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"The traditions of the American People 
are sound and their ideals will endure 
when the dynasties of old are decayed 
and forgotten. " 

Theodore E. Burton 

1917 ., 
ROBERT J. SHORES, Publisher 


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A-rOR, l-ENOX AIhu 


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Copyright, 191 7, by 

Sei up and electrotyped in the 
United States of America 



Kindly and sympathetic friend 
throughout a lifetime 


The observations contained in this volume are 
the result of twenty years of newspaper experi- 
ence on the respective staffs of the Washington 
Post, New York Tribune, Chicago City Press As- 
sociation, New Orleans Times-Democrat, New Or- 
leans Picayune, San Francisco Chronicle, El Paso 
Herald and Grand Rapids Herald. As Wash- 
ington correspondent and political writer, observer 
of the proceedings of the House and Senate, and 
reporter of every sort of an assignment from mu- 
nicipal affairs to interviewing national leaders — 
working and becoming familiar with conditions 
in every section of the country — I have had, it 
seems to me, an opportunity of forming definite 
and trustworthy opinions regarding the people of 
the United States. The logic of the conclusions 
advanced I must leave to the reader; the proof 
of their honesty rests in daily labors in the pre- 
sentation of fact. As secretary of the National 
Republican League for a term, and connected 
with the preliminary contest of William H. Taft 
for the Presidency and the Hughes campaign, I 
have known politics from a practical standpoint. 
As an expert on land values in the Census of 
1900 and a student at the School of International 
Jurisprudence and Diplomacy of Columbian (now 


George Washington) University, I have come 
in contact with the actual workings of govern- 
ment. Obedient to the injunction of Napoleon 
to his son, I have tried to "read and reflect upon 
history." The deductions made are the result of 
several years of careful research and analysis. If 
I am too warlike in the second chapter, it may 
be due to the same patriotic ardor which inspired 
me to enlist in 1898, though held back because 
too young to serve. If the chapters on "The 
Man" and "The Prophecies of Daniel" may seem 
to take up too much space in the discussion of 
the philosophical, religious and mystical, it is be- 
cause they are relevant to the continuity of the 

I trust that the pro-German conclusions of the 
first chapter will not be regarded as prejudiced. 
I have tried to arrive at them after scientific in- 
vestigation. They should not have been influ- 
enced by ancestral predilection. The late Lord 
Pauncefote, British ambassador to this country, 
was a kinsman of my father. I am descended 
from four generations of English artists. These 
forebears settled in New York City in 1811. On 
my mother's side my forerunners have been Amer- 
ican for more than two centuries. They were of 
Hollandish and Rhenish-Bavarian descent. In 
1707 they established themselves in the Mohawk 
Valley in New York State. One fought in Queen 


Anne's war. In the battle of Oriskany in the 
Revolution nine Snells were engaged, seven 
brothers and two cousins. In an afternoon six of 
the brothers and one of the cousins died for lib- 
erty. I am descended from the brother who sur- 
vived. My grandfather, Conrad P. Snell, served 
in the New York legislature. If I have shown by 
these words the basis of unprejudiced conviction 
and that I am not un-American because an ex- 
ponent of German victory in this war, the use of 
so many personal pronouns is justified. 

Lest it appear to some that I am too sanguine 
of the future of the United States, I quote an 
anecdote related by John Fiske: "Among the 
legends of our late Civil War there is a story of 
a dinner party by the Americans residing in Paris, 
at which were propounded sundry toasts concern- 
ing, not so much the past and present, as the ex- 
pected glories of the great American nation. In 
the general character of these toasts geographical 
considerations were very prominent, and the prin- 
cipal fact which seemed to occupy the minds of the 
speakers was the unprecedented bigness of our 
country. 'Here's to the United States,' said the 
first speaker, 'bounded on the north by British 
America, on the south by the Gulf of Mexico, on 
the east by the Atlantic and on the west by the 
Pacific Ocean.' 'But,' said the second speaker, 
'this is far too limited a view of the subject: 
in assigning our boundaries we must look to the 


great and glorious future which is prescribed for 
us by the Manifest Destiny of the Anglo-Saxon 
Race. Here's to the United States, — bounded 
on the north by the North Pole, on the south 
by the South Pole, on the east by the rising 
sun and on the west by the setting sun.' Em- 
phatic applause greeted this aspiring prophecy. 
But here arose the third speaker — a very serious 
gentleman from the Far West. 'If we are go- 
ing,' said this truly patriotic American, 'to leave 
the historic past and present, and take our mani- 
fest destiny into account, why restrict ourselves 
within the narrow limits assigned by our fellow- 
countryman who has just sat down*? I give you 
the United States, — bounded on the north by the 
Aurora Borealis, on the south by the procession 
of the equinoxes, on the east by the primeval chaos, 
and on the west by the Day of Judgment I' " 

January, 1917. 


As the book is about to go to press President 
Wilson has severed diplomatic relations with Ger- 
many. The flag is always first. If the Congress 
of the United States actually declares war against 
the Central Powers, I shall be among the first to 

^^^is^- Snell Smith. 

February 7, 1917. 



I The Law of Blood by Which Germany 

Must Expand i 

II War the Great Civilizer 80 

III Is A New Era Dawning*? 109 

IV The Significance of the United States 133 
V Menaces to the Republic .... 154 

VI Menaces to Liberty ...... 178 

VII Some Remedies Suggested 200 

VIII The United States of North America 228 

IX The Future of the Pacific Ocean . .251 

X The Atlantic Ocean and South America 271 

XI Germany Again 290 

XII The Man 310 

XIII The Federation of the World . . . 352 

XrV The Prophecies of Daniel 383 




"For behold the Lord cometh out of his place to visit 
the iniquity of the inhabitants of the earth upon them; 
and the earth shall disclose her blood and be no longer 
a cover for her slain." — Isaiah 26:21. 

That Germany must inevitably succeed in the 
present world struggle ^ and that it is best for civ- 
ilization that its arms triumph is written in the law 
of blood, amply verified by fifty empires and as 
many centuries of history. 

That law, simply expressed, is this: After an 
amalgamation of several peoples into one by a 
transfusion of new blood among a large proportion 
of the original population of a country throughout 
almost exactly three hundred years, the nation 
thus created reaches its maximum of strength, 
conquers its rivals and does its work in the world. 
Whenever it attains this apex it expands in the 

1 January, 1917. 


territory it has conquered. Then it passes into 
decay and maintains its power only until a more 
virile people arises to wrest its supremacy from it. 
After that it resumes the boundaries it had before 
expansion. Thus civilization is like a torch car- 
ried b)^ the strongest. When the arm that up- 
holds it becomes weak it is seized b)^ another and 
borne along. 

This uniform rule is but an extension of that 
invariably applicable to the individual. When a 
person is depleted in strength his physician advises 
him by diet, exercise or medicine to produce new 
blood in order to gain fresh strength. In extreme 
cases of illness the surgeon will make a transfu- 
sion from the blood of a healthier person. Chil- 
dren of parents of differing type and nationality 
are brighter and stronger. Variation produces 
better animal breeds. "During the course of many 
years of investigation into the plant life of the 
world," says Burbank, "creating new forms, modi- 
fying old ones, adapting others to new conditions 
and blending still others, I have been constantly 
impressed with the similarity between the organ- 
ization and development of plant and human life. 
. . . The crossing of species is to me para- 
mount." ^ 

Proceeding further, the effect of a strong body 
upon a healthy mind is constantly apparent. The 

2 "The Training of the Human Plant," by Luther Burbank, 
pp. 3-4- 


greatest men of action in the world's history 
grounded their genius in splendid vitality. Alex- 
ander, Csesar, Napoleon, are examples. Such men 
have always arisen at the zenith of a nation, which 
at that time has given its best in all achievement. 
Good blood, racing through the arteries and pulsat- 
ing along the nerves that feed the brain, quickens 
and lends force to thought. A man at the height 
of his power gives his utmost to his fellows, 
whether it be laying a brick upon a wall or guiding 
an empire. New blood transmitted among older 
peoples produces a new people, a new nation and 
preeminent men to lead it. Then at its maximum 
that nation leaves its imprint upon posterity. 

If it can be proven to a certainty that in the case 
of every empire of which we have record it reached 
its maximum after this transfusion throughout 
three hundred years; that in those cases where the 
facts are not all available, as in ancient days, the 
exact time cannot be verified but the amalgamation 
of blood prior to conquering sway is clear; that in 
the few cases where there has been no transfusion 
there has been no empire, and that where the ex- 
panded people has become exhausted, returned to 
original limits and been retransfused a new empire 
has developed, then it must be concluded that this 
law is universal and is the cause of the rise and 
decay of nations. If it can be proven that this 
law is universal and that Germany fulfils it to the 


letter by now reaching its apogee after an amalga- 
mation of blood throughout exactly three centu- 
ries, then it must be concluded that it is certain as 
the periodicity of the stars that the German Em- 
pire will fulfil its destiny and expand at the ex- 
pense of the older peoples opposing it. Neither 
sea nor land can withstand the perfect precision of 
the law of blood. 

Having laid down the rule, let us proceed to its 
immediate application in the case of ancient Rome. 
The peoples which originally occupied the Italian 
peninsula south of the Arno and the Rubicon were 
the Romans, Latins, Hernicans, Volscians, Etrus- 
cans, Sabines, Samnites, Lucanians, Vestini, 
Ausones, Marsi, Pselegni, Umbri, Sabellians, Brut- 
tians and some Greeks. At the opening of the 
Samnite wars in 343 b.c. the Roman people began 
to overcome their rivals, subdue the territory to the 
Arno, bring about closer communication by the 
building of roads, and to transfuse these bloods. 
Three centuries later, under Julius Csesar, who 
died in 44 b.c, the people thus made conquered 
western Europe, northern Africa and Asia Minor, 
and laid the foundations of the mighty Roman 
Empire, which gave the world its law and admin- 
istration. And as during the second Punic war 
(218-201) Sardinia, Corsica and Sicily, as well 
as Venetia, were annexed, and as all of northern 
Italy above the Arno was added by the older popu- 


lation conquering the Cenomani in 197, the In- 
subres in 196, the Boii in 191, the Apuani in 180 
and the Ligiirians in 176, so three centuries later, 
under Trajan, whose death occurred in 117 a.d., 
the new blood thus commingled widened the limits 
of the empire to their greatest extent — the maxi- 
mum of the Romans. 

Likewise in Greece it was blood that told. Ac- 
cording to Grote, the foundations of Macedonia 
were laid in the seventh century. Then Perdikkas 
began consolidation of the Lyncestians, Orestians 
and Pseonians. It was this combination into a 
greater Macedonian people that enabled Alexan- 
der the Great in the fourth century to conquer 
Western Asia, giving it the imprint of Hellenic 
civilization which consisted of supremacy in ar- 
chitecture, sculpture, philosophy and literature. 
The teacher of Alexander was Aristotle, the 
Greek mind with them reaching its zenith. 

The riddle of how the older Greek states fell be- 
fore Macedon is answered by the law of blood. In 
Attica it was a union of the Pelasgians, Cecropes, 
Acharnians and the men of Thoricus, Eleusis, 
Icaria, Aphidnse and Presise that made the empire 
of Athens possible. Bury, the English historian, 
places the union of Attica in the eighth century. 
This led to transfusion. In the fifth century, in 
the golden age of Pericles, Athens reached its max- 
imum. The Boeotians, descending into the ^gean 


peninsula from the northwest, established unity 
and infused with the Cadmeans and other peoples 
in the seventh century. In the fourth century 
they flowered in the hegemony of Thebes. The 
Dorians entered Laconia and mingled with 
Leleges, Minyans and Phrenecians. The su- 
premacy of Sparta was the result. The Dorians 
also entered Argolia and transfused with Hylleis, 
Pamphili and Dymanes. The race thus formed 
for a time dominated the Peloponnesus. The 
Dorians mixing with Ionic populations in Corinth 
led to expansion in Syracuse and Corcyra. The 
^olians conquered and amalgamated with the 
Epeans, later extending their power. On the 
other hand, the Thessaloi settled in Thessaly and 
the Achaeans in Achsea. Neither ever played a 
prominent part in Grecian history because each re- 
mained practically one blood. 

In the second century the Goths, descending into 
southern Europe from their seats on the Vistula, 
transfused with the Ulmerugi, Gepidge and Syth- 
ians. In the fifth century they moved rapidly 
westward and, attaining their maximum as a con- 
quering nation under Theodoric the Great, ex- 
panded over Italy, Gaul and Spain. The Vandals 
came in contact and amalgamated with Marco- 
manni, Lugii and Silingse in central Europe in the 
second century. After being impeded by the Ro- 
mans and Goths, in the fifth century they overran 


Spain and Africa, establishing in the latter terri- 
tory a great Vandal kingdom. In the fifth cen- 
tury also came the Huns at the height of their 
power under Attila. Their empire extended from 
the Caucasus to the Rhine and from the Baltic to 
the Danube. Prior to their entrance into this 
scene of action they had in the steppes north of 
the Caspian been conquering and transfusing their 
blood with the Alpizuri, Alcidzuri, Hunari, Tun- 
carsi, Boisci and Alani. The time from their 
zenith back to the start of amalgamation may be 
computed to have been about three hundred years. 
After the death of Attila their empire disappeared 
and they were disseminated among the peoples 
they had conquered, though the greater part of 
them remained in what is now Hungary, to be 
overcome centuries later by the Magyars, but not 
before giving their name to the land. It was 
there that Attila had his capital. After the 
Goths, Vandals, Huns and Franks had passed one 
after another into Gaul in the fifth century, sub- 
merging the Gauls, Iberians, Ligurians, Romans 
and Celts who dwelt there, the Sicambrian 
Franks, under Clovis, subdued the others. All 
were amalgamated into a new and greater peo- 
ple. Three centuries later, under Charlemagne, 
this people attained its maximum, conquered the 
greater part of Europe and reestablished the Em- 
pire of the West. That empire did not last long, 


being divided among the Great Emperor's three 
sons, but it flashed across the darker centuries that 
followed it an ideal of order and strength. 

In the early centuries of Norwegian life were 
Lapps, Finns and tribes that had immigrated from 
Jutland and Sweden. These peoples lived sep- 
arate existences and were distributed among dif- 
ferent dukedoms until the beginning of unifica- 
tion under Harald Haafinger in the tenth cen- 
tury. Under Haakon IV, in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, Norway took Iceland and developed to its 
widest extent. During this time the adventurous 
Normans gave new life to France, Sicily and Eng- 
land. Denmark was composed of the Jutes, 
Cimbri, Heruli, Langobardi, Chary dcs, Angli, Sig- 
oulones, Sabaliggoi and Kabandoi in ancient 
times. In the eighth century, under Harald and 
Sigifridus, transfusion began among those dis- 
united people that had remained after the earlier 
migrations. In the eleventh century Canute the 
Great conquered England, Norway, Sweden and 
part of the present Prussia on the Baltic. This 
empire, which thus reached its greatest extent, 
was short lived, though Denmark itself remained 
a power to be reckoned with in the North for 
five centuries longer. The Union of Kalmar in 
1307 was a political agreement between Norway, 
Sweden and Denmark and was not the result of 
the latter conquering the two former states. 


What is now Sweden was formerly made up of 
the Svear, Gotar, Visigoti, Finns, Vinovi, Rere- 
fenni and Greatas. Most important of these were 
the Gotar and the Svear. In the early fourteenth 
century, under Magnus Lodalus, unity began. 
Three centuries later, in the early seventeenth cen- 
tury, Sweden conquered Finland, Denmark, Nor- 
way, the southern Baltic and Poland. This was 
accomplished under Gustavus Adolphus and 
Charles X. The Swedish Empire was twice the 
size of the nation of to-day and larger than the 
present Germany. The wars of Charles XII gave 
momentary hope of renewal, but they were only a 
final exhaustive effort and Sweden speedily re- 
turned to its original limits. 

Moravia was at one time inhabited by the Boii, 
afterward the nucleus of the Bohemians and then 
by the Quadi, Vandals, Heruli, Rugii and Lom- 
bards before it was subdued by the Moravians 
who began amalgamation in the sixth century. 
This people helped Charlemagne defeat the Avars 
and in the ninth century reached their maximum 
with territories extending from the Moldau to 
the Drave and from the Reisengebirge to the Vis- 
tula, as large as the present Austria-Hungary. 
But Moravia soon fell before the advancing Mag- 
yars, who had entered the plains of Hungary about 
900, conquering the Bulgarians, Serbs, Croats, 
Huns and Avars they found there. Under Arpad 


this work was completed in 906 and the trans- 
fusion of blood into the Hungarian people be- 
gan. Three centuries later, in 1 195, Bela III had 
expanded the Hungarian Empire southward and 
westward to Bosnia and Dalmatia, helping to 
break up the Byzantine Empire, and extending 
suzerainty over Servia. The empire then declined 
and after three-fourths of Hungary had been de- 
vastated by the Tatars in 1241, leaving a stratum 
to mingle with the rest, wholesale immigration 
set in, including great numbers of Rumanians, 
and a new period of amalgamation followed. 
Three centuries afterwards Hungary became the 
leading power in Europe under Matthias Cor- 
vinus. He took Moravia, Silesia, Upper and 
Lower Lusatia, Styria, Carniola and Carinthia, 
and established suzerainty over Bosnia. Having 
expended its strength, Hungary, too, soon suc- 
cumbed to stronger rivals. 

The territory of Wallachia, a part of what is 
now Rumania, was formerly inhabited by Da- 
cians, Goths, Tatars, Slavs, Vlachs, Petchenegs 
and Cumanians. Radu the Black led a numerous 
people, the Rumans, into the land between 1290 
and 1310 and overcame the older peoples he 
found there. Three hundred years passed and 
then, in 1601, Michael the Brave extended this 
dominion over Transylvania and Moldavia. In 
Moldavia the same process had taken place. Ru- 


manian settlements were made there in 1 164, lead- 
ing to an amalgamation with Vlachs, Hungarians 
and others. During the early part of the reign 
of Stephen the Great, which lasted from 1458 to 
1504, Moldavia reached its maximum, annexing 
part of Poland and expanding from the Molcovu 
to the Dniester rivers, including Bukovina and 
Bessarabia. Speedily it fell before Turkey. 
While both Wallachia and Moldavia were united 
in 1859 under the title of Rumania, they are 
Rumanians only in a basis of people, in each case 
having mingled with others and emerged into 
separate nations. Bohemia was formerly occu- 
pied by the Boii, Marcomanni, Tatars, Cechs, 
Slavs, Avars, Moravians and Greeks. Consoli- 
dation began under Boleslav in the latter half of 
the tenth century. About 1275, in the latter half 
of the thirteenth century, under Prmysl Ottocar 
II, the Bohemian Empire reached its maximum, 
asserting its sway over Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, 
upper Lusatia, Styria, Carinthia, Istria and parts 
of northern Italy. With the rise of Austria un- 
der Rudolph of Hapsburg it succumbed. The 
Swiss, who have maintained the Republican ideal 
under liberty and separate unity for more than 
six centuries, fulfil in exact terms the law of 
blood. Composed of peoples of French, Burgun- 
dian and Italian stock, as well as the original Hel- 
vetii, they began amalgamation upon the forma- 


tion of their Everlasting League in 1291. Three 
centuries later, a Swiss people, they attained their 
greatest extent of territory and, in addition, gave 
mercenaries to their neighbors. In 1584, the last 
extension of territory, Geneva, was added to Zu- 
rich. The names of Zwingli and Calvin attest 
the importance of the Swiss in the Reformation. 
In Portugal the early peoples were the Iber- 
ians, Alani, Suevi, Carthaginians, Greeks, Gauls, 
Goths, Romans and later the Arabs and Berbers. 
Greeks and Carthaginians were almost negligible. 
Most of these peoples remained separate for cen- 
turies. It was not until Sancho II, from 1223 to 
1 248, that the country was consolidated and amal- 
gamation began. Then after three centuries the 
Portuguese Empire reached its greatest height. 
By 1 540 it had acquired its most extensive posses- 
sions in Brazil, East and West Africa, Malabar, 
Ceylon, Persia, Indo-China and the Malay Archi- 
pelago. Overflowing into those lands, its popula- 
tion was diminished from two millions to one mil- 
lion. Forty years later it fell before the power 
of Spain, which had been made up of Iberians, 
Celts, Celtebarians, Romans, Vandals, Suebians, 
Visigoths, Arabs, Negroes and Basques. Unifica- 
tion began under Alphonso of Castile at the close 
of the twelfth century. At the end of the fif- 
teenth and the beginning of the sixteenth century 
Spain reached its maximum under Ferdinand and 


Isabella and Charles V. The Spaniards con- 
quered Portugal and Italy, circumnavigated Af- 
rica and the globe, founded colonies, subdued 
Mexico and Peru and dominated Europe. Their 
power began to steadily descend with the revolt 
of the Netherlands and the defeat of the Great 
Armada. The Netherlands in early times were 
inhabited by the Gaulo-Celtic tribes known as the 
Belgse. Among these were the Nervii, Frisians 
and Batavi. In the fifth century came the Salian 
Franks and a little later a Saxon admixture. 
Finally in the tenth century a considerable infu- 
sion of Northmen was added. Godfrey, a Norse 
duke, was confirmed in the possession of Fries- 
land. In the eleventh century feudalism was es- 
tablished and civil wars between the different 
racial interests were constant. In the late four- 
teenth and early fifteenth centuries consolidation 
began under the dukes of Burgundy, fostered 
by commerce between the industrious and wealthy 
towns. Three hundred years later, after William 
the Silent had fought the power of Spain single 
handed, in the late seventeenth and early eight- 
eenth centuries, that part of the Netherlands 
which became Holland reached its maximum of 
strength under the Dutch Republic, controlling 
the seas of the world and overflowing into the 
East Indies and South and North America. That 
part which became Belgium, with less Norman 


and Saxon infusion and held in closer sway by 
Spain and France, never conquered, and over- 
flowed finally in the Congo alone. 

Bulgaria was once a mighty empire. Origi- 
nally a Turanian people, the Bulgarians emerged 
from their tracts in the Urals and in the seventh 
century, under Kahn Ishperikh, took Moesia and 
began an amalgamation with the Slav, Ugrian and 
Finnish populations there. In the tenth century, 
under Simeon, Bulgaria reached its zenith with 
an empire which extended from the Black Sea to 
the Adriatic and from the borders of Thessaly to 
the Save and the Carpathians. Then it became 
decadent. In the latter part of that century Rus- 
sians and Greeks transfused with the Bulgarians. 
In the thirteenth century occurred a temporary and 
partial renewal of the empire. Finally, with the 
rise of the Turks, it again passed away. The 
Serbs were first known historically when inhabit- 
ing Galicia. From there they migrated to the 
Black Sea and across the Danube to their present 
position in the Balkans toward the middle of the 
seventh century. They mingled with Greeks, 
Huns and Croats. After thorough unification 
under Bulgarian domination and an important ad- 
mixture of Bulgarian blood in the eleventh cen- 
tury, in the fourteenth century Servia reached the 
zenith of its empire, conquering Albania, part of 
Macedonia, the Sanjak of Novibazar, Bosnia, 


Herzegovina and Montenegro. Maintaining its 
power a few years, it also fell before the Turks. 
The Ottoman Turks were forced westward from 
central Asia by the Mongols. In the middle of 
the thirteenth century they began to overthrow 
and amalgamate with the already declining Sel- 
juks and other peoples, such as Byzantines, in 
Asia Minor. Three centuries after, in the mid- 
dle of the sixteenth century, Turkey, under Su- 
leiman the Magnificent, reached its greatest power 
and extent. When this sultan died, in 1566, his 
empire extended from the frontiers of what is 
now Germany to Persia. The Black Sea was a 
Turkish lake and from Egypt to Morocco the Sul- 
tan's power was supreme. The Turkish Empire 
commenced to fall five years later at Lepanto, but 
sovereignty over the Balkans and Greece was re- 
tained. Transfusion in the new territories was 
prevented because of further wars, including that 
with Austria, until after the peace of Sitvatorok 
in 1606. Three centuries more and in 1912, Bul- 
garia, Servia and Montenegro, together with 
Greece, defeated the older state in a decisive cam- 
paign, again expanding into greater dominion and 
thereby fulfilling the law of blood. Bulgaria, in 
nearer proximity to the Turkish center, Constan- 
tinople, and without mountain barriers between, 
and therefore with greater transfusion, produced in 
the Balkan war a much more vital force of fighting 


men and General Savoff, an able strategist. The 
Poles, or Polabs, believed to have been driven from 
the Danube to North Central Europe by the 
Romans, found rivals in the Slavonian peoples 
and the Pomeranians and Silesians. After being 
wasted by the sword many times their territory was 
finally devastated by the Turks in 1241. During 
the half century following considerable immigra- 
tion was invited, including the people of the Teu- 
tonic Orders, Letts and Lithuanians. With the 
process of recuperation amalgamation started. 
Three hundred years later the Polish people thus 
made reached their maximum. Mosovia was 
taken in 1526, Livonia in 1561, Volhnia and Po- 
dolia in 1569, and in the latter year Lithuania was 
practically annexed. The empire then extended 
from the Baltic to the Black Sea and from near, 
Berlin to the 35th parallel of longitude, far east of 
the Dnieper. Poised for a brief period, it went 
down before the Turks and then the Russians, 
Swedes, Prussians and Austrians. Because of its 
form of government, even nationality was lost, 
but the Polish people still live and cry out for in- 

In the vast continent of Asia many conquering 
empires once existed and centuries ago passed into 
that comatose condition which has since seized 
upon them. Every people there, with the excep- 
tion of the Japanese, has had its maximum, ex- 


panding and falling back through decay to original 
limits. Their history is dim, because of lack of 
adequate records, but where facts appear the same 
infallible law of blood is found at work. Thus 
in early Babylonia a transfusion of the people im- 
mediately surrounding Eridu and Nippur led to 
the empire of Accad. Another mixture of Lagash 
and Kis and, long enough after the beginning of 
consolidation to have approximated three hundred 
years, the unified people expanded from the Per- 
sian Gulf to the Caspian. After a further in- 
fusion of Semitic blood the empire of Sargon of 
Accad extended its boundaries over the greater 
part of present Asia Minor and Arabia. It shortly 
disappeared. Then came that of Ur, widening its 
limits to the Mediterranean. When it fell Baby- 
lon passed to the sovereignty of Elam under Chedo- 
laomar. This was necessarily accompanied by 
another infusion of new blood, including Canaan- 
ites. When a new people conquered they took the 
old capital, the city of Babylon, and made it theirs, 
making a revival of Babylonia itself appear, 
whereas the opposite is the case. The new people 
thus transfused found empire under Hammurabi. 
This was followed by one of Sumerian supremacy 
and then the land was conquered and transfused 
by the Kassites under Kandis. During the su- 
premacy of the latter and that of Egypt the Assur- 
ites had been conquering their neighbors, including 


the Hittites, and developing into an Assyrian em- 
pire, before which Babylon fell temporarily. De- 
clining for a time, a second Assyrian empire, 
greater than the first, gathered new strength from 
further transfusion with Armenians, Hittites, 
Medes and Syrians, following their consolidation. 
It declined and then, after being taken by the Chal- 
deans, Babylon again arose to be a mighty city and 
the scat of an empire, performing its greatest feats 
of arms under the second Sargon and his imme- 
diate successors. Chaldean struggles with Egypt 
and Elam brought exhaustion. After this ap- 
peared the Sythians and Cimmerians. They, too, 
overthrew Asia Minor, destroyed Nineveh and 
took Babylon as a capital. Their empire lasted 
less than half a century and went down before 
Cyrus the Persian. Realizing the religious signifi- 
cance of Babylon, he, too, made the city his capital. 
There is evidence that the Phrygians amalgamated 
during three hundred years with the Bittynians, 
Thyni, Mariandyni and other peoples before the 
expansion of Phyrgia over western Asia Minor. 
Its empire fell before the Cimmerians and then to 
Lydia. In the case of the latter, the Cimmeri 
captured Sardis in 1078 b.c. They mixed with 
the Mysians and Dardani. Three centuries later, 
under Croesus, the richest king of his age, the 
Lydian Empire reached its greatest extent and be- 
came the financial center of the Mediterranean 


world. In ancient Persia were Iranians, Poricanii, 
Gedrosii and Myci and in Media were Anaraiacae, 
Tapuri, Amardi, Caspii, Caducii, Galse, Gutseans 
and Lulubeans. After the Sythian and Cim- 
merian invasions, leaving strata of population. 
Media extended over the greater part of Asia 
Minor and east to Iran. It had reached its zenith 
in 553 B.C. when Cyrus revolted. Three years 
afterward it fell and Persia became the great power 
in Western Asia, the peoples of that land having 
been in the previous centuries welded into one. 
After the inevitable decay it began to go down be- 
fore the Greeks in the following century at Sa- 
lamis. All these empires, the history which ex- 
tended over many centuries, were made by and fol- 
lowed a combination of bloods. 

About three hundred years after the inundation 
of the Hyksos tribes, probably from Arabia, one 
of the most brilliant periods in the history of Egypt 
occurred, from Tethmosis I to Tethmosis III. 
Of the latter, the period 1 550 to 1 546 is especially 
mentioned. This great king subdued Syria, 
Babylon, Libya, Ethiopia, Phoenicia and the 
Hittites. New bloods were infused. Three cen- 
turies later, under Rameses II, Egypt conquered 
and took in Nubian, Libyan, Syrian and Hittite 
bloods. Peace was made and amalgamation began 
again about 1250 b.c. Libyans thereafter served 
in the armies. The country fell into decay and 


lost its power. Then, three centuries after Ram- 
eses II had reinvigorated it, at about 950 B.C., 
under Sheshonk I, Egypt took Palestine, Israel, 
Judah, Nubia and Thebia. When this empire be- 
gan to go down Ethiopia conquered Egypt and 
gave it new blood. After three centuries had 
again passed, under Psammeticus (664-610) and 
Necho, Egypt again restored something of its an- 
cient limits. In the fourth century a.d. Abyssinia 
(Ethiopia) was opened to immigration. In the 
seventh centur}^ it conquered Yemen and much of 
Arabia and carried on a large trade with India 
and Ceylon. In the sixteenth century Mohamme- 
dans conquered and retransfused the country. In 
the nineteenth centur}^ the Emperor Theodore ex- 
tended his dominions over Shoa, Amhera and 
Tigre. Thirteen hundred )^ears before the Chris- 
tian era the twelve tribes of Israel began their 
amalgamation. About 1000 b.c, under David, 
the Hebrews expanded over much of Syria. They 
gave to mankind the grandest message ever handed 
on from age to age. They fell before Nineveh 
and Babylon. To-day wherever placed they sur- 
prise by their intelligence, but as a conquering na- 
tion they had their time alone under David. Of 
India little is known before Alexander the Great as 
to dates and for centuries after him there is ob- 
scurity, but where facts are clear the law of blood 
is found working with a sureness that is startling. 


Thus in the middle of the first century a.d. the 
Yue-chi, a strange people, entered the Kabul 
Valley and began amalgamation under Khad- 
phises. In the fourth century Chadraputra ex- 
panded this dominion over a great empire. 

In Chinese history is evidence that the rise and 
fall of d3^nasties were due to new elements from the 
outside which from time to time entered the land 
and conquered the former reigning force after it 
had fallen to decay. The first ruler was always 
brave and vigorous. The last was degenerate. 
The earliest such account of any authenticity is 
that of the Tsin regime, which originated in a peo- 
ple on the western borders who had mingled with 
other blood three centuries before conquering the 
entire ancient territory. The Manchus were a 
people occupying what is now Manchuria, the 
name first attaining prominence in the thirteenth 
centur}^ After having been a shifting population, 
they then began amalgamation with the Yih-low, 
Wuh-keih, Moh-hoh and Pohai. Three centuries 
afterwards, following the example of the Khitians, 
Nuchiks and Mongols before them, they, under 
their great leader Nurachu, conquered not only 
Mongolia but the Chinese Empire. The empire 
of Jenghis Kahn, extending from the China Sea 
to the Dnieper River had been founded upon an 
amalgamation of the peoples of what is now Mon- 
golia. After their task they shrank to their origi- 


nal limits. Neither is Tibet so dark as to hide 
subjection to the law of blood. In the seventh 
century Strong-tsan-gampo subdued with his own 
the remaining tribes of the vast territory of Tibet. 
Amalgamation was inevitable. In the tenth cen- 
tury the Tibetan Empire was extended over Nor- 
thern India to the Bay of Bengal. In Siam, about 
1250 A.D., occurred a transfusion of Lao-tai, 
Khmer and Siamese peoples. Exactly three cen- 
turies later the country's greatest conqueror, Phra 
Naret, expanded the territory of this new people 
into Cambodia, Laos and other portions of the 
Malay peninsula. In Burma it was the same. 
The Mongols invaded the country in the thirteenth 
century and established dominion. In the early 
sixteenth century the Toungoo dynasty arose to 
widen the limits of the nation into empire. This 
led to a further commingling of blood, with the 
result that in the early nineteenth century Burma 
attained its maximum, having conquered Siam, 
Assam and Manipur and penetrated Bengal. In 
the last half of the eleventh century the Seljuks 
conquered, consolidated and began amalgamation 
with peoples of Transoxiana. Just three centuries 
later, in the last half of the fourteenth century, 
the mighty Timur, at the head of a new empire, 
spread his authority over all of central and west- 
ern Asia. 

The Phoenicians founded Carthage in 822 b.c. 


and began amalgamation with the Libyans. 
Three centuries later the Carthaginian Empire 
spread out over the Mediterranean, conquering 
Sardinia, Sicily, cities in Spain and Italy and fur- 
ther territory nearer home. This empire declined, 
but because of the new blood added to the older 
stock, three centuries later, under Hannibal (247- 
183), Carthage conquered Spain and half of Italy. 
As it went to pieces before Rome, Numidia, which 
had been given new blood by Carthage, expanded 
under Massinissa (238-149) over the lands from 
Mauretania to Cyrenaica. Mahomet in the late 
seventh century a.d. began a movement which 
amalgamated the fierce tribes of Arabia into a 
single people. Three hundred years afterward 
this empire was extended from Spain to India. 
After shedding the luster of its learning and in- 
stitutions, it fell before the rising Turks and 
Byzantium. The East Roman, or Byzantian Em- 
pire, established by Constantine with the founding 
of Constantinople in 300 a.d., is a further exempli- 
fication of the law of blood. Though Roman law 
and institutions were at first transferred there from 
Rome itself, the great transfusion which then be- 
gan under his central authority with the Greek and 
Macedonian stocks of Romans, Goths, Avars, 
Slavs and afterwards Huns made a new nation 
with different customs, architecture and views of 
life. The Goths had descended into the Mace- 


donian peninsula and Greece in 259, and the Slavs 
settled in the provinces of the former at about the 
same time. Consequently, the great conquests of 
Justinian were made in the middle of the sixth cen- 
tury and up to the date of his death in 565. As 
Constantine brought about more thorough trans- 
fusion in 330, so Heracleus restored the dwindled 
conquests of Justinian and in 629 advanced fur- 
ther into Persia than Roman arms had ever pene- 
trated. The rapid decline of the empire in the 
latter years of the reign of Heracleus was due not 
to lack of prowess on his part, but to the fact that 
the strength of his people had passed its maximum. 
And as the shake-up in the time of Heracleus had 
made the beginning of a further commingling of 
bloods imperative, so, three centuries later, in the 
latter half of the tenth century, the Byzantian Em- 
pire enjoyed a short respite of strength. Earlier, 
Sapor I, head of the Sassanid Empire, expanded 
over Syria and Armenia and assumed the title of 
"king of the kings of the Iranians and non-Iran- 
ians." This was the result of amalgamation 
which had taken place three centuries before dur- 
ing the upheavals caused by Pompey, Caesar and 
Antony; and these upheavals were themselves 
caused by the Greek colonization of Philip and 
Alexander three hundred years previous. Follow- 
ing the widely extended expansion of Sapor in the 
middle of the third century, in the middle of the 


sixth century Chosroes I took Antioch, widened his 
power to the Black Sea and the Caucasus, ravaged 
Cappadocia and conquered Bactria. This was not 
sufficient to give new conquering strength, though 
in the middle of the ninth century the Caliphate 
subdued with difficulty a serious revolt of Persian 
Mazdakite sectaries. In the adjacent lands east 
of Media the Parthians had in the middle of the 
second century b.c, under Mithridates I, extended 
their victories to the Indus and over Media and 
Babylonia. These successes of the height of Par- 
thian vitality may be ascribed to the annexations 
of Darius in this region three centuries before. 
Even in Mexico and Peru the law of blood has 
worked with mathematical exactness. The Aztecs 
conquered the older peoples they found in Mexico. 
Upon the establishment of their sway in 1195 
A.D., in what is now the City of Mexico, they cele- 
brated the festival of "tying up the bundle of 
years" and beginning a new cjcIg. Amalgama- 
tion resulted. After exactly three centuries had 
gone by, they expanded into the great Aztec Em- 
pire, extending from Panama to California. They 
had reached their zenith and were ready for their 
fall when the Spaniards arrived. In Peru the 
Incas entered the Cuzco Valley three hundred years 
before Pizarro. The evidence of the transfusion 
lies in the fact that originally two languages were 
spoken. Under Huana Capac, the Great Inca, 


the Empire reached its height and expanded from 
north of Quito to the southern part of the present 
Chili. He died the year before Pizarro reached 
Peru in 1526. Then the Peruvian Empire, too, 
was ready for defeat. Spanish women did not 
emigrate to Mexico and South America with the 
early conquerors. The soldiery, adventurers, ec- 
clesiastics and colonists mingled with the natives. 
Transfusion followed. Three hundred years 
later, from 1810 to 1826, Latin America threw 
off the yoke of the motherland in revolution. In 
1609 occurred a negro revolt in the Vera Cruz 
region and an Indian rebellion in Sinaloa and 
Durango. Blood mingled. In 1910 came Ma- 
dero's uprising. 

It appeared to me at first, after I had examined 
the history of all the nations with scrupulous care, 
seeking to find refutation in my own mind of the 
law of blood, if possible, that the case of the Japa- 
nese might disprove it. Japan has had no trans- 
fusion for 1400 years at least and has never ex- 
panded, except to a limited degree in Korea. To- 
day with an area not much larger than the British 
Islands and about the size of the State of Cali- 
fornia that nation has a population of 52,985,000. 
The people are so densely settled they can hardly 
be fed. They are like new wine in old bottles and 
must break through at the expense of Asia. No 
nation in history has been shut up so long and un- 


dcr such unique institutions. And yet, it will be 
said, if the Japanese could defeat the Chinese Em- 
pire of 360,000,000 souls and the Russian Empire 
with 150,000,000 population, extending from the 
Baltic to the Pacific, without having begun an 
amalgamation of bloods three centuries earlier, 
then the law is disproved. If the Chinese and 
Russians were a vigorous people in their prime this 
would be true, but what are the facts ^ The 
Chinese passed their zenith three thousand years 
ago. They have been conquered and reconquered 
since. They are as weak as water and cannot ex- 
cel in the field of battle. Was it wonderful, then, 
that the Japanese people, whose strength has been 
pent up so long, should have defeated China and 
have done it with modern weapons and a trained 
force which their opponents did not have? In 
the war of 1904-5 Russia was unable to get suf- 
ficient troops across the Trans-Siberian Railway 
and faced its enemy with but 300,000 men. 
Japan had the same number, with a base of sup- 
plies near at hand. The Japanese fought two 
great battles, Liao-Yang and Mukden, each re- 
quiring more than a week and in each case only 
forcing the Russians to retreat and take up a strong 
position. At the Portsmouth conference they 
could not even force an indemnity. No doubt the 
Japanese did attain their strength three centuries 
after their amalgamation began. But they never 


utilized it. They held it back under a social and 
intellectual system which is itself repressive and 
peculiar. Lafcadio Hearn quotes Percival Lowell 
as observing that the Japanese speak, read and 
write backwards and that this is only the abc of 
their contrariety, and goes on to say himself that 
the Japanese think backwards, upside-down and 
inside-out. He speaks of "forms of unfamiliar 
action strange enough to suggest the notion of a 
humanity even physically as little related to us as 
might be the population of another planet." 
While the strength of the Japanese came from 
infusion of Mongolian, Korean, Chinese and Aino 
bloods, the last such having immigrated in the 
sixth century, they could not keep that strength 
at the full, even though bottled up. The Jap- 
anese are diminutive in stature. As far back as 
the Han and Wei records of China (25-265 a.d.) 
these people are spoken of as dwarfs. By adopt- 
ing Western methods and with such strength as 
they have withheld they can conquer Eastern Asia, 
because of the weak peoples opposed to them, and 
fulfil that part of the law of blood which applies 
to expansion, but they have not the virile and 
youthful vigor to conquer the United States. And 
such power as they may attain will be short, be- 
cause they have not the energy to maintain it. 
They, too, do not deny but fulfil the law of blood. 
We next come to the great nations engaged in 


the present struggle of Europe. In what is now 
Russia were originally Sythians, Goths, Huns, 
Avars, Bulgarians, Magyars, Khazars and Slavs. 
This in the fourth century. The mists of obscur- 
ity hide the record and when they lift again in the 
twelfth century there are Slavs, Krivitches, Polot- 
chians, Dregovitches, Radimitches, Viatitches, 
Drevlians, Severians, Polians, Croats, Tivertses, 
Loutitches, Doulebes, Boujans, Tcheques, Lechites 
Finns, Turks, Mongols, Letts, Livonians, Esthon- 
ians, Carelians, Lapps, Mordvians, Bachkirs, Met- 
cheraks and Tchouvachs. Speaking generally 
these should be divided among Russian Slavs, Let- 
to-Lithuanians, Finns, and Turko-Tatars or Mon- 
gols. During the last years of the fifteenth cen- 
tury Ivan III threw off the Mongol yoke, which 
had lasted more than two centuries, and consoli- 
dated the vast dominions under the sway of Mos- 
covy. Transfusion followed. During the last 
years of the eighteenth century, in the reign of 
Catherine II, Russia reached its apex of power, ex- 
panding into an empire extending all the way 
from Russian Poland to Behring Sea, practically 
its present limits. To be exact, the Tatar yoke was 
thrown off between 1480 and 1487, and in 1503 
the greater part of Lithuania was annexed. In 
1774 Catherine extended the empire to the Black 
Sea and the Danube. Ten years later the Crimean 
Peninsula was annexed. In 1792 she obtained 


Ochakov and the coast between the Bug and the 
Dniester. In 1795 Courland was taken and the 
third of the partitions of Poland brought about 
the last great seizure of foreign territory. Siberia 
had been gradually absorbed during the eighteenth 
century. Having attained its maximum under the 
Great Empress, Russia was unable to withstand 
Napoleon, being defeated at Austerlitz and Fried- 
land, and wasted the armies of the French Em- 
peror only by withdrawing into the interior and 
burning Moscow. In the century since Russia has 
done nothing more than consolidate the territory 
already in its possession. Now, facing a new and 
vital people, the empire must meet defeat. 

Italy has long since declined. Odoacer, an 
Herulian, ascended the throne of the Csesars in 
476. After that Rome soon fell before the Goths 
under Theodoric. Then from 539 to 553 ap- 
peared the East Romans under Belisarius and 
Narses. They were in turn overcome by the Lom- 
bards. When Pope Gregory II united with these 
Lombards and threw off the yoke of Leo the Isau- 
rian, the Eastern Emperor, the beginnings of amal- 
gamation might have been made. But Charle- 
magne came, bringing an infusion of Franks into 
the peninsula and establishing a protectorate over 
it. This, too, might have brought unity of all the 
strong new bloods, but after his death his empire 
fell away. Then followed the Saracens, over- 


running Sicily and Southern Italy. The Byzan- 
tines returned late in the ninth century and after- 
wards the Magyars invaded and devastated the 
northern lands. It was Otto the Great who 
brought his Germans, or, more properly speaking, 
Saxons, in 961. He, too, began to establish co- 
hesion, but after his death appeared in Southern 
Italy the Normans, completing their conquests in 
1130. Finally Frederick Barbarossa crossed the 
Alps in 1 154. After he had triumphed for a time 
the League of Cities was formed against him and 
the amalgamation of the many new bloods began. 
Italy never became permanently one state and 
thereby lost opportunity for again expanding into 
a single empire, but exactly three centuries after 
Frederick had entered it and started the process of 
transfusion the live powers of the peninsula ex- 
tended their respective territories to their utmost 
limits — ^Venice under Foscari, the Two Sicilies 
under Alphonso the Magnanimous, Milan under 
Francesco Sforza, the Papacy under Nicholas V 
and Florence under Cosimo de Medici — and this 
confederated Italy, for a time independent, gave 
new life to the world of art and literature in the 
humanist movement known as the Renaissance. 
This was the age of Michelangelo, Leonardo da 
Vinci, Christopher Columbus and Niccolo Machi- 
avelli, the supreme height of Italian genius and, 
a little earlier, of Petrarch, Boccaccio and Dante. 


United, the states of Italy might have withstood 
the shock of the northern invaders, but divided 
they soon fell before the armies of Spain, France, 
Austria and their Swiss auxiliaries. They had 
long been under the domination of the Hapsburgs 
when Napoleon liberated and united them. Fi- 
nally, when both France and Austria had passed 
their zenith, the Peninsula was able to unite it- 
self. But to contend that Italy is capable of com- 
bating Germany to-day is the same as to say that 
a nation can come back to life after nearly four 
centuries have gone by since its death. 

France, too, has long since passed its zenith and 
fallen to decay. With the break-up of the em- 
pire of Charlemagne, because of none to wield his 
sword, the land his grandson, Charles, ruled soon 
disintegrated into small principalities between 
which there was fighting for centuries. Differ- 
ent languages were spoken and it was impossible 
for a condition to be brought about whereby amal- 
gamation of the Normans, Flemings and other new 
stocks might be made. Philip Augustus in the 
thirteenth century started such a process, but in 
only a portion of the realm that was to be modern 
France. Continued internecine strife and the 
Hundred Years' War drew attention even further 
from unity. It was not until the reigns of Louis 
XI, Charles VIII and Louis XII that the different 
new peoples were consolidated into one. Before 


his death in 1483 Louis XI, the Frederick the 
Great of France, had annexed Burgundy and 
Provence and extended the southern boundaries to 
the Pyrenees. After his wars with it, Brittany 
finally came to his son Charles VII through his 
marriage to Anne of Brittany in 1491 . Louis XII 
married the widow in 1499. He added Orleans 
to his domain. Internal warfare began to cease 
under these two latter kings and one-third of the 
land of the realm was restored to cultivation. 
The peasantry enjoyed rest and laid the founda- 
tions of French thrift. Society took on the forms 
it was to maintain, including taxation and systems 
of law and judicial procedure. It may be said 
that between the years 1499 and 1515 France was 
organized. That this is so is shown by the fact 
that French historians date the beginning of abso- 
lute monarchy from 1515. In this period com- 
menced the amalgamation of the Iberians, the Li- 
gurian strains of the Mediterranean, the incon- 
siderable German admixture in the East, the Nor- 
mans, the Basques of the Pyrenees, the Flemings 
of French Flanders, the new Burgundian acquisi- 
tions and the original Prankish and Celtic stocks. 
Just three centuries later the new life thus created 
burst forth with volcanic energy in the French 
Revolution, and under Napoleon expanded over 
Egypt in 1799, Italy between 1797 and 1809, 
Holland in 1806, Spain and part of Portugal in 


1807 and 1808, nearly all of present Germany be- 
tween 1805 and 1807 and Illyria in 1809. This 
was the maximum. After these tremendous ef- 
forts and the losses in Russia it was an exhausted 
France that faced the British squares at Waterloo 
in 1815. Then the French Empire went to pieces. 
France has since accomplished little in a military 

Britain, in outward appearances the mightiest 
empire in the world, long ago reached its maximum 
and cannot again conquer. With it the law of 
blood is not less inexorable. To the island origi- 
nally inhabited by the Scots, Picts, Britons, and 
then the Romans, emigrated the Angles, Saxons 
and Jutes in the fifth century, extending their 
separate conquests in the two following centuries. 
To them were added the Danes with a small 
sprinkling of Scandinavians in the last years of 
the eighth and the beginning of the ninth century. 
Alfred held them back. Then came the great 
Danish inundation in the first years of the eleventh 
century under Sweyn and afterwards Canute, who 
finally did conquer the country and made it a 
part of the Danish empire. Unity might then 
have begun, but Canute died in 1035 ^^^ i^ 1066 
appeared a flood of Normans under William the 
Conqueror, who also brought with him a mingling 
of Breton, Frank and Flemish blood. The Nor- 
mans subdued England proper, but mutual hatreds 


and warfare under feudalism were long continued. 
It was in the reign of Edward I that transfusion 
started. Between 1282 and 1295 he conquered 
Wales. He took the lower part of Scotland and 
nominally subdued the entire realm for a time. 
When he died in 1307 he had begun to make Eng- 
land over, though the Scots were already in re- 
volt. However, the Hundred Years' War and 
the Wars of the Roses prevented any thorough 
amalgamation of the peoples of the Island until 
after the fiercest of the battles of the latter wars 
ceased in 1461. From this time, when the atten- 
tion of the country was turned away from domin- 
ion in France to national development, and 
through the reign of Henry Tudor, opportunity 
for understanding between the races was found. 
From this English King's accession in 1485 until 
his death in 1509, he established order and unity. 
With the marriage of Henry's daughter to James 
IV of Scotland, leading later to the Stewart 
dynasty, a feeling of amity and practical oneness 
developed between the peoples of Scotland and 
England. While the two crowns were not united 
until 1603 and the formal act of union did not 
take place until 1709, the Scots began such amal- 
gamation as their clannishness and love of nation- 
ality would permit in the last half of the fifteenth 
century. Printing was then introduced, leading 
to a common language and to Macaulay's state- 


ment regarding 1503 that "the population of Scot- 
land with the exception of the Celtic tribes, which 
were thinly scattered over the Hebrides, were of 
the same blood as the people of England and spoke 
a tongue which did not differ from purest 
English more than the dialects of Somerset- 
shire and Lancashire differed from each other." 
Aberdeen University was founded in 1485 and 
compulsory education of all freeholders was re- 
quired after i486. Andrew Lang says Scotland 
then really began modern histor}% "industrial, com- 
mercial, free thinking." Flodden Field, the last 
of the national upheavals, where 10,000 of the 
flower of Scotland fell in 1513, was the final blow 
to Scottish independence. The Stewart raids 
thereafter were sporadic and desultory. Under 
Henry VII, too, Wales was made a permanent part 
of the kingdom and Welsh subjects were placed 
upon a thorough social and political equality with 
Englishmen. England, Scotland and Wales be- 
gan to breathe in unison a new life in the half 
century- between 1461 and 1513. 

The conquest of Ireland had begun under Henry 
II in 1 162, but it was never completed sufficiently 
to amalgamate the peoples; this because of the 
treatment the Irish received. In the old days the 
slaying of an Irishman by an Englishman did not 
constitute murder. When Edward I summoned 
his viceroy and complained of the cruelties under 


him that official replied that he thought it expe- 
dient to wink at one knave cutting off another. 
"Whereat the King laughed," says the Chronicler. 
When Drogheda was captured by Cromwell in 
1649 he put every last man, woman and child — 
2800 of them — to the sword. The thirty who es- 
caped were caught and sent as slaves to Barbadoes. 
"Oliver's severe conduct at Drogheda and else- 
where is not morally defensible," says the Britan- 
nka Encyclopaedia. It may be urged that this 
was a long time ago, but nations in their strength 
often are as cruel, as was learned by the de- 
crepit Roman Empire. 

Amalgamation having started in the British Is- 
land in the last years of the thirteenth century, ex- 
pansion began under Elizabeth in the last years 
of the sixteenth century — the time of Shakespeare. 
New Foundland was taken in 1583. The Span- 
ish Armada was defeated in 1 588. The West In- 
dies, much of Canada and parts of India were 
annexed in the seventeenth century. And as the 
further amalgam of British blood occurred after 
1461, the maximum of English conquests came 
three centuries later. From 1753 to 1760 Clive 
conquered India. All of Canada was wrested 
from France in 1763. Green says: "England had 
never played so great a part in the history of man- 
kind as now. The year 1759 was a year of tri- 
umph in every quarter of the world. In Septem- 


ber came the news of Minden and of a victory off 
Lagos. In October came tidings of the capture of 
Quebec. November brought word of the French 
defeat at Quiberon. 'We are forced to ask every 
morning what victor}^ there is,' laughed Horace 
Walpole, 'for fear of missing one.' " In 1770 
Cook peacefully established British suzerainty in 
Australia. Having passed the zenith of its land 
aggression, England lost its colonies in central 
North America to the United States. When the 
empire of Napoleon began to decline, because of 
having in its turn expended its strength, Well- 
ington triumphed in the Spanish peninsula and 
overthrew the Emperor at Waterloo with the aid 
of the Prussians; but Britain was able to do this 
and to hold its colonies by sea power and the 
strength it had gained by amalgamation up to 
1515, sweeping the ocean of its enemies in 1806. 
The subsequent acquisitions of territory in Africa 
and Australia were taken mainly without con- 
quest and by this naval power and the prestige of 
its name. Up to the beginning of the present war 
the British Empire had had no great contest of 
strength since Waterloo. So exhausted was it 
that, despite its immense resources, two and a half 
years were required a decade ago to finish the lit- 
tle Boer Republic. Having passed its zenith a 
century and more, the British Empire cannot hope 
to conquer on the land, and, in order to hold its 


possessions, must rely entirely upon its fleets. 
Whether those fleets can be permanently main- 
tained against a virile power in spite of the law of 
blood remains to be seen. They may appear to 
have been maintained at Aboukir Bay and Trafal- 
gar, but the British people were still near their 
maximum. The presumption throughout all the 
centuries of the working out of this law is de- 
cidedly against the continuance in power perma- 
nently of any empire; it is unlikely that massive 
and preponderating instruments of steel and gun- 
nery on the water can protect a decadent blood. 

And now we come to the German people at their 
maximum, exactly three centuries after the begin- 
ning of their amalgamation. It will be contended 
that the peoples out of which the present Germany 
is made are Teutons and have always been united 
by ties of race. But the Germans are a new stock. 
Never before the present time has there been a 
German people. It is true that in early Roman 
history appeared the name of the Teutoni, a tribe 
which is said to have originated in the neighbor- 
hood of Denmark and was defeated by the consul 
Marius in 102 b.c. when it expanded into Gaul 
and attacked the gates of Italy, and was so named 
from its legendary original father (stammvater). 
But this was only a single people which for a time 
probably dominated the Cimbri and Ausones who 
accompanied them and was then swallowed up 


among others. The sobriquet of German or 
"shouting man" was given by the Romans to all 
those people who surged westward across the Rhine 
from Central Europe and uttered loud cries as they 
entered into battle, irrespective of whether they 
were related or not. Tacitus says: "The people 
who first passed the Rhine and took possession of a 
canton in Gaul, though known at present (about 
lOO A.D.) by the name of Tungrians, were in that 
expedition called Germans, and hence the title as- 
sumed by a band of emigrants, in order to spread a 
general terror in their progress, extended itself by 
degrees and became in time the appellation of a 
whole people." The Roman historian then goes 
on to show that each of the people east of the 
Rhine was at that time exerting its strength or 
had fallen to decay. Each was separate and dif- 
ferent from the others. Archeology has at- 
tempted to bridge the demarcation between them. 
Its conclusions are purely speculative. Neither 
archeology nor philology holds the key to these 
early peoples. The expansion of each can alone 
explain any traces of the civilization it may have 
left outside of its original territory. The change 
of names among them in the early centuries, so 
puzzling to historians, is due to their transfusion 
into new peoples who in their turn have held sway 
for a while and then disappeared. With some 
scholars the term "Teutonic" has been used to des- 


ignate a type of blue-eyed and light-haired peoples 
in Northern Europe. But they receive that type 
only from climate, as contrasted with dark-haired 
and eyed races nearer the Equator. "It is to be ob- 
served," says the Britanfiica Encyclopczdia^ a 
monument to the scholarship of the British race, 
"that the term 'Teutonic' is of scholastic and not 
of popular origin, and this is true of the other 
terms ('Germanic,' 'Gothic,' etc.), which are or 
have been used in the same manner. There is no 
generic term now in popular use either for the lan- 
guage or for the peoples, for the reason that their 
common origin has been forgotten." 

The use of general terms to cover lack of knowl- 
edge proves nothing. Thus there is no such thing 
as an Aryan people or race. Philologists have dis- 
covered that the barest similarity of root of lan- 
guage pervades peoples from India to Europe. 
These scholars '(less Max Miiller, who scoffed at 
the contention) have set up the preposterous postu- 
late that all such peoples were at one time part of 
an Aryan race. If the records of the present time 
were lost and three thousand years hence certain 
pedants made the discovery that among the peo- 
ples of Europe and the Americas there was a basis 
of similarity of Latin derivative, would a presump- 
tion that their common ancestors were at one time 
Roman be justified? Is it any wiser for us to con- 
clude that because there was before the Christian 


era a tribe known as the Teutoni, and because the 

Romans gave a general nickname to the peoples 
east of the Rhine who advanced against them with 
loud battle shouts, that all the peoples in the lat- 
ter district were at one time one? No more in- 
telligent is the claim that there is an Anglo-Saxon 
people. The Angles, Saxons and Jutes were sub- 
merged by the Danes and then by the Normans. 
Amalgamated, they made a British people. In 
America we have a conglomerate of the white race, 
including at least 25,000,000 of Germans or of 
German descent, which constitutes the American 
people. The British and American peoples are 
entirely different. Incidentally, it may be men- 
tioned that nations amalgamate into unity. 
Having united their bloods, they cannot, in the na- 
ture of the case, disunite them. Hence it is im- 
possible that there could have been an original 
Germanic or Teutonic people which separated into 
smaller units. 

After the Romans had defeated the Teutoni and 
Cimbri, they came in contact at various times with 
the following peoples who had their habitation east 
of the Rhine : Bructeri, Chatti, Cherusci, Chauci, 
Langobardi, Cimbri, Cherudes, Rauraci, Medioma- 
trici, Sequani, Tribocci, Nemetes, Vangiones, 
Mattiaci, Ubii, Sugambri, Tencteri, Usipetes, 
Ampsivarii, Chasuarii, Marsi, Angrivarii, Canne- 
fates, Frisii, Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermanduri, 


Semnones, Varini, Burgundiones, Lugii, Galindi 
and Ampsivarii. By die fourdi century a.d. these 
tribes or peoples had solidified into the Franks, 
Alamanni, Goths, Vandals, Heruli, Saxons, Bur- 
gundians and Lombards. In the sixth century the 
predominant peoples were the Franks, Frisians, 
Saxons, Alamanni, Bavarians (fused with Marco- 
manni), Langobardi (Lombards), Heruli, Wami 
and Thuringii. To the east of the Saxons were 
the Polabs and Havelli. In the northeast were 
the Prussi, Lithuani, Milcieni, Lusici, Warnabi 
and Leuteci, together with the Pomeranians, the 
progenitors of the modern Prussians. After the 
great migrations there began to grow up in what 
is now Germany the separate dominions of the 
Saxons, Thuringians, Alamanni and Suevi 
(Swabia), Ripuarian Franks (Franconia), and 
Bavarians. A thousand years were to pass be- 
fore they would begin unification. Charlemagne 
started such a process as he had in Italy, subjugat- 
ing the Saxons, but after his death the former dis- 
integration was resumed. His grandson, Charles, 
wielded a temporary and nominal sway over the 
greater empire, but the Normans came into the 
North to help break this up, and after them the 
long night of separate dukedoms and feudalism in 
Germany began. All through the Middle Ages 
the different principalities were maintained. 
Even under Otto the Great and Frederick Bar- 


barossa there was no tendency toward union of 
peoples. The dukes constantly extended their 
privileges and separate rights by the sale of 
allegiance to the emperors during the contests of 
the latter with the Papacy to maintain jurisdiction 
in the Holy Roman Empire — that great phantom 
of the medieval mind. Neither German king nor 
emperor was hereditary, but elective and in the 
hands of the dukes. Nor were they confined to a 
single dukedom. Thus Henry the Fowler and the 
first three Ottos were Saxons, Henry H was a 
Bavarian, Conrad II a Franconian, as were Henry 
III to V, Lothair was duke of Saxony, Conrad II 
of Hauenstaufen was duke of Franconia, and 
Frederick Barbarossa, Henry V, Philip and Fred- 
erick II were Swabians. Finally internecine wars 
and long absences of the emperors in Italy, where 
Guelph and Guibbeline continued fighting, caused 
the dukedoms to break up entirely. There were 
archbishops, bishops, abbots, dukes, margraves, 
landgraves and counts who claimed no superior but 
the Emperor whose authority they had destroyed. 
Petty knights and barons descended upon passing 
travelers. The peasantry and serfs of the dif- 
ferent principalities did not mingle. Culture and 
refinement prevailed only in the courts of the great 
dukes. Leagues of cities were local. 

The last half of the thirteenth century saw the 
beginnings of the Austrian power. The Oster- 


reich, or East Realm, had been occupied by the 
Quadi, Taurici and considerable Marcomanni. 
There had been in Styria, Carinthia, Triest and 
Istria strata of Huns, Slovenes, Avars, Franks, 
Moravians and Magyars. In the last half of the 
thirteenth century, under Rudolph of Hapsburg, 
Austria extended its dominion over and consoli- 
dated the districts named, and made it possible to 
begin a process of amalgamation. In the last half 
of the sixteenth century the Austrian people thus 
created attained their maximum and conquered 
Bohemia, most of Hungary (due to the death of 
Suleiman and the decline of Turkish power), 
Slavonia and 1 ransylvania. It was the Spanish 
Charles V who .nherited this dominion, as well as 
the old Hapsb jrg territories in the Netherlands 
and the Spanish conquests in Italy. But Austria 
had expended its strength, accepting the feudal 
and nominal allegiance of the northern principali- 
ties and interfering very little therein. If there 
had been a complete transfusion of Austrian and 
Hungarian blood after the conquests in the latter 
part of the sixteenth century, Austria would now, 
three centuries later, be within itself again a great 
power. But Hungary has kept its identity, cus- 
toms, language and political institutions and the 
transfusion has been inconsiderable, though enough 
to add new strength to Austria. Bohemia, too, 
has maintained its language. 


Returning now from this digression, which ex- 
plains so much of German history, it will be found 
that after the beginnings of Austria in the thir- 
teenth century the German kingship was held in 
such light esteem, due to the constant disintegra- 
tion, that it was conferred electively upon a Bo- 
hemian, a Moravian and then a Hungarian. In 
the fifteenth century the disunion among the duke- 
doms became even greater and few of these elective 
kings had any authority except over their own 
original jurisdiction. In the north there was con- 
stant fighting among the duchies. Austria drew 
away from the principalities, now added to by 
Brandenburg under the Hohenzollerns. These 
were indifferent to Austria's foreign wars. Local 
diets administered them and the princes were prac- 
tically sovereigns. The breaking away from the 
Church in the Reformation awakened the peoples, 
but only accentuated their territorial separateness. 
When Luther appeared the sole German language 
was that of the chanceries. With that as a basis 
he translated the Bible and made what grew into a 
common language later. But the principal states 
still spoke different tongues. The attempts of 
Sickingen and Hutton to establish unity resulted 
in their deaths. The League of Schmalkalden fell 
apart and the Protestant states fought each other 
with great cruelty. The empire had now disin- 
tegrated into three hundred separate territorial 


It was not until 1619, at the opening of the 
Thirty Years' War, that the peoples of the pres- 
ent Germany started amalgamation. In their 
struggle against the Papacy and the Austrian Em- 
pire the Saxons, Prussians, Bavarians, Fran- 
conians, Thuringians, Swabians and Pomeranians 
began to feel a common interest. In the awful 
process by which their population was cut down 
from twenty to six millions in thirty years and 
cannibalism is said to have been practised was 
forged the weapon by which modern Germany was 
made. With the exception of two years, nearly 
all the fighting took place in the south, particularly 
Bohemia and Bavaria, leaving the Northern 
peoples to be drawn together by mutual ties. 
These thought and fought as one. Feudalism dis- 
appeared. Turenne's incursion into Bavaria 
alone saved its people for amalgamation into the 
future German Empire. By the treaty of West- 
phalia in 1648, having loved freedom enough to 
die for it, they made it certain that men should be 
allowed to think as they pleased. Then came 
Frederick the Great, who, with the sword of 
Prussia, tempered by the good blood, principally 
Pomeranian, that had been transfused with it from 
the north, further consolidated the peoples. Each 
of the older states — Bavaria, Saxony, Thuringia, 
Franconia, and Swabia (now Wiirttemberg) — had 
had its time. It was Prussia with newer blood 


that took the lead. Napoleon still further united 
them, first by conquering and giving them laws 
and then by rousing their patriotic ardor to de- 
feat him. Finally came Bismarck and the present 
great man who has guided the destinies of united 
Germany for more than a quarter of a century, and 
the Germans — no longer Bavarians, Saxons, 
Thuringians, Prussians, Franks, Pomeranians — 
after three centuries of transfusion are charged 
with the vigor that will enable them to do the 
mighty work they have so well begun. 

