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/TO ,I0?'.4.VT,167>S ,1A7) SURROUNDINGS, f 



I Chamber of Commerce, | 



ID. JP. lE^CBBIiTS, ILviC. ID. (j^ 

$ • (J) 

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The sender of this pamphlet mils your attention to 

pages.. 1.3..., 


P Banking Interests, 23 

(g) Churches, 16-17 

|gj Chamber of Commerce, 97 

T Drugs and Paints, 76-77 

y Electric Light Company, 22 

(§) Forsyth County, 11 

^\^ Fries, F, & H., Manufactories, 24-5 

jf Gun and Locli:smiths, 54, 81 

It Groceries, Confectioneries, etc., 78-80 

1^ Hardware, Stoves, etc., 75-76 

fltjj Healthfuhiess and Salubrity, 5 

jf Historical and Geographical, 4 

w Hygiene in Brief, 65 

(^ Hotels, History, etc., 45 

rfjj) Iron Working Interests, 26 

T Ice and Coal, 78 

P Jewelry Stores, 77 

(§) Kernersville , 84-93 

^ Legal Fraternity, 49-51 

M Livery Stables, 68, 95 

^ Mercantile Interests, 70 

^) Manufacturing Inducements, 2, 7, 82 

M Moravian Church, 15 

^ Miscellaneous Manufacturing, 30,55,80 

¥ Medical Profession, 51-53, 80 

^ Merchant Tailoring, 55 

^ Millinery Stores, 78 

Ik Northern Capital Coming South, 2, 3 

w Newspapers, Job Printing, Etc., 20, 21 

$ ' Photograph Artists, 54 

A Public Schools, 14-15 

I Post-offices, 21 

¥ Public Buildings and Officials, 46-49 

$ Piailroads, 44,66-68 

^ Real Estate and Broker, 54 

dk Salem Female Academy, 13 

P Salem Merchandise etc., 69-70 

^j) Settlement of Salem, 9 

rfj) Stokes County, 12 

Z Societies, 18-19 

¥ The Twin-City, 10 

(P Tobacco Literests, 31-44 

^ Valuable Statistics, ...57-64 

rih Wagons, Carriages, etc., 29 

¥ Winston Merchants, 71-75 

9 "Wood Working Interests, 27 

Compiled under auspices of the 

ChLamber of CommLerce. 

The Leading Manufacturing- and Mercantile Enterprises, Public 

Men, Schools, Churches, Railroads, Advantages and 

Surroundings Properly Portrayed. 

In the following pages ^ve shall not go into lengthy details of pri- 
vate enterprises or fulsome praise of individuals, but it is the purpose of 
the compiler and interested citizens of this place, to present in a con- 
venient shape for preservation, and in as brief a manner as is consist- 
ent with an intelligible description of the facts, (yet withal so inex- 
pensive and easily mailed as to be sent far and wide by the promoters 
of this section), a sketch of our advantages and surroundings, which 
shall show forth to the world the undoubted superiorities of our city 
and that our progressive men are ready to welcome any legitimate indus- 
try. A summary of these advantages will demonstrate to the 
reader that Winston and Salem are equalled bv few cities in the South. 
Read the following pages and refer them to the manufacturer and capital- 
ist, as well as to those who seek after health and comfort, beautiful sur- 
roundings, educational and social advantages. 

It is not proposed to write much of our city's past history, however 
full it is of tender memories, of pleasing reminiscences, of high achieve- 
ments, and of solid enterprises ; however replete with the private hero- 
ism and the public heritage of noble men and saintly women, who have 
done their allotted parts and passed away to live only in their works that 
have not perished. The story of this glory is foreign to the purposes of 
this publication. Let the dead past burv its dead. Honoring it highly; 
cherishing it tenderly; accepting gratefully the lessons it teaches of 
moral and economical import — of ethics, education and business — let the 
record be laid aside. Let the present be grasped and so wisely wielded 
and worked that we may go forth to meet the shadowy future without 
fear and with a manly hope. 

The purpose of this pamphlet is to exhibit in a condensed form, in 
logical order of arrangement, and with strict regard to the truth, the 
resources and advantages of this city and country as a place of residence 
and a business mart. The object is to show accurately its railroad 
resources, religious, educational, industrial ; its banking and mercantile 
facilities ; its hygienic advantages and general attractions, extenu- 
ating naught and setting down nothing in exaggeration of the facts of the 
case. No boom — fit word of recent usage to express exaggeration, false 
statements and fallacious reasoning, to come back like an Australian 
missile weapon, with inevitable reactionary force, is here designed; but 
on the contrary, with confidence even in such wounds as the truth gives 
to say nothing of the power that it ever carries, it is intended to give a 
plain, unvarnished exposition of our real condition and reasonable expec- 
tations. Fortunately for us, we have a cause that can stand upon its real 
merit — a case that is good in court — requiring no artful declarations, no 
labored plea, and no technical support. 



While the mercantile interests of 
a community are an essential fea- 
ture and the professional talent a 
necessary part of a city, it is gener- 
ally admitted that thriving manu- 
facturing industries are the great 
(lesideratv/m, and give more perma- 
nency and rapidity of growth to 
any place than all other interests 
combined. The merchant brings to 
us the commodities of commerce 
and is usually generous in dividing 
his profits to charities and enter- 
prises of public good, but the leg- 
itimate manufacturer opens a 
permanent investment for capital 
at remunerative rates, gives employ- 
ment to the laborers of a commu- 
nity, and enhances the values of all 
firm products in his immediate 
section. The Twin City, with her 
coming railroads and healthy loca- 
tion, offers superior inducements to 
those who may desire to make 
investments within her borders. 
Lands are cheap, laborers plenty, 
educational advantages of high 
grade, her citizens noted for their 
culture, hospitality and generous 
welcome toward good citizens from 
other states or countries. 

The growth of the South in a few 
years past has been wonderful, and 
this place is awakening to her im- 
portance as a central city. A North- 
ern journal says : "The summary 
of industrial statistics, which has 
been made by a Southern trade jour- 
nal, discloses a progress along the 
lines of diversified developement, 
which will be a surprise even to 
those who have fancied that they 
appreciated the changes which are 
in progress in that section. Twenty- 
two factories for making agricultur- 
al implements ; 23 car works ; 147 
cotton and woolen mills ; 184 foun- 
dries and machine shops ; 73 blast 

furnaces; 504 mines and quarries 
and 23 rolling mills. These are a 
few items in a long list of indus- 
tries begun or established during a 
single year in thirteen States." Such 
an industrial development as this, 
so rapid and so varied, shows the 
necessity of recognizing the new 
impulses and conditions which pre- 
vail in the South, and is changing 
the character, traditions and aspir- 
ations of the people of this section. 


The statement given forth by 
Northern journals that one hundred 
and sixty millions of Northern capi- 
tal Iras found investment in the 
South within the past year raises 
the question as to what particular 
industries have absorbed so large a 
sum in this section of the country. # 
Undoubtedly a large amount has \ 
l)een employed in the construction 
and improvement of railways and 
the development of mining, mill- 
ing and manufacturing interests, 
but it has been shown that consid- 
erable capital has also been used in 
a comparatively new direction. The 
cutting down of forests in the South 
by saw mill owners has opened up 
large tracts of land which are grad- 
ually being turned into farms. 
Much of this land, when fertilized, 
is capable of yielding as good crops 
of cotton, corn, fruits and vegetables 
as Western or Gulf State lands. 
The opportunity thus offered to 
secure homes in the South, where 
the climate permits out door work 
the year round, and where the rig- 
ors of a severe winter are escaped, 
has been seized upon by many 
small capitalists in the North and 
West. A number of well-to-do 
tamers from Northern Ohio, tried 
the experiment in Southern Geor- 
gia last year, and their experience 

in Exchaji^^j 
Duke UniversitjfT 
JUL 1 2 1933 


is said to luive been very satisfac- 

It is becoming plain that the 
South must look to the farmers and 
mechanics of the North and West 
for the increase of its white indus- 
trial population. Immigrants from 
Kuro})e cannot compete with the 
negro in unskilled labor and, there- 
fore, will not go South for the pres- 
t^nt, failing to realize the vast ad- 
vantages; which this regit)n offers 
agriculturally. Thus, to the North- 
ern or Western man who has the 
means for investment, this new 
l)ranch of small farming in the 
South ofiers inducements unequal- 
ed perhaps l)y those of any other 
country. Certainly the great West- 
ern States and Territories, gi'cat as 
their advantages undoubtedly are, 
utter no liner chances to men -of 
small capital and enterprising pur- 
jxise than the 'New South' presents. 
It is an encouraging fact that a con- 
siderable jmri of the capital which 
is now pouring into the South ha.*^ 
found employment in the way we 
have indicated, contributing thus 
to the diversifications of Southern 
industries, and to the wi-ll"are of 
the country at huge." 


The stereoty})ed idea that the tide 
of immigration follows natural 
lines from East to West, has receiv- 
ed a rude shock from the interest 
evinced by people in all parts of the 
world t(» know more of the vast 
mineral and agricultural re.'^ources 
of the Southern States, and it is 
now certain that a tide of immi- 
gration has commenced, which, al- 
tliough small at first, is steadily, 
healthily and rapidly increasing. It 
is now everywhere recognized that 
there are in the South, more 
and better opportunities for people 
of moderate means than in any 

other section of the United States, 
and it is not at all surprising that 
there is such an eager incpiiry from 
all directions. Since 1S80 the ])ro- 
gress of Southern agricultural pur- 
suits has been very great. This is 
explained by the fact of improved 
cultivation of the soil, diversifica- 
tion of crops, l)etter lal)or, better 
vit'lds. In I'^SO the crops of the 
South were .S(;i2,27S,olS ; in 1887 
they had risen to S745,OoO,(iO(); an 
increase of 22 per cent. Cotton is 
still the largest item, constituting 
one-third of the whole yield. 

Fruit and garden ci-ops have in- 
creased 813,tXK),0(^J, and the value 
of stock 8247,o2<xo48, or 69 i)er cent. 

Tiie South's saw-mill and forest 
products establishments havt; in- 
creased in numbers 2,768: in hands 
(■mi)loved, 27,oH7, and in value 

Including the larm, stock-raising, 
manufactures, minerals and fisher- 
ies, we find a grand aggregate in- 
crease of products within six years 
of S;>o2,2] 1,787 : •'><) per cent, against 
an increase of i>n|iul;ition of 17 i»er 

During this |)eriod the South has 
advanced in w.alth S9o3, 104.097. or 
42 per I'ent. In 1880 the assessed 
value n{' property ])er capita was 
•SlWMiO: in 1887,S19o.8o ; increase 

Alabama lias increased threefold 
in its manufactories since 1880; 
(leorgia has nearly doubled. Ken- 
tucky ailded oO millions to her 
manufactjiring capital; Tennes.'^ee 
2.S millions : North and South Caro- 
lina al)outl7 niillit)ns each. There 
were o4,56o factories in the South in 
1880 and l.S,S7 showed 54,176 with 
an increa.^ed capital of 8192,459,000 
and 172,;)2'S more hands employed 
in the latter than in the former 


The building of railroads has been 
a great factor in Southern prosper- 
ity , ten years ago communication 
with the outside world was difficult 
and expensive ; now the}^ have ex- 
tended their iron arms in all direc- 
tions, giving access to a ready mar- 
ket of the products of millions of 
acres of land which had heretofore 
been worthless, and converting into 
countless wealth those vast forest 
of timber which have been undis- 
turbed for so many centuries. 



The Carolinas were explorea by 
the French in 1563 and named in 
honor of Charles IX, (Carolus) 
King of France. Sir Walter Ral- 
eigh received a patent in 1584, and 
made the first English settlement 
in the United States, the colony 
soon afterward abandoning the 
State. A second futile attempt was 
made in 1587, and a few years later 
Raleigh was beheaded by order of 
James I, on a charge of treason. 
About 1640, and afterwards, the 
county of Albemarle, N. C, was 
settled by refugees from religious 
persecution, who had left New 
England and Virginia. In 1663 
Charles II, King of England, made 
various grants and the old French 
name Avas continued in honor of 
the second Charles. But for further 
details we must refer the reader to 
history and pass on to present 

The Carolinas, claiming their 
original sovereignty, entered at the 
head of the Southern States in the 
recent armed protest against the 
predominance and sectional legisla- 
tion of the Northeast. The fortunes 
of war decided against them, and 
thev have accepted the result in 

good faith. No States in the Union 
are more faithful or truer to their 
pledges. The system of slavery 
(originally forced upon them and 
repugnant to the moral and relig- 
ious sentiment of the world,) has 
been abolished and these States are 
now on the highway to manufact- 
uring and industrial success. 

The Carolinas lie principally be- 
tween 32° and 36|° north latitude. 
The coast lands are interspersed 
with numerous bays, sounds and 
inlets, and are too flat to be attrac- 
tive or healthy. 

The low countr}^ of the eastern 
portion of these States are covered 
with a small growth of pine, and 
the middle country is comprised 
principally of the low sand hills 
which have a clay subsoil and give 
good rewards to the husbandman. 
West of this is a belt called the 
ridge, where the land rises abruptly 
and continues to ascend, exhibiting 
beautiful alternations of hill and 
dale, till it terminates at the ex- 
treme northwest in the Blue Ridge, 
the highest peak of which is Mt. 
Mitchell in North Carolina that has 
a greater elevation than any other 
point east of the Rockies. 


The granite and limestone forma- 
tions are numerous and beautiful. 
Copper, iron, lead and bismuth are 
found in the various sections and 
the richest deposit of bone phos- 
phate on the continent comes to the 
surface in Charleston county, S. C, 

South Carolina has its sulphur 
and magnesia waters at Glenn 
Spring, in Spartanburg County, and 
its picturesque cascades at the Falls 
of Saluda, in the mountain coun- 
try, where the waters have a de- 
scent of from 300 to 400 feet, and 
North Carolina has within her bor- 
ders the most famous mountains of 


the Blue Ridge and a great diversity 
of scener}^ and climate. 

The products of the State are di- 
versified, the low land being adapt- 
ed to rice, corn, cotton; the oak and 
pine lands of the interior to cotton, 
corn, potatoes, tobacco, etc., and the 
pine uplands to fruits and vegeta- 
bles. Bordering on the mountain 
range of the Blue Ridge, Avheat, bar- 
ley, corn and oats flourish, while 
apples, peaches, pears, plums,grapes, 
and small fruits in general grow 
luxuriantly. The fig tree thrives 
up to an elevation of about 1,000 
feet. The principal soil of the State, 
excepting on the coast, is a red clay 
with slight admixture of sandy 


Statistics show three-fourths of 
the days as clear and pleasant while 
the climate in general is very equa- 
ble and excelled in this respect by 
few States in the Union. The cen- 
tral and high lands of the State are 
timbered with walnut, pine, elm, 
oak and hickory. The average 
daily range of temperature on the 
coast is a fraction less than at Santa 
Barbara, Cal., the heat of summer 
seldom exceeding 95°, and but few 
weeks inwinter remaining at the 
freezing point. In point of health- 
fulness, picturesque scenery, and 
prospects for future developments 
the Piedmont 1'egion of this State is 
very desirable. Salem is located 
in one of the healthiest sections of 
the United States and is fast gain- 
ing a reputation as a favorable re- 
sort for invalids. 

This section of the State is emi- 
nently salubrious, presenting as it 
does a favorable exhibit of all the 
features essential to health, such as 
elevation, drainage, dryness of air 
and exemption from epidemic and 
malarial visitations. Situated so 

high on sandy and porous soil, 
which drinks in the rain and pre- 
vents humidity of atmosphere and 
the noxious influences consequent 
upon the decomposition of vegeta- 
ble and animal matter and remov- 
ed far from the miasmic generation 
of stagnant marshes and ponds, 
this place is comparatively free from, 
zymotic diseases, and absolutely so 
from those of a malignant or epi- 
demic character. Innumerable wit- 
nesses testif}' to the advantages to 
be derived from a residence here in 
the treatment of that class of dis- 
eases which depend for their cure 
upon climatic influences, such as 
pulmonary affections, (including 
consumption, bronchitis, and asth- 
ma), or upon a change of climate, 
as dyspepsia, liver and kidney dis- 
eases, and rheumatism. The city 
is among the healthiest of its size 
in the United States. 


The geographical situation of this 
place makes it one of the most 
pleasant localities in the State ; the 
topographic conformation, equable 
and salubrious climate, clean, high 
and shaded streets, the ample, high- 
ly cultivated, and tastefully arrang- 
ed grounds that surround its dwell- 
ings, conspire to attract to and 
make this one of the most desirable 
and inviting places of residence in 
the State; and the number who are 
allured here from year to year, to 
escape the rigors of a Northern 
winter are steadily increasing. In 
order to create a city, in the true 
meaning of the word, it is necessary 
that its inhabitants should regard 
it with pride and affection, and also 
as something of which they are a 
personal part. The nationalit}' or 
/ nativity of no man is questioned 
here. Whether he comes from the 
North or the South, or the East or 



the West, he will be gladly received, 
if he only possesses and practices 
the virtues thfit are essential to good 

The Twin City with its coming 
railroads completed, will have grand 
distri))iiting advantages, and should 
make a great wholesale centre. It 
will then be an active railroad cen- 
tre, and no idle dream that she is, in- 
deed, a progressive city. In nearly 
every article of this sketch, although 
may have a personal heading, will 
be "found some interesting fact or 
conclusion to Ije drawn. We invite 
you to read the entire work, as some 
point of information obtained may 
1>e valual)le to you at present or for 
future use. This city will bear the 
closest scrutiny, and in the name of 
its progressive citizens, we invite all 
to come and spend a week,in vestigate 
the merits of this favored section, 
and we are certain that before the 
l)lizzards of another winter arrive, 
you will have concluded to take up 
a permanent abode here. 

Situated in the uplands of the 
State, with several railroads com- 
peting for its freights to the tobacco 
markets, manufacturing centres of 
the North, and ports of exports to 
all parts of the world, this place 
will have advantages unequalled V)y 
any interior city of the South for 
the handling of all staple products. 
These new railrcjads concentrating 
here will secure a low rate of 
freight to Norfolk. Baltimore, New 
York, Boston and Philadelphia. 
This competition secui'es that<iuick 
transit so essential in mercantile 
trade. In addition to this, our to- 
Ijacco is very desirable from its fine 
color and flavor, unsurpassed for its 
chewing and smoking qualities and 
of excellent staple. These substan- 
tial reasons can scarcely fail to open 
up to the central and U})per portions 

of our State a market which, for many 
reasons, it is largely for the interest 
of producers to patronize. 

Thirty tobacco manufact'Ories are 
already in operation here and 
the field is especially inviting to 
the production of cotton goods. 
A dozen mills of that descrip- 
tion, with their contingent indus- 
tries, would not be out of place. 
Extensive wood manufacturing, 
and many other fields of industry, 
might be profitably engaged in as 
the weather is equable the entire 
year, and but little expense required 
to keep away the chilling blizzards 
of the Northwest, which lose their 
power for harm while climbing the 
Blue Ridge Mountains. 

Our article on agriculture and 
thoroughbred stock will convey a 
slight idea of what advantages the 
surrounding country is possessed. 
The importance of those pursuits 
will be manifest, as thriving agri- 
cultual aud stock-raising districts 
give back-bone to commercial and 
manufacturing centres. Any man 
who has the stamina to gcj west with 
limited means, and trusts to his 
energy and the smiles of Provi- 
dence, and who succeeds there, 
could take the same energy and 
trust and have greater certainty of 
success in the South. He has no 
grasshoppers, nor end«ring ice, nor 
snow, nor blasting brought, nor 
violent winds. His wants are few- 
er and his hardships less. 


It is eminently proper in a de- 
scriptive review of this character 
that the men or corporations Avho 
have really (lofw sonuthim/, who 
have ventured their time and means 
to the establisliment of industrial 
works, and liberally dispensed their 
money in our midst for the con- 
struction of buildings, salary to em- 


})loyees, and purchase of material, 
should have a deserving mention 
in these pages. Such instutions 
risk large sums of mone}' in build- 
ings and machinery, surrounded l)y 
inflammable materials, and it is but 
due that they should receive good 
percentages as a reward for their 
great risks, heavy outlay of capital 
and business tact required in their 
operation. As these industries use 
up the raw materials of the country 
at remunerative prices and dispense 
large amounts in weekly wages, 
which revert to the tills of our mer- 
chants and mechanics, the munici- 
pality can well afford to give them 
liberal inducements in the way of 
exemption from taxation or other 
subsidies. We reiterate what we 
have said before, that on thriving 
manufacturing industries the 
growth and continued prosperity of 
our city largely depends, and those 
who are working for its upbuilding 
should receive due credit. 

It is despicable for any citizen ^to 
speak against his own city, and to 
say regarding any enterprise to 
further its advancement, " Oh, it's 
no use ; you never can make any- 
thing out of this place." We are 
glad to note that there are very few 
here of this class, and those vi^o 
feel so should move out and give 
place to others who are able to "see 
the day star of future greatness 


In the pages of this pamphlet we 
shall give conclusive evidence as to 
the many advantages of Winston 
as a manufacturing, agricultural and 
commercial center and among some 
of the point.s of evidence which we 
shall present are the facts that we 
have a well-equipped railroad with 
two others projected, which we have 
good reason to believe will be com- 

pleted within the next season, and 
which will greatl}- add to our ad- 
vantages and facilities of transpor- 
tation. Our city is in the midst of 
the tobacco, grain and iron produc- 
ing district. Wheat, vegetables, 
poulty, fruits, etc., can be had at rea- 
sonable rates to feed the employees 
of the manufacturer, and for which 
the agriculturalist receives remuner- 
ative returns. 

The supply of fuel is ample and 
cheap and there are but few days in 
the year that will not permit of free 
ventilation without inconvenience. 
The great manufactories of the 
North where for half of the year 
the operatives must be kept in 
rooms almost air tight and supe'r- 
heated to keep out the intense cold, 
thus depriving the system of the 
necessary oxygenation, cannot be 
otherwise than destructive to health, 
and it is little wonder that thous- 
ands die annually of lung troubles, 
nervous diseases or other similar 
prostrations, when we consider the 
immense strain upon the system 
while living in rooms in which the 
})rincipal part of the oxygen is used, 
to keep up the combustion of fuel, 
and the great contrast in going from 
these rooms to the outside atmos- 
phere. These facts and many oth- 
ers of like import are fast sending 
the manufacturing capital of the 
North to the more salunurious and 
equable climate of the Southern 
States. Every manufacturer and 
laborer will readily see the advan- 
tages to accrue from a mild and sa- 
lubrious climate. 

We have one cotton mill in oper- 
ation and others in contemplation 
which will probably be bwilt during 
the coming year; three furniture fac- 
tories, four large foundries and ma- 
chine shops; two merchant tailoring 
clothing manufacturing establish- 


ments; one of the largest woolen 
factories in the Sonth ; saddle ^and 
harness factories'- three planing and 
wood working mills, besides numer- 
ous smaller industries,^all of which 
are crowded with orders, and several 
projected enterprises which we have 
no doubt will soon become realities. 
There are two national banks here 
with a capital and surplus of nearly 
1400,000. But our greatest indus- 
trial work is in the manufacture of 
tobacco, the fame^ which Winston 
has gained as a wholesale leaf mart 
and the high reputation of its to- 
baccos, extend far and wide. 

Twin City has the best grad ed 
schools in the state, and fine private 
schools ; 12 churches, a seminary of 
note, an opera house, electric light, 
water works, gas, street cars, project- 
ed, macadamized streets, and paved 
sidewalks. The mortuary statistics 
show a health record unsurpassed by 
any city of its size in the country. 
The elevation of the place is about 
1,000 feet above the sea. Consump- 
tion seldom, if ever, originates in 
this section. 

We do not expect this pamphlet 
to be a complete index, as from our 
inability to find the proprietors or 
other responsible persons, from 
whom to secure facts and dates, we 
shall sometimes unwillingly omit 
an important business. We do 
not claim perfection nor expect a 
book containing so much matter as 
the present issue, to appear free 
from errors, but we will endeavor to 
makea creditable sketch, one which 
we think will be generally accepted 
with satisfaction by our citizens and 
mailed to friends and customers 
throughout the country, or preserv- 
ed for future reference. From a 
proper estimate we find that more 
than 500,000 separate and distinct 
pieces of metal will be required in 

the edition, and shovild our readers 
find a letter upside down, or other 
typographical or historical errors, 
we trust that they will kindly make 
their criticisms light. 

The business men who subscribe 
for a number of extra copies should 
not lay them under the counter, as 
is sometimes done, and forget to 
give them proper distribution. This 
book contains many valuable facts 
and dates, and some person will 
while away several hours with pleas- 
ure and profit in perusing the same. 
It is due to your own interest and 
those of your neighbors who are in- 
terested with you, as well as to the 
upbuilding of your city, that you 
distribute all numbers placed in 
your hands during the next month 
or so. Mail them to your friends 
or turn turn them over to the Cham- 
ber of Commeice for distribution. 

The greatest known depth of the 
ocean is 5^ miles (25,720 ft. or 4,620 
fathoms) not quite the height of the 
highest known mountain, Mt. Ever- 
est. The average depth between 60° 
north and 60° south is nearlyS miles. 

St. Peter's Church, will accommo- 
date 54,000; Duoma, Milan, 37,- 
000; St. Paul's in Rome, 25,000; 
St. Sophia, Constantinople, 23,000; 
Notre Dame de Paris, 21,000 ; the 
Dome of 'Florence, 20,000; the 
Cathedral of Pisa, 13,000; St. Marc, 
in Venice, 7,000. 

"The permanent constitution of 
the Confederate States of America" 
was adopted at Montgomery, Ala., 
March 11, 1861, was ratified by Ala- 
bama, March 13; Georgia, March 16; 
Louisiana, March 21; Texas, March 
25; Mississippi, March 30; South 
Carolina, April 5, 1861. These so 
called ratifications were submitted 
to the people. 





While it i.s not oui- i)uri)()si' to <j,<) 
into a detail of past historv, it is on- 
ly proper that we should make a 
brief" reference to the p;^ople who set- 
tled this town and county more than 
a century ago. Bohemia and Mora- 
via were first to protest against 
what they believed to be the unright- 
eous claims of the Romish Church 
and the Reformation became promi- 
nent under John Huss, who suffered 
martyrdom in 1415. From his mem- 
ory arose that religious body offici- 
ally named the Unitas Frntuni or 
Brethren's Unity, and more general- 
ly known as the Moravians. To be 
freed from the spirit of oppression 
many of the l)rethren fled to Saxony. 

In 1557 a parish was established in 
Poland, but an anti-reformation was 
fostered by Ferdinand II in l(j20-27 
which crushed out this church leaving 
■only a handful of the Brotherhood 
from whom the line of descent was 
•continued. The foundation for the 
town of Herrnhut was laid in .lune. 
1722, on lands donated to the Broth- 
erhood by Count Zinzendorf, of Sax- 
ony, and this soon became their gen- 
eral rallying place. A large nnml)ei- 
of Moravians subseipiently emigrated 
to Pennsylvania and from there, in 
1752, Bisho]) Spangenl)erg, accom- 
panied by five l)rethren,set out to se- 
lect a location in North Carolina. 
Together with Mr. Churton, the sur- 
veyor and agent for Lord (iianville, 
they traversed the wild forests of this 
section and aftei-numerous hardships 
and privations selected the "Wach- 
ovia tract" which, with subsecpitMit 
surveys, was made to contain i)S,- 
985 acres and covei's what is now 
about two-fifths of Forsyth county. 
This was deeded to the society Au- 
gust 7th, 1758, and the first settle- 
ment was made at Bi^thabara. (now 
Old Town), a few months later. Sa- 
lem was selected as the central town 
for the Moravian Brethren in 17(55 

and the first house was ()ccui)ied the 
next year. 

In is57a separation of civil and 
religious government took place, 
since which time Salem has held reg- 
ular municipal elections. 

The pre.sent generation nught de- 
rive an instructive moi-al lesson by 
contrasting the privileges and dis- 
comforts wiiich beset thetii'st settlers, 
with the happy circumstances by 
.which they are surrounded; such a 
contrast should inspire the latter 
with feelings of gratitude for the 
blessings which they now enjoy. 

In reviewing the hardships and 
pi-ivations that these early pioneers 
nuist have endured to withstand the 
saA^age beasts and savage men, and 
lay the foundations of civilization 
with all its incumbent blessings, a 
fe>^ling of reverence comes over us and 
we can only recall the memory of 
those hardy A'eterans and gaze upon 
the Avork they have accomplished 
with the most profound respect. \\'e 
find much embi-aced in their personal 
history that would interest the gen- 
eral reader if s]>ace would permit, l)Ut 
the bounds of this article and the 
important pressing pre.sent, forbids 
our enlarging on those early scenes. 

The industrious habits oi tlie early 
settlers laid a good foundation for 
manufacturing and it is not surpris- 
ing that with the advent of the rail- 
r o a d , i n d u s t r i a I esta blishments 
sprung up on all sides and thegrowth 
of Sfdem"s young otispring — Winston 
— has been marvelous. 

The \\'achovia Society believed in 
making the children learn useful 
trades and it is worthy of note that 
the first substantial built in 
Salem, — 17()() — is still in use as a pot- 
tery and has some of the (plaint old 
moulds dating back to 1771-. The 
Salem water works built in 177X 
were in use up to ten years ago when 
the demand foi* a larger supply 
brciught the present system. It is 
said that the water works were much 
adnured bv President Washino-ton 



on his visit to this place in 1791. 
There are very many interesting- rem- 
iniscences of the past, some of the 
most prominent of which will be in- 
corporated in subsequ^mt articles, 
but as indicated on our introductory 
page, the present is our special theme 
and we pass to a consideration of 


In 1848 Forsyth county was form- 
ed and a year later fifty-one acres of 
the Wachovia tract adjoining Salem 
was sold, for the new court-house and 
village site, at |5.00 per acre. This 
was platted and named Winston, in 
honor of Col. Joseph Winston, who 
represented this section of North 
Carolina in the Patriots' meeting of 
colonial days. 

Winston is superbly located for a 
manufacturing center as the entire 
county is well watered, contains 
broad fields of meadow and bottom 
lands, and many streams of good 
water power. 

Fifteen years ago the surburb of 
Winston (adjoining Salem, but with 
business center a third of a mile from 
its boundary), had less than 500 in- 
habitants. About that time she be- 
gan a rapid growth and to-day her 
])opulation is over 8,000. Every 
block is filled to the mother town, so 
that only a street divides the two, 
and as both live together in unity, 
they should be considered as one. 
The Twin-City has been accepted as 
the proper cognomen, although each 
place still retains its postoftice and 
separate municipal government. The 
old town now has a population 
of about 3,000 inhabitants, and the 
combined population of the two 
(dties is estimated at 11,000. 


Excepting in locating a specific bus- 
iness or street in all our writings," 
when we say this city or this place, 
we mean both Winston and Salem, 
as they are practically one, and in- 
separable in all their movements of 
progression, social position, &c. 

There are immediate prospects of 
two new railroads, the exact develop- 
ments of which we shall give before 
closing these pages. These, with con- 
tinued progress in manufactories, 
etc., give to this place an exceedingly 
bright outlook, and it is no stretch 
of imagination to suppose that we 
shall have a population of 25,000 
within less than ten 3'ears from the 
})resent date. Taxes are low, real 
estate has not reached a speculative 
boom and the large amount already 
invested in factories and machinery 
will ever be a prevention from a re- 
trograde movement. With the best 
graded schools in the state, and the 
oldest and best Female Seminary in 
the South, together with several pri- 
vate schools and excellent religious 
advantages, the high social and mor- 
al standing of the Twin-City will al- 
ways be a laurel in its crown of pro- 
gress. The business men liere are 
wide awake and pushing. While 
ready to welcome Noi-thern capital 
and immigration, they are not Mi- 
cawber-like, waiting for something 
to turn up, but are progressive. But 
few cities of this size can boast of as 
many men who are rated in the hun- 
dreds of thousands, and the number 
of brick residences or costly' frame 
mansions clearly demonstrates that 
we have a large per centage of well- 
to-do citizens in this handsome and 
healthful city. 

Winston had about 400 inhab- 
itants in 1872, but the N. W. N. C. R. 
R., now a part of the Richmond & 
Danville system, reached here that 
year, and the first tobacco warehouse 
was opened by Maj. T. J. Brown. 
This caused a new era in the develop- 
ments of this section. Although to- 
bacco had been grown for a dozen 
years with good success there was no 
immediate outlet for the product and 
but little nmnufocturing was done. 


In 1875, Winston had about 1,500 
inhabitants and property valued at 

( ) F W I .\ST()N-SA LEM , N . ( '. 


|;i()0,()()(), with five tobai^co lactoiies 
liavin<>' an aji'g'ivo-ato capital of less 
than |1()(),()(H). In ISSO there were 
nlpven factoi icH with an invested cap- 
ital of. f 417,. lOO, and jiivin«>- an an- 
nual product of .i?7r)(),()0(). The pres- 
ent status sliows ov(n-thirtvfa(toiii's 
and invested capital of .f2,()()(), ()()<). 
'i^hc animal product is above .ft, 000,- 
000. This is a ji'reat tobacco niai'ki^t 
and several hundreds ofwajionsconie 
weekly, sometimes daily, from the 
mountains and surroundin<i- districts, 
niakin^j,' the annual transactions in 
leaf tobacco foot up to about .fl,- 
.".00,000. Other manufactories here 
ilo an annual business of about .fl,- 
.")()(), 000 and* tlie wholesale and re- 
tail transactions of the g'eneral 
merchants fi)ot up to nearly .f2,- 
000,000 annuidly. In snbseipient 
])a,ti"es we shall <j,() somewliat into de- 
tail in order to verity these fig'ures 
and <i'ive the names of those who are 
prominent in manufacturinji- and 
mercantile pursuits. 


Tliis county was foi-merly included 
in KoAvan, and was formed fi-om 
Stokes county in 1S4S. It was nam- 
ed for Col. Benj. Forsyth, a soldier of 
the war of 1812 to ' 181."), who was 
killed in a Canadian skirmish. It is 
situated in the north-western |)art 
of the state, Avith tlie Yadkin i-iver as 
its western boundry. It is eminently 
fitted for tobacco raisinji-. The yield 
on new lands i'an*ivs .".OO to ().~)0 lt)s, 
and on old huuls, with fertilizer, a 
much larg-er crop is often realized. 
The annual vield for Forsyth county 
is now over '4,000,000 p()unds. The 
soil, climate and situation of this 
county, are peculiarly aday)tedto. the 
<;TOwth of the vine, which yields in 
the most luxurant manner, wherever 
the least attention is paid to it. As 
early as 1701 tliis record appears in 
the archives of tlie church in Salem: 
••(Ireat abundance of wild g-rai)e's, 
nineteen hog'sheads of wine were made 
in the three settlements." The Con- 
cord, Clinton and kindred varieties 

are the most populai', because they 
<;row with the least attention. Others 
can be <i-i-own with ease. Sorjihum 
fi-rows finely, and is manufactureil in- 
to syrups of a bright color, and 
pleasant taste. Broom corn of long 
stai)le and excellent quality, is raised 
on many of the bottom lands. 

This <-ounty is hilly and undulat- 
ing, well watered and adapted to the 
production of the most nutiitious 
gi-asses. The orchard grass, blue 
grass, mountain grass and clover 
make excellent i)asture and timothy 
mak(»s good crops of hay, millet iloes 
well, milo— maize and other forage 
and food can l)e produced to perfec- 
tion so that sheep and cattle can be 
raised easily, wintered cheaply and 
thei-e is no reason why the production 
of thoroughbred stock and dairy cat- 
tle is not ennnently practicable. With 
abundance of milk cows, on these fine 
grasses, could be produced first-class 
butter, and cheese manufacturing is 
not only feasible l)nt the field is es- 
]iecially inviting to those skilled in 
its ])r()duction. Even the poorei- 
grade of lands in this .section grows 
gra])es to perfection and is adapted 
to peaches, apples, ppars, ]>lums, 
chei-ries, go(jseben-ies, currants and 
small berries. 

-More than a hundred difterent var- 
ieties of trees are found in this and 
surrounding counties. Mi<'a, iron, 
manganese, asltestus, and traces of 
gold are hei-e: marble, grariite. soa])- 
stone and sandstone are alumdant, 
and the entire county is fairly settled 
up with an industrious, and peace 
loving coniunmity. However 
there, is room for a population three 
or four times as great. Lands are 
clieap and good citizens from any 
section of the country will be wel- 
conie(l. An admirable feature of the 
agricultural lauds of this section, is 
the susceptii)ility of the day .subsoil 
for retention of fertilizers to a degree 
unsurpassed by any kind of soil. 
Tracts that are much worn are thus 
easily i-evived ar.d made to produce 



{ijood ciopf^. Tlip county has over 50 
grist nnd saw mills, twelve wagon 
shops, eiglit tanneries, four potteries 
and a number of tobacco and other 
minor factories outside of the Twin- 
City. There are ten villages, among- 
the largest of which is Kei'uei'sville, 
eight miles east of tliis place on the 
TS.'W. N. C. R. R., and which town 
has al)OUt l.OOO inhabitants. 


Our mother countv — Stokes — was 
ibnned from Sun y inl7s7,and nam- 
ed after a revolutionary colonel. It 
lies north of Forsyth and has an area 
of 440 square miles. It is generally 
quite level but becomes l>roken 
around the Sauratown mountains, 
l^'hieh cross the county diagonally 
and form a picturesque scene, in plain 
view from AVinston. Mocjre's Knob 
is 2,58':5 feet in height and was used 
by the signal corps of the Enited 
States Coast Survey in 1875-7. Dan 
Eiver, the longest in the State, flows 
centrally through Stokes and with 
its net work of tributary streams 
gives excellent water privileges. It 
produces a fine grade of tol>aeco and 
about tldrty factoi'ies ai-e in the 

Stokes county is adapted to all 
kinds of products raised in this coun- 
ty, and in some respects has eA'en bet- 
ter agTicultural advantages. It has 
seTeral valuable iron mines some of 
T^luch have been worketl in a limited 
way for seventy years. Recently the 
Pepper Iron Mines have lieen pur- 
chased l»y Oliio ca])italists at :flO(),- 
OOO and smelting furnaces will doubt- 
less be established in the vicinity of 
Danbury. Tlie c>res found here are 
the Fed and lirown lupmatite and the 
tnagnetite. They are admirably 
u'lapted for making a fine grade of 
iron and steel. Developments in 
mining and manufacturing are mucli 
needed in tliis section. There are 
outcrops of semi-bitnnunous coal in 
the county and feldspathii- clay for 
fire bricks is found near Danbury, and 
soa]istone. Mica mines have been 

worked four miles from Daid)ury. 
Limestone and marble are found in 
the county and the great need of this 
country is railroad transportation 
facilities. Danbury, the county seat 
is a thriving town, and there are 
several other good villages in Stokes 

Surry, Yadkin, Davie, Davidson 
and contiguous counties are similar 
to Forsyth and Stokes in location 
products, etc. What all this section 
needs most for a rapid deA'elopment 


This vast region through to and 
around Cumberland Gap, with its ac- 
knowledged mineral wealth and many 
fertile valleys, might weli be termed, 
the railroad desert of America, for 
there is no other section that has 
been known to the white man so long 
and with so many valuable features 
of commendation that is still lying 
undeveloped. No thoughtful man can 
examine this region of hundreds of 
acres of unmined coal, with its moun- 
tains of iron ore, abundance of fire 
clay, etcetera, without expressing the 
greatest of surprise that it has not 
come to the knowledge of capitalists 
long before this and been a manufact- 
uring district, with its thousands of 
blast and coke furnaces, rolling-mills, 
cotton manufactories, and a million 
of attendant inhabitants. 

Throughout all this vast country 
ai'e immense forests which have 
scarcely known the woodman's axe 
and the great desirability of making 
a permanent outlet to its natural 
wealth cannot well be overestimated. 
From "Winston to Cranberry is about 
one hundred miles, and a road could 
there connect with those now build- 
ing to the Gap, where they will tap 
the air line across Kentucky. This 
connection would place Winston 
within less than 500 miles of Cincin- 
nati with her twenty-eight lines of 
railroad, radiating to every point of 
the com})ass. It is strange indeed if 
a corporation cannot be formed to 
take hold of these advantauvs. 



FEMALE .*..( AI»E.MY. 


.\ii •■( insti- 
nuioii rliat lias been 
successfully couductecl 
(■()]• S4 years should be a 
just pride to the city in 
which it is located, and 
revered by its numer- 
ous and widely scatter- 
ed ;ilniim;t'. The Salem 
Female Academy was 
opened as a boardinj"; 
school in 1804, having 
ever since continued it* 
educational work with- 
out intei-ruption. Buv- 
ino' this time moi-e than 
(j.OOO of its ;iluwihv 
have <>one foith to do 
their alloted ])art in 
life's field The children 
and <ir;nid-children oi 
its early pu])ils have in 
many instances been ed- 
ucated here oivjno- thi? 
academy a wide spread 
influence and well earn- 
reputation. It is nn- 
sectai-ian in its teach- 
ings, liut is conducted 
under the ans])ices of 
the Moravian chni-di 
and strict repirdis tak- 
en for the moral and 
iMliuions welfare of the 
students. Pupils are 
associated touvther in 
loom coni])anies under 
I lie char^-e of the teach- 
ers, their habits care- 
fully noted and every 
safe^iuard thrown around them. P.eautifnl <i-rouiids adjoin the buildin.irs, of 
which there are several not represented in the ai coni])anyin,u' cut. The 
sanitary surroundings are in excellent condition and judicious callsthenic 
exercises have been instituted for ])leasure aiu' ]iliysical dcn'elopment. The 
course of study is thoroutih. distinctive in its feature of individuality anj 
covers every desirable held, but our s]iac(^ will not permit of an extended re- 
view of tlie curriculum terms, etc., which can lie secured on application to 
the Princi])al. The buildin,iis are located in a pleasant and retired iiart of 
the quiet Mora viau settlement of Salem, and tlie extensive ])rivate eronnds 



are a <lelijilitfnl [»la<<^ for out of door 
recreation, surronnded 1)y the beaut- 
ies of nature. 

Rev. J. H. Principal, and 
superintendent of the commercial 
course. He was educated at Bethle- 
hem, Pa., and Union Theological 
8eminai-y in New York City. Rev. 
Edward Rondthaler. D. D., pastor of 
tlie Moravian church, and recent 
principal, is superintendent of the de- 
partment of languages. Prof. L. B. 
Wurreschke, a graduate of a Ger- 
man University in Silesia, has 
charge of the Physical Science Depai-t- 
ment, and the chief position on the 
musical staff is now held by Prof. 
Geo. F. Markgraff, who, in addition 
to his training in tlie l)est MoraA'ian 
schools on the Continent, has taken a 
course in the Berlin Conservatory of 

Every department has a full corps 
of instructors — in all, twenty-five 
teachers — each enthusiastic to accom- 
plish the best results in education. 
The average attendance is about 

A Male Academy, or l)oys' prepar- 
atory school is run in connection 
with the Moravian interests here, un- 
charge of a princi])al and four teach- 
ers, havinu' an average enrollment of 

The Salem public selioolis in charge 
of Mr. Samuel Hege and a female as- 
sistant. Salem also has a colored 
public school. 



It is well that our leo-islators have 
provided for the education of the 
masses, as from reason and intelli- 
2:ence must come our profi'ress in civ- 
ilization. North Carolina has more 
than a half million of schoolchildren, 
and of these, accordinu' to the latest 
returns, 353,4S1 were whit.-. The 
per centage of ■•irollment and attend- 
vmce at the p\-.oi:r; sch.ools indicate 

that the opportiinities have been ac- 
cepted by the white and negro race 
almost in exact accordance with 
their respective population and a fair 
share of all who would naturally be 
expected to attend school have ac- 
cepted the benefits to be derived from 
the public schools. Indeed the at- 
tendance is quite as good^proportion- 
ally as in the New England and Mid- 
dle States, but for want of sufficient 
funds, the school year in North Caro- 
lina is only a little more than one 
third as long as in some of the North- 
ern States. This is partly atoned for 
by the greater number of private 
schools in the South, but our public 
school system should be earnestly 
fostered as it must be our great re- 
liance for theeducation of the masses. 
North Carolina's total population is 
1,525,341, and assessed valuation 
1202,752,622, while her average an- 
nual appropriation for public schools 
is .$(371,116. The Southern States 
spend about twenty millions annually 
for schools and the entire United 
States 1111,304,927. 


Outside of the Twin-City there are 
about seventy-five schools in this 
county, with an average enrollment 
over 40, nuiking an^ aggregate of 
3,033 scholars. These are cared for 
by efficient teachers and undei* the 
general direction of Prof. A. I. But- 
ner, a native of this county, who was 
educated at the Moravian schools 
and who has been for fifteen years 
past, principal of the Academy at 
Bethania. Supt. Butner reports a 
deep interest in the work and an up- 
ward movement in tlie county 


The first decided movement for the 
orfi'anization of graded schools in 
Winston was made in January, 1(S75 
by Col. J. W. Alspaugh, Joseph Mast- 
•^n, deceased, P. A. Wilson, G. W. Hin- 
shaw, C. B. Watson and others. A 
subscription was started and the 



Legislature asked to api)r()])ria1e tlif 
publie money to the fiiaded .system. 
Tlie j)eople at first voted down the 
direct tax, but subsequently the sys- 
tem was adopted and activiMvork be- 

If there is any one thinji' moi-e than 
another of which Winston should 
feel a- just pride, it is theexeelleney to 
which her graded schools have at- 
tained. B(»g-inning in chaos, five 
years since, Superintendent Tondin- 
son, by the aid of well selected as- 
sistants and backed by a school 
board of superior intelligence, has 
wrought wonders and given to the 
Twin-{'ity a justly earned reputation 
of having the best graded schools in 
North Carolina. The jjresent 
school board are Col. A. B. Gorrell, 
chairman; Mr. W. A. Whitaker, sec- 
retary; K. D. Brown, M. \V. Norfieet, 
and Col. J. W. Alspaugh. The build- 
ing of which we present a cut on 
another page was planned by the Su- 
perintendent and cost |2(), 000. It is 
a- two-story brick in T form, having 
a length of 190 feet and a depth, in- 
cluding Chapel oi- Assend)ly room of 
170 feet. The im])osing tower runs 
up four stories and with belfry and 
spire attains a height of 112 feet. It 
has nine recitation rooms, amjde 
halls, a commodious library and of- 
fice, all elegantly fitted up, and the li- 
brary is worthy of s])ecial mention as 
it contains a most extensive outlay 
of pedagogic and other works which 
are a great auxiliary to both teacher 
and pupil, amounting in the aggi-e- 
gate to over .f 4,001) worth of books. 
Altogether both inside and out the 
building is handsomely designiMl and 
equipped and may well be termed the 
"Crowning (Jloi-y of Winston." 

