1669, but a fine work by the master in the 
Peel collection (see below, under No. 830) is by some said to be 
inscribed with the year 1689.]: He died at Amsterdam, and was 
buried in the Westerkerhhofi Dec. 14, 1709. He died poor, his last 
lodging was in the Boosegraft, the street that Bembrandt died in, 
just as poor, forty years before. Hobbema*8 wife Eeltie died in 
July, 1704.§ 

The landscapes of Hobbema consist generally of simple wooded 
:8oenes, often sunny, with an occasional pool of water or a mill ; 
^he figures in them ace inserted sometimes by himself and some- 
times by Berchem, A. Yandevelde, or Lingelbach, and others* 
The majority of his works are in this country ; they were little 
]kn6wn or little appreciated in Holland till about a century after 
his death ; they are now more generally valued, perhaps, than 
the works of any other landscape painter, and realise very large 
prices at auctions. 

* Discovered in the church register by M. B. Elsevier, quoted by Siret, in his 
Dietionnaire Hiatorique den Peintres, 1862. 

t See Van Eynden en Vander WiUieen, Oeschiedenis der Vaderlandsch SchiJder- 
kunat. &c., 4 vols., dvo., 1816-1842. These writers give, in their supplement or 
fourth volume, p. 101, a statement that Meindert Hobbema was the son of a 
Serjeant Willem Hobbema, of the company of Captain Solema. in garrison at 
Xoeverden, and that he was baptized at Koeverden on the 6th of August, 
1654, when he was grown up, therefore. They also notice a drawing attributed 
to him, bearing the date 1647, when he was nine years only, according to the 
marriage register. 

X See Smith, Catalogue BaiaonnSt Ac. Of the 142 pictures attributed to Hobboma 
in this work, 16 only are dated, and of these five have the same year— 1663. 

$ These facts wera discovered by M. Soheitema of Amsterdam 



HOBBEMA. 277 

No. 68S« LandscapCy Showery Weather. 

Rain and sanahine are both represented, and everything seems 
wet ; but the chief feature of the pictnre is a cluster of large 
trees in the centre, slightly moved by the wind ; on the one side 
is a shaded pool, with a man angling on the bank ; on the other 
is a road-side cottage with a woman looking out at a doorway ; on 
the road in front of it are a few figures. 

Signed : — 



On wood, 1 ft. 11} in. A. by 3 ft. 9^ in. to. 



OLy 




Formerly in the ooUection of Gonnt Perregaux ; imported into 
« England by Mr. Farrer ; pnrohased from Mr. G. H. Phillips in 1862. 



No. 830. The Avenue^ MiddelharniSy Holland. 

This is one of the several places Bupp9sed to have the credit 
of Hobbema*s birth. In the centre of the picture a long avenue 
of straight lopped trees leads up to the village, of which the 
church tower is a conspicuous object. On either side of the 
road is a broad ditch ; beyond the ditch on the spectator's left, 
are plantations, and on the other side are also plantations, farm 
buildings, and a nursery ground, in which a man is pruning some 
grafted trees. A sportsman with his gun and dog is on the road 
approaching from the village. Signed M. ffobbema^ /. 16—9, 
the third figure read as an 8 is not legible. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 4J in. A. by 4 ft. 74 in. uj. 

Formerly in the Vander Pot collection at Rotterdam. Purchased 
with the Peel collection in 1871. 



No. 831- Ruins of Brederode Gastte. 

The castle stands Qi)on some high ground in the middle of the 
picture, and is surrounded by water. On the left on this side of 



278. HOBBEMA— HOLBEIN. 

the water is a cluster of trees, beneath which are two anglers and' 
a sportsman with his gan and do;;. In the foreground are some 
ducks. ^igCL^ M, Hobhema ft. 1667. The ducks are ascribed to 
Wyntrank, and the figures to Lingelbach. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 8i in. h, bj 3 f t. 6 in. to. 

Formerly in the collection of Mr. H. Kope, of Haarlem. Imported by 
Mr. C. J. Nienwenhnys. Purchased with the Peel collection in 1871. 



No. 832- A Village^ with Watermills. 

Several picturesque trees dispersed over the grounds ; a small 
river in front, with three under shot water wheels erected over 
it ; a few ducks in the foreground. Signed M, Hohbema. 

On wood, 1 ft. 11^ in. A. by 2 ft. 8^ in. w. 

Formerly in the possession of M. Yaillant at Amsterdam. Sold to 
the late Sir Bobert Peel by Mr. John Smith. Purchased with tihe Peel 
collection in 1871. 



No. 833> Forest Scene. 

The outskirts of a wood, a pool of water in the foreground ; a 
few figures on a road in the middle distance. 

On wood, 12 in. h, by 1 ft. 3^ in. w. 

In 1826 in the collection of Mr. J. Barchard. Purchased with the 
Peel collection in 1871. 



No. 995- Woody Landscape. 

Cottages among the trees ; a pond in the middle ground, three 
figures in the foreground. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 3 in. h, by 4 ft. 4 in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



BOIiBBZN (Hams), tU Younger, 1497-1543. 

The elder Hans Holbein of Augsburg, father of the subject of 
the present notice, holds the first rank amongst those Swabian 



HOLBEIN. 279 

painters whose period lies, ronghljr speaking, between 1470 and 
1520. His paintings, devotional in subject, in accordance with 
the demands of his time and country, are marked by sincerity, 
refinement of feeling, and a grace, still touched by medisBvalism, 
in female figures. On the other hand, numerous portrait studies, 
done to please himself or his friends, disclose in the father a 
natural gift afterwards to be more conspicuously developed in 
the son.^ 

This son, Hans Holbein the younger, was bom at Augsburg 
in 1497, and died in London in 1543. He shared with his elder 
brother, Ambrose, the artistic instruction which their father was 
80 well fitted to impart, and he mnst have found a further 
etimnlus in the vigourons designs of their fellow-eitisen Hans 
Burckmair. About 1514-15 the two brothers migrated to Basle, 
where they were soon engaged in independent work.f This Free 
City was then, by reason of its University and its printing 
presses, a centre of literary activity, frequented by men of learning 
from all parts. Erasmus, the greatest scholar of his age, after 
repeated visits, took up his abode there. Foremost among the 
enlightened and enterprising printer-publishers of Basle was 
Frobenius, a genial man, ready to welcome all who could 
contribute to the perfection and adornment of the volumes that 
issued from his press. He recognized the genius of young Hans, 
and, it may be assumed, made him known to Erasmus, whose 
appreciative friendship brought about the most eventful turn in 
the artist's life. In 1516 Hans, then in his 19th year, made his 
first essays in portraiture by painting Jacob Meyer (^'zum 
Hasen"), the able Burgomaster of Basle, his wife Dorothea 
Kannegiesser, and Hans Herbster, the painter.]; In point of 
character and ease ef execution these portraits are masterly. 

* The elder Holbein, towards 1515, fell into pecnniary bt raits. He seems to 
lUbTO died In 1624, after wandering here and there in search of employment, of 
which he found some at Isenhdm in Alsace. His brother Sigmund, also a 
painter, who would appear to have been unmarried, and in good circumstances, 
removed to Bern, where he died in 1540, leaving his nephew Hans his tale heir. 

t Ambrose Holbein entered the guild ** zum Himmel" at Basle in 1517, and in 
1518 obtained the ririits of citizenship. EUs chief employment in Basle seems 
to have been in dedgning on wood ; although some pictures are ascribed to 
him. After 1519 he is not heard of. 

X Herbeter was the father of the distinguished printer ** Oporinus," and is so 
designated on the picture, which is in the collection of the Elarl of Northbrook. 



2d0 HOLBEIN. 

HpiiBEiN WM in the next yqar at Lncerne, .a^pcning with 
historical sabjects within and without, the newly erected house 
of the Mayor, Jacob von Hertenstein. In 1519 he was again at 
Basle, and member of the guild " zum Himmel " ; in 1520 a 
citizen of the town. In the former year is dated his fine portrait 
of Boniface Amerbach.^ His resources in architectonic decoration 
were now put to the test in the city of his adoption. The 
frescoes which he there painted on facades have perished. But 
designs for some of them are in the Basle Museum. These prove 
Ms inventive genius, his knowledge of perspective, and his skill 
in overcoming obstacles, nay, in using them as aids in the 
unfolding of an imaginative scheme. In all such devices, at 
indeed in all his oompositions and portraits where architecture 
formed a background or an adjunct, he adopted the fashion of 
the Renaissance as it was understood by him. Good taste saved 
him from the tendency to grotesqueness prevalent in German 
art of his time« Indeed Holbein is distinguished by sobriety of 
design, by a fine sense of form and proportion, and by the 
consistent nature oE his ornamentation, which with him is never 
an excrescence, but part of an organic structure ; yet of the 
freest and most graceful fancy. These qualities are exemplified 
in all his designs for goldsmith's work and jewellery. In 1521 
he was commissioned by the magistracy, Jacob Meyer <*zum 
Hasen'' being still Burgomaster, to cover with appropriate 
"histories" the great hall of the Rathhaus then lately rebuilt. 
These works, painted in oil in a damp locality, were already 
decaying towards the close of the century, and are now no more. 
Other notable productions dating between 1521 and 1526 are the 
Dead Christ, a Portrait of Eraamtis, the Lais Corinthiaca and its 
companion, all in the Basle Museum ; the Solothurn Madonna, 
the paintings on the organ-shutters of the Miinster, and, above 
all, tbe priceless Meyer Madonna at Darmstadt. f In the mean- 
while Basle had become afflicted with religious dissensions within, 

* The principal portion of the treasnres of art in the Basle Mnseum were 
eollectea by this enlishtened man, the intimate friend and pupil of Erasnina, 
and ap^reciator of Holbein, and bv his son Basilins Amerbach. The collection 
was purchased by the town authorities in 1667. Amongst its most valuable 
contents are 16 ^ntings and 104 drawings by Holbein, together with a sketch 
book flUed by his hand. 

t It is now admitted on all hands that this picture is the sole original, and 
that the Dresden example^though very beautiful, is only a copy (with tome 
alterations), by a later and Flemish hand. 



HOLBEIN. 281 

aod political dangers Irom witkoirt ; an ontbnnt of plague 
completed the general distress. Public work and private 
enterprise collapsed ; and Holbein bethought him of seeking 
employment in England. Furnished with letters from Erasmus 
to .^Ejgidius at Antwerp, and Sir Thomas More at London, he 
set out on his journey in 1526, leaving his family at home, and 
the paintings in the Bathhaus unfinished. Stopping for a while 
at Antwerp, he made the acquaintance of Quinten Massys. Ld 
London he was cordially received and housed by the great 
Chancellor, and there he remained about two years. In thie 
interval he painted some noble portraits, amongst which those 
of Archbishop Warham and Sir Thomas More. Troubles having 
in some degree subsided in Basle, he returned in 1528 to fulfil his 
engagements there. Towards the middle of 1532 he again came 
to London. Here, things had greatly changed. More had been 
shortly before deprived of his high office, and could no longer aoi 
the part of a powerful friend. Holbein, however, met with a 
warm reception from the German merchants of the Steelyard, and 
painted portraits of many of them, as well as two large allegori- 
cal subjects on canvas for the decoration of their Hall, viz., the 
Triumph of Wealthy and the Triumph of Poverty. But this was 
not all. Several Englishmen of note or position sat to him, and 
he gradually became known at court. To the earlier part of thia 
period, too, belongs the famous portrait group known as The 
Ambassadors, now in this gallery. The superb portrait o£ 
H abort Morrett (or Count Moretta ?) at Dresden, must also be 
assigned to this time. At what date Holbein was received into 
the permanent service of the king is not precisely known. But 
it was in 1537 that he painted the large composition for the 
Privy Chamber of the Palace of Whitehall, in which, in figure^ 
of large life sice, were represented Henry Yin., standing to the 
right, and Queen Jane Seymour to the left of a sort of pedestal ; 
and on. a slightly higher level behind, the figures of the King's 
parents, Henry TIL and Elizabeth of York. It is, however, 
under the date of March 25, 1538, that Holbbin first appears in 
the accounts of the royal expenditure as a salaried servant of 
the King. Thenceforward the quarterly entries regarding him 
occur regularly, so far as the record is extant. In the year and 
month last mentioned, in consequence of the negotiations then 
on foot for a marriage of Henry with the widowed but youthful 



282 HOLBEIN. 

Daohess of Milan, daughter of Christian II. of Denmark, and 
niece of the Emperor Charles Y., Holbeim was despatched to 
Brussels to take her portrait. In the autumn of the same 
year he was again abroad on the King's affairs, although the 
purpose is obscure. But he seems to hare made use of this 
occasion to revisit Basle, and to conciliate the municipality ; for 
his prolonged absence strained the laws of citizenship. He was 
welcomed, and publicly feasted. The council, by an instrument 
dated Oct. 16, recognised bhe obligations which still bound the 
master to the English King, and, in consideration thereof 
extended his leave of absence by two years, granting to his wife 
in the meantime an annuity of 40 florins, and to himself one of 
50 florins. On his return to England he was more than ever 
occupied in work for the King and for others. The summer of 
the next year finds Holbein again on the Continent in connexion 
with one of Henry's matrimonial projects. In this instance 
Anne of Cleves was the subject of the painter's pencil. Although 
it is most unlikely that his portrait of this lady was designed to 
flatter her, it yet conduced with verbal reports to plunge the 
King into a fourth inauspicious marriage. The large compo- 
sition on panel, over 10 ft. in length by about 6 ft. in height, 
belonging to the Barber Surgeons' Company, in which the King 
is depicted in state presenting to the members of the guild the 
charter of its reconstitution, must have been begun in or soon 
after 1541, and was, perhaps, never quite finished. After mid- 
summer in that year no mention of Holbein occurs. But there 
is a break in the accounts of the royal expenditure, and it can 
hardly be doubted that the painter remained up to his death in 
the service of the King. He died (apparently of the plague) 
between the 7th of October and the 29th of November 1543. 
The former of these dates is that of his will, the latter that of 
the appointment of an administrator. In this country Holbbin 
is popularly known as a portrait-painter only. And no doubt 
his highest claims to fame will rest on his unrivalled achieve- 
ments in that capacity. For his pre-eminence as a delineator 
of physiognomy and character would be firmly established by 
his iconic drawings alone, such as the superb series at Windsor, 
those at Basle, and a few scattered elsewhere. Words can create 
BO conception of the insight, the ease of draughtsmanship, the 
loree united with delicacy, the freedom from all trace of 



HOLBEIN. 282r 

mannerism, that characteriEe these iranaoendent works. Yet the 
master proved himself equally great in historical composition. 
The story is always told with dramatic clearness, without 
redundancy of figures or waste of space ; and a sound commonsense 
regulates the imaginative faculty throughout. These qualities 
also distinguish his designs for the wood-engraver and the glass- 
painter.^ 



11 



No. 1314. '^ The Ambassadors. 

Portraits of Jean de Dinteville, Lord of Polisy, and George de 
Selve, Bishop of Lavaur. The scene is a chamber paved with 
inlaid marbles, and hung with green damask, which in the upper 
left-hand comer partly reveals a silver crucifix attached to the 
wall behind. In the centre of the composition is a wooden 
stand, having an upper and a lower shelf. To the left of this, 
leaning his arm upon it, stands Jean de Dinteville, a young 
man with dark brown eyes and beard, in a rich costume of the 
period of Henry YIII., wearing a heavy gold chain with the 
badge of the French order of Saint- Michel, and, on his right 
side, depending from his girdle, a dagger with wrought gold 
hilt and sheath : on the sheath the inscription — ^T. SY^ 29. 
in relief. In his black bonnet is a jewel formed of a silver skull 
set in gold. To the right, George de Selve, dark-eyed, with 
a clo^e beard, also leans upon the stand, or, more immediately, 
on a clasped book, the edges of which are inscribed : jbtatib 
fSVM 25. He wears a four-cornered black cap, and a loose long- 
sleeved gown of mulberry and black brocade, lined with sable, 
and reaching to the ground* Both these persons regard the 
spectator. The upper shelf of the stand is covered with a 
Turkish rug, on which are several mathematical and astronomical 
instruments, and, close to the principal personage, a celestial 
globe. The lower shelf bears a case of flutes, a lute, an open 

* Holl)elii married (about 1520, as Woltmann conjectures) Elsbeth (.Elizabeth) 
Schmid, a widow, apparently somewhat his senior. A maryellons portrait of 
this nnattractiYe- looking person by her husband, is in the Basle Mnseum. 
Their children were Philip, the eldest, and Jacob the yoonff est of the family ; 
and two daughters, Eatharina and Enngolt (Eunifirande). Philip was appren- 
ticed by his father in 1538 to Jacob David, a goldsmith in Paris. After many 
wanderings he settled in Augsburg, where he died, leavinK a son (Philip) who 
became court Jeweller, and was ennobled by the Emperor Matthias in 1612. 
Jacob settled in London as a goldsmith in his father's lifetime. The daughters 
married in Basle, where the younger one left a numerous family. 

The bibliography of Holbein is extensive, but scattered. However, the 
known facts regarding him and the entire Holbein family are laboriously and 
conscientiously, if rather diffusely set forth in Alfred Woltmann's Holbein und 
Mtifu Zeitf second and revised edition. Leipzig, 1874. See also, HolbeMi AmbtU' 
tadort. the Pietun and the Men, by Mary S. Hervey. London, Geo. Bell dt Sons, 
1900. 



284 HOLBEIN; 

mnsio'book containing part of the score and words of the 
Lutheran hymn : — " Komm, heiliger Geist," a smaller book, on 
arithmetics, kept partly open by a small square, a pair of com- 
passes, and a terrestrial hand-globe, which is in a direct line 
below the other globe. Under the stand lies the lute-case. 
Conspicuous in the foreground is the anamorphosis^ or perspec- 
tively distorted image, of a human skull, which, touching the 
floor on the left, stretches obliquely upwards towards the right. 
In the shadow cast on the floor by the chief personage is the 
inscription here reproduced in half -size. 

/CHMV£S 

The question as to the identity ^f the personage represented in this 
picture was set at rest by the disooyery. in 1895, by Miss Mary Hervey, 
of a document of the 17th century, containing a description of the 
picture and of the two persons represented. Jean de Dinte^ille was bom 
in 1504, and was Ambassador from France to England in 1533, the year 
when the picture was painted, at which time, according to the document 
in question, George de Selve, his intimate friend, who was then in his 
25th year, paid hSn a visit. This document is confirmed by a further 
discovery by Miss Hervey of a Memoire preserved in the Biblioth^ue de 
rinstitut at Paris (Collection Godefroy, Portfolio 216, No. 34) which 
gives tiie summary of three letters concerning the picture : — "Memoire 
** pour Tintelligence de trois lettres envoy^es par Mons''. Camusat, 
" chanoine de St. Pierre de Troyes, touchant un tableau f aict en 
" Angleterre, &c., &c., and in which the picture is mentioned as beinsr 
*' by * Holben.' '* Nicholas Camusat, the celebrated antiquary, was weU 
acquainted with the successors of the Binteville fanuly. A copy, prob- 
ably of one of the letters in question, dated 1654, tuie year after the 
picture was removed from Polisy to the house of Francois de Cazillac, 
near St. Sulpice, in Paris, is in uie same collection in the Blblioth^ue 
de rinstitut.* 

* A letter from Miss Hervey to the '* Times " of December 7th, 1895,jjrive8 the 
first document in full, and an account of Jean de Dinteville and George de 
Selve, with a description of the discovery of the docmnent Miss Hervey was 
good enough to present the original document to the National Gallery. It is 
framed, ana hangs at present in the small East Octagon Boom. 



HOLBEIN— HONDECOETBR. 285 

Notioes of this lecture oconr in a catalogue of 1787, found by Mr. 
W. Fred Dickee, and in J. B. P. Lebrun*s Galerle des Peintres 4"^., <^c., 
Paris, 1792, wherein the author, who had had the picture in his posses- 
sion, states that he had sold it, and that it was then in England. It was 
eng^ved for Lebrun^s work, but very poorly and incorrectly. It 
seems probable that it came into the hands of the dealer YaAdergutsch 
(or Yandergucht), and that from him it was purchased by the second 
Earl of Ra&or, about 1790 or 1795, in whose family it became an heir- 
loom. In 1891 it was purchased from the fifth Earl for the nation, 
together with two full-length portraits, respectively by Velazquez and 
a. B. Moroni (Nos. 1315 and 1316) for the sum of 55,000^., of which 
25,000Z. was supplied by the State, and 30,000Z. by Messrs. Nath. 
Bothsohild and Sons, Sir Edward Gruinness, Bart, (now Lord Iveagh), 
and Mr. Charles Ootes. 

In oU, on oak of ten vertical panels, 6 ft. 10 in. A. by 6 ft. 10| in. w. 



BOirPB0OBTB» (Melghiob de), 1636-1695, 

^One of the most remarkable of the Dutch painters of birds 
of all kinds, foreign and domestic, was born at Utrecht in 1636. 
He was first instructed by his father, Gysbert de Hondecoeter, 
after the death of whom, in 1653, Melchior studied with his 
ancle, Jan Baptist Weenix. From 1659 to 1663 Hondecoetek 
resided at the Hague, and, after that period, at Amsterdam, 
where he died, April 3, 1695. 

No. 202- Domestic Poultry, 

A beautiful brood of young chickens in the fore-ground. The 
cock was Hondeooeter*8 favourite bitd, which he is said to hava 
taught to stand to him in a fixed position as a model. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 10 in. A. by 3 ft. 8 in. w. 

Bequeathed to the National Gallery by Richard Simmons, Esq., in 1846. 

No. 1013- Qeese and Ducks, 

r^A pool of water, a white red-beaked ffander and a goose dis- 
turbing a duck and her ducklings, the duck in the air flying to 
their protection. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 10^ in. h, by 5 ft. 1 in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



286 HONDECOETEB— HONTHOEST. 

•No. 1222. A Study of Foliage^ BirdSy Insects^ Jkc, 

On the right a tree trunk, round the roots of which plantains, 
ivy, and fungi are growing. On a twig of the tree flatters a 
bullfinch : other biras are on the ground. A frog, a snail, and 
butterflies complete the group. Landscape background. 

This picture was formerly ascribed to Mars^us. 

Painted on canyas, 2 ft. 2^ in. h. by 1 ft. 10 in. w. 

Presented by Mr. J. Whitworfch Shaw in 1886. 

On the bark of the tree is an M, with some now illegible letters and 
the date 1668. 



BONTBORST (Gerard van), 1590-1656. 

Was born at Utrecht in 1590, and was a scholar of Abraham 
Bloemart ; but his principal studies were at Rome where he 
completely acquired the style of Michael Angelo da Garavaggio. 
During his stay in Italy he executed a number of religious works^ 
and decorated with frescoes the Ghurch of Santa Maria della 
Scala. He was called Gherardo della Notte from his pictures 
generally representing subjects by torchlight. 

In 1623, on his return to Utrecht, he was elected Dean of the 
guild of St. Luke. In 1628, Homthorst passed some time in 
England and was in favour with Gharles I., who employed him 
to decorate the Palace of Whitehall with allegorical pictures ; he 
also painted the portraits of Gharles, the Queen, and their 
children, and many of the nobility of the time. On his return 
to Holland he was commissioned to decorate the Palace of the 
Hague. 

In the latter years of his life he devoted himself entirely to 
portrait painting. Honthorst's pictures are generally on a large 
scale, and boldly painted with broad effects of light and shade. 
He died at Utrecht in 1656. 

No. 14ML Peasants warming themselves. 

An old man and an old woman are warming their hands over 
a small fire on which an earthen pot it placed on a trivet. The 
old man holds a jug in his left hand. The figures are half length 
of the size of life. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 2 in. A. by 2 ft. 7} in. U3, 

Lent by the Victoria and Albert Museum, in exchange with several 
others, for a collection of water-colour drawings lent by the National 
Gallery in 1895 



HOOCH. 2S7 

BOOOB OB BOOOB (Pieteb de), 1630 afteb 1677. 

The year of this painter's birth was 1630 ; the place has 
not been ascertained. Little is known of his life beyond 
the facts that he was at Delft between 1653 and 1656, and 
from abont 1668 resident at Amsterdam, where he died, probably 
after 1677. Hooch is supposed to have formed himself on a 
study of the works of Bembrandt ; and no doabt a passion 
for the mysteries of light and shade was shared by both these 
painters. Further than that, howeyer, it would be difficult to trace 
any common resemblance in their works. With Bembrandt 
chiaroscuro was a means to an end ; with Hooch it wav 
rather the end in itself. Not that Hooch was without poetic 
feeling ; he often touches a vibrating chord in u<«, and when 
least expected. But his subjects are in themselves prosaic 
enough, and it is by the atmosphere with which the artist 
invests them that we are affected. Next to that, we are 
insensibly moved by the rhythm of his composition, though it 
appears most accidental where most cunningly devised. His 
figures, seemingly placed at random, are always so situated that, 
while they tell the simple story that has to be told, they 
perfectly complete the composition, support the scheme of 
colour, and powerfully aid the perspective. And nothing ia 
superfluous, or to be dispensed with : from the humblest brick 
in the wall or floor to the figure of the neat and modest house- 
mistress who, seen from the transparent gloom of an inner 
chamber, crosses the little court-yard in a gleam of sunlight^ 
all is equally cared for, and yet equally subordinated to the 
idea that inspired the picture. Hoocu's works, though often 
signed, are not always dated, but a difference in technical 
treatment is observable amongst them, and the costume intro- 
duced helps in determining the relative period of their produc> 
tion. Thus, for instance, in such comparatively large pictures 
as the two patrician Interiors^ the one in the Steengracht 
collection at the Hague, the other in Apsley House, may be 
seen the work of the painter's later years. In the latter the 
figures are more numerous though, as in the former, largely 
kept in cool shadow ; a certain flatness of effect is produced ; 
the impasto is thinner, and there is less sharp definition] of 
details. Many of Hooch's fines'*' works are in England, as in the 



888 HOOCH. 

Royal Collection, in this Gallery, and in private possession. 
Holland has been by no means stripped of his pictures, of which 
the Amsterdam Museum (now including the Tan der Hoop 
Gallery), contains five, while several are scattered in private 
houses. In the Louvre are two fine Interiors; the Galleries of 
Berlin, Frankfort and Munich can show admirable examples, as 
can also those of St. Petersburg and Copenhagen. 

No. 794^ T?ie Courtyard of a Dutch House. 

In which the housewife standing in the foreground with her 
back to the spectator \& speaking to her maid servant, who is busy 
dishing a fish by the side of a picturesque pump ; the yard is 
paved with brick, a gentleman is approaching through an enclosed 
garden in the background. Signed and dated p.d.h. 1665. 

On wood, 2 ft. 5 in. h, by 2 ft. \ in. w. 

Formerly in the ooUection of Count Perregauz. Purchased in Paris 
at the Delessert sale in 1869. 

No. 834. Interior of a Dutch House. 

A paved chamber in which two gentlemen are seated at a table 
by a window, conversing with a lady standing before them, with 
her back to the spectator, and holding a glass of wine in her hand. 
A servant is Inringing to the table a pan of burning charcoal for 
the gentlemen to light their pipes with. In the background is a 
marble chimney piece over which is a picture ; and on the wall by 
its side a mounted map is hanging. Signed p.d.h. 

On canvas, 2 f t. 6 in^ Ak by 2 ft. 1 in. to. 

Formerly in the Van Leyden and Ponrtales collections. Purchased 
with the Peel collection in 1871. 

No. flf35> Court of a Dutch House^ paved with bricks. 

On the left is a porch built of red brick and stone ; over the 
entrance is a commemorative inscription, partly covered by vine 
leaves, dated 1614. In the porch is standing a woman with her 
back to the spectator. On the right a servant and a child are 
descending some steps from an outhouse into the court. In the 
foreground aie a broom, a pail, some plants and a dust bin. 
Signed p.d.h. A^ 1658. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 5 in. A. by 1 ft. 11^ in. w. Engraved by Bajon. 

' Formerly belonging to the De Backer family at Amsterdam, from 
which it passed in 1825 into the possession of Mr. W. Bmmerson. 
Purchased with the Peel collection in 1871. 



HUCHTENBUfiGH— HUYSMANS. 289 

HVCBTBMBUmOB (Johan van), 1646-1733. 

A well known Dutoh battle painter, was born at Haarlem 
in 1646, and became the pupil of Thomas Wyck. He went to 
Borne in 1667 to join his brother Jacob, a landscape painter, 
upon whose death, in 1669, he removed to Paris, and there came 
under the influence of Van der Meulen, though Wonwerman was 
the painter on whom he built his style. He returned to Holland 
in 1670 and died at Amsterdam in 1733, having resided partly 
at the Hague. 

HncHTEMBURGH was Commissioned, in 1708 or the following year, 
by Prince Eugene, to paint pictures of the recent victories which 
that prince, the Prince of Orange, and the Duke of Marlborough 
had obtained over the French. Etchings of these battles were 
executed by Hughtenburoh himself :^ there are also many other 
etchings by the hand of this painter, some after Yan der Meulen.t 

No. 211. A Battle. 

In the foreground a cavalry fight, with a town burning in the 
distance. 

On wood, 1 ft. 4} in. A. by 1 ft. 11 in. w. 

Brought to England by Mr. Bryan in 1801. Bequeathed to the 
National Chdlery by Mr. lUohard Simmons, in 1846. 



(CoBNELis), 1648-1727. 

The son of an architect, was born at Antwerp on the 2nd or~ 
April, 1648, and died at Mechlin on the 1st of June, 1727. He 
studied under the landscape-painters Caspar de Witte and 
Jaques d'Artois. Mechlin was his chosen place of abode, and 
there he first made a reputation which gradually increased. In . 
1702, however, he returned to Antwerp, and enrolled himself 
a member of the Guild of Painters ; but after a sojourn of 
fourteen years in his native town he again repaired to Mechlin , . 
never to leave it. His landscapes are rich in colour and forcible ; 
the figures with which they are enlivened are the work of his 
own hand. The Louvre, and the Galleries of Dresden, Berlin 

♦ In the Besehrijving der Veldslagen van Prins Eugcnius van Savoije. den Print van 
Oranje en den Hertog van Marlborough. 'sHage, 1727. 
t Van Gool, Nieuwe Sehouburg der KunstsehUders, &c. ; Bartsch, Peintre-Qraveun. 

25640 T 



290 . HUYSMANS—HUYSUM. 

and .Brassels, contain excellent examples of his workmanship. 
OoRNELis HuYSMANS had a brother, Jan Baptist (1654-1711), also 
a landscape-painter. 

No. 954. Landscape, Woody Country , blue hills in the 
. distance. 

A ch&teaa among the trees in the middle ground ; a peasant 
driving a tsow in the foreground ; a small cascade to the right. 
On oanTas, 2 ft. 1^ in. h, by 2 ft. 9 in. to. 
The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



m (Jan van), 1682-1749. 

Was born at Amsterdam on the 15th of April, 1682, and was the 
son, pupil, and assistant of Justus van Huysum, a painter of 
general subjects. Jan has acquired the highest reputation as a 
painter of fruit and flowers, and is also known as a landscape 
painter. After a very successful career he died in his native city on 
Feb. 8, 1749. He had three brothers, also painters, Justus, Jacob 
and Michael. Justus was a battle painter and died young, Jacob 
and Michael painted flower piecei^. Jacob was established in 
London, where he copied and imitated hia brother's pictures, and 
died poor in 1740.** 

No. 796* A Vase with Flowers, 

On the pedestal are other flowers, frait, and a bird's nest with 
flve eggs in it, like those of the greenfinch. Signed, Jan Van 
Huijsum fecit 1736 en 1637. 




CMl 





^rsd' 



€/n. /737 



* Van Gool, ISOigmoe Schouburgt &c., 1751 ; E*Argenyille, Ahrigi^ ie^, 1572. 



HUYSUM— ITALIAN : XVI. CENTURY. 291 

On ciuiYas, 4 ft. i\ in. h, bj 3 ft. i in. w. 

Formerly in the collection of Mr. Wells, of Bedleaf Pnrdhased from 
Mr. C. J. Nienwenhnys in 1889. 

No. 1001* Flowers in a Va^e. 

Signed Jan van HOtsum. 
On canvas, 2 ft. h. hj 1 ft. 8 in. w. 
The Wjnn Ellis Beqnest. 1876. 



INasaNO (L\) (See AXDRBA DI AVZaZ.) 



ZTAZiZAN SCBOOZi. ZV. CBNTV&T. 

No. 1456a Virgin and Child with Angels. 

The Virgin, crowned and in a blue dress lined with white far 
through the open sleeves of which are seen the fall sleeves of an 
undertanic of cloth of gold, stands in the centre holding the Infant 
Christ on her left arm. The Child is also f ally dressed in ^old 
tunic and over dress lined with ermine, and He holds up His Tight 
hand in the attitude of blessing. Three auffeh in male costume of 
the XVth Century stand on each side, and aoove are two six-winged 
cherubs drawn in outline only on the gold background All have 
nimbi. Below is a portion of the original frame with three small 
quatre>foil medallions in which are half-length figures of the 
Saviour, the Virgin Mary, and Saint John. 

The picture appears to be of the School of Gentile da Fabriaao. 

In tempera, on wood, 2 ft. 9| in. h. by 1 ft. 9^ in. w. 

Presented by Mr. John Postle Heseltine in 1895. 



XTAIiI AN I ZVX. CBNVUAT. 

No. 272. An Apostle. 

A portion of a colossal figure seated over an arch. 
On canvas, 4 ft. 11 in. h. by 3 ft. 9 in. to 

25640 T 2 



^92 ITALIAN : XVI. CENTURY-JANSSENS. 

Said to have been formerly in a chnrch near Venice. Presented to 
the National GkJlery by the Cavaliere Vallati of Borne, in 1855. 

No. 932. Half Length of a Bexirded Man^ 

With a red cap, his right hand raised holding his doak, his left 
hand resting on his swoni ; from a chain around his neck hangs the 
cross of Malta. 

On wood, 3 ft. 2 in. A. by 2 ft. 6 in. w. 

In Louis Phillippe's collection in the Louvre, where it was ascribed 
to Sebastfan del Piombo. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



No. 1417a. Illuminated initial letter. 

The letter D, painted in gold and colours on a blue ground. It 
is ornamented with floriated scroll-work terminating in vines and 
grapes in gold, among which are seven angioletti bearing the Instru- 
ments of the Passion. Enclosed within the letter is painted the 
Agony in the Garden which is copied in its main features from 
the picture by Mantegna, No. 1417 in this Gallery. 

On vellum, 7) in. h. by 7^ in. to. 

Presented in 1894, by the Earl of Northbrook. 



(CORNELIS) VAN Geulen, 1594-1664? 

This portrait-painter's name appears in several forms, as 
Janssens, Jauson, Janszoon and Jonson. The first of these is 
adopted here as that most familiar to English ears. Equally 
undetermined is the place of his birth, though the date of it is 
accepted as 1594.^ He was painting in England, chiefly in London, 

* According to Sandrart, Jaossens was bora in London ; which is probabhr 
correct. Others give Amsterdam as his birthplace. The former statement, 
and the assomed year of his birth, seems to be both corroborated bv an 
archival register at Amsterdam, dated January 9, 1646, wherein the painter 
** Coraelis Jonson of London " returns his age as 52. See Woermann, QeschUhU 
der Malerei, HI., p. 663, note 3. 



JANSSENS. 293 

from about 1618 to 1648. The establishment of Van Dyck in this 
country in 1632, and the high favours bestowed upon him by the 
King, must have seriously affected the fortunes of Janssens. 
Nevertheless he continued to be much employed by persons of good 
standing, though perhaps less by those more immediately about 
court. Indeed it was not until the civil war had eventuated in the 
triumph of the Parliamentarians that he and his family migrated 
to Holland.^ He was at Middelbnrg in 1643 ; at the Hague in 
1647 ; at Amsterdam in 1646 and 1662. In 1664 his wife had 
become a widow, and was residing at Utrecht. He seems, there- 
fore, to have led a somewhat itinerant life in Holland, and to have 
died at about the age of 70. Portraits by Cobnelis Janssens vary 
much in quality ; less in style — though in some, as for example in 
the two catalogued below — the influence of Van Dyck is very 
apparent ; in these, by an unusual freshness of colour ; in others, 
by a certain finesse in the pose. In general the flesh-tones are 
pallid, and the shadows and modellings assume the lifeless grey of 
lamp-black. This paleness and monotony might suggest the loss 
of original warm glazing. But the washy blueish, greenish and 
bricky red tints often found in the backgrounds and dresses of his 
portraits ratber indicate a naturally cold eye for colour. Janssens 
was otherwise a clever artist, refined in conception, correct in 
drawing, and careful in details. Portraits by his hand may be met 
within several Galleries, and in other institutions easy of access. 
In Buckingham Palace is a group of Charles L and his suite in the 
open. A large composition of the magistrates of the Hague is in 
the Communal Museum there, and at Middelbnrg, a group of 
officers of the Burgher Guard. Single portraits are frequent, and 
occur in the Town Hall of Amsterdam ; in the Maseums at 
Utrecht, Rotterdam, Carlsruhe, Lille, etc. All these are signed 
and dated. Others are sufficiently authenticated by their style. 

No. 1320. Portrait of Aghnius Voon, 

Life size, seen to the waist ; three-quarter face, slight mous- 
tache and chin tuft ; the hair of the head light brown, long, and 



* Walpole, Anecdotes. &c., U., p. 14, gives the Speaker's warrant, dated October 
ID, 16^, permitting ** Cornelius Johnson, pictnre-drawer," to pass beyond seat 
with such goods and chattels as belong to himself. 






^4 JANSSENS-JAKDIN. 

boflhy. He is clad in a black yelvat goWn and ia kurge. plsixk 
xauslin collar. The right hand is laid on his chest. 

On canyas, 2 ft. 6| in. A. by 2 ft. \ in. w. 

Presented in 189J, by Mrs. Zonch Troughton. 

No. 1321a Portrait of Cornelia Eemoens, 

Life-size, seen to the waist, across which the hands are laid ; 
three-quarter face ; brown hair, confined at the back of the head 
with a fillet of peaxls, and falling by the side of each cheek in 
thick ringlets. Bhe wears a black dress and ample white l^ee 
collar, fastened at the chest with a narrow ribbon, from wliiGh a 
jewelled pendant hangs. Pearl necklace and bracelets. 

Qn canvas, 2 ft. 6| in. h. by 2 ft. ^in,w. 

Presented in 1891, by Mrs. Zouch Troughton. 



JA&DIN (Kabel du), 1622-1678. 

Was bom at Amsterdam in 1622, and was the scholar p£' 
Berchem ; he afterwards studied in Italy, and died at Venice in 
November, 1678. Kabel resided at the Hague from 1656 to 1659, 
and there was much influenced by the example of Paul Potter. 
He then removed to Amsterdam, which he made his home ior 
about fifteen years, finally returning to Italy, the haunt of his 
early days. He produced many admirable etchings of landscape 
and animals. 

No. SSiCb Figures and Animals reposing in the shadow 
of some trees in a meadow. 

An ox, an ass, a few sheep, and some goats have taken shel^r 
from the evening sun under a tree ; a little behind are a woman 
sleeping and a boy playing with a dog. A castle on a hill in the 
distance. Signed K. Du Jabdin/«. 1656. 

On canvas, 13^ in. A. by 15^ in. to. .- 

Formerly in the collections of the Duke de Praslin and Mi Ec(hit, 
Purchased with the Peel pictures in 1871. 



JAEDIIf^JOBDAENS. 295 

No. 827. Fording the Stream. 

A rocky landscape, a woman and a boy, with an aas with 
panniers, are wading the stream ; the ass is drinking ; a dog also 
is lapping up the water from the bank. On the left a cow and a 
sheep are sttuiding in the stream. Signed K. Du Jabdin, 1657. 

On canvas, 14^ in. ^. by 17 in. w. 

Formerly in the ooUectionB of M. de Olene, Mr. Delahante, and Mr. 
Barchard. Pnrchased with the Peel collection in 1871. 

No. 828. Landscape with Cattle. 

A woman spinning while tending two cows and eome sheep ; ia. 
house on a hill behind ; mountains in the distance ; sunset. 
Signed E.D.J. 

On copper, 8 4 in. A. by 11 in. u;. 

Formerly in the collection of M. D. St. Victor. Pnrchased with the* 
Peel pictures in 1871. 

No. 98S* Sheep and Goats. 

Grouped in an open landscape, in bright sunlight. 
Signed:-!- 

On copper, 7 in. h. by 8 J in. w. 
The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



JfiANiraT. (See CXiOUBT.) 



JOADABNS (Jaoob), 1593-1678. 

JOBDA£NS was boru in Antwerp on May the 19th, 1593 ; he 
was the son of Jakob, a cloth merchant of that city. In 1607 he 
entered the studio of Adam van Noort, and beeame there the 



296 J0RDABN3. 

fellow pupil of Rubens, who was his life-long friend. Babens 
soon left the'r master, who is reported to have been a depraved 
character, but Jordaens remained with van Noort to win the 
hand of his master^s daughter Catharioa ; he was married to her 
in 1616. This early mairiage prevented him from going to Italy 
like all his contemporaries did ; he never seems to have journeyed 
farther than Holland. At the age of twenty-two he was inscribed 
in the register of the Painters* Guild of St. Luke as a master of 
water-colour painting, probably a decorative manner of working 
in distemper. He was heid of his guild in 1621. After hia 
marriage he appears to have resided with his father-in-law, but in 
1641 he occupied a house now No. 43, rue Haute, which he 
planned, built, and decorated for himself ; some of these decora- 
tions, the signs of the Zodiac, are in the Palace of the Luxem- 
bourg in Pari<). Jobdaens, with Cornelius de Vos, was 
-<!ommissioned to paint the Triumphal Arch of Philip lY., erected 
lin the rue des Tauneurs for the entry into Antwerp of the 
Oardinal-Infant Ferdinand on April the 17th, 1635. He also 
painted decorations for the House in the Wood, near the Hague, 
and the Landhuis of Hnlst, and he was in negotiation with 
Balthasar Gerbier to do some work for Charles I., but the political 
troubles io England prevented its being carried out. He pre- 
sented four decorative paintings to the Guild of St. Luke, which 
are now in the Antwerp Museum. 

After the death of Ruben?, Jordaens was selected to complete 
iihat master^s picture of Perseus and Andromeda^ now in Madrid. 
Jordaens sometimes collaborated with other masters, putting in 
the figures for animal pictures by Frans Snijders and Jan Fijt ; 
for the backgrounds of still-life pictures by Adrien van Utrecht, 
Paul de Yo?, Jacqnes van Es, W. van Ehreuberg ; and for the 
foregrounds of landscapes by Jan Wildens. 

At the end of his life Jordaens became a convert to the 
doctrine of Calvio, but^ as he was painting pictures for catholic 
churches uutil 1655, he cannot have become a protestant before 
that date. His wife died in 1659, and she was buried in the 
Protestant Cemetery at Pntte, where he and his daughter 
Elizabeth, who died on the same night, October the 18th, 1678, 
of the sweating sickness, were also buried. 



JORD 4lBNS— JUSTUS. 297 

J0BDA.BK8 painted a large namber of piotnies of very varying 
merit, always roboat in character, but sometimes exaggerated in 
their coarseness of manner. His works are to be found in 
almost all the public bnildings of Belgium, and there are eight 
in the gallery at Antwerp ; other good examples are : — Fecundity, 
in Brussels ; The Families of Jordaens and van Norty The Infancy 
of Bacchus, The Peasants\ Repast, and The Satyr and Peasant, in 
Gassel ; The Family of Jordaens and An Offering to Ceres, in 
Madrid ; Christ among the Doctors, in Mayenne ; Satyr and Peasant^ 
in Munich ; The King Drinks, in Vienna ; and A Member, of the 
Family van Surpel and his Wife, in the possession of the Duke of 
Devonshire.^ 



No. 189S. Portrait of Baron Waka de Linter, of 
Namitr. 

The portrait is that of a florid man with light moustache and 
pointed beard. He wears a pourpoint of black stamped yeWet 
with a black satin mantle over his left shoulder. A rich gold chain 
crosses the breast of his coat from the right. He stands with his 
right hand leaning on a stick and his left on the pommel of his 
sword. A dark green curtain closes the background on the left. 
On the right is open sky on which is painted in the upper comer, 
his coat of arms and crest, underneath which is written ^TATItt 
&YJE 63, 1626. 

On canyas, 8 ft. 8f in. h. by 2 ft. 9i in. w. 

Purchased, in London, from Mr. T. Humphrey Ward, from the 
interest of the " Clarke Fund," in 1902. 



JVSTVS or PADVA, 13— ?-1400. 

Justus or Giusto di Giovanni de' Mbnabuot, a Florentine 
family, commonly called Justus of Padua or Giusto Padoyano, 
was bom at Florence in the earlier half of the fourteenth century, 
and, though not a scholar of Giotto, was one of his principal followers, 

* Jaeqtua Jordaeru et soti (Euvre, by P. Baschmann, Junr., Brnssels, 1905. 



298 JUSTUS. 

founding his style upon the works of that painter at Padua, where 
Jusrus had settled in 1375, and obtained the rights of citizenship. 
He was, however, a finished master long before that time, as the 
date inscribed on the excellent example in this collection shows. 
He has the credit of having oxecnted extensive frescoes in Padua, 
but those formerly ascribed to him, and still preserved in the 
baptistry of the Cathedral, and in the chapel of St. Luke, in the 
church of Sant Antonio, and now allowed to be the works of 
GiOYANNi and Antomio da Padova, who were probably his 
scholars. Justus died on Michaelmas day in the year 1400, and 
left tiro sons Domenico and Daniele ; whether they were painters 
is not stated.^ 



No. 701. The Coronation of the Virgin, 

With the principal incidents of her life, on a small Triptych* 
In the centre picture is our Saviour crownins her, with St. Pauh 
John the Bapti&t and Peter, Catharine, Barbara and Margaret, 
standing at the foot of the throne ; on the interior sides of 
the wings are, above — the Annunciation, below — the birth and 
the Crucifixion of our Lord. On the exterior sides of the wings 
are, above— the expulsion of Joachim from the Temple, and the 
angel appearing to him foretelling the birth of the Virgin : in 
the second line — the meeting of Joachim and Anna at the 
beiutif ul gate ; and the birth of the Virgin : on the third line — 
the presentation of ^he Virgin in the Temple : and her marriage. 
Inscribed on the back Juatns pinxit in archa t and dated in the 
front on the plinth below MCCCLXVU— 1367. 

In tempera, on wood, centre, 1 ft. 5^ in. h, by Sf in. w, \ wings, 1 ft. 
5^ in. h, by 4^ in. w. 

Formerly in the German Collection of Prince Lndwig von Oettingen 
Wallerstein, which was exhibited, in 1848, at Kensington Palace,t and 
became subsequently the property of the Prince Consort. Presented, in 
1863, by Her Majesty Queen Victoria, in fulfilment of the wishes of 
H.B.H. the Prince Consort. 