Every nation when it expands showers its popu- 
lation over other lands, just as the bud rises to 
bloom, flowers and decays. Each one of the great 
powers engaged in the present struggle has fulfilled 
this part of the law of blood with the exception of 
Germany. Britain has expanded over one-fourth 
of the globe and controls a fourth of its popula- 
tion. The most aggressive of its people have gone 
to Canada, the United States, Australia, South 
Africa and India. The least vital and therefore 
the least pugnacious have remained at home. 
These call upon the colonies to help them. 
Canada, Australia and South Africa with noble 
spirit respond liberally out of their population, but 
they cannot save the empire on the battlefields 
of Europe ; they are of one blood. Of the people 
of Australia 96% per cent, are British. Outside 
of Quebec, where the French language is spoken 


and 87 per cent, are of French descent, practically 
all are British in Canada. The three hundred mil- 
lions of people in India have been ruled by 165,- 
000 Englishmen. This is no miracle. It is the 
law of blood. The Indian people had their zenith 
and passed to complete decline many centuries 
ago. So weak are they in the strength that blood 
gives that they have been peaceable and orderly 
under so small a number and awe of the British 
name. Indian troops are placed in the field. 
They mean nothing when pitted against people 
with greater energy. The British fleet is made up 
almost entirely of the blood of the British island. 
By failure to give Ireland justice and to mingle 
with its people England has prevented a strength 
in its fighting arm which it might otherwise have. 
A preponderance of sea power may be limited by 
the force to man it, as was indicated by the 
North Sea battle of 1916 in which the advantage 
rested with the Germans. At Salamis, Lepanto, 
the Armada and Trafalgar the greater numbers 
went down to utter defeat. The superiority in 
ships might have won had not blood given strength 
as well as ideas to overcome the handicap. When 
the Spanish Armada appeared with its larger gal- 
leons the Spaniards taunted the English with cow- 
ardice, just as the British have taunted the Ger- 
mans in the present war for not fighting them as 
they wished them to fight on the sea. But the 


English with smaller ships ran alongside, poured 
shot into the bottoms of the larger craft, and dex- 
terously got away before the Spaniards could 
board them. Then they sent fire ships among the 
great enemy, who was running before them when 
the storm came. Only twenty-eight out of the 
130 ships of Medina Sidonia returned to Spain. 
Thousands of the poor Spaniards succeeded in 
reaching the coasts of the British islands from the 
wreckage of their ships alive. England did not 
stop to consider their prayers ; it ordered every last 
man and boy put to the sword. 

England is fighting for a preponderance of in- 
fluence in Europe and for commercial supremacy 
throughout the world. The power to govern is 
the power to tax, and it desires to retain its im- 
mense colonies, despite the fact that it must go 
the way of all the earth. It pretends it is fighting 
only for the neutrality of Belgium. Did Eng- 
land conquer India for the benefit of that great 
possession or its own? Did it suppress the Boer 
Republic for the benefit of the South Africans who 
fought for liberty, or that of the British Empire? 
Did it conquer Canada for the benefit of the peo- 
ple there, or because it was a rich country and 
England wanted it? For whose benefit did it re- 
fuse representation with taxation in 1775, rnain- 
tain the right of search and seizure of neutral ships 
in 1812, and side with the South in order that it 


might get cotton in the Civil War? For whose 
benefit was it that in 1912 Great Britain made its 
recognition of the new republic of China condi- 
tional upon the agreement of the latter to cease 
regarding Tibet as a Chinese province? For 
whose benefit was it that the English government 
paid to have Napoleon murdered *? ^ As the Great 
Conqueror said, no French king would have dared 
to put away three of his wives in cold blood as 
Henry VIII did. It was also Napoleon who re- 
ferred to Britain as a nation of shop keepers. 
And he might have recalled that it was the Eng- 
lish who burned Jeanne d'Arc at the stake. 

For whose benefit was it that England com- 
pelled Germany and France on the eve of the war 
of 1870 to guarantee the neutrality of Belgium*? 
The latter is at its front door, just across from the 
mouth of the Thames. In the hands of either of 
the combatants it would have been a menace. 
England might have thrown its navy against the 
side that declined such a guarantee. What easier 
than to compel neutrality? But for whose bene- 
fit was it? The Cambridge Modern History says : 
'Tt was recognized both in France and Prussia 
that England, busied with domestic reforms under 
Gladstone, was unwilling to interfere in conti- 
nental affairs, but that the neutrality of Belgium 
was very dear to the English people, who would 

3 "Life of NapoleoD," by J. Holland Rose, Vol. I, p. 416, seq. 


certainly not brook the presence of either power at 

Britain has set forth the claim that in furthering 
the cause of Belgium she is upholding the sacred 
principle of the integrity of treaties, violated by 
Germany in entering neutral territory. The in- 
ference is that England has never failed to live up 
to the terms of a document to which it has been a 
signatory party. The hypocrisy of this is made 
evident by a letter of Napoleon to the Czar of 
Russia in 1803: "A more serious contest has 
arisen with England. Under the provisions of 
the treaty of Amiens she was held to evacuate 
Malta within three months, and France on her 
side to evacuate Taranto within the same period. 
I have faithfully evacuated Taranto. On inquir- 
ing why Malta was not evacuated, I received the 
reply that there was as yet no Grand Master : that 
was adding a clause to the treaty. The Grand 
Master is appointed. I am told it was necessary 
to await the accession of Your Majesty, to which I 
agreed and which is now accomplished. I notified 
the British Cabinet to this effect. Then England 
raised the mask and informed me that she wished 
to hold Malta for seven years." At the same time 
the French Emperor said lO Lord Whitworth, the 
British ambassador: "The English want war, but 
if they are first to draw the sword, I shall be the 
last to place it in the scabbard. They don't ob- 


serve treaties; we shall have to veil them in crape. 
If you want to arm, I will arm too; if you want to 
fight, I too will iight. Woe betide those who do 
not respect treaties! The French people can be 
killed, but cannot be intimidated!" 

Philanthropic England I The same kind of a 
plea of benign disinterestedness is made against 
what is termed German ''militarism." The 
French fighting a war of vengeance to recapture 
Alsace and Lorraine, despite the fact that they 
comprised so-called German territory for 1200 
years and French for 160 years, have something 
like six millions of men in the field. This is pa- 
triotism. Russia, fighting to Slavise Europe and 
enter the Mediterranean, is estimated to have 
seven millions of men in anus. That is the high- 
est altruism. Italy, having used the prestige of 
the Triple Alliance in gaining Tripoli from the 
Turks, cuts the throats of those who helped it and 
puts four millions of men at the front to gain terri- 
tory at the expense of Austria. This is pure 
beneficence. England, having gained a fourth of 
the world by force and holding great colonies in 
order that they may feed British manufactures, 
has the greatest navy on the globe and a million 
men in France in order to hold them. That is a 
wise humanitarianism. But Germany, in the cen- 
ter of Europe and surrounded by powers whose in- 
terests are diametrically opposed to hers, has a well 


trained army of perhaps six millions of men at the 
present time and is guilty of ''militarism I'' 

These British said a century ago that Napoleon 
was a monster. There was no name too harsh to 
cover his iniquities. Yet to-day they outvie the 
rest of Europe in praising him. He bridled the 
revolution, gave new laws to half of Europe, made 
Italian unity possible, taught the world the art of 
war which it is practising now, plus German 
science, and by his expedition to Egypt gave the 
keystone of all that has since been learned of an- 
tiquity. But to the English he was an upstart and 
a scoundrel. The German Emperor has become 
not much less to them. What is the truth? If 
the war had not started, the whole world would 
agree that the Kaiser is one of the great men in it 
— in all that makes a noble ruler, fulfilling the 
ideal of Frederick the Great that the King is the 
first servant of the state and, like David, ruling in 
the fear of God. Versatile, able, forceful, con- 
structive, of quick decision, clean and wholesome 
in his private life, he typifies and epitomizes the 
ideals of a great nation. 

France is so weak it is unable to reproduce it- 
self. Its people say this is will, but strong vitality 
overcomes the will and leads to naturalness and 
wholesomeness of life. The French population 
has hardly altered since 1871. Is it to be won- 
dered at that the French forces make no headway 


against the Germans in France^ The Frenchman 
drinks champagne, cognac, absinthe. Burgundy, 
claret and the strongest cordials, such as Bene- 
dictine. This is because he is so weak it requires 
that much to stimulate him. For the same reason 
the Englishman drinks whiskey, stout, grog, rum, 
gin and ale, the Italian drinks chianti, cassis, bar- 
bara, sauterne and bitters, and the Russian im- 
bibes vodka, a synonym for hre. The German en- 
joys beer and Rhine wine, the lightest alcoholic 
beverages, due to the fact that he is so strong it 
requires that little to stimulate him. 

Take the leading men of Germany and consider 
them beside similar Frenchmen and Englishmen. 
The Kaiser, Bethmann-Hollweg, Tirpitz, Hinden- 
burg and Biilow are tall, full-breasted, red-faced 
men, full of life and power and yet their faces 
expressive of great intellectuality. Poincare, the 
President of France, is a little pot-bellied lawyer. 
General Joff re, a man of slow movement who gave 
new proof that a fat man cannot become a con- 
queror; General Nivelle, an officer with little vi- 
tality who temporarily distinguished himself only 
in defensive operations, and Briand, a man of 
quick wit who has given no indication of great 
strength. The leading men in England are Lloyd- 
George, Asquith, John Morley, Earl of Rosebery 
and the King. They are sallow faced individuals 
who would not inspire confidence in a physical con- 


test. Certainly none would consider Lord Kitch- 
ener, Sir John French or Sir Douglas Haig great 
in achievement. The leading Italians have faces 
of bluish tint, showing that their blood is old. 
The Czar is a mollycoddle. 

'Tor there is a day of judgment unto the Lord 
of Hosts over every proud and lofty one, that he 
be brought low." And again: "Destruction 
shall come over transgressors and sinners together, 
and those that forsake the Lord shall perish." 
England believes in her pride she can remain 
among the transcendent powers of the earth after 
her time has passed. But it might be said of Eng- 
land, as it was said of Babylon of old, "O thou 
that dwellest in many waters, great in treasures, 
thy end is come, the full measure of thy selfish rob- 
bery." Jealous of rising Germany, she makes a 
desperate effort to destroy its power on the pretext 
that she is doing it for humanity; but the law of 
blood is sure : as she has by force of arms made Ire- 
land and others succumb, she herself must give 
way to the mightier hand that will carry along the 
work of the world. 

Belgium must pay the penalty of her cruel atti- 
tude toward the people of the Congo. It is the 
law of retribution. Of Belgium atrocities. The 
Cambridge Modern History says: "But it was 
by its treatment of the native peoples that the 
Congo state attained that evil eminence which 


accumulating proof shows it to have well de- 
served. . . . The native was wronged by the 
disregard of his system of land ownership and of 
the tribal rights to hunt and gather produce in 
certain areas, as well as by a system of compulsory 
labor in the collection of produce on behalf of the 
state, enforced by barbarous punishment and re- 
sponsible for continuous and devastating warfare." 
Belgium pays with the loss of its sovereignty. 
Russia has treated five millions of Jews within its 
borders with savage barbarity and kept its peas- 
antry so ignorant that only thirty-eight per cent, 
know how to read and write. England in her hy- 
pocrisy has kept Russia out of the case for the sake 
of the argument. Does she suppose the rest of the 
world has stopped thinking? 

It is stated by British sympathizers in this coun- 
try that the Germans are "hyphenated Ameri- 
cans." The same charge is laid at the door of the 
Irish. Why are the German-American Alliance, 
the Ancient Order of Hibernians and the Clan- 
na-Gaels in existence? Because the German loves 
to cherish the memory of his Fatherland, the land 
of Luther, Bernhard of Saxe-Weimer, Frederick the 
Great, Bliicher, Stein, Moltke, Bismarck and Wil- 
liam II, the land of song and beer and the Rhine. 
Because the Irishman remains loyal in his memory 
to the Emerald Isle, the "auld sod," the home of 
his ancestors, where British tyranny kept him 


down and which he and his fathers left to find op- 
portunity in a free land. He keeps as green as his 
island the names of St. Patrick, Shane O'Neill, 
Desmond, Tone, Emmet, O'Connell and Parnell. 
O'Neill, Desmond, Tone and Emmet were hunted 
to their deaths by the British. So was Sir Roger 
Casement, who, though a patriot, was hung as a 
criminal and buried in quick lime. Should either 
the Germans or the Irish be ashamed of loyalty 
to the memory of their fathers^ Is there wrong 
in their organizations to cherish that memory^ 
They are loyal only to the memory. No nation- 
alities have contributed so much in population and 
allegiance to the United States as these. No peo- 
ples so quickly seek naturalization None become 
true Americans more rapidly. Ir is difficult for 
the Germans to influence their children to learn the 
German language. According to the last Census 
there were in 1910 in the United States 13,515,- 
886 foreign born. Of these Germany contributed 
2,501,333, or 18.5 per cent.; Austria-Hungary, 
1,569,973, or 12.8 per cent, and Ireland 1,352,- 
251, or 10 per cent. Together they contributed 
41.3 per cent. Of the 32,243,282 people of for- 
eign white stock in the United States in 1910 — 
they, or cither parent born in a foreign land — 25. 1 
per cent, were German, 14 per cent, were Irish, 6 
per cent, were Austrian and 2 per cent, were Hun- 
garian, a total of 47 per cent. The conclusion 


that of the total population of the United States 
at the present time much more than a majority is 
of German, Irish, Austrian and Hungarian 
descent, near or remote, may be gathered from the 
fact that the Germans and Irish alone made up 
28.5 per cent, of the foreign born population in 
1910; 40.8 per cent, in 1900; 50.3 per cent, in 
1890; 57.2 per cent, in 1880; 64.7 per cent, in 
1870 and 70 per cent, in i860. As late as 1910, 
after fifty years of immigration and assimilation, 
there were 8,282,618 white persons in this coun- 
try having Germany as their land of direct origin 
or who had at least one parent having it as the 
place of birth. At the same time there were 4,- 
504,360 person:, having Ireland as their land of 
nativity or who jiad at least one parent bom there, 
2,001,559 Austrians of like condition, and 700,- 
227 of Hungarian stock. In that year there were 
2,752,675 (mostly Jews) who or at least one 
parent of who^n haled from Russia, 2,322,442 
from England, 659,663 from Scotland, 2,098,360 
from Italy, and 292,389 from France. The pre- 
ponderance of German and Irish immigration be- 
comes even more evident when it is considered that 
to the foreign bom population Germany contrib- 
uted 30.5 per cent, in i860; 30.4 per cent, in 
1870; 29.4 per cent, in 1880; 30.1 per cent, in 
1890; 27.2 per cent, in 1900, and 18.5 per cent, in 
1910: England contributed 10.4 per cent, in i860; 


lo per cent, in 1870; 9.9 per cent, in 1880; 9.8 
per cent, in 1890; 8.1 per cent, in 1900, and 6.5 
per cent, in 1910: Scotland contributed 2.6 per 
cent, in i860; 2.5 per cent, in 1870; 2.5 per cent, 
in 1880; 2.6 per cent, in 1890; 2.3 per cent, in 
1900, and 1.9 per cent, in 1910; Ireland con- 
tributed 38.5 per cent, in i860; 33.3 per cent, in 
1870; 27.8 per cent, in 1880; 20.2 per cent, in 
1890; 15.6 per cent, in 1900, and 10 per cent, in 
1910; Italy contributed 0.3 per cent, in i860; 
0.3 per cent, in 1870; 0.7 per cent, in 1880; 2 per 
cent, in 1890; 4.7 per cent, in 1900, and 9.9 per 
cent, in 1910: France contributed 2.6 per cent, in 
i860; 2.1 per cent, in 1870; 1.6 per cent, in 
1880; 1.2 per cent, in 1890; 1 per cent, in 1900, 
and 0.9 per cent, in 1910; Russia and Finland con- 
tributed 0.1 per cent, in i860; 0.1 per cent, in 
1870; 0.5 per cent, in 1880; 2 per cent, in 1890; 
6.2 per cent, in 1900, and 12.8 per cent, in 1910. 
And yet the peoples that have given so much to the 
warp and woof of the nation in the last sixty years 
are termed "hyphenates" by those who have given 
comparatively little ! 
/ These German and Irish Americans have al- 
ways fought for liberty. In the Civil War there 
were engaged on the side of the North and against 
slavery and disunion 250,000 Germans and 150,- 
000 Irishmen. If in that war there was a single 
English, French, Russian or Italian regiment, 


history has not yet recorded it. "Once an 
Englishman, always an Englishman" prevents 
great numbers of hyphenated Britishers. The 
Russians who escape to this country forget their 
native land as quickly as possible. There are 
too few French-Americans to make any difference. 
The Italian-Americans seem to have called forth 
no resentment. Certainly the hyphenation of 
Germans and Irish has not interfered with their 
patriotism. The loudest cries against "hyphen- 
ated Americans" have come from New York 
City, which was Tory in the Revolution, where 
the draft riots against conscription for the cause 
of the Union occurred in the Civil War, where 
the 7th Regiment refused to obey the call to arms 
in 1898, where to-day a part of the press attempts 
to make black seem white and white appear black 
and where the Pecksniffs and Lickspittles are help- 
ing Britain with gold and outdoing themselves in 
adulation of the English cause. They forget that 
England cared nothing for us for more than a 
century, only had respect for us when Grover 
Cleveland gave it the choice of war or arbitration 
in the Venezuela case, and that it was after and 
not before the battle of Manila Bay that the 
British gave a kindness and consideration to 
Dewey which he did not expect or need. When 
it became possible for us to help them, to sell 
them arms, food and clothing, they concluded 


that this is a nation worth while. After the pres- 
ent appeal to arms a theory was allowed to grow 
up in this country that international law is better 
than sense and that Americans should be pro- 
tected on the high seas, no matter where they may 
be found, even on the vessels of a nation en- 
gaged with another in a life and death struggle; 
despite the fact that law is maintained only by 
force and agreement and is overcome by revolu- 
tion (as stated in the Virginia Bill of Right and 
the Declaration of Independence), of which war 
is the highest expression. When the parties to 
an agreement abrogated it, the one by setting 
up standards to suit its own necessities and re- 
fusing to permit food to enter Germany on the 
fictitious plea that the food supply there was regu- 
lated by the government, and the other by using 
submarines to put down passenger vessels with- 
out warning and without taking off the passen- 
gers, should the United States have stepped in and 
announced its determination to protect Americans 
on British vessels, without at the same time in- 
sisting at the risk of war on its right to send 
its foodstuffs and mails into Germany and neutral 
countries without molestation^ Britain seized 
and searched our vessels in the war of 1812, fought 
with us three years and burned the capitol at 
Washington over the right to do so. Peace was 
made without anything having been gained by us 


and the practice ceased only because England no 
longer had use for it ; Napoleon had been sent to St. 
Helena. In the present war Britain resumed that 
practice. Our government should have stopped 
the shipment of arms and ammunition to the Allies, 
if necessary, in order to compel England, in con- 
trol of the seas, to respect our international rights. 
Righteousness exalteth a nation. Unfairness 
does not. It is manifestly unfair to treat one 
empire in conflict with another with extreme se- 
verity and the other with great lenity; for the 
spirit of the farewell address of George Washing- 
ton should keep us from even implied alliance with 
foreign powers, each of which should be consid- 
ered friendl)^ until directly in conflict with us. If 
the British Empire had then refused to lessen its 
attempt to starve the non-combatant population 
of Germany, or interfere w^th our commerce other- 
wise and our mails, even at the risk of having 
arms and ammunition from us cut off, what would 
have been the reason? Simply that the British 
government had sense enough to know that it 
must use every means within its power to cripple 
or destroy the enemy. Why should it have 
stopped at international law? Why not make 
the forms seem like law? And why, then, should 
Germany have stopped at international law? 
Why should it not also use sense and attempt to 
become the terror of the sea, so far as the ships 


of the enemy are concerned, whether passenger 
or freight *? As Lloyd-George said in the House 
of Commons, "British shipping is the jugular vein 
which if severed would destroy the life of the na- 
tion." Germany must and should as a war meas- 
ure sever that vein, if possible, in order to pro- 
tect its civilization. The United States would 
hesitate at no less if hemmed in by enemies intent 
upon its utter destruction. Germany has never 
attacked an American vessel contrary to interna- 
tional law, except in the case of the Frye, when 
it quickly agreed to reparation. Why should this 
country not apply to both combatants the rule 
of reason? Why not have protected only Ameri- 
can vessels'? In that event any power which had 
attacked them would have faced a united Ameri- 
canism. Why not have been absolutely just and 
fair by maintaining international law with both 
sides at the point of the sword, or recognized 
that each was seeking to destroy the other under 
the mandate of military" necessity and prevented 
neither from doing so*? In 1916 I listened to ad- 
dresses at the Conference on International Law 
at Washington. Legalists there were themselves 
divided in their opinion as to whether subma- 
rines had added new conditions uncovered by the 
set of principles laid down by the present com- 
batant nations and abrogated by them in other 
particulars in this war. International law made 


by states in time of peace should not be wor- 
shiped as a fetich, if conditions of submarine war- 
fare hitherto unknown make it in conflict with 
right reason, because of the need of destroying 
the enemy in time of war. A British bottom 
carrying the British flag is British territory. The 
principle that British ships should be protected 
simply because they have Americans on board is 
just as baseless in common sense as it would be 
to contend that London should be protected from 
bombs thrown from Zeppelins because Americans 
are in that city or that the contending forces on 
the battle front on the continent should be with- 
held from each other because an American or two 
might be between them. No divinity hedges 
an American, though demagogues may so contend. 
He is subject to the law of nature. If he jumps 
from a high building he will be killed, as will a 
German, a Frenchman or a Britisher. Just so 
he should be subject to the law of vital necessity 
in war and the rule of common sense. If Ger- 
many has been cruel, was England benign in keep- 
ing food from the Germans? And if Germany 
shows some lack of consideration for its enemies, 
might it not, in view of the recollection of what 
England did in its day of expansion, exclaim with 
Lord Clive, "By God, sir, I am astonished at my 
own moderation !" The Allies would like to have 
had the Germans fight with perfume and talcum 


powder, but the soldiers of the Kaiser are in their 
full strength; they have fought "mitt Sturm und 
drang," "mitt donner und blitzen." 

Every nation has its time. Every nation does 
a work. Every nation falls to decay. None 
comes back. It is the same as with a man whose 
body dies, but whose work lives on. Britain gave 
to the world constitutional liberty and representa- 
tive government. It gave birth to four great na- 
tions. It taught the people of India its institu- 
tions so that they might some day better govern 
themselves, though that was not what it did it 
for. It did as great a work as has ever been 
done by any nation in all the history of mankind. 
France gave art and literature to the modem 
world. Russia gave a semblance of order to the 
semi-barbaric tribes that rushed westward from 
Asia, and thereby helped to protect the civiliza- 
tion of Europe. Italy in its renewal of life gave 
the Renaissance. But as conquering nations they 
must pass into the sleep of the ages and take on 
that original form from which they started to 
expand. It is the law of death. They cannot 
escape it. 

What then is to be the work of Germany? Its 
victory being written in the law of blood and as 
certain as the rising and falling of the tides, what 
message will it give to mankind*? England in 


the bitterness of its jealousy declares Germany to 
be barbaric. Is that nation barbaric which gave 
the joys of the Kriss Kringle and is the toy maker 
of the world? The heart that delights childhood 
must have something of the heart of a child. Is 
that nation composed of barbarians which has 
given the highest expression in modern music? Is 
the soul only half civilized that can create the won- 
derful melodies of a Mendelssohn, a Beethoven, 
a Strauss, a Bach, a Meyerbeer, a Schumann, a 
Brahms, a Wagner, stirring those of millions of 
others to better thoughts and deeds? The soul 
that loves music is sensitive to the highest im- 
pressions. From what crude barbaric instinct did 
there spring the desire to join in chorus of song in 
the thousands of local singing societies through- 
out Germany? Is the country that created and 
developed the kindergarten, technical training 
schools, specialization in the universities and vo- 
cational training that of barbarians? And what 
of Leibnitz, Lessing, Schleiermacher, Fichte, Kant, 
Schelling, Hagel, Nietzsche, Eucken? Were 
they all barbarians, too? The philosophic mind 
can thrive only amid a people who love thought. 
James Bryce, in the latest revision of his "Holy 
Roman Empire," speaks of that "breadth of de- 
velopment in German thought and literature by 
virtue of which in the first half of the nineteenth 


century it transcended the French hardly less than 
the Greek surpassed the Roman." ^ Maybe 
Goethe, Schiller and recently Hauptmann are bar- 
barians. Are the surpassing accomplishments of 
the Germans in surgery and medicine further evi- 
dences of their bucolic nature *? Rontgen may 
have been semi-civilized, but his x-ray certainly 
has benefited mankind. The same may be said 
of Koch, Virchow and Schliemann in the respec- 
tive fields of bacteriolog}% pathology and arch- 
aeology . Was it barbarous to give the workmen 
of Germany insurance against sickness, old age 
and accident? Was it uncivilized to give the 
world modern sanitation? Can England boast 
of a poor law by which poverty has been abol- 
ished? Illiteracy is less than half of one per 
cent, in Germany. Nowhere on the globe is there 
a more wholesome family life. Love of religion 
in the deepest sense is rife among the German 
people. And nowhere are women in their sphere 
held in higher regard. In administrative system, 
particularly municipal government, and in all that 
means the application of scientific method Ger- 
many far outdistances any of its opponents. In 
trade and industry the German people have by 
their patience and system rivaled the British Em- 
pire. But England assures Americans that the 

■* "Holy Roman Empire," 1909 ed., p. 432. 


Germans are barbarians. Do the British think 
Americans are simple minded*? 

From Martin Luther, who laid the foundations 
of modern liberty of thought, to Frederick the 
Great, who fought Europe in arms, made it possi- 
ble for Prussia to do her future work and taught 
the rulers of his time how to govern ; to Bismarck, 
who developed the land in the spirit of blood and 
iron and said "we Germans fear God and nobody 
else" ; to the present German Emperor who closely 
resembles Frederick Barbarossa, Maximilian I, 
William the Conqueror and Peter the Great and 
gives evidence of the truth that when there is a 
great work to be done in history a great man ap- 
pears, the nation has been coming to the fulness 
of its strength. As Bryce says, Germany has 
been brought into quickened life by ''what we call 
the instinct and passion of nationality, the desire 
of a people already conscious of a moral and so- 
cial unity, to see such unity expressed and realized 
under a single government which shall give it a 
place and name among civilized states." 

What is that place and name to be*? What 
will Germany have accomplished in 1919 when 
it shall have reached the full maturity of its pow- 
ers, its maximum, and be ready to gain its widest 
extent of territory wherein its 68,000,000 peo- 
ple, n«w comprised within boundaries less than 
the State of Texas, must expand? 


First, Germany may seek to seize and annex 
all of Russia to the line of the Dnieper and Duna 
rivers, from Riga to Kief to Odessa. This is the 
land taken by Czars and a Czarina since 1721 and 
includes all of the 5,000,000 Jews who have been 
trampled in the dust. These, the Poles, who have 
already been promised a more autonomous govern- 
ment, and other peoples within the area named 
would be given the benefit of German training and 
have their poverty abolished. No dynasty like 
that of the Romanoffs would be able to withstand 
such a defeat as Russia would thus receive. Their 
tyranny has been unexampled in modern history. 
This might possibly mean a revolution, gathering 
for a long time. The spirit that animated Russia 
in the mighty contests with Charles XII and 
Napoleon will prevent any desertion of its allies 
and the making of a separate peace. 

Second, Germany should annex all of Belgium. 
The harbor of Antwerp is too rich a prize to let 
go. A nation expands to the limit of its strength. 

Third, Austria may aim to annex all of the 
Italian peninsula to the old southern boundary 
of the Papal States, more than half of the present 
Italy, and restore the Papacy to nominal tem- 
poral jurisdiction within its former limits, thereby 
strengthening the monarchy with the Catholics in 
both Austro-Hungary and Germany. The re- 
vival of these limits of the old empire was the 


dream of Treitschke, which would thus be ful- 
filled. A fitting punishment for a nation with- 
out loyalty I Herculaneum might be thoroughly 
excavated by the scholars of Germany and its 
treasures given to mankind, after Italy refused 
to permit other nations to do the work and then 
itself failed to do it. 

Fourth, France might be made to sacrifice to 
Austria all of old Burgundy from the Mediterran- 
ean up the Rhone to Lyons and thence to Lake 
Geneva, including all the territory east and south 
of those limits. This was formerly a part of the 
old empire. France might also be compelled to 
cede to Germany the land east of a line from the 
mouth of the Somme to Basel, Switzerland. 
Most of this, too, was formerly territory of the 
Holy Roman Empire. A nation that does not 
renew itself must expect to be circumscribed. 
The French forts along the German border could 
be demolished. With France and Italy con- 
quered, it would be easier to take their navies. 
And with Germany commanding the routes to In- 
dia and the coast at Calais in France, eighteen 
miles from Dover, can it be doubted that German 
method would furnish the quick thought and 
method necessary to give England a fatal blow? 
What Napoleon yearned to do at Boulogne might 
come to pass under German strength and science. 
The longer the war lasts the more potent must 


become the power of endurance which the freshest 
transfusion of blood gives. 

Fifth, if Germany succeeded it would not hesi- 
tate to conquer England as completely as it was 
subdued in 1 066, destroy its fleets, bankrupt it and 
annex India (for a time on paper), Australia, 
New Zealand, New Guinea and the British col- 
onies in Africa. It would be unable to hold In- 
dia because too exhausted after the gigantic strug- 
gle to do so. That country might become a 
republic, with the strength gained from the con- 
quests and blood amalgamations of the Mogul 
Emperor Apgar up to the time of his death in 
1605; just as China was conquered by the 
Manchus under Nurachu in 1616 and in 1911 
overthrew the yoke and established a republic. 
Ireland, too, would thus become a republic. 
Without a shilling of credit, a fighting force on 
land or sea, a colony, the British Empire would 
become as Nineveh and Tyre. Germany could 
not take Canada because of the Monroe Doctrine. 
Eventually that territory will become a part of 
the United States. England would also become a 
republic. All this is, of course, dependent upon 
the extermination of England's sea power. 

Sixth, and most important, if Germany con- 
quered it would annex the continent of Africa and 
the Island of Madagascar. As Caesar by the 
sword gave Western Europe the basis of Roman 


law and civilization, England placed the stamp 
of its life upon North America and Spain upon 
South America, so Germany could plant its in- 
stitutions in that vast continent which was hardly 
known sixty years ago. It is estimated that to- 
day 126,000,000 people are there, most of them 
still warring tribes in the interior. The highest 
work Germany could render civilization would be 
the systematic and thorough uplifting of this pop- 
ulation through education and wise administra- 
tion. The negro develops most under technical 
training. Germany could give it. Instead of mere 
exploitation by those who have not strength 
enough to perform the task, the savage negroes 
and bushman would be subdued into acceptance 
of German regulations, and eventually every child 
in Africa might be taught the lessons of German 
life. It is assured that as long as the present 
German Emperor lives, feeling that he has been 
given by the Almighty a work to do among men, 
the German arms will be devoted to the develop- 
ment of civilization*? Several hundreds of thou- 
sands or even millions of Germans might go to 
Africa, and the same marvelous pains that have 
been given to the enhancement of German com- 
merce and warfare might be turned to making 
that territory a continent of light instead of dark- 
ness and a mammoth machine for the development 
of its industrial resources. With Germany as 


conqueror, every present European possessor of 
land in Africa would lose it in the terms of peace. 
Seventh, there should be an adjustment in the 
Balkans compatible with German ideals. This 
would include the annexation to Austria of Servia, 
Montenegro and Albania and such compensation 
to Turkey and Bulgaria as might be thought fea- 
sible by the German Emperor. Then, later on, 
it might mean the annexation of all the Balkan 
states, including Turkey, the territory of which 
would be needed for the defense of Africa. Why 
not'? Certainly if there is a sink in Christendom 
which needs a thorough and methodical scouring 
by the Old Dutch Cleanser it is the Balkans and 
particularly Turkey, which might be thrust across 
the Hellespont into Asia Minor where the Turks 
originally gathered their strength to attack Eu- 
rope and which has been kept in European suzer- 
ainty for more than a century only because of the 
Balance of Power, now evidently broken up for- 
ever. Like a sick man placed in charge of a hos- 
pital, the Turk has been and would then be unable 
to help anybody. He must return to the bound- 
aries from whence he spread. It is the law of 
blood. Turkey might be given compensation in 
the provinces of Arbijan, Ardilan and Luristan in 
Persia, which would no longer be under the influ- 
ence of England and Russia. German sanitation, 
education, method, would make the Balkans a fit 


place to dwell in and, under the rigors of German 
law, safe from murder, feud, rapine and waste. 
There would be no more daughters sold to the 
Turk. There would be no more massacres of the 
innocent. Oriental harems in the midst of pov- 
erty would cease to be. The Balkans would be- 
come like the streets of Berlin — clean, orderly, 
decent. As Bulgaria was retransfused and again 
expanded, it will soon be ready for a more vital 
hand. Roumania will be but clay in the hands of 
the potter. 

Eighth, Germany's influence in the Austro-Hun- 
garian Empire will be much greater, if it does not 
amount to virtual sovereignty. The close of the 
life of Francis Joseph, after the longest reign in 
human history, removed a barrier to this. His 
people had their apex two centuries ago. Alone, 
they no longer have the blood which gives endur- 
ance and strength to win battles and expand in 
territory. When they by themselves fought the 
Russians in Galicia they were thrust back to the 
Carpathians. It was only when the Germans 
helped them under a German general that they 
drove the enemy to the east again. Austria has 
been completely dormant since 1866 when the old 
Empire went to pieces in fact, though on paper 
in 1806. Its people need new life. German 
energy would give it to them. There are probably 
few Austrians who would object to becoming an in- 


tegral part of a renewed and greater Germanic 

Ninth, it is a short step to the seizure of Hol- 
land, whose monarch has no male heir, and which 
commands the Zuyder Zee. 

Tenth, Denmark may in time be taken to pro- 
tect the Baltic and menace the Scandinavian 
powers and given new life. 

Eleventh, as Great Britain and Russia decline, 
Japan might take, by conquest if necessary, all of 
Manchuria, Mongolia, China, Tibet, Chinese 
Turkestan and Siberia; that is, all of Asia within 
the southern boundary of China, the Himalaya 
Mountains south and west of Tibet, the Thian 
Shan Mountains west of Chinese Turkestan, the 
Altai Mountains west of Mongolia to the Yanesi 
River, to its mouth in the Kara Sea, to the Arctic 
and Pacific Oceans. Then it might extend its 
boundaries southward to include Sumatra, French 
Indo-China, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, Burma 
to the Ganges and Bramaputra Rivers, and west- 
ward to the Caspian and Urals, including Turk- 
estan, the Khirghis Steppes and West Siberia. 

Twelfth, the Empire of the West, of Charle- 
magne and Napoleon, may again be reestablished 
under William the Great. That will be his name 
in the hereafter. His empire, in the event of such 
victory, would include all the territory between the 
Somme, the Rhone, Central Italy, the Mediter- 


ranean, the Black Sea, to Riga, to the Baltic, the 
Skager Rack and Cattegat, to the North Sea to 
France again. It might then include Africa, Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand, New Guinea, Madagascar 
and India (the latter for a time on paper). It 
would include a people working wonders to de- 
velop the populations under their guidance to 
their ideals. Those, including some socialists of 
Germany, who would like to have early peace 
made, in effect desire that the heroes of Germany, 
Austria and Hungary die in vain. But the hand 
that wields the sword, the German Emperor, who 
is but an instrument of God, will not stay until 
the task be accomplished. And when that work 
has been done and perhaps Europe and Africa 
have been made over by the ceaseless efforts of 
Germans to bring about better, stronger, saner 
men, the world will be the permanent beneficiary. 
Hence it is best for civilization that Germany win. 
On the other hand, should the United States 
enter the war against Germany the addition of our 
virile blood would bring the conflict to a close 
sooner and give victory to the Allies. But in so 
doing the Republic of the United States would 
utilize its immense resources in dollars, materials 
and manhood in sustaining for a longer period the 
effete Italian and British monarchies and retro- 
grade France. If it sent troops to the Continent, 
and several hundreds of thousands of our youth 


were slain, nothing would be gained by us. No 
territory would be added to our dominion. We 
should not obtain the gratitude of the world by 
being so unneutral, for other states would retain 
their ambitions for the future. Nor would hu- 
manity be advanced by the country of Washing- 
ton and Lincoln giving comfort and helping to 
extend the territory, at the expense of civilization, 
of a Czar. Our participation would be contrary 
to the orderly development of the centuries toward 
liberty, lessen our influence as the friend of all 
nations, and make more difficult and uncertain our 
path in the future. 

Such great changes as might follow the triumph 
of German and Austrian arms are not unthinkable. 
During the past few years seeming impossibilities 
have come to pass in the destruction in this hemi- 
sphere and on the Pacific Ocean of the power of 
Spain by the United States, the withstanding of 
the expansion of Russia in Asia by Japan, and the 
practical elimination of the suzerainty of Turkey 
in Europe by the Balkan States. And in view of 
the fact that the law of blood works with exactness 
the spreading out of Germany becomes inevitable. 
This does not presage a limiting by Germany of 
the growth and work of the United States. Peo- 
ples without transfusion have been without em- 
pire. The Irish with practically the same Cel- 
tic stock for two thousand years were conquered 


by the nine times amalgamated British. The 
negroid peoples of Africa, south of the great desert 
and without transfusion, have made no impression 
upon history. Only those north of that waste of 
land who have mixed with Mediterranean peoples 
have added to the pages of man's record. The 
Philippines have produced no conqueror because 
only an expansion of an older Malay race and not 
an amalgamation, as in the case of Japan. South 
America is of one Spanish blood, with the excep- 
tion of uninfused Germans, Italians and Portu- 
guese — the latter so similar to the Spanish by every 
tie as to be almost one. That continent, for this 
reason and also because of climate, holds for the 
immediate future no conquering people. Nor does 
Australia. In every other part of the earth each 
people has had its day of expansion and 
decay, with the exception of the Germans, Japa- 
nese and Americans. The latter are the result of 
the greatest conglomeration of blood since Adam. 
They therefore have nothing to fear from any 
modern Colossus which may arise and seek to be- 
stride the world. Even colossae, as shown from 
the beginning of history, have but short periods 
of expanding strength. In their time, with the 
force of their blood, the Americans will give to a 
weary humanity the ideal of Tennyson, 

"The Parliament of Man, the Federation of the 



"Wars, therefore, are to be undertaken for this end, 
that we may live in peace without being injured." — 

"Terrible as war is, it yet displays the spiritual 
grandeur of man daring to defy his mightiest hereditary 
foe." — Heine. 

In 1887 Aurelio Bertola, monk and historical 
philosopher, made the prediction that the Euro- 
pean political system had arrived at a perfect and 
permanent equilibrium and that thereafter no fur- 
ther wars would occur. Yet during the following 
quarter century the continent was bathed in blood. 
In the early part of 1914 Andrew Carnegie, philan- 
thropist; Charles W. Eliot, president emeritus of 
Harvard University; Theodore E. Burton, presi- 
dent of the American Peace Society; William H. 
Taft, later head of the League to Enforce Peace; 
William Jennings Bryan, advocate of pacifying 
nations with arbitration treaties, and Richard Bar- 
tholdt, president of the Arbitration Group of the 
Interparliamentary Union, were accounted leaders 

in the United States of a movement to prevent all 



future wars. Their efforts were vain. The 
mightiest conflict in human story, perhaps the pre- 
cursor of another twenty-five years of upheaval, 
began in July of that year. Later some, like 
Henry Ford, with the fanatical zeal of a Don 
Quixote, were the more anxious to relieve human- 
ity of the burdens of conflict and to "cry peace, 
peace when there is no peace." Others were dis- 
posed to imitate Burton, who, with the judgment 
of a statesman, withdrew from the Peace Society 
and became an ardent advocate of the prepared- 
ness of the United States for any future attack. 

How wide is the gulf between the dreams of 
these who have idealized peace and the practical 
facts of life may be gathered from the remark of 
Frederick the Great that in looking over the pages 
of history he had found not a decade in which there 
had not been a great war. The gulf becomes 
wider when we consider whether those wars have 
harmed or benefited mankind. It becomes an im- 
passable barrier when reflection is had upon the 
question of whether the world is now ready for 
permanent peace. For, as St. Augustine said, war 
is the transition from a lower to a higher state of 
civilization. Reactionary and medieval as this 
conclusion may seem in the light of the suffering 
upon the battlefields of our day, the facts of the 
centuries completely vindicate it. Peace pleaders 
are not new. For three thousand years there has 


been seen upon the distant hill the beacon of war- 
less brotherhood. The prophets of Israel saw it. 
Jesus of Nazareth said in one breath that every 
one should turn his left cheek to his neighbor when 
smitten on the right, and in the next that he came 
with a sword. Christendom in the two millen- 
niums since has followed his example, idealizing 
peace and turning from it when the reality ap- 
peared. How disconcerting is reality! 

The disparity between the great seers of Israel 
and the leaders of the recent peace movement in the 
United States is caused by the fact that the former 
perceived amity at a far distant time as the ideal 
of the earth, to be attained after countless wars, 
and the latter have seen it in the immediate pres- 
ent, to be brought about by the spending of money 
or the holding of congresses. The Old Testament 
is full of the admonition to fight for righteousness. 
The Almighty says through Isaiah, "1 have created 
the waster to destroy." And through Jeremiah, 
"Cursed be he that doth the work of the Lord 
negligently, and cursed be he that withholdeth his 
sword from blood." It is only in the Gospels that 
the ear of the centurion is healed in a twinkling 
when Peter cuts it off. American advocates of 
peace at any price are like those of whom Jeremiah 
speaks : 

"Then said I, Ah, Lord Eternal! behold, the 
prophets say unto them, Ye shall not see the 


sword, neither shall ye have famine; but a perma- 
nent peace will I give in this place. Then said the 
Lord unto me, Falsehood do the prophets prophesy 
in my name; I have not sent them neither have I 
commanded them, neither have I spoken unto 
them; a vision of falsehood, and idolatrous folly, 
and the deceit of their hearts do they prophesy unto 
you. Therefore hath said the Lord concerning the 
prophets that prophesy in my name when I have 
not sent them, while they say, Sword and famine 
shall not come in this land; by the sword and by 
the famine shall these prophets come to their end." 
And in Ezekiel: "Therefore, thus hath said the 
Lord Eternal, Whereas ye have spoken falsehood, 
and have seen lies: therefore I am against you, 
saith the Lord Eternal. And my hand shall be 
against the prophets that see falsehood, and that 
divine lies; in the secret council of my people shall 
they not be, and in the register of the house of 
Israel shall they not be written, and into the land 
of Israel shall they not come: and ye shall know 
that I am the Lord Eternal. Even because they 
have seduced my people^ saying^ 'Peace' when 
there was no peace T 

Are these latter day peace makers to be laughed 
to scorn and sneered at, then, because their dreams 
failed to come true? By no means. They are to 
be appreciated as helping to keep mankind awake 
to the great time for which the ages have waited. 


Andrew Carnegie, busily working to bring about 
the brotherhood of man, will not have lived in vain 
if he shall have made men discern the light more 
clearly. Nor will Eliot, Taft, Bartholdt and 
Ford. But they perhaps forget that they are now 
older than they once were and that in their younger 
days they overcame their rivals and by individual 
war alone attained their ends, one as head of a uni- 
versity, another as President of the United States, 
still another as member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives for two decades, and the last as the lead- 
ing automobile manufacturer of America. Bryan 
ruled the Democratic party for twelve years with 
an iron hand, brooking no opposition, making his 
will supreme. He never won a battle over party 
opponents with a pact of peace. The older of 
these men, having attained their utmost, are now 
content to stand by and urge a milder dispensation. 
If they had been so inclined toward peace in the 
early part of their lives, they would not now be so 

So it is with every nation. When youthful and 
vigorous it of necessity exerts itself and accom- 
plishes its ends by conquest. When its time for 
such exertion has passed it is content to remain 
passive. From the lowest protoplasm to the high- 
est organism in nature, when opposing interests 
clash they fight. By this means the strong and 
healthy force overcomes the weak and the fittest 


survives. Nothing gained by struggle is lost. A 
man fights for his living, gains it, is thereby en- 
abled to marry and give children to the world, and 
at the same period of existence contends for what- 
ever he may undertake in mind or materials. 
Then he enjoys what he has earned and gradually 
passes to decline. An old man of ninety may pro- 
duce intellectual results, but that which comes 
from strenuous effort of nerve or muscle has passed 
from him forever. And so all that mankind has 
accomplished has been the result of struggle. 
Added up, it expresses modern civilization. The 
war in Europe indicates that the process has not 
stopped. As men can attain nothing except by 
contention, so states can give nothing to humanity 
except by war. By battle they defend themselves 
until they have expressed their civilization. By 
war they extend it over the territories they con- 
quer. The art and philosophy of Greece and the 
law of Rome are at the disposal of a world to-day, 
and only because the Greeks and Romans did not 
hesitate at bloody strife when the occasion re- 

War stimulates the highest and noblest impulses 
in man. It is primal to be aggressive, to struggle, 
to advance. The female admires the male who 
can protect her and her offspring. The individual 
who will not fight for his mate when she is at- 
tacked, or for his brood, is not manly but effemi- 


nate. The citizen who will not fight for his na- 
tive land when it is assailed is no patriot, but a 
coward. They who praise peace as a thing to be 
desired in itself only indulge in cheap cant and 
extol weakness and cowardice in the name of 
humanity. They who declare that the time of 
battle is not at hand in our country and that it will 
not appear in the near future are without suffi- 
cient energy to be aggressive, and are therefore not 
the ones who should be leaders of a young and 
vigorous nation and prepare it for its destiny. 
The highest virtue is sacrifice. The utmost sacri- 
fice a man can make is to lay down his life for his 
family or his country; and it is not in vain if 
thereby women and children and all the race in the 
future are made happier. The womanly woman 
who has a manly son desires that he fulfil the 
highest and most normal instincts of the genus 
homo, and that he always be prepared to fight for 
the right alone; that he protect the weak and the 
hungry, and that he aggressively devote his life to 
a worthy purpose. Both men and women of this 
nation should reject the counsel of those who think 
they can stop human nature from asserting itself 
and compel the clock of civilization to stand still 
by their mere assertion. 

Peace is stagnation. War is life. Its victories 
mean progress. The conquerors have made his- 
tory. Every war has left humanity better than it 


found it. The American colonies fought in 1775 
against the tyranny of a British king and for lib- 
erty. The constitution of the United States, the 
greatest republic the earth has seen, is the result. 
Those engaged fought seven years. Did they die 
for naught? It was war and the defeat of Napo- 
leon on the sea that led to the Louisiana purchase, 
extending up the Mississippi and to the Rockies. 
The French Emperor practically gave this third of 
the present territory of the country in order that he 
might raise up a future antagonist of the British 
Empire. It was war with Mexico that led to the 
annexation of Texas, New Mexico and all the 
lands on the Pacific slope, another third of the 
present United States. Can it be doubted, in view 
of the barbaric conditions which now prevail in 
Mexico, that the land won by the spirit of the 
Alamo, with its teeming population, is enjoying 
more blessings under the segis of American insti- 
tutions than would have been the case had the 
territory remained in Mexican hands'? In i860 
this nation was confronted by the alternatives of 
slavery or freedom, disunion or union. Four years 
of war decided the issues involved. A million 
men lost their lives. Did those on either side die 
in vain, if they thereby advanced the cause of free- 
dom? In 1898 Cuba, Porto Rico and the Philip- 
pines were freed from the cruelties of Spain by the 
victories of Manila Bay, Santiago and San Juan. 


Have not the peoples of those islands and, indi- 
rectly, all mankind thereby been benefited? The 
work of Hamilton in the framing of the Consti- 
tution would not have been possible without the 
sword of George Washington. So impregnated 
have Americans become in the last decade with the 
ideas of those who hold up peace as a condition to 
be beloved in itself that in their adulation of Abra- 
ham Lincoln — all of it deserved — they have al- 
most ceased to remind themselves of the achieve- 
ments of that great hero of the nation, General 
Grant, who preserved the Union. It was Grant 
and not Lincoln who made peace with Lee at Ap- 
pomattox after the entirely righteous ends for 
which he and his soldiers had fought were accom- 
plished. The constitutional amendments admit- 
ting the black man to equal rights under the law 
were written by the sword. 

An individual passes through a tremendous crisis 
in his life and is made to think more rapidly and 
seriously and to produce more. That is why out 
of struggle come the greatest achievements of 
men. Musicians and artists working in a garret in 
poverty but losing nothing of the spark within, 
Demosthenes wandering along the sea shore with 
pebbles in his mouth so he could speak better, 
Luther begging for bread by singing in the streets, 
Benjamin Franklin starting as a printer's devil, 
Lincoln splitting rails and reading Blackstone by 


candle light stand out as examples from myriads 
of others of the same sort. The most grueling 
crisis a man can pass through is war. There he 
faces adverse conditions and even death with all 
his manhood. After it is over he thinks in terms 
of vaster things. Those who commanded in the 
Civil War were also leaders afterwards when peace 
came. The characters of iron that they had at- 
tained in battle made them able to cope with op- 
ponents in the intense rivalry of industry and the 
professions. Out of that war came Grant, Sheri- 
dan, Meade, Farragut, Porter, Garfield, Carl 
Schurtz, Sickles, Benjamin Harrison, William 
McKinley, James J. Hill, Andrew Carnegie and 
most of the leaders of the House and Senate for 
more than a generation. And out of it, too, came 
Robert E. Lee, John B. Gordon, Beauregard, Joe 
Wheeler, John T. Morgan, Stephen Mallory, John 
B. Regan, Isham G. Harris, Bennett Young, 
Charles F. Crisp, George Vest, John W. Daniel, 
L. Q. C. Lamar and Edward D. White, chief jus- 
tice of the United States. Hear the rebel yells as 
the heroes of the Southland plunge up the steep 
under Pickett and attack the batteries at Gettys- 
burg ! Did they who gave their lives there die in 
vain? Not if the South to-day profits by their 
nobler manhood. And the victors fighting 
through the fire and smoke of the peach orchard 
and "little round top" saved the Union. Hor- 


rible slaughter, wasn't it? Men were actually 
engaged in killing each other. Think of that I 
Blood was shed. The rivers ran with it. But 
there were no mollycoddles to bleat in those 
days except ehe Northern Copperheads. Men 
took their medicine and took it grandly. Mothers 
gave their sons and were proud of it. They 
as well as the sons were exalted by the sacri- 
fice. And Lincoln wrote to the mother of five such 
who had perished on the field of battle that he 
could add no word of praise to those who had 
given all upon the altar of freedom. There were 
maimed and halt, but the absent limb or arm was 
more revered by a nation rebuilt and glad to ex- 
press its gratitude on every occasion than the whole 
carcasses of those who had crawled under the bed 
upstairs when the recruiting officer appeared. 
The South has cherished the memories of its heroes 
with a sentiment and loyalty hardly less fervent 
than in the strife itself. In an earlier day the 
wars of 1845-6 with Mexico helped inspire the 
pioneers of '49, who sought gold in the land con- 
quered by that war. And at a later time the 
Spanish War was followed by a decade of won- 
derful industrial achievement in America. When 
Ulysses had ended his struggles came Penelope and 
Hercules. And so mankind has advanced by ter- 
rible hardships in which the fittest alone survived, 


by constant bloody contest and din of battle, and 
always to higher things. 

Few instances are required to prove that the ad- 
vantages of armed conflict are not confined to the 
United States. It was war by the barons at 
Runnymede that compelled King John to grant 
the priceless privileges contained in Magna Char- 
ta, led Charles I to the block and established the 
protectorate of Cromwell, overthrew Bourbon des- 
potism in the French Revolution, caused the bene- 
ficent work of Napoleon and then ended his sub- 
version of nationality. It was grim death under 
powder and shot that removed forever the horrors 
of the thumb-screw and the rack and enabled men 
to seek truth without risk of torture by either Prot- 
estant or Catholic. This during two centuries of 
almost incessant conflict in the Wars of Religion, 
the Thirty Years' War, the fight to free the Neth- 
erlands, and, in a lesser degree, in the wars of 
Louis XIV and Frederick II and the battles of 
Napoleon in Italy. Wars all through the Middle 
Ages destroyed the weak and led to the rule of the 
more vigorous. Charlemagne, fighting for law 
and order, made men better. During the great 
migrations of peoples after the fall of the Roman 
Empire their conflicts gave new life to Europe. 
Attila, "the scourge of God," assisted in this proc- 
ess and at the same time exhausted his own Huns. 


Jenghis Kahn, Timur and many others did the 
same for Asia, sweeping away the wastes of life, 
reinvigorating the entire continent and carrying 
the world onward to greater things. The crusad- 
ing knights transmitted ideas and spread ideals of 
courage and bravery. Wars protected Europe 
from the Saracens, lifted Asia out of inhumanity 
and stopped the savagery the colonizing nations 
found. The Spaniards were unspeakably harsh in 
Mexico and Peru, but they did away with a system 
wherein the hearts of men were cut out while they 
stood alive in front of the sacrificial stone. Also 
all fundamental law has been made possible by 
conquerors alone. The Code Napoleon was com- 
piled after the subjugator of Italy had done his 
work. After 1866 and 1871 came the present 
system of administration in Germany. The bases 
of the British constitution were laid by war. The 
pandects of Justinian were made possible by the 
arms of Belisarius and Narses. In so far as these 
were only codifications of previous law, the latter 
had in its turn been made possible by the wars of 
Caesar and his successors. The capitularies of 
Charlemagne followed his career in the field. 
What potent deeds for humanity are represented 
by the names of Washington, Grant, Dewey, 
Moltke, Garibaldi, Wellington, Bliicher, Napo- 
leon, Frederick the Great, William of Orange, 
Turenne, Suleiman, Charles of Lorraine, John 


Sobieski, Bernhard of Saxe-Weimer, Peter the 
Great, Gustavus Adolphus, Oliver Cromwell, Nel- 
son, Don Juan, Drake, Howard, Tromp, Timur, 
Jinghis and Kublai Kahn, William the Conqueror, 
Frederick Barbarossa, Marshall Saxe, Marlbor- 
ough, Clive, Cortez, Pizarro, Louis XI, Alphonso 
of Castile, Casimir IV, Canute, Hugh the Great, 
Otto the Great, Charlemagne, Charles Martel, 
Alfred, Harun, Mansur, Heracleus, Justinian, 
Attila, Theodoric, Constantine, Aurelian, Septimus 
Severus, Trajan, Tiberius, Marcus Aurelius 
(despite his love of peace), Csesar, Marius, Chedo- 
laomar, Apgar, Nurachu, Mithradates I, Seleucus 
I, Hasdrubal, Hannibal, Pyrrhus, Alexander, 
Miltiades, Sargon, Sheshonk, Rameses, Tethmosis 
III, Joshua and David ! They cleared the way for 
or were themselves the builders of civilization. A 
mighty host, they ask where mankind would have 
been without them and — more to the point — where 
it would not be if it had been guided by the timid 
souls who did not grandly dare but were content to 
let the world remain as it was in the name of peace. 
It is interesting to speculate as to what would have 
been the result to all that the life of ancient Athens 
meant if one of these latter had been the choice of 
the polemarch instead of Miltiades at Marathon. 
By battle, too, ideas have been promulgated. 
Mahomet warred and to-day 250,000,000 people 
accept his teachings. Christian princes fought, 


carrying in one hand the gospel and in the odier 
die sword, and half a billion of men pronounce the 
name of Jesus as the Savior of the World. Wars 
have helped to add another 420,000,000 to the 
folds of Buddhism and Hindooism. Confucian- 
ism, established as the religion of the state and up- 
held by force, has 340,000,000 adherents. Men 
have gained their ideas first by the inspired spirits, 
then by battle and last by habit. Opposing prin- 
ciples have been decided by gunpowder. Ambi- 
tious kings have united peoples to crush opponents 
and carry on the work of progress. New peoples, 
new hopes, new ideas, new leaders have overcome 
older and weaker ones. And so it has been 
through the ages. Wars, wars, wars! Advance- 
ment, advancement, advancement! 

But what of the maimed and the halt? What 
of the widows and orphans? What of the deso- 
late homes and heart rending sorrow? What of 
the awful agonies of the battle field, with comrade 
disemboweled or his head blown off, with the 
whizzing bullets laying many low, the groans and 
shrieks of the sorely wounded and dying, the horse 
torn asunder with none to help? What of the 
hand to hand clashes, man braining his brother 
man with the butt of his musket and wildly stab- 
bing him to death with the bayonet? True, but 
what of the benefits all this may bring to men in 
general? Neither an individual nor a nation de- 


velopes to the utmost without suffering. The easy- 
way is not that to achievement. 'T have refined 
thee in the fire of adversity." But it is such a 
price to pay, it is urged. For what"? For the 
more stable and progressive society war brings. 
Men are brought back to the fundamental things 
of life. Before the present cataclysm in Europe 
the intellect of France had descended to "Cubism" 
and "Futurism." It was time for the quickening 
hand. Gunpowder clears the air. Men see God 
again. And they perceive that the untold suffer- 
ing is not too high a price to pay that an old 
civilization may crumble and give way to a new 
one which shall delight all future generations. 
Each age of the world is better than the last and 
is made so by the willingness of men to go through 
just such harrowing experiences in order that those 
things which they hold most dear may not be 
taken away from them. The "noble six hun- 
dred" who charged at Balaklava have made the 
blood of men tingle for more than half a cen- 
tury. The reason is that they had no fear. 

That war does not waste the physical energies 
of an otherwise healthy state and that, on the 
contrary, it tends to stimulate them, may be 
gathered from an examination of the birth rate in 
Germany after the war of 1870-1871. In that 
conflict 28,000 men in the German armies were 
killed in action, about 3 per cent, of the 835,000 


men placed in the field, and 101,000 were wounded 
and disabled. In the ten years after the war 
8,728,946 male children were bom and 8,287,591 
females, a preponderance of males over females 
of 441,355, or 5^ per cent. After 1865 in the 
United States the lack of statistics between that 
year and the census year of 1870, together with the 
greatly increased immigration after the conflict, 
makes it difficult to obtain exact figures, but in 
the decade from 1870 to 1880, subtracting the 
children born to foreign born parents, the pre- 
ponderance of males is about the same as in Ger- 
many. It seems to be a law of nature that in a 
virile state twenty-one males are born to every 
twenty females. In degenerate France during the 
war with Prussia 156,000 men were killed and 
143,000 were wounded and disabled out of a total 
of 970,000 engaged. In the decade following 
2,627,809 males were born and 2,728,737 females, 
a preponderance of females of 100,928, or 3 7-10 
per cent. 

Socialists declare that all wars are brought 
about by what they term "capitalism." The nor- 
mal ambitions of men, their hatred of wrong and 
their willingness to lay down their lives for jus- 
tice and right are erased from the equation. The 
great controversy over the question of the right 
to secede from the Union, which went on for 
twenty years through increasing acrimony with 


Webster, Seward and Sumner on one side and 
Calhoun, Hayne and Davis on the other had noth- 
ing to do with the war between the States. The 
fervor of righteous indignation against slavery 
that swept through the North, fanned by "Uncle 
Tom's Cabin," John Brown's raid and the firing 
upon Fort Sumter, had nothing to do with the 
outbreak of the struggle. It was "capitalism." 
When the people of United America were roused 
to fever heat by the cruelties practised by Weyler 
and the blowing up of the Maine in Havana Har- 
bor and went to war and crumpled the power 
of Spain in order to make Cuba, Porto Rico and 
the Philippines enjoy the benefits of their free in- 
stitutions, it was really "capitalism" that did it all. 
It was the same with those who desired liberty 
more than life in the War of American Independ- 
ence. Every conqueror in history who had ambi- 
tions must have been a "capitalist." William 
the Silent, fighting Spain for free thought in the 
Netherlands, was no doubt one also. Gustavus 
Adolphus and his Swedes at Lutzen were "capi- 
talists." The Swiss defeating Charles the Bold, 
of Burgundy, at Grandson with love of liberty in 
their hearts had never heard the term used by Karl 
Marx, but if they had they would probably have 
known that that was what they laid down their 
lives for. The Crusaders who sallied forth from 
Europe with the ideal of regaining the True Cross 


were really desirous of "exploiting" somebody. 
Alexander was not animated with love of glory 
and the laudable desire to extend the boundaries 
and civilization of Macedon. He was a "capi- 
talist." Henry of Navarre, fighting for years 
with reckless courage, gained a throne and estab- 
lished the Edict of Nantes, guaranteeing religious 
toleration. What did capital have to do with 
it? Robert Bruce, utterly discouraged, saw the 
spider fall and rise for the ninth time, took cour- 
age and won Scottish independence. Was he a 
"capitalist?" Caesar risked all, crossed the Rubi- 
con and gained an empire. Hannibal surmounted 
the Alps and fought Rome for twenty years be- 
cause it was the determination of the latter to 
crush his native Carthage. Frederick H took 
about with him a phial of poison. When de- 
feated, worn, weary and tempted to take the dose 
he, by his aggressive and mighty spirit, gathered 
together his resources and fell upon the enemy in- 
stead. Napoleon bridled the Revolution, which 
had taken so many lives simply because they had 
worn good clothes or been of noble birth or good 
repute, and then by his indomitable ambition con- 
quered Europe. Which does the world prefer, 
the spirit that animated these heroes of the past 
or that of those who ascribe all their noble ac- 
tions to what they term "capitalism"? 

But, the Socialist says, all this was long ago 


and human nature as well as conditions have 
changed since those days. This is the same error 
as is made by those who contend that armaments 
produce wars and that if the world did not have 
them there would be no armed conflicts. Human 
ambitions and hatreds and loves were created 
long before gunpowder and armor and even 
bows and arrows. The implement was always in- 
vented to express the desire. When the savage 
wished to rule the tribe and felt he was strong 
enough he slew with a blunt instrument his near- 
est rival and lorded it over the others. Then he 
led them against another tribe and, after de- 
feating it and perhaps roasting its members in a 
kettle, seized its chattels and occupied its ground. 
That was the beginning of war. The present ti- 
tanic struggle in Europe was precipitated by a shot 
heard round the world. The Austrians rushed 
to avenge the murder of their crown prince. The 
Russians hastened to the defense of their fellow 
Slavs in Servia. The German Emperor warned 
them that if they did, he would call out the Ger- 
mans, who, being prepared, were willing to fight 
that their civilization endure, as well as for Ger- 
man ambitions on land and sea. The French ad- 
vanced to the aid of Russia. Germany struck 
at France through Belgium. Britain fought to 
protect its aims in Belgium and, as Kitchener 
said, to "pay a debt of honor which we owe to 



France." The Japanese entered the fight to ful- 
fil the terms of their alliance with Britain. Italy 
joined the entente because of ambition to gain 
territory from Austria. Belgium and Servia en- 
tered the war to protect themselves, Bulgaria 
and Turkey to gain land by helping Germany, 
and Rumania by assisting the Allies. Outside 
of certain fundamental antipathies, these were 
the causes of the war. What did "capitalism" 
or armaments have to do with the cataclysm, 
especially when 1,700,000 men, including So- 
cialists, volunteered in Germany alone'? If there 
had been no huge armaments the ambitions of 
the individuals and nations, their mutual jeal- 
ousies and hatreds, would still be present. With- 
out such armaments it is probable that the con- 
flict would outlast this generation. 