Julius L. Tondinson is a native of 
High Point, a giaduate of Trinity 
and later of Haverford, Pa. Subse- 
quently he took a post graduate 
course and has now been for more 
tlian a dozen years engaged in school 
work. His efficient services here are 

too well known to need further c(nn- 

Wm.A.Blair, 1st Assistant, is also 
from High Point, graduated from 
Haverford, Pa., in 18(S1, and from 
Harvard a year later, and then took 
a Ph. D. course at .Johns Hoi)kins 
rnivei'sity. Pi'of. Blair disj)layed a 
marked ability as an educator and 
rapidly rose to prominence. He has 
been three years in the school work 
of Winston, is Su])erintendent of the 
State Normal School an<l editor of 
the Srhoolteuclwi; of which we make 
note elsewhere. J. J. Blair, brother 
of the above and also a graduate of 
Haverford, Pa., is 2nd Assistant, 
and a very successful instructor. 
Mrs. S. G. Lanier and Misses Bettie 
Spicer, Nora Dod.son, I'amela By- 
num, Anna Bailiam and Annie Wiley, 
all efficient teachers have charge in 
their several depai'tments. 

Prof. Frank M. Martin, a graduate 
of l>id(lle I'niversity, of Chai'lotte, is 
principal of the colored schools and is 
assisted by two male andfoui- female 
teachers, J. E. Foster, J. C. Albright 
Mrs. C. B. Martin, Mrs. Bettie Cash. 
Misses Sallie Wangh and Emma Mc- 
Adoo. The l)nilding for these schools 
is a frame structure in the eastern 
part of the city,Avhich was comjjleted 
last fall at a <-ost, including grounds 
and fixtures, of |H,r)00. The enroll- 
ment of the graded schools is nearly 
1,100, about ecjually divided between 
the races. 


THE brethren's UNITY. 

In comiection with the settlement 
of Salem we have given some Mora- 
vian history as the church had con- 
trol of the land matters here for a 
hundred years after the ])urchase of 
the Wachovia ti-act. 

The first settlers of Salem arrived 
in January and February, 1760. 
They were George Holder, Jacob 
Steiner, Michipl Zeigler, Melchoir 
R;isp. of Pennsylvania, and Gottfried 
Pia'zcl, Niels Peterson, Jens Smith 



and John Birkliead, from Europe. 
These were reinforced by additional 
eAiigrants from Pennsylvania in the 
eoming fall, accompanied by Rev. 
Richard I'tley, who became the min- 
ister of the parish. A two stor^^ 
church building- was erected in 1766 
which served a half dozen years as a 
house of worship when a more sub- 
stantial church took its place. In 
1772 a bell, weighing 2,758 pounds 
was brought overland from Pennsyl- 
vania, and which served as a town 
clock by tolling the hours. A two 
stop organ was also made that year 
antl took the place of the trombones 
which had been brought from Europe 
with the first settlement of the place. 
The 1772 structure sei'ved as a 
"meeting house" until the present 
remarkable edifice was completed in 
1800. A large pipe organ was built 
in the new church in 1799, which is 
still in acceptable use there. The 
church structure is an imposing brick 
edifice which would probably cost 
120,000 to duplicate at the present 
time. It was erected by the individ- 
ual labors of the brethren and a 
large donation from Brother Fred- 
erick Marshall, the leader in the Mo- 
ravian settlement, but no record was 
kept of the total expense. The super- 
structure is surmounted by a town 
clock which strikes not only the 
hours, but the quarters as well. It 
has a convenient seating capacity for 
800 people, and will hold on pressure 
a thousand souls or more. It is 
heated b^^ furnaces, has kitchen at- 
tachments, pastor's conference rooms 
a large Sunday School Chapel, and 
is a credit to the people who worship 
there. The simplicity, industry and 
moral integrity of the Moravian 
Brotherhood has been widely felt in 
its refining influence over this section 
of country. The SalemFemale Acad- 
emy was established by the South- 
ern Synod of the Moravian Church in 
1802. The organizations of this sec- 
tion are Salem and its four mission 
churches, Eden, FricdJtind, Friedlmrg, 

Hope, Macedonia, New Philadelphia, 
Olivet. Old Town, Bethania, Mt. 
Bethel, Providence and Oak Grove, 
numbeiing over 1,600 communicants 
— of whom, about 600 are in Salem 
parish. For eleven years past the 
Salem Church has been under the 
spiritual charge of Edward Rond- 
thaler, I). D., of Pennsylvania. Af- 
ter graduating at the Moravian 
Theological Seminai-y, at Bethlehem, 
Pa., Rev. Rondthaler was a student 
on the continent for some time. The 
degree of Doctor of Divinity was con- 
ferred upon him at Chapel Hill, in 
this State. 


The first Methodist organization 
in this vicinity was at Pleasant Grove 
2% miles west of Winston by Rev. 
John Alspaugh. about 1836. A few 
years later a church was built at 
Jerusalem a mile north of the city. 
In 1852 the place of worship was 
moved to the court house, a lot was 
purchased and soon afterwards a 
small brick church was erected on 
the site of the present edifice. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of 
Winston was continued under the ad- 
ministration of Rev. W. W. Albea in 
1854, and the present elegant edifice 
was erected about four years since at 
a cost of 127,000. It'is one of the 
most commodious houses of worship 
in this State and would grace a met- 
ropolitan city. The style of archi- 
tecture is modern and the building- 
will accommodate 1,500 persons, the 
seating capacity of the main audito- 
rium reaching about 1,000 and the 
annex, which opens out direct to the 
pulpit with rolling doors, will seat 
500 more. The membership numbers 
about 550, among whom are many 
of AVinstons able and influential citi- 
zens. Outside of the main congrega- 
tion there are three Sabbath Schools 
and mission stations connected with 
this church, under the charge of Rev. 
<". W. Robinson. Hex. W.C. Norman, 
the pastoi-, is a native of Davidscjn 



county, gTaduated from Trinity ( "t)l- 
leg-e and has been fifteen years in the 
ministry, eoming-from RahMgh, where 
lie had reinained four years, to Wins- 
ton, De('end)er, 1S87. On a succeed- 
ing- page we hope to give an ilhisti-a- 
tion of file above handsome struct- 


of tins phu-e, was organizt'd in 1(S()2 
and now lias 165 members. The 
buihling erected the year of organiza- 
tion is entirely inadequate to present 
convenience and $11. ()()() has been 
subscril)ed towards a new place of 
worsliip which has already been com- 
menced. There is a handsome pai-- 
sonage on the lot which with the 
grounds is valued at about ."|(),0()(). 
The chur(th is well organized, 
liaving a full corps of mission and 
aid societies,. Sunday School, etc. 
The Ladies' Aid Society has accumu- 
lated neaily $1,400 in three years 
past, with wliicli to purchase an or- 
gan for the new church. Rev. E. P. 
Davis, pastor, is of Rutherford coun- 
ty, this State, and graduated fron> 
Davidson College, subse(]uently tak- 
ing a course in the Theological Semi- 
nary of (\)lunil)ia. S.C. and has been 
eleven years in the ministry, occupy- 
ing but two charges before coming to 


The Baptist Society was organized 
in 1871 and the present building- 
erected five vears later at a cost of 
$4,000. Several hundred dollars of 
additional improvements have since 
been made and others are in contem- 
plation. A couple of yeai's since a 
mission chapel was built on Hroad 
Street at a cost of $2,r)00 and Houi- 
ishing Sabbath Schools ai-e held in 
each house. The church niembershi]» 
is 235. Rev. H. A. Brown, born in 
Rockingham county, this State, has 
been pastor for eleven years past. 
He is a graduate from Wake Forest 
College and served for three years as 
pastor at Fayetteville. .\. C.. before 

<*(jniingto Winston, wlicicjiis caiiiest 
laboi-s have built up a large and in- 
fluential church membership. 


The Methodist Protestant church 
was organiz<'d in l<s42in what is now 
known as Liberty. In 1.S50 a frame 
l)uilding was erected on the site oc- 
cupied by the present building, and 
the liead<iuai'ters of the meml)ershi]) 
was moved. In 187(5 a brick luuise 
was built at a cost of $:5.500. At 
[)resent there ai-e 210 communicants. 
Rev. W. E. Swain was made pastor 
by the conference of December 1887. 
He is a native of Washington coun- 
ty, this state, and wa.s educated at 
Yadkin College, N C. 

ST. pail's EPISCOl'AE. 

The J]pisc()pal organization was 
commenced in 1877, J. C. Buxton, of 
Winston, and Miss Laura Lemly, of 
Salem, l)eing the only communicants 
at that time. Shortly afterwards 
the church was built at a cost of 
$.'?,000. The present membership is 
al)<)ut fifty-five and the parish is in 
charge of Rev. H. (). Lacy, of Con- 
necuticut, a gi-aduate of Columbia 
College, N. Y., and later from the 
Berkley Divinity Institute, of Middle- 
town, Connecticut. Rev. Lacy has 
been in the ministry for five years 
])ast, coming to Winston two years 

Tlie colored ])eo]»le have Moravian, 
A. M. E., Zion Methodist. Bai)tist 
and Presbyterian oi-ganizations, 
most of these having c(nnfortable 
houses for worship, and a good mem- 

L()D(;es. s()ch:ties, et(". 

S.ilrni Lodf-v, Xo. l'S9, A. F. A- A. 
M.. meets at Hunter's Hall. 1st 
Tliui-s(hiy night. It was organized 
shortlv aftei- tlii' war and has about 
45 members. E. A. Ebert. W. .\L; 
.\. C. Meinung, secretary. 

Knifjhfs and Ladies of Honor, Sa- 
lem jiudWinston lodge. No. 3(57. was 



organized Oetol>er 27, 1880 and has 
a present membership of 36. Meets 
1st and 3d Tuesdays, over Salem 
post-offiee. T. B. Douthit, protector; 
C. E. Crist, past protector; C. B. 
Pfohl, secretary. 

Salem Lodge, No. S6, I. O. O. F., 
meets in Odd Fellow-Masonic Hall, 
Tuesday evening-s. It was organized 
in 1852, burned out in 1880, now 
has about 60 members. J. C. Bes- 
sent, N. G. ; T. E. Reynolds, V. G. ; H. 
T. Foucht, Sec. 

Salem Encampment, I. O. 0. F., 
meets at above Hall, 1st and 3d 
Thursdays and numbers 31 members. 
W. H. Hall, C. P.; J. C. Bessent, 

Winston Lodge, 167, A. F. & A. M. 
meets 2d Mondays. It was estab- 
lished December 8th, 1854, with P. 
A. Wilson, Sr., W. M.; Peter Fetter, 
S. W. ; Jno. W. Hunter, J. W. P. A. 
Wilson, Jr., is the present W. M. ; H. 
W. Foltz, secretary, and the member- 
ship 93. Postmaster S. H. Smith is 
Deputy Grand Master of the State. 

Winston Chapter, No. 24, R. A.M., 
holds conyof-ations 1st and 3d Mon- 
day eyes. It was organized in 1853, 
I. P. Gibson, H. P.; Wni. W. Sted- 
man, King, and Dan F. Dalton, 
Scribe. D. P. Mast is the present H. 
P., and Wm. A. Blair, Secretary. 

Piedmont Commmandery, No. 6, 
K. T., holds regular conclaves on the 
4th Monday. It was organized in 
1884 and has about 21 uniformed 
Sir Knights. H. T. Bahnson, E. C, 
N. S. Wilson, Recorder. 

Knights of Honor, No. 1673, or- 
ganized June 1879, and has a pres- 
ent membership of 55. It meets 2d 
and 4th Tuesday night in Johnson's 
Hall. T. B. Douthit, Dictator; H. 
T. Bahnson, Reporter. 

Lilterty Council, No. 3, Junior Or- 
der I'nitpd American Workmen is a 
beneficial society and was organized 
October last. It has about 40 mem- 
bers, and meets at the Masonic Hall 

in Salem every Monday- evening. J. 
P. Stanton, Conn., R. A. Hauser. Y. 
C. ; W. L. Morgan, Secretary. 

Winston Assembly, iVo. 6485, 
Knights of Labor was organized 
December, 1886, and has 160 mem- 
bers although many of them are not 
in present standing. This society 
meets in the Gray Block, Friday 
evenings. J. J. Robertson, M. W. ; L. 
N. Keith, Secretary. 

A. L. Assembly, No. 6655, K. ofL., 
(colored) organized May, 1886, has 
30 members. Meets at Knights of 
Labor Hall in East Winston, Tues- 
day nights. A. Gates, M. W. ; J. H. 
F. Dabney, Secretary. 

Salem Orchestra consists of 14 
performers of high merit and has re- 
cently had a thorough training under 
the directorship of Prof. Robt. L. 
Carmichiel, who has gained a promi- 
nence in that line. 

The Salem Cornet Band has 12 in- 
struments and is under the leader- 
ship of C. M. Levister, billing clerk at 
•the Salem depot. G. H. Rights, of 
the Republican office has served in 
the capacity of special instructor of 
this musical organization for some 
time past. The band was organized 
over 50 years ago and has since been 
in constant service. 

The Salem Philharmonic Society is 
under the leadership of Prof. Geo. F. 
Markgraff, of the Academy, and this, 
with the orchestra, band, etc., has 
given to Salem a reputation for a 
high order of musical talent. 

Twin-City Cornet Band was organ- 
ized January, 1887, and has seven- 
teen performers, a majority of whom 
are experienced musicians, under the 
leadership of Dr. J. A. Blum. D. T. 
Crouse, a musician of prominence, of- 
ficiates as musical director, and his 
training ability has given to the or- 
ganization a high order of merit. The 
band meets Friday nights at ^^'ins- 
ton Fire Company's head(}uartpr« 
lor drill. 




Tlip Club Rooms of Winston ;irt' an 
honor to tlie city and have none of 
the innnoral tendency so often found 
in pbices bv tliat name. Dr. H. F. 
Gray, Mr. \\. A. Whitaker and others 
consulted upon tlie proi)riety of this 
matter and decided that properly 
conducted rooms providinfj- for even- 
ing recreation would enhance the 
morals of the city and a definite ])lan 
was consumatcd. 

The Twhi-City Club was oro-aniz(Ml 
in Febrnary, ISHo, with Mr. Whita- 
ker as first president and Dr. Gray 
has officiated as one of the executive 
committee since its commencement. 
The favor bestowed u])on this resort 
after more than three years of con- 
tinuance, is evidenceof the wisdom of 
the movement. The club has su- 
perb rooms in the 8d story of the 
Gray Block, brilliantly lighted by 
electricity and elegantly furnishe(1. 
More than a hundred mend)ers of the 
city p/ife are on the rolls and the in- 
stitution is governed V)y a high mor- 
al sentiment. A magnificent dance 
hall, admirably arranged reading 
room, card and l)illiard tables, lava- 
tory, etc., are part of the institution, 
but no profanity, betting oi' drinking 
is allowed nor anything offensive to 
the liberal nnnded('hristian. .1. (". 
Buxton is president aiid B. B. Owens 

Tlif Gernuiu Club lias adjoining- 
rooms to the Twin-City Club, but is a 
separate organization. B. L.Craw- 
ford is president, and E. C. Stray- 
horn secretary. An entertainment 
for those who trip the light fantastic 
toe is given every two weeks and the 
rooms are arranged to open out with 
the Twin-City Club rooms when so 
desired. The German Club is govern- 
ed under like stringent mor;d regula- 
tion and has about forty mend)ei-s. 

7^he Twin-City Tpiupcnuirp lipfonn 
dub was organized Novend)er, ]SS(). 
as a missionary temperance work, 
without political affiliation, with a 

nondnal a diuission, and small uioiit li- 
ly dues. It has an interesting read- 
ing room, well furnished by friends of 
the enter])rise and presents a strictly 
moi'al place for recreation. The or- 
ganization is between 800 and 400 
strong, having a branch at Fnion 
(Jrove in North AVinston and is con- 
tem])lating one at Waughtown. .1. 
(2. A. Barham is president, and C. 1). 
Hunt secretary. S. H. Snuth was 
one of the jjrinie movers and its fii-st 

The Forsyth Rifieuien was first or- 
ganized at Gei-manton. Stokes 
county, in 1S12, by Col. Benj. Foi-- 
sytli, re-organized in iS-tO for duty 
in the Mexican war and again in LSfH 
by Col. Belo. The present oj-ganiza- 
tion was effected June 7th, 1SH4, as 
Company A, 3d Regiment, North 
Carolina State Guard. Ca])tain, W. 
T. (irav; 1st Lieut, J. C. Bessent : 
2d Lieut., F. T. White. There are 
forty-three active- men, equip])ed, 
with regulation uniform. 

Thp Lfuifl Office management, offi- 
cially styled the Board of Provincial 
Elders of the Southern Province of 
the Moravian Church, is a corporate 
body that has charge of the real es- 
tate matter of the Wachovia tract. 
About 1.000 acres of this remains 
and for the part is good tobac- 
co lands, in ])rice from .f 12.r)0 to f 15 
per acre. .1. T. Lineback has charge 
of the office and is secretary and 
treasurer of the company, having 
been connected with the business 
since 1^55. He is also Treasui-er of 
the Salem Congregation, which has 
large real <'state interests, and in 
that department is assisted by his 
brother, .1. A. Lineback. , 

The Twill-City Hospital Associa- 
tion was organized June 28th, 1S87, 
foi- the charitable object of establish- 
ing .-1 hospi<^al for Winston-Salem. A 
))niiding was leased b}' the commis- 
.-iiMiers oi th'- two places and through 
*1; • '-xertions J the ladies, was furn- 
ished and opened December last. 



OA'er 20 patients liave been admitted 
and success has crowned the efforts of 
those wilhng- workers for the ji'ood of 
humanity. The hospital is support- 
ed by the 10 cent month dues of the 
180 members and generous contri- 
butions from others. Mrs. Jas. A. 
Gray was first president and Mrs. 
Gen. Boggs officiates in that capacity 
now. Mr.s. W. A. Lemly, vice presi- 
dent, Mrs. J. W. Fries, secretary and 
Mrs. J. F. Shaffner, treasurer. 

The Twin-City has the full comple- 
ment of literary, missionary, ladies- 
aid and other societies usually found 
in a progressive and refined city. 


The influence and progressiveness 
of a community may be largely esti- 
mated by the nunilier and character 
of its public journals and the Twin- 
City gives a good showing in that 

Blum's printing-house was one of 
the first in the state having been 
started in 1827. Through its papers 
almanacs and other publications it 
has wielded a wide influence and to 
some of these we are indebted for 
valuable dates. The excellency of its 
present work shows it yet to be on 
the progressive plane. 

The Peo}jlf\s Press, published by 
L. V. & E. T. Blum, is now in its 36th 
volume and retains many of its early 
subscribers. The Blums have a book 
business in connection with their 
publishing house and various other 
interests in Salem. The Weekly 
Gleaner was the name of the first pa- 
per started in 1829 — and next year 
changed to Farmer s Reporter nnd 
Weekly Cjii'ojiirle. The Cniolina Gh- 
zftfe was started fn 1841 to be sus- 
pended two years later. The Press 
was established in 1851 and still con- 

The Western Sentinel was begun in 
1856 by F. E. Boner and James Col- 
lins. J. W. Alspaugli subse(piently 
Ix'camt' owner and was su<'ceeded bv 

G. M. Mathes, Edward A. Oldham, 
and the present publisher, Vernon 
W. Long. Mr. Longis a graduate of 
the State University, at Chapel Hill 
and has shown a marked ability with 
the scissors and quill. The Sentinel 
has an extensive circulation and in 
addition to its newspaper fittings 
has been recently put in good con- 
dition for job work and these pages 
are printed from its new self spacing 

The Union Republican was estab- 
lished in 1872 by Walser & Walker, 
and was a few months later purchas- 
ed by J. W. Goslen, a native of the 
county and a graduate of Trinity 
College. The Republicin office is 
well fitted as a newspaper and job 
office and a credit to the Republicans 
(jf Western North Carolina. It has a 
large circulation clearly demonstrat- 
ing the fact that there is no ostra- 
cism on account of political prefer- 
ences in this section, but that both 
parties are represented by an intelli- 
gent and reading commiinity. 

The Twin-City Daily was started 
four years ago and has met the re- 
quirements of om- people as an organ 
for current events. It was commenc- 
ed by Uoub & Whitehead, making- 
several firm changes before it came 
into the hands of its present propri- 
etor, Jas. 0. Foy, who first engaged 
as a partner with P. A. Snider in the 
publication of the Daily, from whom 
he afterwards purchased his interest. 
The Daily has advocated every move- 
ment for the city's good. 

The Southern Guarrlsnian, a papei- 
on militiiry Hiid musical matters was 
established in 1885 by Edward A. 
Oldham, at that time Adjutant 3d 
Regiment, North Carolina State 
(iuard, was suspended for a time and 
revived again in May, 1888, by Will 
X. Coley, 1st Seargeant, Company 
A., 3d Regiment, North Carolina 
State Guard. The Guardsjnan is the 
official oi-gan of the State militia. 



Tin* Srhooltecichfrii^. an »'(lucation- 
al journal now in its second volunio. 
an'd al)ly Klited by Prof. W. A. lUair, 
a prominent teacher in onr j^-raded 
.schools. It is a model of neatness 
and a great auxiliary to the pro- 
o'ressive teacher. 

The Acndeniy is in its tentli volume 
and is published in the interests of 
the Salem Female Academy. It is 
an index of personal happenings 
around the school, lettei-s h-om the 
alumna:^, literary writings, etc. Miss 
Emma A. Lehman, the editress has a 
wide reputation for the high chai-ac- 
ter other scholarly ai-ticles. 


C. G. Liinier has at this writing, 
one of the most complete job j)rinting 
outfits in Western North Carolina 
and employs several hands in turn- 
ing out the various classes of com- 
mercial pi'inting. Williamson t^ Mor- 
ris began the book tiade here in 
1(S(S2, connecting therewith job print- 
ing which de])artment has been add- 
ed to from time to time to meet the 
re(iuirements and three ])i-esses are 
now run by steam, with all the auxi- 
laries neetled forrapitland first-class 
work. The book store comprises a 
large line of school and miscellaneous 
works, news stand, blank books, 
stationery and show case goods. 
The entii-e ])usiness is conducted in 
tlie Liberty Block and was purchased 
from W. l'>. Williamson by ('. (J. La- 
nier a few months sinc<'. Mr. Lanier 
is a native of Davie county and has 
been a resident of Win.ston foi- the 
])ast six years. The Auchor. edited 
by Mrs. Mary ('. AVoody, of (Jreens- 
boro, is printed at this office, and the 
Schooltenclifv. before uKMitioned. 

Stf\v;irt's .Job Other is a credit to 
the enterprise of its ju-oprietoi-s, who 
are natives of this (-(Unity, and have 
spent several years in the larger cit- 
ies ])erfecting themselves in the ])rint- 
iug liusiness. In 1X8.") tliey fitted uj) 
their ])i'esent enterpi'ise in the (Jray 
bU)ik. foi- commercial, liook and news 

work. These gentlemen have had a 
wide range of experience and orders 
for any class of j)rinting entrusted to 
them will be executed in good style. 


Tlie p()st;d statistics of an\- com- 
munity is a very good iiKh'.x to the 
gi-owth and pros])erit\' of the 
place, and we are pleased to note 
that both Salem and Winston have 
had a steady growth in the volume 
of business done for several years 
past. The list of post mastei-s in 
Salem is a long one and the connec- 
tion of names has not been pieserv^d. 
T. B. Doutlut, the present incund)ent 
is a native of Davidson comity, and 
a resident of Salem for thirty years 
])ast. He was in nuM-cantile trade 
prior to taking charge of the ])ost-of- 
fice in August, IcSH."). Mr. Douthit 
arranged a new office and has a very 
convenient system of box delivery. 
He has also plac(^d a colliH-tion box 
on Main strec^t, near the Winston 
city line for the convenience of Salem 
citizens. The office is third clasH 
with a sahiry of |1,2()() and the bus- 
iness has increased 25 pei" cent in the 
past three years. W. ('. Crist, a na- 
tive of Salem has olticiated as assis- 
tant since the advent of Mr. Douthit 
to the office. 

WINSTON F()S'r-( ) F Fl( ' V. . 

A])()st-otficewa8established in ^^'in- 
ston shortly aft(M- it was made the 
county seat. .1. P. \'est'still residing 
in the Twin-City was tli(» first 
inastei- and was succeed(^(l by Na- 
thaniel Bannei-, H. K. Thomas, J. A. 
White, and Mode Faircloth. During 
war times the (^ftice wiis discontinued 
for a couple of vears, after which W. 
W. Albea,W. A. Walker, and J. F. 
Hc^len had charge prior to the a[t- 
pointment of the present incumbent. 
Samuel H. Smith is a native of 
Wadesboro, N. C.,andengagvd in the 
(li-ug trade here about a dozen years 
ago. He was chosen Mayoi- of Win- 
ston by the Commissoners. upon the 
resignation of -I. C. Buxton, who had 



been elected to the Senate, and later 
elected by the people. In August, 
1X85, Mr. Smith resignied to take 
charge of the post-otRee. The office 
has steadily increased in receipts and 
salary and will next month be rank- 
ed as a second class ^Yith a salary of 
12,000 and additional allowance for 
clerl: hire, rents, etc. This is the dis- 
tributing point for five star routes in 
addition to its double daily railway 
sei-vice. About G,000 letters are 
handled daily and the aggregate 
mail matter per month reaches 1 4, 2."')0 
pounds. The postal notes and nnjn- 
ey orders handled average 532 per 
month, aggregating a sum of $5,- 
000. John R. AValker. a native Win- 
stonian, has been four years in the 
office as assistant postmaster, and 
Wm.H. Hitt, of Danville, Va., has 
had a long experience at the delivery 


Nearly every progressive city has 
an electric light company and Wins- 
ton's e ffi c i e n t Electric Light 
and Motive Power Company was in- 
corporated in August, 1887. A good 
brick building was erected on 5th 
street which together with the mach- 
inery and fittings, has made the plant 
cost nearly |25,000. The system 
used is the Brush Electric. The arc 
dynamo is of 45 light power and is 
taken to nearly its full capacity. This 
requires about 10 miles of wire 
and the incandescent system with 
4-50 light dynamo has nearly 15 
miles of wire in use. A Ball engine 
and Erie City Iron Works boiler, 
l)oth of 80 horse power, and manu- 
factured at Erie, Pa., are in place 
and are doing satisfactory work. J. 
W. McEarland, for sevei-al years con- 
nected with the Brush Company, at 
(Jleyeland, Ohio, is superintendent 
and electrician; 1). P. Mast, secretary 
arid treasurer; W. A. Whitaker, pres- 
ident. The system has proven popu- 
lar in Winston and has been highly 

complimented on its successful work- 

Salem Gns Worka was erected in 
1859 by F. & H. Fries is still owned 
l»y the firm and supplies a jiortion of 
Salem's public and private houses 
with th(^ illuminating fluid. 


Both cities have a well organized 
and effective fire department, 
thoroughly manned and in good 
working order. The Winston Fire 
('omjviny. No. 1, has about 25 well 
drilled men in charge of Capt. A. J. 
Gales. This company has a La France 
steamer, and lOOO ft of hose, purchas- 
ed in 1882 at a cost of |3,800. W.F. 
Keith, engineer. 

The Salem Rough and Ready has 
40 men, a Button steamer bought 
two years ago at a cost of $8,000, 
and is promply on hand when an 
emergency requires. Jno. Schott is 
Captain; F.H. Vogler secretary, T. 
E. Davis, Engineer. There are two 
fire inspectors appointed for each 
ward and all flues and other flre traps 
are carefully looked into at stated 
intervals and to this fact Salem 
doubtless owes 'much of her special 
exemptions from disastrous fires. 
Salem has the oldest fire engine ex- 
tant, which was manufactured in 
England, brought herein 1785. It was 
in use for many years. 

Salem Water Works first started 
in 1778, was changed to present sys- 
tem in 1878. A brick reservoir holds 
()0,000 gallons and the iron tank, 
450,000 both being supplied from 
two large wells from which the 
pumps, run by water power, convey 
the fluid to the reservoirs. F. H. 
Fries is president, L. N. Clinard, sec- 
retary and C. A. Fogle, superintend- 
ent. These works were planned, sur- 
veyed and their construction super- 
intended by the private enterprise of 
the individual members, with the 
smallest amount of cash outlay and 
furnish an excellent su])ply of pure 
soft well water. 



The Winston Water Reservoir is 
sitiiatf'd oil the sniiniiit wIihi-p itji'ivcs 
g'ood pressure and holds 1, ()()(), ()()() 
<!:alloiis. It is also sujiplied from 
wells and the pumps run by watpr 
power from th<'. old Helo foundry 
plant. The Winston Water ('om])aiiy 
was org-anized in IHSO, but lal)ored 
under considerable ditticulty in ,<>et- 
ting a surticient amount of stock tak- 
en. The reservoir was completed in 
1883, and over 4:% miles of mains 
have been laid. The wells hold a 
quarter million g-allons and the wat- 
er is superb in all respects. It is fi'ain- 
ing- in ])opular favor and will in time 
supplant the ])rivate wells which in 
the thickly settled part of the city 
soon become impure from surface 
drainag'e. The city has 43 fire hy- 
drants. T. J. Wilson is president of 
the company and G. W. Hinshaw. 
Secretary Treasurer and Sujxm- 


The banking- interests of a commu- 
nity are of great importance to the 
general welfare, and the standing of 
the men at the head of these institu- 
tions is a matter which concerns e^-- 
ery person in the city. We can coiiti- 
dently refer to the banking officers of 
this city en mfisse as a strictly relia- 
ble, conservative, and enterprising 
set of men. The banks here are back- 
ed by good capital, judiciously man- 
aged, and a suspicion of unsoundness 
in any resjiect has never resteil upon 
them. This condition of matters adds 
largely to the general standing of the 
Twin-rity but the banking (jq^ital is 
less than half a million and it might 
with {uopriety be increased to double 
that amount. 


was organized March, 187(5, with a 
capital of |5(), ()()(), which wasshortly 
afterwards increased to |1()(). ()()(*). 
The bank has a present surplus and 
undivided profits of over .f()5, ()()(). 
has regularly- declared 10 per cent. 

<lividends an<l stands solid in all re- 

J. A. liittiiig, a native of Stokes 
county, was elected as President of 
tlit^ institution upon its opening and 
shortly afterwards removed to Wins- 
ton where he has assisted in devclo])- 
ing manufacturing and other ])ro- 
gressive matters of the city. .1. W. 
Alspaugh is a native of this place, 
was a practicing attorney and nego- 
tiated loansfor the ca]»italists of this 
vicinity prior to commencing the 
l)aiiking business as cashier of the 
First National on its opening in ISJO. 
Col. Alspaugh was mayor at different 
times, for several years editoi- and 
jn-oprietor of the Sentinel, and has 
been moreorless ideiitihed with every 
movement for the j)ublic good. C. 
Hamlcn, noticed in tobacco manu- 
facturing, is Vice-President. L. AV. 
Pegram, of this county, has been 
Teller and Assistant Cashier for 10 
years past. P. W. Crutchfield and 
dames Martin officiate as book-keep- 
ei-s and Paul J. Bitting as Collector. 
The Directors arethe President. \'ice- 
President, Casliier. .1. 1). \\'atkiiis and 
T. J. Brown. 


was established in June, 1879, by W. 
F. Bowman, Win. A. Leinly, Jas. A. 
(iray, E. Belo, J. W . Hunter and 
others, with a capital of .f 100, 000 
which was increased to |1. '50,000 
about two months later. The sur- 
plus and undivided i)rofits at the 
presiMit time amount to about .fl 00,- 
000, and the annual di^■idlMlds of 8 
])er cent ])er annum compare ver}' 
favorably with the best monetary in- 
stitutions of the land. Mr. Lemly, 
the pi-esident is a native of this coun- 
ty and has been in the ])ankiiig busi- 
ness for twenty years. He was elect- 
ed to the res])onsible position as cash- 
ier of the First National Bank of Sal- 
em. whiMi but 10 years of age and af- 
ter ofhciating there a dozen years 
was chosen as cashier of the Wach- 
ovia upon its opening and held that 



position until the death of Mr. Bow- 
man when he was elected president 
and Jas. A. Gray succeeded as easli- 
ier. Mr. Gray was born in Randolph 
county, came to Winston in child- 
hood and was in the mercantile trade 
here for several years. He commenc- 
ed with the Wachovia Bank as Assist- 
ant Cashier when the corporation 
was formed and Avas promoted to 
his present position upon Mr. Lem- 
ly's election as president. The di- 
rectors are the president and cashier. 
J. C. Bu.xton, Eugene E. Grav, W. A. 
Lash, N. D. Sullivan, and J. W. Hun- 
ter. E. S. Graj^ and G. H. Brooks 
are book keepers and Wiley (i. Gib- 
son, messenger. The bank is popular 
among our people and holds average 
deposits of a quarter million dollars, 
the transactions aggregating nearly 
twenty million dollars annually. The 
new rooms being fitted up on the cor- 
ner of Main and Third streets oppo- 
site the court house square are in the 
center of trade and will have every 
requisite for convenience and safety. 


This organization was incorporat- 
ed in February last and has recently 
commenced a banking business. It 
is established under the State laws, 
which provide for tlie welfare of the 
depositors by restricting the loans to 
first-class securities, inspection by 
the State Examiner, and other 
wholesome protection. The Forsyth 
Bank is officei-ed by honorable and 
conservative gentlemen and will furn- 
ish a good place for the deposit of 
small savings, each time — deposi- 
tor becoming practically one of the 
stockholders. Eugene A. Ebert, a 
Salem manufacturer is president; J. 
M. Rogers, B. J. SheppardandDr. H. 
T. Bahnson, vice presidents; E. A. 
T'fohl, treasurer and Y. W. Long 
clerk of the board. The trustees are 
C. Hamlen, H. E. Fries, G. W. Hin- 
shaw, S. E. Allen, C. A. Fogle, J. V^' . 
Hanes, W. W. Wood, R. J. Reynolds. 
C. A. Hege, Y. (). Thompson,' C. J. 
Watkins, R. D. Brown and A. J. Gales. 

On pages 2, 3, 6, 7, and 11 we have 
given some valuable ideas and sta- 
tistics, regarding our manufact- 
iiring, clearly demonstrat- 
ing the superiority of the South for 
industrial developments and the im- 
portance which these institutions are 
to any progressive city. It is but 
proper that we should begin the spec- 
ial descri])tions of that line in the 
Twin-City with the firm which com- 
menced prominent manufacturing in 
\Yinston-Salem over ' 40 years ago 
and Avhich continues imder the origi- 
nal name given to it in 184G. 

F. & H. FRIES, 


Flouring Mills, Etc. 

Francis Fries, deceased in 1H63, be- 
gan wool carding in 1840 and a year 
or two later added spining and hand 
looms for the manufacture of Salem 
Jeans, a product which soon received 
a wide notoriety. Henry W. Fries, a 
brother of the above, who still con- 
tinues an interest in the enterprise. 
1)ecame a partner in 1846, making 
the firm style F- &• H. Fries, which 
remains unchanged. In 1848 this 
firm built a cotton factory, princi- 
pally as an adjunct to supply the 
woolen mills with warp. This was 
equipped with 528 spindles and con- 
sumed nearly 100,000 pounds of cot- 
tcm for its second year. Improve- 
ments were added from year to year 
to both the woolen and cotton mills 
and the consunq:)tion of raw material 
at the commencement of the wiw was 
about 150,000 pounds of cotton and 
over 80,000 pounds of wool. A cot- 
con factory had been built in 1837 
by the Salem Manufacturing Com- 
pany, which under reverses and bad 
management suspended operations 
about 1856. The building was after- 
wards fitted up as the Wachovia 
Flouring Mills and later purchased 
by the Frieses, who have it in success- 
ful operation. These mills have 6 
brakes of rolls turnino' out 50 barrels 


of flour daily and a paii' oT l)urrs 
liaviiij;' capacity for lialf us iiiucli 
more. Two pairs of com rocks grind 
about 200 bushels of tliat cereal 
daily and both a nterchrint and cus- 
tom business is conducted. In <xo(h\ 
"Tain years a suthciency of wlieat 
and corn is raised in this vicinity to 
not oidy supply the local ti-ade but 
to furnish large shi])ments for the 
distant markets. These mills ai'e 
under the direct personal supervision 
of H.E. Fries. 


"Was erected by the firm in ISSO and 
is a decided achievement in modern 
manufacturing. This structure was 
erected on the most approved plans 
of the successful New England cot- 
ton mills at a cost for building and 
equipments of about |12r),000. It 
is well lighted and ])erfectly adapted 
to the business throi^g'liout. The 
mill is furnished with (i,4S() spindles, 
180 looms and every requisite for 
turning out superior goods at a min- 
imum price. A year ago the motive 
power was found to be insufticient 
for the most successful work and a 
200 horse power Corliss engine, built 
at Chester, Pa., was placed in posi- 
tion. This massive motor weighs 26 
tons but works as smoothly and 
steadily as a sewing machine. The 
fly wheel is 20 feet in diameter, the 
rim and arm weighing 2."),(»00 lbs., 
and the shaft- and hub adding 10,000 
more. The face of the rim is 28 
inches in width and turns the ma- 
chinery by aid of a belt IHO feet in 
length and which weighs ()."»() jjounds. 
E. S. Miller has been engineer for tlie 
firm for the })ast 1") vears. 

The Arista Mills' last year used 
1,888 bales of cotton aggreg-ating 
855,417 pounds which made 1,727,- 
G27 yards of goods, besides 1<)(),447 
pc^unds of yarn. 

The woolen factory consumed in 
1887, 174,843 pounds of wool and 
produced 375,255 yards of woolen 
goods. The reputation of these 
mills is very wide some of their pro- 

ducts having l)een shipi)ed to China 
and other foreign ports and at pres- 
ent their oi-ders are far in advance of 
the working cai)acity. Tiie 
ai-e noted for tluMr generous dispo- 
sitions and liberal dealings witli their 
employees and the jjublic. They em- 
ploy over 240 hands and disburse 
large sums in weekly wages and in 
general impi'ovements to (mr corpo- 
ration. Firms of this character are 
iinpoi-tant factoi-s in thf^ prosperity 
and substantial growth of the city. 
Tile firm is composed of Henry W. 
{"'ries, one of the original partners, 
and .lohn W., Francis H.,and Henry 
E. Fi-ies, sons of Francis Fi-ies, de- 

Jolin \\. Fries is also individually 
interested in tanning, conducting; 
that l)usiness on an extended scale. 
This tannery dates back to the set- 
tlement of the town and at ])resent 
furnishes an excellent grade of leath- 

Iron Working Interests. 

(.'. A. Hego li' Co., i'rojirietors. 

The men who by genius, personal 
energy and industry have widened 
the scope of manufacturing and by 
their woi-k made the Twin-City 
known in distant markets are deserv- 
ing of a])pr()priate mention in these 

C. A. Ilege tlir princi])al owner of 
1 lie Salem Iron \\'orks is a native of 
this vicinity and after completing 
llic machinists tr.-ule in Hethlehem, 
Pa., located in Salem about 15 years 
ago and started iron work in a small 
shed. With a lathe turned by horse 
power, his genius was developed and 
additions were required from year to 
year until the i)resent fine three 
storv structure was erected in 1882 



at a cost for g-rounds, buildings and 
equipments of about 1 80,000. Prior 
to 1887 Mr. Hege's industry was 
principally on plows and small foun- 
dry work.* In that year he took out 
patents on an "improved set" for 
circular saw mills, which invention 
proved to be so accurate, convenient 
and easil3' managed as to create an 
immediate demand for it amon^- 
mill men. Five years later, for the 
accomodation of this rapidly increas- 
ing trade, the present structure was 
erected with 23,000 feet of floor area 
properly heated and lighted, and 
thoroughh' e<]uipped with modern 
labor saving machinery. Mr. Hege's 
inventive genius has perfected mach- 
inery of practical utility in every de- 
partment of the shops so that his 
force of men can turn out double the 
work usually produced with the same 
number of hands. Conveniences for 
handling heavy articles, lifting cranes 
and general labor saving devices en- 
able the Salem Iron Works to pro- 
duce a large amount of machinery. 
The Hege mills are so popular in the 
South that in connection with part- 
ners in Florida, he has recently 
started a branch shop for the con- 
struction of the new patent, any 
kind of wood working machinery and 
railroad repair work at Apopka, a 
growing town at a i-ailroad crossing 
in Orange county, Fla. 

The Salem iron works have an ex- 
tensive sale for their improved Hege 
saw mills in over twenty states ; also 
in Canada, South America, the West 
Indies, Australia and Siam. They 
also build engines, wood planers, and 
a general line of wood working ma- 
chinery, for all of which they have an 
extensive trade, l)oth north and 


SALEM, X. ('. 

./. .1. Vance, Proprietor. 
J. A. Vance was born in this coun- 
ty, moved to Salem 16 years ago 
and for a long time was engaged at 

Fogle Brothers' mills. Five years 
ago Mr. Vance started his enterpiise 
in the basement of the new planing 
mill where he had access to a con- 
venient power and has added iron 
working machinery until he now has 
a first-class machine shop. His 
specialty is saw mills of which he has 
about 50 working in this State and 
has perfected an iron bed wood 
planer tliat has become a favorite 
among the wood working trade and 
Mr. Vance is scarcely able to keep up 
with his orders for this new machine. 
Plumbing and gas fitting in this and 
surrounding cities is a prominent 
feature of his trade in which he em- 
ploys a number of men. L. O. But- 
ner, of Salem, is manager of this de- 
partment, and J. J. Robertson, also 
a Salemite, is foreman of the machine 
shops. Repair work of all descrip- 
tions has prompt attention and with 
three machine shops here, manufac- 
turing interests can have new mach- 
inery made or repairs attended to as 
expeditiously as in any other city of 
tills size in the States. 



Ke.ster Brothers, Proprietors. 
The Kester Brothers are natives of 
Winston and both practical mechan- 
ics, Dan'l E. having for some years 
officiated as foreman in the Salem 
Iron WVjrks. Several months since 
they erected a 2 story brick building 
on Main street and with the Ijegin- 
iiing of the present year furnished it 
with modern planers, lathes, drills, 
etc., for effective iron manufacturing, 
added on a fine foundry room and 
are now fully equipped for good work. 
A 20 horse power Tanner & Delaney 
engine and boiler from Richmond, 
Va., are in place, a small engine for 
rumiing the fan to the'blast lurnace, 
orders for work have come in rapidly 
and the new firm starts off" under 
favorable auspices. The Kester Bros, 
are young men of industr,y and i)ush 
and will doubtless succeed. 


Wood Working Interests. 


Iini}(]ers, ('oiifr;ictois nnd Wood 

The Fojile's jL;ivat— <iran(l-f';itlit'r 
eame to this county inl75r» and tlic 
name has ever l»een a familiar otic 
here. Au«i-ustiis Foji'le. fatlicj- of tiic 
above firm, was a carpenter and tlic 
sons have been l)rou<iiit nj) in wood- 
workin<>-. The fii-ni was foi-med in 
IHTI, as l)nihlers and manufacturers 
<jf sash.dooi-s. iVrc. Additional build- 
''in<i-s and machinery were added from 
year to year as their business re(juir- 
ed, and the present two story brick, 
of plain archit:^cture, was erected in 
1883. It is ()()xl2(). fitted with the 
best ofniachineT-yan<l furnishes hand- 
some and convenient rooms. The 
old buildin<i' :{()xl 20 and two stories 
is also occu])ic(l in the business. The 
Arista Mills ami many of the best 
business buildings and private resi- 
dences in the Twin-City have been 
built by the Fofile lirothers. Their 
dealinjis with customers are very lib- 
eral and a lar<>-e number of laborers 
and mechanics have secmvd homes 
l)y havinji' lon<>- time payments that 
could not have done so otherwise. 
All kinds of doors, sash and buildine- 
material is turned out, i-ecpiirine- 
about 100 car loads of hnnber an- 
nually in addition to that purchased 
in this section. Besides builders" 
material this fii-m manufactures .")().- 
000 to G."), 000 tobacco lioxes annu- 
ally: givin<i: employment, in their 
different de|)artments, to an avei-a<ie 
of 50 to 65 men and makinji' this a 
business of no mean im])ortance to 
the prosperity of Salem. 