* This appears from the following memorial, published by G. A. Moschini 
and others, but with some slight variations in the orthograi^hy-*** Hie }acent 
Dominicus et Daniel f ratres et fllii quondam Magistri Justi pictoris <;ini fnit de 
Florentia. Migravit ad Dominnm die S. Michaehs MJTJJ (c) die xzviiii mensis 
Soptembris." Leila FUtura in Fadova, Ac^ p. 10. Padua, 1826. See further 
Brandolese, Fitture, Ac, di Padova. 12mo., Padua, 1725, p. 281. 

t See the Descriptive Catalogue of a Oolketion of Byzantine, Early Italian, German, 
and Flemish Ficturea, belonging to H.8.H. Prince Louis D'Oettingen Wallerstein, 
London, 1848. In 1864 a second Catalogue of this Collection was prepared by 
Dr. Waagen. 



KEYSEB.. 299 

im (Thomas de), 1596?-1667. 

Son of the eminent sculptor and architect Hendrick de Keyser, 
was bom 1596 or 1597, at Amsterdam. Down to recent years 
his baptismal name was erroneously believed to be Theodore. 
Under whom he studied is not known, ^ but he followed a long 
line of Inore or less able portrait^painters of Amsterdam, all of 
whom he surpassed. If in some of his works remains of the 
formality and stifEness of the 16th century may be traced, the 
greater number show a freedom and a sense of life unusual 
among those of his predecessors. His workmanship is thorough, 
and his colouring in general warm, and forcible. It is acknow- 
ledged that De Ketber had an indirect share in the development 
of Rembrandt. Many of his portraits are of life sise, but 
he seems to have preferred working on a smaller scale, as 
in his admirable group in the Museum of the Hague, ike 
BurgofMisUrs of ATn^terdam in comtdiation, or in the still more 
attractive full length seated portrait of a Magistrate in the 
sarnie collection, dated 1631 ; a work full of character, and as 
harmonious in colour as it is large and vigorous in style. Fine 
examples of De Keyber's skill may also be seen in the galleries 
of Amsterdam, Utrecht, Berlio, Dresden, Munich, Frankfort, Pesth, 
and St. Petersburg. He died at Amsterdam, on June 7, 1667. 

No. £12. A Merchant with his Glerk^ portraits. 

The *' merchant," dressed in riding costume, is seated at a table 
in a private apartment which bespeaks affluence in the owner : 
the background is a costly piece of tapestry. On the table are a 
plan, books, a ffuitar, and other objects. 

The '* clerk ^' is standing, with his hat in his hand, behind the 
chair of the seated figure, to whom he is respectf uUy handing a 
packet. Small, f uU-length figures. 

On wood, 3 ft. I in. h, by 2 ft. 3i in. w. Signed, on the mantelpiece 
with the painter's monogram composed of T. D. K., and dated 1627. 



'^ AN. 162/. 



t M. Karl Woermann states that Thomas de Keyser developed under < the 
influence of Nicolas Elias. (See Ge&chichte der Malerci, m^ 664.) M. A. Bredius, 
on the contrary, inclines to the opinion that he was a pupil of Oomelis van der 
Voort iCataloguet <fcc., du Muaie de FEtat d Amsterdam, i8d&) 



300 KEYSER— KONINCK. 

Bequeathed to the National Gallery by Mr. Biohard Simmons in 
1846. 



KOKXNCK (Philips de), 1619-1688. 

Philips de Koningk or Koning^ was born at Amsterdam 
Kovember 5, 1619. He became a papil of Rembrandt ; but little 
further is known of his artistic life. As to his domestic circum- 
stances, documents show that he was married twice, first in 
January, 1641, to Cornelia Furnerias, of Rotterdam, who seems 
to have died the next year ; and secondly, on the 24th of April, 
1657, to Margrieta (bom Van Rijn), widow of Pieter Yalentyn. 
Db . KoNiNGC painted various subjects, including portraits ; but 
his fame rests upon his achievements in landscape-painting. His 
Expansive views, embracing great tracts of country as seen from 
a height with the sand-dunes in the far distance lighted by 
gleams of sunshine against grey rolling clouds, are distinguished 
by much grandeur of conception, and by richness and truth of 
colouring. The figures in them were sometimes painted by 
Lingelbach or Dirk van Berchem. The themes no doubt are not 
greatly varied ; but it was characteristic of the Dutch painters 
generally to aim at thoroughness in one direction rather than to 
scatter their powers over a wider range. De Koninck's pictures 
are rare in the great continental collections. Two are in the 8tate 
Museum at Amsterdam, one of which (in the D upper bequest) is 
of singular charm, with its magnificent sky of silvery clouds in 
two strata of contrasted forms, its rich warm landscape over 
which pass fleeting shadows, its distant dunes, here in grey shade 
against a light horizon, its placid stream, widening in the fore- 
ground between steep banks, reflecting the sky, and bearing a 
gay pleasure boat on its bosom. In the Rotterdam Gallery is a 
fine example, and in the Royal Museum at the Hague a repe- 
tition of the picture in the Peel collection (836, below). Several 
are in private possession in England. Philips de Koningk is 
said to have travelled much. He was buried at Amsterdam, 
October 4, 1688.t 

*The name is also written Goninck in old registers. He signied himself 
Philips Eoning in the registry of his second marriage. See H. Havard, LArt et 
les Artistes HoUandais, IV., 251-2. , 

t Catalogue des Peintures du Musie de Tmat & Amsterdam, par. A. Bredius 1888. 



KONINCK—LA FARGUB. 301 

No. 83S> Landscape^ a View in Holland, 

A small town is seen ia the middle gronnd, with wide-spreading' 
water 3 and sandhills in the distance. In the foreground is a 
road with some cottages on the left, and a small stream on the 
right. On the road are a hawking pAi^y* a Iftdy and gentleman 
on horseback, a man with a hoop of falcons, and seyeral dogs ; a 
coach and six is approaching from the middle distance. In the 
stream to the right are a man angling and women washing clothes. 

On canTas, 4 ft. 4} in. h. by 5 ft. 3 in. w» 

PnrduMsed with the Peel Collection in 1871. 

No. 974. A Hilly Woody Landscape, 

With a view of the Scheldt, and Antwerp Cathedral in the 
distance. In the middle ground a chiiteau and windmills. On a 
sloping road bordered by pictnresqne trees some person of dis^ 
tinction is passing in a carriage and six with oatriders. Two 
sportsmen and a couple of greyhounds are in the foreground. 

On canyas, 3 ft. 3 in. A. by 4 ft. 11 in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



(Paul Constantin), — 1782. 

A Dutch painter, b3m at the Hague. His pictures are generally 
small in size, representing views of the environs of his native city. 
La Fargue's drawings are more important than his paintings, and 
there exist several etchings by him. He had considerable skill in 
copying the works of the older Dutch masters. He died at 
Leyden in 1782. 

No. 1918. The Market Place at the Hagvs. 

An animated scene in the Gro^n Market at the Hague. Under 
the trees an immense crowd of people of all classes busily occupied 
in buying and selling ; at the back of the market to the left are 
the booths of merchants of old clothes and other wares, while in the 
foreground and central area of the picture are the sellers of 
market produce. Through the trees are seen the red brick houses 
surrounding the market place. A fountain occupies the centre,, 
and in the background is the tower of the Groote Kerk. 



302 LA FARGUE-LANCRET. 

On panel, 1 ft. 9| in. h. by 2 ft. 5 in. w. 

Purchased, in London, from the Hon. C. Solater-Booth, from the 
interest of the " Lewis Fund," in 1903. 



XiAMCBfiT (Nicolas), 1690-1743. 

Was bom at Paris 22ad January, 1690. He was the pupil of 
Pierre d'Ulin and Claude Gillot ; but he adopted Watteau as his 
model. He soon distinguished himself, and became the rival of 
his model in popular estimation. He had, however, little of those 
finer and poetic qualities which elevate the productions of Watteau, 
no matter how frivolous their theme, into really great works of 
art. Lancret was elected a meniber of the French Academy of 
Painting in 1719, as a painter of Fkes Galantes. He died at Paris 
14th September, 1743. 

Nos. 101-4. The Fmir Ages of Man, 
No. 101. Infancy, 

Groups of gaily-dressed children, at play, under a stately arcade 
or portico. 

No. 102. Youth. 

Toung people of both gexes, who appear to be contemplating 
the adornment of the person,' forming a group of seven figures in 
a garden pavilion. 

No. 103> Manhood, 

A party of pleasure, some reclining upon the greensward : two 
archers are shooting at the popinjay. A composition ol ten 
figures : the arrangement of the grouping indicates the age of 
courtship. 

No. 104. Age. 

An old woman spinning, with another asleep in a chair by her 
aide : of the male portion of the group one old man is caressing a 



LANOBET— LANDINI. 303 

dog, another is making advances to a young girl. Composition pi 
six figures. 

Engraved by Desplaces, and by L*Armessin, fils. 

On canvae, 1 ft. 1 in. A. by 1 ft. 5^ in. w. each picture. 

They are mentioned by D*Argenville among the principal works of 
Lancret. Bequeathed to the National Gallery, in 1837, by Lieut.-Col. 
Ollney. 



&ANDZNZ (Jacopo), 1310?-1390? 

Or Jacopo di Gasentino, born at Prato Yecchio, in the Gasen- 
tino, about 1310, was a pupil of Taddeo Oaddi, and painted in a 
very similar style.. He was an established. painter at Florence in 

1350, and assisted in the formation of the Florentine Academy 
of St. Luke ; he was enrolled one of the Gompany of Painters in 

1351. He was also an architect. Jacopo was distinguished ch^'efly 
as a fresco painter ;^ he executed many frescoes in various places 
in Tuscany, some of which are highly spoken of by Yasari ; but 
lew traces of them now remain. He was the master ot Spinello 
Aretino, who when young assisted him in some of the many 
works he executed in Arezzo. Jacopo di Gasentino died at an 
advanced age, in his native place, towards the close of the four- 
teenth century — about 1390. Yasari states that he attained the age 
of eighty .f 

No. 580. St. John the Evangelist lifted up into 
Heaven; with various Saints; and other scenes from 
the life of the Evangelist, 

In the centre is St. John lifted up by tbe Lord among the 
patriarchs and apostles of tbe church :j: on the left are. Saints 

*The term fresco is nsed by Vasari and othera in describing the wall 
X>aintinffs of the early Italian masters, but the method of htum fresco was not in 
use till the close of the 14th centnry. 

\YBaaxi,Opere^&e. Ed. Milanesi, L. 669. 

t**Post hflBc jnxta altare foveam quadratam fieri jussit et terram extra 
ecclesiam lactari In qtiam beatus EvangeUsta descendens ezpansis manibus 
gratias Deo egit, et orationem devotissimam fndit. Qnd. flnita tanta lux snper 
eum emicnit qnod a nemine videri potnit Becedenteqne lomine, f oyea reperta 
est Muma repleta " &c. See the Golden Legend. St. John Evan., p. 27 ; and 
Peter de KataJibns, Catalogus Sanctorum^ ii, 7. 



304 LANDINI. 

Bernard, Scholastica, Benedict, and John the Baptist ; on the 
right, Saints Peter, Komualdo, Catherine and Jerome.* Imme- 
diately over the centre picture is Christ risen from the Dead, the 
gates of hell cast down on one side, and on the other the donor 
and his family presented to him by St. John the Evangelist and 
St. John the Baptist ; over the left picture is the archangel 
Michael, and over the right, the archangel Raphael with Tobias. 
In the three upper pictures are represented, in the middle the 
Trinity, the Yirgin and the Angel of the Annunciation at the 
sides. 

In the predella below are St. John the Evangelist distributing 
alms and baptizing: catechumens ; the vision in the Island of 
Patmos, in which four angels are binding four beasts, and the 
woman pursued by the serpent is flying into the wilderness ; 
St. John liberated from the cauldron of boiling oil, in which he 
was placed by the orders of the Emperor Domitian ; and at the 
extreme ends, St. ApoUoniaf and St. Yerdiana. 

In the pilasters — on the left are Saint Francis, St. Cosmas and 
another saint above ; on the right, St. Margaret, St. Damianus 
and St. Nicholas of Bari. In all, twenty-two pictures. 

In tempera, on wood. Principal pictures, centre, 4 ft. h, by 2 ft. 1 in» 
to., sides, 3 ft. 9 in. h, by 2 ft. w, ; cutpidi, or upper pictures, centre 
1 ft. 44 in. A. by 11 in. to., sides, 1 ft. 4| in. h. by 10 in. w. ; predella 
pictures, 1 ft. A., centre, 1 ft. 10^ in. to., sides, 1 ft. 94 in. 10. Outside 
measure of the stltar-piece, 9 ft. 5 in. h, by 8 ft. 5 in. to. In its ori|^inal 
frame, restored. 

Formerly in the church of San Giovanni Evangelista at Prate 
Veochio, in the Casentino. Purchased at Florence, from the Lombardi- 
Baldi collection, in 1857. 

No. 580a. The Holy Trinity and The Annunciation. 

Three terminal panels of the altar piece No. 580. 

In tempera, on wood. Central panel, 1 ft. 5 in. h, by lOf in. to. ; side 
panels, 1 ft. 4| in h, by 9} in. w. 



* In the open book held by St. Jerome is written : Penitenciam agere, Mtperpe- 
trata mala peraqere, et peragendo non perpetrare ; to do penance is to work oni 
sins, and in worung them ont to sin no more. 

t Inscribed St. ApoUonia. bnt the emblem, a female breast held by a pair of 
pincers, is generally that of St. Agatha. The common emblem of St. ApoUonia. 
-1 thft tnnth hflld in ft. nfl.ir of nincera. 



IS the tooth held in a pair of pincers. 



(Bbrbardiuo), 1508?-1578?. 

Bom at ,VerceUi abont 1508, became the be»t scholar and 
imitator of Gaadencio Ferrari, though he did not equal his 
maetet. In later life he approached more to the manner of 
Leonardo da Tiaci and became one of the principal Milanese 
painters of hia time. Lanini's workg were chiefly in fresco. The 
date of hia birth ia unt^rtain, bat he was an established master 
in 16S9. At Borgo Seaia, neat Tarallo, there is an altar-pieoe 
inscribed " Berttardinu» paunllum hoc qaod cerrUt efigiabat 1639." 
His principal works are the Sibyls and other frescoes in the 
Cathedral of Novara. He died abont 1578. 



No. 7*0. Ths Holy Family. 

With the Hagdalea, Fope Gregory the QreiC, and St. Pan! 
presenting an apple to the infant Saviour. A rocky landscape in 
tha distance, waole figures, life-siie. Signed — 



On wood, oironlar at top, 6 ft. 7 in. h. by * ft. 3 in. to. 1 
a rich oinqneoento carving of the period. 

Porchaaed in London, from Mr. G. H. Phillips, in 1SS3. 
2oS40 



306 LE BEUN— LELY. 



IiB 8RVH. (See VZOBB ZiB BBUB.) 



(SiB PETEft), 1618-1680. 

This painter, Dutch by family, was bom at Soest, in Westr 
"^halia, in 1618 ; his father was Captain Van der Faes-Lely. At 
a very early age Peter showed so decided a passion for art that 
his father sent him to Haarlem to learn painting in the school 
x>f Pieter Fransz de Grebber. He was taken to England in 1641 
by William Prince of Orange, son-in-law of K. Charles I. In 
the December of that year Yan Dyck died, and young Lely, who 
admired the works of that master and regarded them as models, 
for his own practice, soon succeeded him in general estimation, 
and, finally, as Court painter. When the unfortunate King was 
in durance at Hampton Court, Lely, it is said, took what was 
destined to be the last portrait made of him.^ The fall 
of the monarchy did not mnch affect Lely's position. The 
Protector sat to him, previously giving the painter stem 
injunctions to portray him as he was, with all his *^ roughnesses, 
ipimples and wart?,'' on pain of forfeiting payment. On the 
'restoration of the monarchy, Lely became the favourite royal 
^painter, receiving the titles of knight and chamberlain. His 
^'portraits of the ladies of the Court of Charles II., including the 
Toyal mistresses, are well known. He certainly had great 
abilities, a good sense of beauty and colour, and a facile pencil. 
The affectation and mannerism too often apparent iu his female 
portraits are perhaps in some measnre due to the fashion of the 
time. Sir Peter Lely died suddenly, Nov. 30, 1680, while 
painting the Duchess of Somerset. He was buried in St. Paul's 
Church, Covent Garden, where a bust of him by Grinling 
Gibbons, with Flatman's epitaph, existed until 1795, when they 
were calcined by the fire thercf 

• This iB beiieyed to be the picture now at Sion House, in which the King 
standing, and seen at three-quarter length, appears in conversation with his 
son the yonng Dnke of York (afterwards K. James IL), who hands his father a 
penknife to cut open a letter. 

t Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting in England, 



;alt-4&^' 



LELY— LB NAIN. 307 

No. 1016> ^ Full-length Portrcdtofa Girl. 

Dressed in a bluisli-white simar, in which she is holding some red 
cherries, with which she is feeding a parrot on a balustrade by 
her side ; her feet are naked ; a red curtain in the backgroand, 
and a landscape. 

On canvas, 4 ft. 1 in. A. by 3 ft. 4 in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



IiB NAXV. 15 ?-1648. 

There were three brothers of this name ; two of them, Lonis 
and Antoine, worked so much together and had so much in 
common that it is not easy to distingairii their works. They 
were bom at Laon, Antoine in 1588 and Lonis in 1593. Their 
pictures represent principally scenes of peasant life, and have a 
direct air of truth, and a realism which is remarkable at a time 
when the artists of the French school turned with one accord to 
classicism, and were frequently characterised by a false and 
bombastic style. Their works are mostly small in scale. Both 
the brothers died in 1648, soon after they became members of 
the Academic Boyale. 

No. 1425> Portrait Oroup. 

A peasant woman sits surrounded by rustic children. On a 
chair in front of her a boy in a red coat, drab-coloured breeches, 
and blue stockings, holds a drinking glass in one hand and is 
about to raise a stone jug with the other. Four little giHs 
humbly, but picturesquely, clad complete the group. Dark grey 
background. 

Formerly in the Bohn Collection. 

On panel, 10 in, A. by 1 ft. J in. w. 

Presented by Mr. L. Lesser, in 1894. 



26640 ' U 2 



308 . L£ SUEUR. 



SVBVa (EtrSTACHE), 1616-1666. 

Was the son of. Cathelin le Saeur,. a carver- in wood. He was. 
bom in Parii^ in 1616, and studied under Simon Youet, and bis^ 
first works are much in the manner of his master, from whom, to 
quote his biographer, Le Comte de Gaylus, *'he learnt tP work 
'* in a large style and to admit nothing of meagre or dry in Ms 
*' compositions." Eight pictures done in his early youth, illus- 
trating the Dream of Polyphilus, were done in tapestry at the 
Gobelins. Later on he corrected the mannerisms acquired from 
Youet by the study of the Italian masters, though he would 
never go to Rome as was the custom of the historical painters of 
the time. His first works were prmcipally mythological and 
allegorical subjects painted as decorations. Thus he executed a 
series in the Hotel Lambert Thorigny at Paris,^ on which he 
seems to have worked at intervals during the whole of his 
career ; which, however, was but a short one, for he died at the 
aje of thirty-eight. Another series, representing scenes from 
the story of Juno and other mythological subjects, was done for 
Anne of Austria, for her apartments in the Louvre. The pictures 
by which Ld Sueur is best known are a series of twenty-two 
scenes from the life of St. Bruno, painted for the cloisters of the - 
Chartreuse at Paris, between 1646 and 1648. These, wbiob 
were originally painted on panel, were transferred to canvas^ 
and are now in the Louvre.f The number of works executed by 
Le Sueur is very large, besides those alrealy mentioned, he 
painted numerous pictures of religious subjects, done for 
churches and for private individuals in Paris and the immediate 
neighbourhood. He died in Paris in 1666. 

4 

Le Sueur's works partake of the academic style of the period, 
but are distinguished by much grace and are less mannered 
than those of most of his pontemporaries, and occasionally show 
genuine dramatic power. He was assisted in his work hy 
his three brothers and his brother-in-law, and the landscape 
backgrounds are said to have been sometimes done by Patel. 



* These are now in the Qallery of the Lonvxae. 

t Le Snenr was one of the artists who, breaking away from the mattrUe or 
fraild of master-painters, formed a society and school, which, being taken 
vXLder the protection of Louis XIV., became in 1648 tha AcaHmU Eoyak, 



LE SUEtJB— LIBBBALE. 309 

No. 1422. The Hqly Family. 

In ihe interior of a lofty stone baildiog supported on colamns, 
the Virgin, olad in a pale red robe and bine mantle^ standa on 
the left hand of the pietnre with her foot on a stool or block of 
masonry, bearing in her arms the Infant Christ, who raises His 
hand, in the act of benediction, towards St. Elizabeth and the 
child St. J'ohn, who kneel on the right. Behind them St. Joseph, 
leaning on a staff or implement of carpentry, seems to watoh the 
Holy children. 

A piotnre identical with this in every respect is in the collection at 
Ghantilly, and is there ascribed to Nicolas Poussin. The present 
picture may be a copy by Le Sueur. 

On canvaS) 2 ft. 1^ in. A. by 1 ft. 7\ in. to. 

Presented by Mr. Francis T. Palgrave, in 1894. 



ZiZBB&iLliB DA VBROKA. 1451-1535. 

: ijiBBBALE di Giacomo^ was bom at Yerona in 1451. Haying 
filready before his 17th yeat' acquired considerable practice as a 
miniaturist, he left Yerona to seek work in convents, and 
wandered to the Benedictine Monastery of Mont' Oliveto, where 
he was employed to paint in the choral books. Thence, after 
1469, he went to* Siena, and engaged in similar work for the 
Dnomo there.f Returning to Yerona (about 1477 ?), Libbbale 
took to painting on a larger scale ; his style, moreover, under- 
going great modifications during his subsequent career. Works 
of his may still be seen in the diurches of S. Fermo and Sant' 
Aanaetasia, as well as in the Yescovado. A St. Sebastian bound 
to aireivA in the Brera Gallery at Milan ; a work which perhaps 
indicates the influence of Mantegns, but more conclnsiyely 
fthows that LiBEBALB had been in Yenice^ as the background of 
the pietnre represents a characteristic canal scene in that city. 
The' martjTt's figure is carefully drawn from ordinary nature, 

* 9d he ia named in Sienese records relating to him. In a docnm'ent of 1515 
he- is styled ''Liheralis Magistri Jaoobi a Blado de S. Joanne in Valle." S. 
Oiovanni in Valle was a part of Yerona. 

fThe choral books of Mont* Oliveto Maggriore have been transferred to the 
Cathedral of Ohiasi. Four of them contain miniatores, ten in number alto* 
gether, by Liberole. He executed about thirty H9iz miniatures for the Duomo 
At Siena. The antiphonaries which contain them have long since disappeared 
from Siena. Beoords of payments made to Liberale for these works are given 
byUHanesi. I)o(mmentiTt€r laStoriadeieArteSene8e,lt,pp.9Si-99d, 



310 LIBERALE. 

though without a thorough knowledge of structure This work 
is in oil, a vehicle which Libebale adopted in his later practice. 
In the same medium is executed an Enthroned Mctdonna toi^ 
Angels in the Casa Scotti at Milan, hearing the forged signature 
of Andrea Mantegna, a fraud which, though it long deceived 
critics, is contradicted and expose i hj the whole style of the 
painting itself. A Madonna of 1489 is in the Berlin G-allery, the 
only dated work of the master now extant. Other productions 
by him are in the Municipal Gallery at Yerona, in S. Leo at 
Yenice, and in the Palazzo Torrigiani at Florence. Liberale'b 
death is placed by Yasari in 1535, but no notice of the painter 
is on record later than 1515. Scholars of his were the elder 
Garoto, Francesco Torbido (il Moro), and, probably, Niccol6 
Giolfino. 

No. 1134. The Virgin and Ghild^ attended by Angels. 

The Yirgin, in a crimson robe and dark blue mantle, leans 
over the Infant Christ, whom she supports on her lap. Behind 
her, two youthf al angels press forward, one of them holding a 
flower. The figures, excepting that of the Infant, are seen only 
at half-length. 

On wood, in oil, 1 ft llj in. h, by 1 ft. 5^ in. tv. 

Purchased in 1883, at Yenice, from Signor Fabris. 

Ascribed to XiSBB&A&S da Vfi&ONA. 

No. 1336. The Death 0/ Dido. 

In the centre of a piazza surrounded by an arcade. Dido, 
standing on an hexagonal platform of two stages, with circular 
steps at its base, prepares to stab herself with a dagger. On the 
lower stage of the platform is the funeral pyre already kindled. 
In the foreground stand friends or courtiers. Under the arcades 
on either side of the scene are nnmerous persons assembled to 
witness the immolation, while others look on from balconies 
above. On the extreme right and left of the picture, beyond 
the arcadef, are portions of a landscape representing a lake or 
Eea>shore on one side, and a woodland scone with horsemen 
tilting, on the other. 

On panel, 1 ft. 4^ in. h, by 4 ft. w. 

Purchased in 1891, from Mr. Edward Habich. of Cassel. 



UBEI— LIOINIO. 311 



XiZBRZ (GiROLAMO DAI). See OZ&O&AMO. 



&ZGZNZO (Bernardino). Painting between 1524-1541. 

Of Pordenone, in Frali ; was a disciple and distant relation of 
the more eminent Giovan Antonio Begillo da Pordenone, with 
whom he has not seldom been confoanded. The year of his birth 
is not recorded, nor is that of his death, but dates on his pictnres- 
prove that he was active between 1524 and 1541. He is best 
known by his portraits. These he frequently painted in half- 
length groups, pnt together with little skill in composition and 
without mncb power in design. On the other hand, Liginio may 
be termed a colourist by virtue of the warm ruddy glow which- 
he imparted to his flesh tones, and which, though monotonous, 
conyeys a sense of life. Good examples of his portrait groups 
are to be found in various collections. Amongst them may be 
specified The Painter aind his Family in the Borghese Palace at- 
Bome ; An Artist and his Pupils at Alnwick Castle ; A Family 
group at Hampton Court, and a similar subject in the Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg. But this painter shows to greater advantage 
in more limited compositions ; as in the Lady seated in the 
Dresden Gallery ; A Lady at a Spinet (with another figure) at 
Hampton Court ; and the Portrait of Ottaviano Orimani in the 
Belvedere at Yienna. In religions subjects, which he sometimes- 
attempted, the Enthroned Madonna and Child loith attendant 
SaintSj a large altar-piece in the Frari at Yenice, takes the first 
place. After this come a similar altar-piece in the church of 
Saleto near Padua ; a Madonna and Childj with Saints formerly 
in the Manfrin Gallery, but now belonging to Lord Wimborne ; 
a Virgin and Child and St Jerome in the Uffizi, and other 
productions elsewhere. 

No. 1309> Portrait of a Young Man. 

Over half-length ; the head turned to the spectator's left ; the 
right forearm resting on a parapet, the hand, adorned with ti^o 
finger-rings, and holding a pair of tan gloves; the left arm 
akimbo. Beardless face, dark blue eyes, the brown hair parted 
in the middle and drawn behind the ears. The dress a black 



312 LIGINlO-^MfiVfiNS. 

fuil-sleevod gown lined with grey 8(]>airreL f ur omer s black 
doublet ; the low-bosomed shirt shows the neck, around which 
is a fine gold chain supporting a curved gold ornament, probably 
a charm. Warm grey background. On the parapet is inscribed 
in b\ack n^ajuscules — 

stephAnvs 
nani ' abavro 

XVII • MDXXVIIl 
• LYCINIVS ' P 

Stefano Nani dal Oro was a clerk in the Bason Yecchie (Bagioni 
Tecdiie) at Venice.*^ 

On canvas, 2 ft. 11 in. h, by 2 ft. 5^ in. w, 

F'archased in London, at the sale of the Chipstead (Perkins) Oollec« 
tioninl891. 



JUBSBOKMy TBS MBZ8TBB VON. {See OBBBIAM 

SCBOOIiS.) 



&IBVBKS (Jan), 1607-1674, 

: Or Livens, was one of those Dutch painters of the 17th century 
who, submitting to foreign infiuenoes, considerately i|iodified, 
the style in. which they had been educated* LiE;yBN8 was bom 
October 24, 1607, at Leyden. There he was apprenticed to 
Joris van Schoten ; afterwards be became a fellow pupil with 
Bembrandt under Pieter Laatman at Amsterdam. In 1631 }ie 
came to London, where he was patronized as a portrait painter 
by King Charles I. He appears to have remained here until' 
1635. Meanwhile Van Dyck had been^ expressly invited hither 
hj the King, and Lievens became decidedly impressed with the 
mastery and elegance of that painter^s work. He had, further,, 
opportunity of studying the creations of great Italian masters in 

* His name is mentioned in two documents of Slst March, and 9th AngnsL 
\SA&, fotmd by Br. G. Lndwig in the State archives at Venlee, OohsigSk) £ 
Ck)mnne Begistro 15, an. 1542-3, Oarte 52 tergo. 



LIEVENS. 313 

the magnifioeDt oolleetion which the Kinpf was then forming. 
ThiM XiiEYBNS fall into eclecti<^m, wIbIo dominated always 
in' hi4 notions of chiaroscnvo by the powerful example of 
Rembrandt. No eyidenoe shows that he ever visited Italy. From 
1635 till towards 1643 be resided at Antwerp ; and there the 
productions of Bubens conld not fail to excite his admiration 
and affect his views. In this interim he paid a visit to Leyden, 
in 1639-40. From Antwerp he removed to Amsterdam, where, 
with the exception of a short stay at the Hague in 1661, he 
remained until his death on the 8th of June 1674* He was 
buried there in the Nieuwe-Kerk. Listens had a deserved. 
reputation as a portraitist. Some of his compositions, biblical 
and quasi-historical, are ambitions and imposing, though they 
betray ihe mingled influences of various prototypes. His large 
picture of the Visitation, in the Louvre, has a certain grandenr 
of aim; but an over-care to discriminate the too rich materials 
of the dresses is disturbing in such a subject. Of higher worth 
is Ahrahani's Sacrifice, in the Doria Palace at Rome, the^e 
catalogued under the name of Titian. 

No. 109S. Portrait of Anna Maria van Schurman.* 

Life-size figure to waist, in a black velvet dress trimmed with 
brown fur ; throat bare. Seated at a table, holding an open book 
in her hands. Three quarter face ; dark background. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 9 in. h, by 2 ft. 2 in. to, 

P:f[tiBeBted by the Tmstees of the British Knseum in 1880. 

t 

* This lady, remarkable for her character, her. learning, and her accomplish- 
ment8» wais born at Cologne, of patrician parents,, in 1607. As a child she showed 
extraordinary ai>titudes. aiKl as she developed into womanhood mastered, first, 
latin and Greek, then Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopio, even compiling a 
CTammar of the last-named tongue. Of living European languages, besides 
Genoan and Batch, which were those of her ohildhood, she was familiar with 
French, ItcJian, and English. She studied philosophy and several of the 
physical sdenees, and held correspondence with some of the most erudite men 
of ner d|ky. She was, farther, skilled in design, painting, and engraving : in 
mnsic' ahe ezicelled. Mer tone of mind was strongly religions. Late in life 
ooming into contact with Labadie, she espouMd the doctrines and the ooose of 
that persoasive impostor, indncing the Princess Palatine Elizabeth to adopt 
&em also. She accompanied him in his fugitive wanderings, and, after his 
death, ooUeoted his disc^pleaat Wieawerd in Friesland, where she died in 1078, 
in ntter destitution. Such was her renown that she wAb visited by Queen 
Ghristina of -Sweden and other illnstrioas women. William Penn, when in 
Holland, songht her at Wieawerd. Several of her writings were publifiAied ; 
Cne.jof ttaBm.Ander. Spanheim^a editorship^ Besides some .earlier notices., a 
memoir of her by JEgld. D. J. Schotel appeared.at.Heitog0nboBeh.(BQifr'le-Dao> 
in 1857. 



314 LINGELBAOH—LIPPL 

AXNaSUBAOH (Jo3ann or Jan), 1623-1674. 

Was born at Frankfort on-Main in October, 1623. He went 
early to Holland, etadied also in Paris, and in Italy, which he 
visited in 1644, remainiag there six years. In 1650 he returned 
to Germany, and finally settled at Amsterdam, where he was 
baried in November 1674. He used to insert figures in the 
pictures of Wynants, Yerboom, and other painters. German 
School ; but commonly reckoned among Dutch painters.* 

No. 837. The Hay Harvest. 

Some men and a woman loading a cart with hay, before which 
are standing the two unyoked horses, and a third horse on which 
is a rider with a woman on a pillion behind him. On the right are 
some haymakers reposing near the stem of an old tree. On the 
left is a man angling in a small stream, on the other side of which 
is a hawking party approaching a small house on the road side 
Signed J, Lingdbach. 1661. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 3 in. h, by 2 ft. 10 in. w. 

Purchased with the Peel Collection, in 1871. 



(Pea Filippo), 1406 ?-1469. 

FiLiPPO LiPPi, the son of Tommaso di Lippo, a butcher in 
Florence, was born about 1406. Left an orphan when eight 
years old, he was committed to the care of the monks of the 
Carmelite convent close to which his parants had lived, and at 
the docile age of 14 or 15 was induced to take the vows of the 
order. Soon after this date the conventual church S. M. del 
Carmine, was consecrated, and as the young monk was approach- 
ing manhood he may have seen Masolino— he must have seen 
Masaccio — painting in its renowned Brancacci chapel. Whether 
he became actually a pupil of Masaccio is uncertain ; but he did 
execute some works in the church which were said to be 
thoroughly imbued with that master's spirit.t Towards the 

* Owinner Kunst und Kunstler in Franhfurt^m-Main, 1862. 
t These have perished, some through deoay others Id a Are which destroyed 
a great part of the chnrch in 1771. 



LIPPI. 315 

close of the ^ear 1431 Fba Filippo was permitted to leave the 
convent in order no doubt that he might be free to practice bis 
art ; but he remained a friar and continued to wear the frock.^ 
He soon received commissions, even attracting the favour of 
Gosimo de' Medici, who at a later period signally befriended the 
man whose genias he had early recognised. In 1442 Pope 
Eagenios lY. nominated Lippi rector of S. Qairico at Legnaii ; 
in 1452 he was made chaplain of the monastery of S. Nicool6 di 
Fieri in Florence ; sinecure offices, bestowed upon him as artist 
rather than as churchman. In the interval between his departure 
from the Carmine and the year 1453-4 some of his best panel 
pictures were executed. A little lat^r he undertook hU master- 
work, the grand series of frescoes in the choir of the Pieve (now 
the Duomo) at Prato. These chiefly illustrate the acts and 
sufferings of SI. John the Baptist and St. Stephen. They display 
all the highest qualities of Fha Filippo's art.f While thus 
engaged at Prato the friar-painter was appointed chaplain to 
the convent of Saint Margherita, a small community of nuna 
professing the rule of St. Augustine. This appointment brought 
about the most eventful incident in his career, the abduction of 
the young nun Lucrezia Buti. Painting an altar-piece for the 
convent chapel (by desire of the abbess) he persuaded the abbess 
to let him make a study of Lucrezia*s head as a basis for that of 
the Madonna in the picture. In spite of the abbsss's care and 
foresight Fra Filippo found an opportunity of decliring the 
love he had secretly harboured, and tempting Licrez'a to flee 
from her prison-house. Soon afte**, in the confusion of a solemn 
public festival at which the nuns were present, he conveyed her 
unobserved to his house. There she remained about two years 
and brought into the world the afterwards famous painter 
Filippino Lippo. Although indnsed to return to the convent and 
take fresh vows, Lucrezia again escaped to seek the friar's pro- 
tection. The scandal now became so serious that Fra Filippo 

* Vasari tells how Filippo, after his departure from the convent, was carried 
oft from the Adriatic shore by Moorish rovers, enslaved in Barbary, and after 
a period of servitude sent safely to Naples by his benevolent master, whose 
portrait he had drawn. Unfortunately, this interesting tale is inconsistent 
with the facts as now known of the painter's life. 

iDelle Pitture di Fra Filippo Lippi nel coro delta Cattedrale di Prato, by the 
Canonico Baldanzi, Prato, IbSiS ; Delia chiesa Cattedrale di Prato, Descmione corrc- 
data di Notizie Storiche, dec, Prato, 3846 ; Vasari, Vite, &c. ; Baldinucci, Notizie 
&e. ; and Qaye, Carteggio inedito d^ Artist t. 



M6 LIPPJ, 

Was threatened with panishment. Bat here Oosimo de' Medici 
intervened,' and mdved Pope Pius II. to issne a ball releasing 
the erring pair from their monastic tows, and sanctioning their 
marriage.^ This concession, however necessarily deprived 
Filippo of the power to hold any benefices in the chnrch ; thence- 
forward he had to live npon the earnings of his penciL He had 
still various work to do at Prato ; indeed, it was not until 1465 
that the frescoes in the Pieve, began about twelve years before, 
were finished. He next sought and obtained a commission to 
execute a series of frescoes in the choir of the Duomo at Spoleto. 
Taking with him his pupil and assistant F^a Diamante, he com- 
menced the work which he was not destined to finish. Overtaken 
by an illness, ascribed by some to poison, he died at Spoleto on 
the 9th of October 1469, and was baried in the Daomo. The 
woi^c there was carried to completion by Fra Diamantcf 

If Fba Filippo owed much to Masaccio and something to 
Fra Angelico, his style is nevertheless original and peculiar. 
Rejoicing in life, he loved to introdace its incidents even in the 
solemn, often mystic scenes, he had to represent. But this 
human element, with him so naive and spontaneous, gives a 
singular charm to his works. He chose tw) difiEerent types for 
bis Madonnas. In the Preaepios of the Florence Academy and 
the Berlin Gallery the features of the spare countenance are long 
and delicate : in other instances the face is rounder and the nose 
small and retroussi ; the expression is always tender and anxious. 
In freedom of execution this painter was no less in, advance of 
his predecessors than in variety and subtlety of colouring. His 
panel pictures exhibit contrasts of flat with juicy transparent 
tints previously unexampled in tempera painting. In the cast 
of the ample garments which he gave to his figures may be found 
Motives novel, bold and striking. 

*Spinetta and Lucre zia Buti, sisters, first took the 'veil in 1451 when asred 
respectively 17 and 16. not of their own free will, bdt constrained by their 
eldest brother, who, on his father's death, had been left sole provider for a large 
£aniily, which his means were insul&cient to support. 

On each occasion of Lncrezia's flight from the convent, Spinetta, equally 
lon^ng for freedom, sought refugis with her sister under Filippo^s roof. (Ales- 
Sandra,' the daughter of Filippo and Lucrezla, was bom in 1466, four years after 
the marriage of her parents.) For a more detailed account of these events see 
the commentary on the life of F. Lippi in Milanesi's Opere di O, Vatari, T. n.» 
p. 633. seqq. 

fDlstingtlished scholars of Fra Ftlippo vere Francesco Pe&ellino, Botticelli; 
and indirectly, his own son FUlipino Lippi. ■ 



LIPPI. 317 

ConspicQons among Philippo*s larger panel pictures are the 
Coronation of the Virgin in the Florence Academy ; the same 
Btibject in the Lateran collection ; a Nativity containing many 
figores in S. Doinenico at Prato ; in the Communal Gallery of 
Prato an Assumption^ supposed to be the picture in which the 
Virgin was the portrait of Lucrezia Buti, and in the Louvre a 
singularly fine though eatrly work in which the Yirgin stands on 
the dais o£ her throne, supporting in her arms the Infant who is 
adored by two kneeling bishops* Works of smaller dimensions 
are the Presepios referred to above ; a Madonna and Infant^ with 
two hoy angels J in the Uf&zi, and the two exquisite lunettes which 
are catalogued below. These, however, are merely examples out 
of' many. Filippo's predella subjects are of remarkable beauty, 
and of a delicate finish uncommon in work^ of their class. 



No. 248. The Vision of St. Bernard. 

The Saint, dressed in white, is represented writing his homilies 
at a desk placed on a table formed of the solid rock. On the desk 
is some, paper and a leathern ink bottle ; by his side are some 
books. The Virgin, snrroanded by angels, appears before him. 

In tempera, on a hexagonal panel, the upper corners of a square being 
out away, 3 ft. 2 in. h. by 3 ft. 5^ in. w. 

Vasari states that Fra Filippo painted two pictures to be placed over 
doors in the Palazzo della Signoria^ at Florence. The subject of one 
was the Annunciation, of the other a St. Bernard. The date of the 
latter picture is fixed by a record quoted by Baldinucci from the register 
of the Prorreditori di Camera^ whence it appears that, on the 16th of 
May, 1447, Fra Filippo received 40 lire " for having painted the figure 
of the Virgin and of St. Bernard to be placed before [above] the door 
of the cancelleria of the Palazzo de* Signori.*^ Purchased at M. de 
Bammeville's sale in 1854. In the catalogue of that sale this picture 
was attributed to Masaccio. 



No. 589> The Virgin Mary seated^ an Angel presenting 
the Infant Christ to her. 

Under an arch is seen a distant view of a lake. Three figures, 
small life siae. 

In tempera, on wood, 2 ft. 4 in. h, by 1 ft. 7^ in. w. 

Formerly in the possession of Sig. Zambrini, of Imola. Purchased at 
Florence, from the Lombardi-Baldi Collection, in 1857. 



318 LIPPI. 

No. 666> The Annunciation, 

The Yirgin Mary is seated in a richly-famished chamber, and 
in a garden opposite to her on the spectator's left, is the angel 
Gabriel announcing the birth of Christ. 

In the centre of the picture a dove, proseeding in a ray of 
glories from a hand aboTe, is approaching Mary. Small foil- 
length figures. 

On wood, in temi)era, a lunette, 2 ft. 2 in. h. by 4 ft. 11^ in. w. 

This and the following picture, No. 667, were painted for Cosmo de* 
Medici. This is marked with the ere^t of Cosmo, three feathers tied 
together in a ring. The pictures were both procured from the Bicoardi 
(Medici) Palace at Florence, by the brothers Metzger, about 1846.* 

Presented to the National Gallery by Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, P.B. A., 
in 1861. 

No. 667. St, John the Baptist with six other Saints. 

On his right are Saints Francis, Lawrence, and Oosmas ; on his 
left, Saints Damianns, Anthony, and Peter Martire : all seated on 
a marble bench in a garden. Small full-length figure?. 

On wood, in tempera, a lunette, 2 ft. 2 in. h. by 4 ft. Hi in. w. 

Companion picture to N'o. 666, described above. Purchased from Mr. 
Alexander Barker in 1861. 



(FiLiPPiKO), 1457 ?-1504. 

FiLiFFO LiPPi the younger, commonly called Filipfino, the son 
of Fra Filippo and Lucrezia Buti, was bom at Florence about 
1457. In consequence of the death of his father [when Filippino 
was still very ycung, he fell under the guidance of Fra Diamante, 
who had been his father's assistant. Subsequently he entered 
the studio of Sandro Botticelli, whose influence is very observable 
in many of his works. But Fiiippimo studied the frescoes of 
Masolino and Masaccio in the Brancacci Chapel, as his father 
before him had done, and in 1484 was appointed to complete 
tie series which Masaccio had left unfinished nearly sixty 
years before. This work was nobly fulfilled and Filippino*s 

• See Opere di O, VamrU edited by Milanesi, Florence, vol. II., p. 616, note 2. 



LIPPI. 319 

reputation was established.^ A few years later he received a 
commission to paint some frescoes ia the Strozzi Chapel in 
8ta Maria Noyella. These, begun in 1487, were not completed 
until 1502. In the meanwhile Filippiko visited Rome, and there 
executed some frescoes for Cardinal Caraffa in Sta Maria sopra 
Minerva. All these works are of a high order of merit, showing 
great skill in composition, and great refinement of feeling. 
AmoDgst altar-pieces on panel by this painter, one of the most 
attractive as well as one of the earliest is the Visim of 
St, Bernard in the Badia at Florence. Others are in Santo 
Spirito and in the Gallery of the Uffizi in that city. An 
exquisite work, the Marriage of St, Catherine^ is in S. Domenico, 
Bologna. The Galleries of Munich and Berlin contain interesting 
examples. ' Filippino married in 1497 Maddalena, daughter of 
Pietro Paolo Monti. He died at Florence, and was buried on 
the 18th of April, 1504. He signed his name Philippinus 
Florentinus, Philippinus de Lippis, and also Filippus de Lipis. 



No. 293. The Virgin and Child ; St, Jerome and 
St. Dominic adoring the Infant Christ. 

The Virgin is seated in a landscape, with the infant at her 
breast ; the two saints are kneeling one on each side of the Virgin, 
St. Jerome on her right, St. Dominic on her left. Below, in a 
predella, are represented the dead Christ, supported by Joseph of 
Arimathea, with half figures of St. Francis and the Magdalen in 
separate compartments on each side. The arms of the Bucellai 
family are painted at the extreme ends. 

In tempera, on wood, 6 ft. 9 in. h, by 6 ft. 1 in. w. The predella, 8 in. 
h, by 7 ft. 9 in. w. 

We learn from Yasari that this picture was originally painted for the 
Bucellai Chapel in the church of San Panorazio, at Florence ; after 
the suppression of this church it was removed to the Palazzo Bucellai, 
where it remained untU it was purchased of the Oavaliere Giuseppe 
Bucellai, in 1857, for the National Gallery. 



* rhe works of Filippino in the Brancacci Ohapel are:— "The Restoring a 
Youth to Life," part of which was painted by Ma^accio ; the *' Cmcifixion of 
St. Peter/* ** St. Peter and St. Paul before Nero or the Proconsul," " St. Peter 
liberated from Prison " : and according to some " St. Paul visiting St. Peter in 
Prison,** in which is the dgure of St. Paul that was adopted by Raphael in his 
cartoon of **Paul preaching at Athens." 



320 LIPPI. 

No. S92. The Adoration of the Magi; or, the WiseMm^a 

Offering. 

The holy family is in front of a rained building on the spectator's 
right, and the magi are prostrating themselves before the divine 
Infant ; on the left is an unmense retinne of followers reacting 
to the extreme limits of the picture on that side.- A rocky back- 
ground. Smidl figures. 

In tempera, on wood, 1 ft. 8 in. k, by 4 ft. 7 in. u;. 

Formerly in the poBseasion of the Marchese IppoUto Orlandini, of 
Florence. Purchased at Florence from the Lombardi-Baldi GoUectioni 
in 1857. 



No. S98. St. Francis in Olory. 

With the stigmata^ standing, holding in his arms and contem- 
plating a smaU crucifix ; above on each side five angels playing 
musical instruments. Inscribed below — hunc sequantuBi huig 

JUMGAMTUR, QUI EX EgTPTO EXEUNT, IN QCO OBIS CLABA LUGE 

YExiLLA Regis pbodeunt, and dated A.D. Mccccxcir.^ Gold 
background. 

In tempera, on wood, 19^ in. A. by by 124 ^^ tr. 

Formerly in the collection of the Marchese Giovanni Gostabili, at 
Ferrara, from which it was purchased for the Kational GkkUery, in 1858. 

No. 927. A7i Angel adoring. 

Looking down, with the hands joined in the attitude of prayer. 
There are traces of wings and an aureole ; ani below it apparently 
the head of the Infant Saviour. 