Nations have their hopes, passions, obsessions, 
discontents, ideals, hates and ambitions, just as in- 
dividuals do. Every nation is normal in this re- 
spect. Some of its citizens may be abnormal in 
their vows not to do the normal thing to save the 
state should disaster appear, but the healthy or- 
ganism throws off this effect as a disease. These 
vows are usually only mental and pass away in the 
hour of excitement when the nation is attacked by 
a jealous, rival and rapacious power. When the 
call comes they usually remember that they are 
human beings and patriots; theory is forgotten. 


If, however, the vow not to risk life and limb 
and not to slay a fellow being for the sake of 
what the national government represents be con- 
genital, it should be remembered that there are 
cowards in every land; and those of proper age 
who refuse to fight should be detested as such. 

On the other hand, those who are willing to 
lay down life for liberty should the occasion of 
danger arise have many compensations in the 
training they receive for the task should it come. 
Six months or even a year of strict military train- 
ing, in the open air, with constant exercise and 
contests of manly strength make any young man 
much more fit than he would otherwise be for the 
remainder of his life. The writer recollects how, 
after the short campaigning or time spent in camp 
during the Spanish War, the men came home 
afterwards with heads erect, shoulders broad and 
faces beaming with health. Stories of malaria 
and canned beef were vastly exaggerated and due 
to lack of preparation. It was not the old men 
or the peace lovers, but the young men of red blood 
and warm impulses who rushed to volunteer; and 
upon them primarily the future of the United 
States must rest. To place a million such youths, 
the best blood of the Nation, in the field every 
year would not be too much to ask of a people 
destined to give the world liberty, especially in 
view of the fact that such training would only add 


to their economic efficiency at the expiration of 
their service and develop character through the 
learning of system and method, self reliance and 
the spirit of comrady consistent with a democratic 
state. One has only to recall the rare enthusiasm 
for this extraordinary development of the physical 
man to grace and beauty, to litheness of limb and 
quickness of eye, with consequent effects upon 
the intellect, in the Greek states, to realize what 
might be done through the means of military drill- 
ing in this free republic. Born commanders 
would be an important result, as a matter of 
course. And they, in the hour of its need, would 
lead the nation on to victory. Every youth, rich 
or poor, white or black, when he reaches the age 
of eighteen, or a year later, if it requires that 
much more time for him to complete his high school 
education, should be compelled to submit him- 
self to the recruiting officer. In 1910 there were 
949,876 such youths of eighteen years in the 
United States. With the usual increase in the 
total population since that year, the million re- 
quired could easily be made up. Great camps 
might be established in the undulating or level 
lands of the West or Middle West. Tents should 
be used. Five dollars per month should be paid. 
Otherwise only food, shelter and raiment should 
be provided. Moving pictures and lectures 
should give entertainment of the milder sort, and 


the balance should be that of field exercise. Prac- 
tically all the time, however, should be devoted 
to hard work indeed in the training of every branch 
of military science, so that the army thus formed 
might take the field at a moment's notice and 
with the full confidence of the Nation. The 
boys who thus entered training would return a 
year later as men and as hard as nails. Can any 
one doubt that the following generation which they 
would help to give the world would be stronger 
and even more capable of such service than their 
fathers had been? 

The cost of such an immense force in time of 
peace might be reduced to a minimum. Partly 
due to the retention of expensive military posts 
at unnecessary places, because of the influence of 
members of Congress and the sanctity of tradi- 
tion, it cost the United States $102,938,798 in 
1915 to maintain an army of 4,701 officers and 
87,781 men. For the year 1912 it cost the Ger- 
man government $200,000,000 to maintain an 
army of 656,144 officers and men. At the latter 
reckoning, this country should support a million 
men in military training for a year at a cost of 
about $300,000,000. Let Congress lop off $100,- 
000,000 from the $164,000,000 spent annually 
for pensions and matters would be helped consid- 
erably without increasing taxation. The pension 
budget has reached this prodigious amount de- 


spite the fact that the great war which called it 
forth ended more than sixty years ago and that 
few of the veterans of that conflict are living. 
While the number has grown smaller year by 
year the appropriation has until recently increased. 
Pensions have been given as liberally by Congress- 
men as for many years garden seeds have been 
distributed. This under a general policy of 
placing the money in circulation. But perhaps 
the people would prefer to spend their own funds 
rather than to have them used in making the gov- 
ernment an eleemosynary institution. With a 
million men trained annually, in twenty years 
the United States would have twenty millions of 
men ready for service, less the normal death rate 
among them. Then or at any moment of that 
time the Nation would be ready to perform its 
task. And with great coast lines on two oceans, 
the vastest wealth and the most priceless of gov- 
ernmental gifts, liberty, to defend, the country 
should be protected by the largest and best 
equipped navy in the world. 

In all this preparation and in the actual event 
of war itself economic ends are advanced rather 
than retarded. In the time of conflict fixed and 
not floating capital is destroyed, and for the vic- 
tor not even that. The medium of exchange 
changes hands, but remains the same, unless de- 
preciated for the time being. Men would eat 


food and wear clothes in any event. The energies 
of the nation are turned to the manufacture of 
the implements of war and ammunition and to 
feeding and clothing the soldiers. All these ma- 
terials and eventually all energy are perishable. 
To destroy them at one time is only a few years 
difference from another. This is true of buildings, 
public and private, and vast fields of ordinary pro- 
duction which are swept bare by the storm of 
war. Afterwards they soon regain their accus- 
tomed appearance, and better, by the new energy 
which is turned into them. Instead of causing 
waste, war does away with it by subduing ex- 
hausted peoples. These extend their credit and 
expend their strength. At the end they are bank- 
rupt and weakened. This leads to the rule of 
the healthier organism. The latter pays back its 
borrowed capital with the territory it has con- 
quered. The war being fought on foreign soil, 
even its fixed capital remains intact. Stimulated 
energies and vastly increased production soon re- 
move the debt to normal. 

Not even life is wasted. Each of us has died 
many times ; each will live again. What matters 
it if one's head is blown off; the spirit survives. 
That never dies. If men pass away in agony, 
the pain is but momentary. If maimed for life, 
they have the satisfaction of knowing that 
they have helped the Great Order. And when 


the percentage of actual deaths in battle is con- 
sidered, it must be admitted that the chances 
of passing through the ordeal without loss of life 
or serious injury are very great — usually some- 
thing over 90 per cent. The Christian, with his 
fortitude and belief in immortality, should not 
hesitate to take the chance. Certainly the Japa- 
nese, with his feeling that the hero of the battle 
held is rewarded in the hereafter, does not stop at 
any daring deed. And so far as the compara- 
tively small misery among troops is concerned, 
that is largely minimized by the development of 
medical science in the past half century. The 
hardships caused among wives, mothers and chil- 
dren gradually adjusts itself in a generation. 
This may seem cruel, but it would be far more 
heartless to an infinitely vaster number of men, 
women and children in the future not to risk life 
and limb for the liberties our nation and civiliza- 
tion stand for. 

It is proposed that all this might be done away 
with by men submitting that which they hold most 
dear to the arbitration of third parties. Where 
disputes of a minor nature arise between states 
and they can be readily adjusted in this way by 
submission of the facts, it would be ridiculous to 
think of war. But where the mighty aims of 
great peoples, led by men ambitious for glory and 
achievement, are involved, arbitrators are swept 


aside as mollycoddles. Think of a Richelieu 
stopping the work of the rejuvenation of France 
to listen to such sweet-faced brethren! There 
was no compromise with him. He went ahead 
with his grim work and the opponents of law and 
order and civilization received the headsman's 
ax. Louis XVI "arbitrated" his difficulties with 
the revolutionists and paid for it at the guillotine. 
Napoleon, peering over the fence on a July day, 
reflected on how much might have been accom- 
plished in defense of the King with powder and 
shot. But Louis was not made of that kind of 
stuff; his "children" should not be fired on by the 
Swiss guards, he said. Arbitration treaties with 
people we shall never fight are nauseating. Amer- 
ican freedom and the fundamental principles 
America stands for can never be arbitrated except 
by the sword. 

Does this mean that a state of war is better 
than that of peace*? Certainly it is, if, again quot- 
ing St. Augustine, war is the transition from a 
lower to a higher civilization. Certainly it is, if 
by peace men, nations and the world remain stag- 
nant. Certainly it is, if, through aggressive strug- 
gle, the highest aims of the earth are attained, and 
if, through sorrow and suffering and sacrifice, men 
gain in character and perceive more clearly the 
fundamental verities of life. Certainly it is, if, 
by war, men gain leisure to utilize their stimulated 


energies in the paths of peace, until they relapse 
into desuetude and another great war or series 
of wars produces a mighty upheaval. Certainly 
it is, if, as Jesus of Nazareth said, "the Kingdom 
of Heaven suffered violence and men of violence 
take it by force." 

Will wars never cease, then'? Must men go 
through the ordeal of battle all through the com- 
ing time*? No; only until such time as each peo- 
ple and nation has risen to its strength, accom- 
plished its work in the world and fallen to decay, 
and until righteousness and justice prevail upon 
the earth. When that time comes wars will be 
done away with. For that time men have fought 
throughout the ages, steadily, step by step, ap- 
proaching "that far off divine event toward which 
the whole creation moves." 



"Our environment is that in which we live and move 
and have our being. Without it we should neither live 
nor move nor have any being." — Henry Drummond. 

When Gutenberg invented the printing press 
in 1464, Columbus discovered America in 1492, 
da Gama found a new route to India in 1498, 
Luther nailed the theses upon the door of Witten- 
berg in 1517, Magellan circumnavigated the globe 
in 1521 and Copernicus completed his heliocen- 
tric theory of the universe in 1530, there were 
probably few who realized the significance of a 
movement created by those events which was to 
continue with ever widening aspects, adding more 
liberties, shedding further light and opening new 
avenues to wealth for four hundred years. 
Hardly more than half a century had been neces- 
sary to break away from old traditions, customs, 
habits of thought and policies of government. 
The ultimate result was freedom of conscience, 
the sovereignty of the people and the development 
of nationality. To-day, after many inventions, 



unlimited printed knowledge, the law of evolu- 
tion, critical examination of the sacred scriptures, 
opening of the Panama Canal and the greatest 
war man has seen, an era far more portentous 
seems to be dawning. 

In the past fifty years the entire relation of man 
to life has considerably changed. In that short 
space of time he has done more to conquer his en- 
vironment than at any previous period. The re- 
sult is that he no longer thinks so much in the 
terms of the passions and prejudices of a given lo- 
cality, but looks out upon a world transformed for 
his benefit. His customs have become less en- 
slaving. His entire life radiates from a wider 
compass. He is a new man, another personality; 
and hence he is about to conceive a new timxC. 
The nature of the epoch he is about to create may 
be discerned in the factors which have remade 
him. The man of fifty years ago, our grandfa- 
thers, was not the same as he who works and lives 
in the heroic present. He was served by his neigh- 
bors. His food was gathered from farms near at 
hand. His clothes were homespun. His comings 
and goings were with a horse. Books and pa- 
pers were rare. His amusements were simple. 
Laughter was often compounded out of tragedy. 
The sole social center was the church. Ignorance 
was rife. Prejudice held sway. There was lit- 
tle else to do except be bom, till the soil, marry. 


have children, attend church and die. The 
change that has been wrought has been far more 
a miracle than any in ancient days. Men and 
women, old and young, have been lifted com- 
pletely out of their environment. 

Development of rapid transportation by land 
and sea has enabled man to circle the globe in 
less time than was formerly required to cross the 
Atlantic Ocean. The continent is now crossed in 
three and a half days, as compared to three months 
in 1870. A network of steam railways gives local 
accommodation to every part of the land and en- 
ables all to travel at a minimum of expense. In 
addition, trolley lines have penetrated wherever 
the density of population has made them feasible. 
Automobiles, bicycles and motorcycles have made 
journeys pleasanter and more healthful, and ad- 
vanced the people of the country and the city 
beyond the strength of a horse. Anthracite coal 
and electricity have largely done away with 
smoke on the heavier trains. The Pullman and 
similar accommodations have made long distance 
journeys comfortable. On the sea the turbine en- 
gine, the steel propeller, the steamship, yacht and 
motorboat, to say nothing of superior and often- 
times palatial furnishing afloat, have made travel 
there speedy and agreeable. Railroad and steam- 
ship risks have been reduced to a negligible quan- 
tity for the 1,033,679,680 passengers carried on 


the railroads alone in the United States in 1915. 
Half that number were carried in 1900. 

Means of communication have been multiplied 
to such an extent that the farmer no longer feels 
himself apart from the thrill of civilization. The 
telephone, the inventor of which is still living, 
has brought a continent beneath its sway and made 
possible an intricacy of business undreamed of a 
quarter of a century ago. It has brought men 
nearer to each other everywhere, annihilated dis- 
tance and made calls for help, convenience or news 
instantaneous. A world is the debtor of Alex- 
ander Graham Bell. The telegraph and cable 
have united nations, continents and hemispheres. 
The daily doings in the heart of Asia, up to a 
generation ago unknown in their most important 
relations until years later, are now flashed around 
the earth in a few minutes. Communities are no 
longer secluded or excluded from the pulsating 
tide of life on the planet. The world moves by 
ideas, and the individual sends them to the chief 
centers and, in the more concentrated districts in 
the United States and Europe, to every home. 
Postal facilities, aided by the automobile and the 
pneumatic tube, have increased at an enormous 
rate, with the result that no man need remain 
hidden if he does not desire to be. The remotest 
farmer is now nearer to New York, Chicago and 
San Francisco than the denizen of the village or 


small city fifty years ago. The rural free delivery 
has helped to accomplish this without delay. 

These means of rapid intercourse between per- 
sons have made the modern newspaper possible, 
aided by the multiple rotary press. For so little 
expense that the cost is not felt by the very poor- 
est, each citizen keeps himself informed each morn- 
ing as to the affairs not only of the locality in 
which he dwells, but of the entire world. Busi- 
ness and the consequent enhancement of adver- 
tising support a machinery of news production 
which has made man a neighbor to humanity. 
Together with editorials and the Sunday magazine 
section of the more important dailies, the news 
is digested for every reader and he is instructed 
as to all vital matters. There are now 25,000 
newspapers in the United States. In addition a 
vast number of periodicals of all kinds stimulate 
thought and keep everybody who desires to know 
informed on any subject. In the larger cities the 
leading dailies have correspondents in every spot 
on earth from whence news is likely to emanate, 
serving it with such terse interest that the reader 
easily grasps the simple facts and draws his own 
conclusion therefrom. 

Books, too, are now presented to the public 
with a cheapness and attractiveness that have 
brought the mind seeking knowledge through the 
printed page within easy access, not only to the 


immediate locality and time, but to the storehouse 
of learning and fact of the ages. Intellectual 
products of all periods may be upon the shelf of 
the poorest at an expense which would have been 
impossible a quarter of a century ago. Encyclo- 
paedic knowledge is placed within arm's length of 
the busiest man. Biography is written without 
panegyric and only to portray the facts of the 
subject. History, because of those archeological 
discoveries which have laid bare the story of an- 
cient empires, has been rewritten upon a scientific 
basis, with regard to confirmable reality and not 
to bear out an argument. Men are no longer 
compelled to accept statements of opinion as au- 
thoritative: they may seek the proofs and accede 
to or deny the ideas presented. Books have not 
only spread the gospel of learning and informed 
the earth, but added to the happiness of the indi- 
vidual and made him a citizen of the world. 

In the home, where a generation ago genuine 
comforts were the property of the few, all of those 
with a decent income may now feel a joy in life 
so far beyond that possible to the man who la- 
bored with his hands heretofore as to make it 
almost beyond belief that changes of such vast im- 
portance to human kind could have been attained 
in the short span of half a hundred years. Wher- 
ever sufficient population warrants, the candle and 
oil lamp have well nigh disappeared and gas and 


the electric light have taken their place. He who 
sits beneath the effulgent glow of the results of the 
inventive brain of an Edison, shedding a warmth 
about the hearth of man that it never knew be- 
fore, can scarcely conceive of the barrenness of 
the old method. New and constantly developing 
processes have made possible the almost universal 
use of the carpet and rug, brass and iron bed, wall 
paper and upholstered furniture. Over them the 
magic wand of art has cast a spell, and to-day the 
domicile of the poorest, if a little taste be dis- 
played, may appear a place that kings a century 
ago would have envied. Plumbing conveniences 
unknown to any but this contemporary time have 
added immeasurably to comfort and health. The 
tile bath has made cleanliness a duty and generally 
prevalent. Towels, soap and various manufac- 
tured articles of the toilette have increased the joy 
of living. With a well-stocked library of instruc- 
tive and interesting books and pictures, and numer- 
ous periodicals which for a small amount give ex- 
pression to the artistic sense and manifold activi- 
ties of the life of man on the planet at the present 
time, the home is another vehicle for lifting the 
people of every civilized land above and out of the 
limits of environment. The pneumatic cleaner 
and the carpet sweeper have lessened the burdens 
of women in the household. Invention, as in the 
case of man, has lessened her toil and enlarged lei- 


sure for the enhancement of mentality and useful- 
ness outside of the home. This is mainly respon- 
sible for the increasing desire of women to partake 
in greater measure of social and public activities. 
The style of the housing of the people has 
changed and made for community of interest. 
Modern plumbing, the steel girder and the trans- 
ference of large tracts of forest through the saw- 
mill by cheap transportation to the chief centers 
are responsible for the apartment building where 
many hundreds may live together without any 
knowing his next-door neighbor, and the great 
business structure, reaching a height of fifty 
stories, where several thousands of persons daily 
have their headquarters and transact their affairs. 
Electricity has brought the elevator and made it 
possible for man to climb higher than the maxi- 
mum of six stories of the structures at the close 
of the Civil War. Cement, concrete and tile proc- 
esses, with which engineering knowledge has kept 
pace, have not only intensified the attractiveness 
of the interior and exterior of all buildings, but 
have become so cheap relatively as to enable build- 
ing operations to take on a grander scale. Purely 
by the inventive means of a single generation such 
undertakings as the Pennsylvania and New York 
Central stations in New York City, the Metro- 
politan, Singer and Whitehall office buildings 


there and the Union Station in Washington, have 
been made possible. 

Without the growth of desire for creature com- 
forts and easy access to centers of mercantile ac- 
tivity the department store — the marvel of a quar- 
ter century — would have been impossible. Local 
and special shops for immediate and particular 
selection still have their place in the larger cities, 
but the greater mart supplies readily the needs of 
a community, and very cheaply because of greater 
volume of purchases. Clothing has become more 
varied because the wants of the individual are 
supplied from a more extended field of produc- 
tion and because machinery and diversified labor 
have cheapened their cost. Good and attractive 
apparel may now be worn more generally than 
ever before. To the farmer and dweller in the 
small town the facilities of the mail order estab- 
lishments have become such as to enable all to 
secure products a great city inhabitant could ob- 
tain at a high class department store, by having 
a selection presented to him through the printed 
advertising page in newspaper and periodical. 

Medical research has been revolutionized in half 
a century with the result that health has been im- 
measurably bettered and life prolonged. Chemi- 
cal research has brought quick remedies for sim- 
ple ailments within reach. Where manufactur- 


ers have abused public confidence in these, an en- 
lightened opinion has enforced the enactment of 
strict protective laws. The process by which 
light has emerged from the darkness of medical 
methods of a generation ago has been the constant 
application of analytical thought to cause and ef- 
fect in accordance with the scientific spirit of the 
age. A doctor in Porto Rico experiments at the 
cost of his life and the truth he finds pro- 
tects future millions of his fellow men from the 
ravages of yellow fever. Others experiment, 
stagnant waters are drained, mosquitos disappear 
and with them malaria; the extent of the result 
being dependent only upon the thoroughness of 
the method. By the same means typhoid and the 
bubonic plague have found their cause and 
remedy. A physician carrying a particle of ra- 
dium in his pocket and his hand coming in con- 
tact with it, he finds eventually that it is an allevi- 
ant and perhaps an antidote for cancer. Bac- 
teriologists and pathologists concentrate their at- 
tention upon the plague of tuberculosis, and hy- 
giene and sanitation do the rest in lessening its 
ravages. Diseases that reflect the darker and 
more crassly selfish side of mankind are brought 
to more thorough investigation, with the result 
that the world is awakening to the steady and 
terrible results of depravity, and that cleanliness 
of life is the true remedy. The desire of human- 


ity for the elimination of preventable maladies 
and to know the why and wherefore of things has 
caused those men of great wealth who desire the 
esteem of their fellows to endow medical insti- 
tutions and hospitals, as well as special means of 
research, which have helped to bring greater and 
more efficient changes for human good in the field 
of medicine in the past generation than in all those 
preceding since Hippocrates and Galen first 
thought enough of the bodily woes of men to ex- 
periment in order to eliminate them. Every good 
physician, trained in a school of facts, every dis- 
covery of causes for the prevention or remedy of 
illness, every chemist with a new process for mak- 
ing life cleaner and healthier has assisted in mak- 
ing the individual everywhere less obsessed by his 
own ills and his own environment, and given him 
more freedom to comprehend and take part in 
the world outside of himself and his locality. 

Certainly not less important than any change 
in the environment of man in the last quarter cen- 
tury has been that in the field of amusements. 
There the development of means of transporta- 
tion, together with the asphalt pavement, cement 
sidewalk and incandescent light, has, in the United 
States especially, made possible a variety and 
standard of attractions upon the stage that would 
have excited the wonder and awe of our grand- 
fathers. A cheap and melodramatic character of 


production was that presented before the eyes and 
ears of the people of the small town and even, to 
a large extent, in the cities, in 1870. Then came 
the vaudeville circuit and the stock company, 
which, with the perfection of instrumental music, 
gave much more life and hence a wider range of 
inspiration to every small community. With the 
working out of the details of electricity, Edison and 
others brought out the phonograph, which, carry- 
ing the divine harmony into every home desiring 
it, enabled men, women and children to be lifted 
above the cares of everyday life and to be part 
of a world. With mechanical properties of the 
theater enriched by electric and other devices to 
give wider range to acting, the stage took on a 
more instructive tone and broke away from classi- 
cal rendition as the ideal. Then was created the 
moving picture — still in its infancy — to bring to 
the door of every person on the earth the story 
and action of every other individual, age, race 
and clime and to do it at an expense of a few 
pennies. Everybody, rich or poor, has followed 
this device like the Pied Piper of Hamelin, and 
had his thoughts stimulated to a wider range of 
vision. The saloon and the corner grocery, as 
well as the dive and the music hall, have lost the 
influence they once had. The moving picture has 
wrought a new age and so quietly and steadily 
that it is difficult to realize its full consequences. 


Reacting upon the legitimate stage, it has made 
it more reasonable in price and yet bettered the 
class of its productions. 

Education has been so extended that there are 
in the United States alone 20,000,000 pupils an- 
nually attending one form of school or another 
and 600,000 teachers are giving them instruction. 
This intense desire for knowledge is not confined 
to this country. In Germany a universal system 
of instruction prevails, and in England and France 
are thorough means of training the youth which 
are hardly less excellent. The demand for 
knowledge and preparation for usefulness has 
seized upon every land. But particularly in the 
United States, the kindergarten, graded and sec- 
ondary schools and colleges and universities are, 
in a democracy where rich and poor, white and 
black, Jew and gentile, boy and girl meet on a 
common plane, constantly turning out citizens 
among whom development of body keeps pace with 
instruction of mind and who are thereby enabled 
to look out upon the world they enter in a prac- 
tical way with a wider knowledge than the pupils 
of any period heretofore and with a realization 
that theirs is a large share in the work of mankind. 

Material avenues of enabling men and women 
to enjoy a larger life have had their inevitable 
effect upon laws and government. The vision of 
happier conditions has been the incentive for the 


eight-hour day, demanded by the worker in order 
that he may have more equitable share in the 
joys of the new life about him. Public sanita- 
tion and laws to protect the life and health of 
the toiler have been further results of material 
factors. As men have been enabled to break the 
shackles of their surroundings, they have had more 
leisure to discuss the affairs of their fellows and 
to arrive at a clearer comprehension of true equity 
between man and man. Transportation and the 
mails have made possible gatherings for the dis- 
cussion of every subject, and the press has reported 
them broadcast. Legislation for the child, the 
amelioration of the condition of women and a 
more strict accountability of those in authority, 
whether industrial or political, has been enacted. 
Mercy and kindness have shed their light in greater 
measure in the daily life of the community, re- 
moving imprisonment for debt, rescuing the heav- 
ily laden debtor through bankruptcy so that he 
may have new opportunity, lessening the rigors 
of punishment of those who have offended against 
law, giving free legal aid to the poor in obtain- 
ing redress for their wrongs, abating the strictures 
against divorce in order that mismated couples 
may benefit themselves and the world in general by 
parting, and providing such general advantages 
as public play grounds and musical and other 
amusements. Government has changed in a gen- 


eration toward more and more utilization of com- 
munity energy for the good of the locality or na- 
tion as a whole, and even the conservation of re- 
sources for the enjoyment of future generations. 
Sociological education and the scientific tend- 
ency toward social service have further concen- 
trated attention upon the needs of humanity, with 
resultant thorough and sometimes too methodical 
agencies for assisting the poor. In fact, what 
is known as settlement work is entirely the crea- 
tion of a generation. And as schools, printed 
books, newspapers and magazines have informed 
and instructed every school boy, as statesmen were 
not informed and instructed a century ago, the 
pulpit has lost more and more of its influence. 
At the conclusion of the Civil War the minister 
was still a local oracle. Without the present 
means of communication with the outside world, 
either by travel or printed page, he enjoyed an in- 
fluence in the community second to none. He had 
leisure and opportunity for study which others 
did not. On Sunday he was listened to with 
something more than respect and less than adora- 
tion. His sermon was the piece de resistance at 
every table during the week. The great preach- 
ers, Henry Ward Beecher and T. DeWitt Tal- 
madge, were national figures. It is no longer so. 
"Billy" Sunday, the most advertised of them, is 
solely a sensationalist. The good minister who 


tends his flock in every hamlet has lost none of 
the respect, either of that flock or the community ; 
but he is no longer an oracle. The sweet and 
wholesome influence of the church and Sunday 
School over the child has not grown less, nor has 
that of the manifold social activities of the con- 
gregation over the older folks; but men, women 
and children alike have come to perceive that good- 
ness is not confined to those who attend church. 
Under the free institutions of the United States, 
where none may be persecuted because his be- 
liefs do not conform to those of the majority, the 
mutual hatreds and jealousies of creeds have been 
diminished to a negligible quantity, and we have 
become aware that all that is required of us is, 
as Micah said, "to do justice, to love mercy and 
to walk humbly with thy God." Church, min- 
ister and priest are the same, and their respective 
message and work are not dissimilar, but we are 
no longer content with forms and beliefs, and 
have as our ideal only the simple doing of good 
and service to others. The sympathy of a world 
for men and of men for a world has brought a 
clearer perception of "the fatherhood of God and 
the brotherhood of man." In accord with a 
scientific spirit, the human mind working upon 
materials has wrought so much in the field of in- 
vestigation and accomplished such tremendous re- 
sults for daily comfort and well being, making it 


possible to overcome ills in larger measure, that the 
people will no longer readily accept that which 
cannot be proven. The value of cleanliness of 
life, obedience to the Ten Commandments and 
kindness toward others may be demonstrated, but 
the efficacy in the daily life of man of mere tra- 
ditional ritual and acceptance of articles of time 
honored statement of belief is not easily to be 
found; hence they are discarded by increasingly 
larger numbers of people. As men have thought 
less of impressing upon other men with refine- 
ment of cruelty that they alone represented Al- 
mighty God, they have by their kindness and 
mercy been enabled to perceive Him more clearly 
and to better understand and appreciate the Bibli- 
cal injunction, "Fear God and keep His command- 
ments, for this is the whole duty of man." It 
may be expected that the pebble of this influence 
thus thrown upon the receptive surface of an 
awakened humanity will increase its circles until 
it ultimately reaches the uttermost land. 

These influences have had their effect upon 
morality. An enlightened public opinion has 
done away with the grosser forms of amusement. 
Respect for the cleanliness and health of the hu- 
man body has increased. Drunkenness is rare. 
Temperance and total abstinence from intoxica- 
ting liquors have become more prevalent. Vari- 
ous forms of gambling have become less public 


and in some cities and states have been done 
away with. Athletic contests and exercises and 
outdoor games, together with the bicycle and au- 
tomobile, have brought more life in the open air 
and hence more wholesome living. And with all 
the multitudinous communication and knowledge 
between man and man, as well as respect for 
public order, crime and hypocrisy have been made 
more difficult if not less desirable. 

Not among the unimportant tendencies of the 
time is that to seek to penetrate the veil which 
has until now covered the grave. Hardly more 
than half a century ago the Fox sisters began in- 
vestigations in spiritualism, in exact reproduc- 
tion of the revelations of the Witch of Endor three 
thousand years before. As the latter called up 
the spirit of Samuel to answer the questions of 
the troubled Saul, and she could see the departed 
prophet in vision but the King could not, so these 
sisters stated that they had held communication 
with the so-called dead. The impetus which they 
gave to the investigation of the subject was long 
in reaching effect. But in the last two or three 
decades the number of alleged instances of dem- 
onstration of communication have become so nu- 
merous as to arouse the interest of such scientific 
observers as Flammarion, Lombroso, Sir Oliver 
Lodge, Sir Alfred Wallace and Professor Hyslop. 
A person who seeks light upon psychic phenomena 


is no longer considered "queer." Clairvoyance, 
clairaudience, mesmerism and similar terms have 
become common. Mankind is awakening to the 
fact that the theory of evolution failed to ac- 
count for the human spirit, and dimly to perceive 
that life is made everlasting by universal law. 

With less immersion in his immediate surround- 
ings and more respect for himself and love of 
his neighbor, man has demanded a greater de- 
gree of liberty, not only from unjust government 
but from the drudgeries of toil. Slavery has been 
done away with on this continent since 1865. 
Serfs have been emancipated in Russia since 1881. 
Republics have been established in greater num- 
ber. Privileges have been swept away, and for 
those that remain the world has a decreasing re- 
gard. Even the Jews are in this free land be- 
ginning to receive their just due. As industrial 
production has become more varied and labor 
more skilled the emoluments of toil have in- 
creased. Women vote in some states and na- 
tions. Universal suffrage has become more gen- 
eral. Restrictions upon public assemblage and 
free speech have been lessened. The liberty of 
the press has increased in all countries. The ten- 
dency of the age is toward liberty under the forms 
of just laws and public order. Industry up to 
half a century ago was largely local. It has since 
become national and even international. Great 


stock companies have been formed to carry on 
worldwide industrial enterprises. Investment in 
the shares of these companies have been purchased 
by those who have surplus earnings everywhere. 
Along with closer community of interests there 
has come further discussion of the relationship 
between the wage earner and the employer. Bet- 
ter understanding has been sought. The three 
industrial classes, the employer, the laborer and 
the investor, have been brought into closer touch. 
Fifty years ago the employer was allowed full 
sway; to-day he is compelled by a new spirit 
among men to act more equitably. The result 
is an impetus toward the solution of the industrial 

Events of startling world magnitude have taken 
place in the last half century to make quite star- 
tling the similarity between this period and that 
of Columbus. As then the conquest of Peru and 
Mexico added to the supplies of gold by which 
Spain carried on its aggressive policy toward the 
remainder of Europe, so in this generation the 
production of that metal in the world has doubled, 
with a resultant rise in prices and stimulated in- 
dustrial development. As the great Genoese nav- 
igator discovered continents, Magellan crossed the 
two oceans and da Gama rounded the Cape, in 
our day Peary and Shackleton have completed 
man's knowledge of the earth on which he dwells 


by finding the exact location of the two poles. 
And for an age of new discovery of lands, ex- 
citing the wonder of men, we have in our time 
beheld scientific discoveries even more marvel- 
ous in their significance. As trade routes were 
changed by circumnavigating Africa and making 
a new route to India, ruining the commerce and 
power of Venice, so the Suez Canal has again 
opened the old way to India and in some degree 
resuscitated the importance of Egypt; and the 
Panama Canal is about to bring the peoples and 
continents nearer to each other and to give a new 
life to the Pacific Ocean. For the substitution 
by Copernicus, Kepler and Newton of the helio- 
centric theory of the universe, as opposed to the 
geocentric idea which had led to the belief that 
man was the center of all things, we have had 
Darwin and the theory of evolution, which has 
taught that man was not created in a day in the 
Garden of Eden but as the result of slow and 
natural development throughout the ages. For 
Petrarch, Boccaccio and the Revival of Learning, 
this period has its tremendous interest in educa- 
tion and investigation the world over. And for 
the great Martin Luther and his defiance of the 
church of his fathers, we in this time have seen 
an IngersoU and a hundred others sneering at 
the absurdities of old beliefs and creeds and seek- 
ing to bring about a broader religion of humanity. 


Finally, as gunpowder, the disruption of Chris- 
tendom and the rivalry of peoples for share in the 
new discoveries brought Europe to prolonged and 
bloody wars, so now the world's mightiest powers 
and peoples are at each other's throats, battling in 
the fiercest hell since the beginning of human 

Indeed, it may be said that mankind is in the 
greatest state of transition since the dawn of his- 
tory. It is true that during the short but event- 
ful life of Alexander, and again at the time of 
Caesar, new forces were let loose on the earth which 
were to have a permanent effect upon the future, 
but their impact was felt chiefly around the Medi- 
terranean basin and not by the vast populations 
of central and eastern Asia. When the Roman 
Empire disappeared in its own decay and Chris- 
tianity grew upon its ruins another vast change 
was wrought. So it was when Charlemagne 
started the activities of men moving in new direc- 
tions. And also at the period of the Renaissance 
and the Reformation when the modern world was 
born. But to-day mightier forces are working and 
with vaster portent than at any previous time. 
Men are stirred as not before. Seeing institu- 
tions and long cherished beliefs crumbling around 
them everywhere, they perceive that a new age 
is at hand. They realize that neither they nor 
the planet will ever be the same again. And the 


thought comes, what does it all mean'? Amid 
the roar of cannon, a thousand inventions and new- 
social, religious and political ideals, men ask 
whether chaos or a brighter day is coming. 

What is to make the new age entirely distinct 
from the past*? How will it react upon man- 
kind during the time to come*? As its causes are 
broader and more far reaching than those which 
formed any previous era, it must be apparent 
that its effects will be more wide spread. And 
as those causes have embraced the earth, so the 
effect will be to provide means for a closer com- 
munity of interest until it embraces the entire 
race of man. The hatreds engendered by great 
nations struggling at war do not long endure. 
Two generations and they have passed away. 
But the inventive genius of the individual and 
the results of his inventions will go on, and, no 
matter how extensive may be armed conflict, the 
world will never return to what it was before it 
gained a spirit beyond the borders of states. So 
many citizens of the world have been created by 
steam, electricity and the printing press that no 
cataclysm can make them provincial again. 

What, then, is the meaning of the age now 
dawning if it is not that every man upon the 
face of the earth shall be free from privilege and 
monarchy and injustice, that each shall be able 
to think and speak without prejudice or harm, 


that every child upon the globe shall have an 
education, that any person shall have a living 
wage if capable of earning it, and that all shall 
enjoy the splendid opportunities which inventive 
genius has placed at the disposal of a world? 
What is its portent if not that by means of physi- 
cal and intellectual communication that time is 
near at hand when the brotherhood of man shall 
become a reality and the world will realize that 

"He prayeth best who lovcth best 
All things both great and small." 



"Sail on, O Ship of State ! 
Sail on, O Union, strong and great! 
Humanity with all its fears, 
With all the hopes of future years, 
Is hanging breathless on thy fate !" 

• — Longfellow. 

When a thousand years have fled and men read 
and reflect upon a universal history, what will 
they consider to have been the distinguishing char- 
acteristics of this nation? What will they regard 
as having differentiated it from any other state in 
this or a more remote time? What will they 
think its function, purely as a separate entity 
among countries, in advancing the cause of civili- 
zation? And to us in this period of a world in 
collapse, what do we believe our land to mean? 

It is likely that students of the future, as well 
as the present, will find the significance of the 
United States within the character of the people 
who inhabit it and the institutions created by the 
Constitution enacted in 1787, under which has 
been found so much of happiness and orderly 
progress. Columbus crossed the ocean in quest 



of a new route to India; he discovered what was 
eventually to become an asylum for the oppressed. 
Long after the Great Navigator had passed away 
there came to America those who sought escape 
from tyranny and religious intoleration. Their 
heads no longer in danger of the block or their 
bodies of torture on the rack, they braved the 
wilderness, fought savage Indians and established 
a new civilization. These were our fathers. 
They also came to seek greater opportunity. Some 
were adventurous and desired a free life in the 
open. In increasing volume they immigrated 
from every European land. The hardy and prac- 
tical peoples of the north of that continent built 
the nation. Usually from each individual family 
came the youngest and the most forceful and ag- 
gressive. And some of these peoples gave of their 
best blood when at the strongest : the Dutch when 
at the height of their sea power in the seventeenth 
century, the English when expanding into the 
greatest empire the world has heretofore seen in 
the seventeenth, eighteenth and early nineteenth 
centuries, the Gemians and Scandinavians from 
1845 to i860 and the Irish during the following 
fifty years. Latterly have come the emotional 
peoples of Southern Europe, the Italians, Aus- 
trians and Hungarians. France and Switzerland 
have contributed a smaller but steady supply. 
Turks, Greeks, Balkan peoples, and, in the last 


two decades, two and a half millions of Russians, 
a large proportion of them Polish Jews, have 
added more. Practically all of these vastest 
hordes of human beings that ever migrated from 
one cherished spot on the earth to another have 
been without distinction or privilege ; the few who 
had such honors were soon shorn of them in the 
hardships of the common lot. Most of the early 
settlers could not read or write and signed their 
names with a cross. It was only at a later day 
when education became more general in Europe 
that some of the immigrants brought with them 
the rudiments of an education. 

The chief value of the Constitution of the 
United States, the instrument framed to protect 
and guide all these peoples and mold them into 
one, is that it provides a governmental system of 
checks and balances, conserves the rights of the 
minority from encroachments by the majority to 
which it gives control, guarantees religious lib- 
erty and prevents centralization of authority in 
executive or legislature. When it is remembered 
that because of the lack of these benefits men 
suffered untold miseries for centuries and are still 
suffering from that lack the statement of Web- 
ster that our Constitution is the greatest instru- 
ment ever struck off at a given time by the mind 
of man does not seem unjustified. Formed for 
the most part by the spirit and genius of Alexan- 


der Hamilton, in its essentials it seems an inspira- 
tion from the Almighty. Surviving a great civil 
war and the changes in customs and thought of 
130 years, it still proves itself most just and prac- 
ticable when its original spirit is strictly adhered 
to. Nowhere does it seem more venerable than 
when compared with the governmental charters 
and systems of other nations. In former ages the 
mind of the King constituted the executive, leg- 
islative and judicial branches of the government. 
In addition he was head of the army and chief 
executioner. The Greek states proved for the 
first time that philosophy and the highest expres- 
sion in art and literature can never thrive except 
under liberty; they also proved the crass injustices 
of untrammeled majorities working under what 
was known as pure democracy, but was an aris- 
tocracy upheld by slavery. The blessings of 
Roman law and administration did not provide 
any check against the power of the Emperor. 
Theodoric, Charlemagne and Frederick the Great 
revealed the efficacy of monarchy in the hands of 
a wise administrator and a great soldier and 
teacher; but in the hands of weak or vicious men 
monarchy becomes inimical to the welfare of the 
body politic. This was especially exemplified in 
the successors of Ferdinand and Isabella upon the 
throne of Spain. The Holy Roman Church of 
the early Middle Ages asserted its sway over a 


multitude of persons and claimed jurisdiction over 
a world, but it, too, suffered from the results of 
an over-centralized authority; and great poten- 
tates in the seat of the Papacy like Gregory I and 
Hildebrand were succeeded by men whose mon- 
strosities rivaled the basest of the Roman em- 
perors. Before these latter, when the executive 
was still subject to the will of councils, and after- 
wards, when the church had lived and learned 
and become more representative in its institutions 
with an advancing public opinion, the popes gave 
examples to mankind of austerity and saintliness 
of life. Its organization, however, still remains 
without local independence, the priest being given 
to and not selected by the congregation, and the 
bishops and archbishops being appointive. The 
steps by which English liberty was established in 
Magna Charta, the revolution of 1689 and the 
reform bills of 1832 and 1867 gradually placed 
the power of government in one house of the leg- 
islature and entirely impaired the authority and 
usefulness of the crown; they did not provide 
for disassociation of church and state, nor did 
they diminish the burdens of an hereditary caste. 
The outbreak of the French Revolution occurred 
four years after the government of the United 
States had been firmly established. It swept 
away old institutions and injustices, but the con- 
stitution of the Year One was so loosely drawn 


as to make necessary the constructive genius of 
the Emperor Napoleon; and since the fall of the 
second empire in 1871 the government of France 
has been so volatile as to permit of thirty-eight 
premiers in as many years. Under the German 
Empire the rights of free speech and public as- 
sembly have been abridged, and control of the 
entire administration has been centralized in the 
hands of the Emperor. In the great governmental 
document of the United States the fundamental 
evils of other states have been done away with 
and a government ''of the people, by the people 
and for the people" instituted among men. 

While the executive in the United States is 
clothed with more power than that of the King 
in most constitutional monarchies, he is entirely 
subject to check by the legislature. If he should 
exceed his powers or seek to destroy the govern- 
ment of a free people, he may be impeached 
by a two-third vote of the Senate. He is com- 
mander in chief of the army and navy and, if he 
has genius as a commander, may lead in the field ; 
but he is still subject to the will of the people 
through their representatives in the legislative 
branch. They and not he have the right to de- 
clare war. He appoints to offices only in the 
executive and judicial branches, and cannot in- 
terfere with the legislature. Those appointees 
may be removed for cause by the Senate sitting 


as a court. The House of Representatives orig- 
inates money bills, but cannot enact them with- 
out the critical assistance of the Senate and the 
signature of the President, who has the power to 
veto them but cannot insist upon his opposition, 
if both houses pass them again by a two-thirds 
vote. The Constitution carefully enumerated the 
powers of the branches of the Federal government 
and those of the several states. It provides a 
supreme court to pass upon questions at issue, 
so as to keep the law in conformity with those 
powers and the rights guaranteed to all citizens, 
rich and poor alike. 

No nation in history ever gave its citizens such 
a share in the government or protected them 
against themselves to such an extent as did the 
United States in its Constitution. In that docu- 
ment it gave every male of twenty-one years and 
over the right to vote for all elective public offi- 
cers, leaving to the states only provision for means 
of voting. After the Civil War an amendment 
was enacted providing that the right to vote should 
not be denied or abridged because of race, color 
or previous condition of servitude. Neither in 
ancient Greece nor in any modern state was the 
right to vote made universal among males ex- 
cept in the United States. The small number 
of those who voted for Washington in the early 
period of the government has grown until to-day 


nearly five times the total population of 1 790 par- 
ticipate in the direct election of the chief execu- 
tive of the nation. And of those who enjoy the 
suffrage there is a growing number of women. 
In all the Northern and Western States the negro 
has been granted the right to express his prefer- 
ence at the ballot box, but in the South he votes 
but seldom, due to the efforts of those in control 
there to prevent him from doing so. This is the 
only anomaly in the carrying out of the spirit of 
the free institutions of the United States, and it 
cannot be answered by evading it. But in the 
participation by the whites in the government 
there is no flaw. No European country has given 
voice to the people to the same unqualified ex- 
tent. The latter own and operate the govern- 
ment, subject only to the Constitution. 

Never on the earth has democracy ever been 
more pure than in this land where all men enjoy 
the benefits of freedom. The governments of 
Solon and Lycurgus were never extended to the 
common man, the slave or helot. Under the 
Roman Republic the people had no universal 
means of expression. Class distinctions prevailed 
both there and in Greece. America has placed 
no restriction upon the free exercise of right by 
any man. It made provision for no classes and 
prescribed conditions where they would be im- 
possible. The son of a former negro slave be- 


comes the head of an institution of practical learn- 
ing which is an inspiration to his race. A boy 
bom in a log cabin and without schooling, except 
that which he gave himself, by sheer merit and 
love of his fellow man, is raised at a time of 
stress to lead the greatest of nations. Another 
rises from canal boy to the Presidency. Every 
lad born within the borders of the country may 
emulate their example, no matter how poor his 
circumstances, even though an inmate of an or- 
phan asylum. As Napoleon used to say that ev- 
ery soldier carried in his knapsack a marshal's 
baton, so each youth in the United States is re- 
stricted solely by his own abilities, character and 
opportunities from ultimately assuming the high- 
est position in the land. Just so the avenues to 
wealth are open to all. The originator of every 
great fortune in America started without a penny 
and by his own thrift, industry and shrewdness, 
stimulated by his ambition, laid the foundation 
of his wealth. Andrew Carnegie began active 
life as a telegraph operator, later saw the possi- 
bilities of the steel business, by his genius helped 
to organize it, and reaped the reward of his abili- 
ties as a pioneer. John D. Rockefeller began his 
career as a bookkeeper. As such he met his wife. 
By care and shrewdness he and those who were 
later associated with him organized the oil indus- 
try. A fortune estimated at a billion dollars re- 


suited. With the new ideals of the time these 
men have been benefactors of mankind by assist- 
ing enormously in the spread of knowledge and 
education and in the development of scientific re- 
search of a nature calculated to lengthen life and 
make the globe more habitable. As much as men 
may deprecate some of the methods by which 
Rockefeller attained his wealth, it should not be 
forgotten that he merely availed himself of the 
opportunities of a new age and that his fellow 
bookkeepers had the same means at their disposal 
without the same insight and craft. James J. 
Hill, greatest of the builders of the Northwest, 
worked his way from steamboat clerk to extend- 
ing the Great Northern Railroad to the Pacific. 
He became its executive and controlled it finan- 
cially. Thomas A. Edison, George Westing- 
house and Henry Ford started with nothing. By 
perseverance, acumen and inventive skill they built 
great fortunes, but not without benefit to human- 
ity. The original John Jacob Astor was the son 
of a butcher. By energy and sound judgment 
he organized and developed the fur trade. Jay 
Gould was bom on a farm and kept books for 
the village blacksmith. By dint of hard strug- 
gle he gained an education, became a banker and 
finally, by shrewd strategy and manipulation, the 
owner of railroads and the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company, leaving a fortune of $72,000,- 


000. Cornelius Vanderbilt, founder of die for- 
tune of that name — estimated at $100,000,000 
at his death — was also a farmer's boy and began 
life at sixteen by carrying produce and passen- 
gers in a sailboat from Staten Island to New 
York. Then, taking advantage — open to all — 
of the demand for and growth of transportation 
he became a steamboat captain and the head of 
a great railroad system. Another farmer's boy 
was Marshall Field, merchant prince of Chicago, 
who started as clerk in a drygoods store. In a 
land of opportunity Jacob Schiff began his career 
as an alien and with little help. By fighting his 
way through hard work and honest dealing he be- 
came a great banker. Benjamin Altman, another 
Jew, started as a pedler and left $15,000,000 
in art treasures to be enjoyed in perpetu- 
ity by the people of the City of New York. 
The first of the Morgans began with prac- 
tically no assistance. His son, the elder J. Pier- 
pont Morgan, was a genius as an organizer of 
industry and profited by it, helping to build the 
country and keep its financial honor intact in time 
of peril. And so throughout the list of a thou- 
sand millionaires it is the same. Starting with 
nothing, with the advantage of compulsory strug- 
gle, they took advantage of opportunities and, 
with the thought that all was before them and 
that they were dependent solely upon their own 


energies and abilities, hewed out or organized 
new fields of production, gave employment to 
labor and bought with their rewards such com- 
forts as stimulated the more general use of a higher 
standard of civilization. Great lawyers, physi- 
cians, newspaper proprietors gained their start for 
the most part in the same way. Pulitzer came 
to America from Germany as a cabin boy, sold 
papers in St. Louis, by his genius developed the St. 
Louis Fost'Despatch and New York World and 
left a fortune of $30,000,000. The elder Ben- 
nett of the New York Herald, the elder McLean 
of the Cincinnati Enquirer, Horace Greeley of the 
New York Tribune, Dana of the Sun and Medill 
of the Chicago Tribune were dependent for their 
success only upon their own acumen and energy. 
The father of William Randolph Hearst was an 
intrepid spirit, who, like Spreckels and Fair, took 
advantage of opportunity in the days of '49, ex- 
tracted gold from the earth and helped to build 
California. Adolph Ochs, starting without help 
and all the handicaps of the Jewish race, has 
solely by his genius built up one of the greatest 
newspapers in the world, the New York Times. 
Thomas F. Walsh and John B. Haggin, with 
nerve and daring in rough and wild mining camps, 
dominated their surroundings and amassed not 
only the means of obtaining palatial comforts for 
themselves but of stimulating new industry by 


their capital. The Presidents have nearly all been 
boys very poor in circumstances but rich in char- 
acter. And so it is with the members of the Su- 
preme Court and the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives, cabinet officers and governors. Some 
have been wealthy, but the great majority have 
risen from extreme poverty. "Broke" to-day, a 
man may be rich to-morrow; he is no different 
than his fellow citizens in this pure democracy. 
Rich to-day, a man may be "broke" to-morrow; 
he also is no different than his fellow Americans. 
It is the spirit of American institutions not to re- 
spect any man because of his position or wealth, 
gained because of those institutions, nor to have 
any lack of respect for him because of that posi- 
tion or wealth, but to admire or criticize him be- 
cause of qualities of personality and character 
which would please or displease them in any man, 
rich or poor. Feeling that he may rise to any 
height of position or possession, if he has the 
requisite capability, the true American has no 
dislike for that which he might by nerve, patience, 
perseverance, shrewdness, industry, thrift and so- 
briety aspire to, or his children some day attain. 

The term democracy is here used in the broader 
sense of a government by the whole people with- 
out distinction of class, law or custom, but, in 
addition to fulfilling this definition to the letter, 
the United States has conferred its greatest benefit 


upon mankind by giving the highest expression 
of a truly representative republic. Every man 
has the right to partake of public life at the ballot 
and to seek office. He may take part in party 
affairs by helping to choose delegates to a conven- 
tion or name candidates at a primary. He may 
vote for the man or the party platform which 
most nearly expresses what he believes should be 
done to benefit the township, city, county, state 
or nation. He may through the newspapers, mag- 
azines, books or public meeting assist in influencing 
his fellow countrymen. He may appear before 
committees of the legislature he has helped to 
choose. If public opinion, influenced by fact and 
argument, become strong enough, the officers thus 
elected may be rejected at the polls after a short 
period in office of what is usually one, two, four 
or six years; if satisfactory to a majority, they 
may be reelected. Thus selected, being represen- 
tative men of their respective communities, they 
make as wise laws and regulations for the main- 
tenance and conduct of the government as human 
mentality and the spirit of the times will permit. 
Despite all the heat and passion of party debate 
and maneuvering, scrupulous care and patriotic 
devotion are given both by Republicans and Dem- 
ocrats to the wise conduct of public affairs. In 
the press galleries of the Senate and House for 
several years, the writer can testify to the fact 


that the Congress of the United States is com- 
posed of two bodies of men as high in character 
and abilities as may be found anywhere in the 
world. The same may be said of the local leg- 
islatures as representatives of their respective 
commonwealths. All of them make laws within 
their lights, not for the few but for the many. 
Subjected to every criticism in a land where party 
government, strife and criticism are rife, and 
where those favoring a party or idea stop at noth- 
ing in blackening the reputations and motives of 
their opponents, the representatives of the sover- 
eign people of the United States have neglected 
nothing within their power, from the Continental 
Congress which framed the Constitution to the 
present time, "to form a more perfect union, es- 
tablish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, pro- 
vide for the common defense, promote the gen- 
eral welfare and secure the blessings of liberty 
to ourselves and our posterity." Giving free op- 
portunity to political talent, but saved from the 
demagogue by the restrictions of the Constitution 
and the spirit of our institutions, the people of 
the United States have through their representa- 
tive government given to the world some of the 
greatest orators, legalists and constructive states- 
men of any land, among them Franklin, Hamil- 
ton, Washington, Jefferson, Jackson, Clay, Cal- 
houn, Webster, Lincoln, Grant, Cleveland, Mc- 


Kinley, Root and Roosevelt. That government 
still receives the admiration of the peoples of the 

Under these free institutions, where unlimited 
opportunity is given to the enterprising and skilful, 
where property is protected by wise laws, the re- 
sourceful and aggressive people of the United 
States, the descendants of discoverers and pio- 
neers have found means of expressing themselves 
and bettering their condition by inventive capacity 
which has astounded humanity and caused more 
progress in the amelioration of human wants than 
in all the centuries preceding the nineteenth. 
The trolley car, motor propelled elevated rail- 
road, subway train, motorboat, omnibus, auto- 
mobile and motorcycle were created here, as were 
the electric light, telephone, telegraph, phono- 
graph, moving picture, steam boat and railroad, 
typewriter, sewing machine, multiple press, wood 
pulp paper and the modem newspaper and mag- 
azine. With free initiative to develop to any 
extent of wealth industrially, increasing desire 
everywhere for the comforts and practical necessi- 
ties of life, and a larger number of skilled laborers, 
the people of this country have received higher 
wages and professional income and attained a bet- 
ter standard of living than anywhere on the earth. 
The result has been inventive genius startling to 
the modem mind. 


The telephone was invented by Bell in 1876, 
typewriter by Sholes in 1878, cash regis- 
ter by Patterson in 1885, incandescent lamp 
by Edison in 1880, phonograph by Edison 
in 1878, electric furnace reduction by Cowles in 
1885, electrolytic alkali production by Castner 
in 1890, transparent photograph film by Eastman 
in 1888, motion picture machine by Edison in 
1893, button hole sewing machine by Reece in 
1881, carborundum by Acheson in 1891, calcium 
carbine by Willson in 1888, artificial graphite 
by Acheson in 1896, split-phase induction motor 
by Tesla in 1887, air brake by Westinghouse in 
1869, electric welding by Thomson in 1889, tyP^" 
bar casting by Mergenthaler in 1885, chair-stitch 
shoe sewing machine by French and Myers in 
1881, single- type composing machine by Lanston 
in 1887, continuous process match machine by 
Beecher in 1888, chrome tanning by Schulz in 
1884, disk plow by Hardy in 1896, welt machine 
by Goodyear in 1871, electric lamp by Brush 
in 1879, recording adding machine by Burroughs 
in 1888, celluloid by Hyatt in 1870, automatic 
knot-tying harvester machine by Appleby in 1880, 
water gas by Lowe in 1875, machine for making 
barbed wire by Glidden in 1875, rotary converter 
by Bradley in 1887, automatic car coupler by 
Janney in 1873, ^ig^ speed steel b)^ Taylor and 
White in 1901, dry air process for blast furnace 


by Gay ley in 1894, block signals for railways by 
Robinson in 1872, trolley car by VanDepoele and 
Sprague in 1887, and Harveyized armor plate 
by Harvey in 1891. And in an earlier day Ben- 
jamin Franklin first discovered the electric spark, 
born almost at the same time as the Declaration 
of Independence, and precursor of this age of 
enlightenment, both intellectual and practical. 
Beside these American inventions in number and 
importance those of other lands pale into compara- 
tive insignificance. Electric steel was invented 
by Heroult, a Frenchman, in 1900, dynamite by 
Nobel, a Swede, in 1867, artificial alizarene dyes 
by Graebe and Lieberman, Germans, in 1869, si- 
phon recorder by Thompson, an Englishman, in 
1874, gas engine, Otto cycle, by Otto, a German, 
in 1877, wireless telegraphy by Marconi, an Ital- 
ian, in 1900, smokeless powder by Vielle, a French- 
man, in 1886, Diesel oil motor by Diesel, a Ger- 
man, in 1900, centrifugal creamer by DeLaval, 
a Swede, in 1880, manganese steel by Hadfield, 
an Englishman, in 1884, electric transformer by 
Gaulard and Gibbs, Englishmen, in 1883, cyanide 
process for extracting metal by Arthur and De- 
Forest in 1888, mantle burner by Welsbach, an 
Austrian, in 1890, and the by-product coke oven 
by Hoffman, an Austrian, in 1893. 

To make this intense and practical life possible 
the United States has accomplished more for edu- 


cation than any other country, with the possible 
exception of Germany during the past half cen- 
tury. Following the ideal of Luther that every 
child should receive an education, in 1647 ^^^ 
colony of Massachusetts laid down a system of 
popular education for every child in free schools 
which has been the model in principle of every 
State in the Union since that time. At present, 
of the white children of the entire country, be- 
tween the ages of six and nine )^ears, 77.2 per cent, 
are attending school and of the negroes 49.3 per 
cent.; of the whites between the ages of ten and 
fourteen jears 91.1 per cent, and of the blacks 
68.6 per cent. ; of the whites between the ages of 
fifteen and twenty years 33.7 per cent, and of the 
negroes 26.5 per cent. Americans advancing 
from New England and the East to the Middle 
West and the Far West have taken with them the 
little red school house, which has been the tutor 
of many a future leader in life. Graded and high 
schools and numerous colleges and universities, 
as well as technical institutions, have been created 
during the past half century to meet the needs of a 
greater and more diversified population. Several 
countries in Europe have since greatly developed 
their educational institutions, but the people of the 
United States were the first to provide universal 
non-sectarian education for all of its children, rich 
or poor. Catholic or Protestant, white or black. 


No influence in America is more democratizing 
than the common school. 

In the United States, where there is absolute 
equality under the law, is to be found the utmost 
respect for public order. Great crowds on elec- 
tion night or at any other public gathering need no 
guiding hand. In the courts the jury system and 
methods of appeal in both civil and criminal cases 
give ample opportunity for even handed justice. 
The rich are estopped from mulcting the poor by 
the Sherman law and the poor are prevented from 
stealing or destroying the property of the rich by 
constitutional guarantees. Justice moves with 
such celerity as crowded calendars will permit. 
There is no respect for persons. In cases of mur- 
der, four Jews, a prominent police lieutenant, a 
Catholic priest and a Protestant minister pay the 
penalty with their lives within a short time. 
Every rebellion, whether against law and order or 
against the fundamental conceptions of the State, 
has been put down. If courts have erred it is be- 
cause men have erred; and juries may also err. 
But in every community throughout the country 
the local people will testify that the judges who 
have been elected or appointed are men of integ- 
rity and repute, and students of jurisprudence in 
foreign lands have paid tribute to the high charac- 
ter and abilities of the bench of the United States, 
as exemplified in such men as Jay, Marshall, Ful- 


ler, Brewer, Harlan, White, Hughes and Taft. 
The bar of the country, too, is careful to maintain 
a high standard. William Nelson Cromwell, Phi- 
lander C. Knox, Elihu Root and John C. Spooner 
are the peers of the great lawyers of any land. 

This, then, is the meaning of the United States, 
known to every lad born within its borders and an- 
nounced to the poor immigrant: that this govern- 
ment of the free provides an asylum for the op- 
pressed of every Caucasian and therefore assimil- 
able race; that the many transfused into one are 
making the American people, the most vital the 
earth has known; that equal opportunity is af- 
forded by democratic institutions to every indi- 
vidual to attain to the highest position and great- 
est wealth and to quietly enjoy without mo- 
lestation the fruits of his toil; that Catholic, 
Protestant, Greek or Jew may worship God in 
his own way and without suffering from law or 
prejudice; that the children of every citizen, na- 
tive or foreign born, shall have the right of non- 
sectarian education at the expense of the State; 
that every male, and in some States females as 
well, of twenty-one years and over shall have the 
right to vote and hold office, and that under lib- 
erty and wise laws every man, woman and child 
in the land shall have greater comfort and joy of 
living than anywhere in the world, now or 
throughout the past. 



"The principle of democracy is corrupted not only 
when the spirit of equality is extinct, but likewise when 
it falls into a spirit of extreme equality, and when each 
citizen would fain be upon a level with those whom he 
has chosen to command him. Then the people, incapable 
of bearing the very power they have delegated, want to 
manage everything themselves, to debate for the Senate, 
to execute for the magistrates and to decide for the 
judges." — Montesquieu. 

To those means provided in the Constitution for 
giving expression to the popular will there have 
sprung up vigorous opponents during the past few 
years who have sneered at what they have termed 
their imperfections, and declared that they are in- 
adequate for the needs of a more diverse civiliza- 
tion or to give force quickly enough to the wishes 
of the majority. These opponents, therefore, 
urge that extra constitutional powers be given to 
the electorate. Principal among these are the 
initiative of new legislation by a stated number of 
voters, the referendum of important measures to 
the people, and the recall of public officers and 
judicial decisions distasteful to a majority of the 
citizens. With these inaugurated in their com- 
pletest extent the country would no longer be a re- 



public, based upon truly representative govern- 
ment, but a pure democracy patterned after that 
of Athens subsequent to the reforms of Solon and 

Inasmuch as this problem of whether purely 
democratic or genuinely representative govern- 
ment is best for this country and in fact for the 
world has been uppermost in the minds of political 
thinkers, it might be wise to investigate whether 
it would be harmful to make such a great change 
at this time. If the legislative, executive and 
judicial departments of the government have 
worked so well and have brought a happiness and 
prosperity greater than that ever given to any 
people on the earth heretofore, does not the burden 
of proof rest upon the opponents of this system 
to show that it has outworn its usefulness? If the 
American people and those who have come to these 
shores together have gained a greater degree of 
liberty, more comforts, higher wages and wealth 
that has exceeded the dreams of avarice, do they 
need added functions to express their will '? If an 
American has a full chance to express himself at 
the Australian ballot for measures, candidates and 
officers, does he need a further voice in public af- 
fairs than he now possesses? 

No process in America is so easy as that of mak- 
ing laws. In Congress a member of the House 
and Senate, at the instance of a constituent or 


upon his own initiative, drops into a basket in the 
office of the file clerk, to be printed and referred to 
appropriate committee, a bill for any purpose 
ranging from removing the capital of the nation 
to the Ozark Mountains to preparing the country 
for the emergency of war. If the originator of the 
bill is speaking for widespread opinion or genuine 
merit, his measure is granted a hearing. Argu- 
ments are made for and against, members of the 
committee desiring to hear both sides, and if the 
cause be not insistent in its necessity, it is left to 
die, for the time being, by a majority vote. If it 
has genuine merit or represents widespread opin- 
ion, it is reported to the body which the committer 
represents, a day set for its discussion and is then 
passed or rejected. The men who make up the 
various committees are those thought to be best 
fitted for the consideration of such measures as are 
likely to come before them. If passed, the meas- 
ure goes through exactly the same channels of con- 
sideration in the coordinate branch of the Con- 
gress. In the forty-eight state legislatures the 
process is practically the same. And so in a lesser 
degree in the aldermanic body of most cities. To 
assist in giving information of fact upon all meas- 
ures intended to change or expedite the conduct of 
the government various commissions and bureaus 
have been created. No government in the world 
has ever collected, digested and distributed to the 


officials of the separate States and the people gen- 
erally a wider range of useful knowledge. And 
members of Congress have at their disposal one of 
the three greatest libraries on the earth, any book 
of which may be secured by pneumatic tube within 
five or ten minutes. Party government prevails 
and the measures favored indirectly through con- 
vention platform by the people when they elect 
their representatives are voted out of committee, 
but are subject to the ardent criticism of oppo- 
nents both in committee and on the floor. The 
great appropriation bills are considered with little 
party prejudice and with patriotic attention to 
duty. To say that measures include "pork bar- 
rels" and are subject to "log rolling" is only to 
admit that men are human after they reach Con- 
gress as before, as "pork" means merely an at- 
tempt on the part of a representative to satisfy 
the desire of the people of his district for a new 
public building or improvement, and "log rolling" 
a further effort to satisfy their wishes by combin- 
ing with a sufficient number of others of the same 
purpose to get the measure through. Without 
careful analysis and submission of plans by the 
architect of the Treasury or the engineers of the 
War Department the details of these measures 
would not get past the committee, and if they did 
not for the most part contain much merit, they 
would not be able to pass the criticism of the two 


houses and the country. Even the much criticized 
mileage is founded upon the just custom of mak- 
ing it sufficient to pay for the expense of trans- 
porting the member and his family to and from 
Washington. Not even under Reed and Cannon 
was the House of Representatives deprived of a 
right or any freedom in expressing itself. The 
speaker appointed the committees by and with the 
consent of his party colleagues. His dictum in 
that respect and as a parliamentarian was subject 
to the genuine rule of a majority of the entire 
House. Those two men were great leaders and 
patriots and were so well thought of respectively 
as to be prominently mentioned as candidates for 
the Presidency. As strong characters they made 
enemies, but the people or their representatives 
were not less able to find expression because of 
them. In the state legislatures the give and take 
of party combat, or the agreement of some of the 
members of one party to do certain favors if some 
members of the other party will agree with them 
on certain legislation, cannot be a ground for 
stating that the majority of the voters cannot ex- 
press its will through them, for the reason that any 
real violation of ethics or flagrant waste is imme- 
diately detected by the remainder of the represen- 
tatives or the executive and his assistants in minor 
offices and used for party purposes throughout the 
general constituency of the State. Aldermen are 


subject to the same fire of criticism through local 
avenues of public opinion. Executives are sub- 
ject to removal upon charges by the legislature at 
any time. They or the legislators hold office but 
a short period, from one to six years, the executives 
usually from two to four years and the lower 
branch of the legislature from one to two years. 
The people may remove any or all of them at the 
subsequent election and replace them by new men 
more to their satisfaction. The supreme courts 
help to keep the people within the fundamental 
laws they have given themselves. 