Contractors, S;tsh. Door and liliiid 


The firm of Miller Brothers, (1. L. 

and. J. S., commenced in 1872 as 

builders and five years later the mill 

was added. In 1S,S4 .J. S. retired 
leavin<i' (Jideon L. as sole ])roprietoi'. 
A few months later the mill was burn- 
ed entailiufi' a severe loss, but Mr. 
Miller soon afterwards erected the 
])iesent fine two-story sti'uctxn-e 55x 
120. The yard is on Plrst street, 
runniufj;,' from Chestnut to Depot. 
Convenient engine, boilei- and dry 
houses, all of brick are near the main 
buildings. The lund)er yai'd is sys- 
tematically ai-ranged witli incline 
tracks running into the mill. (J. E. 
.Miller accepted a partnership two or 
three years siuee and restored the 
old name of Miller Brothers. (J. L. 
has been for over 20 years an active 
mechanic anH fully understands ev- 
ery feature of the ti-ade while 0. E. 
has had 15 years of expei'ience. The 
firm ei-ected the Ah'thodist church 
described elsewhere, the Farmers' 
Warehouse, (Jray Block, J. A. Gray's 
fine residence and many of the prin- 
cipal business and private residences 
of the place. The location of the 
mill is in close proximity to the de- 
j)ot giving easj- access for shipments. 
The buildings have first class equi])- 
ments for sash, doors, blinds and 
other wood work and the lot 21 Ox 
270 gives every needed faiility for 
i-apid and perfect work. An average 
of 40 men or more are em]>loved and 
Miller Brothers deserve a full share 
of credit for the imitrovements and 
architectural beauty of the Twin-City. 



Wliolesalo and Ret ail Furniture. 
The devel opnient and success which 
has attended wood manufacturing in 
North Carolina dui-ing the present 
decade is sufficient to wan-ant us in 
expecting more rapid growth in that 
direction than we liaveheretofor(> at- 
tained. R. Stevens of Pennsylva- 
nia opened up a retail furniture 
store in "Winston a couple of years 
ago. Being a practical cabinet mak- 
er he concluded to manufacture goods 
for his custom, a vear since ftn-med 



an alliance with the proprietors of 
the Salem Iron Works^ andooniraenc- 
eci the entr'rprisp. It was at first 
only designed to supply the home 
demand, but the proprietors added 
the best of wood working machinery 
from month tomontlumtil they now 
liO-Ye one of the best equipped furni- 
ture factories tliat is to be found 
in the South and are securing an ex- 
tensive wholesale tradt- in the Caro- 
linas and Virginias. The luuiber is 
principally secured in this section of 
country and with the advent of rail- 
roads into the forests of Western 
North Carolina, walnut, poplar and 
oak will be cheaply and easily pro- 
cured. The North Carolina Furni- 
ture Company have a retail store at 
the corner of Third and Liberty 
streets in AVinston, under the man- 
Ki,gement of J. C. Simmons and the 
manufactury is at the Salem Iron 
Works, where the advantage of saw 
p.iill, planers and special machinery 
perfected for this business gives them 
every facility for rai)id and good 



Furniture and Undertnkiug. 
Cicero Tise is a native of AVinston 
ai>d was for a dozen years employed 
ui the merchandising. In 1877 he 
Kommenced the furniture trade and 
Sias added to the Imsiness until he 
now has one of the most complete 
assortments in this section of coun- 
try. Jacob Tise, father of the above, 
erected the handsome galvanized 
ci'ou. front building, on Main street, 
opposite the court house, in 1887. 
Tliis structure is -10x100 feet, three 
stories and basement and its archi- 
tectural beauty Avould grace a metro- 
politan city. Six months ago the 
basement was fitted up with ma- 
ii'hinery for pro.lucing the ordinary 
grade-? of fin-niture and several hands, 
ai'e now em])loyed in that work by 
Mr. Tise, under the superintendency 
«f H. D. Holcomb. of Pennsylvania. 
X. H. Pt^grain an experienced man. 

has charge of the undertaking de- 
partment and every requisite for 
burial service is furnished from this 
well known house. In addition to 
all kinds of furniture, from the com- 
mon grades to expensive parlor suits, 
Mr. Tise also keeps a full line of hous:' 
furnishing goods, carpets, wallpaper, 
refrigerators, stoves, china vases, 
etc., and carries an assortment of 
buggies as well. A steam elevator 
runs from basement to garret and 
a finishing room 40x50 in an adjoin- 
ing building opens into the second 



Undertaking and Furniture. 
A. C. Vogler is a Salemite, and 
after a five years apprenticeship with 
the venerable John D. Seiwers, he 
opened up a cabinet shop on his 
present site, thirty years ago. Mr. 
Vogler added ready made goods to 
meet modern progression, now has a 
good assortment of furniture, (order- 
ing the finer grades by sample, wlien 
desired. This manufactures 
<-ommon coffins and furnishes fine 
caskets to meet his demand in under- 
taking. In this line his trade s])reads 
out over a^ ^wide territory, and with 
a quarter of a century's experience, 
evei-y requisite to the last sad rites 
is carefully looked after. AVith Jan- 
uary "87, Mr. \. admitted his son ' 
Frank H. as a partner. Frank has 
since I'eceived a diploma from the 
Oriental School of Embalmers, and 
is secretary of the North Carolina 
Fndertakei-'s Association. The trade 
of the firm extends out foi' a radius 
of twenty miles or more, and needs 
no further comment from us. 


Tate's Victor Grain Separator. 
The AA'inston Agricultural AA'orks 
was incorporated in 1884 for th^ 
manufacture of Tate's A^ictor grain 
and seed separator, a most useful in- 
vention for the farmer, as from its 



simplicity, it is eminently pi-;u'tic;i])lf. 
We hope to see the ma mi fact lire of 
this machine pushed to the extent of 
its merits. 

Wagons, Carriages, etc. 

GEO. E. NISSEX c^- CO., 

SALEM P. ().. 

1 \ \i u,<>h to u7i ]Vn!j;on M;i ii ufnct niers. 
Jolin P. Xissen, fatlier of George 
E. and Wm. M. Xissen, of tlie above 
firm, commenced the waiion trade 
two miles southeast from Salem P. 
0., in 1834-,and up to the time of his 
death in IS 74, had sent out more 
than 5, ()()() wafions. The l)usiness 
continued to increase, now averaging 
.lOO to TOO wagons yearly, and mak- 
ing a total output np to the present 
time of over 11,000 wagons of tlu^ 
J. P. Xissen brand. The firm owns 
a, mill at Panthei- creek, in Yadkin 
county, and purchase besides a large 
amount of lumber fi-om the mills of 
this and surrounding counties. The 
factory comprises a number of build- 
ings, the most conspicuous of which 
is the mill, whose tall smoke-stack is 
noticeable miles away. A 4.") horse- 
power Westinghouse engine runs the 
machinery, which comprises s])oke 
and hub lathes, circular saws, planes, 
shaping machines, tenoning devices, 
and other inventions suited to the 
business in hand. Another small en- 
gine supplies the blacksmith sho]) 
with power. This shop is a ])eculiar 
shaped building, presenting twelve 
sides and contains twelve forges. 
There are two wood working sho])s. 
two paint shops, besides minor build- 
ings and sheds. The business gives 
employment to some fifty or sixty 
workmen — were it not for the labor- 
saving machinery employed this force 
would necessarily l)e very much 
greater. Material is kei)t on hand 
for three or four years supply, in or- 
der to have it thoroughly seasoned. 
The hardware stock is of superior 
quality, and the required sizes and 
lengths to work advantageously, is 

made by a Pittsburg iron firm. Th.e 
copartners have grown uj) in the fac- 
tory, and wagon making lias been 
the business of tlipir lixcs. 



Thi- Heel Curt, CmTiuges, ct Buggies. 
Jas. A. White began the carriage 
trade 25 years ago with J. T. St-ein- 
er in Salem, and in 1S71 started bup- 
iness in Winston, latei-, accepting his 
son, .1 oseph O. , as pa rtner. All kinds 
of carriages, buggies and rejtair work 
is attended to. but the great special- 
ty 'of the firm at present is their own 
device, patented January . 1SH7, and 
known as the •'Tar Heel KoadCart." 
This vehiclH is ]><)ssessed (jf man_v 
features of merit, and is made with 
double or siiiiile seat at prices -from 
130 to 140. ' The firm have sohl 
about 150 of these in this State 
alone and when rightly found out 
this patent should bring to J. A. 
AVhite tt Son a comfortable fortune. 
A factory for s])oke, hub and nent 
works here and another well e(]uipped 
for the maimfaeture of the "Tar 
Heel" alone, would pay well. 

F. ('. MEixrxc;, 

S.VLEM. X. C, 

('iiwinges. Buggies, Etc. 

Henry E. Meinung, deceased, com- 
menced the carriage business in Sa- 
lem over half a century ago, and A. 
E. Giersh, who began blacksmithing 
for the shop in 1S37. is still at the 
forge. The businc^ss was turned over 
to the son, F. C. Meinung, four years 
ago, and he continues the old hand- 
made goods at the sign of the "Ked 
Wheel."' in Salem, giving sj)ecial at- 
tention to custom and repair work. 

There are several wagon repair and 
lilacksmith shojts in the Twin-CMy, 
but ourspace is limited, and we M;;st 
pass on to other matters. 

You should preserve this ]u\\\ \v\' • 
for future use. 



Miscellaneous Industries. 



A. G. Hough iSr Co., Proprietors. 

The Salem Hosiery Mill was start- 
(hI some four years asio and the firm 
has recently erected a two story 
brick structure on Elm Street. They 
have machinery for tui-ning out 
about 50 dozens of seamless half 
ho-e and g'iA'e employment to some 
30 g-ii'l.s. The product althoug'li of 
excellent grade goods was at first 
hard to dispose of. l)ut now finds a 
ready sale in the Ncjrthern markets 
at paying prices and has become 
one of the established industries of 
Salem. Mr. Hough is a native of 
Davidson county, having been va- 
riously engaged in firming, official 
positions, editorial work, etc. R. A. 
Spaugh, the other partner, was born 
in this vicinity and officiated as 
book-keeper in the Salem Iron Works 
ior a long time. 



Jhinilhi ^jnd Grey Wrapping Paper. 
The Salem Paper Mill was first 
started in 1885 and came into the 
hands of its pr-esent proprietors 
about a year since. It is fitted up 
for the manufacture of wrapping pa- 
pers, making from rags, about a ton 
each day of manilla, or grey shades 
and which is sold to North Carolina 
dealers. It is run by steam and gives 
employment to some ten hands. 
Both the partners are from New- 
York state and Mr. C. F. Lee, the 
manager has been for 10 years in the 
paper manufactui-ing trade. The 
small manufactorips all lend assist- 
ance to th cities" gi'owth and we 
hope to see many more of them come. 



W. <). Senseman A' Co.. Proprietors. 

The manufacture of l)i-ooms was 

begun here in a small way a cou])le 

of years ago, but the demand is ex- 

tending, and the above firm have 
during the past month put out about 
250 dozens of this indispensable 
household article. The firm ship 
their broom corn from Chicago, pay- 
ing high freights, and as there is 
much land in this section thoroughly 
adapted to its growth, some of our 
farmers would consult their own in- 
terests by planting out a sutticient 
acreage to meet the home demand at 
least. The above firm will be glad 
to advise with those who contem- 
plate growing the product. 



Marble and Granite TFo/A-.s. 

I. W. Durham is a native of Char- 
lotte and learned the marble cutter's 
trade there, coming here a dozen 
years ago and shortly afterwards 
commencing- iu the marble and gran- 
ite trade. Mr. Durham handles all 
kinds of desirable, domestic and im- 
ported marbles and granites. Native 
granites of good consistency and 
taking a fine polish are found in 
abundance from four to twelve miles 
from this place, and Mr. Durham has 
superior fVicilities for meeting every 
demand of his trade. 

J. A. Bennett, of Salem, also has a 
similar marble business on Main 
street, opposite Brown's warehouse. 



Dr. J. F. Shaffner, Projmetor. 
The acreage of cotton raised in this 
county is small, and the only cotton 
gin in Forsyth, owned by Dr. Shaff- 
ner, gins but little more than 100 
bales per year. This was established 
in 1882, and the doctor has since 
added a bone mill, which makes a 
market for old bones, and on ac- 
count of the scarcity of raw mate- 
rial, is limite<l to about 50 tons per 
vear, of this valuable fertiliz(>r. In 
1884 Dr. S. built a tobacco factory 
in Salem, 55x80, three stories in 
height, which, is now used as n leaf 
house bv Edmunds A: Gilmer. 




On pjijivs ])ri()i- to tliis we liavr 
mentioned tlie t()l>a''c(» interests of 
this locality, iriusti-a.tinu' on pa<2,v (> 
the (lesii-ability ofthe Piedmont to- 
bfveco and on pa<>,'e 11 fi'ivinu,' some 
ao-o-veo;)te statistics ofthe Twin-City 
mannfactoi'ies. It now remains foi- 
ns to wi'ite a more exhaustive sketch 
of "the weed" and inider notice of 
the leadin<i- firms in that lin<' to <;'ive 
athlitional facts, for to this industry. 
AVinston e\specially owes a vei-y lai-<ie 
.sharp of her (hn^elopment. 

It has been demonsti-ated l)eyond 
a doubt tliat for cliewing' ])urposes 
no other se<-tion of eoimtry produ<-es 
a more d(»sirable color and tlavoi' 
than the hi<i:hlands of w^stei-n North 
( 'arolina . Tracts that are compara- 
tively pool', can l)e made to produce 
from .")()() to (SOO pounds per acre 
and altlioujLi-h many other states 
raise double this amount, the<>-i"ades 
are inferior and the net yield in dol- 
lars and cents is moT-e here than in 
sections of country that ji'row a f»:rea t- 
er number of pounds to the acre. To- 
bacco foi- domestic use has been 
rais(>d in this region foi- a half cen- 
tury, but a new inipetus was given to 
the business about 20 years ago. 
Guthrie, Marshall and Kirby, exyx^- 
rieni-ed tobacco growers from Vii-ginia 
had located in Forsyth county sonu^ 
years pnn-ious and by judicious till- 
age had fully demonstrated that 
western Nofth Cai'olina could be 
made to produce as fine It-affoi-ihew- 
ing tobacco as any s(>ction of the 
globe. There are but few states, if 
any, where the soil has been found to 
be as well adapted to the su])ei-ior 
grades of yellow and mahogany leaf 
as this, so that we now iTi-actically 
have the mono])olyand there is every 
reason why this industry should con- 
tinue to develop. The fine textured 
tobacco will thrive up to an elevation 
of perhajjs 4-,000 feet altove Uw sea, 
and way up on the cliffs of the r>lu'' 
Ridge are found the hardy nionn- 
taineers who grow a small "crap of 

t ()l)acker,"' which is indinereiitly cai'- 
ed for, dried in the sunshine, and 
what he has above his own needs is 
brought to market with which to 
purchase a few necessary articles of 
merchandise. The more thrifty far- 
mer who pliints out a fair acreage of 
the favorite kinds and looks after 
the proper cultivation, curing and 
mai'ketinii' with care, often i-ealizes 
from |i?()() to -ir^OO per acre for hi;* 
l)roduct and as these high lands can 
l)e purchased chea])lymany northern 
emigrants will doubtless soon en- 
gage in this kind of agriculture. 

From year to yeai'the business has 
rapidly widened and now within a 
radius of.'JO miles from this place, the 
annual vield a<i-<i-regates S,()0(),0()0 
to 12,()()0.()00 pounds. This is 
nearly all sold at Winston and many 
wagons come (}() miles or more with 
tobacco, while lai'ge ouanties of yel- 
low and mahogany hntf are shipped 
from other points and marketed here. 
The nund)er of persons in th*^ Twin- 
City engageil in all departments of 
the tobacco ti-a<le foots up over 
4:,000aud thosedependent upon the 
workers for daily brea;! would aggre- 
ga te a s m a ny more. Our rea ders ca"! 
depend upon the figun>s which we give 
as beuvj; ;i pproxirunti'lyvovvert Sovw'f^ 
endeavor as far as possible to exclude 
all over drawn statr'nient-*. As a 
mark^'t foi- leaf tobacco, Winston has 
rai)idly risen to the front and the 
success of the manufacturers is large- 
ly tlependent uj)on the fact that they 
hav(^ daily access to the warehouses 
tlmt furnish the finest grades of leaf 
for chewing tobaccos, in the world. 
The vast im])ortance to Winston-Sa- 
lem of this industry cannot well be 
ovei- estimated. 


To any one visiting Winston for 
the first time, its tobacco 
become objects of decided interest. 
Especi;dly is this the" case if a big 
"break" is in progress. Then can be 
seen gathered togethei- 20 to 30 or 
mori^ keen-eyed, thorougldy educated 



buyers— men who^e senses are so 
trained as to enable them to tell to 
the fraction of a cent what this, that 
or the other grade of leaf is worth to 
the manufacturer (u* shipper. From 
5,000 to 15,000 feet of the warehouse 
floor is covered with piles of tobacco 
leaf, rang-inj: from 25 pounds to 
1,000 pounds or more; the stentor- 
ian voice of the auctioneer is heard, 
a score of farmers are waiting- with 
keen suspense, all anxious to know 
what his particular heap will bring. 
A halt of 15 to 20 secondsismade at 
each lot while the buyers examine the 
grade of goods and in turn puts in 
his bids, the weed is "knocketldown" 
and the surging crowd pass on to 
the next pile. 

Winston has four tobacco ware- 
houses and in older to avoid too 
much repetition, we will say that all 
of these have basements, furnish am- 
ple storage for tobacco, stalls lor 
horses, office accommodations and 
camp rooms for larmers. The ( oun- 
tryman^ who drives to Winston has 
only to bring his iorage ibr horses 
and provide something for his own 
sustenance, when he can live quite in- 
dependent of hotels or livery stables, 
as the warehouses fuinish ample 
rooms for roughing it, or "camping'" 
as it is called. The annual sales of 
the four AVinston houses aggregate 
11,000,000 to 14,00(),()()0 pounds 
yearly or about |1, 500, 000 in cash 

Prior to 1872 no eflort had teen 
made to systematize the marketing 
of tobacco, the curing and handling 
Avere indifferently done and growers 
placed little dependence on the article 
as a staple crop. 

Maj. T. J. Brown, a native o Cas- 
Avell county, residing in Davie for 
some time, became impressed with 
the needs of Western North. Carolina 
lor a tobacco market and alter pros- 
pecting at Madison, about January-, 
1872, decided to try A^'inston. By 
hi.? request, (i. W. Hiuf-hawexttmpo- 
rized a warellou^e bom a stabie on 

Liberty street, and Maj. Brown ojieii- 
ed up piiblic sales in February of that 
year. Col. J. W. Alspaugh, Wilson 
«t Gorrell, Dr. Shaflner and others 
uniting with Maj. Brown in the ideas 
(jf }n-ogression, cametrj his assistance 
in the erection of the old Brown's 
warehouse on Church street, which 
was completed in 1872 and which 
the major subsequently purchased 
entire. This was the real opening 
movement of making Winston a great 
tobacco mart. The daily auction 
sales brought together the buyer 
and seller, created a regular law of 
supply and denmnd and made a sta- 
ple product of "the weed." 

brown's avarehouse. 

Lash's warehouse was erected in 
1873, and continued in use for sever- 
al years. The Planters' (now Pied- 
mont) the same year and others sub- 
sequently. Brown's old warehouse 
did good service for a dozen years, 
the transactions under its roof ag- 
gregating several millions of dollars. 

W. B. Carter, of Rockingham coun- 
ty, accepted a partnership with Maj. 
Brown, about 14 years ago and in 
1884 the firm built Brown's ware- 
house on Main street which is a- mod- 
el structure of its kind and deserving 
of more extended comment than our 
space will allow. The nmin building 
is 90x200 feet the salesroom cover- 
ing 18,000 .'•quarefeet, without post, 
pillar or other obstruction. The 
building with grounds *is valued at 
•f 2(.),()()(;) and the enterprise is in ev- 
ery way a credit to its proprietors 
and to the city Avhich gave it birth. 
J. Q. A. Barham, an auctioneer of 
twenty years experience nets as sales- 
man and has few superiors. P. A. 
Wilson, Jr., has officiated as book- 
keeper for several years past. 

THE farmers' warehouse. 

Col. A. B. Correll was identified 
Avith tlv^ first decided tobacco moA'e- 
ment in AVinston. Avas for sometime 
book-keeper and later a jmrtnerAAith 
Mai. Ib'OAvn. TI'p rol(,r,. i is n rative 



of Greensboro but cMiue to Winston 
at an early age, and was a mercluint 
of this city foi' several years. He 
has served our people as mayor, al- 
derman, school commissioner and 
been closely connected with many 
progressive movements. G. \\\ Hin- 
shaw, (a public spirited Winstonian, 
who will have further mention in the 
mercantile department), and others 
joined Col. Gorrell in 1881 for the 
erection of the Farmers' warehouse, 
which is a handsome and commodi- 
ous structure on Liberty street. The 
Colonel gives his strict personal at- 
tention to the business and the Far- 
mers" warehouse has made a steady 
increase in sales from year to year, 
which is gratifying' to its proprietoi-, 
and evidence of his good business 
tact. G. E. Webb, of Durham has 
officiated as auctioneer- of this house 
for three years. N.S.Wilson, a Wins- 
tonian is the efficient book-keeper. 


This structure was erected in 187H 
by a stock company and was origi- 
nally known as the Planters". It 
was leased in l87()byM. W. Norfleet, 
Iju'ge additions made and the name 
changed to tlie Piedmont. The pres- 
ent building is (50x1 00 Avith an E 40 
x7(). Mr. Norfleet is a native of Cas- 
well county, was engaged in Mer- 
chandising in Winston foi- a year or 
two, prior to commencing the tobac- 
co business as projirietfjr of Pied- 
mont warehouse. The sales of the 
house have increased tenfold since 
Mr. Norfleet came to the business in 
1876. H. J. Crute, auctioneer, is a 
Virginian and has been with the 
Piedmont for four years past. The 
entire force of em])loyees are atten- 
tive to their respective duties giving 
general satisfaction to both buyer 
and seller. 


is a fine brick structure 90x200 at 
the corner of Main and Second sts. 
It was built by a stock company, 
opened November 10th, 188-t with 

-too piles of tobacco on tlieHoorand 
has ever since been in successful oper- 
ation. The firm operating the (Ori- 
noco is Gilmer, Wilson, & Co. Of 
('apt. Gilmer we shall elsewhere write 
in connection with the oidy exclusive 
wholesale house in town. He is also 
a leaf dealer, (-firm of Pxlmunds & 
(iilnier). His partner, Mi*. E. H. 
Wilson, is a native of this comity, 
and the management of the business 
of the warehouse largely falls to him. 
This position is ciiaracterized by a, 
class of work that calls for adminis- 
trative and executive ability. The 
firm have the services of C. S. Mat- 
lock, an efficient ;iuctioneer, and J. 
B. Taylor, of Heiu-y county, Va., as 
book-keeper, besides tlie full corps of 
expert assistants usually reipiired in 
tlie business. 


Some manufacturing was done in 
this vicinity prior to the advent of' 
warehouses, Maj. Hamilton Scales 
having been first to start the busi- 
ness in Winston. .1. A. Hitting was 
by far the largest buyer in the leaf 
niMi-ket during lS72-'5, shijjping his 
purchases to (ieorgia for manufact- 
ure. From year to year oui" enter- 
prising business men discovered that 
a good leaf market ju-esented extra 
induiements for the manufacture of 
])lug and, and to-day the Twin- 
City has a world-wide rejiutation 
from her success in this industry. 

Our tobacconists as a I'vde are men 
of whom tlu' Twin-City may well feel 
])r()uti. (lenerally starting withsmall 
means they have by sagacity, indus- 
try, and jierseA-erance hewn out then- 
own success and beconie the ai-chi- 
tects of the competency with which 
they are surrounded. Theirdealings 
with customers and em])loyees Irive 
been characterized by liberality and 
for generous aid to ]iul)liienter])rises 
no class of our citizens (-an be so uni- 
versally relied ujjon. Without their 
bountiful assistance it would scarce- 
ly liave been possible lor solargi.'and 



complete an edition of this descrip- 
tive sketch to liave been issued. Yet 
most of these libertil donors would 
nave been satisfied, if the general 
g'ood had been properly covered, 
that we pass theml)}' without a spec- 
ial mention. We have however decid- 
ed to make brief personal reference to 
each important establishment; but 
in order to not occupy too much 
spjice we will generalize our matter 
as far as practicable. The attentive 
reader by this time must understand 
that Winston and Salem lie side by 
side and Winston being the city of 
latest developments has the larger 
share of tobacco factories, because 
building sites wei-e here found to be 
more accessible. There are over 30 
firms engaged in the trade and two- 
thirds of tliese have fine large struct- 
ures, four to five stories in height, ful- 
ly equipped Avith modern machinery, 
steam and hydraulic attachments, 
elevators, and every recjusite for suc- 
cessful manufacture. Nearly all of 
these establishments use principally 
the tol)acco grown in this State. The 
trade of our manufactni-ers covers 
most of the South and is rapidly 
gaining a foot hold in Penns^dvania, 
Ohio and other northern states. The 
larger firms manufacture their own 
tobacco boxes and caddies amount- 
ing to several thousands each year. 
,The tobacco business here is con- 
ducted upon a systematic basis, un- 
der wise regulations, by a Board of 
Trade, Avhich confines its delibera- 
tions entirely t(j tobacco matters. 
Col. A. B. Gorrell is president, Frank 
A. Coleman, secretary; M.A.Walker, 
treasurer, and the committe of arbi- 
tration is B. J. Sheppard, J. AV. 
Hanes and W. W. Wood. T. Barbei- 
is supervisor of sales. 


Winston's Largest Manufactory. 

In commencing the tobacco inter- 
ests tliere are so many fine buildings 
and real large fii-ms in the Twin-City 
that it is ditHcult to know where to 

begin ; but we believe that even the 
competitors of P. H. Hanes & Co., 
accede to the claims of this firm as 
having the largest tobacco manufiac- 
tory here. H. Scales, T. L. Vaughn 
and one other firm, (since gone out 
of business) wei-e operating tobacco 
hei-e when the above firm started in 
1873. Hanes & Co., suffered by fire 
the loss of their buildings and 
and equipments in 1877 and soon 
afterwards erected about half of their 
present factory. Later an L was at- 
tached and subsequently another 
wing. It is a four stoi'y structure, 
fronting 125 feet on Chestnut street 
and extending back 155 feet. In or- 
der to get an adequate conception of 
the different features of manufacture 
it is necessary to take a tour through 
one of these establishments when the 
work is in progress and several hun- 
dred busy hands making plug and 
twist from the tobacco leaves. We 
will here onl_y say in brief however 
that the leaf purchased from the 
warehouse is recured, packed again 
in piles, sorted for the diffei-ent 
grades, stemmed, sweetened with 
licorice and sugar, to meet the re- 
quirments of different tastes and 
brands, made into twists or plugs, 
pressed, (in tobacco parlance prized) 
boxed and shipped to the ti'ade. 
This firm employs over 300 hands 
during the tobacco manufacturing- 
season. Last vear their purchases 
of leaf was more' than 1,200,000 lbs., 
of sweeting fifty tons, and after the 
loss from stems and otherwise the 
Tiianufactured product made a net 
figure of nearly a million pounds. 
The favorite brands of P. H. Hanes 
& Co.. arethe "Missing Link," "Man's 
Pride," and the "Greek Slave" al- 
though, as with all other fsictories 
here, a nund^er of other popular 
brands are made besides the leaders. 
The Haneses aie from Uavie county 
and have a thorough training in the 
tobacco trade. The monthly pay 
roll foots up nearly |5,000 and this 
disbursement serves as a verv im- 



portant f'actoi- in tlip prosjM^rity of 
our city. 

Plug, Twist, Xhv,v iiiifl Sinokiiii:,: 

One of our larg'pst and most ])roin- 
inent tobacco Tuannfactui-injitii-nis is 
that whose name lieads this 
article. Dr. AV. L. and R. I). Brown 
first beg'anniakin<i- tobacco at Mocks- 
ville, Davie county, ovei- twenty 
years ag'o. Their factory was un- 
pretentious, but it i)rove(l to be tlic 
opening wedge and ]tivpa red them to 
start aright in the business of Wins- 
ton, wliieh tliey did in 1S7(). They 
erected a stj'ucture .lO.xl.'iO fppf, four 
stories and have since added over oO 
feet achlitional to the length, besides 
building an L H4x(3() feet. Bi-own cV: 
Brother employ on an average '2~A) 
hands and make an annual out])nt 
of nearly tln-ee fourths of a million 
pounds. During the busy season 
some f4,000 per month is disbursed 
for wages and the average j)aid for 
leaf tobacco is probably doul)le this 
amount. The product of the factory 
is plug, and navy, medium to 
fine grades, and granulated smoking 
tobacco. Perhaps the most favored 
brand is the "Old Oaken liucket," of 
which they are the sole ])roprietors, 
packing it in 2.~)Tt» buckets. The 
"Waverly," •'Stonewall,"" "Cottage 
Home,"" "Peace and Plentv," "Slaj) 
Jacks," "Little Neck,"" "Our Q," and 
others have a popular run. This 
tii-m l)uys large t|uantities of burlcv 
tobacco from the Louisville market 
which they work into "navy" foT- 
their general trade. Both of the 
partners give personal attention to 
the business and with etiicient su])cr- 
intendants throughout, eveiy thing is 
done in order. T. A. Wilson has for 
eight yeai-s ])ast ofticiated as book- 

R. .]. HEY.\OLl)S,k CO.. 
Pliiff, Twist nnd Fniicv Tohm-cos. 

R. J. Rej-nolds is a native of Pat- 
rick county, Virginia and has Iieen 
in a tobacco f;tctorv fi-om bovhood. 

He commenced business in AVinston 
in ISJ.") and has ke]»t pace with the 
trade, increasing his facilities fi-om 
time to time. His factory has a 
wing, three stories and basement, of 
."{(Sx2L') feet, and brick addition .')()x 
.")(), making it front DO feet on Chest- 
nut street, the l)uildings, grounds 
and equipments being wf)rtli fullv 
.f2."),0()0. The annual output of this 
factory is between one half and three 
(piartersofa million ])()inids. Mr. 
Reynolds says that 18SS starts oft 
with a.- bright ])rospects as any prev- 
ious yeai- and he expects the factory 
to eclipse the formerrecord. Tiecent- 
ly W. X. Reynolds, a younger bi-oth- 
er and Henry Bonn, an old em])loyee 
of the office, have been adnutted to 
an interest in the business and the 
firm style is now R. J. R(>vnolds tV: 
Co. From '2~A) to .'}()() hands areem- 
])loye(l, thusgivingdisbursement to a 
])rincely sum of cash which sjieedly 
finds its way to the c()ft"ers of oui- 
mei-chants and mechanics. Some of 
the leading brands of this factoi-y 
are the National, R. .1. K. (trade 
mark), rind World's Choice. ]\Ii-. 
Reynolds deals exclusively with job- 
bers and has no salesman on the 
i-oad, the merit of goods being a suf- 
ficient advertisement to bi-ing sale 
for all the manufacture of the house. 

•'Tlw Chnmpion Tohncco M.iunf'r."' 
Manufacturing had been conducted 
hereto some extent j)rior to 187^^ 
but T. L. Vaugh erected the first 
factory expressly for tobacco making 
in that year ancl has ever since held 
a |)rominent j)lace in the trade. It 
was a business iii which, in one form 
or another, hehad been familiarsince 
childhood, and he was adapted to 
make a success of his projected enter- 
])rise. His business during the years 
since intei-vening for<-ibly illusti-ates 
this fact. The old l)uilding is now 
occu])ied by Vaughn, Locket cV Co. 
Mr. Vaughn erecting his present tine 
structure in the fall of LS,s;{. It fronts 



100 ft. on Oldtown street and is 150 
ft. in depth, and, inchisive of the base- 
ment has Ave flooi's. In thearrang-e- 
ment of this factory tlie practical 
ideas of a practical man were iem- 
bodied — and the result is complete- 
ness so far as we can judge. 

The capacity of this factory is esti- 
mated at a million pounds per year, 
but the out-put thus far has not ex- 
ceeded about one-half that amount. 
Mr. Vaughn's leading lirands are the 
Broad Axe. Big Auger and Old Kover. 

The nmrket sought and obtained 
l)y Mr. Vaughn does not differ mate- 
rially from that of most of the facto- 
ries here. His customers are largely 
located in South Carolina, Georgia 
and Alabama. A growing trade is 
held in Tennessee and a very consid- 
erable business is being built up in 
Ohio. Nearly all of Mr. Vaughn's 
customers are jobbers — he has some 
trade among retailers, but it is rela- 
tively small, Avhile it is equallr true 
that no traveling salesmen are em- 
ployed to reacli eitlier wholesale or 
retail patrons. 

B. F. Hanes, Proprietor. 
Perhaps no man in this place was 
better cal<-ulated to build a model 
factory than B. F. Hanes whose ef- 
forts led to the completion of a fine 
structure on Chestnut street early in 
1886. A dozen year's prior expe- 
rience, in the business with his 
brothers, P. H. c^- J. W. Hanes, had 
consummated his plans for a practical 
workshop, and no means was spared 
in making this factory convenient 
and complete in all its workings. 
The building is a brick structure 53x 
153 ft., and, including the garret, has 
five floors. It is thoroughly lighted 
and ventilated. A 50 horse engine 
and 40 horse boiler, of Richmond 
make, runs the machinery, which al- 
so has hydraulic attachments. This 
house makes a siiecialty of the finer 
grades of goods, and confines it,s lous- 
iness entirely to the jobloing trade. 

The leading bi'ands are Benjamin 
Franklin, Carolina's Favorite, Gold- 
en Chain, Our Senator and others. 
With the second year Mr. Hanes ac- 
cepted his brother Phillip as a part- 
ner, but left the firm name unchanged. 
More than 150 hands find employ- 
ment here, and the output of the es- 
tablishment for its two first years 
aggregated about 750,000 pounds 
which was nearly all sold before the 
commencement of this season's work, 
paying in these two years a revenue 
of'|GO,000 to the Government for 
tobacco stamps. The Haneses ai"e 
both practical business men in every 
sense of the word, and are reaping 
the merited reward of a well planned 
industrial enterprise. 

Plug and Twist Tobacconists. 
Eight years ago M. D. and P. N. 
Bailey added another to the long list 
of tobacco factories in AAlnston. 
They were in earnest — had come here 
to stay — and in '82 erected their 
substantial brick building on Chest- 
nut street, 50x136 ft., four stories, 
and fitted up with engines, boiler and 
all other needed appliances. The 
father of this firm was a manufactur- 
er, and the Bailey Brothers had been 
in the business at Statesville a half- 
dozen years before removing to Win- 
ston in 1880. Some twelve or fifteen 
regular brands of plug and twist to- 
bacco are made, beside special brands. 
Among the leading and best known 
of the regular brands are Natahala, 
Old Bob, Ellen Fisher, Planter's 
Choice, O. K., Clipper, Silver Moon, 
May Queen and Lilac ; in brief, all 
sizes and shapes are made that the 
public calls for. The leaf is purchased 
in the Winston warehouses by M. D., 
who gives his special attention to 
that branch, of the trade and office 
matters, while P. N. is general super- 
intendent of the mechanical work. 
In this as with other well I'egulated 
factories every care is made to grade 
the goods satisfjictoVil.y to custo- 



incis, which brings juhlitional or- 
ders. About loOhjiiuls are emphjved 
and the annual output is :50(), (')()() 

H. H. Reynolds Proju-if'tor. 

It is foreig'n to the purpose of tliis 
pamphlet to laud iM-ivate enter])iMst's 
or their })r()i)rietoi's, but a more t'ruil - 
t'ul field tor df^sei'ved pucouiunis tliaii 
the above could not well be found. 
H. H. Reynolds was raised in the 
finest tobacco se<-tion of Vir^'inia, 
and much of his time in boyhood was 
occupied in<i,rowin,iiand handlinji' the 
best g-rades, so that lie is now classed 
among the l)cst selectei-s in this i-c- 

Ten years ago Mr. R. toolc up a 
residence at AVinston, as he believed 
the Piednu^nt Belt produced tobac- 
cos of the finest chewing qualities, 
and to tliis ]w largely attributes his 
success, as the product of his estab- 
lishment gives entire satisfaction to 
the trade. His lousiness was at first 
conducted in a rented house, but on 
account of the rapid increase in his 
trade he was forced, in 1(S(S5, to Ituild 
and equip his ])resent nuimmoth 
works which cost over .'(^25, 000, and 
of which we present a cut on a suc- 
ceeding ])age. The furnishing iscoiu- 
plete in all respects and the business 
has increased about tenfold dui-ing 
his ten years in Winston ; the first 
year showing a total outT)ut of .'5S.- 
000 pounds and last year re(]uiring 
441.1()T jjouikIs of tobacco besides 
over 70, ()(»() pounds of licorice and 
sugai'. He has a large trade in the 
Soutli and is succ(>ssfully com])eting 
in Baltim)r(»and the northern mark- 
ets. Thebi-andsare, Revnolds' Best. 
12 in. .'V'^, Red Eleithant, J) in. 4"s, 
Red Elephant 7's, Honey Dew, Pea- 
body, City Talk, Excelsior, Reaper. 
Twin City, Honey Condi (8 ply twist) 
and others. 

Mr. Reynold's chief manager has 
been with him since 1(S(S() and his 
book-keeper since 188?», while many 

of his iiands ha\c remained in his 
emjthjy since he came to Winston. 
The personal attention given liy the 
proprietor to every detail of busi- 
ness, insures for this establishment a 
continn.-iuce of its well nuM'ifed suc- 

t -(^'SS . 

EOCKETT VAr(;H.\ c^i CO. 

M;innf}icti]rers of Plufj; Tohnccos. 

E. L. Lockett, originally from Yan- 
cey ville, X. ('., come to this ])lace from 
Danville, Va., where he had been 
manager of a leadingfactoi-y for sev- 
eral years. He was with Brown 
Bros, foi- some time. Bitting & 
Whitaker two years, and came to 
this partnership in .S4. L. A. Vaughn 
is a native of Stokes, and has been 
i-aised in the tobacco trade, having 
several years been manager for his 
l)rother,'T. L.Vaugn. Follin Broth- 
ers, of Charleston, S. C, wholesale 
tobacconists, purchased an interest 
in the business a year since and are 
holding a large riui on the goods t)f 
this manufactory throughout their 
field of trade. One of the brothers is 
an active partntn- in the Winston 
house. This establishment gives em- 
])loyment to from l.'O to 200 hands, 
tlie l)uilding has a cajiacity of a half 
million ])ounds and the annual out- 
put in ])lug alone is nearly ;500, 000 
])ounds. The territory tributary to 
the factory constantly increases, and 
every indication ])()ints to growing 
])i()s])erity for this enterpi-ise. 

The leading brands are. Linuted. 
lied Meat, Our Peach, and Brown 
.lug. and t lie force of the establish- 
ment is principally enqiloyed in sup- 
])lying the demands of the trade for 
these special brands. 


'• Liirilli-" mill Other Tolvicros. 
W. A. Wliitaker is a native of Yad- 
kin county, and has had a wide ex- 
jierience in handling tobai-co. His 
factory, on the corner of Church and 
r>th street, was originally built for a 
leaf house, is 44xHG. having five 



floors, and with recent additions, is 
thoroug-hly equipped throughout. 
He employs about 150 hands, and 
has a capacity of fully half million 
pounds annually. 

Mr. Whitaker uses only the leaf 
grown in the Piedmont section of 
this state, believing that this is the 
finest tobacco in the world for chew- 
ing goods, and that its superiority 
is largely what has made the Twin- 
City tobaccos so rapidly acquire a 
wide reputation wherever introduced. 
He is an expert buyer, and in his fa- 
mous "Lucille" claims to have a pro- 
duct that cannot be excelled. White 
Wings, Coronet, Zip, Golden Slipper, 
Twin-City, Empress, Dick Graves, 
Peach and Honey, Olive Branch and 
Otter of Roses are among the favor- 
ite brands of this establishment. Mr. 
Whitaker is a progressive citizen as 
Avell as tobacconist, and has done 
much for the school system of Wins- 
ton-Salem. The elegant system of 
electric light which AVinston has, its 
magnificent club room, and various 
other public entei'prises are largely 
indel)ted to his fostering care. 

Mcinuihctuvers of Plug and Twist. 

.1. A. Bitting, President of the First 
National Rank, was one of the 
heaviest purchasers of leaf in the 
AVinston market for a year or two 
after the business commenced here. 
In 1876 Mr. Bitting engaged in the 
banking business, and subse(|uently 
commenced tobacco manufacturing 
as Bitting & AA^hitaker. A coui)le of 
years since ^Y. J. Ellis & Son built 
and equipped, with improved ma- 
chinery, a tobacco factory 50x120 
feet, four stories and basement, on 
Cherry street. This property was 
purchased by the firm of Bitting ct 
Hay, January; '87, and for the flrst 
year turned out nearly a quarter of a 
million pounds of plug and twist. It 
has a capacitjv' for double that 
amount, and is running about 150 
liandii!. The i)roduct is i)rincipally 

sold in the southern states, and their 
leading brand is the Zebra, "although 
several other ])opular styles are 
made. AV. S. Hay, the jimior part- 
ner, is a native of Rockingham 
county, and came to AA'inston in 
1880. He was employed witli Bit- 
ting & Whitaker until accepting an 
interest as partner in the above en- 
terprise. Mr. Hay is thoroughly 
conversant with'the requirements of 
the trade, Mr. Bitting is an old to- 
l)aceonist, and there can be no ques- 
tion as to the solidity and success of 
this comparatively new firm in 

W. AV. WOOD c<c CO., 
Beleiv's Creek Street, Salem. 

Located just in the edge of Salem, 
this firm gets its mail from the 
Winston postoffice, thus illustrating 
how closely the two places are l)Ound 
together, and the appropriateness of 
the cognomen, Twin-City. Mr. AVood 
is a native of A'irginia, residing in 
this state from boyhood, and was 
fo* many years engaged in merchan- 
dising and manufacturing tobacco in 
Surry county. Ten years ago he 
located in Winston, but in 1882 he 
had his factory burned, and for two 
subsequent years was connected with 
Brown ct Bro. In 1885 Mr. AA'ood, 
in company with E. A. Ebert, a, 
former merchant, and Dr. H. T. 
Bahnson, both Salemites, occupied 
the present fine four-story brick, 
50x107 feet, and which is thoroughly 
etjuipped for every demand of their 
trade. This estal>lishment uses 
about a quarter of a million pounds 
of leaf yearly, the product l)eing 
more largely sold in Georgia than 
any other state. "Maud Muller" is 
a special favorite, while any style of 
plug and twist is made to meet the 
demands of trade. It has steam 
equipments, and gives employment 
to over loo hands. 

Manufiieturers of Plug Tobacco. 

The firm of Ogburn, Hill & Co., was 



formed 10 vfiirs jiii'o hv ('. .1. O^Z'IniT-n. 
;i nativp of'tliifs countv, wiio li.-id 
been raised in tobacco maimfactni-- 
ing-, and W. P. Hill, of Stokes countv. 
formerly in business for some time. 
The enterprise was conducted on 
Old Town street until 1SS4. when 
the requirements of their trade de- 
manded better accommodations. — 
January 1st of that year ('. D. 
Ogburn was admitted, a new luick, 
45x120 ft. five floors, was erected on 
('herry sti-eet, and occupied in No- 
vember, 1S84. Some of the favorite 
brands areO.H.ct Co's Choice, I)ixi(\ 
(lold Leaf, Winston Leader, Engle, 
Minnie Og-burn. l)i-ummer and others. 
Mr. C. J. Og-burn attends to the buy- 
ing and prizing, and Mr. Hill to tlfie 
classing of leaf. The office is ])i-inci- 
pally in the hands of C. U. Ogburn, 
and by this division of labor among 
the copartners the Ix^st and most 
practical results aiv obtained. 

The specialties of the firm ai-e tine 
and fancy 12 in-.Ts. foi- wlii<'li lliey 
have a large demand. 

Al)out 100 hands ai-e emj)Ioyed 
and over 200,000 pounds of leaf 
handled yearl3\ 

Plug Hud Twist Tobncro. 

Messrs. Payne, Lunn «.\: Morris 
erected one of the tine large factories 
on riien-y street which weiv built ii.\ 
1SS4, The size of this sti'uctui-e is 
50x135 feet, four stories in height. 
]Messrs. Payne and Moi-ris withdrew 
from the firm, and L. L. Lunn, in 
company with .1. M. and (J. D. 
Hodgin, formed the ])resent firm 
with this year. Thenew partnei-sliijt 
employs over 100 hands, and ex- 
pect to turn out 200.000 pounds or 
more of manufactui-ed ])i-oduct. .Mr. 
Lunn is from Salisbury, and tin- 
Hodgin brothers natives of this 
place, J. M. having been raised in the 
tobacco business, and (1. D. has been 
for the half dozen years con- 
nected with the First National bank 
of Winston. This factorv is bv 15 

feet the liirgcst of tlie Big Five, and 
its output is a material assistance in 
swelling the aggregate of the Twin 
City tobacco transactions. 

Mninif'-irtiiivrs of PIiiu; mid Twist. 

Oi'ganized in 1S,S3, thisflrm ei'ecte<l 
their large factory on Chen-y sti-eet — 
one of the Big Five — a year latei-. It 
is 50x1 1() feet, four stories, and with 
the usual e(]ui{)ments. Samuel 
I'lackburn is a Stokes county man, 
.•ind was in manufactui-ing there 
prior to coming to Winston five 
yeai-s since. K. F. Dalton is also 
from Stokes, and as his father wjis a 
manufactui-ei-, he was raised in the 
tobacco business. Buck Fllington, 
of Rockingham, who has been a to- 
l)aci'o salesman for a dozen years 
past is the -Co." The brands of 
this house are Coi-a .Moore. Come 
Again. Ben Hill, I^ob ^'ance, and a 
scoi-e of others. The firm em])loys 
over 100 hands, and their aimual 
l)ur<-hases of leaf is about a cpiai-tei- 
oi a million ])oun(is. 