On wood, in tempera, 21 in. A. by 9^ in. to. 

This fragment belonged to Sir Angnstue GaUcott 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

* "Let those who depart out of Egypt follow him, and be nnited to him, in 
whom the standards of the king come forth, for ns. in clear light." This is, 
with a slight variation, one of the eight strophes of a hymn to St Francis, 
which will be f omid in a ** Breviarimn sectmdum ritom Bomanmn Venetiis 
impressum arte et impensis Andree de Torresanis de Asula MCCCOXOY./* Ac, 

Hnnc sequantnr, 

Huic ]ungantiir, 

Qni ex JSgypto ezeimt, 

In qno dnce 

Clara Ince 

Yexilla Begis prodeunt. 



LIPPI. 321 

No. 1033- TTie Adoration of the Magi, 

The Yirgin is represented sitting on a raised platform in the 
centre of a half-mined temple, holding the Infant Christ on her 
left knee, while St. Joseph stands behind* The Magi crowd round 
in attitaaes of respect and adoration. In the immediate foreground 
are their attendants with horses and other animals. To the right 
are mounted heralds blowing trumpets. Above this group in the 
distance is seen a mediseval castle. The end of the building behind 
the Holy Family is converted into a stable. About 70 figures are 
introduced in this picture. 

On wood, circular, 4 ft. 3^ in. diam. 

Purchased, in 1878, from Mr. W. Fuller Maitland, M.P. 

No. 1124. The Adoration of the Magi. 

In the centre of the picture, before a ruined building, the 
Virgin is seated holding the Infant Saviour on her kiiees* 
BeMnd her to the right St. Joseph leans upon his staff. Before 
them, at wide intervals apart, and clad in robes of ample 
dimensions, kneel three of the Magi offering their gifts. In the 
distance a mountainous landscape, in which numerous figures 
are introduced representing the retinue of the Kings and 
anchorites at their devotions. 

On panel, 1 ft. 10 in. h, by 2 ft. 9 in. w. 

Purchased at the sale of the Hamilton Palace pictures, in 1882. 

No. 1412. The Virgin and Child with the Infant St.. 
John. 

The Virgin, whose figure is seen at three-quarter length, clad 
in robes of the traditional colours, with a white head-veil, stands, 
behind a marble parapet or balcony bearing in her arms the Infant 
Christ, who is playing with a pomegranate. By her side is the 
youthful St. John in an attitude of adoration. On the balcony 
near him lies an open missal or Service-book. Further to th^ 
right, also on the balcony, is a shallow vase filled with flowers. 
Landscape background, with a distant view of builiings. 

On panel, 1 ft. Hi in. h. by 1 ft. 5 in. w. 

Purchased in London, in 1894, at the sale of Lady Eastlake's Collec- 
tion, where it was ascribed to Botticelli. 



25640 1 



322 LIPPO--LODOVIOO. 



&ZPPO Di DA.&MASXO. Painting 1376-1410. 

Called also Lippo dalle Madonne, from the many pictures he 
painted of the Virgin and Child, was one of the earliest painters 
of the Bolognese School ; he was the scholar of Yitale de Bologna. 
Lippo painted from the year 1376 to 1410, both inclusive. Such 
was the popularity of his Madonnas that, says Malvasia, a family 
was not considered rich in Bologna that did not possess one of his 
pictures of this class. His pictures are now very scarce. 

No. 742. Madonna and Child. 

In a circular glory, angels hovering above ; a flowery meadow 
jneadow. Signed : — 

Etppu0 M^XxaMii ptnxtt 

I 

In tempera, on canvas, 3 ft. 7 in. h. by 2 ft. 10 in. w. 

Formerly in the Ercolani Palace, Bologna; purchased at Bologna 
Jxom Signer Michelangelo Gualandi, in 1865. 



XiOPO VICO da PA&MA, 14 . . ?-ld . . ? 

^aid to have been a scholar of Francia, was a painter of repute 
at Parma early in the 16th century. Aff6^ notices an 
Annunciation in the church of the Eremitani. at Parma, as the 
work of Lodovico. The following picture is ascribed to him. 

No. 692. Head of a White Monk^ with nimbus and 
crozievy inscribed S.V.Q.O, 

St. Hugh was Bishop of Grenoble in the 12th century. 

On wood, 16 in. h, by 12^ in. u). 

Bequeathed by Lieut.-Gteneral Sir W. Moore, in 1862. 



• Ireneo AJI6, II Parmegiano Servitor di Piazza owero DialogM Frombola. Ac, 
Parma, 1796. Crowe and Oavalcaselle attribute some other worki at Parma to 
LodojE^oo. Hiit, uf Painting in North Italy, L, 591, note. 



LOilBAfii). J.i .322 



XnOMBARD (Lambebt), 1505-1566. 

Lambert, or Lampreght Lombard, born at Li^ge of hambb 
parents, in lfi05, was the scholar of Jean de MabusO; and 
Arnold Beer. He married when very young, travelled in 
Germany and France, and visited Italy in the suite of Cardinal 
Pole ; there he became acquainted with Yasari, who speaks highly 
of his general attainments, calling him, among other things, ** an 
excellent architect." In Italy, though Lambert resided there 
for a very short time, he entirely acquired the Italian style of 
design. At the death of his patrOn, Cardinal T/rbard de la Marck, 
Bishop of Liege, in 1538, he was compelled to return home 
'where his example, according to Van Mander,' greatly advanced 
the school of his native place. Hubert Gblzius and Frans Floris, 
were both scholars of Lambert Lombard. He died poor, at Liege 
1566 : he was three times married and had children by each 
wife ; this large family imposed burdens upon him that the art 
patronage of Li^ge did not enable him to support. He is reported 
to have died in the Hospital of Mont Cornillon. The pictuires of 
this master are scarce; they are generally remarkable for the 
correctness of their drawing, and are executed in a manner 
somewhat peculiar to himself : the drawing is iu the first instance 
elaborately and delicately defined, and the colours and shadows 
are only very slightly scumbled over the light ground. In 1565 a 
life of Lambert Lombard was published by Domenicas Lampsonius, 
one of his scholars.^ Lambert*b drawings are numerous in chalk 
and with tbe pen ; he also etched some plates ; he was the best 
antiquary of his time and district. 

^o. Z66« The Deposition from the Gross. 

St. John and the Virgin are supporting the dead body of Christ ; 
above is the Holy Spirit in the form of the dove. Three figures 
iialf length, life size. 

• On wood, in oil, 3 ft. 6 in. h, by 2 ft. S in. w. 

Purchased with the collection of Herr Kriiger, of Minden, in 1854. 



♦ Lamberti Lombardi apud Bburones Pictoris celeberrimi Vita, 8vo., Brugen 
Hubert Golzius, 1665. Bath^eber, Annalen der NiederJdndischen MalereL.&c, 
folio, Gotha, 1843. Van Maiider, H et Sehilder Bdek. Mischiels, if/iroird i to 
Feinture Jflamande et UoHandaitCt vol. ui., 8 vo., Brusaels, 1816. 

25640 X 3 



324 LOMBABD SCHOOL : XVI. CENTURY— LONGHI. 

3bOMBA&D SCBOO&i ZVX. OBNTVAV. 

No. 219> Dead Christy supported by Angels. 

Three figures, small half lenj^th. 

On wood, 1 ft. 11 J in. h. by 1 ft. 6J in. w, 

Fzesented by Sir W. 0. Trevelyan, Bart., in 1849. 



&ONOBZ (PiETBO), 1702>1762. 

Was bom at Venice in 1702, and died there in 1762. Having 
made his first serious studies in the then celebrated school of 
Antonio Balestra at Bologna, he became a pupil of Giuseppe 
Maria Orespi in the same city. He finally settled in the place 
of his nativity, where, in 1734, he painted the Fall of the Giants 
in the Palazzo Sagredo. Such tasks were, however, ill-suited to 
the taste or the capacities of Longhi, and he soon fell back upon 
subjects more congenial to him, pourtraying, generally on a 
restricted scale, the daily life and amusements of his fellow 
citizens. His pictures, much sought after, are always pleasing, 
often delicate in workmanship, and sometimes not devoid of 
humour or pathos. But they never display the robust originality 
of his great English contemporary, Hogarth. His series of the 
Seven Sacraments was etched by Pitteri. He himself etched other 
subjects, and several of his works were engraved by Alessandro 
Longhi, BartolozzL and others. 

No. 1100a A Domestic Group. 

Uncertain subject. Possibly a scene in a comedy. But the 
engraved portrait &een hanging on the wall, inscribed under- 
neath "Gerardo Sagredo di Morei'* (with some indistinct word 
below), might indicate that the subject relates to some story 
connected with the patrician family of Sagredo for whom Longhi 
had painted. 

On canvas, 2 ft. A. by 1 ft. 7} in. w. 

Formerly in the possession of Count Oldofredi, of Milan. 

Purchased there from Sigr. Giuseppe Baslini, in 1881. 



LONGHI— LORENZETTI. 325 

No. HO la The Exhibition of a Rhinoceros in an Arena. 

The spactators weir tha oostumd of the last oentary and ar*) 
chiefly masked. The keeper, who is pointing to the animal, holds 
its (detached) horn and a whip in his hand. 

Painted on canTas, 1 ft. 11 in. k. by 1 ft. 6 in. u;. 

Formerly in. the possession of Oonnt Oldofredi of Milan. 

Purchased there from Sigr. Giuseppe Baslini in 1881. 

No. 1102. Portrait of the Chevalier 4^^«« Tron^ 
Procurator'' of St. Mark's Venice. 

The procuratorship of St. Mark's was an office of exalted 
dignity at Venice and entitled the occupant to a seat in the 
Council of Ten. The broid golden stole on the shoulder in 
the present portrait probably shovs that Andrea Tron was also a 
knight of the order of the Stola d^Oro, since the stole with which 
a procurator was invested by the Djge was of crimson velvet. 

Painted on canvas, 8 ft. 2^ in. h. by 5 ft. 5^ in. w. 

Purchased, with its original frame, surmounted by the armorial bear- 
ings of the Tron family from Sigr. M. Guggenheim, of Venice, 1881. 

No. 1334. " The Fortune Teller.'^ 

In the centre of the picture a young lady, wearing a hooped 
white dress, black silk mantle, and three -cornered hat of the 
last century, extends her left hand towards a female fortune- 
teller, who examines it attentively, while a cloaked cavalier, 
standing near in a white domino, watches the result. Behind 
the group are two other ladies. On the left of the foreground 
a market girl offers fruit &c. for sale. In the background, on 
the right, an advocate converses with a masked lady. Signed 
Petrug Longhi. 

On canvas, 1 ft. llf in. h, by 1 ft. 7 in. to. 

Purohaaed in London, at the sale of the Oavendish*Bentinok Oollecr 
tion, out of the interest of the Olarke Bequest, in 1891. 



&0&ZSNZBTTZ (AMBBoaio). 12 . . Living 1345. 

Or Di LoBENZO, the younger brother of Pietro (see the fol- 
lowing memoir), with whom he worked frequently, was the most 
emiiient painter. of the Sienese school in the first half of the 
l'4tfa -century. The earliest known works of Ambroqio appears to 
date in 1331. His great series of frescoes in the Sala della Pace 



326 LORBNZETTI. 

o^f. the ►Palazzo Pubblico at Siena is . justly famous. , Tbere the. 
walls are covered with immeose compositions typif jiiig Good and 
Bad Government ; the allegorical figures being over life size, and 
of great beauty and majesty ; the heads of extraordinary grandeur. 
The half-reclining form of '^Pax** excels in ease and classic 
dignity. Other works by the hand of Ambrogio exist in and 
around Siena. The date of his birth is unknown ; he was still 
living in 1345. 

No. 1147. Heads of four Nuns, 

Fragment of a composition in freeco formerly on a waU of the 
Capitolo of the Convent Church of S. Francis at Siena. DiEite 
about 1331. 

1 ft. 10 in. square. 

Purchased at Siena, from the interest of the " Lewis Fund," in 1878. 



ZiO&BNZBTTX (Pietbo). 12 . .?-1348.? 

The eider brother of Ambrogio (see foregoing memoir). 
Biographical notices of l)oth brothers are wanting. PiBTfto was 
already a painter of repute in 1305.* Although he worked in 
fresco only panel pictures by him (in tempera, of course) are to 
be recognized with any certainty. The earliest of these with a 
data (1329) is a Madonna in S. Ansano, near Siena. In the 
XJffizi at Florence is another Madonna^ of 1340. The Sacristy 
of the cathedral at Siena contains a charming triptych of his 
representing the Birth of the Virgin with the events attending 
it ; this is dated 1342. This work, though small in scale, gives a 
high idea of the artist's powers. In the remarkable ancient pile 
at Arezzo, S. Maria della Pieve, was formerly a Madonna sur- 
rounded with numerous smaller subjects. The whole ia now in 
the Town Gallery. Yasari, who by a misreading of the signature 
on this work calls the painter Fietro Laurati, attributes also to 
him the fresco in the Campo Santo at Pisa, where the Life of the 
Anchorites cf the Thehaid is depicted ; but there is no external and 
little internal eTidence in corroboration of such an ascription. 
Pietbo married Giovanna di Mino del Cicerchia, sister of thai 
Niccol5 who composed a short poem on the Passion of our Lord 

• Milanesi, Documenti per la Storia delV Arte Senese, Vol. I., p. 194. 



LORENZETTI— LORENZO. 327 

Tbe painter was probably carried off by the terrible plagne which 
ravaged Italy in 1348.* 

No. 1113* A Legendary Subject. 

In a yanlted room (or aisle of a church ?), spanned by segmental 
arches carried on slender columns, and enriched in the spandrils 
with mosaic inlay, a bishop, wearing his mitre and episcopal 
vestments, stands, attended by two ecclesiastics, near the steps 
of a raised dais, on which a person of authority clad in a red 
mantle, is seated, with his back to the spectator and turning 
towards the bishop. On the right is an officer of State bearing 
a sceptre or mace. On the left are three other figures, one of 
whom bears a draped statuette in his arms, while another holds 
an altar candle. 

On panel, 12 in. A. by lOf in. w. 

Presented by Mr. 0. Fairfax Murray, in 1882. 



bORBirzO (Don, II Monaco), 1370 ?-1425. 

Lorenzo Monaco was a Gamaldolese monk of the Convent of 
the Angeli, at Florence ; he was born about 1370, and probably 
began life as a miniaturist ; his style recalls that of Agnolo Gaddi 
and the school of Giotto, whose traditions he carried on to the 
time of Fra Angelico and Massaccio. His works are somewhat 
cold and archaic in manner, bat expressive of religious feeling and 
very carefully painted. Tilere is a picture by him in the choroh 
at Empoli dated 1404, and a large Coronation of the Madonna^ of 
1413, formerly in the Abbey of Oerreto, and now in the (Jffizi, 
Florence, with six predella pictures, remarkable for their land- 
scape backgrounds, which are more i eal and natural than most of 
the landscape work of hi« time. There is an Annunciation by 
him in the Church of the Trinity at Florence, of the conventional 
type, but remarkable for the gentle expression of the heads. 
There are two pictures by him in the Mas^e de Gluny, at Paris, 
and three saints in the Louvre. 

No. 1897. The Coronation of the Virgin. 

The Saviour is seated on a throne of Gothic design, with the 
Virgin by his side, who inclines her head to receive the crown 

* Mllanesi, Documenti per la Storia dell* Arte Seneae, Vol. L, p. 194. 



228 LOREKZo. 

from His hands. Bebind hangs a scarlet cnrtain enriched with 
a gold pattern. The Saviour wears a deep rose-coloured tunic with 
a blae mantle. The dress of the Yirgin is white, and is almost 
covered by an ample mantle of pale pink, of which the colour has 
somewhat faded. Over her head she wears a blue veil with gold 
embroidered border and a gold star on the shoulder. Below are 
three kneeling angels with variegated wings, the central one of 
whom plays a hand organ and the others swing golden censers. 
The floor at the foot of the throne is inlaid with a geometrical 
Arabesque design. The picture is in its original richly carved and 
gilt Gothic frame. 

In tempera, on panel, 7 ft. 1 in. h, by 3 ft. 4^ in. w. 

Purchased, at Florence, from Mr. Galli-Bunn, from the interest of 
the " Clarke Fund," in 1902. 



XiO&BNZO DA SAN SBVB&ZNO. 

Paiiiting in the early part of the 15th centary. 

An artist of this namo and his brother Jacopo were painting 
in U rhino in the early part of the fifteenth century. In the 
Oratory of San Giovanni Battista are still preserved some frescoes 
by these painters of the early date of 1416, representing passages 
from the life of the Baptist, and also the Crucifixion of Christ. 
The paintings bear the following inscription : — Anno. Domini. 
Mccccxvi. DIB. xviii. Jdlii. LaurentIus. de. Santo. Sbverino. 
ET Jacobus, frater. ejus. hoc. opus fecurent. Lanzi remarks, 
that these painters, though they lived in the fifteenth century, 
painted like the Florentines of the fourteenth ; and he adds, 
that we have works by them as late as 1470. This is scarcely 
possible. 

Lanzi, in fact, seems to have been unaware of the existence of 
a later Lorenzo of San Sbverino, probably a son of the former, 
by whom there are works in the church of Pausolo near Maccrata 
and in the collegiate church of Sarnano dated 1481 and 1483.^ 
To this painter must belong the pictore in this collection, 
described below, and signed Lavbentivs II. (seoondus). The 
whole style of this work points to the fourth quarter of the 

15th century. 

<" 

* Orowe and Oavaloaaelle, Higt»<ff Painting in Italy, TJI^ p. 112. 



LOBEKZd. 889 

No. &4h9. The Myotic Marridge of St. OatJyirine. 

The Yirgin and Child enthroned, sarrounded by four saints, 
with a choir of angels above. On the right of the Virgin is 
St. Dominick, on the left St. Augustine ; before the throne are 
kneeling on the left St. Demetrius of Spoleto, and on the right 
St. Catharine of Siena, on whose finger the infant Christ is in the 
act of placing the rinff. St. Catharine wears her monastic dress, 
and in the gold nimbus or glory around her head is written 
Santa Ktbi)(A De Sena, allowing of no question as to her identity : 
in the nimbus of Christ are the words, Sum Lux ; in that of the 
Yirgin, Ave gratia plena Do. On the step of the throne are 
a cucumber and an apple ; and in a cartouche on the front of the 
step is the signature given below. Gold ground, figures small 
life size. 



LAVR 

ETTiySil 




PISIT 



On wood, 4 ft. 9 in. h, by 4 ft. 9 in. w. 

Formerly in the sacristy of the ohnroh of Santa Lucia, at Fabriano.* 
Purchased for the National Gallery, at the sale of M. E. J. De 
BammeyiUe*s Collection, in 1854 .f 

* Passavant describes it as there, in his life of "BA-ohsjeH—Bafael von UrbinOt&c. 
1839, VOL i, p. 428. 

t There are two 8t. Catharines : the earlier, a young qneen of Alexandria, 
aooordihg to the legend, belongs to the fourth century. She was at first a 
pagan, but, on being baptized, was espoused to the infant Ohrist. Her subse- 

anent history will be found in the description of Raphael's picture of St. 
atharine. The later St.Catharine was born at Siena in 1347 ; she became a 
Dominican nun, and ended a short life of extraordinary piety and zeal in 
Borne, in 1380. The legend of the mystic marriage^ as exemplified in the 

SictUTO above described, also belonsrs to her ; and it would not be easy to 
etermine, without a careful comparison of the dates of the medisBval legends, 
which saint had the distinutron ascribed to her first. The attribute of the 
wheel belongs, however, exclusively to St. Catharine of Alexandria. 

The Sienese saint was canonized by Pope Pius U. in 1461. The ceremony is 
the Bubiect of Pinturicchio's ninth fresco in the library of Siena, which bears 



»3(r. LORRAINE— LOTTO. 



V 



(Claude). (See OBLXiBB.) 



K'OaTOZiANO. (See OBTOXiANO.) 



&OTTO (Lorenzo), 1480 ?'1555;? 

Was bom at Venice about 1480. Yasari, who couples him 
with Palma in one memoir, calls him the friend and companion 
of Palma, and says that, having at first imitated the style of 
GioTanni Bellini, be afterwards adopted that of Giorgione. 
Many of Lotto^s works bear witness to the general truth of 
this account. The probability is that he and Palma, who were 
of about the same age, were condisciples. in Bellini's school. 
Were none of Lotto*s works signed or otherwise attested they 
would certainly bear very varioas attributions, as indeed many 
of his unsigned pictures have done, and as it is likely some do 
still. Only by extremely careful study and comparison can his 
hand be traced throughout in works which at first sight exhibit 
little or nothing in common.' Great versatility and remarkable 
impressibility are among the chief characteristics of Lotto, who 
certainly was possessed of genius but whose development was 
oscillating and affected by many influences. The outward 
circumstances of his life, so far as tbey are known, seem to have 
reacted on a peculiar temperament. He moved much from place 
to place. We find him at various times in Treviso, Bergamo, 
the Marches of Ancona, Rome and Yenice. And although the 

the inscription :—**Piti8 Pontifex Maximum Catherinam Senen. ob innumera aftu 
miracula inter Divcu retuUt" The date of the canonization, 1461, would at first 
appear to limit the date of Lorenzo di S. Severino's altar-piece, by precludinsr 
the possibility of its having been executed before that year ; but the popular 
voice has constantly anticipated the formal recognition of tne Church, which 
necessarily, in many instances, only confirms the voice of the people. It might 
not be difficult to find instances of saints represented as such before their 
canonization. A case in point occurs in Siena, in the church of St. Catharine, 
where she is represented by Pacchiarotto visiting the body of St. Agnes of 
Montepuloiano. almost a century before the solemn recognition of St. Agnes by 
the Church. The fact, therefore, that Catharine is here represented as a saint 
is not absolute evidence of the corresponding later date of the picture ; and the 
Laurentius IL Severinas of this work may still be the Laurentius de Santo 
Saverino who ezeouted the frescoes of 1416 at Urbino. 



LOTTO. 331: 

last-named city was his head quarters for four and twenty years 
he made excursions from it elsewhere. Towards 1550 he finally 
removed to the Marches and resided at Loreto, where he 
dedicated himself and his goods to Oar Lady of Loreto in lieu 
of support from the Casa Santa. There he died about 1555, and 
was buried at Jesi. 

From what has been said above it may be seen that it is not 
easy to define Lotto's style, which varied considerably. If his 
earliest productions tend to prove his education under Giovanni 
Bellini, and if in later efforts the ways of Palma and Giorgione 
are more or less reflected, we are astonished to find in the 
superb altar-piece of S. Bartolommeo at Bergamo a strange 
foreshadowing of another great painter. The striking affinities 
with Correggio apparent in this work (and not in it alone) remain 
unexplained upon any reasonable hypothesis. The picture in 
question was commissioned in 1513, and completed in 1516 while 
Lotto was dwelling at Bergamo. At that period the youthful 
Allegri appears to have been still in his native town, scarcely^ 
if at all known beyond it ; nor had he yet developed those 
peculiarities by which he is so easily recognised. Nothing 
warrants the suspicion of plagiarism on either side or suggests 
the probability of contact between the two painters. 

As a colourist Lotto remained throughout a Venetian. His 
flesh tints are true, and various as the age, sex, and temperament' 
of the persons depicted. He was one of the greatest portrait 
painters of his time, and his sympathetic nature enabled him to 
seii^ the finer traits of his sitters to whose differing physique 
he adapted his pencil with wonderful ability. Some of his 
portraits have been attributed to Correggio, notably amongst 
these the fine one of Andrea Odoni at Hampton Court, which wheur 
cleaned some years ago disclosed the signature of Lotto. Taken, 
altogether Lotto is an intejresting and unique figure in art ; ajid 
if inequalities and weaknesses in his works forbid us to assign 
him a place in the first rank, he must always hold a distinguished 
position in the second. He signed himself Laurentius LotuSj 
L. Lotto, and occasionally X. Loto, The Latin form is found on 
his earlier pictures* 

His best known works are to be looked for at Treviso (Santa' 
Oristina) ; at Bergamo in many of the churches there ; at Jesi ^^ 



332 LOTTO. 

Beoanati ; Yenice ; as well as in galleries, public and priyate, at 
Borne, Milan, Naples, Brescia, Bergamo, Madrid, Vienna, Berlin, 
Munich, Paris, and London. 

No. 699- Portraits of Agostino and Niccolo della 
Torre, 

With various books and papers around them, two of the papers 
bearing the names of the Eiubjects of the pictures. Agostino, who 
holds '* Galen *' in his hand, was professor of medicine in the 
University of Padua. Figures half length, life size. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 9^ in. h. by 2 ft. 3 in. w. 

Signed— 



V 



^', 



Purchased in Bez^gamo, from Sig*". Q^iovanni Morelli, in 1862. 

No. 1047* A Family Oroup. 

Supposed to represent the painter, his wife and two children, 
dressea in. Yenetian costume of the 16th century, seated at a 
table covered with a richly- worked tavaglia. Behind them is an 
open window, looking out upon an expanse of water, with distant 
hills beyond. 

Signed — ^L. Lotto. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 9 in. k, by 4 ft. 7 in. w. 

Formerly in the collection of Lucien Bonaparte, and engraved by 
Bicciani in the Choix de Br^vures^ ^c, de Lucien SoTiaparte, Londres, 
1812, No. 112. 

Bequeathed by Miss Sarah Solly, in 1870. 

No. 1105* Portrait of tJie Phrothonotary Apostolic 
Juliano. 

A life-size figure, seen to the waist, with three-quarter face 
turned to the right. The features are thosa of a man past middle 
life, with smooth grey hair. He wears a black velvet gown 
trimmed with ermine, and op3n at the throat. He stands at a 



LOTTO— LUOIANl. 338 

desk or table oovered with a tappeto of rich pattern, and holds 
before him an open volome, close to which ia a brass time-piece. 
Dark green curtain backgroand, with an open window on left 
hand, through which a landscape is seen. 

On the table lie two folded letters or documents. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 1 in. h, by 2 ft. 3| in. w. 

Purchased at Venice, from Sgr. M. Guggenheim, in 1881. 



IiUOZAMZ (SEBAStiANO), 14d5?-1547, 

Or Sebastiano Yemeziano, as he signed himself, or Fba 
Sebastiano del Piombo, as he is generally called from the office 
which, late in life, he occupied at the Papal Court, was born, 
apparently at Venice, about 1485. He practised music when 
jroung ; but having a decided taste for painting he became the 
pupil of Giovanni Bellini, and afterwards studiel for some time 
under Giorgione. An early picture by him (a Pietd), in the 
collection of the late Sir Henry Layard at Venice, proves him, by 
its style and its signature, to have been Bellini's scholar ; while 
his great altar-piece in S. Giovanni Crisostomo bears the un- 
mistakeable impress of Giorgione. At 1512 he was invited to 
Rome by the rich banker and patron of the arts, Agostino Ohigi 
in whose villa, now the Villa Farnesina, he executed some 
frescoes. At Rome he contracted a friendship with Michelangelo, 
who employed him to paint some of his designs ; eventually, 
Sebastian attained such eminence through his own powerful 
colouring and Michelangelo's assistance, that, as a painter 
of altar-pieces, he was enabled to contend for the palm even 
with Raphael. He was very successful as a portrait painter ; 
Vasari particularly notices his great skill in painting the head 
and hands. In 1531 he was appointed Frate del Piombo by 
Clement VII. ; and held the same office under Clement's successor 
Paul III., until his death. He died at Rome, in 1547. 

Sejbastian's master-piece is undoubtedly the Raiaing of Lazaru» 
in this collection. How much of the design beyond the group 
of Lazarus and the men who are unswathing him, is directly 
due to Michelangelo, is a question open to speculation ; but the 
influeucQ of hjs.greatt mind is very evident throughout. The 



384 . -LTICIANI. i 

drUmiatic unity of this grand composition as one of its most 
striking features. Crowded as it is with figures, no one of these 
IS superfluous, and the mind is distracted by no episodes from 
the stupendous miracle which is taking place. The magnificent 
landscape that forms the scene of action is at all events the con- 
ception of the Venetian painter. Some other works by Sebastian 
are confessedly carried out on the lines of the great Floren- 
tine's designs, such as the impressive Pietd at Yiterbo ; the 
Scourging of Our Lord in - S. Pietro in Montorio at Rome ; 
the frescoes of the vault in the same church, and the Pietd 
in the Hermitage. Amongst portraits by Sebastian are 
specially to be noted tbe noble and charming bust of a 
lady in the Ufiizi Gallery 'which, under the name of the 
Fomarina, until recently was ascribed to Raphael ;^ a some- 
^what similar portrait, formerly in Blenheim Palace, now in 
the Berlin Museum, and the famous portrait of Andrea Doria 
in the Doria Palace, Rome. These and others suffice to show 
that Sebastian, even when unaided by Michelangelo, was capable 
of forming the grandest conception of his subject, and of 
clothing it in the noblest form. The technical qualities of his 
art underwent some modification ' after he had been for some 
time at Rome.' The rich impasto ^hich he had acquired 
with Giorgione was gradually exchanged for a smooth and 
glassy surface ; and the charm of various colour tended to lose 
itself in rich general tone and even in sombre chiaroscuro. 
Marching for an indestructible material on which to paint, he 
was induced to try slate ; and upon this substance several of hia 
later works are executed. He preferred oil painting to fresco ; 
and his endeavours to obtain leave to carry out in oil the 
La»t Judgment in the Sixtine Chapel led to an unhealable 
misunden^anding between him and Michelangelo. 

No. !• The Resurrection of Lazarus, 

Christ is in the middle of the picture uttericg the words, 
<< Loose him and let him go ;" Lazarus, on the point of being 
freed from his grave-cloths, occupies the right of the compositioti'; 

* This famous portrait is now conjectured to represent Beatrice da Ferrara 
a courtesan at Borne, sometimo mistress of Lorenzo de* Medioi, afterwards 
Duke of Urbino. 



LUOJANL 336 

on all sides is a dense throng of carioas spectators, with astonish- 
ment and ccnviotion depicted on their countenances. In the 
middle distance to the left is seen a group of Pharisees in eager 
discussion ; beyond them to the right is a bridge conducting to a 
city, in the extreme distance. Composition of many figures, of 
the natural size. On a slib of stone beneath the feet of Christ 
is written — Sehastianus Venetua Faciebat, 

Sebastianvs -Venetvs-Facie 

BAT* 

Engraved by Delaunay ; by Yendramini ; by B. W. Lightf cot ; and 
by a. T. Doo, R.A. 
Transferred, in 1771, from wood to. canvas, 12 ft..6 in. h. by 9 ft. 5 in. w^ 

Painted at Rome, in 1517-19, for Ginlio de* Medici, made Bishop of 
Narbonne in 1515, afterwards Pope Clement YII. The Transfiguration 
by Raphael and this picture were painted for this prelate, to be placed 
in the Cathedral of Narbonne, in Franoe. Both works were publicly 
exhibited together in Rome, and there were not wanting those who 
preferred the work of Sebastiano to that of Raphael. According to 
Vasari, Sebastiano was assisted by Michelangelo in the design of parts 
of this picture, though we learn from a letter by Sebastian himself 
that Michelangelo left Rome when the picture was commenced; this 
was probably the autumn of 1517, when Michelangelo was summoned 
to Rome by Pope Leo respecting the church of San Lorenzo, at Florence.* 
It was sent to the Cathedral at Narbonne, where it remained until it was 
purchased by the Duke of Orleans early in the eighteenth century. It 
was brought to England in 1792, with the rest of the Orleans Gallery, 
and came into the possession of Mr. Angerstein, with whose pictures it 
was purchased for the nation, in 1824.t 

No. 2iO. Portraits of Sebastiano del Piomho and ths 
Cardinal Ippolito de^ Medici. 

The cardinal is seated at a table with pen and papers before 
him ; the painter is standing opposite to him with his seal of ofi&oe 
lu his hand. Half-length figures, of the natural size. 

Engraved by W. T. Fry, for Jones's National Gallery, 

On wood, 4 ft. 6 in. A. by 3 ft. 8 in. to. 

* The Buoaarroti MS. in the British Museum proves Miohelangelo's visit to 
Borne in 1517. 

t Sir Thomas Lawrence was in possefpsion of some drawings of parts of this 
composition, ascribed to Michelantfelo. includintf two sketches of the figure of 
Lazarus now in the British Museum : they were some time in the collection of 
the late King of Holland at the Hague. 



336 LUCIANI. 

Fonnerly at tne Borgheee GaUery, at Borne, wheze it was sometimes 
called Borgia and Macohiavelli, and was attributed to Raphael. Bamdohr,* 
in his account of the works of art in Rome, in 1784, notices this picture 
as only probably by Sebastiano del Piombo. Bequeathed to tiie National 
Gallery, in 1831, by the Rev. W. Holwell-Oarr. 

No. 24. Portrait of a Lady^ as St, Agatha. 

Formerly supposed to be Ginlia Gonzaga, a lady of the ruling 
family of Mantua, distinguished for her beauty and accomplish- 
ments. The nimbus, or glory, around the head indicates the 
Saint, and the pincers at the side, St. Agatha. Half-length, 
rather above the natural size. 

Engraved by L. Stocks, R.A., for Joneses National Gallery, 

On canvas, 8 ft. A. by 2 ft. 6 in. w. 

The portrait of Ginlia Gonzaga, ** a divine picture,'* as Yasari terms 
it, was painted at Fondi for the Cardinal Ippolito de' Medid, and by 
him presented to Francis I., of France, who placed it in his gallery, at 
Fontainebleau, from which it was sometime afterwards lost. Tms picture, 
said to be the portrait in question, was painted in Rome ; it is signed 
F. SEBASTiANUS,yEN.FAGiEBAT, RoM^, was formerly in theBorghese 
Gallery at Rome, and bequeathed to the National Gallery, in 1831, by 
the Rev. W. Holwell-Oarr. 

•F'SEBASTIANVS 

'VEN- 



FACIE BAT 
'ROJyE' 



No. 1450. The Holy Family. 

The Madonna in a reddish dress with white veil over her 
head and shoulders and a dark blue mantle lined with red over 
her knees embraces with her left hand the Infant Ohrist, who 
with one knee on hers advances the other foot as if to leap to 
the ground. Her right arm is thrown round the kneeling figure 
of the donor of the picture. He wears a dark dress and has a 

* Ueber MaUrei und BildJiauerarbeit in Earn. Ae,tU 289. 



LUOIANI— LUCIDEL. 337 

dark beard and long dark hair. He crosses his hands in adoration 
on his breast and looks up to the Infant Savionr with an ex- 
pression of intense devotion. Behind to the left is St. John the 
Baptist with the cross leaning against his shoulder, and on the 
right is St. Joseph asleep. The background is dark. 

On panel, 3 ft. 2 in. A. l^ 3 ft. 6 in. to. 

Purchased from the Earl of Northbrook, in 1895. Formerly in the 
collection of the Senator Oambiaso, at Genoa. Later in that of Sir 
Thomas Baring, who purchased it from M. le Brun, in 1808 ; he sold it 
to Mr. Coningham, in 1843, from whom it was purchased by the late 
Mr. Thomas Baring. 



IiUGZOBIi (Nicolas), 1527 ?-1590 ? 

This painter, bom in the county of Bergen, Hainault, in or 
about 1527, died at Nuremberg probably after 1590. The name 
by which he is commonly known is said to be a corruption of his^ 
true surname de Neufchatel. In Antwerp, where, in 1599, h«i.. 
was a pupil of Fieter Coecke van Aelst, he was known as Golyn 
van Nieucasteel. He chose to sign himself Nioolaus de Novo-., 
castello. In 1561, or possibly a little earlier, he settled at. 
Nuremberg for the remainder of his life. He painted portraits-, 
only. These are distinguished by careful and refined execution., 
and great feeling for colour. The galleries of Vienna, Berlin, and 
Munich contain each a fine male portrait by Lucidel. By him^^ 
also, is a picture of a lady and her child in the collection of 
Count Nostitz at Prague ; and by him too may be a charming 
portrait of a German lady in Earl Spencer's collection. The 
portrait described below (formerly ascribed to Antony Mor, and 
supposed to represent Jeanne d*Archel), reveals in its style and 
its (Jpper German costume the handiwork of Lucjdbl. Its date, 
1561, is the ^ame as that on his portrait of the mathematiciaii , 
Neudorfer in the Munich Gallery. 

No. 184. Portrait of a Toung German Lady^. 

Life-sized standing figure, seen at half length, and turned very^- 
slightly to left ; the hands folded in front. The dress is oi 
crimson watered silk, guarded with velvet of the same colour ; its. 
narrow sleeves furred at the wrist. The piece of rich embroidery- 

25640 9 



838 LUCIDBL— LUINL 

en 'the bosom is 'pro4>abl^ b «epflmfee>articleh oi dtems The 
flhouldem < are( oovwed by . the ptaited' ehemise> with ) its' gold 
embroidered throat-band. Orer all, a masstre ftold- chain descends 
below the waiat. The close hair is bound wi& a circlet of gold. 
Jewelled rings are on the fingers.' Dark -f perhaps Originally gvej 
or green) background. 

Ob oaavaSi 2 It. 5 in. h, by 2 ft. 1^ in. to. 

Dated 1661. Formerly in the collection of Mr. Beckford, at Fonthill 
Abt»^y, when'(56 it pai§8^; in 1 823/ into- lilUs pO»M«8ibn bf^Odloneft Httgh 
BailMe. Purchased for the National Galleiy, from M. J. 0. 
Nienwenhuys, in 1858. 



KUXm (BERNAB0IKO), about 1475--after 1533. 

It is singular that we should remain almost totally ignorant of 
the biography of a man who desetres so high a place> in art, and 
has left so many noble works to testify 'to .his powers, as Bebnab- 
OINO LuiNi.. Evea the predse date of his death is unknown, and 
we can but guess at that of his birth. Yasari, who must have 
been familiar with his productions, dismisses him with a few 
oondeecending phrases, miscalling him Del Lupino. He was born 
at Luino near the Lago Maggiore perhaps about 1475. The 
•earliest date found on his works in 1521 ; the latest record of him 
occurs in 1533. He may have deyeloped under the influence of 
Borgognone and Bramantino pluvious to the absorbing sway of 
Leonardo da Yinci at Milan. That he became a direct pupil of 
Leonardo cannot be affinned. Yet no immediate scholar of the 
:great Florentine so well caught the gentler characteristics of his 
Art, or reproduced so nearly his ideal 'of beauty, as LuiNi. His 
female figures are of sweetness and gracious dignity ; and 
should we incline to cavil at the monotony of his type, its 
loveliness disarms us. But a merit e^n higher than his sense of 
beanty is the pathos which he infiised into subjecto that required 
it. These he imagined from within outwards, following his 
inspiration -without^ egotism or mannerism. < XJnfortunately the 
constructive faculty, weak in LuiNi, had not been strengthened 
by severe early training. Hence the defectiye composition per- 
ceptible in the more ambitious:of his undeirtaki9gs, as, for example, 
i|i the .great froiKso iof the Passion at LogaaOyt iHiere^ great beauty. 



IiniNI--MABUaB. 359 

and feeling -in single gtorxps 'and 'figures ^bat partly «tone for 
belptess arrangement and want of - concentration in- the whole. 
I^ujNi painted in fresco, tempera, and oil. Hia execution in the 
nie^^hod last named U careful and refipeA V^^ ^ smo^oth ^isb ; 
ihoi^eolonr ^^lesui^g and- o£ten. rich. JBot he appears to moat 
advantage in fresco ; fop few have understood so well as he the 
management of the limited palette of the fresco painter, aud that 
dcilfnl juxtaposition pf tints, hy which the Yalne.of each. is exalted. 
The decorated partj-wali and adjacent chapels ia B. Mauriaio at 
Mila,n must once have been as conspicuous for their harmonious 
colouring as the former atiU is for the radiant beauty of the Yii^n 
Saints in its lower compartment. LuiNi seems to have been 
in <^se sBsoctation with Gaodenaio Ferrari whose inventive and 
dramatic genius influenced his later work. Besides the frescoes 
already mentioned others are preserved at Legnano, Saronno, and 
Milan. The subjects formerly in the Gasa Litta (not aUby Luini) 
ace, since 1^7, in the Lonvre. Exqnisite easel pietures are in the 
«faurehM and public galleries at>"Mi)aa' and in'tfae'galkries of 
Florence, Paris, Berlin, Vienna and Petersburg.' Many pritttte 
collections here and abroad can boast of similar treasures, of 
which the most famous is the Modesty and Vanity in the Sciarra- 
Ctolonna Palace at Borne, Ipng. ascribed to Leonardo da Yinci. 

No. XBw Ohrist disputing with the Doctors^ or Christ 
arguing with the Pharisees. - 

Composition of five figures, half-length, somewhat less than the 
natural size. Formerly ascribed to Leonardo da Yinci. 

Engraved by D. Cunego, for the Seola Italica^ S^c; and by W* 
Badcliffe, f6r Joneses NatiomaX OaUery* 

On wood, 2 ft. 44 in. A. by 2 ft. 10 in. w. 

Formerly in the Aldobrandini apartments in the Borghese Palace, at 
Bomel It was imported into this oountiy by Mr. D^ in 1800, and 
was beqtieathed to the> National Gallex^. by th^Key. W>.i^lwe\^-Qarr, in 
1831. There are several old copies of it. 



• 1 »t » . 1 .- 



MABtrSB. {StB ttOSSABT.) r 



25640 Y 2 



340 MACOHIAVELLI— MACRINO. 

KAOCBZAVSIi&Z (Zenobio), 1418-1479. 

Little is known of this painter, except that he was a scholar 
of Benozzo Gozzoli, and possibly also of Fra Filippo Lippi, and 
that he lived from 1418 to 1479. He is said by Messrs. Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle to have assisted Benozzo with the frescoes in 
the Campo Santo at Pisa, but there is no mention in the records 
of 2enobio*s name, although other assistants are named.^ His 
most important extant work is a signed altar-piece painted for 
the Church of Sta. Croce in Fos3a Banda, now in the Museo 
Civieo at Pisa ; another from the same church is preserved in the 
Louvre, and a third is in the National Gallery of Ireland. 

No. 586> The Madonna and Child enthroned^ sur-^ 
■ rounded by Angels and Saints. 

The Yirgin is seated with the infant Christ standing on her 
knee. Two angels are at the foot of the throne playing on musical 
instruments, one on the late, the other on the violin. On each 
side, in separate compartments, are standing two saints, St. 
Augustine and St. Nicholas of Tolentino on the left, St. Bartholo- 
mew and St. Monica on the right. Figures nearly life size. 

In tempera, on wood, the centre picture, 5 ft. 4 in. h, by 2 ft. 4 in. to.; 
the two side pictures, 4 ft. 8 in. h. by 1 ft. 10^ in. to. 

Formerly in the Convent of Sanix) Spirito, at Florence, where it was 
placed, when removed from the Church of Santo Spirito, in the latter 
part of the last century. It was subsequently in the possession of t^ 
Primioerio Crociani, of Montepulciano, from whom it was obtained by 
the late proprietors, ?urQha8Q4 iu FloT^npe, from the Lombardi-Baldi 
QoUeotion, in 1857, 



ACACRIWO D'AZiBA, 14— ?-15— ? 



» / 



So signed himself Giangiaoomo Fava, a citizen of Alba in 
Piedmont, of whose artistic career little is known. He pjrobably 
studied at Vercelli. and later at Milan while Vincenzo Foppa 
held, a high positiou there. Works by Macrlno are at Alba, 
Asti in the Certcsa of Pavia, and are frequent in the Pinacoteca 
of Turin. An interesting and characteristic altar-piece is ii^ 
the Staedal Institute at Frankfort on-the-Main. Dates on his 
pictures are 1496 and 1506 ; but it is unlikely that these dates 
represent either- the earliest or the latest period of his activity. 

• See a notice of this painter in an article on Benozzo Gozzoli by he Oav. 
J. B. Snpino, in the Archivio Storico dell Arte. Home, 1891. p. 234. 



MA0B1NO--MAES. S4l' 

•• . , , . . 

No. 1200. A Group of Two Saints. 

On the right St. Peter Martyr, clad ia the robes of his Order, 
bean in his hands a palm branch and service book fastened 
with a gilt clasp. On his head is a cleaver, the eaablem of hia- 
martvrdom. On the left is a Bishop wearing a jewelled mitre and 
a cope with richly embroidered orphreys, fastened at the breast 
by a gilt and jewelled morse. He holds a crozier in his left hand 
and raised his right in benediction. The head of each saint ia 
encircled by a nimbus with a simulated inscription. The figures 
are about half life-size and are seen at half length. * They stand 
ander a coffered beam with a background of blue sky crossed by 
white clouds. ^ 

. On panel, 2 ft. 5} in. A. by 1 ft. 8^ in. to. 

No. IZOl. A Chroujj of Two Saints. 

On the left St. Thomas Aqainas (?), clad in a monk's robes, 
holds a crucifix in his right hand, while his left rests on an open 
volume the pages of which are inscribed with the text pbecepta 
PATBIS MEI SERYAVi. Closc beside him is St. John the Baptist, 
half draped, and bearing in his left hand a scroll with the 
sacred text ecck • ag[nvsj • dei • qvi • tollit [peccata • mvndi]. 
The background to these figures and the nimbus behind each 
head are of the same character as in the companion picture 
described above. 

On panel, 2 ft. 5^ in. h. by 1 ft. 8^ in. to. 

The two pictures described above, parts of an altar-piece,' were purr 
chased at Milan, of Sigr. Giuseppe, Baslini, out of the " Walker Bequest,*' 
in 1885. 



(Nicolas), 1632-1693. 

Maes^ (in more modern form. Ma as,) was bom at Port, in 
1632. When eighteen years of age he entered the: studio of 
Rembrandt at Amsterdam, and remained with that master until 
1654. He then returned to Dort, where, with the exception of a 
Aojoarn at Antwerp, he abode until 1678, when he settled for the 
rest of his life at Amsterdam, dying there and being buried 
in the Oude-Kerk Nov. 24, 1693. Nicolas Maes ranks high 
amongst the many scholars of Bembrandt and amongst Dutch 
painters generally. He assimilated the principles of his master 

* The combination a « in Dutch words is pronoonced like d in the English 
words mar^ rather^ Ac, In fact the e in such cases is silent, and its phonetic use 
it to lengthen the syllable. 



342 MAES. 

■ 
withont adopting his snbje<^t8. In the class. of- pictareB;^b7 whic^ 

he is best known, namely in-door scened taken f roin^ orilinarf 

life, he unites snbtletyof cbiaro^cnro, Tigbrotls col6tir; ati\i 6r'^^^ 

masteiy in handling, with that tme finish which never becomes 

triyiaL The figores are finely .drawn, and their aotioniisp^eeft. 

Harmonies of red and Uaok- previdl in these works ; aome&nea 

pervading 1%e pictm^ in dabdt^ todes; Bom«i!n!«s bt^O^nj^ht 'oi&t 

in fall contrasting ' f 6rce against white. The smaller' pictnriis 

by IHaes in this galleiy' and* TAc* Xt^fenef in the Duke' oi 

Wellington's collection are among the finest examples of th'^ 

former mode of treatment ; the latter mode is illustrated in 

the two powerful Spinners in th6 State-Musediti at Amsterdain. 