That the men who hold office either in the legis- 
lative, executive or judicial branch of the govern- 
ment are truly representative is indicated by the 
fact that in nearly every district in the United 
States from whence they have been chosen or ap- 
pointed they are entitled to the respect and ad- 
miration of their fellow citizens. Members of the 
Senate and House and governors are looked up to 
as men far above the average in their respective 
communities, not merely because of their position 
but their character and attainments. In the few 
cases where the contrary is true the difference in 
feeling is the result of disclosures after election. 
And as much as their constituents may ultimately 
come to differ with them politically, and though 
they may be defeated for that reason, they are still 
regarded highly by their contemporaries and some- 


times eventually by the historian. Members of 
the cabinet of the Presidents have been men of dis- 
tinction and unsullied character, with very rare 
exceptions. For the emoluments received and the 
standard of position, lesser offices in both legis- 
lative and judicial branches are filled by more than 
usual ability, and, because of the American love of 
public honors, men often give up more lucrative 
vocations to serve the State. Judges of every 
kind of court are looked up to and frequently re- 
vered as having in their lives exemplified the jus- 
tice they are expected to deal. In the United 
States the ablest talent is enabled to reach the 
highest position, and so on down through the dif- 
ferent gradations to the lower officers. The occu- 
pant of the lowest office, if he has the ability and 
personality to serve and thereby please the people, 
may reach the highest. The highest, if he abuses 
the power the people have given him, may quickly 
be removed. Some of the members of the Federal 
Senate and House, of both parties, have served for 
many years, a credit to their constituents, re- 
spected by their colleagues and wise servants of 
the nation. Having to deal with the making of 
laws, most of the men in that body are lawyers, 
but a large percentage of them are business men of 
all kinds, with a sprinkling of doctors and other 
professions. In the state legislatures and local 
bodies practically the same average prevails. The 


civil service laws make imperative an efficient 
corps of expert public servants in every depart- 
ment of the federal state and larger municipal 
governments. A great body of postmasters, 
postal clerks and letter carriers and the police in 
the larger cities like New York, with the single ex- 
ception of a Becker, testify to the character of 
those employees. No men are so amenable to 
public opinion, and so often frightened by it, as 
members of the legislature and elected executive 
officials. Sometimes irascible, but most of them 
very approachable, they love power and the busi- 
ness of government and loving that power they 
desire to retain it. In order to retain it they know 
that they must please their constituents, and that 
is their constant motive. Some are too amenable 
to their districts and hesitate to take action in a 
definite way in a controversy where opinion is 
quite evenly divided and bitterly ; if they feel that 
there is a strong public demand for a measure and 
they believe it is right, they lose no time in curry- 
ing favor with their constituents and the country 
by voting for it. Representatives like James R. 
Mann, of Chicago, working unremittingly for 
twenty years to know thoroughly every depart- 
ment of the government so as to be able to prop- 
erly criticize bad legislation and constructively 
promote good statutes, such as his own pure food 
law, and Senator Theodore E. Burton, of Ohio, 


with no thought but the common and material 
good of the nation, are among the highest examples 
of patriotic men who have served in the national 
legislature. And on the Democratic side patient 
and painstaking members and able speakers like 
Champ Clark and John Sharp Williams have the 
esteem of constituencies that have long honored 
them, and of their party and opponents. In the 
governorships men of the character of Charles E. 
Hughes and Woodrow Wilson have felt their re- 
sponsibility to the enlightened opinion of their 
time and endeavored to represent and lead it. 
And in their day in the Presidency no men could 
have been more quick to respond to the awakened 
conscience of the nation than William McKinley 
and Theodore Roosevelt. A great majority of 
members of Congress first served in the state legis- 
latures. And in cities mayors, like William J. 
Gaynor, of New York, the elder Carter Harrison, 
of Chicago, and James Rolfe, Jr., of San Fran- 
cisco, have not only been representative of and 
quickly amenable to the best public opinion in the 
community, but have been an honor to the con- 
stituents who honored them. 

Are these representative men, who are com- 
municative and kindly disposed to their fellows, 
with abilities far above the average in their respec- 
tive constituencies, therefore popular and hence 
elected, subject to the sinister influence, power 


and even bribery of special and selfish interests^ 
Does a lobby exist in Washington which makes a 
business of corrupting the men who make the laws 
of the nation? It is true that there are numerous 
and more or less well paid lobbyists who represent 
only those who send them. If they have succeeded 
in bribing a member of Congress, the careful 
scrutiny of other members, and the vigilance of 1 54 
members of the Press Gallery, who are the eyes of 
the people in Washington, have been able to de- 
tect very few instances of it during the past quar- 
ter of a century. If money has been passed, it has 
been rare indeed. And the character of the men 
who represent the American people in both the 
House and Senate would indicate that it had al- 
most never been so passed and received. Prac- 
tically every special interest has a representative 
in the Capital. The farmers have sent officials 
of the Grange to seek legislation which would 
best affect the farmer. The American Federation 
of Labor has maintained a paid lobby for many 
years, endeavoring to have laws passed of ad- 
vantage to union labor and frequently threaten- 
ing members with defeat if its pleas were not ac- 
cepted. Those in favor of the conservation of 
national resources have maintained a representa- 
tive and assistants to accomplish that which they 
desire. So have the timber men. Manufacturers 
of beer, wine and whisky, have ofBces, attorneys 


and clerks. So has the Anti-Saloon League. 
The National Association of Manufacturers has a 
lawyer and offices, as has the Builders' Association. 
Other influential attorneys are paid by the rail- 
roads. During the consideration of a great tariff 
bill the number of lobbyists is increased to a con- 
siderable extent. They represent the various in- 
dustries which would be affected one way or the 
other by the amount of duty fixed in the schedules. 
Sometimes more than one industry employs the 
same man. Merchants, manufacturers, govern- 
ment employees, all having special interests of any 
kind or degree, have paid lobbyists at Washington. 
Who then represent the people of the United 
States ? Who are disinterested in the special pleas 
of either of the lobbyists and desire only the com- 
mon good? Alas I only the 435 men of tried 
character and ability who serve them in the House 
of Representatives and the ninety-six similar men 
in the Senate. And the 1 54 eyes ! 

How does the paid lobbyist work and what does 
he accomplish? With 6,361,502 farms, a farm- 
ing population of 49,348,883 and a value of farm 
property of $40,991,000,000 it is not surprising 
that farming interests should, through the Grange 
or other agencies outside the Department of Agri- 
culture, seek to gain legislation of benefit to them- 
selves, such as that providing for rural credits. 
With a total of 2,604,701 labor unionists who 


pay dues and desire to advance their own cause 
it is not remarkable that they should attempt to 
influence Congress. And so with 270,082 manu- 
facturing establishments, 7,707,751 persons en- 
gaged in manufactures with a capitalization of 
$18,490,749,000, a total of 1,815,239 persons 
employed by railroads and a capitalization of 
$10,796,125,712 and the banking interests of the 
richest nation on the globe. The duty of the 
lobbyist is mainly to collect information as to 
what measure of interest to his particular client is 
likely to come up for discussion, to find or set a 
day for public hearings, and then to send out let- 
ters or telegrams to those he or his clients desire 
to present the arguments of that particular side 
before a committee. He also sometimes directs 
through local affiliations the sending of thousands 
of telegrams to members of Congress, all of the 
same tenor, urging for the general good of the com- 
munity or blasting as harmful to humanity in 
general the legislation desired or opposed. Some 
of these men are despised by members of Congress 
as menials. Others are highly respected as emi- 
nent legal talent or as authorities upon the subject 
and interests they speak for. There being no 
clericals, agrarians or special representatives of 
any class in Congress, and each member being the 
representative of all the people of his district, rich 
and poor, black and white, it is perhaps a natural 


result that each body of citizens desiring certain 
results at the hands of the representatives of all 
the people by a majority vote should have repre- 
sentatives of their own on the ground to supply 
through the immense avenues of communication in 
this country the information they need and to ap- 
pear for them before committees and argue their 
cases. So far as the writer has been able to judge, 
through a quite thorough knowledge of these men, 
gained while seeking news, they are on the average 
men of standing and must have the confidence of 
those they represent or they would not be there. 
Members of Congress listen to them much as 
judges would listen to lawyers. An individual 
representative or senator might have sympathy for 
the law or class desired, as in the case of a labor 
leader sent to Congress; but through and back of 
it all is the legislature of the elected representa- 
tives of the people of the United States, amenable 
to the will and sometimes the whim of the people 
themselves, and therefore desirous of pleasing 
them because subject to recall. 

Some there are who believe that every woman in 
the world is bad and every man a thief, that the 
government of the people established by those who 
have suffered from the errors of other political 
forms has become a failure because all of its public 
servants are crooks or in the pay of big business, 
and that unless the people are given more power 


than ordained for them in the Constitution they 
will be unable to obtain the just rights there in- 
tended. The fact is, however, that nearly all of 
the women and nine-tenths of the men are good 
and are well disposed toward their fellow men if 
given half a chance, that the government Lincoln 
described as the best that ever conserved liberty on 
the earth never produced more honest, faithful or 
efficient public servants than now, and that the 
people have every means of expressing their will 
fully at the present moment. Men and women 
are what they are and not what they sometimes 
think themselves, or what some people sometimes 
attempt to make them think they are. They are 
inclined toward better things and desire to hear 
and do that which will bring those things nearer 
to them and the community in which they dwell 
and have citizenship. They are sometimes be- 
fogged by those who make statements to them that 
all the world is wrong and that the only true way 
to set it right is by subscribing to the ideas pre- 
sented by such persons. Sometimes these persons 
are genuinely desirous of bringing about changes 
in the complexion of the State that will give the 
people more power. And there are also persons 
who dislike to be tempted to take office, but would 
gladly do so if they could thereby save the people 
from the terrible crimes that are being committed 
in their name. The people of America, it is stated 


by such persons, are capable of anything. The 
printer's devil of twenty-one in the great modem 
newspaper is as capable of giving expression to the 
pulsating life of the nation as the editor in chief, 
the young law clerk as much a master of the in- 
tricacies of statute, decision and practise as the 
head of the firm, the newest clerk of running the 
Steel Corporation as Elbridge H. Gary, the fresh- 
est brakeman of running a train as the oldest engi- 
neer on the road, the newly graduated youth from 
college of directing a great banking house as the 
leader of Wall Street, the uninitiated who bets on 
margins as the capable member of the Stock Ex- 
change who has been buying and selling for forty 
years, the city lad of sowing wheat, gathering and 
threshing it as the wisest farmer, the land lubber 
of running a ship in time of storm as the most 
weather beaten skipper, the old maid of bringing 
up children as the woman with several of them, the 
entered apprentice of laying the compass and 
astrolabe as the master mason himself. The 
reason why each of these is as worthy and well 
qualified as the other is that all are twenty-one 
years of age. They vote; therefore the judgment 
of one is as good as the other on any abstract or 
technical question that may arise. These men and 
women of twenty-one years and over are born 
legislators and jurists. Irrespective of calling, 
training or position in life, the loafer is endowed 


with as much wisdom in deciding upon an in- 
tricate issue before the municipality, State or na- 
tion as the man who has given his time and 
thought with great care to the subject, the inebri- 
ate of entering upon the details of the case that a 
court has heard perhaps for weeks as the generally 
good man who has presided over that court. 

All kinds and qualities of men have a voice in 
the government of the United States, but the 
framers of the Constitution designed that they 
should express themselves indirectly and through 
their representatives, so that they might secure the 
wisest and most just laws. If any one will re- 
flect, he must acknowledge that the men by whom 
he is surrounded in his locality are not all alike. 
Some have an aptitude for study and thought. 
Others center their attention upon pleasures that 
are different. Some are industrious and worthy. 
Others are not. Some have great capacity. 
Others have lesser abilities. All, whether trained 
or not, have more or less common sense. That is 
why all were included in the government. But 
the best exercise of that common sense lies in 
selecting men who have shown evidences of trust- 
worthiness and more than average ability to repre- 
sent them on the bench, in the legislature or in 
executive office to hear evidence, discuss and de- 
cide upon matters for their common benefit which 
they have not the time or mental training to hear, 


discuss and decide. The great public questions 
which are constantly discussed they have the right 
and the capacity to decide upon as they are pre- 
sented to them in the party platforms. But while 
they so decide such questions in this general way, 
they elect a Congress, legislature or executive to 
carry out in effective and just detail the planks of 
the party platform that they have voted for. 
This implies that the people constitute the fourth 
and most important branch of the government. 
They, too, must do their duty as effectively as 
they demand that their servants do theirs. 
They should go to the polls and vote. And 
yet in 1916 a total of but 18,638,871 men 
and women, black and white, voted in the United 
States out of a male white population, twenty-one 
years and over, of about 27,000,000. A few 
years ago certain reformers declared that by giv- 
ing all the people more direct power in Pennsyl- 
vania through the primary and direct election of 
Senators the result would inevitably be the driv- 
ing out of public life of Boies Penrose, who was 
said to be the worst type of boss — this principally 
because he was an opponent. But when the peo- 
ple did receive that direct power Penrose was re- 
elected by a majority of 250,000 votes. The 
reason was that Penrose was found to be a natural 
leader of men, whether facing legislature or 

The primary system, adopted in many States to 



satisfy the demand for larger direct authority on 
the part of the people, in order to make it easier for 
the poor but independent man to serve the public 
in office and to prevent cliques and interests from 
controlling the decision of the electorate, has had 
the opposite effect from that intended. Men con- 
tending for important office have been subjected to 
great expense under this system. Indeed it has 
become more difficult for a candidate for an im- 
portant office to succeed without the backing of 
personal wealth or large interests. Under the 
convention system each party placed in nomina- 
tion its most promising, able and invulnerable 
leaders in order to defeat the opposition at the 
polls. The result was a Lincoln, a Grant, a 
Cleveland, a McKinley and a Roosevelt. In sev- 
eral of the States the primary has been used by 
only a small percentage of the total number of 
possible party voters. The selection is thus left 
to those who are more or less directly interested in 
party affairs. This only slightly differs from the 
convention system, and is much more expensive 
to the taxpayers. When Henry Ford, a Demo- 
crat, is made a candidate for the Presidency in the 
Republican primary in Michigan and defeats the 
Republican contender,' the system becomes laugh- 

Also at an enormous expense special elections 
have been held upon technical matters which 


might have been left to the legislators to decide. 
To merely place a certain issue upon a ballot does 
not guarantee that it will receive thorough con- 
sideration by the people as a whole. Not long 
ago, because a spirit of discontent pervaded the 
electorate, changes of fundamental importance 
were made in the form of government of several 
States and even of the manner of electing United 
States Senators. Later on, when the tide had 
turned against change, largely on account of the 
European War, a constitution which contained 
many wise reforms for the benefit of the people of 
the State of New York was voted down by a ma- 
jority of half a million votes. The voting of the 
people as a whole upon an abstract question is al- 
ways expressive of a tendency one way or the 
other, and not of such judgment after careful or 
expert consideration by the majority of the electo- 
rate as has been given to it by its principal advo- 
cates or opponents. These are ready and willing 
to give it that consideration, but the people as a 
whole have not the time or ability to do so. Few 
men attempt to try their own case in court; they 
employ a lawyer. So it is with the people; they 
elect representatives. To contend that every man 
who whittles a stick at the village store is not as 
expert as the man who has given many years of 
his life to the gathering of information, and who 
is used to the consideration of evidence, is not 


doubting the people; it is common sense. The 
man at the village store decides upon questions in 
a general way. He then helps to elect a repre- 
sentative who will carry out his ideas in a specific 
way. This is representative government. It has 
stood the test of time, met every problem that has 
so far come before the country, built this nation 
into the greatest upon the earth and given birth 
to some of the noblest characters of history. 

Yet there come those before the court of public 
opinion who pray that the methods of expressing 
the popular will be changed so as to conform more 
nearly to that of Athens, where the entire popula- 
tion was half slave, where five hundred of the 
people sitting as a court condemned Socrates to 
death simply because he was opposed to the teach- 
ings of Paganism and held that simple principles 
of right living should be the guide to man, who 
sought to assail Alcibiades, their ablest general, 
for profaning the Elusinian mysteries when about 
to set out to attack Syracuse, and who permitted 
Miltiades, the hero of Marathon, to equip an ex- 
pedition against Paros without telling them what 
it was for and then condemned him to death be- 
cause he failed. In the small community of 
Athens it was easy for the people as a collective 
unit to act upon the prejudice of the moment and 
to be jealous of their power and of those who 
might by great deeds serve them too well. They 


trusted no representatives and had no courts to 
compel them to obey the forms of fundamental 
law that they had previously made. But this is a 
government of an hundred millions of people, 
whose leaders in the constitutional convention of 
1787 and subsequent Congresses have profited by 
the mistakes of other and earlier republics and 
monarchies, prescribing checks against the suave 
demagogue who would pave the way for personal 
tyranny by smooth talk, and providing untold 
blessing and happiness for all mankind. Ex- 
pressing themselves in a general way and usually 
with wisdom upon all questions, yet selecting the 
men they can trust to enact them into law, the peo- 
ple leave to those men the details, though reports 
of their doings are constantly made to them 
through the newspapers and the criticism of the 

Is it not a menace to the republican institutions 
of the United States, then, to remove the safe- 
guards for the making of wise laws by men best 
fitted for the task? Is it not a menace if, in the 
interests of what is called pure democracy, in a 
land where all the people are already more demo- 
cratic than ever before on the earth and where it 
is so easy to initiate legislation if there is sufficient 
demand for it, legislation is taken out of the hands 
of the legislature, chosen because of its representa- 
tive competency, at the instance of a minority, and 


placed in the hands of the electorate as a whole, the 
entire number of the individual members of which 
cannot in nature of the case decide with business 
judgment for the benefit of the taxpayer and the 
community? Through the channels they already 
have the people have unearthed insurance scan- 
dals, legislated so as to prevent them in the fu- 
ture, curbed the power of the railroads and other 
great corporations, provided a much more perfect 
currency system and established bureaus for sup- 
plying information that will enhance vigilance 
and elected officials of high character to govern 
them. Is it not a menace to stability, and even- 
handed justice, if after their representatives have 
considered a problem from every point of view 
and then decided as they deem right, the people 
have the question referred to them for direct vote 
when the air may be full of slander and clamor, 
and perhaps upset that fair and wise judgment; 
especially when they have the established and 
proper authority to remove those representatives 
at the subsequent election and place others in 
power who will reverse the decision if after the 
intervening time it has been proven to be wrong? 
Is it not a menace to the wise safeguards of human 
life and property provided in the Constitution, the 
statutes, the common law and the traditions of 
legal rights which have protected human society in 
the past that the loser in a case in the courts de- 


cided by a judge or judges selected by the people 
for character and fitness, or appointed by execu- 
tives selected for character and fitness, shall be 
permitted with loud voice to befog the issue and 
have it decided by the voters upon mere super- 
ficial grounds? The men of prominence who 
propose to make a democracy out of the republic 
are usually men of great egotism and selfishness, 
who chafe at the restraints of law in the accom- 
plishment of their will, and seek to remove them 
by honeyed words to the electorate, so that they 
may gain power and use it to punish their enemies 
and subvert the rights for which they have in wide 
generalizations been so vigorously contending. 
In the past they have sometimes succeeded by this 
means. At other times they have not hesitated to 
take up arms for what they pretend to be their 
aims. Peisistratus is an example. 

Assuming a measure for the preparation of the 
nation for war as a case in point, what would be 
the effect under pure democracy, if, after listening 
to all the evidence before the committees pre- 
sented by the officers of the army and navy, instead 
of that striking and sensational part which is sent 
out to the country through the newspapers, and 
after discussing the question upon the floor of both 
houses the bill adopted went to the President for 
his signature and became law*? Those who desire a 
smaller, and, to them, more reasonable defense are 


regarded by the opposition as mollycoddles. 
Those who desire the utmost defense are looked 
upon by the other side as militarists. Feeling 
runs high. Those who are in the minority after 
their defeat in Congress are dissatisfied. Having 
considerable opinion behind them, twenty-five per 
cent, of the electorate bring on a special election 
on the subject, and in the campaign the entire 
matter is debated again, but without the same 
minute and expert advice to be digested thor- 
oughly by competent minds before decision. The 
result might mean disaster to the country. And 
if, under the system proposed, judges construed 
the result as taking away constitutional guaran- 
tees of the liberty of the minority of the citizens, 
those judges might be recalled during the clamor. 
Then not only the minority but all citizens would 
ultimately suffer. 



"Protection, therefore, against the tyranny of the 
magistrate is not enough : there needs protection also 
against the tyranny of the prevailing opinion and feel- 
ing; against the tendency of society to impose, by other 
means than civil penalties, its own ideas and practises as 
rules of conduct on those who dissent from them; to 
fetter the development and, if possible, prevent the for- 
mation of any individuality not in harmony with its 
ways, and compel all characters to fashion themselves 
after the model of its own. There is a limit to the legiti- 
mate interference of collective opinion with individual 
independence; and to find that limit, and maintain it 
against encroachment, is as indispensable to a good con- 
duct of human affairs as protection against political 
despotism." — John Stuart Mill. 

The framers of the Constitution of the United 
States determined to secure the blessings of liberty 
to themselves and their posterity. They guaran- 
teed to every State in the Union a Republican form 
of government, declared that the right of the peo- 
ple to be secure in their persons, houses, papers 
and effects against unreasonable searches and sei- 
zures should not be violated, and stated that the 
enumeration in the document of certain rights 



should not be construed to deny or disparage 
others retained by the people. Those who fol- 
lowed them in the Congress they created provided 
that the right of citizens to vote should not be de- 
nied or abridged by the United States or by any 
state on account of race, color or previous condi- 
tion of servitude. It is not likely that either 
the original makers or their successors con- 
templated new forms of attempts to abridge the 
liberty of the citizens, which would arise with the 
development of the civilization they helped to es- 
tablish. Nor is it probable that they foresaw that 
the instrument they gave America in order to bring 
about the benefits named in the preamble would 
be so misconstrued in some instances as to prevent 
the very rights stipulated therein. 

Nevertheless there has manifested itself, along 
with the tremendous industrial progress of half a 
century, and with the desire to provide material 
means for betterment and to do away with that 
which is a harm to the individual, a tendency to 
take away the right of a man to better himself and 
to make it the province of the community to do 
so, to deny rights of happiness and independence 
to some unless conferred by the organization 
which the great number have sworn allegiance to, 
to stifle initiative, individuality and ambition in 
the interests of what is termed the common good, 
to deny the suffrage to large masses of intelligent 


persons with life and property to defend, despite 
the fact that they fulfil the stipulations of the 
Constitution thereto, to increase governmental 
agencies for investigating and regulating the con- 
duct of private business, to establish a state within 
the State in the interests of an organization out- 
side of the State, and, in short, to establish, under 
the name and form of the public weal, a tyranny 
of the majority. 

No monarchy, oligarchy or aristocracy in the 
history of man ever inflicted such severe punish- 
ments upon the individual, and always to what was 
said to be his advantage, than a majority acting in 
common to compel him at the point of the sword, 
the rack or the law to do or believe the things ac- 
ceptable to or decreed by the greater number of 
members of the community, country or empire. 
With cruel, and oftentimes inhuman, treatment 
they deprived the minority of the right to think, 
believe and act as they pleased, even when others 
were not thereby harmed, and of happiness and 
life. The Greeks banished and put to death those 
who particularly disagreed with or displeased the 
majority. Romans in the majority in their alle- 
giance to Paganism impaled and threw to the lions 
the Christians. Then, at the height of its power, 
the Roman church, with a majority of adherents 
in Christendom, invented refinements of cruelty 
for those who differed with them, burning 


them alive at the stake, torturing them with hot 
irons, breaking them open or crushing them on the 
rack for the good of their souls and because they 
did not fully subscribe to the latest vagaries of 
credulity. Protestants against this church, when 
they gained the power of a majority under Calvin 
in Switzerland, and Knox in Scotland, strung up 
by the thumbs and slit the tongues of those who 
did not attend church, or indulged in what to them 
seemed innocent amusement. The Puritans in 
Massachusetts placed in prison or the stocks and 
led to the whipping-post those who did not wear 
black or refused to obey their strict regimen. All 
this also for the good of those punished and the 
glory of God. During the revolt of the peasants 
in Luther's time nothing was sacred or free from 
the wrath and destruction of the majority in a 
given locality who considered that they should be- 
come the masters. Despite the reforms that were 
steadily being made between 1789 and 1793, in 
the latter year a great majority of the people of 
France, taking the law in their own hands, guillo- 
tined or otherwise murdered no less than 1,200,- 
000 men, women and children who did not believe 
as they did, or were suspected of having had some- 
thing to do with aristocracy. Cromwell over- 
threw in the name of better government one 
tyranny in order to establish another. 

The government of the United States is an at- 


tempt to safeguard the people who dwell within its 
borders from abuses of power in the hands of a ma- 
jority. It stipulates that the rights and interests 
of the minority shall be protected. So far those 
rights have been for the most part preserved, but 
at the present time they are assailed to a greater 
extent than ever before, with imminent danger to 
that orderly liberty which gives to every man the 
right to use his life as he will and for his own 
benefit, so long as it does not interfere with similar 
rights of others. This is nowhere more evident 
than in the ranks of those who are opposed to the 
use of intoxicating liquor in any form except for 
medical purposes, and who desire to use the ma- 
jority of total abstainers to prevent any man from 
taking a drink. These Prohibitionists regard al- 
coholic liquor as a poison. They say the effect is 
to undermine the health, cause inebriety and 
habitual drunkenness, destroy the stability of the 
home, produce weak and badly nourished children, 
distort the notions of the brain and lead to im- 
morality and crime. Assuming such liquors in 
whatever form to be poison, they propose that 
their use shall be as effectually stopped as opium 
or cocaine. They declare that what they call the 
liquor traffic has corrupted legislators throughout 
the country and attempted to debauch the public 
conscience. This they say they will abolish and 
save the land from the wreck and ruin of what 


they term its nefarious business. Assuming that 
intoxicating liquor is actually, as it is alleged by 
them to be, a deadly poison, it certainly would be 
as much to the advantage of the public as the pre- 
vention of the sale of cocaine to have the use of it 
stopped. But physicians in all lands and climes 
and ages have widely differed as to the effects of 
the fermented grape or grain. Some claim that 
the mild use of stimulants aids digestion, and cer- 
tainly many there are who contend that it adds to 
the joy of life without particular harm. Again 
assuming that all who take a glass of beer, ale, 
stout, claret, sauterne, Rhine wine, port, sherry, 
chianti, port. Burgundy, champagne or cordial be- 
come addicted to drunkenness, it should be stopped 
as a certain means of depriving the State of man- 
hood and womanhood. But drunkenness has al- 
most ceased. Rare cases are conspicuous. With 
enlightened public opinion against its evils, the in- 
creasing demand for efficiency which is the result 
of industrial development, vaster population and 
more respect for himself on the part of the indi- 
vidual, intoxication is reprehended. The ma- 
jority of those men and women who do drink in the 
saloon or the home imbibe so mildly that the ef- 
fect is not such as to startle the neighborhood by 
their inebriety. Such use of beer or wine does not 
ruin or perhaps even harm anybody. And it must 
be said that some in the community are weaker 


than others, not morally, it may be, but in 
strength, and they need more stimulation than 
those who have greater vitality. This, as has al- 
ready been pointed out, is true of whole nations. 
It may be that the crossing of races in America has 
made for stronger men and women and that this is 
a further cause of the legion of persons here who 
dislike the odor and taste of liquor. Ice cream 
soda is actually the national drink. But the ma- 
jority should not, because of their distaste for 
liquor, absolutely prevent the use of it by per- 
sons who like and perhaps actually need it. 

The charge that the liquor dealers are selfish in 
their interests may be answered by the statement 
that theirs is a legitimate business. They do not 
desire that their vocation be taken away from them 
by those who hold the view that they alone are 
leading good and clean lives and that they should 
compel everybody to be as good and clean as they 
are. Then, too, the raising of hops for the mak- 
ing of beer is an industry. The saloon has had an 
influence in local politics only because it has fre- 
quently been the poor man's club, and men have 
congregated there to discuss over their liquor 
ever}^thing under the sun ; but with the increase of 
other and more refined forms of entertainment this 
use of the saloon is diminishing. Liquor men ap- 
pear before legislators and so do their opponents. 
If legislators are drinking men in a mild way, and 


in all his experience the writer seldom saw a legis- 
lator drunk, it is but natural that they do not 
desire to have the right to a drink taken away from 
them, and hence do not desire to deprive others in 
the community of the same right. The writer 
has been a total abstainer for many years, but that 
does not make him think he is especially good and 
that he should join those who would compel every- 
body else by law to do as he does. Liquor drink- 
ing is a personal question. Reasons of health and 
economics decree that it shall be indulged in less 
and less. But for the majority of those who ab- 
stain to compel the minority to do so by force is as 
much a tyranny as it would be for a majority of 
the voters at the ballot box to declare that there 
should be no more marriages because some hus- 
bands beat their wives. Drinking, like mismat- 
ing, is often merely a part of youth. Mistakes are 
made in it and lives are sometimes wrecked by it, 
but the great majority continue on in temperance 
and happiness. Men cannot be made angels by 

Of hardly less importance to the liberty of the 
toiler and of each independent citizen of the Re- 
public is the attitude of union labor toward non- 
union labor by which it seeks to prevent any one 
from working in an industrial establishment un- 
less he agrees to conform to the prescribed man- 
dates of the union. Self interest is justifiable, 


and the right of laborers of any kind, whether 
writers, lawyers, employers or mechanics, to organ- 
ize cannot be denied; but the practice by which a 
majority of union men in a plant seek to forcibly 
prevent independence of speech and action should 
be prevented by just law or custom in the name of 
liberty. By organization wage earners secure ad- 
vantages in condition, wages and time from their 
employers, and their privileges in this regard 
should not be abridged. Sanitary surroundings in 
factories, the prevention of child labor, extra pay 
for overtime and a living wage should be granted 
by employers and sanctioned by law. But the 
United States is founded upon the principle of 
liberty for every man within the law as a just 
right to which he is entitled. It is an infringe- 
ment of that liberty when a laboring man, who for 
reasons of his own does not desire to join a union, 
is knocked down on the street and brutally beaten 
by members of the majority of employees who are 
union men, when able by experience and capacity 
to secure service and wages otherwise, simply 
because he refuses to accept membership with 
them. It is not less an attempt at tyranny and 
to set up a state within a state when trade union- 
ists use other than peaceable measures to attain 
their demands from their employers, and also seek 
in this way to prevent non-union men from taking 
their places, as angry as they may be and as just as 


their grievances often are. They should find 
means in the give and take of industrial con- 
tention or within the law to seek that redress for 
their grievances which the electorate would no 
doubt be glad to grant if well founded. Should 
men and women not receive the wages they are 
entitled to, they should be given them, but that is 
a matter which can be determined by reason alone, 
and the justice of it cannot be proven by maiming 
men, burning the plants of their employers or 
using dynamite to accomplish their ends. Nor 
can labor unionists appeal to the general public as 
fair when they use the method of regulating the 
speed of the laborer in a given work to the ca- 
pacity of the slowest man, and hope to pad the 
profits of their labor by compelling those who em- 
ploy them to take more men in a given job than 
are needed. When they adopt this method they 
prove that they comprise a selfish interest in the 
community which is seeking to prevent honest 
competition and efficiency and to interfere with 
the laws of supply and demand in order that it 
may receive greater benefits than it would other- 
wise receive. If a citizen does not desire to pur- 
chase a product because it fails to bear a union 
label, that is his affair; and if a number of such 
citizens seek to prevent others who have no direct 
interest in the controversy from buying that prod- 
uct, it is an infringement of the liberty of every 


person to buy and sell in the market as he pleases. 
Union men have the right to make their scale what 
they please and to withdraw from work whenever 
they please if their demands are not granted, and 
the employer has the same right to employ other 
men in their places if he chooses, for one has the 
free right to sell his labor and the other the free 
right to buy labor; but in a controversy of a peace- 
ful kind the employer and employee should be 
compelled by law to submit the honest differences 
of both to a board of arbitrators so that approxi- 
mate justice may be done. Many employers de- 
sire that their employees organize so that it may 
be easier to deal with them through collective bar- 
gaining, but that should not deprive the minority 
of non-union laborers in the plant of the right of 
peaceful labor. Nor should unionists with red 
badges be allowed the privileges of standing out- 
side of a retail shop, as in San Francisco, and 
warning passers-by from entering the place because 
non-union men are employed therein. Unions en- 
able men to act together for their common good, 
but when they act together forcibly to deprive any 
individual of independent work they become a 
menace to the liberties guaranteed by the Consti- 
tution and are opposed to the spirit of free insti- 
tutions and to the highest economic efficiency. 

Passing from the aims of the trade unionists, 
which are mild and for the most part of consider- 


able benefit, the Syndicalists, Independent Work- 
men of the World and Socialists advance much 
further and seek not only to establish a tyranny of 
the majority, but of mediocrity as well. They at- 
tempt to set up classes in America, something 
which has never existed since the government was 
established and cannot exist where every man may 
become a millionaire or a ruler and where every 
millionaire or ruler is a laboring man. The pri- 
mary assumption upon which the pleas of these 
three organizations of extremists are based is that 
labor creates value. If labor alone creates value, 
then labor is entitled to its full return in the en- 
tire profits of production. Proceeding upon this 
assumption the Syndicalist declares that he will by 
stealth or whatever underhanded means may seem 
to him to be necessary, wreck the plant of his em- 
ployer in order that out of it he may gain more 
and more of the value of the product of his labor; 
the I. W. W. that he will precipitate industrial 
revolution by violent means in order that he may 
gain the same ends; the Socialist that the means 
of social production and distribution shall be 
owned and operated in common. From this the 
latter argues that there will no longer be what he 
is pleased to term "exploitation" by "capitalism," 
that all will be treated alike; and that at last in- 
dustrial and political justice will prevail. But 
the assumption as to value is not justified by fact. 


Labor does not create value. If it did, the same 
amount of labor of the same kind would produce 
the same result. A man may work eight or ten 
hours during a day in a gold mine, a saw-mill or 
cheese factory, and his labor will be the same, but 
his product entirely different. That which gives 
the value to the gold, the planed lumber and the 
cheese is its worth, regulated by supply and de- 
mand, in the markets of the world. A man may 
scoop placer gold out of a stream and give very 
little labor to the task, but the gold is not less 
valuable for that. Neither are diamonds, one of 
which may be mined with comparative ease and 
yield more value than many years spent by the 
same person in milking cows. What a man sells 
to his employer is not that which will make the 
product valuable, but something which itself has 
value — a day's labor. Every man is worth two 
dollars a day from his neck down ; above that is a 
matter of brains. It may be said that without the 
labor to extract it gold could not be mined and 
that without labor hsh could not be caught, but it 
may be urged as well that the labor by itself is 
worth two dollars per day while the gold by itself 
is worth its value in the markets of commerce, 
whether extracted by pick and shovel or ma- 
chinery, and that the fish are valuable, not because 
of the labor expended in catching them, but be- 
cause people desire to eat them. A man without 


any financial means, believing he can find a gold 
mine, borrows money, sets out for Mexico, spends 
several years in hardships, adheres by strong char- 
acter to his purpose, meets another who has a 
claim, makes a contract with him to share the 
profits, returns to his starting place, with his or- 
ganizing ability and personality gets others to risk 
their savings, thus gains sufficient capital to unlock 
the secrets of the earth, forms a corporation, selects 
those experts to run it who also have their price in 
the labor market, sees that legal rights are pro- 
tected, goes to the mine, gives his ability to the 
new enterprise and employs laborers who have not 
the initiative or ability to make more than a dollar 
or two a day, uncovers a bonanza, and as his share 
makes a million, while those who have invested 
with him make tremendous profits. The laborers, 
who took the employment because it was nearest 
at hand and gave them three meals and a bed, now 
come forward and state that it was their labor that 
produced the gold and that they are entitled to the 
full value of that labor; they desire that the result 
in wealth shall be divided equally among them. 
Is it just*? It is not, and the reason why the plea 
is repugnant to the spirit of the United States is 
that it would rob him who has initiative, thrift, 
honesty, industry and frugality of the rewards of 
his enterprise and skill and give them to those who 
supply only their labor to the equation. It is also 


a part of the plea of the three organizations named 
that there is such a thing as "capitalism" which, 
employing labor, exploits it for its own selfish 
ends. But capital is nothing more or less than 
accrued earnings. Any man who saves the re- 
wards of his toil of no matter what kind, instead 
of spending them for that which would delight him 
for the time being, and has them for investment 
in new or extended enterprise, is a capitalist. 
When he and others combine their earnings or 
capital to make a sufficient sum to develop a given 
industry they employ labor at its value in the 
local market and do not "exploit" it by giving it 
the means of earning its daily bread. If that 
labor is more skilled and therefore more scarce, 
they are compelled to pay more for it. The more 
skilled and valuable the laborer becomes, the 
greater is his emolument, until, as in the case of 
the head of the Steel Corporation, he receives 
$1,000,000 a year. The latter is no less a la- 
borer than the man who makes two dollars per 
diem. The combined earnings of the past, run- 
ning up into the millions or a few hundred dollars, 
and invested in stock companies, receive a certain 
dividend or return, give employment to great num- 
bers of men, and help to produce products which 
receive their value because of the demand for 
them in the market, due to their worth and their 
supply. The idea that all the laborers should 


share nearly equally in the returns, and that ac- 
crued earnings, when used to give employment to 
them is really used to exploit them, is an absurd- 
ity; for any one of the commonest laborers may by 
the same ambition, initiative, skill, frugality and 
foresight invent something new to satisfy the 
wants of mankind or invest his savings or capital 
in that which will make practical the invention 
of another person. To place industry in the 
hands of the greater number, which means those 
having the least skill, would mean not only a 
tyranny of the majority but of the mediocre and 
incompetent as well. The unenterprising are usu- 
ally jealous of the skilful, and the enterprising 
are always anxious to excel. The majority of 
the unenterprising would appropriate the rewards 
of the skilful to themselves, and the enterprising, 
robbed of the large rewards of individual achieve- 
ment, would lose the motive for initiative. With 
that gone the whole world would remain stag- 
nant, for while industries already started could 
be taken over and owned and operated by all in 
common, new enterprises would be stifled, for it 
is only by initiative and ambition for large re- 
ward on the part of the individual that they 
do start. Nothing in the world has ever been 
achieved in common. Every step forward in 
history has been accomplished by the individual. 
The mind of the human being working upon any 


problem has solved it. Leadership is but an ex- 
pression of personality. In battle it is the mind 
of the general that controls and he wins with 
the help of his soldiers. They cannot share their 
glory in common; the foot soldier may distinguish 
himself and become a general; to say that all 
shall direct and receive a similar reward is pre- 
posterous. In the eighth century in Tibet King 
Muni Tsan-po, being determined to raise (or raze) 
all his subjects to the same level, enacted that 
there should be no distinction between the rich 
and poor, humble and great. He compelled the 
wealthy to share their riches with the indigent 
and helpless and to make them their equals in 
respect of all the comforts and conditions of life. 
He repeated this experiment three times ; but each 
time he found that they all returned to their former 
condition, with the exception that the rich be- 
came still richer and the poor still poorer. 

When Karl Marx attempts to prove that the 
guiding force of history is economic determinism 
he but takes another way of saying that economic 
conditions are the underlying bases of social, in- 
dustrial and military action. But it is the mind 
that rules the man, and, with strength of blood 
to back it, the men of initiative, ability and per- 
sonality have overcome, or led others to over- 
come, old economic conditions and made new ones. 


Industry or anything else in the hands of the con- 
tented many is repugnant to the spirit of a land 
which of all others has progressed most by means 
of the intrepid spirits who have had initiative, in- 
dependence and ability. 

Attempts have been made to prove to the peo- 
ple at a time after the greatest industrial ad- 
vance in the history of the world that some of the 
men who have become very wealthy in that ad- 
vance have made their gains by methods that 
have sought to stifle competition. These attempts 
have brought about a more critical opinion and 
amendments to the laws to prevent monopoly and 
injustice; but they have also, along with the tend- 
ency to diminish the rights of the individual in 
other ways, sought to secure more and more strict 
governmental methods to pry into the citizen's 
private business. At public hearings conducted 
with acrimony by legislative inquisitors, or 
manipulated so as to place at a disadvantage those 
who have in order to curry favor with those who 
have not, has been seen a tendency to go too far in 
the direction of state supervision of all business 
and actually menace that liberty of work and 
achievement which have been held so dear in 
America and have helped to make the nation so 
great. Constantly recurring investigations of 
matters which have largely been discussed and 


remedied worries and harasses industry and mili- 
tates against the free exercise of business initiative 
and independence. 

The same tendency toward deprivation by the 
majority of rights of the minority is seen in the 
hesitancy in extending the ballot to women, so 
that they may take part in truly representative 
government. In some States they already have 
the right of suffrage, and so far have used it with 
more enthusiasm and devotion to civic duty than 
in the case of the men; but in the more conserva- 
tive sections of the country, and where the popula- 
tion is densely settled, the vote has so far been 
withheld. There is no just reason why they 
should not have it universally, subject only to the 
same restrictions as imposed upon men. Women 
have intelligence, therefore they think and form 
judgments. Men have only to remind themselves 
of their own mothers and wives to bear testimony 
to that fact. And the contention that woman 
when granted the privilege of exercising judg- 
ment and voting would be less wives and mothers 
is as much as to say that when men take two min- 
utes to mark a ballot once a year they are on 
that account less husbands and fathers the re- 
mainder of the time. It is as ludicrous to con- 
tend that the female sex is less conservative than 
the male and that the stability of our institutions 
would be unsafe in their hands. Indeed, the con- 


servative guardian of many a man's purse is his 
helpmeet, who attends to the practical details of 
life while he is away at the routine of his labor. 
She has as much time for thought upon local and 
national problems, is even more interested in and 
sympathetic toward the well being of the chil- 
dren, and has a way of looking at things, which, 
added to that of man, is as essential to the sta- 
bility of the State as to that of the home. And 
with so many women now engaged in the avoca- 
tions of active life and with income or property 
to defend, they should have a voice in the gov- 
ernment no less than that of the men. To deny 
mature intelligence of either sex the right of free 
expression at the ballot is subversive of liberty. 

Through an attempt to establish a tyranny of 
the majority in the Southern States, the negro 
has been deprived of the rights vouchsafed to 
him in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth 
amendments to the Constitution of the United 
States. The result of that policy has been 
demonstrated in the burning of negroes at the 
stake when only suspected of rape, and the 
hatreds and injustices engendered have been 
shown in such a case as that of Leo Frank, the 
Jew, who was strung up, cut down and his dead 
face stamped upon by a prejudice crazed mob. 
In the South the negro has no rights any one is 
bound to respect. In most places he is now com- 


pelled to walk in the street when a white person 
passes by on the sidewalk. When a member of 
the staff of the New Orleans Picayune years ago, 
the writer used to listen to serious arguments be- 
tween his colleagues on the question of whether the 
negro was actually a human being or just an ani- 
mal. It is true that after the shackles of slavery 
were removed, the negroes, incited b}^ Northern 
carpetbaggers, perpetrated outrages of government 
in the Southern States, which are still felt in the 
debts incurred. But in the forty years that have 
intervened the blacks have been educated and 
should be given equal rights under the law by the 
ballot, though perhaps their common sense would 
influence them to refrain for a time from holding 
office. The English have in the West Indies given 
the world a lesson in just treatment of the negro, 
which this land would do well to emulate. The 
subversion of the constitutional right of liberty 
of governmental expression in the case of the 
blacks is harmful to the whites themselves in mak- 
ing them tyrannical and unjust, and causes this 
government of free men to appear hypocritical in 
guaranteeing rights without reference to race, color 
or previous condition of servitude, after four years 
of war to make possible those guarantees, and 
then denying them for the sole reason of race, 
color and previous condition of servitude. Lib- 
erty is for the human race as a whole and should 


be as wide as the earth. It cannot be denied with- 
out reacting upon those who deny it. Such lib- 
erty does not include social equality or miscegena- 
tion, for that is an individual matter, but the right 
of equal protection under the laws and of free 
expression at the ballot. 

No free government can long endure which does 
not vouchsafe to each citizen those inalienable 
rights which it has in its fundamental law prom- 
ised to him, which does not protect him in the 
enjoyment of the fruits of his toil and genius, 
permit him the free exercise of thought and action, 
so long as they do not interfere with the safety 
or liberty of any other man, ensure him or her 
equal participation in the choice of those who are 
to represent him or her political affairs, provide 
impartial justice and order under the laws, and 
prevent classes from arising within the State to 
menace the liberties of any man. 



"Government is a contrivance of human wisdom to 
provide for human wants. Men have a right that these 
wants should be provided for by this wisdom." — Edmund 

Such evils as exist within the United States, and 
no country is without them, are not due to lack of 
means of expression by the people through govern- 
mental machinery, for they, as has been said, are 
ample to meet every need, but to the lack of con- 
centration of attention upon the conditions that 
have caused them. B)^ continued investigation of 
those conditions certain means of making the laws 
simpler, and the life of each citizen easier, without 
taking away initiative or independence, will ap- 

It must become apparent at once to the most 
casual observer that forty-eight separate state sys- 
tems of law and administration within one na- 
tion are incongruous, make a hodge-podge of de- 
tailed statutes to obey, provide a heaven for law- 
yers, and cause enormous and unnecessary expense 



to the taxpayers. So flagrant is this weakness 
that corporations and persons doing an interstate 
business must be constantly mindful of conflicting 
regulations. And with different States constantly 
making new laws, commercial men find it increas- 
ingly difficult to keep up with the changes that are 

Penalties are entirely different in many of the 
commonwealths. Laws governing the principal 
activities of men, women and children in all the 
relations of life are so diverse as to be ludicrous. 
Divorce is difficult in several States and decidedly 
easy in others. Regulations in regard to legiti- 
macy of birth, the age of consent, marriage, parent 
and child, estates, property, contract, insurance and 
stock companies are as diverse as the number of the 
separate political entities of the Union themselves. 
Many of the States maintain their own bureaus for 
the investigation of corporations and insurance 
and some for scrutinizing the conduct of all busi- 
ness, as in California. Necessarily the enforce- 
ment of these laws requires heavy burdens upon 
property and individuals who are subject to tax. 

In the early history of the government of the 
United States the important cities and common- 
wealths were widely separated by the difficulty of 
transportation from one to the other. Two days 
were required to travel from New York to Albany 
and a week from Baltimore to Boston. The 


packet post was slow in moving and a month was 
needed to get news in New England of important 
happenings in Kentucky. The Confederation had 
proven a dismal failure, after a six years' trial of 
the articles binding it together, because it pro- 
vided no means of overcoming the jealousies of the 
States toward the Federal government and each 
other. The Constitution then enacted nicely ad- 
justed the powers of the national and state gov- 
ernments in enumerated particulars, but left open 
the question of whether a separate commonwealth 
might secede from the Union. That issue was de- 
cided at Appomattox after four years of conflict. 
It was then determined that the powers of the Fed- 
eral government should be paramount. But in 
the basic instrument of the government of the 
United States the way had already been left open 
for the extension of the Federal jurisdiction over 
all in matters pertaining to all. National au- 
thority was enumerated in particulars which would 
make a nation, as in laying and collecting taxes, 
borrowing money on its own credit, establishing 
rules of naturalization and bankruptcy, coining 
money, establishing post offices and post roads, 
protecting authors and inventors, raising and sup- 
porting an army and a navy, punishing piracies 
and felonies on the high seas, declaring war and 
constituting federal tribunals of justice. More 
general power in the hands of the nation was im- 


plied in the stipulation that the Congress should 
regulate commerce with foreign nations and 
among the several States, provide for the com- 
mon defense and general welfare of the United 
States and "make all laws which shall be neces- 
sary and proper for carrying into execution the 
foregoing powers and all other powers vested by 
the Constitution in the government of the United 
States or in any department or officer thereof." As 
all the powers other than those enumerated were 
vested in the nation, and as the enumerated denial 
of powers to the States was solely such as to pre- 
vent interference with that national authority, 
and as no reserved powers were placed in the 
hands of the States, it must be conceded that it was 
the purpose of the original framers of the docu- 
ment that the Federal government should have 
the right to enact general laws, not merely for the 
protection of its national existence, but in all mat- 
ters where they would be generally applicable to 
people as a whole. Further evidence that the de- 
nial of powers to the States was not intended 
merely as a means of protecting the integrity of 
the Federal government, but also as a means of 
preventing the States from exercising any general 
powers whatever, is to be found in the provision 
that no State should pass any law impairing the 
obligation of contract. That the Federal govern- 
ment, so far as the original and unamended docu- 


ment is concerned, was exceedingly jealous of its 
powers is demonstrated by the stipulation in the 
Constitution that no State should without the con- 
sent of Congress lay any imposts or duties on im- 
ports or exports, except such as might be necessary 
for executing its inspection laws, that the net 
produce of all duties and imposts so laid should be 
for the use of the treasury of the United States, 
and that, even then, such laws should be subject 
to the revision and control of Congress. 

This was the Constitution adopted by the 
fathers of the Republic September 17, 1787. 
Writing in the ''New York Packet," January 25, 
1788, to offset bickerings between the States that 
had so recently been colonies, Madison says: "If, 
in a word, the Union be essential to the happiness 
of the people of America, is it not preposterous to 
urge as an objection to a government, without 
which the objects of the Union cannot be obtained, 
that such a government may derogate from the im- 
portance of the governments of the individual 
States'? Was, then, the American Revolution 
effected, was the American Confederacy formed, 
was the precious blood of thousands spilt, and the 
hard earned substance of millions lavished, not 
that the people of America should enjoy peace, 
liberty and safety, but that the government of 
the individual States, that particular municipal 
establishments, might enjoy a certain extent of 


power, and be arrayed with certain dignities and 
attributes of sovereignty'? We have heard of the 
impious doctrine in the Old World that the people 
were made for kings, not kings for the people. Is 
the same doctrine to be revived in the New, in an- 
other shape — that the solid happiness of the peo- 
ple is to be sacrificed to the views of political in- 
stitutions of a different form"? It is too early for 
politicians to presume on our forgetting that the 
public good, the real welfare of the great body of 
the people, is the supreme object to be pursued; 
and that no form of government whatever has any 
other value than as it may be fitted for the attain- 
ment of this object. Were the plan of the con- 
vention adverse to the public, my voice would be, 
Reject the plan. Were the Union itself incon- 
sistent with the public happiness, it would be, 
Abolish the Union. In like manner, as far as the 
sovereignty of the States cannot be reconciled to 
the happiness of the people, the voice of every 
good citizen must be. Let the former be sacrificed 
to the latter." 

In spite of this reasoning, the jealous States, 
stipulated in the Tenth Amendment to the Consti- 
tution, adopted by Congress September 25, 1789, 
that "the powers not delegated to the United 
States by the Constitution, nor prohibited to it by 
the States, are reserved to the States respectively, 
or to the people." The balance of power was 


thereby changed from the federal to the state 
governments, and it was not until the decisions of 
Justice Marshall, the Civil War and the exigencies 
of modern commerce and industry that the na- 
tion gradually waived aside much of the preponder- 
ant authority of the commonwealths constituting 
the Union. Had the States themselves, acting in 
concert, formed a federation, right would have 
been with them; but the people themselves were 
the authority, they alone formed the new and 
greater government. "We the People of the 
United States, in Order to form a more perfect 
Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquil- 
lity, provide for the common defense, promote the 
General Welfare, and Secure the Blessings of Lib- 
erty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and 
establish this Constitution for the United States 
of America." These same people, then, have the 
right, if they will, to so construe the Tenth Amend- 
ment as to take advantage of the alternative, "or 
to the people." How shall "the people" express 
themselves if not through their institutions? 
And are not their federal representatives in the 
Senate and House, elected by their direct vote, a 
part of those institutions? Indeed, are not "the 
people," as stated in the preamble and the Tenth 
Amendment, not meant to mean the people of the 
entire nation thus constituted, and not of a single 
State or federation of States? Through their 


representatives they may make general laws ap- 
plicable to them all and for their benefit as a 
whole. They may do so under a proper construc- 
tion of the Tenth Amendment. Certainly they 
may do so by its repeal. 

Assuming, then, that the Federal government 
has the absolute power to legislate for the entire 
people upon subjects which concern them all alike, 
and beyond such powers merely as help it to main- 
tain itself, what rights should it take unto itself 
which it has not yet exercised, and what powers 
should it thereby subtract from the States, which 
they now exercise? It should take all authority 
from the separate commonwealths except the 
police power, provision for education, carrying out 
in detail the rights of suffrage, and such stated 
powers as are conferred in the Constitution. The 
national government has the right and should 
arrogate to itself the function of making the com- 
mon and statute law throughout the United 
States perfectly uniform. It may be contended 
that the Supreme Court has construed the ,Con- 
stitution differently and to mean that the Fed- 
eral authority in general matters outside of those 
specifically enumerated shall apply only to inter- 
state relations, but if the court did so it went 
beyond the wording of the basic instrument it- 
self. Ecclesiastical courts and councils for cen- 
turies construed and misconstrued the Gospels, but 


to-day such authority as those Gospels exert over 
the minds of men rests within their terminology 
alone. Congress should enact a uniform divorce 
law along lines similar to that of the Code Na- 
poleon, which gave as causes adultery, extreme 
cruelty, perpetration of a felony, malicious and 
wilful desertion and mutual consent. Recog- 
nizing marriage to be a contract, the code sought 
to make its abrogation subject to the same mutu- 
ality with which it had been entered into. It was 
thought that the wife would not consent to sever 
legal claim to her husband or vice versa until they 
had agreed upon substantial justice between them 
and for their children, if any. As there are said 
to have been few cases where one of the prin- 
cipals did not object, the provision proved a con- 
servator of marriage instead of a loosener of its 
ties; yet it rendered justice where both agreed to 
disagree. Morality is not enhanced by laws pre- 
venting a man and woman from remedying a mis- 
take. The national government should also pre- 
vent child labor in the remotest locality, under 
heavy penalties, and should compel every youth 
and maiden, white or black, to complete a free 
grammar school education, leaving to the States, 
counties or townships only the details of providing 
school and maintaining them. It should enact 
a uniform corporation law, and another covering 
every subject of commerce. In fact, every act 


which comes within legal phases and is outside of 
the police power of the States should be legislated 
upon by Congress. This implies a new code of 
law, simple, readable by all, applicable in every 
State and territory. This does not mean the call- 
ing of a constitutional convention, for no change 
in the fundamental instrument of the nation is 
necessary. In fact, that document has called in 
vain for such a sacrifice of ancient practise on the 
part of the States for more than a century. The 
result has never been attained heretofore because 
of the distractions and jealousies of localities. 
But now that the American people are being solidi- 
fied into one and the distinctions of races are pass- 
ing away, except as they may show the prejudices 
of their fathers in the present war, and now that 
San Francisco and New York are one by telephone 
and telegraph and all parts of the country are 
easily accessible to each other, they demand a body 
of easily understood and universally applicable 
law, just alike to rich and poor, conserving the 
independence and interests of property and of 
labor, of white and black, alien, naturalized and 
native, with proper ease and celebrity of judicial 
procedure. The time for a great law giver is at 
hand, and that law giver the Congress of the 
sovereign people of the United States. This 
country does not need a single law giver, or vague 
generalities put into print and called law, but a 


body of law which will give specific justice to 
every man, woman and child. 

With this extension of authority, or under pres- 
ent conditions, the national government should 
take over and operate the telegraph lines on the 
same principle that the post office department is 
now operated. This was proposed a few years 
ago by the ablest postmaster general the country 
ever had, Frank H. Hitchcock ; but, due to the con- 
servatism of the Taft administration, he was com- 
pelled to withdraw the recommendation. Far 
from a socialist, and thoroughly a business man, 
the head of what is the greatest post office depart- 
ment in the world urged the change in order that 
the people might have the use of that utility at a 
minimum of expense and even more generally. If 
ownership of the telegraph system by the govern- 
ment be a part of socialism, then the post office, 
founded long before socialism was ever thought or 
heard of, is socialistic, and the states of England, 
France and Italy, where the telegraph is part of 
government machinery, are socialistic. A good 
is not less a good because also urged by those with 
whom we do not often agree. Socialism is the 
joint ownership and operation of all the means 
of production and distribution, something entirely 
different. The eight hour day is a part of the 
propaganda of the socialist party in Germany, but 
it is not essentially socialistic, as it has long been 


urged by trade unionists in the United States and 
Great Britain. The same argument applies to the 
telephone system. Likewise the municipal owner- 
ship of gas and electric lighting utilities should be 
brought about in order that the poor may have the 
advantage of those conveniences at less expense. 
In taking over public utilities for ownership 
the principle should be laid down that they 
should only include those which can reach every 
home in the land. Neither street railway lines 
nor railroads come within this definition, techni- 
cally speaking, though the time may come when 
they, too, will be taken over and become a part 
of the wealth of the city and nation. The coal 
mines, the water power, and oil fields, sources of 
artificial light and heat, and the manufacturing in- 
dustries, should also ultimately be taken over by 
the people. These principles are in no sense 
socialistic, for their adoption would still mean the 
sale to the government of his daily toil by the 
toiler at the prevailing rate of wages; whereas 
socialism would mean the joint ownership of the 
railroads by all the employees of that industry, 
by the coal miners and any other employees and 
officers in common of the coal, and of the em- 
ployees of the oil industry of the oil. Under the 
right of eminent domain the government has power 
to seize them all and eventually may do so, but 
the time is far removed, for the people are yet un- 


able to distinguish between socialism, which would 
mean stagnation and the tyranny of the mediocre, 
and ownership by the government for the people 
as a whole of these utilities which are directly or 
indirectly accessible to every home. It may now 
be contended that the ownership by the govern- 
ment — entirely different than common ownership 
by those engaged in a given industry — of these 
utilities, would mean the gradual taking over by 
the government of all the great sources of produc- 
tion and means of distribution, and that when 
this had been accomplished there would be no 
longer any labor as such engaged in any industry 
outside of the government, that the rate of wage, 
high or low, would then be regulated by Congress, 
as in the case of civil and military employees at 
the present time, that rates of wages would be- 
come higher with the increasing efficiency brought 
about by industrial education, that all crimes ex- 
cept those of passion would disappear with the 
abolition of poverty, that men and women would 
participate alike in toil as now in the government, 
that temperance and chastity would become well 
nigh universal because of general self respect and 
recognition of normal nature, and that socialism 
would be the net result only by another means. 
Such a conclusion is not justified. Even govern- 
ment ownership of those agencies of production 
and distribution which do not fall within the 


classification of public utilities would not be toler- 
ated by a free people intent upon the maintenance 
of their individuality and independence. And as 
the ownership of the great public utilities would 
be no more a detriment to the well-being of the 
individual than is the post office at the present 
time, socialism, the joint ownership by the many, 
would in no sense be the result. 

While the public ownership of the greater pub- 
lic utilities outside the telegraph may appear im- 
practicable and afar off, there is another remedy 
for the wage earner everywhere which could be 
applied without detriment to the employer or em- 
ployee. It lies in the enforced grant by the em- 
ployer, no matter how small or great, of one-tenth 
of his net profits, to be divided equally among the 
total number of his employees. Thus the grocer, 
butcher, barber or haberdasher would be compelled 
at the close of the year, or such part of it as he 
may have employed help, to yield ten per cent, of 
the returns to whoever may have regularly worked 
for him. So it would be with the farmer and the 
proprietor of no matter what business. And every 
railroad or other corporation would do the same. 
The division of the ten per cent, would include 
every employee from the president of the road 
down, but in private business the owner would not 
be included. The 7,405,313 persons in the 
United States in manufacturing, which yields a 


net profit of $8,529,261,000, would receive $115 
per annum apiece. The average income from a 
farm is $796, but at that figure few farmers em- 
ploy labor. A farm which 5delds $3,000 per an- 
num would employ one or two laborers. De- 
ducting the expense of food not raised on the 
premises, live stock purchased and overhead 
charges on buildings, ten per cent, of the remainder 
would be given to the employee, who now receives 
an average wage per year of $223. If the farmer 
employs hands only in the harvest time, then he 
should only give for that part of the year; 
but if the remedy of ten per cent, of the profits 
were applied to the "hired man" who toils the year 
round for board and a small wage, his life would 
become that much more livable. The 1,815,239 
employees of the railroads, from the president 
down, would receive ten per cent, of the $369,- 
077,546, or $203 each. This would include all 
of those engaged in any kind of work on a news- 
paper, but not employees in the professions of doc- 
tors, lawyers and the ministry. Nor would 
house-servants be included, though waiters and all 
employees of restaurants and hotels would. But 
greater satisfaction in the work each man would 
do, because of more interest in the establishment, 
would result, and the drift toward those industries 
which paid more would result in higher wages in 
those that did not pay the ten per cent. Averages 


arc often unconvincing, when extended over the 
entire country, but if the percentage be figured 
in any corporation, firm or individual business, it 
will be seen that the suggestion, if carried out, 
would result in benefit to each of those employed, 
when added to his wages. 

