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Court of Assistants of the Company. 

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PREFACE, pp. xiii to xv. 

INTRODUCTION, pp. xvii to xxiv. 

CHAPTER L— Antiquity and Early History of the Company. 
Fitzstephen's Description of the Guilds. — The " Saddlery of West- 
chepe." — The Conventual Church of St. Martin's-le-Grand. — 
Ancient Convention between the Saddlers and the Convent. — 
Antiquity of the Company. — Their earliest Charter and Liberties. — 
The City Letter Books and their Notices of the Company. — Curious 
Ordinances of the Saddlers and Joiners. — Dispute between the 
Saddlers and the Loriners. — Craft Jealousy. — A Faction Fight. — 
Wages of a Saddler fixed by Royal Decree. — The Saddlers and the 
Girdlers. — Ordinances of a.d. 1363. — The Company's Contribution 
to the French Wars of Edward HI. — Charter from Edward HI. — 
Representatives on the Common Council. — A Despotic Mayor, 
Nicholas Brembre. — The Company petition the Crown and Parlia- 
ment. — Incorporation Charter from Richard II. — Interesting 
Dispute between Master and Yeomen Saddlers. — Charters from 
Henry VL ; from Edward IV. ; from Henry VII. — The Company 
in 1537. — Charter from Henry VIII. — Statute of Chantries Act, i 
Edward VI. — Charter from Elizabeth. — The Company's Ordinance 
of 1 56 1. — The First English Lottery. — Grant of Arms. — The Com- 
pany's Mottoes, pp. 1-58. 

CHAPTER II. — Historical Notices of the Company, continued. 
Company's Order Books commence. — A Glance at the State of the 
Company in the beginning of the XVI Ith Century. — Cheapside in 
a.d. 1600. — Its Churches. — The Little Conduit.— The Cross. — The 
Standard. — The "Mermaid" Tavern. — The Compters or Counters. — 
Ludgate. — The Gunpowder Plot. — King of Denmark visits the 
City. — Charter from James I. — Frequent Plagues during XVIIth 
Century. — That of 1 607. — Ratification of Company's Ordinances. — 
The Cowrie Conspiracy. — "Ayde" Money. -^Colonization of Vir- 
ginia. — Interference by Crown in domestic Concerns of Company.— 
Company's Scholars at the Universities. — Colonization of Ulster. — 
The Palatinate. — Introduction of Coaches. — Opposed by the Com- 
pany. — Coronation of Charles I. — " Whifflers." — Plague of 1630. — 
The Incident of Dr. Lambe. — Restoration of St. Paul's Cathedral — 
St. George's, Southwark. — The Era of the Revolution. — Heavy 

vlli Contents. 

Exactions from the Companies. — Bury St. Edmunds Plague. — Ship- 
money, — Loans to Charles I. and the Parliament. — Plate sold to 
raise Money. — Money borrowed by the Company. — Trouble in 
Ireland. — More Demands. — "Solemn League and Covenant." — 
The Company and the Saddles for the Army. — Gunpowder Stock. 
— Battle of Worcester. — "Ye States Armes." — Saddlers' Hall in 
1653. — The Restoration. — Straitened Circumstances of the Com- 
pany. — Their Contribution to Charles IL — More Exactions. — 
Coronation of Charles IL — The Company attend the King in his 
Entry into London. — War with Scotland. — The Ship " Loyall 
London." — The Great Plague of 1664. — The Great Fire. — The 
rebuilding of the Hall. — Lord Mayors' Shows. — Processions by 
Water. — Alderman Dash wood's Gift. — The Company's Barge Cloth. 
— The Company and the Water Pageant. — " Stands." — The King's 
Esquire Saddler. — The Company and the Coachmakers. — Quo 
Warranto. — Surrender of the Company's Charter. — New Charter 
from Charles IL, 1684. — Tyranny of James IL — His Removal of 
Wardens and Assistants. — The same removed from the Livery. — 
Their Restoration. — Threatened Invasion by William of Orange 
frightens James. — He returns the Company their Surrender. — Offers 
a New Charter. — Abdication of James IL, and Succession of 
William III. and Mary II. — The Company propose to raise two 
Dragoons. — Loans to William HI. repaid. — Sir Richard Blackmore 
and Saddlers' Hall.— Saddlers' Hall in the XVIIIth Century, 
described by Hatton and Maitland. — Entry of George I. into 
London. — "A Good Trumpett and Kettledrum." — The Company 
in their Stands. — Frederick, Prince of Wales, visits Saddlers' Hall 
in 1736. — Accepts the Freedom of the Company and is elected 
Perpetual Master. — Presents the Company with his and the 
Princess's Pictures. — Freedom of Company conferred on Members 
of his Household. — Birth of George III. — The Company attend 
and congratulate Princess Augusta. — A Bonfire in Cheapside "when 
the Princess is brought to bed." — The Scotch Rebellion. — Death of 
the Prince in 1751. — Voluntary Fund for the Defence of the 
Country. — Saddlers' Hall partially destroyed in 1815. — Completely 
destroyed in 1821. — Rebuilt in 1822. — Worthless Saddles destroyed 
in 1822.— :- Alderman Sir Peter Laurie's Mayoralty Procession by 
Water. — Almshouses at Isleworth. — Saddlers Company's Prizes for 
Improvements in Military Saddles. — Livery Companies Commission, 
pp. 59-148- 

CHAPTER III. — Internal Affairs of the Company. 

The Constitution of the Company. — The Master and Wardens. — 
Origin of their Titles — Renter Warden. — Under Renter. — Cupfillers. 
— Election Day. — Election of Wardens. — The Livery. — Quarter- 
age. — The Yeomanry. — Translation. — Feasts, Quaint Custocn. — 
Yeomanry Dinner or Bartholomew's Feast. — Religious Observances 

Contents. ix 

of the Company. — Burials. — The Funeral Pall or Burial Cloth. — 
Courts or Assemblies. — Fines. — The Company a "Fellowship;" 
Members not to rebuke one another — not to sue one another at 
Law without License from the Wardens. — Peacemaking ; quaint inci- 
dents. — Etiquette at Meetings. — Light-coloured Clothes prohibited 
at Meetings. — Apprentices " polled close," pp. 149-178. 

CHAPTER IV.— The Company and the Trade. 

The Company anciently all of the Craft.— -Freedom by Patrimony. 
— Impracticability of restricting the Company to Members of the 
Trade. — The Ordinances of the Company in conformity with the Laws 
of the Period. — Statute of 5 Eliz., cap. 4. — All Trades to be Learned 
by Apprenticeship. — Apprentices to the Saddlery Trade examined by 
the Wardens. — Number of Apprentices limited by Ordinances. — 
Regulations concerning Apprentices. — Curious Custom upon taking 
up Freedom. — Spoons — they accumulate, and are exchanged for other 
Plate. — Responsibility of Apprentices. — Company Mediate between 
Apprentices and their Masters. — "Opening Shop." — "Proof 
Piece." — Ordinances impose Honesty of Dealing. — Saddles to be 
made openly. — To be viewed by Company before Sold. — 
"Forreyners." — Statute 5 Eliz., cap. 8. — Leadenhall. — Searchers and 
Sealers of Leather. — Custom of Search. — Conclusion, pp. 179-204. 

List of Ancient Masters and Wardens of the Company, with 
some Biographical Notices, pp. 205-219. 

SUPPLEMENT. — A Description of Plate and other Articles 
OF Interest in the Company's Possession, pp. 220-232. 

ADDENDUM. — The Will of William Lincoln, dated 2oth 
November, 1392, bequeathing the Guild of Saddlers a 
sum of Money for the purpose of building a Common 
Hall, p. 233. 

INDEX, p. 235. 




Ancient Convention ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Introduction to Charter of Elizabeth ... ... ... 52 

Arms of Company ... ... ... ... ... 58 

Cheapside in 1639 ... ... ... ... ... 64 

The Wood Street Compter ... ... ... ... 68 

Seal of James I. (attached to Company's Charter) ... ... 73 

Interior View of Old Saddlers' Hall ... ... ... 127 

Exterior ,, ,, ... ... ... 128 

Interior View of Present Hall ... ... ... ... 141 

The Company's Almshouses at Isleworth .. . ... ... 144 

The Company's Funeral Pall ... ... ... ... 178 

The Company's Plate ... ... ... ... ... 230 


QUIET and casual perusal of the 
early minutes of the Company, snatched 
during the intervals of business, re- 
vealed so much that was interesting that the 
writer was induced to extend his researches, 
and to embody the result in a Paper, which, at 
the suggestion of the late Master, Colonel 
Laurie, C.B., M.P., was communicated to the 
Master, Wardens and Court of Assistants on 
Friday evening, March 23rd, 1888.^ A proposal 
then made to amplify the Paper into something 
like what is now submitted met with warm and 
unanimous approval. It is possible that, generally 
speaking, the chapters which follow may reveal 
little that is new to the future compiler of history, 
but it is believed that they will shed an interesting 
light upon facts already ascertained. 

In attempting the task before him, a difficulty 
encountered the writer at the outset. It hap- 
pens unfortunately that, although there is every 

* A very similar suggestion had indeed been made in the 
previous year by the then Master, Mr. C. O. Humphreys. 

xlv Preface. 

reason for believing that the Company, from 
a very early period of their existence, kept 
a transcript of their proceedings, their Order 
Books, or Minute Books, have not been pre- 
served from a date earlier than 1605. In the 
Company's Inventory of the year 1721 there is 
mentioned an Order Book of the year 1416, but 
this has also since .been lost.^ Their records have, 
however, been preserved without Interruption 
from the date named, 1605, and we are so far 
fortunate, Inasmuch as the history of the Sad- 
dlers' Company, like that of the London Livery 
Companies generally, is of the greatest Interest 
during the seventeenth century. This circum- 
stance, however, compelled recourse to other 
sources of Information, but it must be admitted 
that the outside source to which the writer Is 
most Indebted Is the early Letter Books and 
Journals of the Corporation of the City of 

To say that the Saddlers' Company Is the most 
ancient of existing Livery Companies Is to make 
an assertion which can be supported by evidence 
of a strong character deduced from ancient docu- 
ments still extant, alluded to on pages 3 et seq. 

No other Company can point to evidence 

^ Probably in either of the two fires in the early part of the 
present century, one of which partially, and the other com- 
pletely, destroyed the Hall. 

Preface. xv 

of its own existence at so early a date as the 
Saddlers' Company. The remarkable convention 
between the Guild of Saddlers and the Canons 
of the ancient conventual church of St. Martin's- 
le-Grand, described on p. 3 et seq., is authorita- 
tively admitted to belong, by its handwriting, to 
a period about 11 54 a.d. ; yet in this archaic 
document we are referred still further back into 
antiquity by an allusion which it contains to 
statutes and customs alleged by it to have been 
ancient even at that remote period In which 
the convention was inscribed. Such circum- 
stances as these establish for the Saddlers' 
Company an antiquity which no other Company 
can claim to equal. 

It only remains for the writer to gratefully 
acknowledge the encouragement extended to 
him by the Court in the prosecution of his in- 
quiries, and particularly by the Master, Mr. W. 
Spencer Watson, M.B., F.R.C.S. ; the Wardens, 
Mr. Serjeant Robinson, Mr. Isaac Wilcox, and 
Mr. Daniel Morgan, with Past Masters Alderman 
Cotton, Moses Dodd, Charles O. Humphreys, 
and Colonel R. P. Laurie, C.B., M.P., who were 
appointed by the Court to assist him with their 


EW subjects have offered a more fertile 
theme for conjecture or a more attrac- 
tive field for research than the origin 
and early history of the Trade Guilds. Mankind 
has, from the earliest periods, evinced a propensity 
to dwell in communities, although this predilection 
is often found to be modified by national charac- 
teristics. The lithic monuments, hut circles and 
earthworks with which our own island abounds, 
testify to its influence in the conditions under 
which primeval man dwelt in early Britain ; while 
we see it to-day exemplified in the tribal commu- 
nities of pastoral nomads in Asia and Africa. In 
the early days of pre-historic times this circum- 
stance was probably the result of a necessity for 
self-protection against common enemies, and, later 
on, with the growth of civilization, it just as pro- 
bably arose from the social instincts of man. 

Among the earliest institutions and corpora- 
tions of which we have cognizance and mention 
were those communities known in Roman his- 
tory by the name of collegia. The term collegia, 
however, embraced corporations of various de- 
scriptions ; some were of a strictly religious 

xvlil Introduction. 

character, others legal, while others — and with 
these we are most concerned — were purely trade 
corporations, resembling our own guilds and 
livery companies. It is not quite clear how they 
all arose ; the collegia opificmn, however, appear 
to have sprung into existence in the early days of 
Rome. Plutarch indeed attributes the origin of 
these last named to the reign of that more or less 
mythical personage, Numa, its second king, of 
whose political measures he Informs us that ''that 
which is most admired is his division of the 
populace according to their trades. For whereas 
the city (as has been said) originally consisted of 
two races which stood aloof one from the other 
and would not combine into one, which led to 
endless quarrels and rivalries, Numa, reflecting 
that substances which are hard and difficult to 
combine togfether can nevertheless be mixed and 
formed into one mass If they are broken up Into 
small pieces, because then they more easily fit 
each other, determined to divide the whole mass 
of the people of Rome into many classes, and 
thus by creating numerous petty rivalries to 
obliterate their original and greatest cause of 
variance. His division was accordinof to their 
trades, and consisted of the musicians, the gold- 
smiths, the builders, dyers, shoemakers, carriers, 
coppersmiths, and potters. All the other trades 
he united Into one guild. He assigned to each 
trade Its special privileges, common to all the 
members, and arranged that each should have Its 

Introduction. xix 

own time of meeting, and worship Its own special 
patron god."^ 

Lamprldlus also ascribes similar measures to 
Alexander Severus, of whom he says that he 
formed corporations of all vintners, sellers of 
pulse, makers of caligae (a kind of military 
shoe), and, in general of all the other crafts In 

We have frequent mention of these corpora- 
tions, moreover, at various periods of Roman 
history. The bakers at Rome, the collegmm 
pistoru77t, a distinct and important guild, are 
frequently mentioned. Nor were the collegia 
confined to Rome proper. Their existence is to 
be traced in the remotest provinces of the empire. 
We have had handed down to us, among the 
letters of the younger Pliny, one addressed to the 
Emperor Trajan, referring to the establishment 
of a guild or corporation of artificers {Fabin.y at 
Nicomedia, the ancient capital of Bithynia, 
formerly a Roman province on the Asiatic coast 
of the Sea of Marmora. There is also an 
interesting account In the Proceedings of the 
Society of Antiquaries * of the researches of 
Mr. A. J. Evans, M.A., F.S.A. at Illyricum, a 
Roman province on the east coast of the Adriatic, 

^ Numa, cap. xvii,, Bohn's Plutarch. 

^ " Corpora omnium constituit vinariorum, lupinariorum, 
caligauriorum et omnino omnium artium." Lampridius, cap. 
xxxiii. (Alex. Severus). 
Epistolse X., 42, 43. 
Archseologia, vols. 48 and 49. ^ 



XX Introduction. 

with an Inscription at Salonae, relating to a guild 
of artificers — Collegmm Fabrortnn veneris^ — and 
belonging apparently to the fourth century of the 
Christian era. Evidences of similar organiza- 
tions have been discovered at Lyons, Marseilles, 
and other parts of Roman Gaul, in ancient 
Helvetia, in Britain itself, and elsewhere where 
the Romans had colonies. vSome very interesting 
testimony Is furnished by Orelll in his collection 
of ancient inscriptions.^ 

Briefly stated, these collegia were associations 
in which the members of each trade were united 
together, not only for social intercourse, but for 
the regulation of and self-protection in trade. 
They possessed a common corporate fund, and 
other characteristics ; on the whole, presenting a 
striking analogy to the modern English trade 
guilds, of which they are by many writers, and 
with some amount of reason, considered to *be 
the progenitors as they were the prototypes. 

Mr. Hallam is of opinion that the mediaeval 
Guilds were institutions of independent origin 
and had no connection with the collegia of the 
Romans, and the present Bishop of Oxford and 
Professor Freeman have clearly expressed a 

' The term fabri was a generic one applied generally to 
workers in hard substances, such as the smiths, y^^r/ aerarii 
oxferrari, and the c^x]yQn\.Qr?,^ fabri tig?tarii ; tho. fabri veneris 
were craftsmen of a more artistic order. 

2 " Inscriptionum Latinarum Selectarum Collectio " (Zurich, 
1828), numerous examples. 

Introduction. xxi 

similar opinion In respect of the early English 
Guilds.^ These are weighty authorities, en- 
titled to more than ordinary respect ; nevertheless 
to many minds the analogy between the collegia 
and those later but kindred organizations 
which diffused themselves through the social 
and commercial life of the various nationalities of 
mediaeval Europe Is far too striking to be recon- 
ciled by the convenient plea of accident. Pro- 
fessor Freeman says that " the gap between the 
Roman and English periods Is hidden by the 
blackness of darkness which shrouds our settle- 
ment in Britain, and which to those who have 
eyes teaches much more clearly than any light 
could what the nature of that settlement really 
was. Had there been any continuity between the 
Institutions of the two periods, that blackness of 
darkness could hardly have been." ^ 

Doubtless the authoritative and learned writer 
himself Is disposed to acknowledge that the im- 
plied total disappearance of these Institutions — j 
which existed In England during the Roman 
occupation — during the few centuries In which 
we unfortunately have no record of their being 
in existence, and their sudden re-appearance 
Identical in all essential principles under the Anglo- 
Saxon Heptarchy, Is a coincidence hardly less 
than phenomenal. It must be borne In mind 

^ See the Introduction to the " Report of the Livery Com- 
panies Commission," p. 8. 
- Ibid. 

B 2 

xxii Introduction. 

that the Romans were encamped in Britain for 
four centuries. Like the Ottomans in Europe, the 
EngHsh in India, they were in the country, but 
not of it. Yet in the period of their occupation, 
they succeeded in moulding the physical features 
of the country into conformity with the advanced 
strides of their southern civilization. Their hiph 
roads and limitary walls intersect the land in 
every direction ; over chains of hills and across 
valleys they go, in absolute disregard of anything 
Hke natural obstacles or impediments, remaining 
to the present day stupendous monuments of 
engineering ingenuity. Their bridges which 
spanned our rivers, like their aqueducts, were all 
scientifically constructed, and their masonry almost 
imperishable. Every year the spade and the 
plough turn up fresh relics, in the shape of tegulcs, 
pottery, coins, votary tablets, and altar pieces, etc., 
vestiges, as a writer in the " Quarterly Review " 
has well remarked, of a more uniform type of 
civilization than is to be met with between the 
same latitudes to-day. Similarly they have left 
their impress indelibly upon our language and 
literature. Is it therefore unreasonable that some 
should profess to discover traces of their institu- 
tions in our own of to-day 1 It is not difficult, for 
instance, to recognise in the aula publica of the 
Romans a close resemblance to our Guildhall, and 
Fitzstephen, in his well known description of 
London, traces a strong affinity between many 
of our present civic institutions and their Latin 

Introduction. xxiii 

Without, however, attempting. In Imitation of 
more competent writers, who with more or less 
satisfaction to themselves have endeavoured by 
various methods of historical evolution to 
discover the precise origin of the English Trade 
Guilds — a task obviously not strictly within the 
legitimate province of this essay — it may suffice 
here to say that the term " Guild," as has been 
clearly shown by Herbert and other writers, is a 
derivation of the Anglo-Saxon '' glldan," to pay, 
a word possessing close affinities In other northern 
dialects, and signifying a society or association, 
supported by individual contribution. The basis 
of the early English trade guild was the obser- 
vance of a common code of ordinances, regulating 
the craft to which it belonged, while other 
essential features in the organization were a 
common worship, with usually a special patron 
saint, a common social feast, and lastly, a 
common fund, which not only provided for the 
craft purposes but served to relieve the poor 
members, and oftentimes to defray their burial 

The early and rapid growth of London, the 
commercial Importance of which was recognized 
and testified to by Tacitus, probably did much to 
foster and develop these guilds In England. One 
of the earliest London trading guilds of which we 
have cognizance was the guild of Steelyard mer- 
chants,^ amply described by Stow, and, according 

Now extinct. 

xxlv Introduction. 

to Herbert, the founders of the famous Hanseatic 
League. They were recognised in a decree of 
Ethelred in the year 967, and probably existed 
at a much earHer date. Certain it is that 
by the fourteenth century the guilds had 
become a dominant factor in the social organism 
of England. 


Antiquity and Early History of the 


Fitzstephen's Description of the Guilds. — The " Saddlery of Westchepe." — 
The Conventual Church of St. Martin's-le-Grand. — Ancient Con- 
vention betvv^een the Saddlers and the Convent. — Great Antiquity 
of the Company. — Their earliest Charters and Liberties. — The 
City Letter Books and their notices of the Company. — Curious 
Ordinances of the Saddlers and Joiners. — A Dispute between the 
Saddlers and the Loriners. — Craft Jealousy. — AFaction Fight. — The 
Wages of a Saddler settled by Royal Ordinance. — The Saddlers and 
the Girdlers. — Ordinances of a.d. 1363. — The Company contribute 
to Edward IIL's French Wars. — Charter from Edward III. — Repre- 
sentatives on the Common Council. — A despotic Mayor, Nicholas 
Brembre. — The Company petition the Crown and Parliament. — 
Incorporation Charter from Richard II. — Interesting Dispute 
between Master and Yeomen Saddlers. — Charter from Henry VI. 
— Charter from Edward IV. — Charter from Henry VII. — The 
Company in 1537. — Charter from Henry VIII. — Statute of Chantries 
Act, I Edw. VI. — The Charter of Elizabeth. — The Ordinances of 
1 56 1. — The first English Lottery. — Grant of Arms. — The Com- 
pany's Mottoes. 


Canterbury, the clerk, remembrancer 

and biographer of Thomas Becket, 

in his description of London, written in 

the latter part of the twelfth century, informs us 

that from a very early period the various crafts 

, ^ ^ of London had their own separate 

The early Trade . . . ••■ 

Guilds of Lon- district lu the City allotted to them 
for the exercise of their several trades. 

2 Antiquity and Early 

He says, '' the followers of the several trades, the 
vendors of the various commodities, and the 
labourers of every kind, are daily to be found in 
their proper and distinct places according to their 
respective trades."^ This statement is, moreover, 
supported by the existing nomenclature of many 
modern City streets and thoroughfares, the names 
of which recall the trades and occupations 
anciently plied in the several localities, such as 
the Poultry,^ Cordwainer Street,^ etc. Similarly 
the Saddlers of London were anciently to be 
found at the west end of Cheapside, or, as it was 
called, Westchepe, their locality bearing the 
distinctive name of the " Saddlery." Among the 
ancient wills enrolled in the Court of Husting, at 
Guildhall, there is a will of one Isabella Bokrel, 

" The Saddierie ^^^^^ 1280, in which mention is 
of Westchepe." niade of a tenement in the Saddlery 
of Westchepe. 

Over against " the Saddlery " stood the famous 
conventual and collegiate church of St. Martin's- 
le-Grand, founded by Wythred, or Withu, 
King of Kent, in the eighth century, and 

^ Dr. Pegge's edition : " Singulorum officiorum exercitatores 
singularum venditores, singularum operarum suamm locatores 
cotidiano mane per se sunt locis distincti omnes ut officiis." 
i^De dispositione iirbis.) 

^ Described by Stow as the special locale of the London 

^ Shoemakers, so-called from their using the famous leather 
of Cordova. 

History of the Company. 

confirmed in 1058 by the Conqueror with 
The collegiate its old Saxon indulgences of sac, soc, 

St Mar*thiVie- ^^^' ^*^^' ^^^^^^"^^^ ^^c, but, above all, the 

Grand. daugerous privilege of sanctuary 

for political and criminal offenders. It occupied 

the site of the modern General Post Office 

until 1548, when it was destroyed. Foster Lane, 

which bounded Saddlers' Hall on the west, skirted 

the precincts of St. Martin's on the east, so that 

the ancient Hall of the Guild stood immediately 

under the walls of the Sanctuary. This proximity 

Curious ancient produced an intimate relationship 

convention be- between the Guild of Saddlers and 

tween the con- , -p>. ^ r^ 

vent and the the Deau and Canons of the convent, 

Saddlers' Guild. , . , . i i • 

which IS recorded in an interesting 
document, fortunately still extant, which estab- 
lishes the singular and unique antiquity of the 
Saddlers' Company. 

This document is preserved among the archives 
of St. Martin's-le-Grand, now in the custody of 
the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, and con- 
sists of a small piece of stout parchment some 
eight or nine inches long, by about six wide, upon 
which is inscribed in the handwriting of the 
twelfth century a convention between the guild 
and the convent. No portion of the seal remains, 
and the slip of parchment to which it 
originally adhered is likewise gone. 
Madox takes notice of this convention in his 
'' Firma Burgi," published in 1726, and ascribes 
the handwriting to the reigns of either Henry H. 
(a.d. 1154-1189), Richard I. (i 189-1199), or 

1 1 54 A.D. circa. 

4 Antiquity and Early 

John (1199-1216), and most plausibly to the first 
of these, a view supported by several experts to 
whom it has been submitted.^ There is a copy of 
the convention in the old Register of St. Martin's- 
le-Grand, a beautifully transcribed volume, in a 
handwriting of the period about 1400 A.D., and a 
second copy in a long roll of Indulgences, which 
appears to have escaped previous notice. This 
last is in a handwriting of about the reign of 
Edward 1 11.^ 

By the courtesy of the Dean of Westminster 
we have been permitted to take a photograph of 
the convention, and a facsimile is appended. The 
endorsement on the reverse side, " Lra de Ghild," 
etc., it will be noticed, is of a later period than the 
handwriting of the text, and belongs probably to 
the reign of Edward L ; the other endorsement, 

^ In the same bundle of documents — No. 2 of those re- 
lating to St. Martin's-le-Grand — there is an Indulgence by 
William, Bishop of Norwich, in a precisely similar handwriting 
to that of the convention, also without date, but probably 
written between 1146 and 11 74, when WiUiam Turbus was 
Bishop of Norwich. Moreover, the late Mr. Burtt, who 
arranged these archives, has described this parcel as extending 
from Henry II. to Henry VIIL, the former date doubtless 
referring to the grant to the Saddlers' Company and the 
Indulgence by William, Bishop of Norwich. 

^ The copy in the Register is headed by the following 
rubric : " Nota per hanc literam sequentem quae incipit 
Conventus Sancti Martini London quae est litera frater- 
nitatis Sellariorum London quod dicta ecclesia erat diu 
sedificata et dotata ante adventum Conquestoris in Anglia ut 
ibi patet, quae est contra assertiones Johannis Carpenter' et 
sequacium suorum." 


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Fro/H It Photograph by Mmrs. Bed/nrd, Lewtre ^ Co. 

History of the Company. 5 

'' Indulgence," is of a still later date, apparently 
about the reign of Edward III. 

For the following translation of the convention 
we are indebted to Dr. Reginald Sharpe, Records 
Clerk in the Town Clerk's Office, Guildhall : — 

" Convention. 

" The Convent of the Church of Saint Martin, London, 
to N the Aldermen and N the Chaplain and N the four 
echevins and all the Elders of the Guild of Saddlers, 
their friends and brethren, [sends] greeting and prayers 
in Christ. Be it known to you both present and to come 
that it has been ordained of old between our Church 
and your congregation, to wit, that you are brethren and 
partakers of all benefits which be done in the Church 
of Saint Martin, by night and by day in masses, psalms, 
prayers, and vigils. And, moreover, know ye that there 
have been granted to you by name two masses every 
week, to wit, one for the living and the other for the 
dead brethren of your congregation. And know ye that 
there has been granted to you the ringing of the bells of 
the Church and procession, and churchyard fully and 
honorably. And know ye that the Canons for the 
time being are prepared to give aid and counsel to your 
house like brethren and your fellow-helpers. Ye shall, 
moreover, as has been before ordained and is now 
recorded in your Chapter, attend in person at the 
Church of the blessed Martin on the Feast of Saint 
Martin with your alms and wax tapers therewith pro- 
vided. Moreover we pray you, if you will, remember 
the Church of Saint Martin, which as you see is clearly 
in much need, with ' Saulesoth,' ^ and bequests and 

1 u 

Sauiesoth," otherwise " Soulesceat," was a legacy 

6 Antiquity and Early 

other of your benefits. It was also the custom of old 
and now is recorded in your^ Chapter when Sir 
yErnaldus was Alderman that for every reception of a 
deceased brother and for ringing of the bells the Church 
of Saint Martin shall receive eight pence. Farewell ! " 

Herbert, alluding to this convention, unhesitat- 
ingly remarks that " the mention immediately after 
the Conquest of ' ancient Statutes ' then existing 
between so remote a Saxon foundation as St. Mar- 
tin's-le-Grand College and the Sadlers, together 
w^ith the old custom said to be recorded in the lat- 
ter's chapter of the time of their Alderman y^rnal- 
dus (also a Saxon name) leaves little doubt of the 
Sadlers being a veritable Anglo-Saxon Guild, 
and consequently the oldest on record of ail the 
present Livery Companies." 

The allusion to the Alderman ^rnaldus is 
explained by the fact that anciently the title of 
alderman v^as applied solely to the chiefs of guilds. 
Towards the reign of Edward III., the title of 
Master superseded that of Alderman, which be- 
came exclusively applied, instead, to the heads of 
City wards. ^ It seems extremely probable that the 
early segregation or grouping of the guilds or 
crafts, as mentioned by Fitzstephen, was at the 
time the only divisional distribution of the City, 

anciently bequeathed at death to the parish priest, instead of 
any tithes that might be forgotten. 

^ " Nostro " in the copy in the Register. 

^ Herbert's Historical Essay, p. 17. 

History of the Company. 7 

and that It was the origin of its division later on 
into wards. ^ 

The Saddlers' Company claim to have received 

their first charter from Edward I. in the first year 

_ ,. , of his relp^n, a.d. 1272. This is 

and liberties of repeatedly affirmed in their Minute 

ompany. g^^j^g . j^ -^ g^jg^ confirmed by Mait- 

land, and other historians. Inasmuch, however, 
as the earliest records of the Company have been 
lost or destroyed, we are unable circumstantially 
to corroborate this claim. The charters granted 
before the reign of Edward III. (132 7- 1377) 
were, moreover, not enrolled. That charters and 
grants of liberties were, however, granted by 
earlier monarchs than Edward III. Is clear from 
the Charter granted to the Weavers' Company by 
Henry II., which recites liberties granted to that 
guild by Henry I. 

Again, the Goldsmiths' Company, who are 
recognised as a Company or fraternity in a Statute 
of Edward I., did not receive a charter of incor- 
poration until the reign of Edward III., while the 
Weavers' Charter of Henry II. was not confirmed 
until the same reign (Edward III.). Maitland, 
alluding to the convention between the Saddlers' 
Guild and the Convent of St. Martin's-le-Grand, 
which he assumes to belong to the reign of 
Richard I., imagines the Company to have been 
an adulterine, i.e., unlicensed guild, '' seeing It was 

1 This view would seem to be supported by the modern 
appellation of Cordwainers' Ward. 

8 Antiquity and Early 

only incorporated by Letters Patent of Edward I., 
by the appellation of the Wardens or Keepers and 
Commonalty of the Mystery or Art of Saddlers, 
London." The reason assigned is clearly anything 
but a strong one, and falls to support his assertion 
or to make that assertion convlnclncr. It Is not 
unlikely that the Saddlers' Company, even if they 
had no earlier charter than that of Edward IIL, 
had a grant of liberties. It Is extremely likely 
that they did ; for we find that In the 26th year 
of the relgfn of Henry II., a.d. 1180, 

A.D. I180. ^ 111 

or nearly one hundred years before 
the reign of Edward I., that monarch made a 
swoop upon the adulterine guilds, or guilds set up 
without the king's license, no less than eighteen 
guilds in London alone being amerced or fined ; 
this eighteen included the Goldsmiths. Now the 
Saddlers' Guild Is not mentioned In the list, and 
seeing that the guild was, even at that early 
period, old-established, and could not, had it been 
unlicensed, have escaped similar treatment, there 
is every ground for assuming it to have been a 
warranted guild. Moreover, such an assumption 
is supported by the fact that the Exchequer Roll 
of the same year contains a note of the amerce- 
ment of a guild of Saddlers of the City of York.^ 

^ Pipe Roll, 26 Henry IL, membrane, 5 dors, 

" Of pleas of the same in the City of York. 

"Robert Parsons and Robert Hugges render account of two 
marks for customs which they unjustly demanded. 

" The same sheriffs render account of twenty shillings from 
the Guild of the Saddlers for the same." 

History of the Company. 9 

The earliest historical incidents connected 

with the Saddlers' Company are, for the reason set 

forth in the Preface, mostly derived 

Ancient Articles from the archives of the Corpora- 

of the Saddlers ^Jon. The Citv Archives contain 

and J omers. ^ _ J 

Arbitration be- an Interesting record in the year 

tween the crafts. , ^^ ^ TT\ri 

1309 (temp. JKdw. 11.) ot the early 
ordinances of the Saddlers and Fusters or Joiners 
of London, which, while they give some interest- 
ing Information touching the saddlery trade at 
that early period, also throw a curious light 
upon the relationship of the two crafts. The 
ordinances in question recite that much damage 
was happening daily unto the great lords and 
people of the land by reason of the deceits 
employed in the making of saddles. The Saddlers 
of London, when charged with the spuriousness 
of their goods, were in the habit of transferring 
the blame to the Joiners, whose particular and 
apparently exclusive function, we learn from the 
same source, was the manufacture of the saddle- 
bows. Matters reaching a crisis, the two crafts 
assembled before the Lord Mayor, Sir John le 
Blound (or Blount), and the Aldermen on the 
Monday following the octave of St. Michael, and 
prayed that the ordinances of the mystery of the 
Joiners in use in the time of their ancestors might 
be renewed, and that six members of the mystery 
should be empowered to search and stamp all 
goods belonging to the craft with a hall mark. 
The ordinances set forth that naughty apprentices 
who had run away from their masters, with other 

lo Antiquity and Early 

deceitful men, did resort to the woods, which, as 
FItzstephen Informs us, were in those days in 
close proximity to the City, and did there secretly 
patch up saddle-bows in the roughest and most 
deceitful manner imaginable ; the parts being 
often simply glued together and made of un- 
seasoned wood, often perfectly green. Under 
the cover of night, these would be smuggled into 
the City and disposed of to dishonest Saddlers 
and Painters, who after painting them or covering 
them with leather, velvet, or cloth, would offer 
them in that unfit state for sale. The conse- 
quence of all of this was, we are told, that when the 
wood became dry the saddle-bow would shrink, 
and the saddle itself collapse, an eventuality 
which was not unlikely to extend to the rider. 

To remedy all this, it was thereupon ordained 
that in future no Joiner should make saddle-bows 
of less than quarters [si noun de qtcarte7^), which 
Mr. Riley, in his interesting comment on these 
articles, construes as the quarter of the horizontal 
section of the trunk of a tree.^ The wood was to 
be dry before it was painted, and each Joiner was 
required to have his own mark for marking all 
goods of his manufacture ; Painters were forbidden 
to paint any saddle-bow made outside the City, 
until they had been viewed and approved and 
received the official mark of the jurors appointed 
to examine them by the mystery. No Joiners 
were to be permitted to work in the woods, and 

History of the Company. ii 

all goods which should be found to be deceitfully 
wrong were ordered to be taken to the Guildhall 
and condemned, and thence carried to Westchepe 
and burned. No Joiner who was not of the mystery 
was allowed to take an apprentice, and even then 
not unless he were of ability to support him. 
Lastly, among other obligations imposed upon 
them, the Joiners were forbidden to have any old 
saddle-bows, or parts thereof, in their possession. 

Eleven years later — namely, in 1320 — we read 

A.D. 1320. of a dispute between the Saddlers 

SSdtSand the Loriners, or makers of bits 

the Loriners, a.nd Other metal work for horse furni- 

J oiners and 

Painters. ture. The dispute appears to have 
arisen out of the ordinances of the Loriners, con- 
firmed to that craft by William Fitz Richard, Mayor, 
in the forty-fifth year of the reign of tienry IIL 
(a.d. 1 261). According to these, the Loriners en- 
joyed the prescriptive right of w^hat was virtually 
a monopoly of their particular branch of trade. 
This privilege, however, was regarded by the 
Saddlers as an infringement of their own liberties, 
for they appeared to have considered the sale of 
everything connected with the furniture and trap- 
pings of horses as belonging to their own domain. 
Accordingly they instituted a suit against the 
Loriners before the then Mayor, Hamo de Chige- 
well, and obtained an injunction. More than 
this, the obnoxious ordinances of the Loriners 
were ordered to be burned in Westchepe. The 
result of this suit was in no way calculated to 


12 Antiquity and Early 

reconcile the two crafts ; nor did it. On the con- 
trary, their mutual hostility increased to such a 
degree of intensity that seven years later, in 1327, 
Affrays between ^c read of sauguiuary affrays taking 
the Saddlers place in the streets of Cheap and 

and the Lormers, ^ . -^ 

Joiners, and CHpplegate between the Saddlers on 
the one side, and the combined forces 
of the Loriners, Joiners, and Painters on the 
other — affrays which set the whole City by the 
ears.^ The account given in the City Letter 
Books is quaint and interesting ; it is partly in 
Latin and partly in Norman French. The record 
purports to be "An agreement made between the 
men of the trade of the Saddlers of London of the 
one part, and the men of the trades of the Joiners, 
Painters, and Loriners in copper and iron of the 
same City, of the other part."^ 

" Be it remembered, that whereas a certain affray 
lately took place between the men of the trade of the 
Saddlers of the City of London, of the one part, and the 
men of the trades of the Joiners, Painters, and Lorimers, 

^ Such affrays as that between the Saddlers and the Joiners 
were not uncommon between the serving-men of the crafts, who 
were not slow to identify themselves as a fraternity with the 
quarrels of individual members. Northouck relates a sanguinary 
battle in 1226 between the Goldsmiths and the Tailors, in which 
many combatants were slain, thirteen of the ringleaders being 
executed. Maitland records an affray in 1339 between the 
Skinners and Fishmongers, and the old Chronicle of London 
mentions one among the men of the different crafts on Black- 
heath in 1375. 

^ Letter Book E., fol. 176. I have adopted Mr. Riley's 
careful translation (" Memorials of London," pp. 156-162). 

History of the Company. i 


as well in copper as in iron, of the same City, of the 
other part, by reason of a certain rancour and dissension 
which had lately arisen between them — namely, on 
Thursday, the Feast of our Lord's Ascension [20 May] 
last past ; upon which day certain of them, on either 
side, strongly provided with an armed force, exchanged 
blows and manfully began to fight, as well in Chepe as 
in the street of Cripelgate, and elsewhere in the same 
City ; on which occasion certain among them were 
wickedly, and against the peace of our Lord the King, 
killed, and many others mortally wounded, by reason of 
which dissension and exchange of blows, the greater 
part of the City was in alarm, to the great disgrace and 
scandal of the whole City, and the manifest peril thereof; 
and which dissension and exchange of blows became so 
serious and so outrageous, as hardly to be appeased 
through the intervention of the Mayor, Sheriffs, and 
officers of the City ; such contention being, however, at 
last, so well as it might be, allayed by the Mayor, 
Sheriffs, and other officers of the City, the said Mayor 
and Sheriffs appointed a day for the men of the trades 
aforesaid to appear before them at the Guildhall, 
namely, the Friday following, being the morrow of our 
Lord's Ascension, to the end that they might set forth 
their reasons on either side. 

" Upon the said day, there came accordingly to the 
Guildhall the men of the said trades, and, in presence of 
the Mayor, Sheriffs, and Aldermen, did set forth their 
grievances in writing. Whereupon a certain Petition 
was presented to the Mayor by the Joiners, Painters, 
and Lorimers ; the tenor of which is as follows : — 

" ' To the Mayor, and to the Aldermen, and to 
-D ,. . , ,, the crood Commonalty of London, shew 

Petition by the ^ ^ ^ ^ \ 

Joiners, Painters, and make plaint the Joiners, Painters, 

and Lorimers. Lorimers in copper, and Lorimers in 

iron ; — That whereas they have always been free of 

c 2 

14 Antiquity and Early 

the City, in bearing their charge of tallages and other 
contributions, as equals and as commoners, according to 
their power ; the Saddlers of the City, against the fran- 
chise of the same, by conspiracy and collusion among 
themselves, have ordained and established, and there- 
unto among themselves, have made oath that no one of 
the trades aforesaid shall be so daring as to sell any 
manner of merchandize that unto their own trade per- 
tains, either to freemen of the City or to other persons, 
but only to themselves, in the business of saddlery ; the 
which thing is notoriously against all the commonalty of 
the said City, and all the realm. And because that the 
trades aforesaid would not assent to this thing, against 
their oath to the City made, the Saddlers, against the 
peace of our Lord the King, maliciously and by force of 
arms have assailed the trades aforesaid, as well in their 
own houses as in the high streets ; some persons whereof 
have been killed, some maimed, and many wounded 
and maltreated. They therefore do pray the Mayor 
and all the Commonalty, that redress for this thing may 
be made to them, in such due and good manner that 
they may be enabled to live in peace, and to follow 
their trades as they have done heretofore. 

'"And further, the trades aforesaid make plaint; — 
That whereas after the Saddlers have received from 
them certain goods pertaining unto their trades, and 
have become possessed of the said goods in their own 
houses, if the good folks of the said trades come there 
to ask for their payment, they are bandied about among 
the said Saddlers with offensive words, and sometimes 
beaten, and in other ways maltreated ; by reason whereof 
they have not the daring to demand payment of their 
debtSj and therefore the said Saddlers now are in their 
debt ; that is to say, they owe to the Painters ^loo and 
35^., to the Lorimers in copper £84 iSs., and to the 
l.orimers in iron ;^ lOO 8i"., and to the Joiners ^10 11^. 4^/.; 

History of the Company. 15 

the total of wliich amounts to ^^297 9^'. 4^. ; to the 
great damage and impoverishment of the said trades, 
and as to the which they pray for favour and redress. 

" ' And further, whereas the great lords of the realm 
do give their old saddles to their palfreymen, these 
persons sell them to the said Saddlers, who then try to 
harness them afresh, and to sell them for new, to the 
loss of all the commonalty of the realm.' 
^, e JJ^ 5 " Answer made to the Petition : — 

The baddlers 

Reply to "' As to the first point in this Petition, 

the Petition, ^j^^ Saddlers say that they never did so, 
and never will do so. As to the second point, they have 
their recovery before the Sheriff, by plea of debt. As 
to the third point, they concede that from henceforth 
no old saddles shall be harnessed for re-sale as new 
ones, and that if any such be found, the same shall be 
adjudged upon before the Mayor and Aldermen. 

"'And also, the Saddlers aforesaid have conceded for 
themselves and for all their trade that among them no 
confederacy or alliance shall be made, either against the 
City, or against the aforesaid Joiners, Lorimers, and 
others of their companionship, at any time to come, on 
pain of paying 10 tuns of wine to the Commonalty of 
London, whosoever shall be convicted thereof. And 
that in the same manner the Joiners, Lorimers in copper 
and in iron, and Painters, shall [be answerable] for 
themselves and for their trades.' 

** And a certain petition was also presented to the 
Mayor and Aldermen, the tenor of which is as fol- 
lows : — 

" ' To the Mayor and to the Commonalty of the City of 
London, shew and make plaint the Saddlers of the said 
City ; that whereas contumelious words had arisen 
between William de Karletone, Saddler, and William de 
Stokwelle, Painter, and by reason of such words, six 
good folks of the one trade and six of the other, did 

1 6 Antiquity and Early 

interfere therein, and appoint a day of love^ at St. Paul's 
Church, as between the aforesaid WilHam and WiUiam, 
namely, Wednesday, the Feast of St Dunstan f the 
aforesaid William de Stokwelle, compassing mischief, 
did cause all the Painters, Joiners, Lorimers, (and) 
Gelders^ to be collected, together with other workmen, 
in order to act by force of arms, and in affray of the 
said City ; and then took counsel to make the Saddlers 
aforesaid concede, by compulsion, that if any man of 
the one trade shall have cause of offence, as against any 
one of the other trade, then in such case, all the Painters, 
together with all the [other] trades, shall no longer be 
bound to work, but shall close their selds ; and that if 
any offence shall be found to have been committed on 
the one side or the other, the parties shall not be recon- 
ciled without two of each trade [intervening therein]. 

" ' And further, the aforesaid copresmethes'^ have made 
an ordinance among themselves, out of their own heads, 
that if any strange workman of the same trade shall 
come to the said City, he shall not be received on any 
terms, until he shall have made oath to conceal their 
misdeeds.^ And whereas the said Painters and Joiners 
do set every point of their trade at a fixed price, at no 
time has there been any certainty as to the aforesaid 
points in practice established ; by reason whereof, they 
are making themselves kings of the land, to the destruc- 
tion of all the people of the land, and to the annihilation 
of the Saddlers aforesaid. As to the which they pray 
for redress.' 

^ A day for making terms of reconciliation. 
^ The Deposition of St. Dunstan, 19th May, must be 

' Meaning gilders. 

' Co]:)persmilhs — the Lorimers in copper. 

* Malveiste. 

History of the Company. 17 

" As to the first point in this Petition, — the Lorimers 
and others of their companionship have made answer, 
that they never have done so, and they never will do so. 
To the second point they have made answer, — that no 
strange workman of their trade ought to work among 
them if he be not admitted and sworn among them, and 
have not done that, in presence of the Mayor and 
Aldermen, which unto the franchise of the City pertains. 
And as regards that they have set up certain prices in 
their trades, — they altogether deny the same.' 