Exquisite spedmens of the art of Mae3 are in the Six Collection 

at Amsterdam, in the Royal Gallery at th<) Hague, at Frtinkfori, 

Hanoyef , Munich, Berlin, and St. Petersburg ] also in private 

eollections. in England.. His earlier portraits are remarkably 

fiiie, showing' much of Rembrandt's influence ; those of a later 

period partake of the Frenchified taste then invading Holland. 

Save in portraiture Maes rarely painted his figures lif^ size' ; 

but, besides the Cdri Players in this G^allery, other composiiioiia 

of his on the same large scale are known : for example : La 

Riceuse (a girl at a window) in the Amsterdam State- Museum ; 

a fine group of two figures belonging to the Society ^^ Arti et 

Amidtise" at Amsterdam ; an Old Woman in the' Brnsfiels 

Gallery; Kfidi 'L'Juuteuoi Enfant^ a picture cdntailiiing tbii^e 

figures, which was sold with the San Donato Collection in IBSit. 

Maes etched a few plates 

No. 153. The Cradle. 

A little girl is rocking a child to sleep in a cradle.. An open 
book and a jug are standing upon a table, covered with a. vich 
Turkey mat. Signed with the monogram of the painter* 
. On wood 15^ in. A. by 12^ in. 41;. 

No. 1S9> The Dutch Housewife. 

A girl scraping parsnips, with a child bv her side watching her. 
On the other side is the Flemish kruik or Leer- jug, so often mtro- 
duced into the pictures of this master. Signed, and dated 1665. 



N.NFdS ,(,ss 



MAES 343 



«Oii w^fll^riA.. Alitor 4Ut^« ^><^ Stohod in Ibh^^ ?> i.-^ 

3oth piotiires wane beqqetiihadto'tbD National Qalleigrt ini'lMS^ ib^n 
Charles Long, Lord Famboro^gh. . , , , 

"So. Z07u The Idle Servant. 

A kitohen maid has fallen asleep over her work ; before her on 
the floor are strewed various kitchen utensils ; and on a cupboard 
behind her a oat is in the act of stealing a daokting ready trussed 
for cooking. Her mistress standing by her side, with a beer- jug 
in her hand) i<^ laughing at the duorder around. In an inner 
apartment in the background the family is seen at dinner^, 
Signed and dated, 1655. 



N .hKS^^55> 



On wood, 2 ft. ^ in. A. by 1 ft. 9J in. tc. 

BMineathed to the National Gfallery, in 1846, by Mr. Riohard- 
Siinmon8.'> « > 

No. 1247. The Card players* 

Ai^ small table^ ooveied with a brown clothe a young mafi 
and a young woman are engaged at cards. He is dressed in 
black velvet with gold embroidery ; she in a gown of deep-, 
toned scarlet slashed at the elbows. She wears earrings, a gold 
chain and bead necklace, and has pearls in her brown hair. The 
young man hay: just played, and looking out of the picture with 
an turcUy patient' expression awaits the play of his opponent.*' 
The ffirl, on the right, in profile, with her cards held high before * 
her lace, and her right hand hovering above them, anxiously 
ponders her selection. The figures, life-size, and seen at three- 
quarters length, nearly fill the picture. The background, of a 
dark olive-brown tone, shows the base of a pillar behind the 
girPs head. '"^ ■ 

On canvas, 4 ft. h, by 3 ft. 4 in. t^7. 

Purchased in 1888 at the sale of the Gkitton Park (Lord Ozenbridge's) 
Collection. 

No. 1£77. A Marias lortrait. 

A lif e*^ize seated figure, seen to the waist. The face, nearly 
full, appears from the features, which are large and strongly 
marked, to be that of a man about 60 years of age. He is clad 
in a black gown trimmed with brown fur and a large square cut 
linen collar on which his hair falls from the back of his head, 
concealing the ears. The cheeks are close shaven, but he wears 



344 MAES—MANNL 

• 
slight moHstaches and a chia tuft. He holds a book in his left 
hand while hi9 right rests on the arm of his chair. In the back- 
ground a crimson curtain. Signed and dated 1666. 

On oanvas, 2 ft. 10^ in. h. by 2 ft. 3^ in. t<7. 

Presented by Sir Theodore Martin, K.G.B., in 1888. 



KANNZ (GiANNicoLA), .... ?-1544. 

O Giovanni -Nicola, son of Paolo Manni, was bomai Oitta 
della Pieve the native town of Pietro Perugino, whose pupil, and 
sometime assistant he became. Documentary notices dating 
back to 1493, and relating to commissions which he received, 
indicate that he settled at Perugia and continued to work there. 
He long followed faithfully in the path of Perugino, but later 
adopted, as far as he could, the leadership of Andrea del Sarto. 
Amongst some works by Manni, of respectable merit, but purely 
in the style of Perugino, is a large altar-piece, formerly in the 
church of S. Domenico, now in the public gallery, at Perugia. 
It represents the glorified Saviour between the Virgin and the 
Baptist, surrounded by angels ; while below a host of saints 
stand in adoration. Other productions of his are in the same 
collection. In 1515 he began the frescoes which adorn the chapel 
attached to the Sala del Cambio. These works, carried on for 
some years in a desultory way, reflect the changes which his 
style underwent in the interval. The Louvre contains an altar- 
piece and some smaller works by him all of strictly Peruginesque 
type. GiANNiGOLA was elected a ^Decemvir of Perugia in 1527. 
He died Oct. 27, 1544. 

No. 1104. The Annunciation. 

On the right the Virgin, clad in garments of the traditional 
colours, kneeb in prayer behind an ornamental desk on which 
is an open book. On the left, the announcing angel, enveloped 
in a dark yellow mantle and holding the lily, kneels on one 
knee with bowed head. The light-coloured architecture of the 
room leads in perspective to an opening through which is seen 
the landscape without. This small panel probably formed the 
apex of an altar-piece. 

On wood, 2 ft. h, by 3 ft. 6 in. to. 

Purchased in 1881, together with No. 1103, from the Maroheae 
Perolo Monaldi, of Perugia. 



MANSUETI— MANTEGNA. 345 



(Giovanni). Painting from 1490-1500. 

This painter flourished at the end of the fifteenth and begin- 
ning of the sixteenth centaries. The date of of his birth and death 
are unknown. He was a pupil of Giovanni Bellini, and was also 
a foDower of Garpaccio, but with rather a distinct style of 
colouring and arrangement in his pictures which is peculiarly 
his own, and make3 them easily recognisable. They are generally 
crowded with figures, n.ot well composed, and are sometimes 
overloaded and confused with fantastical architectural details. 
His principal works are in the Venice Academy, and are large 
canvases representing Miracles of St Mark and of the Holy 
Cross. There is often a preponderance of red, and the figures 
are stiff in drawing and arrangement. The dates range from 
1490 to 1500. 

No. 14s78> Symbolic representation of the Crucifixion. 

In the centre of a somewhat fantastic architectural composition 
is represented the Trinity. The Holy Spirit hovers over the 
head of the Saviour on the Cross, behind which, seated on a 
raised throne, and supporting the Cross with outspread hands, 
is the Father. At the foot of the Cross kneels Mary Magdalen, 
embracing the feet of the Saviour. To the right and left of the 
Cross stands the Virgin Mother, St. James the Greater, St. John, 
and St. Peter. Two other saints, one of whom is probably 
St. Joseph of Arimathea, kneel below. In a balcony on each 
»de stands an angiolino, one of whom holds the reed and the 
other the spear. A landscape with mountains, castles, and trees 
is seen between the arches. 

Signed :— J. dk MANSUETI, 1492. 

Painted on very fine canvas or silk, probably for a banner, 4 ft. 2| in. 
h. by 4 ft. ^ in. w. 

Purchased in London in 1896. 



MaKTSaKA (Andrea), 1431-1506. 

This great master was born in 1431 ; that he was a Paduan 
was considered a well established fact until a document 
discovered at Venice seemed to point to Vioenza as his native 



346 MANTEGNA. 

place.^ ' '■ 'HiA father -was. a oertain BiagiO) appar^tiy of Padua. 
The boy when qaite young fell under the eye of Francesco 
Squarcione who,* seeing his talent, not only accepted him as 
pupil but also adopted hiin as son ; whence it may perhaps 
be inferred eil^er that Biagio "was poor (as Yasari crtates), or 
that dying prematurely he had left his son an orphan. In 
Squarcione's * studio Andrea met with a number of other 
scholars, among whom was the promising young Niccol6 Piz^lo. 
However moderate may havid^been' the claims of^ Squarcione 
to originality a^ttn artist, he must have b^n an able teacher. ' He 
had travelled aM studied much, and had collected stores of 
artistic materials ; paintings, fragments of ancient sculpture 
and casts 'from the antique. Th^se he* set before his pupils as 
models, but inculcated at the same time the study of nature. 
In his academy Mantegna so ripened that when little more than 
a boy he was practising independently. As he was attaining 
manhood he Jiad< the^ further advantage of assoeiating. w4th 
Jacopo Bellini and his sons Gentile and Giovanni ; though 
this alliance, cemented by a marriage with Jaoopo's daughter 
Nioploso, cost Andbea the friendship of his foster-father. • After 
having painted some easel works of distinction, as for example 
the 4ncona of St. Luke, now in the Brera at Milan, Mantegna 
received a commission to complete the frescoes of the chapel of 
Saints James and Christopher in the church of the Eremitani at 
Padua. The paintings on the vault and some of those on* the 
choir walls had been executed by other pupils of Squaroiooe^ 
the best apparently by Pizzolo, who lost his life early in a private 
quarrel. Mantegna*s labours in that chapel are too well known 

* The date of Mantegna 's birth is established by an inscription on a picture 
of his once over the high altar of Sta Sofia at Padua. Vasari, who hisMi 
evidently seen this now lost pictare, relates that it was painted, when the artist 
was but 17 years old ; and Scardeone (De Antiq : Urbia Pataviif &Cm Basiliac, 
1560) i^ves the inscription itself— ANDBBAS MAKTINBA PAfAVIKTS AKK : 
Sbptbm bt Decbm Natvs^Sva Manv PINXIT. MCOCOXLVin. 

With regard to the place where the painter was born, his own signatures, and 
a mass of other evidence seemed to leave no donbt that it was Padua. But 
the document alluded to above, which dates in 1455, and concerns a lawsujt 
between Squarcione and Mantegna, designates the latter **Andream Blasii 
Mantegna de Vicentia pict»rem." It must be observed, however, that here the 
name Mantegna, being in the Italian iorm, and therefore without any case- 
ending, we are left in doubt whether to couple it with Andream or with Blasii, 
and consequently whether de Vicentia applies to the father or the son. The 
document waa discovered by Oav : F. Steiani in the State Records at Venice, 
and has been published by him in the Archivio Veneto, T. XXIX., parte I., 188S, 

6191. Tt'is referred to in Milanesi's Vasari, T. IX., Aggiunte, p. 280, and in Sir 
. Layard's edition of Kuglert V. 1, 283, nota 



MANTEONA. 347 

to iMud 4eicripti09.* ' Tkey • ocettpied ^me of^ the internal 
between 1454 and 14594 In the letter part. of that' period waft 
also prodaced-^eviagnidceDt.altaivpijeceol B. Zeno at Yeioiia, 
a work fwhjiob iuBrgHH^iir,<K£,^eofl)aepitieiD,;foleinmtiy '0£ preaenr 
tatidQ, aQd.jiplea4<Mit' o{<4eooFative eifect was ^never tr^jaaoeiid^di 
even by-, the mairiie):>bini|iiel£« .As early as 1456 JiO^o-yico. Gonaaga^ 
Mar^jais of -Maiitaa). 1^> soagJ|tMtj&:attrap^'MAi(ipaNA 'to.hia 
capital, making him-the' most 'tibesal offers. These ovestures 
were long ^without resi:dt, althoagh the painter pfoleesed-^o be 
at the. disposal 'o{ thae - prince, and did' really ondertake^ various 
work for him before 1463. In 1466 Andrea was at Florence^ 
on bnsiQ«ss.not clearly definec^ and it wiis hardly before- the closo 
of tb^t year that he removed his family to Ma9tua, his intore: 
home under three snocessive princes.t Of his work in that city 
little i^ow : remains.. . ,The firespoes exeqnted in the Oastello^.dx 
Corte werei obUteraftj^d? with . the. exceptjLp^ of a peirtiQn^ pf ^osp. 
which once lined a ro<Ma called^ the Camera de' Sposi where. lavge^ 
spaces of wall are ^ow blank. The subjects still preserved 
(not without much restoration) are of impprtance, iUusiratiog 
ANDBSA*a^ powen»^ as an obs^vaii4; portrait painter • and; an < ideal 
inventor^ Lodevico, his- spouse Barbara of Brandenburg, -their 
family and courtiers appear upon the walls in groups which, for 
all their formality, interestingly depict the manners pf th0 time. 
The , deoQir^on of the. vaulted ceiliog, is sioh .andf.beaotifii)^ 
especially, ia the centre .where.. the blue -sky is imaged- thipviglk a 
cird^lar opening bounded by a balustrade about which "clostep 
amorini, while ladies peer over into the room below. This is 
a marvel of design and skill in perspective ; the foreshortening 
of the cbild^ren's figures reaches the point of illasion. Still 
more beautiful are the winged boys that support an inscribed 
tablet over the door.> Among works produced in Mantua, but 
now no longer, tiiere,. are the temperas of the Triumi^ of Ca^sar^ 
painted for the palace of S. Sebastiano. This once magnificent 
series, now deplorably defaced, was one of the finest, of 
Andrea's creations. The subject was one suited to an imagina- 
tion that loved to resuscitate the ancient world and sender it 

* They have been copied for the Amndel Society, and in part published. 

t For the corre9po,ndenoe between the lytarquis Xodovico and Mantegna, and 
many 0tili6r yalaal>le dbcninents relating to the painter, see Arfnand Baschet 
In Gazette des Beaux Arts, T. XX., 1866, pp. 318 to 339, and 478 to 491. 



348 MANTEGNA. 

to ' the living eye in all its detail and with all its human 
interest.* From this congenial labour thid' painter was <ialled 
away by an invitation from Innocent Till, to Rome, where he 
spent two years (1488 to 1490) in decorating the chapel of the 
Belvedere, a part of the Vatican since demolished in alterations. 
Daring his busy life at Mantua Andrea executed most of his 
engravings, works which alone place him in the highest rank 
as an inventor, and which in fact did spread his fame and 
influence far beyond the place where bis paintings could be seen. 
Intensity may be said to be the characteristic of Mantbgna as an 
artist. Deeply in earnest, he swerved from his purpose neither 
to the right nor to the left. In expressing tragic emotion he 
sometimes touched a realism beyond the Hmits prescribed by 
poetic art. So, too, he never arrived at an ideal of female 
beauty. But he could be as tender as he was stern ; and we 
forget the homely plainness of one of his Madonnas in the 
devoted and boding mother or the benign protectress. His 
children are always childlike and without self -consciousness. 
He loved allegory and symbolism ; but with him they clothed 
a living spirit. Regarding Manteona from the more purely 
technical side he was a master of the highest order. His forms 
are correct and nobly conceived ; the extremities carefully 
wrought out and select. An occasional lengthiness in his 
figures adds to their dignity and never oversteps possible nature. 
His colouring, whether it was the product of a defined system 
or of certain predilections only, has a harmony of its own that 
more than satisfies the eye. Drapery he treated as a means 
of displaying the figure. This peculiarity he derived from 
an almost too exclusive study of ancient sculpture. Yet so 
thoroughly does it accord with his whole style that none would 
willingly miss a single fold which the master thought worthy of 
almost infinite care. Some of his earlier pictures have been referred 

■* ^ ■■ I ■! ■ ■ ■■ ,■■■-■— ■ « ■■■■■■■! ■ » ■■ Mip ■! I ■■■■■■« ■■■■! ■■.■a.^ ^ ,m^ m — ■■■ w^ 

• The " Triumph of Cesar ," a continnous composition over 80 feet long, of 
nearly life-size figrnres, painted in tempera on canvas, is now at Hampton 
Ooort. It was porchased in i628 from the then reigning Duke ot Mantua for 
King Oharles I., and was exempted from the sale of the Ring's effects after his 
deauL For the correspondence relating to the purchase, see Original un- 
^lished State Papers, Ac, ed. by W. Noel Sainsbury. 1859, Appendix H., p. 320, 
seqq. For a general history of the work, and a detailed description of il^see 
Ernest Law's Historical Catalogue of the Pictures at Hampton Courts London, BeU, 
1381. Portions of the composition were engraved (with differences) by 
Mantegna himself. The whole series was reproduced by means of chiaroscuro 
wood-blocks, by A. Andreani in 1590, while the original was still in good 
condition. 



MANTEQNA. 349 

to already ; others are the St. Euphemia at Naples, the'ezqnisite 
triptych in the Uffisi, the St Sebcutian at Yienna, and the 
knightly St George in the Venice Academy. To a matnrer time 
belong the Mcuionna delta Vittoria of the Loavre (1496), the 
large Madonna and Saints in the Gasa Trivnlzi at Milan, and the 
two remarkable subjects in the Louvre, the one allegorical ( Wisdom 
vanquishing Vice)^ the other mythological, and called Parnassus^ 
in which last the master reached the utmost in classic beauty 
of form, freedom and grace of action, and charm of colour. 
Manteqna died at Mantua on the 13th of September 1506. His 
son Francesco, who in his father's later years had assisted in his 
studio, practised afterwards independently.* 

No. 274. The Virgin and Child enthroned; St John 
the Baptist and the Magdalen. 

The Virgin is seated, with the child standing on her knee, on a 
low throne surmounted by a canopy. On the right of the Virgin is 
St. John the Baptist, on her left the Magdalen, both standing. 
The background consists chiefly of orange and citron trees. On 
a scroll attached to the cross held by St. John is written Ecce 
angus Dei^ ecce qui tollit peccata mundi ;f and on the inner side 
of the scroll above is the painter's signature — Andreas Mantinia 
C. P. F. (Civis Patavinus fecit). 






Engraved in Aliprandi's Private Galleris MUaneH^X 

In tempera, on canvas, 4 ft. 6^ in. A. by 3 ft. 9^ in. to. 

This picture is described and extolled by various Italian writer8''on 

*The expenses and debts incurred by Hantegna in founding the family 
chapel in Sant' Andrea had embarrassed him seriously, and his valnable coUeo- 
tion of antiques Ac. had to be sold, piartly before and partly after hi» death. 

For notices and documents relating to him and hip works, consult, besldea 
the sources referred to in the. foregoing notes, P. Coddd, Memorie bioffraphiehe^ 
Ac, Mantova, 1859. Gave, Carteggio^ Ac, Vols. I. and III. Carlo d'Arco ; dell6 
ArtU <fec., di Mantova. 1857-6. Braghirolli, Aleune Document^ Ac, in Oiomale di 
BrudizUma artistica I. Commentario alia Yida di A. M. in Milanesi's Opere di 
Q. Vasari^ T. IIL, 413 (a complete list of Mantegna's productions;. Crowe and 
CavalcaseUe, Fait^ing in N, Italy , Vol. I. 

t * 'Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sins of the world."— 
John U '^^ 

1 Raecotta dele miglior Dipinture ehe ti conaervan^ nslle private Oallerie Milaneak ■ 
Milan. 1813. 



S50 MANTEGNA. 

ttirfe; 4ft<33%dKi^ r-th^^ BUtboF8*«bf MT^als* gfaide^^i>eoks 'ol Milatr.* >€t hi 
■toted -bji B^vrcKDito lisvoxlonodd.pastof'tfae ccAlaaiioa'of the OftrdmiJ 
£le8fffe.MjQ«^i, who was 4fQ^hi£;hop^.^f-JM;ih^f|u>in..l63^ tolQSQ.. The 
prmcipt^,piart of that^ col^'ction was beqxieath^ hy him to his successors 
in oMce, and a considerable portion 10 how' deposited in th& Brera 
Gallery'; bat the pietiire in question remaiiied with the ICdnAi family^ 
haTinjC been placed by the same prelate — as ee^ly, B^ocov^dxigM tradition, 
as 161 0— in the private chapel of the Palazzo Monti. After the 
extinction of the Monti family, in the las^ century, the mansion, and 
the Mant^gna ^with it, 'beciime -the' property of the Andreani family; 
wheii.^e>piGtEure-wa» cemoved from the chapel lap one of theiapa^t- 
ments. Thefamilies of Mellerio and Somagr^ suooeeded asproprietors. 
From, the representatiye of the last-named house the picture, having 
beem^first bought by Signer Baslini, passed into the possession of Signer 
Boverselli, from whom, in the autunmof id56,itwa0 purobaslBdiorthe 
If ational Collection. 

No. 902- ^^ The Triumph of Scipio^ 

Or the reception of the Phrygian Mother of the Gods among the 
publicly recogniised' divinities of the Roman State. 

About th0 year 4).c. 204, while Hannibal stil). oocupied Italy, 
the religious fears of the Romans were oxcited by nnusual falls 
of meteoric, stones. The Sibylline books were in consequence 
consulted, and some ve.rses were interpreteci to declare that the 
foreigner might be driven out if the Idiean Mother were brought 
froni Fessinus to Rbihe. Ambasstadors were accordingly'aen^t by 
the Senate to obtain from king Attains the delivery of the sicred 
stone. On their way to Phrygia the Delphic oracle was consulted. 
Succ^|i;wa9 promised but they were admonished that, on their 
arjsival ^ith the goddess in Rome, the person to be entrusted with 
the duty of receiving her should be the worthiest man in Rome. 
The honour was thereupon awarded by the Senate to Publius 
Cornelius Scipio Nasibisi, an honour, according to Livy, more to 
be coveted tlian any other which could be bestowed either by the 
Senate or the people. . 

It is 'this honour that is recorded In the inscription on the 
plinth: — . 

.,. ., ,.i ?. ' H03PE9. NUMINIS Ip^i, . ^p.t.. . '. 

* Le VUet ict,^ di Giorgio Vasari. Firenze, le Moniiiep, yoI. v., 9 849, p. 188. The 
paMa^ referred to is la the coBUB«ntaryvbir'S6)valtedv^& the l^of Maategiia, 
with a list of his worke. 
> .eit&r^^Mic^^^tw^ ISoUmki, <fi^ da Oiomnni RoBini* ^Pisa, vob d,fl841, p. £03. - • 

Milano NutovamenU Desorittd dal Pittore Franeesca Plrovano, MUanOt 1823» 
p.256.- ■ 

11 Farestier^ in Milano, di Bartolommeo Borroni^ 1808, v<^ 1, p. 49. - 

Nuoial^teidd diMiidno. * Milano, 179(8, 2^ edizione, p. Il9. ' ^ ' , 

t **Ta© Host of the Idsaan Deity," from the .3rd Satire o^ Juvenal L 137-8 ;* 
^'Da testem BomeB tarn sanctnm, qnam fnithospes Naminis Idisi." rXhe 3..Q, 
signify the decree of the Senate : Sinatui ConsuUum, .. n^ . i j ■ j. 



MANTEGKA. 361 

In Uieoeatre of the i»otiirefS«ipio, attended by o(h«r'Bomaiu 
ftnd-ionM Asiatiaa, is in the Mt oftOMmng the 'goddew The 
ucred atone alle^ to hare ft>Il«B from beaven and theinuigeof 
the goddeeH. to give tok«i of her preMnra, &re borne on '« litter. 
Claudia Qainta, a Boman ladj sent with others in hia company to 
reeeiTe the deity, has thrown henelf ' before the'image. Some «lur 
had attached to her reputation, but she had proved her innocence 
b; iaTokiaft the DOddOHS mother and drawing oS from a shoal 
j^ tt^ Ji)irboar. of Ostia, with the, aid o( a slight jope msrel7,<ibe 
vessel which bore the ucred image.* .... .... 

The procession is accompanied hy the maaic of dramsand pipea, 
oonstitnting part of the worship of Cjbele. Oomposition of 
twwity-two figures. 

In the backgroand &re introdMed imagiDarj monuments to 
C-.Bcipio> Naeica'e fath^ aod uncle, PaUias and Goens Scapio, 
who both fell in battle near Tarcsgona in Spain, in 21 1 b.c. 

The monamdnt to the uncle ia inscribed — F. Scxpiomb es 
HvspANBNSi BelloBeliqui^— "The relics of PubliusScipio from 
the Spanish war," That to the father— 8.P.Q.B. Cn. Scypioni 
OoRNELiU3. F.P. — "Id the nitue of the Senate and the Roman 
people, Oomelina to Oneus Selpio.'' PlaOed by biaaoD." 

On oBUToa, in tempera, in monochrome; 2 ft. 1) in. A. b; 8 ft 
10 in. w. 

This picture, representing an erent ^orions in the .history of 
the ScipioH, was painted for a Venetian nobleman, Francesco 
Oornaro, afterwarda cardinal, in order to throw lustre upon the 
genealogy of the family of the Cocnari which claimed to belong 
to the Boman gent CorntOarf 

An advance payment of 25 duots was made to Mantegna in 
1504, and the picture was completed in 1506, only a few months 
before the painter's death. 

In conMqnenoe of an embargo laid upon the contents of Andrea 
Mantegoa's studio by Cardinal Sigismondo Qoncaga, bishop of 
Mantua, the picture remained in that city, and the painter's son 
Francesco made an unsuccessful claim to it aa an inheritance 
from bis' father, ofiering to r«pay the amount receired in adrance 
lor it.t 

■ r-^™™.™ n^rf'. jFV,.f. IV., SOfi, el aeq. ; Suetonius, Vtt. lib. 2 : Llvy, isii,, 10 

Hbd. dialect .CoToer) Ji iterlvad' trm ttie Latltf 
19 on Ih; tomb' ol Ihs Conlarl In SaniOvlno'B 
urches SS. Apogtoli asd S. 3a1valoie. 
v.,ToLII,.&.Il,clvMaleUaTCrs>i Oaidttal Bsmbo 
lioness of Maatea, relating lo this picture ; ne gjao 
LDd Bottari, Lettere RtWrltfti, VOL VITL, ed, Mti.n 
[IV. ; and. In Oarla d'Atco, AHttrArttlM M tfoMsni 
il, ad. Lpmoiiqier. vol. V.. p. IH. . tt la- ranuu'k^tls 
lis picture IB DOI mentioned in an; ot.the, p^boTS 



352 MANTEGNA. 

The Cornaro family eventually obtained possession of the 
picture, and placed it in their palace at San Polo in Venice, where 
it remained until the early part ot; the present century. 

It was brought to England, and was for some time in the 
possession of tbe late Ueorge Yivian, Esq., from whose son, 
Captain Ralph Yivian, it was purchased for the National Gallery 
in 1873. 

No.^ 112Sa Two Female FigxireSy probably personifying 
Summer and Autumn. 

Both are heavily draped. The figure representing summer 
bears' a com sieve in her hands ; above her head is painted 
in relief a vase containing lilies, and a decorative festoon of 
foliage. Autumn, whose face is seen in profile, raises a goblet 
to her lips. In the background is a sapliug. 

Fainted in monochrome of gold and brown on a (feigrned) marble or 
agate ground. 

Each panel 2 ft. 4^ in. k, by 9 in. w. 

Purchased in London at the sale of the Hamilton Palace pietures in 

1882. 

No. llftS- Samson and Delilah. 

In the centre of the foreground Samson lies asleep with his 
head in the lap of Delilah who is clipping his hair with shears. 
To the right a rock from which water flows through a spout iuto 
a stone trough below. In the background a hedge of olives and 
lemon shrubs, from beneath which springs a viue trained round 
a tree trunk above. On the trunk of the tree are inscribed the 
following words :~fo£Mima dtabolo tribvs absibys est mala 

PEIOB. 

In tempera^ on linen or silk ; 1 ft. 6^ in. A. by 1 ft. 2\ in. to. 

The whole is intended to represent a relief in white on a coloured 
marble ground. 

Purchased in London at the sale of the Sunderland drawings in 188^. 

No. 1417. The Agony in the Garden. 

In a rocky landscape the Saviour kneels in prayer on a rising; 
ground, and sees in a vision five angels bearing the instrumenta 
of Passion. Below, in the foreground, the three disciples are 
sleepiug heavily by the side of the brook Eedron, which flows 
in front ; aud on a withered tree sits a cormorant ; rabbits are^ 



MANTBGNA. 353 

playing ronnd, and two egrets stand in the water. . la the 
background is the city of Jerasalem, and a procession of 
BoMiers, led by Judas, is descending the road from one of the 
gates. 

The original suggestion for this treatment of the subject 
appears in a composition in Jacopo Bellinrs sketch-book in the 
British Museum. A precisely similar treatment, but differently 
arranged, is to be found in the picture by Giov. Bellini (No, 726) 
in this Gallery ; and again in the picture by Mantegna in the 
Museum at Tours, which formed one of the three predella pic- 
tures to the great altar-piece in S. Zeno at Verona. 

On the rock over the sleeping disciples is the insoription, Opus 
Andreae Mantbqna, here reproduced in half size. 




AJ^DRFAE 




Painted in 1459 for Giacomo Marcello, Podesta of Padua. 

On panel, 2 ft. f in. h, by 2 ft. 7^ in. vj. 

Formerly in Cardinal Fesoh's Collection, and then in that of Mr. 
Wm. Coningham ; it then belonged to Mr. Thomas Baring, whose 
pictures afterwards passed to the Earl of Northbrook, from whom the 
present picture was purchased for tb? Gallery in 1894, 



(Francesco), about 1470— living 1517. 

The second son of Andrea was bom at Mantaa about 1470. He 
was the pupil and assistant of his father, and completed some works 
which he had left unfinished. Francesco was still living in 1517.<» 
Andrea Mantegna, son of Lodovico, and grandson of the painter, 
placed a monument, in 1560, in the family chapel in Sant* Andrea, 
at Mantua, to his father, his grandfather and his uncle, Francesco, 
with the following inscription : — Ossa Andreae Mantineae 
Famosissimi Pictoris cum Duobus Filiis in hoc Sepulgro 

PER ANDREABC MaNTINIAM NEPOTEM ex FILIO CONSIRUCTO 
REP08ITA MDLX.t 



* Moschini, Delia origine delta PUtura in Padova, &o. 
t Ooddd, Pittori, See^ Mant&vani, 

25640 



354 MANTEGNA. 

No. 639- Christ and Mary Magdalen in the Garden. 

Called a " Noli me tangere," — toach me not. John xx. 17. A 
Tine with pnrpie grapes banging over the figare of Christ is sup- 
ported on a dead tree ; on the other side a bird is seen defending 
its nest against a snake wbich has crept ap the tree ; on theUef t 
is a bee-hive. 

On wpod, 16f in. h.hj 12 in. w. 

Formerly in the Dnroveray Gdllection. Purchased at Paris, from 
If. Edmond Btancoasin, in 1860. 

No. 1106> The Resurrection of Our Lord. 

A mass of hollow rock filh the centre of the picture containing 
a marble sarcophagus upon the edge of which stands the risen 
Saviour, partly clad in a red mantle, his right hand raised in 
benediction, his left bearing a tall rod surmounted by a cross 
composed of golden balls with a red cross banner attached to it. 
On the ledge of rock below lie sleeping four soldiers while a 
fifth seems to keep watch. A. slender tree closes the picture to 
the right. The serene sky indicates advanced dawn. 

On wood, same size as No. 639. 

Formerly in the Gapponi Palace, Florence ; afterwards successively 
in the collections of tiie Rev. J. Sandford, Mr. Ooningham, and M. His 
de la Salle. Purchased from Mr. A. W. Thibaudeau in 1881. 

No. 1381. The Holy Women at the Sepulchre, 

On a platform of naked rock, before the mouth of a cave, lies 
the open sarcophagus of our Lord, with the angel seated upon its 
edge. Afc its further end stands Mary Magdalene, seen against 
the morning eky, looking wonderingly at the empty tomb, out 
of which the Angel demonstratively lifts an end of the shroud. 
Below, on the right, are the two other women, one of whom 
presses towards the platform. Beyond them a slender tree rises 
against the sky and hilly distance. In the foreground towards 
the left is a pool on which are two water-fowl, while a tortoise 
crawls towards it. 

On wood, same size as Nos. 639 and 1106. 

Formerly in the Oapponi Palace, Florence; afterwatds in the 
possession of the late Lord Taunton. Bequeathed to the nation by 
his Lordship's widow, Lady Taunton, in 1892. 



MANTOVANO— MARATTI. 355 

MAirXOVAirO (Binaldo)* (See 'ftZNAJU>0.) 



(Carlo), Cavaliere, 1626-1713, 

Or Makatta was boro at Oamerano between Loreto and Ancona 
May 13tb, 1625. He went early to Borne, where he entered the 
school of Andrea Sacchi. He soon became the most distinguished 
pupil of that master ; and after the deaths of Pietro da Cortona 
aad Sacchi he was, for nearly half a centary, the most eminent 
painter in Bome. He was honoured with the favour of six suc- 
cessive popes — Clements IX. and X., Innocent XL, Alexander 
Vm., Innocent XII., and Clement XI. He was appointed super- 
intendent of the Vatican Chambers by Innocent XI. ; and in the 
years 1702 and 3 he restored, with the sanction of Clement XI. 
(Albani), the frescoes of Baphael there, which had been suffered 
to fall into a state of decay and imminent ruin. He died in 
Bome, December 15th, 1713, at the advanced age of eighty-eight.^ 

Maratti was an ardent admirer of Baphael, whose style 
modified unfortunately by a leaning to the eclecticism of the 
Carracci, he endeavoured to follow, in opposition to the then 
prevailing school of Cortona and the macchinisti generally. 
Maratti painted little in fresco ; his chief works, which are very 
numerous, are easel pictures in oil. A Baptism of Christ by him, 
now in the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli at. Bome, has 
been executed in mosaic for the altar of one of the chapels of 
St. Peter's. From his frequent pictures of the Virgin, he acquired 
the name of Carlo delle Madoone. His pictures are distinguished 
by their academic precision of design, but are more conspicuous 
for the general absence of defects than for any particular 
excellence. There are several etchings by this painter. 

No. 174. Portrait of Cardinal Cerri. 

He wears the cardinal's red cope and beretta, and is seated in a 
chair covered with red velvet bordered richly with gold braid, in 
front of a bookcase filled with large volumes. Half-length, life size. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 11 in. A. by 3 ft. 2 in. w. 

Presented to the National Gallery, in 1839, by Mr. Henry GktUy 
Knight. 



* LiODi, Ritratti di alcuni celebri PUtori del seeolo XVII.^ Aq„ Boma, 1731. wbieh 
vontaina Maratti's life, by Bellori Pascoli, Vite d^ Plttoti, &o. 

25640 Z 2 



356 MARCO— MARaARITONE. 



MARCO DA OOOZONKO, 1470?-1540? 

This painter was called da Oggionno (Oggione or Uggione), 
from the village near Milan in which he was born about 1470. 
He was in the school of Leonardo da Yinci in or before 1490. 
Nothing farther is knovrn of his history. He endeavoured to 
follow the principles and practice of his great master ; but it is 
obvious that he was incapable of assimilating the one or of truly 
imitating the other. The best of his original works is a large oil 
painting in the Brera Gallery at Milan, from the Augustinian 
church of Santa Maria, representing the Triumph of the three 
Archangels over Satan, Here the central figure (Michael), calmly 
balanced on the air with expanded wings and uplifted sword, is a 

^tnldng conception, and may indeed owe its origin to a design by 
•Leonardo himself. The other figures are not satisfactory, but the 

duminous sky and distant mountains are finely readered. The 

r«ame gallery contains a number of transferred pieces of fresco 
chiefly from S. Maria della Pace, and some other paintings by 
Mabco. Linzi cites a necrology which records the death of 
Mabco da Oggionno in 1530. The Brera catalogue, without 

- stating its authority, places that event in 1540. 

. No. 1149a The Madonna and Child, 

y The Virgin, clad in robes of the traditional colours, is seated 
.on the ground, supporting on her lap the infant Christ, who 
'. stretches out His arms towards a blue bell which she holds before 

Him. Background of rocks. Scale of figures about half life 
;size. 

On wood, 2 ft. 1^ in. h, by 1 ft. 8 in. to. 

^Parohased at Yenioe, out of the Manfrin G-allery, in 1883. 



WA&OABXTOKB (di Magnano)^<^ 1216-1293. 

Tainter, sculptor, and architect, was a distinguished master in 
liis time. He was born at Arezzo iu 1216, and, as appears 



• In the only document known concerning this painter, bearing the date 12S8, 
are the words, in claustro Saneti Michaelis (in Arezzo) coram margarlto pietare 
Ulio quondam Magnanl, Yasari, Ed. Le Monnier, vol. 1, p. 302, note. 



MARGARITONE. 367 

evidently from his works, was a student of the Byzantine school 
of painting ; Yasari correctly describes his method as alia Greea, 
Being an older painter than Cimabue, and possessed of great skill 
in his own conventional art, he was uninfluenced by the innova- 
tions of that great master upon the traditionary practice of the 
time. Yasari describes many works by Makqaritonb, at Areszo 
and elsewhere, but most of them have apparently long since 
perished. He was employed at Rome by Pope Urban lY. to 
decorate the portico of the old Basilica of St. Peter ; this Pope 
died in 1265. 

V^asazTs ascription to Margaritonb of the marble monument 
with its recumbent effigy of Pope Gregory X. in the cathedral of 
Arezzo is not supported by either external or iniernal evidence. 
The style of the effigy has no affinity with the Byzantine 
character of the artist's pictorial work.^ Margaritonb died at 
Arezzo in 1293, aged seveoty-seven, and weary of life, says 
Yasari, having quite outlived the art and taste of his own time 
which had then been completely superseded by the school of 
Giotto. 

No. 964. Hie Virgin and Child^ with Scenes from the 
Lives of the Saints. 

The Yirgin is seated in the centre with the Child in her lap, 
surrounded by the Ichthys or Vesica Fiscia glory, f within which 
are two angels, around the glory outbide are the four symbolic 
images of the four Evangelists — ^the angel, the ox, the lion, and 
the eagle. The hand of the infant Christ is in the act of blessing 
according to the Greek rite. 

Eight small pictures are arranged, four on each side of the 
vesica : the Nativity and Annunciation to the l^hepherds; 8t. Juhn 
the Evangelist liberated from the cauldron of boiling oil; St. John 

* In the convent Be 'Zoccolanti at Sargriano, there is Btill a picture of St. 
Francis of Assisi, signed Mabgabit' DE ABETIO Pingebat. Hiis picture is 
said by Vasari to be ritratto dl naturale^ an expression often used by him, 
meaning that the likeness was authentic, not, in every oasf , that it was taken 
directly from nature. St. Francis died in 1226. The picture referred to is 
engraved by O. Lasinio in the Etrurla Pittriee. As an architect Margaritone 
superintended the works of the episcopal palace of Arezzo, and carried out 
some buildings at Ancona. 

t This glory or aureole respresents the acrostic symbol the flsh, derived from 
the circumstance that the common Qreek word for flsh l^Qi^s Hchthj/a) contain 

the initials of the following words :— *Ii|(rov£ Xpiffrbs Gbov Y165, S4i»ri//o, 
Jesus Ohrist, Son of God. Saviour. This glory, which is given only to Christ or 
to the Virgin holding the infant Christ, is called by Italian writers on art, 
including Yasari, the mandola or Mandorla from its almond idiapet. 



358 MARG AEITONE— MAEINUS. 



. V 



resuscitating Drnsiana ; St. Benedict rolling himself among thorns 
to resist the temptations of the evil spirit ; the martyrdom and 
hnrial of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai ; St. Nicholas of Bari 
exhortiUg the sailers to throw into the sea the vase of oil given 
them by the Devil ; the same Saint liberating the condemned ; 
and, St. Margaret in^prison swallowed and disgorged again by the 
Dragon unhurt. The picture is signed Margaritus de Aritio me 
fecit. The annotators ot the Le Monnier edition of Yasari 
express the opinion that ^' among the few paintings by Margaritone 
which now remain, this is, on every account, the most characteristic 
and important.'' 

In tempera, on linen cloth attached to wood, 2 ft. 9 in. ^. by 5 ft. 
9 in. ijbv 

An altar front, formerly in the church of Santa Margherita at 
Arezzo, Purchased at Florence from the Lombardi-Baldi collection in 
1867, 



MA.RZNUS VAN ROMZSRS W AI8&4 Fainting 1521-1560. 

In the above form,' and in that of Marin us de Zeeu (i.0., the 
Zeelander), the name of this painter is given by Karel van 
Manidei:. The former style, slightly varied in orthography, occurs 
uppn his. signed pictures. Yasari entitles him ^^ Marino di Siressa," 
aud Luigi Guicciardini "Marino di Sirezsea," i.e, of Ziericksee, 
in the isle of Schouten, part of the Dutch province of Zeeland. 
Ziericksee, however, would seem rather to have been thd native 
town of the artist's father, Nicholas or Glaes ; while the son 
appears to have ^ regarded /Bomerswael as his own birthplace.^ 
Mahikus (Claeszoon, or son of Nicholas), was born about 1497. 
In 1509 be was serving his apprenticeship to Simon van Daele, a 
glass-painter of Antwerp. The conjecture that he may after- 
wards have become a pupil of Quinten Massya cannot be verified ; 

* ^merswael, or Boymerswael, was a town in the island of South Beveland, 

Srovince of Zeeland ; it was situated on the East Scheld, neiarly opposite 
iergenOp-Zoom. In the 16th and 17th centuries the eastern part of the island 
was gi^nally sabmerged and Bomerswael, deserted by its Innabitants, finally 
dlMppaored' in the waters. 



MARTNUS. ZbO 

nor is anything known of bis later career nntil towards its close, 
when he was certainly resident at Middelbarg. There, in 1566, in 
an iconoclastic oatburst of the popalace, the churches of the 
town were wrecked ; and Mar in us was accused before the 
tribunals of taking part in the spoliation of the Westmonster- 
kerk. Being held guilty he was condemned on the 25th of 
June, 1567, to perform an ignominious public penance and to 
be banished from Middelburg for the space of six years.® An 
aged man then, he can scarcely have survived his term of exile. 
The pictures by which this artist is best known are of the class 
to which belongs the subject No. 944 in this gallery. They 
represent merchants, bankers or usurers, occasionally accom- 
panied by their wives, weighing coin, or making up their 
ledgers ; officials receiving taxes, or advocates engaged with 
their clients. The figures, whose grotesque traits and quaint 
costumes are strongly emphasized, are seen at half length. The 
details of the heads, hands, and accessories are elaborated with 
infinite care and precision, though with less delicacy of hand 
and less feeling for subordination than in similar works by 
Quinten Massys. Examples of this order are to be found in the 
galleries of Munich, Dresden, Copenhagen, Nantes and Madrid. 
But Mabimus sometimes tried his hand on graver subjects, such 
as a Madonna and a St. Jerome in his Cell in the Prado, and 
another St. Jerome in the Academy at Madrid. The dates found 
on his pictures range from 1521 to 1560. 

No. 944. Two Bankers or Usurers in their office. 

ThQ one inserts some items in a ledger, while the other seems 
to recall with difficulty the particulars of some : business trans- 
action. They are dressed in fantastic costumes of the previous 
century, probably studio- properties. A heap of coins lies on the 
t4ble before them ; and on the top of a cupboard behind them are 
various objects, letters and deeds, a candlestick, deed-box, ledgers, 
&c. The whole is painted with the most extraordinary care and 
minuteness, and transparency of colour. 

On oak, 2 ft. 11^ in. h, by 2 ft. 4^ in. w 
The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

* M. Henri Hymans, in the Bulletin de VAcademie Boyale de Belgique, 3me Urie, 
tome VII»No.2,f^rier, 1884, citing Adriaans' QravelAnde's Tweede eeuwgedachtmi* 
der mddmurgMhe vrijheidt 1774. 



360 MAEMION. 



MARMZON (Simon). Living 1468. 

A Freoch painter of the 15th century, who practised his art, 
and perhaps inras born, at Valenciennes. The first mention of 
him occurs in 1453, when he painted a picture for the Town 
Hall at Amiens. In 1460 his name appears among the founders 
of a guild at Valenciennes, and in 1468 he attained the rank 
of master at Tourcai. He is said to have executed several 
miniatures for Philip the Gcod, Duke of Burgundy, and an 
altar-piece for the Abbey of St. Bertin at St. Omer. The 
painted panels described below formed the shutters on two of 
the compartments in that altar-piece. 



No. 1302a The Soul of St. Bertin borne to Heaven, 

Over the crested roof of a church, represented in the lower 
portion of the picture, two long-robed angels fly, bearing between 
them, in a white napkin, the Soul of St. Bertin, who kneels in 
praver. In the upper part of the panel is a circular glory 
enclosiug a flsure of the Almighty enthroned and bearing a 
sceptre in His left hand, while He raises the right in benediction. 

On wood, 1 ft. lOi in. h. by 7J in, to. 



No. 1303. A Choir of Angela, 

Two of the celestial host, with variegated wings and long 
flowing robes, soar immediately above the terminal of a gable, 
holding a scroll of music between them. In the clouds above 
are three more angels playing on long pipes. 

On wood, 1 ft. 101 ui. h, by 7f in. w. 

This and the companion picture (1302) formed two of the painted 
shutters on the reredos of the Abbey Church of St. Bertin at Saint 
Omer. 

Purchased with the preceding picture from M. Kdmond Beauoouain, 
at Paris, in 1860. 



MABTIKO. 361 



MARTXNO DA UDZNS. Before 1470-1547. 

Martino, commonly called Fellegkino^ da San Daniele (or 
DA Udine), was the son of a Dalmatian painter named Batlista, 
who was domicikd at Udine in Friuli. He was born probably 
before 1470, and was bis father's pupil ; in 1491 he iirst appears 
as an independent painter. His altar-piece, of 1494, in the 
church of Osopo betrays the influence of Cima da Gonegliano 
over an artist reared in bis rougher native school. Four years 
later he partly cariied out the frescoes which he had undertaken 
in the church of Sant' Antonio at San Daniele. Friuli becoming 
the seat of war between the Emperor Maximilian and the 
Venetian Republic, Maktino left it, and spent a long interval at 
Yenioe and in other parts of Italy, partly at Ferrara, where he 
was employed by the Duke Alfonso. It was not until many years 
had elapsed that he was enabled. to complete the frescoes in Sant' 
Antonio. He was one of those men who, with little native 
genius, have yet the capacity of absorbing material from others, 
and of working it into new forms with success. Thus Pellegbino 
turned out some works which, while they carry the fortrign stamp 
of Giorgione, Titian, I^ordenone, or other great contemporaries, 
nevertheless show considerable freshness of conception and 
treatment. Of such a character is the Enthroned Madannia 
in Sk Maria at Cividale painted in 1529. But Maktino is seen 
at . his best in his later frescoes in Sant* Antonio. He died at 
Udine in 1547. 



No. 778. The Madonna and Child enthroned, with 
Saints. ' 

On the right of the Throne is St. James, with his right hand 
touching the shoulder of the donor who kneels in the foreground ; 
on the left is St. George on horseback, with the dead dragon, at 
the horse's feet. 