Why not twenty, thirty or forty per cent.? 
Why not all of the profits of the establishment *? 
Here arises the most important argument against 
socialism. The hundreds of thousands of in- 
vestors of their savings or capital in industry, 
whether corporation, association or partnership, 
naturally desire that they shall receive a fair re- 
turn from the fruits of their previous toil ex- 
pressed in that capital. On the average, the re- 
wards of manufacturing, transportation and min- 
ing for this invested surplus of previous toil is 
about five per cent. One-half of one per cent, 
of this could easily be subtracted for the benefit 
of the wage workers. The income of every man 
investing in stocks and bonds of corporations em- 
ploying labor, or employing labor himself, would 
be diminished ten per cent. But the increased 
purchasing power of those receiving the slightly 
larger emolument, together with their stimulated 
interest in their work, would make up the differ- 
ence. Take away more than that from the re- 
wards of the accrued earnings or capital of those 
investing in industry and the temptation to invest 


in and thereby enhance industry and labor would 
cease. Nothing is so timid as capital, the mean- 
ing of which, properly speaking, is accrued earn- 
ings for investment. For the employees to take 
over the plant jointly and elect officers at higher 
salary to manage it for their common benefit 
would remove the tremendous incentive of a man 
to surpass his fellows and gain that greater wealth 
which is expressive of much comfort, means of 
extended activity, heightened respect and per- 
haps world-wide fame. The Socialist declares he 
will harness this incentive by making it work for 
all. But he cannot harness incentive; he can 
only destroy it. It is that which has made in- 
dustry and all activity advance. But granting 
for the sake of the argument that it would be wise 
to reorganize the plant on this basis, for what is 
called common profit, would the manager selected 
be of the kind to understand business and have 
the talent to develop it to such an extent as to 
overcome its competitors by superior product, 
lower price and good sales methods? Organizing 
and financial genius is not to be selected by a 
given number, but to assert itself by hard work 
and brain power in the struggle of life. And 
again assuming, for the benefit of those who dis- 
agree, that this could be done, what would be- 
come of new enterprises*? Men do not do the 


really great work in the world for salary; they do 
it for themselves. ''But we shall take away all 
selfishness,'' says the Socialist. Even granting 
that, can the Socialist take away the ambition of 
an intrepid spirit to conceive in his fertile brain 
something new, overcome rivals, found vast indus- 
tries for the employment of human labor and then 
give all the immense wealth he has thus gained to 
a project he thinks best for the common good? 
The Socialist has placed his thumb upon the evil of 
self-seeking, he thinks, but it has sprung up again 
in that indefinable something which makes a man 
what he is and in that holiest of selfishnesses — the 
inordinate desire to surpass his fellows and attain 
mighty deeds for the benefit of all. The division 
of ten per cent, among employees would tend to 
lighten and equalize the burdens of labor and 
would be a wise reform ; but, even so, it could not 
take away the burden of struggle, for that is what 
gives strength to human nature and character. 
They who believe that the millennium means an 
absolutely equal share in toil and reward are mis- 
taken; in the short space between the birth and 
death of a single life men will remain as differen- 
tiated as the billion and a half who inhabit the 
earth; each will struggle on to the attainment of 
what he feels within him to be his true aim; a 
general panacea to make all happy would not fit 


when the time came to perfect it, if it did not take 
into consideration individual desires, initiative and 

In order that all working men and women, 
whether wage earners, employers or in the profes- 
sions, may enjoy the full benefits of the new life 
dawning about them there should be a working 
day of eight hours and maybe ultimately of seven 
hours for all, and a right on the part of every one 
to enjoy the Sabbath. In many offices in the 
large cities the lesser hours are already observed, 
employees reporting for work at 9 a. m. and quit- 
ting at 5 p. M., with an hour for lunch between. 
This is just as practical as eight hours. With 
industry developed to higher efficiency than is pos- 
sible where some unions attempt to regulate the 
speed to the slowest and, as in a department store, 
where the wages are so low as to make effort irk- 
some, as much would be accomplished in the 
shorter time. If this seems premature, the fact 
should be borne in mind that we are in the Twen- 
tieth Century and that the time is here when men 
must have a larger reward and more enjoyment 
of their toil. The custom of working frail women 
twelve hours in a hospital because they are nurses 
and it is an eleemosynary institution is not less 
hard on them than on these who are employed in 
factories. Nor is the employment of women ten 
hours on their feet each day as saleswomen, or lit- 


tie children on farms and in sweat-shops, less en- 
slaving if done in the name of maximum of out- 
put. And each person under the sun should have 
the benefits of a Sunday free from care. If it 
be necessary for a business to be conducted on the 
Sabbath, then every employee should have an- 
other day out of the seven instead. In the Scrip- 
tures God impresses it upon man that he shall 
have that time for rest; and the inference is that 
it does not make any difference whether Saturday, 
Sunday or Thursday shall be called the Sabbath, 
so that on one day out of the seven he shall be al- 
lowed to leave whatever task he may be doing and 
find amusement or cultivation or repose. Of 
course, it is best for convenience that all enjoy the 
Sabbath on the day generally adopted throughout 
Christendom. The seven hour day may be some 
distance away, due to the slow adjustment of the 
mechanism of industry to a new spirit prevailing 
among men, but Sunday practically is and should 
be b}^ law within the reach of all. 

In the incidence of taxation ten per cent, of 
rents collected upon property upon which the 
owner does not live should be taken by the State, 
in order to provide more ample revenue and lessen 
the direct tax upon the poor man otherwise. This 
principle applies in a different way than with the 
employer of labor, compelling the landlord, who 
has used accrued earnings to build homes or office 


buildings or other abodes or farms, to share his 
profit to that extent in order that the burdens of 
all may be lighter. Those holding large bodies 
of tilled or improved real estate, whether indi- 
viduals or corporations, would yield large sums. 
If the owner actually and not technically lived 
upon the premises he would be exempt; if he had 
an office in the building, he would not. Only such 
property as yielded financial return to the investor 
would be thus taxed. To require the owner of 
such property to pay ten per cent, of his rent to his 
employees, if any, would be an absurdity, because 
they take no part in the gathering of return upon 
his surplus invested in real estate; but to demand 
that he pay ten percentage of his property, which 
neither he nor his immediate family use, to the 
State is just and fair, would not deter any capital 
from investing therein and would assist materially 
in maintaining the expenses of government. 
Buildings are put up in order to yield a return on 
the investment of from five to ten per cent. From 
one-half of one per cent, to one per cent, of such 
income taxed by the commonwealth leaves a fair 
interest to the owner. Such annual rental in the 
entire United States is estimated by competent 
realty judges to amount to more than a billion 
dollars annuall)\ The result would be a satis- 
factory adjustment of the contention that absentee 
property as such ought to carry more of taxation ; 


and if all excises were ultimately decreased by 
eliminating overlapping state authority, this 
should still remain to compel the owner who does 
not live upon the property for which he receives 
rent to share as much as practicable with the poor, 
without losing incentive for investment. He who 
owns an apartment building and lives in one of 
the apartments would be exempt only to the extent 
of his single apartment. Manufacturing and 
general business plants owning their own im- 
proved property would be entirely exempt. The 
tax of ten per cent., both in the case of the prop- 
erty owner and the employer, is a revival in essence 
of the old Jewish custom of giving to the Temple 
ten per cent, of the first fruits of production. It is 
not an attempt to placate the Socialist by conced- 
ing a part of his position, but to stimulate all in- 
dustry in which others besides the original pro- 
prietor are engaged, and make easier the burden of 
taxation upon the small house-holder and business 
man. Taxes upon personal property might be 
largely decreased by this method. 

With total bank deposits in the United States 
in 1915 of $21,407,068,603, and much of it with- 
out any interest whatever, and receiving compensa- 
tion only in the safety of funds provided by the 
vaults of the banks and the convenience of ex- 
changing cheques through the clearing house, the 
banks should be compelled to yield some return 


to the depositors, wherever they do not do so now, 
in return for the profits they are allowed to make 
by interest on investments. If every bank were 
compelled to pay 2 or 3 per cent, on all funds left 
for any length of time, the depositor would have 
that much more use of his money, which in its last 
analysis represents the result of toil. Some banks 
now pay more than that. 

And, finally, the immigrant who enters the 
borders of the United States should be capable 
of assimilation with the Caucasian race. A 
higher standard of living prevails here than in 
oriental countries and it should be upheld. Japa- 
nese, Chinese and Hindoos should be prevented 
at all hazards from immigration, except as duly 
accredited students. They do not intermarry, and 
have a much cheaper standard of living. If al- 
lowed to come in any appreciable numbers, they 
would destroy the dignity and independence of 
American labor. All aliens, European or other- 
wise, should be prevented from immigration if dis- 
eased or permanently injured. But the recent 
placing by Congress of an educational qualifica- 
tion upon immigrants in order to restrict their 
coming is contrary to the spirit of American in- 
stitutions. The movement inaugurated chiefly 
at the behest of the labor organizations was 
unfair, for the reason that the great major- 
ity of our fathers could sign their name with 


only a mark when they landed on American 
shores. Character is more important than ability 
to read and write. The latter is soon acquired 
in order to meet the necessities of life in this free 
land. The movement was also directed against 
the immense immigration from the Catholic coun- 
tries of Southern Europe. This, too, is unreason- 
able, for Catholics make as good citizens as any 
other element in the community. The country 
needs the South European peoples. For a century 
and more the practical peoples of Northern Eu- 
rope furnished the backbone of America. Now 
are coming the imaginative peoples. The two 
forces amalgamated will make a greater and 
grander nation in the future. 

As free schools and a free state are synonymous, 
it follows that it is to the best interests of the peo- 
ple of the United States that their children, the 
citizens of the future, be taught in such schools. 
No institution, religious or otherwise, should place 
its own interests above those of the commonwealth 
as a whole by the establishment of a separate sys- 
tem of education. Under the guise of tolerance, 
the free state should not go so far as to permit a 
very large body of its people to lose the benefits 
of unprejudiced education and fair incentive in 
the pursuit of knowledge, any more than it per- 
mitted the Mormon church to practise what the lat- 
ter claimed to be the God-given right of polygamy. 


A wiser tolerance, indeed, is to compel all to re- 
ceive the advantages of free non-sectarian school- 
ing, just as under our legal system the funda- 
mental liberties of each citizen must be respected. 
As the public schools of the country are free and 
are supported by the taxpayers as a whole, the 
Roman Catholic Church, which in 1916 educated 
1,500,000 pupils in parochial institutions, can 
have but one motive in giving its own instruction, 
no matter how advantageous otherwise, and that 
to so construe the facts of history and of science 
as to fortify its own claims to authorit)^ It can- 
not with reason be contended that the moral and 
religious training imparted by the Roman church 
in the schools is superior and therefore a neces- 
sity; for the kingdom of God is universal and no 
single organization, creed or religion has a 
monopoly of His mercy, grace or wisdom. What 
the children of the people of the country need to 
be taught in the moral field is love of God and 
simple righteousness, in accordance with the spirit 
of the age, and such teaching is daily imparted, 
by example or directly, by the six hundred thou- 
sand teachers in the free schools throughout the 
land. Seven millions of Methodists and six mil- 
lions of Baptists are content with the system of 
popular and unbiased education provided by the 
people through their government, as are all other 
Protestant denominations, and the two millions of 


Jews in the country. Why should not the Roman 
Catholics also be so satisfied'? If the Socialists, 
making the absurd contention that this is a capi- 
talist ridden land, sought to establish schools of 
their own so as to teach their children in accord- 
ance with their ideals, would the Roman Catho- 
lics be favorable to them'? If not, why should 
the citizens as a whole be favorable to the main- 
tenance, especially where taxed for the purpose, of 
any particularist system of education in a state 
where all men are free? The Constitution guar- 
antees tolerance to all religions, but is silent upon 
the question of whether any church. Catholic or 
Protestant, shall educate its children to suit its 
own ends. However, the spirit of the free school 
institution, from its inception three hundred years 
ago, is opposed to such distinction. It should be 
unnecessary to say that I am not opposed to the 
parochial school system because it is Catholic. 
No person who has known the good priest and 
sister of charity, been a patient in the Charity 
Hospital in New Orleans, and recognized the fact 
that the Roman Catholic Church is the church of 
the poor, as I have, can deny that it is doing a 
great good. Nor can it be said that its communi- 
cants are not as patriotic as those of any other 
denomination in the land. But the province of 
any church is outside the domain of secular educa- 
tion, which is meant to impart established knowl- 


edge; religion is a matter of individual belief and 
opinion; principles of right conduct are tacitly 
agreed upon by all, and they are taught in the free 
schools. Roman Catholics, particularly the Irish, 
who have never been outdone in love of this land, 
should be willing to share in the common lot of 
the great democracy which provides the best com- 
mon school system of education the world af- 

Who can doubt that with a simple and uni- 
versally applicable code of civil and criminal law 
throughout the United States ; with each employee 
in any kind of a producing establishment receiving 
a share of the total of ten per cent, of the profits 
and therefore each more enthusiastically interested 
in his or her work; with ten per cent, collected 
from the rents of absentee landlords, in addition 
to the valuations already assessed, in order to ease 
the tax burdens of the community ; with the great 
public utilities in the hands of the government for 
all; with each person enjoying one day out of 
seven for rest and eight hours of daily labor ; with 
women prevented from toiling long hours and 
children under fourteen from being employed at 
all; with a free compulsory system of education 
for all and immigration from embattled Europe 
wisely restricted, that every person in the land 
would be happier, wiser and more comfortable, 


and that the next generation would breathe an 
entirely new life and be thankful that this one had 
accomplished such a work for its benefit? 



"The time will come when the American people will 
possess all the land between Behring Strait and the Isth- 
mus of Panama." — William H. Seward. 

In the event of the disintegration of the British 
Empire, due to its own decay, and the continuance 
of chaotic conditions in the republic to the south, 
it will become inevitable that both Canada and 
Mexico shall be taken over and annexed to the 
domain of the United States. 

It is but natural that, in giving that which is of 
itself in government and ideals, this nation should 
subdue other peoples. It will wield the sword as 
all its predecessors in nationality on the face of 
the earth have done. It will not do its greatest 
work until three hundred years after the begin- 
ning of the amalgamation of blood within its bor- 
ders, and not until the American people, to be 
the strongest of the ages, has reached its maximum. 
That transfusion began in about the year 1638, 
when the Dutch West India Company for the first 

time threw open to the world the right to culti- 



vate land in New Amsterdam in free allodial pro- 
prietorship. All privileges were extended equally 
to other nationalities in the same degree as to 
Dutchmen. Indeed, direct encouragement to im- 
migration was provided. Each man was given a 
farm free for six years, with bam, horses, cows, 
sheep and swine. The only monopoly retained by 
the company was the carrying of settlers. The 
way was opened for extended immigration of 
Dutch, Swedes, Huguenots and Englishmen, and 
subsequent intermingling.^ Furthermore, negotia- 
tions for a federal union were begun in 1638 be- 
tween the colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
New Haven and Plymouth. Prior to that year 
each of the bands of colonists had emigrated from 
Europe in separate nationalities. Now com- 
menced that process which was eventually to make 
all one by a general transfusion. Three centuries 
after that approximate date, the American people 
should in the year 1938, reach their greatest 
strength. And as during the generations since 
the earlier date immigrants of every Caucasian 
race have continued to come to the present terri- 
tory of the United States — in recent years at the 
rate of a million annually — the supremacy in 
strength of the American people should, according 
to the law of blood, continue for another three 

1 "Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America," John Fiske. 
Vol. II, pp. 170-171. 


centuries after first attaining its zenith. By that 
strength they will give to mankind the ideals and 
institutions peculiar to this republic. In the 
meantime, due to conditions, because of blood and 
conditions, the people of this country are already 
reaching out toward vaster things. 

The American people are asking themselves the 
meaning of their destiny, and, realizing the revo- 
lutionary conditions by which they are surrounded, 
now have less qualms at the thought of greater 
territory. The Philippines, Hawaii and Porto 
Rico have accustomed them to the idea of retain- 
ing sovereignty over other lands. But the reasons 
for expansion are principally within. Until late 
in the nineties the easily tilled and virgin soil 
of the present contiguous territory of the country 
had not been taken up. Homesteads were to be 
had for the asking from a generous and far sighted 
government. Those farmers who had found diffi- 
cult the earning of an increment from their land in 
New England and the East sold it and journeyed 
westward to gain a fresh start, in many cases leav- 
ing behind them exhausted fields to become aban- 
doned farms. Irrigation and drainage opened up 
still further areas, and they, too, were for the most 
part, soon also taken by the same process and the 
immigration of aliens. Population had been in- 
creasing, aggregating ninety millions in 1910. 
And that population had more and more become a 


representative American growth. This point and 
the limit of easily accessible land being reached at 
the opening of the new century, new desire for the 
aggressive American spirit to expand was increas- 
ingly stimulated by the pressure of life in the more 
thickly settled regions ; with the result that a very 
large proportion of those who had been citizens 
of the United States joined the 300,000 who im- 
migrated into the rich fields of opportunity await- 
ing them in Canada. For several years they con- 
tinued to do so, and still seek to obey the call of 
the venturesome and hazardous to new endeavor 
in strange lands. Across the southern border, in 
Mexico, the same spirit evinced itself, though not 
to such an extent, by advancing into the rubber 
plantations and to gain wealth in mining. A 
great war in which the Canadians are taking part 
and constant disturbance during the last several 
years in the southern republic have abruptly put 
an end to this century-long conquering trek of the 
American into the wilderness, but the desire has 
not ceased and is only stimulated by the barrier. 

Pulsating with life and determined to carry 
along with them the civilization they express, the 
American people must find a way to fulfil that 
natural destiny which was in the mind of Seward 
when he said in the Senate in 1851 that the time 
would come when the United States would pos- 
sess all of the land between Behring Strait and the 


Isthmus of Panama. They cannot remain stand- 
ing still. No nation or people in the past has 
done so. Nor can they stifle, if they would, the 
energy that urges them on to do the work for 
which they have been fitting themselves during 
the nearly three hundred years in which they have 
been transfusing their bloods into one. Adven- 
turous spirit and intrepidity of character are rife 
among them. It is their time, or at least the dawn 
of their greatest day, and they must take advan- 
tage of that incentive w^hich the root feels when it 
bursts forth into grass and flowers, which the 
youth of all lands have felt when they left the old 
hearth and haunts to find new achievement and 
to bring honor upon the mother who bore them, 
which the men of Macedon under Alexander were 
animated by when they advanced to give Hellenic 
ideas, culture and government to Western Asia. 
Because they are the most practicable and nearest 
at hand, they should look with longing eyes upon 
a land now a part of the domain of England 
which is vaster in area than the entire United 
States and to a turbulent little country, thrice the 
size of the Lone Star State, which is rich in re- 
sources and as alluring to the eye and the senses 
as it was to the men of Cortez when they first 
gazed on it almost exactly four hundred years ago. 
If the determined and aggressive American peo- 
ple, with a civilization and institutions to ex- 


press, merely had it in their minds to seek further 
lands and add them, by conquest if necessary, to 
those they already possess, they would be guilty 
of covetousness and the desire to expropriate to 
themselves that which belongs to their neighbors. 
But if they will look at the underlying facts more 
closely they will see, perhaps, that they not only 
have it dimly within their aims to take Canada 
and Mexico, but owe a duty to the peoples of the 
earth as a whole, the historical development of 
nations and the inhabitants of the lands in ques- 
tion to make them a part of the contiguous terri- 
tory of the United States. They are and of right 
ought to be the protectors of the North American 
continent. The greatest, most enlightened and 
intensely ambitious people of the Western Hemi- 
sphere, they should turn from the counsel of the 
kindly brethren who worship the god of things 
as they are, and by the sword, if need be, carry 
American liberty, order and law to the farthest 
extent of territory on the continent and to the 
limit of oceans alone. They should have a mil- 
lion well trained men under arms and led by the 
leaders who are to come to them, startle the bal- 
ance of mankind by the quickness and despatch 
with which they seize, secure and develop that 
entire northern region named after Americus Ves- 
pucius long ago. Death, pestilence, and shock of 
arms should not deter them : theirs is a work to do 


and they must do it at the risk of many lives. 
Canada is the only one of the four great de- 
pendencies of Britain which may soon be left with- 
out a master who has his seats in the chief center 
of the German Empire. An expanse extending 
from Atlantic to Pacific and the border of the 
United States to the Arctic, comprising 3,745,574 
square miles, it has no means by itself of defend- 
ing its population of 5,371,315. It is without a 
navy and in the present war estimates its land 
strength of all ages at not more than half a million 
men. Such of those who volunteer it is sending 
to the battle fields of Europe as speedily as pos- 
sible. At the end of a long conflict this number 
must be considerably diminished; so that after 
peace is made there will be for the defense of the 
Dominion perhaps 250,000 trained soldiers, a 
force difficult to attack and hard to overcome. 
But against such an aggressive nation as the 
United States, with twenty times the population, 
Canada could not long compete because of one 
blood, and it is reasonable to suppose it would be 
helpless against Germany, to become the mightiest 
empire on the earth until then, and Japan, also 
with great ambitions. Stand alone it could not. 
Germany or Japan could not attempt to take it 
without the United States risking every man and 
dollar to uphold the Monroe doctrine. If left by 
itself, greater numbers of Americans than it now 


has within its borders would seek its virgin soil as 
an outlet from conditions more difficult because of 
density of population, and they would also want 
the perpetuation of the institutions they had left. 
For the most part, having considerable dislike of 
the United States and its people, the Canadians 
would not permit the junction even then without 
a struggle unless they were invited to become a 
part of the Union immediately upon admission, 
realized the essential similarity of fundamental 
institutions and the helplessness of their position 
without the protection of the United States, and 
felt that they would be better off as a part of the 
great republic of the future than the colonial 
wilderness of an extinct empire. 

If the Canadian people did not desire to accept 
that invitation, and it is improbable that they 
would, it might in time be the duty of the Ameri- 
can people to take their land by force and add it 
to the United States'? Why could this people 
accomplish the task without qualms of conscience"? 
Because the Canadians do not occupy a land they 
can rightfully call their own. They are not a 
people in the sense which all have been who were a 
composite of several bloods and therefore had a 
work to do. They are Britishers who have taken 
the easily accessible land which they have found, 
and Britishers they have remained to the extent 
of nearly one hundred per cent. The French in 


Quebec, a small proportion, are also nearly one in 
the blood of their motherland. The hundred 
thousand Indians, original possessors of the land 
who gave way before the strength, prowess and 
civilization of the white man, are merely toler- 
ated. To take over a territory greater than its 
own, in order to find avenues for the expansion of 
its surplus population, therefore, would be no 
crime on the part of the United States, and the 
mere fulfilment of its destiny to expand in its 
immediately contiguous territory like all other 
states. Such an extension of its jurisdiction and 
institutions over Canadian lands would be no more 
than the English have already done. And it 
would mean the replacing of a monarchy by a re- 
public. If it be contended that upon the demise 
of the British Empire, Canada might also become 
a republic, it may be said that the government of 
the United States would be better and stronger 
because a composite of all peoples instead of a 
transplanting of one, that it needs the territory the 
Britishers now hold for legitimate expansion, and 
that it would be much better for the welfare of 
the British who now inhabit the country if taken 
over, shaken up, gotten out of their dowdy ways 
and made through the next few generations to 
lose the identity of an exhausted race in trans- 
fusion into a greater people. 

Assuming that it would be for the benefit of 


both the Americans and British to take Canada, 
what opportunity would it afford for the millions 
of Americans who would undoubtedly find homes 
there. The dominion is almost as varied in its 
resources as the United States. It has nine prov- 
inces and five districts. Three of the provinces 
are about the size of the State of Texas, two of 
them a third larger, one as extensive as Nebraska, 
another like West Virginia and the last similar in 
extent to Delaware. Two of the districts are 
twice as large as Texas, one with about the same 
number of square miles and another more ex- 
tensive than California. Numerous rivers give 
fertility. Nine lakes are more than an hundred 
miles in length and thirty-five over fifty miles 
long. The climate is varied. In this the Pacific 
slope is like Western Europe. Only Ungara and 
Labrador are very chill, because of the iceberg 
laden current which sweeps along the Atlantic 
shore. South of the Gulf of St. Lawrence the 
temperature ranges from 40° for the year to 60° 
in the summer. In Quebec and Ontario the win- 
ters are brilliant but cold, and in the heated season 
from 60° to 65°. On the plains, with clear and 
bracing atmosphere, the climate is especially bene- 
ficial to those suffering from lung trouble. Even 
in the Mackenzie River Valley, near the Arctic 
Circle the average temperature is not more than 
^^''. Canada is a hunter's paradise. Animals 


are varied among the musk ox, caribou, moose, 
Virginia deer, pronghom antelope, Virginia 
blacktailed and mule deer, bison, elk, grizzly, 
black and cinnamon bear, timber wolf, coyote, 
puma, fox, lynx, beaver, otter, marten, fisher, 
wolverine, mink, hare and rabbit. Turkey, 
grouse and geese abound. Eagles are numerous, 
but for the most part birds are migratory and as 
in the United States. The forest wealth of Can- 
ada is still the greatest in the world. It is des- 
tined to rank as perhaps the most important of the 
wheat producing countries. Already it yields 
about one-fifth as much as here. Samples of good 
wheat were recently grown at latitude 61.52° at 
St. Simpson on the Mackenzie River, more than 
eight hundred miles north of Winnipeg and a 
thousand miles from the boundary of the United 
States. A quarter of a billion bushels of oats are 
grown. Buckwheat is produced plentifully for 
the national dish of buckwheat cakes and maple 
sirup. Peas and vegetables of all kinds are to 
be found everywhere. In the dominion are 2,- 
019,824 horses, and cattle, sheep, swine and 
poultry are aburfflant. Because of its immense 
dairy resources, Canada has been called the "land 
of milk and honey." In the manufacturing in- 
dustries wood pulp, lumber and canned salmon 
have the chief place, though pig iron and steel are 
becoming important. Large bituminous coal de- 


posits are to be found in British Columbia and 
Nova Scotia. Canada is the world's chief pro- 
ducer of asbestos, nickel and corundum. Copper, 
lead, silver and all the important metals are mined 
in the Rocky Mountain Region. Vast tracts of 
virgin land, like those which inspired the builders 
of the western half of the United States, are 
available and given away by the government in 
homesteads of 160 acres each. Educational in- 
stitutions are everywhere; 86 per cent, can read 
and write. Order is well maintained, and in the 
Canadian Northwest seven hundred mounted 
police or "Riders of the Plains" keep such peace in 
the remotest mining camp as was not known in the 
days of the "vigilance committee" in '49. Two 
great transcontinental railways cross the continent, 
one having its western terminus at Vancouver and 
the other at Prince Rupert. 

Such is the land which should in the near future 
become a part of the United States. Having 
fundamentally similar institutions, each province 
enjoying a separate parliament and the dominion 
itself a separate government under allegiance to 
the crown, it might be suggested that the English 
people, who live there in a percentage of 97 per 
cent., might feel inclined to vote for union with 
this country; but to any one who has lived in 
Canada and knows of the feeling of dislike for the 
United States this suggestion would seem most 


amusing. Prior to the Civil War complete reci- 
procity between the countries reigned, but after- 
wards Congress, in resentment for the way Eng- 
land had treated the United States in attempting 
to aid the South, stopped all that. Canadians, 
too, had their animosity aroused by the Fenian 
raids. Since that time the Canadians along the 
border have gained the reputation for narrowness 
of mind, and during the Taft administration re- 
jected any further reciprocity with this country, 
so that they might not fail in the slightest way 
in loyalty to Great Britain. Being British peo- 
ple, simply transported across the sea, and their 
allegiance renewed and intensified by participa- 
tion to the limit of their resources in the present 
war in Europe, it would be very unreasonable to 
suppose that they would turn to this country as 
the land from whence they should receive their 
sovereignty and laws, after the great British Em- 
pire has disappeared. Hence it but remains, when 
the time comes, and only after it has re- 
fused an invitation to come in peaceably, to annex 
it by force of arms. This, so far as England is 
concerned, will be part payment for her treatment 
of the United States prior to and during the War 
of 1812 and throughout the Civil War. Canada 
should be invited to enter the Union with its prov- 
inces as separate states, with its five separate dis- 
tricts as territories, and with its people having ex- 


actly the same rights as the American people now 
have. Each should have two votes in the Senate 
and members of the House of Representatives in 
the same proportion to population as here. If 
force proves necessary, this should be the ultimate 
object in any event. 

Mexico is a striking contrast to Canada in peo- 
ple, climate and conditions. In that country are 
13,607,259 people in a territory of 767,055 square 
miles, about three times the State of Texas. The 
temperature averages annually from 77° to 82° 
and sometimes as high as 105°. Considering the 
extent of land area, the number of people, salu- 
brity of the climate and its resources in mines, for- 
ests and soil, Mexico is one of the richest countries 
in the world. And nowhere have such opportuni- 
ties been more abused by oppressive conditions 
and constant turmoil. The people are divided 
among 19 per cent, of whites of Mexican de- 
scent, 38 per cent, of Indians and 43 per cent, 
of mixed bloods. The blood of Spain ran out 
centuries ago and that of the Aztecs even be- 
fore. Out of these, and those who have mixed, 
has come a short but physically weak people. 
The Spanish particularly are cruel and vindictive. 
Unsanitary habits and surroundings prevail. 
The adobe hut is the type of residence of the great 
body of the people who inhabit Mexico. The 
habits and surroundings of the Indians are so 


squalid that the death-rate exceeds 50 per cent. 
Tribal intermarriage is common. Peonage pre- 
vails. The half breeds or mixed blood are 
chiefly noted for their indolence and criminal in- 
stincts. In 1 864 Don Manuel Orosco y Berra 
found among the Indians hfty-one distinct lan- 
guages, sixty-nine dialects and sixty-two distinct 
idioms, a total of 182, each representing a distinct 
tribe. Perhaps nowhere in the world are the 
people so densely ignorant as in the land once con- 
quered by Cortez. Fully ninety per cent, cannot 
read or write. In 1904 there were 620,476 chil- 
dren in school, but the past few years of revolu- 
tion and rapine have destroyed the advance that 
had then begun. At first, in the early days of the 
Spanish rule, the countr}^ was entirely under ec- 
clesiastical control, and there are to-day in the so- 
called republic 13,533,013 Roman Catholics, 51,- 
795 Protestants, 3,811 of other faiths and 18,640 
of no faith. The Holy Inquisition was estab- 
lished in 1571 and in 1574 its first auto da fe was 
held with the burning at the stake of twenty-one 
"pestilent Lutherans." This institution for the 
defense of orthodoxy was continually active for 
two and a half centuries and ceased only after the 
revolution of 1820. It became necessary to stipu- 
late in the constitution of the new government 
that no senator or member of the Chamber of 
Deputies should be an ecclesiastic. Under the 


system of limiting the suffrage to all citizens who 
possess honest means of livelihood above the age 
of eighteen years for married, and twenty-one for 
unmarried men, it has been possible for a regime 
like that of the late President Diaz to re- 
strict the right to vote to few and to intimidate the 

"The great power exercised by the Roman 
Catholic Church during the colonial period enabled 
it not only to mold the spiritual belief of the 
weak people, but also to control their education 
and their industries and shape the political prob- 
lems governing their daily life. In this way it ac- 
quired great wealth, becoming the owner of exten- 
sive estates in every part of the country and of 
highly productive properties in the towns," says 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 1859 the 
Church owned one-third of the real and per- 
sonal propert)^ of the republic. Coupled with the 
unjust distribution of property, due to the long 
continued ascendency of the Church, and the ap- 
palling ignorance and superstition of the masses, 
is the national amusement of bull fighting. In a 
land where ecclesiastical rule has held such long 
sway and would be supposed to have inculcated 
ideas of morality this is the favorite diversion of 
Sunday crowds. The bull is brought into the 
ring to face the matador, with his red rag, and the 
poniard, which stings and thrusts him, until he 


finally sinks to his cruel death, inevitable from 
the beginning. The writer has several times seen 
the horse ridden by the matador gored by the bull 
until its intestines fell a foot or two from its 
belly. The poor animal was then dragged out, 
sewed up and actually used again for the same 
purpose the following Sunday. This is the pas- 
time of a nation inured to shedding the blood of 
the helpless and of a people made cowards by 
three centuries of show of military and ecclesi- 
astical authority and denial of civil and religious 

Yet Mexico is a land richer for its size than 
any on the globe. It abounds in mineral, forest 
and floral wealth. It is a veritable paradise, and 
to the intrepid American upon the horizon, strain- 
ing his eye to discover new territory in which to 
find free vent for his energies, the southern repub- 
lic, which is such in name only, offers boundless 
opportunities. Great coffee, sugar and rubber 
plantations are to be found in the extreme south. 
On the plateau a large part of the country has 
thus far been found too arid for agriculture. 
Crops of wheat, barley, Indian corn and forage 
grasses are interrupted by long draughts, and the 
people there are compelled to supply the deficiency 
with importations of food. But in the Terra 
Calientes are sugar, tobacco, indigo, cacoa, rice, 
sweet potatoes, alfalfa, beans, Indian corn to the 


extent of two or three crops a year, banana, plan- 
tain, tuna, chili pepper, olive, cocoanut, or- 
ange, lemon, lime, mango, pomegranate, pine- 
apple, fig, papaya, gourd, melon, guava, plum 
and zapote. Pulque, the fermented drink made 
from the mascal sap, is the distilled spirit made 
from the leaves and roots of the plant of the 
same name. So much of this is consumed that 
the making of it is the leading industry of 
Hidalgo, Puebla and Taxcala. In the forests 
the silk, cotton, rubber and vanilla tree, palm 
oil, castor bean, ginger, mahogany, rosewood, 
ebony, cedar and other valuable woods, nuts of 
all kinds and fruits grow in luxuriant plenitude. 
Pearl fisheries are industries on the coasts of Yu- 
catan and Campeche. In 1902 there were 5,142,- 
454 cattle, 859,217 horses, 334,435 mules, 287,- 
991 asses, 3,421,430 sheep, 4,206,011 goats and 
616,139 swine in the country. 

Mexico's greatest resources, however, are to be 
found in mining. Of the entire number of prop- 
erties devoted to extracting metal from the earth 
1572 are gold, 5461 silver, 970 copper, 383 iron, 
151 mercury, 6 sal sema, 5 tourmalines, 1 bis- 
muth and 1 turquois. Petroleum, asphalt, plat- 
inum, graphite, soda and marble are also found. 
Three hundred million tons of a low grade coal 
ore, like that of Texas, is in sight. In the pre- 
cious metals some of the great bonanzas of the 


world have been opened. Mexico has yielded 
a steady supply of gold. Transportation of this 
from the mines is usually by the burro or mule, 
though the picturesque but centuries old yoked 
oxen are to be frequently seen laboriously pro- 
viding means of transit. Two lines of railway, 
owned by the government, run south from the 
United States border and have their terminus 
in the capital of the republic, and one cuts across 
the country from Tehuantepec. Only five cities 
have a population of more than 50,000. They 
are Mexico City with 344,721, Guadaloupe with 
101,208, Puebla with 93,152, Monterey with 
62,266 and San Luis Potosi with 61,019. The 
temperature ranges from 77 to 82 degrees, and 
reaches as high as 105 degrees. The heat is more 
constant than in the United States, but better 
withstood for that reason. 

From 1821 to 1884 Mexico was troubled by 
continued wars. Then came Diaz and for nearly 
thirty years maintained almost constant peace. 
But as his hand grew older and more weak the 
seed of dissention was sown, with the result 
that in 1910 occurred the revolution headed by 
an arch dreamer, Madero. Bartholomew Diaz 
made an unsuccessful attempt to wrest power 
from him, as did General Reyes. Then appeared 
Victoriana Huerta. The power of the United 
States wrecked his hopes of gaining outside means 


of upholding himself and made a way for Car- 
ranza. Too weak to subdue the turmoil, he 
too was forced to let the troops of the Great Re- 
public to the north prevent incursions into its 
territor)^ and seek to punish Villa. In the 
United States and Cuba plotters have contributed 
gold to revolutionists in return for promises of 
huge concessions, purchased ammunition and sent 
it across the line openly if the Administration 
in Washington happened to be friendly, and cov- 
ertly if not, while such revolutionists have 
armed men to keep up a kind of guerilla warfare, 
seeking thereby to gain control over a horde of 
persons unable to read and write. 

In view of the awful conditions which prevail 
in a land so given up to ignorance, supersti- 
tion and cruelty, is it to be questioned that lands 
over which the Aztecs once ruled would be far 
happier, more industrious and in a greater de- 
gree devoted to the enjoyment of a higher civiliza- 
tion, if the United States were to enter with a 
force of a quarter of a million men, establish 
law and order at the point of the sword and 
exterminate without stint the opponents of lib- 
erty? In that case this country would be called 
an usurper, but it might reply with Napoleon, 
who in his address to the Irish parliament said: 
"Be it so. What throne, what government ever 
yet existed which has not been founded on usur- 


pation. The facts which are universal can never 
be particular. The history of mankind will in- 
form you that the question which should interest 
them is not who has usurped power, but what use 
has been made of power when usurped'?" The es- 
tablishment of universal free education, the 
teaching of the English language, the opening 
up of the great tracts of land to peaceful culti- 
vation by the people, the assurance of equality 
of right and opportunity, irrespective of faction 
or religion, and the maintenance of as good order 
throughout the 767,005 square miles of territory, 
as in Massachusetts, would at the end of a gen- 
eration be an answer to the question of whether 
the United States had interfered in another state 
for the benefit of the people there or of its own. 
The Aztecs overcame the Toltecs. The Span- 
iards conquered the Aztecs. The latter remained 
a ruling caste and did not mingle with the earlier 
people except to their detriment, leaving a de- 
spised proportion, amounting to 43 per cent, at the 
present time, of half breeds. Should the United 
States conquer Mexico, giving opportunity for ex- 
pansion from the Southern States of Italians and 
other descendants of the peoples of the south of 
Europe, used to warm climates, a century or two 
would see all the persons living in that part of 
the continent of North America as much typi- 


cally American in type as any other. For the 
eighteen little states now constituting the repub- 
lic to enter the Union after being annexed to 
the United States would be an injustice to the 
older commonwealths. Because of the conditions 
prevailing, they should be redivided into four 
or six territories and governed as such before 
final admission as states. 

With Canada and Mexico both taken over, 
there would be an immediate expansion of Ameri- 
cans into those countries. They would be as- 
sured of order, just laws and a voice in the gov- 
ernment. New life, by further intermingling, 
would be added to the nation. With greater 
territory, in natural limits, the people of the 
United States would in even larger measure feel 
the greatness of their destiny, and so conduct them- 
selves as to lend all mankind the hope that they in 
their individual and independent spheres might 
bear the name of republic and enjoy similar in- 
stitutions. The United States, as the greatest 
nation on the globe, would be more adequately 
protected from invaders in any direction by be- 
ing embraced within a single continent surrounded 
entirely by water. As the original Romans in 
their republic conquered and amalgamated with 
the other peoples in the Latin peninsula, and 
gained that territory which it was their natural 


destiny, because of geographical and strategic con- 
ditions to occupy, so the Americans should extend 
their greater sway over the entire continent of 
North America, including the West Indies. 



"The theater of events in the great hereafter will be 
upon the broad expanse of the Pacific Ocean." — Wil- 
liam H. Seward. 

To the west of the mountains across which 
Balboa gazed at waters he gave a name suggestive 
of their placidity, and toward that Orient, which 
has until quite recently remained in mysterious 
coma for many centuries, are dawning vast prob- 
lems, the solution of which threatens to change 
the face of the political, economic and religious 

The writer has frequently peered at those se- 
rene depths from the slopes of sunny California 
and pondered the classical past of empires fallen 
to decay upon its western lands which are now 
the East — the long silence of inactivity which 
proved to be but the preparation for succeeding 
mightier overthrows; the adventurers of all lands 
traveling ever in the direction of the sun, until 
they saw it set in golden beams and blood-red 



glow on the waters from whence man had started 
ages before; Zoroastran, Brahman, Buddhist, 
Confucian and Christian carrying their respective 
messages along with the tides that swept their 
sails afar, until even their advancement had 
ceased; and then the activity presaging such new 
life as in the time to come will unite the two 

Resting upon that ocean are four great conti- 
nents which represent the past, present and fu- 
ture of man. The nations bordering it number 
in their population something like seven hundred 
millions. China, India, Mongolia and Man- 
churia signify the birth and early history of the 
human animal, while on the western side of the 
American Rockies are the outposts of the most 
advanced civilization and the most vital people 
of this day. Siberia, Alaska, Canada, Western 
South America and Australia are the forge wherein 
the two forces will work. Up under the roof of 
the world they face each other at Behring Strait. 
South of that narrow inlet is a string of islands 
across which in days when more connected the 
fathers of the ancient Toltecs, Aztecs, Incas, red 
men, aborigines and mound builders may at one 
time have crossed. Towards the Antarctic, west- 
ward from Tierra del Fuego, is a far expanse of 
sea to New Zealand, and then the way is easy 
to New South Wales, Queensland and New 


Guinea, through the Straits Settlements to Borneo, 
Sumatra, Siam and Cathay again. 

China proper has a population of 400,000,000, 
Mongolia of 2,000,000, Siberia of 6,000,000, 
Alaska of 64,356, Yukon Territory of 8,512, 
British Columbia of 392,480, Washington of 
1,141,990, Oregon of 672,765, California of 
2,377,549, Mexico of 15,063,207, Central Amer- 
ica of 3,000,000, Columbia of 5,500,000, Peru 
of 4,500,000, Chili of 5,000,000, New Zealand 
and Australia of 5,000,000, Java of 30,098,000, 
Borneo of 1,250,000, the Celebes of 8^1,000, 
other Dutch East Indies of 4,528,411, Siam of 
8,100,000, Hawaii of 200,005, the Philippines 
of 8,735,000, Japan of 52,985,000 and Korea 
of 15,164,000. Yet these figures give inadequate 
idea of the possibilities of the development of 
peoples within the territories named. That China 
itself is not overpopulated, except in certain dis- 
tricts like that of Canton, is shown by the fact 
that the 400,000,000 people are scattered over 
an area of 1,500,000 square miles. Germany 
supports a seventh of that number of people in 
an area one-ninth as large. It is figured that the 
new republic of China could, without inconven- 
ience to the present population, hold 50,000,000 
more. And so, considering area and fertility, it 
is said that Manchuria can sustain 200,000,000 
more than now, Mongolia another 100,000,000 


and Siberia a similar number. Alaska with a 
climate milder than Sweden and Norway, and 
with an area of 590,884 square miles, could hold 
40,000,000 people. And to the south, in the 
207,076 square miles of the Yukon Territory, the 
355,855 exceeding fertile square miles of British 
Columbia and the richest lands on the Pacific, 
in Washington, Oregon and California, is room 
for 300,000,000 more. In South America, west 
of the Andes, 100,000,000 could be stowed 
away. Australia alone is said to be capable of 
sustaining 300,000,000. In short the countries 
bordering upon the great basin of the Pacific could 
supply life to a billion and a quarter more hu- 
man beings than at present inhabit them. His- 
tory has given much to them, but they are lands 
of the future as well. 

The natural resources of these regions are ex- 
pressed in figures which stagger the imagination. 
In British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and 
California are 1,756,000,000,000 feet of timber, 
ready to be cut down, milled and supply the 
needs of the builders of both the Asiatic and 
American borders of the Pacific. A billion bar- 
rels of oil have been produced in California since 
1891, that State now providing a quarter of the 
world's supply. This is worth twice as much as 
the gold ore mined in all the years since '49. In 
California alone are grown 120,000,000 pounds 


of raisins and apricots annually. In the Golden 
State, too, with climate and soil like that of Italy, 
and with vast supplies of grapes, it is likely, will 
be found the vineyard of the Pacific Ocean na- 
tions. In Oregon and Washington are potentiali- 
ties for wheat growing larger than now, but the 
great granary of the peoples east and west of 
the waters discovered by Balboa will be in Can- 
ada, which will probably in a few years produce 
four times the amount of wheat grown in the 
United States. In Alaska are 32,000,000 acres 
of coal lands, with a possible total output of 
150,000,000,000,000 tons. This includes lig- 
nite and anthracite of the best quality, easy of 
access to tidewater. The land sold to the United 
States by Russia in 1867 for $7,000,000 has 
within itself enough fuel to supply the nations 
upon the great ocean for untold generations. 
Alaska has given the world $200,000,000 in vir- 
gin gold. There also are on the American Pa- 
cific coast immense stores of copper, lead, quick- 
silver, bismuth, vanadium, tungsten, nickel, iron, 
sulphur, antimony, petroleum, salt, zinc, borax, 
cobalt, gypsum, asbestos, ocher, kaolin, molybde- 
nite, manganese, magnesia, mica, peat, and mar- 
ble; in Mexico lie many a bonanza of gold and 
silver. In Chile are the most extensive nitrate 
beds in the world, yielding $30,000,000 in export 
taxes annually. Australia has extended tracts of 


untouched land like that of the United States in 
the middle and latter half of the last century. It 
should supply an industrious and highly developed 
people in time to come. Despite its own immense 
population, which subsists largely on rice, China 
can export more of that staple than all the rest of 
the globe combined. In Siberia also are vast 
tracts for wheat production. Japan can outdis- 
tance the earth in tea-growing. These are but 
scant figures of the stupendous agricultural, min- 
eral and lumber resources of the Great Basin. 

The development of these raw products stimu- 
lates manufactures. With the enhancement of 
traffic through the Panama Canal, New York will 
benefit by being brought seven thousand miles 
nearer San Francisco, Europe five thousand miles 
closer, and New Orleans and Chicago in corre- 
spondingly nearer proximity to the Pacific coast 
and the Orient. As in the case of the Nile, the 
Tigris and Euphrates, the Amo, the Seine, the 
Rhine, and the Thames, great civilizations have 
followed the fertile valleys of the earth. So the 
Mississippi Valley and its products will have a re- 
markably stimulative and retroactive effect upon 
the Pacific Ocean. This part of the United States 
and also the Atlantic seaboard will help to supply 
the tools, farming implements, electrical machin- 
ery and the thousand articles needed for the rapid 
development of new countries. But that portion 


of the United States which will play the greatest 
part in supplying the wants of the peoples upon 
the Pacific Ocean will be the three States border- 
ing upon that body of water, notably California. 
San Francisco has the best harbor, with perhaps 
the exception of Rio de Janeiro, in the world. As 
the Eastern States were made rich in agriculture 
and manufacturing while the Middle West formed 
the outer settlement, and the latter was built up 
into wealthy cities and farming communities while 
the Northwest was the land of possibility, so now 
the territory of the country west of the Rockies 
will seek its prosperity in the quick development 
of Siberia, China and Australia. All the Orient, 
Western Canada, Mexico and South America 
should be the recipients of the products created by 
the cheap iron, coal, oil, lumber and unlimited 
water power of that region. The Coast should 
take the hemp, silk and wool of the Orient, make 
them into various articles and send them back, just 
as the United States formerly sent its wool and 
cotton to Europe and then reimported the manu- 
factured products. The moving picture has taken 
prodigiously in Japan, helping to create a desire 
for creature comforts there and in the East gen- 
erally. Newspapers are being circulated to a 
larger extent in China. Cotton and mixed goods, 
underwear, boots and shoes are called for in greater 
abundance yearly. The Pacific Coast, including 


Canada, can, through the ports of San Francisco, 
Seattle and Vancouver become the distributing 
point of flour to the lands beyond the Pacific 
Ocean. Bread, the staple of the race, can be sup- 
plied by it in inexhaustible quantities. There 
was a time when California produced the finest 
wheat in the world, but with greater profits this 
gave way to fruit raising. This wheat and that 
of the entire coast makes a flour second to none in 
all the world for fineness and delicacy, and for the 
purposes of the peoples of the earth who inhabit 
the milder climates it cannot be surpassed. It 
does not contain sufficient heat for the northern 
races, but the Chinese like it, and there should be 
an immense volume of trade with Southern Asia 
with this as a basis. Oregon and Washington are 
also capable of producing much greater quantities 
of wheat and therefore of flour to meet the grow- 
ing appetite for it on the part of the Orient. 
Canada, however, containing a volcanic ash soil, 
in a few years will outdistance rivals as a wheat 
producer. Much of its product also will in time 
be sent to meet this demand on the part of Asia. 

It is not expected that Argentina wheat will 
enter into the Pacific equation, as the demand for 
its product is mostly from Europe. Siberian 
wheat is too far inland to figure in the Asiatic sup- 
ply, so far as it applies to the lands bordering upon 
the Pacific. But in time the millers of the Pacific 


Coast of America who supply the Pacific trade will 
become more potential factors in wealth than those 
of the northern Mississippi Valley ever were. 
China and Japan cannot take our Coast wheat and 
manufacture it into flour and do it profitably, be- 
cause they have not sufficient demand for by-prod- 
ucts. The experiment has been unsuccessfully 
tried in Japan. India will not become a rival be- 
cause it will consume all of its own wheat and 
flour. An increasing market for the soft wheat 
flour, so agreeable to the southern races, will be 
northwestern South America. 

Next in importance in feeding the Pacific peo- 
ples with wheat, flour and similar products, and 
this is peculiarly the opportunity of California, is 
the production of dried fruits. Nutritious, de- 
licious, easily prepared and transported and very 
cheap, they are expected to be numbered among 
the most popular staples of the Orient. It is con- 
sidered only reasonable to suppose that when the 
Chinese and kindred peoples begin to crave a 
greater variety in eating they will first turn to the 
cheaper foods and these they will find in Cali- 
fornia's dried fruits. That this will be so is in- 
ferred from the case of France which itself raises 
prunes, but imports the prunes of the Golden 
States in enormous quantities. Awaken the Asi- 
atic to the delicacy of the California prune, apri- 
cot and other dried fruits, is now the cry of the 


California merchant. Raisins are nothing but 
dried grapes. California can produce an enormous 
quantity of these and will undoubtedly supply the 
Orient with them. 

With the development of refrigeration and 
faster steamship lines other fruits of the State and 
of Oregon and Washington, such as apples, will 
receive a greater demand from across the Pacific 
Ocean, it is expected. All of the food products 
of the Coast are now mostly consumed in this 
country and Europe, and the demand for them has 
made land in the State highly valuable. But with 
the possibility of hordes of people in Eastern Asia 
calling for them in addition, there is no limit to the 
profits to be made, because the products themselves 
are a monopoly to the Coast. 

The hardier races of the Pacific region must have 
a certain amount of meat. The Chinaman to-day 
when he does eat meat considers it as a delicacy 
and uses it about as an American would eat the 
real Russian caviar. In time he may learn to con- 
sume more, especially if he can afford more. 
With the northern expanses of Asia filling up there 
will be a natural and rapid demand for this prod- 
uct from some source. That portion of the globe 
cannot furnish its own supply because of the hard 
winters and insufficient protection to cattle. Nor 
can the United States requite the demand because 
it will use more than it can sell. Even before the 


war our meat exportation was falling off enor- 
mously. Great ranges have been broken up to 
make way for more profitable small farming, as 
the result of the growth of cities. Hence a less- 
ened supply, increased demand and higher prices. 
Nor can Argentina, which is becoming one of the 
principal abattoirs of the world, supply the meat 
for the Pacific Ocean. Europe will consume the 
surplus of the South American country for a long 
time. But the more important limitation is that 
the cost of refrigeration and the difficulty of carry- 
ing the product so great a distance from Argentina 
around the Horn to the Orient removes it as a 
factor. What nation, then, is destined to supply 
the meat for the Pacific and particularl}^ the 
milder sort, such as mutton, to the inhabitants of 
mild climates? This is conceded to Australia. 
That country has almost limitless tracts of graz- 
ing lands, which can be utilized for the purpose 
for a long period. This fact alone is sufficient to 
cause a rapid extension of population in Aus- 
tralia during the next few decades, as rapid 
as that which was coincident with the develop- 
ment of the American West. 

China will probably continue to be the chief 
rice producer of the world for generations. This 
is indicated by the fact that China now raises all 
it desires for its own vast population, and enough 
to send much abroad besides, and under the crudest 


agricultural methods, with the exception of cer- 
■ tain big plantations conducted under Occidental 
auspices. Owing to the cheapness and value of 
the staple as food the Chinese, Japanese, Hindoos 
and Filipinos will undoubtedly continue its use 
especially among the poorer classes, but as they 
prosper it is expected that they will gradually ac- 
quire the European habit of eating flour and meat. 
And here arises a point which shows that the trade 
will not all be westward, but eastward as well. 
Think of California being referred to as the Far 
East I Yet China will send back to what it will 
consider this Eastern land increasingly greater 
quantities of rice to the United States. As the 
Oriental is rapidly acquiring flour as a food, so the 
Occidental is adopting rice in place of meat, espe- 
cially in the sections not subject to extreme cold, 
where fat is required. The United States is rais- 
ing rice in Louisiana, but not in sufficient quanti- 
ties to supply more than a limited proportion of 
our own population. The Indian rice is small and 
inferior to the American rice product. The Japa- 
nese rice is considered the best. The Japanese 
export this largely and import the Indian, as it 
is cheaper, and the difference makes a big saving 
in their cost of living. They send quantities of 
their own product to the United States and to the 
better classes of China and India who are able to 
pay for it. As rice is peculiarly well adapted to a 


hot climate, South America will use a great deal 
of it. In corn the North American Continent is 
supreme. For a long time the United States will 
continue to lead the world in the raising of this 
staple so vital to humanity. That the commodity 
will enter largely into the transpacific trade is 
doubtful, because it is mostly the food of Northern 
nations. Asia is able to produce enough for its 
Northern climates, and America will be busy sup- 
plying itself and much of Europe. 

Vegetables must be considered perishable, and 
hence cannot be transported across the Pacific un- 
der present conditions. But with the develop- 
ment of canning on this side of the water and the 
enormous supply of such products capable of being 
raised in California, it is believed that San Fran- 
cisco will become the center of a great canning in- 
dustry to feed the peoples of the Orient. In this 
the packers of Chicago have also entered, with 
headquarters on the coast. Australia is expected 
to be only a slight competitor. California berries, 
peaches and other delightful products of its soil, as 
well as many varied products of other parts of the 
Coast and the Mississippi Valley, will go sailing 
over the sea in constantly increasing quantities. 
With cheap water transportation and the practical 
certainty of increasing wants in this direction on 
the part of the Orient, it is anticipated by the Cali- 
fornia canner that he can lay the product of the 


California farm at the door of the housewife in 
Hong Kong or Shanghai as cheaply as in New 
York, and even cheaper. Hence he is hoping to 
reap an immense harvest. This survey does not 
include the products of tropical countries, which 
the United States and all the countries around the 
Pacific will consume in increasing quantities. 
The future of Pacific South America in the feed- 
ing of these peoples will be in cocoa. This de- 
licious, highly nutritious and healthful food 
is now shipped to the Orientals, who have de- 
veloped a taste for it. 

The great rival to the commercial activity of the 
United States upon the Pacific Ocean is Japan. 
That country comprises 1 56,673 square miles situ- 
ated, like Britain, in islands. In a similar area are 
all of the New England States, New York and 
Pennsylvania. This is the most densely populated 
portion of the United States. It contains 16,- 
208,696 people. Yet within the narrow limits of 
Japan are 52,865,259 souls. They live under a 
government where the Emperor has exceptional au- 
thority and is looked upon as a god. His person 
is sacred. But the Japanese are progressive, am- 
bitious and exceptionally efficient. They demand 
an outlet in Asia and will find it. The food and 
population problems form the basis of an inter- 
national policy. The total annual production of 
rice, the chief means of sustenance, is valued at 


640,000,000 yen out of a total agricultural yield 
valued at 1,300,000,000 yen. Nearly 900,000 
people are engaged in the production of tea. At- 
tempts have been constantly made to add to the 
wealth of the country by the stimulation of manu- 
factures. Thus in 1868 the value of all exports 
and imports was 26,246,545 yen. Forty years 
later this total reached 926,880,219 yen. The 
chief import is raw cotton and the chief export is 
raw silk. A million people are engaged in the 
fisheries. Half as many have "weaving houses" 
in what in Japan is a home industry. In these are 
800,000 looms. Sixty thousand make paper and 
an hundred thousand manufacture mats. These 
small establishments are a part of Japanese life 
and are peculiar to itself. The manufacture of 
machiner)^, chemicals, food and beverages takes up 
considerable of the effort of the industrious popula- 
tion. Compulsory education has been adopted 
and 97.8 per cent, of children of proper age of 
both sexes attend school. The system of govern- 
ment is representative and constitutional in theory, 
and partially in practise, but rests fundamentally 
upon the feudal and centralized authority of the 
Emperor. The representatives and nobility gain 
their power in the constitution through him and 
not from themselves or the people. Shiritoism, 
or ancestor worship, Buddhism and Christianity 
are the chief religions. Numerically their rela- 


tive standing is as follows: Shintoism 766,685, 
Buddhism 28,510,382, Christianity 140,208. 
Telegraph and railway lines are owned by the gov- 
ernment in Japan. The Japanese are naturally a 
sea-faring people. The state has subsidized 
steamship lines running to North America, the 
coast of Eastern Asia and India. The navy is 
the third largest in the world and the army has a 
peace footing of 220,000 men, with a trained re- 
serve in the first line of defense of half a million 
men and, altogether, of fully a million men. Un- 
der the present system this is expected to reach in 
ten years about a million and a half. 

Such is Japan, a nation aroused out of its sleep 
since 1868, and, trained in a military way and in- 
dustrially, now seeking its future on the face of the 
great waters wherein its islands rest. Having in- 
sufficient food supply for its surplus population, 
Korea is seized. But Japan desires vaster terri- 
tory in order to gain the raw materials for its 
manufactures and thereby to supply the awaken- 
ing peoples of Eastern Asia. An imitative and 
not a creative nation, it would be difficult to com- 
pete with the United States in the fields of pro- 
duction peculiar to the latter until after imitation 
of them. But seizing all of that territory, in 
which the competition would be, it could impose 
commercial restrictions upon this country's prod- 
ucts which would close what has been known as 


the "open door." Further than that, Japan de- 
sires to impress its will and civilization upon the 
entire Pacific and the nations bordering it. What 
field more inviting than the rich and surpassingly 
beautiful hills and valleys of California, where 
30,000 Japanese already dwell *? The Japanese 
government takes the position that its people are 
equal to those of any other nation, and that the 
United States should accept them as citizens on 
equal terms, as holders of property in the same 
right and as recipients of school privileges on equal 
terms. These are questions which now remain in 
status quo and may have to be again handled by 
the Department of State, if not by the sword. 

Facing Japan, on this side of the great ocean, 
is the American people, loving liberty, ambitious 
to sell its products in fair exchange to the Orient, 
determined to maintain the same high standard of 
wages and life as now. The time has come when 
this people must expand on the waters where their 
interests already lie by possession of the Philip- 
pines and Hawaii. This will not be by further 
taking of territory, and in the time to come both 
those possessions will be restored to the people 
who occupy them, but by argosies of magic sails 
carrying American made goods, symbols of our 
arts and crafts and productive soil, and the word 
of freedom to all men, sent by wire and book and 
paper. The Asiatic and the American do not amal- 


gamate; that is, they do not intermarry, except in 
rare cases, and the Asiatic does not accept of and 
imbibe of methods of life in a land made of a com- 
posite of all Caucasian bloods. He undersells 
both our labor and our product. Japan desiring 
the most alluring tract on the globe on the Pacific 
Coast of North America as a further outlet for its 
people and perhaps as a held of eventual con- 
quest, hardly yet within the minds of Japanese 
statesmen, and determined to become the com- 
mercial and political conqueror of the marvelously 
rich lands bordering the ocean, including Aus- 
tralia, and the United States having its own ideals 
and vital and expanding people, there must be a 
contest for supremacy that will clear the air and 
determine the entire future of the Eastern Orient 
and Western Occident. This may come within a 
few years. The reason for this is that with the 
decline of the British Empire its voice on the 
Pacific Ocean in protection of its interests in Aus- 
tralia and Canada will be stilled, and then will 
be the time for Japan to advance rapidly toward 
what it conceives to be its destiny — the suzerainty 
of the Pacific Ocean. 

The outcome of this struggle cannot be in doubt. 
The course of empire has always advanced west- 
ward and not eastward, from Malay and Cathay 
of old to Babylon, Nineveh and Egypt, to Greece 
and Rome, to the lands of Western Europe, to re- 


publican and democratic America. This in itself 
would not be sufficient to defeat the ambitious 
and energetic Japanese. More than theory is 
required to do that. But the Japanese people 
have not the blood, the strength, the stature to 
compete with the virile Americans. And there 
are lying dormant but ready to be awakened the 
marvelous resources of the United States. While 
the population is but one-half, the military train- 
ing of the Japanese is at present so far superior to 
that of our own people as to be beyond compari- 
son. This country has no ambition upon the Pa- 
cific other than what the name of the ocean itself 
implies. But when the Japanese attempt to im- 
pose their will upon the Coast people who seek to 
protect their civilization from the unassimilable, 
or shut America out of Asia commercially, then the 
dogs of war may be unleashed and the titanic con- 
test commence. It will be such a war as this land 
has never seen. It will arouse the American peo- 
ple from the sickening cant of some who think the 
United States can repose in silence and peace and 
not do its mighty work in the world. It will help 
to make this a nation of soldiers. Some of the 
greatest leaders of all time will appear when the 
battle drums roll. It will result in the utter 
demolition of the Japanese Empire, in loosening 
such shackles as it may have imposed upon the 
Asiatic Continent, in the confining of the rem- 


nant of the Japanese after expansion within their 
own islands, and in the freeing for the future of 
the nations and countless generations to come upon 
the broad expanse of the Pacific for the ideals 
and aspirations but not the conquering sword of 
a republic of free men. This in the ages to come 
will be the benefit derived from the United States 
by the soul of '49 upon its western shores. 



"The sea has its duties and offices to perform ; so, we 
may infer, have its currents, and so, too, its inhabitants; 
consequently he who undertakes to study its phenomena 
must cease to regard it as a waste of waters." — Maury. 

As during the past four hundred years the move- 
ment begun by the daring of the spirit of Colum- 
bus resulted, on the sea along which he sailed west- 
ward, in constant discovery and development and 
a succession of the maritime empires of Spain, 
Portugal, Holland, France and Britain, so now 
are gathering forces on that ocean which may 
eventuate in a mightier struggle than that which is 
taking place at the present time in Europe. 

Spain built in the New World a dominion 

which survived it long beyond the period of its 

greatest strength. It gave laws, institutions and 

religion to South America and the lower portion 

of North America. Portugal, spreading out, 

planted its masterpiece of colonization in Brazil, 

a country larger in extent than the United States. 

Its imprint and that of Spain are so similar, ex- 



cept in language, that they may be said to be one. 
The Dutch founded New Amsterdam, only to have 
it taken away from them and named New York, 
and left but a trace of territory in Dutch Guiana. 
Frenchmen took Canada and explored the Missis- 
sippi, finally giving the Code Napoleon to Louisi- 
ana, where it remains as the fundamental law of 
the State of that name. Their vast possessions 
were either seized by the British or purchased by 
the United States, leaving the English common 
law and representative institutions to have perma- 
nent influence upon the North American conti- 
nent. Questions of sovereignty had long since 
been settled in the Western Hemisphere when 
Africa, almost unknown until 1850, was discov- 
ered and colonized, in this process the Germans, 
Belgians and Italians joining the older colonizing 
nations. Now the greatest of those people which 
have contributed so much to the past of struggle 
and mighty adventure, in an epic of the human 
race on what is the greatest of the oceans in his- 
toric activity, are testing by powder and shot 
which shall survive and give new life to the world, 
and which shall pass away in influence and power 

From the nearer glance of prejudice and ties of 
motherland this combat seems one of titans, but 
when one regards the fighting as a part of the proc- 
ess of history and realizes that, even though several 


years may be required to work out the result, the 
healthy and vital organism alone survives, he sees 
that there is but one titan, and that is Germany. 
This is the land which has planted half a million 
of its people in Brazil, taken over German East 
and West Africa, given 25,000,000 of citizens to 
this republic, and was rapidly forging ahead by 
method and energy in attaining commercial su- 
premacy when a shot at Serejavo put an abrupt 
end to its peaceful expansion. In the event of 
British fleets being destroyed and British, French 
and Italian armies beaten in the field, Africa being 
eventually taken over by the Germans, and the 
energies of the latter people, stimulated by war, 
again turned to commerce, there will come a new 
life and a more spirited struggle upon both the 
North and South Atlantic Oceans. That contest, 
which will not be settled for a generation, will be 
between the German Empire and the United States. 
Africa, assumed to be a German colony, will 
have restrictions placed upon its commerce, how- 
ever slight, which will place trade with the United 
States at a disadvantage, but it ma)^ be consid- 
ered as an immense prize and as having potentially 
an important influence upon the future of the At- 
lantic Ocean. Negroes, Bushmen and Aborigines 
inhabit the interior. In the northeast are 
Egyptians and Abyssinians and in the north the 
Arabs and Berbers. The principal staple of food 


of these latter is dates. South of the narrow 
fringe of territory along which they subsist are the 
deserts of Sahara and Gobi. It is not until their 
lower limits are reached in Central Africa that the 
flora and fauna which are to supply the coming 
ba^is of civilization in Africa commence. In that 
region are to be found tracts of forest for the de- 
velopment of rubber, many kinds of woods, and 
rich agricultural, grazing and mineral lands. 
Since the war began the diamond and gold deposits 
have ceased their output. Subsistence by farming 
alone remains. In the past the United States has 
had considerable trade, especially in agricultural 
machinery, with South Africa. That this will 
grow at the conclusion of the conflict is likely, 
but it may be presumed that the German manu- 
facturers in Germany itself would be favored as 
much as possible should German territory in- 

The remarkable change that would thus come in 
Africa, and have a far reaching effect upon the 
four continents facing the Atlantic Ocean, would 
be away from the present exploitation of negroids 
for the benefit of the nations which hold territory 
in what has been known as the Dark Continent to a 
great civilizing force in the hands of an empire 
equipped to develop the lands from the Mediter- 
ranean to the Cape, economicall)^ physically, edu- 
cationally, politically. Such a vital and energetic 


empire working in Africa would transform the 
continent in a few years. Africa would then be 
prepared to take a part in the affairs of the world 
such as it has never held in human history. This 
would not be merely of an aggressive political 
character, as in the days of Egypt, Carthage and 
the Caliphate, but of a commercial nature. 
Transform by the railroad, electricity and modern 
machinery, as well as by education and the tech- 
nical arts, the vast tracts where Livingstone and 
Stanley explored, and, at the rate of present 
human progress, a hundred millions of people 
would be added to the creators and users of the 
earth's goods. 