** And hereupon, for avoiding still greater peril, and 
for making and re-establishing concord and peace 
among the men of the said trades, it was ordered and 
agreed that six Aldermen should be chosen, to be 
present at a certain day and place ; and that the men 
of the trade aforesaid should appear before them, for 
the purpose of treating of peace and concord among all. 
And the following Aldermen were chosen ; — namely, 
Nicholas de Farndone, Hamon de Chigwelle, Reynald 
de Conduit, Henry de Seccheford, Thomas de Leyre, 
and John de Caustone ; who, upon being chosen, named 
a day for the men of the trades aforesaid to appear 
before them, the same Aldermen, at St. Martin's-le- 
Grand, in London, the following Sunday, namely, 
there to treat of peace and concord, as before men- 

''Upon which day there met at the place aforesaid, as 
well as the Aldermen before mentioned, as the men of 
the said trades, in great multitudes on either side. And 
after they had begun to treat of the business aforesaid, 
by reason of the multitude of people present, they were 
not able to expedite the business, or to bring it to a 
conclusion ; whereupon it was ordered by the said 
Aldermen, and agreed to by the men of the trades 
aforesaid, that certain persons of the trade of the 
Saddlers, and in like manner, certain persons of the 

1 8 Antiquity and Early 

trades of the Painters, Joiners, and Lorimers, should be 
chosen to treat in behalf of each such trade, for re-estab- 
lishing peace between them. 

" And hereupon, there were chosen, by assent of the 
whole Commonalty, of the trade of the Saddlers, Ralph 
de Blithe, Richard Bukskyn, Alan de Frechebeke, 
Gilbert de Balsham, John de Champaigne, and Robert 
de Bristolle. And of the trades of Joiners, Lorimers in 
copper and in iron, and Painters, there were chosen, by 
assent of all such trades, Robert de Suttone, and Walter 
le Kew, copresmythes, Ralph le Gilder, and Richard de 
Bernham, ironsmythes, Robert de Donemowe, and 
Richard le Whyte, Joiners, Henry de Denecombe, and 
Geoffrey le Purtreour,^ Painters. Who, being so chosen, 
together with the Aldermen aforesaid, they began to 
treat of peace, as before stated. But on that day they 
could not bring the said matter to an end ; by reason 
whereof, they named a future day, that is to say, the 
Tuesday following, then to meet again, in order to treat 
more at length of peace and concord, as before men- 

" Upon which day they met, and there they did ordain 
and establish final peace and concord ; which, in a 
certain schedule delivered to the Mayor and Aldermen, 
is more fully set forth ; the tenor of which is as fol- 
lows : — 

" * Whereas dissensions and strifes have been moved 
between the folks who are Saddlers of London, of the 
one part, and the folks who are Joiners, Lorimers in iron, 
Lorimers in copper, and Painters of the same city, of the 
other part ; thereupon^ by ordinance of common friends, 
that is to say, of Thomas Rys, Richard Denys, Walter 
le Mazerer, Hugh de Brandone, John de Castelacre 
Nicholas Crane, and Thomas de Berkyng, the which 

^ The portrayer. 

History of the Company. 19 

have been chosen and thereunto ordained by the Sad- 
dlers before-mentioned ;^ and of Henry Moncoy, John 
Saleman, Adam Pykeman, Thomas de Havering, John 
le Kynge, and John Coterel, the which have been chosen 
and thereunto ordained by the Joiners, Lorimers, and 
Painters aforesaid ; the which ordainers, with one con- 
sent and one will, have made agreement and peace in 
this form between the parties aforesaid : [it was agreed], 
that is to say : — 

" ' That if the Saddlers aforesaid, or any one of them, or 

any of their successors, shall, at any time 
^ended. ° ^ to come, after this present time, offend 

against the Joiners, Lorimers, and Painters 
aforesaid, or shall maintain any one of their household, 
or any other person whatsoever, in so doing, and shall 
thereof, by good and lawful persons, be convicted, 
and will not in due form make amends ; then, in such 
case, the Saddlers aforesaid do will and do grant, for 
themselves and for their successors, that they shall be 
bound to pay unto the Joiners, Lorimers, and Painters 
aforesaid, ten tuns of good wine, and to render the same 
within one month next ensuing after the offence of 
which conviction shall have been so made ; and also 
other ten tuns of good wine unto the Mayor and the 
Commonalty of London, at the same time to be paid 
and rendered. And in all the ways in which the 
Saddlers aforesaid, for themselves and for their vadlets 
and their successors, have bound themselves as towards 
the Joiners, Lorimers, and Painters aforesaid, in the same 
manner have the ordainers aforesaid ordained that the 
Joiners, Lorimers, and Painters before-mentioned, for 
themselves, for their vadlets, and for their successors, 

^ It would appear that these were a second body of arbi- 
trators, appointed probably through the inability or failure of 
the first. 

20 Antiquity and Early 

shall be bound as towards the Saddlers before-men- 

" 'And further, by the said ordainers it is ordained, that 
if the Saddlers aforesaid shall receive or take back, or 
any one of them shall receive or take, the persons of their 
trade hereinafter named, or any one of them, who have 
withdrawn themselves for the offences which they have 
committed against the Joiners, Lorimers, and Painters 
aforesaid, such names being here specified and set forth, 
namely : — Nicholas Bonere, John Bonere, William de 
Carletone, Alexander de Oundle, Roger de Wyndesore 
John de Houghtone, Roger le Gierke, his vadlet, John 
de York, saddler, and John de Coventre, saddler, or 
from their goods and chattels in any manner shall 
maintain or sustain them, or maintain and sustain any 
one of them, before they shall have given satisfaction, 
and made peace and agreed with the Joiners, Lorimers, 
and Painters aforesaid, and shall, by good and lawful 
persons, be convicted of so doing, then, in such case, 
they shall be bound to pay twenty tuns of good wine ; 
that is to say, ten tuns of wine to the same trades of the 
Joiners, Lorimers, and Painters, within the month next 
ensuing after they shall have been so convicted ; and 
the other ten tuns of wine to the Mayor and to the 
Commonalty of the said City. And that these ordi- 
nances and grants shall hold good and be valid, as well 
against the Saddlers aforesaid, as the Joiners, Lorimers, 
and Painters before-mentioned, they shall be enrolled in 
the Husting at London, for ever to endure ; and also in 
the paper of the chamber of Guildhall aforesaid.' 

"And further, the men of the trades of Joiners, Painters, 
and Lorimers in copper and in iron, presented to the 
Mayor and Aldermen a petition, the tenor of which was 
as follows : — 

'* ' To the Mayor, to the Aldermen, and to all the Com- 
monalty of London, make prayer the Painters, Joiners, 



and Lorimers in iron and in copper, dwelling in the City 
of London, that no stranger, of whatsoever condition he 
may be, shall be admitted to, or suffered to follow, any 
of the said trades in the same City, before he shall have 
been received at the Husting in presence of the Mayor 
and Aldermen, by assent of eight reputable men who 
shall be chosen to keep and oversee the same trades ; 
and shall have found for the Commonalty sufficient 
surety among persons of the same trades as he is bound 
to do. And if any person be found to contravene the 
ordinance aforesaid, he may be amerced in the sum of 
one mark, in manner below stated. 

" ' And also they pray that no manner of work be- 
longing to the same trades that has once been used, 
shall be afterwards repaired for resale thereof ; and if it 
shall so happen that any such repaired work shall be 
found on resale, that it shall be forfeited to the Mayor 
and to the Commonalty. 

" ' And, further, they pray that every time that any 
freeman shall be found to contravene the points afore- 
said, or any one of them, he shall be amerced in the 
sum of one mark at the Chamber of the Guildhall, 
without having release or pardon thereof " ^ 

In 1350, the City Letter Books record a re- 
monstrance from the Kinpf to the 

A.D. 1350. , . .. 

Wages of Sad- Mayor and Sheriffs, directed against 
Roya^ Ordi-^ the high rate of wages demanded by 
nance. Saddlers and other artificers of the 
City, in the following words^ : — 

" Edward, by the grace of God King of England and 

^ The result of this petition is not stated. 

^ Letter Book F., fol. 148, b. The original is in Latin. 

2 2 Antiquity and Early 

France, and Lord of Ireland, to the Mayor and Sheriffs 
of London, greeting. Whereas it has been ordained 
and agreed, among other ordinances lately made by us, 
[our] prelates and nobles assisting us, for avoiding the 
dearness of workmen and other servants, that Saddlers, 
Skinners, Cordwainers, Cobblers, and all workmen and 
artificers soever, shall not take for their labour and 
work more than was accustomed to be paid to such in 
the 20th year of our reign over England, or in the five 
or six common years next preceding, in places where 
they happened to be working, under a certain penalty 
in the aforesaid ordinance contained, as is more fully in 
the same ordinance contained, and we have charged you 
that you should cause that ordinance to be publicly pro- 
claimed and observed in places within that City and 
suburbs of the same. And now, from information of 
noblemen as well as others who, by our command as 
well as for divers causes, flock both to the same City and 
suburbs and there remain, we have learnt that notwith- 
standing the ordinance aforesaid having been proclaimed 
in the aforesaid places, yet, inasmuch as the penalty 
contained in the said ordinance is not enforced against 
those who do not observe the same, the said workmen 
and artificers not considering the ordinance and pro- 
clamation aforesaid, nor fearing the penalty in the same 
ordinance contained, sell the work of their labour for 
what they will, and take more for their work of this 
kind than was wont to be paid to them in the said 
years before the ordinance from the same noblemen and 
others, to the loss and prejudice of the same noblemen 
and others, and contrary to the ordinance and pro- 
clamation aforesaid. And because it is in vain that 
laws are made unless they be duly executed, we com- 
mand you that you cause the aforesaid ordinance to 
be observed in the City and suburbs aforesaid, and that 
you punish and chastise those who act contrary to it, 

History of the Company. 23 

as you shall see ought to be done in accordance with 
the ordinance aforesaid, lest complaint thereon again 
reach us whereby we should have to take strong 
naeasures against you as their abettors. 

" Witness myself at Westminster, the 7th day of 
December, the 23rd year of our reign over England, and 
the loth year of our reign over France. And be it 
known that that writ, after proclamation thereon made, 
was delivered to Walter Turk, Mayor, and remains with 
the said Mayor 

.. " 

Six years afterwards we find the Saddlers' 

Company again taking action to prevent an 

A D 13^6 infringement of their liberties by 

The Saddlers another guild ; this time it is the 

te "^ ers. Q-^ji^^g^ jj^ ^j^^ Close Rolls of 3O 

Edward III., deposited at the Public Record 
Office, there is enrolled an order from the King 
in Council, dated 6th October, 1356, which sets 
forth that upon the petition of the Girdlers' Com- 
pany the King had proposed to grant to that 
Company the right of confiscation of all girdles 
of inferior workmanship. The Saddlers' Company, 
however, protested against this grant to the 
Girdlers, on the ground of its interference with 
their own liberties and trade, and their representa- 
tions seem to have made due impression, for we 
read that the King thereupon stayed execution of 
his former mandate, issued in favour of the 

The text of the document is in Latin and the 
following is a translation : — 

24 Antiquity and Early 

" For the Saddlers 1 The King to the Mayor and 

of the > Sheriffs of London, Greeting. 

City of London. J Whereas lately the Girdlers of 

our City of London by their 
petition exhibited before us and our Council in our 
Parliament at Westminster, held after the Feast of the 
Purification of the Blessed Mary, in the first year of our 
reign of England, showed forth to us that whereas it 
had been anciently ordered and used in the City afore- 
said, that none of the said Mystery should cause girdles 
of silk, wool, leather, or linen thread to be adorned with 
baser metal than brass, battery, iron or steel ; and if any 
work be found ornamented with baser metal that work 
should be burnt. And because the said Mystery in the 
City aforesaid then stood greatly damaged and defamed 
because certain men of that Mystery, dwelling without 
the City aforesaid, have made those girdles of false 
work, such as lead, pewter, and tin, and other base 
material by which the people of our said City and realm 
have been deceived to the damage of the same, and 
scandal of the men of the aforesaid Mystery. The said 
Girdlers have besought us that we would approve the 
ordinance and grant abovesaid, and further grant that 
the ordinance and custom aforesaid in the City aforesaid 
and elsewhere throughout our whole realm may be for 
ever firmly observed. And we, for avoiding such decep- 
tions and damages, and for the common good of our 
people, willing to incline to the supplication aforesaid, 
have by our letters patent accepted and approved the 
ordinance and custom aforesaid. Willing and granting 
for us and our heirs that the same ordinance and grant 
may be observed and maintained in the City aforesaid 
and elsewhere, throughout our whole realm, forever ; and 
that in the same City and every other city, borough, and 
good town of the same realm, where such workmen be, 
one or two upright and faithful men of that Mystery 

History of the Company. 25 

may be chosen by the men of the same Mystery there 
dwelhng to observe the premises and to make scrutiny 
as often as it shall seem expedient, and if any Girdler's 
work should be ornamented with lead, pewter, or tin, or 
other base material by the said men so elected, it may 
be presented to the scrutiny aforesaid before the Mayor 
of the City aforesaid, or before the mayors or Keepers 
of other cities, boroughs, and vills of our said Kingdom 
in places where the said false work shall be found, and 
by consideration of the said Mayor or Keeper the said 
false work shall be burnt, and by their discretion the 
workmen punished for their false work, and the amercia- 
ments coming from such punishments shall remain to 
the Mayors and Keepers and the Commonalty of the 
places where such work shall happen to be found. And 
that the men of the Mystery aforesaid so elected for 
making the scrutiny aforesaid in the City aforesaid as 
often as they shall come to other cities, boroughs, or 
vills of the said Kingdom where the said Mystery is 
used, together with other men of the same Mystery for 
this elected, may in places where they come, make 
scrutiny of such works and defaults of the same work- 
men [and] present them to the Mayor and Keepers of 
the places aforesaid, as is aforesaid, as in our Letters 
Patent thereof made is said more fully to be contained. 
And although lately by our writ we commanded you 
that in the City aforesaid and its suburbs, and in other 
places within your liberty where you should deem it 
expedient, you cause those Letters to be publicly pro- 
claimed, and our ordinance and grant abovesaid as 
much as to you pertains to be firmly upheld and observed 
in the same City and Suburbs. Yet nevertheless, after 
the issuing of the said writ so to you directed, the 
Saddlers of our City aforesaid before us and our 
Council have seriously complained that they by pretext of 
the ordinance aforesaid are manifoldly disquieted by 

26 Antiquity and Early 

wrongly asserting that they are able to ornament girdles 
with metal not prohibited without offending against 
such ordinance, which ought not of right to bind them, 
and which manifestly tends to the damage of the people 
of our Realm, that the said Girdlers have mis-used their 
Mystery aforesaid and by seeking thereupon a remedy 
by us to be afforded for the good of the Commonwealth. 
We have caused the execution of the said v/rit to be 
postponed, as well for such causes as on account of 
various doubts which seem here and there to arise in 
that business, until the next Parliament, that then the 
same business may be fully discussed and determined 
with deliberate counsel. And therefore we command 
you that you in the meantime wholly refrain from 
making the execution of our mandate aforesaid if it has 
not already been made, forewarning the parties afore- 
said that they be present in Parliament, that is to say, 
the aforesaid Girdlers (are) to exhibit their Letters Patent 
aforesaid there, and as well they as the said Saddlers, 
to put forth their grievances and reasons thereupon and 
further to do and receive what upon the premises should 
then happen to be ordained in that Parliament if they 
should see it to be expedient to themselves. And that 
you then have there the names of those by whom you 
have caused those parties to be forewarned, and this 
writ, wholly returning without delay to him, or them, to 
whom it shall belong, whatsoever work of the aforesaid 
Saddlers touching girdles has been presented before 
you, if any, by colour of the said ordinance by the said 
conservators in the said City. Witness the King at 
Westminster on the twenty-sixth day of October 
[A.D. 1356]. 

" By the King himself and his Council."^ 

^ The Parliamentary Rolls do not show the issue. 

History of the Company. 27 

In 1363 (36 Edward III.) we find In the City 

A.D 1363 Books the following ordinances ratified 

Ordinances of to the Saddlers' Company, upon their 

36 Ed. III. petition, which Is stated at length : ^ — 

" To the honourable and just lords, the Mayor and 
Aldermen of the City of London, the Saddlers of the 
same City humbly make their supplication that the 
points and ordinances beneath written, ordained by 
the masters of their said mistery, may be allowed for 
the common profit of the realm and the honour and 
preservation of their mistery. 

" First, that no woodwork of a saddle coming from 
the joiner be found rotten : And that each Saddler 
make the saddle well stretched, with good leather 
throughout within and without, with good ligament or 
with good canvas, under penalty beneath written. 

^ Letter Book G., fol. loi b. ; the original is in Norman 
French. These are the earliest ordinances of the Company 
which are recorded, and it will be interesting to compare them 
with the ordinances of the Saddlers of Paris in the thirteenth 
century : — 

" None may be a Saddler in Paris nor sell saddles trimmed 
with shoe-leather unless he buys his trade 

s^iidT^^^ 'fv^^- ^^^^^^ ^^^^ King, and those to whom the King 

has given power, according to his pleasure, 
sell on the King's behalf for 16 sols;* and of those 16 sols 
the King has given 10 sols to his principal Chamberlain and 
6 sols to the Constable of France. 

" The trade of Saddlers has three ' Viewers ' {Pnid' hommes) , 
appointed by the common assent of all or of the greater number, 
who are required to swear upon the Saints before the Viewers 

* The sol or sou, the French shilling, equalled the tenth part of our 
shilling. This coin, however, varied in value, the " sou de Paris" differing 
from that in use in other parts of P'rance. 


2 8 Antiquity and Early 

" Also, that no Saddler cover, nor cause to be covered, 
the woodwork of an old saddle to sell again as a new 
saddle, unless it be the saddle of another to be repaired 
or newly covered, under penalty beneath written. 

" Also, that no one make the covering or the seat 
of any saddle of sheepskin, and that no pannel of a 
saddle be made of sheepskin, black nor red, which is 
called ' purs-lether,' under penalty beneath written. 

" Also, that no woodwork of a saddle be covered with 
* past ' (paint or pastre), unless it be cloth or velvet, 
under the penalty. 

"Also, that no pannel be lined, except with *velt' 

of the trade that they will well and loyally preserve their trade 
to their power, and that they will make known the offences of 
their trade to the Provost of Paris, or to whosoever shall be in 
his place in the Provostship. 

" All those who are of the trade of Saddlers at Paris are 
bound to come and assemble themselves together, and at the 
request of the three trades, or of the two when -they have 
need to have their advice, as when they have taken a false 
work, to have their advice in judging it. And if they will not 
come on their request the Provost of Paris gives them a 
Serjeant, who makes them come by the power of the Provost. 

" No Saddler or vendor of saddles ought to buy the busi- 
ness of the King unless he works in shoe-leather, or the 
saddles which he sells are trimmed with shoe-leather ; so long 
as the saddles which he makes, or which he sells, are all 
trimmed with cowhide or all with basil ; and he cannot trim 
them or sell them unless they are trimmed entirely with one. 

" None may dye, or cover, or put any manner of covering 
on a saddle which is broken above the fastening of the peak, 
nor on a saddle which is broken more than in two places above 
the peak. And if any such manner of saddles is found by 
any one soever, it ought to be burned without (power of) re- 
demption and without any delay. 

"None may trim a saddle covered with any kind of cover- 

History of the Company. 29 

(felt), or with other stuff that is good and lawful, under 
the same penalty. 

"Also, that no harness be made new unless it be 
good and sufficient, and not lined with old leather, 
under the same penalty. 

"Also, that no seat of a saddle be nailed with nails of 
tin, but only with nails of iron, under the same penalty. 

"Also, that no sewing nor skirts be nailed with nails 
of tin nor of pewter, if they be not well and lawfully 
rivetted with iron or v/ith latten, under penalty beneath 

ing nor dyed with any manner of dye which is not well and 
truly curried, that is to say, all the four {cors) of every bow from 
one peak to the other, which is called currying by {chantians)^ 
unless they be varnished saddles made for Templars or persons 
in religion, or saddles which {demuereni) varnished fustian; and 
whosoever shall otherwise do it (the saddle) shall be burned 
when it is found without redemption and without ransom. 

" No Saddler may put old curried furniture with new work, 
that is to say, that the saddle be new or old, the drapery 
new or old, or the covering be new or old, unless he make 
it at the request of some person other than one of the trade 
who shall have desired and wished that it be made with new 
and old seuni together. 

" No Saddler may stitch basil with shoe-leather or any 
other manner of leather unless it be in a saddle which is called 
a bassette (a country saddle). 

" No Saddler may stitch basil with cowhide nor with calf 
for any furniture of what kind soever. And if any does so 
the work should be burned. 

" No Saddler may put hair into a saddle trimmed with 
shoe-leather, that is to say, (one) of which the seat and lappet 
are of shoe-leather, and if he do so the saddle should be 

" No Saddler ought to make a sumpter saddle, or saddle 
trimmed with shoe-leather or black basil, unless the currying 
thereof is well and sufficiently curried. 

D 2 

30 Antiquity and Early 

"Also, that no saddle nor harness be ornamented with 
old cloth instead of new cloth, under the penalty aforesaid. 

" Also, that no alien nor foreigner of the said mistery 
coming to the said City be suffered to keep house 
or shop, but that he be first examined by the four 
masters of the said mistery, who are elected and sworn, 
whether he be able and sufficient to work in the said 
mistery or not. And if he be able and sufficient, that 
they cause him to come before you that he may be 

"None may paint in gold colour the back of a saddle, 
unless it be covered with fine gold, without mixture of silver, 
which is called parcel gold (or parcel gilt), but the saddle-bow 
in front he may paint with what he pleases ; and if such a 
saddle is found it should be burned. 

" None may put on a saddle or buckler anything stamped 
or laid on or colour-stamped (?) {ieteiche (festain) unless in the 
case of one who is obliged of necessity to remove two or three 
(?) {escuriaiis)ix<dWi a saddle which one of the Viewers has bought, 
and he may make these (?) {escurians) of dyed thread at the 
request of the purchaser. And if any make a Saddle con- 
trary to this regulation the saddle should be burned. 

" Saddlers call a thing stamped or laid on or colour- 
stamped when any one works on moulds, whatever kind of 
moulds they be, and afterwards attaches the moulded thing 
with glue to the saddle-bow, and of such work they say that it 
is not good or true, nor ought so to be sold, for all rehef work 
ought to be made in pldtre a pencil both on the saddle and 
on the buckler. 

" No Saddler may have dealings with a Silversmith about 
covering his masterpiece, that is to say, saddle, buckler, or 
targe, with gold or silver from the Silversmith ; for the Silver- 
smith when he has dealings with their gold and silver does not 
give such gold or silver as he ought, nor so that there may be 
profit or honour to the Saddlers. And if any does so he shall 
pay a fine of 5 sols to the King. 

" No Saddler may trim any saddle to store or sell unless it 
has been first twice curried well and truly, that is to say, 

History of the Company. 31 

acknowledged as good and sufficient before the com- 
monalty according to the requirements of the franchise 
of the City, under the same penalty. 

" Also, if any such be found not able nor experienced 
in the said mistery, be he foreign or alien, let him be 
compelled, by the four masters aforesaid, to serve other 
masters of the mistery, until he be able and sufficient 
for the common weal, and also [become] free of the 
City, under the penalty aforesaid. 

besides the first time. And if any do otherwise the saddle 
should be burned. 

" No Saddler ought to make {?){kge) on his sumpter-saddle 
or any other, that is to say, that which is put on the end 
of the bows of the sumpter which carry the coffers, unless 
it be made of horsehide, or pigskin, or cowhide, or some other 
suitable leather, and all in one piece, and if it be made in any 
other manner the saddle should be burned. 

" Saddlers may trim for a man who is not of the trade his 
saddle or sumpter-saddle with such trimming as he shall bring 
to them, be it old or new, and may put in canvas with hair if 
he brings the hair from without. 

" None may buy a saddle trimmed with shoe-leather to sell 
again in Paris unless he have purchased the trade from the 
King, and if he do so, he who sells the business of the Cord- 
w^ainers on the King's behalf may take the saddle and do with 
it as he will. 

" If any Saddler have lost anything belonging to his trade, 
such as a (?) {boiidre\ which is what they call the covering of a 
saddle for a horse or service-horse, or any other thing whatso- 
ever it be, he should inform the Master of the trade, and the 
Master should cause it to be given up to him if he knows 
where it is. 

" If any Saddler is buying anything belonging to his trade 
within the City of Paris or without, and any of the trade of 
Saddlers has given the earnest penny, or the hand-grasp, or 
has made a bargain^ he may have a share and bargain of what- 
soever it be belonging to his trade, be>>it painting, trimming of 

32 Antiquity and Early 

" Also, if any master, or vadlet, or servant disagree, 
owing to some dispute between them, let no other 
master of the said mistery be so daring as to put or 
help the aforesaid vadlet to any work until the master 
and the vadlet shall have been brought to a reasonable 
agreement by the four masters of the said mistery, 
under the same penalty. 

" Also, if any vadlet or servant of the said mistery has 
served any master in the said mistery for any fixed 
term, by covenant between them made, and no default 
be found in the vadlet or servant, and the master, from 

shoe-leather, or anything else, and if he who demands a share 
wishes to take half of it, he shall take as little as he should 
pay for and of any manner of thing be pleased for the price 
he should pay. 

"None of the trade may trim a saddle if it be not sold 
before it is trimmed unless they be saddles for store or var- 
nished saddles, or white saddles of polished white, or fustian 
saddles, nailed on the rings behind with metal nails, without 
any gold nails, and if any makes one in any other manner, the 
saddle may be given up and sold for nothing, for work which 
is trimmed before it is sold is neither good nor sufficient, and 
(saddles) are not trimmed before they are sold with any 
loyalty. And if he does this in any other manner he shall 
pay a fine of lo sols to the King. 

" No Saddler may put a saddle in a window either below 
or above overlooking the street unless it be on a peg, that is to 
say, that the saddle-bow be over the peg, and if any one does 
so he shall have a fine of 12 deniers * to pay to the King. 

" None may work on Sunday nor on the four feasts of Our 
Lady, that is to say, in mid-August, in September, at Candle- 
mas, and in March, unless it be in arms for a shield in- case of 
need, or to put one (?) {estoiz) and one breast leather to a saddle, 
or to attach harness to a sumpter-saddle, that is to say, the 

* Penny. The old French penny equalled in value the tenth part of 
our English penny. 

History of the Company. ^;^ 

malice or evil disposition, will not pay the said vadlet or 
servant his wage for his service, according to the agree- 
ment between them made, or that the master wish him 
to do service against his will after his agreement has 
been well and lawfully fulfilled, that then the master 
suffer the same penalty. 

" Also, if any vadlet or servant of the same mistery 
can be found in any default towards his master, whether 
it be by covin or enticement of another, or by his own 
malice, let him suffer the same penalty. 

" Also, if anything of the said mistery, in manner 

crupper and the breast leather, and if he does otherwise he 
shall pay a fine of 20 sols, half to the King and the other half 
to the brotherhood. 

'' No Saddler may have more than two apprentices to his 
trade, that is to say, one in painting and one in trimming, 
unless it be his child or his wife's child, or some poor person 
whom he maintains out of charity and without agreement for 
money or service. 

" No Saddler may take apprentices other than the persons 
above named unless he take them at least for a term of three 
years' service, and at least at 8 livres of deniers * and 5 sols to 
the brotherhood ; and for more money and longer service he 
may take them, but for less money or shorter service he may 
not take them. 

" The apprentice must not enter on the business until he 
has paid his 5 sols, and the master 5 sols for each apprentice, 
to the brotherhood. 

" The three Masters of the trade, or two, or one (of them) 
ought each month, once at least, to go through the houses to 
protect the above-named trade of Saddlers, and ought every- 
where to take bad work where they find it, show it to the 
Viewers, and if it is found and adjudged as bad it should be 
burned by the Provost of Paris. 

' ' Every Saddler and every one of his varlets ought, and is 

* The livre, like the sol, differed in value in different parts of France. 

34 Antiquity and Early 

before-mentioned, be found defective, secretly or openly, 
which can lawfully be found or proved by the four 
masters of the said mistery, let the same thing be 
destroyed by the decree of the Mayor and discretion of 
the said masters and let him in whose possession such 
thing be found suffer the same penalty. 

" Also, that it be allowed at any time to the four 
masters aforesaid of the said mistery, to search house, 
shop, and chamber within the franchise of the said City, 

bound by oath, to make known to the Masters of the trade if 
any one of the trade, be he their master, or their neighbour, 
or another, transgresses in any of the things above-named 
against the aforesaid trade. 

" No Saddler may take a varlet into the service of his 
trade for more than one day unless the varlet has sworn on 
the true Saints that he will do his trade well and truly, and 
observe the above-named regulations, and if he does otherwise 
he shall pay a fine of 5 sols to the King ; and if the varlet 
has not been willing to work for another at his trade for two 
days or more continually, and he can prove it, and if he proves 
it he shall be quit of the 5 sols, and he against whom he 
shall prove it in his presence shall pay them. 

" None may, or ought, to put into his work nails of ivory 
or enamel of any kind soever, and if he do so the work 
should be burned, for the work is not good nor true. 

" No Saddler may put into, his work goods made outside 
the City of Paris before the goods shall have been inspected 
by the Viewers who protect the trade, that is to say, painting 
by the Painters, coverings and thongs and saddles by the 
trimmers, and saddle-bows by the Carpenters, and if any put 
them into his work he shall forfeit the work, and it shall be 
burned, and he shall pay a fine of 10 sols to the King. 

" None may work at the trade of Saddlery in Paris, that is 
to say, trim shoe-leather, unless he have bought the trade 
from the King, or had the work from a man who has bought 
the trade fiom the King. 

History of the Company. 35 

wherever any saddle or harness appertaining thereto 
can be found, and lawfully to examine them whether 
they be good and suitable in manner aforesaid or not. 
And whensoever any prove rebellious against the four, 
and are unwilling to allow them to search in manner 
aforesaid, then let them take a serjeant of the 
Chamber with them to any place where any such can 
be found, and let him whosoever rebels suffer the same 

" No Saddler or any other may deliver a trimmed dyed 
saddle before it has been varnished, unless it be a sumpter- 
saddle, and if he do so he shall pay a fine of 5 sols to the 

" None may nor ought to put (?) icontresangles) nor other 
harness, unless it be good and true, that is to say, if it have not 
one border of (?) {conane)^ that is to say, of pigskin, or have at 
least one border of new leather which is as good, and whoever 
does so his work shall be burned. 

" None may nor ought to call out to or address a purchaser 
who is before another's stall, nor before another's house, if he 
do so he shall have a fine of 5 sols to pay to the King and 
5 sols to pay to the brotherhood. 

" None may nor ought to refuse to allow anything of his 
trade to be seen by the Masters, sworn guardians of the trade, 
to see of them is anything finable therein. And if he do so 
he shall have a fine of 10 sols to pay to the King. 

" No Saddler or Painter owes anything in respect of any- 
thing which he sells or which he buys belonging to his trade 
provided he uses it in his work, save 40 sols de Paris, which 
every Saddler of Paris and every Lorimer, for whatsoever he 
sends out, ought each year to pay to the King at the fair of 
Saint Ladre (Saint Lazare), and thereby is he free to go to 
fairs and markets ; and these 40 sols the four Viewers of the 
trade assess, more on one, less on another, as it seems good to 
them. And these four men, or two of them at least, demand 
at the Chatelet one Serjeant to take from each of those who 

36 Antiquity and Early 

" Also, if any covin or assembly of the Company be 
secretly made by the vadlets and servants of the said 
mistery, for obtaining from their masters more wages 
than they ought (to have) in their mistery, to the pre- 
judice of the people, and it can be discovered or proved, 
let such suffer the penalty beneath written. 

" Also, if any master, vadlet, or servant, alien or 
foreign, be discovered, and by the four masters proved 
in any default aforesaid, let him pay for his first offence 
to the Chamber of the City, 6s. Sd. ; for the second 
offence, 1 3 j. ^d. ; for the third offence, 20s. ; and, for the 
fourth, let him abjure the mistery within the City of 
London, according to the judgment of you and the four 
masters aforesaid. 

'' The names of those elected before the Mayor and 
Aldermen for keeping the aforesaid articles, viz. : — 

William Lincolne,-^ 

John Pountfreit, 

Roger Excestre, 

Gerard atte Nook, J 

are assessed what is assessed on him. And these four men 
elect the Master of the trade each year. 

" Saddlers who trim with shoe-leather or other leather of 
what kind soever, and those who sell saddles trimmed with 
any kind of curriery, ought to aid the Cordwainers in paying 
the (?) {hueses) to the King, and thereupon they may work in 
any kind of curriery they please. 

" The Masters who shall be appointed to protect the trade 
are quit of all the charges and all the expenses, and of all the 
outgoings which they say on their oath they have paid and 
disbursed to protect the trade, and they may, and ought to, 
assess and collect, from one more, from another less, according 
to what seems good to them, saving the taxation due to the 
Provost of Paris, if need there be." — Regulations relating to 
the Trades of Paris, collected in the Xlllth Century, and 
known under the name of the Book of Trades of Stephen 

> Saddler sr 

History of the Company. 2)1 

In the year 1364, we learn from the City Books, 

AD 1364. ^^^^ ^^ Saddlers' Company, among 

Contribution Others, Contributed the sum of one 

towards Edward 1 , i i •n* . i .1 

III. 's French hundred shiilmgs towards the support 
wars. q£ ^^ King in the prosecution of his 
French wars. This is one of the earliest instances 
of a general levy upon the Livery Companies for 
State purposes, although, as we shall presently see, 
the custom was destined to become more frequent 
and extended. In return for this patriotic sup- 
port of the Companies, but more probably with 
a view to encourage their development — for 
Edward III. was a thorough protectionist — the 
King gratified them by a more liberal distribution 
of charters. If the extent of the contributions of 
the several Companies enumerated in the manu- 
script is any measure of their order of importance 
or relative wealth, the Saddlers' Company would 
appear, at this time, to have ranked about the 

The same year Edward III. granted the 
Saddlers' Company the first charter or license 
which is recorded to them on the Rolls.^ 

Boileau ; published for the first time in its entirety from the 
Manuscripts of the King's Library and the Archives of the 
Kingdom, by G. B. Depping (Title LXXVIII.). 

^ Patant Roll, 37 Edward III., part 2, membrane 7. The 
original is in Latin. This, however, must not be misinter- 
preted as a Charter of Incorporation, which, it is claimed, was 
granted to the Company in 1272, 

Carpenter, in the " Liber Albus " (Rolls Series, i., 536), 
has the following record of letters patent granted to the 

7,8 Antiquity and Early 

" For the Saddlers r The King to all to whom, &c., 
of London. \Greeting. The just men, the Saddlers 
of our City of London, and of other cities, burghs, and 
AD. 1-^64. ^^^^^ ^^ o^^ Kingdom, have besought us, 
Charter from by their petition exhibited before us and 
Edward III. q^j. (Council, in our last Parliament, that 
whereas very many Saddlers dwelling in divers parts of 
our said Kingdom, not being content with lawful gain, 
do daily make saddles for sale of rotten and ill-seasoned 
wood, and of false and weak hides, cloths, and trappings, 
causing them to be garnished with nails of lead, tin, and 
pewter, and do not desist daily to make divers other 
deceits and deceptions in their works, and, nevertheless, 
sell those saddles at a great price, to the damage and 
deception of us and all our people, and also to the 
manifest scandal and disgrace of just and faithful 
Saddlers. We wish, for the common good and profit of 
the said Kingdom, and for preserving the honour of that 
trade, and of the faithful workmen of the same, to ordain 
a fit remedy for such faults. We, for such failings and 
deceptions, and for avoiding the injuries and grievances 
which might happen to us and our people upon this, 
Being willing to assent to their prayer in this behalf, of 
our special grace have granted for us and our heirs, that 
as well in the said City of London as in every other 
city, burgh, or vill of the said Kingdom, where the trade 
of saddle-making is now exercised, or hereafter may 

Saddlers' Company in the thirty-seventh year of this reign : 
" Charta Sellariorum in Hustengo de Communibus Placitis 
tento die Lunae proximo post festum Sancti Petri in Cathe- 
dra anno regni Regis Edwardi Tertii quadragesimo septimo. 
(Hist. Roll of Common Pleas, No. 97.) 

N.B. — The letters patent are dated ist December, 37 
Edward III. but were apparently not enrolled till 47 Edward 

History of the Company. 39 

happen to be exercised, one or two just and faithful 
men of the said trade shall be elected and assigned by 
the Saddlers dwelling there to overlook and take 
charge of that trade, and to make scrutiny of the 
defaults which may happen to be found there in the 
work of Saddlers, as often as there shall be occasion, 
and present all those defaults to the Mayor and Bailiffs 
or Keepers of the vills, places, and markets where those 
defaults shall be found [We] being willing that all such 
false works so presented may be burnt by the discretion 
of the said Mayor, Bailiffs, or Keepers, and that the 
Saddlers making them may be punished by heavy amer- 
ciaments, which same amerciaments shall remain for 
ever with the aforesaid Mayor, Bailiffs, and Keepers and 
Commonalty of the places where those defaults shall 
happen to be found, and that they who are elected to 
make such scrutiny in the City of London may present 
in form abovesaid such defaults found in other cities, 
burghs, and vills, together with others elected there. In 
[witness] whereof, &c. 

" Witness the King at Westminster, the first day of 

'' By the King himself and Petition of Parlia- 

In the 50th year of the same reign, a.d. 1377, 
the Saddlers' Company are recorded 
as sending four members to the Com- 
mon Council, which at that time was composed of 
representatives of the guilds ; only nine of the 
Companies sent more members than the Saddlers, 
who contributed as many representatives as the 
Cloth workers, Ironmongers, and Salters, and 
twice the number of the Leathersellers, Brewers, 
and other important crafts. 


Antiquity and Early 

In the same and the succeeding years we have 
the following record of the election of the Com- 
pany's Executive : — 

" Election of Masters of Saddlers. 

Rumbold Bodd 

Walter Yong 
John Cole 
Simon Byrthorp 

Masters of Saddlers sworn to faith- 
fully discharge their duty, and such 
defects as they shall find in the 
same mistery faithfully to present 
to the Mayor and Aldermen, and 
^ to rule and supervise the same 
mistery, to wit Thursday next be- 
fore the Feast of S. Peter ad Vin- 
cula [i Aug.], the 50th year of the 
reign of King Edward the Third 
after the Conquest [a.d. 1376]."^ 

'' Masters of Saddlers sworn. 

Richard Stacy 
Thomas Soysse 
Robert Forster 
William Sherewode 


These are elected Masters of the 
Saddlers and presented by good 
men of the same mistery, and 
sworn the 9th day of July in the 
1st year of the reign of King 
Richard the Second after the 
Conquest [a.D. 1377] to rule well 
the said mistery and to faith- 
fully present such defects 
as they shall find, and faithfully 
to perform ail other duties as 
appertain to the said office, 
&c." ' 

^ Letter Book H., fol. 43 b. 
2 Ibid., fol. 68 b. 

History of the Company. 41 

In the tenth year of Richard II. we find the 
A D 1386. Saddlers' Company championing the 
A despotic Lord Hbertles of the City, which were as- 
^^^^' sailed by the then Mayor, Sir Nicholas 
Brembre. Sir Nicholas Brembre was elected 
Lord Mayor in 1377, and re-elected In 1383, and 
the two following years. A Chronicle of London^ 
has the following account of his proceedings : — 
''Also In this year (1385-6) Sir NIcholl Brembre 
was chosen maire ageyne be the said craftes and 
be the men of the contre at Harrowe, and the 
contre there aboughte, and not be fre elecclon of 
the citee of London as It oweth to be ; and the 
oolde halle was stuffed with men of armes overe 
even be ordlnaance and assente of S^ NIcholl 
Brembre for to chese hym maIre on the morwe ; 
and so he was." 

A further account of the 111 deeds of this mag- 
nate Is furnished in a petition by the Saddlers' 
Company to the King and Parliament, which Is still 
preserved In the Public Record Office, among the 
Rolls of Parliament,'^ although unfortunately it Is 
in a very fragmentary condition ; It Is In Norman 
French, and the following Is a translation of as 
much as can be deciphered : — 

" To the most excellent and most powerful Lord our 
most dread Lord the King and to the most noble and 

^ A Chronicle of London from 108 9- 148 3, written in the 
fifteenth century, and printed from MSS. in the British 
Museum; Ed. by Sir W. H. Nicolas, 1827. There is a copy 
in the Guildhall Library. 

^ Parliamentary Petitions, No. 7,484. 

42 Antiquity and Early 

wise Lords of this present Parliament Their poor 
Heges the Saddlers of London most humbly beseech 
and complain against Sir Nicholas Brembre, Knight, 
that whereas the said Master Nicholas, in his Mayoralty, 
in the first year of the reign of our said Lord the King, 
demanded of the Wardens of the said Mystery the 
Charter granted and confirmed to them by the noble 
progenitors of our said Lord the King, in which Charter 
were granted divers articles in prohibition of the deceits 
practised by divers strangers, as plainly appears by the 
copy annexed to this. At which time the Wardens of 
the said Mystery answered the said Sir Nicholas, that 
they would not deliver their said Charter to him with- 
out command of the King or Parliament. The said 
Nicholas grievously threatening them that he would 
drive them out at the point of the sword and cause the 
whole of the said City to rise upon the said Mystery. 
For fear of which and for the safety of their lives they 
delivered to him their Charter, which he has detained 
and still detains to the prejudice of the Crown of our 
said Lord the King, and the great damage and injury 
of the said Mystery. Wherefore they pray a remedy 
and upon that which the law demands for the sake of 
God and as an act of charity. Also the said suppliants 
complain against the said Sir Nicholas and others his 
accomplices of this, that the said Sir Nicholas, with the 
assent of others, his confederates aforesaid, usurped to 
himself royal power in this, inasmuch as it had been 
usual in the said City, time out of mind, and by their 
royal charters granted and confirmed, [that] when the 
Mayor of London shall be elected his election shall be 
by the Commonalty and free men of the said City, 
until the aforesaid Sir Nicholas and the others, his 
accomplices, by their conspiracy and evil imaginings to 
destroy the good men of the said City and oppose the 
freedom of the same, caused certain men who were their 

History of the Company. 43 

confederates to be summoned to the Guildhall of the 
said City on the Feast of St. Edward the King in the 
seventh year of the reign of our Lord the King who 
now is, to elect a Mayor. And the said Sir Nicholas, 
by the assent of all the others, proclaimed in divers 
parts of the said City and charged every man of the 
said City on pain of imprisonment and on pain of . . . 

towards the King that none be so daring as 

to be at the said election but those who were summoned, 
and those who were summoned were summoned by the 

consent of the said Sir Nicholas and his 

to that election who would be caused to oppose their 
Franchise. The said Sir Nicholas and the others, his 
confederates, ordained certain men, as well strangers as 

others, to the great at the Guildhall aforesaid 

to make that election, and to put to death all other men 
who wxre not summoned if they came there to the said 
election, by which he willed ....... and the most 

noble and wise Lords in this present Parliament of this 
horrible thing done against the law and the Crown there 
may be made a due remedy, for the sake of God and as 
an act of charity. 

" complain against the said Sir Nicholas 

that whereas he, with the consent of others, his accom- 
plices, usurped to himself royal power by coming to the 
* Chepe ' with a great multitude of men ... (to the) 
fear of all the good men of the said City, and there put 
to death John Costantyn, Cordwainer, and afterwards 
came to the shops of divers Saddlers and threatened 

them to have in the same manner by which 

each of them should be put out of the said City, and 
not allowed to come there for fear of losing their lives. 
And afterwards the said Sir Nicholas took certain men 

Mystery and put them in prison without 

any answer in the law, to the great fear of their lives 
and the loss of their goods, so that he and the others, 


44 Antiquity and Early 

his confederates, usurped to themselves royal power 

Lord the King that it please our said Lord 

the King and the Lords aforesaid, for this deed done 
against the Crown and the law of the land, to cause 
them accordingly " 

The rest of the document is too fragmentary 
for a connected translation to be made.^ The 
career of this despotic Mayor, however, was 
brought to an untimely end the following year, 
when he was implicated in a treasonable con- 
spiracy and executed. 

In the eighteenth year of his reign, 20th March, 
A.D. 1395. 1395, Richard IL granted the Com- 
incorporation pany a Charter of Incorporation, in 
Richard IL the following words : — 

" Richard, by the Grace of God King of England 
and France, and Lord of Ireland, to all to whom the 
present letters may come. Greeting. Our well beloved 
liege men of the Mystery of Saddlers of our City of 
London have besought us that whereas many men of the 
Mystery aforesaid, of venerable estate, and very often 
being by old age and feebleness and other infirmities 
and misfortunes come to so great poverty and need that 
they know not (how) to live, nor fitly to keep themselves, 
and our said lieges piously sympathizing with the estate 
of such poor, feeble, and infirm old men, as well present 
as to come, by means of our license purpose to acquire 
lands, tenements, and rents, to the value of twenty 
pounds by the year for the sustentation of the said poor, 

^ In the same bundle are like petitions from the Mercers, 
Founders, Painters, Armourers, Embroiderers, Spurriers^ and 

History of the Company. 45 

feeble, and infirm old men, and of one Chaplain to cele- 
brate divine service, for the healthful estate of us and 
for the souls of our progenitors, and for the souls of the 
founders and sustainers of the aforesaid alms for ever. 
We wish graciously to grant to them our royal license in 
this behalf We being favourably inclined towards the 
pious intention and laudable purpose of our well 
beloved lieges, especially since they manifestly tend not 
only towards mercy and inward affection towards one's 
neighbour, but also to the increase of divine worship, of 
our special grace, and for sixty pounds, which the same 
our liege men of the Mystery aforesaid have paid to us, 
into our hanaper. We have granted and given license 
for us and our heirs to the same men of the Mystery afore- 
said, that they, for the good governance of the Mystery 
aforesaid may have a Commonalty of themselves for 
ever. And that the men of the Mystery and Commonalty 
aforesaid may every year elect and make four Keepers 
from the men of the Commonalty and Mystery 
aforesaid, to supervise, regulate, and duly govern the 
Mystery aforesaid, and every member of the same. And 
also from time to time for ever, to correct and amend 
the faults of the Mystery aforesaid, and that the same 
Keepers and Commonalty and their successors may ac- 
quire lands, tenements, and rents with appurtenances to 
the value of twenty pounds by the year, as well within 
our City of London as without, provided that those 
which shall be without our said City be not held of us 
in chief To have and to hold to the same Keepers and 
Commonalty, and their successors, in aid of the susten- 
tation of the said poor, feeble, and infirm old men, and 
of one Chaplain to celebrate divine service for our 
healthful estate while we live, and for our souls when 
we shall have migrated from this light, and for the souls 
of our progenitors, and for the estate and souls of the 
men of the Mystery and Commonalty aforesaid, and 

E 2 

46 Antiquity and Early 

for the souls of all the faithful dead, for ever, according 
to the order of the aforesaid Guardians and Commonalty 
thereof to be made. In witness whereof we have made 
these our letters to be made patent. Witness, Edmund, 
Duke of York, Keeper of England, at Westminster, in 
the twentieth day of March, in the eighteenth year of 

our reign." 