Plug and Twist Tolmccos. 
The mendters of this firm — Tayloi- 
liynum and Rod Cotten — are both 
natives of Chatham county, and 
were engaged in tobacco manufac- 
turing at Hillsboro ])rioi- to remov- 
ing to ^^'inston in 1S79. Five years . 
later the firm erected the fine foui-- 
story bi-ick factory at the corn<'r of 
Chei-ry and (5th sti-eets. This is 
50x122. ])roi)erly equij)pe(l. and 
about 100 l)usy workers here find 
• ■mj)l()yment, turning out the usual 
product of other houses with like 
nund)ei- of hands. Mr. Bynum has 
long made a special study of leaf 
])urchases, and attends to that de- 
I)ai"tment, while Mr. Cotten has the 
snperintendency of the manufactory. 
The demand ff)r their product has 
been good, a ml .sea son's manufac- 
ture was dis})o.sed of sometime since. 
The leading brands are Wachovia, 



T. Bynum's Extra Fine Pounds, Sil- 
ver Wave, Mary Lee, Red Man, Nash- 
ville Chew, Smart Alex, and others. 

Plug find Twhst Tobacco. 

One of the earliest tobacco manu- 
facturers of this section was the ven- 
erable Jas. E. Ogburn, father of the 
above, who commenced, making- 
plug about 1850, in a small way, at 
the Ogburn homestead some four 
miles out of Winston. In 1855 the 
capacity of the works was increased, 
and for five succeeding years the out- 
put was ten to twenty thousand lbs. 
annually. The raw material for this 
being raised by the neighbors within 
a radius of a few miles around. 

After the war S. A. Ogburn, who 
had formerly superintended his fath- 
er's works, was for a year with Col. 
J. W. Alspaugh, and in 1878 was 
one of the firm of Ogburn, Hill & Co. 
Subsequently retiring from this firm 
and in 1885 opened up business at 
the corner of 7tli and Old Town Sts. 
He has employed about 60 hands 
here, niaking an annual output of 
over 60,000 pounds, but his trade 
demands better accommodations and 
Mr. now building a brick factory 
on 7th street near the R. R., which 
will be 54x75 ft., four stories and 
have a capacity of over a quarter of 
a million pounds. 

Plug and Twist Tobaccos. 
R. L. Candler is a native of Lynch- 
burg, Va., and came to Winston in 
1883. In 1885 Mr. S. B. Zigler 
opened up a factory on 4^ street in a 
brick structure which he had previ- 
ously erected, 40x100 feet, and four 
stories. Three years later Mr. Can- 
dler came in as a partner, and subse- 
quently succeeded to the entire busi- 
ness, continuing the firm title as 
above. When in full operation Mr. 
Candler employs about 100 hands, 
and uses in his manufactory about 
40,000 pounds of leaf per month. The 

favorite brands of this institution 
are Bonny Jean, RebeO Boy, Red 
Seal, Derby, Pansy Blossom, Carni- 
val, Casino, Veto, Jubilee, and Blue 
Stockings, which are sold to the 
jobbing trade of the south. Mr. 
Candler was one of the prime movers 
in organizing the Twin t'ity club, and 
is a young man of progressive 

Manufacturers of Plug. 
Major Hamilton Scales was the first 
tobaccfj manufacturer in Winston, 
commencing his work in 1870 in a 
carriage house on Liberty street, and 
building his present establishment in 
the centennial year. Prior to open- 
ing up business in Winston Major 
Scales had been making plug tobacco 
in Stokes county for a few years, 
having before the war been engaged 
in the business in his native county — 
Rockingham. With the present sea- 
son T. J. and N. S. Wilson, Wins- 
tonian tobacconists, have been 
added to the firm, and will doubtless 
give to it a new impetus. T. J. Wil- 
son has for several vears past been 
with N. D. Sullivan, while N. S. Wil- 
son, as book-keeper at Farmer's 
warehouse, has secured an intimate 
knowledge of the weed. The promi- 
nent brands are Alex Stevens, Bob 
Toombs, Ida Bryan, Spanker, and 
Rabbit Gum. 

Plug and Smoking Tobaccos. 
A native of Pearson county, N. C, 
Mr. Hamlen began the manufacture 
of tobacco at Roxboro in 1861), and 
five years later moved to the Twin 
City.' He built the largest factory of 
Winston in 1874, and sulisequently 
made considerable additions, but a 
number of the factories of more re- 
cent date have surpassed Mr. Ham- 
lin in capacity, architecture and ele- 
gance of equipments. In the spring 
of 1887 his sons, M.S. and C. P. were 
admitted as partners in the concern, 



and have added the vigor of j'outh 
to the experience of age in the firm . In 
smoking brands the favorites are 
Powhattan and Volunteer, while the 
plug styles ai-e Pride of Carolina, 
Acme, Belle of Winston, Sunny 
South, and several others. The 
liouse is one of the established enter- 
prises of Winston, and well knoAvn in 
•the southern tobacco trade. 

Plug, Twist and Smoking Tobnrco. 
Dr. J. A. Butner established his 
present business in 1S85, just in tlie 
edge of Salem, but receives his busi- 
ness mail at Winston. The building 
is 50x116 feet, four stories, and has 
a capacity for more than a quarter 
million povmds of manufactured to- 
bacco, but Mr. Butner finds it (]uite 
as profitable to supply the demands 
of his trade by purchasing from tlie 
country factories when they are dis- 
posed to sell at close ma rgins ; con- 
sequently' he does quite an extensive 
jobbing trade. Mr. B. is a native of 
Salem, but residing in Indiana from 
1858 to 1881, when he returned to 
his native home. 

W. T. GRAY & CO., 
(inmulated Smoking Tobacco. 
Capt. W. T. Gray and Watt Mar- 
tin, his partner, are both natives of 
Winston, Mr. Martin being the trav- 
eling salesman, and Capt. Gray the 
managing partner at the factory. 
The manufacture of smoking goods 
requires but few empl(\vees, and this 
firm, with less than 15 hands on an 
average will probably turn out 
75,000 pounds of the favorite 
brands. Off duty is put np in at- 
tractive style— 3 oz. red and blue 
pouches — and Gray's Winston is made 
from selected leaf of rich bright col- 
or, with strict regard to cleanliness 
and uniformity. A new style for eith- 
er smoking or chewing is made from 
cut plug and known as square knot. 
Tlie raw supplies are all secured in 
this city, and with a building 10x70. 

of f(jur floors, W. T. Gray & Co. have 
one of the best exclusive smoking to- 
bacco factories here. 


Smoking Tobaccos and Groceries. 

This firm staited in the Grocery 
trade of North Liberty street, Win- 
ston, some ten years ago, and foui* 
years since began the manufactui-e of 
smoking tobacco. They give employ- 
Tuent to about ten hands, and many 
thousand pounds of their Eagle brand 
smoking have been sold throughout 
(Jeorgia, South Carolina and other 
Southern States. More rec(Mitly it is 
gaining a wide reputation in Pennsyl- 
vania. The firm, although not claim- 
ing to be classed among our largest 
nuinufa(turei"s, has an honorable 
record and is increasing its trad& 
from year to year, in both the mer- 
chandise and manufacturing depart- 

T. F. LEAK. 
Manufacturer of Smoking Tobacco. 

T. F. Leak was raised in the tobac- 
co trade, his father having been a 
manufacturer in Stokes county. Mr. 
Leak started the first smoking to- 
bacco business in Winston, seventeen 
years ago, and still continues as a 
manufacturer, having in the mean- 
time sent out many thousand pounds 
of his goods to dealers in the South. 
His brands of Southern Belle and 
Wide .Vwake are widely known among 
smokers. Mr. Leak purchas(>s all his 
stock in the Winston markets. 



Winston Cigar Manufactory. 
BoiMi in th(^ Enq)ire City, I. Leopold 
was for ten years employed at the 
cigar trade in New York before he 
came to Winston. Five years ago he 
engaged with V. (). Thompson cV: Co., 
as manager and superintendent, and 
a year or two since, believing there 
was a field for the business here, he 
opened up cigar making on his own 



account, and since the retirement of 
his former employers has the entire 
held to himself, 'in 1887, his first 
year of manufacturing', the output 
showed 532,000 cigars of which a half 
million had been sold at the end of 
the year, and the indications are that 
the "trade of 1888 will double this 
record. Mr. Leopold is full of enter- 
prise, has equipped his factory with 
modern cigar machinery, and em- 
ploys about 20 hands. He occupies 
every foot of space over the entire 
length of the Winston Postoftice 
building, and with his present rate of 
increase will doubtless be compelled 
to erect a large factory two or three 
years hence. The men who are liberal 
with printer's ink and furnisli reliable 
goods to their customers, seldom fail 
of success ; and one thing which speaks 
highl}^ for this house is the fact that 
a large majority of our local dealers 
have found it to their interest to pat- 
ronize him. Mr. Leopold has a good 
trade over theCarolinasand is reach- 
ing out for business into Georgia, 
Alabama, Tennessee and Florida. 
His standard 1 cent goods are Henry 
Clay, John C. Calhoun and Iron 
Prince. In 5 cent brands, Leopold's 
Havanas take the lead, while Twin- 
City, Maggie Brown, Our Chum, Pine 
Logs, Zebra, North State Belle, Leo- 
pold's Ponies and a score of other 
brands are made. Success to the 
Winston Cigar Manufactory. 


Leaf Tobacco and Stem Broker. 
The standard market value of to- 
bacco in Winston is largely main- 
tained by our leaf dealers, and their 
regular attendance at the market 
Avith the manufacturers creates a 
steady and permanent demand for 
all grades of goods. M. N. William- 
son is a Virginian, 14 years in Win- 
ston, and for ten years past in the 
leaf tra de. His business made a rapid 
increase and in 1881 he erected the 
large factory on Old Town Street, 

40x90, four stories. This is fitted 
with the Triumph Summer heat sys- 
tem, which plan retains the flavor 
and toughness, and Mr. W. has a 
large number of customers in the 
Northwest who recognize the supe- 
riority of North Carolina tobacco for 
flavor, color, and chewing qualities. 
The average annual output is a mil- 
lion pounds, nearly half of which is 
shipped to Europe. Employment is 
given to 20 or 30 hands, and this 
is entitled to rank among our largest 
leaf tobacco firms. 

Tobacco Leaf Dealer. 
J. B. Moseley is a Virginian, and 
was for some years engaged in the 
tobacco business in Danville. He is 
an expert buyer, and when the mark- 
ets are low is ready to purchase, re- 
cure, sort and hold the goods until 
the manufacturers or distant custom- 
ers need the product at an advanced 
figure. Mr. Moselej' has been doing- 
business in a rented house on 4)^ St., 
but is now adding to his capacity as 
well as to the architectural beauty of 
our city by erecting a four story brick 
40x90 on Cherry street, fronting the 
Big Five factories . Every perm anent 
addition to the Winston manufacto- 
ries is deserving of recognition, and 
Mr. Moseley will doubtless receive a 
just business reward for his enterprise. 

A. A. SMITH & CO., 
Leaf Tobacco Dealers. 
A. A. Smith is a native of Lynch- 
burg, Va., and came to Winston 
about a dozen years since. He en- 
gaged in the tobacco leaf trade, and 
was subsequently a partner with M. 
N. Williamson, as one of the firm of 
Williamson and Smith. Later Mr. 
Smith engaged with R. J. Reynolds, 
our well known tobacco manuftictur- 
er, in his present enterprise, making 
the firm name of A. A. Smith & Co. 
The Butner factory is used by the 
new firm for storage and prizing- 
rooms, and this leaf house does a fair 



slinre oftrade in that line. Thesjx'- 
cialty of the firm is N. C. brifrht nia- 
liogany wrappers, which from their 
tine texture and rich body, are eager- 
ly sought for by western and north- 
ern dealers. 

M. w. norflep:t & sox.. 

Dealers in Tobacco Lent'. 

M. W. Norfieet has lorseveralyears 
past operated as a leaf dealer, and 
three years since accepted as a jtart- 
ner in that department his son, Jas. 
K. The firm have a brick factory 
•'i5x80 feet, with four floors, on ord 
street, and have a capacity for hand- 
ling a million pounds of leaf annually, 
which is principally sold to the ex- 
port trade. 

Leaf Dealers and Brokers. 

The Coleman Brothers are fi-om 
Hali ax county, Va., and came to 
Winston in Xov., 1884 to engage in 
the tobacco trad(". Their principal 
purchases are of such colors or grades 
as are used least in the AVinston 
manufactories, thus assisting in giv- 
ing a staple value to such kinds of 
tobacco as would be dull in this 

B. J. SHEPPARl) c'c CO., 
Lt^af Tobacco Dealers. 

B. J. Sheppard is a native of Rich- 
mond, Va., and in the tobacco busi- 
ness continuously since the war, hav- 
ing been in AVinston for the ])ast doz- 
en A^ears. In 188'3 he built the large 
factory at the corner of 4th and 
Chestnut streets, 5()x9() and four 
stories, which is fitted with all the 
steam drying attachments. 
Tobacco Leaf Dealers. 

E. C. Edmunds of Halifax county, 
A^a., came to AVinston some 5 years 
ago to engage in the leaf trade, and 
a ctniple of years since associated 
with himself Capt. Gilmer under the 
ab(ive title. The firm occupy the 
Shaffner factory in Salem as a leaf 
house, getting their mail at \A'inston. 

F. G. SCHAl'M, 
liuvf'r for Marburg Bros., of Bnlto., 

Has been many years in the busi- 
ness, and thoroughly understands 
the values and grailes of leaf. He 
first came to AVinston in 1875, was 
sent to other maikets for a time, 
but returned to tins city five years 
ago, and makes heavy purchases for 
the above 

There are one or two other leal 
firms, and a score of "'pin hookers'" 
who purchase, on speculation, from 
the planters direct. So the tobacco 
trade is well represented in all de- 


Centcrville— Winston I'. (). 

One mile Southeast from the Salem 
I'ost-office, in the subni-b of Center- 
ville is found tlie Reynolds Brothers 
tobacco factory which was erected in 
188:5. It is 4'oxl.",7 feet, two and 
four .stories in height, having an ex- 
tension of 40 feet for the boiler, en- 
gine and box manufactory. The 
Reynolds Brothers, C. A. and T. E.. 
are natives of Roi'kingham count}', 
and have been in the tobacco busi- 
ness for fifteen years. They employ 
over 100 hands and the annual pro- 
duct approximates 200,000 pounds. 
The Reynolds Bros, are young men 
of push and enterprise, have a fine 
dairy farm adjoining the factory, and 
a private water-works system con- 
nected with the e><tal)lishment, which 
furnishes pure .>;jtring water to all 
parts of tlie factory. Hose attach- 
ments for fii-»^ protection have been 
made on every floor, and the estab- 
lishment is thoroughly equipped 
throughout for plug, twist and smok- 
ing products. The leading brands 
are, Reynolds I'rothers" Best, Fruit 
of the Farm, Minnie Reynolds, Little 
Pearl and (Jld Ratler. In smoking, 
their leader is Top Notch. Careful 
selection, good business tact and 
persevering industry have brought a 
large trade to the Reynolds Bros. 



T^fl!Jg7ifoTy7J — Salem P. 0. 
The name of Nissen is well known 
in the Twin-City, an<l the suburb of 
Waughtown with her thousand in- 
dustrious inhabitants, almost owes 
her existence to theA-aried-enterprises 
of the Nissen Bros. S. J. Nissen was 
formerly in the wagon business with 
his brothers, but in iSSo built a to- 
bacco factory, and has since been en- 
gaged in the manufacture of plug and 
smoking tobaccos. The Nissen fac- 
tory does not yet rank among the 
largest industries of this section, but 
evrry care is taken to properly select 
the grades and to give as close mar- 
gins to customers as establishments 
doing a lai'ger trade. The leading- 
brands are S. & ^\ .. Buncoml»e. Slim 
Jim, and in Smoking. Old Solid Com- 
fort. Mr. Nissen should have the 
hearty co-operation of Waughtown 
people for continued success in this 
enterprise, which gives employment 
to many hands who are not versed in 
mechanical arts. 



There are a nun"iber of substantial 
tobacco factories in this county, all 
of which go to build up the inter'^sts 
of the Twin-City, as most of them 
pui'chase their supplies from our to- 
bacco warehouses and spend a fair 
share of their profits in the Twin- 
City. One especially deserving men- 
tion in these columns is that wliich is 
in successful operation at Walker- 
town, under the proprietorship of N. 
I). Sullivan. Mr. S. is a native of 
this county, has hud thirty years ex- 
perience in handling tol»acco, and the 
excellency of Sullivan's Best, and 
Sullivan's Free and Easy plug has 
acquired for it a wide reputation 
among lovers of the wped. Mr. Sulli- 
van commenced in an unpretentious 
manner Ijut has added to his facili- 
ties until he now has a well equipped 
establishment and manufactures 
about 150,000 pounds of high 
grade tobaccos each year. 

The county has several other fac- 
tories and there are three or four 
tobacco firms in Winston that are 
omitted by request, or from other 
reasons not necessary to explain. 


[See page ST.] 



Fifty years ago the aggregate rail- 
roads of America measured less than 
250 miles and required about 1,000 
employees. Ten years later it had 
grown to 7,000 miles, 5,000 employ- 
ees, and $200,000,000 of capital. To- 
day there is more than 150,000 miles 
of iron highway in the United States, 
the year just past having shown a 
construction record of 12,524: miles, 
which is greater than any precedinji 
12 months. Nearly a billion of 'lol- 
lars is now invested in railroa 1 en- 
terprises, and 750,000 hands ]< (juir- 
ed for its operation. All other agen- 
cies combined are overshadowed 
when compared with what railroads 
have done in the development of our 
country, as every mile of road is 
estimated to bring 20,000 acres of 
land into feasible culture, raise its 
value 100 per cent., and add im- 
mensely to the wealth of the coun- 
try through which it traverses. 



The Noi-thwessterii North ('arolina 
Raih'oad was built from Greensboro 
to this phice in 1872, and first open- 
ed Winston-Salem to the world. A 
few years later it became a portion 
of the R. & D. System which gave the 
Twin-City direct communication with 
the metropolitan cities of the east. 

The Richmond and Danville Rail- 
road comprises 2,400 miles of line in 
operation, and the extension of the 
road from here to Wilkesboro,is now- 
being; vigorously i»ros(Muted, and we 
hope will soon open communications 
with the rich agricultural districts 
which lie between here and the moun- 
tains. The general offices of the S3^s- 
tem are at Washington, D. f'., Geo. 
S. Scott, President; E. B. Thomas, 
(Jeneral Manager; and Jas. L. Tay- 
lor, as General Passenger Agent. The 
R. & D. is fully recognized as one of 
the important railroad systems of 


The W. U. Telegraph started here 
in 1884 and the present manager of 
the Winston officecame here with the 
first of this year. .1. M. Pendleton is 
a native of Virginia , began telegra i )hy 
a dozen years ago jind thoroughly 
understands the business. The office 
is in the Gray block, is fitted with au- 
tomatic protectors and has thi'ough 
connections with Richmond, Wash- 
ington, Raleigh, and Charlotte. This 
is a money transfer office and its ca- 
ble business is quite large, in conse- 
(juence of the leaf dealers busin(\ss on 
the continent. 


Doubtless the oldest hotel in this 
section of country is the Salem Tav- 
ern. The first Inn of the place was 
burned in 1781, and two or three 
years later the old brick portion of 
the Salem Hotel was erected which, 
although it has endured the ravages 
of more than a hundred years is still 
a substantial structure. Four yeai's 
ago this property was pui-chased, as 
a residence, bv Dr. Z. Swift, of Florida , 

who came here to secure for his daugh- 
ters the advantages of the Academy. 
AVe visited the loom whicli Piesident 
Washington occupied wiiilc st<)i)i)ing 
at this place in 1701. ami from which 
he penned the following reply, June 
1st, 1701, (the original of which is 
still preserved in the archives of the 
church here) in response to a letter of 
welcome from the Moravian Brethren : 

"To the Vnitt^d Brethren of Wach- 
ovia,: — Gentlemen ;— I am greatly 
indebted to your respectful and affec- 
tionate expression of pei'sonal r<'gard 
and I am not less (d)liged by the pa- 
triotic sentimtMit ccmtained in your 

From a society Avhose governing 
principles are industry and the love 
of order, much may be expected to- 
wards the im])r()vement and prosper- 
ity of the country in whirli their set- 
tlements are fornjed, and experience 
authorizes the belief that much will 
be obtained. 

Thanking you with grateful sincer- 
ity for your ja-ayers in my behalf, I 
desire toassure you of my i>Hst wishes 
for your soiial and individual happi- 
ness, (i. Washington." 

The Home.— Fiider th*^ hea<l of So- 
cieties, etc-, we should have called at- 
tention to the Salem Home for aged 
and infii-med jx-opleand orj)han chil- 
dren, which is supjiorti'il by charita- 
ble ladies, organized in societies of 
ten each and known as the King's 
Daughters. A buildinghas been pui- 
chased on Main Street, which is un- 
dei- the supervision of a matron and 
has accommodations for over MO oc- 

God's Acre.— The Moi-avian bury- 
ing ground is known as God's Acre, 
and is admirable from its simplicity. 
The giaves are made in parallel 
rows, which are intersected at inter- 
vals l)y alleys that divide the plat 
into blocks. Children are buried in 
one a]»artment. sisters in another, 
and men in a third. No mark of dis- 
tinction in granite .-^plre or costly 



sculptured rnarble is allowed, but a 
simple marble block with inscription, 
pl^Lced flat upon the head of each 
grave. The oldest grave is marked 
1770, and since then more than a 
thousand others have been interred 
side by side, all now covered by a 
grassy lawn and shaded l>y cedars of 
a century's growth. Odar Alley in 
front of this sacred spot, is canopied 
on both sides by the o'er-spreading 
cedar spires, and is one of the hand- 
somest and pleasantest walks in the 

The CWwefwj".— Crossing a ravine 
to the eastward from the above, is 
found among the original forest trees 
the peoples' cemetery. This has a 
number of handsome monuments, 
and could be made an attractive spot, 
but as yet has had little care be- 
stowed upon its surroundings . Those 
having the matter in charge would 
do well to spend a little more towards 
beautifying this sac-red spot. 

The Mineral Spring, on Marshall 
Street, produces a most excellent 
chalybeate water and it is singular 
that more persistent effort should 
not have been taken to advertise this 
a':'knowledged fountain of health-giv- 
ing properties. A goo<l place for a 
sanitarium and the right man should 
take hold of the matter at once and 
ei-ect a suitable building for the ap- 
plication fjf natures remedies. 

The Twin-City is lieMcient in the 
matter of a first-class hotel. Every 
progressive city that expects to suc- 
<;ee(l and especiall\' in the South, 
should have its tourist home, kept in 
unexceptionable style, whei-e those 
who can and will pay fancy rates, may 
secure every needed comfort. A house 
of that kind, in this place; with a 
hundred rooms or more, could be 
easily filled a large part of the year; 
as the elevation, salubrity and 
healthfulness would attract large 
numbers if we had superli accommo- 

Hotel Fountain and Merchants, the 
two largest hotels of this place, are 
under one management and have, 
combined, more than 50 rooms. W. 
R. Vickers, the lessee, is a native of 
Durham and was for several years a 
landlord at Reidsville. He is known 
as the portly man of Winston, rais- 
ing the scale beam above 350 pounds. 
R. Harris, the Clerk, is popular with 
the commercial travelers and the 
guests in general. 

Terry House is in thenewStarbuck. 
Block, and is conducted by the affa- 
ble Mrs. N. J. Terry. This house con- 
tains only 16 rooms, but is constant- 
ly filled with guests to its full capaci- 
ty, as the rates given and the board 
furnished seem to fully satisfy the re- 
<]uirements of the boarders. Mrs. 
Terry is attentive to the requirements 
of her guests, has kept boarders in 
AVinston for seven years, and is to be 
congratulated on her success as a 



A branch office of the Fifth Intennil 
Revenue District is kept in the First 
National Bank building, imder the 
management of D. D. Shelton, with 
Mrs. F. G. Hellen assistant. Notliing 
but tobacco and cigar stamps is sold 
.and yet the books show that the re- 
ceipts for six months prior to Janu- 
ary 1st, 1888, aggregated .f277.- 
618.90, all handled and accounted 
for by two persons, with a cost of 
less than one per cent, to the Govern- 
ment for collecting. This will also 
give to our readers some idea of the 
immense tax taken h-om the people 
of the tobacco growing and manu- 
fiicturing districts of North Carolina. 
— this place alone sending more than 
half a million dollars annually to the 
IL S. Treasury. 


The Act forming Forsyth county 
was passed in 1818 and the deed for 



^)V/i acres, at $256.25, was made by 
Chas. F. Kluge on behalf of the Mo- 
ravian church land department, to 
Francis Fries, chairman of the board 
of the county court, May 1 2, 
1849. This plat covered only from 
1st to 7th streets, between ('hni-ch 
street on the east, and the parallel 
of Old Town street on the west. The 
county site was officially named Win- 
ston by an Act of tli(^ Le^'islatui-t' 
passed Jan. 15th, 1851. 

Tlie court house was built in 1851 -2 
and prior to this, court was held in 
Concert Hall, Salem. Tiie old court 
house and old jail cost about |1(),- 
000 and served the ])in'posr' (juite 
well at first, but the chanjivs of 'Mi 
years have made an incalculable dif- 
ference in tlie city and county, the 
old court house is entirely inadetjuate 
— a dis^Tace to the enterprise of the 
the Twin-City — should be torn down 
and replaced by an edifice that would 
be commodious and an advertist^- 
raent to the prog-i-e.ssive spirit of this 
section of country. 

The Present Jail wns built in 1885 
at a cost of over .|!12,00() and is a 
handsome, safe and commodious 
structure. It has five iron cells, man- 
ufoctured by the Hall Safe and Lock 
<'o., of Cincinnati. These cells each 
have five hammocks for j)risonei's 
and a room on an upper floor has 
been planned for as many more. J. 
W. Bradford, of (iranville county, 
formerly chief-of-police here, has been 
jailor for a year or two past and has 
.safely handled several hundi-.'d pi-is- 

Slieriffs. — William Flint was elected 
first Sheriff of Forsyth county. He 
was succeeded by Mathias Marten. ..1 
(i. Hill, Augustus Fogle and the pres- 
ent iucund)ent. John Boyer is a na- 
tive of the county and in agricultural 
pursuits prior to his eleiition in 188/{ 
to the office of Sheriff. Mr. Boyer 
was re-elected in '85 and has made a 
satisfactory record. His dej)uty is 
W. J. Cooper, of Salem, who was for 
twenty years in the nulling- l) 

Clerks of Court. — -lohnC. I'luiii was 
a])pointed by .Judge Settle, the first 
clerk of courts, an<l was succeeded I)y 
.lohn Blackburn who held the oftict' 
foi- a quarter of a century. C. S. 
Hauser, the j)resent Clerk of tlie Su- 
jierior Court, was born in this vicini- 
ty, served a time as county commis- 
sioner, four years ,as Register, and 
has now been Clerk for a dozen years. 
He is assisted by R. W. Xading, who 
has recently graduated fi-oiii the 
(jraded Schools. 

A. J. Stafford was first County 
Clerk and sei-ved many years under 
the old form of government. Francis 
Fries was flrst Clerk and Master of 
the Court of Equity. Judge T. J. 
Wilson was first County Solicitor, 
and was succeeded by Col. Joseph 

Registers of Deeds. — F. C. Meinung 
first officia,ted as Register of Deeds 
and the office was sui).sequentlv held 
by C. L. Rights, H. S. Belt,'N. S. 
Cook, C. S. Hauser, J. H. White, Jr., 
and D. F. Mast. Capt. Mast is a na- 
tive of Watauga county, and has 
been 18 years in Winston. He was 
admitted to the bar Jan. '08, served 
as engrossing clerk of the \. C. Sen- 
ate, 1870-1, eiu-olling clerk of the 
(reneral Assembly "74-5. was \[ayor 
of Winston during the C.^ntennial 
year, and in Dec. 7(5 b-^cam^ Register 
of Deeds, wliich office he continues to 
hold. The Captain does an office 
practice in law, giving special atten- 
tion to the settlement of estates and 
otlier matters cIo.sely allied to the 
coui-t house offices. K. S. Lott, of 
Salem, has officiated as D,'])uty Reg- 
ister for several years. 

By virtue of his office as Register, 
Capt. Mast is Clerk of the lloard of 
County Comiiussioners. A.F.Conrad, 
of Vieiuia, Cliairman of the same; J. 
W. Fi'ies, of Salem, and N. W. Sajjp, 
of Kei-uersville. make up the boai-d. 

County l^rensurers. — Geo. Linville. 
Robert Linville and Wm. Barrow, 
were County Trustees under the old 
svstem of Count vgovernment. Robt. 



Linville was the fli st County Treas- 
urer elected bj' the people, and was 
succeeded by C. J. Ogburn. who held 
several terras, R. L. Cox, the 
present incumbent is a native of For- 
syth County, and was engaged in 
farming prior to his election as coun- 
ty treasurer in 1883. He was elected 
again in '85 and is acceptably" serv- 
ing the last year of his second term— - 
his books having always been found 


i¥aj'OJ-.— Christian Fogle, father of 
Augustus Fogle. the Mayor of Salem, 
located "way out in the country," 
near the site "of the present Twin-City 
depot, in 1814. The place is now in 
Winston and the Mayor was born 
here in 1820. Mr. Fogle learned cab- 
inet making and before settling down 
in life spent several years in going 
with Avagons to the "far west," be- 
yond the Mississippi. He was for 20 
years Steward at the Academy, has 
served Salem as Mayor 9 years before 
this, was for 6 years count}" Sheriff, 
and has made a long and honored 
record in active life. 

Other OfficiaLs.—'L. N. Clinard has 
for over 20 years officiated as treas- 
urer and clerk of the board. The 
Board of Commissioners are H. E. 
Fries, H. W. Shore, S. E. Butner, H. 
S. Crist, H. Mclver, A.A.Spaugh and 
A. C. Vogler. Policeman, Samuel 
Ebert; Lamp Lighter, Romulus 


Incorporation. — By Act of the Leg- 
islature, Winston was made an incor- 
porated village in Feb. 1859. At 
that time the bounds of the county 
seat were extended from the old 51J:{ 
acres to reach 1278 ft. west from the 
court house, and a sufficient distance 
east to make the plat a half mile 
Avide and northwai-d one-half mile 
from the court house. Subsequently 
the j)lat has been enlarged to \% mile 
from east to west, south to Salem 

boundary and northward one mile 
from the court house. 

Mayors.— y^'jn. Barrow was the first 
Mayor alter the incorporation of 
Winston, and as the town books up 
to 1879 have been lost or destroyed 
we have labored under considerable 
difficulty to get the exact order of 
succession, but we think the following- 
is nearlv correct : P. A. AVilson, J. W. 
Alspaugh, T. J. Wilson, H.K. Thom- 
as, Jacob Tise, T. T. Best, J. W. 
Alspaugh, D. P. Mast, Martin Gro- 
gan, A. B. Gorrell, 1879-80-'81, 
P. A. Wilson, '82, J. C. Buxton, '83- 
'84, S. H. Smith, "85, T. J. Wilson, 
"86, Chas. Buford, '87-'88. Chas. 
Buford is a Virginian, and came to 
Winston in 1875, as Agent of the R. 
&: D. Railroad at this place, which 
position he still fills acceptably. 
Mayor Buford served out the unex- 
pired tei'm of S. H. Smith, Avho re- 
signed Avhen appointed as Postmas- 
ter, was elected as Mayor in '87, 
and re-elected to this honorable of- 
fice a few weeks since. 

Secretaries. — Those who have oflS- 
ciated as Secretaries and Treasurers 
during the past ten years are, G. W. 
Hinshaw, Jas. H. Gray, J. H. Mas- 
ten, R. B. Kerner, S. H. Hodgin, P. 
A. Wilson, E. H. Wilson, the pres- 
ent incumbent, who is a native 
of Winston and son of Judge Wilson 
and partner • in the Orinoco Ware- 

Town Commissioners. — The Com- 
missioners of Winston are J. A. Gray, 
P. N. Bailey, R. E. Dalton, Joel 
Jacobs, J.M. Byerly, J. W. Alspaugh, 
and E. H. Wilson. 

Tax Collector and Constable.— J , 
C. Bessent, of Davie County, was 
elected to the office of City Tax Col- 
lector and Constable in 1882 and has 
filled the office so acceptably as to 
still hold his place. Lieutenant Bes- 
sent is well informed about city mat- 
ters in general, and the historian is 
indebted to him for many valuable 
historical facts. 



Police Force. — J. A. Meroney is a 
native of Davie County, and was on 
the force a year or two before his 
election as chief. This town being a 
manufacturing phice has many traii- 
sient negroes and reallj needs a hirg- 
er force than'the present. A. Stewart 
is from Rockingham County, and lias 
now been on the force for four years. 
N. D. Dowd}' is from Chatluim Coun- 
ty, and several years in the servic(\ 
while J. P. Penry is from Davie Coun- 
ty, and has done efficient Avork for a 
year or two past. The Winston po- 
licemen are prompt, brave and encM-- 
getic; but hardly sufficient for the 
work on hand. 

SiinitHvy Police. — N. "W. Nading, an 
old resident of this place, has recent- 
ly been appointed as sanitary police- 
man, but we believe thegeneralhealtli 
and good of the city would be en- 
hanced by placing a competent med- 
ical man in charge. No false econo- 
my should prevent the best ])ossil)le 
sanitation of a growing city, as its 
future largely depends upon wise reg- 
ulations in this respect. 


The Bar of Winston has evei- had. 
and still retains a fail* shar(> oi able 
lawyers. Judge D. H. Starbuck and 
Col. Joseph Mast en, deceased, were 
among the first in practice here. Hon. 
T. J. Wilson was born in Stokes 
county (now Forsyth) in 1815, ad- 
mitted to the practice of law in "41 
and in "47 erected the brick house di- 
agonally across Main Street, from 
the Orinoco Warehouse, which was 
the first house built in the original 
plat of Winston. The Judge was the 
first attorney of this city and still 
continues in the profession. He was 
elected Judge in 1874, but from some 
irregularity in the time of holding the 
election, officiated on tlie 1 tench onl^' 
six months. Judge Wilson lias been 
Maj^or several times. 

Hon. A. H. Sheppard practiced at 

this bar Ix^ween his terms in Con- 
gress. Col. J. AV. Alspaugh was ad- 
mitted in 1857 and practiced for ten 
years after the war. 

Attorneys and Insurance Agents. 
Hon. C. B. Watson is a native of 
Forsyth county and after the usual 
I)reparations, began the practice of 
law in 1870. In 18,S() he was Senator 
from the :{2(1 district of X.C. and has 
made a i)rominent record both in 
])ractice and in politics. 

Hon. J. C. Buxton is a native of 
Aslieville, graduated at Trinity Col- 
lege, of Hartford, Conn., read law in 
(Jeneva, N. Y. and was admitted to 
])ractice in January, 1875. He was 
Mayor of AVinsto'n in 1883-4, re- 
signing on his last term to be elected 
to the State Senate of whi"h body he 
was an honored mend)er in '85. "Mr. 
i{uxt(m was a delegate to the Nation- 
al Convention at Chicago in 1884 
and liis name has been ])rominently 
mentioned as a candidate for Con- 
gress at the coming election. The 
firm of Watson & Buxton was form- 
ed in 1885 and occu])ies rooms iji the 
First National Bank liuilding. Be- 
sides doing a large law praitice they 
write insurance for tlie Royal, of Liv- 
erpool, London and Lancaslure. 
Pbenix and Orient, of Hartford: Fire 
Association, of Phihideljiliia: (Jei-ma- 
nia and Fnderwriters, of N. Y. The 
Xorwich Fnion and (ieorgia Home. 
In life insurance the old reliable Mu- 
tual Life of Xew York is represented. 


Fourth Street, Ojjp. Court House. 

^^'. B. CJlenn, tlie senior partner of 
the above firm, is a native of Yadkin 
County, graduated from Princeton, 
X. J., read law undei- Chief Justice 
Pearson, and was adnntted to tlie 
bar in 1872. He practiced in Yadkin 
for a time, and was for many years a 
partner in the firm of Watson & 
Glenn. He was a member of the Leg- 
islature in 1874, Democratic elector 



in '76, and in "81 served again in the 
General Assembly. 

R. B. Glenn is from Rockingham 
County, attended Davidson College, 
the University of Virginia, subse- 
quently read law under the instruc- 
tions of Chief Justice Pearson, and 
was admitted to practice ten years 
ago. He was sent to the Legislature 
from Stokes County in 1881, was 
Democratic elector in '84, and Avas 
Solicitor for the 9th Judicial district, 
in 1886-'87. The alliance of Glenn 
& Glenn was formed in 1885, and the 
firm practices in all the adjacent 

Attorneys at Law. 

Judge D. H. Starbuck practiced 
law here from the time Winston was 
made a county seat until his death a 
year ago. A. H. Eller was born in 
Wilkes county, reared in Ashe, re- 
ceived the degree of A. B. from the N. 
C. University in 1885, read law with 
George N. Folk, of Caldwell county 
and after his admittance in '86, en- 
tered the office of Judge Starbuck. 

H. R. Starbuck graduated from the 
State University at Chapel Hill, in 
'87, was admitted to practice within 
the present year, and has recently 
formed a partnership with Mr. Eller. 
The new firm have the law library 
which Judge Starbuck accumulated 
during his long practice, and are just 
arranging to make large additions. 
The firm do a general insurance busi- 
ness, representing the St. Paul Fire 
& Marine, Washington and Connec- 
ticut Mutual Life and other i-eliable 
Companies. Special attention given 
to collections, nogotiation of loans, 
sale of land and management of es- 


.1 ttoinpy—Bittiiifj^ Block. 

Born in Kernersville, R. B. Kerner, 

after the common schools, attended 

the University at Chapel Hill, and 

taught for four vears in the Salem 

Boys' School prior to his majcjrity. 
He then attended Dick & Dillard's law 
school at Greensboro, was admitted 
to the bar, and in '83 was appointed 
as Solicitor for the Inferior Court, 
officiating there until that Court was 
abolished. Mr. Kerner, although a 
young man, has been City Clerk and 
Treasurer, and on both the Board of 
City and School Commissioners. He 
has a good library and convenient 
office rooms in the Bitting block. 

E. E. GRAY, 
Attorney and Insurance Agent. 
Eugene E. Gray is a native of Win- 
ston, and was educated at Emory & 
Henry College, Va. He attended 
Judge Strong's law school, of Raleigh, 
was admitted to the bar here in Jan. 
1879, and has since continued to 
practice in this place. Mr. Gray's 
rooms are over Wachovia National 
Bank, and in addition to a general 
law and commercial practice he also 
writes insurance. Mr. Gray has tak- 
en special pains to accept none but 
reliable Companies, and he represents 
several leading ones in tnis and the 
old country. 

One Boor South of Vaughn S: Pepper. 

J. S. Grogan is a native of Rock- 
ingham county, and came to Winston 
in 1873. He took a literary course 
at Bingham's School, attended Dick 
& Dillard's law school at Greensboro, 
was admitted to the bar here in '84, 
and has since been in the practice of 
law in Winston. His office is up 
stairs, next door to Vaughn & Pep- 
per's store, where he does a general 


Attorney and Counsellor. 
Lewis J. Williams was born in Yad- 
kin, and is a son of Xicliolas L. Wil- 
liams, who was well known through- 
out the State, and died a couple of 
3'ears since, aged 86. His father. Col. 
Jos. Willia nis, of Revolutionarv note. 



was one of the pioneers of ^^'estenl 
N. C, settlin<2;at Panthei-Creek, prior 
to the war with the mother country. 
L. J. Williams who resided on the old 
homestead, was burned out .Mareh 
'85, and desiring- to secure better ed- 
ucational advantages for his fannly, 
moved to AVinston. He read law 
with different members of the Bar of 
this place, and was recently admitted 
to practice, having office rooms in 
the Bitting block. 

Over Clark & Ford's Store. 

E. A." Griffith is a native of this 
county, took a literary course at 
Chapel Hill, was admitted to practice 
Oct. '84:, and has since been in prac- 
tice in Winston. Mr. Griffith tiives 
spettial attention to the collection of 
claims, and negotiates loans on good 

There are some other attorneys, 
and a half dozen magistrates which 
we have not had time to interview, 
and we have no further space to de- 
A'ote to leffal matters. 


Salem has had a long and able list 
of medical advisers. Dr. Schmnan, 
and the senior Dr. Keehln ]>i-acticed 
for many years, and two of its prom- 
inent physicians, Drs. A. T. Zevelv 
and T. F. Keehln, left the stage (if 
action about a dozen years since. 

Among the early names of Winston 
phvsicians we find Drs. Fries, H. Sin- 
gleton Belt, J. B. Britton,(J.K.(iray, 
King, Westmoreland, Mot singer and 
perhaps others for a short time. 
Some fifteen years ago Dr. Preston 
Koan located permanently in Wins- 
ton and continued in active practice 
until his death, Novend>er 8th. 1S.S2. 

The medical fraternity as now- 
made up in the Twin-City is a credit 
to the profession and we are pleased 
to say that they indorse wliat we 
have to say on page 5 and elsewhere 
regarding the healthfulness and salu- 
brity of this sei'tion of counti-y. 

.1 J'hy.sicians' Association of Win- 
ston-Salem was organized some foiu' 
years ago and is conducted in an in- 
foi'Mial nmnner. The ]>lace of meet- 
ing is changed each we^k, and mat- 
ters of general interest to the profes- 
sion are discussed. This, besides its 
social feature, has a tendency to 
cieate uniformity of action and good 
will between the mendx^rs of the fra- 
ternity composing the organization. 



There is but one di-ug house in Sa- 
lem and this, located on Main Street, 
contains a large and well Jissorted 
stock, kept by Dr. Schaffner, a native 
of the place, who graduated from the 
.leff'erson Medical College, of Phila- 
delphia, in 1800. A year ortwo later 
the Doctor was in the ConffMlerate 
Army and in 'Go began practice in 
Salem, shortly afterwards, jmrchas- 
ing his pres<»nt drug stand which he 
has now conducted for 20 years. The 
house keeps drugs, paints, druggists 
sundries, etc., and tlie Doct(^r spends 
a portion of his time in practice. Dr. 
Shaifner has been Mayor of Salem 
and interested in manufacturing. In 
that department we made a note of 
his bone-mill and cotton gin which 
have since burned, but the Doctor in- 
forms us that he will rebuild the 
structure on a larger scale. 



Henry T. Bahnson was born in 
Lancaster, Pa. brought here in child- 
hood, graduated from the medical 
<lepartment of the Cniversity of Pa., 
in 1<S()7, took a post graduate course 
in (lermany and located in Salem 
some twenty years ago, where he has 
since been continuously in practice. 
Dr. Uahnson has long been a inendjer 
of the North Carolina State Medical 
Society and at one time officiated as 
its President. He is at present a 
member of the State Board of Health 



and his long pi'actice here has made 
]iim well known throughout the city 
and county. 



N. S. Siewers was born in Salem, 
graduated from the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylva- 
nia in 1867, going from thence to the 
continent where he continued his 
studies for a couple of years in Berlin, 
Prague and Vienna. He returned to 
Salem in 1869 and located in the 
town of his nativity, where he has 
since continued to practice his pro- 
fession with good success. Dr. Sie- 
wers is a member of the State Medi- 
cal Association, and has many friends 
in Forsyth county. 



J. J. Hilton has recently located in 
Salem nearly opposite Hunter's hall, 
and makes the fourth pliysician of 
the old town. Dr. Hilton is a native 
of Guilford county, graduated from 
the University of Maryland, and has 
been in practice at Hillsdale since 
1882. He came to Winston in 1887 
and has recently changed his office to 
east side of Main street Salem, below 
Hunter's block. 

DR. R. F. GRAY, 


Robah F. Gray was the first male 
child born in Winston after the coun- 
ty was named, Mrs. G. L. Miller, (nee 
White,) having been a few days his 
senior. Dr. Graygraduated from the 
Louisville Medical College in 1877, 
and took a post graduate course 
from Bellevue College in N. Y., locat- 
ing in practice here ten years since. 
Subsequently he spent a short time 
in Danville, and returned again to 
Winston. Dr. Gray belongs to the 
State Medical Societies of this State 
and Virginia, and for a year served 
Winston as Health Officer at a nomi- 
nal sum. In that year small pox 

was brought here, and, by rigid quar- 
antine was confined to a few cases in 
one part of the city. Dr. Gray is a 
public spirited citizen and a very ac- 
tive practitioner. 



S. J. Montague is a native of Wake 
County, attended a course of lectures, 
at the University of Virginia, and 
graduated ft-om the Bellevue Hospi- 
tal Medical College in 1872. Dr. Mon- 
tague practiced in his native county 
and elsewhere before coming to Win- 
ston in 1879, where he has since been 
engaged in his professional duties. 
He is a member of the State Medical 
Association. A half dozen years ago 
the doctor added to the architectural 
beauty of Church street by erecting" 
one of the finest residences in the eas- 
tern part of the city. 

DR. A. L. MOCK. 


A. L. Mock was born in Davidson 
County, graduated from the Univers- 
ity of Pennsylvania in 1857, and lo- 
cated in Winston thirty years ago. 
Shortly afterwards he moved to 
Bethania, where he practiced for six 
years, and subsequently spent twenty 
years in practice at Clemmonsville, 
his native town. In 1886 Dr. Mock 
returned to Winston, and has his of- 
fice and residence on Liberty street, 
near the M. E. Church. Winston has 
made a remarkable change since Dr. 
Mock's former practice here in 1858. 