At the conclusion of the prolonged conflict now 
being waged in France, Italy, the Balkans and 
Russia the nations of Europe will not longer be 
great colonizers, with the exception of Germany. 
South America cannot be utilized in this respect 
because of the Monroe Doctrine. Neither can 
Africa, if in the hands of the victor. The same 
limitation applies to Australia and India. With 
Japan seizing Eastern Asia, as it gave every evi- 
dence of intending to do when presenting de- 
mands which meant the relinquishment of sover- 
eignty by China, room for seizure of territor)^ in 
that direction under one philanthropic pretext or 
another would cease altogether. For the present 
belligerent colonizing nations, which have strug- 


gled and gained colonial supremacy in the past, 
to compete further is out of the question; they will 
be exhausted. After having exerted itself to the 
utmost and passed into decay, a state never returns 
to conquering strength unless it should have a fresh 
and extended transfusion of blood. For the 
reason that every power in Europe, with the single 
exception of the German Empire, has had its time 
of expansion, it may be concluded that, with the 
defeat of the older peoples, the virile nation ruled 
over by William II will have paramount power on 
the continent. That being true, Germany will 
not be compelled to prepare for a fresh coalition 
against it, but, maintaining a dominant influence, 
will turn its attention in other directions. It will 
become a great manufacturing nation, drawing the 
raw material from its vast colonies to feed its in- 
dustries. It will do more; it will seek to gain the 
commercial supremacy of the world. "Made in 
Germany" will mean more than in the past, be- 
cause of the larger resources of a greater empire. 
Steel, machinery and every commercial product of 
Germany will be utilized in Africa and wherever 
it may possess land. Emigration will cease except 
to its own new fields of exploitation. In South 
America will be found an inviting market for sur- 
plus production. Looking toward unlimited 
means of enhancing German prosperity, the seizure 
of Africa, Australia and even of India, together 


with great influence in Europe, the addition of 
South America to its peaceful conquest with Ger- 
man goods would go far toward the attainment of 
the ultimate ideal. And in that continent the 
chief commercial rivalry of Germany with the 
United States may come. 

South America now offers greater opportunity 
for quick and extended development than any 
similar expanse on the earth. It has the fertile 
valleys of the Amazon and Parana. The interior 
is almost unknown. A great range of mountains, 
with some of the highest peaks in the world, ex- 
tends north and south almost the entire extent of 
the continent. In this are deposits of the pre- 
cious metals which made rich the Spanish grandees 
of old, with other minerals of every kind, and 
enough coal in Chili to supply Latin republics 
for some time. Vast sweeps of grassy plains give 
ample means for cattle grazing and farming. Al- 
ready Argentina is one of the leading wheat pro- 
ducing nations, the principal coffee supply of man- 
kind is raised in Brazil, and rubber is a principal 
crop of a territory like that of the United States. 
Areas of timber lands similar to those to be found 
in North America a century ago await the hand of 
man to cut them. These include mahogany and 
other hard woods. Argentina is an important ex- 
porter of meats and hides. Sugar and tobacco are 
promising crops. Some of the richest soil on the 


globe is to be had for the asking. Means of com- 
munication are primitive in the greater portion of 
the continent, but, in those sections where popula- 
tions has required it, modern transportation facili- 
ties have been provided. No long trunk line of 
railway runs north and south, however, and none 
crosses South America at its widest point. 

That South America will become, in the course 
of the next half a century, one of the greatest agri- 
cultural producers may be judged from its tremen- 
dous virgin resources. The Amazon River is navi- 
gable for 2,200 miles and is 3,300 long. At the 
point of entrance into Brazil it is two miles in 
width and at its mouth is 150 miles from shore to 
shore. Together with its tributaries, it forms the 
largest river system in the world. To-day there 
are in Brazil alone 23,070,969 people. Less 
than half are of white blood, and of these 
some are mixed with Indian and negro strains. 
A third are half breeds and the balance pure negro 
and Indian. Portuguese is the language spoken 
and the basic stock is of that descent. Half a 
million Germans are in the State of Rio Grande dc 
Sul and as many Italians in San Paulo. Yet with 
so large and fertile an area Brazil could easily sup- 
port 150,000,000 people. As railway lines are 
extended and the Amazon becomes a scientifically 
improved system of internal waterways, carrying 
commerce back and forth in the interior, Brazil 


will become one of the chief marts of the world. 
It already has what is perhaps the finest of all har- 
bors at Rio de Janeiro. Argentina, situated in a 
temperate zone, contains farming and grazing pos- 
sibilities which are being rapidly utilized. 
Columbia, with an area two and a half times the 
State of Texas, has a population of 5,076,000, 
mostly mixed white and Indian. Pure whites 
comprise less than ten per cent, of the total. With 
the Panama Canal in near proximity, it offers fine 
opportunities for exploitation in agriculture, 
minerals and timber. In the small country of 
Ecuador, with an area of 116,000 square miles, 
the 1,500,000 people are mostly Indians and half 
breeds; only 200,000 are estimated to be pure 
whites. In British, French and Dutch Guiana the 
people are mostly negroes. Those of Uruguay, on 
the contrary, are almost entirely pure Spanish and 
Italian. Though the smallest country of South 
America, with an area less than Nebraska, the for- 
eign trade of that country in live stock and agri- 
cultural products exceeds $100,000,000, and is 
second only to Argentina, Brazil and Chili. 
Venezuela, with 2,743,000 people in a territory 
of 394,000 square miles, has potentialities depend- 
ent upon the Panama Canal and the development 
of the Caribbean Sea region. The total popula- 
tion of South America is 49,000,000. The con- 
tinent is capable of sustaining 300,000,000 easily. 


Though it has a very large supply of water- 
power and an abundance of coal and iron, South 
America has only latent possibilities for manufac- 
turing. Agricultural products are exported north- 
ward and eastward. The principal manufac- 
tured articles are exchanged for those from the 
United States, Germany and the United King- 
dom. In thirteen years the value of these im- 
ports from the former increased from $38,337,- 
667 to $145,724,022. It will be some time, 
a generation perhaps, before the inner recesses 
of the great expanse of land is discovered and 
brought to cultivation. This process will be 
more rapid than in the case of the United States 
because of the world's development of transporta- 
tion, electricity and machiner}^ But were the eco- 
nomic condition different, the people would still 
be held back by the fact that most of them are still 
of one blood, so far as any true amalgamation is 
concerned, and are lacking in the vital energy to 
be found in the United States. The largest pro- 
portion of the inhabitants are Spanish, Portu- 
guese and Italians, of the European stocks, and ne- 
groes and Indians of the remainder. Each of 
them has remained for the most part distinct. 
Falling into old Spanish ways in education, re- 
ligion and life, and conducting commercial affairs 
largely on a social basis, the people who have im- 
migrated to build new lands have not had the same 


hardihood, initiative and quick perception of the 
American pioneer. Made up of races of mild 
climates in Europe, which had their day of greatest 
expansive power several centuries ago, the South 
Americans look at life from a different viewpoint. 
Easier means of livelihood and the accentuation 
of purpose upon enjoyment rather than ambition 
are more apt to be the rule. At the conclusion of 
the present war there will undoubtedly be a big 
influx to new possibilities and fields of production 
in the Latin-American continent from the southern 
lands of Europe especially, and perhaps from cen- 
tral and northern Europe as well. If there could 
be a great admixture of all the races of Europe in 
South America, as has been the case in the conti- 
nent to the north of it, and if the climate of Brazil 
were cooler, there might be a hope that another 
mighty race like the Americans would come into 
being in the valley of the Amazon and the Argen- 
tina Republic. But such, in the nature of things, 
will not be the case. The French, English, Rus- 
sians and Scandinavians have done most of their 
peopling in other lands. 

The Germans in Brazil will probably remain as 
they are, with natural additions and slight accre- 
tions from the Fatherland. The Irish have chosen 
but one land of adoption. Immigration to South 
America, then, will continue to be largely confined 
to the peoples from the southern half of the Euro- 


pean Continent, who take the line of least resist- 
ance in language and climate. The latter is a 
great drawback to the quick development of South 
America, especially in manufacturing. The Ama- 
zon runs almost parallel with the Equator, and 
nearly all of Brazil is situated in a zone exactly 
similar to that from the great central line to the 
southernmost limits of Mexico. The latitude of 
49° south, which corresponds to the northern 
boundary of the United States, falls in the lower 
part of Patagonia, almost at Cape Horn. The 
rays of the sun subdue the haste of man. In 
Argentina and Chili alone it is possible to build, 
so far as the climatic conditions are concerned, a 
great people in South America. Also lack of 
skilled labor will retard growth. As nature does 
for man in a tropical country what his energies do 
not permit him to do, it also takes away initi- 
ative for manufacturing and leaves him dependent 
for such products upon his hardier neighbors. 
The great manufacturing nations of the world have 
been those with the most abundant energy. 

That South America is prepared for speedy de- 
velopment of population and trade with other 
continents is evidenced by the fact that the govern- 
ments of the several nations of that immense do- 
main are more stable than formerly. From the 
time of the throwing off of the yoke of Spain, un- 
der Simon Bolivar in 1821, until a few years ago, 


revolutions and dictators followed each other in 
rapid succession. Tyranny was often exercised 
under the name and form of a republic. Corrup- 
tion and favoritism thrived. Privileges were bar- 
tered. But in the course of the last generation has 
grown up a more orderly condition. Life and 
property have become more secure. As none of the 
fears on the part of the South American States of 
future aggression by the United States is justified, 
and as the land of Washington and Lincoln has 
vouchsafed to each of them protection against 
European aggression under the doctrine promul- 
gated by President Monroe, it may be concluded 
that government by the people has permanently 
taken possession of all South America. 

With Germany determined to become the prin- 
cipal trading nation on the Atlantic Ocean, and 
therefore to enhance its position in South America, 
where it stood second only to Great Britain before 
the war, it becomes the duty of the United States 
to take advantage of this war to prepare a mer- 
chant fleet adequate to meet the demands of a 
growing commerce. This aim should be assisted 
by the establishment of American banks and 
branch houses in South America, the teaching of 
Spanish and German for two years each, instead 
of four years of classical Latin, in every high 
school in this country, and the adaptation of sales 
methods to South American habits, customs and 


needs. There was a time before our own Civil 
War when the United States had a merchant 
marine that meant something in the world's give 
and take on the high seas. This was then an agri- 
cultural nation. Its people were frugal. Their 
wants were simple. Their standard of living was 
on a par with their rivals in shipping. But during 
the Civil War the greater number of American bot- 
toms disappeared, and then, with the enhancement 
of manufactures and a much higher standard of 
wages and living, it became more difficult to com- 
pete with foreign ship rates, because of the ad- 
vantage to the marine of other countries of lower 
wages. To regain the position formerly held by 
the United States in the ocean carrying trade, it is 
imperative not only that ship building be stand- 
ardized to single patterns for equal size, but that 
cargoes to distant points be subsidized to such an 
extent as would not enrich the many at the expense 
of the few, but cover the disproportion between the 
cost of maintenance at home and abroad, as in the 
case of the tariff. After the war a system of dis- 
criminating duties against goods imported in for- 
eign bottoms might be an alternative, but in that 
case the nations flying their respective flags on 
those bottoms might retaliate, as they did when 
they forced France to abandon such duties. The 
question then resolves itself into this: What 
benefit would be derived by this country from hav- 


ing its trade carried in its own bottoms and under 
its own flag"? The answer is that a foreign flag, 
carrying its own captain and seamen and its own 
cargoes principally, and those of the United States 
only incidentally, is much more interested in its 
own trade than in ours. Shipping has always car- 
ried civilization in an awakened desire for goods, 
customs and even institutions. This has been so 
with Tyre, Greece, Rome, Venice, Portugal, Spain, 
Holland, France and Britain. The earth is cov- 
ered with a net work of wires to-day, and the same 
prominence is not given to the arrival of a vessel 
in port as in former times, but the principle sur- 
vives and undoubtedly has an effect upon trade. 
Those who have seen the benefits of the protective 
tariff, without its abuses, believe that a mild and 
just subsidy would stimulate our foreign com- 
merce. The amount should not be agreed upon 
haphazard, but after thorough governmental in- 

To protect the commerce thus developed the 
United States should have a fleet as great if not 
greater than any other in the world. If liberty is 
worth while, it is worth protecting by an adequate 
navy. This country should have no desire for 
conquest outside of its natural territory on the 
North American continent. But it must be pre- 
pared to uphold the Monroe doctrine against any 
nation that might attempt to menace it. Ameri- 


can inventions, secretly patented and paid for by 
the government, should assist in the building of 
such a navy. Battleships, cruisers and submarines 
of adequate number should be ready to carry out 
the destiny of the United States on both oceans. 

With the close of the conflict in Europe, men 
and women in all the countries embroiled will turn 
their attention again to peaceful pursuits. Six 
per cent, of casualties resulted in 1870. In this 
war they may amount to ten per cent., which 
would be a tremendous death rate considering the 
large numbers engaged on both sides. The re- 
maining 90 per cent, will take up the vocations 
they learned before the clash of arms began, or 
such new ones as economic necessity may demand. 
Women, having entered the field of industry, will 
make an additional productive asset. Indeed, 
they will more than make up for the losses sus- 
tained in the several years of struggle. All the 
method and systematic effort utilized by entire na- 
tions for war purposes will be turned to manu- 
facturing, agriculture and other forms of industry 
and commerce. The result will be an intensified 
production, just as there was after the Civil War 
in the United States and the War of 1870 in both 
Germany and France. The more intensified the 
production, the greater will be the demand for 
foreign markets. For a time wages will be lower 
than before the conflict began, the costs of pro- 


duction will be less, and the consequent lower prices 
for manufactured articles should make it more dif- 
ficult for us to compete. Hence the even greater 
necessity for the development of American markets 
in South America to the utmost at once, while in- 
dustry in Europe is still largely paralyzed. 

With the exception of Germany, and perhaps 
Russia, the population of Europe will in all proba- 
bility remain about stationary, the expansion of 
the present peoples having already taken place. 
The Italians are a prolific race and as emigration 
continues to South America and California it is 
likely that their numbers will be resupplied. 
Should 28,000,000 of Germans emigrate to the 
lands conquered by it, and 20,000,000 of the in- 
habitants of other European countries take ship 
to find larger opportunities in North and South 
America and Australia, there would still be made 
up in a generation the numbers lost. With room 
for a quarter of a billion more persons in South 
America, 200,000,000 more in Africa and 150,- 
000,000 more in the continent of North America, 
it is idle to lessen immigration by a literacy test 
into this country, about to spread out and take 
Canada and Mexico, though Congress has so de- 
creed. Character is the true test, and this the 
pioneers who have come to these shores in cease- 
less streams have had in abundance, or soon de- 
veloped it under our representative institutions. 


Facing each other on either side of the Atlantic 
Ocean will be two mighty opposing forces. On 
the western side, in both North and South Amer- 
ica, have been built up in the course of a century 
republican institutions which have withstood the 
trial of war and civil strife. When Canada has 
been added to the United States, no lands in the 
Western Hemisphere will be left subject to the 
rule of a foreign potentate, with the exception of 
British and Dutch Guiana, a very small remnant 
of once expansive territories which 150 years ago 
resounded with the lash over the slave, the ex- 
ploitation of the native by those in clerical au- 
thority and the clash of king contending with 
king for supremacy. By an international doctrine 
made by President Monroe, the ties between them 
became more and more interlinked, the sincerity 
of that protectorate being proven by this Republic 
taking over Cuba for a time and then giving it 
freedom again. In a few years there should be 
built, mainly by the people of the United States, a 
great intercontinental Pan-American railway run- 
ning down both sides of the Northern Continent 
from Alaska and New Foundland to Panama and, 
branching out again along the east and west coast 
of South America, to a grand terminus in Pata- 
gonia. This project, long contemplated, will unite 
the two continents commercially as never before, 
but not politically. It may be that with similar 


interests of blood and language the individual re- 
publics of South America will unite in one state, 
as in North America. However, as some of them 
are separated by natural barriers and have main- 
tained separate identity so long, such a process 
must necessarily be postponed. 

On the eastern side of the Atlantic Ocean ap- 
pear two great continents, both, for the most part, 
composed of monarchies, or subject to monarchy, 
and the greatest possessor of territory within the 
Continent of Europe an absolutism. The govern- 
ment of some of these states have been modified by 
constitutional principles ; others, as Spain and Aus- 
tria, have remained imbedded in the mud of the 
past. In Africa the Berber is as he has been since 
the decline of the Caliphate, an ignorant nomad. 
Further to the south an hundred millions of deni- 
zens of the forest toil under an equatorial sun, 
subject to the will of European potentates. Only 
in South Africa, in the temperate zone, has a civi- 
lization developed which may be accounted new 
and promising. That, too, is subject to the juris- 
diction of kings. This underlying condition of 
monarchy, and peoples, subordinated to the will 
of sovereigns throughout both continents, will, 
with the triumph of German arms, have one stout 
exponent to defend it, the last and greatest of the 



"Though the mills of God grind slowly, yet they grind 

exceeding small ; 
Though with patience He stands waiting, with exactness 

grinds He all." — Sinngedichte. 

Germany has the strength to win the present 
war, and should do so in order that it may accom- 
plish its work in advancing civilization; yet the 
empire carries within it the causes of its ultimate 
destruction. Every organism in nature contains 
the germ of its own decay. As a man developing 
to the fulness of his manhood also has in his 
blood that which leads him by steady processes to 
the grave, so a nation which may be engaged in 
crushing decadent opponents, has in itself that 
which will deprive it in its turn of suzerainty and 
power. To examine the course the German Em- 
pire will take at its apogee and the reasons for its 
declension to its final end is the purpose of the 
present chapter. 

That this empire at the utmost limit of its effi- 
ciency will be content with anything less than vast 



dominion is not to be conceived, any more than 
Macedon under Alexander, Rome under Trajan, 
the Caliphate under the Abassids, the Empire of 
the West under Charlemagne, the Mongols under 
Jenghis Kahn, the Berlas under Timur, Spain 
under Charles V, Britain under Chatham, Russia 
under Catherine, or France under Napoleon. 
Germans are proud of their civilization, with its 
science, education and art, and of the strength of 
their arms. According to the law of blood, cer- 
tain to win in the present conflict, it naturally fol- 
lows that the same aggressive spirit will arouse a 
desire that their civilization pervade all peoples. 
That the vital German organism is far superior to 
the decadent Russian, British, French and Italian 
ones is amply proven by heroic victories and by 
the reasons touched upon earlier in this work. 
But whether it would be best for Germany to be 
the world force of the future is another question. 

Probably no nation in history ever made such 
rapid progress as may be expected within the Ger- 
man Empire after this war. Every trained re- 
source will be turned to the development of in- 
dustry. It may be taken for granted that the Ger- 
man government will assist to the fullest extent 
the efforts of its merchants to gain world trade. 
As before the conflict it assisted its shipping in 
order to meet competition and shaded its tariffs to 
offset those of foreign states, so it may be believed 


it will do in the future. Then it was second in the 
commerce of the earth and was rapidly gaining 
upon Great Britain. With the latter out of the 
way, it will have in the near or distant future" one 
serious rival — the United States. It will attempt 
to undersell and underbid, as great corporations 
of the United States have often sold far beneath 
their home prices in order to get business. And 
with cheaper labor and raw material it will have a 
natural advantage. This may be overcome to 
some extent by the creative resource of the people 
of the United States. And to overcome it the 
manufacturers and merchants of this country will 
be compelled to aim in great measure to please the 
taste as well as the wants of other peoples, whether 
it be in Europe, Africa, South America or the 
Orient. In machinery, dyes, cutlery and novelties 
German competition must be met by new indus- 
tries developed in the United States. The genius 
of America is invention. That should provide the 

So long as the present Kaiser lives Germany 
will thrive. The reason for this is plain. The 
institutions of the country were formed for a 
strong central authority. In the hands of an ag- 
gressive personality like Bismarck, who shaped 
them to give scope to his capacity, and of an able 
potentate like William II, who will develop his 
kingdom to its utmost limits under them, they 


have worked for the benefit of the empire as a 
whole and hence indirectly for the advantage of 
all men. The Kaiser has absolute control of the 
army and navy and has expended his utmost effort 
and treasure to extend them to their utmost effi- 
ciency. He alone makes treaties of peace. He 
appoints the chancellor, who is the sovereign's 
mouthpiece and head of the administrative system, 
as Bismarck intended he should be, and is respon- 
sible to him alone. He names the committees on 
the army, navy and fortresses in the Bundesrat, the 
less numerous body of the legislature. He alone 
enters into alliances and makes treaties with for- 
eign countries. He has the right to appoint 
through the chancellor and dismiss at will all im- 
perial officials, including those in the diplomatic 
and consular, post and telegraph services. In all 
fundamental ways the responsibility for the gov- 
ernment of the state rests upon the man who is at 
the same time King of Prussia and German Em- 

This entire system of centralized authority, 
working in thorough administrative and legal de- 
tail, is closely akin to that of the Roman Empire. 
Any difference lies in the development of the 
Kaiser's realm to suit the needs of the modern 
world. As the Roman officials worked under the 
direct control of the Emperor, so do they in Ger- 
many to-day. As the Roman Senate had no final 


authority, so the Bundesrat is selected by the states 
of the empire and is partially under control of the 
Kaiser. The Reichstag, elected by the people, 
while having more authority than the ancient 
body, is in the same general sense subject to the 
will of the sovereign. That authority rests 
hereditarily in the family of HohenzoUern. As 
in Rome the throne was upheld by the army, espe- 
cially the Pretorian guard, and the monarch there- 
fore sought to propitiate the cohorts by dotations 
and other favors, so in the German Empire the 
Emperor, realizing that his chief dependence is 
upon the army and navy, propitiates them; with 
this variation, that in Germany the Kaiser and 
both arms of the service have the hearty support 
of the people. As consols, prsetors, sediles, 
tribunes and questors were subordinated to the 
higher central authority of the princeps, so all the 
administrative system of modern Germany is sub- 
ject to the will of the Emperor. In both cases a 
bureaucracy existed for all practical purposes. 
The pandects of Justinian have this to say: 
"The pleasure of the Emperor has the vigor and 
effect of law, since the Roman people by the royal 
law have transferred to their prince the full extent 
of their own power and sovereignty." As Gibbon 
remarks, "The will of a single man, or a child per- 
haps, was able to prevail over the wisdom of ages 
and the inclination of millions." 


This centralization of authority was for a time 
highly beneficial to the Roman people. Harbors, 
roads, bridges were built, waste lands were re- 
claimed, commerce was regulated and encouraged, 
loans were advanced to the farmers at small inter- 
est upon the security of their land, and the finances 
of the Empire were supervised by trained adminis- 
trators. So it is in Germany, where under a great 
bureaucratic system every agency of the com- 
monwealth has been utilized for the benefit of the 
citizens. Internal improvements in the building 
of harbors, military roads and post and telegraph 
communication has gone on with the highest effi- 
ciency. Deep waterways and canals have aided 
commerce. Tariffs have regulated it. Public 
sanitation and other rules for the furtherance of 
health, order and obedience to the police power 
have restricted the lives of men. Transplanted 
across the Alps in new soil throughout many cen- 
turies of interacting relations between Italy and 
Germany, that jurisprudence of the Romans 
wherein the state was everything and the indi- 
vidual comparatively nothing, has found its coun- 
terpart in Germany. And none will contend that 
its effects have been less beneficial for the time 
being to the average of citizenship. Also in their 
colonial policy of treating the peoples under their 
sway as a part of the great machine for develop- 
ment, these ancient and modern empires are simi- 


lar, as evidenced by German East Africa and 
Kiou Chou. The Romans were not among the 
great colonizing nations. Maritime genius did 
not come to them as a gift, as it did with Phoenicia 
and Greece. Nor have the Germans been among 
the colonists of the modern period, as Portugal, 
Spain and Great Britain. Germany has taken 
over its extensions of territory by force and held 
them for its development and their own. New 
lands thus conquered, as Alsace-Lorraine and 
Poland, have been transformed by method and 
scientific administration. 

It was said by a celebrated historian that no age 
in the history of the world was so peaceful, orderly 
and happy as that of the Antonines. Then the 
good emperors reigned. Hadrian was succeeded 
by Trajan, and he by Antoninus Pius and Marcus 
Aurelius. All four were famed for statecraft, 
soldierly qualities and moral principles. The 
public welfare was their sole aim. The ideals 
of Plato and Aristotle of centralized authority in 
the hands of a good man were highly exemplified. 
But that same authority when placed in such suc- 
cessors as Commodus, Pertinax, Caracalla and Al- 
exander Severus gave the people who inhabited the 
empire hideous examples of injustice and infamy. 
Without the check of a strong legislature or an 
independent judiciary, based upon popular sup- 
port, their own will made the government. In 


the long line of emperors that followed it was 
only an occasional man of genius, armed with su- 
preme power, who restored anything of the great- 
ness of the Roman name. Thus it is with the 
German Empire. In the hands of a wise, strong 
and essentially good man, like William II, the en- 
tire body of subjects reaps the ripest benefits of 
intelligent rule. The legal avenues between him 
and them are unimpeded by intermediary author- 
ity not within the scope of his will. The ablest 
citizen of a great state, he guides it through the 
time of its zenith. Because he expresses their 
highest ideals, he is the leader as well as the king 
of the German people. But upon his death, 
should his power descend to a less competent, wise 
and efficient monarch, the entire system of ad- 
ministration, so praiseworthy now, will become 
the engine for cruelty and oppression. And 
should that authority be placed in the hands of 
an irresolute, selfish, headstrong, egotistical son, 
believing it to be the destiny of Germany to make 
the world like itself, the result would be unpro- 
voked wars upon the flimsiest pretexts in order 
to attempt to surpass the glory of his fathers' 
as well as internal corruption and chaos. 

At the present day, with the nation at its max- 
imum, this does not seem possible for Germany. 
But in the recollection of all the centuries that 
have preceded the twentieth it not only becomes 


probable but inevitable. William II is no better 
than either of the four good emperors. The Em- 
pire itself, to be mightiest of the modern world, 
cannot surpass by contrast with its contemporaries 
the grandeur that was Rome. Yet those poten- 
tates were succeeded by bad ones, and the power 
and authority of the Roman state passed into ob- 
livion a millennium and a half ago. Spain, 
France, Russia, all saw great rulers followed by 
weak ones, who by their less vigorous character 
assisted in the decline of power of their respective 
peoples. The present crown prince of Germany 
is not without virtues, but he does not appear to be 
gifted with the powers of a Bismarck or his father. 
He is impatient, dictatorial and has at times been 
wanting in filial devotion. In his operations on 
the western front of battle he has not distinguished 
himself as a great military genius. No man can 
transmit his spirit to his son. That son has his 
own character which will prove itself, whatever 
it may be, when the scepter of the Hohenzollerns 
has descended to him. It is certain that the eldest 
son of the crown prince and those who follow will 
be weaker still. 

Ridding itself by blood and iron of its rivals 
in the several years required for the task, Ger- 
many will become the highest expression of mon- 
archy. Even now the authority of the sovereign 
is there asserted as in few other countries on the 


globe. Resplendent in power in Europe and in 
suzerainty over vaster dominion than at present 
embraced within the limits of Great Britain, it 
will stand as the greatest exponent of the prin- 
ciple of the right of might to subject other races 
and nations; in their turn vigorously asserted by 
the Russians, French, Turks, Austrians and Eng- 
lish. With harshness and hardness it may be ex- 
pected it will exact what it considers to be its 
destiny. Having gained its immense power over 
men by the sword, it will lay stress upon powder 
and shot as its weapons of achievement and will 
seek to extend its dominion by them. This tend- 
ency toward sinister disregard of human right 
will be enhanced by the Germans themselves and 
their institutions. The methodical efficiency of 
the people has lent scope to paternalism and hence 
to monarchy. Individuality and individual lib- 
erty have been ground out in the process of mak- 
ing the state a means of benefiting all men 
through governmental machinery. Socialism 
was born in Germany, and nowhere has its central 
idea of a crushing tyranny of the majority had a 
greater vogue than there. Organization of mili- 
tary forces for the defense of the Fatherland 
against possible invaders has helped to teach the 
utmost respect for authority of superiors, whose 
jurisdiction is accepted as a matter of course. 
Men are regarded merely as cogs in the great ma- 


chine. Haeckel among German thinkers expresses 
the view of a strictly material evolution, in which 
there is room for neither God nor spirit. All 
these tendencies will be accentuated after the pres- 
ent conflict. The belief will become general that 
by men, horses, brains, cannon, powder, organiza- 
tion of material forces of every kind, can victory 
alone be won. German soldiers and civilians are 
now held above this by the Kaiser, who in simple 
humility bows before the All Wise King who rules 
the world. But when directed by a less godly and 
more materially minded man, Germany will wield 
a mailed fist that will know no pity for subjected 
commonwealths or remorse for rights removed. 
Monarchy, abetted by national characteristics, 
finds and will find its last word in the German 

In the attributes of its people, the forms of its 
institutions and its highest ideals Germany is in 
direct antithesis to the United States. Its rule 
is that of monarchy. Ours is that of a republic. 
In Germany individuals are subjected to a gen- 
eral system for the good of all. In this country 
leadership is the sum total of developed individu- 
ality. There power rests primarily in the sover- 
eign. Here the foundations of authority rest in 
the people themselves. In Germany is nominal 
control of religion by the state. In this land 
every faith may thrive without molestation by 


any other, and without the least interference from 
governmental authority. In the Empire there is 
not only a differentiation of the population into 
classes in the minds of men, but in fact as well. 
An hereditar}^ caste usurps privileges given to an- 
cestors. The Kaiser himself gains his throne solely 
because he is the eldest son of his father. A gov- 
ernmental or bureaucratic class is the natural out- 
growth of the Germanic system of administration. 
Laborers, expressing themselves through social- 
ism, place themselves in a separate class. Cleri- 
cal interests are -represented in the Reichstag. In 
this country an opposite system prevails. Every 
citizen contains within himself the potentiality of 
sovereign or millionaire. No classes or privilege 
exist. In Germany the soldier has a tendency to 
command with his sword the respect which he is 
led to believe is due him. Temporarily, at least, 
he is apart from the people. In free America 
the soldier of the time being remains simply a 
part of the body of citizens. He has no king to 
defend; only his country and fellow citizens. 

One of these two systems of government must 
perish from the earth. Germany is the epitome 
of the one and the United States of the other. 
From Babylon and Nineveh to Rome and thence 
to the old Holy Roman Empire, ruled over by 
Hauenstaufen, Swabian, Franconian and Saxon 
emperors, to the Spanish Charles V, the House of 


Austria and finally the Hohenzollerns, the mo- 
narchial traditions of the Empire are clear. Those 
of America are drawn from the republics of 
Greece, Rome, the free states and cities of the 
Middle Ages, Holland, Switzerland and six hun- 
dred years of development of constitutional gov- 
ernment in England, from Magna Charta to the 
Declaration of Independence. The constant con- 
comitant of monarchy is subjection; that of a re- 
public is freedom. Monarchy implies a limita- 
tion of effort and opportunity and, in bad hands, 
a menace to welfare. A representative govern- 
ment like that of the United States provides limit- 
less development of free spirits, subject only to 
the order and law imposed by the people them- 

If one of these systems alone can prevail, it will 
be that which is best for humanity. That which 
lends the fullest expression of life, breaks every 
shackle in the way of betterment and gives promise 
of a constantly increasing degree of happiness, con- 
tentment and accomplishment in the future will 
succeed in the gigantic struggle to take place in 
the years to come between Germany and the 
United States, It is likely that twenty years will 
pass before that contest on the land and sea which 
is to decide the fate of the world. Yet it is as 
certain to come as that struggle develops character 
or that Halley's comet will return to the view of 


the people of this planet in 1990. For the eventu- 
ality of such a contest, as well as for the conquest 
of the continent of North America and the defeat 
of Japan's design to control the Pacific Ocean, the 
citizens of the United States, black and white, 
rich and poor, male and female, must prepare. 
When it comes it will be enhanced by rivalry for 
the trade of the world and for influence in all 
spheres of activity, but perhaps by feelings of 
horror and amazement against methods pursued 
by the German Empire toward nations and indi- 
viduals alike. 

It would seem that at the close of the present 
war, with blood and iron in the ascendent, Ger- 
many will be in a better condition to contest the 
influence and power of the United States than at 
any other time. With vastly greater resources 
than now and the tremendous advancement in in- 
dustry in the years following the close of this con- 
flict, the United States would not at first glance 
appear to be able to withstand further German ag- 
gression. But the German Empire during its 
present mighty efforts to subdue its numerous de- 
generate rivals will by the long and grueling proc- 
ess have exhausted itself in attaining its widest 
limits. Its supreme hour of victory will also an- 
nounce that its supreme strength has been ex- 
pended. It will have performed its greatest serv- 
ice in doing away with the power outside their own 


immediate borders of decrepit states. It will 
reap the reward of dominance by prosperity and 
the success of its message throughout the territory 
conquered. But the blood of the German people, 
having expended its strength, cannot withstand a 
younger nation with a far greater transfusion and 
therefore with much more strength. The Empire 
will reap the reward of victory by the sword and 
then pass away, as all other nations have pre- 
viously done. With universal military service of 
all of its youth of whatever color, race or creed 
the United States will rapidly become the greatest 
military nation the earth has ever seen. With in- 
exhaustible materials at hand and a genius for in- 
ventive capacity, it will surprise its opponents 
with its arms, munitions and methods. The art 
of war has constantly changed, as everything ex- 
cept the human soul, during the five thousand and 
more years of history. The American people will 
contribute their new ideas to this field of human 
endeavor, with the result of salvation of the earth 
from tyranny, monarchy, privilege and caste. 
The German legions of the future cannot prevail 
over the armies of a free people, armed cap-a-pie 
and led by men of genius. Those legions will be 
ground to pieces and the German Empire will be 
severed, dismembered and disappear. 

The final test of the law of blood will come 
when this people shall have reached their zenith 


after exactly three hundred years of transfusion of 
blood, about 1938, and shall by the mighty power 
of muscle, brawn and quickened energy give their 
own message to the earth. Should this test be 
precipitated by an attempt to overthrow the Mon- 
roe doctrine, and to set up in South America the 
jurisdiction of a successor to William II anxious 
to overthrow liberty, the final victory would be 
obtained only after much sacrifice. Our navy, it 
must be insisted again and again, should be more 
daring and efficient than any that has ever faced 
hostile fleets on the seas. The battles on water 
and land to determine whether the world of a bil- 
lion and a half of souls shall be ruled by a useless 
and capricious monarch, even though limited by 
a constitution, or rule themselves through their 
own representatives, will be fought against the 
selfish vanity of king and empire and for the free- 
dom of all men. That such a frightful catas- 
trophe can occur on the planet, despite all the 
lovers of peace everywhere, may be inferred from 
the bitterness already engendered among large 
masses of Germans and Americans against each 
other. Much of this feeling is caused by a disre- 
gard of the rights and motives of Germany on the 
part of some Americans, and by a misconception 
on the part of Germans that such disregard ex- 
tends to all Americans. Though this may be 
temporary, national prejudices when once started 


are difficult to allay and at a later time in any 
crisis between the two states would be likely to 
flame at once into hatred. This is especially true 
where such nationalities are great rivals. 

Germany has a destiny to fulfil in giving its 
civilization to the peoples conquered. But hav- 
ing accomplished that work, under so great an 
emperor as William II, and having become ex- 
hausted in the doing of the task, in the hands of a 
weaker successor it may seek to contest the rising 
prestige and power of the United States, asserted 
in international politics, commerce and intellectual 
achievement. That this country will be the 
aggressor against Germany in policy is unthink- 
able, because it is not the aim of a government of 
free men to subject any of the States of South 
America. It will, however, attempt to gain the 
utmost trade there within the limits of fair mari- 
time rivalry and to keep it in the face of any pres- 
sure of any kind brought to bear from Europe. 
To, any great empire constantly extending its 
power by its strong right arm, the attempt of the 
United States to set up an arbitrary limit to its 
aggression and to state under the term of the Mon- 
roe Doctrine that it shall not encroach farther 
upon the territory or liberties of any republic in 
South America, might seem the result of a mere 
figment of the imagination of an earlier President 
of a combination of States east of the Mississippi. 


It might be urged by any future chancellor of the 
German Empire that such a doctrine is merely the 
selfish design of a nation seeking to protect itself. 
The test of whether it is selfish or for the good of 
mankind to protect all of South America from 
European aggression, so that republics and not 
monarchies may endure in this hemisphere is to 
be found in the aims of the people of the United 
States. Their ideals lend full sincerity to the pur- 
poses stated by Monroe. But the final proof of 
the endurance of the doctrine is to be found in the 
armies and the navy of the Great Republic. 
They alone can maintain it against any power. 
With England vanquished, there can be but one 
empire which would seek to destroy the segis of 
the United States in the Western Hemisphere. 
That is Germany. 

When such a conflict does come troops from 
other nations may lend aid to each side, but the 
future of the United States and the world will 
depend upon the transfused blood of many 
peoples into the one American stock. More men 
will lay down their lives than ever before. In the 
air, on the land and sea, under the water, across 
the Atlantic and Pacific, in Asia and Europe, and 
perhaps in South America and Africa the greatest 
of all wars will be waged. Of that struggle 
JDaniel spoke when he said, "there will come a time 
of distress such as hath never been since the ex- 


istence of any nation." The magnitude of the 
present world conflict will pale by contrast. The 
reason for this will be that the fighting in the 
Great Time will be done by peoples with mightier 
energies than any that have preceded them. 
Across continents and oceans the Stars and Stripes 
will be borne, and always to ultimate victory. 
The greatest of ambitions will be in the balance. 
Racial antagonisms will be at fever heat. In- 
vention and science will have contributed their 
last effort to death dealing devices. The greatest 
of stakes — world supremacy and liberty — will be 
contended for. 

And when it is over, when the last of the em- 
pires has in its turn decayed and passed away, the 
United States will give its message to a humanity 
wearied by conflict. The Japanese and the Ger- 
mans, the only two great peoples that have not yet 
achieved their utmost, will then in the nature of 
things have been vanquished. Exhausted men, 
careworn women and tear-stained children will 
long and hope for a new dispensation in which 
there shall be surcease from sorrow and in which 
there shall be found delight for the human heart. 
Then it will be that free America will say: Let 
there be no more war. Thus far and no further 
shall the ambitions of nations and peoples go. 
Let us make every human being on the globe free 
from servility and woe. Let us do away with 


monarchy, privilege and tyranny, whether in the 
name of religion or the state. Let us give to man 
those blessings which were promised him by the 
Almighty through the prophets of Israel in ancient 
days. Let us melt down the states of the earth 
and make them one great republic. Let us place 
all religions in the crucible of criticism and expe- 
rience, so that there may emanate from them a 
common humanity and a common God. 



"Ah God, for a man with heart, head, hand, 
Like some of the simple great ones gone 
Forever and ever by. 
One still strong man in a blatant land, 
Whatever they call him, what care I, 
Aristocrat, democrat, autocrat — one 
Who can rule and dare not lie." 

— Tennyson. 

Every nation which has a stupendous labor to 
perform produces a preeminent personality to do 
it. The mightier the nation and the task the 
greater the man seems to be to those who come 
after him. The United States, having before it 
the superlatively momentous work of history, will 
give to the world the figure best equipped for it. 

Leadership is as essential to the development of 
humanity as vitalit)^ As the spirit guides the 
body, so intelligence rules the earth. Genius is 
only inspiration. History is the sum of the work 
of human genius, of those inspired men through- 
out the ages who have advanced the cause of man- 


THE MAN 311 

kind. They in all lands and climes have been 
guided intuitively by the infinite intelligence of 
God. The sublime messages of life are given 
through individual men who are the simple serv- 
ants of the Most High. Moses, Samuel, Isaiah, 
David in Israel, Rameses and Thutmosis III in 
Egypt, Alexander, Socrates, Aristotle in Greece, 
Csesar in Rome, Hannibal in Carthage, Mahomet, 
Mansur, Haroun in the Caliphate, Buddha in In- 
dia, Confucius in China, Zoroaster in Media, Jus- 
tinian and Heracleus in the Byzantian Empire, 
Charlemagne in Francia, Columbus and Michel- 
angelo in Italy, Magellan in Portugal, Cortez in 
Spain, Charles V in Austria, Peter the Great in 
Russia, Alfred, Shakespeare, the elder and )^ounger 
Pitt in England, Napoleon in France, Luther, 
Frederick the Great, Bismarck, William II in Ger- 
many, Washington and Lincoln in America are 
among the achievers of all time who have ad- 
vanced humanity step by step to greater things. 
Praxiteles, Lysippus, Pheidias, Polyclitus, Damo- 
phon, Michelangelo, Piasno, Cellini, Bartolome, 
Berini, Canova, Houdon, Gilbert, St. Gaudens, 
Rodin, in sculpture; Scopus, Cossotus, Vetruvius, 
Mucius, Rabirius, Ristori, Pontelli, Anthemus, Isi- 
dorus, Bramante, Wren, Michelozzo, Inigo Jones, 
Steindl, Wallot, Barry, Visconti and White, in 
architecture ; Polygrotus, Micon, Pansenus, Zeuxis, 
Parthasius, Protogenes, Leonardo da Vinci, 


Raphael, Rubens, Rembrandt, Velasquez, Van 
Dyck, Henner and La Farge, in painting; Hippoc- 
rates, Galen, Theophrastus, Herophilus, Erasistra- 
tus, Isaac Ben Emran, Rhases, Avicenna, Kalid, 
Valentine, Priestley, Lavoisier, Lister, Virchow, 
Welch, in medicine; Hipparchus, Eratosthenes, 
Ptolemy, Kepler, Copernicus, Newcombe, in as- 
tronomy; Euclid, Newton, Liebnitz, in mathe- 
matics; Archimedes, Hero, Gutenberg, Whitney, 
Stevenson, Fulton, Bell, Edison, in invention; 
Magellan, Vasco da Gama, Cook, Hudson, Peary, 
in discovery; Othman, Albertus Magnus, Roger 
Bacon, Humboldt, Darwin, in scientific investi- 
gation; Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Bruno, Kant, 
Descartes, Spinoza, Comte, in philosophy; Ter- 
tullian, Augustine and Luther in religious reform; 
Homer, Pindar, Hesoid, ^Eschylus, Sophocles, 
Euripides, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Petrarch, Boc- 
caccio, Montagne, Shakespeare, Lope de Vega, 
Moliere, Corneille, Voltaire, Rousseau, Hugo, 
Dickens, Tolstoy, Poe, in literature ; Demosthenes, 
Cicero, the elder Pitt, Gladstone, Mirabeau, Peel, 
Webster, in oratory; Herodotus, Thucydides, 
Livy, Tacitus, Gibbon, Mommsen, Motley, in his- 
torical composition; Moses, Hammurabi, Solon, 
Lycurgus, Justinian, Charlemagne, Gregory VH, 
Napoleon, Langton, Cromwell, Hamilton, Bis- 
marck, in justice; Tribonian, Papinian, Thomas- 
ius, Grotius, in legalism; Dana, Greeley, Bennett, 

THE MAN 313 

in journalism; Epaminondas, Don Juan, Tromp, 
Drake, Nelson, Dewey, in naval warfare ; Croesus, 
Crassus, the Medici, Contarini, the Fuggers, the 
Rothschilds, Morgan, in finance and commerce, 
have made their indelible imprint upon the life 
of man. They and those like them, individuals 
all, have brought humanity down to date. Sweep 
away those who have labored and struggled singly 
in leadership of their fellows throughout historic 
life on the planet and man is back under a tree in 
the forest, subsisting on the line of least resistance. 
And without the individual help of those good 
women who have been the wives and mothers of 
the world, as well as those inspired feminine char- 
acters who also assisted in the leadership of man- 
kind, such as Semiramis, Cleopatra, Zenobia, Brun- 
hilda, Isabella, Catherine, Elizabeth and Joan de 
Arc, there would be trees but no men and the 
planet would be unthinkable. All these mighty 
spirits added to the conquerors and statesmen, 
have fashioned the world we live in, wresting 
something new in government, thought or material 
out of old conditions to make them better. 

Vitality, determination, opportunity, inspira- 
tion provide the means by which the great men of 
the world perform their deeds. They spring for- 
ward for the occasion and seem to have been cre- 
ated for it. In moments of supreme decision they 
see more clearly than others what should be done 


and advance toward its accomplishment with as- 
surance. Through boyhood and youth they give 
evidence of uncommon and natural precocity. 
They understand problems pertaining to certain 
activities as though they had had long experience 
in them. Their fellows, even in youth, appreciate 
their abilities and give way to them. As they 
grow older a glamor attaches to them. Men de- 
light to know and follow them. This is due in 
large measure to the fact that they utter the truth 
and convince, or by the magnitude of their opera- 
tions attain success, but also to what is known as 
personality. In times of stress they realize them- 
selves and express that which is the nature of their 
being in deeds. It is then that clearest inspiration 
comes to them. They feel that certain things are 
or should be so. This is direct and immediate in- 
tuition. Millions had seen apples fall, but when 
Isaac Newton did so he perceived the law of gravi- 
tation. Martin Luther said: 'T do not know 
where my ideas come from." Napoleon said: 
"No great general ever profited by experience in 
war." His rivals said of him that he showed an 
uncanny intuition on the battlefield. At twenty- 
four Cavour wrote that he already saw himself 
minister of the Kingdom of Italy. Mommsen 
says of Csesar that ''his remarkable power of intu- 
ition revealed itself in the precision and practical- 
ity of all his arrangements, even when he gave or- 

THE MAN 315 

ders without having seen with his own eyes." ^ 
The prophets of Israel saw ages ago what would 
come to pass in the hereafter. So far each one of 
their visions capable of fulfilment up to this time 
has been realized. All of them will be in time. 

God is infinite intelligence, infinite individu- 
ality, infinite personality. As man is in spirit 
finitely, so God is infinitely. He is the Most 
High, the Almighty, Lord of Lords and King of 
Kings. He alone rules the universe. Force and 
molecular energy are but His own laws. The 
Everlasting One, the Eternal, holds within Him- 
self all natures and things and understands the 
minutise of worlds. Nothing is hidden from Him. 
His will it is that rules the destinies of men. Je- 
hovah knows the mind of every man, woman and 
child. The most penetrating intellect oftentimes 
only reflects His will. His is the divine plan for 
the world. Is not this revealed in the beautiful 
symbol of Nebuchadnezzar, brought low and 
forced to eat the grass of the field in order that he 
might see in his lost pride, as Daniel said, that the 
rule of the Most High is over every generation? 
As men through hardship and struggle are broken 
to humility and the realization that they can gain 
inner light and happiness only through kindness, 
mercy and simplicity they are brought in harmony 

^ "History of Rome," by Theodore Mommsen. Vol. IV, p. 


with and therefore nearer to that apperception by 
which they find surcease from difficulty and res- 
toration of soul. Saint Augustine, turning from 
his "fill of hell" and "fog of lustfulness," as he 
termed them in his "Confessions," to the con- 
templation and work of the Living God, became 
the light of a thousand years. As one can see the 
stars in the daytime only from the bottom of a 
well, he can behold the truth more keenly in the 
adversity which brings sorrow and unselfishness 
into his heart. This is true of Saint Francis of 
Assisi and all that royal line of mystics who have 
discerned love of God in love of man. The truly 
great have ever been as simple as Lincoln. But in 
themselves they were not great. They only 
seemed so. They were enabled to do great things 
by their own initiative and that inspiration and 
kindness which the Lord God vouchsafed to them. 
"If God is with a man he cannot fail; if He is 
against him he cannot succeed," said the leader 
bom in a log cabin in Kentucky who was given the 
task of freeing the slaves and saving the Republic. 
Before every battle the mild and sensitive Wash- 
ington, the "father of his country," knelt in 
prayer. Alfred of England, one of the noblest 
characters of human story and born to help lay 
the foundations of a state, said: "As long as I 
have lived I have striven to live worthily." He 
longed when death overtook him to leave with the 

THE MAN 317 

men who came after him a remembrance of him in 
good works. Canute, when told by his courtiers 
that he could do anything, proved that he could do 
nothing by taking his seat by the ocean and com- 
manding the tide to stand back. Men in his day 
thought the doings of Joshua so remarkable that 
they declared he commanded the sun and moon 
to stand still and that they obeyed, but those orbs 
of night and day continued their revolutions heed- 
less of those who thought, and he remained a 
simple warrior, doing the work of his God. Mar- 
tin Luther before deciding to face the diet at 
Worms, where his life was endangered, went to an 
upper room and there in prayer found that light 
which told him he was to go, no matter what might 
be the outcome. Socrates was scolded by his wife 
as a "ne'er do we'el" because he persisted in argu- 
ing with his fellows daily in order that he and 
they might find new truth. When he died the 
grandest death man ever knew, merely because he 
had taught simple righteousness in opposition to 
the formalism of the time, his wife and children 
were there to bid him good-by, for he had loved 
them and they had loved him. Yet he was the 
"father of philosophy" and one of the world's 
foremost thinkers. He fought as a hoplite for his 
native land and was an intrepid soldier. Charles 
the Great sought learning like the simplest scholar 
at his court, attending school there when late in 


life. His favorite book, t±ie "City of God," was 
always near him. Otto the Great in the same 
way invited scholars to his capital. Alexander 
the Great was the most companionable man in his 
army and was great only in his love of glory and 
accomplishment of it. This may also be said of 
Caesar and Napoleon. When the first of the 
Romans was about to cross the Rubicon and com- 
bat Pompey for control of the Empire he strode up 
and down for some time, undecided as to what he 
should do. Then it suddenly came to him what 
was best and he cast the die which was to lead to 
civil strife and later a vaster Rome. Meneval 
says ^ of the French Emperor that "he began to 
dictate in a serious and emphatic tone, without 
resting for a moment. As inspiration came to him, 
his voice assumed a more animated tone. In 
rendering his thought expressions came without 
effort." Filson Young relates ^ of Columbus that 
"there gradually grew in his mind the intuition or 
conviction — I refuse to call it an opinion — that 
over that blue verge of the West there was land to 
be found. How this seed of conviction first 
lodged in his mind it would be impossible to say." 
And that "as that other mystery began to grow in 
his mind, and that idea of worlds that might lie 
beyond the sea line began to take shape in his 

2 "Memoirs of Baron Meneval," Vol. I, p. 420. 

8 "Christopher Columbus," by Filson Young. Vol. I, p. 76 

THE MAN 319 

thoughts, he found in the holy wisdom of the 
prophets and the inspired writings of the fathers, a 
continual confirmation of his faith." Andrew D. 
White says ^ of Bismarck that ''his insight and 
foresight seemed due to intuition — to sudden 
flashes which lighted up his course and deter- 
mined his conduct." It is this same Bismarck 
who, in one of his letters to his wife, says: "Good- 
night, my dear. It strikes twelve. I will go to 
bed and read yet the second chapter of Saint 
Peter. I do this now systematically, and after I 
have finished Peter I am going to read the Epistle 
to the Hebrews. There is no need of reminding 
me to remember our dear little Mary in my 
prayers. I do so every day." Oliver states ^ of 
Alexander Hamilton that he was like a boy who 
had dreamed a dream, but could not prevail with 
men to accept it in all its glorious symmetry; that 
he sought power, not as an end in itself, but as the 
means to the accomplishment of a vision. Crom- 
well declared he left Cambridge with a purpose of 
self dedication ''to that same lot, however mean or 
high, toward which time leads me and the will of 
Heaven." Yet it was this same leader of the 
British state who had said: "Oh, I lived in and 
loved darkness and hated light. I hated god- 

* "Seven Great Statesmen," by Andrew D. White. Vol. I, 
p. 4x8. 

5 "Alexander Haniilton," by F. C. Oliver, p. 12. 


liness." ^ Mrs. Gladstone confided in John Mor- 
ley that the Great Commoner succeeded in the 
struggle for self mastery "ever since he was three 
or four and twenty, first by the natural power of 
his character, and second by incessant wrestlmg in 
prayer — prayer that had been abundantly an- 
swered." ^ David, kindly warrior and king of 
Israel said: *'The Lord is my strength and my 
shield; in him hath my heart trusted, and I am 
helped." ^ "The sins of my youth and my trans- 
gressions do not remember.^ How precious are 
unto me thy thoughts, O God! I awaken and I 
am still with thee." ^^ Jesus felt he had a mission 
to perform. He spoke of the will of God as su- 
preme and set aside ceremonial traditions. Paul 
saw the vision of a more glorified humanity and 
thenceforth lived for his fellow men.^^ These are 
some of "the simple great ones, gone forever and 
ever by." 

It was because they were simple that they saw 
and were helped by God. Insight came to them 
because they sought his will. Consciously or un- 
consciously, they placed themselves in harmony 
with the Infinite Intelligence. "If the body has 
many attributes of higher value than pleasure," 

« "History of the English People," J. R. Green, pp. 436-7. 

■^ "Life of Gladstone," John Morley. Vol. I, p. 189. 

8 Psalm 28:7. 

» Ibid., 25 : 7. 

^^Ibid., 139:18. 

11 1 Cor. 15. 

THE MAN 321 

asks Cicero, "what, pray, think you of the mind? 

The wisest sages of antiquity believed that the 
mind contains an element of the celestial and di- 
vine." ^^ Says Marcus Aurelius : "God is in man, 
and so we must constantly attend to the divinity 
within us, for it is only in this way that we can 
have any knowledge of the nature of God." And 
Agapetus: "He who knows himself will know 
God; and he who knows God will be made like 
to God ; and he will be made like to God who has 
become worthy of God; and he becomes worthy 
who does nothing unworthy of God, but thinks the 
things that are His and speaks what He thinks and 
does what He speaks." Isaiah says: "The Lord 
eternal hath given me a tongue for teaching, that I 
should know how to strengthen the weary with the 
word. He wakeneth morning by morning, he 
wakeneth my ear to listen like those that are well 
taught." ^^ And David: "The day when I am 
afraid I will still trust in thee. In God I have 
put my trust; what can flesh do unto me'?" ^* And 
again: "Cast thy burden upon the Lord and he 
will sustain thee ; he will never suffer the righteous 
to be moved." "Happy are they," says St. Au- 
gustine, "who know it was Thou that gave the 
command. For all things are done by them that 
serve Thee, either for the providing of themselves 

12 De Finibus, Book 2:114. 
^^3 Isaiah 50:4. 
** Psalm 56:4-5. 


of what is needful for the present, or for the fore- 
shadowing of something to come hereafter." *^ 
Smiles remarks : ^^ "Good sense disciplined by 
practical experience and inspired by goodness is- 
sues in practical wisdom. Indeed, goodness in a 
measure implies wisdom — the highest wisdom — 
the union of the worldly with the spiritual." St. 
Bernard says: "To lose thyself in some sort, as 
if thou were not, and to have no consciousness of 
thyself at all — to be emptied of thyself and almost 
annihilated — such is heavenly conversation — so to 
be affected is to become God." ^^ In the Upan- 
ishads this is found: "We salute Thee, spirit of 
truth and cause of this universe. We salute 
Thee, essence of wisdom and upholder of all that 
is. Thou art the bestower of salvation and only 
God, the one without a second; eternal and all- 
pervading Brahma, we salute Thee." Devendra- 
nath Tagore, regenerator of the thought of India, 
says : ^^ From now I began to train m.yself to 
listen for His command, to understand the dif- 
ference between my own inclination and His will. 
What seemed to me to be the insidious promptings 
of my own desires I was careful to avoid; and 
what appeared to my conscience to be His com- 
mand, that I tried to follow. Then I prayed to 
Him to inspire me with righteousness, to guard me 

^5 "Confessions," Book 3:9, ^^ Ency. Brit., 19: 125. 

^® "Character," p. 19. ^^ "Autobiography," p. 95. 

THE MAN 323 

with moral strength, to give me patience, courage, 
fortitude and contentment. I could make out 
that He was dwelling within me, seated within my 
heart. Even as He, dwelling in the sky, guides 
the stars and planets, so does He, dwelling within 
my heart, inspire all my righteous feelings and 
guide my soul." Says the Zend Avesta: "O maker 
of the material world, thou Holy One I Which is 
the first place where the earth feels most happy? 
Ahura Mazda answered : It is the place whereon 
one of the faithful steps forward, O Spitama 
Zarathustra!'" The ^'Dham.mapada," or 'Tath 
to Virtue," of Buddhism says: "The virtuous 
man is happy in this world and he is happy in the 
next. He is happy when he thinks of the good he 
has done. He is still more happy when going on 
the good path. When the learned man drives 
away vanity by earnestness, he, the wise, climbs 
tlie terraced heights of wisdom. All that we are 
is the result of our thoughts ; it is founded on our 
thoughts ; it is made up of our thoughts. A super- 
natural person (a Buddha) is not easily found. 
He is not born everywhere. Wherever such a sage 
is born, that race prospers." Mahomet in the 
Koran asks: "Dost thou not know that unto 
God belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth ^ 
Neither have ye any protector or helper except 
God." In the ancient Asvaghosha Bodhisattva's 
"Life of Buddha" the following appears: "By 


earnestness and diligence, then, we conquer. 
Walking in the path of true wisdom, letting go 
both extremes, we then reach ultimate perfection." 
Confucius, writing five hundred years before the 
Christian era, says : "What you do not like when 
done to yourself, do not do to others." Man's 
nature was from God, he declared. The har- 
monious acting out of it was obedience to the will 
of the Most High, and the violation of it was dis- 
obedience. He intimated that he had a mission 
from heaven, and that, until it was accomplished, 
he was safe against all attempts to injure him. 
Said he: "It is impossible to withdraw from the 
world, and associate with birds and beasts that 
have no affinity with us. With whom should I 
associate but with suffering man? The disorder 
that prevails is what requires my efforts. If right 
principles ruled through the kingdom, there would 
be no necessity for me to change its state." Jesus 
said : "My Father, He it is that doeth the work." 
Moses said: "Hear, O Israel! The Lord, our 
God, is the One Eternal Being. And thou shalt 
love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with 
all thy soul, and with all thy might. And thou 
shalt do that which is right and good in the eyes of 
the Lord, in order that it may be well with thee." 
And again: "Love thy neighbor as thyself." 
Gideon said: "I shall not rule over you, neither 
shall my son rule over you: the Lord shall rule 

THE MAN 325 

over you." Hannah said: "Talk no more so 
exceedingly proudly; let not arrogance come out 
of your mouth ; for a God of knowledge is the Lord 
and by him are actions weighed." Samuel said: 
"Direct your heart unto the Lord and serve him 
alone." ^^ This from Isaiah : 'T, I am the Lord, 
and beside me there is no savior.^'' I am the 
Lord and there is none else; beside me there is no 
God.^^ Have I not said unto you that ye are all 
sons of God? Let the wicked man forsake his 
ways and the man of unrighteousness his thoughts ; 
and let him return unto the Lord, and He will 
have mercy upon him, and unto our God, for he 
will abundantly pardon." This from Jeremiah: 
"And I thought, My father thou wouldst call me 
and from me thou wouldst not turn away." ^^ 
And from Ezekiel : "When I speak to thee I will 
open thy mouth, and thou shalt say unto them, 
Thus hath said the Lord Eternal." It was said 
of Daniel that he excelled all the presidents and 
lieutenants in the kingdom of Babylon because a 
superior spirit was in him, and that no manner of 
hurt was found on him because he had trusted in 
his God. 

Among philosophers, Kant expressed the view 
that he who is permeated by the moral law is there- 
fore obliged to believe in the existence of a God.^^ 

19 I Saml. 7:3. 21 /^,v.^ 45 : 5. 

20 Isaiah 43:11. ^^ ]er. 3:19. 

23 "History of Philosophy," Harold Hoffding. Vol. II, p. 95. 


Practical reason, he says, thus leads us to enter- 
tain convictions concerning something which lies 
beyond the limits defined by the theoretical reason. 
Bruno, in a larger sense than is generally appreci- 
ated, the founder of modern philosophy, is con- 
vinced that the Deity works at the heart of the 
world and is to be found at every point; that the 
highest is everywhere if only our mind is open to 
it. "Heaven," said Jacob Bohme three hundred 
years ago, "is not up there in the sky, but it is here, 
within thyself where the divine life stirs within 
thee. God is not far; thou livest in God and God 
in thee, and if thou art pure and holy, then thou 
art God." Descartes said: "The natural light 
teaches us that the effect cannot contain more than 
is the cause. It follows from this that nothing 
can come out of nothing, and that the perfect 
cannot proceed from the imperfect. If we apply 
this to our ideas it becomes clear that some of them 
arise from external causes, while others must be 
explained as arising within us. But neither of 
these explanations is sufficient to make the idea 
of God as the infinite being, the essence of all per- 
fection and reality, comprehensible. Since I my- 
self am a finite being (and of this I am convinced 
by my doubts and my desires) I cannot have pro- 
duced any such idea. Neither can it have arisen 
by any combination of particular, perceived per- 
fections, for it would not then contain the unity 

THE MAN 327 

and indivisibility which are the marks of the idea 
of God. Moreover every external cause is finite. 
There is, therefore, nothing left but to suppose 
that God himself is the author of the idea." And 
again : "Every transition of thought takes places 
through immediate perception, i.e., intuition." 
Hoffding says, "Spinoza aims at nothing less than 
the highest aim of all knowledge, viz.: the most 
intimate union possible of individuality with con- 
tinuity, of the particular with the sum of con- 
stant relations. He only succeeds in this when 
postulating an intuition which reminds us now of 
the artist's conception, now of the mystic's vision." 
Schopenhauer says, "it is possible in certain cases 
for knowledge to escape from the bondage of the 
will, at which time the individuality of man is 
canceled and he becomes entirely absorbed in dis- 
interested contemplation. This revolution and 
emancipation, in which the will disappears and 
pure perception has the upper hand, can only be 
explained as a sudden breaking forth of the faculty 
of intuition." Bergson is the latest of the modern 
philosophers to develop the idea of intuition. 
Hoffding remarks ^* of the French philosopher 
that he is obscure with regard to the relation be- 
tween intuition as a psychological condition and 
intuition as a conclusion of thought. For my own 
part, I am constrained to believe that no new truth 

2* "Modern Philosophers," by Harold Hoffding. p. 241. 


is ever added to the thought of the world, except 
by immediate intuition; that is, by realization 
without demonstration. Inductive and deductive 
principles, as applied to experience, only prove 
that which is already known. Empirical investiga- 
tion assists by concentration of intellect in the dis- 
cover}^ of conclusions which were before unknown, 
whether in invention or pure reason, but does not 
in itself secure that which is discovered, which al- 
ways comes to one suddenly and intuitively. 
John Stuart Mill's view that all false views and 
tendencies within the ethical, religious and social 
spheres are invincible so long as the assertion is al- 
lowed to pass unchallenged that truths can be 
gained by immediate intuition, by way of pure 
thought, independently of experience and observa- 
tion, is to be answered by the fact that if the con- 
clusion is not afterwards provable on grounds of 
experience and right reason, inductively and de- 
ductively, it is not an intuition at all. 

It was this message of the indwelling spirit that 
told Abraham he would be the father of many na- 
tions. It was also such a spiritual light which 
came to Bil'am when he said of Jacob, 'T see him, 
but not now; I behold him, but not nigh, there 
steppeth forth a star out of Jacob and there ariseth 
a scepter out of Israel." ^^ "There shall rule the 
one from Jacob," the prophet concludes. It was 
25 Numbers 24: 17. 