Two years later (20 Rich. II.) we obtain from 

A.D. 1397. ^^^ ^^^y Letter Books an interesting 
Dispute between account of a disputc between the 

1\'T n^l^PT*^ inri 

Yeomen Sad- masters and the yeomen or serving- 
diers. j^^jj of the Saddlers' trade, which gives 
us an excellent insight into the customs of the 
guild at that early period. The record, which 
is partly in Latin and partly in Norman French, 
narrates that : — 

" Whereas there had arisen no small dissension and 
strife between the masters of the trade of Saddlers of 
London, and the serving-men, called yeomen, in that 
trade ; because that the serving-men aforesaid, against 
the consent, and without leave of their masters, were 
wont to array themselves all in a new and like suit once 
in the year, and oftentimes held divers meetings, at 
Stratford and elsewhere without the liberty of the said 
City, as well as in divers places within the City ; 
whereby many inconveniences and perils ensured to 
the trade aforesaid ; and also, very many losses might 
happen thereto in future times, unless some quick and 
speedy remedy should by the rulers of the said City be 
found for the same ; therefore the masters of the said 
trade, on the loth day of the month of July, in the 
20th year, &c., made grievous complaint thereon to the 

History of the Company. 47 

excellent men, William More, Mayor, and the Alder- 
men of the City aforesaid, urgently entreating that, for 
the reasons before mentioned, they would deign to send 
for Gilbert Dustone, William Gylowe, John Clay, John 
Hiltone, William Berigge, and Nicholas Mason, the then 
governors of the serving-men aforesaid, to appear before 
them on the 12th day of July then next ensuing. 

"And thereupon, on the same loth day of July 
precept was given to John Parker, Serjeant of the 
Chamber, to give notice to the said persons to be here 
on the said 12th day of July, &c. Which governors of 
the serving-men appeared, and, being interrogated as to 
the matters aforesaid, they said that time out of mind 
the serving-men of the said trade had had a certain 
Fraternity among themselves, and had been wont to 
array themselves all in like suit once in the year, and 
after meeting together at Stratford, on the Feast of the 
Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary [15 August] 
to come from thence to the Church of St. Vedast, in 
London, there to hear Mass on the same day, in honour 
of the said glorious Virgin. 

" But the said masters of the trade asserted to the 
contrary of all this, and said that the Fraternity, and 
the being so arrayed in like suit, among the serving- 
men, dated from only thirteen years back, and even then 
had been discontinued of late years ; and that under 
a certain feigned colour of sanctity, many of the serving- 
men in the trade had influenced the journeymen among 
them, and had formed covins thereon, with the object 
of raising their wages greatly in excess ; to such an 
extent, namely, that whereas a master in the said 
trade could before have had a serving-man or journey- 
man for 40 shillings or 5 marks yearly, and his board, 
now such a man would not agree with his master for 
less than 10 or 12 niarks or even 10 pounds yearly ; to 
the great deterioration of the trade. 

48 Antiquity and Early 

"And further that the serving-men aforesaid, accord- 
ing to an ordinance made among themselves, would 
oftentimes cause the journeymen of the said masters to 
be summoned by a bedel, thereunto appointed, to attend 
at Vigils of the dead, who were members of the said 
Fraternity, and at making offerings for them on the 
morrow, under a certain penalty to be levied, whereby 
the said masters were very greatly aggrieved, and were 
injured through such absenting of themselves by the 
journeymen so leaving their labours and duties, against 
their wish. 

" For amending and allaying the which grievances and 
dissensions the Mayor and Aldermen commanded that 
six of the said serving-men should attend in the name 
of the whole of the alleged Fraternity, and communicate 
with six or eight of the master Saddlers aforesaid, etc. ; 
both parties to be here, before the said Mayor and 
Aldermen, on the 19th day of July then next ensuing, 
to make report to the Court as to such agreement 
between them as aforesaid. And further, th'e Mayor 
and Aldermen strictly forbade the said serving-men in 
any manner to hold any meeting thereafter at Stratford 
aforesaid, or elsewhere, without the liberty of the said 
City, on pain of forfeiture of all that unto our Lord 
the King, and to the said City, they might forfeit. 

"On which 19th day of July, came here as well the 
masters aforesaid as the governors of the serving-men ; 
and presented to the Mayor and Aldermen a certain 
petition, in these words : — 

" ' Gilbert Dustone, William G5dowe, John Clay, John 
Hiltone, William Berigge, and Nicholas Mason, do 
speak on behalf of all their Fraternity, and do beg of 
the Wardens of the Saddlers that they may have and 
use all the points which heretofore they have used.' 

" Which petition having been read and heard, and divers 
reasons by the said masters unto the Mayor and Alder- 

History of the Company. 49 

men shown, it was determined that the serving-men in 
the trade aforesaid should in future be under the 
governance and rule of the masters of such trade : the 
same as the serving-men in other trades in the same 
City are wont and of right are bound, to be ; and that 
in future they should have no Fraternity, meetings, or 
covins, or other unlawful things, under a penalty, etc. 
And that the said masters must properly treat and 
govern their serving-men in the trade, in such manner 
as the serving-men in like trades in the City have been 
wont to be properly treated and governed. And that if 
any serving-men should in future wish to make com- 
plaint to the Mayor and Aldermen, for the time being, 
as to any grievance unduly inflicted upon him by the 
masters aforesaid, such Mayor and Aldermen would 
give to him his due and speedy meed of justice as to 
the same." ' 

Henry VI., in the third year of his reign 

A.D. 1424. (i2th October, 1424), confirmed the 

First Charter Charter of Ed Ward HI., v^hich he 

from Henry VI. . , i • i i 11 1 • 

recites, and to v^hich he adds nothing 

of importance in his own.^ In the twenty-fourth 

year of his reign (3rd February, 1446) he con- 

A.D. 1446. firmed the Charter of Richard II., 

A second Charter which he recites by inspeximus, con- 

from Henry VI. it • i i r n • i 

eluding With the loUowmg words, 
which are all that are added: — "And we the 
Letters aforesaid and all and singular in the same 
contained have ratified and confirmed by the tenor 
of these presents, and for us and our heirs as 

^ Letter Book H., fol. 309 (Riley's " Memorials," pp. 542-544). 
* Patent Roll, 3 Henry VI., part i, mem. 27. 

50 Antiquity and Early 

much as in us lies accept, approve, ratify, and 
confirm them to our well -beloved Laurence 
Braunche, John Sawyer, Richard Danton, and 
William Coddesdon, now Keepers of the Mystery 
of Saddlers of the City aforesaid, and the Com- 
monalty of the same and their successors as the 
Letters aforesaid reasonably witness. In (witness) 
whereof, &c., witness the King at Westminster, 
on the third day of February, a.d. 1446. For 
two marks paid into the hanaper." ^ 

On the 5th of May, 1463, being the third year 
AD 146-. o^ his reign, Edward IV. granted a 
Charter from Charter to the Company. This is an 
inspeximus of that granted by Richard 

Edward IV. 

II., after reciting which it concludes with the follow- 
ing words : — '' But we the Letters aforesaid and all 
and singular contained in the same having ratified 
and confirmed for us and our heirs as much as in 
us lies, do accept, approve, and to our well- 
beloved William Bird, Thomas Hertwell, William 
Portlouthe, and John Abell, now Wardens of the 
Mystery of the Saddlers of the City aforesaid, 
and to the Commonalty of the same and their 
successors by the tenor of the presents, do ratify 
and confirm them as the Letters aforesaid reason- 
ably testify. In witness whereof we have caused 
these our Letters to be made patent. Witness 
ourself at Westminster the fifth day of May, in 
the third year of our reign, a.d. 1463.' 


» Patent Roll, 24 Henry VI., part i, mem. 13. 
- Patent Roll, 3 Edward IV., part i, mem. 19. 

History of the Company. 51 

Henry VH., by Charter granted in the eleventh 

A.D. 149-. y^^^ ^^ ^'^^ reign, 28th October, 1495, 

Charter from recites and confirms the first of Henry 

enry . yj^^ which, as already stated, is an in- 

speximus of that of Edward HI. The Charter 

of Henry VH. contains no additional words. ^ 

A Return in the Public Record Office of all 
The Company in the Companies' members for the year 

A.D. 1537. 1537 places the Saddlers' Company 
twenty-sixth in order of precedence, with a mem- 
bership of sixty. The last three names men- 
tioned in the list of the Company's members are : 
** The good wife Pounde, the good wif Coupir, 
and the good wif Yong." 

Henry VHL, in the thirty-second year of his 

A.D. 1540. reign (nth June, 1540), granted a 

Charter from Charter which confirms and recites 

that of Henry VH., but adds nothing 

to it.^ 

In this year we have the earliest historical 
notice of Saddlers' Hall, which was 

A.D. 1545. r 1 • 1 r 

the scene of one of the trials ot poor 
Anne Askew, one of the first English protestant 
martyrs, who was burned at Smithfield the follow- 
ing year.^ 

^ Recited in Charter of Elizabeth. Patent Roll, i Eliz., 
part 2, mem. 4. 
2 Ibid. 
2 Foxe's " Acts and Ordinances." 

52 Antiquity and Early 

In the first year of Edward VI., 1547, when 

^ ^ ,-,^ Enp^land was on the crest of the 

Statute of Chan- wave of the Reformation, the Crown, 

by the re-enactment of an Act passed 

In the last year of the reign of Henry VIII., 

confiscated all chantries, colleges, chapels, and 

bequests for superstitious uses, such as masses, 

obits, etc. After appropriating the revenues from 

this source for two years, the King allowed the 

Companies to redeem the charges at twenty years' 

purchase. In order to do this the Companies were 

obliged to sell other property. The following 

particulars of the redemption by the Saddlers' 

Company are furnished by Strype : — 

£ s. d. 
"They purchased of the Kinge in Rente 

per ann. . . . . . . .. 32 05 02 

They sould tenements to buy the same 

per ann. . . . . . . . . 21 14 08 

Sum of the yerelie payments out of the Rents 

purchased — 

Xi S. d. 

In pensions to poor decased Brethren 14 00 00 
In Exhibitions to Schollers . . . . 05 06 08 

To ther Almesmen . . . . . . 21 16 08 

Sum of the yerelie payments . . 41 05 04" 

The Charter granted by Elizabeth in the first 

A.D. 1558. y^^'^ of her reign (9th November, 

Charter from 1 558) Is a long and ample one, setting 

out the Charters of Edward III. and 

Richard II., and their confirmation by Edward IV. 


History of the Company. 


and subsequent monarchs, together with a long 
incorporation Charter by EHzabeth herself. The 
Company are therein incorporated by the name 
of the Wardens or Keepers and Commonalty of 
the Mystery or Art of Saddlers of the City of 
London, and are empowered to receive and 
possess lands, tenements, and franchises ; to en- 
force a quarterage of "^d. upon all freemen of the 
Company for the sustenation of the feeble poor 
and old men of the Mystery or Art aforesaid, and 
for the improvement of the state of the common- 
w^ealth of the Wardens, &c. ; to enforce payment 
of any sums levied upon the commonalty by the 
Wardens, with the assent of eight Assistants ; and 
generally to do and manage all the affairs of the 
Company. The Charter, moreover, confirmed to 
the Company power to exercise supervision, 
scrutiny, and correction over all makers of sad- 
dles, bridles, bits, reins, stirrups, girdles, and 
harness, or other things pertaining to the art of 
saddlery, as well aliens as freemen, within the 
vills of Southwark and Westminster, and a two- 
mile circuit of the City. The Company were 
also empowered to deface and destroy all deceitful 
wares and to punish their makers, " so that the 
correction and punishment of such be not exer- 
cised against the law of England or the ordi- 
nances and statutes thereof made, or against the 
customs and liberties and privileges of the City of 
London." ^ 

^ The original Charter is still in the Company's possession. 

54 Antiquity and Early 

The powers conferred upon the Company in this 
A.D. 1561. Charter were supplemented by the 
^rmed^^^EHza ratification, three years afterwards, of 
beth. the Company's ordinances. 

An Act of PaHiament of the 19 Henry VII., 
25th January, 1503, enacted among other things : 
That no Master, Warden, or Fellowship of Crafts 
or Mysteries, or any of them, or any Rulers of 
Guilds or Fraternities, should take upon them to 
make any acts or ordinances, nor to execute any 
acts or ordinances by them heretofore made in 
'' disheriting or diminishion " of the King's pre- 
rogative or any other, or against the common 
profit of the King's subjects and liege people, 
unless such acts or ordinances were examined and 
approved by the Lord Chancellor and Treasurer 
of England, the Chief Justice of either Bench, or 
three of them, or else before the Justices of Assize 
when on circuit in that shire where the ordinances 
were made. The confirmation recites that " the 
Wardens, cominaltye and fellyshippe of the Mys- 
terie of Sadlers enfranchized w'^'in the Citye of 
London havinge divers auncient rules ordynnces 
and othes heretofore tyme out of mynde, by their 
predecessors ordeyned devised and made for their 
conservacon, rule, good order and governance of 
the same, their Misterie and fellishipp, w'^ War- 
dens and Comminaltie not willinge in any wise to 
infringe in any thinge the foresaide Acte of Par- 
lyament, but myndfull in all things to have the 
same observed and kept and being also desirous 
to have their foresaide auncient rules ordynnces 

History of the Company. 55 

and othes to be dulye executed vppon their fore- 
sayde fellowshippe and misterie for the good 
governannce and maytennance of the good order 
of the same, and the abolyshments of the con- 
trarye, have thereuppon exibited and p'nted vnto 
vs their peticion withe a booke contaynynge the 
same new Rules Ordinannces and othes instantlye 
desiring vs that we all and everye the said Rules 
Ordinannces and othes wolde oversee pervse and 
examyne and the same correcte reforme and 
amende and also to allow^ ratifie and approve after 
due manner and forme as by the foresaide Acte of 
Parliamint is required." 

The ordinances, confirmed a.d. 1561, are 
twenty-seven in number. They set forth the 
rules for the guidance and government of the 
Company, and appoint the oaths to be taken by 
the Wardens, Assistants, and freemen. 

The year 1567 was remarkable for the first 

A.D. 1567. Lottery which took place in England. 

The first English It was introduced bv Queen Eliza- 

°"^^^* beth, who is stated to have borrowed 

this expedient for publicly raising money from 

the practice of continental governments. The 

Lord Mayor, in obedience to Royal commands, 

issued a precept to the Companies, requiring them 

to participate in the venture. The Saddlers' 

Company's Audit Book for the year 1568 bears 

the following entry in reference to the incident : — 

" Item we fynde disborsed into the Lottarie of 

thouse stocke, xv^." 

56 Antiquity and Early 

The allusion to " the house stock " indicates 
that the contribution was made from the Trea- 
sury chest of the Company, and that It was not, 
as was usually the case, levied by " the pole " upon 
the members of the fellowship. In the per- 
emptory demands which Elizabeth was In the 
habit of making upon the Companies, she con- 
siderately commanded that the money to be lent 
(sic) to her should be raised In this manner. This 
degree of consideration, however, does not appear 
to have mollified the Companies, who were In- 
variably the poorer by the amount they furnished 
her, If not in their Individual, certainly in their 
corporate, capacity. The stipulation afforded in 
Itself a trustworthy prospect of the chances of 

^ According to Stow, the drawing for this Lottery was 
commenced at the west door of St. Paul's Cathedral on the 
nth January, and continued uninterruptedly by day and by 
night until the 6th of May following. As an assuring feature 
it was stated that the Lottery was to consist of all prizes, but 
the amounts drawn were ridiculously trivial. Mr. Alfred 
Kempe gives an interesting account of this Lottery, derived 
from the Loseley MSS., and instances a number of the mottoes 
used by the City Companies and others, some of which are 
very quaint and amusing. 

" We Brewers God sende us 
A good lot to mende us. 
Per John Bankes, of the parish of St. Gyles, s. d. 
(No.) 47,699 ... ... ... ... I 3 

God make all sure for the Armorers. 
Per Thomas Tindal, London, (No.) 182,833 i 2 

History of the Company. 57 

In the Company's Audit for the year 1584-1585, 
we find an allusion to one of those royal progresses 
which Oueen Elizabeth was so fond of making: 
from time to time through various parts of the 
country. The incident of the Queen's return on 
the occasion is described by Stow, who, in his 
annals, informs us that on — 

" The 1 2th November the Oueene's maiesty (returning 
after her progresse) came to her Manor of St. James, 
where the citizens of London, to the number of 200 
— the gravest sorts in coats of velvet and chaines of 
gold, on horsebacke — and 1,000 of the companies 
on foote (having with them 1,000 men with torches, 
ready there to give light on every side, for that the 
night drew on) received and welcomed her." 

The Company's record of the event is as 

follows : — 

We Cookes of London, which work eariy and late, 
If anything be left God send us part. s. d. 

Per Rich. Tomson, Lond., (No.) 268,094 ... i 2 
For the Haberdashers. 
Our sum put in 
Is in hope to win. ... 3 4 

I am a pore maiden and faine would marry, 
And the lacke of goods is the cause that I tarry. 
Per Sibbel Cleyon, (No.) 51,832 2 i 

We putt in one lotte, poer maydens we be ten, 
We pray God send us a good lotte that we all may 
say amen. 
Per Dorothie Hawes, of Cheapside, 

(No.) 44,963 ••• I 2." 

Lotteries were suppressed by an Act 10 William III., c. 
23, which declared them nuisances, but they were revived in 
subsequent reigns. 

58 Early History of the Company. 

" Item, we the saide auditors have receavid and 
brought in for certayne of our yeomandrie, w^^ were 
assigned to holde certayne torche lights at hir Ma*^^ 
comyng by the Parke Corner to St. James, w'^^ they 
p'digally and laciviously burned homeward, being whole 
and vnoccupied viij' iiij*^ (Fine)." 

The Company received their first grant of 

arms, with supporters, on the 20th 

A.D. 1585. October, i^Ss- The oriQ^Inal Qfrant 

Grant of Arms. ' o u & t> 

has unfortunately not been preserved. 
The arms are: — Azttre : a chevron between three 
manage saddles complete, 07\ Crest: on a wreath 
a horse passant, argent, crined, bridled, saddled, 
and trappings, or ; on his head a plume of three 
feathers, argent. Stippoi4ers : two horses argent, 
maned, hoofed, and bridled, or ; on each head a 
plume of three feathers, aigent. 

Two mottoes were recorded to the Company 
in the original grant : " Hold fast, Sit sure " over 
the crest, and '' Our trust is in God " under the 
arms. Both mottoes are recorded to the Com- 
pany at the Visitation of London in 1633. The 
first motto has subsequently been dropped, but 
the reason cannot be ascertained. In a collection 
of the arms of the City Companies in the Library 
at Guildhall, entitled " London's Armoury," and 
engraved in 1677, the first motto only is recorded. 
But in MS. No. 6,860, of the Harleian Collec- 
tion, which appears by the handwriting to belong 
to a somewhat earlier period, the second motto 
only occurs, and this Is likewise the case in the 
Had. MS. No. 472. 

History of the Company. 59 

1 i 


iSTORiCAL Notices Continued. 

Company's Order Books Commence.— A Glance at the State of the 
Company in the beginning of the XVIIth Century, internally and 
in Relation to the Craft. — Cheapside in 1600 a.d. — Its Churches. — 
The Little Conduit, Cross, and Standard. — The "Mermaid." — The 
Compters. — Ludgate. Historical Notices Continued : Gun- 
powder Plot. — King of Denmark Visits the City. — ^James I. grants 
the Company a Charter. — Frequent Occurrence of Plagues during 
this Century ; that of 1607. — Company's Ordinances Ratified. — 
Gowrie Conspiracy. — *' Ayde Money." — Colonization of Virginia. — 
Interference by the Crown in Company's Domestic Concerns. — 
Company's Scholars at the Universities. — The Colonization of 
Ulster. — The Palatinate. — Introduction of Coaches ; opposed 
by the Company. — Coronation of Charles I. — Whifflers. — The 
Plague of 1630. — The Incident of Dr. Lambe. — The Restoration of 
St. Paul's Cathedral. — St. George's, Southwark. — The Era of the 
Revolution.— Heavy Exactions from the Companies. — Bury St. 
Edmund's, Plague at. — Ship-money. — Loans to Charles I. and the 
Parliament. — Plate sold to raise Money, and Money borrowed by 
the Company. — Trouble in Ireland. — Further Demands upon the 
Company. — The " Solemn League and Covenant." — The Company 
and the Supply of Saddles to the Army. — Gunpowder Stock. — 
Battle of Worcester. — "Ye States Armes." — Saddlers' Hall in 
1653. — The Restoration. — Straitened Circumstances of the Com- 
pany. — Their Contribution to Charles II. — More Exactions. — 
Coronation of Charles II. — War with Holland ; enforced Contri- 
butions. — The Ship " Loyall London." — The Great Plague of 1664. 
— The Great Fire. — Arrangements for the Re-building of the Hall. 
— Lord Mayors' Shows ; Processions by Water. — Alderman Dash- 
wood ; his Gift. — The Company's Barge Cloth. — Attractions of the 
Water Pageant for the Company. — The Custom Discontinued. — 
"Stands," — The King's Esquire Saddler.- — The Company and the 
Coachmakers. — Quo Warranto. — The Company Surrender their 
Charter.— New Charter Granted by Charles II., 1684. — Tyranny of 
James II. — His Removal of the Wardens and Assistants. — The same 
removed from the Livery of the Company. — Their Restoration. — 
The threatened Invasion by William of Orange frightens James — 


6o History of the Company. 

He returns the former Deed of Svirrender, and offers to grant the 
Company a New Charter. — Abdication of James II. and Succession 
of William III. and Mary II. — The Company propose to raise two 
Dragoons. — Loans to William III. Repaid. ^ — Sir Richard Blackmore 
and Saddlers' Hall.- — Saddlers' Hall in the Eighteenth Century ; De- 
scription of, by Hatton and Maitland. — Entry of George I. into 
London. — "A Good Trumpett and Kettledrum." — The Company 
in iheir " Stands." — Frederick, Prince of Wales, visits Saddlers' 
Hall, 1736. — Accepts the Freedom of the Company, and is elected 
Perpetual Master. — Presents his and the Princess's Pictures. — The 
Freedom of the Company conferred on Members of his Household. 
— Birth of George III. — The Company attend and congratulate 
Princess Augusta. — -A Bonfire in Cheapside, " when the Princess is 
brought to Bed." — -The Scotch Rebellion ; Devotion of the Com- 
pany. — Death of the Prince in 1751. — Voluntary Fund for the 
Defence of the Country. — Saddlers' Hall partially destroyed in 
1815 ; completely destroyed in 182 1 ; re-built in 1822. — Worthless 
Saddles destroyed in 1822. — Aldf-rman Sir Peter Laurie's Mayor- 
alty. — -Processions by Water. — Almshouses at Isleworth. — Saddlers' 
Company Prizes for improvements in Military Saddles. — Livery 
Companies' Commission, 1880. 

E have now arrived at a period when the 
earliest extant minutes of the Company 
commence, and when, in consequence, 
we cease to be dependent upon the 
records of the Corporation and upon the informa- 
tion derivable from other sources. The condition 
The Company in of the Company in the beginning of 
\he^e5emeenth^^^^ Seventeenth century, as it Is ex- 
century, hiblted to us In the light of their own 
records, presents a peculiarly Interesting picture. 
The Company then represented practically the 
whole saddlery craft of London, and the powers 
vested In them by their Charter from Elizabeth, 
and by their ordinances, constituted them a very 
impermni in iniperio for all purposes touching the 
problems and customs of the trade. They fixed 

History of the Company. 6r 

the term of apprenticeship, protected the ap- 
prentice from the tyranny of the master, and 
supported the master in exacting due obedience 
from the apprentice. They settled the differences 
of wages and other questions between journey- 
men and the Saddlers who employed them ; de- 
cided the eligibility or otherwise of a journeyman 
to set up in trade for himself, and examined his 
wares from time to time to see that they were 
honestly wrought. These prerogatives, however, 
were only in conformity with existing statutes of 
the realm, in the framing of which, when they 
related to the trades carried on in the capital, the 
City took an active part, either by petitioning the 
Crown and Parliament, or by other methods 
of representation ; but the powers vested in 
the City were commonly extended to the other 
cities and corporate boroughs of the country, 
many of which had their own separate craft 
guilds, with similar powers of trade supervision, 
search, &c., as we gather from the Charter granted 
to the Saddlers' Company by Edward 1 11.^ 

The insiofht afforded into the internal condition 
of the Company, its corporate customs, and the 
relationship existing between its members, is no 
less interesting. The Wardens, with eight or 
more of the Assistants, constituted an authority in 
all cases of trade as well as internal disputes, and 
against their dicta there was no appeal ; at least, 
few or none cared to appeal if the privilege were 

1 See p. 37 et seq. 

F 2 

62 History of the Company. 

open to them. The repeated employment of the 
word ''fellowship " in the early minutes, under cir- 
cumstances where, In modern times, the word Com- 
pany Is usual, furnishes us with a key to the whole 
principle which, as It were, underlay and pervaded 
the corporate fabric — the principle of mutual pro- 
tection and support. But this bond was never, 
for one moment, allowed to Interfere with the 
punishment of any member of the guild for an 
offence committed In trade, when the punishment 
would, under similar circumstances and for a similar 
offence, be visited upon those not free of the guild. 
Indeed, It happens singularly and curiously enough, 
that the heaviest punishments recorded in the Com- 
pany's books are those imposed upon members of 
the Company. 

On certain occasions in the year, the Company 
In their several ranks, Wardens and Assistants, 
cloathing and yeomanry, dined together, and the 
loving cup — still a familiar institution in the 
entertainments of to-day — Is a vestige of the 
earliest and remotest of those fraternal gatherings, 
although the precise antiquity of the custom Is 
unknown. A common " house " fund was raised 
by contributions, quarterage, and fines, supple- 
mented by occasional legacies and bequests. 
From this fund doles were distributed by the 
Wardens at the Hall door, after every assembly 
of the Company, and the poor were sustained, In 
old age and decay, by quarterly allowances or 
pensions. When a member died, his remains 
received a last tribute of respect by the attend- 

History of the Comtany. 6 

ance of the whole Company at the funeral, and, if 
the circumstances of the widow and orphans were 
destitute, they were relieved from the common 
" stock " or " house " fund. 

It has not been thought expedient to Interrupt 
the thread of historical narrative by more than a 
passing allusion to the internal affairs of the Com- 
pany at this stage ; a more ample account of their 
ordinances and of the curious and interesting 
incidents arising out of their application, will be 
found In a separate and subsequent chapter. 

It Is pleasant to conjure up In our minds, 

.J . however, an approximate picture of 

the seventeenth Cheapsldo as It appears at this period, 

century. ■■ . , . , . , 

and we are assisted m this mental 
effort by the frequent mention In the Company's 
Order Books of places once famous landmarks, but 
now, alas, known to us only In name. Cheapside, 
or Westchepe, as It was more commonly called, 
was undoubtedly the most historically Important 
thoroughfare In Old London, the probable con- 
sequence of Its being the high road from the 
City to the west — from the Tower to Whitehall 
and Westminster — the favourite route of State 
pageants and processions. Its two rows of shops 
were at once the richest and handsomest In Old 
London, the south side being mostly occupied by 
wealthy goldsmiths. Great has been the change 
In the commercial life of the citizens since then. 
Then, each tradesman or merchant worked at his 
craft, or " set forth his wares to the she we " in 


History of the Company. 

an open chamber, or seld, which projected from 
the general front outhne of the house into the 
street to the heio-ht of the first floor. The same 
four walls that contained his stock In trade con- 
tained his lares and penates ; the same roof 
sheltered his family and his apprentices. 

Cheapslde was famous for Its churches ; the 
number of which to be met with In the City 
before the Great Fire seems to us marvellously 
out of proportion to the population. Three 
churches formerly stood In Cheapslde ; all were 
destroyed In the Fire, but two disappeared en- 
tirely from the scene and were not rebuilt. These 
were the parish churches of St. MIchael-le-Querne 
and of St. Peter Cheap. ^ The former stood at the 
western extremity of the street, on a spot now 
occupied by Peel's Monument ; the latter at the 
west corner of Wood Street. Happily, the church 
of St. Mary-le-Bow% which was rebuilt after the 
Fire, still remains to recall much that Is dear to 
Londoners In the legendary past of their historic 
City. From the spire and arches of Its tower 
were hung lanterns at night as beacons to the 
few solitary travellers that frequented the streets 
of the City after nightfall ;^ while from the belfry 
of the same church curfew rang out at nine 
o'clock each night for centuries, after Henry I. 

^ The parishes of St. Michael-le-Querne and St. Peter 
Cheap are now joined with that of St. Vedast, with which the 
Company are still associated. 

^ These are shown in the View of London, 1643, in the 
Sutherland Collection. 





History of the Company. 65 

had withdrawn the despotic Injunction imposed by 
the Conqueror upon the citizens. Nearly opposite 
Foster Lane stood the Little Conduit/ a famous 
meeting place for the city housewives and others 
who gossiped over their buckets and pitchers ; 
and a rendezvous for City apprentices after their 
day's work was over. Nearly opposite Wood 
Street stood the famous Cheapside Cross, one of 
a number erected by Edward L to perpetuate the 
memory of his beloved Queen Eleanor.^ Close 
to It, and nearly opposite Honey Lane, stood the 
Standard, with its executions, and Its readings of 
royal edicts and State decrees. Every house 
or shop was known by Its distinctive sign, which 
projected over the footway to the road to such 
an extent, moreover, as sometimes to require its 
temporary removal to make way for public pro- 
cessions passing through the street. The houses 
belonging to the Company, and let out by them, 
are generally spoken of in the Order Books by 
the signs by which they were known. Thus, for 

^ So called in contradistinction to the Great Conduit at the 
east end of Chepe, between Bucklersbury and the Poultry, 
which brought the first supply of sweet water from Paddington 
to London. 

2 There were twelve in all, viz., at Lincoln, Grantham, 
Stamford, Stoney Stratford, Woburn, Dunstable, St. Albans, 
^Vestcheap, Charing, Geddington, Northampton, and Waltham 
— the several stages at which the body of the Queen rested 
during the journey from Hardeby, near Lincoln, where the 
Queen died, and Westminster. Cheapside Cross was erected 
in 1293, rebuilt in 1441, defaced in 1581, and demolished in 


66 History of the Company. 

instance, we have mentioned the *' Adam and Eve 
without Temple Bar," the " Crown at Holborn 
Conduit," the " Blue Boar at Holborn Conduit," 
the ''Talbot" or ''White Talbot" in Wood 
Street, the " Golden Bull in Chepe " the " Goat in 
Chepe," the "Dolphin in Westchepe," the "White 
Lion in Cheap," and lastly, and most famous of 
all, the " Mearmayd Taverne in Westchepe." 

Very little interest attaches to any of these, ex- 
The"Mermayd ceptiug the " Mermaid," which stood 

Tavern." q^i the Same side of the street as, 
and close to Saddlers' Hall, on a spot w^hich may 
be identified with a fair amount of ease, between 
Gutter Lane and Foster Lane. The earliest 
mention of it in the Company's books is on the 
14th February, 1614: — 

" This dale likewise Richard Harrison is fyned in ten 
shillings for fetching of wyne the last q'ter daie-at the 
Mearemayd, in West Chepe, being formerly inty- 
mated to fetch it elsewhere by reason of an offence 
committed by the new Tennt vpon the Lord Mayor's 
daie last." 

Again, on the 27th May, 1628 : — 

"At this Court Thomas Clowes desired to have his 
Lease of the Mearemayd Tavern, made equal with the 
terme he hath in the house some tyme graunted to 
Mr. Fleet out of w''^' hee hath taken three roomes to 
add vnto the Taverne. The w^^' his request it is referred 
to the view of Mr. Warden Houghton Mr. Warden 
Symson John Laney and Nathaniel Bush." 

This tavern was destroyed in the Great Fire, 

History of the Company. 67 

but the Company's tenant at the time refused to 
rebuild it, notwithstanding that they offered him 
an extended lease. The stones remaininir in the 
ruins of the Hall after the Great Fire of London 
were ordered to be collected and secured in the 
vaults of the " Mermaid." 

How far the '' Mermaid Tavern " is identical 
with the ''Mermaid" of Jonson, Beaumont and 
Fletcher, and contemporary wits, is a question 
which, notwithstanding its attractiveness, w^e 
refrain from entering upon. All the property 
owned by the Saddlers' Company in Cheapside 
was situated on the north side of the street 
between Foster Lane and Gutter Lane, and has 
been retained by them to the present day. It 
may be mentioned that the position of this '* IMer- 
maid " is clearly discernible in La Serre's print 
attached, which represents it as situated some 
fifteen houses westward of St. Peter, at the corner 
of Wood Street, a distance which, if any one will 
take the trouble to inspect that part of Cheapside, 
allocates it with a fair amount of precision to the 
position claimed for It, namely, midway between 
Gutter Lane and Foster Lane. 

In the immediate vicinity of Cheapside or West- 
chepe stood two famous institutions repeatedly 
mentioned in the Order Books of the Company. 
These were the Compters or Counters. They 
were prisons for debt and minor offences, and 
were under the control of the Sheriff One stood 
in the Poultry, upon the site of the present Grocers' 
Alley, the other on the east side of Wood Street. 

6S History of the Company. 

The Wood Street Counter, however, from Its 
proximity to the Hall, occurs the more frequently 
in the Company's records. To this prison were 
committed offending and recalcitrant members of 
the Company, and all contumacious makers of 
bad saddles. The rapacity and extortion practised 
by the gaolers In these Counters were notorious, 
and whenever a mild remonstrance from the 
Company failed to Induce conformity with its 
laws, a short lodging therein was usually sufficient 
to produce the desired effect, and the quondam 
offender would quit the Counter a sadder, per- 
haps a wiser, but certainly a poorer man. 

1622. Apri/ 30///. 

" To be given to Will™ Boyton a poore brother in the 
Counter in the Poultrie for to free him out of prison at 
the discreacon of o"" M*" soe as it exceed not thirtie or 
fortie shillings." 

1 6 10. March \2th. 

*' Item given to Edmond Reynolds for his releasement 
out of the prison of the Counter three pounds." 

1 6 1 9. Novembei' 1 1 th. 

" This dale Roger Lloyd was committed to the 
Counter for that he refused to laye down his fynes for 
not appearing three several tymes (to attend the Lord 
Maior) vpon suiTions given him by the Beadle, and 
afterwards vpon his submission his ymprisonemcnt was 
remitted and hce payed ij' vj*' w*^^'' was given to the 


History of the Company. 69 

1620. October yd, 

" The same dale Robert Dowgill was questioned for 
his vnseemely behauio"" in o"" hall on that daic the 
wardens of the yeomandric were chosen. And also 
for abusing his late m"" Mr. Robert Labourne and 
Mr. Daniel Holdenbie in unseemely speeches as also 
for carrying himself in unseemely manner towards this 
Court ffor w'^'' misdemeanors he was ordered to laye 
downe sevcrall fines and submitt himself to this Court 
^ych j^g refused to doe ffor w^'' his contempt he was 
comiitted to the Compter from whence vpon his submis- 
sion and laying downe his fines vz. xx' hee was released 
w'^^' was given him back the next Court daie upon his 
late m/ his request whom he had offended except 
iiij^ vj"^ w*"'' the officers had." 

1622. September lytk. 

" The same daie Thomas Smythsby complayned of 
Robt. Dowgill ffor that he had disgraced him to S"" 
Anthony Ashley concerning the making and allowance 
of velvet of a sadle for his Ladie vpon hearing (of w'^'' 
complainte) the p'ties on both sides. It is thought 
mete and soe ordered that the said Dowgill shall layc 
downe his fine according to o"" orders and submit him- 
self to the table w''^' he refused to doe. Wherevpon it 
is thought mete and soe ordered that the said Dowgill 
be comited to the Counter (vpon the Lord Maior his 
command) wherevpon (the officer being p'sent) the said 
Dowgill being called againe before his going to the 
Counter to knowe his resolucon submitted himself and 
laid downe his fine accordingly being xl^ whereof hee 
had given him xx' and paid xx' w'^'' was delivered to 
Warden Pilchard. Given to the officer that came to 
carry him to the Counter ij' vj'^ paid by the Renter." 

70 History of the Company. 

Fennor, an actor, describing In 1617 the Wood 
Street Counter, alludes to the frequent occupation 
of this prison by members of the Saddlers' craft. 
He says: "As In a citty there Is all kinds of 
trades, so Is there heere, for heere you shall see a 
cobler sitting mending olde shooes, and singing as 
merrily as If hee were under a stall abroad ; not 
farre from him you shall see a taylor sit crossed- 
legged (like a witch) on his cushion threatning 
the rulne of our fellow prisoner, the ^Egyptian 
vermlne ; In another place you may behold a 
Sadler empannelling all his wits together how to 
patch this Scotch padde handsomely or mend the 
old gentleman's crooper that was almost burst In 
pieces. ^ 

Frequent mention occurs of another famous 
prison. Old Ludgate : This was anciently a free 
debtors' prison, and, according to Strype, Its 
tenants were chiefly merchants and tradesmen 
who had been driven to want by losses at sea. Its 
mention In the Company's books Is mostly In 
connection with the relief of poor members of 
the Company, who found themselves Involuntary 

1607. April 18///. 

" It was then ordered and agreed that John Atkinson, 
being a prisoner in Ludgate, shulde have of the howse 
charge to kepe him to werke a hide of Icthcr and a cople 
of calves skyns w^'* cost xxiiij^" 

^ ''The Compter's Commonwealth, or a voiage made to an 
infernall Island," by William Fennor, a.d. 1617. In the 
Library of the B. M. 

History of the Company. 71 

16 10. July i-jth. 

" Item given to James Mathewc for his rcleascmcnt 
out of the pryson of Ludgat xlvijV 

On a later occasion the Company's Beadle was 
incarcerated, and the Court, perforce for the credit 
of the Company, were fain to bail him out for 
Twenty Pounds ; notwithstanding which, when, on 
another occasion the Beadle's son-in-law found 
himself In the same situation, the Company 
entertained Jiis application with less grace and 

Less frequently, but under similar circum- 
stances, we find mention of the old Marshalsea 
Prison, which stood In High Street, Southwark. 

The year 1605 was memorable for the Gun- 
powder Plot, to return thanks for the 
Gunpotder frustration of which the Company 
^^°^- attended at St. Paul's, and the occa- 
sion Is alluded to In the following minute :— 

1605. November \2tJL 

"This Court Day there was given to a woman at 
Pole's Crosse for setting out a forme for the Companye 

The following year the King of Denmark, 
brother to the consort of James I., 

1600. • J u 

The King of vislted England, and was received by 

Denmark. ^^^ citlzeus of Loudou wIth cvery sign 

of rejoicing. As was usual on such occasions, the 

72 History of the Company. 

Companies all turned out In their Liveries. The 
Incident Is fully described by the Chronicler 
Howes,^ but Is only casually alluded to In the 
Company's records In the following minute : — 

^ The description given by Howes is very picturesque, and 
affords an excellent idea of the character of these early 
pageants and spectacles : — 

" They were received by the Lord Maior at the east end 
of Tower Streete, in a robe of crimson veluet, bearing a 
golden sceptre in his hand before the Kings vntill he came to 
Temple Barre; as these greate Potentates with their sumptuous 
trayne passed along the streetes, the King of Denmark 
seriously observed the huge multitudes of common people 
thronging in every corner, and the unimaginable number of 
gallant ladies, beauteous virgins, and other delicate dames, 
filling the windowes of euery house with kinde aspect, saluting 
their worthinesse with health and hearty welcome wheresoever 
they past. Vpon the great fountain in Cheapeside was erected 
the bower of the Muses, with pleasant musicke. At the west 
end of Cheapeside, by the Goldsmith's Row, neere vnto the 
pageant, sate the great Elders of the Citie in scarlet robes, 
where the Recorder, after he had made a solemne oration in 
Latine on the behalfe of the Citie, presented the King of 
Denmark with a faire cup of gold, who, with as great kind- 
nesse accepted it ; then the pageant, after it had ceased her 
melodious harmony, began to express the purpose thereof, viz., 
Diuine concord, as sent from Heauen, descended in a cloud 
from the top vnto the middle stage, and with a loude voyce, 
spake an excellent speech in Latine, purporting their hearty 
welcome, with the heavenly happines of peace and unity 
amongst Christian Princes, &c., but through the distemperature 
of the vnruly multitude, the Kings could not well heare it 
although they enclined their eares very seriously thereunto 
At the faire Fountaine in Fleet Streete was a pleasant pastorall 
device, with songs wherewith the Kings were much delighted ; 
this Fountaine, and divers others ranne cleare wine." 









History of the Company. 7 


1606. November 18//^. 

" This Courte Daye Will*^ Bedford promysed the 
Company to bringe in his fyne imposed upon him the 
next Court Day for y^ he attended not vpon y^ Com- 
pany at the two kinges rideing throwe the Cytie and 
other absence and misdemeanors." 

On the 20th March in the following year, being 
the fourth year of his reign, James I. granted the 
Company a Charter, which is an inspeximus and 
confirmation of that of Oueen EHzabeth. It 
confers no new powders, and concludes with the 
following words, which are all that are added : — 
" And we the Charters, letters patent, and all the 
grants and confirmations aforesaid, and all and 
singular in the same contained, having ratified and 
confirmed them for us, our heirs and successors, 

Charter from ^^ much as In US llos, do accopt and 
James I. approvo, and to our well - beloved 
Nicholas Holbeame, John Byngham, Thomas 
Solomon, and John Hall, now Wardens or 
Keepers of the Mystery or art of Saddlers of the 
City of London aforesaid, and the Commonalty 
of the same Mystery or art and their successors 
by the tenor of the presents do ratify and confirm 
(them) as the Charter, letters, grants, and confir- 
mations aforesaid In themselves reasonably testify. 
In witness whereof, &c., witness the King at 
Westminster the twentieth day of March. By six 
pounds thirteen shillings and four pence paid Into 
the hanaper."^ 

^ This Charter is still in the Company's possession. 

74 History of the Company. 

The seventeenth century was memorable among 
other things for a series of fatal epidemics which 
visited England at various intervals, and were 
particularly felt in the capital. The 
first occurred in 1603-4, and destroyed 
over 30,000 lives in London alone. The second 
broke out in the summer of 1607, and is alluded 
to in the following minutes : — 

1607. Jidy 2%tJi. 

"John Williams o^ Tenn* in Dayes Alley hath 
graunted to avoide his Cellar of the Costermonger 
(for fear of infection) betwixt this Courte Day and 
Christmas next and soner if he can. 

" Goodwif Fourche is warned to avoide the Costerd 
monger out of hir house at Christmas next or afore if 
she can possible." 

On the 17th April, 1608, the Company obtained 
an amendment and ratification of their ordinances. 
The powers therein conferred were but little 

A.u. 1608. modified from the ordinances ratified 
Ordinances rati- j^ the previous reign; the order for 

the search was enlarged and the necessary quali- 
fications for a householder — i.e., a shopkeeper — 
defined, and the remedies and penalties against 
any violation of the rules made for the good 
government of the Company were increased.^ 

^ The ordinances of James I. are signed by the Earl of 
Dorset and Chief Justices Fleming and Edward Coke. 

History of the Company. 75 

In August of the same year, the anniversary 
A.D. 1608. of the King's deHvery from the Gowrie 

The Gowrie /-> • • i, ^ • i . i 

Conspiracy. Conspiracy eight years previous/ the 
Company again attended at Paul's Cross to return 
thanks, a custom which they annually observed 
until 1616. 

In June of the following year the Court of the 

Company were specially convened to 

A.D. 1609. j-alse " ayde money," a tax levied 

" Ayde money. " i i i • i i 

throughout the kingdom, on the occa- 
sion of the knighting of Prince Henry. The 
following May the Prince was created Prince of 
Wales, and the Company, in common with the 
other Companies, took part in the processional 
ceremony ; on this occasion It Is recorded that a 
Liveryman of the Company, for absenting him- 
self from the ceremony, was committed to prison. 

In the year 1609 mention occurs of the scheme 
for colonizing Virginia. That country 
had been taken possession of by 
Raleigh in the previous reign, and unsuccessful 
attempts had been made to colonize it. James 
was very desirous of accomplishing this, and in 
1606 and 1 6 10 granted patents for the formation 
of two expeditions. In 1609 the Lord Mayor 

^ This was a conspiracy to dethrone James VI. of Scotland. 
James was decoyed into the Earl of Cowrie's house at Perth, 
5th August, 1600 ; the plot, however, was frustrated, and 
the Earl and his brother slain. 

"](> History of the Company. 

issued a precept to the Companies, to induce them 
to join in an adventure. The Saddlers' Company 
joined in the undertaking, but the amount sub- 
scribed by them is not stated ; it was levied upon 
the cloathing and subsequently repaid. 

The following minute furnishes an example of 
the custom of interference by the King in the 
affairs of the Companies, when favourites were 

1610. November 6th, 

" At this Courte Mr. Richard Lucy o"" Tennt in Cheape 
bein a Suter to o'" Company for a newe lease of his house, 
and to obtayne the same he brought the King's high- 
nesse's hon'able letters w'^^ were w^^' due Revrence and 
in all humblenesse receaved. At which tyme in respect 
of the said letters the said Mr. Lucy was offered (that 
if he wolde depart from the same howse at the ende of 
his terme of yeres that he hath yet to come therein) 
the some of ffyftie pownds in lawfuU money gratis 
w^'' money he the said Mr. Lucy refused." 

The records of other Companies, notably the 
Grocers, Ironmongers, Merchant Tailors, and 
others, afford similar instances throughout the 
reigns of Elizabeth, James L, and Charles L, of 
attempts by the Crown to influence them in 
matters of purely domestic concern.^ 

Vide Herbert's " Hist. Essay." 