On wood, 8 ft. 2 in. A. by 4 ft. 9 in. w,, circular top. 

Formerly in the possession of Count Ugo Valentinis, of San Daniele. 
Purchased in Yenioe from Signor Yinoenzo Azzola, in 1867. 

* This appellation has been taken in its secondary signification of * rare," and 
is said to nave been applied to Martino by Giovanni Bellini. But it snould 
probably be interpreted merely as the ** strani;;er » or ** foreigner.** 



362 MABZIALE. 



(Marco). Painting 1492— after 1507. 

Was a Venetian painter, of whose life few circumstances are 
* known ; he is reputed to have been the scholar of Giovanni 
Bellini, which is improbable. He was one of the paihtdrs 
employed with Bellini and others in the decoration of the Hall 
of the Great Council at Venice, in 1492. The remuneration of 
'Bellini was -at the rate of 60 ducats p6r annum, that of Mabzialb 
at the rate of 24 ; Francesco Bissolo on the sanie occasion 
received the same rate of pay as Marziale.^ His works are 
> extremely rare. In the *^ Finacoteca Oontarini," in the Academy 
of the Fine Arts at Venice, is a Supper at Emmaics by him signed 
and dated 1506 ; the Gallery at Berlin possesses a similar picture, 
signed and dated MARCHVS MARZIAL VENETUS P., 
M.D.VII. The dates on Marzialb's known pictures range only 
from 1499 to 1507. 



f No. .803« Gircumcision of the Lord. 

The scene represents a vaulted chapel, the roof of which is gilt 
and richly ornamented with cinqueceato arabesques. In the 
centre are the Virgin holding the child seated on a cushion, 
'Joseph with two young pigeons, and Simeon ; on the sides ate 
'portraits of the donors and family very richly draped ; the 
gentlemen placed on the spectator's right) the ^ ladies on the 
opposite side ; a youth is kneeling in front, and near .him is seated 
on a step a little white dog. Composition of 15 figures, half the 
scale of life. On arches of the vault is inscribed the prayer of 
Sinieon-^^' Nunc dimittis servum tnum Domine, secundum 
'^ verbum tuum, in pace : quia vidernnt oculi mei salutare tuum, 
" quod parasti ante faciem omnium populorum. Lumen ad 
'^ revelattonem gentium, et gloriam piebis tuse Israel.*' f 

The picture is marked with the painter's monogram, a capital M 
oroBsed by an horizontal bar with a double cross above it, and bears in 
a cartellino or label the following legend :— -]iARCns ' BlARTiALts 

• ' ' '• '• 

* *' Marco Martian det)entor in palazo.el rqo laurier a <i\ 10 Zener 14^2 a dncati 
24 a lano." Gaye, Cart^gio ^^ ^Artisti, Vol. II., p. 7L ^ ' i 

f ** Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in |)eace, according to thy 
, word : for mine eyes have seen thy salvation, which thou hast prepared before 
,the face of all people; a light to lighten the Qentiles,' and, the glory of thy 
'peopie-lsraeL"— Xtt*cii.,2»-32, , .) 



MABZIALE--MASSYS. 363 

Vbnetus Jussu M^* Equitib et Juecon. D. Thome R. Opus Hoc P. 
An. MoCOCOCo/ ' 

In tempera^ on canvas, 7 ft. 4 in. A. bj 5 ft. w. 

Painted for Signor Tommaao Raimoudi and placed oyer the prinoipal 
altar of the chnfch of San Silvestro in Cremona ; it is described by 
Panni in his account of the pictures of that city as being still in 
its place in 1762.t On the occasion of the suppression of the Church 
of San Silvestro, at the close of the last century, the picture was 
removed by the Marquis Picenardi, and placed in his castle of Torre 
de' Malamberti, near Piadena in the province of Cremona, where it 
remained until 1868. Purchased from Signor Giuseppe Baslini, at 
MUan, in 1869. 

No. 804. The Madonna and Child enthroned^ with 
Saints. 

On their right San Gallo Abate, with crosier and milre, and 
the Baptist ; on the left St. Andrew, with a knife in his left hand ; 
and * San Jacopo di Oompostella : an angel playing a guitar is 
seated on the steps of the throoe. Over the canopy is a vaulted 
roof richly decorated with mosaics on a gold ground. Seven 
figures, small life size, inscribed in a cartellino : Mabcus 
l£iBCiALis Yenetus P. M.D.YII. 

On wood, 7 ft. 2^ in. h, by .4 ft. 7^ in. w. 

Formerly over the priiiLcipal altar of the church of San Gallo, in 
Cremona (Panni, Z. c, p. 124), subsequently in the collection of the 
Marquis Picenardi, as noticed above, No. 803. Purchased at Milan 
from Signor Giuseppe Baslini, in 1869. 



(Quintbn), before 1460-1530, 

Whose name appears also in the forms Matsys, Metsyb and Messys, 
was bom before 1460, and at Antwerp, not, as has been stated, at 

■ I I I I H I I n il, , 1 . , . f . 

* ** Marco Marziale of Venice, by command of the Magniflcent Signor, Tom- 
maao B (aimondi), Knight and Jurisconsult, painted this work in the year 
ISOO." There is a staall'Dil picture of the upper half of the centre group of this 
" Oirciuucision " in the Conservatoiro of Santa Maria delle Penitenti i, San 
Qiobhe in Venice, which is also signed, and dated 1499. 

t Panni, Distmto Bapporto delle aepinture che trovarui nelle Chiese delta OUtd^ e 
tobborghi di Cremona. Crem. 1702. ' Opera di Marco Marziale Veneziano, dell* 
anno 1500. fatta a spese de' Nobili Signori Baixnondi, abitanti in questa par- 
rochia," p. i45. Thomas de Baymnndis, Doctor of Law and Knight of the Order 
of Jerusalem, is noticed in Arisl's Cremona Literata, Parma, 1704-41. vol. X.| p. 399. 
He d,^ in,X5)L0t.aged about ^8. Besides being a lawyer of aistinction, he 
piirasbed some XAtm verses, and an account of a journey in the Holy Land, 



364 MASSYS. 

'Lonvain.^ In 1491 he was admitted as master into the guild of 
St. Luke at Antwerp. He married twice — first in 1480, and 
the second time in 1508 or 1509 ; attained station, wealth, and 
landed property in his natire town ; and died there between the 
middle of July and the middle of September, 15^0. Quintbn 
Massys was one of the most prominent painters of the Low 
Countries in his time, and left his stamp upon the school to 
which he belonged. He retained the technical method intro- 
duced by the Van Eycks, but with a softer and broader handling, 
and with a wonderfully subtle modelling which gave perfect 
relief and rounding without marked shadows. The earliest 
production of his now known is the great triptych in the 
Brussels Qallery, painted in 1509 for the church of St. Peter at 
Louvain. The centre-piece, representing the Virgin with the 
Lifant Christ on her knee, surrounded by the Holy Kindred, 
beneath a rich open portico which allows the sky and distant 
landscape to be seen, is a work of great beauty and feeling, 
and of refined workmanship. The compositions on the wings, 
within and without, depicting scenes from the lives of Mary^s 
parent?, have an interesting vitality. Another large triptych, 
not much later in date, is the justly celebrated altar-piece 
painted for the Joiners' Guild of Antwerp, and now in the 
Public Gallery there. The subject in the centre — the Deposition 
from the CroM — ^forms an imposing group of ten life-sized 
figures filling the immediate foreground ; a rocky mount in 
the distance shows Calvary with the thrte crosses, the central 
one vacant. With a ghastly reality in the stark body of the 
Saviour, with some constraint in the action of other figures, and 
some maladroitnesB in the composition, this picture is yet an 
able work of northern art. The Galleries of Berlin and 
St. Petersburg contain good examples of Qijinten's skill. More 
attractive and more simply touching are the busts of the Saviour 
and the Madonna in the Antwerp collection. These are ex- 
quisite in pathos, and of refined beauty of execution and colour ; 
the hands are drawn to perfection. Subjecis of another order 

* The romantic legend, telling how this painter was at first a smith, and how 
he wooed and won his bride, seems, if it have any foundation in fact, to 
confound him with another Qninten Massys, an able master in ornamental 
iron-work, born at Louvain in 1460. See P. Qdnard, Ncuuporinaen over den 
geboortt-pJaatz en de familie van Q. Massys. Antwerp, 1870 : and Max Booses, 
' Oesehiehte der Antwerpischen Makrtchule, (German, from the Dutch). MUnchen, 
1880. 



MASSTS. 365 

alsD claimed the attention of Massys. Such are those where 
merchants or money-changers are seen weighing their gold or 
counting their gains. A fine example in this kind is the 
Merchant and his Wife in the Louvre. Here may be found the 
same delicacy of pencil, the same avoidance of heavy shadows 
as in his other works, and therein a test of the genuineness of 
similar productions often ascribed to him.<> A few portraits by 
his hand exist, full of individuality ; such is that of his friend 
-Sigidius at Longford Castle. Portraits of himself and of his 
second wife are in the gallery of the Uffizj at Florence. His 
wife's is dated 1520, the year in which he was visited at Antwerp 
by Albert Diirer. Qqinten left; a son, Jan Massys, who having 
first imitated his father in social subjects, afterwards visited 
Italy, and adopted the mongiel style which came into vogue in 
the north in the 16th century.f 

No. 295. Salvator Mundiy and tJie Virgin Mary. 

The Saviour holds in his left hand a crystal globe surmounted 
by a golden cross ; with his right he is blessing. The Virgin has 
her bands joined in adoration. Bust figures, small life size, on a 
gold ground. 

On wood, with circular tops, each panel, 1 ft. 11 in. h, by 1 ft. 1 in. w. 

There are two similar pictures to the above, but showing less of the 
figures and slightly varying in the action and accessories, in the 
Museum at Antwerp. Copies of the Antwerp pictures, once in the 
possession of Erasmus, are now at Heidelberg. A third pair, also 
resembling the Antwerp pictures, is in the gallery of the Academy at 
Turin. The pictures above described were formerly in Madrid whence 
they were brought back to the Netherlands in ISIBJ and subsequently 
formed part of the King: of Holland's gallery at the Hague, where they 
were purchased, in 1857, from the Commissioners appointed to dispose 
of the remainder of that collection. ^^ 



*The ascription of the famous "Misers" at Windsor to Quintan Massys is 
now generally rejected. Qulnten led the way in this class of subject, and h<yi 
many imitfttors, such as Marinus van BomerswaeL 

t For early notices of Q. Massys see Guicciardioi, La Description des PayB-Bcu 
1509 ; Van Mander« Het Leven der Schildera, Ac. Sd. 1764. For later observations 
see Schnaase, Niederl&ndiache Briefe^ 1834 ; also the Catalogue of the Antwerp 
Mnsenm. 

X Nienwenhuys, Description de a Oalerie de SJf. le Roi des Pays-'Bas^ 1843. 



366 MATTEO. 

KATTJBO Di aZOVANirZ, 1435 ?-1 495, 

Or Matted da Siena, bom towards 1435, was the son of 
GioTanni di Bartolo, a mercer of Borgo San Sepolcro, who 
settled at Siena. In the beginning of his career Mattbo, in 
partnership with Giovanni di Pietro, a very inferior artist, 
sought snch employment as chance might throw in their way. 
Emerging from this precarious state of life, he gradually rose 
to be the best painter of the purely Sienese school, whose 
traditions he never abandoned, though his works show a decided 
.advance upon those of his immediate predecessors in vitality, 
grace, drawing, coloristic variety, and the handling of drapery. 
His Madonna della Neve (1477) and his Coronation of S, Barbara 
(1479) in S. Domenico are good examples of his powers, but 
perhaps his best production is the Assumption of the Virgin^ now 
in this gallery. In this work we may be said to have an epitome 
of Sienese painting in its aim and scope from the middle of the 
14th to the end of the 15th century. The merits of Matteo are 
conspicaous within : the narrow limits of his native school, 
otherwise they but serve to emphasize its immobility amidst 
the general progress • of Italian art» That school was always 
unfortunate in its efforts to render passion and dramatic action. 
Thus Matted failed in themes such as the Mastacre of the 
Innocents, a subject which he essayed more than once, struggling 
to disguise weakness by overstraining expression.^ He designed 
one of the Sibyls (the Samian) executed a graffio on the marble 
pavement of the Duomo of Siena. Matted married twice. By 
his second wife, Orsina del Taia, espoused in 1479, he had a 
numerous family.f He died in 1495. 

Nd. 2A1. " Ecce Homo:' 

A head of Christ crowned with thorns ; the hands crossed 
on the breast. On the cruciform nimbus are the words 
YHS'XPS'NAZ', and in a border round the blue background is 
the inscription, in gold capitals on a lilac ground, ^' In nomine iSv 
omne genu fl6c(tet) celestium terestium et inf eno(rum)." 

In tempera, on wood, 8^ in. h, by 8^ in. to. 

■ 

* He' painted it three times, somewhat varyinff the composition. One 
example is in S. Agostino (1482) ; the second (1491) in S. Maria de' Servi 
fotaerly Delia Ooncezione, at Siena ; the third, a mnch damaged work, in the 
Masetim at Naples, seems to bear the date 1488. 

t Milanesi, Docummti per la Storia delV Arte Seneee, n., p. 373. 



MATTEO— MAZO. 367 

No. IXBSa The Assumption of the Virgin, 

The Yirgin seated on clouds, with hands joined in prayer, ia 
wafted towards Heaven by cherubim and seraphim. A choir of 
twenty angels in brilliant garments float joyfully around her, 
singing and sounding instruments of music. She is clothed in 
a red tunic crossed by a rich stole, and a large mantle of white 
damask embroidered with florets and lined with green, which is 
clasped on the bosom, and, leaving the arms free, envelopes the 
knees and feet. Her head is covered with a close white veil, 
and surrounded by a gold nimbus inscribed reoina*celi*letare. 
Christ above, in the midst of cherubim and seraphim, bends 
dpwn to receive her. A. little lower, on each side, is seen a 
group of prophets, amongst whom St. John the Baptist is 
conspicuous. All these figures and groups are on a gold ground. 
Below is a landscape, in the foreground of which is the empty 
tomb. St. Thomas presses eagerly forward to receive the ginlle 
of the Yirgin, which, according to the legend, she let fall to 
him as she ascended. The panefl on which this altar piece i» 
painted terminates above in an ogee form. 

In tempera, on wood, 10 ft. 10^ in. h. by 5 ft. 8j in. ti7. « 

Purchased in 1884 from the Signori Griccioli, of the Mnnistere 
(S. Eugenio), near Siena. ' 

No. 1461- St, Sebastian. 

The Saint pierced with numerous arrows in the upper part of 
his body and holding the crown of martyrdom in his rifl[ht hajkd 
and in the left the palm-branch, stands in a picturesque landscape 
of rocky aUGs, between which is seen an open country. Above, 
two angels place a crown on his head. The panjel, which is arched 
above, is surrounded by the original gilt mouldings. 

In tempera, unvarnished, on wood, 4 ft. If in. k. hj.l ft. 11 J in., w. 

Purchased in 1895 from Signor Bardini, of Florence. 



MAZO (Juan Baltista Martinez del); . . . ?-1667. 

Mazo was a native, of Madrid. He became a pupil .and 
assistant of Velazquez, who highly favoured him« and ia 16.34 
gave . hiip his only daughter, Francisco, in • marriage. On' the 
decease of hii father-in-law he was nommaited private painter to 



368 MAZO— MAZZOLA. 

the king, an office which, together with other court appoint- 
ments, he held until his death in 1667. He imitated the style of 
his master with considerable success, so much so that his copies 
of portraits by Velazquez have often passed for originals by the 
great painter himself. But Mazo was not destitute of inde- 
pendent talent, as his landscapes prove. Of these the most 
eminent is the great view of Zaragossa in the Madrid Gallery, 
painted for Philip lY. when his son, the Infante Don Balthazar 
Carlos, received the homage of Aragon and Navarre. This picture 
is of masterly execution, and the numerous figures grouped in the 
foreground have been, not inexcusably, ascribed to Velazquez. 
Other landscapes by Mazo in the same collection, sometimes con- 
taining mythological figures, are distingaished by grandeur of 
composition. The portrait group in the Belvedere at Vienna, 
called the Family of Velazquez and attributed to that master, is by 
some believed to be rather the work of Mazo, and to represent his 
own family circle, comprising the children of a second marriage.^ 
In undisputed portraits by this painter the endeavour to follow the 
n^anner of Velazquez is always patent. 

No. 1308. Portrait of a Man. 

Full length ; one-third life size. A short, thick-set figure, clad 
in a red jacket thickly laced with silver ; full slashed sleeves ; 
trunk hose, and high leather boots. His long and bushy hair falls 
on a large lace collar. He rests his left hand on the back of a 
chair. In his right he holds a broad-brimmed felt hat trimmed 
with white feathers. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 11 in. A. by 2 ft. 2f in. w. 

Presented by Mr. 0. H. Crompton-Boberts in 1890. 



(FiLiPPO), 14— ?-1606. 

Was the son of Bartolommeo Mazzola of Parma who had three 
sons, painters, Filippo, Michele, and Pierilario, much employed in 
Patma, although their works never rose much abdve mediocrity. 



* 0. B. Onrtis, Velazquez and Murtllo, London ; 1883, p. 15. Oarl Justi, D(ego 
Velazquez Ac. Bngliah edition, London ; 1889, p. 425. 



MAZZOLA. 369 

Of these Filippo, called deUe Erbetle, was the best. His works 
are very rare. A signed work representing the Baptism of Christ 
was painted for the Baptistry at Parma and is now in the Episcopal 
Palace ; and another is in the Pinacoteca in the same town ; in the 
museum at Naples are a Dead Christy and a Madonna with Saints ; 
and there is a Madonna with Saints, signed by him, in the Berlin 
museum. He was also a painter of portraits, in which the influence 
of Antonello da Messina is to be traced.^ The date of his birth 
is uncertain, but he is known to have died of the plague in 1505. 
His pictures bear dates from 1491 to 1504. Filippo Mazzola was 
the father of Francesco, better known as U Parmigianino. 

No. 1416a The Virgin and Child with two Saints. 

In the centre of the picture the Virgin offers a pear or quince 
to the Infant Christ, who sits, undraped, on her lap caressing a 
bird which fie holds in His hand. On the left, and close behind 
the child, stands St. Jerome with his hands closed in prayer. On 
the riffht hand is another Saint bearing a closed volume, on 
which IS placed a small figure of thos Saviour standing before a 
cross in a stone niche. The Yir^n aad Saints are seen at half 
length and painted aBout half the size of life. Background of sky. 
Signed : — 



Enclosed in an old Italian frame of early cinque-cento pattern, 
richly carved, gilt, and painted, probably its original frame. 

On panel, 1 ft. 9| in. A. by 2 ft. 5 in. w. 

Purchased (out of the Lewis Fond) from Mr. G. Fairfax Murray in 
1894^ 



(MAZZOZiA (Francesco M.). See PARMZOZANO.) 



* Eugler's Handbook. 5th Edition, revised by Sir A. H. Layard, 1887. p. H8tf. 
25640 2 A 



370 MAZZOLINO. . 

MAZZO&ZNO (LuDOVico) da FSR&A&A, 1480?-1528? 

Mazzolino, born at Ferrara about 1480, died therein or soon 
after 1528.^ He has generally been looked upon as one of the 
pupils of Lorenzo Costa, though more recently Domenico Pannetti 
has been suggested as his probable teacher .f His works, which are 
not numerous, are for the most part of small dimensions ; the 
unique example of one on a large scale containing figures of life 
size is the Presepio in the Pinacoteca of Ferrara, but it forms no 
exception in the works of Mazzolino in point of elaborate finish. 
The deep and almost fiery glow of his colouring, and the use of 
gold in the high lights of his draperies invest his pictures with a 
distinctive character, even amongst those of his native school. 
Very pleasing are the symmetric architectural backgrounds often 
introduced by Mazzilino, in which the creamy-toned marble bas- 
reliefs at once enrich the composition and add force and harmony 
to the deep tints of red, green, blue, orange and murrey clustered 
in the raiment of the figures. Good specimens of his work are in 
the Pitti and Uffizi collections at Florence ; in the Doria and 
Borghese Palaces at Borne ; and in the Gkilleries of BerMn^ 
Dresden, and the Louvre. Mazzoltno married in 1521 Giovanna, 
daughter of Bartolommeo Yacchi, a Venetian painter. 

No. 8£. The Holy Family. 

Saint Francis is adoring the infant Christ ; behind are Elizabeth 
and Saint John. The little Saint John is protecting a lamb from 
a monkey which appears to menace it. The background is an 
architectural elevation adorned with bassi-rilievi. 

Engraved in Jones's National Gallery, 

On wood, 1 ft. 9 in. h, by 1 ft. 3 J in. w, ^ 

Formerly in the Durazzo Palace at Genoa. Bequeathed to the 
National Gallery, in 1831, by the Rev. W. Holwell-Carr. 

No. 1C9. The Holy Family. 

With St. Nicholas of Tolentino adoring the infant Saviour ; St. 
Joseph is presenting him with cherries. Immediately above the 

* His will was made on the 27th of Sept., 1528, when the pla^ae was ragtag in 
Ferrara, to which he probably succumbed soon after. He was certainly not 
living at the close of 1530. * 

t^Lermoliefif" (Sgr. Giovanni Morelli), in Die Werke Italieniseher Meister in 
den Qalerien von Munchen &c. passim. 



MAZZOLIKO— MELDOLLA. 371 

Virgin is the Dove in a glory of light, the symbol of the Holy 
Ghost, and in the upper part of the picture is a yiaion of the 
Father surrounded by a choir of angels. 

The whole is symmetrically arranged ; the background of the 
composition is an architectural elevation, enriched wiin ba^si- 
rilievi. 

On wood, 2 ft. i in. h, by 1 ft. 6f in w. 

Formerly in the Lercari Palace at Genoa : brought to England by 
Mr. A. Wilson in 1806. Purchased for the National Gallery from 
Mr. Beckford, in 1839. 

No. 641. TTie Woman taken in Adultery. 

The scene represents the interior of the Temple, in which are 
many people both on the floor and in the galleries. Christ has 
just completed the writing on the pavement, ** He that is without 
sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her," the Scribea 
and Pharisees, self-oonvicted, are about to turn away from him» 
John, ch. viii. 

On wood, 18 in. A. by 12 in. w. 

Formerly in the collection at Fonthill. Purchased at Paris from.^ 
M. Edmond Beaucousin in 1860. 

No. 149S> Christ disputing unth the Doctors. 

The youthful Saviour is seated on a raised throne in the . 
centre of the picture, and the doctors are grouped in variouR s 
attitudes of attention and conversation on each side. The back- 
ground is of the architectural character usual with Mazsolioo,^, 
adorned with statues in niches, and reliefs in sculpture. The 
lower of these reliefs represents Moses showing the Tables of the^ . 
Law to the Israelites. In the upper one is apparently the battle 
between the Israelites and the Philistines, with David beheading* 
Goliath. The draperies are heightened with gold. 

On panel, 1 ft. h. by 8| in. w. 

Purchased in 1897, from Messrs. T. Agnew and Sons. 



MS&DO&XiA (Andrea), galled SOBXAVOWB, 

1522-1582. 

This painter] was bom at Sebenico, in Dalmatia, in 1522 ; 
his parents, who were of very humble origin, migrated early to> 

26640 2 A 2 



372 MELDOLLA. 

Venice, bringing their child with them. His true surname was 
Meldolla, but he was called at Venice " Schiavone," the 
Slavonian. Andrea was early employed at very small re- 
muneration to paint the outsides of houses, Bidolfi enumerating 
many works of this kind which he executed. Titian first 
brought him into more general notice by employing him to 
paint three ovals in the library of St. Mark, and after that time 
he received many commissions for decorating the interiors of 
palaces and churches, but always apparently for very inadequate 
payment, for he seems to have lived in poverty all his life, 
Bidolfi constantly referring to him as " il povero," " lo infelice," 
"los fortunate,'* Schiavonet. Among other means of making a 
livelihood he painted, apparently for miserable pay, small 
subjects from religious history and fable for furniture and the 
fronts of " cassoni.'' Yet he was a brilliant artist, and Tintoret 
said of him that he made up for the weakness of his drawing by 
the beauty of his colour, and that that painter was to blame who 
did not popsess one of his works in his studio. His poverty, no 
doubt, by depriving him of the means for study, accounts for 
-the weak drawing in his pictures, but he was by nature a 
splendid coloarist, and improved himself in this respect by his 
&tudy of the works by Giorgione and Titian. He died in 1582. 
There is some doubt as to whether the etchings bearing the 
signature, Andrea Meldolla, are by this painter or by another 
artist of the same name. His works are to be met with in most 
o£ the principal galleries of Europe. The following small picture 
is one of the furniture panels alluded to above. 



No. 1476> Jv/piter and Semele. 

Semele is lying on the right of the picture on a couch covered 
with crimson and purple draperies. Jupiter descends from the 
sky surrounded by flames and clouds. On the left is a view into 
the open countiy. 

On panel, 8f in. //. by 2 ft. 1^ in. iv. 

Purchased in London at the sale of the collection of Lord Leighton 
of Stretton, P.R.A., in 1896. 



MELONB. 373 

(^LTOBELio). 14 . . ? Painting in and after 1518. 

• 

Or de'Meloni of Cremona, son of Maroantonio Melone, and 
possibly a pnpil of Boccaccio Boccaocino, is best known by 
seven subjects from the history of our Lord which he con 
tributed to the series of frescoes in the nave of Cremona Cathedral. 
Those painted by Melone are the Flight into Egypt^ the Massacre 
of the Innocents^ the Last Supper, the Washing of the Disciples, 
feet, the Agony in the Garden, the Seizure of Christ, and Christ 
"before Cataphas, The three first and the sixth are signed, the 
two first dated MDXYII. ; the signatare is " Altobellus de 
Melonibns p.,'' or " Altobellos p.'' merely. The painters of the 
other subjects in the nave and in the choir were Boccaccino^ 
Gian Francesco Bembo, Cristoforo Moreto and Bomanino ; by 
the last of whom Altobello seems to have been influenced., 
Many of the entire series have suffered from decay or restorar 
tion, all are badly seen from below, especially those in the nave, 
from their great altitude and the narrowness of the church itself. 
Yasari mentions some frescoes by Altobello in Sant' Agostino 
at Cremona, these still exist though cut off from view by a timber 
construction in the church. The dates of this painter's birth and 
death are unknown.^ 



No. 753> Christ and the Disciples on the way to 
Emmaus. 

Three figures nearly life-size in a landscape ; our Lord dressed 
as a pilgrim has overtaken the two disciples and has laid his left 
hand on the shoulder of the one nearer to him ; the disciples have 
turned to look at him. 

On wood, 4 ft. 9 in. square. 

Formerly in the Carmelite Church of San Bartolomeo at Cremona. 

Purchased in 1864 at Milan from the Count Carlo Castelbarco. 



» Notices of Altobello may be found in Grasselli, Abeeedario biograjlcodegli 
Artefld cremonesi: Milano, 1827. Signer Giov. Morelli considered him as a 
direct pupil of Romanino. (See Kugler's Handbook^ Ac, edited by Siy H. 
Layard, n., 583.) MM. Crowe and Cavalcaselle trace in his earlier woi*kf 
evidence of Ferrarese tec^c^ing. iPainting in North J/a^y, XL, 451, seqq.) 



374 MELOZZO. 

XBIiOZZO DA rOBU. 1438-1494. 

As he is commonly called from the city of his birth, was bom 
at Forli, in Bomagna, in June, 1438. Of his career scarcely any- 
thing is known ; in 1472 he was in Borne, and painted at that 
time, for the Cardinal Biario, nephew of Sixtus lY., the tribune 
of the church of the Santi Apostoli ; but the church was rebuilt 
in 1711, and Melozzo's frescoes, with the exception of a few 
fragments, perished. The figure of our Saviour from this work, 
which represented his Ascension amidst cherubin, is still pre- 
served in the Palazzo Quirinale, and four beautiful figures of 
angels playing on musical instruments are placed in the sacristy 
of St. Peter's. In the Vatican gallery is a remarkable fresco 
by him, now transferred to canvas, representing the installation 
of Platiaa (Bartolomeo Sacchi) by Sixtus lY. as prefect of the 
Yatican Library. This picture, painted after 1475, contains also 
portraits of the Cardinal Pietro Biario Giuliano della Bovere, 
afterwards Pope Julius II., Girolamo Biario and Giovanni della 
Bovere, all four nephews of Pope Sixtus. The Count Girolamo 
Biario, Lord of Forli, brought Melozzo to Bome and created him 
his gentleman and esquire. Melozzo is supposed to have been 
patronized alno by Federigo of Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, and 
to have executed some of the series of portraits formerly in the 
Palace of Urbino, of which several are now in the Louvre, having 
recently formed part of the Campana Collection Giovanni Santi 
of Urbino, the father of Baphael, in his Chronicle speaks of 
Melozzo as his friend, and lauds his skill in perspective :— 



' Melozzo a me si caro 



Che in prospettiva ha stesso tanto il passo." 

' Melozzo was distinguished for his skill in foreshortening, having 
displayed remarkable powers in this respect in the already noticed 
frescoes of the cupola of the SS. Apostoli. He was one of the 
original members of the Boman Academy of St. Luke, which was 
founded by Sixtus lY. He has inscribed his name in the book 
of the Academy, Melotius Pi, Pa., which is interpreted as Melotius 
Pictor Papalis, Melozzo Painter to the Pope. We learn from his 
epitaph, formerly in the church of the Trinity at Forli, that he 
lived fifty-six years and five months, and, as the date of his 



MBLOZZO. 375 

death is given in a manoscript chroniole of the time^ as the 
3th November, 1494, the day of his birth is assamed to have 
been the 8th of June, 1438. 

The two following pictures are ascribed to this painter, and are 
supposed to be two of a series executed for the Duke Federigo of 
Urbino, about the year 1480. 

No. 755. Rhetoric f 

A female enthroned and richly dressed, seated under a massive 
marble canopy ; before the throne are some steps, covered with a 
figured green carpet ; on one of these steps, on her right, is kneel- 
iug a man in red and black with his red cap hanging on his 
shoulders behind him ; he holds before the enthroned female an 
open book, to the contents of which she points with her right 
hand. On a frieze above is the inscription, (P)yX YBBINI 
MONTIS FBRITRI AC— Duke of Urbino and Montef eltro. 

On wood, 5 ft. 1^ in. h. by 3 ft. 1^ in. w. 

No. 756- Mvsic f 

A female enthroned and richly dressed, is presenting with her 
right hand a closed clasped volume to a younff man also richly 
dressed who is kneeling on the steps before her, on her right 
hand, and with her left she is pointing to a small regal or 
portable organ which is standing on the steps on the other side 
of her. On the frieze over this group are the words lEOLESIB 
OONFALONBRIVS— Gonfaloniere of the Church. 

On wood, 5 ft. 1^ in. A. by 3 ft. 24 in. to. 

These companion pictures are said to be two of seven which were 
originally in the palace of Urbino. They passed subsequently into the 
possession of the Principe del Gonti^ who sold them to Mr. William 
Spenoe, from whom they were purchased at Florence, in June 1866. 
The words incribed on the pictures are portions of an inscription which 
the Duke f'ederigo had put up on the walls of the courtyard of the 
palace of Urbino. — Fi^edericus JJrhini Dux^ Montisferetri ao Durantis 
Comes, Sanetm Ro, EoclesUeOanfalonerius^atqtieltaliecd OonfcederationU 
Imperator, ife. 

*B7 Leone Cobelli, quoted in the Commentary on the life of Benozzo 
Oozzoli in the fourth volume of the Le Monnier edition of Yasari, p. 198. See 
alao Beggiani, *'^^un« Meniorie intorno al PUtore Marco Melozzo da Forli^ "FotW, 
1834. The name ICarco here given to Melozzo, seems to be an error from con- 
founding the name of the master with that of his pupil Marco Falmezzano, 
who from affection to Melozzo has signed his name Marchus de Melotius, 
CohelU in the MS. cited speaks of Melozzo as Miloeio degli AmbrosU indicating 
Ambrogi to have been tne painter's surname, but it was not used by Melozzo 
binuelzi or by any other contemporaries when speaking of hioL 



876 MELOZZO— MEMLINO. 

Federigo ol Montefeltro was created gonfaloniere of the Choroh bj 
PiuB II. in 1465, and Duke of Urbino in 1474, by Sixtus IV. Tbe 
words of his titles wanting between those of the inscription of these two 
pictures are on a companion picture now in the gallery at Berlin; 
another of the seriea is in the possession of Her Majesty tiie Qneen^* 



KBMIiIWCt (BANS) ?-1495. 

The form of this great master's christiin name' — Hans 
instead of Jan — ^had suggested that he was of German rather 
than . of Flemish origin. The surmise has now become a 
certainty ; he was born at Mayence, though in what year is 
not known4 A picture by him, formerly in the possession of 
Cardinal Bembo at Padua, bore the date 1470, showing that 
Memling was at that period well practised in his art ; it 
seems probable that he was born about 1430. The earliest 
trustworthy notices relating to him prove that he was already, 
in 1478, living at Bruges, in bis own house, as an established 
painter ; that he was then a citizen of property and considera- , 
tion, and one of those who in 1480 contributed to the city 
loan towards defraying tbe expenses of tbe war between the 
Emperor Maximilian and France. In 1487 he lost his wife, 
Anne, by whom he had two sons and a daughter ; and oa 
the 11th of August, 1494, he himself died, his children being 
tben still minors.§ Memling used the technical methods 
perfected by the Van Eycks, and prevalent after their time 
in the North. His works afford presumptive evidence of his 
artistic afOlIiation to Bogier van der Weyden, while they also 
show an advance in many respects upon those of the elder 
paiuter. It has been truly and well said that, in drawing a 

I - * — _^ . _. — 

• 

* See Deonistoun's Dukes of Urbino^ vol. I. ; and Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Hist, 
of Painting in Italy, vol. n 

t The orthography of this painter's name has been fixed by Mr. W. H. J. 
Weale, who gives good reasons for the adoption of the termination followed 
above. The inscriptions on the frames of two triptychs in St. John's Hospital 
at Bruges give the spelling Memling : but these are of a later period. See Bans 
Memlinc, a Notice of his Life and Works, by W. H. James Weale, published by the 
Arundel Society. 1866 ; also notices by the same learned and accurate writer in 
" Le Beffroi," Vol. II., 1865. As to the form Hemlivg^ so long erroneously used, 
it arose with Descamps (Vie des Peintres Ac, 1753-6), who misunderstood the old 
initial M. of the Inscriptions, which has nearly the form of H. 

X See " AthenaBum," Feb. 2, 1889, p. 154. 

$ Minority lasted until the age of five-ind-twenty. Weale, as above 



MEMLING. 377 

comparison between Mehling and his predecessors and con- 
temporaries, he is found inferior to John van Eyck in power of 
colour and chiaroscuro, as well as in searching portraiture ; to 
Yan der We.yden in dramatic force ; to Dierick Bouts and 
Gheeraert David in beauty and finish of landscape.^ As a 
religious painter, however, he was above them all ; he had a 
certain ideal strain in him which softened and elevated all he 
touched. Avoiding a too realistic representation of grief and 
pain he indulged rather in a tender cheerfulness, and in the 
serene and not undignified expression of purity, humility and 
resignation. His Infant Christ is no longer the awkward and 
crabbed being of earlier Flemish art. Memling was as incapable 
as was Fra Angelico of depicting humanity in its brutal aspects ; 
indeed his male figures are too often wanting in force. A 
correct chronological arrangement of Mem ling's works is now 
an impossibility. If the claim made for him to the authorship 
of the Last Judgment at Dantzig were established, the apparent 
date on that picture (1467) would offer the earliest record of his 
activity. f The beautiful triptych at Ghiswick, containing the 
portraits of the Englishman, Sir John Donne (as donor), his wife 
and their little daughter, is supposed to have been painted in 
1471.:|: The large altar-piece, also a triptych, in the Hospital 
of St. John at Bruges, of which the centre panel is between 
5 and 6 feet square, bears the date 1479 ; but the inscription has 
been retouched. This fine work, symmetrical in composition, 
represents the Yirgin seated in a throne, with the Infant on her 
lap, from whom St. Catherine, seated on the marble floor to the 
left, receives the ring of her mystic marriage. Her figure is 
balanced on the right by that of St. Barbara, who reads in a 
book. Behind stand on each side the Baptist and St. John the 
Evangelist. Two angels in choir dresses complete the group 
and two others hover above in front of the baldacchino holding 
a crown over the Yirgin's head. The lines of the composition 

* Weale, Hans MemlinCt Ac, p. 6. 

t This claim is not universally admitted. For the curions history of the 
Dantzig picture, and for pn elaborate description of it. see Crowe and Oaval- 
caselle (Oesch: der AUniederlandi8ChenMalereUpi>^2Q2'^292X who deol&Te for the 
authorship of Memlinc. 

X Weale, Hans Memlinc Ac, p. 10, note, who considers the triptych to have 
been painted in that year, during which K. Edward IV., with many adherents 
of the House of York, was at Bruges ; though he admits that it may be of later 
date. 



^ 378 MEMLINO. 

are singahrly fine, the draperies are noble in their sweep, and 
show nothing of Van der Weyden's angularity. The remark- 
able panel at Munich in which, under the title of ** The seyen 
Joys of Mary," various scenes in her own life and that of her son 
are disposed in one wide-stretching landscape, was the centre of a 
triptych given to the Corporation of Tanners at Bruges by Peter 
Bultync in 1480. From 1484 dates the large altar-piece in the 
church of St. Jacques at Bruges, painted for the Moreel family. 
The charming diptych in the Hospital of St. John, with the 
half-length portrait of the young Martin van Nieuwenhoven 
in prayer on odo side, is dated 1487. In the eame precious 
collection is the wonderful Reliquary of St. Ursula, a shrine in 
the form of a rich Gothic Chapel, painted on the sides, gable ends, 
and roof with miniature scenes from the history of the Saint and 
ideal sacred subjects. These were completed in 1489. Not easily 
assignable to any precise date are The Seven Sorrows of Mary 
in the Turin Gallery ; the Deposition triptych, and the Adoration 
of the Magi, in St. John's Hospital ; the splendid votive picture 
belonging to Count Duchatel in Paris ; pictures in the Louvre, at 
the Hague, at Llibeck, Frankfort, Berlin and Yieona ; at Palermo, 
Florence and Bome (the exquisite Entombmetit in the Doria 
Palace) and Madrid. Amongst these are several portraits. A 
vast number of works accredited to Memlinc are by scholars or 
. imitators only.^ 



No. C86> T?ie Virgin and In/ant Christy enthroned^ in 
a Garden. 

On her right an angel playing on a guitar ; on her left 
St. George with the dragon at his feet. In front the donor is 
kneeling before the Divine Infant, who, while listening to the 
music of the angel, is with his left hand turning over the leaves 
of a book held before him by his mother. In the distance is a 
view of the sea, with shipping. 

On wood, 21 1 in. A. by 14} in. w. 

Purchased at Cologne, at the Bale of the pictures of Mr. J. P. Weyer, 
in 1862. 

« MM. Orowe and Oavalcaselle, op. cit, give a lonsr list of works by and 
ascribed to Memlinc. 



MEMLINC— MENOS, 379 

No: 709> The Madonna and Infant Christ, 

The child naked and held in its mother's arms, is seated on 
a white cushion placed on a table in front of her ; behind is a 
curtain. 

On oak, 16 in. h. by 11^ in. w. 

Formerly in the Wallerstein Collection. Presented by Her Majesty 
Queen Victoria, in fulfilment of the wishes of H.B.H. the Prince Consort. 



Ascribed to MBKXiZarc. 

No. 747. 8t, John the Baptist holding a lamb on his 
left arm. 

St, Lawrence^ Deacon^ holding a gridiron by his side. 

Small full-length figures with landscape backgrounds. 

On oak, 1 ft. 10| in. k, by 6f in. w. each. 

On the backs of these pictures ascribed to Memlinc are painted some 
storks or cranes with bright red crests on their heads, and on one of the 
panels a coat-of -arms— Shield gules, two chevrons argent, accompanied 
by three pairs of compasses, surmounted by a helmet with mantliug, 
gules and argent. Crest, a man's arm and hand in particoloured sleeye 
holding a pair of compasses. 

Purchased in Paris from M. San in 1865. 



(Anton Raphael), 1728-1779. 

This artist, who, in the second half of the 18th century, achieyed 
a European reputation, was born May 12, 1728, at Aussig on the 
Elbe in Bohemia, near the Saxon frontier. His father, Ismael, 
a Dane by birth, a painter chiefly in miniature and enamel, was 
at that time court-painter at Dresden. This man, with views of 
art beyond those of his time, resolved to instil them into his 
son ; and the young Anton Raphael (named after Correggio 
and tl^e great Urbinate) was taken by him to Rome at the age 
of 13, and set to study the works of the great masters. Both 
returned to Dresden in 1744 ; the son already a proficient beyond 
example in crayon-painting. His talent was recognized by the 
King (Augustus III.), who bestowed upon him a stipend of 600 
thalers. Two years later father and son again repaired to Rome ; 



2»Q MENGS. 

and Baphael painted there a Holy Family which drew forth 
universal plaudits. He now joined the Church of Rome, and 
married the beautiful gitl who hstd been his model for the 
Madonna. In 1749 he visited' Dresden, became court-painter, 
and received numerous commissions. But his heart remained 
in Rome, and thither he returned in 1752. Somewhat later he 
became President of the Academy of St. Luke, and, what was of 
more import in his life, acquired the friendship of Winckelmann. 
That devoted student of classic art led Mengs to share his love 
for it, who had not hitherto looked for sources of inspiration save 
in the masters of the- 16th century. His hew studies had a 
considerable effect in enlarging his views and chastening his 
style. His fresco, the Parnassus (Apollo, Mnemosyne, and the 
Muses), on a ceiling in the Yilla Albani, and still more his 
fresco decorations in the Gabinetto di Papiri in the Vatican, if 
cold, are far removed from the bombastic emptiness, the super- 
ficial flutter, and the modish triviality which in great part 
constituted Italian art at that time. Mengs, in truth, if no 
genius, was an earnest Northern, looking with serious eye on 
the great problems of art, though vainly seeking in eclecticism 
what Nature alone could have afforded him. Yet in his portraits 
he showed that he could comprehend and interpret her well. In 
1761 he was invited to Spain by Charles III., appointed court- 
painter, and charged with many commissions, some of which were 
unfinished when he went back to Rome in 1771, and executed 
the works above mentioned in the Yatican Library. The climate 
of Madrid tried his constitution, and after another effort to bear 
it, and complete his engagements there, he returned to Rome, 
where, in 1779, death overtook him in his 51st year. Mengb's 
writings have been published in many Italian editions, as well 
as in translations into most other European languages.^ 

* Mengs naturally took a lively interest in the excavations which, begun in 
1755, were laying bare the buried city of Pompeii. The question of the method 
in which the mural paintings within the houses there and in Herculaneum 
were executed occupied his attention ; and after having passed the winter of 
1772-3 at Naples, he announced YxiB conviction that that method was no other 
than "buon fresco." His profound and practical knowledge of the various 

£ recesses of his own art makes his opinion on this subject almost authoritative, 
[ore recent investigations, scientiflcally conducted, now seem to confirm 
beyond cavil the general soundness of his conclusion. See Abhandlung uber die 
antiken Wandmatereien in technischer Beziehung^ by Otto Donner prefixed to 
Helbig's Wandgemdlde der vom Vemv verschiltteten Stadie Companiens. Leipzig 
1868i' '««.■.- .... ........ , i I . ■ ]' 



MENGS— MEftlAN. 3iBl 

No. 1099« The Virgin and Child with St. John 
the Baptist. 

The Yirgin, whose figure is seea to the waiet, sits supporting 
the Infant Christ (undraped), who lies asleep on her icnees. On 
the right stands the youthful St. John bearing a cross. 

Cartoon executed in black chalk, circular form, 2 ft. 4 in. in 
diameter. 

Bequeathed by Miss Harriet Eeareley in 1881 . 



(Matth^us), Jnr., 1621-1687. 

The son of the Swiss engraver and painter, Matthssus Merian, 
was bom at Basle in 1621. He was carefully educated by his 
father, and then placed under Joachim von Sandrart who took 
him at the age of 19 to Holland. From thence the young artist 
visited Flanders, France, Italy and England. In France he 
made acquaintance with Lesueur and Youct ; in Italy with 
Sacchi, under whose guidance he studied the works of the great 
masters ; and with Maratta, whose warm friendship he gained. 
In England he came into friendly relations with Van Dyck, and 
took that painter as his model in the art of portraiture. This 
art he soon had occasion to practice on a large scale, for, being 
at Nuremberg during the treaty of peace in 1650, when numbers 
of Imperial, Swedish and French officers of high rank were there 
assembled, his services as a portrait painter were ezten&ively 
required, and in a princely manner renumerated. The elder 
Merian had established himself at Frankfort as a book and prints 
^ller ; thither the son was suddenly called to his father*s death- 
bed, and now he had to assume the management of the business, 
and to continue the publication of the ^^ Theatrum Europssum,*' 
begun by his father. In 1652 Merian married, and in the 
same year painted the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence for the high 
altar of Bamberg Cathedral. Yet notwithstanding the many 
claims upon him as painter he prosecuted the business pf his 
establishment with energy, and produced, besides, several 
engravings. The coronation of the Emperor Leopold I. • at 
Frankfort, in 1658, again called into play Merian's powers in 
portrait-painting, and led to his being invited to Yienna, where 



382 MBRIaN— METSU. 

he painted the Emperor on horseback, and some of the electoral 
piinces. He found especial favonr with the Elector of Branden- 
burg and the MargraTes of Baden and Durlach, the first and the 
last of whom conferred upon him the title of state-councillor 
His last work appears to have been a large plan of Frankfort on 
four copper-plates, completed in 1682. He died in 1687, leaving 
a son, Johann Matthaeus, who practised painting in pasteL 

No. 1012> Portrait of a Man. 

Aged about 30 ; seated ; seen in nearly full face ; the head 
resting on the left hand. The dress is of black velvet, of the 
fashion of about 1665-70 ; the full shirt-sleeves being seen from 
the bend of the arm downwards. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 2 in. h, by 2 f X 7 in. w. 

It was ascribed to Vandyck in the Wynn Ellis Collection. 

Ths Wynn Ellis Bequest 1876. 



MSSSXNA. {See ANTONBXi&O.) 



(Gabbiel), 1630-1637. 

Metsu, a native of Leyden, was born in 1630. He had the 
advantage of Gerard Don's tuition, and already in 1644 had 
become a member of the Leyden Guild of Painters. In 1650 he 
removed to Amsterdam, where he fell under the influence of 
Rembrandt. In the subjects which he selected for his art— ^ 
scenes from domestic town life, chiefly among the wealthier 
classes — he was unsurpassed in his fine observation of oharaoter 
and gesture, in bis exquisite and expressive drawing of hands^ 
in his delicate manipulation and finish, in the spirituel touch of 
his pencil, and in the refinement and beauty of his colouring. 
His compositions are faultless in arrangement and in balance of 
parte.' In respect of chiaroscuro, if that term be applied, as it 
often i^ with us, not merely to the management of light, shadow, 
and refiex, but to that of lights and darks generally in their 
mutual relations and values as local colour, Metsu was a master 



METSU. 383 

of the first order. When his pictares have escaped the ordeal 
of ruthless cleaning they are pervaded hy the finest tone, and the 
whites in them have that delicate glow which distance and 
atmosphere lend to snowy peaks. It is obvious that he caressed 
this least manageable of colours with unceasing love. Altogether 
his works have a quality of distinction rare in those of any 
school. Almost all the great northern galleries, pablic and 
private, contain example? of his skill. The Louvre is particularly 
rich in this respect. The galleries of Dresden, Amsterdam and 
the Hague have each some of the choicest specimens. Id 
England, the Royal Collection, the Wallace Collection, and others, 
can show some of equal merit. The painter died at Amsterdam 
at the early age of seven-and-thirty, and was interred there 
October 24, 1667.« 

No. 838. The Duet. 

Interior of a chamber. A lady in a scarlet jacket, holding a 
piece of music in her hand on her lap, is seated at a table covered 
with a Turkey carpet on which a bass viol is lyin^;; ; behind is a 
gentleman tuning his violin. By the lady's side is a spaniek 
Signed O. Metsu, 

On wood, 1 ft. 4^ in. h. by 1 ft 2| in. to. Engraved in the ChoisenI 
Gallery. 

Formerly in the Choiseul, Praslin, and Talleyrand Collections. Im- 
ported by Mr. Buchanan. Purchased with the Peel Collection in 1871. 



No. 839a The MvMc Lesson. 

" A lady holding a piece of music is seated at an open virginal 
conversing with a gentleman holding a glass of wine in his hand ; 
a jus is on the floor and a fiddle is lying on a table by his side. 
On the wall in the background are two pictures, one in a gilt and 
the other in an ebony fnime. Signed O. Metsu. 

On canvas, 15 in. h, by 12^ in. w. Etched by Bajon for the 
" PortfoUo." 

Formerly in the collections of Mr, Bryan and Lord Badstook. Pur- 
chased with the Peel Collection in 1871. 

* Commnnication by M. Charles M. Dozy, from the Amsterdam Burial 
Begisters in the Archie/ voor Niederlandscke KunstgeschiederUSt Deel V., p. 14. 



384 METSU— MEULBN. 

No. 970> The drowsy Landlady. 

A woman in a scarlet gown and white apron is sleeping in an 
arm-chair holding a clay pipe in her hand ; she is seated near a 
tahl^ on which are playing cards and other objects ; a spaniel in 
front is watching her. Two men are in the backgroond, one 
endeaTouring to wake her by tickling her neck with the end of 
his clay pipe. Signed on the slate, G. Metzu. 

On oak, \i\ in. h, by 12^ in. w. 

From Mr. A. D. Aoraman*s collection at Bristol. Gref&er Fagel, 
1801. Willett Willett, 1813. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



BKSUXiSir (Adam Frans van deb), 1632-1690. 

Was born at Brussels on the 11th January 1632 and was a 
pupil, of Pieter Snayerf. He early acquired a great facility 
in paintingf landscapes, hunting scenes, and battle pieces. His 
skill in the latter subjects was the cause of his fortune^ Some 
of his pictures, which had found their way to France, came under 
the notice of the painter Le Brun who advised Colbert to invite 
the painter to Paris. Here he was assigned an apartment in the 
Gobelins, and a salary of 2,000 francs a year. He accompanied 
Louis XIY. on his campaigns and sketched incessantly the 
scenes of battle, sieges, and encampments, and from these 
studies made numerous pictuies recording the history of Loais* 
victorious career in Flanders. He was intimately allied with 
Le Brun and married his niece in second marriage. Van deb 
Meulen's pictures are faithful renderings of the scenes which he 
painted, and are treated with much sense of atmosphere and of 
the picturesque, qualities which were of value, as he was thus 
able to impart artistic feeling to the grtat battle scenes and 
perspective of sieges with which he had to deal, many of which 
would have otherwise degenerated into mere formal diagrams and 
bird's-eye views. His figures and horses are full of animation ; 
the latter especially are painted with much skill. He was made 
a member of the French Academy in 1673 and died at Paris on 
the 15th October 1690. His works are principally to be found in 
the Louvre and at Versailles* 



MEULEN— MICHELB. 386 

No. 1447. A Hunting Party. 

A carriage with &ix white horses is drawn up at the foot of a 
rising ground covered with trees. A personage of importance, 
possibly Louis XIY., is seated at the window of the carriage, 
and two horsemen approach him hat in hand ; the carriage is 
surrounded by a suite of persons on horseback and on foot, all 
bareheaded, and on the risht, at the side of the road, is a group 
of dogs in charge of a hunting valet apparently asleep. An 
open country with blue distance, and sky with flying clouds form 
the background. < 

Signed : — 

A.T^v .yvtjs vxEA/: rz c: 1 66i • bryx'sl . 

On panel, 1 ft. 11 in. h. by 2 ft. 7^ in. w. 

Purchased in 1895 at the sale of the Lyne Stephens Collection. 



MZCBBIiANOBXiO. {See BVOMABBOTZ.!* 



MZCBB&B DA VB&ONA. Fainting 1500:. 

MiCHELB was a contemporary and sometimes an assistant' 
of Oavazzola (Paolo Morando) at Terona, and, like the latter, 
belonged to the school of Domenico Morone. The period of his 
activity may be inferred from dates on his works extending from 
1500 to 152B. Of the year 1500 is a large Orucijianan, formerly 
in the refectory of S. Giorgio at Yerona, now in S. Btefano 
at Milan. The same subject (1506) with little variation is in 
S. Maria' in Yanzo, at Padua, where Michelb is thought to have 
also worked at the frescoes in the Scuola del Santo, in company 
with Titian. In Santa Ohiara, at Yerona, is a fresco, much 
injured, of 1509 ; others are in S. Maria della Yittoria Nuova 
and in Sant* Anastasia. An altar-piece, the Madonna enthroned 
and Saints, dated 1523, in the church of Villa di Yilla near Este,. 
is probably the best work by Michele. , His style altered and 
softened somewhat during his career, but always bears the- 
Yeronese stamp, and frequently shows the influence of Cavazzola^ 

2:640 2 B 



386 inOHELE— MIEBIS. 

though it is aot combined with the coloristic harmony to be 
fonnd in that master's work. Bat Michele's landscape back- 
grounds are often of great excellence. 



No. 1214. The meeting of Goriolanvs with Volumnia 
and Veturia. 

Goriolanus, clad as a Boman warrior, kneels in the foreground 
. to gre3t his wife, who is also on her knees with a boy by her 
side, while Yeturia and two other women stand behind her. 
Close to Goriolanus is a soldier holding his horse. On the right 
are two mounted soldiers. In the background a hilly landscape, 
with a river flowing past a town which is seen on the left. On 
the right a lofty cliif snrmonnted by buildings. In the distance 
a range of mountains across the tops of which fleecy clouds are 
drifting. Figures about one fourth the size of life. 

Qn canvas, 3 ft. A. by 3 ft. 10} in. to. 

Purchased in 1886 from Dr. J. P. Richter out of the "Walker 
.Bequest.*' 



(Frans van) Senior. 1635-1681. 

^BS born at Leyden 12fch April 1635. His father was a 
goldsmith and diamond cutter and Frans was one of a family 
of 2^ children.. He studied first with A. Torenvliet the glass- 
painter, at Leyden, and subsequently with Gerard Dou. In 
1658 he entered the Guild of St. Luke in his native town, and 
afterwards served in his turn as Dean of that Corporation. His 
works are generally of small size ; the subjects, taken from 
every-day life among the upper and middle classes, display 
great preoeption of character and a considerable sense of humour. 
Like all the bsst Dutch painters he paid especial attention 
to the drawing and expression of hands. His execution, at 
once spirited and to the last degree refined, vies with that of 
Metsu and of their common master, Gerard Dou. Frans Mibrib^ 
in fact, through the vivacity of his productions and their ex- 
quisite technical qualities, takes a high place among the '* Little 
Masters *' of Holland. And he was appreciated in his day ; the 



MIERIS, 387 

Grand Duke of Tuscany visited him at Ley den, and the Arch- 
duke Leopold William desired to attract him to Vienna. Mieeis, 
however conld not be induced to leave Leyden ; he remained 
there till his death on the 12th of March 1681. His sons 
WiUem and Frans practised what they called painting. 

No. 840a A Lady in a Crimson Jacket. 

Seated, feeding a parrot on its perch. 

On copper, 9 in. h. by 7 in. w. 

Formerly in the collections of M. De Oaignat, the Duke de Praslin, 
Prince Talleyrand, and Mr. Beckf ord at Fonthill. There are repetitions 
of this picture in His Majesty's collection and in the Munich Gallery. 
Purchased with the Peel collection in 1871. 



(WiLLEM van), 1662-1747. 

The son of Frans, bom at Leyden in 1662, was taught 
painting by his father. In 1G84 he married Agnes Chapman 
with whom he lived 60 years ; she died in 1744. Frans van 
Mieris, the younger, was their son. Willem lived to his 85th 
year and died at Leyden, 27th January 1747, having been blind 
the last few years of his life. He etched a few plates, and like- 
wise modelled in wax. He was but a poor imitator of his father 
and of Gerard Don. The debased taste of his day, overlooking 
his bad drawing and other feeblenesses, liked the laborious 
trifling of his pencil, and mistook slavish imitation of insigni- 
ficant details for true finish. 

No. 841. A Fish and Poultry Shop. 

The mistress within is bargaining with a fisherman for some 
fish. Various provisions exposed for sale. Below the shop 
window is an elaborate bas-relief from marine mythology, 
and a tortoiseshell cat immediately in front is eyeing a duck, 
whose head hangs from the window-sill ; whence this picture 
is sometimes called the cat, ** Le Chat." Signed W. van Mieris ^ 
ft. Anno 1713. 

On wood, 1 ft. 7^ in. k, by 1 ft. 4 in. w. 

Engraved by Burnet. Formerly in Sir Simon Clarke's collection. 
Purchased.from Sir Robert Peel in 1871. 

25610 2 B 2 



388 MILANESE SCHOOL— MOCETTO. 

BKZXiikNSSS SCHOOZii XV. 0& S^RILY 

XVZ. GBNTUaV 

No. 1052- Portrait of a Toitng Man. 

In a black cap andV gown lined with spotted lynx far over a 
crimson doublet. He wears a gold chain round his neck, and 
a gold ring on the thumb of his left hand. 

On wood, 2 ft. 1 in. h, by 1 ft. 7 in. w. 

Bequeathed by Miss Sarah Solly in 1879. 

No. 1300- The Virgin and Child. 

In a landscape, the central portion of which is occupied by a 
tree in full leaf, the Virgin, clad in a crimson robe and blue 
mantle, sits bearing on her lop the Infant Christ, who with a 
playful action turns from his Mother's breast towards the 
spectator. In the middle distance is a hamlet, beyond which 
rises a lofty cliff of fantastic shape. 

On wood, 1 ft. 11 in. h, by 1 ft. 6 in. w. 

Purchased from M. Edmond Beancousin at Paris, in 1860. 

No. 1438. Head of John the Baptist. 

The head of the Saint, of great beauty of expression and 
features, lies in a dish of white faience standing on a high foot, 
which is placed on a red marble slab. On the dark background 
is the inscription in large capitals : — 

MDXI. II. KL. FEB.o 

On panel, 1 ft. 64 in. h. by 1 ft. S^ in. w. 

Purchased in 1895 of Mr. James C. Watt, who bought it from the 
collection of the late Prof. Geromini of Cremona. Earfier it was in the 
collection of Cardinal Stoppani of Borne. 



BKOOBTTO (GiROLAMO), Painting 1490-1514. 

A native of Murano, studied painting at Yenice and became 
an assistant to Giovanni Bellini. Yasari, mentioning a picture 
of the Dead Christ in S. Francesco della Yigna at Yenice says 

* A replica of this picture bearing on a cartellino, the date ** 1511 die 24 Nov. 
in the Borromeo Collection at Milan. 



MOCETTO. 389 

that, although it bore the signature of Bellini, it was considered 
by many to be for the most part the work of Mogetto. In SS. 
Nazario e Oelso, at Yerona, is a Madonna enthroned, with 
attendant saints and worshippers ; in the gallery of Yicenza, a 
Madonna ; and, in the Modena Gallery, a portrait of a young man. 
All these are signed by Mocetto, but undated. These are the only 
pictorial works of this artist which can be identified ; regarded 
purely as paintings they are deficient in technical qualities. His 
claims to distinction rest rather on his engravings, executed under 
the inspiration of Giovanni Bellini and Mantegna, and in several 
instances copied from their designs.^ Impressions of Mogetto's 
plates are rare, and no collection appears to contain a complete 
series of them. The ascertained dates 1490 and 1514 afford some 
indication of the period of this artist's activity. 

No. 1239> Tlie Massacre of the Innocents, 

King Herod, seated towards the right under a stately portico 
of vaHegated marbles, directs the slaughter, which his soldiers 
have already begun. Mothers seem to appeal to the king in 
vain. On the pedestal of one of the supporting columns is the 
signature :— 

HEROL 
EMO— 
MOCETo 
P. 

In tempera, on wood, 2 ft. 2 in. h. by 1 ft. 5 in. w. 

No. 1240. The Massacre of the Innocents. 

In a splendid marble hall with a lofty arched opening through 
which the distant country is seen the soldiers of Herod are 
engaged in teizing and slaying the children, whom the mothers 
endeavour to protect, or whose loss they bewail. 

* Two of the best of Mocetto's engraviDgs, Judith and her maid with the head of 
HolopliemeSt&nd Bacchus seated by a vine^ are after designs by Mantegna. M. 
Georges Duplessis says of Mocetto :— " His burin has a certain harshness, but 
** his drawing is learned and precise. He shows himself particularly attentive 
"to beauty of form and elegance of line, to fulness in drapery, and delicacy, 
** in the extremities of his figures ; he strives after style, and generally attains 
*' it. When inspired by the example of Giovanni Bellini, or when directly 
"* copying that master's works, he adapts himself to the special mode of treat- 
'' ment required, and transmits to the metal not only the composition, but also 
** the imposing aspect of the originals." Histoire de la Oravure, <fcc., p. 57, Paris 
1880. 



390 MOCETTO— MOLA. 

In tempera, on wood, 2 ft. 2 in. h. by 1 ft. 5 in. to. 

This and the foregoing subject, which represent another sdene 
in the same tragedy, seem to have formed the wings of a triptych. 
They were once in the collection of the Yte. de Janz^ in Paris,^ 
and at an earlier period in that of Sir Bobt. Strange, Britiab 
Envoy at Venice. No. 1239 is engraved in outline on a very 
small Ecale by D*Agincourt ; Storia delV A rte, &c. Tav., OLXII. 

Both were purchased from Dr. J. P. Bichter in Florence in 1888. 



BKO&A (PiBTRO Fjsancesco) 1612-1668. 

Was born in or near Milan f in 1612. He went very early with 
his father Gio. Battista Mola, an architect, to Bome, where he 
studied painting under the Cavaliere d*Arpino. He removed 
while still young to Venice, where he dwelt some time ; but he 
afterwards returned to Bome, then visited Milan, and subse- 
quently Bologna, where he adopted the style of the Bolognese 
painters, imitating especially Albani, whose landscape pieces 
embellished with figures were particularly suited to the taste of 
Mola. He settled finally in Bome iD the latter part of the ponti- 
ficate of Innocent X., and died there in 1668.J: He had held the 
office of President of the Academy of St. Luke, and had been 
invited to settle in Paris as court-painter to Louis XIV. Mola 
painted large and small figures but excelled in laadscape : in 
light and shade he was much influenced by the style of Guercino. 
A certain idyllic character in Mo la's works renders them extremely 
attractive and of more true artistic value than the majority of 
works produced in his day. He etched some plates. 

No. 69. St. John Preaching in the Wilderness. 

The Saviour is seen approaching in the distance : — 

**The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith. Behold the 
Lamb of Qod, which taketh away the sin ot the world. This is he of whom I 
said. After me cometh a man which is preferred before me, for he was before 
me."— JoAn i.. 29, 30. 

* Emile Qalichon in Gazette dee Beaux Arts, 1859. P. 11., p. 332. 

fLanzi says, Como; in Goethe's Wlnckelmann und sein Jahrhundert, it is 
stated that he was born at Coldr6, in Italian Switzerland. 

X Passeri, Vite d^ Pltt&rl^ dkc. Pascoli, a more modern writer, says 1666 ; but 
Passeri, Mola's contemporary, is the better authority. 



MOLA— MOLENAIB. 391 

Landscape, with five small figures. 

On oanyas, 1 ft. 8^ in. A by 2 ft. 2 in. w. 

Formerly in the Robit collection at Paris : bequeathed to the National 
Gallery in 1831, by the Rev. W. Holwell-Carr. 

No. 160a The Repose, 

Landscape with small figures. The '^ Holy Family," during 
the flight mto Egypt, is reposins under the shade of some trees ; 
three angels are hovering over tne sleeping infant who is watched 
by its mother; in the distance is a shepherd tending his flock. 
This subject, which is often treated by the Italian painters, is 
commonly called the Riposo. 

Engraved by J. Ccelemans. On canvas, 1 ft. A. by 1 ft. 6 in. w. 

Formerly in the Orleans collection ; bequeathed to the National 
Gallery in 1838, by Charles Long, Lord Famborough. 



X,03bBNAS& (Jan Miense), 1610? -1668. 

Little is known of the life of this painter, who was bom at- 
Haarlem, probably before 1610, and was there buried on the 
19th of September 1668. In July 1636 he married at Hamstede 
near Haarlem the paiutreSs Judith Leyster, and there is 
presumptive proof that in the following year he took up his 
abode in Amsterdam. His earlier works, painted In and shortly 
after 1630, afford distinct evidence of the tutelage of Franz Hals. 
In those of a later period the influence of that master gradually 
disappears, while the all-powerful example of Rembrandt shows- 
itself in a greater compactness of grouping, and in a more 
economic distribution of high light and positive colour amidst 
broad masses of warmly neutral shade. The pigment is used 
thinly in the shadows ; the execution is deft and easy. 
Examples of Molenaer's earlier manner are the Spinet-playerz 
in the State Museum at Amsterdam, the Itinerant Dentist in the 
Brunswick Gallery, and the picture described below. Works 
of later date — 1650 to 1661 — may be found in the galleries of the 
Hague, Berlin, Brussels, and Copenhagen. Very many are in 
private possession, more particularly in Sweden. The subjects 
are for the most part scenes from village life. Jan Molenaer's 



892 MQLENAEB— MONTAGNA. 

ordinary signature is peculiar, being a Monogram composed of 
the letters J. M. B. ; ^ but occasionally, the surname appears in 
fuU. 

No. 1293a Musical Pastime. 

In a handsome, wainscotted room a young man and a young 
woman are seated on chairs, singing ; they accompany themselves, 
he on a theorbo, she on a cither. The lady rests her unslippered 
right foot on a chaufferette ; a music-book lies open on her knees ; 
beside her crouches a little dog. On the gentleman's right is a 
lichly carved stool or low stand on which are a flagon and 
wineglass. More in the background, to the spectator's right, a 
servinff woman places a roast fowl on the table ; against the 
table leans a viola da gamba, the neck of which is covered by 
the gentleman's plumed hat. A poitrait of one of the princes 
of Orange hangs on the wainscot behind. The costume of the 
figures is that of about 1630. 

Signed on the side of the chaufferette. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 2^ in. h. by 2 ft. 8^ in. w. 

Purchased in London from Messrs. P. and D. Colnaghi in 1889, out of 
the interest of the " Clarke Bequest." ^ 



BKOMTAONA (Babtolommeo). 1450?*1523. 

' MONTAGNA, though domiciled at Yicenza, was Brescian by 
parentage if not also by birth.f He may have been born alout 
1450. Between 1470 and 1480 he was a recognised painter. 
Vasari, whether upon a tradition or by inference merely, classes 
him among the immediate pupils of Andrea Mantegna. The 
assumption is probably groundless ; while there can be as little 
doubt of the influence of the great Paduan as of that of Giovanni 
Bellini, and, though more superficially, of that of Carpaccio, in 
forming the style developed by Montagna. But the grand 

* The B mast be taken to reprenent the final letter of the surname. Upon 
the curious signature of the Brunswick picture, in which the painter has added 
olenaer to the monogram, so tnat the whole reads— ^Jlfi2o2^^—«ee W. Bode, 
Studien zur Gesch. der Holl, Malerei, p. 199. See also the controversy o n th e 
subject in Bepertorium fiir Kunstwissenschaft, VII., p. 215, p. 488, and VTTT 
p. 137. 

t Strictly speaking Antonio, Bartolommeo's father, was from Orzinovi, just 
within the south-western confines of the Brescian territory. 



MONTAGNA. 393 

austerity which characterizes the works of this painter cannot 
have been imitaiiye ; rather must it have proceeded from his 
own inner nature. Montaonjl worked elsewhere then at Yicenza. 
He was employed at Bassano in 1484, and a few years later at 
Padua and Fraglia. From Padua he was called to Yerona, 
where he painted in fresco the walls of the oratory of S. Biagio 
in the church of SS. Nazario and Celso, as well as an 
altar-piece consisting of several parts, some of which remain, 
though now transferred fco various parts of the church. The 
grandest production of his now existing is the altar-piece 
in the Brera Gallery at Milan painted for the Squarzi chapel in 
S. Michele at Yicenza. It bears the date 1499, and presents 
MoNTAGNA at the height of his powers. Here the nobleness of the 
enthroned Madonna, the simple dignity of the saintly attendants, 
the native charm of the three angels who make music at the 
foot of the throne, the play of colour and light and shadow 
throughout, and the stateliness of the whole composition, arched 
in by its lofty vault, leave a profound impression on the mind. 
It is the triumph of an exalted naturalism where a certain 
sharpness of outline and a strong definition of the shadows 
harmonize with the general solemnity. This work is fuUy 
Yenetian in character. If it is wanting in the tenderness of 
Bellini, it surpasses Cima in masculine force, and Carpaccio in 
largeness of style. Another work of Yenetian type is the Pre- 
9entation in the Museo Civico at Yicenza. Here all the personages 
but the Infant kneel in front of the altar, which is surmounted 
by a semidome of blue starred in gold. The Yirgia's figure is 
exquisitely designed. Gilding is used in the nimbiy in Mary^s 
dress, and in the decorations of the altar. In the same gallery 
are other deeply interesting works of the master, especially a 
large altar-piece with the enthroned Madonna and Child, and four 
saints, and a Presepio of singular charm from its tender feeling, 
the novelty of its colouring, and the finish of its details. The 
pilgrimage church on Monte Berico, close by Yicenza, contains a 
Pietd of solemn and touching character. It would be impossible 
here to mention the many other existing works of Montaqna, in 
churches and public and private collections, or to enumerate those 
which are on record but have disappeared.^ Lists more or less 

•A noble Enthroned Madonna in the Berlin Gallery may, however, be 
indicated as well as a characteristic Ecce Homo in the Lonvre. 



394 MONTAGNA— MOR. 

complete may be found in Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Hist, of. 
Painting, North Italy; in Malanesi's edition of Le Opere di 
G. Vasariy VoL III., 672; and in the last English edition of 
Kugler's Handbook, etc. Montagna lived till October, 1523. He 
left a son, Benedetto, also a painter, though better known as an 
engraver. 

No. 802- The Madonna and Child. 

The Infant is seated on a book, holding a strawberry ; a rocky 
landscape in the background, with a church and other buildings on 
the margin of a lake. 

On wood, 2 ft. 1 in. h. by 1 ft. 9J in w. 

Formerly in the collection of Count Carlo Castelbarco. Purchased at 
Milan from Signor Giuseppe Baslini in 1869. 

This work is ascribed by some critics to Giovanni Speranza, a 
Yicentine painter contemporary with Montagna. The earlier 
productions of both these artists have often been confounded. 

No. 1098- The Virgin and Child. 

The Virgin, whose £gure is seen at half-length, stands in aa 
attitude of devotion beside the infant Christ, who lies asleep 
before her, reclining on a window-sill. Figures nearly life size. 

On panel, 1 ft. lOf in. A. by 1 ft. 7| in. w. 

Purchased at Milan in 1881, from Signor Giuseppe Baslini. 



BKO& OR BKORO (Antony), 1512 ?-1576-8. 

Commonly called in this country SiB Antonio More (though 
it is not known when or where he was knighted), was born at 
Utrecht, in 1512, as is supposed,^ and was the scholar of Jan 
Scorel. In 1547 he became a member of the Guild of St. Luke 
at Utrecht. He studied also in Italy, and he became eventually 
the most distinguished of the Dutch and Flemish portrait painters 
of his time. Mor was when still young taken into the service of 

* But probably some years later. Accordins to Van Mander he died In 1581, 
aged 66. Now he was certainly dead in or before 1578, so that if Van Ifander's 
statement of his age be accepted, he mnst h3,ye been born not earlier tnan 1521. 
Besides, Mor was not made free of his gulid until 1547 : and considering his 
ability, and the early age at which so many of the I)utch painters were 
enrolled as masters, it is highly improbable that his admission was delayed 
until his 35th year. 



MOR. 3^ 

the Emperor Charles Y., for whom, in 1552, he Tisited in his 
capacity of portrait painter Madrid and Lisbon, and also England, 
whither he was sent in 1553 to take the portrait of Queen Mary, 
who appointed him her painter. After the Queen*s death in 1558, 
Mob remained in the service of her husband, Philip II. of Spain, 
and visited Madrid a second time : besides portraits, he executed 
some copies of Titian for that monarch. Having made himself 
obnoxious to the Inquisition, Mob was compelled to leave Madrid. 
He finally establisbed himself at Antwerp ; and, though invited 
back to Madrid by Philip, he did not venture to return to Spain. 
Mob was also an historical painter. Van Mander mentions an 
unfinished picture of the Circumcision of Christ by him, for the 
Cathedral of Antwerp, as one of his most successful works. The 
prices Mob received for his portraits were very large, varying 
from one hundred to two hundred ducats in Portugal, and reach- 
ing one hundred pounds in England, where he was very much 
employed as a portrait painter in the reign of Queen Mary« Of 
Mob's earlier manner, resembling that of Scorel, a remarkable 
example is the picture in the Berlin Museum, containing half- 
length portraits of two Canons of Utrecht, and dated 1544. 
From this dry style Mob completely emancipated himself, and his 
portrait of Cardinal Granvella (1549) at Vienna is already a 
masterpiece.^ Keeping: nature before him, he developed a noble 
and sincere style of his own. An unpretentious dignity charac- 
terizes his portraits, equally removed from stiffness and from 
familiarity. The execution is careful yet free ; the flesh- tints are 
warm, tempered by fine greys ; the impaste is smooth, with 
sufficient variety of surface to discriminate substances, as the 
diverse stuffs used in clothing, etc., with the utmost nicety. 
Antony Mob's portraits are numerous in the Madrid Gallery, and 
in that of Vienna. Very many are in England in private collec- 
tions ; a particularly fine one is that of himself at Al thorp. The 
museums of the Hague, Brussels, Cassel, Paris, and St. Petersburg 
contain excellent examples. In the collection of portraits of 
painters by themselves in the Uffizi at Florence, is one of Mos. 
He died at Antwerp between 1576 and 1578.t 

* It was Cardinal Qranvelle (or Qranvella) who introduced Mor to Charles V. 

t F. J. van den Brandon ; Geachiedenia der Antwerpsche SchildersckooL 188S» 
p. 277. Van Mander says that Mor designated himself " Van Dashorst, after 
a property which he owned, and in order to distinguish himself from tii« 
membms of another family of Ms name at Utrecht. . 



896 MOB— MORALES. 

No. 1231- Portrait of a Man. 

Life size ; bust length ; three-quarter face turned to the left. 
Dressed in a black satin doublefc, with a high collar encircling the 
throat, and disclosing the edge of a white frill above. The dark 
brown hair of the head is short and bushy. The bifurcated 
beard and moustaches are of a lighter hue. Greenish-grey 
background. 

On panel, 1 ft. 6^ in. h. by 1 ft. 3^ in. w. 

Purchased (out of the " Walker Bequest ") in London in 1887. 



Ascribed to BKO&. 
No. 1094. Portrait of a Man. 

Bust length ; dressed in a black doublet, with an upright lace 
collar round the throat. Life size, three-quarter face, with a soft 
flhort fair beard. Dark background. 

On panel, 1 ft. 11^ in. h, by 1 ft. 7 in. w. 

Presented by the Trustees of the British Museum in 1880. 



MORJLXiSS (Luis de), Early in 15— -1586. 

Was bom early in the 16th century at Badajoz, where a 
Madonna of his painting is still to be found, dated 1546. He 
probably learnt his art in Toledo or YalladoHd ; he afterwards 
practised it in various parts of the old kingdom of Castile. In 
1564 he was called to Madrid by Philip II., but, after a short 
residence there and the execution of one picture for the Eling, he 
retired from the new capital, returned finally to Badajoz, and 
died, yery poor, in 1586.^ Mobales earned the sobriquet of " el 
Divino,'' ]ess from any high qualities shown in his art than from 
the subjects which exclusively occupied his pencil. These, always 
devotional, were mostly of the saddest, as the Saviour in His 
hours of suffering, or dead in His mother^s arms, or the weeping 

* It is however, related by Palomino that five years before the death of the 

gainter, the King, being at Badajoz, and seeing his age and poverty, granted 
im a pension. 



MORALES— MOBANDO. 897 

Madonna. The fignres are generally seen at half-length. The 
object is to excite devotion through images of pain, and to this 
end the forms are attentuated and the faces disfigured by the 
marks of past or present anguish. Of b'eauty there is little, of 
dignity less. The drawing is faulty, although there is a laboured 
effort at anatomical precision. These deficiences are in some 
measure atoned for by warm and not unpleasing general colour, 
though the flesh is modelled in a monotonous brown. Morales 
shows some traces pt the influence of early Flemish art, many 
examples of which had been introduced into Spain. But he was 
unable to imitate its refinement, though an exception to this 
remark may be found in the small picture described below, where 
tenderness of feeling and delicacy of colouring and modelling 
show him above his ordinary level. His pictures exist in many 
Spanish cities ; in the Madrid Gktllery they are numerous. The 
Louvre, the Galleries of Dresden and St. Petersburg also possess 
examples, as do private collections in England and elsewhere. 

No. 1229. The Virgin and Child. 

Small figures, half length. The Virgin seated, and facing 
towards the left, looks down upon the Infant Saviour whom she 
holds in her arms. He looks upwards at his mother, and thruBta 
his right hand into the bosom of her dress. 

On wood, lOi in. A. by 7| in. to. 

Presented by Mr. G. F. de Zoete in 1887. 



BKOBAMDO (Paolo), 1486-1522, 

Commonly called Oayazzola after his father Taddeo,* was 
bom at Yerona in 1486, and died there on the 13th of August, 
1522, as recorded in the Begister of the Confraternity of SS, 
Siro e Libera, to which he belonged. He died therefore in his 
thirty-seventh year. Early works of his bear the impress of his 
supposed master, Domenico Morone, by whose son Francesco 

* But he does not seem to have used that name himself. At least his works- 
are signed either ** Faulus Veronensis " or ** Paulus Morandus." The latter wa» 
the nam^" of his great grandfather. 



398 MOBANDQ., 

he was certainly influenced alBo.^ But at any rate Morando 
was a pure growth of the native 'Veronese school, drawing his 
nourishment from it alone and developing during his short life 
the highest qualities it ever produced before the appearance of 
its great scion Paolo Galiari. The Museo Givico of Yerona now 
affords the best material for the formation of a judgment on his 
powers, though the churches of SS. Nazario e Oelso and Sant' 
Anastasia still contain works by his hand. The pieces of fresco 
transferred to canvas, now in the Museo, are dum&ily repaired. 
In advance of these are the paintings removed to that Gallery 
from S. Bernardino. The chief parts of this series represent 
scenes from the Passion of our Lord. Of these the most striking 
is the Deposition^ a work of great merit, pathetic in feeling, 
contentrated in composition, rich, if somewhat cold in colour, 
and showing more of style than is usual with Mosando : some of 
the heads in it are fine in character. Another altar-piece of 
large size is the Madonna in Glory, Saints standing beloWf 
painted in the last year of the ariiist's life, and transferred from 
S. Bernardino, where a hard modem cppy now fills its place. 
Examples of Mobando's work are also to be seen in Bergamo, 
Dresden, Milan, and in the Collection of Sir George Donaldson in 
London. Morando's colouring though often brilliant is rather cold ; 
the pale flesh-tints, glossy in surface, are shadowed with grey, and 
even the lake reds introduced in garments tend towards that 
purplish hue which the best colourists avoid. But his landscape 
distances are most pleasing and the effect of his pictures is light. 
MoRANDO never left Yerona and his works are scarcely to be 
found elsewhere, excepting the two catalogued below. One of 
these the St, Rock is unusually warm in tone. 

No. 735. St Rock with the Angel, 

The Saint, a full-length figure, life-size, is baring his thigh and 
showing the plague spot to an angel soaring above his head ; at 
his foot is his little dog ; in the background are ar> oak and his 
pilgrim's staff and hat. 

On canvas, 5 ft. If in. h, by 1 ft. 9^ in. U7. 

* Vaaari, in the Lives of Fra Giocondo and Liberale da Yerona (Edit, Milanesi 
V p. 3U), says that Cavazzola was the pupil of Francesco. But see Bernaso- 
conl, Stuaiitulla pittura, p. 274. There is no doubt, however, that these two 
painters worked together for a time. 



MOBANDO-^MOBONE. 399 

Signed Paulus Mobadub, V. P. (Veronensis Pinzit), and formerly 
dated MDXVIII., but the last fiye figures have been obliterated. 



PAVLV5 
MORADVS 



Formerly over the Cagnoli altar in the cburcli of Santa Maria della 
Soala ; subsequently in the Oaldana Gallery, at Verona. Purchased 
from Dr. Cemre Bemasconi in 1861. 

No. 777. The Madonna and Child, with St. John the 
Baptist and an Angel, in a Landscape, 

The Baptist is offering a lemon to the Infant Christ, seated in 
the lap of his mother. With the exception of the child, half 
length figures, nearly life-size. Signed Paulus V P. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 6 in. h, by 2 ft. 2 in. w. 

Purchased at Verona in 1867, from the Count Ludovico Portalupi« 



M O&STTO DA B&BSCZA. (^^e 8ONVZ0ZMO.) 



BKO&ONB (DoMENico), 1442- ? 

A Veronese painter bom in 1442, of whom but little is known. 
He was locally nicknamed Pelacane, his father having been a 
tanner or currier. The frescoes which he executed in the Chapel 
of Sant' Antonio da Padova in S. Bernardino at Verona (long 
under whitewash, and now seriously damaged), afford, in their 
present condition, no safe test of his capabilities. Vasari, 
however, praises their design and colouring. They consisted 
of acenesi from the life of Sant' Antonio, of figures of the four 
Evangelists in the vault, and of various saints on the pilasters. 



400 MOKONE. 

The date of their production is not recorded. In 1491, Dombnico 
was a burgess of Verona. la 1503 he contracted to paint the 
Library of the Convent of S. Bernardino ; bat the work now 
existing there is scarcely by his own hand. Time and vicissitude 
have effaced many recorded works of bis. Two pictures, how- 
ever, exist authenticated by his signature. The one is a small 
well-preserved Madonna and Child in the Berlin Gallery.^ The 
other, which is in the possession of Signer Fochessati at Mantua, 
represents the slaying of Binaldo Buonaoolsi by the Gonzaghe ; 
but it is sadly wrecked and over-painted.t These pictures offer 
sufficient indications of Domenico*8 manner and tendencies to 
warrant the ascriptiDn to him of the two small subjects described 
below. The date of his death is unknown. He was the father 
of the more eminent Francesco Morone. 

No. 1211. Scene at a Tournament. 

In the foreground the tilting lists. Two knights have met in 
the shock. The one, behind the dividing barrier, falls from his 
rearing horse, while the victor, on this side, still in course, 
brandishes his broken lance. A herald sounds his trumpet. 
Groups of mounted squires and spectators are beyond the 
barrier. In the centre, behind and above these, a young prince 
sits on a chair of state, surrounded by courtiers, under a high 
canopy, which is topped by a red banner with a black eagle 
for device. On each side of the throne extends a bank of 
flowering turf, on which rows of ladies are seated under a gay 
awning. Further behind is seen an unfinished building «rith 
its scaffolding, in the distance blue hills. 

No. l£12i. Soene at a Tournament. 

The same locality. The prince here stands before his seat 
with a ric^ily-dressed lady beside him. His courtiers have 
disappeared ; but a young man on his right seems to be 
addressing him. The flowery bank on each side is now the scene 
of a dance performed by the ladies and young men. Two 
youths, one on a ladder, ascend to join them ; a third is 
vaulting the barrier, apparently with the same object in view. 
Behind the barrier, to the left, a knight in golden armour, but 
bare-headed, rides off flourishing his sword. In front of the 



» Signed •' Dominions Moronne pinzit die xxviii Aprilis MCOCO(L)XXXIII." 
t Signed "DominicuaMoronnsveronesi pinxit MOCOOLXXXXIIIL" 



MOBONE. 401 

barrier, and facing tbe throne, a knight in full harness, save his 
helmet, sits on a white horse, while his mounted sqaire hands the 
helmet to a yonng man on foot. Each of these compositions is 
enclosed in a rich arabesque border, both probably formed the 
sides or part of tbe front of a cassone or wedding-chest.* 

On wood, each 1 ft. 5^ in. A. by 1 ft. 6| in. w. 

Purchased in 1886 from Dr. J. P. Eichter, out of the "Walker 
Bequest.** 



KOaONB (Fbancesco), 147^-1529, 

Son of Domenico Morone, the subject of the foregoing notice, 
was bom at Yerona 1473, and instructed in painting by his 
father. Although he lived well into the 16th century he 
remained little iufluenced by the n3wer views, of style which 
in Verona, as elsewhere, were beginning to prevail. His greatest 
work in fresco was the decoration of the sacristry, walls and 
vault, of S. Maria in Organo, in which he appears as a master 
of high merit. In the same church is an altar-piece by hink 
of singular beauty, dated 1503, representing the Madonna and 
Child enthroned under a lofty cauopy adorned with flowers^ 
while an angel on each side sings and plays ; below, in 
episcopal robes and mitres, stand St. Augustine and St. Martin, 
grave and majestic figures. This work is extraordinarily attrac- 
tive from the loveliness of the heads of the Yirgin and the 
Angels, the dignity of the saints, and the fine colouring and 
unsparing finish of the whole.f Another important altar-piece 
is that in S. Bernardino, in which is seen the Saviour on the 
cross, with the Yirgin and St. John on either hand ; a work of 
the painter*s 25th year. Other pictures by his hand ar^ in 
S. Fermo and in the Museo Oivico, Yerona. Amongst those 
in the Museo a transferred freSco of the Enthroned Madonna 
with attendant SaintSy dated 1515, shows impressions derived 



* These comipositioiiH have oeen supposed to represent festivities which took 
tjace at the naptials of Gianirancesco Gonzaga of Mantua and Isabella d'Este. 
However, there are difficulties in the way of this interpretation ; for instance, 
as Signor A. Venturi, of Modena, has poinied out, the eagle on tke banners 
belongs to neither of the houses represented on that occasion. But other 
objections may be urged, and it is possible the subjects are either purely 
imi^nary or borrowed from some romance current in the 15th century. 
' t'This picture, the figures in which are much under life size, is painted on a 
finely-woven fabric said to be silk, now strengthened by a canvas backing, 

25640 2 C 



402 MORONE. 

from Mantegna.* Francesco's prodactions are rarely to be 

seen out of Yerona ; but the Brera at Milan contains two 

interesting works by him, and the Bergamo Gallery a damaged 

picture of 1520 : north of the Alps but two seem to have 

wandered, namely, that in the Berlin Gallery, and the very 

similar composition in our own. There is something peculiarly 

winning in the type chosen for the Madonna by this painter. 

The small, round, delicately-featured head, slightly thrown back, 

so that the eyes are cast down towards the worshipper, conveys 

a mingled impression of sweetness and dignity. The finish of 

'his easel pictures is remarkable ; the eye is delighted by the 

intricate variegation or costly stuffs, where numerous tints 

;,43roken together resemble what nature has wrought on the wings 

^of some moths and butterflies. Such broken surfaces give 

..additional value to the masses of whole colour where these 

vonore sparingly appear. Francesco Morons died at Yerona, 

May 16, 1529. 

^o. 285* Madonna and Child. 

The Yirgin seated with the child in her arms, holds an 
. apple in his hand. Behind is a red curtain on a rod, extending 
half across the picture : a town upon a rock in the distance. 
Figures half the scale of life. 

On wood, 2 ft. h. by 1 ft. 5 in. to. 

Purchased from Baron Galvagna in Yenice in 1855. This picture, 
while in the Galvagna Collection, was attributed to Pellegrino da San 
Daniele ; and it has been since ascribed to Girolamo dai Libri : it is, 
Jiowever, certainly by Francesco Morohe. 



• It adorned the front of a house near the Ponte Navl in Verona until 1874, 
when it was detached, transferred to canvas, and placed in the Moseo, not 
without suffering in the process. It contains unmistakable reminiscences of 
Mantegna's great altar-pfece in S. Zeno. The attitude of the child is like that 
of the corresponding tigwre in S. Zeno. The St James on the left answers to 
the St. Peter in Mantegna's work, and is clothed in drapery exactly similar in 
cast. St Bock on the right repeats in position and in general line and turn of 
the body (though reversed), the grander and austerer Baptist of the Faduan. 
The heavy festoons of fruit above form another point, of similarity, and 
another, again, the low point of sight in the perspective. But all this is only 
to 8%v that Mantegna's stupendous work, placed in S. Zeno about 1459, power- 
fully Impressed, as it could not fail to do, the Veronese painters of the rest of 
'th3 century. 



MORONI. 403 

KOBONZ (GiAMBATTiSTA), 1525 ?-1578. 

One of the most eminent of the Italian portrait painters, was 
born at Bondio near Albino in the territory of Bergamo, within 
the first quarter of the 16th century.^ He studied under 
Moretto at Brescia. Moboni painted several altar-pieces and 
other religious subjects, but his works in this class are only 
poor and soulless reflections of his master's. The bent of his 
mind was towards realism, and he found his true vocation in 
portraiture. In this branch of art he takes a distinguished place 
by reason of the accuracy with which he rendered the physical 
characteristics of his subjects, and the vitality and ease which 
he gave to his figures. But he formed no ideal of his sitters, 
herein differing from his more imaginative master, and from 
the keenly sympathetic Lorenzo Lotto. Yet it would be unjust 
to say .that Moroni failed to represent intellectual qualities 
when these were apparent. His works will always be highly 
estimated by the painter, as they exhibit rare technical merits, 
perfect knowledge and command of means, facility of execution 
without display of dexterity, truth of colour, and the finest 
perception of the value of tones. He evidently restricted 
iiimself to using the fewest pigments possible, though he could 
manage the most brilliant at will, as in the rich and harmonious 
reds often introduced in the dresses of his sitters. In his best 
time he adopted as a background to his figures a silvery grey, 
inimitable in quality. His colouring, however, varied at different 
periods of his life ; at first it tended towards redness in the 
flesh-tints ; later developed itself a cooler and purer tone 
throughout ; last of all a little heaviness is apparent. MoBOt^i 
seems to have resided exclusively, at Bergamo, where his works 
are still to be found in great number, several of them in 
the Town Gallery. Others are scattered far and wide in Italy 
and the North. In England are many of his best portraits, 
sufficient to exemplify his variations of style. The most 
consummate of these is that of Ercole Tasso, in Stafford House, 
long ascribed (like many others by Moroni) to Titian. The 
Earl of Warwick^s Spanish Warrior is a splendid specimen of 
character as a portrait and of colouring as a picture. The four 



*Not nntil about 1625, as Sgr. Giovanni MoreUi oonoludei^ J)le Wer.g 
JtaUeniscJier Ueiater^ <fcc^ p 49. 

25640 2 C 3 



404 MORONI. 

male portraits in our own gallery may rank among the finest 
by the master ; of these The Tailor has acquired the greatest 
celebrity.^ The fall length female portrait here is not of equal 
value ; Moroni indeed was less happy in portraying the gentler 
sez, though the magnificent full-length of a self-possessed padrona 
in the Bergamo Gallery fixes attention and remains impressed upon 
the memory. Titian is reported to have advised the Bergamask 
nobility who came to him to be painted to go to their countryman 
for a true portrait. Giambattista Moroni died at Bergamo on 
the 5th of February 1578. 

No. 697. The Portrait of a Tailor. 

Tagliapanni ^in a white doublet and red trunk hose, standing at 
his board with the shears in his hand, about to cut a piece of 
black cloth. Half-length life size. 

On canvas, 8 ft. 2^ in. h, by 2 ft. 5^ in. w. 

Formerly in the Grimani Palace at Venice. Purchased at Bergamo 
in 1862, from Sig. Federigo Frizzoni de Salis. 

No. 742. Portrait of a Lawyer. 

He has on a black cap and black velvet suit, with white frill and 
wrist bands, and holds in his right hand a letter, to which he 
points with his left. The address on the letter is not legible. 
.Half length, life-size. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 10 in. h. by 2 ft. 3^ in. to. 

Formerly in the Fonrtal^ collection. Purchased in Paris from M. 
Gh. Edmond de Fourtal^ in 1865. 

No. 1022- Portrait of an Italian Nobleman. 

Probably a member of the Fenaroli family of Brescia. He stands 
nearly in profile, turned towards the spectator's right, but looking 
out of the picture, and leans his left arm on a richly plumed 
helmet, which bears the device of a red sun. He wears his sword, 
and is dad in a close dress and trunk hose of black, with a buff 
jerkin, to which are attached pieces of chain -mail covering the 

* The Tailor, and the Ercole Tasso are both praised by Boschini in bis Carta 
del Navegcfr, Of the former he says 

" un Sartor, si belo, e si ben fato 

Che'l parla piu de qual se sia Avocato." 
* Vento Quinio, p. ^.1680; Bee Bidolfl, Le Maraviglie, Ac; and Tassi, VUe de 
Uttori, Sec, Bergamaschi, 1793. 



MORONI, 405. 

> 

shoulder and upper arm. His left foot appears to have been 
wounded, for it is attached by a kind of stirrup and black cord to 
a balnd above the knee. Pieces of plate-armour lie scattered on 
the pavement. The background is light grey architecture with a 
peep of sky, against which is seen the branch of a fig tree. 

On canvas, 6 ft. 7 in. h, by 3 ft. 5 in. w. 

Purchased with other portraits from Signer Giuseppe Baslini at 
Milan in 1876. 



No. 10£3> Portrait of an Italian Lady ; said to he the 
wife of the subject of the preceding portrait. 

Seated in an arm chair, and wearing an under-dresa of gold 
tissue, over which is a I'obe of red satin. In her left hand is a 
fan. The figure is seen againsj^ a light grey wiiU, and a pavement 
of inlaid marbles. 

On canvas, 4 ft. 11 in. h, by 3 ft. 5 in. w. 

From the Fenaroli collection at Brescia. Purchased at Milan in 
1876 from Signer Giuseppe Baslini. 



No. 1024. An Italian Ecclesiastic^ with a full brown 
heardy half length. 

He holds in his hand a letter addressed to himself, by which we 
learn his name and quality, the Canon Ludovico di Terzi of 
Bergamo, and Apostolic Protonotary. Al molto R^o, M, Ludco, di 
Terzi, Can^, di B'gomo Dig<*. et ProthP, Apd*, Sig^- Mio Osa^r'^^, 
B'gomo, Above to the right of the spectator is a glimpse of sky 
and a weed on a stone of the wall; the general tenor of the picture 
is light ; the dress is black. 

On canvas, 3 ft. 3 in. h, by 2 ft. 7^ in. w. 

Bought from Signer Giuseppe Baslini at Milan in 1876, with the 
other Fenaroli portraits. 



No. 1316a Portrait of an Italian Nobleman. 

A life-size full-length figure, seen nearly in profile, but with 
three quarter face. Clad in a black jerkin, worn over a shirt of 
mail ; black trunk hose, stockings and shoes. He stands close 
to a wall, placing his right hand upon a steel helmet which 
rests on the top of a truncated marble column, while the fingers 
of Jus left hand ligKtly. touch the hilt of his sw.ord» The hair of 



im MORONI— MOSTERT. 

his head is dark and cropped. The beard and moustaches are 
tight brown, short and bushy. A gap in the recessed wall just 
above the column reveals a peep of blae sky crossed by white 
clouds. 

On canvas, 6 ft. A. by 3 ft. 3 in. w. 

Purchased in 1890, together with Nos. 1314 and 1315. out of the 
Longford Castle Collection. 



WOSTBBT OR WOSTAXSaT (Jan), 
1474- after 1549. 

Was born at flaarlem in 1474 and learnt his art under Jacob 
van Haarlem a painter of note in his day. He was for eighteen 
years painter to Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands, 
and during that period resided at the Court, to which he was 
atta'^hed also as a gentleman : he afterwards returned to Haarlem, 
where he died after 1549. Mostert paid much attention to land- 
scape and was a good portrait painter ; his ecclesiastical works 
have mostly perished, but a very delicate picture ascribed to 
him of the Virgin, with smaller representations of her seven 
sorrows, is still preserved in the church of Notre Dame at 
Bruges.^ But no known picture bears the signature of Mostert, 
and it must be confessed that all attempts to identify his works 
are hazardous. The following subject is conjecturally assigned 
to him. 

No. 713* T?ie Virgin and Child in a Garden. 

Seated under a tree ; by their side an earthen flower-pot with 
pinks. The mother holding the child with her left hand, is offering 
a flower with her right. Landscape background. 

On oak, 2 ft. h. by 1 ft. 7 in. to, 

Formerly in the Wallerstein Collection. Presented in 1863 by Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria, in fulfilment of the wishes of His Royal 
Highness the Prince Consort. 

* Van Mander, Leven der Sehilders, Ac ; Catalogue du Mu»&e ^Anvera, 1876. L. 
Gaicciardini. writinfir in 1566, enumerates a Frans Mostert among the then 
deceased painters of distinction, but does not notice Jan. JkicrizUme^ iee^ p. 129. 



MOUCHEROX— MUBILLO. 40i 

KOUCBEBON (Fb^d^rig de), 1633-4-1686. 

Of an Antwerp family was born at Emden in 1633 or 1634. He 
was the scholar of J. Asselyn at Amsterdam ; he studied aUo 
some time in Paris, and eventually settled at Amsterdam, where 
he married in 1659, and where his son Isaac, who was also a 
painter, was born in 1670. Moucheron painted landscapes solely, 
and in a somewhat conventional style. He was buried at 
Amsterdam, January 5th, 1686. 

No. 842. A Garden Scene^ hounded by trees. 

On the right, some figures are near a fountain ornamented with 
statues and shaded by poplars. In the middle ground is a jetting 
fountain, near which are various figures promenading, beyond 
is a balustrade, and a view of the open country. Signed 
Moucherorijf. The figures are ascribed to Adrian Vandevelde. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 4^ in. h, by 3 ft. to. 

Purchased with the Peel Collection in 1871. 

No. 1352- Landscape with Ruins and Figures. 

On the left three columns support part of the entablature of a 
ruined temple, while a huge mass of dislodged masonry lies at 
their base. In the middle distance rise lofty poplar trees. 
Beyond, to the right, an extensive plain flanked by hills. In the 
foreground peasants and cattle rest by the side of a stream. 
Above, white clouds drift across a summer sky. 

Signed :— 

r Dr noi/cHEROA/ 

On canvas, 2 ft. 3^ in. h. by 2 ft. 1 in. w. 

Bequeathed by Mr. Bichard W! Cooper, of Tulse Hill, in 1892. 



KVBZIi&O (B^RTOLOM^ EsTj&BAN), 1618-1682. 

Was bom at Seville and baptized on January 1, 1618. After 
receiving some education he was placed with Juan del Castillo," a 
relation, to learc painting, for which he had shown a deoic'ed 



40? MUBILLO.. 

ability. In 1641, in his twenty-fourth year, having acquired a 
little money by painting heads of Saints and sacred pictures for 
South America, he was induced by Pedro de Moya, a former 
fellow student, who had studied in England under Van Dyek, to 
proceed to Madrid, with the intention, as some writers state, of 
going on to England and to Italy. Arrived at Madrid he was kindly 
treated by Yelazquez, hia patsano^ or fellow townsman. The 
death of Yan Dyck, his own limited resources, and the counsels of 
Yelazquez, induced him to remain at Madrid, where every facility 
to finish his studies was procured for him by Yelazquez which 
the high position of that master, as painter to the king, enabled 
him to offer. In the year 1644 Musillo had made such progress 
that Yelazquez recommended him to prosecute his journey to 
Boihe, and offered him letters of recommendation from the King ; 
MuRiLLO, however, now felt no desire to go to Italy, and he returned 
in the following year, 1645, to Seville. His first works in Seville 
were a series of pictures illustrating the life of St. Francis in 
the Franciscan convent of that city ; though unknown in his 
native place up to this time he thenceforth became the caposcuota^ 
or head of the school of Seville ; his principal rivals being 
Francisco de Herrera the younger and Juan de Yaldes Leal. In 
1648 he married a lady of fortune of Pilas and from this time his 
house became a favourite resort of people of taste and fashion. In 
1660 he established the Academy of Seville, of which he was in 
that year president, but he never filled the office after the first 
year. Among Murillo's principal works were eight large pictures, 
painted for the Hospital of St. George, called La Caridad 
which he completed in 1674 : they represent Moses striking the 
rock; the Miracle of the loaves and fishes; the Return of the 
Prodigal Son; Abraham visited by the Angels;^ Christ healing 
the Stck (commonly called the Pool of Bethesda);f the Angel 
liberating St. Peter from Prison; and the two following 
illustrating charity, — San Juan de Dios bearing a poor man vpon 
his^bach; and Santa Isabel^ Queen of Hungary, healing the sick 
poor ; the last picture went by the name of El Tifioso, from 
the diseased head of the principal figure. Many of these pictures 
are now dispersed : some of them formed part of the acquisitions of 
Marshal Soult during the Peninsular war ; the Tifioso is at Madrid. 

**The8e two pictures are now in the possession of the Duke of Sutherland, 
t Now in the possjBssiqn of Mr. George Tomline. 



MURILLO. 409 

MuBiLLO*s last work was the large altar-piece of St. Caiherine^ 
painted at Cadiz for the charch of the Capuchins there : this 
picture he neVer completed ; owing to a fall which he had from 
the scaffolding while engaged upon it, he was forced to return to 
Seville, where he died not long afterwards, April 3, 1682. Two 
sons and a daughter survived him ; his daughter had taken the 
veil eight years before his death. Murillo, in the latter part of 
his life, changed both his style and his subjects. His earlier 
pictures, which are painted in a forcible manner, are chiefly illus- 
trative of humble life ; his latter works, with equal truth, are in 
a more elevated and refined style, and are almost exclusively 
scriptural or religious in their subjects. He occasionally painted 
landscapes. His favourite masters were Spagnoletto, Van Dyck 
and Velazquez.^ 

No. 13> The Holy Family, 

The youthful Saviour, with the Virgin seated on the right, and 
Joseph kneeling on the left, is represented standing on the base of 
a ruined column : the Holy Spirit is descending upon him from 
above, where the Father is represented supported by angels. 

Engraved by A. Bridoux. 

On canvas, 9 ft. 6 in. h. by 6 ft. 10 in. w. 

This picture, which is one of Murillo's last works, was painted at 
Cadiz when he was probably about sixty years of age. It belonged to 
tiie family of the Marquis del Pedroso until 1810, during the French 
occupation of Spain, when it was sold and brought to this country : 
after passing through various hands it was purchased in 1837 from 
Mr. T. B. Bulkeley Owen for the National Gallery. It is sometimes 
called the Pedroso Murillo : it is mentioned by Palomino, and by Cean 
Bermudez. 

« * 

No. 74. A Spanish Peasant Boy, 

^ K laughing boy, with one shoulder exposed, is leaning on his 
elbows, and appears to be looking out at a window. 

Engraved by J. Rogers, for Jones*s National Gallery ; and by W. 
Humphrys for the Associated Engravers, 

On canvas, 1 ft. 9 in. h, by 1 ft. 3 in. w. 

Formerly in the collection of the Marquis of Lansdowne ; presented 
to the National Gallery in 1826 by Mr. M. M. Zacharyi 

*Oean Bermudez, Diccionario Historico de las mas Ilttstres Profesores da las 
Bellas Artes en Espafia^ Madrid, 1800 ; and the Letter of the same author on the 
School of Seville, Cadiz, IBOd ; translated in Davies's Life of Murillo, London, 1819. 



410 MURILLO. 

No. 176. St. John and the Lamb, 

I 

The yoathfnl St. John embraces the Iamb, and with his left 
hand points towards heaven : an illustration of the words, — 
•* Behold the Lamb of God," John, i. 29. The standard of the 
Lamb is lying upon the ground : a dark rocky landscape forms 
the background. 

Engraved by Y. Green, F. Bacon, and others. 

On canvas, 5 ft. 5 in. A. by 3 ft. 7 in. w. 

Formerly in the collection of M. Robit, from which it passed into the 
possession of Sir Simon Clarke, at the sale of whose pictures, in 1840, it 
was purchased for the National Gallery. 

No. 1257. The Nativity of the Virgin. 

In the centre of the group, the new-born babe is held by two 
women. Behind are two angels in adoration, and to the right, 
in front, a girl whose back is turned to the spectator kneels by 
a basin, and turns her head towards a woman who brings the 
swaddling-clothes ; farther back are two women by a chimney. 
On the left two boy-angels are busied with a basket of linen ; 
near them a little spaniel. On the same side, in the background, 
St. Anne lies in a bed. Above, a choir of boy-angels float over 
the infant. 

On canvas, lunette, 9| in. h. by 17^ in. w. 

This little picture, said to be the colour-sketch for the large com- 
position, No. 540 in the Louvre, was formerly in the possession of the 
Duchesse do Berri. It was presented to the National Gallery in 1888 by 
Lord Savile, G.O.B. 

No. 1286. A Boy Drinking. 

A life- size figure, seen to the waist. The boy, clad in rustio 
garb, with vine-leaves in his cap, leans on his elbow over a table 
looking towards the spectator. His left hand rests on a square 
wine flask. With his right he raises a glass of wine to his lips. 
Dark background 

On canvas, 2 ft. \ in. h. by 1 ft. 6^ in. w. 

Bequeathed by Mr. John Staniforth Beckett, in 1889. 



NEEFFS— NBER. . 411 



(PiETER), 1577-8—1657-61. 

An eminent architectural painter, was born at Antwerp a little 
after 1577. He was the pupil of the elder Steenwyck. In 1610 
he was a member of the guild of painters at Antwerp, where he 
died betweea 1657 and 1661. Teniers, the two Francks, and other 
masters inserted the figures in his pictures. Flemish School. 

No. 924. The Interior of a Gothic Church, 

On the spectator's right a group of figures is inspecting a 
conspicuous tomb in the style of Renaissance architecture. 
Signed : — 

On wood, 2 ft. 3 in. A. by 3 ft. 2J in. w. 
Piesented by Mr. H. H. Howorth, in 1875. 



(Aaht van der), 1603-1677. 

Was born at Amsterdam, in 1603. It is not known under what 
painter or painters he studied. He lived chiefly at Amsterdam^ 
where he died November 9, 1677. It is singular that a land- 
scape-painter of such remarkable abilities and refined skill 
should have remained without appreciation in his lifetime. But 
the fact is so, and h.e died very poor. A art van der Nebr 
excelled in representing moonlight scenes, sunsets, outburst of 
fire, and winter landscapes with figures on the ice. He was tha 
father of Eglon van der Neer. 

No. 152- A Landscapcy with Figures and Gattle; 
Evening, 

A country-house is seen in the middle-ground ; beyond it to 
the right is a view of a town : shipping m the distance. The 
figures were painted by Ouyp, whose name is inscribed on the 
pul. 



^ '0/ 



zyy^ 



412 NEEB. 

Engrayed in the Oalerislde'Zueien Bonaparte 

On canvas, 3 ft. 11 in. h. by 5 ft. S^ia. w. 

Formerly in the ooUeotions of M. Erard and Lucien Buonaparte. 
Bequeathed to the National Gallery by Charles Long, Lord Farnborongh, 
in 1883. Signed with the painter's monogram, A. V. D. K. 



)KKM'-f 



v.^/ 



No. 239. Biver Scene by Moonlight, with Shipping. 

On the left a town ; the moon rising in the middle-distanoe. 
Low-water. 

On wood, 1 ft. A. by 1 ft. 6^ in. w. 

Formerly in the collection of B. Heathcote, Esq., sold in 1805. 
Bequeathed to the National Oallery, in 1854, by Lord Colbome. Signed 
with the painter's monogram. 



Au 



No. 73£a Landscape with Figures ; a Oan<il Scene,- 
Holland. 

A broad canal with baildings and trees on each side, a boat and 
a couple of swans in the foreground, and a drawbHdge in the 
middle distance. On the left are a lady and three sportsmen^ 
dogs and poultry. The figures are supposed to be by Lingelbfkoh. 
Signed with the painter's monogram, as above. 

On canvas, 4 ft. 3^ in. k. by 5 ft. 5^ in. to. 

Purchased from the Earl of Shaftesbury in 1864. 

No. 9C9. Frost Scene. 

A frozen river, buildings on either side, to the left a bridge.; 
boats frozen in, and many skaters on the ice ; everjrwhere traces 
o£ snow. Signed with the painter's monogram, A.y.N. See 
No. 239. 

On oak, 10 in. h. by 154 in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 



NEBR— NETSCHEB. 413 

No. 1288. A Frost Scene. 

The outskirts of a hamlet lying on the banks of a canal or 
river, on the surface of which people are amusing themselves. 
On the left of the foreground, near some felled tree-trunks, 
a man and woman are walking with a dog. Leafless trees rise 
against a wintry sky filled with large cloud cumuli. 

On panel, 1 ft. f in. h, by 1 ft. 8^ in. w. 

Bequeathed by Mr. John Staniforth Beckett, in 1889. 



XBTSOBSB (Caspar), 1639-1684. 

Was born at Heidelberg in 1639, and studied under Koster at 
Arnheim and Terbnrg at De venter. In 1659 he started on a tour 
to Italy, but, having fallen in love with a young lady of Li^ge at 
Bordeaux, he gave up his Italian tour, married, returned to 
Holland, and settled at the Hague. He joined the guild of 
painters there in 1662, and died in that city January 15th, 1684. 
INetscher, who became very popular amongst the upper classes 
of the Hague, 'painted scenes from their social indoor life, much 
in the manner of his principal master, Terburg, though with 
less breadth of treatment, if with great finesse and minute 
completeness. His handling often resembles that of Frans 
Mieris, but in the higher qualities of his art he stands far 
below such leaders among the " Little Masters '' of Holland as 
Terburg, Metsu, Don and ofchers. Netscher also painted 
portraits, which are often spoiled by the affectation of a pseudo- 
classic costume. His sons, Theodor and Constantino, were both 
painters. 

No. 843> Blowing Bubbles, 

Two children at an open window blowing bubbles ; one of the 
boys is attempting to catch a little floating globe on the top of his 
plumed cap. A green curtain is looped up on the right. Signed 
A** 1670, G, Netscher. 

On wood, 12 in. A. by 9 J in. w, . 

Engraved in the Poullain Gallery. 

Formerly in the Poullain and Calonne. collections ; subsequently in 
that of the Duchesse de Bern. Purchased with the Peel i pictures in 
1871*. 



Smith's Catalogue Baisonni 



414 NETSOHER. 

No. 844. Matetmal Instruction. 

A lady seated at a table before a window is teaching a child to 
read ; another child is playing with a dog on a chair. In the 
background over a cupboard is hanging in a black frame a small 
copy of Bubens* " Brazen Serpent,'* in this collection. 

On wood, 1 ft. 6^ in. h, by 1 ft. 2^ in. to. 

Bngraved by De Lannay. 

Formerly in the Orleans Crallery. Purchased with the Peel collection 
in 1871. 

No. 845- Lady seated at a Spinning Wheel. 

Signed G. Netscher, 1665. 

On wood, 8^ in. h, by 6^ in. to. 

Formerly in the collections of M. Blondel de Gagny and the Prinoe 
Oalizin. Purchased with the Peel pictures in 1871. 

No. 1332- Supposed Portrait of George^ 1st Earl oj 
Berkeley. 

Small half-length ; nearly full face. A young-looking man 
clad in a black yelvet cloak with ample sleeves, a ruffle and shirt 
cuffs of Yenetian point lace. He wears a large light brown wig. 
He stands leaning his right elbow on a stone pedestal enriohMl 
with bas-relief carving, and rests his left hand on his hip. In 
the background is a curtain of brown and gold brocade, hung 
near an open window. 

Signed: — 




On canvas, 1 ft. 6^ in. A. by 1 ft. 2^ in. to. 
Presented by Lord Savile, G.C.B., in 1891 



NICCOLO Di BUONACCORSO. .415 



mCCO&O DI BTDTONACCOBSO, ?-1388. 

A painter of Siena, in the second half of the 14th centory. 
lie was probably the son of Buonaccorso di Pace, a painter whose 
name occurs in Sienese records. Niggol6 held office several 
times in Siena, and in 1381 was Q-onfaloniere of the Terzo of 
S. Martino. Of his works none is now traceable save the small 
picture described below with two corresponding panels,^ and two 
pieces of a triptych in a little village church near Siena. One of 
these ruined and repainted fragments still bears the signature— 
Nicholavs Buonachursiy me. pinxit. A. DNI. 1387. A few entries 
of payments made to Niccol6 shew that he did some work for the 
Duomo in 1376 and 1883. He died in May 1388.t 

No. 1109. The Marriage of the Virgin. 

In an open cortile, enclosed by arcaded buildiogs and carpeted 
with a cloth of Arabian design, the Virgin and St. Joseph stand 
before the High Priest, who is joining their hands. A crowd 
of figures are grouped around. Among them are two heralds 
blowing trumpets, and a youth playing on the tymbals. Behind 
is an open gallery supported on an arch, through whioh are 
seen the conventional representations of a palm tree and shrubs 
relieved on a gold background. Below is the signature. 



iniCfi0ir/*VSiBORn<IRVRSl-'OH8eRI8ai«F1»1^ 

On panel, 16f in. h, by 10^ in. w, 
Parohased, 1881. 



* The pictnre in the National Collection is apparently the centre compart- 
ment of a triptych of which two other compartments exist: one, **The Pre- 
sentation of the Virgin in the Temple," which was formerly in the Hospital of 
8. Maria Nuova, in Florence, now removed to the Ufflzi Galleries : and another 
**The Assumption of the Virgin," formerly in the Sciarra Collection. * 

t Q. Milanesi, Doeumenti per la Storia delV Arte Senese^ I., pp. 31, 3?. Of Buonac- 
corso di Pace, the presumed father of Niccolb. Mliianesi (idem, p. 50) cites some 
notioes by which we learn that he married, November 27, 1348, Maddalena di 
Oecco di Nuccio ; and that he was Oapitano del Popolo for the months of 
January and February, 1362 ; in which year he made his will and probably died. 



416 NICCOLO. 

mOCOabO da FU&ZaHO, 1430?-1492 

Commonly, but incorrectly, called Alunno,^ was the son of a 
certain Liberatore di Maiiano of Foligno, and was bom about 
1430. He is variously said to have been the pupil of Bartol. di 
Tommaso and of Pietro di Mazzaforte, local painters, of the 
latter of whom he became the son-in-law ; but it is likely ihat 
he derived more knowledge of bis art from Benozzo Gozzoli who, 
from 1452 until at least 1457, was working not far from Foligno, 
and who had carried into Umbria reminiscences of his own 
master Fra Angelico. Of such teaching or influence there are 
many traces in the works of Niccol6 in union with native 
tendencies. He was capable of giving much gra:e and soft 
beauty to female heads and heads of angels ; but in other heads, 
and in the action of figures, he often exaggerated the signs of 
passion and emotion even to grimace. His forms are very much 
those of Beaozzo. His earliest dated work is the altar-piece at 
Diruta, painted in 1458. At Assist he executed many paintings 
in fresco and on panel ; the frescoes ha^e disappeared. The 
separated panels of an altar-piece of 1465 are in the Brera at 
Milan. The Madonna of the central pauel, with long fair hair 
rolled back from the temples, is very gentle and girlish in 
character, the angels by her side have also much beauty. The 
Vatican Gallery contains a great altar-piece in two or three 
stages, of the same kind as the last -mentioned, dated 1466. 
Gualdo, Nocera, and Foligno, retain altar pictures of later years ; 
that at Foligno, in S. Niccol5, bears the latest possible date, 1492 ; 
its predella is now in Louvre. An interesting work of no 
great size is the standard painted on both sides, presented to 
the Pinacoteca at Bologna by Pius IX. NiccbL6 made his will, 
August 12, 1492, and probably died in that year, leaving a son 
Lattanzio, a painter also. His signatures vary in form — as, 
Nicolai de Fulgiaea (opus) ; Nicolaus de Fulgineo ; Nicolaus 
Fulginas ; Nicolai Fulginatis (opas). 



• The error had a curious origin. On a picture of the Nativity (probably 
Nicool6*s last work) Id S. Niccold at Foligno are some Latin lines in wnich th^ 
painter is metaphorically termed— 

*" Kicholaus alumnus 

Fulginise " 

•* Nurseling of Fulginia." vasari, accepting alumnus as the surname of Niccold» 
rendered it in Italian Alunno. (Prof. Adamo Boss!, / Pittori di Fuligno <kc~ 
quoted in the notes to Milanesi's Opere di O. Vasaii^ Tom. III., 508-9.) 



NIOCOLO— OOST. 417 

No. 1107. The Crucifixion^ Ac, (a triptych). 

In the central compartment the Dying Saviour is seen on the 
Gross snrroanded by four angels, who, in various attitudes 
denoting sympathy and grief , receive in gold vessels the blood 
which flows from the sacred wounds. Below St. Francis, in the 
habit of his order, kneels embracing the cross. On the right 
hand stands St. John, the beloved disciple, with clasped 
hands and averted head. On the left the Holy Virgin sinks 
fainting in the arms of two female Saints. Landscape back- 
ground. In the middle distance a fortified wall surrounding 
buildings. 

The side wings are each divided transversely into two panels, 
on which are represented successively : — 

1. The Agony in the Garden. 

2. Christ bearing his Cross to Calvary, 

3. The Descent from the Cross. 

4. The Resurrection. 
Sigpaed on a earteUino ;— 

• 1^ » CO i Ai f giW tu(.ti$ • 

In tempera on wood. Central compartment, 3 ft. h, by 1 ft. 104 ^* ^' 
Side panels, each 1 ft. 4f in. h, by 9^ in. w. 

Formerly in the convent of Santa Chiara at Aquila, in IJmbria. 
Pnrohaaed at Bome in 1881. 



OOaZOmrO. (See KAROO.) 



OOST (Jacob van) the £ld£r, 1600?-1671. 

This painter was born at Bruges, about the yeir 1600. His 
works are mostly to be found in that town, where they are very 
numerous. He painted principally religious subjects, and, being 
desirous of achieving greater perfection in this class of work, 
went in 1621 to Rome, where he remained for five years. His 

25640 2 D 



418 OOST— OEOAGNA, 

work is very- unequal, some of his pictures being formal and 
uninteresting and coarsely painted, while others, such as the 
"Calling of Matthew/' in Kotre Dame, at Bruges, which is his 
best work, are full of life and character. He also painted 
portraits, of which class of work there are two important 
specimecs in the public gallery at Bruges. The portrait 
described below is probably his best. He died in 1671. 

No. 1137. Portrait of a Boy. 

Life size, half-length ; the face nearly in profile. Dressed in 
a black doublet buttoned on the chest, and a black cap orna- 
mented with a squirrel's tail. His long dark hair falls to his 
shoulders. The hands are concealed in a fur muff. Light brown 
background, on which ate inscribed the words jETAT. SUiB 11, 
1650, and the painter^s monogram, composed of the letters 
I, V, and 0. 




On panel, 2 ft. 7 in. A. by 2 ft. w. 

Purchased in London, from Miss M. A. Thomas, out of the interest 
of the " Clarke Bequest," in 1883. 



ORCAOMA, 130d?-ld68. 

Andrea di Cione Argaqnuolo,^ one of the greatest of the 
early Florentine artists after Giotto, was bom about 1308. 
Highly gifted by nature, he attained celebrity as painter, 
sculptor and architect ; it is said that he also indulged in verse. 
His eider brother Nardof (Lionardo) was a painter, and probably 
the first instructor of OrgaGNA. Both shared in executing the 
great frescoes in the Strozzi chapel in S. Maria Novella, Nardo 
painting the Inferno after the description by Dante, while Andrea 
occupied himself with the subjects of the Last Judgment and 
Paradise. The last is a work of singular grandeur in conception 

* By a gradual process of shortening Arooffnuolo became Arcagnio and Oroagno 
or Oroagna. 
t Incorrectly rendered by Vasari in this case Bernardo, He died in 1360. 



OBCAGNA. 4^9 

and stateliness in arrangement. The figures of the Saviour and 
the Virgin, seated on a pinnacled throne which forms the apex of 
the composition, are full of majesty and grac^. These «irorks 
show a decided advance in drawing, fore-shortening and the 
casting of drapery, as well as in the art of rounding forms by 
light and shadow ; and although the laws of perspective had not 
yet been discovered, an instinctive perception of them has begun 
to show itself. The great altar-piece of the same chapel, of 
which the principal group represents Christ in heavenly glory 
giving the keys to Peter and the book to Thomas Aquinas, is of 
later date — namely 1357. Of the same period, or at least of the 
same class, is the altar-piece of 3. Pietro Maggiore now in this 
Gallery. Other works, by tradition, and with probability, assigned 
to Orcagna are the S. Zenohio in the Daomo and the picture 
in Sta. Croce at Florence. On the facade of the Daomo of 
Orvieto were mosaics by him ; but these have been entirely 
renewed. As to Andrea in his capacity as sculptor it is stated 
by Yasari that he studied, while yet a boy, under Andrea Pisano. 
This, however, is open to some doubt, as it is certain that he 
did not matriculate in the guild of sculptors and wood-carvers 
until 1352, and then under the sponsorship of the sculptor Neri 
Fioravante.^ How soon after this Orcaqna undertook to furnish 
the tabernacle for the church of Or San Michele is not apparent, 
but it was completed in 1359. In that great work he proved that 
his powers in sculpture and architecture were equal to those he 
possessed in painting. Not only is the general design of this 
monument harmonious and imposing but the parts are in the 
highest degree beautiful, and the finish exquisite. The bas-reliefs, 
representing scenes from the life of the Virgin, interspersed with 
mediUions enclosing figures of Faith, Hope and Charity, are of 
the noblest in design and execution. Andrea was also engaged 
as architect in the works of the Duomo. He died in IHGB.f 

• Milanesi, in Le Opere cU O, Vasari, Florence, 1878-1885, T. I., p. 591, note 1, 

t Yasari gives the date of Orcagna's death in 1389 ; but see Milanesi, op. cit. 
T. I., p. 608. note 1. The grand f resooes of the Triumph of Death and the Last 
Judgment, in the Gampo Santo at Pisa, ascribed by Yasari to Orcagna, mast be 
attributed to other hands. See Milanesi, op. cit. in his commentary on the 
Lives of Stefano Florentine and Ugolino da Siena^ T. I, p. 407, where these 
works are attributed to Bernardo Daddi. MM. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Hist, 
cf Fainting, Ac, Yol. I., under *' Orcagna," were inclined to ascribe them to oco 
or both of the Lorenzetti. In like manner the design of the Loggia de Lanzi at 
Florence has now to be denied* Orcagna. 

25640 2 D 2 



420 



OROAGNA. 



No. 569* The Coronation of Uie Virgin^ Angels and 
Saints in Adoration. 

A large aliAr-piece ia three divisions. la the centre, Christ 
crowniag the Virgin, with two Angels standing on each side of 
the throne, and ten others below, eight of them kneeling, some 
playing various musical instrnments — a keyed organ, harp, lute, 
viol, gaitar and bag-pipes. 

In each of the side pictures are twenty- four Saints, kneeling in 

rows around the throne in adoration. On the spectator's left is 

^■'St. Peter, supporting on his knee the model of the church of 

;:fian Pietro Maggiore in Florence for which the picture was 

;^ainted.* 

In tempera, on wood, the centre piotnre, 6 ft. 9^ in. h. to the point of 
rvthe arch, by 3 ft. 9^ in. w, ; the side pictures, 6 ft. 6^ in. A. by 3 ft. 
. :B^ in. w, ; the Gothic frame, 9 ft. 7 in. h, by 13 ft. 1 in. to. 

Originally painted for the church of San Pietro Maggiore in Florence, 
iwhere it was placed over the high altar ; in 1677 it had been removed 
to the Delia Bena chapeLf It was inherited from the Delia Bena ftunily 
by the Marchese Roberto Pucd, from whom it passed into the possession 
of the late proprietors in 1846. Purchased at Florence from the Lom- 
bardi-Baldi collection in 1857. 



*Ab many of the Saints here represented are without their characteristic 
emblems, it is difficult to identify tiiem alL They appear to be, however, as 
nearly as can be ascertained, the following :-^ 



On the 8i>ectator'8 lef t,— 

jL fit. Peter. 
•2. ^ Bartholomew. 
•^3. 8t. Stephen. 
.. 4. St. John the Evangelist. 

5. An Apostle. 

' 6. St Sigismond. 

7. St. Ambrose. 
. 6. St Francis. 

9. Mary Magdalen. 

10. St Philip. 

11. StCosmasf 

12. St Blaise. 

On the spectator's right.— 

1. St Paul. 
~8. St Matthew. 

3. St Lawrence. 

4. St. John the Baptist 

6. StDamianusf 

6. A youth with sword. 

7. St Nicholas of Bari. 

8. St Dominic. 

». St Catherine of Alexandria. 

10. St James the Greater. 

11. An Apostle. 

13. A monk with purple scull. 



15. St Gregory the Great 
li. St Benedict 

16. St. Lucy. 
10. An Apostle. 

17. St Luke. 

18. St Clement 

19. A Bishop. 

ao. Eastern King, Balfhasar. 
2L St Elizabeth of Hungary, 

22. Eastern K.ing, Caspar. 

23. Eastern King, Melchior. 

24. St Euphemiaf 



13. St. Bernard. 

14. St Anthony Abbot 

15. St. Agnes. 

16. An Apostle. 

17. St Mark. 

18. St Marcellinus. 

19. St Augustine. 

20. St. Jerome. 

2L St Scholastica. 

22. St Zenobius. 

23. A youth with sword. 

24. St Beparata. 



t Oinelli, Belkzze dclla dm di Firenze, (fee, p. 364. 



OBOAGKA. 421 

The following nine pictures also were portions of this altar*pieoe, 
being originally placed over the three principal pictures (described 



above. 



No. B70. The Trinity. 

The H0I7 Spirit, in the form of a dove, is descending upon a 
crucifix, wmch is supported by the Almighty. 



Nos. 57I9 572. Angels adoring. 

Constituting the sides of No. 570. 

In tempera, on wood, 2 ft. 10 in. A. by 1 ft. 3 in. to. 

No. 573* The Nativity and the Annunciation to" the 
Shepherds. 

The child is lying in the manger, over which is hovering a choir 
of Angels. 

No. 574. The Adoration of the Kings of the East. 

Camels and attendants in the background. St. Joseph is- 
reoeivinff a golden vessel, one of the presens, from the hand of 
the child. Immediately over the stable is a star. 

No. B75> The Resurrection of Christ. 

Who is ascending with a standard marked with a red cross, in 
his hand ; below, the Roman guards are asleep around the tomb. 

No. 576* TJie " three Maries " at the Sepulchre^ Mark 
xvi. 1. 

Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome, are 
standing with vases of sweet spices in their hands, by the side of 
the vacant tomb ; on the opposite side are two angek. 

No. 577. The Ascension of Christ. 

The Yirgin and Apostles grouped in a circle below regarding 
the ascending Saviour. 



422 OROAGNA— ORIOLO. 

No. 578. The Descent of the Holy Spirit. 

** And suddenly there canae a sound from Heaven as of a rushing mighty 
wind, and it flllea all the house where they were sitting. And there appeared 
unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. And 
tbey were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to 8i>eak with other tongues 
as tne spirit gave them utterance." 

"" Now, when this was noised abroad the multitude came together, and were 
confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own language."— 
Acts ii., 2. 

The composition is in two divisions, the descent of the Holy 
Spirit beinff represented above, and below, the multitude 
confounded, every man hearing hia own language. 

In tempera, on wood, each 3 ft. \ in. h, by 1 ft. 7 in. to. 

Portions of Ko. 569. Purchased at Florence from the Lombardi- 
Baldi collection in 1867 



OBZO&O (Giovanni), - ? Uving 1461. 

Appears to have been a Ferrarese painter, of about the middle 
of the fifteenth century, a fact we learn from the inscription. on 
the portrait described below. Beyond much doubt he was a 
pupil of Tittore Pisano. He was still living in 1461. 

No. 770* Portrait of Leonello cTEstey Marquis of 
Ferraray <fcc., who died in 1450. 

Bust profile, life size ; dressed in a red coat and over it a black 
gown, without sleeves, edged with gold. Inscribed Lbonbllus 
+ Ma.rchio + EsT^is, and signed Opus JohAnis Obioli +. 

In tempera, on wood, 1 ft. 9| in. h. by 1 ft. 3 in. w. 

Formerly in the Oostabili Grallery, Ferrara. Purchased from the 
collection of Sir Charles Eastlake, in 1867. 

See also No. 776, Pisano. 



ORLBY— ORSI. 423 



(Bakent van), 1491 ?-1542. 

Called also Barent or Bernakd van Brussel, was bom at 
Brussels, about 1491, and studied under Raphael in Rome ; he 
and Michael Cocxie had the superintendence of the manufacture 
of the tapestries of the Vatican made from Raphael's cartoons 
for Leo X. Van Orlet died at Brussels, Jan. 6, 1542. He painted 
in oil and in tempera^ also for glass. Some of the windows of 
St. Gudule at Brussels are from Van Orley*s cartoons. The 
brilliancy of his colour in some of his oil piptures is attributed 
to his having painted upon a gold ground. He was iu the 
service of Margaret and Mary, Regents of the Netherlands, and 
had also the title of court painter to the Emperor Charles Y., 
and he is said to have visited England. There are a few 
engravings by his hand.^ 

No. 65S> The Magdalen^ reading. 

She is dressed in crimson velvet, and looking into an 
illuminated book ; on the table before her is a vasd.. Half -figure, 
small life size. 

On wood, 16^ in. h. by 14^ in. to. 

Puichased at Paris, from M. Edmond Beaucousin, in 1860. 



OaSI (Lelio), 1511-1586. 

Called also Lelio of Novellara in the Duchy of Parma. There 
still seems to be some question whether he was a native of that 
town or of Reggio, a neighbouring city. He was probably a son 
of Bernardino Orsi, an artist known as the painter of a picture 
still existing in the Duomo at Reggio, and was born in 1511. 
The earliest record of him is that he assisted in 1536 in decorating 
some triumphal arches erected in honour of a visit to Reggio of 
the Duke Ercoie Gonasaga II. Although it is not certain that 
he was a pupil of Correggio, there is no doubt that he oame 
under his influence, and he is known to have been his personal 
friend, and to have painted a aopy of the celebrated " La Notte '' 

* Van Mander, Het Leven^ Ac. ; Michiels, La Peinture Flamande^ Ac, vol. iii. 
Ed. Fetis, Musee Boyal de Belgique, 1866 ; Walpole, Aneedotea, Ac. 



424 OBSI. 

by that master. His first work was at Reggio, where be was 
actively employed and painted many pictures and frescoes, 
recorded by Tiraboscbi as existing in bis time, but tbey have 
since all perished. What was formerly only a matter of 
conjecture is now proved for certain, that he was banished for 
some unknown offence from Beggio in 1546, various letters 
to a cousin having been preserved,^ in one of which, dated 
October 18, 1552, he expresses his joy at being pardoned and 
permitted to return to Beggio. During these years he seems 
to have resided chiefly at Novellara, where also he executed 
n'umerous works of which, prolific as he was, but few examples 
remain. It is also said that he was a pupil of Michel Angelo, but 
this is more than doubtful ; it is certain, however, that he went 
to Bome, possibly during his banishment from Beggio, and 
certainly later in 1554, and that there he studied^the works of 
Michel Angelo and adopted his style. This is evident from a 
series of fresco paintings transferred to canvas now in the 
possession of Fran Gerard of Wiesbaden, widow of the artist of 
that name, and which are the most important works of Leli 
Orsi which remain. They are part of the decorations of the 
" Casino di Sopra," f a village of the Goozagas, in the neighbour- 
hood of Novellara, and consist of allegorical figures combined 
with architectural and imitation reliefs, which show in a marked 
degree the influence of both Gorreggio and Michel Angelo. He 
lived till 1586, working chiefly, if not almost exclusively, at 
Novellara. Lelio Obsi was also an architect of distinction, and 
there is no doubt that he enjoyed a great reputation among 
the artists of his time. The inscription on^ his tomb refers to 
him as "in Architectura magno, in Pictura majori, et in 
Delineamentis optimo." That the name of this active artist has 
remained obscure is no doubt due, as Lanzi points out, to the 
fact that his life work was confined to Novellara and Beggio^ 
and that his reputation being therefore almost entirely locals 
lie was unknown to and unrecorded by Yasari, Lomazzo, and 
other writers. Besides a few pictures in the Gallery at Modena, 
and the frescoes mentioned above, there is a picture by him at 

* See an article by Francesco Malaguzzi in the ArcMvio Storico dell Arte for 
1891. p. 370. 

t See an article by Henry Thode in the Archivio Storico for 1890,(p. 966, for an 
acconnt of these paintings, and for fuller details of the life of LeliolOrsi. 



OESI— ORTOLANO. 425.- 

Berlin, and one at Vienna. The small picture mentioned below 
shows a certain originality of conception, and some influence of 
Michel Angelo in the types and in the semi-idealized costnmes of 
the figures. 

No. 1466- The Walk to Emmaus. 

The Saviour and the two disdples engaged in earned convena. 
tion are walking along a road in a mountainous country. They 
wear broad brimmed hats. The Saviour is in a white dress, the 
two disciples are dressed as peasants. A dark sky with black 
clouds and bursts of light form a picturesque setting to the 
scene. 

In oil, on canvas, 2 ft. 3^ in. h, by 1 ft. 9| in. w, 

Pnrohaaed in 1895 at the sale of the Scarpa Collection at Milan. 



OBTO&ANO (K), . . . .?-1525? 

Giovanni Battista Benvencti, of Ferrara, called L'Obtolano, 
from his father's occupation, who was a gardener, is Raid to have 
studied the works of Raphael and Bagnacavallo at Bologna about 
1512-13.^ The circumstances of his life are, however, very little 
known, his works and his biography being confounded with that 
of Garofalo. He is supposed to have died about 1525, but he 
must have been still young at that date. 

No. 669. St. Sebastian, St Rock, and St. DemetritM, 

St. Sebastian is in the centre of the picture, tied to a tree and 
pierced with arrows ; in the foreground is lying a cross-bow. On 
his right is St. Bock as a pilgrim, and on Lis left St. Demetrius, 
in armour. The background is a landscape ; on the left are seen 
some horsemen near a village, and in the distance is a walled 
town. Entire figures, life-size. 

* Or 1507-8. This fact is ascertained from the title of a book of sketches 
noticed by Bamflaldi--*' Studio di me Zoane Bapta d. Benvegml fatto in 
Boloffna siizo le, dipintnre del Bagnac° e del Sangio da Urbmo, a li anni 
MD.Vn. et MD.Vin." These dates are otherwise read as MDXII., MDXni. 
See Lanzi, Storia PUtorica, Jec^ vol. y.« p. 202 ; Bamffaldi, Vite de" Plttori, iec^ 
vol. i., p. 168 ; and Laderchi, PiUura Ferrarete, p. 93. 



426 ORTOLANO— OS. 

Transferred to canvas from. wood, 7 ft. 7 in. h, by 6 ft. 1 J in. w. 

Originally, and as lately as 1844, the altar-pieoe of the parochial 
church of Bondeno, near Ferrara, where it was generally considered the 
painter^s masterpiece. Purchased in 1861 from Mr. Alexander Barker, 
who procured the picture from Sig. Ubaldo Sgherbi, and brought it to 
England.* 



OS (Jan van), 1744-1808. 

Born at Middelharnis in 1744, was the pupil of A. Schouman 
fkt the Hague, and became the most distinguished flower painter 
of his time ; he painted also marine and coast views, and was a 
poet. His wife, Susanne (de la Oroix), drew portraits in black 
chalk. He died at the Hague in 1808. 

No. 1015> Fruit and Flowers and Dead Birds. 

The fruit in a basket, the birds lying on a slab in front. Signed 
J. Van Os fecit. 

On canvas, 2 ft. 3 in. h, by 1 ft. 9 in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest, 1876* 

No. 1380> Fruit and Flowers. 

Ripe fruits of various kinds, interspersed with a few flowers, 
partly in, and partly clustered around a vase on a marble slab, 
on which lies also a little silver dish, containing a spray of 
gooseberries and a sardine. Signed : — 




a. 



mif ^//st-' 



On panel, 2 ft. 5 in. h, by 1 ft. 10 in. w. 
Presented by Mr. George Holt, in 1892. 



* Tlidre seems to be no reason to discredit the local tradition which assigned 
this picture to L'Ortolano ; if so, it is worth while to consider whether the 
large Deu^otitUm hanging in the Borghese Gallery under the name of Garofalo 
tte not by the same hana. The points of ret^embiance in these two piotaiee are ' 
precisely those in which both differ from the usual work of Garofalo. 



OSTADB. 427 



OSTAOS (Adriaan Jansz van), 1610-1685. 

Was baptized at Haarlem on the 10th of December, 1610 ; he 
became the pupil of Frans Hals. He was twice married ; the 
second time to a daughter of Jan van Goyen. He lived and 
died at Haarlem, and was interred thore May 2, 1685. Adbiaan 
VAN OSTADE*s scenes taken from the ordinary peasant life in his 
neighbourhood are well known, and few collections are without 
examples of them. The subjects are trivial, and dealt with from 
the comic and grotesque point of view, sometimes with needless 
coarseness. These less agreeable characteristics are, however, 
redeemed by artistic qualities of a high order — by consummate 
skill in composition and taste in arrangement ; subtlety of 
chiaroscuro and refined delicacy of colour ; appropriate, and 
never overstrained action in the figures, and precision, com- 
bined with breadth, of handling. It is for these merits that 
the works of Ostade are justly prized. His earlier pictures are 
the coolest in tone ; those of his middle period more golden, 
showing gradually the influence of Bembrandt. His drawings 
and etchings are extremely fine. His younger brother Isaak, 
Bega and Dusart were direct pupils of his, and he greatly 
influenced Jan Steen. 

No. 846> The Alchymist, 

An old chemist is at work at his furnace blowing his bellows, 
and surrounded by the implements of his occupation. In the 
background are a woman and two children. Under a three- 
legged stool is a paper on which is written a warning of the 
vanity of his labour. Oleum et operant perdta. Siflfned on a shovel 
hanging against the wall, A. v, Ostade^ 1661. 

On wood, 13^ in. h. by 17^ in. w, 

. Early in the last century in the collection of M. Huls, at the Hague ; 
then in that of M. de la Live de Jully. Subsequently in the de la Hante 
gallery sold in London in 1821.* 

Purchased with the collection of Sir Robert Peel in 1871. 



• Smith's CatalcQue Baisonnd, 1. 



428 OSTADE. 



(ISAAK VAN), 1621-1649. 

The younger brother and pupil of Adriaan was baptized at 
Haarlem, Jane 2, 1621. The circumstances of his life are very 
obscure ; but it is known that he lived and died at Haarlem, 
and that he was buried there on the 16th of October, 1649. His 
best pictures are dated between 1644 and 1649 inclusive. He 
painted out-of-door scenes, and was fond of introducing a white 
horse which serves as the principal mass of light in his groups. 
He had equal ability in figures and landscape, and combined 
both with masterly skill. A somewhat brown tone, more espe- 
cially observable in his summer scenes, may be due to a study of 
Rembrandt's works, or in part to changes which the pigments 
used may have undergone. It is less perceptible in his winter 
subjects, of which he painted a great number, full of the active 
life and enjoyment to which the frozen rivers and canals of 
Holland give play. Isaak made the most of the short career 
allowed him, and was very productive. Many of his best works 
are in England, chiefly in private possession.* 

No. 847. Village Scene. 

A man on a white horse, followed by a boy with two grey- 
hounds, is passing a cottage on his left hand. Some large trees, 
a church spire, and a man conversing with a milkmaid carrying a 
yoke of paUs in the background ; on the right two pigs. 

On wood, 1 ft. 10 in. h. by 1 ft. 7^ in. w. 

Engraved by Dunker for the cabinet of the Due de Choiseul. Subse- 
quently in the Erard collection in Paris. Sold by Mr. John Smith to 
the late Sir Kobert Peel, with whose collection it was purchased 
in 1871. 

No. 848. Frost Scene, 

A frozen river with figures skating or in sledges. A small 
wooden bridge with a handrail leads over the river to a cottage 
on its bank. Before the cottage a white horse is drawing a sledge 
containing a barrel off the ice. Signed Isaac van Ostade, 

On wood, 1 ft. 7 in. A. by 1 ft. 3 i in. to. 

Formerly in Sir Simon Clarke's collection. Purchased from Sir 
Robert Peel in 1871. 

■ * For an interesting and ezhaastive treatise on both of the brothers Ostade- 
see Dr. W. Bode, Studien zur Oeschichte der Holl&nditchen Malerei, Braunschweis 
188a. 



OSTADE— PAOOHIAi 42l 

No. 903a A Frozen River. 

A tavern on the bank to the right with horse sledges and 
travellers standing before the door, among which a white horse 
is conspicuous. Sledges and skaters on the ice, which is broken 
in one part te get water. Signed I. V. Ostade. 

On oak, 16 in. h, by 21 in. v). 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 1347. A Farmyard Scene, 

In the centre of the picture stands a dilapidated wooden shed, 
in which a rustic cart, baskets, and agricultural tools are stored. 
On the left is a ruined fowl-house, round which brambles have 
sprung up. Behind it rises a rugged oak tree. In the foreground 
are ponl^ feeding. Signed 



^facK 



Os/aJy 



On panel, 1 ft. 3^ in. h. by 1 ft. 8| in. to. 

Pnrohased in 1891, from Mr. Edward Habioh, of Oassel. 



PAOCBZAi (GiROLAMO DEL), 1477-15 . . .? 

Bom at Siena in 1477, was the son of a cannon founder 
from Croatia^ who, having settled at Siena, married Appolonia, 
daughter of one Antonio di Domenico del Zazzera. Left orphan 
while an infant by his father's death Girolamo was reared in 
jieedy circumstances by his almost friendless mother. In his 
boyhood he was placed with one of the best painters of his native 
1iown. His further studies were prosecuted at Florence whence, 



* Magister Johannes de Solavonia magrister bombardamm ; and *'Magister 
*** Johannes Johannis de Sa^abria (Zagrab, ij&. Agram), Magister bombardamm.'* 
See Milanesi, Documenti per la Storia aelV Arte Senete, vol. ii., p. 349. 



\ 



> 



430 PAOCHIA. 

in 1500, he went to Borne. There his talents and diligence soon 
gained hiin name and employment. In about 1508, with a 
reputation made, he returned to fix his residence at Siena, where 
some of ^his b6st works and records of others now perished may 
still be found. In company with Bazzi and Beccaf umi he worked 
at the frescoes in the Oratory of S. Bernardino, three of which 
are by his hand. For the Preaching Friars of Sto^ S£*irito he 
painted an altar-piece, now in the Gallery of the Belle Arti at 
Siena ; but their church still contains an Assumption of the 
Virgin by him. One of his finest altar-pieces is a Madonna and 
various Saints in S. Gristofano. Other works of his exist in the 
Oratory of Sta. Caterina in Fontebranda, and elsewhere. In his 
style may be traced the influence of Francia Bigio and Raphael. 

Having been unfortunately drawn into joining the notorious 
Company of the Bardotti, ho would seem to have fled upon the 
suppression of that turbulent club in 1535. After that date his 
name no longer appears in Sienese documents ; nor is the year or 
place of his death known.^ 



No. 246> Madonna and Child. 

The Yirgin in a blue hood and mantle seated with the Child 
on her knees ; landscape back-ground. Half-length, small life- 
size. 

On wood, in oil, 2 ft. 5 in. A. by 2 ft. w. 

Purchased for the National Gallery at the sale of M. Joly De 
BammeYille*B collection, in 1854, 



* The partial resemblance between this painter's name and that of Giacomo 
Pacchiarotti, his contemporary and fellow citizen, gare rise to much confusion 
in the history of the lires and the attribution of the works of the two painters ; 
almost all of del Pacchia's productions have been ascribed to Paochiarotti ; and 
the fact that both artists were members of the Company of the Bardotti still 
further added to the complication. The researches of Gkietano IkEilanesi in the 
archives of Siena first cleared np the obscurity, and restored to del Pftcchia his 
proper individuality. See for an account of both painters the Commentary oo 
theLife of II Sodoma Vasari, Ed. Le Monnier, vol. xi., pp. 172-180. 



PACOHIAROTTO. 431 

PAOOBIABOTTO (Jacofo), 1474-1540?. 

Jacopo or GiACOMO Pacghiarotto wm the son of Bartolommeo 
di Giovanni Pacchiarotto, a dresser of woollen cloth. He was 
bom at Siena in 1474, and at an early age entered the stndio 
of Bernardino Fongai, and in his early work closely imitated the 
rigid mannerisms of his master. From 1503 he carried ont in 
paint and stncoo the decorative heads of the Emperoi s in the nave 
of the Daomo, standards ordered for state occasions, sach as the 
elevation to the Pontificate of Pius III and the reception of the 
Legate of Pope Jnlias II, and processional banners for religions 
confraternities. In 1507 the sons of Andrea Piocolomini, a brother 
f Pins III, employed Pacghiarotto to complete the decoration of 
k chapel, in the Church of San Francesco, began in 1504, under the 
direction of their father, by Pinturicchio. This work was not 
finished until 1514, and was destroyed by fire in. 1655. In 1525, 
and again in 1536, he was employed by the Guild of Notaries, the 
latter commission being to erect a triumphal arch on the occasion 
of the visit to Siena 6t the Emperor Charles Y. Although hold- 
ing the positions of Gonfalonier and Captain of the Company of 
Stalloregi, in which quarter of the city he lived, his political 
activity brought him into conflict with the authorities on several 
occasions, ultimately, in 1539, for the good of the State he was 
sent into exile and his life declared forfeit. At the petition of his 
wife this sentence was repealed on the 17th August in the follow- 
ing year, and he returned to his house on the outskirts of the city, 
where he shortly afterwards-died. Two of his best known works 
are pictures of the Ascension, one in the Church of the Carmine at 
Siena, and the other painted for the Convent of the Osservanza, 
but now in the Academia delle Belle Arti ; there are four other 
pictures by him in that gallery, and he is represented in Florence 
and Buonconvento. 

Pagghiarotto is an example of an artist brought up in the 
strict school of Sienese convention, overborne by the renaisance 
grace of Fra Bartolommeo and Raphael, whose works he imitated 
in all his later pictures. 

No. 1849. The Nativity. 

The scene is laid in a stable hollowed out of the rook. The 
Infant Christ is lying on the ground in the middle of the picture, 



482 PAOOHIABOTTO— PALMEZZANO. 

and the Yirgin kneels before Him in an attitnde of adoration. 
Kneeling to the right and left are St. John the Baptist and 
St. Jerome. Behind St. John stands St. Stephen tnrning towards 
a shepherd who looks on from behind. St. Nicholas of Bari is 
standing behind St. Jerome, and St. Joseph, kneeling, looks ap at 
him with an animated expression. Above is the Almighty Father 
attended by two Angels. An ox and an ass are in the stable. On 
the frame on each side are three small nicke-shaped panels, one 
over the other, each containing a figure. At the top on the left is 
the Angel of the Annunciation ; then St. Peter and Sc. Francis of 
Assisi below. On the right is the figure of the Yii^in above, and 
St. Paul and St. Lucy below. The predella contains five panels 
with scenes from the Passion. Beginning from the l^t is 
<1) '' The Agony in the Garden " ; (2) '< The Betrayal of Judas " ; 
(3) '' The Crucifixion " ; (4) '* The Deposition from the Gross " ; 
and (5) " The Besurrection." 

In tempera, on wood, 6 ft. 2 in. h. by 6 ft. 1^ in. to. 

The predella, 8^ in. h. by 4 ft. 7f in. to. 

Purchased in London from Messrs. T. Agnew & Sons, in 1901. 



FADOVAMZirO. {See VAROTAM.) 



(Mabco), 1466 ?— living 1637. 

One of the principal painters of the Bomagna, was bom at 
Forli in or about the year 1466 ;* he was the scholar of Melozzo 
da Forli, and has signed his name MarchuB de Melotius and de 
MdotiU as in a picture in the Church del Carmine at Forli, and 
in another in the Church of San Francesco dei Zoccolanti at 

* The Palxnezzani family at Forli were in posflossion of a portrait of this 
painter, on the frame of which is inscribed— Mabcus Palmbsanus Nob. 
FOBOL. SBMBTIPSUM PINZIT OOTABA— JBTATis suji 1630. This appears to be 
now in the Pinacoteca at Forli, and represents the painter as an aged thonifh 
ftill vigorous man. 



PALMEZZANO. 433 

Matelica. His ordinary signature was Marcus Palmezanus Pictor 
Foroliviensis faciebat He was still living in 1537 ; a picture 
signed by him and bearing that date was formerly in the Ercolani 
Gallery at Bologna. Falmezzano followed his master in the 
study of geometry and perspective, and showed some skill iik 
foreshortening the human figure, as in the vault of the chapel 
of S. Biagio in S. Girolamo at Forli. He was also an able 
inventor in ornamental design. But he scarcely ever ridded 
himself of a certain dryness and hardness, and his draperies are 
in general angular in the folds, cutting up instead of indicating 
the forms beneath. However, to this and to other peculiarities 
there are many exceptions. The great altar-piece in San 
Michelino in Faenza, dated 1500, is held to be his best work. 
Forli abounds in his pictures ; others are in the Brera at Milan, 
in Florence, Rome (in the Lateran Museum, dated 1537, and 
showing an approach to the "arte moderna"), Munich, Berlin^ 
Paris, and in the National Gallery of Ireland.^ 

No. B96> The Deposition in the Tomb. 

The dead Christ is being placed in the tomb by the Virgin, 
Mary Magdalen, and St. John the Evangelist ; the Virgin, on the 
right, is supporting the body in a sitting posture, while the 
Magdalen, on the same side, is kneeling, holding the left arm of 
Christ, and compassionately regarding the wounded hand. On 
the other 8ide is St. John, clasping his hands in sorrow. To the 
spectator's right is standing San Mercuriale, first Bishop of Forli, 
holdinflf the Guelphic banner of the Church, a white cross on 
a red flag : on the extreme left is San Valeriano with the standard 
of Forli, a white flag striped with blue. In the foreground is a 
green cloth, hanging on the side of the tomb in front. Half 
figures, life- size, f 

On wood, 3 ft. 3 in. h, by 5 ft. 5 in. ft, 

^ Originally of a semicircular shape, but subsequently shortened and 
pieoened so as to form a quadrangular picture. 

This picture was the lunette of an altar-piece, representing ** Christ 
** administering the sacrement to the Apostles," now in the gallery at 

*The Le Monnier edition of Vasari (T. XL, p. 108), and MUanesi's edition 
(T. VI., F> ^^)* contain a list of the chief works of Falmezzano. 

tSee a detailed description of this picture in Reggiani's Alcune Memorie 
intomo il littore Marco Uelozzo da Forli, p. 16 Forli 183C where it is erroneously 
attributed to Melozzo. 

26640 2 E 



434 PANINI— PAPE. 

ft 

Forli and which was placed in the Cathedral of Forli in 1506. 
Purchased in Rome from Signer Gismondi in 1858.* 



PANZNZ (Giovanni Antonio), Cavalierey 1695-1768'; 

Was bom at Piacenza in 1695. He became a scholar of 
Andrea Lucatelli and Benedetto Luti at Rome, and attained 
celebrity as a painter of architectaral subjects. For some tim& 
he resided in Paris, where, in 1732, he was elected a member 
of the Academy. Rome was, however, his settled place of abode, 
and there he died on the 21st of October, 1768. A large number 
of his works were engraved. 

No. 138> Ancient RuinSy with Figures, 

The pyramid of Oestius in the middle-ground. A composition. 

On canvas, 1 ft. 7^ in. h, by 2 ft. 1 in. w. 

Bequeathed to the National Gallery, in 1837, by Lieut.-Col. OUney. 



(Abraham de) ?-1666. 

Abraham de Papb, a well-to-do citizen of Leyden, was a friend 
and pupil of Gerard Dou. The date of his birth is unknown. 
His name appears in 1645 in the account book of a society for 
the sale of pictures at Leyden. Three years later a guild of 
St. Luke was for the first time incorporated in that town. De 
Pafe became a Warden and in 1651 Dean of the guild. On the 
2nd of March 1666 he was again elected Dean, but died within 
his year of office on the 15th of September. He seems to have 
confined himself to painting interiors with figures. The gallery 
of the Hague contains a picture of that class, signed, but not 
dated ; a second, dated 1648, was contributed by Comte G. du 
Chastel to a loan exhibition at Brussels in 1873 ; a third, undated, 

Though the principal picture, which is engraved in Bosini's Storia delta 
Pittura ItaUana^ pi. 141, is signed Marcus Palmezanus fadebat, it is described by 
Vosari, ed. Le Monnier, vol. zi., p. 93, together with the lunette and predella^ as 
tiio work of Rondinello of Bavenna. Vasari'b error was corrected by Scannelli 
US early as 1657. See II Microcosmo della Pittura^ p. 281. 



PAPE— PARMIGIANO. 435 

but signed, was in the sale of the Da Bas de Gisignies collection 
at Brussels in 1882. The small picture described below is 
considered one of the best of de Pape's works.^ 

No. 1221. Interior of a Cottage with Figures. 

In the upper room of a humble tenement an old woman sits at 
her spinning wheel with her back to a window. On the right 
hand, but further to the rear, an old man sits warming his hands 
at a fire-place. On the wall above the spinning wheel is a wooden 
cupboard, on the lower portion of which is inscribed the painter's 
name. On the right of the foreground hangs an olive green 
curtain suspended from a rod which reaches across the room. 

Signed— A. DB Papb. 

Painted on panel, 1 ft. 3| in. A. by 1 ft. 9^ in. tt*. 

Purchased in London, at the sale of a portion of the Blenheim Palace 
collection in 1886, out of the " Walker Bequest." 



(LoDOYiGO da). {See bODOVZCO-X' 



PA&MXaZAirO, 1503-I54a 

Francesco Maria Mazzola, commonly called Parmigiano, and^ 
sometimes Parmigianino, from his birth-place Parma, was born 
Jan. 11, 1503.t In consequence of the death of his father, Filippo 
Mazzola, Francesco, still very young, was brought up by his 
uncles Michele and Pietro Ilario, who, as well as his father, were 
both painters, and Parmigiano was determined to follow the 
same profession. After Correggio settled at Parma in 1518 
Parmigiano was much struck with the works of that great 
master, and became a successful imitator of his style. Having 

* The initial A. in De Fape's signature was supposed to denote Adriaen a 
very usual baptismal name in the Low Countries in the 17th century. The 
correction ot this erroneous guess, and the notices respecting De Pape above 
given, are derived from the registers of the Leyden Guild of St. Luke, and the 
account books of the society mentioned in the text. These documents form a 
valuable contribution by Dr. Abr. Bredius to the Archief voar Nederlandtche- 
Kunstgeschiedenis. 5e Deci., p. 172. Eotterdam, 1883-83. 

t According to the Register, or 1504, according to the present mode of 
reckoning, 1504 is the year given by Vasari. 

25640 2 E 2 



436 PARMIGIANO. 

acquired considerable distinction in Parma, and strongly desiring 
to see the works of Michelangelo and Eaphael, he went in 1523 
to Borne, where he was well received by Clement VII. He was 
in Rome daring the memorable sack of the city by the soldiers 
of Charles V. under Bourbon, in 1527 ; and the picture of 
St. Jerome in this collection was painted there at that period. 
Parmigjano left Borne shortly after this event, and resided some 
time at Bologna. In 1531 he returned to Parma, and was engaged 
to execute some extensive frescoes in the choir of the church of 
Santa Maria della Steccata, to be completed by the 10th of 
2^ovember 1532, Parhigiano having received half payment (200 
gold scudi) in advance ; but, owing to his repeated delays, having 
scarcely commenced the frescoes after a lapse of five or six years 
from the time of the original agreement, he was thrown into 
prison by the authorities of the church for breach of contract. 
Instead of prosecuting the work after his release from prison, 
according to his promise, he fled to Casal Maggiore, in the territory 
of Cremona, where he died very soon afterwards, August 24, 1540, 
in the thirty-seventh year of his age. 

The well-known figure of Moses breaking the Tables of the Law 
is a part of the unfinished frescoes of the Steccata. Like some 
other works of his, it shows an effort to follow the " terribil via " 
of Michelangelo. The most celebrated of Parmigiano's altar- 
pieces is the Santa Margherita in the academy at Bologna : it 
was preferred by Guido to the St. Cecilia of Baphael.^^Of the 
easel-pictures of this master the most admired is the Cvpid 
making a Bow, painted about 1536 for Francesco Boiardi, and 
now in the gallery at Vienna : it is well known in prints and 
copies, and was commonly attributed to Correggio, Parmigiano 
etched a few plates, and is said also to have executed several 
woodcuts. His drawings are celebrated.^ 

No. 33> The Vision of St Jerome. 

Such is the title given to this picture by Yasari. John the 
Baptist, kneeling on one knee on the ground, is pointing upwards 

•Vasarl Vite dc' Ptttori^ Ac; Aff6, Vita del Oraglosissimo Ptttore^ Francesco 
Mazsota detto il Parmigianinot I^ma, 1784 ; Sketches of the Livet of Correggio and 
ParmigianOt London, 1823. 



PARMiaiANO— PATINIR 437 

to a yidon of the Yirgin with the infant Savionr ; in the middle- 
gronnd is St. Jerome lying on his back, asleep ; his figure is 
much foreshortened. Composition of foar figures, somewhat 
larger than the life. 

Engrayed by J. Bonasone, the painter's oontemporary 3 and by 
W. T. Fry, in Jones's Natiorial Oallery. 

On wood, 11 ft. 6 in. A. by 5 ft. w. 

This pioture was painted at Rome, in 1527, in Parmigiano's twenty- 
f onrth year, for Maria Buffalina, to be placed in her family chapel, in 
the ohnrch of San Salvatore di Lauro, at Citt^ di Gastello : he was in 
the act of completing the work when the city was stormed by the 
Imperialists under the Constable Bourbon.* It remained In Gittil 
di Gastello until 1780, when the church of San Salvatore was ruined by 
an earthquake, and the picture was purchased by an English collector, 
and brought to this country. After passing through different hands, 
it was finally purchased by the Governors of the British Institution, at 
the sale of Mr. Qt. Watson Taylor's pictures, in 1826, and by them 
presented to the National Gallery. There are several old copies of the 
picture extant. 



PiLTINZR OB PATZMZBR (Joachim) 14 . . ? in, or 

before, 1524. 

One of the earliest painters to pay especial attention to land- 
scape was born at Dinant in the latter half of the 15th century, 
and became a master of the corporation of St. Luke at Antwerp, , 
in 1515. He was married a second time in 152X during the visit 
of Albert Diirer in Antwerp. Albert drew the portrait of Patinir, 
and was one of the wedding guests. f Patimib died in, or before, 

* The anecdote related by the Padre Aff6 is a modern counterpart to more 
than one classic story of the kind, resembling more particularly that of the 
painter Frotogenes, who, we are told, pursued his occupation in tranquility 
while Bhodes was stormed by Demetrius Poliorcetes. **Parmigiano iv^as 
** earnestly engaged in giving the last touches to the picture for La Buffalina, 
** when the walls of Borne having been scaled and the city itself taken by the 
** invaders, the wild soldiery ran from house to house intent on spoil. The 
"painter absorbed in his occupation, paid no attention to the roar of the 
** artillery, the tumult of the people, or the shouts of the military, till some of 
** the enemy rushing into the very house and searching every comer, suddenly 
** entered the room where the artist was at work. The amazement of the 
*' soldiers on seeing him thus quietly pursuing his labours was greater than his 
** own on finding himself surrounded by lawless and hostile men. Fortunately 
** tiie leader of the band, who had meanwhile taken possession of the house, 
** happened to be an amateur of painting. He felt an interest for the artist, 
'^and contented himself by only requiring him to execute a good number of 
** drawings."— Aff6, Vita, <fcc., p. 60. 

t Dtirer, in the diary of his journey in the Netherlands, singles out Patinir as 
^ Joachim, the good landscape-painter." 



PATINIK. 

15>!24. In the Antwerp Gallery is a Flight into Egypt by this 
painter, signed Opus. Joachim. D. Fatinir ; and at least three 
other pictures bearing his signature are known, viz., the 
Baptism of Christ, in the Belvedere at Yienna ; a St. Jerome, in 
the Madrid Gallery, and a Temptation of St, Anthony in the 
Kuntshalle at Carlsruhe. All of these mark the preference 
given to landscape in his compositions, and in every respect 
serve as standards of his aims and style. Patinir remained a 
true Fleming, free from the Italianizing tendency which possessed 
so many of his countrymen at that time. His landscapes, 
always containing some scriptural incident that furnishes the 
title, are ably delineated, truthful and interesting in detail, 
minutely elaborated, but often wanting in organic coherence, 
and burthened with exaggerated, fantastic rook-forms. The 
prevalence of a heavy bine tone, especially in the distances, is 
a further defect in them. The figures, however, while retaining 
old Netherlandish characteristics, are good, expressive, even 
noble in conception, amply and gracefuUy draped, and warm in 
their colouring. The Madrid Gallery is particularly rich in 
works by, or fairly assignable to, Fatinir* 

No. 715> The Crucifixion. 

With St. John, the three Marys, and Salome, at the foot of 
the Cross. In the background an extensive landscape, — ^the 
Jews are returning to Jerusalem ; and on the left, under tne walls 
of the city, Joseph of Arimathea is seen approaching, with a 
man carrying a ladder. 

On oak, arched top, 2 ft. 11 i in. h, by 1 ft. 10^ in. w» 

No. 716> St. Christopher carrying the Infant Christ. 

A mountainous landscape with an inlet of the sea. 
On oak, 10 in. h, by 1 ft. 9^ in. to. 

No. 717. St. John on the Island of Patmos. 

Writing the book of Revelations, an eagle holding an ink-horn 
which an impish monster is offering to steal ; above is the Saint's 
vision of the woman with the child and the dragon with seven 
heads. 

On oak, 14^ in. h. by 9^ in. to. 

All three formerly in the Wallerstein Collection. Presented in 1863 
by Her Majesty Queen Yioioria, in fulfilment of the wishes of His 
Royal Highness the Prince Consort. 



PATINTB. 439 

No. 94S. A Nun. 

St. Agnes, adoring the Infant Christ, who is seated on the lap 
of his mother, and holding a coral rosary in His bands. A village 
on a river, and a hilly country in the background. 

On oak, 13 in. A. by 9 in. w. 

The Wynn Ellis Bequest. 1876. 

No. 1082. The Visit of the Virgin to St. Elizabeth, 

The Virgin, clad in a dark blue robe and mantle, stands 
extending her hands to greet St. Elizabeth, who kneels before 
her in a rose-coloured dress and white hood. Figures about one 
third life size. In the background is a castellated building, half 
concealed by a clump of trees. Beyond, to the left, is the distant 
view of a fortified town, round which a river winds. 

On panel, 2 ft. 7^ in. h. by 2 ft. 3^ in. w. 
Bequeathed by the late Mrs. Joseph H. Green in 1880. 

N»>. 1084. The Flight into Egypt. 

The Virgin, dressed in a long blue mantle, and holding the 
Infai^t Christ to her breast, is seated on an ass, led by St. Joseph 
down a rocky pathway in the outskirts of a wood. St. Joseph, 
whose back is turned to the spectator, carries on his shoulders a 
staff, from which a bundle is hung. Landscape — background, 
including the distant view of a town, hills, and a river. Figures 
about one-third life size. 

On panel, 2 ft. 7^ in. h. by 2 ft. 3^ in. to. 

Bequeathed by the late Mrs. Joseph H. Green in 1880. 

No. 12i98. Landscape ; River Scene. 

A river with a clear placid surface winds its way between lofty 
white cliffs of a fantastic shape, crowned here and there with 
trees and scanty verdure. In the middle distance a small town 
or village lies at the foot of a wooded upland. On the river are 
a rowing boat, a barge, and a log^eood raft of great length, which 
assumes a serpentine form as it is borne along by the current. 
On the left of the foreground sits a man sketching at the foot of 
a tree. 

This picture, which has hitherto been attributed to a painter of the 
Venetian School, is undoubtedly by Patinir^ompare with the 
landscape in No. 716. 

On panel, 1 ft. 8 in. h, by 2 ft. 3 in. w. 

Purchased at Florence from Sigr. Stefano Bardini, in 1889. 



440 PERUZZI- 

ps&uazNo (PiETRo). (5e« vAHirircrczii) 



(Baldassare), 1481*^1&86. 

Sometimes called Baldassare da 9iena, was bom at Siena, 
March the 7tb, 1481. His master is not known. His first work of 
merit was executed at Yolterra ; and he distinguished himself at 
Bome, in the begining of the pontificate of Julius II. (1503-13). 
At Bome, having attracted the notice of Agostino Chigi, of 
Siena, he turned his attention to the study of perspective 
and architecture, in which he obtained no less distinction 
than in painting. For Agostino Ghigi he built a villa — the well 
known Farnesina— on the western bank of the Tiber. From 
this period his time was chiefly devoted to architecture. He 
was appointed by Leo X., in 1520, the successor to Baphael a» 
architect of St. Peter's ; the salary, however, of this post was 
only 250 scudi per annum. At the sack of Bome, in 1527, he was 
plundered of all he possessed by the Imperial soldiers, and was 
forced to paint a picture of their general Constable Bourbon, 
who had been killed in the first assault of the city. After the 
completion of this picture, he escaped to Siena, where he was well 
received by his fellow-citizens. He was made city architect, was 
employed in the superintendence of the fortifications, and received 
a pension from the authorities. After a few years he returned 
again to Bome, and died there Jan. 6, 1536, not without suspicion 
of having been poisoned. He was buried in the Pantheon near 
the tomb of Baphael. Antonio da San Gallo succeeded him as 
architect of St. Peter's. Peruzzi, though an excellent draughts- 
man, was not greatly distinguished as a painter. His best work 
is a fresco representing the legend of Augustus and the Sibyl 
in the small church in Fontegiusta Siena ; he was also an 
excellent designer of ornament ; but as an architect he ranks 
with the artists of the highest class. 

No. 167> The Adoration of the Kings. 

The Magi, or Kings, are approaching with their presents and 
their retinues, from both sides of the picture. In the centre, near 
a picturesque ruin of which a great azch is the principal feature, 



PERUZZI— PESELLmO. 441 

is seaM the Holy Family attended by the adoring shepherds. 
The Father appears above the infant Be eemer surrounded by a 
glory of angels. The background is an ex.jnsiye rocky landscape. 
A drawing in chiaroscuro. 

Engraved rearly the some size, in several sheets, by Agostino 
Carracci, in 1579. 

On paper, 3 ft. 8 in. A. by 3 ft. 6 in. w. 

This drawing was made at Bologna, in 1521, for Count Giovanni 
Battista Bentivogli. Girolamo da Trevigi painted an excellent picture 
from it for the same nobleman. The drawing was presented to the 
National Gallery, with a print from the plate engraved from it by 
Agostino Gariacci, by Lord Vernon, in 1839. 

No. 218> The Adoration of the Magi. 

See above, No. 167. 

Engraved by Agostino Carracci, in 1579. 

On wood, 4 ft. 8i in. h. by 4 ft. IJ in. w. 

This may possibly be the picture painted by Girolamo da Trevigi, in 
the year 1521, from Baldassare Peruzzi's drawing for the Count G. B. 
Bentivogli, unless the report be true that Girolamo*s picture was lost 
at sea : it appears, however, to have been copied several times ; a copy 
was made from it by Bartolomeo Cesi, which was formerly in the 
possession of the Rizzardi family at Bologna.* The Thres Magi are 
portraits of Titian, Raphael, and Michelangelo. Presented in 1849 by 
Mr. Edmund Higginson ; it was formerly in the Lapeyri^re and Gray 
Collections. 



(Francesco), 1422-1457. 

The grandson, by a daughter, of Giuliano d'Arrigo Giuochi, 
commonly called Pesello, was born at Florence in 1422 ; as his 
father Stefano, a painter, died before young Francesco was five 
years old, he was brought up by his grandfather Pesello, and was 
hence called Francesco di Pesello and Pesellino. He was an 
imitator, and is said to have been the pupil, of Fra Filippo Lippi. 
After the death of his grandfather, on the 6th of April 1446, 
Pesellino joined the painter Piero di Lorenzo di Pratese ; they kept 
bottega together in Florence, but Pesellino survived his grand- 
father only nine years ; he died aged thirty -five on the 29 bh of 

* Lanzi, Storia Pittorica, <S;c., vol. 



442 PBSBLLINO— PIAZZA. 

July 1457, and was .buried in San Felice in Piazza.''^ Pesbllino 
is chiefly known to us by a number of small works, now scattered 
in various collections, admirable in invention and design, and 
very beautiful in colour. In the Louvre is one compartment of 
a predella of which the two other parts are in the Accademia at 
Florence. The small collection of the late Sgr. Giov. Morelli (now 
in the Bergamo Gallery) contains three charming works of the 
same class ; these strongly recall the style of Fra Filippo. In 
the collection of Lady Wantage there are two remarkable panels 
from aMMni that bear out Yasari's remark as to this painter's 
skill in delineating animals. But the finest production of the 
master is beyond doubt the following. 

No. 727. A Trinitd, 

Or mystic representation of the Trinity. The Father, seated on 
clouds and surrounded by Cherubim and Seraphim, supports the 
crucified Son, over whose head hovers the Holy Spirit. Below 
is a variegated landscape. 

In tempera, on poplar, in the form of a cross, 6 ft. h. by 3 ft. S in. w. 

Formerly in the church of the Santissima Trinitib in Pistoja ; subse- 
quently in Mr. W. Y. Ottley'B collection. Purchased in London at the 
Davenport-Bromley sale in 1863. 



(Martino). 14 . . ?- after 1626. 

At the beginning of the 16th century the two brothers Martino 
and Albertino Piazza worked together and also separately at Lodi. 
They belonged to the school which had its seat in Milanese 
Lombardy before the arrival of Leonardo da Yinci. Although 
the influence of Borgognone prevails in their works, these 
now and then show that the brothers were not strangers to 
the new light, if only as it was reflected by direct scholars of 
Leonardo. Martino exhibits a delicate fancy both in his figures 
and in the charming landscapes with which he surrounded them. 
In the Ambrosiana at Milan is a dainty Nativity by him which 

* See MilaneBi's Onere di Q, Vasari^ Ac commentary on the Lives of Fesello 
and Pesellino, in Vol. m., p. 41. 



PIAZZA— PIERO, 443 

well illustrates those qualities in the motive of the figures, the 
play of colour, the imaginative landscape with its powerful light 
and shadow, and the observation it shows of atmospheric effects. 
Works of more importance, the joint productions of both brothers, 
are altar-pieces in the churches of the Incoronata and S. Agnese 
at Lodi, and in that of the Incoronata at Castiglione in the 
vicinity. Martino's son Calisto became a pupil of fiomanino 
at Brescia. 

No. 1152i. St. John the Baptist. 

In a rocky cavern St John stoops, resting on one knee, to fill 
a bowl with water, which flows from a conduit in the rock. At 
the back of the cave are two natural apertures through which 
a mountainous landscape is seen. Signed with the painter's 
monogram, which is identical with that on the picture in the 
Ambrosiana mentioned above, and is composed of the letters 
M.P.P. " Martinus Platea pinxit." 



m 



On wood, 2 ft. 3 in. A. by 1 ft. 8^ in. to. 
Purchased at Milan in 1883. 



PZBaO Di COSZMO, 1462-1521 ? 

PiERO called di Cosimo after his master Cosimo Rosselli, was the 
son of a Florentine auger-maker of the name of Lorenzo, and was 
born in Florence in 1462. He accompanied his master to Rome 
when the latter went, about 1480, to decorate the new chapel of 
the Vatican for Sixtus lY. Piero was a good painter, and in 
some respects in advance of his contemporaries ; he much pre- 
ferred mythological to ecclesiastical traditions, and was altogether 
a very eccentric character. He was distinguished for his land- 
scapes and their cheerful accessories. He painted, according to 
Yasari, the landscape to Bosselli's Sermon on the Mounts in the 
Sixtine Chapel. He died at Florence about 1521. Piero's works 
are as diverse in character as he himself was strange and 
wayward. They are generally rather helpless in composition. 



444 PIEBO— PINTURICOHIO. 

though they arrest the eye by their fantastic originality of 
conception and their pleasing colonr. In his Marriage of St, 
Catheriney in the Hospital of the Innocenti at Florence, and in 
his Mars and Venus, in the Berlin Gallery, he is more attentive 
to composition. On the other hand his three pictures from the 
story of Perseus, in the Uffizi, are to the last degree loose in 
the arrangement ; but they tell the story, and are warm and 
brilliant in their colouring. Fiero was a good portrait painter. 
No. 698 in this gallery may be considered his most interesting 
work. 

No. 698. The Death of Procris. 

She is Iving on her side in a field of flowers ; at her head kneels 
a satyr, who is feelingly touching her shoulder, and at her feet is 
sitting her hound LaBlaps, the gift of Diana. In the background 
a view of the sea ; with other dogs, and some birds, on the shore. 

In tempera, on poplar ; 2 ft. 1^ in. h, by 6 ft. w. 

Purchased in Florence, from Sig^ Francesco Lombard! in 1862. 

No. 895a Portrait of a Warrior in Armour, 

With a view of the Piazza della Signoria, Florence, in the back- 
ground. Half length, nearly life size.^ 

On wood, 2 ft. 4 in. h, by 1 ft. 8^ in. w. 

Bequeathed by Sir Anthony C. Sterling, in 1871. 



PZBBO DELLA r&ANCBSGA. {See FRANGBSCA.) 



PZNTITBZCGBZO (Bernardino), 1454-1513. 

Bernardino di Betto, or the son of Benedetto, commonly 
called PiNTURlGGHio or Fintorichio, the little painter, was born at 
Perugia in 1454, and probably first studied under Fiorenzo di 

* The recognition of the true authorship of this picture is due to Dr. Gustavo 
Fri2zoni. 



PINTURICOHIO. 445 

Lorenzo. Later in life he seems to have entered into partner- 
ship with Fietro Ferugino, with whom he was in Bome in 1484, 
and whose influence his works strongly display. While at Kome 
he was engaged on the series of frescoes in the Sixtine Chapel. 
He was one of the best of the Umbrian painters. His fine 
mural paintings in the Library of the Duomo of Siena, and 
its exquisitely decorated ceiling, are well known. These works, 
executed for Cardinal Piccolomini and illustrating the life of Enea 
Silvio Piccolomini, afterwards Fope Pius II., occupied Fintubic- 
GHio from 1502 to 1509. He had already greatly distinguished 
himself by the decorations of the vault of tbe Choir of Santa 
Maria del Popolo at Bome, which was painted before his visit to 
Siena; but latterly he got careless in his work, and was, like 
Perugino, accused of allowing his love of gain to get the better of 
his love of art. He died at Siena, December 11, 1513, deserted 
by his infamous wife Qrania, who left him alone in his house 
when ill, so that he was starved to death.^ Finturigghio gave 
much attention to landscape painting, which he used well in his 
historical compositions, as, for example, in the frescoes above 
mentioned and in those of the Appartamento Borgia in the 
Yatican. Li decorative design, too, he was a master of refined 
taste, as may be seen in the adornment of the vaulting, &o, of 
the same suite of rooms. Wonderfully fine, and of the purest 
Umbrian character, are the frescoes of the Buffalini Chapel in 
S. M. Aracoeli at Bome. Others at SpeUo are sadly decayed. 
Of his many exquisite altar-pieces and other works in tempera 
(he never painted in oil) it would be vain to attempt a list.t 
Though less of a master in drawing than Peragino, he was 
sufficiently correct in the proportions of his figures and the 
rendering of the extremities. On the other hand his works, 
though always showing Umbrian peculiarities, are more truly 
naive, and less open to the charge of mannerism and affectation, 
than are too often those of Perugino. 



• Q. B. Vermiglioli, Memorie di Bern. Pinturicchio, Ac, Pemffia, 1837. The 
story rests on the evidence of a passage in the diary of Tizio of Siena ; this is 
quoted in Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Riatory, Ac, VoL IILj p. 293, note. 

t See Milanesi's Overe di Q, VaaaH, Vol. m. Vita di B. Pinturicchio, with the 
notes thronghont, the Commentario, and Frospetto Oronologioo at the end. 
Also Orowe and Cayalcaselle, Op. eit.. Vol. IIL 



446 PINTURICCHIO— PIOMBO. 

No. C93> St. Catherine of Alexandria with her attributes. 

A monk kneeling in adoration. Landscape background. 
On wood, 1 ft. 9 J in. h, by 1 ft. 3 in. w. 
Bequeathed by Lieut.-(}en. Sir W. Moore in 1862. 

No. 703* The Madonna and Child. 

The Infant stands on a carpeted parapet in front of its mother, 
only half of whose figure is seen : a rocky landscape in the back- 
ground. 

In tempera, on poplar, 1 ft. 10 in. h. by 1 ft. 8^ in. w. 

Formerly in the Wallerstein Collection. Presented in 1863 by Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria, in fulfilment of the wishes of His Royal 
Highness the Prince Consort. 

No. 911a The Return of Ulysses to Penelope. 

Penelope is seated at her loom ; on the floor at her right is a 
damsel winding thread on shuttles from a ball of yarn which a 
cat is playing with. Four suitors in gay costume have entered 
the room, in the background Ulysses himself is seen in the 
doorway, just entering ; his bow and quiver of arrows are hanging 
up above the head of Penelope. 

From the open window is seen the ship of Ulysses, with the 
hero bound to the mast ; syrens are disporting themselves in the 
sea ; the palace of Circe is on an island near with swine and other 
animals in its vicinity, 

A fresco transferred to canvas, 4 ft. 1 in. A. by 4 ft. 9^ in. w. 

Painted about 1509. Formerly in the Pandolfo Petrucci Palace at 
Siena ; transferred from the wall for M. Joly de Bammeville, in 1844, 
hy Pellegrino Succi. Subsequently in Mr. Barker's collection, at whose 
sale it was purchased in 1874.* 



PXOBKBO. {See ZiUCZANZ.) 



* See under " Signorelli," No. 910, 



PIPPL 447 

(GiULio), 1492-1646. 

GiULio PiPPi,or rather db' Giannuzzi,<> commonly called GiULio 
Romano, was born at Rome in 1492. He became early the pupil 
of Raphael, who employed him on some important works in the 
Vatican daring the pontificate of Leo X. After the death of 
Raphael in 1520, GiULio and his fellow-pupil, Gianfrancesco 
Penni, to whom Raphael had bequeathed conjointly his implements 
and works of art, were entrusted with the completion of th» 
frescoes of the Sala di Oostantino, in the Yatican, comprising the 
Battle of Constantine, the Apparition of the Cross^ the Baptism of 
Constantine, and the Presentation of Borne to the Pope» 

These works were completed in 1523, and in the latter part of 
the following yearf GiULio Romano entered the service of 
Federigo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua. He introduced the style of 
Raphael into Mantua, and established a considerable school of art 
there : Primatticio was one of his pupils. His greatest works are 
the Fall of the Giants^ the Story of Cupid and Psyche^ and the 
other frescoes in the Palazzo del Te, at Mantua ; { the palace itself 
was rebuilt by GiULio. The frescoes, however, appear to have 
been executed chiefly by his pupils from his cartoons ; of these 
pupils, the principal were Benedetto Pagni, Rinaldo'Mantovano^ 
and Primaticcio, who remained with Giulio Romano six years. 

GiULio Romano was not less distinguished as a painter in oil 
colours than as a fresco painter, and he was equally celebrated a» 
architect and painter. Among his most celebrated oil- pictures 
may be mentioned, the Martyrdom of St, Stephen, in the church of 
that saint at Genoa ; and a domestic Holy Family known as La 
Sainte Famille au Basin in the gallery at Dresden. GiULio is* 
generally considered to have been the most able of Raphael's 
scholars. He died at Mantua, November 1, 1546, leaving a wife 
and two children. His son Raphael died young ; his daughter 



♦ Ginlio's father wae Pietro Pippi de' Giannuzzi which in fall is Pietro di. 
Pippo (or Filippo) de' Giannuzzi— Peter the son of Philip Giannuzzi. Carlo 
lyArco, latoria delta Vita e delle Opere di Qiulio Pippi Romano, Folio, Mantua» 
1838. And XMw«^6ia«. No. 31, IW. 

t Gaye, Carteggio Inedito tf Artistic ii., 102. 

J Bottani, D««crtefon« Storica delle Pitture del Regio-Ducale Palazzo del T^^fuun^ 
della Porta di Mantova detta Pusterla, Mantua, 1783. Some of these frescoes ar& 
engraved by P. 8. Bartoli ; by Diana Qhisi ; by Antonio Veneziano ; and in 
Carlo d'Arco's Vita di Giulio Romano, 



448 PIPPL 

Virginia was married to Errole Malatesia and surviyed her father 
many years.** 

No. 225- The Beatific Vision of the Magdalene. 

Mary Magdalene borne upwards by angels to witness the joys 
of the blessed ; in accordance with the legend from which painters 
of varioas schools have borrowed subjects relating to her supposed 
history. Seven figures. 

Fresco, of semicircolar form, 5 ft. 5 in« A. by 7 ft. 8 in. to. 

Engraved by Ant. Ricciani. 

Formerly in the church of the Trinita de* Monti, Rome. According 
to Tita, Giulio Romano was aided by G-ianfranoesco Penni in the 
frescoes he executed in this church. Formerly in the possession of 
H. Joly de Bammeville. Presented to the National Grallery, by Lord 
Overstone, in 1862. 

No. 624. The Infancy of Jupiter. 

A cradle containing a sleeping infant attended by three women 
on a small verdant island, on the further side are two groups of 
figures playing musical instruments. The landscape is possibly 
by Giambattista Dossi. 

This is an illustration of the classic myth relating to the infancy 
of Jupiter, the youngest son of Saturn and Bhea ; he was bom 
in Crete, secreted b^ his mother, and nursed by the Melian nymphs 
to save him from his father who used to devour his sons as soon as 
they were bom (from fear of the fulfilment of the prophecy that 
one of them would dethrone him, as he had dethroned bis father). 
The figures in the background are the aretes making a noise 
with horns and cymbals lest Saturn should hear the cries of the 
infant, and thus discover the trick that had been played upon him; 
he had swallowed a stone instead of the young Jupiter. 

Engraved by J. B. Patas for the Orleans Gallery. 

On wood, 8 ft. 6^ in. k. by 6 ft. 9 in. w. 

Formerly in the Orleans Gallery, subsequently in that of Lord 
Northwick at Oheltenham, from which it was purchased in 1859. 

• Vasari, VUe de PlttoH, <fec. 

In the Archivio della Saniti of Mantua is the following entry against Nov. 1, 
1546:— **Sig. Oiulio Bomano, Superintendent of all the ducal buildinsrs, after 
fifteen day's illness, died of fever, a^ed forty-seven." According to iniiioh. he 
was born in 1498 or 1499 ; but in this case he must have been but a boy when 
be was first employed by Baphael in the Vatican. See Gaye, Oarteggio InedUo 
a ArtUti, and the Kunstblatt, No. 71, 1838. and No. 31. 1847. 



PISANO. 449 



PZSANO (YiTTORE), 1380-1451-2. 

^'PiSANUS Yeronemsis," painter and medallist, was bom in 
1380 at San Yigilio in the Yeronese territory. He is commonly 
called YiTTORE Pisano, or Pisanello,^ and though excelling in 
both arts, is better known as a medallist than a painter, for, un- 
fortunately, few of the pictorial works which he is recorded to 
have executed now exist. Those which remain, however, suffice 
to justify the high enconiums of contemporary writers of the 15th 
century ; and his well known medals and plaques in bronze show 
his knowledge of form, his powers as a portraitist, and his feeling 
for composition. Pisano painted both in fresco f and tempera, 
and produced in the former method many works at Yerona, and 
one at least at Yenice in the Sala del Gran Gonsiglio of the Ducal 
Palace, where he was employed, together with Gentile da Fabriano, 
about 1421-1422. All these have disappeared, excepting some 
fragments at Yerona, viz., an Annunciation, and figures of 
St, Michael and St. George (greatly impaired) in the Brenzoni 
chapel, S. Fermo Maggiore); and St, George mounting for the Fight^ 
on the arch of the Pellegrini chapel in Sant' An astasia. Gone 
altogether are recorded works in the Gastello of Pavia, in St. John 
Lateran at Rome, at Mantua, Rimini and Ferrara. Of Pisano's 
easel pictures but two or three, of small size, are known. Of these 
the most important is the precious work described below (No. 
1436), formerly in the possession of the Earl of Ashbumham, 
representing the Miraculous Stag appearing to St, Eustace^ an 
invaluable work, and of especial interest as illustrating the love of 
Pisano for delineating animals, and as justifying the high reputa- 
tion he enjoyed for his skill in doing so. Yittore lived at a time 
when the traditions and forms of chivalry had not yet died out ; 
and all his works, including his delicate and spirited pen drawings, 
have a certain stamp of knightly grace which is singularly attrac- 
tive : in this respect they resemble the creations of Gentile da 
Fabriano. He was in constant intercourse with all the Italian 

* Yasari calls him Pisanello, apparently an endearing diminutive which may 
have originated in the artist's own time. But older writers call him Pisano, 
and he always signed his medals— Opvs . PiSANi . Pictobis. One of these— that 
of Jonn PalsBologos, where the legends are in Greek— bears the inscription : 
BPrON . TOY . DIOAI^OY . ZQITA^OY. He evidently considered himself 
as first and foremost a painter. 

t Scarcely buonfreteo^ but raXher fresea-ieceo, 

25610 2 F 



460 PI8AN0. 

mien of his time, his services in portraiture being in eager 
demand.^ This is not the place in which to speak of Pisano*8 
medal8,t though all his works should be studied together in order 
to gain a tme conception of his yaried powers. The belief that he 
studied painting under Altichieri da Zevioj; seems to be well- 
founded, though some conceive him to have sprung from the 
Veronese school of miniaturists, a view which many of his pen 
drawings perhaps suggest. § He seems to have died in 1451 or 
1452. il Stefano da Zevio and Bono of Ferrara were his scholars. 

No. 776. St. Anthony and St. George. 

On the left of the spectator stands St. Anthony with his staff 
and bell ; his pig, here a wild boar, reposing at his feet ; opposite 
io him is St. George in rich armour, his head covered by a large 
Tuscan hat; at his feet lies the vanquished dragon : Behind 
St. George are two horses' heads; the sword and spurs of the 
Saint and the bits of the horses are embossed and gilt. The baok- 
ground is a pine wood ; in the sky above is a vision of the Yirgin 
jmd Child in a glory. Inscribed Pisanin Pt. 



^mmP 




In tempera, on wood, 18 in. A. by 11^ in. w. 

Formerly in the Goatabilli colleotion at Ferrara. Presented to the 
National Gallery, in 1867, by Lady Eastlake. 

• In the Bergamo Gallery is a fine portrait of Leonello d'Este, which, though 
nnsiffned, has all the characterisMcs of Pisano's hand. 

t Those who specially interest themselves in the snbjeot know where to look 
for Pisano's medals and for the literary works which treat of them. But it 
may be useful here to refer to the work of M. AJoiss Heiss. Les Midailleurt de la 
Senait$ance, Ir. fascicule, Paris, J. Dothschild, 1881, where P