THE MAN 329 

the Living God who spoke through Zechariah as 
follows: "Behold a man, Sprout is his name, 
since out of his own place shall he sprout up, even 
he shall build the temple of the Lord. Yea, he 
shall build the temple of the Lord; and he shall 
bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his 
throne." ^^ It was this divine intuition, this re- 
flection of the mind of God, that enabled David, 
who lived in the fear of the Most High and from 
shepherd boy became king of Israel, to perceive 
that he would one day live again and become the 
ruler of the world. By the Divine Mind it was 
said : "I have found David my servant; with my 
holy oil have I anointed him, with whom my 
hand shall be iirmly established ; also my arm shall 
strengthen him. Also I will appoint him my first 
born, the highest among the kings of the earth." 
*'My son art thou," was said of David. ''Ask it 
of me and I will give thee nations for an inherit- 
ance, and for thy possession the uttermost ends of 
the earth." ^'^ "The spirit of the Lord came sud- 
denly upon David from that day and forward." ^^ 
"And David felt conscious that the Lord had es- 
tablished him as king over Israel." ^^ "When thy 
days shall be completed, and thou wilt sleep with 
thy fathers, then will I set up thy seed after thee, 
who will proceed out of thy bowels, and I will 

2« Zechariah 6:12-13. 28 i Saml. 16:13. 

27 Psalms 2:7-8. 2»n Saml. 5:12. 


establish his kingdom. He it is that shall build 
a house for my name, and I will establish his 
kingdom forever." ^^ "Thou hast also spoken of 
thy servant's house for a distant time." ^^ And 
then the king, who was a simple man and great 
conqueror, reflected the intuition of the Living 
God when he said: "Thou preservest me to be 
the head of nations, a people which I know not, 
shall serve me." ^'^ "The spirit of the Lord spoke 
through me and his word was upon my tongue. 
Thus said the God of Israel, concerning me spake 
the Rock of Israel, that I should be ruler over men, 
be righteous, ruling in the fear of God." ^^ It was 
this same voice that said to Daniel : "But thou, 
go thy way toward the end; and thou shalt rest 
and arise again for thy lot at the end of the 
days." ^^ 

If a man's ambition is his intuitive perception 
of what he may become if he will, the thought 
of Alexander the Great that he must conquer and 
govern the world was as inspired as that of David. 
Mommsen says "Caesar renewed the interrupted 
work of the great Alexander whose image we may 
well believe never was absent from Cgesar's soul. 
In the capital of his empire he regulated the des- 
tinies of the world for the present and the future." 

soil Saml. 7:12-13. ^^ Ibid., 23:2-3. 

^^ Ibid., 7:19. **Dan. 12:13. 

^^Ibid., 23:44. 

THE MAN 331 

The Emperor Julian remarks: ^^ ''Nor do I de- 
spise that lot with which I was myself endowed by 
the God Helios, that I should be born of a house 
that rules and governs the world in my time." 
Gibbon says of Jinghis Kahn that "he accepted the 
title of Jinghis, the most great, and a divine right 
to the conquest and dominion of the earth." The 
British historian also declares that "the conquest 
and monarchy of the world was the first object of 
the ambition of Timur." Gregory VII felt that 
he had been entrusted by God with the task of 
uniting all mankind in a single society in which 
His will would be the only law. This was also 
the thought of Boniface VIII. Charles XII 
longed to emulate Alexander. Turenne most ad- 
mired the exploits of the Greek conqueror and of 
Julius Caesar. Napoleon in his exile at St. 
Helena said that the great ideal toward which his 
efforts had been directed was a great confederacy 
of peoples, bound together "by unity of codes, 
principles, opinions, feelings and interests." He 
prophesied that it would yet be realized, sooner or 
later, "by the force of circumstances." ^^ 

These men had the same intuitive perception of 
destiny. The reason is that they were the same 
man, born again from life to life, showing quite 
naturally the same mighty talents and aspirations. 

35 "Works of Emperor Julian." (Loeb ed.), Vol. I, p. 355. 
3« "Cambridge Modern History," Vol. X, p. i. 


The true line of David and Daniel, who saw them- 
selves returning in another age, is as follows: 
David, Sheshonk, Shalmonesser II, Sargon, Psam- 
meticus I, Daniel, Miltiades, Alcibiades, Alex- 
ander the Great, Ptolemy II, Hannibal, Mithri- 
dates I, Julius Csesar, Tiberius, Trajan, Septimus 
Severus, Aurelian, Maximin, Julian, Attila, Jus- 
tinian, Heracleus, Leo the Isaurian, Harun al 
Raschid, Alfred the Great, Hugh the Great, 
Canute, Gregory VII, Alphonso VII, Jinghis Kahn, 
Boniface VIII, Timur, Casimir IV, Suleiman the 
Magnificent, Turenne, Charles XII and Napoleon. 
This is the meaning of the words, "The throne of 
David will be established before the world for- 
ever." As the Living God said through the 
prophet Nathan, "When thy days will be com- 
pleted and when thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, 
then will I set up thy seed after thee, who shall 
proceed out of thy body, and I will establish the 
throne of his kingdom forever. I too will be to 
him as a father and he shall indeed be to me as a 
son; so that when he committeth iniquity I will 
chastise him with the rod of men and with the 
plagues of the children of man; but my kingdom 
shall not depart from him, as I caused it to depart 
from Saul, whom I removed from before thee ; thy 
throne shall be established forever." When he 
heard this "then went king David in and sat down 
before the Lord, and he said. What am I, O Lord 

THE MAN 333 

Eternal? and what is my house, that thou hast 
brought me as far as hitherward *? And this was 
yet too small a thing in thy eyes, O Lord Eternal ; 
and thou hast spoken also of thy servant's house 
for a distant time. And is this the desert of man, 
O Lord Eternal? And what can David add yet 
more to speak unto thee? since thou, O Lord 
Eternal, knowest well thy servant. For the sake 
of thy word, and in accordance with thy own 
heart, hast thou done all this great thing, so as to 
let thy servant know it.''' Before David was king 
of Israel he was also Joshua, Jacob and Abraham. 
He was also Tiglath Pileser I, Rameses II, Amen- 
hotep III, Thetmosis III, Hammurabi, Gudea and 
many another conqueror and ruler of men. 

This is he of whom it was said through Isaiah : 
"And there shall be founded through kindness a 
throne and there shall sit upon it in truthfulness 
in the tent of David a judge who seeketh justice 
and is quick in righteousness." This is he of 
whom Isaiah said : "And there shall come forth a 
shoot out of the stem of Jesse, and a sprout shall 
spring up out of his roots. And there shall rest 
upon him the spirit of the Lord, the spirit of wis- 
dom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and 
might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of 
the Lord." This is he of whom the same prophet 
also said: "Behold, for a lawgiver unto the peo- 
ple have I appointed him, a prince and a com- 


mander to the people. Behold a nation thou 
knoweth not shalt thou call, and a nation that 
knew thee not shall run after thee; for the sake 
of the Holy One of Israel, for He hath glorified 
thee." It was he of whom it was said : "And I 
let come forth out of Jacob a seed, and out of 
Judah an inheritor of my mountains; and my 
elect shall inherit it, and my servants shall dwell 
there." It was he of whom Jeremiah spoke when 
he said: "Behold, days are coming when I will 
raise up unto David a righteous sprout, and he 
shall reign as king and prosper, and he shall exe- 
cute justice and righteousness on earth." And 
it was he alone that Micah foresaw when he de- 
clared: "But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, the 
least though thou be among the thousands of 
Judah, yet out of thee there shall come forth unto 
me that is to be ruler in Israel, whose origin is from 
olden times, from most ancient days. Therefore 
will he give them up until the time that she who 
travaileth hath brought forth, then shall the rem- 
nant of his brethren return with the children of 
Israel. And he shall stand forward and feed 
Israel through the strength of the Lord, through 
the excellency of the name of the Lord his God; 
and they shall abide safely; for now shall he he 
great even unto the ends of the earth'' It was he 
of whom it was said: "Out of him cometh forth 
the corner stone, out of him the tent nail, out of 

THE MAN 335 

him the battle bow, out of him every ruler of 
others together. And they shall be like mighty 
men, treading down their enemies in the mire 
of the streets in the battle, and they shall fight 
because the Lord is with them, and the riders 
on horses shall be made ashamed." "And the 
house of David," it is said through Zechariah, 
"shall be like divine beings, like an angel of the 
Lord before them." Malachi speaks: "Behold 
I will send my messenger and he shall clear out 
the way before me ; and suddenly will come to his 
temple the Lord whom ye seek and the messenger 
of the covenant whom ye desire, for behold he is 
coming, said the Lord of Hosts." And also: 
"There shall rise unto you that fear my name the 
sun of righteousness with healing in his wings." 
"It shall happen on that day," says Isaiah, "that 
he of the root of Jesse who shall stand as an ensign 
of the people, to him shall nations come to inquire, 
and his resting place shall be glorious." 

The Old Testament prophets are perhaps the 
first to lay down the principle of everlasting life, 
but they have had many successors. Socrates, 
greatest of teachers of free Athens, said that death 
was only the separation of the soul from the body ; 
that the intelligence is soul, like the Divine Mind, 
and both are immortal; that we recollect after- 
wards things which we acquired before our birth; 
that "if the soul exists before birth and when it 


comes into life and is bom from anything else 
than death and a state of death, must it not also 
exist after dying, since it must be born again?" 
"These souls," he says, "flit about until, through 
the desire of the corporeal which clings to them, 
they are again imprisoned in a body." And 
again : "God and the principle of life and every- 
thing else that is immortal can never perish. The 
soul being immortal is also imperishable." Aris- 
totle says : "Now, though only one of the powers 
of the soul, intellect alone of these powers has no 
bodily organ; it alone is immortal; it alone is di- 
vine." In the Upanishads, seven centuries before 
Jesus, Death answers Nachiketas: "The know- 
ing self is not born; it dies not; it sprang from 
nothing; nothing sprang from it. The ancient is 
unborn, eternal, everlasting; he is not killed 
though the body is killed. If the slayer thinks 
that he slays, or if the slain think he is slain, they 
do not understand, for this one does not slay nor 
is that one slain." "There can be no question," 
says Professor Pratt, ^^ "that the belief in immor- 
tality is much stronger and much more prevalent 
in India than it is in Europe or America. Almost 
every one accepts it, takes it as a matter of course 
and plans his life in reference to it." Philo of 
Alexandria before the Christian era and Giordano 
Bruno in modem times taught the same truth. 

37 "India and Its Faiths," by J. B. Pratt, p. 105. 

THE MAN 337 

What is true in the nature of things is for all. 
This is Isaiah's meaning when he says: "The 
Lord of Hosts . . . will destroy on this mountain 
the face of the covering which covereth all the 
people, and the veil that is spread over all the na- 
tions. He will destroy death to eternity; and the 
Lord Eternal will wipe away the tear from off all 
faces; and the shame of his people will he remove 
from off all the earth; for the Lord hath spoken 

The character and genius of those mentioned as 
of the line of David, who have been reborn from 
life to life, are the same. The mightiest con- 
querors by talent for movement of troops in the 
mass, consummate statesmen by being builders of 
unity and order, lawgivers by condensation of 
code and dispensers of justice, writers and orators 
when the need required it, simple men gifted with 
practical sense, they, or more properly speaking he, 
last saw earthly expression in Napoleon. At 
times he became selfish and cruel. Then he was 
punished. 'T have found David my servant; 
with my holy oil have I anointed him ; with whom 
my hand shall be firmly established; also my arm 
shall strengthen him. He will call upon me, 
Thou art my father, my God and the rock of my 
salvation. Also I will appoint him my first born, 
the highest among the kings of the earth. For- 
evermore will I keep for him my kindness, and my 


covenant shall stand faithfully with him. And I 
appoint forever his seed, and his throne as the days 
of heaven. // his children forsake my law and 
walk not in my ordinances; if they profane my 
statutes and keep not my commandments ; then 
will I visit with the rod their transgressions and 
with plagues their iniquity. Nevertheless my 
kindness will I not make utterly void from him, 
and I will not act falsely against my faithfulness. 
I will not profane my covenant and what is gone 
out of my lips will I not alter. One thing have I 
sworn by my holiness, that I will not lie unto 
David. His seed shall endure forever, and his 
throne shall be like the sun before me." Na- 
poleon was not unlike Alexander and Caesar. Al- 
fred and Canute were not unlike David. It was 
the same intuitive knowledge that God was with 
him that led David with his sling to approach the 
giant Goliath with his sword and armor and say, 
"Thou comest unto me with a sword and with a 
spear and with a javelin, but I come to thee in the 
name of the Lord of Hosts, the God of the arrays 
of Israel, that thou hast defied," and that led the 
French Emperor, upon returning to France as an 
outlaw and with the armies of Louis XVIII and 
Europe against him, to open his coat to the sol- 
diers who had been ordered to fire upon him and 
say, "Shoot your emperor I" It was the same love 
of learning that animated Ptolemy II, Harun, 

THE MAN 339 

Julian, Alexander and Bonaparte in Egypt. 
Caesar was not a soldier until nearly forty. Julian 
turned from scholarship to defeat the Germans. 
It came to them how to guide armies and rebuild 

This, then, is the man who will arise again in 
the United States, the man Tolstoy predicted 
would come and be a new Napoleon to make the 
world one republic in a federation of peoples. He 
it is who by his genius with the sword and state- 
craft and pen will rebuild the world. Many in 
our day have grown to look upon the Bible as nice 
to be taught to children in Sunday school but as 
outside the pale of practical and work-a-day ex- 
perience. Yet it is the living truth. It contains 
the secrets of the ages. It holds the message of 
the Great Time. It has within it the simple 
truths by which all men may live righteously and 
behold for themselves the light. And it foretells 
the coming of the Messiah, who is not any more or 
less than a man as simple as David, who has been 
trained by the Almighty for many centuries for 
the work he has to do and with whom the Living 
God will be by inspiration on the day of battle. 
Perhaps he will appear like Miltiades at Mara- 
thon in the service of a free state against the 
Asiatics. Perhaps he will, like Csesar, Julian and 
Napoleon, subdue the Germans in that mighty war 
that is to be. And maybe, as his ambition led 


him to think, he will guide the peoples to a single 
state, a republic, and rule in righteousness during 
a stated term of office. Nowhere are such abili- 
ties more likely to find full usefulness than in the 
United States, where the nation needs men who 
will fear naught but God and "dare not lie." In 
no age so much as the present are the obliteration 
of self in a mighty work and the talent for govern- 
ing for the good of all races and conditions of men 
so likely to be appreciated. At no period in all 
the ages, with a world distraught by conflict, have 
men so sought the man who will fulfil the mes- 
sage: ''He shall come down like rain upon the 
mown grass, as showers that are dropping on the 
earth. In his days shall the righteous flourish, 
and abundance of peace shall be till the moon shall 
be no more. And he shall have dominion from 
sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the 
earth." He will come, to lead the American peo- 
ple, through strange circumstances, in the time of 
their greatest need, to do their work at their maxi- 
mum of strength, and to give freedom and right 
the victory. He will by his sword restore the 
Jews to their land and make Israel among the 
greatest of the nations of the earth. It was said 
through Ezekiel: 

"And speak unto them. Thus hath saith the 
Lord Eternal, Behold I will take the children of 
Israel from among the nations whither they are 

THE MAN 341 

gone, 4nd I will gather them from every side and 
bring tfiem into their own land. And I will make 
them into one nation on the land, on the moun- 
tains of Israel ; and one king shall be over them all 
for king; and they shall not be any more two na- 
tions, nor shall they at any time be two kingdoms 
any more ; neither shall they defile themselves any 
more with their idols and with their detestable 
things, and with all their transgressions ; and I will 
save them out of all their dwelling places wherein 
they have sinned, and I will cleanse them, and 
they shall be unto me for a people, and I will be 
unto them for a God. And my servant David 
shall be king over them; and one shepherd shall 
be for them all; and in my ordinances shall they 
walk, and my statutes shall they observe and do 
them. And they shall dwell in the land that I 
have given unto my servant, unto Jacob, wherein 
your fathers have dwelt; and they shall dwell 
therein, they and their children and their chil- 
dren's children forever; and David my servant 
shall be prince over them forever. And I will 
make with them a covenant of peace, an everlast- 
ing covenant shall it be with them, and I will be 
unto them for a God, and they shall be unto me 
for a people. And the nations shall know that I 
am the Lord who sanctifieth Israel, when my sanc- 
tuary will be in the midst of them forevermore." 
This does not mean that the Jews will be re- 


stored merely to Palestine. They will occupy all 
the land "from the river unto the ends of the sea/' 
which now constitutes the Arabian peninsula, 
and Syria, and Asia Minor. Within the territory 
encompassed by boundaries drawn from the 
Euphrates to the Persian Gulf to the Arabian, Red, 
Mediterranean, Black and Caspian seas the people 
and nationality of Israel will rear a state which 
will be the center of the world's wealth. This 
will be their temporal reward for their long dis- 
persion. Does not the Lord declare, through 
Ezekiel, of the man who will do this work: 
"After many da3^s shalt thou be ordered forward; 
in the end of years shalt thou come into the land 
that is recovering from the sword (the United 
States, where permanent peace is most discussed), 
and is gathered together out of many people, 
against the mountains of Israel, which have been 
ruined for a long time : to a people (of the United 
States) that are brought forth out of the nations, 
and that now dwell in safety, all of them. Thou 
shalt ascend and come like a tempest, like a cloud 
to cover the earth wilt thou be, thou, and all thy 
armies, and the many people with thee. There- 
fore prophesy, son of man, and say unto Gog, 
Thus hath saith the Lord Eternal, behold on the 
day when my people of Israel dwelleth in safety 
(as they are now beginning to) shalt thou know 
my power. And thou wilt come from thy place 

THE MAN 343 

out of the fartherest ends of the north (the United 
States), thou, and many people with thee, all of 
them riding upon horses, a great assemblage and a 
mighty army; and thou wilt come up against my 
people of Israel, like a cloud to cover the land; in 
the latter days will this be, and I will bring them 
over my land in order that the nations may know 
me, when I am sanctified on thee, before their 
eyes, O Gog. This hath saith the Lord Eternal, 
Art thou not he of whom I Rave spoken in ancient 
days, through means of my servants the prophets 
of Israel, who prophesied in those days many 
years, that I would bring thee against them. 

"And it shall come to pass at the same time, on 
the day of Gog's coming over the land of Israel, 
saith the Lord Eternal, that my fury shall be 
kindled in my nose. And in my zealousness, in 
the fire of my wrath have I spoken. Surely on 
that day shall there be a great earthquake in the 
country of Israel; and there shall quake at my 
presence the fishes of the sea (submarines), and 
the fowls of the heavens (aircraft), and the beasts 
of the field (great guns), and every creeping thing 
that creepeth upon the earth (trenches and ma- 
chine fire), and the mountains (great nations), 
shall be thrown down, and the cliffs (of a city) 
shall fall, and every wall (barrier between men), 
shall fall to the ground. And I will call against 
him throughout all my mountains for the sword, 


saith the Lord Eternal : every man's sword shall be 
against his brother. And I will hold judgment 
over him with pestilence and with blood shedding; 
and an overflowing rain (of bullets), and great 
hailstones (shells), fire and sulphur (gases) will I 
let over him and his armies, and over the many- 
people that are with him. Thus will I magnify 
myself, and make myself known before the eyes 
of many nations: and they shall know that I am 
the Lord." 

The man who will do this work will need to be 
a great soldier as Rameses, David, Alexander, 
Hannibal, Csesar, Trajan, Attila, Heracleus, 
Jinghis, Timur, Suleiman, Turenne and Napo- 
leon were great soldiers. He will need to be a 
statesman as they and Sargon, Alcibiades, 
Ptolemy, Mithridates, Tiberius, Septimus Sev- 
erus, Leo the Isaurian, Harun, Gregory VII and 
Boniface VIII were statesmen. He will need to 
be a great lawgiver like Hammurabi, Justinian 
and Napoleon. He will need to be a writer in a 
democratic age as David, Csesar, Julian, Gregory 
VII, Turenne and Napoleon were writers. He 
will need to be a builder of unity as Alexander, 
Caesar, Hugh the Great, Canute, Alphonso VII, 
Jinghis, Timur and Casimir. He will need to be a 
religious reformer like David, Maximin, Julian, 
Leo and Gregory VII. He will need to be an 
orator like Caesar, who was the rival of Cicero. 

THE MAN 345 

He will need to be unselfish, lest he "forsake my 
law" and be brought to grief like Miltiades, Alci- 
biades, Caesar, Attila, Charles XII and Napoleon. 
He will need to be a simple servant of the Most 
High as were Abraham, Jacob, Joshua, David, 
Daniel, Julian, Harun, Alfred, Canute and 
Gregory. Otherwise he will not receive the light 
to guide him through vicissitudes and perils. He 
will be a human being. He will love and be 
loved by a good woman. Like Caesar, he will be, 
as Mommsen remarks, "a man of passion, for with- 
out passion there can be no genius." He will be 
a kind and doting father to his children, as Na- 
poleon was. He will be a manly man, fond of 
sports and outdoor life, as 'Alexander and Caesar 
were, yet a student as they and all the long line of 
the "house" of David. He will have the genius 
of Napoleon for handling business matters. He 
will be a "good fellow," full of laughter and wit 
and with a sincere shake of the hand for every 
man. So simple will he be in his manner of life 
and his thoughts and pleasures that ideas will 
come to him as they have to all the inspired leaders 
of the ages. It will be he of whom it was said 
through Isaiah long ago : 

"And there shall rest upon him the spirit of the 
Lord, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, 
the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowl- 
edge and the fear of the Lord. And he shall be 


animated by the fear of the Lord; and not after 
the sight of his eyes shall he judge, and not after 
the hearing of his ears shall he decide; but he shall 
judge with righteousness the poor, and decide 
with equity for the suffering ones of the earth; and 
he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, 
and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the 
wicked. And righteousness shall be the girdle of 
his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his hips. 
And the wolf shall then dwell with the sheep, and 
the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the 
calf and the young lion and the fatling shall be 
together, and a little boy (simple man) shall lead 
them. And the cow and the she-bear shall feed, 
together shall their young ones lie down; and the 
lion shall like the ox eat straw. And the suckling 
child shall play on the hole of the asp, and on the 
basilisks den shall the weaned child stretch forth 
his hand. They shall not do hurt nor destroy on 
all my holy mountain; for the earth shall be full 
of the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover 
the sea." 

Indeed, he will be called upon to rule because 
he will fulfil the ideal of the Emperor Julian, 
who wrote sixteen centuries ago: "But now I 
must demand from it an account, as fas as possi- 
ble, of the man who is good and kingly and great 
souled. In the first place, then, he is devout and 
does not neglect the worship of the gods (respects 

THE MAN 347 

religion), and secondly he is pious and ministers 
to his parents, both when they are alive and after 
their death, and he is friendly to his brothers, and 
reverences the gods who protect the family, while 
to supplicants and strangers he is mild and gen- 
tle ; and he is anxious to gratify good citizens, and 
governs the masses with justice and for their bene- 
fit. And wealth he loves, not that which is 
heavy with gold and silver, but that which is 
full of the true good will of his friends, and serv- 
ice without flattery. Though by nature he is 
brave and gallant, he takes no pleasure in war, 
and detests civil discord, though when men do 
attack him, whether by some chance or by reason 
of their own wickedness, he resists them bravely 
and defends himself with energy, and carries 
through his enterprises to the end, not desisting 
until he has destroyed the power of the foe and 
made it subject to himself. But after he has 
conquered by force of arms, he makes his sword 
cease from slaughter, because he thinks that for 
one who is no longer defending himself to go 
on killing and laying waste is to incur pollution. 
And being by nature fond of work, and great of 
soul, he shares in the labors of all; and claims 
the lion's shares of these labors, then divides with 
the others the rewards for the risks which he 
has run, and is glad and rejoices, not because he 
has more gold and silver treasure than other men, 


and palaces adorned with costly furniture, but 
because he is able to do good to many, and to be- 
stow upon all men whatever they may chance 
to lack. This is what he who is truly a king 
claims for himself." 

Creasy, in his "Fifteen Decisive Battles of the 
World," says of the Great Hun: "When we 
turn from the legendary to the historic Attila, we 
see clearly that he was not one of the vulgar herd 
of barbaric conquerors. Consummate military 
skill may be traced in his campaigns; and he re- 
lied far less on the brute force of armies for the 
aggrandizement of his empire than on the un- 
bounded influence over the affections of friends 
and the fears of foes, which his genius enabled 
him to acquire. Austerely sober in his private 
life, — severely just on the judgment seat, — con- 
spicuous among a nation of warriors for hardi- 
hood, strength and skill in every martial exercise, 
— grave and deliberate in counsel, but rapid and 
remorseless in execution, — he gave safety and se- 
curity to all who were under his dominion, while 
he urged a warfare of extermination against all 
who opposed or sought to escape from it." Ar- 
rian, whose authorities knew Alexander the Great 
personally, says: "His body was beautiful and 
well proportioned; his mind brisk and active; his 
courage wonderful. He was strong enough to un- 
dergo hardships, and willing to meet dangers; 

THE MAN 349 

ever ambitious of glory and a strict observer of 
religious duties. As to those pleasures which re- 
garded the body, he showed himself indifferent; 
as to the desires of the mind, insatiable. He was 
famous for exciting his soldiers with courage and 
animating them with hopes of success, as also in 
dispelling their fears by his own example and 
magnanimity." Mommsen relates of the Roman 
Conqueror: "Caesar retained both his bodily 
vigor and his elasticity of mind unimpaired. In 
fencing and in riding he was a match for any of 
his soldiers, and his swimming saved his life at 
Alexandria. Although a gentleman, a man of 
genius and a monarch, he had still a heart. In 
his character, as well as in his place in history, 
Csesar occupies a position where the great con- 
trasts of existence meet and balance each other. 
Of the mightiest creative power, and yet at the 
same time of the most penetrating judgment; no 
longer a youth and yet not an old man; of the 
highest energy of will and the greatest capacity 
of execution; filled with republican ideals and 
at the same time born to be a king; a Roman in 
the deepest sense of his nature, and yet called to 
reconcile and combine in himself, as well as in the 
outer world, the Roman and Hellenic types of cul- 
ture — Caesar was an entire and perfect man." 
J. Holland Rose says of Napoleon: "In spite 
of his prodigious failure, he was superlatively 


great in all that pertains to government, the quick- 
ening of human energies, and the art of war. His 
greatness lies, not merely in the abiding impor- 
tance of his undertakings, but still more in the 
Titanic force that he threw into the inception and 
accomplishment of all of them — a force which 
invests the storm blasted monoliths strewn along 
the latter portion of his career with a majesty un- 
approachable by a tamer race of toilers." 

Down the path of the centuries marched this 
spirit of whom it was promised: "Also I will 
appoint him my first born, the highest among the 
kings of the earth." Conquering, reorganizing, 
rehabilitating, unifying wherever he was reborn, 
whether in Asia, Africa or Europe, he was en- 
abled to lead on as the central stem in the work 
of civilization. After David, he was three times 
king of Egypt, four times king of Babylon, once 
prophet in Israel and high official of Babylon, 
three times leader in Greece, once greatest of 
Carthaginians, including Julius Csesar seven times 
emperor of Rome, once king of the Huns, three 
times East Roman emperor, once Caliph, twice 
king of England, once of Castile, once of Poland, 
once of France, once of Sweden and once of Tur- 
key, twice pope, once Mongol and another time 
Berlas conqueror, once French general and finally 
French emperor. Trained in government and 
war he will be prepared when he again appears for 

THE MAN 351 

the next great task the Ahuighty will give him 
to do — the conquest and dominion of the earth 
as a servant of God and of men in the Republic 
of Man. "In his days abundance of peace shall 
be 'til the moon shall be no more." "And my 
servant David shall be over them and one shep- 
herd shall be for them all." "For a child has been 
born unto us, and the government is placed on 
his shoulders; and his name is called Wonderful, 
counselor of the Mighty God, of the Everlasting 
Father, the prince of peace, for promoting the 
increase of the government, and for peace with- 
out end, upon the throne of David and upon his 
kingdom, to establish it and to support it through 
justice and righteousness, from henceforth and 
unto eternity : the zeal of the Lord of Hosts will 
do this." "Who can sustain the day of his com- 
ing'? who can stand when he appeareth? for he 
is like the fire of the melter, and like the lye of 
the washers." He will not deserve the admoni- 
tion, "Cursed be he that doeth the work of the 
Lord negligently, and cursed be he that with- 
holdeth his sword from blood." But in his day 
it will be said: "Now the Lord hath brought it 
to fulfilment and hath done according as he hath 



"A nation — and were it even possible, a whole world — 
of free men, lifting their foreheads to God and nature; 
calling no man master, for one is their master, even God ; 
knowing and obeying their duties toward the Maker of the 
Universe, and therefore to each other, and that not from 
fear, nor calculation of profit or loss, but because they 
loved and liked it, and had seen the beauty of righteous- 
ness and trust and peace, because the law of God was in 
their hearts ; and need at last, it may be, neither king nor 
priest, for each man and each woman were kings and 
priests of God. Such a nation — such a society — what 
nobler conception of mortal existence can we form^ 
Would not that indeed be the kingdom of God come on 
earth T' — Charles Kingsley. 

It is the destiny of the United States to trans- 
form the earth by giving it liberty under forms 
of law expressed in a republic which shall include 
all races, nations and climes. 

This will not be brought about by any puerile 
attempt, however dignified, to compel all men 
by mere declaration of plan, which includes talk 
alone, to cease from strife. It will not come 
through a parliament of legal representatives of 
the states of the earth who have an ideal of peace 



but are without the judgment to perceive that 
the decrees of a congress are as nothing if without 
force to back them up. It will not appear by- 
means of a world court proposed by dreamers, who 
apparently do not yet realize that the horrors 
of war will last just so long as great rivals for 
trade and dominion and influence have nearly 
equal strength to test by the sword. Nor will 
it come through a dictator or commission of dic- 
tators set up in the name of law to rule the ^^orld. 
It will be brought about by the people of the 
United States, uniting themselves in preparation 
in a military sense for the work of seizing this 
continent, defeating the efforts of the Japanese 
to control the Pacific Ocean and give wider sway 
to their institutions in Asia, and, at last, yield- 
ing hundreds of thousands and even millions of 
brave youth to powder and shot, in order that 
the last of the monarchies, the German Empire, 
may perish from the face of the earth. It will 
come by means of several cruel and bitterly con- 
tested wars. Three centuries of amalgamation 
of the blood of many peoples into one has made 
the American people the most virile and intelli- 
gent on the globe, and in 1938, when they shall 
have reached their maximum of strength, they 
will be fully ready to conclude their work. In 
that day every spot on the earth will have at one 
time been the seat of an empire. In that time 


every people will have exhausted itself. The 
American people alone will not have done so, 
because the process of intermingling has continued 
from the beginning, nearly three centuries ago, 
until the present, under the law of blood assur- 
ing for three centuries to come that continued 
strength w^hich will enable them to uphold and 
give force to the government for mankind which 
they will establish. With Germany and Japan 
vanquished, as well as the principal opponents 
of the former in the present European conflict, 
there is not a power in the world in sight or in 
the process of the making that could withstand 
the energies and force of the American people 
for many centuries. As the conquering peoples 
in the dawn of history began their course west- 
ward from Cathay across Asia to the Mediterran- 
ean, and thence northward into Europe and over 
the sea, so they have now completed the cycle, 
and where east and west meet are prepared to 
begin a new dispensation. 

Nearly twenty-five hundred years ago the 
prophet Daniel foresaw that this would come. 
Probably with the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B.C. 
he was carried to Babylon and made an attendant 
in the palace of the conqueror. A boy then, a 
quarter of a century later he gave to the world 
that divine prophecy that a time (a thousand), 
times (another thousand) and half a time (half a 


thousand years) would "the Grod of heaven set up 
a kingdom which shall to all eternity not be de- 
stroyed, and its rule shall not be transferred to 
any other people; and it will grind up and make 
an end of all these kingdoms, while it will itself 
endure for ever." No mention is made in the 
Book of Kings or in Jeremiah of the taking of 
the Hebrew capital by Nebuchadnezzar in 605 
B.C., the "third year of Jehoiakim" of Daniel^ 
and it is extremely improbable. The chapter in 
which the great prediction is made was composed 
in the first year of Belshazzar, who is referred to 
throughout as the son of Nebuchadnezzar. The 
latter, as crown prince, defeated the Egyptians 
at Charchemish in 605 b.c. If, as Berosus says, 
he hurried home shortly afterward, upon the death 
of his father, to become king, and this was in the 
same year, and if, as the same authority asserts, 
he reigned forty-three years, the first year of Bel- 
shazzar would fall in 562 b.c. and the culmina- 
tion of the "time, times and half a time" in 1938 
A.D. Archeological inscriptions name Belshazzar 
as the son of Nabunaid and state that he was 
slain in the night by Gubaru, the governor sent 
by Cyrus; but the man who was regent and gen- 
eral under his father may have been the grandson 
of Nebuchadnezzar and have been given some 
power immediately upon the death of the latter: 
a campaign as a successful commander in 605 b.c. 


and a reign thereafter of forty-three years must 
have made the king very old at the time of his 

The entire earth has been prepared for this by 
the events of the past two centuries. Tyrannies 
have been shorn of their power, religious hate 
has been allayed, education has opened the mind, 
enlightened nations have taken over the care of 
darkened ones, as in Africa, India and the Philip- 
pines, paper has become cheaper and books uni- 
versal, and a net work of steam and electric lines 
of transportation and telegraph have removed 
barriers and given incentive for thoughts every- 
where of the brotherhood of man and the father- 
hood of God. By travel, commerce and reading 
citizens of the world have grown apace. Turn- 
ing from incarnate hate in religious warfare, men 
have sought in the present generation to alleviate 
the conditions of those about them. The past 
of the world has been uncovered. The laws of 
all nations and times have been translated and 
compared. Interacting sympathy between insti- 
tutions and religious beliefs has become a note 
of the twentieth century. The tyranny of one 
sex over the other is passing away in the awaken- 
ing minds, consciences and activities of half the 
world — its women. Two classes that have here- 
tofore been lost to the fullest joy of life are 
being brought to intelligent activity and honor — 


the very young and the very old. Leaders in all 
activities are longing for a time of peace when 
the earth my be one. As Columbus saw twigs and 
carved wood floating on the water several days 
before he actually sighted land, so the ideals of 
an expectant world, expressed by so many minds, 
are evidences that the final day when the dreams 
of the sages of antiquity and the modern world 
will come true is soon to arrive. 

The United States, a nation of idealists as well 
as practical men, a country where soldiers and 
heroes may be trained, as well as crusaders for 
righteousness, must do this work with its mighty 
hand. It must train its million youth to arms 
every year and with its great fleets be ready to 
sweep the ocean. It must organize its inventors 
secretly so that its geniuses may help and not hin- 
der its work for the bringing nearer of the Re- 
public of Man. It must be prepared to utilize 
all its industries for the public good by turning 
them into military channels in time of war. 
With complete domination on this continent, it 
must protect its borders and be able to supply 
itself with every item of food and material in 
order not to be at disadvantage in the deciding 
conflicts of the future. It must have a numerous 
fleet of merchant ships, which may be turned to 
use in war when the hour comes. It must have 
an artillery arm of defense in the sky such as has 


not yet been thought of by any nation. And it 
must have under the sea forces which almost think 
in their mechanism. 

The tendency of all time has been toward unity. 
The clan, and afterwards the tribe, gave way to 
the small and then the greater nation, and finally 
the empire and attempts made by various con- 
querors and ambitious potentates toward world 
dominion. The trend has been in the direction 
of representative government and liberty. Seven 
centuries ago the Swiss gave Europe an example. 
City states and federations of states in Europe suc- 
ceeded each other from time to time. With the 
development of free thought and the American 
and French revolutions new and final impetus was 
given to conceptions of federal republics. South 
America and Mexico, France after 1871, Portugal 
and even China broke the bonds that bound them 
and sought enlightenment under representative 
government. Constitutions were wrested from 
monarchs elsewhere, as in Germany, Austria, Italy 
and Russia. At last, with the burden of the 
growth of armaments, the sentiment in favor of 
peace became so strong that the Czar in 1899 
called the first Hague conference, with the result 
of a permanent court of arbitration to settle inter- 
national disputes. After that came the Interpar- 
liamentary Union, composed entirely of members 
of national legislatures. It met at stated intervals 


to discuss the problem of world peace and a per- 
manent congress, until the gods of war rudely 
ended their deliberations. The Pan-American 
Union of Latin American republics and the United 
States has been a potent force for better under- 
standing and amity in this hemisphere. At- 
tempts toward closer union of the British colonies 
and of the Germans the world over through the 
Pan-German propaganda are further examples of 
the process of unity. In industry during the past 
decade great trusts and combinations to reduce 
cost and sometimes increase profits have further 
extended the field of the forces at work to bring 
about closer amalgamation between the activities 
of mankind. Genuine democracy has spread and 
helped to give weight to the statement of Imman- 
uel Kant that the prerequisite of the federation of 
the world is the establishment by all the nations 
individually of representative government. 

To accomplish this the United States, the 
strongest of nations, must give itself up to the 
unselfish task of beating off the usurping empires 
and defending the weak peoples that had their day 
of dominion long ago and have since been wait- 
ing patiently for the coming of the time when 
they should awake from the torpor of centuries 
and express themselves by intelligence alone, as 
in the case of China and Korea. It alone is strong 
enough. It alone is made up of every assimila- 


ble people. It alone pulsates with sympathy for 
the entire world. It alone has taken a Cuba and 
given it its liberty again so that it might govern 
itself. It alone contains a people enthusiastically 
bent upon giving the world the highest expression 
of itself — its own free institutions. It alone 
when the time comes, and under its leaders of 
that day, will insist that the result of its conquer- 
ing be representative government for all peoples. 
It alone will refuse to accept that dominion which 
it might have in view of its conquest, and be- 
come only a part of a greater state of which it 
will be the founder. The peoples of the world 
who have been saved from the dangers of further 
fetters and wars, except to maintain the public 
order, will express their gratitude by the accept- 
ance of institutions which have been so beneficial 
to that proportion of humanity that has lived 
under the Stars and Stripes. 

This state of the future should have one law 
and one government. It should have three co- 
ordinate branches, as this has. It should have 
its system of checks and balances. Tyranny should 
be prevented by the power of the legislature and 
the courts and the checks thereby placed upon 
the executive. Justice and efficiency of admin- 
istration should be provided by the world con- 
gress. The chief executive of the earth should 
receive such authority as is now given to the Presi- 


dent of the United States. He should be subject 
to impeachment by a two-thirds vote of the mem- 
bers of the less numerous branch of the legislature 
after the filing of charges by the more numerous 
branch. He should appoint all important federal 
officers as now, and be commander in chief of such 
forces of a minor but adequate character as may be 
required to put down insurrections anywhere on 
the earth and maintain public order. He should 
be elected for a term of ten years and be once eligi- 
ble for reelection. He should receive a salary of 
$250,000 per annum, enough to maintain in dig- 
nity such a position. At the conclusion of his 
term he should have a seat, a voice and a vote 
in the Senate. Election should be by the people, 
irrespective of race, creed or previous condition. 
Authority should rest upon them alone and be 
grounded upon the principle that under the law 
all men are created equal. The President should 
be assisted by a cabinet, comprising a secretary 
of state to transact official correspondence of the 
chief executive with the several states and be 
his principal confidential adviser; a secretary of 
public order to see to the details of maintaining 
peace in the world, by an army and a navy in the 
hands of the United States of America; a secre- 
tary of marine to supervise all matters relating 
to shipping; a secretary of commerce to admin- 
ister the laws relating to business; a secretary of 


communication to include the post offices, telegraph 
and telephone; a secretary of public works to 
supervise building, bridge, road and harbor con- 
struction required by the federation; a secretary 
of agriculture to supervise the administration of 
the laws relating to the development of farming 
lands everywhere on the globe ; a secretary of labor 
to look after technical problems pertaining to 
wage earners and report suggestions of better- 
ment; a secretary of transportation to execute the 
statutes relating to rail, aerial and submarine com- 
munication; a secretary of the treasury to look 
after the details of universal coinage, finances 
and banking system; a secretary of mining and 
public lands to administer the laws pertaining to 
mining and coal, oil, water power and other nat- 
ural resources of the earth susceptible to monop- 
oly, to sec that the ouput is sold to the consumer 
at cost of production and marketing, and to pro- 
vide for the giving of homesteads under the laws 
out of vacant and tillable territory everywhere; 
an attorney general to defend and bring suits in 
the name of the Federation of the World, as well 
as to investigate wrongs and seek remedies at law ; 
a secretary of public health and sanitation to en- 
hance the progress of medicine and research, to 
execute regulations for the prevention of conta- 
gious diseases and to administer the laws relating, 
to foods and drugs; a secretary of manufactures 


to foster that class of industries and compel obedi- 
ence to the welfare of the public expressed through 
the laws pertaining to it; a secretary of publica- 
tion to administer laws relating to the subjects 
of literature, journalism, book publication, adver- 
tising and libraries, to suggest methods of the me- 
chanical improvement of a free press, protect the 
production of pulp and other natural methods of 
making paper so as to vouchsafe printed matter 
for the public at as cheap a rate as possible, to 
prevent the press of the world from getting into 
the hands of a monopoly or series of them, to 
publish all documents and papers of the general 
government, and to collect and maintain a library 
for the use of the central authorities; and a sec- 
retary of education to report upon improvements 
in and supervise the administration of all educa- 
tion everywhere. Each of the members of the 
cabinet of the president of the entire world should 
have a seat and a voice but not a vote in the de- 
liberations of either branch of the congress dur- 
ing consideration of appropriation bills relating 
to his department. A vice president, selected for 
the same length of term as the president, should 
preside over the Senate, without vote or voice as 

The national legislature of the federation, to 
be established by the arms and power of the 
United States, should consist of a house of repre- 


sentatives and a senate. The former should be 
elected directly by the people, on a basis of one 
to every three millions of population, or one to 
every nation even if the number of its inhabitants 
be less. It should have the sole authority to orig- 
inate money bills, as in the cases of the Parlia- 
ment of England and the more numerous branch 
of the Congress of the United States. It should 
have a speaker with the power to select commit- 
tees. Members should be elected for a term of 
five years and take office within two months after 
election. Senators should be selected by the leg- 
islatures of the respective nations and serve terms 
of ten years each. Each nation should have two 
senators. It would be preferable to have the 
members of the less numerous body selected by 
the legislatures instead of the people, iirst, be- 
cause they would then be the representatives of 
representatives and therefore larger national fig- 
ures and more conservative and able men, and, sec- 
ond, because they would then consider national 
and world interests in their broader aspect rather 
than in favor of any popular clamor of the time. 
Certainly this would be true at the period of the 
organization of the government, at least. The 
branches of the legislature should be coordinate, 
without one being superior or inferior to the other 
in power. 

In the supreme court of the world, sitting at 


the federal capital, there should be eleven mem- 
bers. Time has shown that in our own court the 
docket is frequently delayed by the fact that 
the number of justices to write opinions is in- 
sufficient. Another reason for the naming of two 
more by the president of the world federation 
is that the circuit over which they would preside 
during the interregnum between sessions in cases 
of appeal would be larger. As two or three weeks 
might at first be required to get to some portions 
of the jurisdiction, these judges would be exceed- 
ingly busy men if the sittings were the same as 
in the case of the court at Washington. The 
duties of the court should be the construction of 
the constitution and decision of international 
cases, as in the Supreme Court of the United 

The constitution of the federation should up- 
hold the rights of property; of every man to his 
own domicile and equal protection under law to 
every person of whatever race, religion or color; 
free worship without molestation, free speech, a 
free press and of every boy and girl to a free 
education at the hands of the state, at the same 
time denying the privilege to any sect, whether 
Mahometan, Buddhist, Confucian, or Christian, 
to establish separate general systems of primary, 
graded or secondary education. It should abolish 
forever all titles of kingship or nobility, all spe- 


cial privilege of birth, wealth or origin, and all 
connection between church and state anywhere in 
the world; also polygamy, polyandry, and slavery 
of every form; also grant the constitutional right 
to all women on the earth of equality of suffrage, 
property and independence under the laws. Tar- 
iffs should then be abolished. General laws 
should be applicable to every nation, the exercise 
of the police power alone being reserved to each. 
Such in brief might be the details of the gov- 
ernment of a federation of the world. Constitu- 
tions containing every ism of the moment of adop- 
tion only result in confusion and perhaps regret. 
A simple instrument laying out the barest outline, 
as in the immortal document framed by the fa- 
thers of the American commonwealth, and espe- 
cially the genius of Alexander Hamilton, is wisest, 
and best withstands the assaults of radicalism 
throughout future time. Such a government 
would necessarily be of the people, by the people 
and for the people of the earth. Two great par- 
ties would perhaps spring up, one radical and the 
other conservative, for human minds naturally di- 
vide themselves into those two categories. Of 
course other parties might arise with the avowed 
purpose of making human nature over according 
to their respective patterns in a few years, but 
they would not be apt to last long. Elections for 
the presidency and vice presidency of the earth 


would be exciting, but all nations and peoples 
would in a generation become as thoroughly ac- 
customed to conducting them in orderly and hon- 
est fashion as are now the people of the United 
States. In these every white, black, yellow, red 
and brown man and woman over twenty-one 
should have the same rights. 

English should become the language of the 
earth. Already it is used by more people than 
any other. To propose a new tongue and expect 
everybody to learn it to gratify the vanity of the 
man who invented it would be impractical if not 
ridiculous. First, as the commercial language and 
then of government and all communication, Eng- 
lish should be used in schools everywhere and be- 
come universal. There is justice in this, for it 
cannot be denied that the English speaking peo- 
ples have accomplished more for human liberty 
than all the balance of the race put together. 
Every people should be expressed in a nation and 
have a voice in the federation. About sixty 
should be included in it, making a total number 
of senators of about 120 and a house of represen- 
tatives of more than five hundred. The states 
of Asia should be India, Burma, Siam, Annam, Ti- 
bet, China, Mongolia, Manchuria, Siberia, Japan, 
Korea, Turkestan, Afghanistan, Persia and the 
great state of Israel, center of the world's commerce 
and industry and at the junction of the great 


oceans and continents. Africa, now divided ar- 
bitrarily into boundaries made by the colonizing 
nations of Europe, should be divided into five 
nations following natural limits; one bounded by 
the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, the line 
of 20° north and the eastern limits of Tripoli and 
French West Africa; another comprising the lands 
between Tripoli, French West Africa, the Medi- 
terranean, the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean and 
the northern limits of British East Africa and 
Uganda; a third from the latter Ugandian and 
British East African limits, along the eastern 
boundaries of the Belgian Congo, Portuguese West 
Africa, German Southwest Africa, the Orange 
River and the Indian Ocean; a fourth bounded 
by the northwestern, northern and eastern limits 
of the Belgian Congo, the eastern limits of Por- 
tuguese West Africa, German Southwest Africa 
and the Atlantic Ocean; and a fifth circum- 
scribed by the parallel of 20° north, the east- 
ern limits of French West Africa and the Atlantic 
Ocean. The states of Europe should be Nor- 
way, Sweden, Ireland, England, Holland, Bel- 
gium (restored), Germany, Austria, Denmark, 
Russia, Hungary, Bohemia, Switzerland, France, 
Italy, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria and Servia. 
North America would be as one. South America 
might also, but, if not, it would be divided as 
now into the states of Venezuela, Colombia, 


Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Chili, Argentine, Uru- 
guay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil. The East 
Indies, the West Indies, Australia, New Zealand, 
Guiana, Madagascar and Iceland might have sep- 
arate commonwealths. 

The attention of the entire world would be 
centered upon the City of Washington where the 
capital might be situated. To contend that mak- 
ing that city the political center would give too 
much power to the American commonwealth 
would be unreasonable, after its people had sac- 
rificed their all for the benefit of humanity and 
had submerged their influence and authority in 
the mightier commonwealth of their ideal. And 
it would be the strength of the American people 
which would jealously guard and strictly uphold 
the constitution and laws of the Republic of Man 
against unscrupulous and designing traitors or 
groups of lawless people seeking to disturb it 
anywhere. Newspapers in every land would re- 
ceive from the wires the happenings of the day 
before in the chief metropolis of the earth. 
None would be so poor as to be unable to buy 
or so ignorant as to be unable to read the doings 
in that city of the future. The center of art, 
literature, music, science, fashion, it would reflect 
the best thought and highest achievements of a 
billion and a half of human beings captivated by 
liberty and union. What would be more fitting 


than that the name of Washington, whose noble 
character and soldierly qualities founded Ameri- 
can freedom, should be given to the city of the 
government of a regenerated mankind I 

Under the aegis of such a world dominion of 
universal citizenship, with every man (or woman) 
eligible to the highest dignity, and freedom of 
opportunity guaranteed to all, can it be questioned 
that there would arise a civilization surpassing 
any which the planet has heretofore seen^ The 
accomplishments of every field of human endeavor 
would be surpassed. Philosophy would thrive 
and the glories of days that are gone would be 
well nigh forgotten in the creations of literary 
and dramatic art. As in ancient Athens, the sym- 
metrical development of mind and body would 
become the aim of men, and the ideal of beauty 
in the human form and all art, whether painting, 
photographic film, sculpture, building, dress or 
landscape would be pursued with avidity bom 
of a society wherein freedom and justice prevailed. 
In industry men would bring forth the creations 
of their toil with less pain and sorrow and more 
enjoyment of life. In education men would not 
fear to seek new truth and light, instead of con- 
tenting themselves with the pap doled out by 
stupid pedants of language and literature which 
grew out of conditions long past; and every child 
would be taught the dignity of labor and have 


his hand fashioned to wrest from it something 
useful. With the development of medical sci- 
ence, the temperance that would come with greater 
self respect, and the cleanliness that would be 
the results of a world taught hygiene, and more 
necessities and comforts by inventive skill, dis- 
ease would in time disappear. And with men 
learning to serve God only by serving men and 
seeking the development of all in a common light 
and happiness, might it not be almost anticipated 
that selfishness itself, the evil of the world, would 
in time, after many ages perhaps, die away*? No- 
bler manhood and womanhood, it may be hoped, 
would secure in the great state of the future an 
ever increasing number of happy homes and lives. 
If this dream seems vague and beyond the limi- 
tations of our faith, we shall find it written by 
the prophets of Israel long ago in letters that 
will never die. It was Isaiah who said: "And 
it shall come to pass in the last days that the 
mountain of the Lord's house shall be firmly es- 
tablished on the tops of the mountains and shall 
be exalted above the hills, and unto it shall flow 
all the nations." ^ ''And I will visit on the world 
its evil and on the wicked their iniquity; and I 
will stop the arrogance of the presumptuous, and 
the haughtiness of the tyrants will I tumble. I 
will make the mortal more precious than fine gold, 

1 Isaiah 2:2. 


and man more than the valued metal of Ophir." ^ 
"And it shall come to pass on that day that the 
Lord will visit punishment on the hosts of heaven 
in heaven and on the kings of the earth on the 
earth. And they shall be gathered in heaps, as 
prisoners, in the prison and shall be shut up in 
the dungeon, and thus after many days shall they 
be punished." ^ "And men will say on that day, 
lo, this is our God, for whom we have waited that 
he would help us; this is the Lord our God for 
whom we have waited, we will rejoice and we 
will be glad in his salvation." ^ "And I, because 
of their works and their thoughts, will let it come 
to pass to gather all the nations and tongues ; and 
they shall come and shall see my glory." ^ 
"There shall be no more thence an infant of a 
few days, nor an old man that shall not have 
the full length of his days ; for as a lad shall one 
die an hundred years old; and as a sinner shall 
be accursed he who dieth at an hundred years 
old." ' "The wolf and the lamb shall feed to- 
gether, and the lion shall like the bullock eat 
straw: and the serpent — dust shall be his food. 
They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy 
mountain, saith the Lord." ^ Jeremiah said: 
"The vintner's call, as they that tread out the 
grapes, will he lift up against all the inhabitants 

2 Isaiah 13:11-12 ^ Ibid., 66:18. 

3 Ibid., 24 : 21-22. ^ Ibid., 65 : 20. 
* Ibid., 25:9. ''Ibid., 65:25. 


of the earth. A tumultuous noise cometh out of 
the ends of the earth, for the Lord hath a contro- 
versy with the nations, to hold judgment over 
all flesh: the wicked — these he giveth up to the 
sword, saith the Lord." ® Through Ezekiel it was 
said: "And I will appoint over them one shep- 
herd, and he shall feed them, namely my servant 
David: he it is that shall feed them, and he it is 
that shall be unto them for a shepherd." ® ''And 
I will display my glory among the nations." ^^ 
This through Joel: ''And it shall come to pass 
after this that I will pour out my spirit over all 
flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall 
prophesy : your old men shall dream dreams ; your 
young men shall see visions; and also over the 
men servants and over the maid servants in 
those days will I pour out my spirit." ^^ Micah 
said: "And he shall judge between many peo- 
ple, and decide for strong nations even afar 
off; and they shall beat their swords into plowr 
shares, and their spears into pruning knives: na- 
tion shall not lift up sword against nation, and 
they shall not learn any more war. But they 
shall sit every man under his vine and under his 
fig tree, with none to make them afraid, for the 
mouth of the Lord of Hosts hath spoken it." ^* 

* Jeremiah 25:30-31. i* Joel 3:1-2. 

Ezekiel 34:23. 12 Micah 4: 3-4. 

^^Ihid., 39:21. 


Habakkuk says: "For the earth shall be filled 
with the glory of the Lord as the waters cover 
the sea." ^^ Zephaniah declares : "Yea, then will 
I change unto the people a pure language, that 
they may all call on the name of the Lord, to serve 
him with one accord." ^* Haggai foretells : "And 
I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I 
will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the 
nations; and I will overthrow chariots and those 
that ride in them; and the horses and the riders 
shall come down, every one by the sword of his 
brother." ^^ Zechariah proclaims: "On that 
day, saith the Lord of hosts, shall ye call every 
man his neighbor under the vine and under the 
fig tree." ^^ And again: "Thus hath said the 
Lord of hosts. In those days it shall happen 
that ten men out of all the languages of the 
nations shall take hold — yea, they shall take hold 
of the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying, let us 
go with you, for we have heard that God is with 
you." ^'^ David said: "He causeth wars to 
cease unto the end of the earth; he breaketh the 
bow and cutteth the spear in pieces; he bumeth 
wagons in the fire. Be still, and know that I 
am God. I will be exalted among the nations, 
I will be exalted on the earth." ^^ "The moun- 
tains shall bear peace for the people, and the 

13 Habakkuk 2:14. i* Zechariah 3:10. 

1* Zephaniah 3:9. ^"^ Ibid., 8:23. 

15 Haggai 2:22. 1® Psalm 46:10-11. 


hills the same through righteousness." ^^ And 
David again: "The Lord hath sworn and will 
not repent of it, Thou shalt be forever a priest 
after the order of Melchizedek. The Lord at thy 
right hand crusheth kings on the day of his 
wrath." ^^ Finally through Daniel the word 
came: "But in the days of these kingdoms will 
the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall 
to eternity not be destroyed, and its rule shall 
not be transferred to any other people ; but it will 
grind up and make an end to all these kingdoms, 
while it will itself endure for ever." ^^ And 
also: "The saints of the Most High will ob- 
tain the kingdom, and possess the kingdom to eter- 
nit3% even to all eternity for ever." ^^ Then he 
said: "Until the ancient of days came and pro- 
cured justice unto the saints of the Most High; 
and the time came and the saints took possesion 
of the kingdom." 

The meaning of these latter words of Daniel 
is that at the time of the spiritual awakening of 
mankind to simple righteousness after the estab- 
lishment of freedom, equality of opportunity and 
complete tolerance on the earth, under the gov- 
ernment of the Republic of Man, those minds 
that have most served the Most High during the 
centuries in which they have appeared in life 

19 Psalm 72:3. 21 Dan. 2:44. 

20 Ibid., 1 10:4-5. 22 jiid,^ 7 . ,8, 


frequently to do His work and lead the world 
nearer and nearer to obedience to Him, will one 
after the other be recognized for their abilities 
and character and be lifted up by their fellow 
men to the highest place of responsibility on the 
planet as president of the Federation of the 
World. As they have been enabled to achieve 
by inspiration in the past, so will they be guided 
by the will of the Eternal in the future. These 
are meant by Zechariah when he said: 'T saw 
this night, and behold there was a man riding 
upon a red horse, and he was standing among 
the myrtle trees that were in the deep valley; and 
behind him were red, pale and white horses. And 
I said. What are these, O my Lord? Then said 
the angel that spoke with me, I will show thee 
what these are. And the man that stood among 
the myrtle trees answered and said, These are 
those whom the Lord hath sent to traverse the 
earth. And they answered the angel of the Lord 
that stood among the myrtle trees and said, We 
have traversed the earth, and, behold, all the 
earth is inhabited quietly, and is at rest." ^^ Re- 
incarnated century after century, they do the 
work of the Lord. As is but natural, their am- 
bitions, aspirations, abilities and character remain 
the same. Each only becomes more trained for 
his respective task. They perform the wonders 

23 Zechariah i:8-ii. 


they do, not because they arc greater than the 
other sons of men, but on account of the fact that 
they are simple, humble and obedient to their 
Creator and hence more subject to His guidance. 
They are also meant by Zechariah in those im- 
mortal words : ^'^ "And the angel that spoke 
with me came back again, and waked me up, as 
a man that is awakened up out of his sleep; and 
he said unto me. What art thou seeing^ And 
I said, I have looked, and behold, there is a can- 
dlestick all of gold, with a bowl upon its top, 
and its seven lamps are thereupon, and seven pipes 
to the seven lamps which are upon the top; and 
two olive trees are upon it, one upon the right 
side of the bowl, and the other upon the left side 
thereof. And I commenced and said unto the 
angel that spoke with me, saying, what are these, 
my Lord? Then the angel that spoke with me 
answered and said unto me, Knowest thou not 
what these are? And I said, No, my Lord. 
Then answered he and spoke unto me, saying. 
Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, 
saith the Lord of hosts. Who art thou, O great 
mountain? before Zerubbabel (the anointed) 
thou wilt become a plain: and he shall bring 
forth the headstone with shoutings of Grace, 
grace unto it. And the word of the Lord came 
unto me, saying. The hands of Zerubbabel (the 

2* Zechariah, 4. 


anointed) have laid the foundation of this house, 
and his hands shall complete it; and thou shalt 
know that the Lord of hosts hath sent me unto 
you. For whoever even despised the day of its 
small beginning: yet will they rejoice when they 
see the plummet in the hand of Zerubbabel (the 
anointed) with those seven: they are the eyes of 
the Lord, which hold a survey through all the 
earth. And I began, and said unto him, What 
are these two olive trees upon the right side of 
the candlestick and upon the left? And I began 
a second time, and said unto him, What are these 
two olive branches, which are close by the two 
golden pipes which empty out of themselves the 
gold colored oil? And he said to me as followeth, 
Knowest thou not what these are? And I said, 
No, my Lord. Then said he. These are the two 
sons of the clear oil that stand by the Lord of the 
whole earth." The oil is the truth. On the 
throne of grace, as it is called in Daniel, they will 
dispense divine leadership to the world. 

Who but the Almighty put the idea into the 
brain of Christopher Columbus that lying off there 
toward the west was land — perhaps the coast of 
Cathay? Who gave him the intense longing 
when a boy for the sea? Who subdued the Aztecs 
with the same rod of iron with which they had 
slaughtered their victims at the sacrifice? Who 
practically exterminated the savage Indians who 


with fiendish cruelty, depravity and lust had been 
attacking each other from time immemorial as 
they later tomahawked the white men, burned 
their houses and attacked their wives'? Who pre- 
pared this land between the two great oceans and 
then led to it by inspiration the lovers of liberty 
and despisers of hardship of every land*? Who 
inspired the simple but intrepid spirit of George 
Washington"? Who guided the fathers of this re- 
public when they met in Philadelphia to deliber- 
ate upon a constitution, especially when Benjamin 
Franklin arose, after a deadlock in the debate, 
and asked light from the Bestower of Blessings? 
Who inspired the kindly soul of Abraham Lin- 
coln in the dark days of the war which was to de- 
termine whether this country was to become alto- 
gether free and unified so as to be potential 
enough in the hereafter to give liberty to all men? 
When another and different crisis arose, who 
brought forward Grover Cleveland to stand like 
a rock in a weary land against attempts by sophists 
to repudiate the financial credit of the nation and 
by Great Britain to invalidate the Monroe doc- 
trine*? In the time of the Spanish conflict who 
guided the noble and patient McKinley to fight 
for liberty and honor? When the world was in 
strife with this nation unprepared, who brought 
forth a man to lead whose very nature rebelled 
against violence and warfare and who therefore 


maintained peace? Who will bring forth another 
man when the necessity for him arises*? Who 
has built the nation and guided it through all 
the years? None but the living God! None 
but His omnipotent hand has fashioned this 
mighty land, 

"Here, where Freedom's equal throne 
To all her valiant sons is known ; 
Where all are conscious of her cares, 
And each the power that rules him shares." ^^ 

The United States, contented and happy, should 
realize that it cannot enjoy its benefits long if 
it does not prepare for its destiny which is to give 
that contentment and happiness to all mankind. 
If it does not do its duty in exertion to the ut- 
most to expend its treasure, train its youth for 
military service and sacrifice life abundantly in 
battles on sea and land, it will be deprived of 
its own liberty as punishment. If it does so exert 
itself, trains all and is willing to sacrifice all, 
it will be rewarded by receiving the honor and the 
glory of having accomplished more for humanity 
than any nation since the world began. This it 
should do because it has unrivaled wealth of man- 
hood and womanhood, spirit, farm, factory and 
mine. The nation should awaken to the greatest 
crusade that the ages have known, not to free a 

"Akcnsidc, Odes, 4:2. 


cross and a sepulchcr, but all mankind; to make 
the entire race brothers and sisters, not in a monas- 
tery or nunnery, but under God. It should not 
cease from its toil, its sorrow and pain, its hazard- 
ous undertakings in the face of pitiful bleatings 
from copperheads and pacificists, its grief for the 
sons, fathers and brothers slain in the fight, its put- 
ting every hazard to the grueling test of iron and 
steel and blood, its triumphant shouts of victory 
which are the rewards of complete efFacement for 
the accomplishment of a grand ideal, its continual 
giving birth to patriots who will, like Nathan 
Hale, regret that they have but one life to give 
for their country, its seeking through stress and 
storm for every spiritual light and material means 
to bring the common end, its seeing through 
comradery and altruism for the righteousness of 
the race, 

"Till the war drum throbs no longer and the battle flags 

are furled 
In the parliament of man, the federation of the world. 
There the common sense of most shall hold a fretful 

realm in awe, 
And the kindly earth shall slumber, lapt in universal 

law." '• 

The promises of God are always kept. As He 
spoke through the sages of the ages, through in- 

*• Tennyson, "In Memoriam." 


spired minds from David and Isaiah to Kant and 
Napoleon, so shall it be. The noble vision they 
foresaw no longer seems a weird and unlikely 
dream. It already appears dimly but certainly 
upon the horizon as a practicable accomplishment. 



"And when this cometh to pass (lo, it will come!), 
then shall they know that a prophet hath been among 
them." — EzEKiEL 33 :33. 