OVER brown's drug STORE. 

D. N. Dalton is a native of Stokes 
County, and graduated from the 
University of N. Y. in 1881. He at- 
tended the post graduate school of 
N. Y., and subsequently practiced for 
two years in his native county before 
engaging in the profession here in 
1884. Dr. Dalton is a member of the 
State Medical Association. His of- 



flee is over Brown's drug store, and 
his residence on Spruce between 4th 
and 5th Streets. 

DR. H. S. LOTT. 


H. S. Lott is a native of this phice, 
and graduated from the medical de- 
partment of tlie University of (ia., at 
Atlanta, in 1884. He pral-ticed there 
for a time, and locating in Winston 
a year since, has already gained a 
fair share of friends and patients. 
Dr. Lott has office rooms in the Gray 
Block and resides on Cherry street 
near First. He is a member of the N. 
C. State Medical Association. 


Dentistry is compa rati vely a science 
of modern date, and the great im- 
portance of the teeth to health, com- 
fort and beauty, is now very much 
more ap])i'eciated than it was at the 
beginning of the present century. It 
is doubtless a fact, that in conse- 
quence of plain dietand rough bread, 
(which furnished more of the phos- 
phates than our present system, of 
bolting line flour), that the teeth of 
our ancestors were, as a rule, much 
less subject to decay than those of 
the pres;>nt age. Be that as it may, 
we should make the best of what we 
have, anil preserve the natui-al teeth 
intact as long as possible, for no ai-- 
tiflcial setcan be a perfect substitute. 
The best rule fi)r]treservatioii, bi-iefly 
given, is the rigid enforcement of ab- 
solute cleanliness. Thoroughly rinse 
out the nu)utli upon rising and re- 
tiring, and every time after eating. 
The quill pick, a good brush and 
equal quantities Oi prepared chalk 
and powdered orri.-! root are also 
good adjuncts, b'ing careful to al- 
ways reach every i)nrt of each tooth. 
For tartar, irregularity, de;'ay or 
other special conditions consult a 
competent dentist. Do not neglect 
the teeth till they ache, and always 
have a tooth filled if it can be saved. 
It is a good plan to have a dentist 

examine the mouth once or twice 
each year, as pronq)ttreatm<'nt saves 
much troulile and expense. 

DK. .1. A. BUM, 


Is a native of this place, gi-aduated 
from the Philadelphia Dental ("ollegf 
in 1870 and has since been ])racticing 
his ])rofessi()n. He resides at the 
corner of 4th and Spruce Streets and 
is at present the oidy dentist in Win- 



Born in this county. Dr. Hunter be- 
gan dentistiy in]8.")l, having now 
been 37 years continuously in prac- 
tice, and his office shows that he 
keeps squarely abreast of the times 
in dental literature, etc. In 1874 
Dr. Huntfn- purchased the hall and 
store formerly erected by Messrs. 
Hege, where he now holds "his office. 
He operates for the Academy stu- 
dents and spiMids a portion oi" each 
day at that institution 



C. .1. Watkins was boi-n in this 
county, and has been in tlie dental 
practice for 22 years. He graduated 
at the Pennsylvania College of Dental 
Surgery, ])racticed for several years 
in Philadelphia , and has been in Salem 
since 1874. 

W. J. Conrad was also boi-n in For- 
syth, graduated from the above 
school in l87t), and has since oper- 
ated in this county and Virginia. 
He joined Dr. Watkins in practice 
•Ian. 188(). The firm keep a supply 
of dental goods, and both are mem- 
bers of the State Dental Association. 


.NO. 1 , CITY KL.\.TS, SAEE.M. 

H. V. Horton is a native of \\'ilkes- 
boro. and graduated with high hon- 
ors from the dental department of 
th^ Universitv of Marvland. A\'heu 



he came to the Twin City he coukl 
find no suitable apartments in Win- 
ston, and finally secured an elegant 
suite of rooms in the City Flats of 
Salem. The doctor contemplates 
moving to Winston when the Wacho- 
via Bank corner is completed, and as 
there is no dentist in the business 
portion of the city, and he has every 
requisite for successful dentistry, we 
think such a moTe Avould be appreci- 
ated by the progressive people of the 

Photograph Artists 
Main Street, 0pp. Merchants Hotel. 
E. K. Hough fitted up convenient 
rooms for photography some years 
since and a year ago sold his busi- 
ness to his brother, S.E. Hough, who 
is a native of N. Y., and has served 
as an artist three years in the West 
Indies and twelve years in New York 
City. The rooms are well adapted to 
the business, and pictures are finished 
up in all styles of the art. A large 
accumulation of negatives are on 

Opposite Land Office, Salem. 
Salem has but one photograph gal- 
lery. H. A. Lineback is a native of 
Salem, and after taking instructions 
at several prominent galleries in Pen- 
sylvania and Ohio, opened up the 
photograph business in Salem in 
1866, and two years later built his 
present stand, where for twenty years 
he has turned out acceptable work. 
Pictures are finished in the desirable 
styles, and frames are carried to 
meet the demands of his customers. 

Broker and Real Estate Agent. 
Broker and Real Estate Dealer, 
Was born in Wake County, grad- 
uated from Wake Forest College in 
1880, and after two year's course at 
Dick & Dillard's law school at Greens- 
boro, was licensed to practice law in 

October 1882. He settled at Wades- 
boro where he practiced his chosen 
profession about two years, dealing 
extensively in negotiable paper and 
real estate in the mean time. Owing 
to a partial failure of vision he was 
compelled to abandon the practice of 
his profession, and in Jan. 1885 set- 
tled in Winston, having since been 
engaged successfully in the above oc- 
cupation. He has a well arranged 
business house in the center of the 
city, and deals extensively in loans 
and discounts, bonds, mortgages, 
stocks, real estate, &c., and this 
mention could have properly been 
made under the head of banking. 
He handles real estate on commission, 
and by bi-inging the buyer and seller 
together assists in keeping up the 
standard values. The proprietor is 
not only under a justified bond of 
.f 10,000, l)ut gives as reference the 
banks of Winston, and quite a num- 
ber of bankers and other persons of 
note throughout the State. 

Gun & Locksmiths. 


Gun and Locksmith. 

Gun making was carried on by 

Vogler and Foltz at an early day, 

and Timothy Vogler, who was born 

in the place, August 2nd, 1806, began 

the trade with his father at 13 years 

of age. He has worked at his present 

stand near the lower end of Main 

street for 55 years. Mr. V. although 

for nearly 70 years at the gunsmith's 

bench, has fair health, and attends to 

business as occasion requires. 

Gun^smith, Main Street, Salem, 

Is a native of German^', learned the 
locksmith trade in the fatherland, 
came to Salem in 1850 and engaged 
with T. Vogler in the gunsmith busi- 
ness, remaining with him 18 years, 
when he started a shop further up 
town. Eight years ago Mr. D. built 
his present brick shop, where he does 
evervthing in the gun-smith line. 


Miscellaneous Manufacturing. 
[continued from pace 30.] 



Custom Clothier. 
The description of manufocturing 
interests would be inconi]ilete with- 
out a notice of ( lotliiii<i- industries. 
Hon. P. A. Wilson, Sr., is a native of 
Rockingham Count}', and coinniencpd 
tailoring in 1845. He has at differ- 
ent times been engaged in other work, 
but again returned to the business 
in 1876. He does not keep goods in 
stock, but has a large line of saniph^s 
from which to select, and secures tlie 
cloths promptly by express from tlip 
Metropolitan cities. He gives em- 
ployment to a half dozen hands, and 
does prompt and elficit'iit work. Mr. 
Wilson has served this place as Mayor 
for several terms, was Deputy Intci-- 
nal Revenue Collector foi- two years, 
and has twice been elected a m(Mnb(M- 
of the Legislature. 

R. D. J0HN80N, 


Fourth Street, O])posite Court House. 

Robert D. Johnson is a native of 
this State, and after serving a long- 
apprenticeship at the tailor's bench, 
took instructions in New York for a 
year at the cuttci-'s ti-ade, and was 
engaged in merchant tailoring at 
Wilson and Goldsboro for a dozen 
years. prior to conung to this place. 
Mr. Johnson's experience and excel- 
lency of work soon brought to him a 
large trade, and in 1880 he erected 
his fine three story lirick building on 
Fourth Street, opposite the Court 
house. The upstairs is used for se- 
cret societies, the secf)nd story for 
offices and the lowei' floor for the 
merchant tailoring business. Ten to 
twelve hands are given em])l()ym<*nt 
and a large amount of work turned 
out. Customers who once secure jier- 
fect fits and good workmanship do 

not soon forget th(> ])lace, and .Mr. J. 
sends his goods to iiiiiny distant 
States. A large stock of foreign and 
domestic cloths are kejit on hand, 
and the class of work done is a creilit 
to the pi'oprietor and the jjlace. 

(!. A. HLICH. 
Boot iiiid Shoe Mnker. 
(i. AdoljjJms Reich, is a Salemite by 
i)irth, and nearly 40 years ago began 
his trade at the shoe-makei-'s bench 
and continued in tlie trade till the 
war. Later lie operated as cutter for 
l)i-ominent tii-ms in this State, and in J'hiladeli)hia. In 1875 he en- 
gaged with his brother as a ])artnei- 
in tlie firm of H. C. Reich cV: Co., and 
five years later, cm the dissolution of 
tliat firm, moved his head(piarters to 
liis present location near the lower 
end of Main street, in Salem. Mr. 
Reich is a good judge of leather, a 
good workman, and has many cus- 
tomers that have been using his work 
for a dozen years or more. 


Grocer, Tin nnd Cojtpersniith. 
On the old Blum homestead, near 
the north end of Winston, is found 
the tin and copper works of Irving- 
Blum, who was raised in this line of 
trade, and has copper work sent for 
rei)airs, to his shop, from long dis- 
tances. A yea I- ago Mr. Blum started 
a grocery business near by, and kee))s 
a line of fancy and ])lain arti(-les in 
that de})ai-tment of trade. 

Win. H. Hull began candy making 
in Salem 35 years ago, and excepting 
a few montiis during the war has 
been at it continuously since. He is 
now turning his attention largely to 
bees, having over 1)0 stands in his 

The S:ih>ui (irist Mill commenced 
business in 1825. and continues to 
grind both corn and wheat under the 
proprietorship of C. P. Sides. 

[continued on i'.V(;e 05.] 




Ill order to make this pnmplilot of value t.<) every 
iwr.son who nxieive.s it, we incorporate in this de- 
partment many facts and dates wliich have recjuired 
great lalK)r and expense to prejjare. These dates are 
so valuable that no one c;in attbrd U> destroy them 
and hence the Ixwk will be preserved with absolute 
wirtiiinty whctlicr the reniaiuiiis jiages are ot in- 
terest to the reader or not. This book will \>e con- 
venient for reference and conUuninj; so many 
interesting facts and dates will lie preserved in 
the library for months and years, thus nuiking it 
worth from a business standixjint, a circulation of 
twenty tinu« as great a number of newspajK^rs. 


The liistory of the world up to the time of the del- 
uge and for many ye^irs alterwurds is only to be 
found in the l>rief narrative given In the" .sacred 
writings, although the Chinese claim t.o have records 
dating back to a period long before "Adam was 


IVluge B. C. TinO: Abraham calle<l 1921; Joseph 
in E-vpt, lT2'y, Birth ot .Afo.scs, 1.571; Hebrews left 
Egypt", 1491; death of Mo.scs, ll.jl; Del lorah Judge of 
Israel, V.i^'t; (Jidem slaughten'<l Midianites i;--l-">; 
Jei)tha, Judge, 12.S.S; ICli, Judge, 12.'i{j; .Samp.son, 12:{7; 
Siimuel, 1220; Saul King, IV.l'r. David King, ll.'j.j; 
.Solomon King, 111.5; Temple dedicated 1101; Solo- 
mon died l(»7."i; division ol Israel 1('.58; Elijah and 
ElL-iha j)iMph(;ts, SSS; Jeru.salem taken by Jehoash 
.S2(>; Ilexekiah and Isaiuli in Judah 726; Jeremiah 
prophet G41; Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnczz;ir, 
(>0C; Jerusalem de.siroyed, 5HH. 


Little or nothing is known of the history of Egypt 
prior to the time of Josei)h. At that time however, 
it was one of the most powertul nations of the world. 
The dynasty of the Pharohs, B. C, 1300; Pyramids 
built by Cheops, 10S2; Shishak ruler, 07.S, Judea 
wmquered and the t<^mjile i>lunderwl by him 971; 
Egyjit devastated liy Nebuchadnezzar, .572; end of 
the hrst Egyptian monarchy .52.5 and for over 2iX) 
years it was" in obscurity, but revived again by the 
I^tolemys aUjut three trnturies l>efore Christ. CHeo 
patra lived B. C. -15 wnd Egvpt wa.s again sutxlued B. 
C. ;J0. 


wa-s subdued by Darius, B. C. SOS; Philip II crowned 

.>59; Alexander in Macfion S:i«; invadwl Persia :«4; 
battle of Aralx'lu3:Jl; Alexander dieil at Babylon of 
strong drink, agetl 32, B. C. 324. 


By valor and refinement, (irooce Uxuime the next 
nation in importance. Troy was t^iken B.C. 11S4. 
lonians settled in Asia 1(>4:"{; Homer the poet, wrote 
alxiut 8SS; tirst Olympliian period from which the 
Greeks reckon time, 770; 0)de of Draco (i24; Solon, 
Athenian law-giver -594; fcjocratcs 429; war with 
Macedon .'iS.s; Kepublic reestablished 297; Coi-inth 
taken 14<J. 

KOM ic, 

founded by Romulus 7.53; Tari|uin the elder, (iKi; 
Tanpiin the ]>rouil, .534: Brutus old; c:iiicinnatus dic- 
tator 45i); great famine 440; invaded by the Cauls 391; 
first Punic war 2<;5; se<'ond Punic war 2IS; third war 
149; Carthane destroyed 140; Cicero t)3; C;e.<ar in- 
vades Britian .55; dicUitor 4.5; CVesar a.ssxssinatx^l 
44; Augustus emperor, 30. Chri.stian Era.— The 
bloody Nero A. 1>., 54; Jerusalem destroyed hv 
Titus 70 rebuilt 137; Persian war 2:51; jHTsecution of 
Christians TM): Constantine emperor 323; Conncil at 
Nice, when the books of the New 'l'estani',>nt were 
voted in, 32.5; Boiuans driven from Spain 409; with- 
drew from Britian 419; battle of Chalons 4.^1; <)<lo- 
acer king of HtTuli; puts an end to the Koman 


Darius, king B. C. 521; sec-ond Temple dcnlicated 
51.5; Darius invades Greece 491; Art.:ixerxe.s I 4(i4; 
Esther queen 4.56; Nehemiah rebuilds Jerusalem 1.5.5; 
conquered and clalme<l b.> the macedons 4:r>. 


A. D. 447, Attilla king of Huns exacts tribute 
from Theodoslus II: ravaged by Persians .502; Justi- 
nian code .52".); Midiameil preaching 612; Persians take 
Syria lil4; the Hegira 022; Saracens In'siege Omstan- 
tinoplc 673-9; tlieir second siege of C<instantinoi>l<' 
718; Michael II. .^20: John Zimi.sct^ 969; Turks tiike 
Jeru.salem 106.5; Crusaders take Antioch 109,s, and 
Jerusalem 10:19, and Acre 1104; Venice in lier glory 
1125; Latin emporers 1204; Empire recovered bv 
Greeks 1261; Turkish Empire. Ossman I, 12<>9: Sup- 
pression of Knights Templars 1311; general pes- 
tilence 134.^; Empire excepting Constantinople taken 
bv theT\irks i:J91: Union ot Denmark, Swwnlen and 
N'orn-ay 1397; invention of jirin ting 14-10; C^mstanti- 
nople captured by Turks and end of Empire 14.53; 
Ferdinand and Isal>ella In Sjiaiu 1474; C<jlunibus 
discovered America 1492. 

Clo\-fs makes Paris his capital A. D. .507; Clovis II 
king of Francv t>56: Cadwallader last king ot Briton.s 
67S; Charles Martel duke of France 714; battle ol 



Tours 732; Danes in Englaud 787; Charlemagne cin- 
porer of the west SOO; Cliarles the Bald in France 
841; Rollo the Norman 912; HuRh Capet 987; Henrv I 
lO'.I; Pliilip I lOGO; tirst cnisade 1095; war with Ens- 
land 1U98; Louis the Fat 11U8; Louis VII 11:^7; Philip 
II 1780; Louis IX (St. Louis) 1226; Louis X lyU; 
House of Valois lias; Charles V l;S64; Joan of Arc 
enters Orleans 1428; France ridden of Euglisli 1451; 
French take Milan 1491; Hugeuot war loOO; massa- 
cre of St. Bartholomew 1572; House of Bourlion 1589; 
t'ardinal Richelieu 1624; invasion of Holland 1672; 
Louis XV 171-i; France aids America 1778; revolu- 
tion 1790; republic 1792; Napoleon consul 1799; Em- 
porer 1804; campaign in Russia 1812; fall of Na- 
poleon 1815; conquest of Algiers 18:50; Louis Napol- 
eon president, 1848; Napoleon III emperor 1852; 
French in iMexico' 18615; war with Prussia 1870; Re- 
public; Thiers president, 1871 Jules (irevy president 
1879; occupation of Anam and trouble with China 

rr.^LY AND C0TEMl'Ol{.\KV. 

Lombards take Italy A. I). 596; defeat Constans II 
6 52; and comiuered bv Charlemagne 774; the Cru- 
sAdes 1000 to 1,:5,K»; wars of (Jliarles V in Italy 1527; 
cai)ture of Kome 1527; order of Jesuits founded 
15:55; calendar remodeled l)y pope Gregory XII 1582; 
Peter Great in llu.ssia 1689;' Frederick II "in Prussia 
1740; Fn-ncli in Siiain 1808; Mo.scow burned 1812; 
(ivr,"T ind.'iiiiident 1827; siege of Sebastopol 1854; 
Victor i;in;niucl King of Italy 1861; revolution in 
Spain 1868; Russia-Turkish war 1877; Humbert King 
of Italy 1879; assassination of Alexander II of Ku.s- 
.sia 18,si; Alxeander III crowned 1S8:5. 

tiEKMANV. of Fi-ance 814; Henry I defeats the danes 
9:54; war with the Saracens 107:3; Frederick I invades 
Italy 1151; destroys Milan 1162; of Hapsburg 
1273; revolt of and. Wm. Tell 1307; House of 
Luxemberg 1343; John Huss burned bv Sigismond 
1415; llouscof Austria 14:58; Maximilian I 1493; ref- 
ormation by Luther 1517; Maxinialian II 1564; bat- 
tle of Pi-ague 11)20; Leopold I 1659; of Lor- 
raine 1 J 4"'. 


Takes Hanover 1801; war with France 1813; Ger- 
man Confederation 1815; war with Denmark 1864, 
and Austria 1806, invasion of France 1870, William 
made emperor 1871 and died 1^88, succeded bv Fred- 
erick March 13 1888. 


An empire 1800, war witli France isl:5. with Hun- 
gary 1848, with France and Italy 1859, withdrawal 
from the confederation 1870, international exhibi- 
tion at Vienna 187:!, agreement with Germany on 
Eastern question Ls80. 


Anglo Saxon Kings 825, Egbert 828, Alfred the 
great871, ravages of Scotland 933, Danish ivirigs 
1016, Saxons restored 1041, English languauv origin- 
ates from the Saxon,, British, Welsh, Nor- 
nuin, Latin, I'rench and (ii-eek A. D. 1000 to 1500, 
Noiiuan Dynasty 1066, con(iuestof Ireland 1171, con- 
quest of Wales 1282, battle of Bannockburn 1314, 
House of Lancaster 1399, war with France 1413, 
House of York 1461, Ilimse of Tiulor 1485, battle of 
Flodden 1513, Ann ISoleyn beheaded 15:56 and Marv 
of Scotts 1587, of Stuart 1603, Oliver Cromwell 
li;49, Stuarts restored IGliO, great London lire 1666, 
battle of the I5oyne 1690 House of Hanover 1714, 
w;ir with Sj)ain 1739, with France 1756, war with 
col(miesl7/5. Union with Ireland 1801, war with U. 
S. 1812, battle of Waterloo 1815, Victoria crowned 
<iueen 1837, Crimean war 1854, Atlantic cable laid 
1866, Fenian trouble 1867, Zulu war 1879, famine in 
Ireland 1880, war with Egvjit 18s2, (iladstone's bill 
(u- relief of Ireland 1887. " 


Discovered by Norsemen A I) 980, Iceland .settled 
98(), Lief visited Newfoundland and Massachusetts 
1001, discovered by Columbus 1492, Florida entered 
by Ponce de Leon 1512, Balboa diseoveres the Pacific 
1513, Cortez in INIexioo 1519, Pizarro in Peru 1-5:52, 
DeSoto in Florida and Louisiana 1541, St. Augustine 
founded 1565 Jamestown, Va., 1607, Quebec 1608, 
New York 1614, Plymouth Rock 1620, Sweedes in 
Delaware 1627, Maryland settled 16:54. Connecticut 
11)35, New .Jersey and North Corolina 1664, South 
Carolina 1670, Pennsylvania 1682, Georgia by Ogle- 
thorpe 1733, New Hampshire 1741, (.Juel>ec taken 
1759, Canada ceeded to Englaud by the Frenclt '61, 
Revolutionary war '75 Declaration of Indei^en- 
dence July 4th. l77.i; surrender of Cornwallis '81, 
treaty of peace '83, eon.stitution adopted '87, Wash- 
ington made president, '89, Louisiana ceeded to U.S. 
18l13, war with England 1812, Florida ceeded '20, 
Buenos Aj'res independent '16, Mexico '21, Texas 
'36, annexed '45, war with Mexico '46, civil war '61, 
Maximilian euii)eror '64, U. S. buys Alaska '67, war 
in Cuba '71, («hili-Peru war '81, Mexico building 
railroad '82. 


Vermont admitted 1791, Kentucky 1792, Tennessee' 
1796, Ohio 1802, i-.ouisiana admitted '12, Indiana ad- 
mitted '16, Mississippi '17 Illinois '18, Alabama '19, 
JMaine '20, Missouri '21, Arkansas ':56, Michigan '37, 
Texas annexed '45, Florida admitted '45, Iowa '46, 
New Mexico and California purchased '48, Wiscon- 
sin admitted '48, California '50, Minnesota '58, Ore- 
gon '59, Kansas '61, West Virginia '63, Nevada '64, 
Nebraska '67, Southern States re-admitted '68, Colo- 
rado '7ii. With the exception of the years 1821 to 
'36 the United States has never before in her history 
of a century been so long without admitting a new 
State. Dakota, Wyoming and Utah are knocking 
for admission and with some technicalities re- 
moved will probably soon 1)e within the fold. 


Wayne's victory at Maumee 1794, Jay's treaty '95, 
with France '97, Government removed from Phila- 
deli)hia to' Washington, D. C, '99, trial of Aaron 
Burr for Conspiracy 1807, Perry's victory Sept. 10, 
'1:!, Washington burned '14, battle of New Orleans 
'15, Missouri compromise '20, Lafayette's visit '24, 
John Adams and Thomas Jetf'erson, 2d and third 
l)residents died July 4 '26, protective taritt' bill 
])assL'd '28, treaty with Turkey '30, Blackhawk war 
':')2, Seminole war '35, financial crisis '37, veto of 
bank bill '41, gold in California '48, Taylor died July 
9th, '50, Kansas trouble '55, treaty with Japan '54, 
Mormon insurrection, Drecl-Scot decision '57, John 
Brown's insurrection '59, South Carolina seceded 
Dec. 20 'GO, Miss., Ala., Fla., Ga., La., Tx., Va., Ark., 
Tenn. and North Carolina follow and Jeffer.son Da- 
vis elected president of the Southern Confederacy' 
'61, bombardment of Fort Sumter and battle of Bull 
Run '61, Antietum, Ft. Donaldson, Pea Ridge, Shi- 
loh, 3d Bull Run, Corinth, Frederick.sburg, '62, 
Emancipation Proclamation Jan. 1, '63, battles of 
Chancellorville, Vicksburg, Getty.sburg, '63, Wilder- 
ness, Petersburg and. Sherman's ilarci\ to the Sea, 
'64, battle of Five Forks, surrender of Lee, Johnson 
and Kirby Smitli and end of war '65, impeachment 
and aciiuittal of President Johnson '68, Fifteenth 
Amendment 70, great iiro in Chicago '71, Modoc war 
'73, Custer mas.sacre and Centennial Exposition '76, 
great railroad riots '77, resumption of specie pay- 
ment '79, treaty with China '81, general strike of 
telegra]ih operators '83, World's Exposition New 
Orleans '84-5, great flood of the Ohio Feb. '85, 
earthquake at Charleston, '86, great railroad disaster 
at Chatsworth, Illinois, over 100 persons killed '87. 
Ex-Senator Conklin and Chief Justice Waitedied'88. 

G E N ERA L r N F( ) R .M A T I O N 



The govt'niUK'Ut of C'aiKula is siilijcct lo the Brit- 
tish crown but is setui-iiKleiicinleiit, its liistoiy dat- 
ing hack to the sixteentli century. Jac<|ues (.'artier; 
a Kreucli sea captain planted lii's standard on the 
shores of New Brunswielv in l."i:;4 and claimed it 
for France. Later he di.scovored the river St. Law- 
rence. General Wolfe's forces captured tiuelx'c in 
17-")ii and the entire country was claimed for the 
British. During the Uevolutionary .struggle for in- 
dependence the ('anadian settlements reniaind true 
to tlie king and alter and during the war many tor- 
ies fled from the colonies to fjiper Canada," now 
called Ontario, while the eastern province is known 
as Quebec, or Lower Canada. 

('anada ])roper coveis :i7i,ni)0 square miles and has 
a po|udation of about :i,7.">i',i)0il inliabitants while the 
remainder of the Brittish Possessions in Kortli 
.inurica covers an area ten times as great and has 
only about one-third as many inhabitants. In lS2ri 
Ontario had a |)opulation of ir)>S,027: ''>'2, !).52,OU4 and 
in 'S(> about two millions. The Canadian Paciiic 
railroad now more than half eompletetl, will open to 
settlement an immense trad of country and be the 
fourth iron highway across the continent. The 
Ckjntral Bacilic comi)leted in 18(iS having made the 
first through connection from the Atlantic to the 
Pacitic ocean. Canada projier is the most lerlile and 
salubrious of the British .Vmeriean territory; even 
the frigid regions of the Northwest Territory and 
Manitoba are gaining in population. Winnepi'g the 
capital city of the huhr country is rapidly rising to 
prominence. The summer seasons allhougli short 
are warm and the gr(]Wth ol vegetation marvelous. 


The history of Jle.xico up to the time ot its cou- 
(luest by Corten is almost unknown. When DeCor- 
dova discovered the country in 1.517 he found the 
Aztecs Nation in pos.session of the lancL 
people were far in advance of the aboriginals wlio 
occupied the territory now behmging to the U !S. 
They had a mouarchial government, cities aiul agri- 
cultural lands, were ver.sed in astronomy and the 
working of metals, jiottery, etc., yet liad nothing 
but tradition as to their aucefstry or origin. .Some 
writ^-rs consider them ot the highest type of Indian 
civilization while others believe them to have de- 
scended Ironi a diflerent source. Their habits and 
numners make it reasonable to infer tliat tliey were 
coutemiioraries with, and perhajis the same race 
as the .Mimndliuilders of the Ohio Valley, whose 
tumuli still remain as nu)uuiiients to their skill and 
devotion. Montezuma was momirch of the Aztecs 
when the country was taken by Fernando Cortez 
lolil-21 and thenceforth for nearly :VH) years Me.\ico 
was under Spanish rule. The revolution of isio by 
the natives was a most bloody scene and resulted in 
the destruction of thousands of lives. Don Augus- 
tin Iturbide a native Mexican Spaniard ten years 
later led a successful revolt and the Independence of 
Mexico was established in 1S21. Since then the 
government has had numerous changes l)ul is at 
present essentially like the U. S. in form. 

Mexico covers an area of 741 ,r)8i) square miles and 
has a iKipulation of about ten millions of inhabit- 
ants. Its table lauds are .salubrious and fertile and 
with two through railroad lines from Texas, this 
easy going republic will doubtless fall into the rapid 
nutrch of enterprise and retinenient. 


The greatest of Spain's colonial possesions was 
discovered by Columbus in 14'.>2, and in loll Yela.s- 
qnez conquered the natives. Havana was founded 
l")i;>. Cuba has been UKU-e jirosperous since the ad- 
vent of Las Cassas as governor-general in 17!»0 biit 
has had numerous bickerings and revolts. A seri- 
ous revolt occurred in lS(i8, which caused the sacri- 
fice of oii,000 Cuban soldiers and cost the Spanish 

governnu'ut more than twenty millions of dollars 
to quell. It is still tributary "to Spain hut groans 
under the yoke and longs forannexation to the U. S., 
from which it is separated by less than 100 miles of 

The limit of these i)ages will not permit of giving 
detailed facts regarding Central and South America; 
but our relations with the mother country are so 
intimate that we shall appropriate some space to her 
consideration next. 

The history of (ireat Britian properly coniiuenees 
with the comjuests of Ciesar B ('."),)." The Honiaii 
rule lasted till 420 A I). The Scots, Hunns, Danes 
and other tribes ravaged the country and internal 
di.ssensions continued until the establishment ol the 
Norman line A DloiKi. The first parliament was con- 
vened in 121).") and thirty years later a .session of 
commons was added, these being a concession wrung 
from the Kings by the Barons. King Charles at- 
temjjted to dispense with jjarliament, Vuit was over- 
thrown by Oliver Cromwell in K.^.'i. Tlje Habeas 
Corpus Act was pa.s.sed in I(i7!i on the return of the 
Stuarts to the throne. The government isa constitu- 
tional monarchy, the executive ])ower being vested 
in the sovereign and the legislative in i)arliment. 
The area of (ireat Britian including Ireland covers 
121,.")7I S(|uare miles and has about :i(),(i(H),Ol/0 jieo- 
])le. The entire British Possession covers an 
area of 7,7SS,:;47 square miles and having a ])opula- 
tcon of over :WO,'iou,(JUOof inhabitants, or about one- 
fourth of humanity. Other European countries de- 
serve a separate mention but we must refer the read- 
er to more exhaustive history. 

In thoWorld'2 History. 

-Marathon liy MiltaoclesB C4'.K), Athenians— Per- 

Syracuse by (Jlippus BC 414, Syracu.sans— Spartans. 

.•Vrbela by Alexander B C '-iM, (J reeks — Persians. 

Metaurus by Nero, B C 207, P.omans— Carthagin- 

Winfeldlippe by Arminius A D 9, Germans- 

Chalons bv Aetius, 4.t1, Romans, etc — Hunns. 

Tours by C'harles >rartel, 732, Franks— Saracens. 

Hastings by William, lOiill, Normans— Anglo- 

Orleans by Joan of Arc, I42!>, French— English. 

Armada by Effingham, I.ISS, English and Dutch- 

Blenhein by Marll)orough, 1704, English and Aust. 
— French and Bavarians. 

Valmy by Kellerman, 17ii2, France— Allied Power. 

Pultowa by Peter (Jreat 170!), Russia — Sweeden. 

Saratogo by (iates, 1777, Americans -English. 

Waterloo by Wellington and Blueher 181"), English 
and Prussian — French. 

Sedan '70, Pru.ssiati.s — French. 

Seba.stopol '.")4-5, Eng, French Turks — Rns.<!ia. 

Gettysburg by Meade, '(i:i, I'nion — Confederacy. 

— '''Naines of places appear first, prominent gener- 
al next, date, victorious army, defeated forces' last. 
Population and Debt of Cities of tlie I'nitctl 

Name of Place. ^:^''"'"Vs.°n J^^n^ For each 

Census l.^sO. l.vsQ. person. 

Akron Ohio 1(;,.tI1 3 17,til'J S 1 06 

Albanv New York...... 00,00:? 3,lH.s,.=ioO 34 o2 

Allegluinv Pennsvl'na 78,681 1,.W(),429 20 29 

Allentown do 18,0(;:i 430,443 23 83 

Alexandria Virginia... VA,(<riA 1,037,088 7.5 92 

Altoona Pennnsylvana 10,716 368,830 18 70 

Atchi.son 1.5,106 449,687 29 76 

Atlanta Georgia :M,398 2,1.><0,000 6.3 38 

Aubuni New York 22,924 .530,000 13 .32 

Augusta Georgia 23,023 1,961,319 IS 58 



Austin Texas 10,960 ion, 744 9 74 

Baltimore ^Maryland... 3:52,190 27,a!>-2,(;yo Si dT, 

Baiigur Maine 16,827 2,f;tn,(MXi lo8 llj 

l-iiiv Citv .^lichigan 20,(593 4:^,100 20 9:5 

Bii"ighauit/>n New York 17,:«5 2<»9,.")0<) 17 29 

BltMjiuington Illinois... 17,184 221,46:! 12 as 

Bostijii Mas.sachusetts..:io2,5:^ 28,244,017 77 90 

Bi-ideeport Connectic't 29,14-5 .S'.l.OOO 28 51 

Bnxiklvn New York....T(;6,r>M) ;W,040,(KKJ 07 13 

ButtalJ New York 15,3,i;i7 8,211,9:W 52 m 

Biu-liiigton Iowa 19,450 12.s,0ti2 6 r>8 

Caiubrklge 52,740 3,403,72:! 64 5;^ 

C'aiiiileii New Jersey... 41,658 l,l(!4,'.t00 27 96 

Charleston S Cwolina.. -:!9,<);« 4,129,11/2 82 58 

Chattan(M.gaTennes.see 12,892 71,-5<3(; 5 oT, 

Davenport' Iowa 21,8:^4 2<10,(;75 13 :n 

Evan.sville Indiana 29,28<l none 

Krie Pennsylvania 27,730 1,201,229 4:5 31 

Einivra New York 20,5^11 270,400 13 17 Saginaw Mich 19,010 611.055 :32 13 

Fall River 49,006 3,169,7a5 64 68 

(irand lUipids Mich 32,015 471,000 14 71 

(ialveston Texa.s 22,25:3 1,023,249 45 97 

Holxiken New Jersev.. 30,999 l,«i9.2.>0 :i5 46 

Houston Texas "... 18,646 l,5(ll,.'-,;il St) 5:3 

Indianapoli.s Indiana... 75,074 1,9]4,5(!0 2.5 50 

Kansas Citv Miss<juri.. 55,813 1,:«9,224 Zi 'J9 

Louisville Kentucky. ..12:5,645 4,842,935 39 16 

Lewiston Maine U^l^KS l,o:l8,liri .54 :« 

Milwaukee Wisconsin..ll5,578 2,l(;o,28'.t 18 09 

MinneajKdis Minn 46,887 1,137,467 24 25 

Meujpbis Tennessee 33,593 none 

Manchester N II ;}2,6;30 929,000 28 19 

Mobile Alabama 31,205 2,671, KK) Ni 91 

New YorkN Y 1,206,590 109,425,414 i>i> 60 

NewOrleans Louisiana 216,140 

Norfolk Virginia 21,966 2,187,371 90 57 

Newport Kentnckv 20,4:« '.mO.Ols 42 41 

Nashville€... 43,461 1,606. 2(Xi :!(> 95 

Oakland California ;34,5o<i (W;9,126 19 :» 

Omaha Nebra.ska ;-50,518 227,578 7 45 

Oswego New York 21,117 1,264,224 59 80 

(tshkosh \\'iscon.sin 15,749 1:30,5<X) 8 28 

Pitt.sburglVnnsylvanal56,:i81 14,l:34,2ix; 'M 37 

I'rovid<>nc<_' Rhode Is. ..104, 8.50 

Patterson New Jersey.. 50,887 l,:;-'^0,.=-^Ni 2r! 71 

Portland Maine 83,810 4,:;:52,ir>4 128 13 

Pe<ma Illinois 29,315 710,.5(«) 24 44 

Petersburg Virginia... 21,G5»3 i,136,l(.Ki 52 46 

Poughkeepsie NY' 20,207 1,939,1W-; '.)o i* 

Presidents, Vlce-Presidente and Public Delrts. 
Presidents, Viet^Pi'esidents, and a statement of the 
I^iblic Debt, including accrued interest thereon 
less cash in the Trea.sury on the 1st day of July, 
ot each, year ccmnnled irom the published ReiwVt 
Off the vSeicretarj- ivt the Trrasury. 

Y'ear. President. Vice-President. Debt. 

1789..Wasliington Adani.s i 

1793..VVashingto!i Adams 80,:352,ti:34 04 

]797..Adams Jelt'erson 82.064,479 3:5 

1801..Jetferson Burr 83,0:38,050 80 

l.s0.5...Tett'erson Clinton 82,312,150 50 

lsn<,i..M:idison Clinton 57,023,192 00 

isl:;.. Madison Gerrv 55,962,827 57 

]8l7.,Monroe Tompkins 12:3,491,965 16 

1S21.. Monroe Tompkins 8!),987,427 66 

ls25..J.CJ.Adanis Calhoun 8:3,788,4:32 71 

182;i..Jncks(m Calhoun 58,421,413 07 

ls;ui...Ia(kson, VanBuren 7,001,698 8C3 

18:37. .Vani5urcn Johnson 3:36,957 83 

1841. .Harrison Tyler 5,2:50,875 54 

1842..Tyler Wm.P.Mangum 13,594,480 73 

1845,. Polk Dallas 15,ir25,:503 01 

1849..Taylor Filmore 63,001,858 69 

1850..Filniore King (■>3,452,773 55 

18a:'..Pierc'e King 59,803,117 70 

1857..Biichanan Breckenridge ... 28,699,831 85 

1861..Lineoln Hamlin 90,580,873 72 

1SG5.. Lincoln Johnson 2,680,647,869 74 

l86(i..Johnson Foster 2,773,236,173 69 

1869..(h-aut Colfax 2,489,002,480 58 

18';:3..(;rant Wilson 2,147,818,713 57 

1877..Haves Wheeler 2,060,158,223 26 

18.Sl..Gariield Arthur 1,840,598,811 98 

1882..Arthur Davis 1,688,914,460 72 

lS8{i..Cleveland Hendrick.s l,417,15(i,S62 00 

Brief Biography of Presidents. 

George Washimjton, l«irn Ya. 17:32, die<l '99, Aid- 
de-camj) to Braddock Indian campaign '55, chosen to 
Colonial Congress '74, Commander-in-chief '75, pres- 
ident '89-97. 

Jr>hn. Adams, born 1735, died 1826, first vice- 
president and 2d president U.S. defeated Ijy Jeti'ersou 
in 1800, one of tlie foundere of the Republic. 

Thomas Jejfersvn, of Va. 1743, died 1826, in Colon- 
ial C^mgress 1775, drafted Declai'ntion of Indepen- 
dence '76, governor of Va., '79, minister at Paris '85, 
See of btate '89, vice-president '96, president 1801-9. 

James Madison of Va. born 1751, died 18:36, one of 
the founders of the Federal piirty. Elected congi'ess 
'89, sec. of State 1810, president 1809-17. 

Jirmes Monroe, of Va. 1758, 1831, elected to con- 
gress 178:3, governor of Va- 1799, Envoy to FYanee 
i802, secretary of state '11, president '17-'25. 

John Qubwy Adam^, of Mass., 1767, 1848, president 
'2.5-'29, defeated by Jackson '28. elected to congress 
':30. His oratory gained for him the title of "Old 
Man Elofiuent." 

Andrcir Jackson, of S. C. 1767, 1845, was rather illit- 
erate, in congress ]7i>6, U. H. senate 1797, distinguish- 
ed at the battle of New Orleans, president '15, '2i>-37. 

Martin VanBnren, of N. Y. 1782, 1862, eJecte<l 
state senator N. Y. 1803, state attorney-general '15, 
VJ. S. senator '21; governor '28, secretary of state '19, 
'29, vice-j)resident '33, president '37-'41. 

WHJiani If. Harrison,oi Va. 1773, 1841, aid-de-camp 
to (tcu. \V'ayne in Indian wiir, territorial governor 
of Indiana i801-'13, defeated Indians at Tippexranoe 
'11. elected to congress '16, senator '24, elected 
dent '40, and died one month after his inauguration. 

John Tyler, of Va. 1790, 18G2, elected to congress 
1816, governor of Va. '25, U. S. senator '27, vice- 
president under Harrison and succeedetl him xVpril 
4th '41. 

James K. Pdk, of N. C. 1795, 1849, congressman 
from Tenn. '25, governor 'Si), president '45 to '49. 
During his term Texas wiis annexed and the war 
with jilexlco prosecuted. 

Zachury Taylor, of Va. 1784, 1850, .«erved in Semi- 
nole and Blackhawk war, major-general in Mexican 
war and won the battles of Keseca and Buena Vista, 
inaugurated president '49 and died July 9th 18.50. 

Millard Fillmore, of N. Y'. 1800, 1874, congress '32, 
elected vice-president '48 and succeeded to tlie presi- 
dency on the death ol Taylor. 

Franklin PiJirce, of N. H. 1804, 1869, congress '32 
senator '37, brigadier-general in Mexican war, elect- 
ed president '52, opposed coercion of the south '63. 

James Buehanan, of Pa. 1791, 1868, '21, 
minister to Russia '82, U. S. senator '34, secretary of 
state 45, minister to England '53, president '57. 

Abraham Lincoln, of Ky. 1809, elected to 111. legis- 
lature '34, congress '46, defeattHl by Douglass for I'. 
S. senator '54, elected president '00, re-elected '64 
and a.ssa.ssinated April 14 '65 by John Wilkes Booth. 

Andre-ic Johnson, N. C, 1808, 1875, congress from 
Tenn. '43, governor '-53, U. S. senator '57, military 
governor '62, elected vice-president '04, and succeW- 
ed to the presidency on the a.ssa.ssination of Lincoln. 
He was subsequently elected U. S. senator. 

Ulysses S. Grant, of Ohio, 1822, 1885, served in 



Mexico, colonel of 21st 111. vols, and brigudicr-gen- 
eral 'IT2, commander-in-chief '04, pivsident 'G9-7T. 

Riitht-rfifni B. Hiit/t-.i, of Conn. 1822, lirijra.lior- 
geiicral Imm Ohio, '«.'), question n.s to valid- 
ity of eiectorial votes dcvide<i l>v si>eci!il commis- 
sion 8 to 7 an<i Hayes inauguratwl '77. 

Jamcji A. (;<irji<iil, of Ohio, 18:51, protlessor ot 
Latin and (jrei'k at Hiram collcKC and choosen 
jircsident of that institution '58, state senate 'o9, 
col. 'HI, brigadier 't;2, congress '(52, U. S. senator '80, 
jiresident '81, shot by (liteau Julv 2, '81, dieil Sept. 

Che^stf-r A. Arthur, of Vt. 18:!1, 1886, N. Y. lawver, 
collcetorof jiort of N. Y., '71, elected vice-president 
'80 and succectled tii the |)resideney on the death of 

Grmy-r n-rHomI, of N. .T., 18:i7, teacher In X. Y. 
Wind Asylum, lawyer in Ikttl'alo, sheriir'8(l, nuivor 
'81, eW'ted governor of N. Y. by 1!)2,000 majority 
'81, pre^i<lent '8-1, if-nondnated '88. 

Prominont Persraagea. 

.J<niej)k AihlLwrh, 1072, 1719, English poet and nior- 
a-iist, author ol "The Campaign," under secrt'taiy 
1 4 stjite 170.'). 

Thmrnt.s B. Aldrkh, 1836, Am. jK)ct and noveli-st, 
Prndenot" Palfry, etc. 

Ethan Alltnt, 17-42, '89, commander in Revolution- 
ary war, hero of Tieonderoga and Cn>\vn I'oint. 

BfTiedict ArruM, 1740, 1801, American general ami 
triritor, lator colonel in Britisii army. 

John .J<w(jh A.stoT, of Heidelberg, (Jermnny, 1763, 
1848, n>s<' rapidly to wealth in N. Y. merchandise. 
Founded the Astor Library. 

Francis Bitcon, 1561, 1626, English statesman, jur- 
ist and pliilosopher. tiueen's oouusel at uge ol 2S, 
s(Ji(Jtor-general 1()07. 

Sir Snmvl Baker, 1821, English African explorer' 
author gt>ographic4il and literary worlt.s. 

Niithitiihl ]'. Banks, 1816, ,VmerI«in general mid 
lioliticiari, congress '.52, governor of Mass. 3 t<.Tm.s. 

BPTkj. I). Bmcmsfidd, 1804, 1880, English states- 
man and novelist, cluuicellor of exchequer, prime 
minLster '68. 

P. T. O. Bcaurcijard, 1816, cf>nfederato genend at 
Ft. yumter, IJull Kun and Shiloh. 

rhos. 11. Benicn, 1782, 18.5^ of Hillslxnx), N. C 
Electtxl to U. iS. senate irrjm Mo. 1820, and congress 

Jamux <}. Blaine, of Pa. 1830, congress frfjm Maine 
'(2, U. .S. .senator '77, se<'retary under (Jarlield, csm- 
didate for presidency '84. 

Daniel B(Mm<-, of Pa. 17:}.5, 1820, pioneer Ky., Ind., 
LU. and Mi.s.souri. Prominent Indian fighter. 

,/ofin C. Brech'nrid/)!', of Ky. 1821, 1875, vi(T> jin^-s- 
ident under Buchanan, candidate for i>resident '60, 
L. S. Senator '61, resigned! and entered confedenite 
siTvice as general and later secretary of war for the 

Jiifin Bnnrn, of Conn. 1800, zealous alxilitionlst, 
lieadwl negro insunx'tion at Harper's Ferry '59 and 
was hange*! by Gov. Wise, of Va. the same year. 

IhM Bunw,i, 1759, 179t), .S,'ot«hman and autJior of 
uHiuy jiwrninent poems. 

Aarrm Burr, 17.56, 1836, lawver and statesman, 
vitx^-presidcnt under Jetlerson, killed Hamilton in 
duel, was tried for tre;ison but ac<iuitte<l. 

Benj. F. Buth-r, of N. H., 1818, lawyer, iwlitieian 
.-iiMl general, military governor of New Orleans, '62, 
congress from Mass. '66, governor '82. 

Lm-il Byron, 1788, 1824, English jwet, espoused the 
eeuse of Grek liberty and died in Greece. 

Thw. (\irlyle, 1795, 1881, Scotch e^ayist, Idograph- 
ei, liLstorian and mathematician. 

MiimiH T. Ciiero, 11. C. 1C6. '43, Roman autlior, 
statesiuan orator, exiled B.C. 58, but recalled. Kill- 
e<l by -Vntony's soldiers. 

Hfnnj Clay, of Va. 1777, 18.52, statesman and ora- 
tor, r. ,s. senate 1806, signed treaty of Ghent '15, 
candidate for president '32 and '44, prominently 
conne<;ted with the compromise of 18,50. 

S<tml. T. Coleridge, 1772, 1834, ICnglish poet and 
critic, German linguist and wrote Lyrical liallads.<>]>hi'r Cnlumhiui, of (ienoa, Italy, 1436, 1500, 
Siuknl from Palos Aug. 3, 1492, reached .San Salviulor 
Oct.' 12 of that year and gave the natives the name 
of Indians, dis<iiverid .larnaicaand Porto Rica WSA, 
and .South America 1498. 

Confvciiin, H. C. 551, -178, Chinese philospher, com- 
menctxi prciuhing at 22, originatisl the "Golden 
Rule" and tauglit that to Ik? polite ami do gcKxl to 
humanity should l>e the chief end of man. Two- 
thirds of the human race for 2,:!(K) years liave given 
great cre<lence to the precepts which he enun(-iaiexl. 

Cojtfrrticit.f, 1473, 1.543, (ierman astronomer, dis- 
proved the Ptolenuiic theory and demonstrate<l that 
the sun is the cenU.<r of the universe. 

rim. Coirper, 1731, 1S(K), Englisli jKxt, trari-slated 
Homer 178-1. His letters and jHWlry are highly euk)- 

Chark'ji JR. IMrtrin, 1809, '82, English naturalist 
and originated the theory ol "evolution," that all 
forms of anLmal or vegeUiblc life progress in the 
scjileof natural dcvscent hv the "survival ot the fit- 

Jeffer.stm Dtirui, of Kv., 180S, L". .S. .senator Irom, '47, inaugurated i)resident of the Conlwleracy 
'61, imprisoned in Fortrc-s Monroe for 2 years after 
the fall of Richmond, released on bail with Horace 
Grcelev and other northeni men as sureties and later 
tlK" indictment (luashed. 

Daniel Ihjw, 1661, 1731, English novelist, in insur- 
rection agaitist James II. Author of over 200 works. 

.John li. Deh'aUi, 17:12, 17.S0, German general, lu-- 
w>mpaiiied I-;ifayette to Am. 1777 and kiileii at bat- 
tle of Camden S. C. '80. 

Uimiiixihinux, H. C. .'>.s5, :-!22, .\thenian orator, oji- 
ik^imnI Philip of .^Iacedon against whom he delivcri^'d 
his "Philippics." Oration on the crown his greatest , 
achievement. .Suieideti by p<ji.son. 

CharUf. ])irken-i, 1812, '70, English novelist, for a 
time reporter for the press, outhor of Nicholas Nich- 
olby, David Coppertield, Oliver Twist and other 
Iiromincnt jiroductions. 

Su-phrn A. Ikm^Uis, of Vt., 1817, '81, statesman, 
congress from Illinois, '4:?, senator '47, candidate for 
presidency '.56, '60. Suj>j)orto<l Finleral war, '61. 

Fridt^riik Ikiveila.s, of Md., 1817, greatest coloreil 
.Vme.rican orator. .S>ld to a shipbuilder ':>2, csiiipe»l 
to and a.ssumixl the name of I><iuglas. Em- 
pl<>ve<l as orator for the American Anti-slavery So- 
dety '41. 

I>njden, 1G:11, 1700, English jKK't, critic and dra- 
matist, wTote 'iOde on Alexander's Fe^tst." 

3fwe. Dndercnt, 1804, '76, French novelist, mar- 
rieil at is, 10 vears later .sepanite<l, changttl from 
!K>al<>us catholic to lilieralist, adopting man's attire 
and denotincing the marriage system. 

Thm/ws A. Kdi.ym, 1S47, -Vm. electrician and in- 
ventor i>f improved telegraphy, telephone, electric 
light, jihonograph, etc. 

Geo. F. Fdmtind.-:, of Vt. 1S2.S, U. .S. senator 'tM5, 
re-elecfe<l thre«" terms, and nresident of the .senate 
under Arthur and after the death of Hendricks. 

Ralph \V. Emerson, of Mass. 1803, '82, essayist, 



philosopher and poet, Unitarian minister '29, auth- 
or ot "Kepreseutative Men." 

Edward Everett, 1794, 1865, oiator and statesman, 
Prof, of Greek at Harvard '55; congress '24, governor 
of Mass. ' 00, minister to England '41, secretary of 
state '52, senate '53,. 

Henry Fielding, 1707, 1754, English novelist and 
dramatist, lieutenant-general. "Tom Jones" his 
greatest novel. 

Benj. Franklin, of Mass. 1706, 1790, statesman and 
philosopher, of 17 children, printer, estab- 
lished Penna. Gazette, jnililished "Poor Kichard's 
Almanac" 17:^5, drew electricity troni the clouds by 
a kite '52, minister to I''ranco '7(i, governor of Penn. 
'85, member of constitutional convention '87. 

Robert Fulton, of Penn'a, 1765, 1815, engineer and 
inventor of steam boat, invented sub-marine torpe- 
do in Paris, discovered steam navigation 1801, assist- 
ed by Robert Livingston, built steamer Clermont 
ISOu, which ran regularly between New York and 

Galileo, 1564, 1642, Italian astronomer, adopted 
copernicum theory and constructed telescope 1609, 
discovered .Jupiter's moons and ascertained that the 
"Milky Way" was composed of myriads of stars. 

Edward Gibbon, 1737, 1794, English historian, 
author of the "Decline and Fall of the Roman Em- 
pire," He was liberal in his religious belief. 

Olirrr GiihUmith, 1728, '74, Irish poet and author 
of scw-rul iiniminent novels. 

Jiijl liijiilil, <if Sandusky, Ohio, 1836, has become 
prominent as a railway and telegraph owner and 

Horace GreeU'n, of N. H. 1811, 1872, journalist, 
founded N. Y. Tribune '41, was democratic candi- 
date for president '72, defeated by Grant and died 
shortly afterwards. 

Gtitenberg, 1401 , 1468, German inventor of print- 
ing and first publisher of the bible. 

.-l/'-x. Hiiinilfoii, born in AVest Indies 1757; killed 
in duel liy Aaron Burr, 1804, orator, state.sman and 
general in revolutionary war. 

Wade Hampton, of S. C. 1818, Confederate general, 
governor of S. C. 1876, U. S. senator '78. 

Winfield S. Hancock, 1824, 1886, major-general in 
late war, proTuinent in Gettysburg fight, democratic 
• candidate for presidency 1880. 

Hannibal, B. C. 247, 183, Carthaginian general, 
subdued the Spaniards, captured Saguntiim 219, 
routed Roman army 216, defeated by Scipio Afri- 
canus, 202, suicided by poison to escape being pris- 
oner of the Romans. 

Francis Bret Harte, of N. Y. 18.39, humoristic 
writer; consul to a German port, '78, author of 
"Heathen Chinee," etc. 

Warren Hastings, 1732, 1818, British general and 
statesman, governor-general of India, defeated Hy- 
der Ali, king of My.sore, 

Nathaniel Haivthorne, 1804, 1864, Am. author. Twice 
told tales. Scarlet Letter, Blithedale Romances, etc. 

Robert Y. Hayne, 1791, 1840, Am. orator and states- 
man, opponent of Webster in discussion of constitu- 
tion, governor of S. C. 1832. 
' ^ Palrid Hriirt/, 1736, 1799, Am. patriot and orator, 
in ciiiitiih iit:il I'oiigress, governor of Virginia. 

Olinr Wnnhll. Hobne.1, 1809, Am. physician, auth- 
or and poet. The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table, 
Elsie Venner, etc. 

Homer, B. C. 1000, Greek poet, regarded as one of 
the greatest. Supposed to have been blind and 
poor. The Iliad and Odyssey arc prominent text 

Horace, B. C. H)r^, Latin poet, Odes, Ei)ist'es and 

Samuel Houston, 1793, 1863, Am. general and states- 
man, governor of Tennessee '27, commander of Texius 
forces in revolt against Mexico, eajjtured Santa An- 
na '36, and elected president of Texas. U. S. sena- 
tor and governor of Texas. 

Wash ington Iri'ing, of New York, 1783, 1859, auth- 
or Knickerbocker's History of N. Y. secretary of 
legation at London '29, minister to Spain '42, 
'Bracebridge Hall,' 'Conquest of Grenada,' etc. are 
among his works. 

Stonewall Jackson, of Va. 1824, Confederate gener- 
al, defeated Banks at Cedar Mountain and captured 
10,000 prisoners at Harper's Ferry '62, having recon- 
noitered with aids beyond his lines near Chancellor- 
ville he was taken for the approaching enemy and 
killed by his own troops. 

Ben Johnson, 1574, 1637, English poet and dramat- 
ist, .served as a mason, soldier, actor, author of 'Every 
Man in his humor,' 'Alchemist,' etc. Poet Laureate 
by James I. 

Elisha Kent Kane, 1820, '57, Am. Artie explorer. 

LaFarjette, 1757, 1834, French general and patriot, 
aided America 1777, wounded at Brandy wine, com- 
mander of French Nat. Guard, 1789, revisited Am. 
1824 and prominent in French Revolution '30. 

James Lawrence, 1781, 1813, Am. naval hero, com-, 
manded the Chesapeake, and killed by British frig- 
ate Shannon off Boston, exclaiming while dying 
"Don't give up the ship." 

Robert E. Lee, of Va., 1806, '70, chief engineer of 
Scott's army in Mexico, commander in chief of the 
Confederate forces. Surrendered at Appomattox 
April 9, '65. 

Henry W. Longfellmc, of Maine, 1807, '82 poet, 
prof, of modern languages at Bowdoin '29, at Har- 
vard '36, Hyperion, Hiawatha, Miles Standish, eto. , 
among his works. 

Iijnatus de Ijjyola, 1491, 1506, Spanish founder of 
the Jesuits. 

Martin Luther, of Eisleben, Gennany, 1483, 1.546, 
protestant reformer, prie-st 1507, prof, of philosophy 
at Wittenberg 'OS, denounced sale of indulgences '17, 
translated new testament '22 and old testament '34. 

Thos. B. 3IcCauley, 1800; '.59, English historian; 
critic, and essayist. 

Geo. B. 3IcClellan, of Pa., 1826, '85, served in 
jNlexican war, engineer 111. Cen. R. R. '57, command- 
ed federal forces '61, democratic candidate for presi- 
dency '64, afterwards governor of N. J. 

Michael Angela, 1474, 1.563, greatest Italian painter, 
poet, sculptor, architect of St. Peters church at 

John Milton, 1608, '74, greatest English poet, blind 
'34, completed 'Paradise Lost' '55. 

Mahomet, A D. 509, founder of the Moslem relig- 
ion and author of the Koran. 

Sir Thomas Moore, 14S0, 1535, English statesman, 
philosopher, parliment 1504, author of Utopia '16. 

Samuel F. B. Morse, 1791, 1872, Am. inventor of 
telegraph, constructed first line '44, Washington to 

Horatio V. Nelson, 1758, 1805, greatest English na- 
val commander, killed at Trafalgar where his fleet 
defeated French and Spanish. 

Sir Isaac Newton, 1642, 1727, philosopher 
and mathematician, discovered gravitation '67, auth- 
or of 'Principia.' 

Michael Ney, 1750, 1815, French marshal, was call- 
ed 'bravest of the brave,' had live horses killed un- 
der him at battle of AV^aterloo, was captured after- 
wards and executed for treason. 



WllHani put, IToi-l, ISOU, English statcsiiKiii and 
orator, iiarlaineiit 17S0, prime minister ',s;i. 

ThoiiKia I'ainr, 17:i7, ISOii, patriotieal writer and 
free-tli inker, author of 'Tlie Crisis; 'Age of Reason,' 

Porahon/ax, l.iir>, ir.lT, daui^litcr of Chief I'owliat- 
an and saved life of Captain Jolm ^>niitli, married 
English gentleman Eolfe. 

Isriifl Putnam, 171S, '1)0, Am. revolutionary gen- 
eral, prominent at Bunker Hill. 

Pythaiionix, R C (JOO, .")1(), (ireek philosopher, 
taught the doctrine of transmigration of souls. 

John Randolph, of Va., 177.'!, l.s:5o, politician anil 
orator, congress 17!)!), senate 18^4, minister to Ilns- 
sia ':?0. 

Peyton Randolph, of Va., 172:i, 177.5, president of 
the first American congress. 

Ji'dn Jiiijiifx Rousseau, 1712, '7S, French philoso- 
pher and writer. 

Johatuie Schiller, 17.59, 1S0.5, most popular of (Jer- 
inan poets. 

Sir ]VaUer Seat/, 111\,1S:',2, .Scottish novelist and 

Wm. 71. Seuard, 1801, '72, secretary of state '01-!', 
nearly assassinated the same night that Lincoln was 

Horatio Seymour, 1811, '8G, governor of N. Y. 'iS'l, 
reelected '(Vi, democratic presidential candidate '('>8. 
William Shakespeare, \'>M, l(il(>, greatest English 
dramatist and famous author. 

Philip H. Sheridan, 18:il, general in Federal army 
and commander-in-chief, '83. 

Henry W. Shaw, (Josh Billings) 1818, '8"), Ameri- 
can humorist. 

John Sherman, 1823, Secretary of treasury 1877-81, 
resumed specie payment. 

Win. 2'. Sherman, 1820, Am. general, made the 
celebrated 'ifarch to tlie Sea.' General of army 'I'lii. 
Cai>t. John Smith, 1.579, 1G31, English explorer, 
founder of Va. first circumnavigator of the globe. 

Charles H. Spnrgeon, 1834, English pulpit orator 
and evangelist. 

Alet. If. Stevens, of Ga. 1812, 'S3, statesman, con- 
gress '43, vice-president of the confederacy author 
of history U. S. and War between the States. 

Thos. D. Talinaije, ls32, noted preacher in New- 
York city. 

Samuel J. Tilden, 1814, 'CM, governor of N. Y., 
democratic candidate for president 1x71!, had popu- 
lar majority of a (|uarter million, and was given by 
the 'elector'ial commission' 184 of the 3(;!) electoral 

'.So*'*' Tweed, 1823, '78, politician, mayor of New 
York, and embezzler. 

Matthew Vassar, 1792, 1808; founder of Vassar col- 

Voltaire, 1694, 1778, French author poet, dramatist, 
historian, philosopher and skeptic. 

James Ul7«, 1736, 1819, Scottish engineer and in" 
veutor, improved and completed steam engine. 

Noah Webster, 17.58, 1843, spent most of his life as 
a lexicographer. 

Daniel Webster of N H, 1782, 18.52, lawyer, orator, 

talesman, congres.s 1812, senate '28, secretary ol 

ate, candidate for i)residenl '34. 

Arthur W. Wellingtm 1769, 1.8,52, Brittish general 

and statesman, parliament 180.5, sec of Ireland '07, 

defeated Napoleon at Waterloo '1.5. 

John G. WhittinroiUass, 1807, poet and author of 
famous ballads. 

Wm. Wadsu-orlh,\"n, 18.50, English jmct. 
ririrh Zwimjle, 14.84, 1.531, reformer, killed in 


Italy has an army of 214,000 and 2,47-5,000 trained 
men available. France keeps under arms 50o,00() 
men, one-fourth cavalry, has ls.5o lield guns and lOo 
fortress batteries, (ic^inany's land forces are 4r)8,- 
OOit and she can muster about four times that num- 
ber. — .Vustria's standing armv numbers 2s9,000. — 
The English army 131,000, aild in Brittish India 
189,000. Its navy' is 700 shii>s— The Ilussian Em- 
pire keeps standing 974,000 and and can muster in 
war time over 2,00o,il(l0— The Turkish standing army 
has 3.50,000 men— China has 300,(ioo soldiers. Our 
form of government makes it praetical)lc to main- 
tain peace with a very small force and we tind the 
U S with only about 25,000 regular soldiers. 


During the civil war from first to 2,600,000 
men were mustered in bv the U. .S. There were on 
dutv Jan, '(;i 14,61)3 I'nion soldiers, July '61 183,- 
.588," Jan 'i'>2, .527;201, Jan '63 6!)8,S()-2, .Tan '64 611,2.50, 
Jan '6.5, 62 i,!»24,May '6.5. 7!I7,S()7 and about one mil- 
lion on the muster rolls at the close of the war. 
Many <)r the Union soldiers were mustered in for 
short periods and none for a longer tinu' than three 
years without re-enlistment. 

The Confederate troops were mostly engaged dur- 
ing the war and at the close their armv numbered 
but little over 1.50,000 although 6imi,(ip0 bad been on 
the muster rolls. The loss Ironi battle on both sides 
was about 200,000 and from wounds, disease and sub- 
seiiuent deaths together with those totally disabled 
foots uji nearly four times as many, thus making a 
sacrifice of nearly a million men and over eight bil- 
lions of property, in one of the most remarkable 
civil wars the world ha.sever known. 


.\ name given to the southern boundary line of 
the Free State of Pennsylvania which formerly sep- 
erated it troiu the Slave States of Maryland and 
Virginia. It was run — with the excejition of about 
twenty-two miles— by Charles Mason and Jeremiah 
Dixon, two English mathematicians and surveyors, 
between Nov. 1,5, 1763, and Dec. 26, 1767. During 
the excited debate in, in 1.S20, on the ques- 
tion of excluding slavery from Missouri, the eccen- 
tric John Randolph of Uoanoke made great use of 
this i), which was caught up and re-echoed by 
every ncwspai)er in the land, and thus gained a ce- 
lebrity which it still retains. 


Fii-st talked of by Colonel Julius W. -Adams alwut 
1.86.5. Act of incorporation passed .\pril, l.s(;6. Sur- 
vey begun by John A. Koebling, ]86'.i. Construction 
begun .Fanuary 2, 1870. First rope thrown acros.s 
the river August 14, 1876. Master Mechanic Far- 
rington crossed in a boat.swain's chair August 2.5, 
1876. Depth of the New York foundation below 
high water mark, 78 feet 6 inches. Depth of the 
Brooklyn foundation below high watermark, 4.5 feet. 
Tlie New York tower contains 46,94.5 eubie yards of 
nuusonrv ; the Brooklyn tower, 38,214. Weight of 
the Brooklyn tower, about 93,()7!t tons. Weight of 
the New York tower, about a third more, .size of 
the towers at high water line 140x.59 feet ; at roof 
course 136x53 feet. Height of tower above high water 
276 feet 6 inches. Height of roadway in tlie clear 
in the middle of the East River 135 feet. Grade of 
the roadway 3 feet 3 inches to Irto feet. Width of 
the promenade in the center of bridge 16 feet 7 
inches. Width for railway on one side of the prom- 
enade 12 feet 10 inches. Width of carriage way on 
the other side of the promenade, 18 feet 9 inches. 
Width of bridge 85 feet. I.*;ngth of main span 1,595 
tect 6 inches. Length of each land span 930 feet 



Length of the Brooklyn approach 971 feet. Ivcngth 
of the New York approach l,/>t)0 feet. Ijcngth of 
each of the four great cables S,578 feet (i inches ; di- 
ameter 15% ineiies ; nuiiiter of .skH?l galvaniiied 
wires in each cable 5,4W ; weight of each cable at>out 
SIX) tons. Ultimate strength of each Kihle iri,OCiO 
toJLs. Weight of steel in the suspended sujierstiiic- 
turo 10,iKJ<) tons. Total cost 15,000,000 dollars. Op- 
ened for trafflc in l.S,S;3. 


Engineer, John A. Itloebling. Height of towers on 
American side i<S feet. Heiglit of txjwere on Canada 
side 78 feet. Length of bridge 800 feeL Width of 
bridge 24 feet. Height alxjve the river iW feet. 
Numl>er of cables 4. Diameter of c-ables 10 inches, 
containing alK)Ut4,0Oi) miles of wire. Ultimate crt- 
lia<:uty of the 4 cables 12,400 tons. Total weight of 
bridge 8(K).tons. Distance between railway track 
aiid carriage road below 28 fe«t. 0>st of consti-uo- 
tion 500,000 dollars. Bridge first opened for raih\-ay 
traffic March 8, ISo.i. Estimated depth of water in 
the channel l>eneath the bridge 2.50 feet. Vebxity 
of current 20 miles per hour. Velocity of WhirliMjol 
Iiapids27 railed per hour. Quantity of water par- 
sing through the gore per minute 1,500,000,000 cubic 


It was decided to erect the N ew Capitol on the 
lirst day of May, IS'65. (_)n the ninth day of Decem- 
Iwr, 18(;7, the work of excavation commenced and 
jn-octieded to a depth of sixteen feet below the sur- 
face. On the .seventh day of Julv, ISOO, the first 
.stone in the foundation wa-s laid. 'Die corner stone 
was laid on the twenty-third day of June, 1871. 
The size is 300 feet north aud south by 4u0 feet east 
and west, and with the porticoes will cover throe 
acre,s and seven square feet. Tlie walls are 103 feet 
high from the water titble. Total cost of the build-' 
ing up t<j February 25th, 1884 was S^la, 270,000. It is 
estimatetl that it will at -^ ;,00<J,()IJO more to 
complete it. 


White flag indicates clear or fair weather. Blue 
llag indicate* rain or snow. Black, triangular flag 
always refers to temperature; when placed alwve 
white or blue it indicates warmer weatlier ; when 
placed below white or blue itiurticates awler weath- 
er; when not displayed the indications are that tlie 
temperature will remain stationary, or that the 
change will not vary five degrees fro'm the tempera- 
ture of the same hour of the'precediug day. White 
flag with black .square in center, indicates the ap- 
jiroach of a sudden aud decided fall in temperature. 

The weather predictions are issued at 1 lu m., 
daily for the twenty-four houi-s commencing at 7 a. 
m. These predictions are telegraphed to Signal 
Service stations, railroads, post-oflices, etc. 

The cold-wave warnings are telegraphed to the 
])rincii)al stations of the .service from twentv-four 
to forty-i'ight hours in advance, when it is expeetetl 
that the temperature will fall decidetlly and sud- 


This rule will apply to a crib of any size or kind. 
Two cubic feet of good .sound dry 'corn in the ear 
will make a bushel of shelled corn! i_'hen to get the 
quantity of shelled corn in a cribnf corn in the ear, 
measure the lengtli bvcailth and heiijht of the crib, 
inside of the rail, multiply the lengtli by the breadth 
and the product by the lieight ; then divide the pro- 
duct by two and you have the number of bushels of 
shelled corn in the crib. 

To find the number of apples, jKitatoes, etc. in a 
bin,Tuultir)ly the length breadth and to- 
gether, and this product by 8, and point off one fig- 
ure in the product for decimals. 


In case where the other articles to be used as anti- 
dotes are not in the house, give two tablesi)oonfuls of 
nnistard mixe<l in a pint of wann water. Also gi\te 
large draughts of warm milk or water mi.Nied with 
oil butter or lard. If possible give as follows: 

For be<l-bug iKiison, blue vitriol, ctirrosive .siibli- 
mcJit, su:.,'ar of Ic^kI, sulphate of zinc or red precip- 
itate — gi^■e milk or white of eggs in large (juanti- 

For Fowler's solution or white percipitate, arsenic 
— give prompt emetic of mustard and salt — table- 
s]x>onfui of each; follow with a quantity of sweet 
oil, butter or milk. 

For antimonial wine or tartar emetic — drink warm 
watej to enajurage vomiting. If vomiting df>es not 
stop give a grain of opium in water. 

For oil vitriol, muriatic acid or oxalic acid — Mag- 
nesia or .soap dis.solved in water. Give every two 

For caustic soda or caustic potash — drink freely of 
water with vinegar or lemon juice in it. 

For carbolic acid— give flour and water or glutin- 
ous drinks. 

For chloral hydrate or chloroform— pour aAd wat- 
er over tlie head and faf'c, with artificial respiration, 
galvanic battery. 

For (^rbonate of so<ia, copficra.s or cobalt — prompt 
emetic ; .soap or mucilaginous drinks. 

For laudanam, morphine or opium — strong ooff'ee 
followed by ground mustard or in warm wat- 
er to produce vomiting. Keep in motion. 

For nitrate of silver — give common salt in warm 

For strychnine or tincture nux vomica — emetic of 
mustard or sulphate of zinc, aided by warm water. 


Every family should have a preparation of flax- 
seed oii, chalk and vinegar, about the consistency 
of thick paint, constantly on hand for bums and 
scalds. The be^t appliaition in cases of bums and 
scalds is a mixture of one part of carbolic acid tj) 
eight parti) of olive oil. Lint or linen rags are to be 
saturated in the lotion, and spread sm^jothly over 
tlie burned part, which should then be covered with 
oil silk or gutta-i>ercha tissue to exclude air. 


Two inches thick — will supiwrt a man. 
Four inches thick — a man on horseback. 
Five inches thick — an eighty-iwunder cannon. 
Eight inches thick — a battery of artillery. 
Ten inches thick— will support an army. 


Red and black makes Brown 

Lake and white makes Rose 

Umber and white makes Drab 

White and brown makes Chestnut 

Re<l with light blue makes Purple 

Blue with Icod color makes Pearl 

Carmine with white make.s Knk 

Lamp black with indigo makes Silver Grey 

Lamp black with white makes Lead color 

Paris green with white makes Light green 

Yellow ochre and white makes Buff 

White tinted with purple makes French white 

Black with chrome green makes Dark green 

Emerald Green with white Brilliant green 

Vermilion with chrome yellow Orange 

Yellow with white lead Straw color 

White tinted witli red and yellow Cream 

Yellow, blue, black and red Olive 


Fine solder is an alloy of two parts of block tin, 
and one part of lead. "Plumbing solder one part of 
block tin, two parts of lead. Glazing soldei' is equal 
parts of block tin and lead. 



Advice Worth AdlK^vinii; to. 

Always desiring; to bi^nefit our fcl- 
low-ineii whenever jtossible, we ap- 
pend tlie followiu<>' hyt>ienic rules, 
wliieh after 20 years' (Experience as a 
physician and hyg-ienist, we Ix^lieve 
about covers the tiehl : 

First of all the foundation of good 
health should be started by correct 
j living' on the part of our parents be- 
'/ fore our birth, so that we may come 
into existence with an inborn consti- 
tution of stamina. In infant life, 
with strenuous effort, avoid the giv- 
ing oi any nostrums or much food of 
any kind, excepting- that prepai-ed by 
nature, or the simplest and plainest 
substitutes for it. Above all things 
do not begin to create a morbid taste 
by giving a hiihy tea, coffee, s})ices, 
fat meats, paregorics, soothing syrup, 
and the like all of which derange and 
destroy the nerve forces. As early as 
possible establish regulai- habits. A 
babe should have a sponge bath in 
the morning, a sun bath at noon, 
and a massage treatment before re- 
tiring. This latter, kneading of the 
muscles and gentle exercises of the 
limbs, prepares it for ivfreshiiig sleep. 
Even the time for nursing sliould be 
guaged by judgment, and not by a 
child's cries. Begimiing with two 
hours at the age of six months, it 
should be our hours between meal 
times, and solid food should nev^er be 
taken by children or adults nearer 
than flvehours nor oftener than three 
times a day. A habit once formed is 
very difficult to break, and astobai'co 
and strong drinks are certainly inju- 
rious, especially so before the system 
has come to full maturity, feed a 
child arsenic and strychnia in pi-efer- 
enee to tobacco, wine, or beer. 

Every person should have plenty of 
exercise, plenty of pure air and sun- 
light, a proper observance of deiinli- 
ness, simple abstemious diet, and the 
avoidance of all licentiousness or ex- 
tremes of anv kind whatever. By 

regular exercise we do not mean work 
to fatigue for half an liour once a 
a week ; but if you are engaged in 
mental or sedent;ir.\- ('iii])loyment, 
spend at least fifteen minutes three 
times a day in gymnastic or t)ther 
pro])er exercise. Walking is good, 
riding is better, sawing or chojjping 
wootl is fii'st-rate, and if you have no 
conveniences for any of these, you 
can, by a vigorous swinging of the 
arms, striking, kicking, etc., leaning 
foi'wards and backwards, take a suf- 
ficient gymnastic exercise in your 
bed-room without aid of (hunb-OelLs 
or Indian clubs. This should cer- 
tainly be done morning and evening, 
if you do not get sufficient exercise :n 
some other manner, as you need the 
first to prepare your digestive powers 
for breakfast, and the latter to give 
refreshing sleep. Pure air and prop- 
er ventilation of rooms is absolute- 
ly necessary to health, and the na- 
ked exposure of the entire body to 
tlie sun is also very import:uit to 
persons wlio do not get much out-of- 
door exercise. A comfortable room 
and south window at noontime are 
the re(]uisites for this exiiiliarating 
bath, i-oUing on the carpet and rub- 
bing the surface of the body in order 
not to sunburn, but to keep up a 
brisk circulation. Every person 
should take a sponge or hand bath 
once, twice, or thi'ice a week in order 
to keep the millions of 'pores open. 
Hut few persons need this every day, 
and some may do well enough on 
once a week. Our habits are every 
second or third day, and a wash bowl 
and towel with a i)roperly warmed 
bed-room and moderately cold water, 
serve our purpost» most of the time 
as well as the bath tub; but in bath- 
ing as well as in diet, every person 
must, t<i some extent be a law unto 

The matter of diet is an all imj)ort- 
ant subject, and one in which it i« 
very difficult to make absolute i-ules. 
There are, however, a few general 
rules which should be observed bj 



every one- The process of mastica- 
tion and digestion, ordinarily, re- 
quires from four to five hours, and 
the habit of piecing between meals, 
or taking a second meal before the 
first has full time for digestion and 
absorption, is extremely harmful, a 
great strain to the nerve power, and 
certain to end in impaired digestion. 
ISto person should do active mental 
or vigorous bodily labor for a few 
minutes .prior to, and a full hour af- 
ter, eating, as it draws upon the 
nerve power, which properly belongs 
to the digestive process. As to the 
kinds of food, it is an old and perti- 
nent saying that what is wholesome 
for one person may be poisonous for 
another, so that every one must stu- 
dy their own idiosyncrasies. We how- 
ever, believe that pork or lard in any 
manner is objectionable, being the 
cause of many of the skin diseases 
and bilious troubles; cucumbers or 
radishes havescarcely any nutriment, 
and are hard to digest; pastries, 
condiments, highly seasoned food, 
relishes, and conglomerate mixtures, 
as mince pies, ice cream, etcetera, are 
better left for those who are willing 
to sacrifice their health and endanger 
their lives for social customs, festi- 
vals, and late hours. Those who 
prefer health should eat corn bread 
graham bread, or light wheat bread, 
plain vegetable dishes, and sparingly 
of meats. Two or three kinds of 
food at a meal is infinitely better 
than a dozen or more. Eat slowly, 
masticate thoroughly, drink but lit- 
tle fluid, and that neither hot noi- 
very cold. With these directions 
strictly followed, you will hardly be 
in danger of eating too much, but, 
of course, should not overload the 

Go to bed at early hours; and to 
the ladies we will drop the old, old 
•;emark; do not constrain the waist, 
the feet or any part of the body, by 
tight lacing, tight shoes, or other 
impediment, that will interfere with 
free movement. 



Country, Minerals, etc.,ofW't'n N.C. 

An important feature of our pam- 
phlet remains yet to be written, and 
one which we believe will enhance the 
future prospects of this place and the 
surrounding country as much, if not 
more, than any other agencies. A 
city with but a single railroad, how- 
ever liberal that may be, cannot ex- 
pect to conmiand trade and succeed 
in miscellaneous manufacturing like 
a place Avith competing lines, stretch- 
ing their iron arms to the various 
points of the compass to receive the 
traflc and transportation which their 
location and importance demand. 

The Roanoke & Southern has been 
long talked about, and its great de- 
sirability as a cross line, extending 
to Ronoake, Va., on the north, and 
to some point in South Carolina on 
the south was acknowledged by every 
progressive citizen, but no active 
steps towards its speedy consiimma- 
tion had been made until quite re- 
cently. The Virginia and North Car- 
olina construction company was form- 
ed in Winston in May last, a ma- 
jority of the stock being held here, 
and recently this organization has 
taken the contract to build 60 miles 
of the road, from here to Martins- 
ville, Va., upon which operations will 
be commenced at once, and it is ex- 
pected that the line will be finished to 
that place within a year. The con- 
struction company also has an op- 
tion on building the division from 
Martinsville to Ronoake, (55 miles), 
and the southern division as well. 
This company was incorporated with 
150,000 capital stock, and with au- 
thority to increase the stock to f 250,- 
000 when necessary. 

F. H. Fries, the Salem manufac- 
turer, is president, and Jas. A. Gray, 
cashier of the Wachovia National 
Bank, the secretary and treasurer, 
with a number of the most solid bus- 
iness men in the Twin Citj^ as stock- 
holdoT--^ in t'^? ontei'prise. 

OF WI.\ST().\.SA(J-:.M. N. r. 


It is nor our inteiitiv)!! to soar into 
tlip po(-ti<';il, but if you would see a 
land Messed with wealth of timber 
and minerals; with fertile valleys, 
spai-klino- waters and pure air. tlien 
• ■ome with us and travel over a space 
of about 60 miles through TJie beau- 
tiful Piedmont section of XorTJi Car- 

After yon cross the Virginia line, 
first you strike a ledge of soajjstone 
which may be sawed into slabs as 
large as a barn door, and so free 
fi-om g-rit that it can be dressed with 
a plane as smooth as marble. 80 
useful and ornamental has it been 
found that it has been quarried and 
hauled by the citizens for miles 
around for hearthstones, mantels, etc. 
With transportation, this would fur- 
nish thousands of tons of freight. 

A few miles on and you come to the 
mica. Many tlicnisand pounds of 
this have been mined and hauled 
away. This lead extends over five 
miles on the line. 

One mile further on you find lime, 
, on Snow creek, which was at one time 
thought to be the finest marble in 
the state. Another mile southward, 
and you come to the regular mag- 
netic iron belt. The ore from this 
rang-e has been worked for nearly 
a hundred years, makes the best of 
iron, and is no doul)t inexhaustible. 
Were it not for the dirt that has fal- 
len in since they stopped work, o wing- 
to the introduction of rolled iron, 
twenty or thirty veins, from four to 
ten feet thick, assa\ing i~) to 70 i)er 
cent, metallic iron, would be shown. 
This is not in pockets, but in regular 
fissure veins, no one of which, so fai* 
as we are informed, ever cut out or 
failed in the working of nearly 100 
years. This iron belt extends six 
miles, much of the way through the 
finest timber, to Danbury. Here the 
Dan river furnishes magnificent wa- 
t<^r power for any purpose. The ore. 
accordinii' to the analysis oi Dr. 
Sm^:L. :-^ -iiU.v;*- •];:• ;roni phospho- 
roi>, !iUii j'. ^oui ^p.e -imens analyzed 

the low^est showed 49 and the highest 
(')') pel- cent, inetailic iion. 

Passing tlie six miles, you ai-e at 
Danbury, a village noted for the 
healthfulness of its <-limate, with 
Iteautiful scenery on every side, wiiile 
within ci radius of five or six miles 
are at least twenty mint ral spring's, 
possessing- valuable medicinal prop- 
erties, which from Ma.y to Novendier 
would bring- not only hundreds. l)ut 
thou,sands, of pleasure and health 

Now we leave Danbury in the direc- 
tion of Germ.anton, cutting- i-ight 
through a hill of magnetic iron -ind 
manganese at one iriile. passing- with- 
in half a mile of jirobabl^' as fine 
granite as can b:^ found in Greenwood 
cemetery. Wecross the foot of Little 
Flatshoal creek and mountain, and 
find the real lead of nmnganese. an 
article used in the manufactur*- of 
steel rails, or Bessemer steel for other 
purpose.s, and which, Just at this 
time, is in very great demand, owing 
to the supplies running short in 
many places. This -vvill furnish to the 
H. eVi: S. R. K. tons of freight. 

In the same neighborhoo.l we find 
magnetic iron ore and graphite, a.l- 
most pure plumbago. This is about 
six miles north fi-om Germanton. all 
in the s-ame neighborhood. Tiuee 
miles fui-ther on are the different lime 
(juarries, which have been worked for 

Then we come to the coal on Town 
Fork, the veins of which at more than 
two or three planes are 18 inches to 
2'i. feet thick, and not more than 15 
feet from the surliice. 

Crossing the line into Forsyth, you 
have liirie and a heavy deposit of 
.serpentine, that in the near future 
will furnish many tons of freight to 
the Roanoke & Southern Railroad. 

Between this and Winston are 
many out<-rops of iron. maugan<^.se. 
limestone aiid otlur minerals, whose 
extent has never been investigated, 
and whose richness has never been 
tested. There is <'onsidernble iron at 



Urfjew's Creek, wliile a little to the 
uo-th and east, 18 miles i'rom Wirs- 
ton-Salem is an outcrop of coal, which 
is fchought to be invaluable and inex- 
hasistible. Tlie State of No]"th Caro- 
lina, has appropriated Sl.OOO for 
■developing these coal flelds. and a 
■mining expert is investigating- them. 

Ail over this section, says Judge 
K-eily, ff Pennsylvania, there are ores, 
■the finest his eyes ever rested en, 
nsinerals, timbei's and water powers 
that, ought and will mak^ this the 
bj^utiful Piedmont section. one of the 
richest and most prosperous coun- 
tries m the world. All it needs is 
capital, and this it will get as soon as 
4 capitalists know its resources. 

Home of this section may be west of 
t}1je powte followed by the Roanoke »!c 
iSouthern, but most of it will be trib- 
utary at least to that road, and in 
Sbddition to -» aluable minerals, it has 
thousands of acres of fertile valleys 
yet juideveloped, and which good 
transportation facilities wouhl cause 
to be developed at once. 

The construction and completion 
«!>f the Roanoke & Southern will bring 
many email miscellaneous manufac- 
turing enterprises here, and these 
assist .greatly in the prosperity of 
ajoy city- Winston-Salem is progres- 
:mye,. and every indication points to 
a inight future and confined pros- 
pjwijtj'. We believe that no better 
time for investment in real estate 
•evei- psresented than the present, and 
if j'Oudesire a residence or manufac- 
turing' hSte the Twin City presents 
snany advantages. The professional 
stnd mercantile departments are well 
3"e) jTi-sentfi 1 al i-eady . 



€hureh Street Livery. ■ 
The Mvery business is not so abso- 
lutely- essential to public progress as 
:ab\'e railroads, but they are a great 
4iOMvenien(;e, and Winston, as other 
Jive citi-'S, has a full quota of liveries. 
JP. G. Crntchfield was born in Orange 

county, and served as conductor for 
six years after the road was first 
opened to Salem. Eight years ago 
he op(Mied the livery, and two years 
later accepted R. M. Mc Arthur, of 
Virginia, as partner. The firm have 
a fine brick stable, run the transfei- 
line to all trains, and are fully 
equipped throughout. 

Livery, Feed nnd Sale Stable. 

Barhani & Holland op ned up in 
the livery business in February, 1887. 
and keep from eight to twelve horses, 
the usual line of buggies, carriages, 
phaetons, etc. N. B. Barham is son 
of the well known auctioneer at 
Brown's warehouse, and ft\miliar 
with horses for man.y yeai's. John 
^Y. Holland was born in Forsyth, but 
has spent most of his life in agricul- 
tural pursuits in Davidson county. 
Good turnouts are always at the call 
of customers. 

Livery and Sale Stable. 

J. M. Robinson was reared in Clin- 
ton county, and five years since 
established the livery, sale and feed 
business in Winston. His stables are 
on Third stree't, between Church and 
Chestnut, where he keeps from eight 
to ten horses, and all the requisites 
of livery, besides purchasing and sell- 
ing all kinds of desirable horses to 
meet the wants of customers or the 
demands of trade. 

The roads in the vicinity of the 
Twin-City are being macadamized antl 
recently a new bridge has been put 
across Salem Creek. Geo, H. Craft of 
Atlanta, Ga., was awarded the r-on- 
tract for the building, while the work 
was done under the supervision of J. 
A. McCorkle. The material was fur- 
nished by the Smith Bridge Co., of 
Toledo, Ohio, the total cost of the 
bridge and all work connected with 
its construction was $1,-1:19.17. The 
approaches to the bridge on either 
side for some distance is being nicely 
macadamized with crushed granite. 

OF \VI.\ST().\-SALEM. 



W. P. OI{]\[SI'>Y, 
Ovgnns, Pi;inos, Seiving M.-irhiiu's. 
Win. P. Orinsby is a iintivc of Fa\}x- 
land, has been a rosi<lent of this cil y 
for 14 .rears, and some two years au'o 
eiig-ag'cd ill the sale of the ])o])ular 
Domestie Smvinti' Ahieliines, of wliicli 
he has phieed ovei- SOO in the homes 
of Forsyth and sarroninlirisr conn- 
ties. TJiis machine is simple in its 
construction, easy to manaji-c and 
wide in its rang-e of work. Its pro- 
prietors have taken great pains to 
produce a first class machine in all 
respects, and twenty years of practi- 
cal use Inive demonstrated its supei'i- 
ority in many respei-ts over other 
competitors. Mr. Ormsby keej)s 
needles and supplies for all kinds of 
machines, and has facilities for re])air 
Avork. He is a practical musician, 
playing- 1st violin in the Salem Oi- 
chestra. He sells everything in 
pianos, organs or musical goods, 
doing tuning and repairing aw well. 
Mr. Ormsby makes a specialty of tlw 
Estey, Palace, and Kimball organs, 
the Stieff, Wheelock and other pianos 
although any desirable styleor make 
is furnislc'd to suit the order of the 

fieneriil Moichandisp. 
One of the largest mercantile hous- 
es in Salem is that mentioned above. 
H. W. Fries the senior partner is well 
known in manufacturing, H. A. 
Giersh is a native of Salem, six years 
a merchant and in "ST became a 
partner as above. Mr. Seiiseman is 
in the stove trade as noticed else- 
where. The firm keeps a full line of 
general merchandise and does a lead- 
ing trade. The firm keeps a full line 
of Ziegler Brothers popular manu- 
facture ot fine shoes, for men, women 
and children's wear, and the sales for 
the past twelve months show a large 
advance over previous years. I'lies. 
Giersh and Senseman have a eon- 

siderable jobbing tradi' l)iit give spe- 
cial attention to their large retail 
l)usiness. occupying three stori-^s with 
their wares and ai-e tlieleading house 
in Salem merchandise. 

Dry (iooiLs, (rroii^ries and Notions. 
L. N. Clinard is a native of David- 
son Co. and his partner,!". B. Brookes, 
from ForsythCo. bnt both areoldreai- 
dents of the place. Mi. Clinard having- 
for IV) yea-s been in the offiec of 
Messrs. Fries and Mr. Brookes having 
been in the revenue service and in 
merchandisinsi' as one of the fir:Ti of 
Reed Br.)th;'rs & B:-ooke.s. 

A year ago the jjresent copartner- 
ship was formed for the coudtict of 
j;cneral merchandise, of which they 
(•arry a good assortineiit umler tljiit 
general heading-, and their first .ywu- 
ofsale.-: ha.^ larg-ely exceeded the ex- 
])ectations of Messi> C!inai*d & 

(jiorPi-y and LivHv Stalilc. 

1). A. Spa ugh is a native of David- 
son county, and has bet^n in trade at 
Salem for fourteen year.s. Mr. S. 
keeps a full line of groieries and u 
stok of merchandise. He 
makes large shipments of fresh fi-uitR 
and produce, and is a progTessive 

At his livery stable in rear of Hun- 
ter block Mr. Spaugh keejjs seven to 
ten good hors'es ami a full outfit of 
bug'gies, carriages, ph.vtous, etc. His 
merchandise trade is principally rv- 
tail. but he does a fair line of jobbing 
of well. 


Stovfs. Tinnnji'. Etc. 

Stoves, tin, and sheet iron merchan- 
dise has lieen conducted at the >f|gn 
of the Bu; Cottee Pot in Salem for the 
])ast (juarter of a century, and three 
year- agoit wasininhasctl V»y Giei-sh. 
Senseman ».S: Co.. the .senior partner 
retirint"- from the trade with Jan '88. 



leiv-'es the tinn name as above, H. E. 
Frips being- the "Co." Tobacco flues 
are one of the specialties of the firm 
and tin ware at wholesale and re- 
tail. A line of grates, heaters, cook- 
stoves and house goods are kept 
by the firm and the wants of the (ms- 
toniers carefully looked after. 

Cabinet Shop — Salem. 
Karsten Pet-rson, of Denmark, to the Southern States in 1806 
as a missionary to the Indians. 
About ten years later he located in 
Saiem, and opened up the cabinet 
trade in a store house that had been 
built a quarter of a- century before, 
and this, although having seen the 
storms of a hundred winters, is still 
occupied by W. & E. Peterson, the 
former lieing past 70 years of age 
and still working with the saw and 
plane on the spot where he was born. 

Groceries and Confectionerv. 

H. W. Shore was born in this vi- 
cinity and has lived in Salem over 35 
years. He was for a long time a clerk 
in the post-office and served for thir- 
teen years as postmaster. In Dec. 
82 he opened his stock of merchan- 
dise at the corner of Main and New 
Shallowford St. where he keeps a full 
line of family and fancy groceries, 
queensware, confectioneries and ci- 
gars. Mr. Shorehas a large acquaint- 
ance throughout the i-ounty. 


Millinery and Fancy Goods. 
For 20 years Mrs. T. B. Douthit 
has administered to the millinery 
waiits of Salem ■ and right well has 
she done this, to hold a. large share 
of the custom in that line i)i a city of 
this size. Mrs. D. is an experienced 
milliner and also keeps expert hands 
in the custom depa.rtment. The line 
of ribbons, fancy goods etc.. is exten- 
sive, and she is to be c(jngratulat<^d 
upon 20 ypars of successful trade. 


Winston-Salem is a central point 
for a large section of country, Salem 
having- before the days of a railroad 
been a mercantile town of large im- 
portance, while Winston of more re- 
cent and rapid development now 
takes the lead in merchandising. The 
superior richness and flavor of fruits 
grown in this section has nmde for 
us an extensive dried fruit demand 
and in an exeeptionallj' good year 
more than 100 -i-ar loads, aggregat- 
ing over two million pounds have 
been shipped from the Twin- City to 
the northern aiid western markets. 
The average yield is 40 car loads of 
dried apples, 20 of peaches, and 30 
or more of blackberries, pears, cher- 
ries, raspberries, huckleberries, etc. 

There are ahvays those who are 
willing to look on the dark side and 
decry our progress. While the l)uild- 
mg boom of Winston two or three 
years since may have been pushed be- 
yond a healthy growth, an intimate 
acquaintance with the leading mer- 
chants and manufacturers, warrants 
us in saying that lousiness is st;->adily 
increasing and the output of 1888 
will show a decided improvement on 
that of last yea/. This place has 
more than a hundred mercantile 
firms and as our work is now on its 
last third we shall necessaril- skip 
some minor concerns and make very 
b'.-ief reference to others. We do not 
claim it to be a complete index, but 
hope to give a fair representation to 
all houses of special prominence and 
we do no injustice to others by start- 
ing with one of the oldest houses in 
trade as it is also among the 
largest. It is our purpose to give 
merited prominence in the various 
lines of trade to those houses which 
add most to the importance of the 
city as a trade center. 

The postage on these panq^hlets 
will be 2 cents each. Mail them to 
vour friends and customers. 


OF A\'L\ST( 


(h'nenil Wholesale hikI Ri'tnil Mcr- 


The above firm ai-e (ies,>i-vin<i- of 
a libei-al space as tliis houise lias long- 
been identified with the development 
of Winston, the senior ])artner now- 
being- one of the oldest niei-chauts 
in the place. Harman Miller, Robert 
Grav, Sullivan & Hell, A\'illiam Har- 
row, F. L. Gon-ell, Holdei-A: Fain-loth, 
Hodgin cV' Sullivan and some smal- 
ler firms had preceded Mr. Minshaw, 
I'ut Winston had less than ."iOO inhab- 
itants when hecomineiiced trade- here 
in 1N70. He is a native of Cliatham 
county and came tothisiilacein l.S(*>7. 
The firm style was llinslmw kVo. 
at first and has since made several 
changes. The present large structure 
was erected by llinshaw Hrothei-s 
about ten years ago, has three Hoors 
70x70, comprisiniieU'veii apartments 
all well filled. Two elevators are in 
use and as it is easier to tell what the 
firm does not keep than to give their 
lonff list of wares we will simply say 
that ever\'thing that comes under 
the head of general merchandise, 
(clothing- and millinery alone except- 
ed,) is found in the wholesale and re- 
tail emporium of llinshaw cVc Medea- 
ris. N. H. Medearis is a native of 
Forsyth county, began as salesman 
in the house ten years ago ami last 
year be<'ame a partner. Mr. Hinsliaw 
as before noted has taken an interest 
in the tobacco develo])ment from its 
incipiency he having fitted up the 
first ware room foi- tobacco sales. 
He was prominent in the first move- 
ment for a graded school, has be(>n 
connected with the city government 
and as chairman of theconimittee on 
internal improvement has taken an 
active part in the development of 
railroads. This firm in company with 
F. & H. Fries, and by the assistance 
of dis])lay room from Col. (lorrell, 
for three' years conducted a wheat 
and cattle fair in Winston. 

In addition to an extensive n'tail 



trade in all general lines of goods the 
firm of Hinshawi' .Medearis do a large 
jobbing traile for a radius of a hun- 
dred miles oi- more from Winston. 
Their aggi-egate sales reachinu' about 
|;2:>0,0()0. The firm gives omjiloy- 
ment to a dozen hands, carries .'^:{r).- 
000 to .if."iO,000 in stock, purchases 
lai'ge quantities of produce and dried 
fruits and from its liberal ami pro- 
gressive' spirit contributes a full share 
towards the importance of Winston 
as a coTiiiiiercial cciitei-. 


Dry (roods, Grocprif.s, Fi^rt ilizt^rs He, 

Sagacity and good judgment is as 
certainly necessary for comm<>i-cial 
success as it is for professional or 
manufacturing- |)i-os])erity statistics 
show that more than oi\e half of all 
who engage in mercantile pursuits 
fail or abandon the business during 
the first five years of trade. W. T. 
Carter began merchandising in 1S7-t 
and nineyears ago moved to Winston. 
Five years since he consolidated with 
Brown & Carter, of warehouse fame, 
in the pi-e.-^-nt mercantile venture. A 
comjilete line of dry goods groceries, 
millinery, notions, etc. at wholesale 
or retail is found here, larg(^ assort- 
ment of fine shoes, gents furnishing 
goods, in fact all the requirements of 
trade, clothing and hardwai-e except- 
ed. The firm occupy a finely lighted 
room in Bi-own's Opera House block, 
corner of Main and Fom-th streets, 
having a large basement storage and 
two warehouses. They are extensive 
dealers in fertilizei-s kee])ing this jiro- 
duct as well ;is other heavy storage 
in theirrailroad wai-ehouse. Messrs. 
C;H'tei-s and Hrown are among our 
most infiuential citizens and the firm 
is solid in every resjiect. The part- 
ners have largely been intei-ested in 
developing the commercial interest 
of Winston and the transactions of 
the house compai-e favorably with 
other leading- mercantile establish- 



The lioiij^e of 
Vaughn &: Pep- 
per may well he 
classed among 
our leading' mer- 
chants and its 
rapid increase in 
trade is a sure in- 
dication of the 
elevated com- 
mercial standard 
o n w h i c 1) t li e 
operations are 
based. J. B. 
Vaug'hn is a- na- 
tive of Rocking- 
ham county and 
l)eg'an business 
in Winston as 
one of the firm of 
Vaug-h & Prath- 
er some 14 years 
ago. Ldter, 
with Maj, Brown 
he started the Geneinl Merchi 

hardware business now conducted by 
Brown, Rogers cV: Co. and about five 
years since in company with T. R. 
Pepper of Stokes county, for many 
years merchandising in Danbury, the 
present business was entered into. 
The firm at first occupied the Ogburn 
corner, but their buiness had a rap- 
id increase and a year ago they 
completed the fine brick structure of 
which we give a correct illustration 
above. The building is 30x90 front- 
ing on Liberty and having an entrance 
on Fourth street. The first floor is 
occupied with the retail trade, and it 
is a dull day indeed, when the clerks 
are not busy here. The second and 
third floors are entirely taken up 
with the wholesale trade while the 
basement is used for heavy storage. 
A warehouse in the rear and another 
near the depot are filled with their 
merchandise. The output of busi- 
ness the first year was about 
125,000 and that'of 1888 will prob- 
ably be ten fold that amount show- 
ing a phenomenal increas(^ for five 
years of trade. A dozen persons find 

indise at Wholes.-ile unci Retail. 
employment and the firm does a flour- 
ishing retail and jobbing Inisiness 
throughout western North Carolina. 

An Exclusive Wholesale Bouse. 
AA'inston has a number of jobbing- 
houses in connection with the retail 
business, but as yet has only one 
house devoted exclusively to the 
wholesaling of general merchandise 
and that is the above. Capt. J. E. 
(lilmer is a native of Greensboro, and 
commenced the mercantile trade in 
1867. Fifteen years since he came to 
Winston and opened up a stock of 
general merchandise, doing both a 
retail and jobbing-trade. Tlie whole- 
sale business soon became a promi- 
nent feature, and in 1881 he closed 
up the retailing and turned his at- 
tention entirely to jobbing. From 
time to time the Captain has ouilt 
additional room, until his stoi'e now 
fi'onts 55 feet on Main stre^^t and his 
last structure has both basement 
• and upstairs room, besides a large 
warehouse for heavv groceries on the 

OF \vl\st().\"-sali:m. 


rear end oftlie lot. A full assort iiicnt 
of grooeries, provisions, drv goods, 
shoes, trunks and evei-ything coniing 
under the head of general luerchau- 
dise is carried by this house, the 
trade reaches out over Western, N. 
('. and adjacent counties in other 
states. We have previously nuMition- 
ed Capt. Gilmer as a partner in the 
Orinoco warehouse and in the firm 
of Edmunds ii: (Jilmer leaf dealers. He 
is one of Winston's progressive mer- 
chants, whose enterpriseand business 
tact has brought him to the front 
and his vai'ious intei-ests are import- 
ant factors in the general wclfan' of 
the city. 

Dry Gooih Clothing and Furnishing. 

The separation of different lines of 
trade is an enterprise that enables a 
firm to cany a lai'ger and moi-e com- 
plete assortment in a special branch 
and give closer attention to its de- 
tails, and the above firm has done 
its share to.vanls the division of th(^ 
various lines of trade in this city. 
Three separate stores are conducted 
by this house. The clothing and 
gents" furnishing house occupies the 
double front liu.Kton building 4()xSr» 
feet and is said to be the largest room 
and best assortment of clothing to 
l)e found in the state of North Caroli- 
na, comprising all sizes and (pialities 
demanded in the trade. Two rooms 
of the tine (Jray block, 2r)x85 each, 
and communicating by an archway, 
are filled with a complete assortment 
in their lines. One department com- 
prises dry goods, carpets and millin- 
ery, the other is dcn-oted to hats and 
shoes exclusively. The shoe store is 
thoroughly tilled with everything de- 
sirable in foot wear. We cannot go 
into the minutia of this extensive 
concern, but will sinqily say that 
Hosenbacker Bros, are shrewd buy- 
ers, are fully alive to the interests of 
their customers and there is nothing 
that a lady could desire in diy goods, 
domestics or notions but what th(\v 

endravoi- to kecj). A dozen clerks 
tind employment in these three stores 
and a large business is transacted. 
The jtartners are of (}erman nativity 
and in trade at Areola four years 
prior to engaging in the trade of this 
place in ISMO. 

W. I). Baity S' Sons, Projuii^tovs. 
It has long been anestablislu-d fact 
that UKMrantile houses ba.sed strictly 
upon the cash system can afford to 
sell goods at a closer margin than 
credit stores, as they have no bad 
debts to cut down the average per- 
rentage. save the time of a book 
keeper, collector and loss of intei-est 
on delayed payments. Such tii-nis 
usually ])Ui'cliase, as well as to .sell, 
for spot cash, thus .securing good 
bargains and saving heavy discounts. 
To some deah^rs tln' establishnifMit of 
a strictly cash business appeai-s ini- 
liracticable but the large trade of 
the Bee Hive Cash Stoiv which was 
ojjened in the IJuxton-Shelton block 
on Main Street opposite the Court, by W. 1). Baity c't Sons, of 
Yadkin county, April first of this 
yeai-, is a sntficient evidence that peo- 
])le who pay cash ap])reciate tliese 
advantages. This tii'in haslong been 
conducting a store in Yadkin county 
and have recently closed that out in 
oi-der to put their entire energy and 
capital in the enterpriseat this ])lace. 
Theii- stock is one of the general mer- 
chandise, which nneives daily addi- 
lions in order to keep it fully up to 
tile i-e(pnrements. The three months 
of trade here has fully reached the 
most sanguine expectation of the 
})artners and W. I). Baity & Sons are 
welcomed to the Twin-( 'itv as men live spirit of business will ad- 
vance (nir commercial interests. 

.1. TISK&CO., 
Cif'W'val Mt'Vihandise Housf^. 
.Jacob Tise was born in Davidson 
county but located hei-e l)etoie Win- 
ston was coinmmenced. Mr. Tise 



was one of tlie early mayors of Win- 
ston and in 1865 in company with 
S. A. Ogburn he began merchandising 
as Tise & Ogburn. Changes have 
been made in tlie firm several 
times, but Mr. J. Tise still remains, 
with C. H. Tise now as managing 
partner. Jacob Tise erected the row 
of a lialf dozen stores from the origi- 
nal room on the corner of Main and 
Fourth street to and including, the 
fine galvanized iron front which bears 
his name. This store of general mer- 
chandise does a large trade and has 
been in business for 23 years. C. H. 
Tise has been connected with the 
house from boyhood. He is the pat- 
entee of an improved well fixture 
which has become very popular in 
this section from its great conven- 
ience and absolute safety for children 
to handle. Mr. should make a 
fortune on this if its merits were ful- 
ly known. There are thousands now 
in use and room for hundreds of 
thousands more. Manufacturers 
would do well to correspond with him 
it they desire to produce a useful and 
good selling article. 

D. S. REID, 
Genera,! Merchandise. 
Among our large dealers in general 
merchandise the name of D, S. Ileid 
should have a prominent mention. 
Mr. II. is a native of Guilford county, 
came to this place eleven years ago 
and began merchandising.' The bus- 
iness has had a steady increase from 
the first and to accommodate his 
large stock in trade, the convenient 
two story brick 25x95 feet at tUe 
corner of main and second streets 
was built by him and first occupied 
in Jan. 1885. This has an elevator 
and other conveniences. Mr. Keid 
holds an extensive retail trade and 
does a fair share of jobbing. The 
stock comprises e\-erything usually 
classed underthehead of general mer- 
chandise clothing and millinery 
alone excepted. A warehouse for 
storage of fertilizers, in which he 

has a large trade, adjoins the rail- 
road track and Mr. Reid has gained 
a wide city and country custom in his 
eleven years of trade here. 
And Cheap John's Quai'ters. 
D. D. Schouler, proprietor of both 
the above houses was brought up in 
the mercantile trade of New York 
city and five years ago located in 
this place. He keeps a large line 
of dry goods, millinery, fancy goods, 
notions and stationery next door to 
the post-ofiice, a few months since on 
account of his extensive ladies' trade 
having removed the gents' furnish- 
ing, clothing and goods in that line 
to a store room across the street in 
the Liberty block where auction sales 
are conducted every night. The dry 
goods house is furnished with the el- 
evated cash system, the counter sunk 
unique show case plan, and is con- 
veniently arranged throughout. Mr. 
Schouler is well satisfied with his suc- 
cess in Winston and has invested in 
real estate and buildings to the im- 
provement of this place. 

General Merchandise. 
R. L. Thornton is a native of 
Washington, N. C, and was in mer- 
cantile pursuits there for several 
years. He was for a time in the mill 
business at New Berne, coming from 
there to W'inston in 1885. Mr. 
Thornton bought out the stock of J. 
F. Prather in the Bitting block, made 
large additions, and his salesroom, 
26x90, is filled with everything that 
goes to make up a general merchan- 
dise stock, hardware alone excepted. 
To many persons it is a decided con- 
venience, to be able to purchase their 
dry goods, staple and fancy groce- 
ries, boots, shoes, hats and clothing 
in the same establishment. Mr. T. 
not only keeps these, but crockery, 
house-fi;rnishing goods, an;vi:hing for 
men, women or children's wear, and 
the endless variety of notions so 
essential in the family. 

OF \vi\st().\-sali:m. 

Main Street Clofliier. 
Born in Pruhisia, Jo.sppl) Jii(()l)s 
emigrated to Ampricji in ISfil) and 
was in the clothing' trade at different 
places prior to locatino- in Winston 
abont a dozen years tigo. V>y integ- 
rity and intelligent bnsiness denling 
Mr. Jacobs has ascended the bid- 
der of mercantile fame nntil lie holds 
a high position and carries a good 
stock in all the b'nes of men's Itoys" 
and youths" clotliingas well as a gtMi- 
eral line of gents' fnT-nislung goods 
jewelry etc. Mv. J. has served \A'inston 
faithfully as a commissioner and 
been honored witli a reelecti(jn to the 
ofHce. His rooms are at the conier 
of Main and Third streets in tlie bns- 
iness center of the city. 


Dry Goods. Shoes and (iroreries. 

H. A, AVatkins ^.^ Hro. are both 
natives of Davidson county the sen- 
ior partner having commenced mer- 
chandising in Lexington ten years 
ago and been for six years past in 
the trade of AVinston. Jos. J. Wat- 
kins, a teacher for many years in 
Davie and Yadkin counties has recent- 
ly ])uurchased an interest in the es- 
tablislunent and the firm title has 
been changed to the above. II. A. 
Watkins tV: Bro. kee]j a good outlay 
of dry goods and clothing and are 
just preparing to add a lull line of 
groceries for the accommodation of 
thir customers. The house is on 
Main street near s(H-ond. 

H. A. HESTER c*c SOX. 
General Stores. 
H. A. Hester is a native of this 
county, has been lo years in trade 
and with the present year acce])ted 
his son as a partner in the business. 
They have a st^-ck of mercliandise on 
North Liberty street, AVinston. and 
have recently established a store at 
the lower end of Main street, Salem, 
thus being prepared to cai^ture the 
trade from either direction. 

\V. L. FBAMvLLN c^c <<).. 

Shoe and Notion House. 
\\ . L. l-'raidclin is a native fif Car- 
teret county, and has been three 
years merchandising here, having 
been in the trade for half a ilozen 
years at Durham prior to coming to 
tins place. The hrm oc(aij)v a double 
fr-ont store on Liberty street, and 
k"ep a full stock of shoes and hats, 
besides an endless variety of no- 


Drygoods, Notions, Etc. 
T. S. Fuller is a native of Franklin 
county, and came from Raleigh liere 
in 1(SS-1:. I. W. Durham is noticed 
elsewhere as a marble dealer. Th«^ 
firm have been in business since 
April, 1880, and occupy the granite 
fionl Stein block, with their assort- 
ment of drygoods, shoes, hats, etc. 

JJry Goods. Groceries, Etc. 
Both A'irginians, and commenced 
in the trade of AA'inston in 1875, at 
the corner, which was first used in 
merchandise by Harman Millershort- 
ly after the village was started. 
Clark I'c Ford keep a general stock of 
merchandise, and have done a fairly 
successful trade. 

Hardware, Stoves, Etc. 

Hardware, Machinery, Agr'l Inipl's. 
A'aughn, Brown «.V' Carter under the 
firm name of A'aughn cV: Co.. started 
the hardware business in 1S7S and 
eight years ago J. M. Rogers ])urclias- 
ed the interest of Vaughn and the 
business has since ])eeurun as Rrown. 
Rogers «.\: Co. .Mr. Rogers is fi-om 
Charleston, S. C. and Messi-s Brown 
».^ Carter are our well-known ware- 
house men. The firm have a double 
front store under the Opera House 
and a large basement to the same. 
Tlie building is IH) f(>et deep and the 
t)Utlav in all lines of hardware is com- 



plete, the business ha viny,- been great- 
ly extended under Mr. Rogers' 
management. A splendid assortment 
of stoves is kept and just at present 
special attention is directed to the 
Gauze Door Range which has many 
features of merit for roasting, baking 
etc. Agricultural implements and 
farming machinery embrace a large 
part of their business. Geiser thresh- 
ers, horse powers, grain di'ills, Mc- 
Cormick mowers and binders, steam 
engines, mills supplies, belting, Wads- 
worth's Silicia paints (iised by the 
U. S. Government,) white lead and 
oils are sold by them. A large and 
varied stock of buggies and all kinds of 
carriage material are found here and 
the special wants of the farming com- 
munity have been considerately cared 
for by Brown, Rogers & Co. in the 
make up of their large stock. 


Hardware, Farming Machinery, Etc. 

R. R. Crawford was born in Rowan 
county reared in Charlotte and 
since the war had been in the hard- 
ware trade at Salisbury until he re- 
removed to Winston in 1883. Mr. 
Crawford has given special care to 
the requirements of the farming com- 
munity and is widely known in West- 
ern N. C, his travle in machinery, ag- 
ricultural implements, fa r m e r s " 
supplies and iiouse furnishing 
goods extending over Forsyth and 
adjoining counties. In grain ma- 
chinery he makes a specialty of the 
well known Deering Twine Binder, 
keeping also the Deering and Meadow 
King Mowers. 

The business occupies four floors in 
the Ogburn •corner, at Fourth and 
Liberty streets having a double sales- 
room on the first floor. In addition 
to machinery and general hardware. 
Mr. Crawford keeps wagons, buggies, 
carriages, supplies, mechanics' tools, 
sporting goods and the endless varie- 
ty of sundries which go to make up 
a tirst-class hardware establishment. 
Institutions of tlii-; magnitude at- 

tract business to our city and assist 
in making the Twin-City an import- 
ant commercial center. 

Hardware and Crockery. 

S. E. Allen is a native of Granville 
county and has been in trade at this 
place since 1876. His accommoda- 
tions and stock are much the same 
as the two above houses, with the 
addition of crockery. Since compil- 
ing our article on Electric Light, 
Capt. Allen has been elected as secre- 
tary of the company. He is also sec- \ 
retary and treasurer of the Piedmont ; 
Springs Company which has been 
formed with the design of advertising 
the fine chalybeate waters in Stokes 


Tin Manufacturing and Stoves. 
Is a native of England, in America 
from childhood, and five years in his 
present business. He keeps stoves 
and manufactures any kind of tin 
and sheet iron ware. He also does 
roofing, spouting and the whole line 
of trade. 

Drugs, Paints and Sundries. 


Drugs, Paints and Drug Sundries. 

Dr. V. O.Thompson is from Warren 
county, N. C. Pie graduated from 
the University of Penna in 1859 and 
served as assistant surgeon in the 
late war, returning to Warren county 
where he practiced for several years. 
Jan. 1st 1874 Dr. Thompson com- 
menced in the drug trade of Winston 
was burned out Dec. '79, rebuilt in 
1880 and in just one year from his 
first conflagration sulfered the second 
loss by fire. He then purchased his 
present stand on the street opposite 
the ('ourt house where he keeps a full 
line of drugs, medicines, paints and 
sundries in all their varieties. Dr. 
Tliompson has an elegant wall soda. 


apparatus which cost $1,500 and in 
which the combination of forci<>-n 
marbles gives a hiii'lilv artistic cftt'ct. 
Dr. Thompson is th(^ oldest drn<i'<i-is1 
in AMnston and his store has always 
been kept up to the T-ecjuirenients of 
trade, containing,' evei-ytliing usually 
found in a first-class drug- store. 
John Bynum has been chief cierk in 
the house for many years. 

/ Drugs, Merlirines. Puints, Suiulvies. 

I H. C. Ashcraft is a native of Mon- 
V^ roe, Union county, X.(". and hasbeej 
in the drug trade for twelve years. 
B. B. Owens is a Pennsylvanian eight 
years a druggist and three years 
since began clerking for Gray & Mar- 
tin. A year later in company with 
Mr. Ashcraft, ])urchasing the present 
business. There are but four drug 
stores in the Twin-City and this fact 
enables all of them to keej) a full 
stock thus accommodating the pub- 
lic better than a half dozen or more 
smaller stcu-es would do. Ashcraft & 
Ow'ens are Ijoth in-actical men and 
study the requirements of their trade 
so the assortment in drugs, chemicals, 
sundries, lead oil and i)aint goods in 
general is kept filled up to the de- 
mand while special c;ire is given to 
filling ])rescriptions. The usual soda 
fountain and other etceteras are 
found and with the completion of the 
Wachovia bank corner the firm will 
have an elegant room in the form of 
an L fronting botli on .Main and 
Third streets. 

Druggists and Opfni House Lessees. 
Smith & Brown fitted up the com- 
modious drug rooms near the corner 
Fourth and Liberty streets in 1SS2 
and a year since F.C. Biowupm-chas- 
ed the' interest of ('apt. Smith mak- 
ing the firm name lirown & Browji. 
The Browns are both natives of Da- 
vie couutv, N. C. having come to 
Winston iii 1872, tind in ISSO engag- 
ed with ('apt. Smith in the drug en- 

terprise. F. ('. Brown has long been 
])rincipal salesman with W. T. Carter 
vV: Co. The store is finely fitted up 
having hand.-ome shelf wjuv, soda 
fountain, etc The management is 
in the hands of W. C. Brown whose 
long service in Ijusiness leaves it ini- 
nece^sary for us to add fuither com- 
ment. This firm also has the man- 
agement of Brown's Opera 

Jewelry Stores. 

w. T. vo(;leh. 

Wntrhps, Clocks. Jewelry. Etc. 
Phillip C!iristo])her A'ogler. boi-n in 
1 72.') in Palatinate, come to this vi- 
cinity from Broad Bay. Maine, in 
1770 and from him the N'oglei-s of 
Forsyth county descended. John 
Vogler commen<*ed the Watchmakers 
trade in Salem about 1S(K) and this 
and the Gunsmith tra<le were favor- 
ite occupations of the family. \Vm. 
T. Vogler learned l»oth and has ItetMi 
in tlie jeweler's Imsiness for 2'J years. 
InlS70 Mr. Vogler becameconvinced 
that Winston would make the cen- 
ter of trade and removed his jewelry 
l)usiness hei-e, still retaining a resi- 
dence in Salem. The location is on 
Main street opposite the Merchants 
hotel and the store is well w<u'th a 
visit as it contains a large stock in 
all departments of the jewelry trade 
and is handsomely fitted up. It has 
S nickel sliowcases, two common, and 
one superb wall case which was man- 
ufactured by A. C. Vogler in Salem at 
a cost of over $150. This is a mode] 
of elegance and convenience am<l is 
filled with fine silverware, etc. The 
outlay of docks, watches, jewelry 
and oj)tical gooils is very large and 
all the re(]nirements of a complete 
jewelry house is found here. Mr. Vog- 
ler is assistive! in the store and rej)air 
department by his son Henry and W. 
F. Lineback. The establishment 
from its commencement here has meri- 
ted and enjoyed thepjitr(Uiage of our 
best citizens. 



Watchmnker and Jeweler. 
Joseph Bevan commenced the 
Avatchniaker's trade in liis native 
city of Baltimore in 1840, and still 
puts in his time faithfully at the 
bench. Four j^ears ago he moved 
from Williamsport to this city and 
opened up an attractive salesroom 
on Main street, v\here he keeps a well 
selected stock of docks, watches and 

Millinery Stores. 

MUlinery and Fancy Goods. 
Mrs. Stanton commenced the milli- 
nery trade in this city in 1870, and 
three or four years later erected the 
building- now occupied b3'^ the firm 
nearly opposite Hotel Fountain. Mrs. 
Merritt became a partner in the trade 
some five years ago, and the firm 
keep a very complete stock in the mil- 
hnery and fancy goods line. The 
cases and shelves are tilled with a su- 
perb outlay of hats, ribbons, floM'ers 
and feathei's ; laces, trimmings and 
fancy goods in general. The trim- 
ming department is handsomely light- 
ed, and anj' desirable style of ladies' 
head-gear is furnished to the order ot 

Miliinery Store. 

Ada S. Masten is a native of this 
State, residing in New York for some 
time, and is an experienced milliner 
and trimmer. She opened up a stock 
of goods in her present commodious 
rooms opposite Merchant's Hotel, 
April, 1888, and has already secured 
quite a large patronage. Mrs. Mas- 
t-^n keeps some fancy goods, every- 
rlr.Tig desirable in millinery, and en- 
'i-.tvors to reproduce New York styles 
ir: r^r'ppi'.'P.? . Her rooms are in the 
i.j.-.ri- • sl^- ot the city, on Main 
stre:-*t. near tlie Wachovia, bank 
corn ii'. 

Ice, Coal, Confect's, Groceries, Etc. 

D. H. KING, 
Coal, Ice, and Bottling Works. 
In 1882 I). H. King, of Richmond. 
Va. opened up the ice and coal trade 
in the Twin-City. He erected suitable 
storage buildings, sheds and scales, 
at the corner of Third and Depot 
streets adjoining the railroad ami at 
once commanded a good trade. Mr. 
King lias convenient delivery wagons 
and is prepared to assist his people 
in keeping warm or cool, as circum- 
stances may demand. He handles 
the anthracite coal of Shamokin, Pa.. 
the bituminous of Pocahontas, Va.. 
Black Diamond, of Tennessee and 
Cumberland coal of Maryland. He 
purchas<^s the Kennebec ice from his 
mother, Mrs. Jane King, who is an 
extensive dealer in Richmond Va. Mr. 
King is abreast of the times in all his 
methods giving our people tlie accom- 
modations of large cities in these re- 
spects. A couple of years since he 
purchased the corifectionery business 
of A. H. Potter, on Main street op- 
posite the Merchants Hotel, where a 
large assortment of confectioneries is 
to be found at all times. The estab- 
lishment has a handsome soda foun- 
tain and ice cream parlors connected 
therewith. A year since Mr. K. Pur- 
chased a bottling apparatus and puts 
up, for the wholesale trade, miner- 
al waters, soda flavors and the 
popular Vienna Cabinet and Tivoli 
beers. Altogether Mr. King is one of 
the stirring business men who assist 
in making this a live city. 

Fancy and Staple Groceries. 
A house confining itself closely to 
one line of trade, is able to make a 
special studv of that branch and F. 
B. Efird located .here Jan. 1886 and 
has given his entire attention to sta- 
ple and fancy groceries. The result 
has been higlily satistactor^' to the 
proprietor and it is only proper to 
say that he conducts one of the lead- 



ing gTOcerj houses of Winston. It 
is not surpassed for neatness attrac- 
tiveness or completeness of assort- 
ment. He does a considerable job- 
bing trade in confectioneries cigai-s 
and fancy groceries; but in heavy 
stock, as flour, hams, etc., carries 
only what is required for the local 
trade. Mr. Efird lias built u]) a rai>- 
id and successful trade in his two 
years of stay in this place. 

H. J. WILLIAMS v"c CO.. 
Bakers nnd (iioi-ers. 

Bread is the staff of life and every 
city must needs have its bakery. The 
above Arm has recently commenced 
business at the corner of Fourth and 
Main streets and aie delivering to 
customers anywhere in the city, fresh 
bread, cakes and pies every morning, 
H. J. Williams is a native of 1*. I. 
removing to Virginia 25 years ago 
and for 12 yea.s past at Greensboro. 
G. J. Stan* is of English descent and 
well known to our i)eople. The firm 
besides bakery and confectionery 
goods k^eps groceries and produce in 

J. G. YOrXG. 
Mevchn ndise Broker. 

Maj. J. G. Young "w;is raised in 
Charlotte, N. C. and for eight years 
was connected with the transporta- 
tion-department of the Pi<'dmont Air 
Line. He located in Winstiui five 
years ago in the brokerage business 
represents the packing house of Ar- 
mour & Co., of Chiciigo, in meats, 
lard, etc., deals entensively in grain, 
flour and coal, the annual transac- 
tions averaging about .f 100, 000 
and making an important output of 

j. F. FULTON. 
Merchandise Broker, 

Is a native of Stokes county, came 
to Winston in ISS"), was salesman 
for 1). S. Roid and Maj. Young prior 
to engaging in the i)rokerage and 
commission business in 1Ss7. Mr. 

Fulton i-epresents t he ( hicaoo I'.u |<- 
ing and Provision ('omi)any, and 
fleals in lard, meat, pi-ovisions 
and grain with monthly sales 
amounting to nearly .f."., ()()(). His 
office is next dooi- to Hinshaw & Me- 
<leju-'s and the \varehou.s<'sfoi-the bus- 
iness are jienr the railroa<l depot. 

.1. S. (JUrUH, 
(iroceries, Vetaet aides, I'Jtr. 
\\i\s born in this vicinity and raised 
in tai-ming. He took charge of the 
city water works ])umps in 18S:},and 
has since been at that post. At the 
old Helo foundry sit(> he has a fine 
garden plante<l out, and in his store, 
recently opened up oti Liberty sti-eet, 
will sell largely of vegetables of his 
own ])roduct, besides general gi-oce- 
ries. Mr. G. has 1,000 watermelon 
]ilants growing, (j,000 cabbages, and 
various other products. 

(iroreries. Provisions, Produce. 
A native of Iredell county, J. F. 
Harris came to this city a dozen 
vears ago and for six veai-s clerked 
for .1. Tise. In 18.S8 Mr. Han-is 
commenced trade for himself, and a 
couple of veai's since he secured the 
fine brick coi-ner at 4-th and Cher- 
stre ts where he keeps a good assort- 
ment in the grocery line, giving spe- 
cial attention to the handling of 
counti'v produce. 

D. D. Parlor, Manager, 
Was opened in April last, at the cor- 
ner of Sixth and Old Town streets. 
Mr. Paylor is of Caswell (M)unty. for- 
nieily in the grocei-y trade, and for 
ten ye;irs past a l)ook-keepei- for dif- 
ferent firms of this place. His stoik 
is silei-t family groceries. 


liaki-r. i'oritertioner. ICtc 

Is a nativ" of Salem an<l coninienc- 

ed trade there in lSG(). ten years lat- 

>'' :ie s;";ui"d j- I v.inch business in 



Winston and still conducts both 
houses. He has a bakery with all 
its requinites, keeps a full assortment 
of confectioneries and manufactures 
his plain candies. He is an extensive 
manufacturer of ice cream, keeps a 
restn urant ; beer, and oysters in sea- 

Dry Goods and Shoes, 
A native of Halifax county, Va., N. 
T. Watkins commenced business here 
13 years ago, and has recently de- 
cided to retire from trade. He has 
yet quite a full stock in dry goods 
and shoes which he is closing out at 
cost to go out of business, and ofters 
bargains in everything which he has 
for sale. 

Grocer and Confeetioner, 
Was born near Baltimore, and came 
to AVinston five years ago. Three 
years since he started a grocery and 
confectionery stand at the corner of 
Fifth and Church streets. Most of 
our large houses have had their start 
in small beginnings, and Mr. Huband 
hopes to increase in stock and pa- 

Fruits and Confectioneries. 
R. Frank Graham is a native of 
Rowan county, and was in mercan- 
tile ti-ade at Salisbury for some 
years. He located in this city in 
1882, and has since kept a fruit stand 
on Fourth street, opposite the court- 
house. Tropical and native fruits, 
confectiomeries, tobacco, cigars, etc., 
are his merchandise. 


Grocery Store. 

J. P. Jones of Caswell county and 
Thos. A. Wilson of this place opened 
up a neat grocery assortment one 
door south of Hotel Fountain in 
April 1888. Their stock speaks for 

There are several other small man- 
ufacturers, mechanics, dressmakers, 
meat markets, plenty of saloons, 
barber shops and small grocery 
houses, that we have not reachecl, 
and there may be other firms of 
greater importance, and wliidi prop- 
erly deserve a mention here, tluit we 
have inadvertently omitted. 

[Professional, manufacturing, etc., 
received too late for classification.'] 
Liberty St. Bet. 6th. and 7th. 

Through an inadvertency Dr. Ec- 
tor's mention was, we regret to say, 
omitted from the professional pages 
and as "it is better late than never" 
we will atone for the oversight by 
saying that he is a native of Ala- 
mance. N. C. attended the Jefferson 
Medical College of Philadelphia, in 
1857, and began practice shortly be- 
fore the war. Dr. Ector removed to 
Winston seven years ago and has 
since been doing his share of practice 
his residence and office being on Lib- 
erty street north of the M. E. church. 

G. C. HINE, 
Saddle and Harness Manufacturer, 

Is a native of this county, and is suc- 
cessor to a business which was estab- 
lished 15 years ago by L. I. Hine, 
father of the above. In 1880 he pur- 
chased the business which, as of yore, 
is conducted opposite the Starbuck 
block. Saddles, light and heavy har- 
ness and horse goods are carried in 
otock, or made up to the order of 
customers, several hands l)eing em- 
ployed in the trade. 

J. W. Shipley, of Baltimore, has for 
two years past conducted a similar 
establishment on Main street, near 


Blacksmith and Repair Work. 

Edward Spaugh was born in Da 

vidson county, moved to this vicin- 

itv in 1841, and ten vears later com- 



ineneed his line of business in Wins- 
ton. Wm. G. Cranfoi-d is from 
Rowan county, and joined Mr. S. 
in business two years ago. The firm 
has recenth' moved into a new brick 
shop on Church street, next to 
Brown's warehouse. Genernl black- 
smith work, horse-shoeing-, wagon 
and factory repair woi-k are cared I'or 
by this firm. There are several other 
blacksmiths in the city, but la'*k of 
space forbids further mention. 

Livery and Sale Stnbles. 
J. H. Stockton was born in Rock- 
ing'ham county reared in Kernersville 
and in 1861 came to Salem. Four 
years later he commenced in th<' 
trade of Winston, and was one of the 
firm of Pfohl & Stockton for many 
vears. With this year, Mr. Stockton 
lias opened up a livery barn in rear 
of Clinard & Brookes' store, where 
he ke<?pH some twenty animals, sev- 
eral elegnT>t turnouts, and is prei)ar- 
ed to accommodate his customers to 
anything needed in the livery line. 

W. B. McWborter. 

The agent for the Singer Manufac- 
turing Company, in Winston, isa na- 
tive of Lewisburg. W. Va., and came 
to the management of this office in 
1887. The Singer is too well known 
generally to recpiire any long- spa<-e 
from Tis. Its sales avertige over a 
half million of machines eacli year, 
which are sent all over the civilized 
world. The Singer Co. have tlieir 
principal wood works at South Bend, 
Ind., and have extensive nianufa<- 
tories of the machinery at Eliza betli- 
town, N. J.; ^lontreal, Canada; and 
Glassglow, Scotland. 


Shoe Mamifnctiirer. 

Is a native of Davidson county, and 

commenced the shoe trade twenty 

yea»^ ago having ever since been m- 

dustriouslv at the ben.-h. Recently 

Mr. H. lias moved to Winston and 
his shop is on Liberty street o])j)osite 
the (ii-ay Block where he is prepared 
to make any kind of ])eg-ged or sewed 
shoes to the order of customers. 
W. E. HECK. 
(inn nnd Locksmith, 
Learned his trade with Wm.Dettmar 
in Salem, worked seven years there, 
and four years ago started his shop 
in Winston. His ))la<-e is on Main 
street, opposite Bi-own's warehouse, 
and Mr. Beck has evei-y recpiisite for 
the business. 

Harness Shop. 

Near Brown's warehous(> on Main 
street is found the harness shoj) of H. 
C. McCadden who has been several 
years in the business of Winston and 
turns his principal attention to cus- 
tom work. 

An Important Organ. 

Nothing is more important to fi 
man's comfort, haj)piness. and suc- 
cess in life than good eyesight, and it 
is every ])erson's duty to take care of 
these organs. The general health has 
much to do with the power and 
endurance of the eyes. Whenever 
any ])redisposition to weakness or 
irritation is shown, late hours and 
working- by artificial light should be 
studiously avoided, and the eyes 
I)athed fre(piently in salt and'water. 
On retiring- a st)ft cloth di])ped in 
modei-ately cold water and partially 
wrung out. laid upon the eyes and 
fi-e(piently turned over, or redi})ped, 
is of great benefit to inflamed eyes. 

Many irregularities of sight are 
found, that need the expeiience of a 
skilled optician to accurately fit the 
proper lens, and we are gla»l to note 
that E. Foster Newkirk, at Hotel 
Fountain, has every neccs.sary appli- 
ance for measuring-irregularities and 
making jiroper adjuBtments. From 
personal experience we can fully re- 
commend him. 





Read This if Nothing More. 
In order to give a detailed state- 
ment and substantiate our testimony, 
we have taken up a goodly number 
of pages in this sketch, and as some 
of our readei-s may not have time to 
carefully go through it aJU we desire 
in brief to call your attention to the 
spooial features of prominence. In 
the first eight pages we Imve present- 
ed conclusive eA'idence that the tide 
of immigration had turned from the 
West to the South, and in the salu- 
brity, healthfulness, agricultural and 
mineral advantages, of this section, 
given good reasons for our claims of 
superiority. On several pages we 
have referred to the fact that manu- 
facturing industries are an essential 
feature to the permanent prosperity 
of any city, and we believe that the 
Chamber of Commerce, as well as the 
city authorities and our public spir- 
ited citizens in general, are impressed 
with this fact, so that any new entei"- 
prise of importance to the place would 
receive a liberal encouragement. On 
their behalf whether your line of in- 
dustry be small oi- great, if you de- 
sire a location in this favored section, 
we invite you to let us know your 
needs and wishes and we will make 
every reasonable effort to accommo- 
date you. The progi-ess of AVinston 
is well, illustrated on pages 10—11, 
showing it to behfteen times as large 
to-day as it was 15 years ago. These 
figures we are prepared to substan- 
tiate, and hope to keep a hke record 
for many years to come. Do you de- 
sire a city with metropolitan com- 
forts, shaded streets and grassy 
lawns, at a healthful altitude and 
with salubrious clime? Come and 
dwell with us and we will do you 
good. Our schools, as shown on 
pages 13-15, are unexcelled, church 
and society privileges, (pages 1(5-19), 
are superb, printing offices and bank- 
ing accommodations good. 

Our manufacturing pages 
the fact that we have ample conven- 
iences for foundry and repair work. 

There are hard woods and valuable 
timbers in every direction so that 
nearly any description ofwood work- 
ing industries may be made profitable 
here. A chair ftietory with modern 
styles is especially desirable, spokes, 
hub? and carriage bent works, and 
ma.nj^ other kindred industries might 
be suggested. The cotton and wool- 
en mills so long in successful opera- 
tion here are a sufficient proof of the 
feasibility of manufacturing indus- 
tries in that line. The admirable 
kaolin, superb pottery clay, fire clay, 
granite, limestone, etc., of this vicini- 
ty, would suggest the propriety of 
oc(?upations requiring these articles. 

Our tobacco intei'ests, which give 
employment to 5,000 persons, have 
been fully written upon, (pages 31- 
44), and comprise a leading feature 
of the place. This is fully represent- 
ed with the exception perhaps of snuff" 
mills and cigarette factories, which 
might each find here the material and 
facilities for successful operation. 

Under mercantile interests, page 
70, we gave figures illustrating the 
magnitude of the dried fruit product 
of this section. As the lands of Wes- 
tern Noi'th Carolina seem to possess 
the property of imparting a peculiar- 
ly fine flavor not only to tobacco, but 
to large and small fruits, there is eve- 
ry reason why a canning factory of 
mammoth proportions might be 
made a profitable investment in this 
place. We have before made men- 
tion, page 11, of the lands of Forsyth 
county, but we especially desire to 
emphasize the fact that, it has al- 
ready been clearly dewonstra ted that 
the soil of this section has a peculiar 
tenacity in the retention of fertilizers, 
and that however poor the land may 
appear to be, it is easily revived and 
jmt in condition to bring forth an 
abundant harvest. The apparently 
p'oor sections are found to he perfect- 
J3' adapted to the growth of all kinds 

OF \V1\ST(».\-SAT.K.M. X. ('. 



of tVnits and ben-it^s. tlif natural 
lionie of the g'rape, i-aisiny- tlir liiicst 
\vim> pvoduciiifi- vines to l)e found in 
the States. No better section of thi^ 
world (-an be touud for conuiion or 
hig-h bred ponlrry. and its never fail- 
ing- .streams, witli al)undanct> of nu- 
tritions grasses, and liealthful atmos- 
phere, gives to We.steni X. (". as tine 
a country as the far famed " Bhu' 
(irass liegion" of Kentucky, in whicli 
to breed blooded cattl<> and horses. 
There are several small herds <jf .bn-- 
seys in this et)nnty. a stud or two of 
Handdetonian horses, but these in- 
dustries are x^-t in their infancy and 
present a splendid field for investment . 
Dn othe!' pagi'S we have called at- 
tention to thenuneralsof this region, 
coal, iion, etcetera, which will dou\;t- 
less be developed with the ;id vent of 
coming i-ailroads. Xoi-th Carolina 
has proven to be one of the richest 
ndneral States in the I'nion. embrac- 
ing besides all sorts of Iniilding stones, 
and the coarser minei-als befoi-e men- 
tioned, gold an<l gems of rare beauty. 
There are beryls, a<]uamai-ines, gar- 
nets and an\ethysts. Mica is found 
in great abundanceand in the largest 
plates known. It is a substantiat«r'd 
fact that Winston-Salem is a pro- 
gressive place, and that we have 
more nianufactui-ing machinciy in 
operation than anv other city of the 

The Twin-City is in great need of a 
well operated street car line, an<l will 
doubtless soon have a comjjany 
formed for that jiui-pose. As renmrk- 
ed elsewhere a fashionable hotel, or a 
well conducted sanitarium near the 
mineral spring, would prove gooil 

Finally, let us add, ii you have no 
desire to enter the field for manufac- 
ture or agriculture, and are perchance 
seeking tor a health resort for your- 
self or'some memV)er of your family, 
prostrated with nervous troubles, or 
debilitated with lung or throat aftec- 
tions. which need a bracing and 
health-giving atmosphere, protected 

tVoni the northern blizzard." by tlut- 
lUne Ridge mountains, give t^TnTcity 
or county a trial and we are certain 
yon will remain with us. The Clnun- 
ber of Cornmeive. City Otficinls or the 
business men mentioned in tha'-e 
page*, will doubtless be glad to an- 
swer any reasonable (piestions, on 
subjects in their ]>articular line, and 
to them we i-efer yon for special in- 

The South will never realize its full 
meastn-e of gi'eatness and prosperity 
imiil it is more densely po]Julate(l. 
and although f)ur resources are supei-b 
and our natural advantages almost 
illimitable, still the measure of our 
prosperity is the measure of our 
ability to develop those resources. It 
isjustaswell, therefore, that intelli- 
gent and industrious men from other 
sections of tlie country* should be in- 
vited to come among us and aid ns 
in the work ofdeveloiniient. And this 
invitation should be based upon a 
truthfui I a-esen tat ion of the facts, and 
not founded u]K)n those gorgeous ex- 
aggei-ations which read like circus 
])osters and which have nn(piestiona- 
l)ly hurt the cause of immig-ration 
elsewhere, and ]ierha])-^ to some • x- 
tent in the South. 

Some featui'es of intei-est we have 
yet failed to mention. The niuseuni 
of Anticpiities. in connection with the 
Salem Boys" School, is worthy of no- 
tice, the Southern l-X]»ress here is 
conducted by .Mayor Buford. 

Since compiling our school pages 
.las. A. (Jray has taken the jjhn-e of 
Col. (Jorrell on the Board. The name 
of Bev. C. H. Wiley, who was early in 
the school movement and Chairman 
of the first Board, was in.advertently 
omitted. Brof. W. A. Blair has been 
eln-ted Superintendent. 

In mention of the organization 
of the Forsyth Riflemen, the reader 
might infer that the pre.-^ent otticers 
were its organizers, while our worthy 
po.stmaster, S. H. Smith, was a prime 
mover and t)ie first Captain. 



Its Progress, Business Interests, Advantages 
and Surround! np-s. 

OF ki:k.\i-:h8ville. 




Its Progress, Jhishiess Inti'ivsts, 
Advantages and Surroundings. 

How many Inindi'fHls of ])eoy)]e in 
tho northern tier of these United 
States, who suffer from the weekly 
recurrence of friuid waves, foi- six 
months of tlie year, sometimes com- 
ing with such intensity as to freeze 
the mercury and ruin constitutions 
of natural vigor, would gladly accept 
the manifold advantages of this fav- 
ored clime if the;, but knew them? 
How to convey the real facts with- 
out exaggeration, in a shape to 
be preserved for months and years 
by those who are its fortunate re- 
cipients, has been the study and aim 
of the compiler and projectors of this 
pamphlet. rerha])s no. handsomer 
site could have been found in the 
State for a ]>1easant village than the 
location of Kernersville, and, of its 
history and surroundings we shall 
proceed to write. 

About the year 17()() this neai-ly 
level plateau, upon the county's wa- 
ter shed, was selectod by Caleb Story, 
an Irishman, who, it is said bought 
400 acres for four gallons of rum. 
a few 3'ears later Story sold his inter- 
est to a Mr. Dobson, the ])la<e for 
many ^'ears being know as Dobson's 
Cross Roads. Rev. (iotlieb Shober, 
of Salem, purchased this homestead 
in 1806 for his son Nathaniel and the 
Shobers sold to Joseph Kei-ner in 
1817, from whom the iHace takes its 
name. Mr. Kerner was born in (Jer- 
many in 1768, came to AuKM-ica Iti 
1782, bringing with him an illustra- 
tion of Christ Before Pontius Pilate, 
which had been sketched from a stone 
engraving, found under an ancient 
church at Vienna, a leproduction of 
which is still preserved in many of 
the Kernersville homes. 11(> was in 
agricultural pursuits near Friedland 
before removing to this place in 181 s. 

and at his death inlM;M> he owned 
about 1.1(10 acres ai'ound thest' cor- 
ners, which fell to his heirs, John V. 
Philip and Salome. The daughtei- 
married Ap]H)lis Hai-mon, of Connec- 
ticut. Mr. Harmon died in 1S44, 
leaving his intt-rest to his sons.Kufns 
and Julius wlio have s])ent their lives 
here as millwrights, farmers or in car- 

John Frederick Kei-ner i-aised n 
family of six sons and three daugh- 
ters, all stiU living. 

Phillip Kernel- has five living "liil- 
dren. J. G. is an artist of la re ability 
whose unique house on Main street, 
erected at acostof al)out .*.'),()()0,has 
excited much comment. It is a square 
brick, with(iothic ; oof, and coml)ines 
parlors, dining-room, kitchen, ball- 
room, bed-rooms, furnaces. Dutch- 
oven, smoke-house, wood-house, wag- 
on-house, hay-loft and luuse-stalls 
all under one roof. It comes from the 
ideas of genius, and its ceilings and 
walls are elaboi-ately decorated with 
rare designs of ornamental painting, 
which wouM grace the costliest man- 
sion in the land. 

Kernersville was a quiet country 
hamlet of about 100 inliabitants in 
1870, but railroad matters began to 
be talked of, and the placi^ was ini-or- 
porated in 1S72, including an area of 
ly, mile in diameter, with the acade- 
my building as the central i)oint,and 
in this territory weie found 147 in- 
habitants. The citizens donated, al- 
most too liberally, and graded foin- 
miles of the railroad, which reached 
here in 1878. The census of 1880 
showed about oOO inhabitants, and 
the estinmte of to-day ])laces the 
population fully double these figures, 
thus showing it to be ])rogres.sive. 
There ai-e more brick residences, 
stores ami factories, in K'M'iiersville, 
than any other town of its size in the 
State, thus showing it to be substan- 
tial. This is an excellent brick clay, 
and the dirt from the cellar is often 
used at once to make the brick for 
till' superstructure. 



TliR plateau upon whii/h the village 
is built excites the admiration of all 
who consider its features. Not in any 
sense mountainous, it is the water- 
shed of this region, having perhaps 
the highest altitude of any non- 
moutitainous point in the State. It 
lies 1100 feet al.ove the sea. 150 feet 
higher than Greensboro, 70 above 
High Point, 50 feet higher than For- 
syth Court-house, and about the 
same above Mt. Airy depot. On this 
eminen(;e, Pilot and Sauratown moun- 
tains, 30 mile.s to the northwest, can 
be plainly seen, and the Blue Ridge 
Ridge peaks on a clear day are dis- 
cernable as a misty veil in the dim 
distance. From this place :he wa- 
ters flow in all directions, the rivulets 
going to assist in formin.o Belew's 
Creek, Abbott's Creek. Muddy Creek, 
Reedy Fork. Haw River and Deep 
River, thus giving a natural drain- 
age and insuring a salubrit\ and 
healthgiving atmosphere. The winds 
for a few davs in Winter are quite 
bleak, but so mild and tame when 
(Compared with a northern or western 
blizzard as to almost be called spring- 
like. The unobstructed elevation 
gives a pleasant breeze for the hot- 
test* day in summer, and insures re- 
freshing sleep for the night. 


The Kei'uers and early settlers here 
were Moravians, a brief history of 
whom we gave on pages 9, 15-16. il- 
lustrating their traits of integrity 
and persevering industry, and this 
was a place for occasional preaching 
early in this century. Rev. C. L. 
Rights, the present Presiding Elder 
of the Southern Province of the Mo- 
ravian Chu]-ch, preached his first ser- 
mon liere in 1846. He was born in 
Salem, in 1820, served a printer's ap- 
prentice in Greensboro, and at Salis- 
bury, worked in Blum's printing 
liouse several years before entering 
the ministry. The Kernersville Mo- 
ravians had tlieir church hous • at 
Freidland until 1867, when the pres- 
ent neat brick structure was erected 

in this place, largely by the generosi- 
ty of Dr. E. Kerner. Rev. Rights 
came to this charge 16 years ago, 
af.d has b^en a faithful spiritual 

The M. E. Church South, erected a 
comfortable brick structure here in 
1877 to take the place of the old 
frame struL'ture which had been built 
here in about 1810. 

The Baptist Organization were for- 
tunate in having the philanthropic 
Mrs. Alonzo Brown in their midst, 
and her efforts brought forth a com- 
modious brick house of worship in 

The Methodist Protestants erected 
their brick edifice last year, were gen- 
erously assisted by J. C. Roberts, 
and nave a good place for worship. 

The Presbjtei-ians have an organi- 
zation, but as yet no spiritual home. 
They have the privilege of tlie Mora- 
vian church' when occasion requires. 

There is a colored A. M. E. and 
Baptist church, both having houses 
for worship. 

The public schools of the State are 
accomplishing much good and those 
of this place are flourishing under the 
principalship of Rev. J. W. Pinnix a 
native of Caswell county, who has 
been teacher and preacher for a dozen 
years past and came to the charge of 
our schools four years ago. The en- 
rollment at the last term was over 
100, and Mr. Rush of the eolered free 
schools had nearly as many under his 
charge. Prof. Pinnix is assisted by 
Misses Mary McKaughan and Lucy 
Perr r. He has charge over christian 
churches in Randolph and Guilford 

A private school has been conduct- 
ed, by Mrs. C. L. Rights, in the Mora- 
vian vestry, Avith good succe-s for 
ten years past. The Academy was 
built by a stock company in 1859, 
and has lor the past ten years been 
run under auspices of this Conference 
of the M. E. Church South. Prof. H. 



L. Coble, from Randolph coinitN-, the 
nc!\vly elected Principal, will tiike 
chacg-e this month. He comes liijrhly 
recommended, and will endeavor to 
put the school on an (^levatcd ])Iaiie, 
so that Keniersville will ottei not on- 
ly one otthe sin-htliest. healthiest and 
most pleasant locations in the State, 
but high educational, moral and so- 
cial advantages. 

Prof. John S. liny is (hair- 
man of the County Board of Educa- 
tion, has achieved a literary standing 
worthy of r-^cord. He came to tlie 
charge of our Academy in 1870, and 
was teaclun" hei-e for sevei-al years. 

Mayous, Etc. — The venerable -Jo- 
seph Armtield, born May (>, ISOO. 
was first Mayor of this place, and 
was succeeded by Pr. A. IX Lindsay, 
who, after his third election, retired 
in favor of Prof. J. S. Hay, who 
held the position for several terms. 
A. H. S. Beard, Dr. E. Kerner, J. C. 
Roberts, J. N. Guyer and L.E.Grif- 
fith have serA'ed the incor])oration. 
Mayor \j. F. Davis, the present in- 
cumbent, m a nativeof(Juilford coun- 
ty, and for three years past in tner- 
cantih' trade here, under whicli 
heading he will have furthei- notice. 

(^OMMissu)NKRs, Et<". — J. M. (Jreeu- 
field, J. H. Hester, J. S. King, J. N. 
Leak and W. A. Lowrey, all enter- 
prising business men of the place, 
serve as Commissioners. Mr. Lowrey 
off! -iating as Secretary and Treasur- 
er. W. A. Linville is town ])oIice. 1. 
H. McKaughn is deputy sheriff and 
tax collector. 

The T77;.sfee,s to the Academv are 
Dr. B. J. Sapp, J. F. Plunkett. W. A. 
Lowrey, R. P. Kerner, W. A G.-ittith. 

The School Cowinissioiiers are 1. 
H. McKaughan, Henry Perry ami 
Pinkney Ballard. 

The Post-Office at this ])lace has 
recently been given to DeWitt Hai-- 
mon, by request of J. H. Lindsay, 
who has just resigne<i, on account of 
an appointment as a teacher at the 
Staunton Deaf and Dumb Institute 

in N'irginia. .Mr. Harmon is a native 
of the i)lace, educated at our aiade- 
my and taught school at Nazareth, 
Pa., for two terms, having since been 
salesman for Beard cV: Uolerts. This 
])lace was a mail crossing at an early 
date, and Jose])h Kernel-, his sons, 
Phillip and John F., Lucin<la Kerner, 
John H. Hester, John King, Jos. E. 
Kerner, have held the ofHce prior to 
Mr. Lindsay. The receij)ts of the 
oftitH' are about ^."»0() j)ei-vear. There 
are two daily mails each way by rail, 
and a daily mail to and from Sum- 
mertleld, 12 miles to the northwai-il. 

l{AiLuo.\n Exi'KKss.Etc. — The Ker- 
nei'sville station was tii-st in charge 
of C. B. Brooks, of Salem, held foi- a 
short time by F. (i. Shilcut, who re- 
signed November, LST-J, and Richard 
I'. Kerner, the present agent, took 
chai-ge l)<>cember L^t, of that year. 
He was teacher and in farming ])ur- 
suits hei'e before acce])ting the rail- 
road business. In additioji togeneral 
freight and passenger traffic, the 
agent here also has charg(» of the 
Southern express and Western I'nion 
telegrajth tivide, being assisted in 
these matters, especially tf'legraphy, 
by his son. John G. Fresh fruits by 
express, manufactured tobacco. gran- 
ite and dried fruits by freights a re the 
princi])al shii)ments. Whiteoak tim- 
l)er for switch ties and briiige tind)er 
is iilso a valuable pi'oduct of the 

Till' Keniersville Xewn was started 
by T. A. Lyon and H. C. Edwards, 
Apr. 1st "Si as a 5 col. folio after- 
wards enlarged to a (5 col. folio and 
finally to 7 cohuus. It was at first 
print.'d on a small hand press. It 
was liought by J. H. Lintlsay July 
1st IHS.T and" all the old type has 
been i-ephiced by new — also new cases, 
stands and jobbing outfit added. A 
year ago by the aid of citizens, he se- 
tured a Caniitbell Power Pi-ess, to 
pivvent his acce])ting a jtosition el.><e- 
where. There are printed at this of- 
fice besids the AVir.s'. the Tliomasville 



Gazette and theSummerfield67ea72er. 
The job patronage has largely in- 
creased and it has become one of the 
best paying country papers in North 
Carolina. J. H. Lindsay has been 
unanimously re-elected Sec'y and 
Treas. of the N. C. Press Association 
three times in succession. He has 
been untiring- in his zeal for the up- 
building of this place, but having 
been offered a lucrative position at 
Staunton, Va., will go there in a few 
days and leaves the field open here, 
for a good newspaper man. 


Dr. B. J. Sapp was born and rfrared 
in Guilfoi'd county, three miles ea^t 
of this place, attended Rush Mclical 
College at Chicago, 1859-60, prac- 
ticed in the army, and in 1867 began 
in the profession here, opening a 
boarding house on Depot street in 
connection with his practice, and in 
1880 purchased the old Kernersville 
hotel stand, which has been a place 
of public entertainment for nearly 
100 years. The doctor has good ac- 
commodations, and keeps the only 
regular hotel of the place. In 1874-5 
Dr. Sapp attended medical lectures 
in Baltimore, and graduated from 
the Washington University (now 
College of Physician.'^ and Surgeons). 
Dr. Sapp has been the principal drug- 
gist of this place for many years 
past, keeping quite a full stock of 
mediciues, chemicals and sundries, 
which he runs in connection with the 
hotel trade, and also does a fair 
share of practice. He is assisted in 
the business by his son, Luther L., 
who is n.^ading, preparatory to enter- 
ing medical college. Carey C. Sapp. 
the doctor's oldest son, graduated 
from the Baltimore Dental College 
last year, and is practicing at States- 

Mr. Israel Kernev was born in this 
vicinity in 1821, and has kept a pub- 
lic house nearly all his life, six years 
ago swinging out the hotel sign at 
the "Y" on Main street. The house 

is a brick structure, with about a 
dozen rooms, and its proprietor the 
oldest K'^rner living in this county. 

Dr. Elins Kernev was born in this 
place in 1826, attended the medical 
department of the Pennsylvania 
University at Philadelphia in 1849, 
practiced a year in Salem with the 
late Dr. Zeveley, and has since been 
dispensing pills and powders in this 
place and surrounding country. In 
1859 he built his fine brick residence 
on Main street, and in 1876 assisted 
his father in the erection of the saw 
and grist mill a mile west of town, 
which is now owned by him •self and 
son, R. B., the flourishing Winston 

Dr. A. D. Lindsay is a native of 
Guilford county, attended lectures at 
the University of Pennsylvania in 
1850-1, having practiced in this place 
and surrounding vicinity ever since, 
excepting two years which he spent 
at Hickory Tavern, and a time as 
post surgeon in the late war. 

Dr. L. I. Bodenhamer is a native 
of Davidson county, and for fourteen 
years a resident of Kernersville. He 
has been a preacher in the Primitive 
Baptist Church for thirty-five years 
past, having for many years had 
charge of the "Saints' Delight" con- 
gregation, six miles west of town. 
For twenty -five years past Dr. Bo- 
denhamer has done some practice, 
and more recently has given it his en- 
tire attention, last winter taking a 
course of lectures at the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons of Baltimore, 

Dr. W. P. Dix is a native of Ran- 
dolph county, began mercantile trade 
here some twenty-five years ago. La- 
ter, after a preparatory course, he 
engaged in practice at Walkertown, 
where he practiced for twenty years, 
in the meantime graduating irom the 
Baltimore Medical college in 1874, 
and removing to this place about 
three years ago. 




From Madinon, near the Dan river, 
to Salisbury, on the Yadkin, a dis- 
tance of nearly nixty miles, is found 
a rid^e, or water shed, dividinir West- 
ern North Caralinafrom that portion 
farther east, and, althouj::li livinji- 
streams are found on all sides, this 
ridg-e can be traversed the whole dis- 
tance without crossin<i," the water. 
About midway on this elevation, 11 
miles east of Winston, in Forsyth 
county, and 18 miles west of (Jreens- 
boro, is found the hadsome site of 
Kernersville. The main street is 
hadsomel^" shaded, and adorned with 
many brick residences, stores and 
factories. Eoads center here from 
ei<i:ht directions, <2:ivinp: easy access to 
lhe suri-oundiufi- af;ricu]t\iral, fruit 
and tobacco lands. It isi>erhaps un- 
excelled as a fieneral fruit raisin^' sec- 
tion, and Forsyth and adjoining- 
counties, as shown an page '■il. 
abound with excellent tobacco lamls 
of which none are superior to this 
ridge. What we have said on page 
8*i regarding the raising of fine stock, 
nutritious grasses and abundance of 
the best water in the world, is ap})li- 
cable in ever sense to this section. 
Springs come forth from nearly ev- 
ery hillside, and wells of the purest 
water can be tapped at a few feet be- 
low the surface. 

Th"6 place is in need of a bank to 
accommodate the monied int+*rest 
of our merchants and manufactureis, 
and some enterprising man would do 
well to invest a few thousantl dollars 
in that direction. 

Mr. J. AV. Beard, one of the largest 
real estate and business dealers here, 
offers handsome sites for manufac- 
turing, adjacent to the railroad, free 
to any one who will erect substantial 
factories. He will also give free resi- 
dence lots to any person who will 
build a good dwelling house. Mr. 
Benrd owns a quai'7'y of superb gran- 
ite, only a quarter of a mile from the 
depot, which he will sell or lease on 

easy terms to parties desiring to de- 
velop the same. 


What has been said of the tobacco 
interests on page 31 has a direct 
bearing upon the sui-roundings of 
of this j)lace, as some of the best to- 
bacco lands in the country are found 
in tliis vicinity. Kernersville nlso has 
two warehouses and five mainifacto- 
ries, which will be mentioned in de- 

The outcrop of granite in this vicin- 
ity is superb, and the sample monu- 
ment, near our depot, with many 
tons thnt have been shipped, are the 
best of testimony ns to its superior 
(juidity and capacity for s])l<"ndid 
finisli. I'nlimited quarri(»s aie found 
here in close proximity to the depot, 
and present a fine field for develop- 

\N'hat we have said on ])ag(^ 70 re- 
garding dried fruits and their flavor 
is ])articularly api)licable to this sec- 
tion, as the surrounding hills and 
dales are perfectly adajjted to abun- 
dant fruit cro])s of the finest flavor; 
hence this ])lace would make a favor- 
able site for a canning factory, and 
th(> citizens offer libei-al inducements 
towards the (>stablishnient af any en- 
terprise of that kind. 

Numerous liberal offers are given to 
actual settlers for resi<lence or busi- 
ness sites, and persons will be wel- 
coukmI from any s(Htion of the coun- 

Tohnceo Manfr^s and General Store. 

\Miile we cannot go into lengthy 
detail in private matters, yet to give 
some idea of the business of the vil- 
lage, it is only i)roper that several of 
the leading firms here should be fair- 
ly re])resented and among the most 
])i-ominent. both in meicantile and 
manufactui-ing transactions here, the 
above firm deserves to be classed. 

,]. AV. Beard is a native of Davidson 
county, .serving for several years as 
a salesman for a New York clothing 



house. He cominenced business here 
with liis brother in charge, in 1866, a 
half dozen years later investing large- 
ly in the real estate of the place, 
building his elegant brick residence 
in 1873 and a year later accepting J. 
C. Roberts as a partner in trade. The 
Arm erected their large two-storv 
brick store in 1879. This is 26x112 
feet and filled with a very complet-' 
assortment in all lines of general 
merchandise, comprising dry-goods, 
clothing, boots and shoes, hats, gro- 
ceries and grocer's drugs, hardware, 
notions, house furnishing and every- 
thing properly coming under this 
general heading. Tlie firm deal la rge- 
ly in country produce, dried fruits 
and berries for shipments. Their to- 
bacco business was begun in 1880, 
and the factory was erected in 1884, 
and adds largely to the business as- 
pect of the village in the vicinity of 
the depot. It is of brick, 52x136 
feet and having five floors, its capac- 
ity would be nearly half a million 
pounds. The annual output has been 
from 100,000 to 150,000, requiring 
the services of 50 to 75 hands in its 
production. The trade as with other 
dealers is largely in the South and 
"Beard's Favorite" is widely known 
among dealers. "Sweet Relief," 
"Piedmont Beauty," Old Gold," and 
several other popular brands are on 
their old list and with the present 
year they have started a new brand 
called "Red Devon," which is 
designed as a superior chew. 
Messrs. Beard & Roberts are both 
men of pu!^ and enterprise, of liberal 
business dealings, largely interested 
in real estate and ever I'eady to do a 
fair share towards any enterprise for 
the promotion of the place. 

W. H. LEAK & CO., 
Plug and Twist Tobacco. 
W. H. & J. N. Leak are natives of 
Guilford county, the former having 
b' en engaged in the manufacture of 
tobacco in Stokes county for several 
years prior to opening the first facto- 

ry here, in 1873. Tlie enterprise was 
run by W. H. Leak until 1880, when 
B. A. Brown and N. W. Sapp were 
accepted as partners under firm style 
of W. H, Leak & Co. J. N. Leak was 
an assistant in the early part of the 
business here but subsequently was 
in merchandising at Lexington for 5 
years and returning here in 1882 he 
purchased N. W. Sapp's interest in 
the factory. Two years later the 
Leak Brothers bought out Mr. 
Brown's interest continuing the old 
firm style of W. H. Leak & Co. Em- 
ployment is given to 50 or 60 hands 
and the annual output is about 100,- 
000 pounds of fine grade tobacco 
which is sold to wholesale jobbers. 
W. H. Leak has charge of the leaf 
purchases and his long experience 
has made him an expert in that line. 
J. N. looks after office matters and 
all departments of the trade are un- 
der careful supervision. A leading 
specialty in brands is "Leak's Best," 
12 inch 3's and "Cock of the Walk," 
(Broad Guage) 10 in. 4's. 


Tobacco Manufacturers. 

As mentioned under a former no- 
tice B. A. Brown and N. W. Sapp 
were formerly in the tobacco manu- 
facture in f^ompany with W. H. Leak. 
Having retirecl from that firm they 
in 1884 in company with J. Van 
Lindley,of the Pomona Hill nurseries, 
near Greensboro, built the large brick 
factory near the depot and opened 
up manufacture in that line. The 
structure is 40x90 three stories in 
height and with rear addition of 40x 
16 feet. The firni work 50 or 60 hands 
turning out about 100,000 pounds 
annually. Among their standard 
brands are, Good News. Jenny 
Lind, Tube Rose. Knights of Labor 
and others. Institutions ofthis kind 
are important factors in the pros- 
perity of the place. 

Do not destroy this book, as you 
will want to refer to it again. 



.1. AJ. GliElLNFlELl). 
Plug and Twist Tobacco. 

J. M. Greenfield, a native of Lex- 
ing-ton, X. ('., joined T. E. Kerner. 
(who died a yeai- sinee) seven years 
ago in the mannfaotnre of tohncco. 
and a couple of years sinct^ the firm 
erected the three-story biick, 40xS(). 
which is a handsome addition to tlic 
many brick structures on West Mm in 
street. The dirt excavated for the 
basement was made into brick and 
used for the supersti-ucture, and that 
plan set the ball to rolling for con- 
tinued development of a sinular na- 
ture. Mr. (Ireen field's trade is prin- 
cipally in the Carolinas and (ii-orgia, 
and some of his leading brands are 
"Success," "Keform," "New Era." 
"Free Trade," and many others. He 
is an enterprising Imsiness man. works 
a goodly nund)er of hands, and the 
aggregate of his disbin-sements for 
tol)acco leaf and wages amounts to 
many thousands annually. 

Tobacco Manufactuifis. 

Born in this village, W. A. Lowi-ey 
was reared in agricultur.-d ])ursuitsin 
the country, but a few years since, to 
give his children the advantages of 
education which this place affords, he 
nu:)ved to town and engaged in man- 
ufacturing with E. J. Stafford, his 
son-in-law. Mr. Stafford is also a na- 
tive of the place, was book-keeper at 
Tatum, S. ('., for ten years, and re- 
turned to this place January. 18S«}. 
The j)artners both give strict person- 
al attention to the details of manu- 
facture, and produce desirablegoods. 
The members of the firm have l)oth 
bought real estate in the village and 
at no distant day expect to ei-ect a 
brick factory. 

Mercantile Interests. 

Alany years ago the dried fruit 
shipping interest of this se<-tion was 
a pron\inent feature, ami it still con- 
tinues to be a factoi- in trade, but as 
express lines have brought us so near 

the great iiuirkets. many bushi'ls of 
peaches, bei'i'ies, cherries and the like 
are now sent fresh to the citi<'s, thus, 
to some extent, making dried fruits 
of secondary importance. Thei-e are 
always large (juantities of products 
that get too T'i])e before plucking, are 
slightly damaged, or otherwise infe- 
rioi- for shipment, thus illustrating 
that a canning factory is an institu- 
tion gr(\itly to be desired hei-e, and 
if some one who imderstands the bus- 
iness will engage in the enter])rise, 
they will l)e libei-ally seconded by the 
citizens of this j)lace. Almost any 
product, exc(>pting tropical fruits, 
will thrive on these hills, or in the 
fei-tile A-alleys. Fruit evapoiators 
have been run here for several years 
l)ast with good success, having been 
introduc(>d in;{ by iMr. Hatch, of 
New Yoj-k. and two years later nine 
evaporators Avere in use in the vil- 

Genernl 3/en -hn n clise. 

L. F. Davis was raised in agricul- 
tural pursuits, and ten years since 
commenced merchandising at De(>p 
River, in (Juilford county. Three 
yeai-s ago he moved to this place, 
bought real estate, built his present 
store building, and in company with 
his son. E. (Jrant, conducts a general .store, keeping the usual 
retpiisites of stores in that line. The 
firm is located near the depot, and in 
three years of trade havt^ secured a 
fail" share of the business. Mr. Davis 
owns several lots in the village on 
which he will give bargains to actual 
settlers, and a nul(> south of town he 
has a 7<)-acre farm, which he offers 
on easy terms, as he does m)t care to 
again engage in farming. 
N. W. SAPP, 
Geiifv:) 1 Mmlui ndito'. 

Guilford county line comes within 
one mile and a half of this village, 
and N. W. Sapp was born three nules 
fiom here in that county. He was 
clerking in the place for Mr. Hester 



prior to the war, and after the close 
of hostihtios continued with his old 
employer for a time, bnt in 1869 
opened up trade for himself, and has 
since been at the oldest grocery cor- 
ner of the place. Mr. Sapp keeps a 
well assorted stock of g-eneral mer- 
chandise, and his many years in 
trade has given him a wide acquain- 
tance. Seven years ago he engaged 
in manufacturing with W. H. Leak, 
later becoming one of the firm of 
Brown, Sapp & Co., mentioned else- 
where. Mr. Sapp is one of the coun- 
ty commissioners, having been re- 
elected in June. 

B. A. BROWN & CO., 
General Merchn ndise. 
B. A. Brown is a native of Guilford 
county, and in 1880 engaged in to- 
bacco manufacturing here, later be- 
coming the senior partner of Brown, 
Sapp & Co., tobacconists. D.A. Bo- 
denhamer is from Davidson county, 
and for several years was in the liv- 
ery business here. About Christmas 
last the firm opened up a large stock 
of general merchandise, keep a full 
stock of dry goods, groceries, cloth- 
ing, hats, shoes, and the usual re- 
quirements of familj' supplies . Their 
quick appreciation of the public 
wants and readiness to suppl3' them 
has brought them a large share of 

J. S. KING, 
Grocery mid Provision Store. 
J. S. King, like many other busi- 
ness men of this place, was born in 
Guilford county, and began clerking 
for his brother at his present corner 
fourteen years ago. In 1879 John 
L. King built tiie handsome brick 
corner where the business is now con- 
ducted, and three years later the 
present proprietor purchased the 
stock which he has since replenished 
from time to time with all the re- 
■quirements of a gHuei-al grocery and 
provision stow. Mi-. King also keeps 
a stock of boots and shoes. 

At the Main street "Y," adjoining 
the old Kerner House, a stock of gro- 
ceries, confections and fruits was 
opened out in May by 3 young men of 
the village name. 0. W. Kerner is 
the industrious bookkeeper at Vaughn 
& Pepper's wholesale and retail 
house, Winston ; J. F. is operator at % 
this station, and the management of 
the stock is in charge of J. G., the jun- 
ior partner. 

Milliners and Mantua Makers. 
The milliner's trade and making of 
ladies' wearing apparel are necessary 
adjuncts to our social features, and 
Miss Mary Apple, of Reidsville, has 
been for several years in the trade. 
Mrs. C. W. Hunt, of this village, was 
fomerly in the trade, and the twain 
last year opened up a good stock of 
millinery, keeping also notions, fancy 
goods and a few dress patterns. 
Flour, Feed and Guano. 
Artificial fertilizers have become an 
important feature in the agricultural 
productions of all sections of the 
countr^' . and the farmers here on the 
lighter grade of upland soil fully ap- 
preciate its value. Mr. Crews sells 
the Navassa guano. 

Barber Shop. 
Here is another business unclassi- 
fied, but essential to comfort, and 
supplied in this place by R. A. Dug- 
gins, a native of the village, who has 
been thirteen years in the business, 
and la^^t year built a convenient shop 
near the depot. 

Livery Stable. 
This business comes neither under 
merchadise or manufacturing, but is 
yet important to any progressive vil- 
lage. R. A. Jordan is a native of the 
place, and owns quite a large num- 
ber of lots in the village, which can be 



bon^ilit for improvement ;it low fig- 
uren. He has been fornineyearspast 
in the livery Inisines.s, and keeps all 
kinds of stock and turnonts necessa- 
ry for the acconiniodation of the 
people who desire livery hire. 


^ The pei-nianency of any place is 
greatly enhanced l>y miscellaneous 
mannfactnring. Even though the}' 
be but small, and employing hut few 
hands, they open a field for develop- 
ment and give values to raw materi- 
als. There are a number (^f fields in 
which miscellaneous nianutacturing 
appears to hold out inducements 
here. Living is cheap and laborers 
plenty, and this village, as all other 
enterprising towns in the south, will 
give capitalists a heai-ty welcom<\ 
Cn rriHge 3/;/ u uin ctu ring. 
F. K. Hutt'is a native of this coun- 
ty, and has had over a dozen of years 
expei'ience as a carriage upholster, 
trimmer and painter. He was for 
five years a partner with Mr. I^ewis, 
as Lewis Si Huff, and a year since, in 
company with J. R. Stuart of Forsyth, 
county he opened up trade south of 
the depot. The firm erected a neat 
two story building, equipped with' el- 
evator and modern requisites, where 
they are i)n^|)ared to turn out all 
kinds of ( iistom work in the most ap- 
proved mannei-. Mr. Stuart has had 
nine years experience as a blacksmith 
and superintends that department 
which is conducted in a detached 
l>uilding neai- the factory. Many of 
his well-wrought hamiuers and other 
tools are of his own manufacture 
evincing genius at the forge. The 
new firm are j)r(^pared to do good 
work and will si)are no effort to meet 
the re(]uirements of trade. 
Cfi rriage Ma n v 1h c t iirei: 
Mr. A. Lewis is a native of Davie 
county this State and commenced the 
carriage business in IS.")! opening up 
a shop in this village where he has 

now been industriously engaged in 
turning out vehicles for 31 years. 
Several hundreds have went foi-th 
from his establishment and his bug- 
gies and carriages can be found 
in many baruH of this an<l ad- 
joining counties. He has disbursed 
for wages and mateiial a large 
amount of monev in this place. 

Wagon M.iking.—W. H. Haiiell. a 
native of (Juilford county, with thii- 
ty years experience has been for four 
years in the wagon trade here. 

Bhicksuiitliing is clo.sely allied to 
wag<ni making, and this village has 
two smiths. 

The Siiw-Mill is the i)roperty of H. 
C. Edwards, has steam tixtui-cs and 
does good work. 

Hurness, Sufldlfs, Etc., have be- 
come in this town identified with the 
nam»' of Haley Davis, who is a native 
of the comity, commenced the busi- 
ness in 1S4"), and a yt'ar later moved 
to this ])lace, whcTT he has since in- 
dustriously followed his (K-iupation. 

.1 T./zj/ic/M' has been run by Nathan- 
iel M. Kerner for many yeai-s. and is 
still in successful operation. 

Shoe Making and repairing is con- 
ducted by L. B. Hester, a native of 
tliis vitinity, who has btHMi in the 
trade for eight years past. 

In order to compare our climate 
with that of the North, we append the 
following weather record. taken from a 
jiHU-nal i)ublished in northwestern 
Dennsvlvania : No. of rainv davs. 
193: snowy days. SI; fairdays, l{)l. 
January Sth was the coldest day of 
the year, mercury falling 24 degrees 
below zero, .kily 7th was the warm- 
est <l;\y of th(> year.mei-cury rising to 
l()-5 (U'gn'es above. {Extremes of cold 
and heat. 127 degrees. January had 
the greatest innnber of days in which 
snow fell, there being 23. October 
had 14 rainy days, while July and 
August wer* equal in the nund)er of 
fair days, each having 24; rain fell 
on 7 days each of the last named 
months, but rather light. 

In writing- np Win- 
ston-Saleiu, a briff 
outlook into the in- 
dustries and institu- 
tions of the surround- 
ing country nuiy not 
be uninteresting-. Tak- 
ing the .Salisbury and 
Danville road from 
Kernersville toward 
the north-east, s i x 
miles drive through 
one of the finest wheat 
and fruit growing sec- 
tion of Pieduiont, Is. 
C. brings us in view of 
one of the finest High 
Schools of the South, 
Oak Ridge Institut<\ 
We say one of the fin- 
est, and we mean what 
we say, for it may 
jusrly be so termed, 
by its reputation for 
honest, conscientious 
thorough work, by its 
first-class 1( u i 1 d i n g s 
and equipments, by 
its large roll, compris- 
ing for the pa^st year 
219 names, represent- 
ing six states and two 
territories, and by 
the prominent posi- 
tions its students arc 
taking and holding 
in the actual every 

day business affairs of 

the Country— This school lias beeu ()^\n('<l and (i])ei,ited In Plots .1 V. and 
M. H. Holt as principals for over ten years and assisted by an etticieni: and 
expei'ienced corps of teachers. These young men are native North Caroli- 
nians, and have learned ii)y years of practical experience what the needs of 
the South are, and they have accordingly arranged, not only a practical ;ind 
complete Literary course of study, fitting its posse-*sors for college or for lift', 
but a Business College course as well, equal to the best North or Soutli, whose 
graduates hold honored positions in various towns of the South. For beau- 
ty and healthfulness of situation, Oak Ridge Institute cannot be surpassed. 
Her beautiful groves of native oa,k, her elegant Christian culture, and to 
crown all, her cherished Institution lifting its classic proportions grandly 
above the Oaks about it, altogether lea^-(^ upon tlae memory a, grand picture. 
To be apprejiated Oak Ridge and Oak Ri>lge lu-titu'je must be seen and pa- 
tronized. Herewith we present you with a fv,t of the Institue. Those Vvisii- 
ing information about the Institute or surrounning country should 

Address, Profs. J. A. and M. H. Holt, Oak Ridge, N. C. 



Fitt(-(l in First-Chiss OrtFi: 

Tilt' Sentinel job office Iims ;il\v;iys 
been the lar^ivst in tlie Twin City. and 
recently it has been ])nt in ^ood 
sliape. Modern and beantit'nl faces of 
job type, the b\r.<i(>st ])a]>er cntter in 
tlie city, and otln-r in)])roveinent.s 
ha\'e been added, and skilled work- 
men, with years of experience in job 
work, have acce])ted positions witli 
ns. AVe are now turninii' out as hand- 
some printinfi' as is done in theState. 
and onr prices are as low as is con- 
sistent witi! work. School 
and catalogue ])rintin<i' and ofhce 
stationery are onr s]»ocialties. Send 
in a trial oi-der. We ,i;nai-anteesiitis- 

At (h-hindo Flovidn. ' 

1 have a new job ottiiie for sale at a 
fj-reat sacrifice, for cash or on easv 
terms. The office cost about |;2,()()(j. 
has a first-class cutter, two ele<j;ant 
jobbers, 500 pounds of l)ody ty]>e. 
thirty to thirty-five fonts of job type, 
metal furniture, and every thin<;- ])rac- 
tical. Orlando is thepioiiiessivecily 
of South Florida, and Oranjic, the 
banner county of the State. (Jood 
reasons jiiven for sellinji;. 

Address. 1). P. Rohbins. 
Erie, Fa., or Orlando. Fia. 


Town Lots or (ivove Tvncts. 

Havinjj; .secinvd thiough advertis- 
in<;', and varit)us tradinji', town lots 
and tracts for jirove i)ni' in a 
half dozen different counties of Floi-- 
ida, 1 have bar<iains to offer to any 
one wishing- prc^pt-rty in th(> oran<j,(' 
State. I have spent two y(>ars in the 
State, and have selected my pur- 
chases in the desirable portion 
of the peninsula, viz., Orange, Lake, 
Sumter, Pasco, Hernando and Polk 
counties. 1 have town lots worth 
from .'^1.') to ."ik^OO each, orange lands 
|10 to 5!) per acre. 

To those desiring iiifoniiat ion 
aliont Florida or the ])i'('S('i-vation of 
health, my j)ublishe(l book on Health, 
lla])i)iness, Hygiene, and Florida, is 
worth many times its cost. Well 
Ixjund, <S()() octavo ])ages. sentiiost^- 
paid for ^'l.TA). 

Address, D. 1*. KoamNs, M. D.. 
Erie, Pk.nn a. 



The writer of this special edition 
cannot dose without exlending to 
th;' business men and citizens of this 
section in general his sincere thaids's 
for their very cordial reception of this 
enterprise, and the genei-ous assis- 
tance which they have rendered in 
the work. Ouj- duties have been ar- 
duous, but Were made very much 
lighter by the kind reception with 
which we have beiMi met by Forsyth 
count\' hospitality, and while our 
work is nece.ssarily imperfect in many 
l)articulars. we ho])e it will not be 
unworthy of the wide distribution 
which its friends have already guar- 
anteed, and that it will redound to 
the future good of this section. We 
have made very many pleasant ac- 
(luaintances, and wherever our lot 
may be in the future, we shall 
always have a kind remembi-ance of 
the unselfish interest displayed to- 
ward tlie Descriptive Skt>tch of ^^'ins- 
ton-Sale!n. which is a sufficient guar- 
antee that any legitinmte enterprise 
will ha vet he generous (Micouragement 
of the good ])i'ople of this city. Suc- 
cess to the tobacco city of North Car- 
olina with all her enter j) and 
may her natural wealth, beautiful 
sun-oundings and generosity be fidly 
ap]ireciat('tl ! 

Every year the South is becoming 
more pojnilar as a place for health, 
comfort, and business. 

Till' older this book becomes, the 
more valuable it will be for reference. 



[ Winston matter received too late 
for class! fica tion . ] 

Contractors and Mechanics. 

Carpenter and Builder. 

Was born on the west side of Wins- 
ton, assisted in grubbing the court- 
house square, and has lived in the 
city since it was made tlie county 
seat. Mr. Miller has helped to build 
a large majority of the business 
blocks, factories and residences of the 
new city, having been foreman of 
outside woi'k for Miller Bros. 15 
years, and for two years past in con- 
tract work for himself. He has a 
planer and wood-working shop on 
North Liberty street. 

Is a native of Raleigh, and has been 
a plasterer for 16 years. He came to 
this place in 1875, and has done his 
fuH share of service in both plain and 
ornamental designs, and has given 
full satisfaction as a mechanic. 

Is a native of Bristol, England, and 
has been in this city for a dozen 
I years. He is a contractor and brick 
mason , and was one of the promi- 
nent workers on the M. E. Church 
graded school building and a score 
of other business blocks. 

North Carolina has an area of ter- 
ritory about as large as England, 
and within her borders are resources 
such as the latter country never knew. 
Her rivers and streams abound with 
fish of almost eve}' known description 
and unequaled for food. Her forests 
contain all sorts of game, besides 
timber in almost inexhaustible abun- 
dance, of the most valuable sorts, 
and in the bowels of her earth are 
mines of untold wealth, such as the 
world has never dreamed- of, and 
which science will bring; to the surface 

and pour into the waiting and willing 
lap of commerce. 

From the great difficulty in secur- 
ing the concluding facts in any de- 
partment under consideration we 
have failed to make the arrangement 
as systematic a-i would have been de- 
sirable, but by consulting the table 
of contents on inside cover page nwy 
article may readily be found. 




3000 more Words and nearly SOOO more Illus- 
trations than any oiiier American Dictiouary. 

Among the supplementary features, original with 

Webster's Unabridged and unequaled for 

concise and trustworthy information, are 

A Biographical Dictionary 

Containing nearly 10,000 names of Noteworthy 
Persons, with their nationality, station, profes- 
sion or occupation, date of birth and death, 
(if deceased), etc., 

A Gazetteer of the World 

Of over 25,000 Titles, locating and briefly describ- 
ing the Countries, Cities, Towns, and Natural 

Featurejof every part of the Globe, and 

The Explanatory and Pronouncing Vocabulary 

of the names of 


Noted Fictitious Persons 

and Places, such as are often referred to ia 

literature and conversation. The latter is not 

found in any other Dictionary. 


Authority in the Gov't Printing Office, and with 
the U. S. Supreme Court. It is recommended 
by the State Sup'ts Of Schools of 36 States, and 
by leading College Pres'ls of U. S. and Canada. 

It is the only Dietrionary that has been selected 
in making State Purchases for Schools, and 
nearly all the Swliool Books are based upon it. 

An invaluable companion in every School and 
at every Fireside. Specimen pages and testi- 
monials sent prepaid on application. 
Published by G. & C. MERRIAM & CO., 

Springfield, Mass., U. S. A. 


— OF — 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 

THIS organization was founded in 1885, its objects being to advance the mercantile and manu- 
facturing interests of Winston and Salem, to promote internal improvements, encourage im- 
migration, collect and distribute information to the interests of our cities, and co discuss and regu- 
late commercial usages, adjust diflerences and disputes in trade. 

In order to diffuse general information regarding tliis place and the surrounding country, its 
fea'tures and advantages, this pamphlet has beeu compiled under auspices of a committee from our 
body and its general information has been careluUy supervised to prevent exaggerations or mis- 

The compiler has been very conservative in his statements, and the general advantages have 
not been overdrawn. 

Persons desiring special information about this section of country, with the view of locating 
here, will be cheerfully responded to bv addressing the Chamber op Commerce, Winston, N. C. 

The following list of names of the officers and committees comprise many of the most influen- 
tial business men of the Twin-City : 


J. C. BUXTON, Pres. J. W. FR[E=;, First Vice-Pres. W. A. WHITAKER, Second Vice-Pres. 
J. D. PAYLOR, Secretary and Treasurer. 





of the Chamber of Commere to serve from Oct. 1st, 1S87 to Oct. 1st, 1S8S. 

On Information, Statistics, Telegraphing and Letters, 

C. A. HEGE. 

On Trade and Transportation. 

On Internal Improvements and Immigration. 

On Finance. 

On Membership. 

On Rooms. 

On Constitution. 




W. A. WHITAKER, Proprietor 

Among some of the popular brands of this well 
known manufactory are : "Lucile", "Gold- 
en SHpper", "Olive Branch'', Twin- 
City, Marsh Mallow, White Wings, 

Billie Taylor, Dick Graves, Carrie Lee, 

Eldorado, Empress, Coronet, Long Tom, 

Peach and Honey, Royal Gold Bars, 

Sprig of Acacia, Twin-City Club, 

Sheila, Jefterson's Choice, Zip. 



Black Fat, Buzzard Wing, Falcon, Otto of 
Hoses, White Wings. 


These Tobaccos are made of the choicest 
leaf grown in the Piedmont belt which is une- 
qualled in the world for its fine texture, deli- 
cacy of flavor and fine chewing quality, manu- 
factured with great care and sold at bottom pri- 
ces. If you want the best selling line of goods 
on the market write for samples and prices.