History of the Company. "]"] 

The Company appear from a very early date 
Company's to have Supported a number of poor 
tl'erskie^.' Scholars at the Universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge. 

1613. July 2'jtk. 

" It was this day ordered that Giles Rankin the sonne 
of John Rankin being now a Scholler in St. John 
Baptist's colledge in Oxford was graunted to have fortie 
shillings a yeare paied hym towards his maintenance of 
his studie in good literature in Oxford the first payment 
to be made him at the feast of St. Michael the Arch- 
anngell next ensewing." 

162 1. October gth. 

" This daie a peticon from Thomas Akers was read in 
Co""* (being one of o'' Schollers) whereby hee desired to 
have his exhibicon of xP p. ann. encreased w'^^ was 
raysed to fower marks p. ann. {£2 13^". 4^.)." 

Frequent gifts were also made to other poor 
Scholars to buy books. Each of the Company's 
Scholars at Oxford or Cambridge " going out " 
B.A. received from the Company a gift of 5 
marks (^3 6s. Sd.), which was doubled upon his 
passing M.A.^ 

In 1 6 14 St. Vedast Church was repaired and 

St. Vedast's enlarged, and the Company contributed 

Church. ^]^Q s^j-Q Qf ^^^ pounds towards the 

1 The Company's Scholarships are now awarded to boys of 
the City of London School. 

G 2 

7^ History of the Company. 

cost thereof. Strype tells us that at the same 
time " to this Church at the Chancell end, the 
breadth being 20 yards and above, was added 20 
feet of ground, which ground so to lengthen the 
Church was given unto the Parish out of a faire 
Court then belonging to the Saddlers' Hall." 
This may have been so, as the Company owned a 
small court, leading from a lane which anciently 
connected Foster Lane^ with Gutter Lane. The 
lane itself appears to have belonged to the Com- 

The gift of land, however, although mentioned 
by Strype, is not recorded in the Company's 

An entry in the Company's books for this year 
Colonization of uiakes meutiou for the first time of a 
^^^^* matter which exercised an important 
influence in the affairs of the Livery Co'mpanies 
of London, viz., the colonization and settlement 
of Ulster. In the early part of the reign of 
James L a considerable part of the province of 

1 Foster Lane is of very great antiquity : under the name 
of St. Vedast Lane it is mentioned in the Letter Books of the 
Corporation as early as 1281, and in 1305 there is mention of 
the lease of a house therein to Sir John de Leek, who was 
Clerk to Prince Edward, son of Edward L (Riley's 
" Memorials.") Both the lane and the church are frequently 
mentioned by the old chroniclers and historians, by some 
they are called St. Foster, and by others St. Vedast. The 
correct name was probably a compound of the two — St. Vedast 
Foster, under which designation the church is known to this 


History of the Company. 79 

Ulster, including the six counties of Armagh, 
Tyrone, Coleraine, Donegal, Fermanagh, and 
Cavan was vested in the Crown by an act of 
attainder of certain Roman Catholics of distinc- 
tion who had rebelled against the Crown in the 
reign of Elizabeth. James proposed to the City 
to undertake the settlement of these forfeited 
estates and the formation of a Protestant colony 
An agreement was arrived at between the Privy 
Council and the Corporation, one article of which 
was that ^20,000 should be levied, ^15,000 of 
which was to be expended upon the plantation, 
and ^5,000 towards clearing away private 
interests. A Committee was appointed by the 
Common Council, consisting of a Governor, 
a Deputy-Governor, and 24 Assistants, known as 
the Irish Society, and they were put in possession 
of their estates, a Charter being granted to them 
on the 29th March, 161 3. Arrangements were 
next made in the City for raising and collecting the 
sum agreed to. This was at length determined 
The Company to be done by the twelve principal 
compelled to Companies, and the Lord Mayor 

purchase Irish ^ ■•• «' 

lands. issued a precept for that purpose. 
The sum originally agreed upon was, however, 
found insufficient, and other assessments were 
made from time to time, which eventually ex- 
ceeded the sum of ^60,000. At a meeting of 
the Court of Common Council, on December 1 7, 
161 3, the newly acquired lands were allotted in 
twelve portions to the twelve chief Companies. 
The money actually disbursed upon the planta- 


History of the Company. 

tlon at the time of the allotment amounting to 
^40,000, was divided into twelve shares of 
;^3,333 6^. 8^., payable by each of the said twelve 
Companies, who were required to associate with 
themsejves certain of the minor Companies. 
This was arranged in such a manner that the 
whole of the Companies participated in the under- 
taking — four or five of the smaller Companies 
being associated with each of the principal ones. 
The Saddlers' Company were associated with the 
Salters' Company in chief, with whom were also 
grouped the Dyers, Cutlers, Joiners, and Wool- 
men. The following were the amounts of their 
several contributions 

JllLilUaLlUllt) . 



" 1,954 









Woolmen . . 



In November, 1620, Frederick V., Elector 
AD 1620 Palatine, and son-in-law of James, 
Palatinate. ^^\lQ h^d accepted the Crown of 
Bohemia, and shortly afterwards been driven 
from his possessions, appealed to the Lord Mayor 
for pecuniary aid, and a contribution of ^5,000 
was levied upon the Companies.^ The Saddlers' 

1 n 

Remembrancia," p. 414. 

History of the Company. 8i 

Company were called upon for their quota of ^50, 
which was levied upon the cloathing, as we read in 
the following minute : — 

1620. December I'^th. 

*' It is this daie ordered that the L;^ w^^ o"" Companie 
is topaie by p'ceptinto the Chanib of London p^'sently 
toward the release of the Pallatinate shalbe Jevyed on 
the cloathing of this fellowship by the pole each man 
paying xx^ a peece." 

This sum was repaid to the cloathing by the 
Court in the following July. 

The introduction of coaches ^ into England was 

A D 1620 ^ distasteful innovation to the Com- 

Coaches intro- pany, presumably as being calculated 

"^^ ' to interfere with the custom of riding, 

and consequently to injure their trade. On the 

1 6th July, 1620, the minutes relate that : — 

1 Coaches were almost unknown in England during the 
middle ages. The knights were proud of their horsemanship, 
and disdained any such means of conveyance. The few 
" chares " in use in early times were the object of perpetual 
ridicule. As represented in ancient manuscripts they were 
rude, cumbrous, and inconvenient contrivances on four wheels. 
Taylor, the Water Poet, pubUshed in 1623 a curious satire on 
coaches under the title of " The world runnes on Wheeles, or 
Oddes betwixt Carts and Coaches." He tells us facetiously 
that "in the year 1564, one William Boonen, a Dutchman, 
brought first the use of coaches hither, and the said Boonen 
was Queene Elisabeth's coachman ; for indeede a coach was 
a strange monster in those dayes, and the sight of them put 
both horse and man into amazement. Some said it was a 

82 History of the Company. 

" This day upon request made unto the Wardens and 
Assistants both by the Clothing and Coaltie of this 
Fellowship and also by divers Country Sadlers that they 
would be pleased to p'fer a Bill in P'liament to re- 
dresse the multitude of coaches interlopers and hawkers 
It is ordered by this Court that there shall be a Bill 
drawne and p'ferred in P'liament for redresse of the 
same inconveniences and there is appoynted for the 
following of the same business Mr. Robt. Labourne 
Tho. Porter Tho. Mills John Lawney Nathaniell Burt 
and Cyprian Morse. At the same assemblie Henry 
Gardiner of Maidstone and Solomon Bishop of Cran- 
brook in the Countie of Kent, Sadlers, undertooke to 
send unto o'" M"" betweene this and this dale fortnight 
the some of X* towards the said charge." 

great crab shell brought out of China, and some imaginde it 
to be one of the pagan temples in which the cannibals adored 
the devill ; but at last all these dowbts were cleared, and 
coachmaking became a substantiall trade. . . . The cart 
is an open transparent engine that any man may perceive the 
plain honesty of it, there is no part of it within or without 
but it is in the continual view of all men. On the contrary, 
the coach is a close hipocrite, for it hath a cover for any 
knavery, and curtaines to raile or shadow any wickedness. 
Moreover, it makes people immitate sea-crabs in being drawne 
side-wayes, as they are when they sit on the boote of the 
coach ; and it is a dangerouse kinde of carriage for the 
commonwealth if it be rightly considered, for when a man 
shall be a Justice of the Peace, a Serjeant, or a Counsellour at 
Law, what hope is it that all or many of them should use 
upright dealing, that have beene so often in their youth and 
daily in their maturer or riper age drawne aside continually in 
a coach, some to the right hand and some to the left, for use 
makes perfectnesse, and often going aside willingly makes 
men forget to goe upright naturally." 

History of the Company. St, 

On several occasions steps were taken to 
restrict the use of coaches. In the supplementary 
calendar of the Records in the House of Lords 
there is a Draft Bill, dated 5th November, 1601, 
which it is not unlikely the Company were instru- 
mental in promoting. It is entitled "an Act to 
restrain the Excessive and Superfluous use of 
Coaches within the realm of England." It sets 
forth that in consequence of the great increase in 
the use of coaches, the Saddlers' trade is likely to 
be ruined ; and not only so, but evil disposed 
persons who dare not show themselves openly for 
fear of correction, shadow and securely convey 
themselves in coaches and cannot be discerned 
from persons of honour, besides which the roads 
are cloyed and festered and horses lamed. In 
future, no one under the degree of a Knight or 
a Privy Councillor, Queen's Counsel, &c., or 
paying /^^o to the subsidy assessment, shall ride 
or travel in coaches under penalty of ^5 for every 
offence, and no person shall let coach or coach- 
horses to any but those hereby authorised to use 
them upon pain of forfeiting the same. It was 
read for the first time on November 5, but on 
the second reading two days later it was rejected, 
and, as a compromise, a Bill touching the breed 
and maintenance of horses was ordered to be 
brought in by Mr. Attorney-General.^ In 1635 
they had become so numerous as to be con- 
sidered a nuisance by the Court, and had to be 

84 History of the Company. 

limited by the Star Chamber. Pepys, writing on 
the 7th November, 1660, says, ''notwithstanding 
this was the first day of the King's (Charles II.) 
proclamation against hackney coaches coming 
into the streets to stand to be hired, yet I got 
one to carry me home." 

The introduction of stage coaches was similarly 
resented by the Company, and In 1670 a Bill was 
ordered by them to be drawn up and preferred In 
Parliament against the obnoxious vehicles. The 
Company also resolved to reward any person who 
should be Instrumental In procuring the enact- 
ment of the Bill. The Clerk's services in this 
direction were recognised by a gift of one 
hundred pounds, but the steps taken were without 
any material effect, as events have shown. 

In 1624-5, the City was visited by a " pesti- 
lence in which 35,403 persons perished, 
pia ue ^^ each occasion of these plagues the 
Lord Mayor prohibited all public 
feasts and assemblies, and the following minute is 
probably In reference to this interdict : — 

1626. August lot/i. 

" At this Court it is ordered that there shall be a 
Masters' dynner kept in private manner w^houte any 
solemnitie as hath byn accustomed." 

Charles I. succeeded to the throne In 1625, 
and on the 3rd of May In that year, we read that — 

History of the Company. 85 

"At this Court were appointed to be Whiflcrs at the 
..1TT1 -^ 55 Kinq-'s Coronacon, viz., Abell Caine, Daniell 

"Whiflers. ^ ' ' ' . 

Haldenby, Thomas Carter, Michael 
Helmsley, Edward Hill, Edmund Sheppard, Richard 
Cervices, and John Burgess (members of the Livery)." 

The precise derivation of the term '' Whifler" has 
exercised the minds of many v^rlters. It seems 
tolerably clear, however, that " Whiflers " were so 
called from their custom of carrying long wands, 
which they brandished about to clear the way 
for the pageant, thereby making a whifling noise. 
The word Is of frequent occurrence in the 
Company's books, as every year the Company 
appointed a number of the junior members of the 
Company to act as Whiflers In the Lord Mayor's 
procession. Other Companies did the same. 

A plague broke out again in 1630, resembling 

a spotted fever, and was particularly 

'^* ^ ^°' fatal, destrovins^ life within four or five 

rlague. i t 

days. All public assemblies were 
suppressed by an order of the Lords of the 
Council, and a precept was Issued by the Lord 
Mayor to the Companies accordingly. The 
Company's records refer to it as follows : — 

1630 May 25///. 

" At this Court the Lord Mayor's letter sent vnto the 
Companie being read whereby it was desired that 
meetings at o'" Hall be forborne during the tyme of the 
visitacon It is ordered accordingly that all extraordinary 


History of the Company. 

meetings be forborne except Midsomer daie for the 
elecon of officers at the Guyldhall and on q^®'' daies." 

On the same day we read that — 

"At this Court their was given to Captayne Whistler 
our old Armor and 14 Calervers compleate The Armor 
when hee sawe them refused it and toke onely the 

In 1628 a noteworthy incident took place In 
the City. On the i8th June, Dr. 

A.D. 1628. T u • J ^ r 

Dr Lamb Lamb, a conjuror, and a creature 01 
the unpopular Duke of Buckingham, 
was mobbed by a crowd In Cheapside, and so 
severely handled that he died the same day In the 
Poultry Compter, where he had been taken for 
attention to his Injuries. Tidings of the Incident 
reached the ears of the King, who was so incensed 
thereat, that he Imposed a fine of ^6,000 upon 
the City, and threatened to withdraw Its Charter. 
The fine was subsequently reduced to 1,500 marks, 
the burden, as usual, falling heavily upon the 
Companies. The Saddlers' Company's proportion 
was £10 and Is thus alluded to : — 

1633. January 30/'//. 

" This Court beinge called by p'cept from the Lord 
Maior and Court of Aldermen for the Levyinge of x^ by 
the pole accordinge to the p'cept for the death of Doctor 
Lambe was leavyed the same daie accordingly." 

On the 25th May, 1630, we learn that — 

History of the Company. 87 

" At this Court upon a petlcon exhibited vnto this 

Court by the inhabitants of the p'ish of St. 

A.D. 1630. George in Southwarke for reHefe towards 

St. George's, \-\^q re-edifvinge of their p'ish Church and 

Southwark. t • i ^ ^ i - r^ , 

bteeple It is ordered by this Court that 
there shalbe given them towards it Fortie ShilHngs to 
be paid by the Renter Warden." 

In 1 63 1, Bishop Laud, who three years before 
^ ^ ,^^, had been raised to the see of London, 
St. Paul's took in hand a project for the res- 
Cathedrai. ^^j-^tion of St. Paul's Cathedral, then 
imperfect and in decay. In April of the same 
year he obtained a commission for that purpose 
from Charles I., who was strongly interested in 
the undertaking, not only from his attachment to 
Laud, but by reason of his own personal in- 
clinations and tastes — being a great lover of the 
aits. The work, consisting chiefly of a new west 
portico, was entrusted to Inigo Jones, but the 
undertaking, although liberally subscribed to by 
the City, by Laud, and the King himself, was not 
popular, and gave great offence to the Puritans. 
The work got on but slowly. The Lord Mayor 
received an exhortation from the King, to assist 
in raising the funds for the purpose, and the Com- 
panies were, as usual, called upon to contribute. 
The following are the Company's records : — 

163 1. February l6th. 

" At this Court the Bishop of London's Ire was read 
for repairinge of Paule's Church To give an answere 
the next Court daie." 

88 History of the Company. 

1632. May loth. 

" At this Court the repalringe of Paule's Church was 
considered of and it is ordered that there shalbe given 
towards it the sum of fifteen pounds to bee paid by 
X.^ a yeare if the worke goe on, if not to cease The 
first to be paid p'sently." 

Ten years afterwards, a sum of nearly ^17,000 
remaining in hand of the restoration fund for the 
still unfinished works, was appropriated by the 
Parliament. The edifice Itself was turned Into a 
barracks for Cromwell's Iconoclasts, and Its sacred 
precincts Into a ninepin court for his profane and 
brawling troopers. Archbishop Laud was be- 
headed In 1644. 

We now enter upon the era of the Revolution, 
,, the period from which to the- Res- 

The period of the \ , i i • i i 

Revolution and toration IS memorable m the annals 

the Restoration. r .^ r^ i r ^i. 

01 the Company, by reason 01 the 
prolonged strain upon Its resources consequent 
upon the rapacity of Charles I., and the exigencies 
of the State during the subsequent Internecine 
struggles of the country. 

The first demand of Charles I. upon the City 
for money which affected the Saddlers' Company- 
appears In their minutes on the 20th December, 
1627, which record a precept received from the 
Lord Mayor for the loan of ^600, and the money 
Is ordered to be borrowed at Interest upon the 
Company's seal. The reason for the precept Is 
not stated, but, according to the City records, it 

History of the Company. 89 

was in pursuance of an act of Common Council, 
passed the same month, agreeing to furnish the 
King with a loan of ^120,000/ From the same 
source we learn that the Wardens of the Saddlers' 
and of the Founders' and Glaziers' Companies 
were committed to Newgate for not having used 
their best endeavours to carry out the Lord 
Mayor's precept, although, curiously enough, the 
incident is nowhere recorded in the Company's 

The town of Bury St. Edmunds suffered 
terribly from a plague in 1636-7, and the distress 
of the inhabitants evoked the sympathy of the 
Company. We read that on the 7th November, 


" At this Courte there was given to the Town of St. 
Edmunds Bury being visited w'' the plague 11^ paid 
by y"" Renter." 

The attempt of Charles to levy ship-money 

A.D. 1640. was not more palatable to the Sad- 

Ship Money, dlers' Company than to the City at 

large. On the 27th June, 1640, a Special Court 

was convened to consider the precept from the 

Lord Mayor for ship-money. It is recorded that — 

" At this Co""'^ the cause for ship-money was debated 
accordinge to the direcon of y*" R. Honble. the Lord 

" Reraembrancia," p. 196. 
Ibid., footnote. 

90 History of the Company. 

Maior, w'' the Courte doth not conceave they ought to 

The sequel to this odious Impost forms a 
famihar incident in EngHsh history. 

In August of the same year, when the great 
civil struggle was plainly impending, and the dis- 
contented Scottish Covenanters were about to 
cross the English border against the King's 
troops, the Lord Mayor issued a precept to the 
City Companies for the provision of ammunition. 
Accordingly, at a meeting of the Court of the 
Company, on the 2 7th of that month — 

" Itt was ordered that there shalbe 3 barrels of gun- 
powder provided according to a p'cept 
from the Lord Maior, and also maches 
and Bulletts." 

The following month, Charles, in his dilemma, 
created by the successes of the Scots, who, un- 
flushed with their victories, had opened negotia- 
tions with him, summoned a council of the peers 
to York, to meet him on the 24th September. 
The peers met in Council and sent a deputation 
of six of their number to London, and obtained 
from the City a loan of ^200,000, the 

Enforced Loans. . - r i • i ^ r ^- 

burden 01 which, as usual, tell upon 
the Companies. The Saddlers' Company were 
called upon for ^600, and their record Is as 
follows : — 

"A Co"""-' Day kept on Wednesday, the 7th day of 
October, by direcon of the Lord Maior, for the Loane 

History of the Company. 91 

of 600°^ to ye King's Ma*^^, all the Wardens and Assist- 
ants being p'scnt. Att this Co'"*" a Ire from y° ryhte 
jvjqIiic yc Lq Maior, directed to o'' M"" and Wardens, was 
read, wherein was enclosed a Ire to y*^ Lo Maior from 
y^ King, and a Ire from y"" Lords from Yorke, w"^'' were 
all read, whereupon it is ordered that the said money 
shalbe taken up att interest." 

In June, 1642, the Court were again specially 
A.D. 1642. summoned to consider a precept from 
Compulsory the Lord Mayor, demanding the loan 

Loan of ;^i,ooo. r r r i t* i* r 

01 ^ 1,000 tor the rarliament tor one 
year, which was ordered to be complied with. 
In order, however, to raise the money, the Com- 
pany were reduced to selling ^100 worth of plate, 
and to borrowing the other ;^900 at interest. 

The following is a list of plate sold on the 
occasion : — 

The ounce. 

oz. dwts. s. 


£ s. d. 

Eleaven dozen of spoones. 

p'cell guilt, weighing ... 

24 12 @ V. 


62 03 

Four flat guilt bowles . . . 

98 10 „ V. 

• • • 


25 1/ 3 

Three flat p'cell guilt 

Dowles ... 

46 15 „ V. 

• • • 


12 05 3 

One guilt bowle w*" a cover 

20 10 „ V. 

• • ■ 


5 vij. viij. 

One guilt bowle and cover 

15 10 „ 5 


4 02 6 


xv^ viij*^. 

In the following August, a further demand from 
Parliament for ^200 was read, but the Company 
" in regard of the greate somes of mony they 
have alreadie borrowed, were unwillinge to lend 
any more ;" and, immediately ensuing, an order 
is made discontinuing all feasts and dinners. 


92 History of the Company. 

The next month, on the 3rd September, a 
Court was hastily summoned " upon a 

Loan of Arms. i i i r-> 

request made by the Committee, to 
borrowe the Companie's armes to helpe to furnish 
the Lord Generall. It was ordered that there 
shalbe lent sixteene swords and Belts D'^ by 
appoynt"^* to Mr. Swayne, the keep'' of the Guyld- 
hall. This Companle Is p'mlsed to have such 
warrant for the receipt of them back agalne as 
other Companies of the CIttle haue." 

The same month (13th September) the Com- 
Loan of ;^2oo. pany agreed to lend the supplemen- 
tary ^200 to the Parliament. 

These continual demands told heavily upon 

Impoverishment the Company. Their meetings were 
of the Company. Qj-jgi-g^j ^' ■^q ]jq sparingly and not to 

exceed at any Court dale above thirtle shillings." 
The whole of the Company's plate was, about 
this time, ordered to be taken out of the Treasury 
and sold, a decision which appears to have cost 
the Court an effort, for we find the Court resolv- 
ing " that when the Company Is out of debt there 
shalbe new plate bought In the room of that 
plate which was given under the last will and 
testament of any of the Company, and of as good 
value." The step, moreover, was held to be one 
of such unusual moment and importance, that the 
whole of the Livery and Yeomanry were assem- 
bled to consider It, but they adjourned without 
giving their adherence to the proposal, although at 
a subsequent meeting they did so. 

Demand followed demand, until the Company 

History of the Company. 9 


had scarcely a penny In their exchequer, and were 
moreover largely in debt. So exhausted had 
their condition become that they were even com- 
pelled to sell their old Corselet in the Hall. 

Whilst civil war was raging in England troubles 

1641 were brewing in Ireland. The native 

Afifairs in Ire- IHsh had Hscn upon the English and 

Compulsory Scotch colonlsts In Ulster, perpetrating 

contribution. ^^^^^^ ^f vlolence unsurpassed by those 

of more recent times. The distress caused to the 
Protestant colonists in Ireland was sufficient excuse 
for a fresh demand upon the City Companies, and 
on the 4th July, 1643, " the Wardens Assistants 
Liverie and Commonaltle being assembled there 
was a Ire read being sent from the right honour- 
able the Lord Maior according to direcons from 
the Lords and Cofnons in Parliament thereby 
desiring the Companle to collect what sums of 
money they could for the relief of the Protestants 
in Ireland whereupon the greater p* p'sent rated 
themselves accordingly." 

In August of the same year the threatened 
1643. approach of the Royal troops upon the 
Loan of ^^500. capital Induced the City authorities to 
pass an Act for obtaining a loan of ^50,000 from 
the Companies upon the City Seal for defensive 
preparations, and a precept was issued to the 
Saddlers' Company for ^600. The Company, 
however, expressed themselves " unwilling to 
borrow this sum in regard of the great sums they 
owe already ;" but they were willing there should 

H 2 

94 History of the Company. 

be *' borrowed ^500, according to the Company's 
old proportion of 100 quarters of wheat." 

The reference here to the Company's propor- 
tion of 100 quarters of wheat deserves a passing 
explanation. The City of London had from an 
early period adopted the custom of 

Corn Custom. ... r i r 

mamtammg a store 01 wheat lor pro- 
viding food for the inhabitants and preventing 
extortion and " corners " in times of scarcity. 
The origin of the custom is unknown, but in the 
early part of the sixteenth century the Companies 
appear to have been rated for a contribution to 
enable the City to purchase a store. In 1578, 
however, the Companies determined to keep their 
own stores, and the City allotted them granaries 
at Bridge House for the purpose, but as their 
control of these granaries was subject to inter- 
ference, they, in course of time, removed their 
several stocks to their own Halls.^ The allusion to 
the custom in the Company's books is rare, and, as 
in the previous minute, only indirect. The Com- 
pany's quota here stated as 100 quarters of wheat 
is in the City books stated to have been 90 
quarters. Rye and meal were subsequently 
added : — . 

1630. March 2^th. 

" The p'cept for 3 quarters of meale to be delivered to 
the Alorcs deputies of Lyme Street and Cordwayners' 
Wards was read whereupon it is ordered that there 


Herbert's "Hist. Essay," p. 130 et seq. 

History of the Company. 95 

shalbe given to Mr. Rayment towards the serveing of 
the said three quarters of Meale ij^ ij-^ weekly during 
the Companyes pleasure." 

163 1. Jitiie 2/^th, 

"At this Court the p'cept for Rye was read. It is 
ordered that the Wardens shall give such order as they 

1636. August i^th. 

" At this Court Warden Newton having one hundred 
Pounds of the Companies on his hand towards the 
furnishing of the Granarie at the Bridge house allowed 
the Companie for o'' corne wh"^'' he had undertaken for 
three yeares w''^ expired at Midsomer last w""^' was d*^ to 
our M^" 

Directly after the Fire of London the Company 
directed the Wardens to inspect their granary, 
and after this no reference to it whatever occurs 
in their books. 

In the following September (1644) the Parlia- 
ment adopted the famous Solemn 

A.D. 1644. ^ 

Solemn League League and Covenant, which was a 
and Covenant. Declaration to preserve the Reformed 
Church in Scotland, to promote the reformation of 
religion in England, and to "abolish all popery, 
prelacy, and schism." The adoption of the 
Covenant was enforced in Scotland, and many 
of all ranks were compelled to subscribe to it in 
England, including the Saddlers' Company, as we 
gather from the following minute : — 

96 History of the Company, 

1644. March 20th. 

At this Court It is ordered that the Wardens Assts. 
and clothinc^e, and the new liverie that is to bee taken 
in, shall bringe in their Certificate that they have taken 
the last Covenhte/ 

On the 17th April, 1645, the following minute 
1645. occurs : — 

"At this Court it is ordered that the peticon now read 
shalbe ingrossed and delivered in the name of the 
Company unto the Comittee that p'vide sadles for the 

We may safely construe the object of this 
petition as being to obtain a contract for the 
manufacture and supply of saddles for the army. 
The Calendars of State Papers about this period 
contain numerous records relating to the part 
taken by the Company and its members in 
furnishing the army, as will be seen from the 
following excerpts : — 

1639. January \/\th. 

" Order of the Committee of the Council of War. 
That some of the principal saddlers of London attend 
the Earl of Essex, who is to treat with them touching 
the furnishing a proportion of good saddles, with bits, 
straps, and other appurtenances according to a pattern 

1 The Solemn League and Covenant was a modification of 
the National Covenant, drawn up at Edinburgh five years 
previously, as a protest against the attempt of Charles to 
enforce Episcopacy upon the Scotch. 

History of the Company. 97 

brought out of the Low Countries, which was sent to 
the Earl by his Comptroller, and to know at what prices 
they will furnish the same, and how many a month, 
whereof the Earl is to make certificate." ^ 

1640. January 2\th. 

'* Order of the Committee of the Council of War. 
The Earl of Newport, as Master of the Ordnance, to 
certify what number of serviceable saddles are in each 
of his Majesty's store houses here, or in the north, and 
what number of saddles the Company of Saddlers will 
undertake to deliver monthly." ^ 

Also warrants by the Council of State for the 
payment of money^ — 

165 1. June '^rd. 

" From the Treasurer of War to William Pease, Daniel 
Holdenby, Thomas Webb, Joshua Shepheard, Nathaniel 
Walters, Henry Ward, William Hussey, and William 
Chevall, Saddlers, for 1,000 saddles delivered into the 
stores, the sum of ^^850 ;" also 

165 1. Jime i6th. 

" From the same to Nathaniel Walters, Humphry 
Gaywood, and William Storer, Saddlers, for 100 pack 
saddles with their furniture for the army in Scotland, 


165 1. July ()th. 

'' From Major-General Harrison to Nathaniel Walters 
William Stoarer, and Humphry Gaywood for 200 pack 
saddles for the army in Scotland, ;^I50." 

^ "State Papers, Domestic," Charles I., vol. ccccix.. No. 78, 
' Ibid, vol. ccccxlii. 
' Ibid 

98 History of the Company. 

A minute of the Company's proceedings in 
July, 1652, records that the above-mentioned 
Nathaniel Walters was fined 30^'. by the Com- 
pany '' for makeing defective saddles for y^ State's 

Among the numerous other obligations imposed 
upon the City Companies, was a re- 
quirement to keep a store of gun- 
powder for the defence of the City; the Saddlers' 
Company appear to have had their " gunpowder 
house " in the garden of a house belonging to 
them at London Wall. On the 22nd January, 
1649, we read that — 

" At this Court our master receaved nyneteene pounds 
tenn shillings for the gunpowder he sold of the Com- 

On the 3rd September, 165 1, Cromwell 

Battle of defeated the Royalist troops at Wor- 

Worcester. cester, and his army entered and 

plundered the City, and on the 19th December 

ensuing, the following minute occurs : — 

" Att this Corte upon y° peticon of Anthony Norris 
of Worcester a member of this fellowship being 
plundered there at the comeing in of the army. It 
is ordered that y'' Renter Warden shall deliver forty 
shillings to Mr. William Freeman to bee sent to him as 
the guifte of this Company." 

On the 17th October, 165 1, it was ordered 
that — 

History of the Company. 99 

" There shalbe a Banner made an ell square against 
y" next Lord Maior's day with the States armes upon 

About this time an order was Issued from the 
The King's Councll of State, commanding the 
Arms. removal of the arms and pictures of 
the late King from all churches, common halls of 
the Companies, and other public places, and 
accordingly we find the following minute Im- 
mediately ensuing upon the one just quoted : — 

" Att this Corte it is ordered that y*" late King his 
armes shalbee pulled downe and destroyed, and white 
glasse put in y^ place." 

During the latter part of the period of civil war 
The Fine of ^^^ Halls of the City Companies were 
Marlborough, nearly all occupied by various Depart- 
ments of the State for the transaction of public 
business. The Guildhall was used as a Parlia- 
ment House. Weavers' Hall was the office of the 
Exchequer, Goldsmiths' Hall the national bank, 
and so on. Saddlers' Hall In 1653 was occupied 
by the Commissioners for collecting funds for the 
relief of the City of Marlborough, which In the 
April of that year was almost totally destroyed by 
fire. Curiously enough, the circumstance of this 
occupation of their Hall Is nowhere alluded to In 
the Company's books, although mention occurs of 
a subscription towards the relief of the Inhabitants. 
In the archives of the City of Chester, however, 
there are preserved letters from the Commis- 

loo History of the Company. 

sloners for managing and ordering collections for 
the distressed inhabitants of Marlborough dated 
9th June, 1653, from Saddlers' Hall, accompany- 
ing orders of the Council of State for the same 

The Restoration took place eleven years after 
the execution of Charles I., and on the 

The Restoration ^^^^ February, 1660, occurs the first 
indication of the return of the Com- 
pany's loyalty to the throne. 

'' Ordered y* y° Master and Wardens doe forthwith 
agree with some able workmen to sett up the King's 
Armes in painted glasse in the hall-window where it 
formerly stood." 

The occasion of the public entry of Charles H. 
into London on the 29th May, 1660, was made 
one of surpassing splendour. Evelyn pictu- 
resquely describes the rejoicing occasioned by the 

*' This day his majestie, Charles II., came to London 
after a sad and long exile and calamitous suffering, both 
of the King and Church, being 17 yeares. This was 
also his birthday, and with a triumph of above 20,000 
horse and foote brandishing their swords and shouting 
with inexpressible joy ; the waycs strewed with flowers, 
the bells ringing, the streets hung with tapestry, foun- 
taines running with wine, the Maior, Aldermen, and all 

^ Reports of the Hist. MSS. Commission, Appendix viii., 
p. 386. 

History of the Company. ioi 

the Companies in their Liveries, chaines of gold and 

To such straitened circumstances had the 
Saddlers' Company been reduced by the late 
excessive exactions and enforced loans, that we 
find them compelled to order that '' no allowance 
should be made to any member who rode to 
bring in the King's ma'''' and the two Dukes 
but y^ every man beare his owne charges." 

The City, however, exemplified its joy in 

Contribution to ^ ^^'^^^ moTQ Substantial manner, by 
Charles II. voting in Common Council the sum of 
;^i 2,000 to the Royal Purse. The following is 
a record of the Company's contribution : — 

1660. May 2W1. 

" P*^ into the Chamber of London according to an act 
of Common Councell of the 2*^ of May, 1660, 144^ 
being soe much assessed upon the Company to be 
p'sented to his Maiestie and the two Dukes." 

In September following the Company were 
again called upon to contribute, this time pur- 
suant to an Act of Parliament, " for y^ speedy p'vi- 
sion of money for y^ disbanding the forces of this 
kingdome both by land and sea." 

On the 25th of that month it was — 

" Ordered y* Hanley y^ Beadle doe warne in all the 
Assistants and Liverie to appeare upon Saturday next, 
being Michaelmas day, to bring in their pole money, and 
Mr. Beighton and Mr. Thos. Pease (are) appointed \.o 
receive y^ same." 

102 History of the Company. 

The coronation of Charles II. in the following 
A.D. 1661. spring gave occasion for more re- 
Coronation of joicing, and afforded another oppor- 
tunlty for extorting money from the 
impoverished Companies. The Saddlers' Com- 
pany appear to have been called upon for two 
contributions towards the cost of the civic pre- 
parations ; the amount of the first sum is not 
however stated. The followinof record ogives 
some idea of the financial destitution to which the 
Company had been brought : — 

1 66 1. May gth. 

" Borrowed of Mr. Edward Smith for the use of the 
Company, Aprill 15, 1661, 36.^, w'^^' he is to be allowed 
interest from that time. 

" P'^ the same tyme the sayd sume of ^6£ into the 
Chamber of London, being a second p'portion assessed 
upon y° Company by an act of Common Council dated 
(f Aprill instant, towards the finishing of y° triumphall 
arches erected against his ma*^^^ intended passage 
through the Citye as by S'' Thomas Slayer his acquit- 
tance doth appeare." 

On the 27th November, 1662, the City Com- 
panies turned out to receive the 

A.D. 1662. T. . A 1 1 1 

Russian Amt)assador, and at a meet- 
ing of the Court of the Company on the following 
month it was ordered '' y^ those gent' who ridd to 
bring in y^ ambassador should be allowed their 
charges." The expense individually involved on 
this occasion, however, was apparently less than 
that incurred on the occasion of the incoming of 

History of the Company. 103 

the King, when the members were compelled to 
bear their own charges, for Pepys informs us that 
" their black velvet coats and gold chains remained 
of their gallantry at the King's coming in." 

On the 29th September, 1663, the Company 
assembled to receive a precept from 
the Lord Mayor, '' signifying the 
King's Royal intention of passing through this 
Citye at his return from his progresse with his 
royal consort, and to p'vide xiiij of y® grauest and 
best of the Company to be on horsebacke appar- 
relled with velvet coats and Gold Chaines. To be 
in a readynesse to attend y* service this Court did 
then appointe those persons hereunder named to 
ride, viz., the Foure Wardens, Mr. Clowes, Mr. 
Mason, Mr. Freeman, Mr. Holdenby, Mr. Dash- 
wood, Mr. Smith, Mr. Pease, Mr. Tanner, Mr. 
Milson, and Mr. Sheppard." 

In 1664 the City again came to the assistance 
1664. of the State, and granted the King a 
Dutch wars. Iq^h of ^100,000 towards the support 
of the war with Holland. Recourse was had as 
usual to the Companies, and the contribution of 
the Saddlers' Company was assessed at as much 
as £700. Their exchequer being empty, the 
Company were compelled to borrow the whole 
sum at interest, as the following minute shows : — 

1664. November $th. 

" Upon reading of a letter from the right hon^^^ S"^ 
John Lawrence, Knight, Lord Maior of the Citye of 


History of the Company. 

London, thereby signifyeing y^ the Citye had under- 
taken to serue his Ma^^*" with the Loan of 100,000^ upon 
speciall occasion, and thereby did desyre for the repu- 
tation of the Company that the Company should 
advance ^700 towards the same upon such security as 
the Citye had taken of his Ma^^S and y* the Company 
would certifye y*' Court of Aldermen upon Tuesday 
next the tyme when they would pay in the same, where- 
upon it was ordered y* y^ Warden should forthwith take 
upp 700;^ upon the Company's security, and pay in the 
same with as much speede as might be, whereupon Mr. 
Edward Smith p'mised to prude them CCC^ from the 
parrish of Lambeth at 5^^ p. cent. p. ann. and CCC^ 
more he would lend them at y^ same rate, and Mr. Milson 
promised C;^ at y^ same rate, whereupon y* was ordered 
yt ye Wardcns should give the Company's security for 
y^ same." 

The next contribution the Company was called 
Ship " Loyaii ^P^n to make v^as In 1665. One would 
London." think that the enforced loans which had 
so Impoverished the Companies would have left 
little Inclination on their part for spontaneous con- 
tribution. This time, however, their patriotism 
was stirred, the occasion being the war with the 
Dutch, which had again broken out. The City 
resolved to present the King with a war-ship, and 
to call It the " Loyall London,"^ partly doubtless 
to Identify It with the City, and partly to replace 

^ Evelyn has the following entry in his diary, 8th June, 
1666: "I saw the London Frigate launched, a most stately 
ship, built by the City to supply that which was burnt by 
accident some time since. The King, Lord Maior, and 
Sheriffs being there with a greate banquet." 

History of the Company. 105 

the old ship, the " London," one of the navy of 
the Commonwealth, which had been destroyed. 
The cost was ^^ 10,000, and the proportion paid 
by the Saddlers' Company was ^124. 

Dryden has the following lines upon the inci- 
dent : — 

"The goodly London in her gallant trim, 

The phoenix-daughter of the vanished old, 
Like a rich bride does to the ocean swim, 
And on her shadow rides in floating gold. 

Her flag aloft, spread ruffling to the wind, 

And sanguine streamers seem the flood to fire ; 

The weaver, charmed with what his loom designed. 
Goes on to sea and knows not to retire. 

With roomy decks, her guns of mighty strength, 
Whose low-laid mouths each mounting billow 

Deep in her draught, and warlike in her length, 
She seems a sea-wasp flying on the waves. 

This martial present piously designed, 
The loyal city give their best-loved King, 

And, with a bounty ample as the wind, 

Built, fitted, and maintained to aid him bring." 

The Great Plague of London first appeared in 
AD 166"; 1664. hicreasing in malignity, and 
The Great Spreading with fearful rapidity, it 
^^"^' carried off in its ravages, it is said, 
nearly 100,000 persons. No meetings of the Com- 
pany took place between July, 1665, and January, 
1666, and the annual election of Master and War- 
dens, which should have taken place, according 
to custom, in the August of 1665, was postponed 

io6 History of the Company. 

until the January following, the cause being 
ascribed in the minute to " y'" late contagion." 
The Company appears to have suffered heavily 
from the pestilence, as in July, 1666, only four 
members were assembled at a meeting of the 
Court, which could not, in consequence, be held. 
This deduction is likewise supported by the 
numerous appointments which were shortly after- 
wards made to the Court and Livery. 

The desolation produced by the Plague was 
consummated by the Great Fire, 

A.D. 1666. ^ . . T 1 T^l 

The Great Fire which immediately supervened. This 
of London, fga^j-f^l conflagration, which within four 

days destroyed 13,200 houses and 89 churches, 
including St. Paul's, and laid waste 400 streets, 
gave the finishing blow to the material possessions 
of the Company. Nearly all the Companies' 
Halls were destroyed, the exceptions being the 
very few outside the area of conflagration, and of 
these the principal were the Leathersellers' and 
the Carpenters'. Saddlers' Hall perished with 
the others, but the Company fortunately rescued 
their plate — what little mercifully remained to 
them — the burial cloth or pall, and a few of their 
books, such as appear to have been in use at the 
time, and thus easily accessible. The system of 
insurance of houses and furniture was not intro- 
duced until the following year, consequently this 
final catastrophe, coming upon the Company in 
their already impoverished condition, completely 
prostrated them. Moreover, with the loss of 

History of the Company. 107 

their property, which nearly all lay within the 
area of the Fire, they were temporarily deprived 
of their immediate source of income. The Fire 
raged from the 2nd to the 6th September, and on 
the 25th of that month the Court met at Christ's 
Hospital, and, after viewing the ruins of the Hall, 
ordered — 

"That Mr. Braithwaite forthwith employ some 
labourers or workmen to digg up the bricks, and take 
up all such lead and iron as belongeth to the Hall, and 
to secure them in the vaulte lately belonging to the 
Mermayde Tavern, and make up the same w"' bricks to 
preserve the same." 

At the same meeting it was ordered — 

" That the Wardens shall sell all the Companye's 
plate (except the two cupps given by Alderman Dash- 
wood and Mr. Fisher), and convert it into money, to 
helpe to pay the Companye's debtes." 

Two Assistants were ordered to " go downe 
into Kent " to try and dispose of the Company's 
estates near Maidstone. The Wardens were like- 
wise ordered to " make sale of all the iron, pewter, 
lead, and linnen that shalbe found in the mines of 
the late fire." Indeed, so hard were the Com- 
pany now pressed, that they were compelled to 
dispense with the services of their under-beadle, 
and porter, and even to discharge a number 
of their pensioners. The next assembly of the 
Court was held at the house of an Assistant, 
Mr. Pease, at Bishopsgate. On the 30th October 
we have the following record : — 

io8 History of the Company. 

'' Sould by the Wardens, by order of Court, two 
hundred eighty-two ounces and a hahe of guilt plate, 
at 5' 6'^ p. ounce, and four hundred twenty-seaven ounces 
and a halfe of white plate w''^ came to one hundred 
eighty-fower pounds twelve shillings and nine pence, 
w"^^ was left w*^ the Wardens. 

"There is now remayneing in the Wardens hands by 
order of Court one guilt bowle w*^ a cover of Mr. 
Alderman Dashwood's guift, weight sixty-two ounces 
and a halfe, one silver and guilte bowle w*^ cover, weight 
sixty-two ounces, of the guift of Mr. Fisher, one nutt- 
megg cupp^ slipped with silver and guilt, seaven browne 
dishes with silver tippes, and one scale in a box." 

And Immediately ensuing is a record of tv^o 
hundred pounds and interest paid with this sum 
for debts owing by the Company. 

A small Committee was now appointed " to 
supervise the worke and workemen for the re- 
building of the Hall," although nearly two years 
slipped by without any start being made. How- 
ever, the following minutes occur in 1668 : — 

'' Ordered that Mr, Thos. Davis shalbe ymployed on 
the rebuilding of the Hall, and that he be allowed xv*^ 
a yard for sifting and carrying away the rubbish at 
fifty-five shillings a rodd for workmanshipp and lyme 
to the first floor." 

October Zth. 

" Ordered that Mr. Braithwaite shalbe the bricklayer 
for the rebuilding of the Hall at Zl 6s iid a rodd, for 

^ This evidently refers to the cocoa-nut cup still preserved 
by the Company. 

History of the Company. 109 

all worke that shalbe done between this and the first of 
April next." 

November ^iOth. 

"■ It is ordered that Mr. Davis, Bricklayer, shalbe 
workman to the Company for the rebuilding of the 
Hall and the other concernes of the Company, and that 
he shal be allowed Yn]£ a rodd, he being to rubb, gage, 
and sett all the brickwork there to be done, 

" It is ordered that Mr. Hodgkin be carpenter for 
the erecting of the Hall at five pounds tenn shillings 
per square (? nothing stated), without flooreing, the 
sunners to be xviij inches every way, the girders xiij 
inches every way, and the joysts 9 inches by 3." 

In the following August also occurs an order 
for the wainscotting of the Hall at 10 shillings per 
yard. The cost of rebuilding the Hall v^as in a 
measure provided for by the summoning of sixty- 
three persons to take up the Livery, the fee 
for v^hich had recently been increased to £10. 
Apart, hov^ever, from the expediency of replenish- 
ing the Company's treasury, such a step had 
indeed become almost a necessity by reason of the 
attenuation of the Company caused by the recent 
Plague. A few of the members so summoned 
pleaded poverty caused by their losses in the Fire, 
and were excused from serving for a time, for 
which many of them gratified the Company by a 
gift of money towards the rebuilding of the Hall. 
During the two years ensuing, numerous pay- 
ments made to the workmen occur from time to 
time, amounting in the aggregate to ^1,708 i6s. 

I 2 

no History of the Company. 

In addition to this sum there is an entry of £2 i6i-. 
paid to an ironmonger for '' Bandeleers and 
Musketts," and on the 15th August, 1670, it was — 

" Ordered that the Master shall provide one dozen 
and a halfe of Turkey worke chayres for the use of the 
Company, and two dozen of cushions." 

During the rebuilding of the Hall the Company 
usually assembled at Christ's Hospital, but on one 
occasion it was recorded that they met at the 
Cooks' Hall, for which accommodation they paid 
10 shillings. The Hall appears to have been 
completed by the end of 1670, having taken two 
years to rebuild, and immediately ensuing we find 
an order letting It to the Distillers' Company for 
their Court meetings, for which they paid ^10 
per annum rent. 

On the 15th August, 1692, it was ordered — 

" That the Hall or any rooms below Stayers now 
layd thereunto shall not be lett to any conventicle or 
Dancing Master, or such like concerne, But the same 
may and shall be let for Companyes or Pattentees to 
meete in, and every one of this Company are desired to 
use their endeavours to engage such and as many Com- 
panyes or Pattentees as possible they can to take the 
same to meete in." 

In 1694 the Hall was let for eight months for 
the drawing of a public Lottery for ;^6i,ooo. 
The same year the Company granted a lease for 
21 years of " the greate roome, or Court Parlor, 
toofether with two other rooms to the Governor 
and Company for smelting downe Leade with 

History of the Company. hi 

Pitt Coale and Sea Coale," at the yearly rent of 
Thirty Pounds. 

Again, on the 12th February, 1718, it is 
recorded — 

" That the Clerk have Hberty to lett the Hall and 
Court Parlour for Funerals and sales of goods during 
pleasure of y'' Court, he making good all damages 
arising thereby." 

In the rebuilding of the Hall the Company 
appears to have infringed the right of light 
belonging to St. Vedast Church adjoining, and on 
the 20th July, 1669, the Company subscribed £60 
towards rebuilding St. Vedast, or St. Foster, as it 
is called in the minutes, on condition that they 
should be exempt from all claims by the Church 
in respect of the said infringement, and from all 
liability of taxes for the rebuilding. Shortly 
afterwards we find the Company refusing effec- 
tually to pay a rate levied on the parish for 
pewing the Church. In 1698 the Court appointed 
a Committee of their number to wait upon Sir 
Christopher Wren, the architect of St. Vedast, 
and to request him to take steps to put sufficient 
bars to the Church windows to prevent all possi- 
bility of access from the Church to the Company's 

The Company's Order Books contain frequent 

Lord Mayors' ^llusion to the great civic pageant of the 

Shows. year, the Lord Mayor's Show. The 

I 12 

History of the Company. 

ancient custom of the Livery Companies in attend- 
ing the Lord Mayor in State by water, in a stately 
procession of canopied barges rowed by liveried 
oarsmen with gay music, ''drummes and ffifes," and 
banners and streamers flying, must have furnished a 
very picturesque spectacle. Every year the Com- 
pany engaged a barge or '* ffoyste " decorated wuth 
an awning or '* barge cloth " and a score or two of 
silk pennants and banneroles ; and the following 
minute is one of a number of similar records 
occurring regularly every year : — 

1609. July nth. 

" Xxofer^ Topping was this Quarter Day admytted o"" 
Waterman to fynde vs a barge to holde xl nrien on the 

By the year 1662, however, the Company 
Company's would appear to have followed the 
State Barge, example of Other Companies, and to 
have obtained a barge of their own. 

1662. September 26tlL 

" Ordered y* y*" M^'and Wardens with the advice of Mr. 
Smith shall take caretop'vide a house for y'' Company's 
bardge against y*" Lorde Mayor's day next." 

1 68 1. October 6th. 

" Ordered the Comp'^ attend by water on the Lord 
Mayor's day and that Mr. Frith Master of the Windsor 
Barge seruc with his said Barge and Two Wherry es and 

^ Christopher. 

History of the Company. 113 

haue ffive pounds and tenn shillings for the same and his 
mens Breakfasts and Dinners and they to fetch and 
bring back the Comp'' Banners and Streamer." 

In 1 67 1 Mr. Alderman Francis Dashwood, an 
enthusiastic member of the Company, presented 
them with ^100, a considerable sum in those 
days, to purchase bunting for their State Barge. 
This sum we read was invested in the following 
manner :— 

" Two Streamers each of them sixteen feet long, the 
whole breadth of the Taffety. 

" Three Banners each to be six feet square. 

"Two dozen Pendants an ell of Taffety to make 
four of them." 

The banners and streamers were to cost ten 
pounds a piece, and the pennants twenty shillings 
each. The balance of the sum was laid out in a 
handsome canopy, or barge cloth, of the character 
of which we shall get some notion from the 
following minute : — ^ 

1672. Febi'uary 26th. 

" At this Cort severall persons being Imbroiderers by 
Trade appeared about undertaking the Imbroiderery of 
the Companye's Barge Cloth and each of them did 
severally and apart propose the rates and prices they 
would doe the same for and this Court finding that Mr. 

^ In an inventory of the Company's effects, as late as 1736, 
we find mention of wooden pegs round the top of the Hall 
" to hang the Bargecloth on." 

114 History of the Company. 

Henry Steevens had proposed and offered to doe it at the 
lowest and most reasonable termes, did then agree with 
the said Mr. Steevens and the said Mr. Steevens did 
undertake to doe and complete in workmanlike manner 
the Grand Coate with Helmet Crest and Mantle to con- 
tain an ell in breadth and a yard in depth each of them 
for three pounds a peice. The Horse for nyne shillings 
a peice the Escution with Compartlem* at eight shillings 
p. piece the Bordering tenn inches or thereabouts in 
breadth according to the patterne that shall please the 
Master and Wardens at fower shillings and sixpence p. 
yard and for such crimson worsted as he shall use to be 
in Grayne, and all Cruel to be fine and to doe the Grand 
Coate Horse and Escutions according to the patternes to 
be delivered and forthwith to goe on to the doeing and 
compleateing of the said workes." 

These processions were apparently attended with 
considerable expense, for on the 17th December, 
1674, it is recorded that — 

" This Court takeing notice of the greate charge they 
are at by goeing by water on the Lord Mayor's Day and 
that severall Companyes doe ease themselves of such 
charge doe order that on the next Lord Mayor's Day and 
soe afterwards this Compa"" shall not attend by water 
but that the same charge be saved." 


The attractions of the custom, however, still 
lingered, and in the following September the 
decision was rescinded ; the reasons that im- 
pelled the Court to this step are thus recorded : — 

1675. September 2p-d. 

" This Court tookc into Consideracon an order made at 
a Court the xviij December last that this Company 

History of the Company. 115 

should not attend by water on the Lord Mayor's Day 
and alsoe the late guift of Francis Dashwood Esq. for 
banners and streamers for their better accommodacon 
on that day and that this Company is as well able to 
defray the charge thereof as formerly Doe think fitt to 
repeale and make void the said recited order and Doe 
order that this Company shall attend this yeare by 
water on the Lord Mayor's Day as formerly they have 
done and for that purpose it is referred to the M"" and 
Wardens to hyer a Barge and provide Trumpetts for 
the same day." 

After the lapse of a few years, however, the 
Company adhered to their first resolution, and 
contented themselves with their railed stands, a 
custom which they maintained until the early 
part of the present century. In 1784 occurs an 
order prohibiting the drinking of v/ine and the 
use of tobacco, and in 1797 the Livery petitioned 
the Court to abolish the stand and the beef 
breakfasts, and in place thereof to permit their 
ladies to dine in the evening, a request which it 
is stated the Court '' agreed to for that year." 

The Calendars of State Papers contain frequent 
*' King's Esquire reference to an official known as the 

Saddler." King's Esquire Saddler. Such mention 
occurs as early as 1444. This functionary w^as 
invariably a member of the Company. When, how- 
ever, in 1680, a coachmaker was appointed to this 
distinction, the Company were so much concerned 
at the new departure that they appointed a 
deputation from the Assistants to make repre- 
sentations to the King. The Company's records 

ii6 History of the Company. 

inform us that " His Majesty took well the care 
the Company had that he should be well served " 
and the coachmaker was dismissed from the office, 
and a freeman of the Company appointed in his 

In 1684 Charles H., who had long been vexed 
1684. and incensed at the spirit of opposi- 

fn^fluence on^hr ^^^^ showu by the citizens to his papis- 
Court party, tical tendencies, and with the ill-con- 
Quo Warranto. ^q^\^^ intention of rendering the City 
more amenable to his wishes and to the influence 
of the Court party, proceeded against the Corpora- 
tion by a writ of " Quo Warranto," and obtained 
the arbitrary forfeiture of the City Charter. 
Similar processes were issued against several of 
the City Companies with the object of placing 
their government in the hands of men well dis- 
posed to the Court. There remained to the 
Saddlers' Company no help for it but to pacify 
the King by a surrender of their Charter, and by 
a confession of implicit reliance upon his good- 
will ; and on the loth April, 1684, we find it 
recorded in the Company's Minutes that — 

1684. Ap'i/ lOt/i. 

" This Court taking notice that several ' Scire Facias ' 
c 1 f*i, or Quo Warrantos have of late beene 

Surrender of the ^ 

Company's brought io his Ma^"^^ name by the At- 

Charter. torney-Generall against seuerall of the 

Companyes of this Citty and being informed that his 

Ma^^'^^ pleasure hath beene signified to some of them 

that he will only allow their Charters soe as to putt the 

History of the Company. 117 

governing- part therof into the hands of such persons as 
may be most Loyall and Serviceable to his Ma^^'^ and 
this Comp'' being readely willing to submitt their 
Charter to his Ma^'*^ pleasure thereon doe think fitt and 
order And it is hereby ordered that the M' and 
Wardens of this Company Mr. Alderman Rich, Mr. 
Kempe, Mr. Anderson, Mr. Wareing and Mr. Fisher or 
any five or more of them, doe forthw*^' attend Mr. 
Attorney-Generall and pray that noe Scire Facias or 
Quo Warranto issue out ag* this Comp"- for that this 
Comp'' doe and will offer and lay their Charter before 
his Ma^^^ whenever his Ma*^^ shall require the same. And 
the said p'sons are hereby appointed a Cofhittee to 
draw up and prepare a peticon fitt for this Comp'' to 
present to his Ma^^^ if Mr. Attorney-Generall shall 
approve thereof And the said Cofhittee are to present 
to this Court such peticon as they shall soe draw up. 
And it is further ordered that all other the Assistants 
of this Comp^ may if they thinke fitt be present at all 
the meetings of the said Comittee and to act w*^ them 

The Livery v^ere thereupon called into Court, 
and the foregoing order read to them, and their 
assent obtained thereto. The Company having 
waited upon the Attorney-General and communi- 
cated their resolution, were directed by him " to 
peticion his Ma^^^ and make such surrender as 
other Company es did." The following petition 
and surrender were thereupon drawn up and duly 
sealed for presentation to the King by Mr. Alder- 
man Rich and others : — 

" To the King's Most Excellent Ma^^*^— 

" The humble peticon of the Wardens or Keepers and 

ii8 History of the Company. 

Comonalty of the Mistery or Art of Sadlers of the City 
of London. 

*' Humbly sheweth 

" That y® pet'"' are by Seuerall Auncient Grants and 
Charters under the Create Seale made to them by y*" 
Ma^^*^^ Royal 1 progenitors, Kings and Queenes of Eng- 
land, Incorporated by the name aforesaid By w^^ 
divers Franchises, priviledges and imunityes were 
granted to them. 

''That y*' pet'' takeing notice that Quo Warrantoes 
have beene lately brought by y'' Ma^^^ against some of 
the Comp*"' of this City 

" Doe before any Quo Warranto yssue out against y""" 

" Most humbly submit themselves to y"" Ma^"^^ good 
will and pleasure. 

" And y° pet"' earnestly begg y° Ma*^^ wilbe gratiously 
please to continue their former Charters with such regu- 
lations for the governm* of the said Company and the 
weale thereof as y'" sacred Ma*^^ shall think fitt And 
that Richard Banner their Clerke may be continued. 

" And y'" pef' as in duty bound shall pray, etc ." 

The Surrender to His Mtie. 

" To all to whome theis p'sents shall come. The War- 
dens or Keepers and Comonaltye of the Mistery or Art 
of Sadlers of the City of London send greeteing. Knowe 
yee that wee considering how much it importes the 
governm* of our Company to have men of knowne 
Loyalty and approved integrity to beare offices of magis- 
tracy and places of trust. The said Wardens or Keepers 
by and with the advice and consent of the majority of 
the Assistants of the said Company haue granted, sur- 
rendered, and yielded up And by their presents do 
grant surrender and yield up unto his most gracious 

History of the Company. 119 

Ma^^^ Charles the Second By the Grace of God King of 
England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, and his heyres 
and successors, all and singular the powers Franchises, 
Libertyes, priviledges, and authorityes whatsoever and 
howsover granted, or to be used or exercised By 
the said Wardens and Assistants By vcrtue of any 
right, tytle or interest vested in them by any Charters, 
Letters patents, Custome or prescription in force of 
or concerneing the electing, nominating, constituting, 
being or appointing of any person or persons into or 
for the seuerall and respective offices of Wardens or 
Keepers and Assistants, and doe hereby humbly beseech 
his Ma^^'^ to accept of this Surrender and doe with all 
submission to his Ma*^*^" good pleasure implore his grace 
and favour to regrant to the said Wardens or Keepers 
and Assistants the nameing and chooseing of the said 
officers And the said Libertyes and Franchises or soe 
many of them and in such manner as his Ma^'*^ in his 
greate wisdome shall iudge most conduceing for the 
governm* of the said Company and with and under 
such reservations, restrictions, and quallifications as his 
Ma^'^ shall be pleased to appoint In witnes whereof the 
said Wardens or Keepers haue hereunto affixed their 
Comon Seale, etc." 

At a Court held in August, the Committee 
reported that they had presented the petition and 
surrender to the King, " and his Ma*^^ well recieved 
the same aiid w^as gratiously enclined to grant the 
matter thereof, and had referred the said peticion 
to Mr. Attorney Gen'all." Whereupon pov^er 
v^as given to the Committee ''to manage and 
procure the confirmation of the Company's 
Charter w^'' such further priviledges as can be 

I20 History of the Company. 

The new Charter was granted to the Saddlers' 
AD 1684 Company on the 24th December 
Charter of followIng, and read at the Quarter 
Charles II. (3q^j-|- j^ January, when the Wardens, 

Assistants, and Clerk took the oath and subscribed 
the declaration. Charles II. died during the next 
month (6th February, 1685), and was succeeded by 
his brother, James II., and in the month of May, 
in view of the approaching election of Parliament, 
the Company were reconstituted a Livery, and 
were called upon by the Lord Mayor, pursuant to 
an injunction from James, to return a list, for 
ratification by the Court of Aldermen, of such 
Liverymen who were of the "best, more dis- 
creete, and sufficient members of y^' Company 
being perso7is of appi^wed and icnquestionable 
Loyalty!' an obvious indication of the King's 
intention to influence the selection of Voters. 
The affairs of the Company appear to have gone 
on pretty smoothly during the next two years, 
despite the increasing dissatisfaction of the City 
and country against the ill-advised King, who 
had let loose the reins of monarchical despotism 
and tyranny, and arrogated to himself the pre- 
rogative of ruling the national will and conscience 
without the aid even of a Parliament ; for, to 
obviate the inconvenience of their want of com- 
pliancy, he had dispensed with that assembly 

The Charter of the late King, Charles II., 
to the Saddlers and other Companies, pro- 
vided for the right of the King to remove any 

History of the Company. 121 

Warden, Assistant, or Clerk at the royal will, 
or by an Order in Privy Council, and further 
imposed upon the Companies subjection and 
obedience to the Mayor and Aldermen. In 
September, 1687, James exercised this power in 
an arbitrary and unequivocal manner 
by suspending, or rather discharging 
from ofhce, a large number of the Wardens and 
Assistants of the Companies. On the 12th 
October, the Saddlers' Company were assembled 
to receive the following communication from the 
Lord Mayor and Order in Council : — 

' Peake Major. 

" Martis the iiij° Octob'" 1687 Ano R. Jacob! 
Secundi Anglia, tertio. 

" Whereas his Ma^^*^ by order of Councell (now sent 
down to this Court) hath ben pleased to Remoue 
seuerall Masters and Wardens and Assistants of seuerall 
Companyes of this Citty, and comanded this Court to 
Signifye his Ma^^^^ pleasure therein to the said Com- 
panyes. It is Ordered that a coppy of the said Order 
of Councell (for soe much as concerns each Company) 
be made by Mr. Towne Clerke and delivered to the 
Clerks of the said respective Companyes to be by them 
entered in their Companyes Bookes. 

" At the Court at Windsor the xxv"' of 
Septemb"^ 1687/' 

" By the King's most Excellent Ma*'*^ and the Lords 
of His Ma}''' Most Honb^° Privy Councell. 

''Whereas By the Late Charters granted to the 
seuerall Companies of London, It is provided that his 
Ma^^% his heyres and Successors, may by Order in 
Councell from tyme to tyme displace or remoue the 

122 History of the Company. 

Master Wardens and Assistants of the said seuerall 
Companies or any of them, and thereupon the place or 
places of such person or persons soe remoued should 
be voyd ; And whereas his Ma^^^ in Councell is pleased 
to order, And it is hereby ordered accordingly, That 
Thomas Fisher, Edward Fisher, Wardens, S"" Peter 
Rich, Edward Benskin, Robert Wareing, Francis Bulsell, 
W"" Morgan, John Sawyer, John Webb, Robert Johnson, 
Robert Stoakes, Henry Fetter, Thomas Chew, John 
Hall, Cadogan Thomas, and Elias Rich, Esq'', Assistants 
of the Company of the Saddlers, be and they are hereby 
remoued and displaced from being any longer Wardens 
or Assistants of the said Company. 

'* And His Ma^^ is further pleased to order that the 
Lord Major and Court of Aldermen doe forthwith 
signifye his Ma^'^^ pleasure herein to the said Company. 

"Wm. Bridgeman. 

" A True Coppy of the Order of 


Then follows this terse minute : — 

"Vpon readeing of w^^' said Orders this Court was 
broake up." 

The displacement of these Assistants was Im- 
mediately followed by an order of the Court of 
Aldermen, removing them from the Livery. 

The vacancies thus created in the Court were, 
for the most part, filled by the election of other 
Assistants to take their places. But the disorder 
already occasioned was complicated by the refusal 
of some resolute members thus elected to serve, 
and of others to take the oath of allegiance pre- 
scribed by the Charter. 

History of the Company. 12^ 


The Intelligence of the preparations of the 
Prince of Orange forced James In dismay to 
restore the City Charter and the privileges of 
which the Liverymen had been deprived, but the 
concession came too late to give him any favour 
with the citizens. 

On the loth October, 1688, the Company re- 
ceived an order from the Lord Mayor restoring 
the displaced members, consisting of all those 
already enumerated, and one or two others re- 
moved at a subsequent period. The same were 
accordingly restored to their former places and 
privileges and were re-admitted Assistants. 

On the 4th December following, the Master 
and Wardens of the Company received a sum- 
mons from the Lord Chancellor to attend him at 
Whitehall, which they obeyed, when his Lordship 
informed them — 

" That by his Ma^^*^^ order he had delivered back to 
the seuerall Companyes of this Citty the seuerall Deeds 
of Surrender by them made upon their taking new 
Charters. And that the surrender made by this Com- 
pany to his late Ma^^*^, bearing date the xijth Aprill, 1684, 
was lately come to his Lordshipp's hands, and he now 
delivered it back to the said Wardens to cancell, and his 
Lordshipp declared the said surrender was not enrolled 
and for want thereof it did not amount unto any sur- 
render of the Companye's old Franchises or Libertyes 
menconed in such surrender. And that it was his Ma^^^^ 
pleasure to leave them in the same state and condicon 
they were in at the tyme of the makeing of the said 
surrender, and that his Ma^^^ would give the Comp*^ any 
new Grant or Charter. But his Lordshipp declared the 


124 History of the Company. 

delivery back of the said surrender was sufficient, and 
that the Comp'' neede not putt themselves to the charge 
of any new Charter." 

At the Court following this Interview the re- 
stored surrender was cancelled. 

The abdication of James II. and the succession 

of William III. and Mary restored 

Succession of tranquillity to the City, and Initiated a 

^^^M^"^ ^^^ period of comparative repose so far as 

. the Companies were concerned. 

In June, 1690, James having, with the assist- 
ance of France, Invaded Ireland with a small 
army, the Company received a pre- 
cept from the Lord Mayor, directing 
them to raise " suche number of Horse and 
Dragoons, or make a subscrlpcon of money out 
of the Comp''' Stock as they shalbe willing to 
doe for their Ma^'^^ service on the present occasion 
of the feare of the French their Invadeing this 
Kingdom," whereupon the Court agreed to raise 
and equip two Dragoons. At their next meeting, 
however, the Court discharged the obligation by 
paying ^50 Instead. The Company followed up 
their subscription by proposing to the authorities 
that they should be entrusted with the making of 
the saddles and furniture for the Dragoons to be 
so raised, adding that they would furnish the 
same at moderate rates, and distribute them 
amongst their members, " that soe the same may 

History of the Company. 125 

be done with care and speede." The result of 
the proposal is, however, not recorded. 

The same month, the Company being informed 

jg g^ that the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and 

Loan to William Common Council had agreed to ad- 

and Mary. yance a Considerable loan to the 
King and Queen, upon the security of the 
hereditary revenue to be settled on their Majes- 
ties by Act of Parliament, at the rate of six per 
cent, interest, decided to advance ^100. In 
order, however, to furnish this sum they were 
reduced to borrowing it of one of their members, 
which they did at five per cent. This was 
followed by another loan of ^100 to the Crown 
six years later, which was raised in a similar 
manner. Both loans, however, were duly re- 
paid with interest. 

About this period Saddlers' Hall becomes 
^. ^. , , associated with the name of Sir 

hir Richard 

Biackmore and Richard Blackmore, the epic poet. 

Saddlers' Hall. ^ i ^^ i . . ttt-i 

one 01 the Court physicians to Wil- 
liam HI. and Oueen Anne. Blackmore was 
formerly a schoolmaster, but he exchanged his 
profession for that of medicine, and supplemented 
this again by indulging his taste for poetry. His 
poems, which are ponderous and voluminous, 
earned him favour at the Court, but although 
Addison considered his '' Creation " one '' of the 
most useful and noble productions of our English 
verse,'" the merits of his works has not been 
sufficient to earn a similar judgment by posterity. 

K 2 

126 History of the Company. 

His poems are characterised by a high rehglous 
tone, and his denunciation of the ImmoraHty of 
the time brought upon him the wrath and ridicule 
of Dryden, Garth, and Pope, as well as of Tom 
Brown and other minor wits. His residence at 
Saddlers' Hall earned for him the titles of " the 
City Bard," "the Cheapslde Knight," and a score 
of others very similar. He was not a member 
of the Saddlers' Company, but there Is a slight 
flavour of the atmosphere of his surroundings at 
the Hall in his defence of his first great work, 
"Prince Arthur." He says, "I am not free of 
the Poets' Company, having never kissed the 
Governor's hands," alluding to which Dr. Johnson 
says, "He had lived In the City till he had learned 
its note." When Blackmore published his " Satire 
upon Wit," Garth replied with a pungent epistle 
in rhyme, addressed — 

"To THE Merry Poetaster at Saddlers' Hall 

IN Cheapside. 

Unwieldy pedant, let thy awkward muse 

With censures praise, with flatteries abuse 

To lash, and not be felt, in thee's an art 

Thou ne'er mad'st any, but thy school boys, smart. 

If B — I's immortal wit thou would'st descry 

Pretend 'tis he that writ thy poetry. 

Thy feeble satire ne'er can do him wrong, 

Thy poems and thy patients live not long." 

Tom Brown addresses him as " Richard Black- 
more on the two wooden horses before Saddlers' 

History of the Company. 127 

Hall," and alludes to the Saddlers* Company in 
the following distich : — 

"'Twas kindly done of the good-natured cits 
To place before thy door a brace of tits." 

proceeding — 

"For Pegasus would ne'er endorse the weight 
Of such a quibbling, scribbling, dribbling knight." 

Blackmore was knighted by William HI. upon 
the publication of " King Arthur." 

Very little can be gathered concerning the old 
Hall, i.e., the one built after the Fire of London. 
From a minute on the i8th May, 1714, we learn 
that it had a cupola, or '' Lanthorn," and in 
another place there is an order for the flooring of 
the room over the Hall. In 1668 the Company, 
upon completion of the building, contracted with 
the New River Company for a supply of water, 
taking a lease for eleven years at 45^-. fine, and 
45^-. per annum rent. The occasional mention of 
a Pump in the Company's Kitchen, and of another 
Pump in Day's Court close by, gives us an idea 
of the Company's alternative supply. The Hall 
did not abut on Cheapside directly, but was 
approached from the main road by a small passage 
known as Saddlers' Hall Court, in which was the 
Clerk's House. Hatton, in his " New View of 
London," published in 1708, describes Saddlers' 
Hall as "adorned with fretwork and wainscot." 
Maidand in 1774, gives the following account of 

128 History of the Company. 

it : — " Saddlers' Hall Is situate near the end of 
Foster Lane, in Cheapside, at the upper end of 
an handsome alley, at the entrance of which is an 
ornamental doorcase, and an iron gate, and is a 
very compleat Building for the use of such a 
Company. It is adorned with Fretwork and 
Wainscot, and the Companie's arms carved in 
Stone over the Gate next the Street." 

In September, 1714, George I. made his public 
j^ entry into London, and to celebrate 

George I. the event the Company decided "to 
have new Standards, or Trophies, and this Court 
left the management thereof to the M7 and 
Wardens, Mr. John Heylen, and Mr. Thomas 
East, he being a Mercer, and this Court also 
ordered four Sir Loins of Beef, Eight Leggs of 
Pork, and Turnyps, and one dozen and a half 
of Rabitts frigusseed, and six Buttered Aple 
Pyes, to be for the Company's Dinner that day." 

In the following January, on the occasion of the 
King and Court attending a thanksgiving service 
at St. Paul's, the Company ordered a " double 
stand" to be put up, and further, that ''James 
Humphreys, a member of this Company, attend 
them w*^' a good Trumpett and Kettledrum as 
musick for that day." 

On special State occasions it was the custom, 
as will be gathered from incidents 

Processions. r i • i i • 

The Companies referred to m the precedmg pages, 
in their stands. ^^^ ^^^ Companies to stand along the 


Taketty by kind permission, from a Water Colour Draaving by Shepherd^ in the possession of 

John E. Gardner, Esq. 

History of the Company. 129 

route of procession In railed stands (as we see 
them in La Serre's print Illustrating the entrance 
of Mary de Medlcis, mother of the Consort of 
Charles I.). The arrangement and marshalling of 
the Companies was done by the direction of the 
City authorities, each Company being allotted a 
specified extent of rails and position, according to 
Its importance and precedence. The City Books 
contain a list showing the amount of space 
allotted to the several Companies on the occasion 
of the coronation of Henry VHI. and Katherine 
of Arragon. The Saddlers' Company, on that 
occasion, ranked as the 20th, and were allotted 14 
yards of rails. These rails were kept In the 
Company's cellar, and brought out as occasion 
required. Their Stand appears to have been in 
Cheapslde, in front of their Hall, and on one 
occasion they resisted an attempt to oust them 
from their old position. 

1 7 1 4. September 2 5 th. 

" Sir Sam^^ Stainer the Lord Mayor for this year haveing 
been pleased to order that this Company in case of any 
publick shews in Cheapside shall maintain their standing 
in the front of their Hall adjoining to their own ground, 
and where they have stood time out of mind till of late 
years, upon a representacon p'sented to him for that 
purpose of the first of September Inst, this Court there- 
upon ordered the s*^ representacon to be entered in their 
books and the same is as follows : — 

" To the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor. 

"The Humble Representacon of the Mar, and 
Wardens of the Company of Sadlers, London. 

130 History of the Company. 

" That the Livery men of the s"^ Company are 70. 

"That the said Company is very ancient and gav Livery 
in the reyne of Edward the First, and being seized of the 
inheritance of a large piece of ground between Gutter 
Lane and Foster Lane in Cheapside they have had 
their standing on their own ground before their Hall 
and their other houses belonging to them there on all 
solemn shows time out of mind till very lately. That 
in respect the said Company don't claim any prece- 
dency before other Companys but stand rather below 
their degree only for the sake of their own ground, and 
therefore they hope they shall be allowed their ancient 
stand according to custom without p'judice to their right 
of p'cedency on any other occasion." 

Hov^es, In his account of the procession of 
James L from the Tov^er to Westminster, on the 
occasion of his coronation, thus describes the mode 
in which these stands were used ; — 

*' The Companies of the Citie martialled according to 
their degrees were placed the first beginning at the vpper 
end of Marsh Lane and the last reaching to the Conduict 
in Fleet Street or thereabout, their seats being double- 
railed, vpon the vpper part whereof they leaned ; the 
streamers, ensignes and banners of each particular 
Company decently fixed." 

On the 24th October, 172 1, the Court ordered — 

"That if any member shall not come to the Hall on 
Lord Mayor's Day before the Ma"" goes to the stand such 
person shall forfeit half a crown or not be admitted at 
the dinner, and notice thereof in writing is ordered to be 
added to the tickets." 

After the pageant on Lord Mayor's Day was 

History of the Company. 131 

over, the Company returned to their Hall, and 
dined together. Towards the middle of the 
eighteenth century music was introduced at this 
feast, and on the 25th July, 1757, we have the 
following minute, the pastoral allusion in which is 
interesting : — 

" Ord*^ that four guineas be allowed Mr. Goodwin for 
the musick to be provided on Lord Mayor's Day next 
exclusive of the Pipe and Tabor." 

It was one of these occasions that led to the 
introduction of Prince Frederick of Wales to 
the Company in 1736, the circumstances being as 
follow : — 

On the 29th October, 1736, being Lord Mayor's 

Day, Frederick, Prince of Wales, son 

The Price of of George H., with his Consort, 

Wales joins the the PHncess Augusta, who had a 

Company. . .^ 

taste tor witnessing this historic civic 
pageant, honoured the Saddlers' Company by a 
visit to their Hall, in order, as the minute records 
it, '*to see their method, manner, and behaviour 
on that publick day," and having been saluted 
by the Court of Assistants, they were graciously 
pleased to drink prosperity to the Company. 
The Master and Clerk of the Company were 
subsequently deputed to wait upon the Prince 
to request permission to place the pictures of 
their Royal Highnesses in the Company's Hall, 
and to solicit his acceptance of the Freedom of 
the Company — a permission which the Prince, 

132 History of the Company. 

having received the Company's deputation in 
person, readily accorded. On the i8th of Novem- 
ber, the Court of Assistants, according to previous 
appointment, waited upon the Prince In a body at 
St. James's, and the Incident is fully narrated In 
the following minute : — 

" Their Clerk in a short speech returned him their 
thanks for y"" honour conferred on them by his Royall 
Highnesses presence at their hall, and requested y® 
favour of him to accept of y"" Freedom of their Company, 
and that he would permit them to have his picture in 
order to transmit to posterity so great an Honour. His 
Royall Highness thereupon gratiously condescended to 
accept of y° Freedom and to permit them to have his 
picture and y^ Master presented him with the copy of 
his Freedom in a gold box, together with y"" account of 
y^ antiquity of y'' Company. And afterwards his Royall 
Highness did y'' Court of Assistants y'^ Honour to intro- 
duce them to y*" Princess of Wales, when y^ Clerk in y^ 
name of y^ Company in like manner returned hir y^ 
Company's thanks for y^ honour done them by Her 
Royall Highnesses presence and requested y^ favour of 
her to permitt them to have her Picture, w^^' Her Royall 
Highness also gratiously condescended to grant, and all 
y® Court of Assistants and their Clerk had y*" honour of 
kissing their Royall Highnesses hands and his Royall 
Highness was pleased to order 50 guineas to be given 
to y^ Master to distribute amongst the Servants of y^ 
Company at y^ discretion of y^ Court. 

" And they were afterw"^' by his Royall Highnesses 
order, refreshed with wine." 

At a Court held on the 26th of the same month. 
Lord Baltimore having written to Inquire " the 
length and breadth of y® canvas on which the 

History of the Company. 133 

Prince and Princesses Pictures should be drawn," 
the Clerk was ordered to " waite upon his Lord- 
ship with the length and breadth of y^ Canvas of 
y^ pictures of King Charles and King James the 
Second which are in y^ Court Room."^ 

The Court on the same day resolved to present 
the Freedom of the Company to the Lords and 
Grooms of His Royal Highness's Bedchamber, to 
his Treasurer and Secretary, and to Her Royal 
Highness's Chamberlain, and copies of the Free- 
dom in silver boxes having the Arms of the 
Company engraved and gilt were accordingly 
delivered by the Clerk to the following : — 

Gentlemeit of the Bedchamber to His Royal High- 
ness^ Frederick^ Prince of Wales. 
" The Right Honourable Henry Bridges, Marquiss of 

The Right Honourable Charles Calvert, Lord Balti- 

The Right Hon^^^^ Francis, Lord North. 
The Right Hon^^^ William Villiers, Earl of Jersey. 
CJianibeidain to the Prijtcess of Wales. 
. Sir William Irby, Baronet, 

Grooms of the Bedchamber to Her Royal Highness 
Princess of Wales. 
The Hon^''« Col. John Lumley. 
The Hon^^^ Col. William Townsend. 
The Hon^^*^ Col. John Schutz. 
John Evelin, Esq." 

^ The picture of the Princess was destroyed in one of the 
fires in the beginning of this century, together with those of 
Charles II. and James II. That of the Prince still hangs in 
the Company's Hall. 

134 History of the Company. 

The Company made no attempt to conceal 
their satisfaction at the distinction conferred upon 
them by the Prince, and the expression of their 
loyalty took various forms. The January Quarter 
Court was transferred from the 25th to the 20th, 
being the Prince's birthday, while the Audit Day 
was altered to the 19th of November, being the 
birthday of the Princess. 

In July of the following year the Prince, having 
previously given his consent, was 
^^^^' elected Perpetual Master of the Com- 
pany, and the title of Prime Warden was adopted 
by the Acting Master. At the same time, a 
Banner was ordered to be made for the Company 
with the Prince's arms. 

On 4th June, 1738, the Princess having given 
birth to a Prince (George William 
^ ^ ' Frederick, afterwards George III.), 
the opportunity suggested Itself, both to the City 
and to the Company, as a fitting occasion to pay 
their respects. At a Court on the 24th June, the 
Company were informed by Sir William Irby, 
Chamberlain to the Princess, that the Prince had 
appointed " Monday, the 27th Inst., to receive the 
compliments of ye City, and Wednesday, the 
28th, for the Company's." Accordingly, on the 
day named, the Court assembled at 10 a.m., and 
proceeded to Norfolk House to congratulate their 
Royal Highnesses, ''when the Clerk, In the name 
of the Company, addressed them in the words 
following : — 

History of the Company. 135 

'* May it please your Royal Highnesses — 

" The Company of Saddlers esteem themselves greatly 
honoured by your Royal Highnesses' permission to con- 
gratulate you on this happy occasion. 

" The Increase of your Royal Highnesses' family 
presents us with a pleasing Prospect, and spreads uni- 
versal Joy over the whole nation. 

" And this Company, by Inclination as well as Duty, 
most humbly begg leave to assure your Royal Highness 
that none more ardently wish a long continuance of 
Prosperity to your Royal House. 

" And, in process of time, they doubt not but this 
young Prince will become a Blessing to Posterity by 
your Exam.ples." 

To v^hlch His Royal Highness made ansvi^er 
to the follov^ing effect, viz. : — 

" That he returned the Company thanks for their 
dutiful Address to him and the Princess, and that he 
should take all opportunities to shew his Regard to the 

And afterwards the Company were regaled with 


On the 4th May, 1739, the Court passed the 
j^ following order : — 

" That when the Princess of Wales shall be brought 
to Bed of a Prince or Princess, for the future, the Clerk 
of the Company for the time being is empowered to 
order a Bonfire to be made before the Hall. But 
if there is a sufficient time to acquaint the Master 
thereof the Clerk is to do it." 

We likewise learn that a similar form of 

136 History of the Company. 

procedure was in vogue on the anniversaries of 
the birth of their Royal Highnesses. 

In 1742, however, this custom was ordered to 
be discontinued, for reasons explained in the fol- 
lowing minute : — 

November igth. 

" Whereas several of the Company's Tennants adjoin- 
ing to the Hall, and other persons in the neighbour- 
hood, this day petitioned this Court to discontinue the 
Illuminations without doors which have been usually 
made on the Birthdays of the Prince and Princess of 
Wales, by reason of the great mobbs assembling 
together and the Injurys they generally receive thereby, 
the same was taken into consideration by the Court, 
and it appearing to this Court that great Inconvenience 
and Damage have been done to the Petitioners by such 
Illuminations, the Court therefore ordered that the 
same be discontinued this night and for the future, and 
that an advertisement be putt into the Papers specifying 
the reasons why the same were discontinued." 

On the 1 6th December, 1743, the Court again 

waited upon the Prince and Princess 
1743. . 

at Leicester House, to congratulate 

them on the birth of Prince William Henry. 

The next and last occasion was on the birth of 
Prince Henry Frederick, two years afterwards, in 
1745, a year memorable for the Scotch Rebellion. 
On that occasion the Court presented the Prince 
and Princess with the following interesting ad- 
dress : — 

" May it please your Royal Highnesses — 

" The Company of Sadicrs most humbly beg leave to 

History of the Company. 137 

approach your Royal Highnesses to congratulate you 
on the birth of another Prince, and on the happy re- 
covery of the Princess. The increase of your Royal 
Family at this time is an event which must greatly 
rejoice the heart of every true Briton, as it adds strength 
to our happy constitution now attackt by lawless rebells 
in favour of an abjured Popish Pretender. 

" Permit us (S"") to take this opportunity of expressing 
our utter abhorence to the detestable Rebellion raised 
against the government of your august Father joined 
with some of his deluded and ungrateful! subjects 
senseless of the invaluable blessings they have enjoyed 
under his most just and mild administration, an ad- 
ministration by which their religion their laws their 
liberties and properties have been most inviolately 

" Surely nothing less than madness can excite these 
wretches to attempt to change such blessings into 

" But as the wages of sin is death we hope the day of 
payment is not far off. 

" Animated (S') with these sentiments wee crave leave 
most humbly to assure your Royall Highness of our 
firm attachment to His Majesty's Royal Person and 
government. And that we will heartilly join his loyal 
subjects and with them cheerfully contribute all in our 
power to quell the factious spirits of all the restless 
enemys to your Royal House whether foreign or 

" Wee presume S"" to add our fervent prayers that the 
Almighty would bless your Royal Highnesses with 
Happiness and Prosperity And that your Royal 
descendants may transmit to latest posterity the virtues 
of their illustrious Parents as the means effectually to 
destroy the vain hopes of all future Pretenders to 
disturb the peace and government of these kingdoms." 

I ^8 History of the Company. 


To which His Royal Highness was pleased to 
answer to the following effect :— 


" Gentlemen — Your dutifull expressions of loyalty to 
my Father are very agreeable to me, and I give you 
mine and the Princess's Thanks for this repeated 
instance of your great respect to us and my Familly 
and I shall take all opportunitys of shewing my regard 
to the Company." 

''And they all had the honour to kiss their Royal 
Highnesses' hands, and were afterwards by his 
Royal Highnesses Command regaled with wine." 

The loyalty of the Company during the period 
of the Rebellion was not confined to 
words, as on the 12th December, 
1745, we find the Court resolved that — 

" In commiseration of the particular hardships and 
inconveniencys which must be suffered by such soldiers 
as are employed in his Majesties Service during the 
winter season towards the suppression of the present 
unnatural Rebellion to subscribe the sum of one hundred 
pounds to be applied towards their Relief, Support and 
Encouragement pursuant to a scheme lately published 
commonly called the Veteran Scheme, and for that 
purpose it is ordered that the Renter Warden do 
forthwith pay the said sume into the Chamber of 

The Prince of Wales died In 1751/ at the age 

of forty-four, and In the following 

^^^^' year the title of Prime Warden of 

^ The event produced the following ribald but familiar 
Jacobite epitaph : — 

History of the Company. 139 

the Company was exchanged for the old title of 

Henceforward the records of the Company 
contain little of general public interest. The 
increase of stability to the throne gave the Com- 
pany an opportunity of turning their attention to 
Internal affairs, and their participation In public 
events Is in but few cases of more than civic 

In the year 1798 occurs a record of ^200 
subscribed by the Company to the '' Voluntary 
Fund for the Defence of the Country," recalling to 
our minds the sacrifice which the country was 
called upon to make at a period when, 
having barely recovered from the strain 
of the American War, England was forced into a 
long and bitter struggle with France. The Com- 
pany had not the required sum In their exchequer 

" Here lies poor Fred, 
Who was alive and is dead ; 
Had it been his father » 

I had much rather ; 
Had it been his brother 
Still better than another ; 
Had it been his sister 
No one would have missed her ; 
Had it been the whole generation. 
Still better for the nation ; 
But since 'tis only Fred, 
Who was alive and is dead. 
There's no more to be said:" 

140 History of the Company. 

at the time they voted it, but a member of the 
Court quickly and spontaneously advanced it. 
For some time past the Company had voluntarily 
relinquished all dinners, although one would have 
thought that the glorious battle of the Nile, and 
other brilliant successes of their countrymen, 
would have afforded them many reasonable occa- 
sions for rejoicing. 

In 18 1 5 the Company's Hall, which from time 
to time had undergone extensive repairs and 
p.j.g^j.g^^^jgj.g. alterations, suffered by a fire which 
Hall. completely destroyed the Clerk's 
House.^ The Royal Exchange Insurance Com- 
pany reimbursed the Company the sum of 
^600 for the house in the passage, and the 
Hand in Hand Office paid them ^589- ^s. in 
respect of the damage to the Hall. Both of 
these sums were invested in ;^2,ooo Reduced 
Annuities, purchased for ^1,145.^ Nothing was 
apparently done in the way of repairing the 

^ In 1863, the entrance to Saddlers' Hall, then an open 
passage or gateway, was moved some 30 feet eastwards, from 
No. 143 to 141, Cheapside, the old entrance being built over. 
In 1884, Half-moon Passage, a parallel court leading from 
140, Cheapside, into a yard at the side of the Hall, and 
belonging to the Company, was covered in by new buildings. 

^ During the twenty-three years from 17 93-1 8 15, the period 
of the great French war, the National Debt w^as increased by 
upwards of ;£6oo,ooo,ooo, money being borrowed in the most 
reckless manner. In 181 5 a loan of ;£3 6,000,000 was raised, 
each subscriber of ^100 receiving ;£" 1 74 — three per cent. — 
and ^10, four per cent, stock. 


History of the Company. 141 

Hall, the damage to which does not appear to 
have been very great, and the Courts of the 
Company were occasionally held at the New- 
London Tavern close by. In 181 7, however, 
the Court seriously entertained the question of 
letting the Hall and adapting the premises of the 
London Tavern, which appear to have adjoined, 
and the lease of which had nearly fallen in. The 
following year, 1 8 1 8, the necessary repairs to the 
Hall were stated as involving an expenditure of 
^3,000. The Court, however, were indisposed 
to half measures, and appear to have contemplated 
the entire rebuilding of the Hall. Nothing, how- 
ever, was done until March, 1821, when their 
course was unexpectedly shaped for them by the 
jg2j entire destruction of the Hall in a 
The Hall Conflagration which broke out in a 
es roye . ]-^Q^gg belonging to the Company in 

Foster Lane, and tenanted by Messrs. Butler and 
Sons, manufacturing chemists. There was now 
no help for it but to rebuild. The unexpired term 
of Messrs. Butler's house was purchased by the 
Company, and part of the site of their house, 
together with the Clerk's House, was thrown into 
the new Hall. The furniture, wine, and plate, 
were removed without loss, and the painted glass 
windows escaped, and were carefully taken down 
and apparently reset in the new building. The 
furniture and the materials saved from the fire 
were ordered to be sold by public auction, and 
realised ^500. The present building was erected 
from designs by the Company's surveyor, Mr. 

L 2 

142 History of the Company. 

Jesse Gibson, and the first stone was laid on 

Thursday, 7th March, 1822. The wine cellar had 

been added to the Hall in i8os, being: 

Rebuilt 1822. , - , . . ^, ^ 

taken out 01 the ground m what was 
called " the front yard " of the Hall and 
inaugurated by a pipe of Port. Previous to this 
date we learn that the wine consumed by the 
Company was procured from the caterer who 
supplied the dinners. In the same year the 
Court decided to supply the Stewards' and Lord 
Mayors' Feasts from the Hall Kitchen. These 
feasts had hitherto been supplied from outside, 
very probably from the adjacent London Tavern. 

One of the instances recorded of the Company 

A.D. 1822. exercising their full prerogative of 

Worthless sad- search was as late as 1822. The-Com- 

dles destroyed. i • i • r i i 

pany having been iniormed by various 
London Saddlers that a certain Mr. Deykin, of 
Holborn, was in the habit of having a great 
quantity of worthless saddles made and disposing 
of them by auction, made a rigorous search 
throughout the City to find the whereabouts of 
the maker. Succeeding in the discovery, they 
appropriated sixteen of the said worthless sad- 
dles, being made of old trees covered with new 
leather, and appointed a jury of London Saddlers 
to view them, by whom they were at once con- 
demned. Mr. Deykin being summoned to appear 
before the Company, and to show cause why 
the saddles should not be destroyed, denied the 
Company's prerogative ; but of this they endea- 


History of the Company. 143 

voured to convince him by straightway ordering 
the trees and webbs to be broken, and the 
saddles returned to him to use the leather. 
Mr. Deykin's counsel being present during the 
incident, the Company refused to hear him, and 
no more protest was made. 

The last occasion but one in which the Com- 
pany took a prominent part in a public pageant 
was in 1832, in the mayoralty of their distin- 
guished member. Alderman Sir Peter Laurie. 
The Order Books relate how in that year they 
attended Sir Peter to be sworn in as Lord Mayor ; 
how, after having breakfasted with the Lord Mayor 
elect, they joined the civic procession 
Mayoralty of at Guildhall, embarked at the Tower 
Sir Peter Laurie. ^^ ^ State barge, accompanied by a 

band, and were rowed by 24 oarsmen to West- 
minster, where, after the ceremony of swearing- 
in, they re-embarked and landed at Blackfriars. 
The Company considered the occasion a fitting 
one to purchase new silk banners and the Royal 
standard, the Union flag and banners, with the 
City arms. Company's arms, and the arms of 
H.R.H. Prince Frederick of Wales, Past Master, 
then purchased, still remain in the Company's 
possession. Sir Peter Laurie at the same time 
presented the Company with a banner of his 
arms and a long silk streamer, which are similarly 

This w^as apparently the last occasion in which 
the Company took part in a pageant or State pro- 

144 History of the Company. 

cession by water.^ The mayoralty of Mr. Alderman 

Cotton, then Master of the Company, in 1875, 

^ was the next and last occasion in 

Mayoralty of 

Mr. Alderman which the Company took a prominent 
part, but the ceremonial had by this 
time become modified into the form with which 
we are more familiar. 

In 1859 the Company built their Almshouses 
at Spring Grove, Isle worth, known as Honnor's 
Home. In 1769 Young George Honnor, a 
member of the Company, bequeathed to the 
Company the residue of his estate, amounting to 
/2,828 10^. 5^., the Interest on 

Honnor's Home "^ .. - . - 

Almshouses at whicli was directed to be devoted to 
the relief of any Master, Warden, 
or Assistant that might come to decay. • This 
provision not being applied for, the Interest 
accumulated, and was added to the capital until. In 
1855, the amount had increased to ^t 7,995 4-s. 4.^. 
In that year the Company applied to the Court of 
Chancery for an extension of the application of 
the benefits to poor members of the Company, 
and a scheme was sanctioned giving them power 
to erect almshouses out of part of the accu- 
mulations, and to maintain therein eight poor 
Freemen, Freewomen, or widows of Freemen of 
the Company. The Company contributed ^1,000 
towards the buildings from their own private 

* The last procession of the Lord Mayor's Show to West- 
minster by water was on Monday, November loth, 1856. 


































History of the Company. 145 

funds, and the pensions are largely increased by 
supplementary grants from the Company. The 
first stone of the Home was laid on the 30th 
August, 1859, by the Master of the Company, 
Peter Northall Laurie, and the building was 
erected from designs by the Company's Surveyor, 
Mr. Fred. W. Porter, F.R.I. B. A. It was com- 
pleted in September, i860. 

In 1873 the Company, with a view to promoting 
the art with which they are associated, offered a 
series of premiums ranging from ten to fifty 
guineas for improvements in military saddles. 
Three judges were appointed by the Horse 
Guards, together with two members of the Court, 
Saddlers by trade. Previous to entering upon 

the competition, the Company received 

Saddlery Com- ^ scHes of sup'gestions from the Horse 

petition, 1873. ^1 .u • 

Guards, as to the pnme requisites 
in a military saddle, one of which was that it 
should be as light as possible, but sufficiently 
strong to carry a Dragoon, his arms, and 
ammunition, equipments and accoutrements, and 
to be able to stand rough usage and exposure 
on service in the field. Another was that, as the 
horses in a cavalry regiment are constantly 
changing, the saddle must be made so that it could 
be altered by slight shifting, or other method 
easily effected on service, to fit horses differing in 
shape on the back and withers. It was also to be 
made in three sizes so that it could be changed, in 
case of necessity, according to the size of the 

146 History of the Company. 

horses. Again, the saddle was to be made in 
such a way that the trees or panels could be easily 
altered or repaired ; the intention being to reduce 
the weight on the horse's back, the present 
British regulation saddle, according to the authori- 
ties at the Horse Guards, being too heavy, and 
the hind fork, which is made to carry a heavy 
tightly packed valise, being higher than neces- 
sary. It was also stated that there was an 
intention that the total weight to be usually 
carried in marching order should be reduced to 
i6st. 10 lb., but the saddle was to be sufficiently 
strong to carry extra weight. In awarding the 
premiums the following points were considered — 
lightness, strength, durability ; general fitting 
for broad, ordinary, and narrow backs ; venti- 
lation for the horse's back ; simplicity; dimen- 
sions of the rider's seat ; cheapness, and easy 
fitting to the horse's back. 

For the guidance of competitors, military 
saddles from Germany, France, Belgium, and 
America were exhibited, but the competition was 
not productive of any improvement in the present 
English military saddle. The saddles were tested 
by the Military Authorities, but no award was 

In the following year, however, the Company 

Second Saddler ^g^^ii^ offered a pHze of 50 guineas, 
Competition which was Supplemented by one of 
100 guineas, offered by Mr. Deputy 
Harris, the Master of the Company. The con- 
ditions were much the same as in the previous 

History of the Company. 147 

year, and a jury was appointed upon the joint 
nomination of the Horse Guards and the Saddlers' 
Company. The saddles sent In were publicly ex- 
hibited for some days in the Company's Hall, and 
the Exhibition was honoured by an official visit by 
H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge, who was accom- 
panied by General Sir Richard Alrey, G.C.B., 
Adjutant - General of the F'orces ; Lieutenant- 
General Sir Charles Elllce, K.C.B., Quartermaster- 
General to the Forces ; Major-General Sir 
Thomas M 'Mahon, C. B., Commanding the Cavalry 
Brigade, Aldershot, Inspector-General of Cavalry; 
Colonel Middleton, C.B., Deputy Adjutant- 
General Royal Artillery ; Colonel Clifford, V.C, 
C.B., Assistant Adjutant-General ; Colonel 
Oakes, C.B. ; Colonel Fraser, V.C, C.B. ; Cap- 
tain Fenn, Inspector of Saddlery, Royal Arsenal, 
Woolwich, and other distinguished Officers. 

With the exception of these few incidents 
^, ^. little of consequence remains to 

ine Lrivery ^ ■*• 

Companies' Com- be chronlclecl. The Municipal 

mission in 1880. r^ .,-,..„ 

Corporations Inquiry in 1834, to 
which the Company gave full information, 
possibly foreshadowed the Livery Companies' 
Commission in 1880. Here similarly the Com- 
pany, although formally refusing to admit 
the legality of the Commission, furnished full 

In connection with this Inquiry the Company 
feel great satisfaction in remembering that their 
honoured Past Master, Mr. Alderman Cottun, 

148 History of the Company. 

then Senior Member of the City, and a member 
of the Royal Commission, signed the Minority 
Report, and presented an independent protest to 
the Crown, and thereby in all probability assisted 
materially in preventing the Commission from 
overstepping the Hmits and original, intentions of 
the Inquiry. 

Internal Affairs of the Company. 149 

Internal Affairs of tfie Company. 

The Constitution of the Company. — The Master and Wardens, Origin 
of their Titles. — Renter Warden. — Under-Renter. — *' Cuplillers." — 
Election Day. — Election of Wardens. — The Livery. — Quarterage. 
— The Yeomanry. — Translation. — Feasts, Quaint Custom. — The 
Yeomanry's Dinner, or Bartholomew Feast. — Religious Observances 
of the Company. — Burials, the Funeral Pall, or "Burial Cloth," — 
Courts or Assemblies. — Fines. — The Company a " Fellowship. " — 
Members not to rebuke one another ; not to sue one another at 
law without license. — Peacemaking, Quaint Incidents. — Etiquette 
at Meetings. — Light-coloured Clothes prohibited at Meetings. — 
Apprentices "polled close." 

HE Company appears, from Its earliest 
record, to have been governed by four 
Wardens and about twenty Assistants. 
The earliest titles of the Wardens 
recorded in the Company's books are (i) Master; 
(2) Upper Warden ; (^) Second 

The Wardens. ' \vJ/ 

Warden ; (4) Renter Warden. The 
title of Upper Warden was, however, in August, 
1663, adopted as an alternative or supplementary 
title to that of Master, the Wardens then ranking 
as Master or Upper Warden, Second Warden, 
Third Warden, Renter Warden. In the year 
1737, upon the election of Frederick Prince of 
Wales as perpetual Master of the Company, the 
de facto or Acting Master assumed the title of 
Prime Warden, which, however, was relinquished 

150 Internal Afpairs of the Company. 

shortly after the death of the Prince In 1751, and 
the old title of Master resumed. 

The title of Key Warden (Second Warden) 
is, in connection with the Saddlers' Company at 
least, quite modern, and only occurs for the first 
time as recently as 1859, no cause being assigned 
for its assumption. The title of Quarter Warden 
appears to have been adopted by the Third Warden 
in 1 704 ; the intention of the change in the 
title was probably connected with the receipt of 
quarterage — a function previously performed by 
the Renter Warden, but now discharged by the 
Third Warden. This, however, is not absolutely 
clear, inasmuch as we find occasional mention 
subsequent to this date of the payment of quarter- 
age to the Renter Warden. There never appears 
to have been any attempt to interfere with the 
title of Renter Warden. In the year 1609, how- 
ever, we find mention of the office 

Under-Renter. ^ _. , . ^ 

01 U nder-Kenter : — 

1609. September nth. 

" This Court Day George Cooke was chosen o"" Vnder- 
Renter to execute his office as heretofore hath byn 
accustomed for this yere insuying. At w^'' tyme it was 
fully agreed by all the Wardens and Assistants that the 
Vnder-Renter that hereafter shalbe shall be chosen by 
the box or Cadctt (?)^ in Suche manner as the Wardeins 
be and hav been chosen." 

The Under-Renter is not mentioned again, but 

1 Probably the old ballot box which still remains in use- 

Internal Affairs of the Company. 151 

in place of him we find mention the following 
year of the election of two"Cupfillers," 

Cupfillers. , , - 1 r 

who appear to have been members 01 
the Livery, Their office is probably defined in 
the name, although another function is recorded 
to them in 1634 : — 

1634. March \<^th. 

" At this Court it is ordered that the cupfiller shall 
take charge of o'' naperie and deliver it to washings 
and receive it back again and not suffer it to be lent 
out to any." 

Upon the Renter devolved the custody of the 
keys of the " Treasurie," or Plate and Money 
Chest, a charge which must occasionally have 
been a little irksome, albeit honourable, as we 
read on one occasion that he was fined ^y^ 
shillings for coming to Court without his keys, and 
on numerous other occasions in smaller amounts 
for being late. 

The ordinances of the Company, ratified in 
Election of ^^ reign of Elizabeth, set forth that 
Wardens, q^ the day fixed for the election 
of Wardens — the 14th August — the Assistants, 
Livery, and the householders of the mystery, i.e., 
those who kept shop, should assemble at the Hall 
before the hours of nine o'clock in the morning, 
under a penalty of twelve pence — the same to be 
employed in the relief of poor members. Upon 
assembling, the Company proceeded by couples 


Internal Affairs of the Company. 

to church to hear Divine Service ; the Wardens 
walking first, then the Livery, the '' householders" 
next, and lastly, the freemen. After returning to 
the Hall, the Company proceeded to the election 
of Wardens for the year ensuing, or for two years 
if it was thought convenient, and any Warden 
refusing office forfeited the sum of forty shillings, 
to be levied upon his goods and chattels. The 
ordinances ratified 6 James I. increased the fine 
for absence from the election from twelvepence 
to three shillings and fourpence, and made no 
mention of the necessity for the attendance of 
the Livery and Commonalty, whose participation 
in the election would appear from the following 
minute to have been discontinued by these latter 
ordinances : — 

1646. August 14///. 

'* At this Co'"* the Liverie appeared without sumons, 
and by appoyntment sent into the Court twoe of them, 
viz*., Thomas Jones and Will'" Deacon, to make knowne 
to the Court their desire v/''' was that they desired to 
ioyne with them in the eleccon of Wardens w'^^ the 
Court denyed." 

The ordinances ratified 21 Charles IL make it 
clear that the privilege and power of the election 
of Wardens is restricted to the old Wardens and 
Assistants, and set forth that after hearing Divine 
Service subsequent to the election, the Assistants 
and Livery shall dine together, and that at such 
dinner the old Wardens '' shall solemnly make an 
open presentation and confirmation of the said 

Internal Affairs of the Company. 153 

election in the said Hall In the presence of all 
such of the said Livery and others then and there 
assembled." These ordinances also increase the 
penalty for refusing to serve the office of Warden 
to ten Pounds, and there are instances where the 
penalty has been increased to twenty. 

The Company's books do not inform us the 
colour of the Livery, but on one 

Livery. . , , 

occasion, when seventeen members 
v^^ere chosen on to the Livery, i6th April, 1664, 
instructions were given to the Clerk "to repaire 
to all ye seuerall persons aforesaid and deliver 
unto them their patterns of their cloath for their 
gowns and hoods." The ceremony of clothing or 
conferring the Livery consisted in the putting on 
of the hoods of the newly-elected members, which 
was performed in open hall by the Master — a 
custom which is still performed in a modified 

The ordinances of Elizabeth empowered the 
Wardens and Assistants as often as they chose to 
elect so many of the younger men of the mystery 
into the Livery and clothing ''as shall seem unto 
them meet and convenient for the worship of the 
City and the honesty of the fellowship," and a fine 
of 35. 4^. was imposed upon each person taking up 
the Livery. Any member " of his obstinacy and 
forwardness " refusing to take upon him the 
clothing was ordered to pay a penalty of 40 
shillings. Instances are on record as late as 1783 
of members prosecuted by the Company for 
refusing to take up the Livery. The ordinances 

154 Internal Affairs of the Company. 

of 21 Charles II. Increased the fine on joining to 
ten pounds, to which are added lo shillings to the 
Clerk, and 35. 4<^. to the Beadle ; while the 
penalty for refusing the clothing is Increased to 
twenty pounds. The number of the Livery is 
not restricted either by the ordinances or Charters. 

Quarterage, i.e., a quarterly subscription or 
contribution, paid by every freeman 

Quarterage. r i ^ • r • i • 

01 the Company, is tirst mentioned in 
the Charter of Elizabeth, and is therein fixed at 
3^. This was increased to 6^. by the ordinances 
of 1669, which also direct it to be paid by every 
unmarried sister of the fellowship, although the 
Charter of Charles II., 1684, only requires it to 
be paid by every Yx^(tman " for the support of 
the Infirm poor and old men of the mistery or art 
aforesaid, and for the amending of the state of 
the commonwealth of the Wardens," &c. 

The frequent mention of the word '' yeomanry " 
in the Company's books is a little 

Yeomanry. - . ^_^, 

perplexing, i he yeomanry appear to 
have been a distinct class from, and subordinate to, 
the Livery. The term is also met with In connec- 
tion with other Companies, and apparently corres- 
ponds to the '' bachelerie " of certain of them. In 
the dispute between the serving-men and masters 
of the Saddlers' trade in the reign of Richard II., 
related on p. 46 e^ seq., the serving-men are also 
called *' yeomen." Moreover, in that account 
the serving-men are charged with corrupting the 

Internal Affairs of the Company. 155 

journeymen, inferentially a distinct and different 
body. Viewed in that light it is possible that the 
apprentices were intended — in this particular inci- 
dent it is extremely likely. Again, on numerous 
occasions we find in the Company's books records 
of apprentices bound for terms of seven and eight 
years, the apprentice being described in scores of 
instances as *' yeoman," and the ordinary impracti- 
cability of holding a man apprentice after he 
had attained his majority would suggest that these 
yeomen were decidedly very young men. We 
are inclined to think, however, that wherever 
the word yeomanry occurs as referring to a class, 
the body intended to be understood is the shop- 
keepers — '' householders," as they were called. 
In the ordinances of 21 Charles II., it is stated 
that the members of the Livery shall be taken into 
the clothing from the yeomanry ; the ordinances 
of 6 James I., moreover, contain an enlargement 
of the liberty of the yeomanry for keeping appren- 
tices, from all of which it is pretty clear that 
whatever may have been the original signification 
of the term, the term yeomanry referred to the 
working members of the trade and Company next 
below the Livery, in contradistinction to those 
members of the Company who pursued other 
trades and occupations. The yeomanry are men- 
tioned as attending the quarter Courts. 

The ordinances of the Company prohibited any 

Translation from "lember from translating himself out 

the Company, of the Company to any other Mystery, 


156 Internal Affairs of the Company. 

fellowship, or occupation without the express con- 
sent of the Wardens and Assistants of the 
Saddlers' Company in writing under their common 
seal, upon a penalty of twenty pounds, half of 
which penalty was to be paid to the Crown and 
the other to the Company. 

1663. December 22nd. 

" Ordered y* Edward Fisher, Carpinter and member 
of this Company at his earnest request and his p'mise 
to giue unto this Company a peece of plate shall be 
translated to y*" Comp^ of Carpinters." 

A somewhat similar law seems to have been 
adopted by other Companies, as on the 22nd 
December, 1653, we read that — 

" At this Court Robert Waring whoe on the 29 Sep- 
tember last was translated by cosent of six of the 
members of y® Society of Goldsmiths to this Society 
(the Saddlers) was made free of this Society and gave 
20s. to the use of the poore of this fellowshipp. D"^ to 
Warden Milsonne xxV 

On the 13th October, 1663, three members of 
the Company having assumed the trade of Inn- 
holders and been proceeded against by the Inn- 
holders' Company, were defended by the Saddlers' 
Company, although the cause and the result is 
not stated. That the Company, however, did 
not always resist the translation of its members is 
clear from the followin^r : — 


Internal Affairs of the Company. 157 

1666. Jamiary 2yd. 

" This day John Gase a member of this Company 
appeared and desired leaue of this Court that he may 
be translated over from this Company to the Company 
of Bakers in regard hee hath left of the profession of a 
Sadler and hath betaken himselfe wholly to the traide of 
a Baker. It was therefore ord^'ed y' y® say*^ John Gase 
shall have leaue to be translated to the Bakers accord- 
ing to his desyre he first paying to the Wardens for the 
use of the (fellowship) the sume of Tenn Pounds." 

And afterwards at the same Court : — 

" It is ordered y* John Gase a member of this Com- 
pany and now exercise y® traide of a Baker shall from 
henceforth serue y® Company with breade upon all 

Concerning the feasts of the Company the most 
important v^as what was called the 


Master's Feast, which was held after 
the election of Wardens on the 14th August. 
What little we know about the other feasts is 
gathered from a minute on the 27th November, 
1645, which fixes the expenditure on those occa- 
sions. For instance, the expense for victuals, 
wine, and all other charges of the — 


" 4 quarter search dinners (was) not to exceed . 30 

4 usual quarter days . . . . . . . . 40 

Michaelmas (Lord Mayor's feast) 

5 November 

Midsummer Day with half of livery 

Audit Day 

View Day in September 

Special Meetings of the Wardens 



\2d. a head." 
M 2 

158 Internal Affairs of the Company. 

If any money were spent In excess of these 
sums it was ordained that the Wardens should 
pay such excess themselves. The Entertainments 
of the Company, however, appear from time to 
time to have been regulated by their finances, the 
condition of which not Infrequently— especially 
during the epoch of civil war In the seventeenth 
century — prevented any festivity. Similar minutes 
to the following occur over and over again : — 

161 8. December ^ist. 

"It is this daie ordered that whereas the ancient 
custom hath byn to kepe one qter dynner yearely in 
the month of Januarie that this yeare the said dynner 
shall not be kept in respect of the manie suits the 
Companie now have." 

1696. July 2nd. 

" It being moved that by reason of the 

scarcity of money and badness of Trade the same 
ffeast may not be kept this year the same is ordered 

That the Company were not to be trifled with 
In the matter of their diet is clear from the fol- 
lowing record : — 

1 6 14. Febrtiaiy \AftJi. 

" This daie Warden Boyden is fyned in twentie 
shillings for that at our last gen'all quarter day hee 
p'vided not such dyet to the Companie's good liking as 
heretofore hath bin accustomed." 

Internal Affairs of the Company. 159 

A curious custom, and one which also obtained 
with other Companies, was In vogue with the 
Saddlers' Company. This was for the junior 
members of the Livery to wait upon their seniors 
at all feasts and dinners, a custom which, doubt- 
less, had Its origin In the early Christian Church. 
The following excerpts from the minutes are 
adduced In Illustration : — 

1 61 7. August yth. 

" At this Court it was fully concluded that there 
should be a Masters Dynner kept att our Hall on 
Tuesdaie the xix"' daie of this p'sent month. There 
were appoynted to be wayters at the same dynner 
Thomas Hall, Will"^ Collins, Robert Dowgill, and Will'" 

1 6 19. October yth} 

" This daie Robert Dowgill, Nathaniel Forman, 
Thomas Goodale, and Henry Eleoch were appointed 
Whiflers to waite on the Companie on the Lord Maiors 
daie next." 

1 63 1. September i/^th. 

"At this Court upon the request of Mr. Warden 
Burt his sonne Nathaniell Burt is to be taken into the 

^ The records of the Vintners' Company show that the practice 
with that and other Companies was " for the youngest of the 
Liverye at the chief feasts and solempnities at the Coen Hall 
to have caryed the dyett to all the tables, and afterwards sett 
themselves according to their places." See paper read by the 
late Mr. W. Overall before the London and Middlesex 
Archseological Association, entitled "Some Account of the 
Vintry, and of the Vintners' Company." 

i6o Internal Affairs of the Company. 

Clothinge of this fellowship and likewise it is ordered 
that Daniell Potter, Michael Helmsley, and Thomas 
Starkey shalbe also taken into the Clothinge to serve 
on the Lord Maiors daie." 

1632. December 20th. 

" At this Court William Grantham was fined in ij' vj'^ 
for not wayting on Michaelmas Daie whereof he paid 
xij*^ w^' was delivered to Mr. Warden Pease." 

It was customary for a yeomanry's dinner to be 
held annually on or near St. Bartholomew's Day 
(24th August) ; this was the origin of the present 
Stewards' Festival. Two members of the Livery 
were annually and in turn appointed by the title 
of '' Wardens of the Yeomanry and Stew^ards ot 
the Lord Mayor's Feast." From a minute in 
September, 1607, and again in July, 161 4, we 
learn that the Wardens of the yeomanry were 
elected publicly in the Hall at a general assembly, 
and that after their election they made a banquet 
to the Assistants and Livery, who accompanied 
them home for the purpose. Subsequently the 
newly elected Wardens of the yeomanry were 
required to feast the yeomanry in the Hall, on or 
about St. Bartholomew's Day, usually a few days 
later, to which feast we find by a minute on the 
14th August, 1 7 13, the members were allowed to 
bring their apprentices and boys; the obligations of 
the Wardens of the yeomanry ceased upon giving a 
dinner to the Assistants and Livery on Michaelmas 
Day, known as the Lord Mayor's Feast. Failure 
to keep these feasts involved a fine of ^20, which 

Internal Affairs of the Company. i6i 

was paid to the Renter Warden, who was required 
to hold the feast himself therewith, and the Court 
usually allowed the Wardens of the yeomanry, 
or Stewards, £/\. towards the cost, which was 
not Infrequently supplemented by a buck. As 
time went on the Court appear to have Introduced 
their ladies to these feasts, as we gather from a 
minute of 8th August, 1677 : — 

" This day Mr. Robert Johnson and Mr. John Randall, 
late chosen Stewards for the Bartholomew feast, appeared 
and declared as formerly they would hold the Feast but 
not treate the women. The Court ordered them better 
to consider of it." 

The Court appear to have ''better considered 
of It " shortly afterwards, for we find that in March 
of the following year they agreed to allow the 
Stewards ^15 towards their charge. This 
liberality appears to have been discounted by a 
resolution at the same time, requiring the Stewards 
to provide music and wine and victuals, according 
to a mmu appointed by the Court. ^ 

1 From a MS. by the late Mr. W. C. Humphreys, Master of 
the Company in 1863, which has been placed in our hands, it 
appears that it was formerly the custom at the Stewards' Feast 
for the newly elected Stewards, wearing crowns of laurel and 
tinsel, to parade the Hall, accorapanied by two members of 
the Livery next in rotation to serve the office, and preceded 
by the Beadle and Under Beadle in gowns, with their maces 
and by a band of music. The procession would halt at the 
chair of the Master, who would drink to the Stewards' health, 
and address them in felicitous terms. The custom is in the 

1 62 Internal Affairs of the Company. 

The following curious minutes are selected 
from a large number relating to this feast. 

1 605. November 1 2th. 
"At this Courte Nicholas Mathew and Anthony 
Clowse being this yere Wardeynes of our yeomandry 
and also Stuards of the Lord Maior's feaste were granted 
by the M"" Wardens and their Assistants towards their 
charge for keeping those dynners fowre pounds to be 
paid to them by the Wardene Rent" 

-r » 

1 607. Sept em her 1 7 th. 
"It was fully ordered at this Courte that George 
Potter and Rowlande Hodges shall at their charge make 
a dynner for ye Wardens Assistants and Lyvery on 
Michelmas Daye next after this Courte Daye to such as 
come to choosing of the Lord Mayor in respect that the 
Company did not charg them at their owne houses after 
their election to beare the charge of the yeomandrye's 

1608. February, 
" George Potter and W"". Pilcharde late Stewards of 
the Lord Mayor's Feast shalbe paide towards their 
charge fower pounds and more for baking of venyson 
1 3^". which the Gierke p*^." 

1 6 14. July igtk. 
" Whereas Olliver Houghton and Nathaniel Burte 

, were warned to appear this first daie of 
Houghton and 
Burte fined by September before our Mr Wardens and 

reason of a p'cept Assistants and by them were made ac- 

p nibiting leasts •', , . , ^^ 

by the Lord quayutcd Concerning their cleccon to be 
Mayor. Wardens of the yeomandry this next yeare 

memory of members still living, and was discontinued about 
1855. There is little doubt that it remained from very remote 

Internal Affairs of the Company. 163 

ensuing w'' eleccon hath bin accustomed to bee made 
publickly in o'" Hall at a generall assembly. And after 
the saide eleccon soe made the said new elected Wardens 
were to make a banquett to those that accompanyed 
them to theire houses. It is this day ordered that the 
said Olliver Houghton and Nathaniell Burte shall insted 
thereof make a dynner upon the fifte of November 
next fo'' our M"" Wardens and the rest of the Assistants 
and Livery at there owne charge at such place as they 
shall be appointed whereof they both gave their 

1625. July igtk. 

" It is this dale ordered that Toby Harvest and 
Thomas Hough (by and w^^ their assente and consente) 
shall pay or cause to bee paid to this fellowship in lieu of 
the charge they should have borne at the yeomandries' 
dynner and the Lord Maior's dale The some of xx^ a 
peece if either of them shalbe livinge^ the Tuesdaie 
next after Bartholomew daie next coming viz., ffifteene 
pounds a peece and the other ffive pounds a peece is 
to be paid by them on the Lord Maior's daie next 

1625. MarcJi 2nd. 

" At this Court Toby Harvest brought in his ffine of 
twenty pounds w^' was delivered to the Wardens. 

" It was likewise ordered that upon the delivering 
of a good sweete and fatt buck of seazon there 
shalbe given unto the said Toby Harvest the some of 
ffower pounds." 

^ This saving clause refers to the plague than devastating 
London, in which over 35,000 persons perished. 

164 Internal Affairs of the Company. 

1627. December 6th. 

" At this Court it is ordered that the Wardens of the 
yeomandrie shall have given them the some of ffive 
pounds and a noble ande xxvj^ viij*^ is allowed for a 
messe of meate on the Lord Mayor's daie." 

1 63 1. November lytJi. 

" At this Court it is ordered that there shall be paid 
to Wardens of the yeomandrie for two messe of meate 
w^^' they p'vided on the Lord Maior's daie in the Parlor 
V;^. And it is further ordered that the Renter Warden 
shall paie them towards their charge the sum of fower 

1 640. A iigtist 6th. 

" At this Co*"**^ itt is ordered that Thomas Jones and 
Josuah Sheppard shall keepe their yeomandries dynner 
att the accustomed tymes of St. Bartholomew and the 
Lord Maior's Day." 

In 1624 it was ordained that " the custom of 
bringing home the Wardens of the yeomanry 
having been long ago broken off by reason of 
some disorder to the discredit of the fellowship, 
the said custom of ' bringing home ' and the 
charge arising therefrom should be wholly re- 
mitted, but that the yeomanry's dinner, or Bartho- 
lomew's Feast, as well as the Lord Mayor's 
dinner, should be continued." 

The Company ensured a fair supply of venison 
by requiring the annual gift of a buck from 
their tenants, or a monetary equivalent. The 
practice was by no means an uncommon one at 
the time : — 

Internal Affairs of the Company. 165 

161 1. May lOtJi. 

" It was ordered at this Courte that M'' John Hall 
shall have a Lease of his newe Dwelling house in West- 
chepe knowen by the signe of the Broode Hen and black 
beare for the terme of one and thirtye yeres to begyn at 
Mids'" next for the yearly rent of eight pounds and a 
bucke of season being a fallowe Deere or iij^ in money 
for not delyvering the same. The first paym* to begyn 
on August next and to resyne his olde lease." 

Another quaint custom in connection with the 
granting of the Company's leases was the pre- 
sentation by the tenant of gloves to the Assistants 
when the lease was sealed. 

The ordinances, ratified 21 Charles II., appoint 
twelve Courts to be held during each year, i.e.^ 
four quarter days, and two other Courts in each 
quarter at convenient times. Every member of 
the fellowship, without a reasonable excuse, failing 
to attend a meeting of the Company at the hour 
for which he was duly summoned, usually 9 o'clock 
in the morning, was liable by the ordinances of 
Elizabeth to a penalty of five shillings, and if he 
absented himself altogether, to a penalty of forty 
shillings. Any more serious offence committed 
either against the State or the fellowship was 
punishable by any fine the Wardens might choose 
to inflict, in addition to imprisonment at the dis- 
cretion of the same body : — 

On 7th February, 16 10, we read that — 

" Robert Christie (a member of the Court) for disobe- 
dience against the whole Company was this Court day 
committed to the Counter in Wood Street." 

1 66 Internal Affairs of the Company. 

1609. September nth. 

" Yt was ordered at this Courte by a whole consent 
that Roger Tvrner shuld (for great missdemenours or 
speeches agaynst the whole Company of Wardeins and 
Assistents) be sent to the Counter w'^*' was p'sently effected 
to answere the same." 

16 14. October nth. 

" It is this day ordered vpon the humble peticon of 
Christopher Harwood that the said Xtopher (being 
prisoner in Ludgate) being detayned for his fees w*^'' 
amount vnto xxx^ shalbe discharged out of the said 
prison soe as hee bee by payment thereof discharged of 
his sayd ymprisonment" 

The ordinances of James increased the penal- 
ties. Those ratified by 21 Charles II. imposed a 
special fine of 6^. 8^. upon the Wardens for 
absence from the Court meetings, although this 
was subsequently increased. Records similar to 
the following occur frequently in the minutes : — 

1633. July izth. 

" At this Court Mr. John Laney, Will™ Abbott, and 
Thos. Harrisonne were fined in vj'^ a peece for cominge 
late w^^ was delivered to M'' Warden Lee." 

"At an assemblie the 27th dale of March, being the 
King's Coronacon daie, there were fined in xij'^ a piece 
for late cominge Tho' Mason, W™ Freeman, John Cox, 
Edmond Hillyard, Daniell Holdenbie, Thos. Tanner, 
Will"^ Grantham. D^^ to M"" Warden Lee, vij^" 

1634. July lyth. 

" At this Court Willm. Freeman, Robt. Bollingc, An- 
drew Gowland, Ellis Parrie, were fined in twoe shillings 

Internal Affairs of the Company. 167 

six pence a peece for cominge late, w*"^ was D'^ to M"" 
Warden Lee, x^'' 

1644. October it^tk 

"At this Court it is ordered that there shalbe a Court 
on Wednesdaie come se'night. And it is further ordered 
that he w^^ shalbe wantinge at nine of the Clock, at 
w^'' time the Court is to sitt, is to paie for a fine ij^ vj*^ 
for his or their late cominge." 

1654. August \\tJi. 

** At this Court Edward Smith (a warden) paid thirty 
shillings for a fine for his absence on Quarter Day. D*^ 
Ward" Melsonne xxxV 

The Company's ordinances were devised and 
calculated to remind members that they belonged 
not only to a Company but to 2. fellowship. Mem- 
bers were expressly forbidden "to revile, rebuke 
or reproue," or otherwise to '' behaue unseemly " 
to one another upon a pain of five shillings, in- 
creased by the ordinances of 1669 to ten shillings. 
The act of striking or assaulting another member 
was punishable by a fine of twenty shillings. 

The incident recorded in the following minute 
is curious and interesting : — 

1 64 1. November I'^th. 

" At this Court Warden Cox complayned on Robt. 
Dowgill for that he had abused (him), and at the same 
tyme he was likewise complayned of by diverse others 
of the Assistants. After w^^' he beinge asked whether he 
would submit himself to the Table he answered he knew 

1 68 Internal Affairs of the Company. 

their malice, and beinge called to goe into the Hall he 
flung out of the Court sayinge I see y'''' malice is against 
me. And being called in againe he answered You can 
doe mee noe hurt and I will doe you noe good. And 
soe goeing out of the Court and throwing off his gowne 
sayinge Farewell, you are willing to be rid of mee and 
I am as willing to be rid of you. Vpon w""^ his misde- 
meanour contempt and scornefull carrynge It is ordered 
that he shall not be warned to doe the Companie any 

At a subsequent Court we are informed that 
the delinquent presented himself and asked to be 
heard in defence and to be received, but upon the 
imposition of a fine and the question being put 
to him whether he would '' frame himself that 
they might hereafter live brotherly together," he 
replied " that he feared If hee should come 
amongest them he should break out again, w^^ 
modest answere satisfied the Court for the p'sent," 
and It was ordered that when he desired to be 
readmitted he should pay his fine and submit 
himself to the Table. 

So rigorous was the regulation Imposing a 
respectful demeanour between members enforced, 
that on one occasion when a member of the 
Livery had been removed from the Court for 
disobedience, one of the Assistants, for calling him 
a '' base fellow," was promptly reprimanded and 

1 6 10. Febntary i6tk. 
Robert Christie " Robert Cristie for disobedience agenst 
yne o v . ^^j^^j^ Company was this Court Day 
comytted to the Counter in Wood Street." 

Internal Affairs of the Company. 169 

" Mr. Holbeame for saying that Robert Christie was 
but a base fellowe, being so disobedient as 
^af^e^ofv"^^ the said Cristie showed himself at this 
Courte, a fyne of v'." 

1703. October 20th. 

" At this Court the said Mr. John Shelton and John 
Wynd were ord*^ to withdraw and then the question was 
put what fhne should be laid upon the said John Wynd for 
reviling the said Mr. Shelton with opprobrious lan- 
guage for charging him with having made saddles of 
sheepskin leather in open Court held the 20th Oct. last 
and at other times and places, and thereupon the said 
John Wynd was fined 10' for his said offence, and after- 
wards the said John Wynd being called into the Court 
and acquainted with his ffine, he affronted and abused 
the Court very much, reviling them with bad language 
and saying that some men could sin without any regrett 
or remorse, and made a sort of May game of the Court, 
and afterwards the question was put what fine should be 
laid upon him for abusing and affronting the Court, and 
thereupon he was fined 40^ for the said offence." 

No member was allowed to sue another at 
law without the permission of the Wardens first 
had and obtained. In the event of a grievance 
or dispute between them, the member so aggrieved 
was required to make complaint and " shew his 
cause of grief" unto the Wardens, who, upon 
hearing both parties, gave '' an order for an 
unity, peace, and concord to be had between 
them according to right, equity and conscience." 
When the dispute was of a serious nature it was 
customary for the parties to be summoned and 
asked whether they would submit themselves to 

170 Internal Affairs of the Company. 

the Table of the Court. If one refused, per 
mission was given for an appeal to the law. 
Remarkably enough, there is no instance in the 
Company's Order Books of an appeal to the law 
after a judgment or award had been made by the 

1608. October \oth. 

" This quarter dale Robert Labourne for arresting of 
Thomas Newbury w%ut leave demanded of his Wardens 
and Assistants was fyned according to the orders of o' 
house to paye fortie shillings and paide but five shillings 
for y* was scene the said Labourne had good cause of 

1609. Septe77iber iith. 

" It is ordered that Richard Chambers shall have 
license to take the lawe of John Downes for want he 
came not in upon warning." 

1647. Nor ember 5///. 

''At this Court John Cox (an Assistant) was fined in 
ten shillings for misdemeanour against Warden Perkins 
in the p'sence of our M' and for arresting him without 
asking leave of the Company." 

The Company's method of settling differences 
between its members deserves a passing illustra- 

1606. Noveiizber 20th. 

"This daie Nicholas Newton and Roger Lloyd were 
fyned in 5^ apiece for misdemeanours committed by 
them both one against the other the last quarter day 

Internal Affairs of the CoMrANY. 171 

whereof was given them back againe to drink in wyne 
xij*^. And at the same tyme they promised love each to 

1639. Deceniber lyth. 

" The difference between Thos. Harrison and Robert 
Dowgill this day being heard by this Court. Itt is this 
day ordered that they shall be loveing friends and all 
differences shall bee ended. And y^ Robt. Dowgill 
shall drinke to Thos. Harrison first and shall say if I 
have overshot myself in words I am sorry and the said 
Thos. Harrison shall pledge him and they both shall 
shake hands." 

In one Instance we read that the Court were 
called upon to settle a quarrel between two Assis- 
tants and their respective wives. As may be 
anticipated, in a case where contending ladies 
were parties the Court was unsuccessful, and the 
opponents and their better halves were allowed 
to invoke the supreme arbitrament of the law. 

The etiquette of the Company was quite de 
rigiieur. Quitting a Court before the assembly 
was over, or conversing during the Court, was 
promptly punished by a fine. Members were 
forbidden to attend the Courts In light-coloured 
suits, and more than one member paid the penalty 
of his Bohemianism. In fact, this offence being 
repeatedly brought under the attention of the 
Court, It became, in 1644, the subject of a special 


172 Internal Affairs of the Company. 

1644. July gth, 

"At this Court it is ordered that none of the Assistants 
or Clothinge of this Fellowship shall come to the Hall 
either on q'ter daie or at any Generall Meetings when 
the Assistants and Clothinge meete in a light-coloured 
suite upon paine to forfeit for every tyme soe comeinge 
twoe shillings and sixpence." 

On one occasion we read of two members fined 
for attending the Court in lawyers' gowns. Under 
a regime so absolute the opportunities of adding 
to the Company's exchequer were numerous 
enough. The proceeds, however, derived from 
these penalties were put into the Poor Box, from 
which the Company's poor were relieved by the 
Wardens at the Hall door after every Court. 

In the matter of the personal appearance of 
their journeymen and apprentices the Company 
appear to have exercised aesthetic discriminations, 
although not of the modern type, as we gather 
from the following curious minute : — 

1607. May i^tli. 

"At this Court the late apprentice of Roland Newton 
named Wm. Dennard, and the apprentices of Bywell 
and Browne named Henry Cavill and Anthony Scale 
wearing long hair were polled closse and Thomas 
Solomon the younger his man was polled also." 

The Company's faculty of ratiocination seems 
to have been quaint and original, judged from the 
following incident : — In the year 1719a Livery- 

Internal Affairs of the Company. 173 

man, who had challenged the Master to a duel, 
was ordered to be prosecuted. In order, as the 
minute naively remarks, ''to bring him into a 
Christian temper." 

The religious observances of the Company 
„ ,. . , deserve more than a passing^ notice. 

Religious obser- . ^ ^-^ 

varices of the Going back as far as Anglo-Saxon 

Company. . i r i 

times, we learn Irom the convention 
between the Saddlers and the Canons of St. 
Martin's-le-Grand, which throws a curious light 
upon the religious customs of the Guild, that, in 
those early days, the Company, among other 
spiritual observances, were in the habit of attend- 
ing the Chapel of the Convent on the Feast of 
St. Martin. The present practice of attend- 
ing St. Vedast's on Election Day is of great 
antiquity.-^ The City archives inform us that in 
the fourteenth century the serving-men of the 
Saddlers' trade were in the habit of attending 
Divine Service in that church on the Feast of the 
Assumption, properly the 15th August, in imita- 
tion, it appears, of their masters, who, it is 
probable, continued their attendance at St. 
Martin's-le-Grand until the demolition of the 
Sanctuary in 1548, when they transferred their 

^ Within recent years it was the custom for each member of 
the Company and the Chaplain to be presented by the Renter 
Warden with a bouquet, which was carried to the Church, a 
practice now discontinued. 

N 2 

174 Internal Affairs of the Company. 

spiritual connection to St. Vedast/ The custom 
of having a Chaplain, whose office it now is to 
preach the Election Sermon before the Com- 
pany, dates at least as far back as a.d. 1398, 
when Richard II. granted to the Company in 
his Charter to have " one Chaplain to celebrate 
divine service for our healthfull estate while we 
live, and for our souls when we shall have 
migrated from this light, and for the estate and 
souls of the men of the mystery and commonalty 
aforesaid, and for the souls of all the faithful 
dead for ever." 

The frequent allusion to burials recalls a 

custom of some interest. Upon the death of 

a brother or sister of the fraternity, the body 

was taken into the Common Hall and there 

^, ^ , covered with the Company.s State 

1 he Company s ^ -^ 

Pall or Burial Pall or Herse-Cloth. In ancient 

Cloth. . 1 r 1 

times, we learn irom the convention 
already referred to that the interment took 
place in the cemetery of the Convent of St. 
Martin's ; subsequently the precincts of St. 
Vedast afforded a resting-place for the remains 
of departed members. The whole Company 
appear to have been summoned to 
the funeral ; the ordinances of Eliza- 
beth imposed a fine of sixpence for late attend- 
ance at, and of twelve pence for total absence 
from a burial; the ordinances of 1608 increased 

^ St. Vedast, which adjoins Saddlers' Hall, abuts on the site 
of the old Sanctuary of St. Martin's. 


Internal Affairs of the Company. 175 

these penalties to two shillings and sixpence and 
three shillings and fourpence respectively. Mis- 
demeanour at burials were similarly punished. 

1609. October i6th. 

'' The same daye rec. of Alexander Corser, for wearing 
of a hatt at John Hall's buryall vj*^^." 

1633. May i/[th. 

"At this Court Daniell Potter was fined ij' vj'' for 
coming in a fallinge bande to the buryall of Mr. 
Freeman, whereof hee paid vj*^ w^^' was D'^ to Mr. 
Warden Pease." 

1633. June I'^th. 

" At this Court Edmund Sheppard was fined in ij' vj*^ 
for not coming to the buryall of Mr. Thomas Freeman, 
whereof hee paid xij*^ w'^^ was delivered to Mr. Warden 

The funeral was generally followed by a feast or 
repast, towards the charge of which the departed 
member customarily bequeathed a sum of money. 
When this did not happen, the Company appear 
to have borne the expense. In November, 1645, 
however, the Court ordered that no more should 
be spent in burial feasts than was bequeathed for 
the purpose. 

The following minute refers to the burial of 
an Assistant, who apparently died in straightened 
circumstances : — 

1/6 Internal Affairs of the Company. 

1655. February ^t/i. 

" At this Court it is ordered that Warden Sheppard 
shall lay out ;^5 in wine and Naples biskett for Mr. 
Christy his Buriall and deliver to Mrs. Christy 5;^ in 
money as the guift of this fellowship." 

In certain bye-laws of the Company, laid 
down in 1624, it was " ordeyned that ever here- 
after at the buriall of any other brother or sister, 
there shall be no service of cornfitts, bread, nor 
wyne given to the Liverie in the streets, but 
whatsoever shall be given shall be paied in readie 
money to be laied out in a dinner or supper for the 
said fellowship." 

The Hall was occasionally let for burial cere- 
monials and feasts on the occasion of the death 
of persons not members of the Company, and the 
letting of the Hall for funerals was at one time a 
privilege permitted to the Clerk. In April, 1721, 
however, this privilege was withdrawm, the Clerk 
being allowed only 13.9. /[d. on each funeral, the 
rates for which are thus defined : — 

" When the Hall and all the avenues are hung with 
mourning and an alcove made, fiue guineas. 

" When hung with mourning without an alcove, at 
three guineas. 

" When made use of without mourning, two guineas. 

"And the undertakers to make good all damages." 

From a minute about the same time we also 
learn that prior to this it was the custom for the 

Internal Affairs of the Company. 177 

Wardens on these occasions to receive the gift of 
rings as their doitceitr. 

The funerals very frequently took place at 
night. Machyn, In his diary, gives an Interesting 
account of one In 1552. 

" The XV day of Juin was bered Baptyst Borrow the 
melener without Crepull-gate in Saint Gylle's parryche 
with a penon a cote armur and a harold and with xxiij 
stayffes-torches and so xxiij pore men here them and 
many morners in blake and the Company of the Clarkes 
wher ther and ys plase was hangyd with blake and 
armes vj dozen." 

Mr. Thomas Adderley, a member of the Com- 
pany and an antiquary of some note, writing to 
the ''Gentleman's Magazine," in 181 3, states that 
the Saddlers' Company still had in use at that 
time the old funeral sconces remaining from the 
custom of burying corpses by torchlight — a cus- 
tom which, he adds, was still fresh in his memory.^ 

The Company still possess their old funeral 
pall, or "burial cloth." It consists of a rect- 
angular panel of rich crimson brocaded velvet 
Interwoven with gold thread, 6 feet \\ Inches in 
length and 22 inches In breadth, the pattern 
consisting of two rows of seven medallions 
of a conventional foliate design. Attached to 
each of the four sides, and of the same length as 

' These are no longer preserved ; they were probably des- 
troyed in one of the two subsequent conflagrations from which 
the Hall suffered. 

178 Internal Affairs of the Company. 

the side to which it is attached, is a flap of crim- 
son velvet. Each of the two longest flaps con- 
tains three embroidered panels, divided from each 
other by spirally fluted columns ; the centre 
panel contains an elliptical shield, gules, sur- 
rounded by a glory, or, and bearing the sacred 
initials I H S in plain Italian letters of gold 
thread. The shield is supported by five angels. 
On either side of the centre panel is another panel 
containing on a shield (which is in the form of a 
banneret ornamented with a top and bottom 
border of six trefoils, and is suspended by a hand, 
or) the arms of the Company, viz., az2C7^e,-3i chevron, 
or, betw^een three sumpter saddles of the same. 
On one of the longest flaps is embroidered in gold 
thread and in old English characters the words — 

*' h\ te Bne spcrabi no/^ 

and on the other — 

"^ (iTofuntrer iw tXtxmy ^ 

The two shorter flaps at the ends of the pall 
simply contain each three panels similar to those 
already described. The four flaps are skirted by 
a broad gold fringe, the full dimensions of the pall 
being 9 feet by 4 feet 7 inches.^ 

^ The last verse of the Te deum, properly — In te Domine 
speravi. Non confund^r in eternum. 

- The Funeral Pall is still brought out and placed upon the 
table at each Quarter Court immediately ensuing upon the 
death of an Assistant. 

'7A//;-, * Gc^um,,,,, ,y llu lb'- Calfunj- 

', ;.;:,/-sC.'.'H. :'!'■;/::,' I,, i 

it ... I„», 

■^L „vHt.M*('''.M,'4ii..^(*^/l 

'»P«hO«lSO«i LtTH.»:N»KI.«u,P«(,.*c 


C ^F re/irrsmfaQon of Lhc ancicnC T'unmiCifialT of lUii: 
i\drsJii/i/iil' Comfaiy^ of^ SadlCa-rs. 

The Company and the Trade. 179 


The Company and the Trade. 

The Company anciently all of the Craft, — Impracticability of restricting 
it to Members of the Trade. — The Ordinances of the Company in 
harmony v/ith the Laws of the Period. — Statute of 5 Eliz. c. 4. — 
All Trades to be learned by Apprenticeship. — Apprentices to the 
Saddlery Trade examined by the Wardens. — Number of Appren- 
tices limited by Ordinance. — Regulations concerning Apprentices. — 
Curious Custom upon taking up Freedom. — Spoons. — Accumulate 
and are exchanged for other Plate. — Responsibility of Apprentices. 
The Company Mediate between the Apprentices and their Masters. — 
Saddlers only allowed to Open Shop conditionally. — " Proof-piece." 
— Ordinances impose Honesty of Dealing. — Saddles to be made 
Openly. — To be Viewed by Company before Sold. — " Forreyners." 
— Statute 5 Eliz. c. 8. — The Leather Market at Leadenhall. — 
Searchers and Sealers of Leather. — Custom of Search. 

HERE is every reason to believe that 
originally the Saddlers' Company was 
exclusively composed of members of 
that craft. In course of time, how- 
ever, the inheritance of the right to the freedom 
of the Company by patrimony, coupled with the 
disinclination of sons to follow the trade of their 
father, led to the introduction into the Company 
of members who followed other trades and pur- 
suits. In the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury the Company's Order Books clearly show us 
that the Court was not composed entirely of 
members of the Saddlers' craft, although the 
trade was represented thereon, and this has con- 

i8o The Company and the Trade. 

tinued down to the present day. The Company 
made repeated attempts to compel persons prac- 
tising the business of a Saddler to join the 
Company, and in 1695 endeavoured to procure 
an Act of Common Council for that purpose. 
Notwithstanding, however, that under a recent 
Act of Parliament they succeeded, in 1703, in 
compelling "foreign " Saddlers to pay quarterage 
and to fine for "opening shop," they appear to 
have shortly afterwards relinquished a systematic 
exaction of the obligation. This is not inex- 
plicable when we recollect that the Company 
represented the leading interests of the trade, 
while " foreign " Saddlers were probably for the 
most part men who had not properly qualified 
themselves to exercise the craft by serving the 
prescribed course of apprenticeship and in other 
ways, and who also not only in relation to the 
circumstances of their trade, but in respect of the 
privileges of citizenship, were at an immense dis- 
advantage as compared with free Saddlers. Never 
was a City Company more intimately connected 
with its craft, never were its ordinances directed 
more assuredly with a view to the promotion of 
that particular trade which it was designed to 
foster and protect. 

The Company's ordinances were of necessity 
in strict conformity with the laws of the period, 
which it must be stated were very stringent and 
arbitrary so far as they afTected trade and artificers. 
One of the most important statutes to which 
reference is frequently made in the Company's 

The Company and the Trade. i8i 

Statute 5 Eiiz. books is that of the 5th Ehzabeth, c. 4, 
c- 4- entitled "An Acte touching dyvers 

orders for artificers Laborers servantes of Hus- 
bandrye and Apprentices," many of the enact- 
ments of which sound curious in times hke the 
present. This statute enacted inter alia that no 
artificers (in which category Saddlers are expressly 
included) should take any workman to work with 
him for a less time than one year. It also enacted 
that the rates of wages of artificers, husbandmen, 
labourers, and workmen should be ascertained 
yearly by Justices, &c., in Sessions, certified into 
Chancery, approved by the Privy Council, and 
proclaimed by the Sheriffs. The most important 
enactment of this statute, however, so far as it 
^ ^ ^ concerned the Company, was Section 

Trades to be ^ ^ . 

learned by ap- xxiv., which ordaiued that "it shall 

prenticeship. , ^ ^1, 

not be lauiull to any pson or psons, 
other than suche as nowe doo laufully use or 
exercise any Arte Misterye or Manuell Occu- 
pacon, to sette uppe occupie use or exercise anye 
Crafte Misterye or Occupacon nowe used or occu- 
pied within the realms of Englande or Wales 
Excepte he shall have been brought uppe therein 
seaven yeares at the least as Apprentice in maner 
and fourme abovesald, nor to sete anye person on 
woorck in suche Misterye Arte or Occupacon being 
not a workman at this Day Except he shall have 
bene Apprentice as ys aforesaid orels having 
served as an apprentice as ys aforesaid shall or 
will become a Journeyman or be hyred by the 
yere ; upon payne that every p'son willingly 

1 82 The Company and the Trade. 

offend Ing or doing the contrary shall forfeite and 
lose for every defaulte fourtye shllHngs for every 

Similarly the Company's ordinances forbade any 
member to teach the art of Saddlery to any 
person (except his own son) unless and until that 
^ , . person had been bound apprentice 

Regulations con- ^ ■'••'■ 

cerning to him for the purpose. Every 
ppren ices. M^s^er was bound to present his 
apprentice to the Wardens at the next assembly 
in the Common Hall of the Company after the 
binding, in order that the Wardens might examine 
him, and, as the ordinance expresses it, see 
" whether hee bee a Freeborn subject of the 
King of England or not, and to see whether hee 
bee cleane and whole lymed " (limbed), etc. 
Upon the apprentice being duly admitted to 
serve, his master paid unto the Wardens 2^-. 6</., 
increased in 1669 to 6s. 

1605. November 12///. 

" It was further ordered at this Courte that Thomas 
Potter for keeping of Goodalc, his apprentice, two yeres 
together and not in all that tyme presented him, was 
fyned for that fault for breaking the orders of o"" house 
twenty shillings w^' he paid to Warden Penyale." 

1609. December ^tJi. 

" At this Courte Oliver Houghton was appoynted to 
bringe in his fyne for keepinge a prentyse unpresented 
at the next quarter day." 

The Company and the Trade. 183 

1627. Jamiary lyth. 

" At this Court Robert Barthrop complayned of 
William Standysh for teaching a stranger his trade, 
being not bound, and for haveing of twoe apprentizes 
w*^^ he ought not to haue, ffor w^^ his offence hee is fined 
in fforty shillings, w^^ hee is to bring in the next Court 

By the ordinances ratified 3rd Elizabeth, no 
member of the Company was permitted to take 
any apprentice or other person to work for him 
in the art of Saddlery until that member had 
been licensed to do so, as well as to keep a shop 
to his own use by the Wardens and Assistants of 
the Company. The number of apprentices to be 
kept, moreover, was strictly limited. The War- 
dens of the Company were not allowed to keep 
more than three apprentices at any one time. 
Members of the Clothing or Livery were re- 
stricted to two ; and Freemen who were not of 
the Livery were not allowed to take a second 
apprentice until the first had entered upon his last 
year of servitude.- In 1608, however, the liberty 
of the yeomanry to take a second apprentice was 
extended to a year earlier, that is to say, when the 
first had entered upon his last year but one of ser- 
vice.^ Minutes similar to the following occur over 
and over again : — 

^ Ordinances, 3rd Eliz., 1560-1. 
^ Ordinances, 5th James I. 

184 The Company and the Trade. 

1606. November iStk. 

" This Courte Daye Henry Yate brought in his fyne 
of xx' for sondry consideracons he was released of the 
same fyne for and vpon the payment of five shilHngs 
w^'' he paide for keepeing of three Apprentices contrary 
to o'' order." 

If It happened that the master died before the 
apprentice was out of his term, the Wardens of 
the Company were empowered to remove the 
apprentice after compensating the widow, and to 
set him over to finish his term with another 
member. If, however, the widow of the deceased 
member remained single and carried on her 
husband's craft, or If she married another member 
of the Company, she was at liberty to retain the 
apprentice. In the latter contingency, however, 
It was expressly stipulated that the number 
of apprentices to be kept jointly by the former 
widow and her second husband should not exceed 
the number permitted to any ordinary member. 

Every master, after his apprentice had served 
his time, was required to present him to the 
Wardens of the Company, and to make a decla- 
ration that he had duly fulfilled his term. The 
apprentice was thereupon sworn to be obedient to 
the rules of the Company, and after paying 2s. 2d} 
was presented by the Wardens to the Chamber- 
lain of the City and admitted to the freedom of 
the Company. 

1 Ordinances, 3rd Eliz. ; increased to 6s. by the Ordinances 
of Charles II. 

The Company and the Trade. 185 

Failure to fulfil this ordinance was, as In all 
other cases, punished by a fine 

1626. October iZth. 

"At this Court Will'" Cam complained of Edward 
Hill for that hee would not make him free his terme 
being expired the said Hill being twice warned in ap- 
peared not to shew cause wherefore hee would not make 
him free. It is ordered that he shall attend o'" M"" to- 
morrow in the forenoone w''^' if hee refuse to doe then 
hee is to bee comitted to the prisonne of the Comter for 
his contempt." 

In 1624 It was ordered ^' that all such as shall 
Curious custom be made free hereafter do either gratl- 

upon taking up r -i r^ • i m 

Freedom, iie the Company with a silver spoone 
"Spoons." weighing twoo ounces at the leaste 
according to a patterne w''^ shall be shewed them 
or ells to continue the ancient custome {i.e,^ a 
fine) and to be made free at the fower vsuall 
quarter dales kept for the said Societie." 

The first mention of the gift of a spoon upon 
taking up the freedom, however, occurs previous 
to this order, viz.. In 1619, and alludes to another 
old and curious custom common on such occa- 

1 6 19. February 22iid. 

" This daie Pattrick Barrell gaue to the Companie a 
little silver spoone in regard he made the Wardens and 
Assistants noe dynner when he was made free." 

Singularly enough, the custom of making a 

1 86 The Company and the Trade. 

dinner upon the occasion of taking up the free- 
dom is nowhere else alluded to throughout the 
Company's books. The improbability, not to say 
impossibility, of an ordinary apprentice being able 
to contribute such a sum as would be involved in 
a dinner to about 20 persons inclines us to believe 
that this custom could only apply to persons 
taking up the freedom by redemption and not by 
servitude. This explanation, however, is purely 
speculative. If it be correct, a minute in 1626 
acquaints us with the fact that by that time the 
gift of a silver spoon had become general on all 
occasions of the bestowal of the freedom, whether 
by patrimony, servitude, or redemption. 

1626. December Jth. 

"At this Court Thomas Addisonne, the sonne of 
Thomas Addisonne, being made free by patrimony, 
Will"' Cam, late appren. to John Greenwaie, Thomas 
Bassett, late apprentice to William Pease, and John 
Lidget, made free by redempcon, foure silver spoones. 
the said Lidget's spoone being afterwards delivered him 
backe vpon the bringing in of a litle silver bowle." 

In one instance a spoon is recorded as weighing 
6\ ounces ; occasionally the spoon is described as 
being engraved with the donor's name, and on 
numerous occasions the spoons were ''guilt." 

As many as twelve spoons are recorded as 
c beinof presented at a sinMe Court, 

bpoons ... 

exchanged for sio^uifyinpf as many freemen enrolled. 

other plate. ^ •' P . ■' . 

rrom time to tmie, as these spoons 
accumulated, they were taken out of the Com- 

The Company and the Trade. 187 

pany's treasury and sold, or exchanged for other 

Minutes similar to the followino^ occur now and 
again : — 

1654. October lytk 

'' At this Court it is ordered that our M' and Wardens 
with two antient M'' shall buy foure table-cloaths and 
12 doz. of napkins of diaper and cupboard cloatlxs and 
towelles and to change the spoones for plate reserving 8 
doz. for the vse of the Hall." 

And again in the following month we read : — 

" Att this Court the Auditors delivered out of the 
Treasury a C^ to Warden Jones and to our M*" and 
Wardens six dozen and eight Siluer Spoones whereof 
26 guilt all which were sould for 33;^ 05^ 10^ and at the 
same tyme there was bought foure standing siluer Salts 
Cellars two trencher Salts and fowre beere boules 
weighing 127°^ 9'^ wth at 5' 6^ p. oz. 35>^ : oj' : 00*^ paid 
2' &^ for marking them which makes 35^ 3' G^. There 
was bought at the same tyme fowre diap table clothes 
containing 34 yards and 6 dozen of napkins containing 
yS yards and a Court Cupboard Cloth containing 3 yards 
all which cost 18;^ 13^ 10^." 

Towards the end of the seventeenth century, 
however, the Company appear to have reverted 
to the old practice of a pecuniary payment, and 
several entries occur from time to time of " x* 
paid for a spoone." 

The ordinances of the Company imposed a fine 
upon any master presenting his apprentice for the 


1 88 The Company and the Trade. 

freedom before he had served his full term, even 
when the apprentice had served seven years. 
Apprentices were frequently bound for eight years, 
and Instances even occur In the Company's 
records of bindings for as long as eleven years. 
Seeing that the minds of many have been and 

Responsibility ^^^ sometlmes exerclsed with regard 
of Apprentices, ^q ^]^q questlon of the responsibility of 

a minor in fulfilling his articles of apprenticeship, 
as well as with the allied question of the liability 
of an apprentice who attains his majority before 
he has fulfilled his obligations, It may not 
generally be known that the statute already 
alluded to, viz., 5 Elizabeth, c. 4, section xxxv., 
takes cognizance of the difficulty and disposes of 
It In the following words: "And because ther 
hath bene and ys some question and scruple 
moved whether any pson being w^^'In thage of one 
and twentye yeres and bounden to serve as an 
apprentice in any other place than the said CItie of 
London shoulde bee bounden accepted and taken 
as an apprentyce. For the Resolucbn of the said 
Scruple and Doubte be yt enacted by aucthorlte 
of this pnte Pliam* That all and every suche 
pson or psons that at any time or times from 
hensforthe shalbe bounden by indentures to serve 
as an apprentice In any Arte Science Occupacon 
or Labour according to the tenor of this Statute 
and in maner and fourme abovesald albeit the same 
apprentice or any of them shalbe within the age 
of one and twentye yeres at the tyme of making 
of their severall Indentures shalbe bounden to 

The Company and the Trade. 189 

serve for the yeres on their severall Indentures 
contelned as amply and lardgly to every extent as 
yf the same apprentice were of full age at the time 
of making of suche indenture any Lawe Usage 
or Custome to the contrary notwithstanding." 

Clause xix. of the same Statute seems to throw 
some light upon the difficulty suggested by the 
allusion on numerous occasions in the Com- 
pany's Books of bindings for as much as eleven 
years already mentioned. It gives liberty to 
householders In any city or corporate town, 
provided they be at least 24 years of age, to take 
an apprentice '' to serve and bee bounde as an 
apprentice after the custome and order of the 
CItle of London for seven yeres at the least so as 
the tearme and yeares of suche apprentice doe not 
expyre or determyne afore such apprentice shall 
bee of thage of foure and twentye yeres at the 
least. "^ 

We learn from the Company's ordinances, 
however, that it was occasionally permissible for 
an apprentice to be remitted of an unexpired term 
of years If '' the residue of his terme shalbe for- 
given him by speciall legacye of his M^'' conteyned 
in his laste will and testament." 

As has been already stated, apprentices could 
appeal to the Company against arbitrary exactions 
of or improper treatment by their masters, and 
masters could invoke the intervention of the 

^ This Statute was not repealed until the early part of the 
present century. 

O 2 

iQO The Company and the Trade. 

Company In the case of contumacious or rebellious 

1619. January iSth. 

" This daie M'' Chamblaine sent his letter (to the 
Companie) on the behalfe of Will™ Ratcliff the apprentiz 
of Thomas Whitney, shewing thereby the want of such 
necessaries as were fitt for him to haue. The w^^' compit 
being examined and found true It is ordered that the 
said apprentize shalbe taken from his said M'" and to 
serue the remainder of his terme w*^' such a M"" as his 
friends can p'vide for him. His M'' is to deliver vp his 
Indentures and his apprent to be saved from him." 

1607. October 20th. 

" At an assembly of the said Wardeins and Assistents 
on the first quarter daye being the 20 Day of October 
1607, William Lazenbye made a complaynt of James 
Harwigg his apprentice for many evilles and misde- 
meanours agenst his M"" cofhytted Was thretned to be 
whipped and the beadell sent for and he made great 
signes of amendment w^^' weeping and Lamenting asked 
his Master's forgivenesse, was at his request and other of 
o'' assistents the said apprentice was discharged of his 
ponyshm* vpon amendment." 

Every apprentice, upon completing his term of 
apprenticeship, was required to make 

" Proof piece." • 1 1 n 1 • c 1 

a trial saddle, or other piece 01 work 
pertaining to the Saddlers' craft, with "his own 
hands, cunning, and knowledge," at the Hall. 
This " proof piece," as it was called, was viewed 
by the Wardens, and if they were satisfied with 
the workmanship the maker, after satisfying one 
or two other conditions, had license given to him 

The Company and the Trade. 191 

to open shop, or If he were not able to set up 
a shop, they deternnned the scale of his wages 
as a journeyman. The motive of the latter act 
is stated to be In order that "he should not only 
learn his occupation more perfectly, but also 
following their good example of living and order 
of their household, should be better able dis- 
creetly and politicly to keep and order a shop to 
his own use and benefit, civilly and orderly to rule 
and govern his household and family, and to train 
them up in virtue and godly exercise to the honour 
of God, the worship of the said mystery, and to 
the profit of the commonwealth." 

No member of the Company was allowed to 
open shop until he had been examined by the 
Wardens and Assistants as to his "honest con- 
versation, cunning, and knowledge of the art, and 
of the substance of goods." The ordinances of 
3 Elizabeth recite the necessity for the avoidance 
of inconveniences likely to ensue from persons 
setting up shop before they are of ability to pay 
ready money for such wares as they require In the 
trade, and prohibits any journeymen or appren- 
tice opening shop unless he be worth " of his 
own proper goods twenty marks (^13 6s. Sd.),'' 
and the ordinances of 21 Charles II. Increased 
this amount to ^20, in order. It is stated, that he 
may be able " to keep and use the room of an 
honest householder and save his credit." If the 
candidate satisfied these conditions he paid the 
Company 35-. 4^., and was forthwith allowed to 
set up in business. 

192 The Company and the Trade. 

1609. December ^th. 

" Rec. of William Lynton who made his Saddell in 
o"* hall the xxviij Daye of Novemb'" w^'' was viewed and 
liked of and he was admytted to open shoppe and paid 
to the Companyes vse iij' iiij*^." 

1606. October 28///. 

" It was ordered at this Assembly that Symon Smeathe 
shall make his M"" piece Saddell before the last daye of 
October next after this Assembly. And for that the 
saide Symon had often tymes warnying to make his 
saddell and Did it not and that he opened his shope 
w^^'out license contrarye to the orders of o"" house kept 
fforens was fy ned to pay xl'' w'^'^ he promysed to bryng 
in afore the next Court daye." 

1609. December ^th. 

"Calvert Chamberlen late apprentice to Tho. Addison 
made his Saddell in the hall by the Wardenes appoyntm* 
w*^^ was viewed and scene the xxvj"' of October 1609." 

Members were forbidden to entice away the 
servant of another member, and journeymen and 
other servants were forbidden to serve for any 
less period than a year, or to quit service under a 
quarter's warning on pain of forfeiting 405-. 

The ordinances of 5 Elizabeth likewise set forth 
that any member attempting to allure away the 
customer of another member, or uttering words 
to the detraction of another member, or of his 
wares, should forfeit 'h^^ pounds. The punish- 
ment for this offence was reduced to 40 shillings 
in the subsequent ordinances of 1608 and 1669, 

The Company and the Trade. 193 

although happily no Instance of this offence 
occurs In the Company's records. 

The ordinances prohibited any persons from 

making Saddlery wares otherwise than in open 

shop, common fair, or market, and expressly 

Saddles to be ^o^bad any member of the Company 

made openly, buying or usIng any wares made 

covertly or privately. The regulations against 

foreigners, i.e., non-freemen, were stringent, and 

strictly enforced. No member was allowed to 

buy or sell any saddlery wares made by a 

foreigner, or by any person who had not served 

an apprenticeship of seven years to the trade, 

To be viewed '^^^^^ s\iQ}ci warcs had been viewed 

by the Wardens, and approved by the Wardens. No 

freeman was permitted to employ a foreigner 

without the consent of the Wardens 

first had and obtained, and then onlv 

In urgent cases and for short periods. Nor was 

a freeman allowed to work for a non-freeman 

outside the City of London without a similar 

license. The employment of a foreigner Involved 

in the reign of Elizabeth a fine of 2s. 6d. a week 

during the offence, and In the following reign this 

penalty was increased to 2s. 6d. per day.^ 

1606. December gth. 

" Richarde Harrison being one of o'" Lyverie came 
this Courte and desired to have a forrcn Sj'dler to worke 
w*'^ him." 

194 The Company and the Trade. 

1626. August 31^/. 

" This daie Michaell Harman was fined in five shil- 
lings for setting forreyners on worke, whereof hee paid 

A Statute, 5 Elizabeth, c. 8, entitled '' An 

Act touching Tanners Courriours Shoemakers 

and other artificers occupyeing the cutting of 

Leather," established Leadenhall as 

Leadenhall. , , , • ^ /-^' r ^ 

the only market m the City for the 
sale of tanned leather, and enacted that none 
should buy such leather except those who in- 
tended to work it into wares, Monday being the 
only day upon which it could be purchased. 
Further, all tanned hides or skins before they 
were sold were required to be examined and 
sealed by authorities appointed by the City. The 
bartering of leather at any other place was pro- 
hibited under a heavy penalty ; an exception, 
however, was made in favour of the '' Sadlers 
and Gyrdlers," who we read '' maye selle theyr 
Neckes and Shreddes of tanned leather redd 
w^Mut incurring any Payne or Forfeyture for the 
same." The of^ce of searching and sealing was 
to be performed by four or more expert persons 
appointed annually by the Mayor and Aldermen 
of the City. This Act was repealed i James I., 
c. 25, but an Act which had been previously 
passed in the same year, i James I., c. 22, 
re-enacted its principal provisions with some 

little modification. Sections 30 and 
Sealers of 3 1 require the Mayor and Aldermen 

to elect eight searchers from one or 

The Company and the Trade. 195 

more of the following Companies, viz., Cord- 
wainers. Curriers, Saddlers, and Girdlers. The 
following are the Clauses in question : — 

" Section 30. — Provided always that none of the several 
Masters and Wardens of the several Companyes of 
Cordwainers, Curriers, Girdlers, or Sadlers, shall search 
any person or persons but such as use and exercise the 
mistery or occupacon of the said Master and Wardens, 
and that the Coachmakers dwelling within the said City 
of London, or three miles from the same, shall be under 
the Survey and Search of the Master and Wardens of 
the Company of the Saddlers of London. 

" Section 31. — And be it further enacted that the said 
Mayor of the City of London and the Aldermen for the 
time being, upon like pain of forty pounds likewise to 
be levyed and employed, shall likewise yearly appoint 
eight of the most substantiall, honest, and expert persons, 
being Freemen of some of the Companyes of Cord- 
wayners, Curriers, Saddlers, or Girdlers within the City of 
London, whereof one shall be a Sealer and keep a Seal 
for the sealing of Leather, to be prepared, who shall be 
sworn before the said Mayor and Aldermen for the time 
being to do their office truely. Which said Searchers 
and Sealers shall view and search all and every tanned 
hide, skin, or leather which shall be brought as well to 
the market of Leaden Hall as to any other lawful Fair 
or Market therefore usually appointed within three 
miles of the said Citye, whether the same be sufficiently 
and throughly tanned and throughly dryed, according to 
the true purport and meaning of this Statute or no. And 
finding it sufficiently and throughly tanned and throughly 
dryed in such manner and form abys this Statute is ap- 
pointed, shall seal the same with the said Seal."^ 

^ This Statute contains many curious enactments ; among 
others, that calves shall not be killed under five weeks old ; 

196 The Company and the Trade. 

And we accordingly read that every year the 
Company elected two searchers and presented 
them to the Court of Aldermen for approval. 

1607. May 12 th. 

"Marke Branche at this Courtewas granted the good- 
will of the Company to be a Sutor to y^ lorde Maio'" for 
to be one of the Searchers and Sealers of Lether, and 
that they wolde assist him therein as much as they 

1663. July 13///. 

''Richard Benskyn,"! appointed Searchers 
William Caine, j of Leather." 

One of the most important prerogatives vested 
in the Company by their Charter from Edward 
III., and confirmed to them In subsequent char- 
ters and ordinances, was the power 

" Search " 

to search the shops and houses of all 
persons using the Saddlers' trade, and of con- 
demning all Ill-made wares that they found. No 
Saddler, freeman or non-freeman, was permitted 
to send any saddle out of London, either to the 
country fairs or for exportation abroad, until It 
had been viewed by the Wardens, or other 

that Butchers shall not be Tanners, and that all Tanners 
shall be apprenticed ; that with a view to the preservation of 
bark for tanning, oaks shall only be felled in barking time, i.e.y 
in the months of April, May, and June ; it also prohibits 
Shoemakers selling shoes on Sunday before morning service is 

The Company and the Trade. 197 

properly constituted authorities of the Company.^ 
Ill-made saddles were generally attended by the 
imposition of a fine and a precept for amendment. 
The fine Imposed by the ordinance of Elizabeth 
was not to exceed 2s. 6d. each offence, with a 
penalty for obstructing or resisting the Company 
in their search of 205. The ordinances of 5 
James I. Increased these penalties to ^s. and ^5 
respectively, and these penalties were confirmed 
by the ordinances of 21 Charles 11. (1669) ; these 
last ordinances give the Company jurisdiction over 
" all manner of works, wares, and stuffs whatso- 
ever, belonging to the furniture of horses." The 
Charter of Charles II. (1684) distinctly specifies 
'' Saddles, chains, buttons, stirrups, girdles, and 
horsecloths, as of other thing whatsoever apper 
taining or belonging to the art or mystery of 
Saddlers aforesaid." Instances, however, are 
repeatedly recorded of even portmanteaus and 
other wares being condemned, from which it 
would appear that the Company exercised juris- 
diction over all Saddler-made wares. 

The Act of 5 Elizabeth, c. 8, already alluded 
to, not only Imposed the obligation of search 
upon the Wardens of the Company, but imposed 
a fine of ^5 upon them for every instance of 
defective wares which they allowed to escape their 

Section xxi. — " Or yf any Shoemaker Sadler or other 
Artificer using cutting or workeing of Leather doe make 

^ Ordinances, 5 James I. 

198 The Company and the Trade. 

any wares of any tanned leather insufficiently tanned 
and of tanned or curryed leather being not sufficiently 
tanned and curried as ys aforesaid, or doe not make 
their wares belonging to their severall Occupatyons 
sufficiently and substantially, that then the Wardens of 
Every of the said Companie of Sadlers Curriours Shoe- 
makers and other artificers using and exercising cutting 
of tanned leather for the tyme being shall forfaite and 
lose for every such Defaulte and offence to bee comitted 
or done by any pson or psons under their Order Surveye 
or Searche Fyve Poundes." 

Section xxii. — '' Provided alwaye and be yt enacted 
That all and every Artificer dwelling or inhabiting or 
w*"^ hereafter shall dwell or inhaby^e w^^'in the Citie of 
London or three myles compas of the same using or 
exercising any Manuell Occupacon of cutting or worck- 
ing of Leather into made wares shall contribute paye 
and bee under the Survey and Search of the Wardens 
of suche Companies of the said Citie of London as 
Thartificer comonly using the like Occupacon being 
Free men of the same Citie of London and of the same 
Companye bee touching and concerning onely their 
wares and stuff made of or w**" Leather, in like manner 
fourme as other Freemen of the same Companye dothe 
to the Wardens of their Companye w"'in the said 

The search visits of the Company appear to 
have been made regularly on the four quarter 
Court days, as v^ell as at Intervening times not 
specifically stated. If the defect either of material 
or workmanship were very bad, the saddles or 
other articles were promptly defaced. Sometimes 
they were publicly burned at the door of the 
maker, at other times they were taken to Cheap- 


The Company and the Trade. 199 

side and there burned, while at others, again, they 
were taken to Smithfield and there destroyed by 
the same process. Occasionally the defect lay in 
the saddle-tree — the wooden body of the saddle — 
which was sometimes an old tree re-employed and 
sometimes made of unseasoned wood ; when this 
was so the leather would be taken off and returned 
to the maker to be re-used, and the saddle-tree 
broken and destroyed. 

The following are a few excerpts in illustration 
of the custom, taken from some hundreds of 
similar cases which the Company's Minute Books 
record : — 

1605. November i6th. 

" James Ramsey a forren"" for making of pillions ol 
olde stuff and twill had them defaced and cutt to peces 
because the Kinges publicke shulde not be deceaved w^^' 
them and was pardoned of his imprisonment and notw^''- 
standing warned he was to mende his workmanship 
upon a greate payne. 

" At this Courte Rowland Hodges for having in his 
howse and shoppe in the tyme of search made by the 
Wardens xv male pillions bought of a forren"" made of 
evill and naughtie stuffe was fyned for that fault five 
shillings w^^^' was paide to Symon Penyale." 

1606. March 12th. 

"The same xvth daye of Aprill, 1607, being a third 
Quarter Day as aforesaid the Company being assembled 
at their hall they were requested by the Wardeins and 
Assistants to viewe a nomber of Sadies covered with 
sheep's leather w*'^ were taken in sundry searches made 


200 The Company and the Trade. 

by the said Wardeins and Assistants synce the last 
quarter daye being seaven great Horse Sadies and two 
padds garded and trymmed w^^' Spanish lether shep's 
lether and turkey Lether and tenne Scottish Sadies 
covered w^ white sheep's lether. All w^ by a full con- 
sent of the gen^'altie of the workmen of this Company 
are adiudged unlawfull and deceiptfull ware^ and not 
fitt to be uttered nor sold but to be burned." 

1607. May \2th. 

" After this Court Daye (viz.) the xv*^ daye of Maye, 
1607, the evill Sadies and unlawfull wares taken from 
dyverse of the Company in their searches being ordered 
to be burned were burned accordingly in West Smyth- 
feld the same xv"' of Maye by the Wardeins in the 
presence of diverse of the Assistants." 

1608. September i^tJi. 

" George Marr was this Courte Daye fined for a Side 
Sadie very faulty beside evill workmanshipp and paid 
\f w'f and the same Sadie was sensured to be burned at 
his doore." 

161 2. July 2ist. 

" Yt was ordered the day and yere last abovesaid that 
John Lawney was fyned to pay ten shillings for making 
of Roles stuffed w^^' hay in his side Saddels rownd 
about the seat and for that he wolde not pay the said 
fyne he was sent to the Counter." 

1634. January 21st. 

"At this Court Will'" Freeman, Edmond Sheppard, and 
Wil'" Ketle beinge complayned of for carrying awaie of 
wares to Sturbridge ffaire w%ut searching by the 

The Company and the Trade. 201 

Wardens and others accordinge to o'' orders. They all 
submitted themselves to the Court w^'' p'mise not to 
offend in the like kinde hereafter Will'" Freeman offering 
to cleere himself upon othe for what was layd to his 
charge. Their offenc' p'doned." 

1648. October ^ist. 

" At this Court Richard Bei^rhton was fined for two 
naiightie strapps vj' 

;d " 

Occasionally a Saddler objected to the search ; 
when this was the case, however, the objection 
was simply the result of a consciousness of offence 
in trade, and a foreboding of the inevitable seizure 
of his goods constituting that offence. Neverthe- 
less, the Company's prerogative was not to be 
disputed. The recalcitrant Saddler was sum- 
moned before the Wardens and Assistants of the 
Company, and if he refused to conform to the 
fine or other punishment imposed, a warrant was 
promptly obtained from the Lord Mayor or 
Recorder, and the offender summarily committed 
to prison. 

1609. August i^tk. 

"The daye and yeres aforesaide Thomas Moore a 
Journeyman and s'vant vnto one Robert Dycars a 
CoUermaker of the p'ishe of St. Giles in the Field for 
mysusing the Wardeins aforenamed in their search by 
resisting them and slandering them was sent for by a 
warrant graunted out under the hande of the WorshipfuU 
Recorder of London and being brought before the saide 
Company of the Sadlers he the said Thomas Moore 

202 The Company and the Trade. 

for his offence so done and comytted, in humble manner 
upon his knees acknowledged his faulte and cravid 
pardon and for that fower or fyve of the neighbours 
of good sort dwelling in the saide p'ishe have bound 
themselves by their words that he the saide Thomas 
Moore shulde henceforth be of good behavio'" the Com- 
pany grannted his releasement." 

1635. April i^th. 

*' At this Court Thomas Capp app^'ntice to Tho. 
Gardner and Mathias Younge apprenticed to (?) Black- 
Smith appeared at this Court according to an order 
made by the R. Ho^^" the Lord Maior the 17th daie 
of March last past To make their publique submission 
upon theire knees for resistinge the Wardens in theire 
search at the said Gardners Shop. The w'^'' submission 
they both did accordingly in the hall at a full Court 
upon their knees acknowledging their fault." 

1673. Jjme iit/i. 

" M'' George Borrett haveng refused the Search made 
by M"" Warden Blount and others and being taken by a 
Constable upon the Companyes Warrant for the five 
pounds by him forfeited for soe doeing but at his request 
discharged upon his promise to appeare at this Court 
and to abide by the judgement of the same and now 
appeareing and submitting himself accordingly this 
Court doe think fitt to fine him for such his offence and 
for defective ware Twentie shillings the w'^'' he willingly 
paid the Wardens." 

1 70 1. July 2nd. 

" Upon the complaint of M"" Warden Chandler M"" 
Shelton and others that M"" Walter Coates did deny the 

The Company and the Trade. 203 

search and threatened to strike them with a hammer 
and giveing very abusive words It is ordered he be 
ffined ffive pounds for soe doing and that he be sum- 
moned to appeare at the next Court to answer the same." 

The search was exercised with the utmost im- 
partiality, no atom of favour being shown to a 
member of the Company if an ill-made saddle 
were in question. Instances occur of Wardens 
and Assistants being similarly fined. In illustra- 
tion of this, an incident which took place in 1 703 
may be here cited : — 

1703. October 20th. 

" This Court being informed by Mr. Gunton, Mr. 
Shelton, and Mr. Carter, that certaine Sadlers having 
undertaken to furnish a great number of Sadies for the 
use of his Portugall Majesty, they have been to search 
and saw the same and found the seats to be made of the 
worst of sheepskin and the panells stuffed with hay. 
Did thereupon now order a Remonstrance to be drawn 
up and presented to the Envoy of his Portugall Ma^^^ to 
represent the same as a manifest Cheat and tending to 
the great dishonour and disgrace of her Majesty's 
Government and the City of London and in particular 
of this Corporacon." 

A remonstrance was accordingly drawn up and 
presented. A large number of saddles destined 
for the expedition to Portugal were condemned, 
and two members of the Company, who were 
implicated in their manufacture, were fined the 
then large sum of ^20 each. 


204 The Company and the Trade. 

The old custom of search, in ensuring a high 
standard of excellence for English manufactures, 
engendered in Englishmen a firm patriotic faith 
in the superiority of English goods, and in the 
skill and honesty of English workmanship. 
Moreover, the fact remains, as an interesting 
corollary, that, at the present day, English 
saddles and harness are in high demand all over 
the world ; and this branch of English industry, 
curiously enough, appears in little danger from 
foreign rivalry. 





Anglo Saxon times 









'^William Lincolne^ 
John Pountfreit 
Roger Excestre 
Gerard atte Nook 

rRumbold Bodd 
I Walter Yong 
] John Cole 
^Simon Byrthorp 

r Richard Stacy 
I Thomas Soysse 
"^ Robert Forster 
WiUiam Sherewode 

{Laurence Braunche 
John Sawyer 
Richard Danton 
William Coddesden 

r William Bird 
I Thonias Hertwell 
I William Portlonthe 
t John Abell 

r Robert Smyth 
J Henry Crowder 
William Storer 
David ap Thomas 

r William Wytt 
J Peter Robynson 
] John Webbe 
John Philpott 






> Wardens. 



> Wardens. 



* See Addendum, p. 233. 

P 2 


Ancient Masters 



rWilliam Newton 
I James Howford 
] John Marshall 
^John Cox^ 

■ Wardens. 


1605 Nicholas Holbeame. 

1606 Roger Allanson. 

1607 Richard Sawter. 

1608 John Byngham. 

1609 Ditto. 1 

Second time. J 

1 6 10 Thomas Salomon. 

161 1 Ditto. 1 

Second time. J 

161 2 Richard Sawter. ~1 

Second time, J 

1 613 Gregory Francklin. 

1614 James Howson. 

161 5 Robert Labourne. 

16 1 6 George Cooke. 

161 7 Ditto. I 

Second tifne. j 
t6i8 Ditto. ]^ 

T/iird time. J 

1619 Ditto. 1 

Fourth time. / 

1620 Anthony Clowes. 

1621 Ditto. I 

Second time. \ 










Thomas Potter. 

Ditto. I 

Second time. J 
Phillip Boydon. 
William Pilchard. 
George Potter. 
George Walker. 
John Houghton. 
Henry Symson. 
John Laney. 
Samuel Clarke. 
Nathaniel Burt. 
Robert Cristie. 

Ditto. ' 

Second time 
William Pease. 
Luke Lee. 
Thomas Sallomon. 
Nicholas Newton. 
Thomas Clowes. 

Ditto. "I 

Second time, j 
Benjamin Potter. 
William Phelipps. 


1 Founded a Trust, which is administered by the Company 
under a scheme approved by the Charity Commissioners, for 
the relief of poor members of the Company, and of the 
Saddlers' trade. 

' Founded a charity of which the Company are trustees, and 
bequeathed to the Company a silver-mounted cocoa-nut cup. 

AND Wardens. 



Thomas Harrison. 


William Pease. 



Toby Harvest. 

Second time 


William Freeman. 


William Milsome. 


Ditto. 1 
Second time. J 


William Jones. 


/oshua Sheppard. 


Thomas Smithsby. 


Kenelme Collins. 


Daniel Haldenby. 


John Cooke. 


John Cooke. 


Thomas Mason. 


Edward Perkins. 


Thomas Pease. 


Thomas Webb. 


Edward Benskyn.* 


Thomas Starkey. 





Francis Dashwood.^ 

Second time. 


Edward Smith.^ 


Francis Pattricke. 


WiUiam Pease. '^ 


John Tanner. 

^ A rich Turkey merchant, Alderman of the City of London, 
but did not serve the office of Lord Mayor. Elected Master 
in 1653, he presented the Company in the same year with a 
handsome silver gilt standing cup and cover weighing sixty-two 
ounces and a half, which are still preserved. His gift of a 
barge cloth and banners has already been noticed. Upon his 
death, in 1683, he bequeathed the sum of ;/^3o to be dis- 
tributed amongst the poor of the Company, and a smaller sum 
to the Company for a supper at his funeral. According to 
Burke he married a daughter of Mr. Alderman Sleigh, and 
was grandfather of Lord de Spencer, an ancestor of the 
present Sir Edwin Abercromby Dashwood, Bart., and Sir John 
Gage Saunders Sebright, Bart. His son. Sir Samuel Dashwood, 
was Alderman of the Ward of Aldgate, and served the 
office of Lord Mayor in 1702, whose daughter married the 
fifth Lord Brooke, an ancestor of the present Earl of Warwick. 

"' Alderman of the City of London, but did not serve the 
office of Lord Mayor. 

^ Founded a charity, which is at present administered by 
the Company under a scheme sanctioned by the Charity Com- 
missioners, for the relief of poor decayed Saddlers and their 
widows, preferentially those free of the Company. 

* Presented the Company with a silver salt. 

2o8 Ancient Masters 

1668 John Tanner. "i 1675 Edmond Lee."^ 

Second twie. ] 1676 John Anderson. 

1669 John Barwell. 1677 Edmond Lee. 

1670 John Gaine. Second time 

1671 John Mason. 1678 Peter Rich.^ 

1672 Richard Pemble. . f Samuel Tomh'ns. 

1673 Edward Kempe. I Francis Patricke. 

1674 Wilham Chevall. Second time 


1 Presented the Company with a silver tankard. 

2 The name of Sir Peter Rich figures prominently in City 
history during the latter part of the seventeenth century as 
the nominee of the Court party for civic honours. The 
Company's minutes record that on the 8th October, 1675, 

'This Court considers that Peter Rich, Esq., one of the 
livery of this Company, is one of his Ma^^*^^ Justices of the 
Peace, one of the Leuetenncy, hath beene in nominacon for 
one of the sheriffs of this Citty, and hath had sev'rall other offices 
of honor and trust conferred on him Doe thinke fitt to make 
choyce of the said Peter Rich to be one of the Assistants of 
this Company, and hereby order the Clerke to acquaint him 
therewith and desire his acceptance of the same." 

At a Court held the following January, the Livery demurred 
to Rich's selection to be an Assistant, but upon the order of 
the Court being read to them we are informed that "the Livery 
departed well satisfied." In August, 1678, Rich having, as the 
Order Books inform us, been chosen Sheriff, was discharged of 
the offices of Renter Warden, second Warden, and Upper 
Warden, and elected Master. In 1680, the then Master dying. 
Rich was again elected to the chair for the remainder of the year. 
His election as Sheriff in 1678 was not confirmed, the party 
spirit in the City being exceedingly strong between the Court 
and the popular parties. In 1682, however, he was again 
elected and sworn into the office of Sheriff, and, according to a 
minute on the 25th September of that year, he desired " that 
sixteene of the Livery of this Company would attend him 
habited in their Livery Gownes to Guildhall on Thursday next 
and on Saturday after to Westminster in a barge, being what 

AND Wardens. 209 

1680 Peter Rich. ") 1682 Robert Waring "1 

Second time. J Second time. J 

1681 Robert Wareing. 1683 Samuel Shenton. 

customarily (is) done by all Companyes to their members that 
happen to come to such office. In 1683 he was chosen Alder- 
man for the ward of Aldersgate, and in 1684, Luttrell, in his diary, 
informs us, " Sir Peter Aylworth Chamberlain of London being 
dead, his Majestic hath constituted Peter Rich, Esq., in his stead." 
According to a MS. account of the Chamberlains of London, 
in the Library of the Corporation, he represented London in 
1685, and was knighted by James IL the same year. The 
following year, however, we learn from Luttrell that Sir P. Rich 
was turned out of the office of Chamberlain, and a Mr. Hy. 
Loades, the candidate of the popular party, elected in his stead ; 
but in 1688 Rich was re-elected to that office. The factious 
opposition, however, which grew keener and keener every year, 
was again too strong for Rich, and in 1689 he was displaced 
from the office of Chamberlain, and Mr. Leonard Robinson, 
the candidate of the popular party, elected. In 1690, Rich 
was again defeated by Robinson. But in 1691 he instituted 
an action in the King's Bench against Sir Thos. Pilkington, the 
Lord Mayor, " for a false return not to be duly chosen 
Chamberlain of London," and the jury gave him ^130 
damages. Having again put up for Chamberlain, he was once 
more defeated by Robinson, by 2155 to 1882 votes. In 
August, 1692, he died and was buried at Lambeth. There is 
no doubt that Rich was throughout the instrument of the Court 
party. A tract in the Guildhall Library, entitled " A new 
yeare's gift for the Tories," accuses Sir John More, Mayor in 
1682, of "with force of arms and in a hostile manner" con- 
stituting Dudley North and Peter Rich, Sheriffs, although not 
returned by the Common Hall. It also alleges that Sir Peter 
Rich, when Alderman in 1690, did illegally dissolve a Ward- 
mote, and that he was accused by a Mr. Bellamy in the same 
year of the murder of Lord Russell. Rich brought an action 
against Bellamy for libel, and according to this authority he 
only received 6^-. 8^. damages, but Luttrell states it to have 
been four nobles {j[^\ 6s. Sd.). Sir Peter Rich appears to 


Ancient Masters 

1684 Edward Kempe. 1698 

1685 Thomas Fizer.^ 1699 

1686 Ditto. 1 1700 

Second time. J 1 7 o i 

1687 Laurence Evans. 1702 

1688 Charles Nevill. 1703 

1689 Edward Fisher.- 1704 

1690 Walter Furnace. 

1 69 1 John Sawyer.^ 1705 

1692 John Webb. 1706 

1693 William Broman. 

1694 Thomas Shireman. 1707 

1695 Henry Chandler. 1708 

1696 Richard Gunton.* 1709 

1697 Robert Johnson. 

John Pack.^ 
Robert Stoakes. 
Henry Fetter. 
John Osborne. 
John Shelton. 
Elias Rich. 
John Sawyer. 

Second time 
Joseph Lewis. 
John Shelton. 

Second time 
Michael Hinman. 
John Wynde. 
Michael Hinman. "l 

Second time. J 


have been a man of good parts. He was Colonel of the 
Southwark or Blue Regiment of Militia, and he is credited 
with having, in 1691, "invented a way that every horseman 
shall carry behind him 1501b. weight of hay, made up into a 
trusse in form of a portmanteau, which shall last a horse three 
weeks, and 'tis well approved of." (Luttrell.) In 1681 he 
presented the Company with a handsome silver cup and cover, 
which is still preserved by them, and on his decease his widow, 
Lady Anne Rich, presented the Company with a further 
souvenir, consisting of a pair of large silver candlesticks, 
weighing 67 ounces 5 dwts., likewise preserved. 

^ Presented the Company with a silver salt. 

- Presented the Company with a silver gilt cup and cover. 

" Presented the Company with a handsome silver tankard. 

^ Bequeathed two Trusts, which are administered by the 
Company under schemes sanctioned by the Charity Commis- 
sioners, one for the relief of poor members ©f the Company 
or trade, the other for providing premiums for the apprenticing 
of poor boys. 

* Presented the Company with a handsome silver punch 

AND Wardens. 



















John Heylin.^ 
John Hutchinson. 
Edwin Salusbury. 

Second time. 
Charles Hamond. 
Thomas Shireman. 
William Wilcox. 

Second time. 
Michael Tesmpnd." 

Second time. 
John Heylin. 

Second time. 
Edward Parratt. 
Thomas Sherman. 
John Sculthorpe. 
John Hutchinson. 
William East. 
Joseph Tomlins. 
Charles Eady. 
William Poole. 
Thomas Harris. 
George Holgate. 
Edward Parratt. 
John Tomkins. 
Robert Lathwell. 
Edward Halsey. 
Thomas Sherman. 

Second time 
John Holme. 











1746 I 









H.R.H. Prince 

Frederick of Wales. 
John Holme. \ 

Henry Heylyn. 
Joseph Tomlins. 
William More. 
William Poole. 
Thomas Burden 
Thomas Colebrook 
James Tickner. 
John Nash. 
Thomas Warren. ) 
Thomas Thompson. 
George Holgate. 

Matthew Kitchiner. 

John Brown. 

George Scullard. 

Edward Pennyman 

John Barker. 

Nehemiah Brooks. ) 

WiUiam Moore. 

Second time, 

John Smith. 

John Pritchell. 

John Harford. 

Richard Snow. 

Richard Beale. 

Thomas Taylor. 

William Huthwaite. 

Henry Riesenbeck. 

Matthew Kitchiner. 
Seco?id time. 



^ Presented the Company with a large silver gilt mace for 
the Upper Beadle. 

^ Presented the Company with a handsome silver punch 



Ancient Masters 


William Exell. 


Arthur Tawke. 


John Brown. 



Robert Precious.^ 

Second time. 


Thomas Pickford. 


George Blaksley. 


Joseph Bradney. 


Young George Honnor.^ 


William Earlom. 


James Knight. 


John Reed. 


William Box. 


Edward Heylyn. 



Thos. Woolhead. 

Second time 


David Humphreys. 


Mathias Peter Dupont 

f Henry Tooker. 
770 < ^ 

L Alexander Pepper. 


William Hanscombe. 
Second time 


Richard Pepys. 


Benjamin Moore. 


William Bishop. 


Henry Edmonds. 


Thomas Christie. 


Thomas Slade. 


Richard Heaviside. 


Joshua Knowles. 


Thomas Newton. 


Noah Hester. 


Edward Pennyman. 



James Philipson. 

Second time. 


Thomas Griffith. 


James Christmas 


John Sabb. 


Arthur Humphreys. 

Second time. 


Robert Withers. 


John Perkins. 


Edward Heylyn. 


John Yew Griffith. 


William Hanscombe 



Stephen Ardesoif. 


William Langley. 


^Richard Burton. 


Henry Page. 


Joseph Seward. 


Edward Jeffs. 


William Smart. 


James Benwell. 


James Benwell. 


John Sabb. 


John Reed. 



Joseph Davidson. 

Second time. 

^ Founded a Trust for the relief of decayed members of 
the Company, from a portion of the funds of which the 
Company's Almshouses at Isleworth were built, and are main- 
tained according to a scheme sanctioned by the Court of 
Chancery. {^See p. 144.) 

Presented the Company with a silver candelabra, coffee pot, 
and various other articles of plate. 

AND Wardens. 










John Sabb. 
Thomas Adderley.^ 
Hayter Reed. 
Richard Earlom.^ 
Charles Griffith. 
Thomas Slade 

Second time. 
Joshua Knowles. 1 

Seco7id time, j 
James PhiHpson. 

Second time. 
George Raye. 
Daniel Quare. 
George Bishop. 
Thomas Milroy. 
William Williams. 
John Dell Poynter. 
William Prosser. 
John Fulbrook. 
James Kitson. 
Henry Heylyn. 
Hayter Reed. 

Second time 


1830 George Raye. ") 

Second time. / 

1 83 1 Thomas Bishop. 

1832 Joshua Peacock. 

1833 Sir Peter Laurie.^ 

1834 Thomas Pickford. 

1835 George Denham. 

1836 James Palmer. 

1837 George Dinsdale. 

1838 Thomas Cradock.'* 

1839 Henry Edmonds. 

1840 John Mitchell. 

1 84 1 Edward Withers. 

1842 Charles Cradock.^ 

1843 Henry Douthwaite. 

1844 Andrew Haigh Milroy. 

1845 James Kitson. 1 

Second time. / 

1846 Benjamin Bacon 


1847 John Laurie.^ 

1848 Henry Heylyn. "1 

Second time. \ 

1 An antiquary of some note. 

2 A mezzotint engraver of considerable repute. 

•^ Was Sheriff of London in 1825, Lord Mayor in 1832, 
and Alderman of the Ward of Aldersgate. He was President 
of Bethlem Hospital, and Chairman of the Union Bank of 

4 Founded a Trust for the benefit of poor members of the 
Company, administered by the Company. 

^ Founded a Trust for the benefit of the Company's poor, 
administered by the Company. 

6 Ditto, ditto. 

' Sheriff of the City of London in 1845, and formerly M.P. 
for Newport. 


Ancient Masters 

1849 Isaac Neal.^ 

1850 Joseph Peacock.^ 1 

Second ti/ne.) 

1851 John Thwaites. 

1852 Jeffery Smith. 

1853 Hay ter Thornton Reed. 

1854 Henry Townes. 
rWilHam Mihoy. 

1855 < Charles Cradock. ") 

L Second iiine.) 

1856 Charles Griffith. 

1857 Nathaniel Nicholls. 

1858 Peter Northall Laurie. 

1859 James Peachey. 

{Thomas Cradock. ) 
Second time ) 
Andrew Haigh Milroy.] 
Second time. J 

1 86 1 Wihiam Hugh Powell 


1862 Thomas Porteen 










William Corne 

Benjamin B.Williams.) 

Second time. ) 
Captain William Slark. 
Hayter Thornton Reed. 
Archibald McDougall. 
William Vezey Bishop. 
Joseph Edward Fisher. 
Henry Heylyn. 
Edward Griffiths. 
Charles Griffiths. ] 

Second time.] 
' Charles Wills. 
Peter Northall Laurie.] 

Second time.) 
Thomas Huggins. 
Henry Harris. 
Archibald McDougall. ") 

Second time.) 
William Janies Rich- 
mond Cotton."^ 

^ Presented the Company with a silver rose-water dish. 

2 His portrait hangs in the Wardens' room. 

2 In 1875 he presented the Company with two handsome 
standing loving cups with covers. 

* Formerly Alderman of Lime Street Ward, but now repre- 
sents the Ward of Bridge Without. Was Sheriff of London 
and Middlesex in 1868, and Lord Mayor in 1875, and repre- 
sented the City of London in Parliament from 1870 to 1879. 
Took an active part in the inquiries of the Livery Companies' 
Commission, of which he was a member, and rendered con- 
siderable service to the Livery Companies. He is Chairman 
of the associated Guilds, and was first (provisional) Chairman 
of the London School Board, of which he was a Member from 
1870 to 1879. He is a J. P. for London, Hampshire, and 
Middlesex. His portrait, by Mr. Cyrus Johnson, painted by 
order of the Com.pany, hangs in the Hall. 

AND Wardens. 215 

1876 Andrew Row McTag- 1881 Alfred Ridsdale. 

gart Milroy, 1882 Hayter Marsh Reed. 

1877 Moses Dodd. 1883 William George 

1878 RichardJamesNicholls. Peachey. 

1879 William James Nutting. 1884 Archibald McDougall, 
r Frederick Field. junior. 

1 880 <^ William Jas. Rich- | r Moses Dodd.i "1 

L mond Cotton. V ^ \ Second time. / 

Second time. ^ 

1 In August, 1885, Lord Halsbury, then Lord High Chan- 
cellor of Great Britain, would, in the ordinary course, as Key 
Warden, have been elected to the office of Master, but owing 
to exigencies of State his Lordship was compelled to decline 
the office, and Past-Master Dodd was elected thereto a second 
time. Upon the resignation, however, of the Conservative 
Ministry in the following February, Mr. Dodd invited Lord 
Halsbury to serve the office of Master for the remainder of 
the year, which invitation his Lordship having accepted, Mr. 
Dodd resigned the Chair, and Lord Halsbury was elected 
Master accordingly. 

"At a Court of the Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Worshipful 
Company of Saddlers, holden at their Hall in Cheapside, in the City of 
London, on Thursday, the nth day of March, 1886 : — 

" It was resolved unanimously, — That this Court, having this day 
accepted the resignation of Past-Master Dodd, second time Master of this 
Company, in favour of the Right Honourable Lord Halsbury, who on last 
Election Day requested that he might not be put in nomination for election 
to fill the office of Master of this Company, in consequence of having 
previously accepted the appointment of Lord High Chancellor of Great 
Britain, and who on his retirement therefrom having intimated, on the 
invitation of Past-Master Dodd, his willingness to accept the Mastership 
of this Company if elected, and his Lordship having just been unani- 
mously elected as Master of this Company for the remainder of the current 
year, this Court hereby tenders to Past-Master Dodd their cordial thanks 
for the very efficient manner in which he has at all times attended to the 
duties and interests of this Company, and the great courtesy which he 
has on all occasions shown to its members. 

" It was further resolved unanimously, — That Past-Master Dodd be 
invited to co-operate with the present Wardens during the remainder of the 
current year, and be, and he is hereby elected, a member of the Wardens' 
Committee accordingly. 

2i6 Ancient Masters and Wardens. 

1885 The Right Hon. Lord 1887 Col. Robert Peter 

Halsbury.i Laurie, C.B., M.P.s 

1886 Cliaries Octavius 1888 Wilham Spencer 

Humphrey S.2 Watson, M.B., 


" It was further resolved unanimously, — That Past-Master Dodd be re- 
quested to take the chair of the Company at all its meetings when present 
during the temporary absence of the Master. 

" It was further resolved unanimously, — That this, together with the three 

foregoing resolutions, be engrossed on vellum, signed by the Master, and 

forthwith forwarded with an official letter by the Clerk of this Company 

to Past-Master Dodd. 



1 The Right Hon. Hardinge Stanley Giffard, Baron 
Halsbury of Halsbury, co. Devon, Lord High Chancellor 
of England, M.A., was called to the Bar at the Inner 
Temple, 1850, became Q.C. 1865, was Solicitor-General 
from 1875 to 1880, and was appointed Lord High Chancellor 
1885. He resigned February, 1886, and was re-appointed 
in the following July. He represented Launceston from 
1877 to June, 1885, when he was created Baron Halsbury. 
His Lordship's portrait, by Mr. Cyrus Johnson, hangs in the 

2 Was Clerk of the Company from 1862 to 1868, and 
Solicitor from 1862 to 1878, when he resigned the retainer of 
the Company to take his seat on the Court. 

2 Robert Peter Laurie was one of the earliest members of 
the Volunteer Force, having joined it in August, 1859. Since 
April, 1867, he has been Lieut.-Colonel Commandant of the 
3rd London Volunteers. He was elected member for Canter- 
bury in 1879 at a bye election. At the General Election in 
1880 he was again returned for that city, but with the Hon. 
A. E. Gathorne Hardy was unseated on petition. In 1885 he 
contested the representation of Bath, and was only defeated 
by nineteen votes. In 1886, however, he was returned for 
that city by a large majority. In June, 1887, the Companion- 
ship of the Bath was conferred upon him in recognition of 
his services to .the Volunteer Force. He is a J. P. for Kent. 



The Master, Wardens, and Court of 






William. Spencer Watson, M.B. Lond., 
F.R.C.S. Eng.... 


Benjamin Coulson Robinson, Serjeant-at- 

X-idW ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Isaac Wilcox 
Daniel Morgan 


Thomas Porteen Smith* ... 

Henry Heylyn* 

Charles Wills* 

William James Richmond Cotton, ^Alderman 

Andrew Row McTaggait Milroy*... 

Moses Dodd* 

Richard James NichoUs* ... 

William James Nutting* ... 

Alfred Ridsdale* ... 

Hayter Marsh Reed* 

Archibald McDougall* 

The Right Hon. Lord Halsbury*... 

Charles Octavius Humphreys* 

Colonel Robert Peter Laurie, C.B., M.P."^ 

Theophilus Goodwin 

Lieut.-Gen. John Wimburn Laurie 

William Sturdy 

Isaac Dan McDougall 

Frederick William Porter, F.R.I.B.A. 

John Terry ... 


















































Have passed the Chair. 


The Company in 1889. 



William Pickford 

• •• ••• •! 

. 1850 

John Buchanan NichoUs 

• • • • • • . « 

. 1856 

Charles Griffith, M.A. 

• • • • • • • < 

. 1857 

John Ring 

• • • • » ' • < 

. 1858 

John Knowlton Preedy 

• •• ••• •• 

. i860 

Charles Goldsworthy Smi 


. 1862 

William James Prosser 

• •• ••• ,4 

. 1863 

Thomas Horsey 

• • • • • • • 

• 1863 

Thomas Porteen Smith, j 

un. ... 

. 1864 

Frederick William Mart 

• • • • • • * 

. 1864 

Peter George Laurie ... 

• » • • • • « 

. 1864 

John Prosser ... 

• • • • • • • 

. 1866 

Colonel Julius D. Dyson- 


. 1866 

Philip Lawdeshayne ... 

... ... 

. 1866 

Charles Horsey 

• • • • • • • 

. 1866 

Walter McDougall 

• • • • • • • 

. 1867 

Alfred St. George McAdam Laurie 

. . 1869 

Walter Alfred Satchell, : 

F.R.C.P. Edinburgl 

M.R.C.S. England 

• • • • • • > 

. 1869 

C. Lang Huggins 

«9* ••• •< 

. 1870 

Peter Paget 

... ... 

. 1870 

George Henry Hogan... 

... • • • 

.. 1870 

Henry Frederick Griffin 

• •• • • • • 

. 1870 

Joseph Lewis ... 

• • • • • • 

., 1870 

Isaac Harris Wrentmore 

• • . • • • • 

. 1870 

Frederick McDougall... 

4 • • • • • • 

.. 1871 

Walter Lawley... 

• • • • • • • 

.. 1872 

Henry Augustus De Ros 


. 1873 

John Welch ... 

• . • « • • • 

• 1873 

William Henry Cotton 

... c • • • 

.. J874 

Charles Walters Dodd 

• • . ... • 

.. 1875 

Henry Savory Way 

• • • . . r a 

.. 1875 

Joseph Snowden, C.C. 

• • • • . • • 

.. 1875 

Sir John Braddick Monckton, Town Clerk . 

• 1875 

William Hardinge Humphreys 

. 1876 

The Company in 1889. 


Reginald Peter Northall-Laurie, J. P. 

... 1873 

Frederick Henry Reed, M.I.B.A. 


Francis John Hames ... 


Arthur Byrne Hudson, C.C, F.S.I. 

... 1878 

Arthur Booty ... 


John Howard Maynard 


Edmund Thomas Bruff 


Frederick Horsey 


Henry W. Prosser 


WiUiam John Gilks ... 


Robert Hughes Humphreys ... 


Charles Frederick Crawford ... 


Henry Edward Kaye ... 


Raymond Louis Roumieu 


Nowell Stanhope Stott 


Captain George Bering Remington ^ 

^Villiams 1883 

Horatio Porter 


James Francis Kershaw 


Frank Tayler, C.C, F.S.A., F.R.G.S 

... 1883 

Francis William Way ... 


Lieutenant John Halliburton Laurie. 



Chaplain — The Rev. Edward Rudge, LL.B. 
Clerk — John William Sherwell. 
Solicitor — William Hardinge Humphreys. 
Surveyor — William Hudson. 

Clerk- Assistant 1 Ph- 1 Wll' F 

Beadle and Hallkeeper J 




A Description of some Plate and other 
Articles of Interest in the Company's 

The ''Cocoa-nut" Cup. — Bequeathed in 1627 
by Robert Labourne, Master of the Company in 
1 6 1 5. This is a covered Cup, enclosed by three ver- 
tical bands and supported by a baluster stem ; the 
mountings are of silver gilt, richly chased. The 
sides of the cocoa-nut are beautifully carved in 
three tableaux, representing the Annunciation, the 
Adoration of the Magi, and the Nativity. Prob- 
ably belonging to the latter part of the fifteenth, or 
the early part of the sixteenth century, -a period 
which was rich in such specimens. Height 12 
inches. Plate I. 

The ''Rich" Cup. — This is a very elegant, two- 
handled, covered porringer-shaped Cup, presented 
to the Company in 1681, by Alderman Sir Peter 
Rich (Master of the Company in 1678 and 1680). 
Height, 8| inches ; diameter, 7I inches ; original 
weight, 35 oz. 5 dwts. It is inscribed " The gift 
of Peter Rich Esquire^' and is beautifully decorated 
in repousse work with acanthus leaves round the 
Cup and on the cover, the handle to which is 
formed by eight acanthus leaves erect. Hall 
mark, 1681. Plate HI., fig. 4. 

Supplement. 221 

The "Dashwood" Cup. — This is a handsome 
silver gilt standing Cup, or " Loving Cup, " 20 
inches high and 7^ inches in diameter. On the 
sides of the Cup, which are plain and frosted, are 
three panels, containing the arms of the Company, 
the arms of the donor, Alderman Sir Francis 
Dashwood, Master in 1653, and the inscription, 
'' The gift of Sir Francif Dajhwood to the Wor- 
fhipftdl Company of Saddlers, Londoiz, May, 
16^4!' The cover is cone-shaped and surmounted 
by a horse, saddled and bridled (the Company's 
crest). Original weight, 62 oz. 15 dwts. Hall 
mark, 1651. Plate II., fig. 8. 

The " Fisher " Cup. — This is a tall standing 
or '' Loving Cup" and cover, silver gilt. Height, 
21 inches; diameter, 7 inches. It is richly chased, 
and bears the arms of the Company and of the 
donor, with the figures of two horses, saddled. 
The intervening spaces are filled in by the acan- 
thus form of decoration, so common at the period. 
The cover is cone-shaped like that of the " Dash- 
wood " Cup, and is also surmounted by a horse, 
saddled and bridled ; under the rim of the cover 
is inscribed, ^^ Ex dono Guilielmi Fisher genero si 
in me^noriam patris sui, Edwardi Fisher olim 
huJMs Societatis membri, Anno D^^^- 1662'' 
Hall mark, 1661. Original weight, 61 oz. 15 dwts. 
Plate II., fig. I. 

The '' Lee " Tankard. — A massive Tan- 
kard, presented in 1676 by Edmund Lee, Master 

Q 2 

22 2 Supplement. 

of the Company 1675 and 1677. Height, 8 
inches ; diameter at base, 7^ Inches. It is richly 
chased round the sides, on which is represented a 
hunting scene, In which the quarry, a stag, is 
being pistolled. The large handle and the rim of 
the cover are treated In acanthus work, which is 
also adopted, round the base ; the centre of the 
cover contains the armorial bearings of the donor. 
Original weight, 62 oz. Hall mark, 1676. 
Plate H., fig. 5. 

The ''Sawyer" Tankard. — This was pre- 
sented in 1695, by John Sawyer (Master of the 
Company in 169 1). It is a large Tankard with 
overhanging hinged lid and purchase, and large 
bow handle. It is quite plain, and bears the arms, 
crest, and motto of the Company on the front, 
and underneath, the inscription, '' The ^ift of Mr. 
John Sawyer, late Master of the Company, anno 
i6g^r Height, 8 inches ; diameter at base, 6^ 
inches, tapering to 5^ inches. Hall mark, 1686. 
Plate IV., fig. 6. 

A similar Tankard, but somewhat smaller, is 
one purchased by the Company in 1677 with the 
proceeds of a sale of spoons. It is 6f inches in 
height, and 6 inches in diameter at the base, 
tapering to 5^ Inches. The arms, crest, and 
motto of the Company are engraved on the front. 
Original weight, 2>o ^^- ^5 dwts. Hall mark 
1676, Plate IV., f\g. 3. 


A Silver Ewer and Bason. — Alderman 
Smith's bequest. The Ewer is 9^ inches in 
height and 5^ inches In diameter, and bears the 
arms of the Company and of the donor (Alder- 
man Edward Smith, Master In 1654) engraved. 
Hall mark, 1691. Plate IV., fig. 8. 

The Bason, or Rosewater Dish, Is 22 inches in 
diameter. Is richly decorated in repousse with a 
wreath of fruit and flowers, the terminals enclosing 
the arms of the donor. The centre rises In a 
boss which is bordered by another floral wreath 
enclosing the Company's arms, crest, and motto. 
Circa, 1680. Plate II., fig. 4. 

This Bason and Ewer were purchased with a 
bequest of ^30, but cost £/\\ \6s. 6d. Original 
weight, 126 oz. 

The '' Pack" Monteith. — This Is a handsome 
Punch Bowl, presented by John Pack (Master 
1699). Height, 8^ inches ; diameter, 13 Inches. 
The top is scalloped in eight, and the sides are 
ornamented by as many heart-shaped panels 
outlined e^z rouleau. Two swinging handles 
depend from lions' faces on opposite sides. The 
arms of the Company and the donor are on 
separate panels, a third contains the donor's 
monogram, and a fourth the inscription, '' Ex 
doiio Jo/iannis Packe armigeri et Dignitifsimce 
Societatis Ephipiariorum prcesidisr Hall mark, 
1698. Original weight, 59 oz. 12 dwts. Plate V,, 
fig. I. 

2 24 Supplement. 

The " Tesmond " Monteith.— Presented by 
Michael Tesmond (Master 1720). The rim Is 
scalloped In eight, the Indentations differ some- 
what from those of the " Pack "Bowl, resembling 
battlements. On the sides, which are with- 
out chasing and otherwise quite plain, are two 
shields bearing the arms of the Company and of 
the donor, together with this inscription, " Michael 
Tesmond vetustifsimcE EpJiippiariorum Societatis 
per Biennhmt Presses hoc Dono dedit Sep. 24, 
1720." Two swinging handles also depend from 
lions' faces on the side. Height, 8^ inches ; 
diameter, 13 inches ; original weight, ']6 oz. 10 
dwts. Hall mark, 1720. Plate V., fig. 6. 

The " Fizer " Salt. — This Is a plain 
octagonal Salt, In shape resembling an hour-glass 
with four arms or horns extended vertically from 
the top, and which, according to Mr. Cripps, 
supported the napkin which covered the salt, the 
latter being placed in a circular depression or 
cavity on the top. It was presented to the Com- 
pany In 1687 by Edward Fizer (Master 1685 and 
1686), is engraved with the Company's arms, 
and bears the Inscription, " The gift of Thos. 
Fizer ^ Master of tJie Working Saddler Company^ 
1686-1687." Height to salt, 6f inches, the horns 
extend an inch higher; original weight, ^^ oz. 
10 dwts. Hall mark, 1686. Plate V., fig. 5, 

Two Octagonal Salts. — Dumb-bell or hour- 

Supplement. 225 

glass shaped, purchased in 1677 with the pro- 
ceeds of sale of spoons. Each has four arms or 
rests, a circular depression for the salt, and is 
engraved with the Company's arms. Their respec- 
tive dimensions are : — 

Height, extreme, 6^ inches ; diameter at base, 
7|- inches ; original weight 32^ oz. Hall mark, 

Height, extreme, 6 inches ; width at base, 
7 inches ; original weight, 27 oz. 12 dwts. Hall 
mark, 1676. 

Circular Salt (hour-glass shape). — The gift, 
in 1690, of Edward Benskyn, Master 1664 and 
1665. It has three arms and a circular depression 
for the salt, and contains the inscription, '' The 
Gift of Edward Benfkin, Member of this Com- 
pany. The 18 Septemb®'', 1690." Extreme 
height, 6^ inches ; diameter at base, 8 inches. 
Hall mark, 1661. Plate V,, fig. 2. 

The "Rich" Candlesticks. — A pair presented, 
in 1692, by Lady Rich and Elias Rich, the widow 
and son of Sir Peter Rich. They have fluted Doric 
columns and octagonal bases. Height, 13 inches ; 
width at base, 8^ inches ; original weight, 67 oz. 
14 dwts. Hall mark, 1692. Plate H., fig, 3. 

The ''Banner" Candlesticks. — Richard Ban- 
ner, formerly Clerk of the Company, bequeathed in 
1720 the sum of ^20, with which were purchased, 

2 26 Supplement. 

pursuant to the bequest, a pair of Candlesticks, 
weighing 64 ounces. They have fluted Doric 
columns and octagonal bases, and are engraved 
with the arms of the donor. Height, 13 inches ; 
width at base, y^ inches. No Hall mark. Plate 
n., flg. 2. 

The "Precious" Candlestick. — Bequeathed 
in 1 8 10 by Robert Precious, Master 1788. En- 
graved with the Company's arms, crest, motto, 
and supporters. Height, 16 inches ; to top of 
branches, 28 inches ; width of branches, 24 inches. 
Hall mark, 1787. Plate IV., fig. 5. 

The " Adderley " Testimonial. — This con- 
sists of a pair of silver Claret Jugs of very chaste 
design, presented by the Court to the Company 
in 1847, '' ^s ^ tribute of respect to the memory of 
the late Thomas Adderley^ Esq., a member of the 
Court during 38 years ^ and in testimony of his 
high character and private worths Height, 14 
inches ; ornamentation, vine leaves and grapes, 
engraved and intaglio. Hall mark, 1847. Plate 
HI., fig. 2. 

Rosewater Dish. — The gift of Isaac Neal, 
Master 1850. Fruit and flowers in repousse. 
Diameter, 22 inches. No Hall mark. Plate HI., 

fig- 3- 

"Williams" Cup. — A large two-handled covered 

Supplement. 227 

Cup. Height 17 Inches; extreme width, 15 
inches ; Inscription, " Given to Toosey Williams, 
Scots Gj^eys, on the * Flying Dutchman ' win^iing 
the St. Leger, September 12th, 1849, by A. Mas- 
singberd, 13//^ Light Dragoons T Bequeathed to 
the Company by Benjamin Bacon WIlHams, 
Master 1846 and 1863. Subject : Boys with 
Grapes and Wheat. It bears the DubHn assay 
mark corresponding to the year 1753. Plate V., 
fig. 4. 

The " McDouGALL " Cups. —A pair of Loving 
Cups, presented by the late Mr. Archibald 
McDougall, Master 1866 and 1874; a pair of 
silver gilt standing cups of tapering shape, and 
covers, with baluster stem. On the sides of each 
cup are the arms of the Company and of the 
donor ; the mantling is carried round the cup and 
forms the prevailing feature of the decoration. 
Immediately above the base are four horses' heads, 
crested and bridled. The covers are 8 inches In 
diameter and each Is surmounted by a horse 
saddled, crested, and bridled. Height, 21 Inches. 
Hall mark, 1875. Plate II., fig. i. 

Top of Under-Beadle's Mace (12 inches 
high). — A horse saddled and bridled, supporting 
In front a shield with the Company's arms. It 
bears the following figures inscribed, ''11 8 ^," the 
meaning of which is not clear. The trappings of 
the horse, and the character of the shield, suggest 
the sixteenth century, to which period it probably 

2 28 Supplement. 

belongs. There is no Hall mark Plate IV., 

%• 7. 

Top of Beadle's Mace. — A horse, silver gilt, 
crested, bridled, and saddled, supporting in front 
a shield with the Company's arms. The gift, in 
1711, of John Heylyn, Master 1710. No Hall 
mark. Plate IV., fig. 9. 

Silver Waiter on feet; length, 19 Inches; 
width, 14 Inches. Presented in 1797 by Edward 
Heylyn, Master 1779 and 1793. Hallmark, 1796. 
Plate IV., fig. 4. 

Two Silver Punch Ladles, with gilt bowls, 
each 14^ inches long, and engraved on the handles 
with the arms, crest, and motto of the Company. 
One of these was presented by Mr. Richard 
Burton, in 18 11, and bears the H[all mark of the 
same year. It contains, in the bowl, a fine large 
gold coin of Queen Elizabeth, on one side of 
which is a crowned figure of the Queen in profile, 
with sceptre and orb, and around it the motto 
" posvi : DEUM : adivtorem : mevm ; " while on the 
reverse are the royal arms of France and England 
quarterly, together with the inscription ''Elizabeth: 

D.G. ANGL : era : ET : HIBER I REGINA." The Other 

Ladle was presented by Mr. Wm. Smart In 181 7, 
and bears the Hall mark of that year. In the 
bowl is a fine large gold coin of Queen Anne, 
dated 1 708, of which the reverse is seen on the 
underside of the bowl. 

Supplement. 229 

Coffee Cup. — Hall Mark, 1730. Presented 
in 1789 by Robert Precious. Plate IV., fig. i. 

Six Taper or Pipelight Candlesticks. — 
Baluster stem and bases hexagonal. Height, 5^ 
inches. Hall mark, 1720. Purchased by the 
Company. Plate V., fig. 3. 

A PAIR OF Silver Candlesticks of very graceful 
pattern designed, after the style of Flaxman, from 
the antique. An elegant stem or pedestal, 
decorated at the shoulders with rams' heads 
upon a festooned base, supports an amphora- 
shaped vase or urn (but without arms), which 
holds the sconce. Height, 12 inches. Hall mark, 
1738. Plate IV., fig. 2. 

Another pair exactly similar but of later date, 
and bearing the Sheffield assay mark ; the date 
mark is, however, not legible. 

A SILVER-MOUNTED Ram's-head Mull, presented 
by Thomas Porteen Smith, Master in 1869. The 
lid of the box is mounted with a fine yellow cairn- 
gorm, which again is surmounted by the figure of 
a horse, saddled and bridled. The head is a very 
handsome one, and the horns are tipped with two 
other cairngorms of a darker colour. The mull 
bears the Edinburgh assay mark, the date of 
which corresponds to the year 1853. 

The remainder of the Company's plate is 

230 Supplement. 

mostly modern, and possess few features of more 
than ordinary interest. 

An interesting relic consists of an ancient 
Ballot Box. It is of wood, painted, resembling 
in shape a Chinese pagoda. It bears date 161 9, 
and has been in regular use ever since for the 
annual election of Wardens. 

There Is also preserved an Ancient Book bound 
in leather, with large brass hasps, containing illu- 
minated portions of the four Holy Gospels, with 
which are bound copies of ancient ordinances, 
wills, and covenants, in handwriting extending 
over a period from the fifteenth to the seven- 
teenth centuries. The Wardens, Assistants, 
Livery, and Freemen are severally sworn upon 
this venerable book, which bears on the front 
cover the following inscription engraved, In brass 
frame :- 


: so 

: on 





• • 




* * 





• * 





:355ud55op:3ano :p 

riate 1. 




Plate III. 

Plate IV. 

Supplement. 231 


In the Hall. 

A full-length portrait of H.R.H. Frederick 
Prince of Wales, said to be by Fyshe. 

A portrait of the Right Hon. Baron Halsbury, 
Lord Chancellor, Past-Master, by Mr. Cyrus 

A portrait of Queen Anne, by Clostermans. 

A portrait of Pitt, by Romney. 

A portrait of Mr. Alderman Cotton, by Mr. 
Cyrus Johnson. 

A portrait of Alderman Sir Peter Laurie. 
Painter unknown. 

A portrait of Mr. Bishop, Common Crier. 
Painter unknown. 

In the Court Room. 

" The Triumph of David," after Poussin, by 
Mr. J. E. Fisher, Master in 1868. 

" Venus instructing Cupid," by Carlo Moratti. 

In the Committee Room. 
"Dutch Boers Carousing," by Van Ostade. 

232 Supplement. 

In the Wardens' Room. 

Portrait of Mr. Joseph Peacock, Master 1832 
and 1850. 

In the Entrance Passage. 

Full-length portrait of Mr. Sheriff John Laurie, 
M.P. for Barnstaple, and Master in 1847. 

O '> -I 



The Will of William de Lincolne, Saddler, 
dated 20th November, 1392, proved November, 
1393, and enrolled in the Court of Hustings, 
Guildhall, contains the following bequest : " Item, 
to the wise men of the mistery of ' Sadellers ' of 
London, I leave ten marks on condition that they 
make a common Hall (itnmn aidant coni7nuneni) to 
the use of the said mistery within three years 
next after my decease, and if they make not the 
Hall aforesaid within the said three years, I then 
leave the said ten marks to be distributed by my 
executors among the poor of the said mistery of 
' Sadellers ' of London." 



Act of 5 Eliz., c. 4, i8i. 
5 Eliz., c. 8, 194. 
Adderley, on funeral sconces in 
Hall, 177. 
,, Testimonial Plate, 226. 
Alluring of servants and customers 

forbidden, 192. 
Almshouses at Isleworth, 144. 
Ammunition, supply of, 90. 
Ancient Testament, 230. 
Apprentices, number limited, 183. 
,, turnover of, 184. 

,, to be presented to the 

Wardens, 184. 
,, bound for eleven years, 

,, disputes between mas- 

ters and, 189. 
Apprenticeship, compulsory, 181. 
,, Statute respecting, 

Arms, Company's, lent to State, 92. 

,, Grant of Heraldic, 58. 
Askew, Anne, tried at Saddlers' 

Hall, 51. 
Assistants removed, 121. 
Audit, A. D. 1568, 55; A. D. 1584,57. 
" Ayde money," 75. 

"Bachelerie," 154. 

Ballot Box, 150, 230. 

Banner, Candlesticks presented by 

Mr., 225. 
Banners, Silk, bought by Company, 

,, presented by Sir P. Laurie, 


Barge, Company's State, 112. 

Bartholomew Feast, 164. 

Beadle imprisoned, 71. 

Blackmore, Sir Richard, 125. 

" Bringing home," 164. 

Burials, 174. 

Burton, Richard, Plate presented 

by, 22S. 
Bury St. Edmunds, Plague at, 89. 

" Cadett," 150. 

Cambridge, Duke of, visits Saddlers' 

Hall, 147. 
Chaplain, 174. 
Charters — i Edward I., 7. 

37 Edward HI. , 38. 

18 Richard H., 44. 

3 Henry VI., 49. 

24 Henry VI., 49. 

3 Edward IV,, 50. 
II Henry VII., 51. 
32 Henry VIIL, 51. 
I Elizabeth, 52. 

4 James I., 73. 

,, surrendered to 

Charles II., 118. 
24 Charles II., 120. 
Charles I. borrows money, 88, 90, 
,, his arms removed from 

Saddlers' Plall, 99. 
Charles 11. enters London, 100. 

,, Saddlers' Company vote 

him ;[^I44, loi. 
,, Coronation of, 102. 

,, visits the City. 103. 

„ quo wariJinlo, 116. 




Charles II. dies, 120. 

Cheapside in seventeenth century, 

,, Cross, 65. 

,, Standard, 65. 

Christ's Hospital, Company meet at, 

Clerk to let Hall, iii. 
Cloathing, ceremony of, 153. 
,, Election of, 153. 
,, penalty for refusing, 153. 
Cloth of Livery, 153. 
Clothes, light-coloured, forbidden, 

Coaches, introduction of, 81. 
Coachmaker appointed " King's 

Esquire Saddler," 115, 
Cocoa-nut Cup, loS, 220. 
Collegia Roman, Introduction, xvii. 

et seq. 
Colonization of Virginia, 75 ; Ulster, 

Compters. See Counters. 
Convention between Saddlers' Guild 
and St. Martin's, 3 et 
,, translation of, 5. 

Cotton, Mr. Alderman, Mayoralty 
of, 144. 
,, and Livery Companies 

Commission, 147. 
,, biographical notice, 

Counters, Wood Street and Poultry, 

67, 200. 
Cox's Charity, 206. 
Cradock, Chas., Bequest, 213. 
Cradock, Thos. Bequest, 213. 
Crown, interference by, 76. 
Cupfillers, 1 5 1. 

Dashwood, Alderman, presents 
barge cloth, l\:c. , 113; 
biographical notice, 

Cup, 108, 221. 

Deykin, ill-made saddles, 142. 

Disputes, 170. 

Distillers' Company use Saddlers' 

Hall, no. 
Dodd, P. M. Moses, resigns Chair, 

Dragoons to be raised by Saddlers' 

Company, 124. 
Duel threatened between Members, 

Duke of Cambridge and Saddlers' 

Exhibition, 147. 
Dutch Wars, 103, 104. 

Early Minute Bookslost,/'r^f(?, xiv. 
Edward I., Charter, 7. 

„ III., „ 38. 

,, ,, Ordinances, 27. 
,, IV., Charter, 50. 
Election Day, 151. 
Elizabeth, Charter of, 52. 
,, Ordinances, 54. 
,, introduces Lotteries, 55. 
,, processions ef, 57. 
English Guilds, Antiquity of. See 

Epitaph, Jacobite, on Frederick, 

Prince of Wales, 139. 
Esquire Saddler, 115. 
Etiquette of Company, 171. 
Exhibition of Saddles, 145, 146. 

Feasts, 157. 

Fellowship, The Company a, 167 

Fines, 165 et seq. 

Fire, Great, of London, 106. 

Fisher Cup, 108, 221. 

Fizer Salt, 224. 

Fitzstephen's description of London 

crafts, I. 
Foster Lane, Antiquity of, ']%. 
Frederick, Prince of Wales, visits 
Saddlers' Hall, 131, 
,, accepts Freedom of 

Company, 132. 



Frederick, Prince of Wales, elected 
Perpetual Master, 

,, dies, 1 38. 

Freedom, Custom on taking up, 

Funerals, 174. 
Funeral Pall, 177. 

,, Sconces in Hall, 177. 

George I. enters London, 128. 
Girdlers, Ordinances of, 23. 
Goldsmiths, earliest Charter of, 7. 
Gibson, Jesse, architect of present 

Hall, 142. 
Gloves, Gift of, 165. 
Gowrie Conspiracy, 75. 
Granaries, City, 94. 
Great Plague, 105. 
Great Fire, 106. 
Gunpowder Plot, 71. 

,, Store of, 98. 

Gunton's Charities, 210. 

Hair, long, forbidden, 172. 

Hall, Saddlers'. See letter S. 

Halsbury, Lord, 215, 216. 

Harris, Mr., offers prizes for Sad- 
dles, 146. 

Henry VI., Charter 49. 
„ VH., „ 51. 
„ VHL, „ 51. 

Herbert, on the antiquity of Sad- 
dlers' Guild, 6. 

Herse Cloth, 174. 

Heylin, John, presents Beadle's 
mace, 228. 

Heylyn, Edward, presents silver 
waiter, 228. 

Hides to be viewed, 194. 

Holland, war with, 103, 104. 

Honnor's Charity, 212. 

,, Home at Isleworth, 144. 

Humphreys, Mr. C. O., 216. 

Illustrations, List of, xi. 

James I., Charter, 73. 

,, Ordinances ratified by, 74. 
James II. discharges Wardens and 
Assistants, 121. 
,, abdicates, 124. 
Joiners and Saddlers, Early Ordi- 
nances of, 9. 
,, ,, Disputes be- 

tween, II. 
Journeymen Saddlers to serve a 
year, 192. 

Kent, Estates in, 107. 

Key Warden, 150. 

King of Denmark visits City, 71. 

King's Esquire Saddler, 115. 

Labourne Cup, 108, 220. 
Labourne's Charity, 206. 
Lambe, Dr., mobbed, 86. 
Laurie, Colonel R. P., biographical 

notice, 216. 
Laurie, Sir Peter, Mayoralty of, 143. 
,, presents banners, 

Leadenhall, Leather Market at, 194. 

Leases, quaint custom, 165. 
Leather, Statute concerning sale of, 
,, Market at Leadenhall, 194. 
Lee Tankard, 221. 
Lieht -coloured clothes forbidden, 

171, 172. 
Livery. See also Cloathing. 

,, Summoned, re Sale of Plate, 
92 ; re Surrender of Char- 
ter, 117. 
,, Junior, act as Waiters, 159.. 
,, Companies' Commission, 147. 
Loans to King and Parliament, 88, 

90, 91, 93. 125. 
London Tavern, 141. 
Loriners' Ordinances burnt, ii. 
Lord Mayor's Feast, 160. 
,, Show, III. 

Lottery, First English, 55. 



" Loyall London," The ship, 104. 
Ludgate Prison, 70. 

Machyn's description of funerals, 

Marshalsea Prison, 71. 
Marlborough, Fire at, 99. 
Master, Title of, 149. 
Master's Feast, 157. 
Masters and Wardens, List of 

Ancient, 205. 
McDougall Cups, 227. 
Meetings, 165 ; diminished, 92. 
Members, Rules for Governance of, 

166 et seq. 
Mermaid Tavern, Cheapside, 67. 
Mottoes of Company, 58. 
Municipal Corporations' Inquiiy, 


Neal Rosewater Dish, 226. 
New London Tavern, 141. 
Numa and the crafts of Rome, In- 
troduction^ xviii. 

Officers, 219. 

Opening Shop, 191. 

Order Books lost, Preface, xiv. 

Ordinances, Edward IIL, 27. 

Elizabeth, 54, 151,153, 

165, 183, 192. 
James I., 74? 166. 
Charles IL, 152, 154, 
165, 166, 191. 




Pack, Monteith, 223. 

Painters and the Saddlery Trade, 

Painters and Saddlers, Dispute 

between, 11. 
Pall, Funeral, 174. 
Paris, Articles of Saddlers of, 27. 
Paul's Cross, 75. 
Peacemaking, 170. 
Pease's Charity, 207. 
Plague, 84, 85 ; "The Great," 105. 

Pictures in Hall, 231. 

Plate sold, 91, 92. 

Plate, Description of Company's, 

Porter, F. W., Architect of Alms- 
houses, 145. 

Precious, Robt., Plate presented by, 
226 and 229. 

Prime Warden, title introduced, 
134; discontinued, 138. 

Prince of Orange, 124. 

Processions by water, ill, 143. 

" Proof Piece," 190. 

Quarterage, 154. 
Quarter Warden, 1 50. 
Quo Warranto, 116. 

Rebuking, 167. 

Religious Observances, 173. 

Renter Warden, 149. 

Restoration, The, 100. 

Revolution, The, 88. 

Rich, Sir Peter, 208. 

„ Cup given by, 220. 

,, Candlesticks given 

by, 225. 

Richard IL, Charter of, 44. 

Rings, Gift of, to Wardens, 177. 

Roman Guilds and Crafts, Intro- 

Russian Ambassador received by 
City, 102. 

"Saddlery of Westchepe," The, 2. 
Saddlers' wages fixed by Royal 

Ordinance, 21. 
Saddlers of York fined by Henry 

n., 8. 

Saddlers of Paris, Articles of, 27. 
Saddlers' Guild — 

Antiquity of. See Preface ; also 
p. 6. 

and Joiners, Articles of, 9. 



Saddlers' Guild — 

and Loriners, Joiners, and 
Painters, Disputes between, 11. 
and the Girdlers, 23. 
and Edward Ill's French wars, 

Representatives on Common 

Council, 39. 
Masters of, Sworn, 40. 
Petition against Nicholas Brem- 

bre, Mayor, 41. 
Dispute between Masters and 

Yeomen, 46. 
in A.D. 1537, 51. 
■ Redemption of Charitable Estates 

by, 52. 
and Colonization of Virginia, 75 ; 

of Ulster, 78. 
and introduction of Coaches, 81. 
and supply of Saddles to Army, 

and the Restoration, loi. 
contribute to Charles II, loi. 
and fund for disbanding forces, 


and Coronation of Charles II, 

subscribe to Dutch Wars, 103. 
decimated by Plague, 105. 
their Barge, 112. 
and Water Processions, 112. 
subscribe to "Voluntary Fund," 


their Almshouses, 144. 
Prizes for Saddles, 145, 146. 
Internal Affairs of, 149. 
and the Trade, 179. 
in 1889, 217. 
Saddlers' Hall- 
Anne Askew tried at, $i. 
used by Commissioners for relief 

of City of Marlborough, 99, 
destroyed by Great Fire, 106. 
rebuilt, 108. 
let, no, III, 176. 
description of old, 127. 
partially burnt, 140. 

Saddlers' Hail- 
completely burnt, 141. 
rebuilt, 141. 

Saddlers' .trade to be learnt by 
apprenticeship, 181, 182. 

Saddlery wares not to be made 
covertly, 193. 

Saddles ill-made, burnt, 142. 

,, ,, punishment for, 

1975 199 ^^ seq. 
„ Exhibition of, 145, 146. 

Salts, Silver, 224, 225. 

St. Martin's-le-(jrand, 2, 3. 

St. Mary-le-Bow, 64. 

St. Michael-le-Querne, 64. 

St. Paul's Cathedral, Repair of, 87. 

St. Paul's Cross, 75. 

St. Peter Cheap, 64. 

St. Vedast, 77, in. 

Sawyer Tankard, the, 222. 

Scholars, Company's, at the Univer- 
sities, 77. 

Sconces, Funeral, in Hall, 177. 

Scotch Rebellion, 136. 

Search, prerogative of, 196. 

,, punishment for resisting, 

,, impartiality of, 203. 
,, useful results of, 204. 

Searchers and Sealers of Leather, 

Severus, A. , and the crafts of Rome, 
Introduction, xix. 

Second Warden, 149. 

Ship "Loyall London," 104. 

Ship money, 89. 

Shopkeeping, to be licensed by War- 
dens, 183. 
,, opening, 191. 

Smart, Wm., presents Silver Ladle, 

Smith's bequest, Alderman, 223. 

Smithfield, Saddles burnt at, 199. 

Solemn League and Covenant, 95. 

Spoons, Gift of, 185 ; Sold, 186. 

Stage Coaches introduced, 84. 

Standard, Cheapside, 65. 



Stands, 115, 129. 

State Barge, Company's, 112. 

Statute concerning Apprenticeship, 

181 ; Leather Trades, 194. 
Statute of Chantries' Act, 52. 
Steelyard Merchants, Guild of, In- 

Stewards, 160. 

Tenants to give Venison, 164. 
Tesmond Monteith, The, 224. 
Third Warden, 149. 
Trades to be learnt by Apprentice- 
ship, 181. 
Translations, 155. 
"Treasurie," 151. 
Trees, Saddle-, broken, 199. 
"Trial Saddle," 190. 

Ulster, Colonization of, 78 ; Rebel- 
lion in, 93. 
" Under Renter," Title of, 150. 
Upper Warden, 149. 

Venison, Tenants to give, 164. 
Virginia, Colonization of, 75. 

Voluntary Fund, 139, 

Wages of Artificers limited by 

Statute, 21. 
" Wayters," 159. 
Wardens adjudicate in disputes, 169. 

,, and Assistants removed, 

,, Titles of, 149. 

,, Election of, 152. 

„ fined for absence, 166. 

,, of the Yeomanry, 160. 
Water Pageants, in, 143. 
Weaver's Company, Charter of, 7. 
Wheat, Company's proportion of, 

" Whiflers," 85. 
" Williams " Cup, the, 227. 
William III. and Mary, 124. 
Wine Cellar, 142, 
Worcester, Battle of, 98. 
Wren, Sir Christopher, in. 

Yeomanry, 154. 
Yeomanry's Dinner, 160. 
Yeomen Saddlers, Dispute between 
Masters and, 46. 

Harrison & Sons, Printers, St. Martin's Lane, London. 


Webster Family Library of Veterinaiy Medicine 
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at 

200 We^thnrn Road 





• •. 

','- \