There were men in Israel in ancient days who 
denied the wisdom of the prophets unless it coin- 
cided with what they already believed. When 
the Babylonian monarchy was about to attack 
Jerusalem it was the voice of Jeremiah which 
warned his people that it would be wisest for 
them to quietly accept the yoke of the stronger 
and rising kingdom. They refused to listen, 
treated him as a traitor and cast him into a dun- 
geon. But his words were fulfilled. Then, like 
Washington, he refused the monarchial honors 
the conquering Nebuchadnezzar desired to bestow 
upon him, and merely chose an abode free from 
molestation in his own land, asking also that his 
friend Baruch be freed. Moses centuries before 
had warned his race that if they disobeyed the 
Eternal One and resorted to abominable practises, 
including unnaturalness and the worship of idols, 



they would be dispersed among the nations and, 
after they had been purged of their wickedness 
by terrible punishments through a long period, He 
would again have mercy upon them and restore 
them to their own land. Only a few listened. 
The great body of the people disobeyed. Yet the 
curse of God was fulfilled to the letter. Sepa- 
rated from their native land and cast among the 
countries, the Jews have been spat upon, de- 
nounced upon the slightest pretext, bitterly hated 
and persecuted upon the rack, broken upon the 
wheel, pursued by fire and sw^ord, and even in 
free America, reviled and shunned for no other 
reason than because Hebrews. Only at the pres- 
ent time, because of a slackening of legal and so- 
cial restrictions, the growth of the Zionist move- 
ment, and the increased security in life and prop- 
erty of the individual Jew in nearly all the na- 
tions, are they who care to see beginning to per- 
ceive that the fulfilment of the latter part of the 
prediction of the divinely inspired Moses is not 
far removed. After the Jews had passed over 
from Egypt into Palestine, under Joshua, conquer- 
ing the peoples they found there, it is said that 
"the Lord gave them rest round about, all just as 
he had sworn unto their fathers: and there stood 
not up before them a man of all their enemies; all 
their enemies the Lord delivered unto their hand. 
There failed not aught of all the good things which 


the Lord hath spoken unto the house of Israel : it 
all came to pass." ^ Joshua himself then warned 
his fellow countrymen: "Take good care, there- 
fore, for your soul's sake, to love the Lord your 
God." ^ "Now therefore fear the Lord and serve 
him in sincerity and in truth." ^ Sarcastically 
perhaps, "Joshua said unto the people. Ye will 
not be able to serve the Lord; for He is a holy 
God ; He is a watchful God ; He will not have any 
indulgence for your transgressions and your sins. 
If ye forsake the Lord and serve strange gods, then 
will He again do you evil and consume you, after 
that He hath done you good." * And so it came to 
pass. Then appeared Samuel, another prophet, 
who said : "He ever guardeth the feet of his pious 
ones, and the wicked shall be made silent in dark- 
ness; for not by strength can man prevail." ^ In 
passing it is remarked in the book of Samuel 
that "in former times it was customary in Israel, 
than when a man went to inquire of God, he said 
thus. Come and let us go as far as the seer; for the 
prophet of the present day was in former times 
called a seer." ® 

Then it came to Samuel by the Divine guidance 
that he was to go to the son of Jesse, who proved 
to be the shepherd boy, David, and say to him that 

1 Joshua 31:42-43. * Ibid., 34:19-20. 

^Ibid., 23:11. 5 1 Saral. 2:9. 

^Ihid., 24: 14. *Ibid., 9:9. 


he had been chosen king of Israel. And so the lad 
became. Later Achiyah told Jeroboam that he 
would succeed to a part of the kingdom which 
would be divided after the death of Solomon, his 
father. Rehoboam, the iirst successor of the 
wisest of kings, became a tyrant, his subjects re- 
belled and the vision was fulfilled to the letter. 
Isaiah prophesied to Hezekiah, and Ezekiel to 
Zedekiah that all in Jerusalem and the king's 
house would be carried away to Babylon. And so 
they were. Isaiah, too, predicted that as soon as 
his child Immanuel should grow to the age when he 
should know the difference between good and evil 
the king of Assyria would come. This happened. 
When Sennacherib of Assyria appeared before 
Jerusalem to attack it Isaiah foretold that he 
would hear a rumor and return to his own land. 
This was fulfilled. Then this prophet had another 
son, Maher-shalal-chash-baz. It came to the 
prophet that before the lad should know how to 
call father or mother, the wealth of Damascus and 
Samaria should be carried away by the Assyrian 
monarch. And they were. Israel escaped de- 
struction, but passed under the yoke of Nineveh. 
The great prophet now declared that his people 
should not be afraid of Asshur, for in a little while 
the indignation of the Lord would cease, the hand 
of the oppressor smitten and the burden lifted 
from the shoulders of Israel. This he said would 


be because of the fatness of Assyria; that is, it 
would pass to decline of energy and decay. This 
too, came true, for Babylon succeeded as the 
mighty power. Isaiah saw the doom of Damascus 
and that men of that city would no more turn to 
their altars, groves and images, which their hands 
had fashioned, but to their Maker, the Holy One 
of Israel ; that Egypt would revolt, pass under the 
foreign yoke and see many of its inhabitants led 
away captive; that altars to the Lord would be 
established in Egypt and that there would be com- 
munity of interest between Egypt and Assyria; 
that Babylon would fall and all its graven images 
be shivered unto the ground ; that the feet of Tyre 
would carry her afar off to sojourn, that she would 
fall because she had no more strength, be lost sev- 
enty years, revive again. And so it was fulfilled. 
Damascus fell before Tiglath Pileser III and did 
not rise again for a long time, Egypt was divided 
in the Ethiopian invasion of the XXIII and XXIV 
Dynasties, passed under the yoke of Assyria, saw 
many of its inhabitants, including the royal harem, 
led away by Esarhaddon; after Necho had de- 
feated Josiah of Judah many Israelites were taken 
away to Egypt and Hebrew altars were set up 
there, Ptolemy II in his time freeing an hundred 
thousand of the Israelites; because of Assyria de- 
stroying the Ethiopian tyranny and setting up 
Necho, the father of Psammeticus, as governor, 


there was community of interest between the vassal 
and conquering kingdom ; Babylon did finally fall 
before the Persians; Tyre was carried off by its 
own feet to Carthage, under Sennacherib and Esar- 
haddon was oppressed, for just how many years it 
is difficult to verify at the present stage of archeo- 
logical excavation, and then did for a time prosper 
again. Isaiah lived in the years between 750 B.C. 
and 700 B.C. It was a time of change and up- 
heaval in the history of the world. That is why 
he appeared as a light to the people. An hun- 
dred years were to pass before Jeremiah. In the 
time of the latter the Jewish nation had declined 
morally. It was Jeremiah who foresaw the ter- 
rible chastisement that befell in 586 b.c. He 
says: "Every one neighed after the wife of his 
neighbor. Shall I not for these things inflict pun- 
ishment? saith the Lord: and shall on a nation 
such as this my soul not be avenged*?" He con- 
tinues to speak in the name of his God: "I will 
render this city (Jerusalem) desolate and an ob- 
ject of derision." ^ "I will tear you (the Jews) 
completely away, and I will cast you off, and the 
city that I have given to you and to your fathers, 
out of my presence. And I will lay upon you an 
everlasting disgrace and a perpetual shame which 
shall not be forgotten." * "And I will make them 
a horror because of their mishaps unto all the king- 

^ Jeremiah 19:8. ^ Ibid., 2$: 39-^0. 


doms of the earth, a disgrace and a proverb, a by- 
word and a curse, in all the places wherein I will 
drive them. And I will send out against them 
the sword, the famine and the pestilence, till they 
be destroyed from off the land that I had given 
unto them and to their fathers." ^ So it came to 
pass. Jeremiah foretold that Philistia would be 
utterly spoiled and wasted by overflowing hosts 
from the northern lands. This, too, shortly oc- 
curred. He prophesied the great dispersion, like 
Isaiah, and the return "when they shall serve the 
Lord their God and David their king, whom I shall 
raise up unto them." ^^ And when "their leader 
shall be of themselves, and their ruler shall proceed 
from the midst of them" ^^ (in a republic.) He 
warned Zedekiah that if he passed under the yoke 
of the king of Babylon, Jerusalem would not be 
destroyed by fire. The king did not do so and 
the punishment was severe. He foretold the over- 
throw of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar. It so hap- 
pened. He predicted the ruin of Philistia, Moab, 
Tyre and Sidon, the fall of Babylon, and the rise 
of Media. As he saw, so came it to be. Ezekiel 
in mighty messages to the people of the exile, pre- 
dicted, as his forebears had done, the doom which 
the Jews have suffered throughout the centuries: 
"Yea, I will render thee a ruin and a disgrace 

^ Ibid., 24:9-10. 
"^^Ibid., 30:9. ^^Ibid., 30: ax. 


among the nations that are round about thee." 
Then he, too, foretells the restoration in the 
Golden Age : ''And those of you that escape shall 
remember me among the nations among whom they 
shall have been carried captive, when I shall have 
broken their licentious heart, which had departed 
from me, even with their eyes which were gone 
astray after their idols, and they shall loath them- 
selves on account of the evil deeds which they have 
committed with all their abominations. And they 
shall know that I am the Lord: not for naught 
have I spoken that I would do this evil unto 
them." ^^ "And I will assemble you from out 
of the countries whither ye have been scattered, 
and I will give you the land of Israel. And they 
shall come thither, and they shall remove all of its 
detestable things out of it. And I will give them 
one single heart, and a new spirit will I put within 
you; and I will remove the heart of stone out of 
their body, and I will give unto them a heart of 
flesh, in order that they may walk in my statutes 
and keep my ordinances and do them; and they 
shall be unto me for a people, and I will indeed 
be unto them for a God." ^^ Certainly the Jews 
were dispersed. Their return is yet to be. He 
foresaw that Tyre would become "a. place for the 
spreading out of nets ... in the midst of the 

12 Ezekiel 6 : 9-10. ^^ Ibid., 11 : 17-20. 


sea." ^^ "Down to the grave will they cast thee, 
and thou shalt die the deaths of the slain in the 
heart of the sea. Wilt thou then say, I am God 
before him that slayeth thee, when thou art but a 
man, and no God, in the hand of him that fatally 
woundeth thee? " ^^ "As though thou hadst not 
been will I render thee, and thou shalt be no more ; 
and thou shalt be sought for, but thou shalt not be 
found any more to eternity, saith the Lord 
Eternal." ^^ Tyre to-day is a place where fisher- 
men cast their nets. It was Jeremiah who pre- 
dicted that Egypt would become "a mass of ruins, 
a waste and a wilderness, from Migdol to Seveneh 
even up to the border of Ethiopia. There shall 
not pass through it the foot of man, and the foot 
of beast shall not pass through it, and it shall not 
be inhabited forty years. And I will render the 
land of Egypt a desolate land in the midst of deso- 
lated countries, and her cities among the cities that 
are ruined shall be desolated forty years, and I will 
scatter the Eg>'^ptians among the nations, and will 
disperse them through the countries. ^"^ I will give 
unto Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon the land 
of Egypt." ^^ "I will make the land desolate and 
all that filleth it, by the hand of strangers. I the 
Lord hath spoken it. Thus hath said the Lord 

1* Ibid., 26 : 5. 1^ Ibid., 29 : 1D-12. 

^^Ibid., 28:8-9. ^^Ibid., 29:19. 

^^Ibid., 26:21. 


Eternal, I will also destroy the idols, and I will 
cause false gods to cease out of Noph ; and a prince 
out of the land of Egypt shall there not be any 
more." ^^ An investigation of the facts discloses 
that Nebuchadnezzar did invade Egypt; that un- 
der the Persian, Cambyses, the country was com- 
pletely crushed ; that subsequently the land became 
so desolate in the midst of desolated countries that 
even its language, history and monuments were 
forgotten until Napoleon brought to light the Ro- 
setta stone; and from the time shortly after Jere- 
miah wrote until now, through the Babylonian, 
Persian, Grecian, foreign Ptolemaic, Roman, Mo- 
hammedan, French and British occupations there 
has been no native prince to lead the nation. 
Jeremiah also declared of Babylon: "Behold, I 
am against thee, O destroying mountain, saith the 
Lord, which destroyest all the earth; and I will 
stretch out my hand over thee and I will roll thee 
down from the rocks, and will render thee a burnt 
mountain. And they shall not take from thee a 
stone for a comer, nor a stone for foundations ; but 
everlasting ruins shalt thou be, saith the Lord." 
So exact was this prophecy that naught but a great 
mound covered the site of the once mighty city 
when it was rediscovered during the nineteenth 
century. Nahum had spoken in the name of God 
when he said of Nineveh: "And I will cast 

I'Ezekiel, jo: ia~z3. 


abominable filth upon thee and defile thee and ren- 
der thee a dirt heap. And it shall come to pass 
that they that see thee shall flee from thee and say, 
Laid waste is Nineveh." And this city, too, as 
it was foretold, was buried beneath the debris of 
the ages and completely lost to the view of man 
until in the last century the great mound at Mosul 
was found to contain its remains. 

These sublime passages from the Old Testa- 
ment, containing prophecies that have been ful- 
filled to the letter, are auguries of those other pre- 
dictions made by the seers of Israel which have not 
yet reached final fruition. Those of the Messiah, 
the Messianic kingdom and the Messianic time, 
but await the passage of the period indicated 
through Daniel. He with exactness predicted the 
rise and fall of empires that had not yet come into 
being in his time. He gave descriptions of these 
and also dates which are unmistakable in their 
clarity. Viewing them in the light of the pres- 
ent and the immediate future of the world, they 
seem as majestic as the pyramids against the azure 
sky of the Nile valley. Speaking out of Baby- 
lon, the capital of an empire long since sunk to 
rest and oblivion, his far seeing vision across cen- 
turies of Asiatic, Egyptian, European and Ameri- 
can history seems like the hand writing of God 
which he himself is said to have deciphered upon 
the palace of Belshazzar. 


In the first of these visions Daniel revealed the 
dream of Nebuchadnezzar and its meaning. The 
astrologers and wise men had, when requested 
to decipher it, asked that the king first tell them 
his dream. He had refused and condemned them 
to death, when Daniel asked that he be given time 
to find the solution. This came to him in a dream 
of his own at night after he had prayed for light. 
Then did Daniel exclaim: "May the name of 
God be blessed from eternity and to all eternity, 
for wisdom and might are His; and He changeth 
times and seasons; He removeth kings and raiseth 
up kings; He giveth wisdom unto the wise and 
knowledge to those that possess understanding. 
He it is that re vealeth what is deep and secret ; He 
knoweth what is in the darkness and the light 
dwelleth with Him." ^^ The prophet said to the 
king: "The secret which the king hath demanded 
no wise men, astrologers, magicians or soothsayers 
can tell unto the king; but there is a God in heaven 
that revealeth secrets, and he hath made known to 
King Nebuchadnezzar what is to be in the latter 
days. Thy dream and the vision of thy head upon 
thy couch were these. As for thee, O king; thy 
thoughts when thou wast on thy couch rose within 
thee concerning what is to come to pass hereafter, 
and the Revealer of Secrets hath made known to 
thee what is to come to pass. But, as for me, this 

20 Dan. 2:20-22. 


secret hath not been revealed to me because of any 
wisdom that is in me more than in all other living, 
but for the sake that men might make known the 
interpretation to the king, and that thou mightest 
understand the thoughts of thy heart." ^^ 

Daniel continues : "Thou, O king, sawest, and 
behold there was a large image, its head was of fine 
gold, its breast and its arms were of silver, its belly 
and its thighs of copper, its legs of iron, its feet 
part of them of iron and part of them of clay. 
Thou didst look on till the moment that a stone 
tore itself loose, not through human hands, and it 
struck the image upon its feet that were of iron 
and clay and ground them to pieces. Then were 
the iron, the clay, the copper, the silver and the 
gold ground up together, and become like the 
chaff of the summer threshing floor ; and the wind 
carried them away and no trace was found of 
them; and the stone that had strucken the image 
became a mighty mountain and filled the whole 
earth. This is the dream and its interpretation 
will we relate before the king. Thou, O king, art 
a king of kings, to whom the God of heaven hath 
given kingdom, power and strength and honor: 
and wheresoever the children of men dwell hath he 
given the beasts of the field and the fowls of the 
heaven into thy hand, and hath made thee ruler 
over them all. Thou art the head of gold. And 
21 Ibid., 2 : 27-30. 


after thee there will arise another kingdom (Per- 
sia) inferior to thee; and another third kingdom 
of copper (Macedon) which will bear rule over all 
the earth. And the fourth kingdom (Rome) will 
be as strong as iron; forasmuch as iron grindeth 
up and beateth down all things, and as iron that 
breaketh everything, will it grind up and break 
all these (Mediterranean nationalities). And 
that thou saw the feet and toes (European coun- 
tries), part of them of potter's clay (weak) and 
part of them of iron (strong), signifieth that it will 
be a divided kingdom, although there will be in it 
of the strength of the iron (through Roman law 
and institutions) ; forasmuch as thou sawest the 
iron mingled with the miry clay (by blood and lan- 
guage). And as the toes of the feet were part of 
them of iron and part of them of clay; so will the 
kingdom be partly strong and partly brittle. And 
whereas thou sawest iron mingled with miry clay, 
so will they mingle themselves among the seed of 
men (by colonization across the sea) ; but they 
will not cleave firmly one to another (in a Europe 
of separate nationalities), even as the iron can- 
not be mingled with clay. But in the days of 
these (European) kings will the God of heaven 
set up a kingdom (the Republic of Man) which 
shall to eternity not be destroyed, and its rule shall 
not be transferred to any other people ; but it will 
grind up and make an end of all these kingdoms, 


while it will itself endure forever. Whereas thou 
sawest that out of the mountain a stone tore itself 
loose (like the 'sprout'), not through human hands 
(but by inspiration), and that it ground up (in 
the crucible of the Great Republic the power of) 
the iron, the copper, the clay, the silver and the 
gold : the great God hath made known what is to 
come to pass after this : and the dream is reliable 
and its interpretation certain." ^^ 

The book of Daniel relates that ''then did king 
Nebuchadnezzar fall upon his face, and he bowed 
down to Daniel, and ordered that they should offer 
an oblation and sweet odors unto him. The king 
answered unto Daniel and said : 'Of a truth it is 
that your God is the God of gods and the revealer 
of secrets, because thou hast been able to reveal 
this secret.' Then did the king elevate Daniel and 
gave him many presents and made him ruler 
over the whole province of Babylon and chief of 
the superintendents over all the wise men of Baby- 
lon.'* Thereafter followed the beautifully sym- 
bolic stories of the trust in God through trials in 
the fire (of experience) of Shadrach, Meshach and 
Abednego, of the dream of Nebuchadnezzar of 
his being brought low to eat grass so that he might 
know that "the Most High ruleth over the king- 
doms of men," of the interpretation of the warn- 
ing on the wall of the fall of Belshazzar's king- 

asDan. a:3Z-45. 


dom, and of Daniel being thrown into the den of 
lions and "no manner of hurt being found on him 
because he had trusted in his God." 

The second of his marvelous visions is then 
narrated and is here given: 'T saw in my vision 
by night, and behold the four winds of heaven 
blew fiercely on the great (Mediterranean) sea. 
And four great beasts (of Europe) came up from 
the sea, differing one from another. The first 
(Rome) was like a lion (in power) and had 
eagle's wings (to spread out over the land) : I 
looked till its wings were plucked out, and it was 
lifted up from the earth (in deprivation of its 
dominion) and was placed upon its feet as a man 
(in strength), and a human heart (to realize that 
it must meet its end like all mankind) was given 
to it. And behold there was another, a second 
beast (the Empire of the West), like a bear (of 
the northern climate), and on one (western) side 
(of Europe) was it placed, with three ribs (Char- 
lemagne, Charles V, Napoleon) in its mouth (to 
hold) between its (conquering) teeth: and thus 
they said. Arise, eat much (territorial) flesh.' 
After this I looked and, lo, there was another (Brit- 
ain), like a leopard (with many spots of territory 
dotted over the surface of the earth) ; and it had 
four wings (British North America, Australia, 
South Africa and India) of a bird (that flew far) 
on (at) its back; the beast had also four heads 


(England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales) ; and domin- 
ion (nearly a fourth of the globe) was given unto 
it. After this I looked in the night visions, and 
behold there was a fourth beast (Germany) dread- 
ful and terrible and strong exceedingly; and it 
had great iron teeth (strong armies and a navy) ; 
it devoured (territory) and ground up (rights 
and institutions), and what was left it (ruth- 
lessly) stamped with its feet; and it was differ- 
ent (in the composition of the states of its king- 
dom) from all the beasts that were before it; 
and it had ten horns (or kings, as follows: Fred- 
erick III, Frederick William I, Frederick the 
Great, Frederick William II, Frederick William 
III, Frederick William IV, William I, Fred- 
erick III, William II, Frederick William V). 
I looked carefully at the horns, and, behold, 
another little horn (Prussia) came up between 
them, and three of the first horns (Denmark, 
Austria, France) were plucked up by the roots 
(and defeated) before the same; and behold 
there were eyes like the eyes of a man in this 
horn (earthly, materialistic and seeking do- 
minion), with a mouth speaking presumptuous 
things (of the divine right of monarchy and the 
power of blood and iron). I was looking until 
chairs (for presidents) were set down (in prepara- 
tion) and an (individual) Ancient of days (who 
had lived and wrought for many centuries and is 


to be the Messiah) seated himself (in the Presi- 
dency of the United States), whose garment was 
white as snow (in spiritual light), and the hair 
of whose head was like clean wool (in inspira- 
tion) ; his chair was like flames of fire (in its suc- 
cessful warfare), and his wheels like fire that burnt 
(and left lands in ruins) ; a stream of fire (ar- 
mies) issued and came forth before him (at his 
command) ; thousands times thousands ministered 
unto him (in assistance), and myriad times myr- 
iads stood before him (as soldiers in the past, the 
present and the future) ; they sat down to hold 
judgment (of the history and condition of men) 
and the books (of the Old Testament) were 
opened (in explanation). I looked then because 
of the presumptuous words which the (Prussian 
kingly) horn had spoken, — I looked till the 
(German) beast was slain and its body destroyed, 
and given over to the burning fire (of the con- 
queror). But concerning the rest of the beasts, 
they had their dominion (of empire) taken away; 
yet a longer duration of life (as kingdoms) was 
given unto them until the time and period (of the 
end of the dispensation in the Federation of the 
World). I looked in the nightly visions and, be- 
hold, with the clouds of heaven (in spiritual in- 
spiration) came one like the son of man (in ap- 
pearance, though inspired) and he attained as far 
as the Ancient of days (in the completion of his 


work) and they brought him near before him. 
And there were given him dominion and govern- 
ment and dignity (as president of the entire 
earth), and all peoples, nations and languages had 
to serve him: his dominion (the Republic of 
Man) is an everlasting dominion which shall not 
pass away, and his kingdom is one which shall 
never be destroyed. 

"My spirit was deeply shaken within me, 
Daniel, in the midst of its tenement, and the 
visions of my head troubled me. I came near 
unto one of those that stood by and asked him 
something concerning all this: and he spoke to 
me and made known unto me the interpretation of 
the things. These great beasts, of which there 
are four, are four kings who are to arise on the 
earth. But the saints of the Most High (who 
are His servants) will obtain the kingdom, and 
possess the kingdom (in ruling over it) to eternity, 
even to all eternity.' Then I desired what is 
certain concerning the fourth beast, which was 
different from all these others, exceedingly dread- 
ful, whose (armed) teeth were of iron, and whose 
nails (munitions) were of copper (metal) which 
devoured, ground up and stamped with its feet 
what was left (of the beasts or kingdoms that had 
gone before) ; and concerning the ten horns 
(kings) that were in its head (of the state) and 
concerning the other (Prussian Empire) which 


came up and before which three fell down, — even 
concerning that horn which had eyes and a mouth 
speaking presumptuous things and whose appear- 
ance was greater than that of its companions. I 
had seen how the same horn had made war with 
the saints (of liberty and righteousness) and pre- 
vailed against them (for a time, at least) : until 
the Ancient of days came and procured justice 
unto the saints of the Most High, and the time 
came and the saints took possession of the king- 
dom. Thus said he, 'The fourth beast signifieth 
that a fourth kingdom (the German Empire) will 
be upon the earth which is to be different from all 
kingdoms, and will devour all the earth and will 
tread it down and grind it up. And the ten horns 
out of this kingdom signify that ten kings will 
arise; and another will arise after them (the Em- 
pire) and he will be different from the first (Prus- 
sia) and three kings (of Russia, England and 
Italy) will he bring low. And he will speak 
words (of materialism) against the Most High, 
and the (spiritual) saints of the Most High will 
he oppress, and think to change the festivals and 
law (as Haeckel I) ; and they will be given up unto 
his hand until a time (a thousand) and times 
(another thousand) and half a time (half a 
thousand). But they will sit down to hold judg- 
ment, and they will take away his (the then Ger- 
man Emperor's) dominion, to destroy and to an- 


nihilate it unto the end. And the kingdom and 
the dominion and the power over the kingdoms 
under the whole heaven will be given to the 
saints of the Most High, whose kingdom is an 
everlasting kingdom, and all governments are to 
worship and obey him' " (the last word an inter- 
polation, as is all of Isaiah LIII). 

Probably in the latter part of his life, in the 
days of Belshazzar, Daniel again was enabled to 
see into the future. He says : "And I saw in the 
vision — and it came to pass in my seeing that I 
was in Shushan (Susa) the capital, which is in 
the province of El am — and I saw in the vision as 
though I was by the river Ulai. And I lifted up 
my eyes and saw, and behold, there was a ram 
(empire) standing before the river, and he had 
two horns (Media and Persia) ; and the horns 
were high (in power) ; but one (Persia) was 
higher than the other, and the higher one came up 
last (Cyrus deposing Asytyages). I saw the ram 
butting (in its conquering) westward and north- 
ward and southward; so that all the beasts could 
not stand before him, and no one was there to de- 
liver out of his hand : and he did according to his 
will and became great. And as I was looking at- 
tentively, behold, there came a shaggy he-goat 
(Greece) from the west over the face of the whole 
earth, without touching the ground (in defeat) ; 
and the goat had a slightly large horn (Macedon) 


between his eyes. And he (Alexander) came as 
far as the ram that had two horns, that I had seen 
standing before the river, and ran at him with his 
furious power. And I saw him coming close unto 
the ram, and he became bitterly enraged against 
him, and he struck the ram and broke his two 
horns ; and there was no power in the ram to stand 
forward before him: and he cast him down to 
the ground and stamped upon him; and there was 
no one to deliver the ram out of his hand." 

Of this time Josephus says : ^^ "Now Alexan- 
der when he had taken Gaza, made haste to go 
up to Jerusalem ; and Jadua, the high priest, when 
he heard that, was in an agony and under terror, 
as not knowing how he should meet the Mace- 
donians, since the king was displeased at his fore- 
going disobedience. He therefore ordained that 
the people should make supplications, and should 
join with him in making supplications to God, 
whom he besought to protect that nation, and to 
deliver them from the perils that were coming 
upon them. Whereupon God warned him in a 
dream, which came upon him after he had offered 
sacrifice, that 'he should take courage and adorn 
the city and open the gates; that the rest should 
appear in white garments, but that he and the 
priests should meet the king in the habits proper 
to their order, without the dread of any ill conse- 

23 "Antiquities," XI ; 8, 4-5. 


quences, which the providence of God would pre- 
vent.' Upon which when he arose from his 
sleep he greatly rejoiced, and declared to all the 
warning he had received from God. According 
to which dream he acted entirely and so waited 
for the coming of the king. And when he under- 
stood that he was not far from the city, he went 
out in procession, with the priests and multitude 
of the citizens. The procession was venerable, 
and the manner of it different from that of other 
nations. It reached to a place called Sapha, 
which name translated into Greek means a pros- 
pect, for you have thence a prospect both of Jeru- 
salem and the temple; and when the Phoenicians 
and the Chaldeans that followed him thought that 
they should have liberty to plunder the city and 
torment the high priest to death, which the king's 
displeasure fairly promised them, the very re- 
verse of it happened ; for Alexander, when he saw 
the multitude at a distance, in white garments, 
while the priest stood clothed with fine linen, and 
the high priest in purple and scarlet clothing, with 
his miter on his head, having the golden plate 
whereon the name of God was engraved, he ap- 
proached by himself and adored that name and 
first saluted the high priest. The Jews also did 
altogether, with one voice, salute Alexander and 
encompass him about. Whereupon the king of 
Syria and the rest were surprised at what Alex- 


ander had done, and supposed him disordered in 
his mind. However, Parmenio alone went up to 
him and asked him, 'How it came to pass, that 
when all others adored him, he should adore the 
high priest of the Jews?' To whom he replied: 
'I did not adore him, but that God who hath hon- 
ored him with his high priesthood; for I saw this 
very person in a dream, in this very habit, when I 
was at Dios in Macedonia, who, when I was con- 
sidering with myself how I might obtain the do- 
minion of Asia, exhorted me to make no delay, but 
boldly to pass over the sea thither, for that he 
would conduct my army, and would give me the 
dominion over the Persians ; whence it is, that hav- 
ing seen no other in that habit, and now seeing 
this person in it, and remembering that vision, 
and the exhortation which I had in my dream, I 
believe that I bring this army under the divine 
conduct, and shall therewith conquer Darius and 
destroy the power of the Persians, and that all 
things will succeed according to what is in my 
mind.' And when he had said this to Parmenio 
and had given the high priest his right hand, the 
priests ran along by him and he came into the city. 
And when he went up into the temple he offered 
sacrifice to God, according to the high priest's di- 
rection (as Napoleon professed the Mussulman 
faith in Egypt) ; and magnificently treated both 
the high priest and the priests. And when the 


Book of Daniel was showed him, wherein Daniel 
declared that one of the Greeks should destroy 
the empire of the Persians, he supposed that him- 
self was the person intended. And, as he was 
then glad, he dismissed the multitude for the 
present, but the next day he called them to him 
and bid them ask what favors they pleased of him; 
whereupon the high priest desired that they might 
enjoy the laws of their forefathers, and might pay 
no tribute in the seventh year. He granted all 
they desired." 

From this point in Daniel several interpolations 
occur, in some cases whole chapters. As S. R. 
Driver admits, "there are features in the book 
which might suggest that the author was not 
throughout the same." R. H. Charles asks 
whether we are to explain difference in the lan- 
guage in which the work is written by diversity 
of authorship. Those who adopt the theory that 
the entire book was compiled in the time of Anti- 
ochus Epiphanes (175-164 b.c.) do not attempt 
to explain the exact application of the image 
Nebuchadnezzar saw, the four great beasts, the 
ten horns, or the kingdom which ground up all 
the rest while it endured forever. It is easy to 
place the bronze belly and thighs, the leopard with 
four wings, the goat with one horn, and Alexander 
and his successors side by side and declare that 
they mean the same thing. But that proves no 


more than the Christian attempts since the early 
church fathers to make all the prophecies forerun 
the coming of Jesus, who was held to be the 
Messiah. It is true that a part of the eighth and 
all of the ninth and eleventh chapters give evi- 
dence of having been made up in Maccabean times 
to suit the exigencies of Judean hopes. The style 
of the ninth and eleventh chapters is unlike the re- 
mainder of the book. Both begin with a mention 
of having been composed in the first year of Da- 
rius the Mede (or Persian). This would have 
made Daniel about an hundred years of age. In 
Chapter IX is a prayer very similar to that of 
Ezra IX. Yet the greater part of the work re- 
mains to baffle those who have accepted the Mac- 
cabean hypothesis. Even the application of each 
mention of the "time, times and a half" to the 
little more than three years of the abominations 
caused by Antiochus Epiphanes falls short of the 
exact time, as is indicated by the ancient author- 
ity, Josephus, in his "Antiquities of the Jews" 
(XII, 7, 6). 

The narrative continues : "And the shaggy he- 
goat became very great; but when he was grown 
strong the great horn was broken (by Alexan- 
der's early death) ; and there came up four (his 
generals, Seleucus who took Syria, Ptolemy who 
took Egypt, Antigonus who took Persia, and Cas- 
sander who took Macedon) slightly large ones (in 


power) in its place toward the four winds of 
heaven (in direction). And out of one of them 
(Seleucus) came a little horn (the kingdom of the 
Seleucids) which became exceedingly great to- 
ward the south (in Egypt), and toward the east 
(Bactriana and the Indus) and toward the glo- 
rious land (Judah). And it became great (under 
Antiochus Epiphanes), even up to the prince of 
the host (God himself), and by it the continual 
sacrifice (burnt offering) was taken away and the 
place of his sanctuary (in the temple) was cast 
down. And the host (of the Jews) is given up 
together with the continual sacrifice by reason of 
transgression (for unrighteousness); and it (the 
power of Antiochus) casteth down the truth to the 
ground, and it doeth this and is prosperous. 
Then did I hear a certain holy one (this in imita- 
tion of the language of the former chapters) 
speaking, and the holy one said unto the unknown 
who was speaking, 'For how long is the vision 
concerning the continual sacrifice, apd the wasting 
(by terrible persecution) transgression to give up 
both the sanctuary and the host, to be trodden 
under foot?' And he said unto me, 'Until two 
thousand and three hundred evenings and morn- 
ings (of daily burnt offerings, or three years from 
168 to 165 B.C.) when the sanctuary shall be 
justified' " (by resumption). 

Daniel goes on : "And it came to pass when I, 


even I Daniel, saw the vision and sought for un- 
derstanding, that, behold, there was standing op- 
posite to me something like the appearance of a 
man. And I heard the voice of a man between 
the banks of the Ulai and it called and said, 'Ga- 
briel, cause this one to understand this appear- 
ance.' Now as he was speaking with me, I fell 
down in amazement on my face to the ground ; but 
he touched me and set me upright where I had 
been standing. And he said, 'Behold, I will make 
known unto thee what is to be at the last end of 
the indignation (against the Jews) ; for it is for 
the appointed time of the end. The ram that 
thou hast seen with the two horns signifieth the 
kings of Media and Persia. And the shaggy he- 
goat is the king of Javan (the name for Greece) ; 
and the great horn which is between his eyes is the 
first king (who united Macedon and the Pelopen- 
nesus). But that it was broken (suddenly by the 
death of Alexander), and that four sprung up 
suddenly in its stead signifieth that four king- 
doms (those of his generals) will spring up out 
of the nation, but not with his power (their own 
instead). And in the latter time of their king- 
dom, when the transgressors have filled their 
measure of guilt (by having drunk the meas- 
ure of suffering to the full), there will arise 
a king (the Pope) of an impudent face (asserting 


himself to be the vicegerent of God on earth and 
infallible), and understanding deep schemes 
(such as the seizure of jurisdiction over the bodies 
as well as minds of men). And his power will 
be mighty (in the time of the Holy Roman Em- 
pire), but not by his own power (because without 
armed force in his own right) ; and he will destroy 
wonderfully (through the Holy Inquisition by 
which between 1481 and 1808 there were 340,000 
persons punished, of whom 34,000 were burnt 
alive), and will prosper (by the sale of indul- 
gences and by mammoth vanity) while he doeth 
this; and he will destroy very many (heretics) 
and the (Jewish) people of the saints. And 
through his intelligence and because he prospereth 
(in material leisure) is craftiness (of design, as 
exemplified by the Medici) in his hand; and in 
his heart (of vanity) will he magnify himself (as 
when Alexander VI divided the world between 
Portugal and Spain), and in peace (without 
armies of his own) will he destroy many (as 
Arnold of Brescia, Savonarola, John Huss and 
Giordano Bruno) ; he will also stand up against 
the Prince of Princes (the strongest of kings, like 
Charlemagne, Otto I, Henry IV and Napoleon), 
but without a human hand (and only by right 
reason) will he be broken. And the appearance 
of the evening (of darkness) and the morning (of 


light) which was spoken of is true; but do thou 
keep the vision closed up ; for it will come to pass 
after many days (in the far future). 

As announced in verse 2, the purpose of Chap- 
ter IX is to find a new meaning for the seventy 
years' predicted by Daniel — to satisfy Maccabean 
hopes: "Seventy weeks (or 490 years, which 
were never concluded) upon thy people and upon 
thy holy city, to close up the transgression and to 
make an end of sins ( terminolog}^ which appears 
as the Christian era approaches), and to atone for 
iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteous- 
ness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy and 
anoint the most holy thing (in the temple). 
Know therefore that from the going forth of the 
word of Jeremiah (in 586 B.C.) to restore and to 
build Jerusalem unto the anointed, the prince 
(Zerubbabel) will be seven weeks (of years, to the 
beginning of the restoration in 538 b.c); and 
during sixty and two weeks (from 596 b.c, the 
date given by some authorities for an exodus fol- 
lowing that assumed by them to have occurred dur- 
ing 605 to 162 B.C. when Judas Maccabeus threw 
off the Syrian yoke) will it again be built with 
streets and ditches around it, even in the pressure 
of the times. And after sixty and two weeks will 
an anointed one be cut off (Judas Maccabeus was 
killed in the following year) without a successor 
to follow him : and the city and the sanctuary will 


the prince that is coming (Antiochus Epiphanes) 
destroy; but his end will come in a violent over- 
throw; but until the end of the war devastations 
are decreed against it. And he will make a strong 
covenant with the many (followers of Menelaus, 
the renegade high priest) for one week (of years, 
from 171 to 164 B.C.); and in the half of the 
week (from 168 to 165 B.C.) will he cause the 
sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and this be- 
cause of the abominations (of swine sacrificed) 
which bringeth devastation, and until destruction 
and what is decreed shall be poured out upon the 
waster" (through the Maccabees, it was hoped). 

The eleventh chapter, a continued effort to pro- 
pitiate Maccabean patriots, is as follows: 

"Behold there will stand up yet three kings of 
Persia (Cyrus, who took Babylon in 538 b.c.,^'* 
Cambyses, who succeeded him in 529 b.c.,^^ and 
Darius, who reigned 521-485 b.c.^^); and the 
fourth (Xerxes, 485-465 b.c.^^) will obtain 
greater riches than all these (subduing Egypt 
more completely than his predecessors ^®) and 
when he is strong through his riches will he stir 
up all, namely the kingdom of Javan (Greece, by 
whom he was defeated at Salamis and Platea ^®). 
And then will stand up a mighty king (Alex- 
ander), and when he shall have stood, his king- 

2*Ploetz Epitome, p. 26. ^"^ Ibid., pp. 28-29. 

25 Ibid., p. 27. 28 Herodotus VII, 7. 

^ Ibid., pp. 27-98. 29pio^tz Epitome, p. 60. 


dom will be broken toward the four winds of the 
heavens (in direction), and not to his posterity 
(Roxana and her son being murdered ^^), nor ac- 
cording to his dominion which he ruled (the em- 
pire of Macedon with his death passing away and 
his generals who survived their contests with each 
other becoming kings in their own right ^^) ; for 
his kingdom will be torn asunder even for others 
besides these (such as Rome). And the king of 
the south (Ptolemy Soter, 325-285 B.C.) will be- 
come strong, yea he who is one of his (Alexan- 
der's) princes, but another (Seleucus Nicator, 
312-281 B.C.) will become strong and will rule 
(over Syria and Babylon ^^) ; a great dominion 
will his dominion be (extending to the Indus ^^). 
But at the end of some years will they associate 
themselves together (by Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
285-247 B.C., giving his daughter Berenice in 
marriage to Antiochus Theos, of Syria, 261-241 
B.C., to cement an alliance, providing that Anti- 
ochus should divorce his wife, Laodice, and secure 
to the offspring of Berenice the throne ^^) ; and 
the daughter of the king of the south will come to 
the king of the north to make a settlement of diffi- 
culties (which had arisen between them^^); but 

soDiodorus XIX, 8. 

31 Ibid. 

32Ency. Brit. XXIV, 603. 

33 Ibid. 

3* "House of Seleucus," E. R. Bevan, Vol. I, pp. 178-179. 

35 Ibid., p. 179. 


she will not retain the power of the support (Anti- 
ochus abandoned Berenice and again made 
Laodice his queen, due to the death of Philadel- 
phus^^); neither will he (Antiochus) stand nor 
his support (being poisoned ^^ in revenge by Lao- 
dice, in order to secure the throne for her son, 
Seleucus Callinicus, 226-222 b.c.,) ; but she 
(Berenice) will be given up (through Laodice's 
assassination of her, her infant son ^^ and those 
women who had escorted her from Egypt ^^), and 
he that begat her (by death, 246 b.c.) and he that 
had strengthened her in those times. But there 
will stand up a sprout (son) of her (Berenice's) 
roots (parents) in his (Ptolemy Philadelphus') 
place, and he (Ptolemy Eugertes, her brother, 
217-221 B.C.) will come to the army, and will 
enter into the stronghold (by capturing Seleucia) 
of the king (Antiochus) of the north (Syria) and 
will deal (nght) with them (killing Laodice ^^) 
and prevail (by overrunning Palestine, Syria, 
Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Iran and subduing 
portions of Cyprus, Celicia, Pamphilia, Ionia and 
Thrace ^^). And also their gods with their 
molten images, with their precious vessels of gold 
and silver (which had been taken away from 

37 "Roman History," Appian, XVII, 65. 

38 Ibid. 

39 "House of Seleucus," Vol. I, p. 183. 
*o "Roman History," Appian, XI, 66. 

*! "House of Seleucus," E. R. Bevan, Vol. I, pp. 184-190. 


Egypt in the days of Cambyses) will he carry into 
captivity to Egypt; and he (Ptolemy Eugertes) 
will stand off (due to domestic troubles *^) for 
some (ten) years from the king of the north (hav- 
ing made a treaty of peace with Seleucus '*^ ) . 
But this one (Seleucus II, 246-226 B.C.) will 
then enter the kingdom (of Syria, which was now 
in possession) of the king of the south (Egypt) 
and then return unto his own land (Seleucia, after 
the defeat of his army at Ancyra, 235 b-c."**). 
But his (Seleucus') sons (Seleucus III Keraunus, 
226-222 B.C., who lived four years after the death 
of his father and warred with Attains, king of 
Pergamus,*^ and Antiochus III, 220-187 B.C., 
who subdued insurrections in Media and Parthia, 
221 B.c.*^) will commence a war and assemble a 
multitude of great armies (with the ultimate ob- 
ject of subduing Egypt,^" latterly ruled over by 
Ptolemy IV, 221-205 b.c); and one (Antiochus 
III) will certainly enter (Palestine) and over- 
flow (Phoenicia also) and pass along (capturing 
Tyre, Ptolemais and other cities, 219-218 b.c."*^) ; 
then will he return (the Syrian army going into 

42 Justin, XXVII, I, 9. 

*3 Ibid., 2, 9. 

4* Ency. Brit. XXIV, 604. 

*5Polybius, 4, 48, 7. 

**Appian II, i. 

*'' "House of Seleucus," E. R. Bevan, Vol. I, p, 204. 

^^Ibid., Vol. I, p. 313. 


winter quarters following an armistice), and make 
war again (in the following year taking the field 
with an army of 62,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry 
and 102 elephants), even to his stronghold (of 
Coele-Syria). And the king of the south will be 
moved to bitter wrath (raising a superior force 
except in elephants) and go forth and fight with 
them, even with the king of the north, and he 
will set forth a great multitude; but the multitude 
of the other will be given up unto his hand (Anti- 
ochus being defeated at Raphia with a loss of 10,- 
000 men, 217 b.c/^). And the multitude (of 
Syria) will be lifted up and his heart will become 
proud (with courage ^*^) and he will cast down 
myriads (defeating the Achseans 216-214 b.c, 
Armenians 212 b.c, Parthians 209 b.c. and Bac- 
trians 208 b.c, crossing the Hindu Kush and in- 
vading the Kabul Valley, 206 b.c) but he will not 
be strengthened by it (having permanently sub- 
dued neither). And the king of the north (Anti- 
ochus III) will return (205-204 b.c), and set 
forth (toward Egypt) a multitude greater than 
the former, and at the end of the times (consist- 
ing) of years, will he certainly come with a great 
army and with much riches (especially of ele- 
phants newly acquired from India ^^). And in 
those times many (including Philip V of Mace- 

*»Polybius, V, 8. 

^^Ibid., XI, 8. '-^Ibid., XI, 8. 


don); also the rebellious (against the dispersion 
decreed by the Almighty) of thy people (the 
Jews ^^) will lift themselves up to establish the 
vision (that they would return to nationality) ; 
but they will stumble (through inability of Anti- 
ochus to take Egypt) . And the king of the North 
(Antiochus III) will come and cast up a mound 
(taking Mt. Parmium, after defeating the Egyp- 
tian general Scopus, 198 b.c.^^) and capture the 
city defended by fortifications (Sidon, where 
Scopus surrendered with 10,000 men^*), and the 
arms of the south will not be able to withstand 
(being unable to raise the siege), and as regardeth 
the chosen people (the Jews), there will be no 
power in them to withstand (the strength of 
Antiochus III). And he (Antiochus III) that 
cometh against them (through occupation ^^) will 
do according to his pleasure, and none will stand 
before him;^^ and he will place himself (in the 
citadel ^^) in the glorious land (Judah), which 
will be altogether in his hand.^® He will also 
direct his face to enter (into Egypt, thinking 
Ptolemy Philopotor dead ^^) with the strength 

^2 Josephus, "Antiquities," XII, 3, 3. 

53Ency. Brit. XXIV, 605. 

5* "House of Seleucus," E. R. Bevan, Vol. II, p. 37. 

55 Josephus, "Antiquities," XII, 3, 3. 

B« Ibid. 

57 Ibid. 

58 Ibid. 

59 "Roman History," Appian, XI, 4. 


of his whole kingdom, having professions of peace 
with him (he and Philip V, of Macedon, having 
agreed to divide Egypt between them^^); and 
thus will he do it (change his mind upon finding 
Ptolemy alive ^^ and hearing of the defeat of 
Philip V, of Macedon, his possible ally, by the 
Romans at Cynocephale, 197 b'.c.^^) ; and he will 
give him (Ptolemy) the daughter of his wife 
(Cleopatra, as part of an alliance with Ptolemy to 
pacify the latter and to assist in withstanding the 
power of Rome ^^) ; but it will not stand (she 
being unable to prevent her husband from offer- 
ing aid to Rome against Antiochus ^^), and it will 
not remain his (Coele-Syria, Phoenicia and Pales- 
tine, which had been given as dowery with Cleo- 
patra, not being delivered ^^). And he (An- 
tiochus III) will direct his face unto the isles 
(Cyprus and the coast lands of Asia Minor ^^), 
after Rome had declared them free (and the is- 
lands of Greece) and capture many (being at first 
successful in Thrace, Galatia,^^ iEtolia and 
Ionia ^^) ; but a chieftain (Hannibal, who had es- 
caped to his domain after his defeat at Zama) will 

«0Ency. Brit. XXII, 617. 

«i Ibid. 

«2 "Roman History," Dio Cassius, XIX, 9, i8. 

«3 "Roman History," Appian, XI, 4-5. 

•4 "Roman History," Livy, XXXVI, 12. 

esPoIybius, XXVIII, 20, 9. 

60 "Roman History," Appian, XI, 5-6. 

«7 Ibid. 

«8 Ibid., XI, 12. 


cause to cease his (Antiochus') reproach against 
him (due to service rendered in planning with 
Antiochus to attack Rome^^), without his giving 
back to him his own (Hannibal's) reproach (he 
failing to arouse Carthage to attack Rome and be- 
ing defeated in a naval battle, while Antiochus 
was crushed at Thermopylae, 191 b.c.,'^'' Myone- 
sus,^^ and Magnesia, 190 b.c."^). Then he 
(Antiochus) will direct his face toward the strong- 
holds of his own land (with the intention of re- 
cuperating his fortunes by again advancing 
against Persia and Media) ; but he will stumble 
and fall (to his death while plundering the temple 
at Elymias"^^), and will no more be found."^* 
And there will stand up in his stead one (Seleucus 
IV, 187-176 B.C.) who will cause the exactor of 
taxes to pass through the glorious land (Judah) 
of the kingdom (after the defeat of Antiochus 
III, Rome compelled him to give up all his pos- 
sessions in the Grecian archipelago, to pay 15,000 
talents within twelve years, and to give up twenty 
hostages, including Antiochus Epiphanes, the 
youngest son of Antiochus III,*^^ this burden fall- 
ing upon Seleucus IV,*^^ who recalled Antiochus 

69 "Roman History," Appian, XI, 7. 

70 Ibid.. XI, 8. 

71 Ibid., XI, 27-28. 
72 /^iV., XI, 33-36. 

73Diodorus, XXVIII, 3; XXIX, 15. 
7* "House of Seleucus," Vol. II, p. i2o. 
75 "Roman History," Appian, XI, 38-39. 
7« "House of Seleucus," Vol. II, p. 125. 


Epiphanes and sent his own son, Demetrius, a lad 
of twelve years instead '^^); but within a few 
(seven) days (years) will he be broken (killed, 
176 B.C.), but not in anger nor in battle (being 
assassinated as the result of a conspiracy headed 
by Heliodorus, a court official '^^). And there 
will stand up in his place a despicable person 
(Antiochus Epiphanes), to whom they assigned 
not the honor of the kingdom (which would by 
primogeniture have fallen to Demetrius) ; but he 
will come in (175 B.C.) quietly (Heliodorus be- 
ing driven out by Eumenes and Attains, of Per- 
gamus, who installed Antiochus Epiphanes in or- 
der to secure his good will and opposition to 
Rome '^^) and lay hold of the kingdom by flat- 
tery (sa)dng the child, Demetrius, was too young 
to govern). And the powers of the overflow 
(Egypt, where Ptolemy V Epiphanes had died in 
181 B.C. and his, widow, Cleopatra, the sister of 
Antiochus Epiphanes, had become regent and also 
died in 173 b.c, leaving a young son, Ptolemy VI 
Philometor, 181-145 b.c.^^) will be swept away 
from before him (the young king's guardians be- 
ing defeated at Pelusium, 169 b.c.^^) and will be 
broken (the child, Ptolemy VI being taken while 

ff Appian, XI, 45. 

78 Ibid. 


8«Ency. Brit. XXII, 617. 

""House of Selcucus," Vol II, p. 135. 


attempting to escape by sea ^^) ; yea, so also the 
prince in covenant with him (Ptolemy VII Euger- 
tes, the young king's brother, who fled with his 
sister, Cleopatra, to the fortified city of Alex- 
andria). And from the time of his (Antiochus 
Epiphanes') associating with him (Ptolemy VI) 
will he (Antiochus Epiphanes) deal deceitfully 
(claiming to help and take an interest in him, be- 
cause a boy, and seizing the gates to Egypt by 
guile ^^) and he will come up (to Memphis) and 
obtain the victory (by obtaining nominal pos- 
session of the kingdom ^*) with a small number of 
people (by representing himself as the protector 
of legitimate interests and setting up the boy as 
king^^). In quiet and into the fattest portions 
of the province (Lower Egypt) will he enter, and 
he will do what his fathers have not done, or his 
father's fathers (obtain temporary suzerainty over 
practically the entire kingdom) : the prey and spoil 
and riches (stored up by the Ptolemies since the 
days of Perdiccas and Antigonus ^^) will he divide 
freely among them (each of those of Greek na- 
tivity in Egypt receiving a gold piece ^'^ ) and 
against the strongholds (of Rome,^^ to whom he 

82 "House of Seleucus," Vol. II, p. 136. 

83 Diodorus, XX, 9, 25. 

8* "House of Seleucus," Vol. II, p. 137. 
^^ Ibid., pp. 137-139. 
^^ Ibid., p. 141. 
^"^ Ibid., p. 140. 
88 Ibid. 


sent fifty talents as a gift to allay suspicion ®^) 
will he devise his plans, but only till a certain time 
(when he retreated in 169 B.C. after having un- 
successfully invested Ptolemy Eugertes in Alex- 
andria^^). And he (Antiochus Epiphanes) will 
then stir up his power and his courage against the 
king of the south (Egypt) with a great army (re- 
turning again in the following year ^^) ; and the 
king of the south will prepare himself for the war 
with a great and mighty army; ^^ but he (Ptolemy 
Eugertes) will not stand (being defeated at Mt. 
Casius ^^) ; for they (who had supported him) 
will devise evil plans against him (going over to 
Antiochus Epiphanes ^^ ) . Yea, they that eat of 
his food (in his immediate entourage) will bring 
his downfall, and the army of the others (under 
Antiochus Epiphanes) will fall down slain (be- 
fore Alexandria). As for both these kings 
(Ptolemy Philometor and Ptolemy Eugertes, who 
had now united), their heart is bent on mischief 
(against each other because of jealousy over ter- 
ritorial arrangements between them made tempo- 
rarily by the Romans ^^), and at one table will 
they speak lies; but it shall not prosper, for the 

^^Ibid., p. 141. 
ooLivy, 45, II. 

91 "House of Seleucus," Vol. II, p. 137. 

92 Ibid. 
98 Ibid. 

95 Dio Cassius, XX, 9, 25. 


end is yet for the time appointed. Then he 
(Antiochus Epiphanes) will return unto his own 
land (Syria) with great riches, and his heart will 
be against the holy covenant (at Jerusalem, where 
he had set up Menelaus, who helped to have Onias 
murdered and robbed the temple, as high 
priest ^^); and he will do it (take the city on a 
plea of peace, slay his opponents and plunder®^) 
and return to his own land (again ^^). At the 
time appointed (168 B.C.) will he return and 
enter into the south (after Ptolemy Philometor 
had refused to give up Pelusium ^^), but not as in 
the former will it be in the latter time (because 
disastrously). For there will come against him 
(Antiochus Epiphanes) the ships of Kittim 
(Rome) ; and he (Antiochus Epiphanes) will be- 
come faint hearted (because of the demands of 
the Roman ambassador, Popillius Leanas, that he 
withdraw from Egypt ^) and return,^ and will 
rage against the holy covenant (because of opposi- 
tion to his policy of stamping out Jewish cus- 
tom ^) ; and he will do it (profane the holy of 
holies by entering it, rifle the treasury and carry 
away the golden candlesticks, the golden altar, 

»6Josephus, Ant. XII, 5, i. 

^Ubid., XII, 5, 3. 

»8 Itid. 

®9 "House of Seleucus," Vol. 2, p. 143. 

1 Appian, XI, 66. 

2 Ibid. 

3 "House of Seleucus," Vol. 2, p. 171. 


the table of shew bread and the vessels of gold and 
silver*), and he will return and have an under- 
standing with those that forsake the holy covenant 
(including Menelaus). And army divisions will 
proceed from him,^ and they will defile the sanc- 
tuary, the fortress, and remove the continual sac- 
rifice (of a lamb twice a day) and they (Anti- 
ochus Epiphanes and his followers) will set up 
the desolating abomination (of an idol image,^ the 
sacrifice of swine,*^ and finally a temple to Jupiter 
on the site of that to Jehovah ^). And such (in- 
cluding Menelaus) as act wickedly against the 
covenant will he corrupt by flatteries (saying the 
Greek customs were best ®) ; but the people that 
do know their God will be strong and deal 
valiantly (Mattathias and his sons conducting a 
guerilla warfare against the idolatrous shrines 
throughout the country). And the intelligent of 
the people (teachers springing up every where ^^ ) 
will impart understanding to many; yet they will 
stumble through the sword (of martyrdom, in 
which they were whipped with rods, their bodies 
were torn in pieces and they were crucified 
alive ^^), through flame (of burning homes), 
through captivity and through being plundered for 
some time. But in their stumbling will they be 

* Josephus, Ant. XII, 5, 4. 8 jj^icl., XII, 5.5. 

^Ibid., XII, 5, 2. ^Ibid., XII, 5, I. 

« Ibid., XII, 5, 4. ^0 Ibid,, XII, 5, 4. 

^ Ibid. 11 Ibid., XII, 5, 4. 


aided with a little help (Judas Maccabeus now 
rising) ; but many (renegades) will join them- 
selves to them (that follow Antiochus) with de- 
ceptive flatteries (saying he was right in changing 
the customs of the Jews to conform to the aver- 
age). And some of the intelligent will stumble 
(through many defeats and some victories), to 
make a purification among them (and return to 
the old worship), and to select and to cleanse them 
(of the hated abominations) until the time of the 
end (prophesied and hoped for at this time) ; be- 
cause it is yet (to come) for the time appointed. 
And the king (Antiochus Epiphanes) will do ac- 
cording to his pleasure (in his tyranny) ; and he 
will exalt and magnify himself above every god 
(as E. R. Bevan says, 'His surname, Theos Epiph- 
anes, declares him to be an effulgence in human 
form of the Divine, a god manifest in flesh' ^^) 
and against the God of gods will he speak in- 
credible things (claiming to be an impersonation 
of the gods, he appropriated the treasures of the 
temples as belonging to him), and he will prosper 
till the indignation (against the Jews, which had 
been prophesied) be at an end (at least, it was so 
hoped by the Maccabean writer of this chapter) ; 
for that which is determined (in prophecy) will 
be accomplished (now against Antiochus Epiph- 
anes, it was hoped). And to the gods of his 

12 "House of Seleucus," Vol. 2, p. 154. 


fathers (rather to Jupiter, a Roman god) will he 
pay no regard; and to the desire of women (rob- 
bing the temple of Hera), or to any god whatever 
will he not pay any regard; for above all will he 
magnify himself (having himself worshiped as a 
god). And in his place will he pay honor to the 
god of the fortresses (Jupiter Capitolanus) ; and 
to a god whom his fathers knew not will he pay 
honor with gold and silver and with precious 
stones and costly things (starting the erection of 
the temple to Jupiter which was afterwards com- 
pleted by Hadrian). This will he do for the 
very strong fortresses (Rome) together with the 
strange god (Jupiter) ; whoever will acknowledge 
him (such as Menelaus) will he give much honor 
(as high priest); and he will cause such to rule 
over many and to divide out the land for a price 
(of taxation). And at the time of the end 
(which was thus indicated as the completion of 
the seventy weeks forged in the ninth chapter, but 
was not fulfilled in history at this time despite 
the following sentences), will the king of the 
south push against him ; and the king of the north 
will come up against him (the king of Egypt, 
which did not occur) like a storm wind, with 
chariots, and with horsemen, and with many 
ships; and he will enter into some countries and 
will overflow and pass along. And he will enter 
into the glorious land and much will be over- 


thrown; but these will escape out of his hand, 
even Edom and Moab and the first portion of 
the children of Ammon. And he will stretch 
forth his hand against some countries and the chil- 
dren of Egypt will not escape. And he will have 
control over the treasures of gold and of silver 
and over all the costly things of Egypt; and the 
Libyans and the Ethiopians will follow at his 
steps (as they had already done). But reports 
out of the east and out of the north will terrify 
him; and he will go forth with great fury to de- 
stroy and to exterminate many. And he will 
pitch the palace of his tent between the seas and 
the glorious holy mountain; and he will come to 
his end without one to help him" (dying of a wast- 
ing disease ^^ at Elymias while planning to rob 
the temple of Diana). 

Passing over these ninth and eleventh chapters, 
so palpably made up to suit Maccabean hopes, the 
tenth chapter mentions having been written by 
Daniel in the third year of Cyrus, the Persian, 
or in 535 b.c, when the prophet must have been 
about sixty-five years of age. Again the style is 
as in the earlier chapters. He sees a man all in 
linen (in a spiritual vision, perhaps the Messiah), 
and says, "his loins were girded with fine gold 
of Uphaz ('I will give him of the gold of Ophir') ; 
and his body was like the crysolite (a stone like 

13 Appian, 2, 233. 


glass which gives light and yet so scatters it that 
the object from which the light comes is not 
visible), and his face like the appearance of light- 
ning (lighted by flashes from on high), and his 
eyes are like the torches of fire, and his arms and 
his feet of burnished copper (in an age of metal), 
and the sound of his voice was like the noise of 
a multitude (in the great democracy of the fu- 
ture)." "And I Daniel saw alone (like the witch 
of Endor who alone saw the shade of Samuel) 
this great appearance." 

Continuing to speak of the end of the days 
(despite the intervening historical eleventh chap- 
ter) Daniel, in Chapter XII, says: "And at that 
time will Mi(^hael the great prince, who standeth 
for the children of thy people stand forth; and 
there will be a time of distress (through wars) 
such as there hath not been since the beginning 
of any nation, until that same time; and at that 
time shall thy people be delivered (here com- 
mence words which are evidently interpolated), 
every one that shall be found written in the book. 
And many of those that sleep in the dust of the 
earth shall awake, some to everlasting life and 
some to everlasting abhorrence (and here they 
end — expressive of views never before or after- 
wards mentioned in the Old Testament). And 
the intelligent shall shine brilliantly like the bril- 
liance of the expanse of the sky; and they that 


bring many to righteousness shall be like the stars, 
for ever and ever. But thou, O Daniel, close up 
the words and seal the book, until the time of the 
end; many will roam about, yet shall knowledge 
be increased. Then I Daniel looked and behold, 
there were two other standing, the one on this 
side of the bank of the stream (of life) and the 
other on that side of the bank of the stream. And 
the one said to the man clothed in linen, who was 
above the waters of the stream, 'How long shall 
it be to the end of these wonders?' Then heard 
I the man clothed in linen, who was above the 
waters of the stream; and he lifted up his right 
hand and his left hand unto the heavens, and 
swore by the Everliving One that after a time 
(a thousand years), times (another thousand 
years), and a half (of a thousand years), and 
when there shall be an end to the crushing of the 
power of the holy people (as there is already be- 
ginning to be in free America and to a lesser de- 
gree in some countries of Europe) all these things 
shall be ended. And I heard indeed, but I under- 
stood it not: then said I, 'O my Lord, what shall 
be the end of these things?' And he said, 'Go thy 
way, Daniel ! for the words are closed up and 
sealed till the time of the end. Many shall be 
selected and cleansed and purified ; but the wicked 
will deal wickedly and none of the wicked will 
understand; but the intelligent will understand. 


And from the time that the continual sacrifice will 
be removed (evidently an interpolation for the 
date of 535 B.C. mentioned at the chapter's be- 
ginning as the time of his writing) even to set 
up the desolating abomination (of which this 
excerpt from the Letters from a Chinese Official 
is sufficient explanation: "And such, if I under- 
stand it aright, was the character of your civiliza- 
tion in what you describe as the Ages of Faith. 
Asceticism, monastic vows, the domination of 
priests, the petty interests of life and death over- 
shadowed and dwarfed by the tremendous issues 
of heaven and hell, beggary sanctified, wealth con- 
temned, reason stunted, imagination hypertro- 
phied, the spiritual and temporal powers at war, 
body at feud with soul, everywhere division, con- 
flict, confusion, intellectual and moral insanity — 
such was the character of that extraordinary epoch 
in Western history when the Christian conception 
made an effort to embody itself in fact"), there 
will be a thousand two hundred and ninety days 
(of years from 535 b.c to 755 a.d., when Pippin, 
the Prankish king who had been anointed by the 
Roman pontiff, crossed the Alps, attacked Aistulf, 
the Lombard king, and compelled him to give to 
the Pope estates which made the latter a tem- 
poral ruler). Happy is he that waiteth and at- 
taineth to the thousand three hundred and five 
and thirty days (a.d., when Petrarch, "the father 


of the Renaissance," entered upon his work of 
copying the manuscripts of the ancient writers and 
discussing them with the men of Paris, Ghent, 
Liege, Cologne and Rome, this laying the founda- 
tions of the Reformation and the modem world, 
and when Boccaccio settled at Naples and at the 
court of King Robert of Anjou, amid the wit of 
men and the beauty of women, heard Petrarch 
and began his immortal work of appealing to the 
desire for more life in this world instead of post- 
poning all its joys until the next. It will be no- 
ticed that this date stands by itself on the calendar 
and is not a continuation, as in the case of the 
1290 days). But thou (Daniel) go thy way to- 
ward the end; and thou shalt rest (in death) and 
rise again (in another life) for thy lot at the end 
of the days'." 

Such is the book of Daniel. It is not meant 
for the eye of the mystic merely; it bears a living 
message of present and permanent value for the 
people of the United States. For, if its visions 
are true and the interpretation is correct, the "time 
of the end," not of a world but of a dispensation 
which shall give way to a new one of peace and 
good will to men, is not far away. The year 1938 
may not be an exact verification of either the law 
of blood or the "time, times and half a time." As 
Mrs. Humphrey Ward has remarked, "the force 
of things is against the certain peopled Yet it can 


be taken for granted, because of the working out 
of that law among all peoples in the past and the 
exactness of Divine prophecy heretofore, that that 
year constitutes an approximate end of monarchial 
institutions and the sword, and the ushering in of 
the Great Republic and the brotherhood of man. 
If such a commonwealth may be discerned as 
the final human goal and yet only so as to be the 
beginning of a richer life on the planet, we may, 
in view of the principles underlying it, agree with 
the poet Akenside that 

". . . if to this the mind 
Exalts her daring eye, then mightier far 
Will be the change, and nobler. Would the forms 
Of servile custom cramp her generous powers? 
Would sordid policies, the barbarous growth 
Of ignorance and rapine, bow her down 
To tame pursuits, to indolence and fear? 
Lo! she appeals to nature, to the winds 
And rolling waves, the sun's unwearied course, 
The elements and seasons : all declare 
For what the Eternal Maker has ordained 
The powers of man : we feel within ourselves 
His energy divine : He tells the heart. 
He meant, He made us to behold and love 
What He beholds and loves, the general orb 
Of life and being; to be great like Him, 
Beneficent and active. Thus the men 
Whom nature's works can charm, with God Himself 
Hold converse ; grow familiar day by day 
With His conceptions, act upon His plan, 
And form to His the relish of our souls." 

DEC 1 b !^*^: